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Sample records for abstracts service cas

  1. Automation of the CAS Document Delivery Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steensland, M. C.; Soukup, K. M.

    1986-01-01

    The automation of online order retrieval for Chemical Abstracts Service Document Delivery Service was accomplished by shifting to an order retrieval/dispatch process linked to a Unix network. The Unix-based environment, its terminal emulation, page-break, and user-friendly interface software, and later enhancements are reviewed. Resultant increase…

  2. The Future of Online Services to Faculty: A Pilot Project with CAS Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culotta, Wendy A.

    Lottery money in California, part of which is required by law to be distributed to educational institutions, provides avenues for innovative services. A pilot program was supported by the administration of California State University, Long Beach, to provide faculty access to CAS (Chemical Abstracts Service) ONLINE (a remote database), which could…

  3. New Features in the ADS Abstract Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichhorn, Guenther; Accomazzi, Alberto; Grant, Carolyn S.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin A.; Thompson, Donna M.; Murray, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA-ADS Abstract Service provides a sophisticated search capability for the literature in Astronomy, Planetary Sciences, Physics/Geophysics, and Space Instrumentation. The ADS is funded by NASA and access to the ADS services is free to anybody world-wide without restrictions. It allows the user to search the literature by author, title, and abstract text.

  4. New Features in the ADS Abstract Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, G.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; ReyBacaicoa, V.; Murray, S. S.

    2001-11-01

    The ADS Abstract Service contains over 2.3 million references in four databases: Astronomy/Astrophysics/Planetary Sciences, Instrumentation, Physics/Geophysics, and Preprints. We provide abstracts and articles free to the astronomical community for all major and many smaller astronomy journals, PhD theses, conference proceedings, and technical reports. These four databases can be queried either separately of jointly. The ADS also has scanned 1.3 million pages in 180,000 articles in the ADS Article Service. This literature archive contains all major Astronomy journals and many smaller journals, as well as conference proceedings, including the abstract books from all the LPSCs back to volume 2. A new feature gives our users the ability to see list of articles that were also read by the readers of a given article. This is a powerful tool to find out what current articles are relevant in a particular field of study. We have recently expanded the citation and reference query capabilities. It allows our users to select papers for which they want to see references or citations and then retrieve these citations/references. Another new capability is the ability to sort a list of articles by their citation count. As usual, users should be reminded that the citations in ADS are incomplete because we do not obtain reference lists from all publishers. In addition, we cannot match all references (e.g. in press, private communications, author errors, some conference papers, etc.). Anyone using the citations for analysis of publishing records should keep this in mind. More work on expanding the citation and reference features is planned over the next year. ADS Home Page http://ads.harvard.edu/

  5. 40 CFR 799.5000 - Testing consent orders for substances and mixtures with Chemical Abstract Service Registry Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adopted under 40 CFR part 790. Listed below in Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) Registry Number order are...) glycidyl ether 1 Health effects June 11, 1996. 68515-47-9 Ditridecyl phthalate (mixed isomers) Chemical fate January 9, 1989. 68515-49-1 Diisodecyl phthalate (mixed isomers) Chemical fate January 9,...

  6. 40 CFR 799.5000 - Testing consent orders for substances and mixtures with Chemical Abstract Service Registry Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adopted under 40 CFR part 790. Listed below in Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) Registry Number order are...) glycidyl ether 1 Health effects June 11, 1996. 68515-47-9 Ditridecyl phthalate (mixed isomers) Chemical fate January 9, 1989. 68515-49-1 Diisodecyl phthalate (mixed isomers) Chemical fate January 9,...

  7. 40 CFR 799.5000 - Testing consent orders for substances and mixtures with Chemical Abstract Service Registry Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... adopted under 40 CFR part 790. Listed below in Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) Registry Number order are...) glycidyl ether 1 Health effects June 11, 1996. 68515-47-9 Ditridecyl phthalate (mixed isomers) Chemical fate January 9, 1989. 68515-49-1 Diisodecyl phthalate (mixed isomers) Chemical fate January 9,...

  8. 40 CFR 799.5000 - Testing consent orders for substances and mixtures with Chemical Abstract Service Registry Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adopted under 40 CFR part 790. Listed below in Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) Registry Number order are.... 68515-47-9 Ditridecyl phthalate (mixed isomers) Chemical fate January 9, 1989. 68515-49-1 Diisodecyl phthalate (mixed isomers) Chemical fate January 9, 1989. 68515-50-4 Dihexyl phthalate (mixed...

  9. 40 CFR 799.5000 - Testing consent orders for substances and mixtures with Chemical Abstract Service Registry Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... adopted under 40 CFR part 790. Listed below in Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) Registry Number order are...) glycidyl ether 1 Health effects June 11, 1996. 68515-47-9 Ditridecyl phthalate (mixed isomers) Chemical fate January 9, 1989. 68515-49-1 Diisodecyl phthalate (mixed isomers) Chemical fate January 9,...

  10. 41 CFR 102-33.95 - What is the process for budgeting to acquire commercial aviation services (CAS)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... budgeting to acquire commercial aviation services (CAS)? 102-33.95 Section 102-33.95 Public Contracts and... budgeting to acquire commercial aviation services (CAS)? Except for leases and lease-purchases, for which... fund your commercial aviation services (CAS) hires out of your agency's operating budget....

  11. 41 CFR 102-33.95 - What is the process for budgeting to acquire commercial aviation services (CAS)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... budgeting to acquire commercial aviation services (CAS)? 102-33.95 Section 102-33.95 Public Contracts and... budgeting to acquire commercial aviation services (CAS)? Except for leases and lease-purchases, for which... fund your commercial aviation services (CAS) hires out of your agency's operating budget....

  12. 41 CFR 102-33.95 - What is the process for budgeting to acquire commercial aviation services (CAS)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... budgeting to acquire commercial aviation services (CAS)? 102-33.95 Section 102-33.95 Public Contracts and... budgeting to acquire commercial aviation services (CAS)? Except for leases and lease-purchases, for which... fund your commercial aviation services (CAS) hires out of your agency's operating budget....

  13. 41 CFR 102-33.95 - What is the process for budgeting to acquire commercial aviation services (CAS)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... budgeting to acquire commercial aviation services (CAS)? 102-33.95 Section 102-33.95 Public Contracts and... budgeting to acquire commercial aviation services (CAS)? Except for leases and lease-purchases, for which... fund your commercial aviation services (CAS) hires out of your agency's operating budget....

  14. 41 CFR 102-33.95 - What is the process for budgeting to acquire commercial aviation services (CAS)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... budgeting to acquire commercial aviation services (CAS)? 102-33.95 Section 102-33.95 Public Contracts and... budgeting to acquire commercial aviation services (CAS)? Except for leases and lease-purchases, for which... fund your commercial aviation services (CAS) hires out of your agency's operating budget....

  15. Choosing a Database for Social Work: A Comparison of Social Work Abstracts and Social Service Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flatley, Robert K.; Lilla, Rick; Widner, Jack

    2007-01-01

    This study compared Social Work Abstracts and Social Services Abstracts databases in terms of indexing, journal coverage, and searches. The authors interviewed editors, analyzed journal coverage, and compared searches. It was determined that the databases complement one another more than compete. The authors conclude with some considerations.

  16. Journal of Human Services Abstracts. Volume 3, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC. Project Share.

    This index, containing 450 abstracts on human services, is published quarterly to make available a broad range of documents to those responsible for the planning, management, and delivery of human services. The entries are arranged alphabetically by title and indexed by subject matter. Each entry includes the title, order number, source, price,…

  17. Comparison of Printed Bibliographic Descriptions Distributed by BIOSIS, CAS, and Ei

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Julian R.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Printed bibliographic descriptions of journal articles cited by BioSciences Information Service of Biological Abstracts (BIOSIS), Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS), and Engineering Index (Ei) were compared to identify similarities and differences in form, format, and data content. (Author)

  18. New Data in the ADS Abstract and Article Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, G.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Murray, S. S.

    1996-05-01

    In the last few months the data holdings in the ADS have been considerably expanded. In the abstracts databases we have included over 50,000 abstracts from SPIE conference proceedings (provided by SPIE), a complete set of references for lunar and planetary sciences, and abstracts from recent Lunar and Planetary Institute sponsored conferences (both provided by the Lunar and Planetary Institute). We also extended our cooperation with the CDS in Strasbourg, France by providing a link to the list of objects that are in the SIMBAD database for each reference. The ADS article service now holds full-text articles for 20 years of the Astrophysical Journal Letters, the Astronomical Journal, and the Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, and 5 years of the Astrophysical Journal on-line. The following journals are being processed and some may be on-line for this AAS meeting: Astrophysical Journal (1975-1989), Astronomy and Astrophysics, Proceedings of the Astronomical Society of Australia, Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan, Revista Mexicana, Bulletin of the Astronomical Society of India, Obs. Reports of Skalnate Pleso, and Baltic Astronomy. We are now working with two scanning companies to speed up the scanning process and hope that by the end of the year we have all of these journals completely on-line for at least the period 1975 - 1995. Usage statistics for Jan - March 1996: Users Queries References Full Abstracts retrieved retrieved ------------------------------------------- 13,823 365,812 7,953,930 309,866

  19. New Capabilities of the ADS Abstract and Article Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, G.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Murray, S. S.

    The ADS abstract service at: http://adswww.harvard.edu has been updated considerably in the last year. New capabilities in the search engine include searching for multi-word phrases and searching for various logical combinations of search terms. Through optimization of the custom built search software, the search times were decreased by a factor of 4 in the last year. The WWW interface now uses WWW cookies to store and retrieve individual user preferences. This allows our users to set preferences for printing, accessing mirror sites, fonts, colors, etc. Information about most recently accessed references allows customized retrieval of the most recent unread volume of selected journals. The information stored in these preferences is kept completely confidential and is not used for any other purposes. Two mirror sites (at the CDS in Strasbourg, France and at NAO in Tokyo, Japan) provide faster access for our European and Asian users. To include new information in the ADS as fast as possible, new indexing and search software was developed to allow updating the index data files within minutes of receipt of time critical information (e.g., IAU Circulars which report on supernova and comet discoveries). The ADS is currently used by over 10,000 users per month, which retrieve over 4.5 million references and over 250,000 full article pages each month.

  20. NASA's Astrophysics Data System: new abstract service and article service features.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, G.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.

    1997-09-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System provides access to about 1 million abstracts and 50,000 journal articles. This service is funded by NASA and is accessible world-wide through the World Wide Web free without restrictions at: http://adswww.harvard.edu The ADS abstract service allows the searching of a database of abstracts. The abstracts can be searched through a sophisticated search engine by author, astronomical object, title, and text. Various logical combinations of the search terms can be selected. Search results can be filtered by journal, publication date, and other criteria. The search returns a list of references with titles, author lists, and scores that indicate how closely the reference matches the query. The returned references also include hyperlinks to other information where available (e.g. abstracts, full journal articles, data tables, electronic on-line publications, references, citations, lists of astronomical objects, etc.) The ADS article service provides access to full journal articles for all major and many smaller journals. We scan the journals that give us permission at a resolution of 600 dpi. The scans can then be retrieved either for viewing on-screen in gif format, or for printing in Postscript or PCL format. We currently have articles back to 1975 on-line. We plan to eventually scan most of the historical astronomical literature as well. We have recently included the preprints from the Los Alamos preprint server. they are available in a separate database through the same search engine as the other abstracts. Preprints are kept on-line for 6 months. The American Astronomical Society has purchased citation information for 100,000 articles from the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI). This allows us to include links to lists of references and citations in our results page for articles in this set. In order to improve access times for non-US users, we are mirroring the abstract service. We currently have mirrors at the CDS in

  1. CAS Online: A New Source of Substance Information from Chemical Abstracts Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Nick A.; O'Hara, Michael P.

    1980-01-01

    Describes features of a new type of chemical database which provides the ability to search for substances sharing particular structural characteristics. Search concepts are examined in detail, and menu selection of "screens," system commands, and interpretation of results (which appear in the form of chemical bond structures) are explained. (SW)

  2. New Data and Search Features in the NASA ADS Abstract Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichhorn, G.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Bacaicoa, V. Rey; Murray, S. S.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA-ADS Abstract Service provides search capability for literature in Astronomy/Planetary Sciences, Physics/Geophysics, and Instrumentation. Scanned articles are available for many journals and proceedings. The ADS service is free for anybody. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  3. Sophisticated Search Capabilities in the ADS Abstract Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, G.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Henneken, E.; Kurtz, M. J.; Murray, S. S.

    2003-12-01

    The ADS provides access to over 940,000 references from astronomy and planetary sciences publications and 1.5 million records from physics publications. It is funded by NASA and provides free access to these references, as well as to 2.4 million scanned pages from the astronomical literature. These include most of the major astronomy and several planetary sciences journals, as well as many historical observatory publications. The references now include the abstracts from all volumes of the Journal of Geophysical Research (JGR) since the beginning of 2002. We get these abstracts on a regular basis. The Kluwer journal Solar Physics has been scanned back to volume 1 and is available through the ADS. We have extracted the reference lists from this and many other journals and included them in the reference and citation database of the ADS. We have recently scanning Earth, Moon and Planets, another Kluwer journal, and will scan other Kluwer journals in the future as well. We plan on extracting references from these journals as well in the near future. The ADS has many sophisticated query features. These allow the user to formulate complex queries. Using results lists to get further information about the selected articles provide the means to quickly find important and relevant articles from the database. Three advanced feedback queries are available from the bottom of the ADS results list (in addition to regular feedback queries already available from the abstract page and from the bottom of the results list): 1. Get reference list for selected articles: This query returns all known references for the selected articles (or for all articles in the first list). The resulting list will be ranked according to how often each article is referred to and will show the most referenced articles in the field of study that created the first list. It presumably shows the most important articles in that field. 2. Get citation list for selected articles: This returns all known articles

  4. The Planning of Indexing and Abstracting Services in the Social Sciences. Coverage, Overlap and Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Stephen

    Indexing and abstraction services in the social sciences are growing as primary sources. Results are that users become overwhelmed with the number of secondary services they use. Therefore, planning, coverage and overlap are examined in this research report with emphasis on reexamining secondary services and redefining users and users' needs.…

  5. Emergency Medical Services for Children: Abstracts of Active Projects FY 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Arlington, VA.

    This publication provides abstracts of 58 active and 42 completed projects designed to improve emergency medical services for children (EMSC). The projects were funded by the United States Department of Health and Human Services' Maternal and Child Health Bureau, in collaboration with the United States Department of Transportation's National…

  6. Development of a Computerized Current Awareness Service Using "Chemical Abstracts" Condensates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Anita B.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    The experiences in developing current awareness services for selective dissemination of information from Chemical Abstracts'' Condensates data base are described. File standardization, the weighted-term method of searching, and the algorithm used to perform the search on the CDC 6600 computer and a user survey are discussed. (2 references)…

  7. Emergency Medical Services for Children: Abstracts of Active Projects FY 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Washington, DC.

    This publication provides abstracts of 32 active and 18 completed projects designed to improve pediatric emergency care. These projects are funded by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Maternal and Child Health Bureau, in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.…

  8. Emergency Medical Services for Children: Abstracts of Active Projects FY 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Arlington, VA.

    This publication provides abstracts of 43 active and 34 completed projects designed to improve pediatric emergency care. The projects were funded by the United States Department of Health and Human Services' Maternal and Child Health Bureau, in collaboration with the United States Department of Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety…

  9. [CAS General Standards 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The mission of the Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education (CAS) is to promote the improvement of programs and services to enhance the quality of student learning and development. CAS is a consortium of professional associations who work collaboratively to develop and promulgate standards and guidelines and to encourage…

  10. Full Text Searching and Customization in the NASA ADS Abstract Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichhorn, G.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Thompson, D. M.; Murray, S. S.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA-ADS Abstract Service provides a sophisticated search capability for the literature in Astronomy, Planetary Sciences, Physics/Geophysics, and Space Instrumentation. The ADS is funded by NASA and access to the ADS services is free to anybody worldwide without restrictions. It allows the user to search the literature by author, title, and abstract text. The ADS database contains over 3.6 million references, with 965,000 in the Astronomy/Planetary Sciences database, and 1.6 million in the Physics/Geophysics database. 2/3 of the records have full abstracts, the rest are table of contents entries (titles and author lists only). The coverage for the Astronomy literature is better than 95% from 1975. Before that we cover all major journals and many smaller ones. Most of the journal literature is covered back to volume 1. We now get abstracts on a regular basis from most journals. Over the last year we have entered basically all conference proceedings tables of contents that are available at the Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics library. This has greatly increased the coverage of conference proceedings in the ADS. The ADS also covers the ArXiv Preprints. We download these preprints every night and index all the preprints. They can be searched either together with the other abstracts or separately. There are currently about 260,000 preprints in that database. In January 2004 we have introduced two new services, full text searching and a personal notification service called "myADS". As all other ADS services, these are free to use for anybody.

  11. 40 CFR 799.5025 - Testing consent orders for mixtures without Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... consent orders adopted under 40 CFR part 790. Listed below are the mixtures which are the subject of these... substances: (1) diheptyl phthalate (branched and linear isomers), CAS No. 68515-44-6 Environmental effects. January 9, 1989. (2) dinonyl phthalate (branched and linear isomers), CAS No. 68515-45-7 ......do Do....

  12. 40 CFR 799.5025 - Testing consent orders for mixtures without Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... consent orders adopted under 40 CFR part 790. Listed below are the mixtures which are the subject of these... substances: (1) diheptyl phthalate (branched and linear isomers), CAS No. 68515-44-6 Environmental effects. January 9, 1989. (2) dinonyl phthalate (branched and linear isomers), CAS No. 68515-45-7 ......do Do....

  13. 40 CFR 799.5025 - Testing consent orders for mixtures without Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... consent orders adopted under 40 CFR part 790. Listed below are the mixtures which are the subject of these... substances: (1) diheptyl phthalate (branched and linear isomers), CAS No. 68515-44-6 Environmental effects. January 9, 1989. (2) dinonyl phthalate (branched and linear isomers), CAS No. 68515-45-7 ......do Do....

  14. 40 CFR 799.5025 - Testing consent orders for mixtures without Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... consent orders adopted under 40 CFR part 790. Listed below are the mixtures which are the subject of these... substances: (1) diheptyl phthalate (branched and linear isomers), CAS No. 68515-44-6 Environmental effects. January 9, 1989. (2) dinonyl phthalate (branched and linear isomers), CAS No. 68515-45-7 ......do Do....

  15. 40 CFR 799.5025 - Testing consent orders for mixtures without Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... consent orders adopted under 40 CFR part 790. Listed below are the mixtures which are the subject of these... substances: (1) diheptyl phthalate (branched and linear isomers), CAS No. 68515-44-6 Environmental effects. January 9, 1989. (2) dinonyl phthalate (branched and linear isomers), CAS No. 68515-45-7 ......do Do....

  16. Relative Effectiveness of Titles, Abstracts, and Subject Headings for Machine Retrieval from the COMPENDEX Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Jerry R.

    1975-01-01

    Investigated the relative merits of searching on titles, subject headings, abstracts, free-language terms, and combinations of these elements. The combination of titles and abstracts came the closest to 100 percent retrieval. (Author/PF)

  17. The UKCIS Advisory Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Archie

    1979-01-01

    Describes the free advisory service available to both users and potential users of chemical and biological databases in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Three specific areas are discussed in which queries about Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Numbers have been received: isomers, replacing registry numbers, and mixed compounds. (JD)

  18. Les infections à Pseudomonas aeruginosa au service des maladies infectieuses du CHU YO, Burkina Faso: à propos deux cas

    PubMed Central

    Mamoudou, Savadogo; Lassina, Dao; Fla, Koueta

    2015-01-01

    Nous rapportons deux cas d'infection à Pseudomonas aeruginosa: un cas de méningite et un cas d'infection urinaire. Les auteurs rappellent qu’à côté des étiologies classiques des méningites et des infections urinaires, des germes résistants comme Pseudomonas aeruginosa peuvent être responsables d'infections à localisation méningées et urinaires et dont il faut connaître pour une bonne prise en charge. Le traitement de ces infections requiert un antibiogramme au regard de la grande capacité de résistance de Pseudomonas aeruginosa en milieu hospitalier. La limitation des gestes invasifs et l'application rigoureuse des mesures de prévention des infections en milieu hospitalier contribueront à lutter efficacement contre ces infections en milieu de soins. PMID:26491521

  19. Evaluation of Innovations in APA Publications Activities. The Case of the Journal Supplement Abstract Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linder, Darwyn E.; Siegel, Elliot R.

    1976-01-01

    Evaluation findings indicate that the materials accepted by the service are of high quality and comprise a useful information resource for psychologists. An over whelming proportion of users, both authors and subscribers, express satisfaction with the service. (Author/AM)

  20. Health Services Utilization between Older and Younger Homeless Adults.(author Abstract)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakonezny, Paul A.; Ojeda, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Our purpose in the current study was to examine the relationship between health services utilization delivered by means of the Homeless Outreach Medical Services (HOMES) program and health services utilization delivered by means of the Parkland emergency room and inpatient units among a sample of older and younger homeless adults being…

  1. Final Report for 'An Abstract Job Handling Grid Service for Dataset Analysis'

    SciTech Connect

    David A Alexander

    2005-07-11

    For Phase I of the Job Handling project, Tech-X has built a Grid service for processing analysis requests, as well as a Graphical User Interface (GUI) client that uses the service. The service is designed to generically support High-Energy Physics (HEP) experimental analysis tasks. It has an extensible, flexible, open architecture and language. The service uses the Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC (STAR) experiment as a working example. STAR is an experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). STAR and other experiments at BNL generate multiple Petabytes of HEP data. The raw data is captured as millions of input files stored in a distributed data catalog. Potentially using thousands of files as input, analysis requests are submitted to a processing environment containing thousands of nodes. The Grid service provides a standard interface to the processing farm. It enables researchers to run large-scale, massively parallel analysis tasks, regardless of the computational resources available in their location.

  2. The Pricing of Information--A Search-Based Approach to Pricing an Online Search Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Harry F.

    1982-01-01

    Describes innovative pricing structure consisting of low connect time fee, print fees, and search fees, offered by Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) ONLINE--an online searching system used to locate chemical substances. Pricing options considered by CAS, the search-based pricing approach, and users' reactions to pricing structures are noted. (EJS)

  3. Peak Lead Levels and Diagnostics in Lead Service Lines Dominated by PbO2 - abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple studies have presented “profiles” of water lead levels from tap to main through lead service lines (LSLs), in systems where the LSLs were coated with common Pb(II) corrosion solids. These Pb(II) solids were either actual Pb(II) minerals or Pb(II) sorbed onto other pipe ...

  4. The CAS Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Sue

    2004-01-01

    The Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority (VCAA) Computer Algebra System (CAS)Pilot study (2001-2005) is monitoring the use of CAS in senior secondary mathematics. This article explores the author's experiences in the CAS classroom and delineates changes in teaching style, as a result of the introduction of CAS into the senior mathematics…

  5. The ADS Abstract Service: A Free Search System for Literature in Astronomy, Planetary Sciences, Physics, Geophysics, and Instrumentation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, G.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Rey Bacaicoa, V.; Murray, S. S.

    2002-05-01

    The Astrophysics Data System (ADS) provides access to the astronomical literature through the World Wide Web. It is a NASA funded project and access to all the ADS services is free to everybody world-wide. The ADS Abstract Service allows searching of four databases with abstracts in Astronomy, Instrumentation, Physics/Geophysics, and the astro-ph Preprints with a total of almost 2.5 million references in the databases. The system also provides access to reference and citation information, links to on-line data and other on-line information, and to on-line electronic journals. In addition the ADS has 1.9 million scanned article pages from about 250,000 articles, dating back as far as 1829. The ADS Article Service contains the full articles for most of the astronomical literature back to volume 1. It contains the scanned pages of all the major journals in Astronomy (Astrophysical Journal, Astronomical Journal, Astronomy & Astrophysics, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, and Solar Physics), as well as most smaller journals back to volume 1 for each of these journals. One important aspect of the ADS is the system of links to other data systems. We have currently more than 6 million links to other on-line resources, including on-line data and on-line journal articles. There are currently more than 10,000 regular users (more than 10 queries/month). The total number of users is greater than 50,000 per month. They issue almost 1 million queries per month and receive more than 30 million records and 1.2 million scanned article pages per month. The ADS is accessed from almost 100 countries. Approximately 1/3 of the use is from the USA, 1/3 from Europe, and 1/3 from the rest of the world. Usage depends primarily on the number of astronomers in each country, but also on the Gross Domestic Product of that country. In order to improve access from different parts of the world, we maintain 9 mirror sites of the ADS in Brazil, Chile, China, England, France, Germany

  6. 41 CFR 102-33.435 - What CAS cost and utilization data must we report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What CAS cost and... Services (cas) Cost and Utilization Data § 102-33.435 What CAS cost and utilization data must we report? You must report the costs and flying hours for each CAS aircraft you hire. You must also report...

  7. 41 CFR 102-33.130 - If we hire CAS, what are our management responsibilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false If we hire CAS, what are... § 102-33.130 If we hire CAS, what are our management responsibilities? If you hire CAS, you are... agreements; (b) Accounting for the cost of your aircraft and services hired as CAS; (c) Accounting for use...

  8. 41 CFR 102-33.435 - What CAS cost and utilization data must we report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What CAS cost and... Services (cas) Cost and Utilization Data § 102-33.435 What CAS cost and utilization data must we report? You must report the costs and flying hours for each CAS aircraft you hire. You must also report...

  9. 41 CFR 102-33.130 - If we hire CAS, what are our management responsibilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false If we hire CAS, what are... § 102-33.130 If we hire CAS, what are our management responsibilities? If you hire CAS, you are... agreements; (b) Accounting for the cost of your aircraft and services hired as CAS; (c) Accounting for use...

  10. 41 CFR 102-33.130 - If we hire CAS, what are our management responsibilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false If we hire CAS, what are... § 102-33.130 If we hire CAS, what are our management responsibilities? If you hire CAS, you are... agreements; (b) Accounting for the cost of your aircraft and services hired as CAS; (c) Accounting for use...

  11. Efficacy of Indexing and Abstracting Services for the Dissemination of Agricultural Information Resources in the Institure for Agricultural Research Library, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, KASA, M.

    2012-10-01

    The efficacy of Indexing and Abstracting service for effective organization, storage and retrieval of information resources for agricultural research in Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria necessitated examining the situation in Agricultural Library, Institute for Agricultural Research, Samaru. The study examines the processes, awareness and problems militating against the effective exploitation of the indexing and abstracting services in the Agricultural library established in 1975. The study was conducted ex post facto, data collected span from 2006 ñ 2010. Total sample sizes of 752 patrons and 20,236 intellectually indexed and abstracted resources were involved in the study. Data collected were subjected to descriptive and inferential statistics. The result revealed that a total of 644 articles were indexed and abstracted, 35% of these was done in 2010. Results for awareness show 452 (60.11%) to be aware in 2008. A total 584 articles were indexed and abstracted from which 167 (28.59%) was retrieved in 2006. Patrons, 270 (35.90%) attributed the poor use of the service to assumption it is a referral unit. The hypothesis testing revealed that there is significant association between articles indexed and abstracted with information consulted by patrons (?2cal,100.31>?2tab,9.488) at 5% level of probability and df, 4. In conclusion, enormous documents on Nigerian agriculture are indexed and abstracted in the unit, implying that the service is desirous and consistent. The study recommends that the unit should explore the use of modern technology, employ a permanent subject specialist, train and retrain the unit staff as well as intensify it general orientation campaigns to focus on awareness and use of the indexing and abstracting services.

  12. Abstract Painting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkes, Robert

    1978-01-01

    Abstract art provokes numerous interpretations, and as many misunderstandings. The adolescent reaction is no exception. The procedure described here can help the student to understand the abstract from at least one direction. (Author/RK)

  13. Ponction biopsies rénales dans le Service de Néphrologie de Fès: indications et résultats: à propos de 522 cas

    PubMed Central

    Mbarki, Houda; Belghiti, Khadija Alaoui; Harmouch, Taoufiq; Najdi, Adil; Arrayhani, Mohamed; Sqalli, Tarik

    2016-01-01

    L'apport de la ponction biopsie rénale (PBR) dans le diagnostic, le choix thérapeutique et l’évaluation pronostique des néphropathies est considérable. Aucune étude marocaine n'a évalué la pratique et l'apport de la PBR. Notre objectif est d’étudier les indications de la PBR, déterminer la fréquence des maladies rénales identifiées par PBR dans notre région et de faire une confrontation entre les données clinico-biologiques et le diagnostic historique. Notre étude menée entre Janvier 2009 et Décembre 2012, est rétrospective. Nous avons inclus tous les patients du service de Néphrologie du CHU Hassan II de Fès ayant bénéficié d'une biopsie de reins natifs. 522 PBR ont été réalisées. Nous avons exclu 8 biopsies devant le manque de renseignements et avons donc retenu 514. L’âge moyen des patients au moment de la PBR est de 39 ±17 ans (3-82 ans). Le sex ratio est de 0,9. Le syndrome néphrotique est le diagnostic clinique le plus fréquent à tous les âges (58,2%). Les néphropathies glomérulaires représentent 94,2% des maladies rénales diagnostiquées, leur distribution varie selon l’âge des patients. La PBR a confirmé le premier diagnostic suspecté cliniquement dans 40,65% des cas, alors qu'elle a révélé un diagnostic inattendu chez 22,5% d'entre eux. Le diagnostic syndromique permet d'orienter vers la maladie rénale la plus probable et de guider les thérapeutiques urgentes en attendant les résultats de la PBR. Mais il ne peut en aucun remplacer la PBR qui reste le gold standard. PMID:27583085

  14. Library Programs (LSCA Title IV). Library Services for Indian Tribes and Hawaiian Natives Program. Abstracts of Funded Projects, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.

    This report provides information on the fourth year of funding (fiscal year 1988) of the Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA), Title IV grant programs, which provide appropriations for Indian tribes and for Alu Like, Inc.--the organization recognized by the Governor of Hawaii to serve Hawaiian natives--under two program cycles: Basic…

  15. Research Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnick, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Presents research abstracts from the ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology. Topics include: classroom communication apprehension and distance education; outcomes of a distance-delivered science course; the NASA/Kennedy Space Center Virtual Science Mentor program; survey of traditional and distance learning higher education members;…

  16. Abstract Constructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietropola, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Describes a lesson designed to culminate a year of eighth-grade art classes in which students explore elements of design and space by creating 3-D abstract constructions. Outlines the process of using foam board and markers to create various shapes and optical effects. (DSK)

  17. Transformation of OODT CAS to Perform Larger Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattmann, Chris; Freeborn, Dana; Crichton, Daniel; Hughes, John; Ramirez, Paul; Hardman, Sean; Woollard, David; Kelly, Sean

    2008-01-01

    A computer program denoted OODT CAS has been transformed to enable performance of larger tasks that involve greatly increased data volumes and increasingly intensive processing of data on heterogeneous, geographically dispersed computers. Prior to the transformation, OODT CAS (also alternatively denoted, simply, 'CAS') [wherein 'OODT' signifies 'Object-Oriented Data Technology' and 'CAS' signifies 'Catalog and Archive Service'] was a proven software component used to manage scientific data from spaceflight missions. In the transformation, CAS was split into two separate components representing its canonical capabilities: file management and workflow management. In addition, CAS was augmented by addition of a resource-management component. This third component enables CAS to manage heterogeneous computing by use of diverse resources, including high-performance clusters of computers, commodity computing hardware, and grid computing infrastructures. CAS is now more easily maintainable, evolvable, and reusable. These components can be used separately or, taking advantage of synergies, can be used together. Other elements of the transformation included addition of a separate Web presentation layer that supports distribution of data products via Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feeds, and provision for full Resource Description Framework (RDF) exports of metadata.

  18. Cas9 Functionally Opens Chromatin.

    PubMed

    Barkal, Amira A; Srinivasan, Sharanya; Hashimoto, Tatsunori; Gifford, David K; Sherwood, Richard I

    2016-01-01

    Using a nuclease-dead Cas9 mutant, we show that Cas9 reproducibly induces chromatin accessibility at previously inaccessible genomic loci. Cas9 chromatin opening is sufficient to enable adjacent binding and transcriptional activation by the settler transcription factor retinoic acid receptor at previously unbound motifs. Thus, we demonstrate a new use for Cas9 in increasing surrounding chromatin accessibility to alter local transcription factor binding. PMID:27031353

  19. Abstracting and indexing guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Department of the Interior; Office of Water Resources Research

    1974-01-01

    These instructions have been prepared for those who abstract and index scientific and technical documents for the Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC). With the recent publication growth in all fields, information centers have undertaken the task of keeping the various scientific communities aware of current and past developments. An abstract with carefully selected index terms offers the user of WRSIC services a more rapid means for deciding whether a document is pertinent to his needs and professional interests, thus saving him the time necessary to scan the complete work. These means also provide WRSIC with a document representation or surrogate which is more easily stored and manipulated to produce various services. Authors are asked to accept the responsibility for preparing abstracts of their own papers to facilitate quick evaluation, announcement, and dissemination to the scientific community.

  20. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Presents abstracts of 15 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Topics include navigation and information utilization in the Internet, natural language processing, automatic indexing, image indexing, classification, users' models of database searching, online public access catalogs, education for information professions, information services,…

  1. 41 CFR 102-33.435 - What CAS cost and utilization data must we report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... costs and contractual periods for related aviation services that you hire (i.e., by contract or through... 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Reporting Information on Government Aircraft Commercial Aviation Services (cas) Cost and Utilization Data § 102-33.435 What CAS cost and utilization data must we...

  2. 41 CFR 102-33.435 - What CAS cost and utilization data must we report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... costs and contractual periods for related aviation services that you hire (i.e., by contract or through... 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Reporting Information on Government Aircraft Commercial Aviation Services (cas) Cost and Utilization Data § 102-33.435 What CAS cost and utilization data must we...

  3. La Greffe de Peau dans le Traitement des Sequelles de la Main Brulee. A Propos de 152 Cas - Experience du Service de Chirurgie Plastique du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Ibn-Sina, Rabat, Maroc

    PubMed Central

    El Mazouz, S.; Fejjal, N.; Hafidi, J.; Cherkab, L.; Mejjati, H.; Belfqih, R.; Gharib, N.; Abbassi, A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary La main est fréquemment exposée aux brûlures, entraînant des séquelles esthétiques et fonctionnelles. Le traitement de ces séquelles est surtout chirurgical et consiste en la greffe de peau, dont le type dépend de la localisation de la brûlure et du type des séquelles. Dans ce travail rétrospectif, nous rapportons une série de 152 cas de brûlures des mains colligés au service de chirurgie plastique du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Ibn-Sina de Rabat sur une période de dix ans, allant de 1998 à 2007. Les indications thérapeutiques dépendent du type de séquelles et de la localisation de la brûlure. En tout, 97 patients ont bénéficié d'une greffe cutanée, dont 76% par greffe de peau totale, 21% par greffe de peau demi-épaisse et 3% par peau fine. Les séquelles des brûlures des mains posent un problème thérapeutique majeur, malgré la diversité des procédés chirurgicaux, d'où l'intérêt de la prévention. PMID:21991196

  4. SD-CAS: Spin Dynamics by Computer Algebra System.

    PubMed

    Filip, Xenia; Filip, Claudiu

    2010-11-01

    A computer algebra tool for describing the Liouville-space quantum evolution of nuclear 1/2-spins is introduced and implemented within a computational framework named Spin Dynamics by Computer Algebra System (SD-CAS). A distinctive feature compared with numerical and previous computer algebra approaches to solving spin dynamics problems results from the fact that no matrix representation for spin operators is used in SD-CAS, which determines a full symbolic character to the performed computations. Spin correlations are stored in SD-CAS as four-entry nested lists of which size increases linearly with the number of spins into the system and are easily mapped into analytical expressions in terms of spin operator products. For the so defined SD-CAS spin correlations a set of specialized functions and procedures is introduced that are essential for implementing basic spin algebra operations, such as the spin operator products, commutators, and scalar products. They provide results in an abstract algebraic form: specific procedures to quantitatively evaluate such symbolic expressions with respect to the involved spin interaction parameters and experimental conditions are also discussed. Although the main focus in the present work is on laying the foundation for spin dynamics symbolic computation in NMR based on a non-matrix formalism, practical aspects are also considered throughout the theoretical development process. In particular, specific SD-CAS routines have been implemented using the YACAS computer algebra package (http://yacas.sourceforge.net), and their functionality was demonstrated on a few illustrative examples.

  5. SD-CAS: Spin Dynamics by Computer Algebra System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filip, Xenia; Filip, Claudiu

    2010-11-01

    A computer algebra tool for describing the Liouville-space quantum evolution of nuclear 1/2-spins is introduced and implemented within a computational framework named Spin Dynamics by Computer Algebra System (SD-CAS). A distinctive feature compared with numerical and previous computer algebra approaches to solving spin dynamics problems results from the fact that no matrix representation for spin operators is used in SD-CAS, which determines a full symbolic character to the performed computations. Spin correlations are stored in SD-CAS as four-entry nested lists of which size increases linearly with the number of spins into the system and are easily mapped into analytical expressions in terms of spin operator products. For the so defined SD-CAS spin correlations a set of specialized functions and procedures is introduced that are essential for implementing basic spin algebra operations, such as the spin operator products, commutators, and scalar products. They provide results in an abstract algebraic form: specific procedures to quantitatively evaluate such symbolic expressions with respect to the involved spin interaction parameters and experimental conditions are also discussed. Although the main focus in the present work is on laying the foundation for spin dynamics symbolic computation in NMR based on a non-matrix formalism, practical aspects are also considered throughout the theoretical development process. In particular, specific SD-CAS routines have been implemented using the YACAS computer algebra package (http://yacas.sourceforge.net), and their functionality was demonstrated on a few illustrative examples.

  6. Meeting Abstracts - Nexus 2015.

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    The AMCP Abstracts program provides a forum through which authors can share their insights and outcomes of advanced managed care practice through publication in AMCP's Journal of Managed Care Specialty Pharmacy (JMCP). Of the abstracts accepted for publication, most are presented as posters, so interested AMCP meeting attendees can review findings and query authors. The main poster presentation is Tuesday, October 27, 2015; posters are also displayed on Wednesday, October 28, 2015. The AMCP Nexus 2015 in Orlando, Florida, is expected to attract more than 3,500 managed care pharmacists and other health care professionals who manage and evaluate drug therapies, develop and manage networks, and work with medical managers and information specialists to improve the care of all individuals enrolled in managed care programs.  Abstracts were submitted in the following categories:  Research Report: describe completed original research on managed care pharmacy services or health care interventions. Examples include (but are not limited to) observational studies using administrative claims, reports of the impact of unique benefit design strategies, and analyses of the effects of innovative administrative or clinical programs.Economic Model: describe models that predict the effect of various benefit design or clinical decisions on a population. For example, an economic model could be used to predict the budget impact of a new pharmaceutical product on a health care system. Solving Problems in Managed Care: describe the specific steps taken to introduce a needed change, develop and implement a new system or program, plan and organize an administrative function, or solve other types of problems in managed care settings. These abstracts describe a course of events; they do not test a hypothesis, but they may include data.

  7. Phylogenetic Distribution of CRISPR-Cas Systems in Antibiotic-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    van Belkum, Alex; Soriaga, Leah B.; LaFave, Matthew C.; Akella, Srividya; Veyrieras, Jean-Baptiste; Barbu, E. Magda; Shortridge, Dee; Blanc, Bernadette; Hannum, Gregory; Zambardi, Gilles; Miller, Kristofer; Enright, Mark C.; Mugnier, Nathalie; Brami, Daniel; Schicklin, Stéphane; Felderman, Martina; Schwartz, Ariel S.; Richardson, Toby H.; Peterson, Todd C.; Hubby, Bolyn

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an antibiotic-refractory pathogen with a large genome and extensive genotypic diversity. Historically, P. aeruginosa has been a major model system for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying type I clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated protein (CRISPR-Cas)-based bacterial immune system function. However, little information on the phylogenetic distribution and potential role of these CRISPR-Cas systems in molding the P. aeruginosa accessory genome and antibiotic resistance elements is known. Computational approaches were used to identify and characterize CRISPR-Cas systems within 672 genomes, and in the process, we identified a previously unreported and putatively mobile type I-C P. aeruginosa CRISPR-Cas system. Furthermore, genomes harboring noninhibited type I-F and I-E CRISPR-Cas systems were on average ~300 kb smaller than those without a CRISPR-Cas system. In silico analysis demonstrated that the accessory genome (n = 22,036 genes) harbored the majority of identified CRISPR-Cas targets. We also assembled a global spacer library that aided the identification of difficult-to-characterize mobile genetic elements within next-generation sequencing (NGS) data and allowed CRISPR typing of a majority of P. aeruginosa strains. In summary, our analysis demonstrated that CRISPR-Cas systems play an important role in shaping the accessory genomes of globally distributed P. aeruginosa isolates. PMID:26604259

  8. Piaget on Abstraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moessinger, Pierre; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    1981-01-01

    Reviews and discusses Piaget's recent work on abstract reasoning. Piaget's distinction between empirical and reflective abstraction is presented; his hypotheses are considered to be metaphorical. (Author/DB)

  9. HPCCP/CAS Workshop Proceedings 1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulbach, Catherine; Mata, Ellen (Editor); Schulbach, Catherine (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This publication is a collection of extended abstracts of presentations given at the HPCCP/CAS (High Performance Computing and Communications Program/Computational Aerosciences Project) Workshop held on August 24-26, 1998, at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. The objective of the Workshop was to bring together the aerospace high performance computing community, consisting of airframe and propulsion companies, independent software vendors, university researchers, and government scientists and engineers. The Workshop was sponsored by the HPCCP Office at NASA Ames Research Center. The Workshop consisted of over 40 presentations, including an overview of NASA's High Performance Computing and Communications Program and the Computational Aerosciences Project; ten sessions of papers representative of the high performance computing research conducted within the Program by the aerospace industry, academia, NASA, and other government laboratories; two panel sessions; and a special presentation by Mr. James Bailey.

  10. Pyo-pneumothorax tuberculeux: à propos de 18 cas

    PubMed Central

    Hicham, Souhi; Hanane, El Ouazzani; Hicham, Janah; Ismaïl, Rhorfi; Ahmed, Abid

    2016-01-01

    Le pyo-pneumothorax tuberculeux est une complication rare mais grave de la tuberculose pulmonaire évolutive. Nous rapportons une série de 18 cas de pyo-pneumothorax tuberculeux colligés au service de Pneumo-Phtisiologie de l'Hôpital Militaire d'Instruction Mohammed V de Rabat entre janvier 2005 et décembre 2009. Il s'agit de 15 hommes et 3 femmes d’âge moyen de 35 ans ±7 ans. 4 patients étaient diabétiques. Le tabagisme était retrouvé chez 9 cas. Le pyo-pneumothorax était du coté droit dans 13 cas. La radiographie thoracique avait montré des lésions cavitaires chez 15 patients et des lésions étendues et bilatérales chez 8 cas. La recherche de BK dans le liquide de tubage gastrique était positive chez 16 cas. Un drainage thoracique associé à un traitement antituberculeux selon le régime 2SRHZ/7RH et une kinésithérapie respiratoire ont été instaurés chez tous les cas. La durée moyenne de drainage pleural était de 4 semaines. Chez 3 cas on avait noté la persistance de la suppuration pleurale ayant nécessité une toilette pleurale sous thoracoscopie avec pleurectomie et exérèse pulmonaire limitée emportant la lésion parenchymateuse tuberculeuse et la persistance d'une volumineuse poche pleurale avec trouble ventilatoire restrictif ayant nécessité une décortication pleurale chirurgicale chez deux cas. L’évolution était favorable avec pachypleurite séquellaire minime chez le reste des cas. Le pyo-pneumothorax tuberculeux est une forme grave, qui est souvent en rapport avec une tuberculose cavitaire active. L’évolution est généralement trainante malgré le traitement antituberculeux et le drainage thoracique, d'où la nécessité d'un diagnostic et un traitement précoce de toute forme de tuberculose. PMID:27583090

  11. Leiomyoblastome gastrique: à propos de trois cas

    PubMed Central

    Moujahid, Mountassir; Ennafaa, Issam; EL Rhari, Ahmed; Serghini, Issam; Chekoura, Khalid; Tahiri, Moulay Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Le leiomyoblastome gastrique est une tumeur musculaire rare qui touche essentiellement l'adulte. Son développement est souvent exogastrique. Le diagnostic positif repose sur l'histologie et le traitement est basé sur la chirurgie. Nous rapportons trois cas de leiomyoblastome gastrique colligés dans le service de chirurgie générale au 5ème Hôpital Militaire. L’âge moyen des patients est de 47 ans; le motif de consultation était représenté par une hémorragie digestive et l'imagerie médicale a posé le diagnostic de masse tumorale dans tous les cas. Le traitement chirurgical consistait en une gastrectomie partielle et le compte rendu anatomopathologique a confirmé le leiomyoblastome gastrique dans les trois cas. Le siège de la tumeur a été posé par la fibroscopie oeso gastroduodénale, le traitement était chirurgical et les suites post opératoires étaient simples avec un contrôle par des fibroscopies répétitives sans aucun signe de récidive. Le leiomyoblastome gastrique est une tumeur rare. L’écho endoscopie joue un rôle primordial dans le diagnostic positif ainsi que dans l’évaluation de l'extension pariétale de ces tumeurs. Le traitement est essentiellement chirurgical. PMID:26090000

  12. Aspects epidemiologiques, cliniques et therapeutiques des otites externes: à propos de 801 cas

    PubMed Central

    Bathokedeou, Amana; Essobozou, Pegbessou; Akouda, Patassi; Essohanam, Boko; Eyawelohn, Kpémissi

    2014-01-01

    L'objectif de ce travail etait de déterminer l’épidémiologie, la clinique et la thérapeutique des otites externes (OE). Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective d'une année menée du 1er janvier au 31 décembre 2006 dans le service ORL du CHU-Tokoin. Huit cent un cas d'otite externe (OE) soit 11,9% des consultations étaient recensés. Le sexe féminin représentait 476 cas (59,42%). Le sex ratio était de 0,68. L’âge moyen des patients était de 25,4 ans avec des extrêmes de 05 mois et 81 ans. La tranche d’âge de 0-15 ans était la plus fréquente avec 360 cas (45%). L'allergie dans 74 cas (60,66%), la lésion de grattage dans 24 cas (19,67%), les corps étrangers du conduit auditif externe dans 18 cas (14,75%) et la natation dans 6 cas (4,92%) étaient les facteurs favorisants. L'otalgie dans 638 cas (79,65%) était le symptôme le plus fréquent. Les différentes formes cliniques des otites externes se répartissaient comme suit: otite externe diffuse dans 612 cas (76,40%), furoncle du CAE 126 dans cas (15,73%), otomycose dans 58 cas (7,24%), zona du conduit auditif externe dans 3 cas (0,37%) et otite externe nécrosante dans 2 cas (0,25%). Les gouttes auriculaires étaient administrées à tous les patients. L’évolution avait noté 799 patients (99,75%) guéris sans complication, un cas de décès et un cas de guérison avec séquelle. Traitée correctement, l'otite externe guérit sans complication. Son éviction passe par une sensibilisation des populations sur l'entretien du conduit auditif externe. PMID:25379111

  13. Condition Assessment survey (CAS) Program. Deficiency standards and inspections methods manual: Volume 9, 0.09 Electrical, Book 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    General information is presented for asset determinant factor/CAS repair codes/CAS cost factors; guide sheet tool & material listing; testing methods; inspection frequency; standard system design life tables; and system work breakdown structure. Deficiency standards are presented for service & distribution; lighting; and special systems.

  14. CAS-Induced Difficulties in Learning Mathematics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jankvist, Uffe Thomas; Misfeldt, Morten

    2015-01-01

    In recent years computer algebra systems (CAS) have become an integrated part of the upper secondary school mathematics program. Despite the many positive possibilities of CAS, there also seems to be a flip side of the coin in relation to actual difficulties in learning mathematics, not least because a strong dependence on CAS for mathematical…

  15. Psychological Abstracts/BRS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Donna R.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses particular problems and possible solutions in searching the Psychological Abstracts database, with special reference to its loading on BRS. Included are examples of typical searches, citations (with or without abstract/annotation), a tabulated searchguide to Psychological Abstracts on BRS and specifications for the database. (Author/JD)

  16. Abstraction and Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John; Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih

    2006-01-01

    The framework for this paper is a recently developed theory of abstraction in context. The paper reports on data collected from one student working on tasks concerned with absolute value functions. It examines the relationship between mathematical constructions and abstractions. It argues that an abstraction is a consolidated construction that can…

  17. Abstraction and Problem Reformulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giunchiglia, Fausto

    1992-01-01

    In work done jointly with Toby Walsh, the author has provided a sound theoretical foundation to the process of reasoning with abstraction (GW90c, GWS9, GW9Ob, GW90a). The notion of abstraction formalized in this work can be informally described as: (property 1), the process of mapping a representation of a problem, called (following historical convention (Sac74)) the 'ground' representation, onto a new representation, called the 'abstract' representation, which, (property 2) helps deal with the problem in the original search space by preserving certain desirable properties and (property 3) is simpler to handle as it is constructed from the ground representation by "throwing away details". One desirable property preserved by an abstraction is provability; often there is a relationship between provability in the ground representation and provability in the abstract representation. Another can be deduction or, possibly inconsistency. By 'throwing away details' we usually mean that the problem is described in a language with a smaller search space (for instance a propositional language or a language without variables) in which formulae of the abstract representation are obtained from the formulae of the ground representation by the use of some terminating rewriting technique. Often we require that the use of abstraction results in more efficient .reasoning. However, it might simply increase the number of facts asserted (eg. by allowing, in practice, the exploration of deeper search spaces or by implementing some form of learning). Among all abstractions, three very important classes have been identified. They relate the set of facts provable in the ground space to those provable in the abstract space. We call: TI abstractions all those abstractions where the abstractions of all the provable facts of the ground space are provable in the abstract space; TD abstractions all those abstractions wllere the 'unabstractions' of all the provable facts of the abstract space are

  18. Spectroscopic Observations of UU Cas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markov, H.; Vince, I.; Markova, N.; Djurasevic, G.

    2010-09-01

    High dispersion (R = 30000) spectra of the eclipsing binary system UU Cas are presented for the first time. Spectra covering 15 different phases were taken in two spectral regions - the vicinity of H_α and another centered on 5800Å. Seven spectral lines were identified in common. Four of them belonging to the brighter component were used to construct radial velocity curve. Some constrains on the spectral classification of the components are presented.

  19. Loving Those Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Lori

    2004-01-01

    The author describes a lesson she did on abstract art with her high school art classes. She passed out a required step-by-step outline of the project process. She asked each of them to look at abstract art. They were to list five or six abstract artists they thought were interesting, narrow their list down to the one most personally intriguing,…

  20. Pilomatricome: étude de 22 cas

    PubMed Central

    Nasreddine, Fatima Zahra; Hali, Fouzia; Chiheb, Soumiya

    2016-01-01

    Le pilomatricome est une tumeur cutanée fréquente et bénigne du follicule pileux chez l'enfant. C'est une tumeur annexielle souvent méconnue et confondue avec d'autres lésions cutanées. Les localisations habituelles sont la tête et le cou. Le but de ce travail est de rapporter une série de 22 cas comportant des formes inhabituelles colligées au service de dermatologie sur une période allant de Janvier 2006 jusqu'au Mai 2015. L’étude a concerné 16 femmes et 6 hommes. La moyenne d’âge était de 23,3 ans (4-80 ans). La localisation cervico faciale a été observée dans 12 cas, 2 patients avaient des localisations multiples, un garçon de 4ans avait une localisation au niveau fronto-temporal et une fillette de 14 ans avait une localisation au niveau du visage et de l'avant-bras, et un patient de 48 ans avait une localisation sous unguéale. L'aspect clinique était typique dans tous les cas avec des nodules sous cutanés de consistance pierreuse. Tous les patients ont bénéficié d'une exérèse des nodules sous anesthésie locale. L’étude histologique était en faveur d'un épithélioma momifié de Malherbe d'exérèse complète sans signes de malignité. Aucun patient n'a présenté de rechute. L'originalité de notre étude réside dans la présence de localisations exceptionnelles au niveau latéro-vertébral, des membres et sous-unguéale, l’âge de survenue inhabituel à 80 ans et la présence de localisations multiples signalées chez 2 enfants. PMID:27516819

  1. Les tuberculomes intracraniens: à propos de 125 cas

    PubMed Central

    Moufid, Faycal; Oulali, Noureddine; El Fatemi, Nizare; Gana, Rachid; Maaqili, Rachid; Bellakhdar, Fouad

    2012-01-01

    Les tuberculomes intracrâniens représentent l'une des localisations les plus graves de la tuberculose, leur incidence varie en fonction du contexte représentant 0,2% des processus intracrâniens dans les pays occidentaux et 5 à 10% des masses intracrâniennes dans les pays en voie de développement. Nous rapportons une étude rétrospective de 125 cas. L'hypertension intracrânienne (45%) et le déficit neurologique (36%) sont les signes cliniques les plus fréquents. La lésion était localisée dans 60% des cas en sus-tentoriel et dans 40% des cas en sous-tentoriel. L'approche thérapeutique a consisté en un abord direct du tuberculome dans 67 cas (53%), une biopsie stéréotaxique dans 32 cas (25%), le traitement médical en première intention sans confirmation histologique dans 26 cas (20%). Avant 1993 notre service ne disposait pas de cadre de stéréotaxie, notre attitude thérapeutique consistait soit en un abord direct de la lésion dans 70% des cas, soit un traitement antituberculeux en première intention sans confirmation histologique (30%). Cette attitude était corrélée à une mortalité et morbidité non négligeables respectivement 3% et 10%. Après 1993; le taux d'abords direct a chuté a 38%, avec 47% de biopsies stéréotaxiques et seulement 13% des patients traités par antibacillaires sans preuve histologique. Ceci s'est accompagné d'une réduction significative de mortalité a 1,4% (p = 0,0003) et de morbidité a 2% (p = 0,0027). PMID:22937196

  2. Expanding CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Editing Capacity in Zebrafish Using SaCas9

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yan; Chen, Cheng; Han, Yuxiang; Chen, Zelin; Lu, Xiaochan; Liang, Fang; Li, Song; Qin, Wei; Lin, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    The type II CRISPR/Cas9 system has been used widely for genome editing in zebrafish. However, the requirement for the 5′-NGG-3′ protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM) of Cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9) limits its targeting sequences. Here, we report that a Cas9 ortholog from Staphylococcus aureus (SaCas9), and its KKH variant, successfully induced targeted mutagenesis with high frequency in zebrafish. Confirming previous findings, the SpCas9 variant, VQR, can also induce targeted mutations in zebrafish. Bioinformatics analysis of these new Cas targets suggests that the number of available target sites in the zebrafish genome can be greatly expanded. Collectively, the expanded target repertoire of Cas9 in zebrafish should further facilitate the utility of this organism for genetic studies of vertebrate biology. PMID:27317783

  3. Genome modification by CRISPR/Cas9.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuanwu; Zhang, Lianfeng; Huang, Xingxu

    2014-12-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein (Cas)9-mediated genome modification enables us to edit the genomes of a variety of organisms rapidly and efficiently. The advantages of the CRISPR-Cas9 system have made it an increasingly popular genetic engineering tool for biological and therapeutic applications. Moreover, CRISPR-Cas9 has been employed to recruit functional domains that repress/activate gene expression or label specific genomic loci in living cells or organisms, in order to explore developmental mechanisms, gene expression regulation, and animal behavior. One major concern about this system is its specificity; although CRISPR-Cas9-mediated off-target mutation has been broadly studied, more efforts are required to further improve the specificity of CRISPR-Cas9. We will also discuss the potential applications of CRISPR-Cas9.

  4. 78 FR 24207 - Request for Information About Diethanolamine (CAS No. 111-42-2)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Request for Information About Diethanolamine (CAS No. 111-42-2) AGENCY: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)....

  5. Cullin 5 destabilizes Cas to inhibit Src-dependent cell transformation

    PubMed Central

    Teckchandani, Anjali; Laszlo, George S.; Simó, Sergi; Shah, Khyati; Pilling, Carissa; Strait, Alexander A.; Cooper, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Phosphorylation-dependent protein ubiquitylation and degradation provides an irreversible mechanism to terminate protein kinase signaling. Here, we report that mammary epithelial cells require cullin-5–RING–E3-ubiquitin-ligase complexes (Cul5-CRLs) to prevent transformation by a Src–Cas signaling pathway. Removal of Cul5 stimulates growth-factor-independent growth and migration, membrane dynamics and colony dysmorphogenesis, which are all dependent on the endogenous tyrosine kinase Src. Src is activated in Cul5-deficient cells, but Src activation alone is not sufficient to cause transformation. We found that Cul5 and Src together stimulate degradation of the Src substrate p130Cas (Crk-associated substrate). Phosphorylation stimulates Cas binding to the Cul5-CRL adaptor protein SOCS6 and consequent proteasome-dependent degradation. Cas is necessary for the transformation of Cul5-deficient cells. Either knockdown of SOCS6 or use of a degradation-resistant Cas mutant stimulates membrane ruffling, but not other aspects of transformation. Our results show that endogenous Cul5 suppresses epithelial cell transformation by several pathways, including inhibition of Src–Cas-induced ruffling through SOCS6. PMID:24284072

  6. Storing and Accessing the Largest Astronomical Catalogs with the SAI CAS Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koposov, S.; Bartunov, O.; Belinskiy, A.; Karpov, S.

    2007-10-01

    We present a new project -- SAI CAS (Sternberg Astronomical Institute Catalog Access Services). The goal of this project is to provide the Russian and international community with online access to major large astronomical catalogs (USNO-A2.0/B1.0, SDSS, 2MASS, GSC I/II, DENIS, UCAC) and provide tools and services facilitating scientific research using these catalogs. Currently SAI CAS is the largest astronomical data center in Russia. It provides primary services such as cone search, cross match between catalogs inside a region on the sky, and between system and user catalogs, etc. Several science projects in Russia already use SAI CAS. The SAI CAS project is based on open source software and is an open source itself. The system uses relational database storage (PostgreSQL), where all data and metadata are stored. The spatial searches and cross matches are performed using the Q3C plugin for PostgreSQL. Our system can be accessed via web-services (SOAP and simple HTTP POST/GET) and web interfaces. The SAI CAS project is located at http://vo.astronet.ru.

  7. Mathematical Abstraction through Scaffolding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih; Roper, Tom

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the role of scaffolding in the process of abstraction. An activity-theoretic approach to abstraction in context is taken. This examination is carried out with reference to verbal protocols of two 17 year-old students working together on a task connected to sketching the graph of |f|x|)|. Examination of the data suggests that…

  8. Is It Really Abstract?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Christine

    2011-01-01

    For this author, one of the most enjoyable aspects of teaching elementary art is the willingness of students to embrace the different styles of art introduced to them. In this article, she describes a project that allows upper-elementary students to learn about abstract art and the lives of some of the master abstract artists, implement the idea…

  9. Designing for Mathematical Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Dave; Noss, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Our focus is on the design of systems (pedagogical, technical, social) that encourage mathematical abstraction, a process we refer to as "designing for abstraction." In this paper, we draw on detailed design experiments from our research on children's understanding about chance and distribution to re-present this work as a case study in designing…

  10. Paper Abstract Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Abstraction is, in effect, a simplification and reduction of shapes with an absence of detail designed to comprise the essence of the more naturalistic images being depicted. Without even intending to, young children consistently create interesting, and sometimes beautiful, abstract compositions. A child's creations, moreover, will always seem to…

  11. Leadership Abstracts, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Larry, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide two-page discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, and teaching in community colleges. The 12 abstracts for Volume 8, 1995, are: (1) "Redesigning the System To Meet the Workforce Training Needs of the Nation," by Larry Warford; (2) "The College President, the Board, and the Board Chair: A…

  12. Concept Formation and Abstraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunzer, Eric A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper examines the nature of concepts and conceptual processes and the manner of their formation. It argues that a process of successive abstraction and systematization is central to the evolution of conceptual structures. Classificatory processes are discussed and three levels of abstraction outlined. (Author/SJL)

  13. Data Abstraction in GLISP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Gordon S., Jr.

    GLISP is a high-level computer language (based on Lisp and including Lisp as a sublanguage) which is compiled into Lisp. GLISP programs are compiled relative to a knowledge base of object descriptions, a form of abstract datatypes. A primary goal of the use of abstract datatypes in GLISP is to allow program code to be written in terms of objects,…

  14. Leadership Abstracts, Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliron, Mark D., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide brief discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 10 for 1997 contains the following 12 abstracts: (1) "On Community College Renewal" (Nathan L. Hodges and Mark D. Milliron); (2) "The Community College Niche in a…

  15. Abstract Datatypes in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan

    1997-01-01

    PVS (Prototype Verification System) is a general-purpose environment for developing specifications and proofs. This document deals primarily with the abstract datatype mechanism in PVS which generates theories containing axioms and definitions for a class of recursive datatypes. The concepts underlying the abstract datatype mechanism are illustrated using ordered binary trees as an example. Binary trees are described by a PVS abstract datatype that is parametric in its value type. The type of ordered binary trees is then presented as a subtype of binary trees where the ordering relation is also taken as a parameter. We define the operations of inserting an element into, and searching for an element in an ordered binary tree; the bulk of the report is devoted to PVS proofs of some useful properties of these operations. These proofs illustrate various approaches to proving properties of abstract datatype operations. They also describe the built-in capabilities of the PVS proof checker for simplifying abstract datatype expressions.

  16. Abstract coherent categories.

    PubMed

    Rehder, B; Ross, B H

    2001-09-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the importance of the knowledge that interrelates features in people's mental representation of categories and that makes our conception of categories coherent. This article focuses on abstract coherent categories, coherent categories that are also abstract because they are defined by relations independently of any features. Four experiments demonstrate that abstract coherent categories are learned more easily than control categories with identical features and statistical structure, and also that participants induced an abstract representation of the category by granting category membership to exemplars with completely novel features. The authors argue that the human conceptual system is heavily populated with abstract coherent concepts, including conceptions of social groups, societal institutions, legal, political, and military scenarios, and many superordinate categories, such as classes of natural kinds. PMID:11550753

  17. 2016 ACPA MEETING ABSTRACTS.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    The peer-reviewed abstracts presented at the 73rd Annual Meeting of the ACPA are published as submitted by the authors. For financial conflict of interest disclosure, please visit http://meeting.acpa-cpf.org/disclosures.html. PMID:27447885

  18. Abstracts--Citations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Mental Health, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Provides abstracts and citations of journal articles and reports dealing with aspects of mental health. Topics include alcoholism, drug abuse, disadvantaged, mental health programs, rehabilitation, student mental health, and others. (SB)

  19. Automatic Abstraction in Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, abstraction in planning has been accomplished by either state abstraction or operator abstraction, neither of which has been fully automatic. We present a new method, predicate relaxation, for automatically performing state abstraction. PABLO, a nonlinear hierarchical planner, implements predicate relaxation. Theoretical, as well as empirical results are presented which demonstrate the potential advantages of using predicate relaxation in planning. We also present a new definition of hierarchical operators that allows us to guarantee a limited form of completeness. This new definition is shown to be, in some ways, more flexible than previous definitions of hierarchical operators. Finally, a Classical Truth Criterion is presented that is proven to be sound and complete for a planning formalism that is general enough to include most classical planning formalisms that are based on the STRIPS assumption.

  20. Introducing Abstract Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciscell, Bob

    1973-01-01

    A functional approach involving collage, two-dimensional design, three-dimensional construction, and elements of Cubism, is used to teach abstract design in elementary and junior high school art classes. (DS)

  1. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Presents abstracts of 36 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Highlights include the Chemistry Online Retrieval Experiment; organizing and retrieving images; intelligent information retrieval using natural language processing; interdisciplinarity; libraries as publishers; indexing hypermedia; cognitive aspects of classification; computer-aided…

  2. 1971 Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Included are 112 abstracts listed under headings such as: acoustics, continuing engineering studies, educational research and methods, engineering design, libraries, liberal studies, and materials. Other areas include agricultural, electrical, mechanical, mineral, and ocean engineering. (TS)

  3. Paradigms for Abstracting Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Maria; Galvez, Carmen

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of abstracting systems focuses on the paradigm concept and identifies and explains four paradigms: communicational, or information theory; physical, including information retrieval; cognitive, including information processing and artificial intelligence; and systemic, including quality management. Emphasizes multidimensionality and…

  4. Abstracts of contributed papers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.

  5. CAS as Environments for Implementing Mathematical Microworlds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpers, Burkhard

    2002-01-01

    Investigates whether computer algebra systems (CAS) are suitable environments for implementing mathematical microworlds. Recalls what constitutes a microworld and explores how CAS can be used for implementation, stating potentials as well as limitations. Provides as an example the microworld "Formula 1", implemented in Maple Software. (Author/KHR)

  6. CasA mediates Cas3-catalyzed target degradation during CRISPR RNA-guided interference

    PubMed Central

    Hochstrasser, Megan L.; Taylor, David W.; Bhat, Prashant; Guegler, Chantal K.; Sternberg, Samuel H.; Nogales, Eva; Doudna, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    In bacteria, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)–associated (Cas) DNA-targeting complex Cascade (CRISPR-associated complex for antiviral defense) uses CRISPR RNA (crRNA) guides to bind complementary DNA targets at sites adjacent to a trinucleotide signature sequence called the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM). The Cascade complex then recruits Cas3, a nuclease-helicase that catalyzes unwinding and cleavage of foreign double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) bearing a sequence matching that of the crRNA. Cascade comprises the CasA–E proteins and one crRNA, forming a structure that binds and unwinds dsDNA to form an R loop in which the target strand of the DNA base pairs with the 32-nt RNA guide sequence. Single-particle electron microscopy reconstructions of dsDNA-bound Cascade with and without Cas3 reveal that Cascade positions the PAM-proximal end of the DNA duplex at the CasA subunit and near the site of Cas3 association. The finding that the DNA target and Cas3 colocalize with CasA implicates this subunit in a key target-validation step during DNA interference. We show biochemically that base pairing of the PAM region is unnecessary for target binding but critical for Cas3-mediated degradation. In addition, the L1 loop of CasA, previously implicated in PAM recognition, is essential for Cas3 activation following target binding by Cascade. Together, these data show that the CasA subunit of Cascade functions as an essential partner of Cas3 by recognizing DNA target sites and positioning Cas3 adjacent to the PAM to ensure cleavage. PMID:24748111

  7. CasA mediates Cas3-catalyzed target degradation during CRISPR RNA-guided interference.

    PubMed

    Hochstrasser, Megan L; Taylor, David W; Bhat, Prashant; Guegler, Chantal K; Sternberg, Samuel H; Nogales, Eva; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2014-05-01

    In bacteria, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated (Cas) DNA-targeting complex Cascade (CRISPR-associated complex for antiviral defense) uses CRISPR RNA (crRNA) guides to bind complementary DNA targets at sites adjacent to a trinucleotide signature sequence called the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM). The Cascade complex then recruits Cas3, a nuclease-helicase that catalyzes unwinding and cleavage of foreign double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) bearing a sequence matching that of the crRNA. Cascade comprises the CasA-E proteins and one crRNA, forming a structure that binds and unwinds dsDNA to form an R loop in which the target strand of the DNA base pairs with the 32-nt RNA guide sequence. Single-particle electron microscopy reconstructions of dsDNA-bound Cascade with and without Cas3 reveal that Cascade positions the PAM-proximal end of the DNA duplex at the CasA subunit and near the site of Cas3 association. The finding that the DNA target and Cas3 colocalize with CasA implicates this subunit in a key target-validation step during DNA interference. We show biochemically that base pairing of the PAM region is unnecessary for target binding but critical for Cas3-mediated degradation. In addition, the L1 loop of CasA, previously implicated in PAM recognition, is essential for Cas3 activation following target binding by Cascade. Together, these data show that the CasA subunit of Cascade functions as an essential partner of Cas3 by recognizing DNA target sites and positioning Cas3 adjacent to the PAM to ensure cleavage.

  8. Méningiome intracrânien multiple: expérience du service de neurochirurgie CHU Avicenne Rabat - Salé, à propos de 4 cas et revue de la literature

    PubMed Central

    Djoubairou, Ben Ousmanou; Karekezi, Claire; Moussé, Nabil; Doleagbenou, Agbéko Komlan; Gana, Rachid; El Abbadi, Najia; El Maaqili, Moulay Rachid

    2014-01-01

    Les méningiomes intracrâniennes multiples sont définies comme la présence d'au moins deux méningiomes sur des sites intracrâniens différents et ceci en absence de neurofibromatose. C'est une tumeur rare dont la prévalence varie entre 1-10%. Le but de notre travail était de décrire les caractéristiques cliniques, radiologiques, histologiques d'une série de 4 patients porteurs de méningiome multiple et en déduire les facteurs de risques de survenue de cette pathologie. Préciser la qualité d'exérèse chirurgicale de la lésion selon la classification de Simpson. Rapporter les suites postopératoires ainsi que le suivie à long termes des patients afin de préciser leur qualité de vie. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective portant sur 4 cas de Méningiomes intracrâniens multiples sur 174 patients opérés pour méningiome au CHU Avicenne entre Janvier 2000 à Décembre 2013. En s'aidant des données cliniques, imageries, chirurgicales, histologiques mentionnée dans le dossier médical de chaque patient. Notre série est constitué de 4 patients (3 femmes pour 1 homme), d'un âge allant de 42-50 ans (moyenne d’âge= 45,5 ans). Nous avons identifié 21 méningiomes (17 en sus tentoriel et 4 en sous tentoriel), aucun cas de décès ni d'infection postopératoire dans notre échantillon. Le pronostic reste bon malgré le nombre de lésion nécessitant parfois plusieurs interventions chirurgicales. PMID:25419331

  9. CAS

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, B.; Pomeroy, G. )

    1989-12-02

    The Security Alarm System is a data acquisition and control system which collects data from intrusion sensors and displays the information in a real-time environment for operators. The Access Control System monitors and controls the movement of personnel with the use of card readers and biometrics hand readers.

  10. Reference and Information Services in Special Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Signe E.

    1983-01-01

    Describes reference and information services which special libraries may provide in serving clientele, including information services, bibliographic services, online search services, document delivery services, indexing services, abstracting services, publishing and alerting services, translation services, newspaper clipping services, and records…

  11. Metacognition and abstract reasoning.

    PubMed

    Markovits, Henry; Thompson, Valerie A; Brisson, Janie

    2015-05-01

    The nature of people's meta-representations of deductive reasoning is critical to understanding how people control their own reasoning processes. We conducted two studies to examine whether people have a metacognitive representation of abstract validity and whether familiarity alone acts as a separate metacognitive cue. In Study 1, participants were asked to make a series of (1) abstract conditional inferences, (2) concrete conditional inferences with premises having many potential alternative antecedents and thus specifically conducive to the production of responses consistent with conditional logic, or (3) concrete problems with premises having relatively few potential alternative antecedents. Participants gave confidence ratings after each inference. Results show that confidence ratings were positively correlated with logical performance on abstract problems and concrete problems with many potential alternatives, but not with concrete problems with content less conducive to normative responses. Confidence ratings were higher with few alternatives than for abstract content. Study 2 used a generation of contrary-to-fact alternatives task to improve levels of abstract logical performance. The resulting increase in logical performance was mirrored by increases in mean confidence ratings. Results provide evidence for a metacognitive representation based on logical validity, and show that familiarity acts as a separate metacognitive cue.

  12. Thyra Abstract Interface Package

    2005-09-01

    Thrya primarily defines a set of abstract C++ class interfaces needed for the development of abstract numerical atgorithms (ANAs) such as iterative linear solvers, transient solvers all the way up to optimization. At the foundation of these interfaces are abstract C++ classes for vectors, vector spaces, linear operators and multi-vectors. Also included in the Thyra package is C++ code for creating concrete vector, vector space, linear operator, and multi-vector subclasses as well as other utilitiesmore » to aid in the development of ANAs. Currently, very general and efficient concrete subclass implementations exist for serial and SPMD in-core vectors and multi-vectors. Code also currently exists for testing objects and providing composite objects such as product vectors.« less

  13. Overlap in the Lists of Journals Monitored by Biosis, CAS and Ei

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, James L.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    This study identifies the amount of duplication among the lists of primary journals regularly monitored by the BioSciences Information Service of Biological Abstracts, the Chemical Abstracts Service and Engineering Index, Inc. (4 references) (SJ)

  14. Assisting Students' Cognitive Strategies with the Use of CAS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarvari, Csaba; Lavicza, Zsolt; Klincsik, Mihaly

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines various cognitive strategies applied while CAS (Computer Algebra System) are used in undergraduate-level engineering mathematics teaching and learning. We posed some questions in relation to such CAS use: What kind of tools can CAS offer to enhance different cognitive strategies of students? How can the use of CAS widen the…

  15. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineering Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Presents the abstracts of 158 papers presented at the American Society for Engineering Education's annual conference at Knoxville, Tennessee, June 14-17, 1976. Included are engineering topics covering education, aerospace, agriculture, biomedicine, chemistry, computers, electricity, acoustics, environment, mechanics, and women. (SL)

  16. Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    M. Gross

    2004-10-25

    The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]).

  17. Abstraction through Game Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avraamidou, Antri; Monaghan, John; Walker, Aisha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the computer game play of an 11-year-old boy. In the course of building a virtual house he developed and used, without assistance, an artefact and an accompanying strategy to ensure that his house was symmetric. We argue that the creation and use of this artefact-strategy is a mathematical abstraction. The discussion…

  18. Making the Abstract Concrete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2005-01-01

    President Ronald Reagan nominated a woman to serve on the United States Supreme Court. He did so through a single-page form letter, completed in part by hand and in part by typewriter, announcing Sandra Day O'Connor as his nominee. While the document serves as evidence of a historic event, it is also a tangible illustration of abstract concepts…

  19. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Includes abstracts of papers presented at the 80th Annual Conference of the American Society for Engineering Education. The broad areas include aerospace, affiliate and associate member council, agricultural engineering, biomedical engineering, continuing engineering studies, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computers, cooperative…

  20. Computers in Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwabueze, Kenneth K.

    2004-01-01

    The current emphasis on flexible modes of mathematics delivery involving new information and communication technology (ICT) at the university level is perhaps a reaction to the recent change in the objectives of education. Abstract algebra seems to be one area of mathematics virtually crying out for computer instructional support because of the…

  1. 2002 NASPSA Conference Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Contains abstracts from the 2002 conference of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity. The publication is divided into three sections: the preconference workshop, "Effective Teaching Methods in the Classroom;" symposia (motor development, motor learning and control, and sport psychology); and free…

  2. Abstraction and art.

    PubMed Central

    Gortais, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    In a given social context, artistic creation comprises a set of processes, which relate to the activity of the artist and the activity of the spectator. Through these processes we see and understand that the world is vaster than it is said to be. Artistic processes are mediated experiences that open up the world. A successful work of art expresses a reality beyond actual reality: it suggests an unknown world using the means and the signs of the known world. Artistic practices incorporate the means of creation developed by science and technology and change forms as they change. Artists and the public follow different processes of abstraction at different levels, in the definition of the means of creation, of representation and of perception of a work of art. This paper examines how the processes of abstraction are used within the framework of the visual arts and abstract painting, which appeared during a period of growing importance for the processes of abstraction in science and technology, at the beginning of the twentieth century. The development of digital platforms and new man-machine interfaces allow multimedia creations. This is performed under the constraint of phases of multidisciplinary conceptualization using generic representation languages, which tend to abolish traditional frontiers between the arts: visual arts, drama, dance and music. PMID:12903659

  3. Leadership Abstracts, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.; Milliron, Mark David, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This 2002 volume of Leadership Abstracts contains issue numbers 1-12. Articles include: (1) "Skills Certification and Workforce Development: Partnering with Industry and Ourselves," by Jeffrey A. Cantor; (2) "Starting Again: The Brookhaven Success College," by Alice W. Villadsen; (3) "From Digital Divide to Digital Democracy," by Gerardo E. de los…

  4. Water reuse. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Middlebrooks, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 31 chapters of this book which deals with all aspects of wastewater reuse. Design data, case histories, performance data, monitoring information, health information, social implications, legal and organizational structures, and background information needed to analyze the desirability of water reuse are presented. (KRM)

  5. Abstract Film and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grice, Malcolm

    A theoretical and historical account of the main preoccupations of makers of abstract films is presented in this book. The book's scope includes discussion of nonrepresentational forms as well as examination of experiments in the manipulation of time in films. The ten chapters discuss the following topics: art and cinematography, the first…

  6. In vitro and in vivo growth suppression of human papillomavirus 16-positive cervical cancer cells by CRISPR/Cas9

    SciTech Connect

    Zhen, Shuai; Hua, Ling; Takahashi, Y.; Narita, S.; Liu, Yun-Hui; Li, Yan

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Established CRISPR/Cas9 targeting promoter of HPV 16 and targeting E6, E7 transcript. • CRISPR/Cas9 resulted in accumulation of p53 and p21, reduced the proliferation of cervical cancer cells. • Finding inhibited tumorigenesis and growth of mice incubated by cells with CRISPR/Cas9. • CRISPR/Cas9 will be a new treatment strategy, in cervical and other HPV-associated cancer therapy. - Abstract: Deregulated expression of high-risk human papillomavirus oncogenes (E6 and E7) is a pivotal event for pathogenesis and progression in cervical cancer. Both viral oncogenes are therefore regarded as ideal therapeutic targets. In the hope of developing a gene-specific therapy for HPV-related cancer, we established CRISPR/Cas9 targeting promoter of HPV 16 E6/E7 and targeting E6, E7 transcript, transduced the CRISPR/Cas9 into cervical HPV-16-positive cell line SiHa. The results showed that CRISPR/Cas9 targeting promoter, as well as targeting E6 and E7 resulted in accumulation of p53 and p21 protein, and consequently remarkably reduced the abilities of proliferation of cervical cancer cells in vitro. Then we inoculated subcutaneously cells into nude mice to establish the transplanted tumor animal models, and found dramatically inhibited tumorigenesis and growth of mice incubated by cells with CRISPR/Cas9 targeting (promoter+E6+E7)-transcript. Our results may provide evidence for application of CRISPR/Cas9 targeting HR-HPV key oncogenes, as a new treatment strategy, in cervical and other HPV-associated cancer therapy.

  7. Data Communications Requirements for CAS Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCabe, James D.; Blaylock, Bruce T. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the long-haul data communications requirements needed to support visualization of Computational Aeroscience (CAS) simulations. A scientific computing model is presented, from which current communications requirements are derived. This model is then expanded to describe the CAS Collaborative Visualization Environment, in which scientists from multiple NASA centers will collaborate on multidisciplinary, time-accurate simulations. An analysis of this model, along with data from the TFCC Workload Model, shows that CAS data communications requirements will increase to 10-100 megabytes/second by 1996.

  8. Nucleosomes Inhibit Cas9 Endonuclease Activity in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Hinz, John M; Laughery, Marian F; Wyrick, John J

    2015-12-01

    During Cas9 genome editing in eukaryotic cells, the bacterial Cas9 enzyme cleaves DNA targets within chromatin. To understand how chromatin affects Cas9 targeting, we characterized Cas9 activity on nucleosome substrates in vitro. We find that Cas9 endonuclease activity is strongly inhibited when its target site is located within the nucleosome core. In contrast, the nucleosome structure does not affect Cas9 activity at a target site within the adjacent linker DNA. Analysis of target sites that partially overlap with the nucleosome edge indicates that the accessibility of the protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM) is the critical determinant of Cas9 activity on a nucleosome.

  9. Communication interventriculaire ischémique: à propos d'un cas observé dans le service de cardiologie du CHU-Yalgado Ouedraogo de Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    Yaméogo, Nobila Valentin; Ilboudo, Maurice; Seghda, Arthur; Kologo, Jonas; Millogo, Georges; Toguyéni, Boubakar Jean Yves; Samadoulougou, André; Zabsonré, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    La rupture myocardique est une complication rare mais souvent fatale de l'infarctus du myocarde aigu récent. Une patiente âgée de 72 ans, présentant une douleur thoracique typiquement angineuse évoluant depuis 34 jours, en insuffisance cardiaque globale était reçue pour une exploration cardio-vasculaire. L'examen physique retrouvait un souffle holosystolique endapexien d'intensité 3/6, irradiant en rayon de roue. La troponine T était élevée à quatre fois la normale et l'ECG objectivait une lésion sous épicardique en antéroseptoapical et une nécrose dans le même territoire. L’échodoppler cardiaque retrouvait un anévrisme septoapicolatéral avec une solution de continuité dans le segment apical du septum interventriculaire (CIV). Traitée par énoxaparine, antiagrégant plaquettaire, diurétique de l'anse, dérivés morphiniques et oxygène, la patiente présente au deuxième jour de son hospitalisation un collapsus cardio-vasculaire et décède dans un tableau de choc cardiogénique malgré l'administration des amines vasopressives à forte dose. La coronarographie n'a pu être réalisée. Ce cas illustre la gravité des complications mécaniques de l'infarctus du myocarde. L'absence de chirurgie cardiaque dans notre pays explique en grande partie l’évolution fatale de cette CIV ischémique. PMID:25922631

  10. A newly discovered Bordetella species carries a transcriptionally active CRISPR-Cas with a small Cas9 endonuclease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cas9 endonuclease of the Type II-a clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), of Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9) has been adapted as a widely used tool for genome editing and genome engineering. Herein, we describe a gene encoding a novel Cas9 ortholog (BpsuCas9) and th...

  11. 41 CFR 102-33.440 - Who must report CAS cost and utilization data?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Reporting Information on Government Aircraft Commercial Aviation Services... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who must report CAS...

  12. Cas9 specifies functional viral targets during CRISPR-Cas adaptation.

    PubMed

    Heler, Robert; Samai, Poulami; Modell, Joshua W; Weiner, Catherine; Goldberg, Gregory W; Bikard, David; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2015-03-12

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci and their associated (Cas) proteins provide adaptive immunity against viral infection in prokaryotes. Upon infection, short phage sequences known as spacers integrate between CRISPR repeats and are transcribed into small RNA molecules that guide the Cas9 nuclease to the viral targets (protospacers). Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 cleavage of the viral genome requires the presence of a 5'-NGG-3' protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) sequence immediately downstream of the viral target. It is not known whether and how viral sequences flanked by the correct PAM are chosen as new spacers. Here we show that Cas9 selects functional spacers by recognizing their PAM during spacer acquisition. The replacement of cas9 with alleles that lack the PAM recognition motif or recognize an NGGNG PAM eliminated or changed PAM specificity during spacer acquisition, respectively. Cas9 associates with other proteins of the acquisition machinery (Cas1, Cas2 and Csn2), presumably to provide PAM-specificity to this process. These results establish a new function for Cas9 in the genesis of prokaryotic immunological memory.

  13. An Abstract Data Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, D. J.

    The Abstract Data Interface (ADI) is a system within which both abstract data models and their mappings on to file formats can be defined. The data model system is object-oriented and closely follows the Common Lisp Object System (CLOS) object model. Programming interfaces in both C and \\fortran are supplied, and are designed to be simple enough for use by users with limited software skills. The prototype system supports access to those FITS formats most commonly used in the X-ray community, as well as the Starlink NDF data format. New interfaces can be rapidly added to the system---these may communicate directly with the file system, other ADI objects or elsewhere (e.g., a network connection).

  14. Generalized Abstract Symbolic Summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Person, Suzette; Dwyer, Matthew B.

    2009-01-01

    Current techniques for validating and verifying program changes often consider the entire program, even for small changes, leading to enormous V&V costs over a program s lifetime. This is due, in large part, to the use of syntactic program techniques which are necessarily imprecise. Building on recent advances in symbolic execution of heap manipulating programs, in this paper, we develop techniques for performing abstract semantic differencing of program behaviors that offer the potential for improved precision.

  15. Phylogeny of Cas9 determines functional exchangeability of dual-RNA and Cas9 among orthologous type II CRISPR-Cas systems

    PubMed Central

    Fonfara, Ines; Le Rhun, Anaïs; Chylinski, Krzysztof; Makarova, Kira S.; Lécrivain, Anne-Laure; Bzdrenga, Janek; Koonin, Eugene V.; Charpentier, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    The CRISPR-Cas-derived RNA-guided Cas9 endonuclease is the key element of an emerging promising technology for genome engineering in a broad range of cells and organisms. The DNA-targeting mechanism of the type II CRISPR-Cas system involves maturation of tracrRNA:crRNA duplex (dual-RNA), which directs Cas9 to cleave invading DNA in a sequence-specific manner, dependent on the presence of a Protospacer Adjacent Motif (PAM) on the target. We show that evolution of dual-RNA and Cas9 in bacteria produced remarkable sequence diversity. We selected eight representatives of phylogenetically defined type II CRISPR-Cas groups to analyze possible coevolution of Cas9 and dual-RNA. We demonstrate that these two components are interchangeable only between closely related type II systems when the PAM sequence is adjusted to the investigated Cas9 protein. Comparison of the taxonomy of bacterial species that harbor type II CRISPR-Cas systems with the Cas9 phylogeny corroborates horizontal transfer of the CRISPR-Cas loci. The reported collection of dual-RNA:Cas9 with associated PAMs expands the possibilities for multiplex genome editing and could provide means to improve the specificity of the RNA-programmable Cas9 tool. PMID:24270795

  16. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  17. CRISPR-Cas: biology, mechanisms and relevance

    PubMed Central

    Hille, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Prokaryotes have evolved several defence mechanisms to protect themselves from viral predators. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and their associated proteins (Cas) display a prokaryotic adaptive immune system that memorizes previous infections by integrating short sequences of invading genomes—termed spacers—into the CRISPR locus. The spacers interspaced with repeats are expressed as small guide CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) that are employed by Cas proteins to target invaders sequence-specifically upon a reoccurring infection. The ability of the minimal CRISPR-Cas9 system to target DNA sequences using programmable RNAs has opened new avenues in genome editing in a broad range of cells and organisms with high potential in therapeutical applications. While numerous scientific studies have shed light on the biochemical processes behind CRISPR-Cas systems, several aspects of the immunity steps, however, still lack sufficient understanding. This review summarizes major discoveries in the CRISPR-Cas field, discusses the role of CRISPR-Cas in prokaryotic immunity and other physiological properties, and describes applications of the system as a DNA editing technology and antimicrobial agent. This article is part of the themed issue ‘The new bacteriology’. PMID:27672148

  18. CRISPR-Cas: biology, mechanisms and relevance.

    PubMed

    Hille, Frank; Charpentier, Emmanuelle

    2016-11-01

    Prokaryotes have evolved several defence mechanisms to protect themselves from viral predators. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and their associated proteins (Cas) display a prokaryotic adaptive immune system that memorizes previous infections by integrating short sequences of invading genomes-termed spacers-into the CRISPR locus. The spacers interspaced with repeats are expressed as small guide CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) that are employed by Cas proteins to target invaders sequence-specifically upon a reoccurring infection. The ability of the minimal CRISPR-Cas9 system to target DNA sequences using programmable RNAs has opened new avenues in genome editing in a broad range of cells and organisms with high potential in therapeutical applications. While numerous scientific studies have shed light on the biochemical processes behind CRISPR-Cas systems, several aspects of the immunity steps, however, still lack sufficient understanding. This review summarizes major discoveries in the CRISPR-Cas field, discusses the role of CRISPR-Cas in prokaryotic immunity and other physiological properties, and describes applications of the system as a DNA editing technology and antimicrobial agent.This article is part of the themed issue 'The new bacteriology'.

  19. CRISPR-Cas: biology, mechanisms and relevance.

    PubMed

    Hille, Frank; Charpentier, Emmanuelle

    2016-11-01

    Prokaryotes have evolved several defence mechanisms to protect themselves from viral predators. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and their associated proteins (Cas) display a prokaryotic adaptive immune system that memorizes previous infections by integrating short sequences of invading genomes-termed spacers-into the CRISPR locus. The spacers interspaced with repeats are expressed as small guide CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) that are employed by Cas proteins to target invaders sequence-specifically upon a reoccurring infection. The ability of the minimal CRISPR-Cas9 system to target DNA sequences using programmable RNAs has opened new avenues in genome editing in a broad range of cells and organisms with high potential in therapeutical applications. While numerous scientific studies have shed light on the biochemical processes behind CRISPR-Cas systems, several aspects of the immunity steps, however, still lack sufficient understanding. This review summarizes major discoveries in the CRISPR-Cas field, discusses the role of CRISPR-Cas in prokaryotic immunity and other physiological properties, and describes applications of the system as a DNA editing technology and antimicrobial agent.This article is part of the themed issue 'The new bacteriology'. PMID:27672148

  20. Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Alphabetical listing of companies which offer analytical sampling and testing services for pollution control and abatement; consultants that also manufacture and distribute products. List of book publishers included. (LK)

  1. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  2. CRISPR-Cas9-Mediated Single-Gene and Gene Family Disruption in Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Duo; Kurup, Samarchith P.; Yao, Phil Y.; Minning, Todd A.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Trypanosoma cruzi is a protozoan parasite of humans and animals, affecting 10 to 20 million people and innumerable animals, primarily in the Americas. Despite being the largest cause of infection-induced heart disease worldwide, even among the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) T. cruzi is considered one of the least well understood and understudied. The genetic complexity of T. cruzi as well as the limited set of efficient techniques for genome engineering contribute significantly to the relative lack of progress in and understanding of this pathogen. Here, we adapted the CRISPR-Cas9 system for the genetic engineering of T. cruzi, demonstrating rapid and efficient knockout of multiple endogenous genes, including essential genes. We observed that in the absence of a template, repair of the Cas9-induced double-stranded breaks (DSBs) in T. cruzi occurs exclusively by microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ) with various-sized deletions. When a template for DNA repair is provided, DSB repair by homologous recombination is achieved at an efficiency several orders of magnitude higher than that in the absence of CRISPR-Cas9-induced DSBs. We also demonstrate the high multiplexing capacity of CRISPR-Cas9 in T. cruzi by knocking down expression of an enzyme gene family consisting of 65 members, resulting in a significant reduction of enzymatic product with no apparent off-target mutations. Lastly, we show that Cas9 can mediate disruption of its own coding sequence, rescuing a growth defect in stable Cas9-expressing parasites. These results establish a powerful new tool for the analysis of gene functions in T. cruzi, enabling the study of essential genes and their functions and analysis of the many large families of related genes that occupy a substantial portion of the T. cruzi genome. PMID:25550322

  3. Positions of the Major Players on Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Ben H.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    This excerpt from a paper prepared by the Proprietary Rights Commmittee of Information Industry Association defines issues and legal questions surrounding copyrighting abstracts and discusses positions of groups involved--journal and magazine publishers, book publishers, newspapers, newsletters, and access services. (EJS)

  4. A LARI Experience (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, M.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) In 2012, Lowell Observatory launched The Lowell Amateur Research Initiative (LARI) to formally involve amateur astronomers in scientific research by bringing them to the attention of and helping professional astronomers with their astronomical research. One of the LARI projects is the BVRI photometric monitoring of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs), wherein amateurs obtain observations to search for new outburst events and characterize the colour evolution of previously identified outbursters. A summary of the scientific and organizational aspects of this LARI project, including its goals and science motivation, the process for getting involved with the project, a description of the team members, their equipment and methods of collaboration, and an overview of the programme stars, preliminary findings, and lessons learned is presented.

  5. IEEE conference record -- Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This conference covers the following areas: computational plasma physics; vacuum electronic; basic phenomena in fully ionized plasmas; plasma, electron, and ion sources; environmental/energy issues in plasma science; space plasmas; plasma processing; ball lightning/spherical plasma configurations; plasma processing; fast wave devices; magnetic fusion; basic phenomena in partially ionized plasma; dense plasma focus; plasma diagnostics; basic phenomena in weakly ionized gases; fast opening switches; MHD; fast z-pinches and x-ray lasers; intense ion and electron beams; laser-produced plasmas; microwave plasma interactions; EM and ETH launchers; solid state plasmas and switches; intense beam microwaves; and plasmas for lighting. Separate abstracts were prepared for 416 papers in this conference.

  6. Writing a successful research abstract.

    PubMed

    Bliss, Donna Z

    2012-01-01

    Writing and submitting a research abstract provides timely dissemination of the findings of a study and offers peer input for the subsequent development of a quality manuscript. Acceptance of abstracts is competitive. Understanding the expected content of an abstract, the abstract review process and tips for skillful writing will improve the chance of acceptance.

  7. Les tumeurs conjonctives cutanées: à propos de 121 cas

    PubMed Central

    Hazmiri, Fatima Ezzahra; Fakhri, Anas; Rais, Hanane; Akhdari, Nadia; Amal, Said; Belaabidia, Badia

    2014-01-01

    Les tumeurs conjonctives cutanées sont des tumeurs dermiques et/ou hypodermiques relativement fréquentes. Elles sont dominées par les tumeurs bénignes. A travers une série de 121 cas, nous avons étudié le profil épidémiologique, anatomopathologique et évolutif de ces tumeurs. C'est une étude rétrospective réalisée au service d'anatomie pathologique du CHU Mohammed VI de Marrakech entre 2004 et 2012. Il s'agit de 121 patients. La moyenne d’âge était de 36 ans (1-80ans). Le sex-ratio H/F était de 1,12. La tumeur avait un aspect nodulaire dans 90% des cas. Le membre inférieur était la localisation la plus fréquente (30,5%). L’étude anatomopathologique a porté sur un matériel biopsique dans 100% des cas. Soixante-neuf pour cent de ces tumeurs étaient bénignes. Elles étaient représentées essentiellement par les tumeurs vasculaires, suivies par les tumeurs fibreuses et fibro-histiocytaires. Trente et un pour cent des tumeurs étaient malignes. Il s'agissait essentiellement de tumeurs fibreuses et fibro-histiocytaires, suivies de tumeurs vasculaires. L’étude immunohistochimique était réalisée dans 2cas. Le traitement chirurgical était entrepris dans 73% des cas. L’évolution était précisée dans 19% des cas avec une évolution favorable dans 13% des cas. Un cas de décès et 2 cas de récidive étaient notés. Les tumeurs conjonctives cutanées bénignes sont de bon pronostic, mais posent un problème majeur de nosologie et de classification. D'autre part, la prise en charge diagnostique et thérapeutique ainsi que l’évaluation pronostique des sarcomes cutanés restent difficiles. PMID:25379113

  8. Stellar Presentations (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, D.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The AAVSO is in the process of expanding its education, outreach and speakers bureau program. powerpoint presentations prepared for specific target audiences such as AAVSO members, educators, students, the general public, and Science Olympiad teams, coaches, event supervisors, and state directors will be available online for members to use. The presentations range from specific and general content relating to stellar evolution and variable stars to specific activities for a workshop environment. A presentation—even with a general topic—that works for high school students will not work for educators, Science Olympiad teams, or the general public. Each audience is unique and requires a different approach. The current environment necessitates presentations that are captivating for a younger generation that is embedded in a highly visual and sound-bite world of social media, twitter and U-Tube, and mobile devices. For educators, presentations and workshops for themselves and their students must support the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the Common Core Content Standards, and the Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) initiative. Current best practices for developing relevant and engaging powerpoint presentations to deliver information to a variety of targeted audiences will be presented along with several examples.

  9. Automated Supernova Discovery (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.

  10. 48 CFR 970.3002 - CAS program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false CAS program requirements. 970.3002 Section 970.3002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY....3002 CAS program requirements....

  11. 48 CFR 970.3002 - CAS program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false CAS program requirements. 970.3002 Section 970.3002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY....3002 CAS program requirements....

  12. 48 CFR 970.3002 - CAS program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false CAS program requirements. 970.3002 Section 970.3002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY....3002 CAS program requirements....

  13. Function of the CRISPR-Cas System of the Human Pathogen Clostridium difficile

    PubMed Central

    Boudry, Pierre; Semenova, Ekaterina; Monot, Marc; Datsenko, Kirill A.; Lopatina, Anna; Sekulovic, Ognjen; Ospina-Bedoya, Maicol; Fortier, Louis-Charles; Severinov, Konstantin; Dupuy, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clostridium difficile is the cause of most frequently occurring nosocomial diarrhea worldwide. As an enteropathogen, C. difficile must be exposed to multiple exogenous genetic elements in bacteriophage-rich gut communities. CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas (CRISPR-associated) systems allow bacteria to adapt to foreign genetic invaders. Our recent data revealed active expression and processing of CRISPR RNAs from multiple type I-B CRISPR arrays in C. difficile reference strain 630. Here, we demonstrate active expression of CRISPR arrays in strain R20291, an epidemic C. difficile strain. Through genome sequencing and host range analysis of several new C. difficile phages and plasmid conjugation experiments, we provide evidence of defensive function of the CRISPR-Cas system in both C. difficile strains. We further demonstrate that C. difficile Cas proteins are capable of interference in a heterologous host, Escherichia coli. These data set the stage for mechanistic and physiological analyses of CRISPR-Cas-mediated interactions of important global human pathogen with its genetic parasites. PMID:26330515

  14. Covalent Modification of Bacteriophage T4 DNA Inhibits CRISPR-Cas9

    PubMed Central

    Bryson, Alexandra L.; Hwang, Young; Sherrill-Mix, Scott; Wu, Gary D.; Lewis, James D.; Black, Lindsay; Clark, Tyson A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genomic DNAs of tailed bacteriophages are commonly modified by the attachment of chemical groups. Some forms of DNA modification are known to protect phage DNA from cleavage by restriction enzymes, but others are of unknown function. Recently, the CRISPR-Cas nuclease complexes were shown to mediate bacterial adaptive immunity by RNA-guided target recognition, raising the question of whether phage DNA modifications may also block attack by CRISPR-Cas9. We investigated phage T4 as a model system, where cytosine is replaced with glucosyl-hydroxymethylcytosine (glc-HMC). We first quantified the extent and distribution of covalent modifications in T4 DNA by single-molecule DNA sequencing and enzymatic probing. We then designed CRISPR spacer sequences targeting T4 and found that wild-type T4 containing glc-HMC was insensitive to attack by CRISPR-Cas9 but mutants with unmodified cytosine were sensitive. Phage with HMC showed only intermediate sensitivity. While this work was in progress, another group reported examples of heavily engineered CRISRP-Cas9 complexes that could, in fact, overcome the effects of T4 DNA modification, indicating that modifications can inhibit but do not always fully block attack. PMID:26081634

  15. Engineered CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases with altered PAM specificities

    PubMed Central

    Kleinstiver, Benjamin P.; Prew, Michelle S.; Tsai, Shengdar Q.; Topkar, Ved; Nguyen, Nhu T.; Zheng, Zongli; Gonzales, Andrew P.W.; Li, Zhuyun; Peterson, Randall T.; Yeh, Jing-Ruey Joanna; Aryee, Martin J.; Joung, J. Keith

    2015-01-01

    Although CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases are widely used for genome editing1, 2, the range of sequences that Cas9 can recognize is constrained by the need for a specific protospacer adjacent motif (PAM)3–6. As a result, it can often be difficult to target double-stranded breaks (DSBs) with the precision that is necessary for various genome editing applications. The ability to engineer Cas9 derivatives with purposefully altered PAM specificities would address this limitation. Here we show that the commonly used Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) can be modified to recognize alternative PAM sequences using structural information, bacterial selection-based directed evolution, and combinatorial design. These altered PAM specificity variants enable robust editing of endogenous gene sites in zebrafish and human cells not currently targetable by wild-type SpCas9, and their genome-wide specificities are comparable to wild-type SpCas9 as judged by GUIDE-Seq analysis7. In addition, we identified and characterized another SpCas9 variant that exhibits improved specificity in human cells, possessing better discrimination against off-target sites with non-canonical NAG and NGA PAMs and/or mismatched spacers. We also found that two smaller-size Cas9 orthologues, Streptococcus thermophilus Cas9 (St1Cas9) and Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 (SaCas9), function efficiently in the bacterial selection systems and in human cells, suggesting that our engineering strategies could be extended to Cas9s from other species. Our findings provide broadly useful SpCas9 variants and, more importantly, establish the feasibility of engineering a wide range of Cas9s with altered and improved PAM specificities. PMID:26098369

  16. Engineered CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases with altered PAM specificities.

    PubMed

    Kleinstiver, Benjamin P; Prew, Michelle S; Tsai, Shengdar Q; Topkar, Ved V; Nguyen, Nhu T; Zheng, Zongli; Gonzales, Andrew P W; Li, Zhuyun; Peterson, Randall T; Yeh, Jing-Ruey Joanna; Aryee, Martin J; Joung, J Keith

    2015-07-23

    Although CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases are widely used for genome editing, the range of sequences that Cas9 can recognize is constrained by the need for a specific protospacer adjacent motif (PAM). As a result, it can often be difficult to target double-stranded breaks (DSBs) with the precision that is necessary for various genome-editing applications. The ability to engineer Cas9 derivatives with purposefully altered PAM specificities would address this limitation. Here we show that the commonly used Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) can be modified to recognize alternative PAM sequences using structural information, bacterial selection-based directed evolution, and combinatorial design. These altered PAM specificity variants enable robust editing of endogenous gene sites in zebrafish and human cells not currently targetable by wild-type SpCas9, and their genome-wide specificities are comparable to wild-type SpCas9 as judged by GUIDE-seq analysis. In addition, we identify and characterize another SpCas9 variant that exhibits improved specificity in human cells, possessing better discrimination against off-target sites with non-canonical NAG and NGA PAMs and/or mismatched spacers. We also find that two smaller-size Cas9 orthologues, Streptococcus thermophilus Cas9 (St1Cas9) and Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 (SaCas9), function efficiently in the bacterial selection systems and in human cells, suggesting that our engineering strategies could be extended to Cas9s from other species. Our findings provide broadly useful SpCas9 variants and, more importantly, establish the feasibility of engineering a wide range of Cas9s with altered and improved PAM specificities.

  17. CRISPR-Cas immunity in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Marraffini, Luciano A

    2015-10-01

    Prokaryotic organisms are threatened by a large array of viruses and have developed numerous defence strategies. Among these, only clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas systems provide adaptive immunity against foreign elements. Upon viral injection, a small sequence of the viral genome, known as a spacer, is integrated into the CRISPR locus to immunize the host cell. Spacers are transcribed into small RNA guides that direct the cleavage of the viral DNA by Cas nucleases. Immunization through spacer acquisition enables a unique form of evolution whereby a population not only rapidly acquires resistance to its predators but also passes this resistance mechanism vertically to its progeny.

  18. CRISPR-Cas: Revolutionising genome engineering.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Samantha Anne; Pepper, Michael Sean

    2016-09-01

    The ability to permanently alter or repair the human genome has been the subject of a number of science fiction films, but with the recent advent of several customisable sequence-specific endonuclease technologies, genome engineering looks set to become a clinical reality in the near future. This article discusses recent advancements in the technology called 'clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated genes' (CRISPR-Cas), the potential of CRISPR-Cas to revolutionise molecular medicine, and the ethical and regulatory hurdles facing its application. PMID:27601107

  19. CRISPR-Cas: Revolutionising genome engineering.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Samantha Anne; Pepper, Michael Sean

    2016-08-01

    The ability to permanently alter or repair the human genome has been the subject of a number of science fiction films, but with the recent advent of several customisable sequence-specific endonuclease technologies, genome engineering looks set to become a clinical reality in the near future. This article discusses recent advancements in the technology called 'clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated genes' (CRISPR-Cas), the potential of CRISPR-Cas to revolutionise molecular medicine, and the ethical and regulatory hurdles facing its application.

  20. Abstraction of Drift Seepage

    SciTech Connect

    J.T. Birkholzer

    2004-11-01

    This model report documents the abstraction of drift seepage, conducted to provide seepage-relevant parameters and their probability distributions for use in Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Drift seepage refers to the flow of liquid water into waste emplacement drifts. Water that seeps into drifts may contact waste packages and potentially mobilize radionuclides, and may result in advective transport of radionuclides through breached waste packages [''Risk Information to Support Prioritization of Performance Assessment Models'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 168796], Section 3.3.2)]. The unsaturated rock layers overlying and hosting the repository form a natural barrier that reduces the amount of water entering emplacement drifts by natural subsurface processes. For example, drift seepage is limited by the capillary barrier forming at the drift crown, which decreases or even eliminates water flow from the unsaturated fractured rock into the drift. During the first few hundred years after waste emplacement, when above-boiling rock temperatures will develop as a result of heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, vaporization of percolation water is an additional factor limiting seepage. Estimating the effectiveness of these natural barrier capabilities and predicting the amount of seepage into drifts is an important aspect of assessing the performance of the repository. The TSPA-LA therefore includes a seepage component that calculates the amount of seepage into drifts [''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504], Section 6.3.3.1)]. The TSPA-LA calculation is performed with a probabilistic approach that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability and inherent uncertainty of seepage-relevant properties and processes. Results are used for subsequent TSPA-LA components that may handle, for example, waste package corrosion or radionuclide transport.

  1. Abstracts and reviews.

    PubMed

    Liebmann, G H; Wollman, L; Woltmann, A G

    1966-09-01

    Abstract Eric Berne, M.D.: Games People Play. Grove Press, New York, 1964. 192 pages. Price $5.00. Reviewed by Hugo G. Beigel Finkle, Alex M., Ph.D., M.D. and Prian, Dimitry F. Sexual Potency in Elderly Men before and after Prostatectomy. J.A.M.A., 196: 2, April, 1966. Reviewed by H. George Liebman Calvin C. Hernton: Sex and Racism In America. Grove Press, Inc. Black Cat Edition No. 113 (Paperback), 1966, 180 pp. Price $.95. Reviewed by Gus Woltmann Hans Lehfeldt, M.D., Ernest W. Kulka, M.D., H. George Liebman, M.D.: Comparative Study of Uterine Contraceptive Devices. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 26: 5, 1965, pp. 679-688. Lawrence Lipton. The Erotic Revolution. Sherbourne Press, Los Angeles, 1965. 322 pp., Price $7.50. Masters, William H., M.D. and Johnson, Virginia E. Human Sexual Response. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1966. 366 pages. Price $.10.00. Reviewed by Hans Lehfeldt Douglas P. Murphy, M.D. and Editha F. Torrano, M.D. Male Fertility in 3620 Childless Couples. Fertility and Sterility, 16: 3, May-June, 1965. Reviewed by Leo Wollman, M.D. Edwin M. Schur, Editor: The Family and the Sexual Revolution, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana, 1964. 427 pgs. Weldon, Virginia F., M.D., Blizzard, Robert M., M.D., and Migeon, Claude, M.D. Newborn Girls Misdiagnosed as Bilaterally Chryptorchid Males. The New England Journal of Medicine, April 14, 1966. Reviewed by H. George Liebman.

  2. Comparative Study of the Coverage of Physics Journals by Two Computerized Data Bases-SPIN (Searchable and Physics Information Notes) and CAC (Chemical Abstracts Condensates)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerome, S.

    1973-01-01

    SPIN coverage is abnormally low, only 70 journals, versus the coverage of information services in other fields. Every journal listed by SPIN is selectively covered by CAS, resulting in a 76 percent overlap. (3 references) (Author/SJ)

  3. 48 CFR 30.201-1 - CAS applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION CAS Program Requirements 30.201-1 CAS applicability. See 48 CFR 9903.201-1 (FAR appendix). ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false CAS applicability....

  4. 48 CFR 30.201-2 - Types of CAS coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION CAS Program Requirements 30.201-2 Types of CAS coverage. See 48 CFR 9903.201-2 (FAR appendix). ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Types of CAS coverage....

  5. 48 CFR 30.201-1 - CAS applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION CAS Program Requirements 30.201-1 CAS applicability. See 48 CFR 9903.201-1 (FAR appendix). ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false CAS applicability....

  6. 48 CFR 30.201-2 - Types of CAS coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION CAS Program Requirements 30.201-2 Types of CAS coverage. See 48 CFR 9903.201-2 (FAR appendix). ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Types of CAS coverage....

  7. 48 CFR 9903.201-1 - CAS applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false CAS applicability. 9903... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS CONTRACT COVERAGE CAS Program Requirements 9903.201-1 CAS applicability. (a) This subsection describes the rules for determining whether a proposed contract or subcontract is exempt from...

  8. 48 CFR 30.201-2 - Types of CAS coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION CAS Program Requirements 30.201-2 Types of CAS coverage. See 48 CFR 9903.201-2 (FAR appendix). ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Types of CAS coverage....

  9. 48 CFR 9903.201-1 - CAS applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CAS applicability. 9903... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS CONTRACT COVERAGE CAS Program Requirements 9903.201-1 CAS applicability. (a) This subsection describes the rules for determining whether a proposed contract or subcontract is exempt from...

  10. 48 CFR 30.201-2 - Types of CAS coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION CAS Program Requirements 30.201-2 Types of CAS coverage. See 48 CFR 9903.201-2 (FAR appendix). ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Types of CAS coverage....

  11. 48 CFR 30.201-1 - CAS applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION CAS Program Requirements 30.201-1 CAS applicability. See 48 CFR 9903.201-1 (FAR appendix). ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false CAS applicability....

  12. 48 CFR 9903.201-1 - CAS applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false CAS applicability. 9903... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS CONTRACT COVERAGE CAS Program Requirements 9903.201-1 CAS applicability. (a) This subsection describes the rules for determining whether a proposed contract or subcontract is exempt from...

  13. 48 CFR 30.201-1 - CAS applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION CAS Program Requirements 30.201-1 CAS applicability. See 48 CFR 9903.201-1 (FAR appendix). ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false CAS applicability....

  14. 48 CFR 9903.201-1 - CAS applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true CAS applicability. 9903.201... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS CONTRACT COVERAGE CAS Program Requirements 9903.201-1 CAS applicability. (a) This subsection describes the rules for determining whether a proposed contract or subcontract is exempt from...

  15. 48 CFR 30.201-2 - Types of CAS coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION CAS Program Requirements 30.201-2 Types of CAS coverage. See 48 CFR 9903.201-2 (FAR appendix). ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Types of CAS coverage....

  16. 48 CFR 30.201-1 - CAS applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION CAS Program Requirements 30.201-1 CAS applicability. See 48 CFR 9903.201-1 (FAR appendix). ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CAS applicability....

  17. Accepted scientific research works (abstracts).

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    These are the 39 accepted abstracts for IAYT's Symposium on Yoga Research (SYR) September 24-24, 2014 at the Kripalu Center for Yoga & Health and published in the Final Program Guide and Abstracts. PMID:25645134

  18. Structural plasticity and in vivo activity of Cas1 from the type I-F CRISPR-Cas system.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Max E; Nakatani, Yoshio; Staals, Raymond H J; Kieper, Sebastian N; Opel-Reading, Helen K; McKenzie, Rebecca E; Fineran, Peter C; Krause, Kurt L

    2016-04-15

    CRISPR-Cas systems are adaptive immune systems in prokaryotes that provide protection against viruses and other foreign DNA. In the adaptation stage, foreign DNA is integrated into CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat) arrays as new spacers. These spacers are used in the interference stage to guide effector CRISPR associated (Cas) protein(s) to target complementary foreign invading DNA. Cas1 is the integrase enzyme that is central to the catalysis of spacer integration. There are many diverse types of CRISPR-Cas systems, including type I-F systems, which are typified by a unique Cas1-Cas2-3 adaptation complex. In the present study we characterize the Cas1 protein of the potato phytopathogen Pectobacterium atrosepticum, an important model organism for understanding spacer acquisition in type I-F CRISPR-Cas systems. We demonstrate by mutagenesis that Cas1 is essential for adaptation in vivo and requires a conserved aspartic acid residue. By X-ray crystallography, we show that although P. atrosepticum Cas1 adopts a fold conserved among other Cas1 proteins, it possesses remarkable asymmetry as a result of structural plasticity. In particular, we resolve for the first time a flexible, asymmetric loop that may be unique to type I-F Cas1 proteins, and we discuss the implications of these structural features for DNA binding and enzymatic activity. PMID:26929403

  19. Effects of Using a Computer Algebra System (CAS) on Junior College Students' Attitudes towards CAS and Achievement in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leng, Ng Wee; Choo, Kwee Tiow; Soon, Lau Hock; Yi-Huak, Koh; Sun, Yap Yew

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the effects of using Texas Instruments' Voyage 200 calculator (V200), a graphing calculator with a built-in computer algebra system (CAS), on attitudes towards CAS and achievement in mathematics of junior college students (17 year olds). Students' attitudes towards CAS were examined using a 40-item Likert-type instrument…

  20. Historic light curve of V890 Cas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesci, R.

    2016-05-01

    The variability of V890 Cas is studied with 87 -band plates of the Asiago archive. The star shows variations of about 5 mag with an average magnitude =13 and a period of 486 days. An 5.0 color index is also derived near the maximum luminosity.

  1. Spectra of Cas A's Highest Velocity Ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesen, Robert A.; Milisavljevic, Dan

    2010-08-01

    The young age and close distance of the Galactic supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A) make it perhaps our best case study and clearest look at the explosion dynamics of a core-collapse supernova (CCSN). Interestingly, Cas A exhibits two nearly opposing streams of high velocity ejecta or `jets' in its NE and SW regions racing outward at speeds more than twice that of the main shell. The nature of these jets, however, and their possible association with an aspherical supernova explosion mechanism is controversial. A handful of existing low-resolution spectra of outer knots in the NE jet display chemical abundances hinting at an origin from the S-Si-Ca- Ar rich layer deep inside the progenitor. If these abundances could be firmly established in both the NE and SW jets, it would be very strong evidence in support of a highly asymmetrical explosion engine for Cas A's progenitor and, in turn, for CCSNe in general. We request KPNO 4m telescope + MARS time to obtain high quality multi-object spectroscopy of Cas A's highest velocity ejecta to measure their nitrogen, sulfur, oxygen, calcium, and argon abundances. These spectra will be analyzed with the metal-rich shock models of J. Raymond and then compared to current sets of CCSN models paying particular attention to knot composition vs. ejection velocity and ejecta mixing.

  2. Using the CAS Standards in Assessment Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the use of professional standards of practice in assessment and of the Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education (CAS). It outlines a model for conducting program self-studies and discusses the importance of implementing change based on assessment results.

  3. Les abcès orbitaires: à propos de 7 cas

    PubMed Central

    Ouaissi, Laila; El Khiati, Rhizlane; Serghini, Salma; Abada, Redallah; Rouadi, Sami; Mahtar, Mohamed; Roubal, Mohamed; Essaadi, Mustapha; Kadiri, Fatmi

    2014-01-01

    L'abcès orbitaire correspond à une infection collectée bien limitée située dans l'orbite, généralement due à une cellulite orbitaire. Nous rapportons notre expérience à propos de 7 cas d'abcès orbitaires opérés dans le service d'ORL est de chirurgie cervico-faciale de l'hôpital 20 aout de Casablanca entre juin 2007 et juin 2008. L’âge moyen est de 11 ans avec des extrêmes de 5 et 22 ans. On note une prédominance masculine avec un sex-ratio de 3. On retrouve une exophtalmie inflammatoire, avec tuméfaction palpébrale et une porte d'entrée sinusienne chez tous nos patients. L'ophtalmoplégie est notée dans 5 cas, la baisse de l'acuité visuelle dans 4 cas, et la cécité dans 2 cas. La tomodensitométrie a été réalisée chez tous nos patients. Elle a permit de confirmer l'abcès et sa localisation: interne (4 cas), supéro-interne (2 cas), et inférieure (1 cas). L'imagerie par résonnance magnétique a été faite dans 3 cas, et a permis de préciser les limites de l'infection. Le traitement médical a été instauré d'emblée, associant une triple antibiothérapie par voie parentérale. Le traitement chirurgical a été réalisé chez 5 patients devant la non amélioration clinique. Un drainage externe a été pratiqué et la cure de la sinusite était différée. On note une évolution défavorable dans 3 cas: cécité par névrite optique (2 cas) et ophtalmoplégie (1 cas). Elle a été favorable dans les autres cas. En conclusion, l'abcès orbitaire est une affection rare et grave du sujet jeune, engageant le pronostic visuel voire même le pronostic vital, et constitue de ce fait une urgence ophtalmologique et ORL. Le traitement se base sur une poly-antibiothérapie avec des drainages de la collection le plus rapidement possible. La prévention passe par un diagnostic et un traitement appropriés des sinusites. PMID:25722783

  4. CasHRA (Cas9-facilitated Homologous Recombination Assembly) method of constructing megabase-sized DNA.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianting; Wu, Ronghai; Xue, Xiaoli; Qin, Zhongjun

    2016-08-19

    Current DNA assembly methods for preparing highly purified linear subassemblies require complex and time-consuming in vitro manipulations that hinder their ability to construct megabase-sized DNAs (e.g. synthetic genomes). We have developed a new method designated 'CasHRA (Cas9-facilitated Homologous Recombination Assembly)' that directly uses large circular DNAs in a one-step in vivo assembly process. The large circular DNAs are co-introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae by protoplast fusion, and they are cleaved by RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease to release the linear DNA segments for subsequent assembly by the endogenous homologous recombination system. The CasHRA method allows efficient assembly of multiple large DNA segments in vivo; thus, this approach should be useful in the last stage of genome construction. As a proof of concept, we combined CasHRA with an upstream assembly method (Gibson procedure of genome assembly) and successfully constructed a 1.03 Mb MGE-syn1.0 (Minimal Genome of Escherichia coli) that contained 449 essential genes and 267 important growth genes. We expect that CasHRA will be widely used in megabase-sized genome constructions. PMID:27220470

  5. Using abstract language signals power.

    PubMed

    Wakslak, Cheryl J; Smith, Pamela K; Han, Albert

    2014-07-01

    Power can be gained through appearances: People who exhibit behavioral signals of power are often treated in a way that allows them to actually achieve such power (Ridgeway, Berger, & Smith, 1985; Smith & Galinsky, 2010). In the current article, we examine power signals within interpersonal communication, exploring whether use of concrete versus abstract language is seen as a signal of power. Because power activates abstraction (e.g., Smith & Trope, 2006), perceivers may expect higher power individuals to speak more abstractly and therefore will infer that speakers who use more abstract language have a higher degree of power. Across a variety of contexts and conversational subjects in 7 experiments, participants perceived respondents as more powerful when they used more abstract language (vs. more concrete language). Abstract language use appears to affect perceived power because it seems to reflect both a willingness to judge and a general style of abstract thinking.

  6. Controlling UCAVs by JTACs in CAS missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumaş, A. E.

    2014-06-01

    By means of evolving technology, capabilities of UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle)s are increasing rapidly. This development provides UAVs to be used in many different areas. One of these areas is CAS (Close Air Support) mission. UAVs have several advantages compared to manned aircraft, however there are also some problematic areas. The remote controlling of these vehicles from thousands of nautical miles away via satellite may lead to various problems both ethical and tactical aspects. Therefore, CAS missions require a good level of ALI (Air-Land Integration), a high SA (situational awareness) and precision engagement. In fact, there is an aware friendly element in the target area in CAS missions, unlike the other UAV operations. This element is an Airman called JTAC (Joint Terminal Attack Controller). Unlike the JTAC, UAV operators are too far away from target area and use the limited FOV (Field of View) provided by camera and some other sensor data. In this study, target area situational awareness of a UAV operator and a JTAC, in a high-risk mission for friendly ground forces and civilians such as CAS, are compared. As a result of this comparison, answer to the question who should control the UCAV (Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle) in which circumstances is sought. A literature review is made in UAV and CAS fields and recent air operations are examined. The control of UCAV by the JTAC is assessed by SWOT analysis and as a result it is deduced that both control methods can be used in different situations within the framework of the ROE (Rules Of Engagement) is reached.

  7. Nucleosome breathing and remodeling constrain CRISPR-Cas9 function.

    PubMed

    Isaac, R Stefan; Jiang, Fuguo; Doudna, Jennifer A; Lim, Wendell A; Narlikar, Geeta J; Almeida, Ricardo

    2016-04-28

    The CRISPR-Cas9 bacterial surveillance system has become a versatile tool for genome editing and gene regulation in eukaryotic cells, yet how CRISPR-Cas9 contends with the barriers presented by eukaryotic chromatin is poorly understood. Here we investigate how the smallest unit of chromatin, a nucleosome, constrains the activity of the CRISPR-Cas9 system. We find that nucleosomes assembled on native DNA sequences are permissive to Cas9 action. However, the accessibility of nucleosomal DNA to Cas9 is variable over several orders of magnitude depending on dynamic properties of the DNA sequence and the distance of the PAM site from the nucleosome dyad. We further find that chromatin remodeling enzymes stimulate Cas9 activity on nucleosomal templates. Our findings imply that the spontaneous breathing of nucleosomal DNA together with the action of chromatin remodelers allow Cas9 to effectively act on chromatin in vivo.

  8. Unification of Cas protein families and a simple scenario for the origin and evolution of CRISPR-Cas systems

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The CRISPR-Cas adaptive immunity systems that are present in most Archaea and many Bacteria function by incorporating fragments of alien genomes into specific genomic loci, transcribing the inserts and using the transcripts as guide RNAs to destroy the genome of the cognate virus or plasmid. This RNA interference-like immune response is mediated by numerous, diverse and rapidly evolving Cas (CRISPR-associated) proteins, several of which form the Cascade complex involved in the processing of CRISPR transcripts and cleavage of the target DNA. Comparative analysis of the Cas protein sequences and structures led to the classification of the CRISPR-Cas systems into three Types (I, II and III). Results A detailed comparison of the available sequences and structures of Cas proteins revealed several unnoticed homologous relationships. The Repeat-Associated Mysterious Proteins (RAMPs) containing a distinct form of the RNA Recognition Motif (RRM) domain, which are major components of the CRISPR-Cas systems, were classified into three large groups, Cas5, Cas6 and Cas7. Each of these groups includes many previously uncharacterized proteins now shown to adopt the RAMP structure. Evidence is presented that large subunits contained in most of the CRISPR-Cas systems could be homologous to Cas10 proteins which contain a polymerase-like Palm domain and are predicted to be enzymatically active in Type III CRISPR-Cas systems but inactivated in Type I systems. These findings, the fact that the CRISPR polymerases, RAMPs and Cas2 all contain core RRM domains, and distinct gene arrangements in the three types of CRISPR-Cas systems together provide for a simple scenario for origin and evolution of the CRISPR-Cas machinery. Under this scenario, the CRISPR-Cas system originated in thermophilic Archaea and subsequently spread horizontally among prokaryotes. Conclusions Because of the extreme diversity of CRISPR-Cas systems, in-depth sequence and structure comparison continue to

  9. Grounding Abstractness: Abstract Concepts and the Activation of the Mouth

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Anna M.; Zarcone, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools) proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth. Response times and accuracy were recorded. As predicted, we found that abstract definitions and abstract words yielded slower responses and more errors compared to concrete definitions and concrete words. More crucially, there was an interaction between the target-words and the effector used to respond (hand, mouth). While responses with the mouth were overall slower, the advantage of the hand over the mouth responses was more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts. The results are in keeping with grounded and embodied theories of cognition and support the WAT proposal, according to which abstract concepts evoke linguistic-social information, hence activate the mouth. The mechanisms underlying the mouth activation with abstract concepts (re-enactment of acquisition experience, or re-explanation of the word meaning, possibly through inner talk) are discussed. To our knowledge this is the first behavioral study demonstrating with real words that the advantage of the hand over the mouth is more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts, likely because of the activation of linguistic information with abstract concepts. PMID:27777563

  10. Abstract shape analysis of RNA.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Stefan; Giegerich, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Abstract shape analysis abstract shape analysis is a method to learn more about the complete Boltzmann ensemble of the secondary structures of a single RNA molecule. Abstract shapes classify competing secondary structures into classes that are defined by their arrangement of helices. It allows us to compute, in addition to the structure of minimal free energy, a set of structures that represents relevant and interesting structural alternatives. Furthermore, it allows to compute probabilities of all structures within a shape class. This allows to ensure that our representative subset covers the complete Boltzmann ensemble, except for a portion of negligible probability. This chapter explains the main functions of abstract shape analysis, as implemented in the tool RNA shapes. RNA shapes It reports on some other types of analysis that are based on the abstract shapes idea and shows how you can solve novel problems by creating your own shape abstractions.

  11. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Denney, R.M.

    1982-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes listings of technical abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). Overall information about current activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts.

  12. Expanding the catalog of cas genes with metagenomes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quan; Doak, Thomas G; Ye, Yuzhen

    2014-02-01

    The CRISPR (clusters of regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas adaptive immune system is an important defense system in bacteria, providing targeted defense against invasions of foreign nucleic acids. CRISPR-Cas systems consist of CRISPR loci and cas (CRISPR-associated) genes: sequence segments of invaders are incorporated into host genomes at CRISPR loci to generate specificity, while adjacent cas genes encode proteins that mediate the defense process. We pursued an integrated approach to identifying putative cas genes from genomes and metagenomes, combining similarity searches with genomic neighborhood analysis. Application of our approach to bacterial genomes and human microbiome datasets allowed us to significantly expand the collection of cas genes: the sequence space of the Cas9 family, the key player in the recently engineered RNA-guided platforms for genome editing in eukaryotes, is expanded by at least two-fold with metagenomic datasets. We found genes in cas loci encoding other functions, for example, toxins and antitoxins, confirming the recently discovered potential of coupling between adaptive immunity and the dormancy/suicide systems. We further identified 24 novel Cas families; one novel family contains 20 proteins, all identified from the human microbiome datasets, illustrating the importance of metagenomics projects in expanding the diversity of cas genes.

  13. Protein engineering of Cas9 for enhanced function

    PubMed Central

    Oakes, Benjamin L.; Nadler, Dana C.; Savage, David F.

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas systems act to protect the cell from invading nucleic acids in many bacteria and archaea. The bacterial immune protein Cas9 is a component of one of these CRISPR/Cas systems and has recently been adapted as a tool for genome editing. Cas9 is easily targeted to bind and cleave a DNA sequence via a complimentary RNA; this straightforward programmability has gained Cas9 rapid acceptance in the field of genetic engineering. While this technology has developed quickly, a number of challenges regarding Cas9 specificity, efficiency, fusion protein function, and spatiotemporal control within the cell remain. In this work, we develop a platform for constructing novel proteins to address these open questions. We demonstrate methods to either screen or select active Cas9 mutants and use the screening technique to isolate functional Cas9 variants with a heterologous PDZ domain inserted directly into the protein. As a proof of concept, these methods lay the groundwork for the future construction of diverse Cas9 proteins. Straightforward and accessible techniques for genetic editing are helping to elucidate biology in new and exciting ways; a platform to engineer new functionalities into Cas9 will help forge the next generation of genome modifying tools. PMID:25398355

  14. Annotation and Classification of CRISPR-Cas Systems.

    PubMed

    Makarova, Kira S; Koonin, Eugene V

    2015-01-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas (CRISPR-associated proteins) is a prokaryotic adaptive immune system that is represented in most archaea and many bacteria. Among the currently known prokaryotic defense systems, the CRISPR-Cas genomic loci show unprecedented complexity and diversity. Classification of CRISPR-Cas variants that would capture their evolutionary relationships to the maximum possible extent is essential for comparative genomic and functional characterization of this theoretically and practically important system of adaptive immunity. To this end, a multipronged approach has been developed that combines phylogenetic analysis of the conserved Cas proteins with comparison of gene repertoires and arrangements in CRISPR-Cas loci. This approach led to the current classification of CRISPR-Cas systems into three distinct types and ten subtypes for each of which signature genes have been identified. Comparative genomic analysis of the CRISPR-Cas systems in new archaeal and bacterial genomes performed over the 3 years elapsed since the development of this classification makes it clear that new types and subtypes of CRISPR-Cas need to be introduced. Moreover, this classification system captures only part of the complexity of CRISPR-Cas organization and evolution, due to the intrinsic modularity and evolutionary mobility of these immunity systems, resulting in numerous recombinant variants. Moreover, most of the cas genes evolve rapidly, complicating the family assignment for many Cas proteins and the use of family profiles for the recognition of CRISPR-Cas subtype signatures. Further progress in the comparative analysis of CRISPR-Cas systems requires integration of the most sensitive sequence comparison tools, protein structure comparison, and refined approaches for comparison of gene neighborhoods.

  15. Precision Targeted Mutagenesis via Cas9 Paired Nickases in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Mikami, Masafumi; Toki, Seiichi; Endo, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports of CRISPR- (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 (CRISPR-associated protein 9) mediated heritable mutagenesis in plants highlight the need for accuracy of the mutagenesis directed by this system. Off-target mutations are an important issue when considering functional gene analysis, as well as the molecular breeding of crop plants with large genome size, i.e. with many duplicated genes, and where the whole-genome sequence is still lacking. In mammals, off-target mutations can be suppressed by using Cas9 paired nickases together with paired guide RNAs (gRNAs). However, the performance of Cas9 paired nickases has not yet been fully assessed in plants. Here, we analyzed on- and off-target mutation frequency in rice calli and regenerated plants using Cas9 nuclease or Cas9 nickase with paired gRNAs. When Cas9 paired nickases were used, off-target mutations were fully suppressed in rice calli and regenerated plants. However, on-target mutation frequency also decreased compared with that induced by the Cas9 paired nucleases system. Since the gRNA sequence determines specific binding of Cas9 protein–gRNA ribonucleoproteins at the targeted sequence, the on-target mutation frequency of Cas9 paired nickases depends on the design of paired gRNAs. Our results suggest that a combination of gRNAs that can induce mutations at high efficiency with Cas9 nuclease should be used together with Cas9 nickase. Furthermore, we confirmed that a combination of gRNAs containing a one nucleotide (1 nt) mismatch toward the target sequence could not induce mutations when expressed with Cas9 nickase. Our results clearly show the effectiveness of Cas9 paired nickases in delivering on-target specific mutations. PMID:26936792

  16. Breaking-Cas-interactive design of guide RNAs for CRISPR-Cas experiments for ENSEMBL genomes.

    PubMed

    Oliveros, Juan C; Franch, Mònica; Tabas-Madrid, Daniel; San-León, David; Montoliu, Lluis; Cubas, Pilar; Pazos, Florencio

    2016-07-01

    The CRISPR/Cas technology is enabling targeted genome editing in multiple organisms with unprecedented accuracy and specificity by using RNA-guided nucleases. A critical point when planning a CRISPR/Cas experiment is the design of the guide RNA (gRNA), which directs the nuclease and associated machinery to the desired genomic location. This gRNA has to fulfil the requirements of the nuclease and lack homology with other genome sites that could lead to off-target effects. Here we introduce the Breaking-Cas system for the design of gRNAs for CRISPR/Cas experiments, including those based in the Cas9 nuclease as well as others recently introduced. The server has unique features not available in other tools, including the possibility of using all eukaryotic genomes available in ENSEMBL (currently around 700), placing variable PAM sequences at 5' or 3' and setting the guide RNA length and the scores per nucleotides. It can be freely accessed at: http://bioinfogp.cnb.csic.es/tools/breakingcas, and the code is available upon request.

  17. Innovation Abstracts; Volume XIV, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This series of 30 one- to two-page abstracts covering 1992 highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) faculty recognition and orientation; (2) the Amado M. Pena, Jr., Scholarship Program; (3) innovative teaching techniques, with individual abstracts…

  18. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XV, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This volume of 30 one- to two-page abstracts from 1993 highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) role-playing to encourage critical thinking; (2) team learning techniques to cultivate business skills; (3) librarian-instructor partnerships to create…

  19. Leadership Abstracts; Volume 4, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    "Leadership Abstracts" is published bimonthly and distributed to the chief executive officer of every two-year college in the United States and Canada. This document consists of the 15 one-page abstracts published in 1991. Addressing a variety of topics of interest to the community college administrators, this volume includes: (1) "Delivering the…

  20. Student Success with Abstract Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamidou, Kristine

    2009-01-01

    An abstract art project can be challenging or not, depending on the objectives the teacher sets up. In this article, the author describes an abstract papier-mache project that is a success for all students, and is a versatile project easily manipulated to suit the classroom of any art teacher.

  1. Abstraction in perceptual symbol systems.

    PubMed Central

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2003-01-01

    After reviewing six senses of abstraction, this article focuses on abstractions that take the form of summary representations. Three central properties of these abstractions are established: ( i ) type-token interpretation; (ii) structured representation; and (iii) dynamic realization. Traditional theories of representation handle interpretation and structure well but are not sufficiently dynamical. Conversely, connectionist theories are exquisitely dynamic but have problems with structure. Perceptual symbol systems offer an approach that implements all three properties naturally. Within this framework, a loose collection of property and relation simulators develops to represent abstractions. Type-token interpretation results from binding a property simulator to a region of a perceived or simulated category member. Structured representation results from binding a configuration of property and relation simulators to multiple regions in an integrated manner. Dynamic realization results from applying different subsets of property and relation simulators to category members on different occasions. From this standpoint, there are no permanent or complete abstractions of a category in memory. Instead, abstraction is the skill to construct temporary online interpretations of a category's members. Although an infinite number of abstractions are possible, attractors develop for habitual approaches to interpretation. This approach provides new ways of thinking about abstraction phenomena in categorization, inference, background knowledge and learning. PMID:12903648

  2. Food Science and Technology Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elinor; Federman, Joan

    1979-01-01

    Introduces the reader to the Food Science and Technology Abstracts, a data file that covers worldwide literature on human food commodities and aspects of food processing. Topics include scope, subject index, thesaurus, searching online, and abstracts; tables provide a comparison of ORBIT and DIALOG versions of the file. (JD)

  3. Technical abstracts: Mechanical engineering, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Broesius, J.Y.

    1991-03-01

    This document is a compilation of the published, unclassified abstracts produced by mechanical engineers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during the calendar year 1990. Many abstracts summarize work completed and published in report form. These are UCRL-JC series documents, which include the full text of articles to be published in journals and of papers to be presented at meetings, and UCID reports, which are informal documents. Not all UCIDs contain abstracts: short summaries were generated when abstracts were not included. Technical Abstracts also provides descriptions of those documents assigned to the UCRL-MI (miscellaneous) category. These are generally viewgraphs or photographs presented at meetings. An author index is provided at the back of this volume for cross referencing.

  4. Metaphor: Bridging embodiment to abstraction.

    PubMed

    Jamrozik, Anja; McQuire, Marguerite; Cardillo, Eileen R; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2016-08-01

    Embodied cognition accounts posit that concepts are grounded in our sensory and motor systems. An important challenge for these accounts is explaining how abstract concepts, which do not directly call upon sensory or motor information, can be informed by experience. We propose that metaphor is one important vehicle guiding the development and use of abstract concepts. Metaphors allow us to draw on concrete, familiar domains to acquire and reason about abstract concepts. Additionally, repeated metaphoric use drawing on particular aspects of concrete experience can result in the development of new abstract representations. These abstractions, which are derived from embodied experience but lack much of the sensorimotor information associated with it, can then be flexibly applied to understand new situations. PMID:27294425

  5. Abstracts.

    PubMed

    Gandelman, Kuan; Lamson, Michael; Bramson, Candace; Matschke, Kyle; Salageanu, Joanne; Malhotra, Bimal

    2015-09-01

    ALO-02 capsules (ALO-02) contain pellets that consist of extended-release oxycodone that surrounds sequestered naltrexone. The primary objective was to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) of oxycodone following single- and multiple-dose oral administration of ALO-02 40 mg BID in healthy volunteers. Secondary objectives were to characterize (1) the PK of oxycodone following single- and multiple-dose administration of a comparator OxyContin (OXY-ER) 40 mg BID as well as an alternate regimen of ALO-02 80 mg QD, and (2) the safety and tolerability assessments. Healthy volunteers received three treatments on a background of oral naltrexone (50 mg). Noncompartmental PK parameters were calculated for oxycodone. All 12 subjects were male with a mean age (SD, range) of 44.6 years (7.6, 25-55). Single-dose PK results for ALO-02 indicate that median peak plasma oxycodone concentrations were reached by 12 hours compared to 4 hours for OXY-ER. Compared to OXY-ER, mean dose-normalized, single-dose Cmax values were approximately 27% and 23% lower for ALO-02 40 mg BID and ALO-02 80 mg QD treatments, respectively. Following multiple doses all treatments reached steady state by 3 days. At steady state, oxycodone peak-to-trough fluctuation was significantly lower for ALO-02 BID versus OXY-ER. Adverse events were consistent with opioid therapy. ALO-02 40 mg BID treatment provided a PK profile appropriate for around-the-clock treatment of chronic pain. PMID:27137145

  6. Méthotrexate et psoriasis: à propos de 46 cas

    PubMed Central

    Inani, Kawtar; Meziane, Mariame; Mernissi, Fatimazahra

    2014-01-01

    Le psoriasis est une maladie inflammatoire chronique, son traitement peut être local ou général. Le méthotrexate (MTX) est parmi les traitements systémiques du psoriasis modéré à sévère. Le but de notre étude est d’évaluer la place du MTX dans le traitement du psoriasis dans notre contexte marocain. C'est une étude rétrospective menée au service de dermatologie du CHU HASSAN II FES de 2010 à 2013. 46 patients ont répondus aux critères d'inclusions. Il s'agissait de patients de sexe masculin dans 58,7% des cas, de sujets âgés entre 18 et 45 ans dans 45,7% des cas. Le psoriasis vulgaire était la forme la plus répondue (76,1%), 56,5% avaient une surface corporelle(SC) atteinte comprise entre 25 et 50%, L’évolution était marquée par une rémission complète dans 50% des cas. Le MTX a été utilisé depuis plus de 40 ans dans le traitement du psoriasis modéré à sévère. Dans notre série le recours au MTX était nécessaire et ceci après échec d'autres thérapeutiques. Son efficacité a été constatée chez 50% des patients, avec peu d'effets secondaires. Le MTX est une molécule de référence dans le traitement du psoriasis modéré à sévère, avec un meilleur rapport coût/bénéfice/risque. PMID:25709742

  7. Advances in therapeutic CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing.

    PubMed

    Savić, Nataša; Schwank, Gerald

    2016-02-01

    Targeted nucleases are widely used as tools for genome editing. Two years ago the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated Cas9 nuclease was used for the first time, and since then has largely revolutionized the field. The tremendous success of the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing tool is powered by the ease design principle of the guide RNA that targets Cas9 to the desired DNA locus, and by the high specificity and efficiency of CRISPR/Cas9-generated DNA breaks. Several studies recently used CRISPR/Cas9 to successfully modulate disease-causing alleles in vivo in animal models and ex vivo in somatic and induced pluripotent stem cells, raising hope for therapeutic genome editing in the clinics. In this review, we will summarize and discuss such preclinical CRISPR/Cas9 gene therapy reports.

  8. La tuberculose extra-ganglionnaire primitive de la sphère ORL: à propos de 15 cas

    PubMed Central

    Touati, Mohamed Mliha; Darouassi, Youssef; Chihani, Mehdi; Lakouichmi, Mohammed; Tourabi, Khalid; Ammar, Haddou; Bouaity, Brahim

    2014-01-01

    Les localisations ORL extra ganglionnaires de la tuberculose sont rares. La symptomatologie clinique ainsi que les examens paracliniques sont souvent trompeurs,posant ainsi le problème de diagnostic différentiel avec la pathologie tumorale. Nous rapportons 15 cas de localisations extra ganglionnaires de tuberculose, colligés au service ORL et CCF de l'Hopital Militaire Avicenne de Marrakech colligés entre 2009 et 2013. L’âge moyen de nos patients est de 33 ans. L’étude topographique a montré 6 cas au niveau du cavum, un cas de miliaire tuberculeuse pharyngée, 4 cas laryngés; 2 localisations auriculaires; 1 parotidienne et 1 localisation sous maxillaire. Le diagnostic était anatomopathologiquedans tous les cas. Tous nos patients ont reçu un traitement antituberculeux avec une bonne évolution. Mots-clés: Tuberculose, amygdale, rhinopharynx, larynx, glandes salivaires,Oreille moyenne. PMID:25815100

  9. NASA Patent Abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 21) Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 87 patents and applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1982 through June 1982. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in mose cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  10. CRISPR-Cas9-guided Genome Engineering in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Min; Colaiácovo, Monica P.

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas (CRISPR-associated) system is successfully being used for efficient and targeted genome editing in various organisms including the nematode C. elegans. Recent studies developed various CRISPR-Cas9 approaches to enhance genome engineering via two major DNA double-strand break repair pathways: non-homologous end joining and homologous recombination. Here we describe a protocol for Cas9-mediated C. elegans genome editing together with single guide RNA (sgRNA) and repair template cloning and injection methods required for delivering Cas9, sgRNAs and repair template DNA into the C. elegans germline. PMID:27366893

  11. Foreign DNA capture during CRISPR–Cas adaptive immunity

    PubMed Central

    Nuñez, James K.; Harrington, Lucas B.; Kranzusch, Philip J.; Engelman, Alan N.; Doudna, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria and archaea generate adaptive immunity against phages and plasmids by integrating foreign DNA of specific 30–40 base pair (bp) lengths into clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) loci as spacer segments1–6. The universally conserved Cas1–Cas2 integrase complex catalyzes spacer acquisition using a direct nucleophilic integration mechanism similar to retroviral integrases and transposases7–13. How the Cas1–Cas2 complex selects foreign DNA substrates for integration remains unknown. Here we present X-ray crystal structures of the Escherichia coli Cas1–Cas2 complex bound to cognate 33 nucleotide (nt) protospacer DNA substrates. The protein complex creates a curved binding surface spanning the length of the DNA and splays the ends of the protospacer to allow each terminal nucleophilic 3′–OH to enter a channel leading into the Cas1 active sites. Phosphodiester backbone interactions between the protospacer and the proteins explain the sequence-nonspecific substrate selection observed in vivo2–4. Our results uncover the structural basis for foreign DNA capture and the mechanism by which Cas1–Cas2 functions as a molecular ruler to dictate the sequence architecture of CRISPR loci. PMID:26503043

  12. Foreign DNA capture during CRISPR-Cas adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, James K; Harrington, Lucas B; Kranzusch, Philip J; Engelman, Alan N; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2015-11-26

    Bacteria and archaea generate adaptive immunity against phages and plasmids by integrating foreign DNA of specific 30-40-base-pair lengths into clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci as spacer segments. The universally conserved Cas1-Cas2 integrase complex catalyses spacer acquisition using a direct nucleophilic integration mechanism similar to retroviral integrases and transposases. How the Cas1-Cas2 complex selects foreign DNA substrates for integration remains unknown. Here we present X-ray crystal structures of the Escherichia coli Cas1-Cas2 complex bound to cognate 33-nucleotide protospacer DNA substrates. The protein complex creates a curved binding surface spanning the length of the DNA and splays the ends of the protospacer to allow each terminal nucleophilic 3'-OH to enter a channel leading into the Cas1 active sites. Phosphodiester backbone interactions between the protospacer and the proteins explain the sequence-nonspecific substrate selection observed in vivo. Our results uncover the structural basis for foreign DNA capture and the mechanism by which Cas1-Cas2 functions as a molecular ruler to dictate the sequence architecture of CRISPR loci.

  13. Impact of Different Target Sequences on Type III CRISPR-Cas Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Maniv, Inbal; Jiang, Wenyan; Bikard, David

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci encode an adaptive immune system of prokaryotes. Within these loci, sequences intercalated between repeats known as “spacers” specify the targets of CRISPR immunity. The majority of spacers match sequences present in phages and plasmids; however, it is not known whether there are differences in the immunity provided against these diverse invaders. We studied this issue using the Staphylococcus epidermidis CRISPR system, which harbors spacers matching both phages and plasmids. We determined that this CRISPR system provides similar levels of defense against the conjugative plasmid pG0400 and the bacteriophage CNPX. However, whereas antiplasmid immunity was very sensitive to the introduction of mismatches in the target sequence, mutations in the phage target were largely tolerated. Placing the phage and plasmid targets into a vector that can be both conjugated and transduced, we demonstrated that the route of entry of the target has no impact on the effect of the mismatches on immunity. Instead, we established that the specific sequences of each spacer/target determine the susceptibility of the S. epidermidis CRISPR system to mutations. Therefore, spacers that are more resistant to mismatches would provide long-term immunity against phages and plasmids that otherwise would escape CRISPR targeting through the accumulation of mutations in the target sequence. These results uncover an unexpected complexity in the arms race between CRISPR-Cas systems and prokaryotic infectious genetic elements. IMPORTANCE CRISPR-Cas loci protect bacteria and archaea from both phage infection and plasmid invasion. These loci harbor short sequences of phage and plasmid origin known as “spacers” that specify the targets of CRISPR-Cas immunity. The presence of a spacer sequence matching a phage or plasmid ensures host immunity against infection by these genetic elements. In turn, phages and plasmids

  14. Le nœud ileosigmoidien: à propos de 2 cas

    PubMed Central

    Bensardi, Fatimazahra; Elhattabi, Khalid; Fadil, Abdelaziz; Benissa, Nadia; Lefriyekh, Rachid; Khaiz, Driss; Berrada, Saad; Zerouali, Ouariti Najib

    2012-01-01

    Le nœud iléosigmoïdien ou l’ileosigmoid knot (ISK), est une entité clinique exceptionnelle, c’est une urgence chirurgicale caractérisée par une strangulation du grêle en formant un nœud autour de la base du colon sigmoïde avec risque de nécrose rapide du grêle et du colon. Nous rapportons deux cas dans le service des urgences chirurgicales viscérales du CHU Ibn Rochd de Casablanca ; chez lesquels le diagnostic d’ISK n’a été posé qu’en peropératoire. A travers ces 2 cas et une revue de la littérature nous allons définir les aspects diagnostiques, thérapeutiques et pronostiques de cette entité clinique rare. PMID:22593779

  15. 41 CFR 102-33.440 - Who must report CAS cost and utilization data?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (cas) Cost and Utilization Data § 102-33.440 Who must report CAS cost and utilization data? Executive agencies, except the Armed Forces and U.S. intelligence agencies, must report CAS cost and utilization...

  16. Les complications tardives de prothèse totale de la hanche: à propos de 42 cas

    PubMed Central

    Azarkane, Mohamed; Boussakri, Hassan; Shimi, Mohamed; Elibrahimi, Abdlehalim; Elmrini, Abdlemeji

    2013-01-01

    L'arthroplastie de la hanche est un moyen fiable dans le traitement des affections de la hanche. En lui rendant sa mobilité sa stabilité et son indolence. Cependant cette chirurgie prothétique expose au risque de la survenue des complications qui peuvent engager le pronostic fonctionnel. Nous avons réalisé une étude rétrospective sur une durée de 8 ans de janvier 2004 au janvier 2012 au service de traumatologie-orthopédie de CHU HASSAN II FEZ. Pendant cette période nous avons opéré 240 patients pour PTH. Après un recul moyen de 5 ans nous avons noté chez 42 (17,4%) patients une complication tardive. Nous noté 13 cas de descellement aseptique soit 5,4%. Cette complication a été survenue dans notre série sur une prothèse cimentée dans 8 cas et non cimentée dans 5 cas. Le traitement que nous avons adopté dans notre série a été une reprise de PTH sans greffe osseuse ni anneau de reconstruction dans 4 cas, reprise avec mise en place d'anneau de Kerboull dans 7 cas et reprise avec greffe osseuse et anneau de kerboull dans 2 cas. Nous avons trouvé 11 cas de sepsis tardive soit 4,6% des cas. Nous avons le diabète comme facteur de risque chez 3 malades. L'agent causal a été staphylococcus épdermidis dans 5 cas, colibacille dans 2 cas et association staphylococcus-BGN dans 1 cas. Les différentes modalités que nous avons utilisé pour traiter l'infection dans notre ont été un lavage simple, système d'irrigation-drainage et réimplantation simple en un seul temps ou en 2 temps avec couverture systématique par une antibiothérapie adaptée selon l'antibiogramme. Nous avons noté également 11 cas de fracture sur PTH intéressant dans tous les cas le fémur, nous avons traité ce type de fracture dans notre série par une tige fémorale prothétique longue dans 4 cas, une plaque vissée cerclée dans 3 cas et cerclage simple dans 4 cas. La consolidation a été obtenue chez 9 patients avec 2 cas de pseudarthrose. Nous avons noté 7 cas de

  17. Functional Analysis of Bacteriophage Immunity through a Type I-E CRISPR-Cas System in Vibrio cholerae and Its Application in Bacteriophage Genome Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Box, Allison M.; McGuffie, Matthew J.; O'Hara, Brendan J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The classical and El Tor biotypes of Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, the etiological agent of cholera, are responsible for the sixth and seventh (current) pandemics, respectively. A genomic island (GI), GI-24, previously identified in a classical biotype strain of V. cholerae, is predicted to encode clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated proteins (Cas proteins); however, experimental evidence in support of CRISPR activity in V. cholerae has not been documented. Here, we show that CRISPR-Cas is ubiquitous in strains of the classical biotype but excluded from strains of the El Tor biotype. We also provide in silico evidence to suggest that CRISPR-Cas actively contributes to phage resistance in classical strains. We demonstrate that transfer of GI-24 to V. cholerae El Tor via natural transformation enables CRISPR-Cas-mediated resistance to bacteriophage CP-T1 under laboratory conditions. To elucidate the sequence requirements of this type I-E CRISPR-Cas system, we engineered a plasmid-based system allowing the directed targeting of a region of interest. Through screening for phage mutants that escape CRISPR-Cas-mediated resistance, we show that CRISPR targets must be accompanied by a 3′ TT protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM) for efficient interference. Finally, we demonstrate that efficient editing of V. cholerae lytic phage genomes can be performed by simultaneously introducing an editing template that allows homologous recombination and escape from CRISPR-Cas targeting. IMPORTANCE Cholera, caused by the facultative pathogen Vibrio cholerae, remains a serious public health threat. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and CRISPR-associated proteins (CRISPR-Cas) provide prokaryotes with sequence-specific protection from invading nucleic acids, including bacteriophages. In this work, we show that one genomic feature differentiating sixth pandemic (classical biotype) strains from seventh pandemic (El Tor

  18. Recent Advances in Genome Editing Using CRISPR/Cas9

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yuduan; Li, Hong; Chen, Ling-Ling; Xie, Kabin

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-Cas9 (CRISPR-associated nuclease 9) system is a versatile tool for genome engineering that uses a guide RNA (gRNA) to target Cas9 to a specific sequence. This simple RNA-guided genome-editing technology has become a revolutionary tool in biology and has many innovative applications in different fields. In this review, we briefly introduce the Cas9-mediated genome-editing method, summarize the recent advances in CRISPR/Cas9 technology, and discuss their implications for plant research. To date, targeted gene knockout using the Cas9/gRNA system has been established in many plant species, and the targeting efficiency and capacity of Cas9 has been improved by optimizing its expression and that of its gRNA. The CRISPR/Cas9 system can also be used for sequence-specific mutagenesis/integration and transcriptional control of target genes. We also discuss off-target effects and the constraint that the protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM) puts on CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering. To address these problems, a number of bioinformatic tools are available to help design specific gRNAs, and new Cas9 variants and orthologs with high fidelity and alternative PAM specificities have been engineered. Owing to these recent efforts, the CRISPR/Cas9 system is becoming a revolutionary and flexible tool for genome engineering. Adoption of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology in plant research would enable the investigation of plant biology at an unprecedented depth and create innovative applications in precise crop breeding. PMID:27252719

  19. Using CAS to Solve a Mathematics Task: A Deconstruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Margot

    2010-01-01

    I investigate how and whether a heterogeneous group of first-year university mathematics students in South Africa harness the potential power of a computer algebra system (CAS) when doing a specific mathematics task. In order to do this, I develop a framework for deconstructing a mathematics task requiring the use of CAS, into its primary…

  20. Interacting Parallel Constructions of Knowledge in a CAS Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidron, Ivy; Dreyfus, Tommy

    2010-01-01

    We consider the influence of a CAS context on a learner's process of constructing a justification for the bifurcations in a logistic dynamical process. We describe how instrumentation led to cognitive constructions and how the roles of the learner and the CAS intertwine, especially close to the branching and combining of constructing actions. The…

  1. 48 CFR 9903.201-2 - Types of CAS coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST... coverage. Full coverage requires that the business unit comply with all of the CAS specified in part 9904... later award of a CAS-covered contract. Full coverage applies to contractor business units that—...

  2. 48 CFR 970.3002-1 - CAS applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....3002-1 CAS applicability. The provisions of 48 CFR part 30 and 48 CFR chapter 99 (FAR Appendix) shall... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false CAS applicability. 970.3002-1 Section 970.3002-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  3. 48 CFR 970.3002-1 - CAS applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....3002-1 CAS applicability. The provisions of 48 CFR part 30 and 48 CFR chapter 99 (FAR Appendix) shall... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false CAS applicability. 970.3002-1 Section 970.3002-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  4. 48 CFR 970.3002-1 - CAS applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....3002-1 CAS applicability. The provisions of 48 CFR part 30 and 48 CFR chapter 99 (FAR Appendix) shall... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false CAS applicability. 970.3002-1 Section 970.3002-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  5. Diversity of CRISPR-Cas immune systems and molecular machines.

    PubMed

    Barrangou, Rodolphe

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial adaptive immunity hinges on CRISPR-Cas systems that provide DNA-encoded, RNA-mediated targeting of exogenous nucleic acids. A plethora of CRISPR molecular machines occur broadly in prokaryotic genomes, with a diversity of Cas nucleases that can be repurposed for various applications.

  6. From Calculus to Dynamical Systems through DGS and CAS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García, Jeanett López; Zamudio, Jorge Javier Jiménez

    2015-01-01

    Several factors have motivated the use of CAS or DGS in the teaching-learning process, such as: the development of new technologies, the availability of computers, and the widespread use of the Internet, among others. Even more, the trend to include CAS and DGS in the curricula of some undergraduate studies has resulted in the instruction of the…

  7. Cas Proteins in Normal and Pathological Cell Growth Control

    PubMed Central

    Tikhmyanova, Nadezhda; Little, Joy L.; Golemis, Erica A.

    2009-01-01

    Proteins of the CAS (Crk-Associated Substrate) family (BCAR1/p130Cas, NEDD9/HEF1/Cas-L, EFS/SIN and CASS4/HEPL) are integral players in normal and pathological cell biology. CAS proteins act as scaffolds to regulate protein complexes controlling migration and chemotaxis, apoptosis, cell cycle, and differentiation, and have more recently been linked to a role in progenitor cell function. Reflecting these complex functions, over-expression of CAS proteins has now been strongly linked to poor prognosis and increased metastasis in cancer, as well as resistance to first-line chemotherapeutics in multiple tumor types including breast and lung cancers, glioblastoma, and melanoma. Further, CAS proteins have also been linked to additional pathological conditions including inflammatory disorders, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, as well as developmental defects. This review will explore the roles of the CAS proteins in normal and pathological states in the context of the many mechanistic insights into CAS protein function that have emerged in the past decade. PMID:19937461

  8. Optimization of genome editing through CRISPR-Cas9 engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Hua; Adikaram, Poorni; Pandey, Mritunjay; Genis, Allison; Simonds, William F

    2016-04-01

    CRISPR (Clustered Regularly-Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)-Cas9 (CRISPR associated protein 9) has rapidly become the most promising genome editing tool with great potential to revolutionize medicine. Through guidance of a 20 nucleotide RNA (gRNA), CRISPR-Cas9 finds and cuts target protospacer DNA precisely 3 base pairs upstream of a PAM (Protospacer Adjacent Motif). The broken DNA ends are repaired by either NHEJ (Non-Homologous End Joining) resulting in small indels, or by HDR (Homology Directed Repair) for precise gene or nucleotide replacement. Theoretically, CRISPR-Cas9 could be used to modify any genomic sequences, thereby providing a simple, easy, and cost effective means of genome wide gene editing. However, the off-target activity of CRISPR-Cas9 that cuts DNA sites with imperfect matches with gRNA have been of significant concern because clinical applications require 100% accuracy. Additionally, CRISPR-Cas9 has unpredictable efficiency among different DNA target sites and the PAM requirements greatly restrict its genome editing frequency. A large number of efforts have been made to address these impeding issues, but much more is needed to fully realize the medical potential of CRISPR-Cas9. In this article, we summarize the existing problems and current advances of the CRISPR-Cas9 technology and provide perspectives for the ultimate perfection of Cas9-mediated genome editing.

  9. Recent Progress in CRISPR/Cas9 Technology.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yue; Wang, Yan; Chen, Huiqian; Sun, Zhong Sheng; Ju, Xing-Da

    2016-02-20

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system, a simple and efficient tool for genome editing, has experienced rapid progress in its technology and applicability in the past two years. Here, we review the recent advances in CRISPR/Cas9 technology and the ways that have been adopted to expand our capacity for precise genome manipulation. First, we introduce the mechanism of CRISPR/Cas9, including its biochemical and structural implications. Second, we highlight the latest improvements in the CRISPR/Cas9 system, especially Cas9 protein modifications for customization. Third, we review its current applications, in which the versatile CRISPR/Cas9 system was employed to edit the genome, epigenome, or RNA of various organisms. Although CRISPR/Cas9 allows convenient genome editing accompanied by many benefits, we should not ignore the significant ethical and biosafety concerns that it raises. Finally, we discuss the prospective applications and challenges of several promising techniques adapted from CRISPR/Cas9.

  10. CRISPR-Cas9 Genome Engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cells.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Owen W; Poddar, Snigdha; Cate, Jamie H D

    2016-06-01

    This protocol describes a method for CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing that results in scarless and marker-free integrations of DNA into Saccharomyces cerevisiae genomes. DNA integration results from cotransforming (1) a single plasmid (pCAS) that coexpresses the Cas9 endonuclease and a uniquely engineered single guide RNA (sgRNA) expression cassette and (2) a linear DNA molecule that is used to repair the chromosomal DNA damage by homology-directed repair. For target specificity, the pCAS plasmid requires only a single cloning modification: replacing the 20-bp guide RNA sequence within the sgRNA cassette. This CRISPR-Cas9 protocol includes methods for (1) cloning the unique target sequence into pCAS, (2) assembly of the double-stranded DNA repair oligonucleotides, and (3) cotransformation of pCAS and linear repair DNA into yeast cells. The protocol is technically facile and requires no special equipment. It can be used in any S. cerevisiae strain, including industrial polyploid isolates. Therefore, this CRISPR-Cas9-based DNA integration protocol is achievable by virtually any yeast genetics and molecular biology laboratory.

  11. Teaching Undergraduate Mathematics Using CAS Technology: Issues and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Patrick C.; Weiss, Vida

    2016-01-01

    The use of handheld CAS technology in undergraduate mathematics courses in Australia is paradoxically shrinking under sustained disapproval or disdain from the professional mathematics community. Mathematics education specialists argue with their mathematics colleagues over a range of issues in course development and this use of CAS or even…

  12. Modelling Metamorphism by Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Preda, Mila; Giacobazzi, Roberto; Debray, Saumya; Coogan, Kevin; Townsend, Gregg M.

    Metamorphic malware apply semantics-preserving transformations to their own code in order to foil detection systems based on signature matching. In this paper we consider the problem of automatically extract metamorphic signatures from these malware. We introduce a semantics for self-modifying code, later called phase semantics, and prove its correctness by showing that it is an abstract interpretation of the standard trace semantics. Phase semantics precisely models the metamorphic code behavior by providing a set of traces of programs which correspond to the possible evolutions of the metamorphic code during execution. We show that metamorphic signatures can be automatically extracted by abstract interpretation of the phase semantics, and that regular metamorphism can be modelled as finite state automata abstraction of the phase semantics.

  13. Abstraction and natural language semantics.

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    According to the traditional view, a word prototypically denotes a class of objects sharing similar features, i.e. it results from an abstraction based on the detection of common properties in perceived entities. I explore here another idea: words result from abstraction of common premises in the rules governing our actions. I first argue that taking 'inference', instead of 'reference', as the basic issue in semantics does matter. I then discuss two phenomena that are, in my opinion, particularly difficult to analyse within the scope of traditional semantic theories: systematic polysemy and plurals. I conclude by a discussion of my approach, and by a summary of its main features. PMID:12903662

  14. Abstract communication for coordinated planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley J.; Durfee, Edmund H.

    2003-01-01

    work offers evidence that distributed planning agents can greatly reduce communication costs by reasoning at abstract levels. While it is intuitive that improved search can reduce communication in such cases, there are other decisions about how to communicate plan information that greatly affect communication costs. This paper identifies cases independent of search where communicating at multiple levels of abstraction can exponentially decrease costs and where it can exponentially add costs. We conclude with a process for determining appropriate levels of communication based on characteristics of the domain.

  15. Cas9-mediated targeting of viral RNA in eukaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Price, Aryn A; Sampson, Timothy R; Ratner, Hannah K; Grakoui, Arash; Weiss, David S

    2015-05-12

    Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats-CRISPR associated (CRISPR-Cas) systems are prokaryotic RNA-directed endonuclease machineries that act as an adaptive immune system against foreign genetic elements. Using small CRISPR RNAs that provide specificity, Cas proteins recognize and degrade nucleic acids. Our previous work demonstrated that the Cas9 endonuclease from Francisella novicida (FnCas9) is capable of targeting endogenous bacterial RNA. Here, we show that FnCas9 can be directed by an engineered RNA-targeting guide RNA to target and inhibit a human +ssRNA virus, hepatitis C virus, within eukaryotic cells. This work reveals a versatile and portable RNA-targeting system that can effectively function in eukaryotic cells and be programmed as an antiviral defense.

  16. Adaptive optics at the IOE, CAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wenhan; Rao, Changhui; Zhang, Yudong; Ling, Ning; Guan, Chunlin

    2009-02-01

    R&D on Adaptive Optics in the Institute of Optics & Electronics (IOE), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) began in 1979. In this paper, several recent achievements will be reported: 1. AO for astronomical telescopes. AO system for 1.2 m telescope at Yunnan Astronomical Observatory was built in 1998. It was updated in 2004, and high resolution images approaching diffraction limit were obtained. A new AO telescope with 1.8m aperture is being built, and a 4m AO telescope is being planned. 2. AO for ICF facility. A 19-element AO system with hill-climbing control algorithm for "Shenguang I" ICF facility was built in 1985, which was the first AO system used in ICF facility in the world. A set of 8 AO systems was installed in a bundle of ICF prototype for "Shenguang III" ICF facility. A new system is being built for further development of ICF facility. 3. AO for retinal imaging. In 1999, the first AO system with 19-element DM was built for retinal imaging. Several AO systems with 37-element deformable mirror (DM) were built and used for vision research and clinical inspection. It is being integrated with an OCT system for high resolution retinal imaging. All of the main subsystems, such as DMs, wavefront sensors, and high speed processors, were built in the Laboratory on Adaptive Optics of IOE, CAS.

  17. Les cellulites orbitaires: étude prospective à propos de 75 cas

    PubMed Central

    Belghmaidi, Sarah; Belhoucha, Btissam; Hajji, Ibtissam; Hssaine, Khaoula; Rochdi, Youssef; Nouri, Hassan; Aderdour, Lahcen; Raji, Abdelaziz; Moutaouakil, Abdeljalil

    2015-01-01

    Les cellulites orbitaires est une affection grave par ses complications aussi bien locales, locorégionales que générales, pouvant engager le pronostic vital et fonctionnel, surtout lorsque le diagnostic est tardif et la prise en charge inappropriée. Le but de cette étude est de décrire les aspects épidémiologiques, cliniques, thérapeutiques et évolutifs des cellulites orbitaires et d'insister sur la nécessité d'un diagnostic et d'un traitement précoces, afin d’éviter ses complications. Il s'agit d'une étude prospective concernent 75 patients présentant une cellulite orbitaire, menée au service d'Ophtalmologie et d'ORL au CHU Mohammed VI de Marrakech, de Septembre 2010 au Avril 2014. L’âge moyen des patients était de 24 ans allant de 2 ans à 70 ans. La porte d'entrée était dominée par l'atteinte sinusienne retrouvée chez 43 malades. L'examen ophtalmologique a montré une BAV chez 20% des patients avec une cécité bilatérale chez un patient et unilatérale chez 3, un chémosis (82%), une exophtalmie (85,71%), un ptosis (30%), une ophtalmoplégie (66%), une fistule orbitaire (4 cas), et une kératite d'exposition chez 8 cas. L'analyse des résultats tomodensitométriques a noté: 24 cas de cellulite pré septale (45%), 20 cas de cellulite orbitaire (15%), 2 cas d'abcès sous périosté (5%) et 14 cas d'abcès orbitaire (35%). 20 patients ont bénéficié d'un traitement chirurgical associé au traitement médical, ayant consisté en un drainage de l'abcès orbitaire dans 24 cas, une ethmoidectomie antérieure par voie endoscopique avec drainage d'un abcès sous-périosté dans 2 cas à et un drainage d'une collection abcédée des parties molles dans 6 cas. La cellulite orbitaire est une urgence thérapeutique qui met en jeu le pronostic visuel et vital. Causés le plus fréquemment par les traumatismes oculaires post chirurgicale ou AVP, les sinusites, les fractures orbitaires, et les corps étrangers intraoculaires. Les infections r

  18. Implementing the CAS Standards: The Implementation of the CAS Standards in Student Affairs as a Comprehensive Assessment Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, Jesse A.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing use of the CAS standards as a comprehensive assessment approach in divisions of student affairs necessitates a more in-depth understanding of how the CAS standards are being implemented in these settings. In response to increasing calls for improvement, accountability and professionalism in student affairs (Bresciani, 2006; Cooper…

  19. Handedness Shapes Children's Abstract Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casasanto, Daniel; Henetz, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Can children's handedness influence how they represent abstract concepts like "kindness" and "intelligence"? Here we show that from an early age, right-handers associate rightward space more strongly with positive ideas and leftward space with negative ideas, but the opposite is true for left-handers. In one experiment, children indicated where on…

  20. Rolloff Roof Observatory Construction (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulowetz, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) Lessons learned about building an observatory by someone with limited construction experience, and the advantages of having one for imaging and variable star studies. Sample results shown of composite light curves for cataclysmic variables UX UMa and V1101 Aql with data from my observatory combined with data from others around the world.

  1. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XX, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The 52 abstracts in these 29 serial issues describe innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Sample topics include reading motivation, barriers to academic success, the learning environment, writing skills, leadership in the criminal justice profession, role-playing strategies, cooperative education, distance…

  2. ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS 48347-48982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Technology, London (England). Warren Spring Lab.

    IN THIS COLLECTION OF ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS AND ANNOTATIONS THE FOLLOWING AREAS OF CONCERN ARE REPRESENTED--GENERAL REFERENCES, METHODS, FACILITIES, AND EQUIPMENT RELATING TO ERGONOMICS, SYSTEMS OF MAN AND MACHINES, VISUAL, AUDITORY, AND OTHER SENSORY INPUTS AND PROCESSES (INCLUDING SPEECH AND INTELLIGIBILITY), INPUT CHANNELS, BODY MEASUREMENTS,…

  3. Does "Social Work Abstracts" Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Gary; Barker, Kathleen; Covert-Vail, Lucinda; Rosenberg, Gary; Cohen, Stephanie A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The current study seeks to provide estimates of the adequacy of journal coverage in the Social Work Abstracts (SWA) database. Method: A total of 23 journals listed in the Journal Citation Reports social work category during the 1997 to 2005 period were selected for study. Issue-level coverage estimates were obtained for SWA and…

  4. Abstract Expressionism. Clip and Save.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    2002-01-01

    Provides information on the art movement, Abstract Expressionism, and includes learning activities. Focuses on the artist Jackson Pollock, offering a reproduction of his artwork, "Convergence: Number 10." Includes background information on the life and career of Pollock and a description of the included artwork. (CMK)

  5. Conference Abstracts: Microcomputers in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, William E.

    1985-01-01

    Provides abstracts of five papers presented at the Fourth Annual Microcomputers in Education Conference. Papers considered microcomputers in science laboratories, Apple II Plus/e computer-assisted instruction in chemistry, computer solutions for space mechanics concerns, computer applications to problem solving and hypothesis testing, and…

  6. Metaphoric Images from Abstract Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vizmuller-Zocco, Jana

    1992-01-01

    Discusses children's use of metaphors to create meaning, using as an example the pragmatic and "scientific" ways in which preschool children explain thunder and lightning to themselves. Argues that children are being shortchanged by modern scientific notions of abstractness and that they should be encouraged to create their own explanations of…

  7. What Is It? Elementary Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Sossan, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Abstraction can be hard for older students to understand, and it usually involves simplifying or rearranging natural objects to meet the needs of the artist, whether it be for organization or expression. But, in reality, that is what young artists do when they draw from life. They do not have enough experience--and sometimes the patience--to see…

  8. Interference activity of a minimal Type I CRISPR-Cas system from Shewanella putrefaciens.

    PubMed

    Dwarakanath, Srivatsa; Brenzinger, Susanne; Gleditzsch, Daniel; Plagens, André; Klingl, Andreas; Thormann, Kai; Randau, Lennart

    2015-10-15

    Type I CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)-Cas (CRISPR-associated) systems exist in bacterial and archaeal organisms and provide immunity against foreign DNA. The Cas protein content of the DNA interference complexes (termed Cascade) varies between different CRISPR-Cas subtypes. A minimal variant of the Type I-F system was identified in proteobacterial species including Shewanella putrefaciens CN-32. This variant lacks a large subunit (Csy1), Csy2 and Csy3 and contains two unclassified cas genes. The genome of S. putrefaciens CN-32 contains only five Cas proteins (Cas1, Cas3, Cas6f, Cas1821 and Cas1822) and a single CRISPR array with 81 spacers. RNA-Seq analyses revealed the transcription of this array and the maturation of crRNAs (CRISPR RNAs). Interference assays based on plasmid conjugation demonstrated that this CRISPR-Cas system is active in vivo and that activity is dependent on the recognition of the dinucleotide GG PAM (Protospacer Adjacent Motif) sequence and crRNA abundance. The deletion of cas1821 and cas1822 reduced the cellular crRNA pool. Recombinant Cas1821 was shown to form helical filaments bound to RNA molecules, which suggests its role as the Cascade backbone protein. A Cascade complex was isolated which contained multiple Cas1821 copies, Cas1822, Cas6f and mature crRNAs.

  9. Crystal Structure of Streptococcus pyogenes Cas1 and Its Interaction with Csn2 in the Type II CRISPR-Cas System.

    PubMed

    Ka, Donghyun; Lee, Hasup; Jung, Yi-Deun; Kim, Kyunggon; Seok, Chaok; Suh, Nayoung; Bae, Euiyoung

    2016-01-01

    CRISPRs and Cas proteins constitute an RNA-guided microbial immune system against invading nucleic acids. Cas1 is a universal Cas protein found in all three types of CRISPR-Cas systems, and its role is implicated in new spacer acquisition during CRISPR-mediated adaptive immunity. Here, we report the crystal structure of Streptococcus pyogenes Cas1 (SpCas1) in a type II CRISPR-Cas system and characterize its interaction with S. pyogenes Csn2 (SpCsn2). The SpCas1 structure reveals a unique conformational state distinct from type I Cas1 structures, resulting in a more extensive dimerization interface, a more globular overall structure, and a disruption of potential metal-binding sites for catalysis. We demonstrate that SpCas1 directly interacts with SpCsn2, and identify the binding interface and key residues for Cas complex formation. These results provide structural information for a type II Cas1 protein, and lay a foundation for studying multiprotein Cas complexes functioning in type II CRISPR-Cas systems.

  10. Integrin {alpha}{beta}1, {alpha}{sub v}{beta}, {alpha}{sub 6}{beta} effectors p130Cas, Src and talin regulate carcinoma invasion and chemoresistance

    SciTech Connect

    Sansing, Hope A.; Sarkeshik, Ali; Yates, John R.; Patel, Vyomesh; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Yamada, Kenneth M.; Berrier, Allison L.

    2011-03-11

    Research highlights: {yields} Proteomics of clustered integrin {alpha}{beta}1, {alpha}{sub v}{beta}, {alpha}{sub 6}{beta} receptors in oral carcinoma. {yields} p130Cas, Dek, Src and talin regulate oral carcinoma invasion. {yields} p130Cas, talin, Src and zyxin regulate oral carcinoma resistance to cisplatin. -- Abstract: Ligand engagement by integrins induces receptor clustering and formation of complexes at the integrin cytoplasmic face that controls cell signaling and cytoskeletal dynamics critical for adhesion-dependent processes. This study searches for a subset of integrin effectors that coordinates both tumor cell invasion and resistance to the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin in oral carcinomas. Candidate integrin effectors were identified in a proteomics screen of proteins recruited to clustered integrin {alpha}{beta}1, {alpha}{sub v}{beta} or {alpha}{sub 6}{beta} receptors in oral carcinomas. Proteins with diverse functions including microtubule and actin binding proteins, and factors involved in trafficking, transcription and translation were identified in oral carcinoma integrin complexes. Knockdown of effectors in the oral carcinoma HN12 cells revealed that p130Cas, Dek, Src and talin were required for invasion through Matrigel. Disruption of talin or p130Cas by RNA interference increased resistance to cisplatin, whereas targeting Dek, Src or zyxin reduced HN12 resistance to cisplatin. Analysis of the spreading of HN12 cells on collagen I and laminin I revealed that a decrease in p130Cas or talin expression inhibited spreading on both matrices. Interestingly, a reduction in zyxin expression enhanced spreading on laminin I and inhibited spreading on collagen I. Reduction of Dek, Src, talin or zyxin expression reduced HN12 proliferation by 30%. Proliferation was not affected by a reduction in p130Cas expression. We conclude that p130Cas, Src and talin function in both oral carcinoma invasion and resistance to cisplatin.

  11. 1990 National Water Quality Laboratory Services Catalog

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pritt, Jeffrey; Jones, Berwyn E.

    1989-01-01

    PREFACE This catalog provides information about analytical services available from the National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) to support programs of the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey. To assist personnel in the selection of analytical services, the catalog lists cost, sample volume, applicable concentration range, detection level, precision of analysis, and preservation techniques for samples to be submitted for analysis. Prices for services reflect operationa1 costs, the complexity of each analytical procedure, and the costs to ensure analytical quality control. The catalog consists of five parts. Part 1 is a glossary of terminology; Part 2 lists the bottles, containers, solutions, and other materials that are available through the NWQL; Part 3 describes the field processing of samples to be submitted for analysis; Part 4 describes analytical services that are available; and Part 5 contains indices of analytical methodology and Chemical Abstract Services (CAS) numbers. Nomenclature used in the catalog is consistent with WATSTORE and STORET. The user is provided with laboratory codes and schedules that consist of groupings of parameters which are measured together in the NWQL. In cases where more than one analytical range is offered for a single element or compound, different laboratory codes are given. Book 5 of the series 'Techniques of Water Resources Investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey' should be consulted for more information about the analytical procedures included in the tabulations. This catalog supersedes U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 86-232 '1986-87-88 National Water Quality Laboratory Services Catalog', October 1985.

  12. Etiologies des hypertensions artérielles endocrines: à propos d'une série de cas

    PubMed Central

    Bouznad, Naima; El Mghari, Ghizlane; El Ansari, Nawal

    2016-01-01

    Les hypertensions artérielles (HTA) d'origine endocrine restent une cause rare d'HTA, sa prévalence globale n'excède pas 4% des hypertendus. L'intérêt de la recherche des HTA endocrines réside dans la gravité de certaines formes parfois mortelles et le caractère potentiellement curable et réversible de ces HTA. Le but du travail est de déterminer le profil clinique, para clinique, étiologique et thérapeutique des HTA secondaires d'origine endocrine chez les patients suivis au service d'endocrinologie au CHU Mohamed IV à Marrakech. Il s'agit d'une étude descriptive prospective s’étalant sur une période de 4 ans incluant 45 patients ayant une HTA endocrinienne. La moyenne d’âge est de 44,89 ans, avec une nette prédominance du sexe féminine (sexe ratio de 0,49). Les étiologies des HTA endocrines étaient dominées par le phéochromocytome (17 cas), l'hypercorticisme (11 cas) et l'acromégalie (8 cas). L'HTA était paroxystique dans 24,4%. Elle était d'emblée sevère classée grade 3 dans 40% des cas. L'HTA a été compliquée de cardiopathie dans 24% des cas et de néphropathie dans 20% des cas. Le traitement curatif a permis une guérison de l'HTA chez 60% (27 cas). Le diagnostic des HTA secondaires endocrines est parfois difficile du fait de l'absence de spécificité clinique. Il n'est pas exceptionnel que l'HTA soit l'unique manifestation de la maladie. Dans notre travail nous notons le caractère paroxystique et sévère de l'HTA. Le caractère éventuellement curable des HTA endocrines, dans plus des deux tiers des cas, fait qu'il est important de la dépister devant toute HTA sévère, résistante au traitement, ou en présence de signes cliniques, biologiques ou radiologiques évocateurs. PMID:27303586

  13. Light Curves and Analyses of the Eclipsing Binaries EG Cas and EP Cas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradstreet, David H.; Sanders, S. J.; McClain, T. R.

    2010-01-01

    New precision V & Rc light curves of the eclipsing binaries EG Cas and EP Cas have been obtained using the 41-cm telescope at the Eastern University Observatory equipped with an SBIG ST-10XME CCD. EG Cas (P = 0.6115 days, Vmax = 12.9) has no published light curves and only a few dozen (mostly visual) timings of minimum light. The system is being observed throughout the fall of 2009 and the current light curves distinctly show that the system is a totally eclipsing overcontact binary. The light curves are also significantly asymmetric (strong O'Connell effect) indicating the presence of large, cool starspots, most likely on both stars. Preliminary analysis indicates that the binary is an A-type (the larger, more massive star is the hotter component), has a mass ratio of 0.32, very large temperature difference between the stars greater than 1600 K, and a fillout of 0.26. The modern timings of minimum light combined with those in the literature indicate that the binary's period is decreasing. The large temperature difference coupled to a significant fillout factor seems contradictory, and further data acquisition and analysis will hopefully resolve this seeming enigma. EP Cas (P = 0.8134 days, Vmax = 11.2) is a partially eclipsing detached system with a relatively deep primary eclipse of 1.0 mag in Rc. No published light curves exist for this system although many timings of minimum light have been published. The O-C curve indicates that the period for the binary has remained relatively constant since observations were first published in 1936. Preliminary light curve models indicate a partially eclipsing system consisting of detached but tidally distorted stars. The complete light curve analyses as well as a period study of all published times of minimum light will be presented for both systems.

  14. Object Classification via Planar Abstraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oesau, Sven; Lafarge, Florent; Alliez, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    We present a supervised machine learning approach for classification of objects from sampled point data. The main idea consists in first abstracting the input object into planar parts at several scales, then discriminate between the different classes of objects solely through features derived from these planar shapes. Abstracting into planar shapes provides a means to both reduce the computational complexity and improve robustness to defects inherent to the acquisition process. Measuring statistical properties and relationships between planar shapes offers invariance to scale and orientation. A random forest is then used for solving the multiclass classification problem. We demonstrate the potential of our approach on a set of indoor objects from the Princeton shape benchmark and on objects acquired from indoor scenes and compare the performance of our method with other point-based shape descriptors.

  15. Abstraction of Seepage into Drifts

    SciTech Connect

    WILSON,MICHAEL L.; HO,CLIFFORD K.

    2000-10-16

    The abstraction model used for seepage into emplacement drifts in recent TSPA simulations has been presented. This model contributes to the calculation of the quantity of water that might contact waste if it is emplaced at Yucca Mountain. Other important components of that calculation not discussed here include models for climate, infiltration, unsaturated-zone flow, and thermohydrology; drip-shield and waste-package degradation; and flow around and through the drip shield and waste package. The seepage abstraction model is stochastic because predictions of seepage are necessarily quite uncertain. The model provides uncertainty distributions for seepage fraction fraction of waste-package locations flow rate as functions of percolation flux. In addition, effects of intermediate-scale flow with seepage and seep channeling are included by means of a flow-focusing factor, which is also represented by an uncertainty distribution.

  16. An Abstract Plan Preparation Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Cesar A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new planning language that is more abstract than most existing planning languages such as the Planning Domain Definition Language (PDDL) or the New Domain Description Language (NDDL). The goal of this language is to simplify the formal analysis and specification of planning problems that are intended for safety-critical applications such as power management or automated rendezvous in future manned spacecraft. The new language has been named the Abstract Plan Preparation Language (APPL). A translator from APPL to NDDL has been developed in support of the Spacecraft Autonomy for Vehicles and Habitats Project (SAVH) sponsored by the Explorations Technology Development Program, which is seeking to mature autonomy technology for application to the new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) that will replace the Space Shuttle.

  17. Performance of the Cas9 nickase system in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xingjie; Yang, Zhihao; Mao, Decai; Chang, Zai; Qiao, Huan-Huan; Wang, Xia; Sun, Jin; Hu, Qun; Cui, Yan; Liu, Lu-Ping; Ji, Jun-Yuan; Xu, Jiang; Ni, Jian-Quan

    2014-10-01

    Recent studies of the Cas9/sgRNA system in Drosophila melanogaster genome editing have opened new opportunities to generate site-specific mutant collections in a high-throughput manner. However, off-target effects of the system are still a major concern when analyzing mutant phenotypes. Mutations converting Cas9 to a DNA nickase have great potential for reducing off-target effects in vitro. Here, we demonstrated that injection of two plasmids encoding neighboring offset sgRNAs into transgenic Cas9(D10A) nickase flies efficiently produces heritable indel mutants. We then determined the effective distance between the two sgRNA targets and their orientations that affected the ability of the sgRNA pairs to generate mutations when expressed in the transgenic nickase flies. Interestingly, Cas9 nickase greatly reduces the ability to generate mutants with one sgRNA, suggesting that the application of Cas9 nickase and sgRNA pairs can almost avoid off-target effects when generating indel mutants. Finally, a defined piwi mutant allele is generated with this system through homology-directed repair. However, Cas9(D10A) is not as effective as Cas9 in replacing the entire coding sequence of piwi with two sgRNAs. PMID:25128437

  18. CRISPR/Cas9 in Genome Editing and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haifeng; La Russa, Marie; Qi, Lei S

    2016-06-01

    The Cas9 protein (CRISPR-associated protein 9), derived from type II CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) bacterial immune systems, is emerging as a powerful tool for engineering the genome in diverse organisms. As an RNA-guided DNA endonuclease, Cas9 can be easily programmed to target new sites by altering its guide RNA sequence, and its development as a tool has made sequence-specific gene editing several magnitudes easier. The nuclease-deactivated form of Cas9 further provides a versatile RNA-guided DNA-targeting platform for regulating and imaging the genome, as well as for rewriting the epigenetic status, all in a sequence-specific manner. With all of these advances, we have just begun to explore the possible applications of Cas9 in biomedical research and therapeutics. In this review, we describe the current models of Cas9 function and the structural and biochemical studies that support it. We focus on the applications of Cas9 for genome editing, regulation, and imaging, discuss other possible applications and some technical considerations, and highlight the many advantages that CRISPR/Cas9 technology offers.

  19. Nucleosome breathing and remodeling constrain CRISPR-Cas9 function

    PubMed Central

    Isaac, R Stefan; Jiang, Fuguo; Doudna, Jennifer A; Lim, Wendell A; Narlikar, Geeta J; Almeida, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR-Cas9 bacterial surveillance system has become a versatile tool for genome editing and gene regulation in eukaryotic cells, yet how CRISPR-Cas9 contends with the barriers presented by eukaryotic chromatin is poorly understood. Here we investigate how the smallest unit of chromatin, a nucleosome, constrains the activity of the CRISPR-Cas9 system. We find that nucleosomes assembled on native DNA sequences are permissive to Cas9 action. However, the accessibility of nucleosomal DNA to Cas9 is variable over several orders of magnitude depending on dynamic properties of the DNA sequence and the distance of the PAM site from the nucleosome dyad. We further find that chromatin remodeling enzymes stimulate Cas9 activity on nucleosomal templates. Our findings imply that the spontaneous breathing of nucleosomal DNA together with the action of chromatin remodelers allow Cas9 to effectively act on chromatin in vivo. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13450.001 PMID:27130520

  20. CRISPR/Cas9 Based Genome Editing of Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Pohl, C; Kiel, J A K W; Driessen, A J M; Bovenberg, R A L; Nygård, Y

    2016-07-15

    CRISPR/Cas9 based systems have emerged as versatile platforms for precision genome editing in a wide range of organisms. Here we have developed powerful CRISPR/Cas9 tools for marker-based and marker-free genome modifications in Penicillium chrysogenum, a model filamentous fungus and industrially relevant cell factory. The developed CRISPR/Cas9 toolbox is highly flexible and allows editing of new targets with minimal cloning efforts. The Cas9 protein and the sgRNA can be either delivered during transformation, as preassembled CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) or expressed from an AMA1 based plasmid within the cell. The direct delivery of the Cas9 protein with in vitro synthesized sgRNA to the cells allows for a transient method for genome engineering that may rapidly be applicable for other filamentous fungi. The expression of Cas9 from an AMA1 based vector was shown to be highly efficient for marker-free gene deletions.

  1. Cryogenic foam insulation: Abstracted publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, F. R.

    1977-01-01

    A group of documents were chosen and abstracted which contain information on the properties of foam materials and on the use of foams as thermal insulation at cryogenic temperatures. The properties include thermal properties, mechanical properties, and compatibility properties with oxygen and other cryogenic fluids. Uses of foams include applications as thermal insulation for spacecraft propellant tanks, and for liquefied natural gas storage tanks and pipelines.

  2. 41 CFR 102-33.440 - Who must report CAS cost and utilization data?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Who must report CAS cost... (cas) Cost and Utilization Data § 102-33.440 Who must report CAS cost and utilization data? Executive agencies, except the Armed Forces and U.S. intelligence agencies, must report CAS cost and utilization...

  3. 41 CFR 102-33.440 - Who must report CAS cost and utilization data?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Who must report CAS cost... (cas) Cost and Utilization Data § 102-33.440 Who must report CAS cost and utilization data? Executive agencies, except the Armed Forces and U.S. intelligence agencies, must report CAS cost and utilization...

  4. 41 CFR 102-33.440 - Who must report CAS cost and utilization data?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Who must report CAS cost... (cas) Cost and Utilization Data § 102-33.440 Who must report CAS cost and utilization data? Executive agencies, except the Armed Forces and U.S. intelligence agencies, must report CAS cost and utilization...

  5. Adaptation in CRISPR-Cas Systems.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Samuel H; Richter, Hagen; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Qimron, Udi

    2016-03-17

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins constitute an adaptive immune system in prokaryotes. The system preserves memories of prior infections by integrating short segments of foreign DNA, termed spacers, into the CRISPR array in a process termed adaptation. During the past 3 years, significant progress has been made on the genetic requirements and molecular mechanisms of adaptation. Here we review these recent advances, with a focus on the experimental approaches that have been developed, the insights they generated, and a proposed mechanism for self- versus non-self-discrimination during the process of spacer selection. We further describe the regulation of adaptation and the protein players involved in this fascinating process that allows bacteria and archaea to harbor adaptive immunity.

  6. 2013 SYR Accepted Poster Abstracts.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    SYR 2013 Accepted Poster abstracts: 1. Benefits of Yoga as a Wellness Practice in a Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care Setting: If You Build It, Will They Come? 2. Yoga-based Psychotherapy Group With Urban Youth Exposed to Trauma. 3. Embodied Health: The Effects of a Mind�Body Course for Medical Students. 4. Interoceptive Awareness and Vegetable Intake After a Yoga and Stress Management Intervention. 5. Yoga Reduces Performance Anxiety in Adolescent Musicians. 6. Designing and Implementing a Therapeutic Yoga Program for Older Women With Knee Osteoarthritis. 7. Yoga and Life Skills Eating Disorder Prevention Among 5th Grade Females: A Controlled Trial. 8. A Randomized, Controlled Trial Comparing the Impact of Yoga and Physical Education on the Emotional and Behavioral Functioning of Middle School Children. 9. Feasibility of a Multisite, Community based Randomized Study of Yoga and Wellness Education for Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy. 10. A Delphi Study for the Development of Protocol Guidelines for Yoga Interventions in Mental Health. 11. Impact Investigation of Breathwalk Daily Practice: Canada�India Collaborative Study. 12. Yoga Improves Distress, Fatigue, and Insomnia in Older Veteran Cancer Survivors: Results of a Pilot Study. 13. Assessment of Kundalini Mantra and Meditation as an Adjunctive Treatment With Mental Health Consumers. 14. Kundalini Yoga Therapy Versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Co-Occurring Mood Disorder. 15. Baseline Differences in Women Versus Men Initiating Yoga Programs to Aid Smoking Cessation: Quitting in Balance Versus QuitStrong. 16. Pranayam Practice: Impact on Focus and Everyday Life of Work and Relationships. 17. Participation in a Tailored Yoga Program is Associated With Improved Physical Health in Persons With Arthritis. 18. Effects of Yoga on Blood Pressure: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 19. A Quasi-experimental Trial of a Yoga based Intervention to Reduce Stress and

  7. 2013 SYR Accepted Poster Abstracts.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    SYR 2013 Accepted Poster abstracts: 1. Benefits of Yoga as a Wellness Practice in a Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care Setting: If You Build It, Will They Come? 2. Yoga-based Psychotherapy Group With Urban Youth Exposed to Trauma. 3. Embodied Health: The Effects of a Mind�Body Course for Medical Students. 4. Interoceptive Awareness and Vegetable Intake After a Yoga and Stress Management Intervention. 5. Yoga Reduces Performance Anxiety in Adolescent Musicians. 6. Designing and Implementing a Therapeutic Yoga Program for Older Women With Knee Osteoarthritis. 7. Yoga and Life Skills Eating Disorder Prevention Among 5th Grade Females: A Controlled Trial. 8. A Randomized, Controlled Trial Comparing the Impact of Yoga and Physical Education on the Emotional and Behavioral Functioning of Middle School Children. 9. Feasibility of a Multisite, Community based Randomized Study of Yoga and Wellness Education for Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy. 10. A Delphi Study for the Development of Protocol Guidelines for Yoga Interventions in Mental Health. 11. Impact Investigation of Breathwalk Daily Practice: Canada�India Collaborative Study. 12. Yoga Improves Distress, Fatigue, and Insomnia in Older Veteran Cancer Survivors: Results of a Pilot Study. 13. Assessment of Kundalini Mantra and Meditation as an Adjunctive Treatment With Mental Health Consumers. 14. Kundalini Yoga Therapy Versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Co-Occurring Mood Disorder. 15. Baseline Differences in Women Versus Men Initiating Yoga Programs to Aid Smoking Cessation: Quitting in Balance Versus QuitStrong. 16. Pranayam Practice: Impact on Focus and Everyday Life of Work and Relationships. 17. Participation in a Tailored Yoga Program is Associated With Improved Physical Health in Persons With Arthritis. 18. Effects of Yoga on Blood Pressure: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 19. A Quasi-experimental Trial of a Yoga based Intervention to Reduce Stress and

  8. Orbital period determination in an eclipsing dwarf nova HT Cas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bąkowska, Karolina; Olech, Arkadiusz

    2014-09-01

    HT Cassiopeiae was discovered over seventy years ago (Hoffmeister 1943). Unfortunately, for 35 years this object did not receive any attention, until the eclipses of HT Cas were observed by Bond. After a first analysis, Patterson (1981) called HT Cas "a Rosetta stone among dwarf novae". Since then, the literature on this star is still growing, reaching several dozens of publications. We present an orbital period determination of HT Cas during the November 2010 super-outburst, but also during a longer time span, to check its stability.

  9. L’éléphantiasis vulvo-clitoridien: à propos d'un nouveau cas

    PubMed Central

    Sine, Babacar; Bagayogo, Ndeye Aissatou; Thiam, Amath; Sarr, Alioune; Sow, Yaya; Fall, Boubacar; Zakou, Abdou Razak Hamidou; Faye, Samba Thiapato; Diao, Babacar; Fall, Papa Ahmed; Ndoye, Alain khassim; Ba, Mamadou

    2015-01-01

    L’éléphantiasis vulvo-clitoridien d'origine filarienne est une affection très rare. Nous rapportons un nouveau cas chez une femme de 33 ans suivie dans un service de Maladies Infectieuses pour filariose lymphatique. Elle avait une masse vulvo-clitoridienne qui évoluait depuis plus de 10 ans. Une résection clitoridienne et une plastie vulvaire a été réalisée. Les résultats fonctionnels et esthétiques étaient satisfaisants. PMID:26889314

  10. Study of Eclipsing Binary and Multiple Systems in OB Associations IV: Cas OB6 Member DN Cas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakış, V.; Bakış, H.; Bilir, S.; Eker, Z.

    2016-09-01

    An early-type, massive, short-period (Porb=2d.310951) eclipsing spectroscopic binary DN Cas has been re-visited with new spectral and photometric data. The masses and radii of the components have been obtained as M1=19.04± 0.07 M⊙, M2=13.73± 0.05 M⊙ and R1=7.22± 0.06 R⊙, R2=5.79± 0.06 R⊙, respectively. Both components present synchronous rotation (Vrot1=160 km s-1, Vrot2=130 km s-1) with their orbit. Orbital period analysis yielded a physically bound additional component in the system with a minimum mass of M3=0.88 M⊙ orbiting in an eccentric orbit (e = 0.37 ± 0.2) with an orbital period of P 12 = 42 ± 9 yr. High precision absolute parameters of the system allowed us to derive a distance to DN Cas as 1.7 ± 0.2 kpc which locates the system within the borders of the Cas OB6 association (d = 1.8 kpc). The space velocities and the age of DN Cas are in agreement with those of Cas OB6. The age of DN Cas (τ = 3-5 Myr) is found to be 1-2 Myr older than the embedded clusters (IC 1795, IC 1805, and IC 1848) in the Cas OB6 association, which implies a sequential star formation in the association.

  11. Section traumatique de l'utérus non gravide chez une accidentée de voie publique: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Cédrick, Sangwa Milindi; Marius, Kitembo Feruzi; Mireille, Kakinga Zabibu; Nelly, Mukonda Sompo; Chamy, Cham Lubamba; Numbi, Kabamge; Mutomb, Jean Felix

    2015-01-01

    Dans cet article les auteurs rapportent un rare cas de section traumatique d'un utérus non gravide, chez une accidentée de voie publique reçu dans un tableau d'hemopéritoine aux services des urgences de l'hôpital General Provincial de Reference Jason Sendwe. PMID:26113916

  12. IEEE conference record--Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The following topics were covered in this meeting: basic plasma phenomena and plasma waves; plasma diagnostics; space plasma diagnostics; magnetic fusion; electron, ion and plasma sources; intense electron and ion beams; intense beam microwaves; fast wave M/W devices; microwave plasma interactions; plasma focus; ultrafast Z-pinches; plasma processing; electrical gas discharges; fast opening switches; magnetohydrodynamics; electromagnetic and electrothermal launchers; x-ray lasers; computational plasma science; solid state plasmas and switches; environmental/energy issues in plasma science; vacuum electronics; plasmas for lighting; gaseous electronics; and ball lightning and other spherical plasmas. Separate abstracts were prepared for 278 papers of this conference.

  13. Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanchik, Nicholas J.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the concept of the Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL) and its benefits. The OSAL is A small layer of software that allows programs to run on many different operating systems and hardware platforms It runs independent of the underlying OS & hardware and it is self-contained. The benefits of OSAL are that it removes dependencies from any one operating system, promotes portable, reusable flight software. It allows for Core Flight software (FSW) to be built for multiple processors and operating systems. The presentation discusses the functionality, the various OSAL releases, and describes the specifications.

  14. CRISPR-Cas systems: Prokaryotes upgrade to adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Barrangou, Rodolphe; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2014-04-24

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), and associated proteins (Cas) comprise the CRISPR-Cas system, which confers adaptive immunity against exogenic elements in many bacteria and most archaea. CRISPR-mediated immunization occurs through the uptake of DNA from invasive genetic elements such as plasmids and viruses, followed by its integration into CRISPR loci. These loci are subsequently transcribed and processed into small interfering RNAs that guide nucleases for specific cleavage of complementary sequences. Conceptually, CRISPR-Cas shares functional features with the mammalian adaptive immune system, while also exhibiting characteristics of Lamarckian evolution. Because immune markers spliced from exogenous agents are integrated iteratively in CRISPR loci, they constitute a genetic record of vaccination events and reflect environmental conditions and changes over time. Cas endonucleases, which can be reprogrammed by small guide RNAs have shown unprecedented potential and flexibility for genome editing and can be repurposed for numerous DNA targeting applications including transcriptional control.

  15. CRISPR-Cas9-Guided Genome Engineering in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Min; Colaiácovo, Monica P

    2016-07-01

    The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas (CRISPR-associated) system is successfully being used for efficient and targeted genome editing in various organisms, including the nematode C. elegans. Recent studies have developed various CRISPR-Cas9 approaches to enhance genome engineering via two major DNA double-strand break repair pathways: non-homologous end joining and homologous recombination. Here we describe a protocol for Cas9-mediated C. elegans genome editing together with single guide RNA (sgRNA) and repair template cloning, as well as injection methods required for delivering Cas9, sgRNAs, and repair template DNA into the C. elegans germline. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  16. 48 CFR 970.3002-1 - CAS applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Cost Accounting Standards Administration 970.3002-1 CAS applicability. The provisions of 48 CFR part 30 and 48 CFR chapter 99 (FAR Appendix)...

  17. An updated evolutionary classification of CRISPR-Cas systems.

    PubMed

    Makarova, Kira S; Wolf, Yuri I; Alkhnbashi, Omer S; Costa, Fabrizio; Shah, Shiraz A; Saunders, Sita J; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Brouns, Stan J J; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Haft, Daniel H; Horvath, Philippe; Moineau, Sylvain; Mojica, Francisco J M; Terns, Rebecca M; Terns, Michael P; White, Malcolm F; Yakunin, Alexander F; Garrett, Roger A; van der Oost, John; Backofen, Rolf; Koonin, Eugene V

    2015-11-01

    The evolution of CRISPR-cas loci, which encode adaptive immune systems in archaea and bacteria, involves rapid changes, in particular numerous rearrangements of the locus architecture and horizontal transfer of complete loci or individual modules. These dynamics complicate straightforward phylogenetic classification, but here we present an approach combining the analysis of signature protein families and features of the architecture of cas loci that unambiguously partitions most CRISPR-cas loci into distinct classes, types and subtypes. The new classification retains the overall structure of the previous version but is expanded to now encompass two classes, five types and 16 subtypes. The relative stability of the classification suggests that the most prevalent variants of CRISPR-Cas systems are already known. However, the existence of rare, currently unclassifiable variants implies that additional types and subtypes remain to be characterized. PMID:26411297

  18. CRISPR-Cas9-Guided Genome Engineering in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Min; Colaiácovo, Monica P

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas (CRISPR-associated) system is successfully being used for efficient and targeted genome editing in various organisms, including the nematode C. elegans. Recent studies have developed various CRISPR-Cas9 approaches to enhance genome engineering via two major DNA double-strand break repair pathways: non-homologous end joining and homologous recombination. Here we describe a protocol for Cas9-mediated C. elegans genome editing together with single guide RNA (sgRNA) and repair template cloning, as well as injection methods required for delivering Cas9, sgRNAs, and repair template DNA into the C. elegans germline. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27366893

  19. Editing plant genomes with CRISPR/Cas9.

    PubMed

    Belhaj, Khaoula; Chaparro-Garcia, Angela; Kamoun, Sophien; Patron, Nicola J; Nekrasov, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 is a rapidly developing genome editing technology that has been successfully applied in many organisms, including model and crop plants. Cas9, an RNA-guided DNA endonuclease, can be targeted to specific genomic sequences by engineering a separately encoded guide RNA with which it forms a complex. As only a short RNA sequence must be synthesized to confer recognition of a new target, CRISPR/Cas9 is a relatively cheap and easy to implement technology that has proven to be extremely versatile. Remarkably, in some plant species, homozygous knockout mutants can be produced in a single generation. Together with other sequence-specific nucleases, CRISPR/Cas9 is a game-changing technology that is poised to revolutionise basic research and plant breeding.

  20. 48 CFR 9903.201-2 - Types of CAS coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to the same cost accounting practices. The term includes Government-owned contractor-operated (GOCO...), as applicable, shall be incorporated. (6) Continuity in fully CAS-covered contracts. Where...

  1. 48 CFR 9903.201-2 - Types of CAS coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to the same cost accounting practices. The term includes Government-owned contractor-operated (GOCO...), as applicable, shall be incorporated. (6) Continuity in fully CAS-covered contracts. Where...

  2. 48 CFR 9903.201-2 - Types of CAS coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... to the same cost accounting practices. The term includes Government-owned contractor-operated (GOCO...), as applicable, shall be incorporated. (6) Continuity in fully CAS-covered contracts. Where...

  3. 48 CFR 970.3002-1 - CAS applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Cost Accounting Standards Administration 970.3002-1 CAS applicability. The provisions of 48 CFR part 30 and 48 CFR chapter 99 (FAR Appendix)...

  4. Methods for Optimizing CRISPR-Cas9 Genome Editing Specificity.

    PubMed

    Tycko, Josh; Myer, Vic E; Hsu, Patrick D

    2016-08-01

    Advances in the development of delivery, repair, and specificity strategies for the CRISPR-Cas9 genome engineering toolbox are helping researchers understand gene function with unprecedented precision and sensitivity. CRISPR-Cas9 also holds enormous therapeutic potential for the treatment of genetic disorders by directly correcting disease-causing mutations. Although the Cas9 protein has been shown to bind and cleave DNA at off-target sites, the field of Cas9 specificity is rapidly progressing, with marked improvements in guide RNA selection, protein and guide engineering, novel enzymes, and off-target detection methods. We review important challenges and breakthroughs in the field as a comprehensive practical guide to interested users of genome editing technologies, highlighting key tools and strategies for optimizing specificity. The genome editing community should now strive to standardize such methods for measuring and reporting off-target activity, while keeping in mind that the goal for specificity should be continued improvement and vigilance. PMID:27494557

  5. CRISPR-Cas systems: prokaryotes upgrade to adaptive immunity

    PubMed Central

    Barrangou, Rodolphe; Marraffini, Luciano A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR), and associated proteins (Cas) comprise the CRISPR-Cas system, which confers adaptive immunity against exogenic elements in many bacteria and most archaea. CRISPR-mediated immunization occurs through the uptake of DNA from invasive genetic elements such as plasmids and viruses, followed by its integration into CRISPR loci. These loci are subsequently transcribed and processed into small interfering RNAs that guide nucleases for specific cleavage of complementary sequences. Conceptually, CRISPR-Cas shares functional features with the mammalian adaptive immune system, while also exhibiting characteristics of Lamarckian evolution. Because immune markers spliced from exogenous agents are integrated iteratively in CRISPR loci, they constitute a genetic record of vaccination events and reflect environmental conditions and changes over time. Cas endonucleases, which can be reprogrammed by small guide RNAs have shown unprecedented potential and flexibility for genome editing, and can be repurposed for numerous DNA targeting applications including transcriptional control. PMID:24766887

  6. Methods for Optimizing CRISPR-Cas9 Genome Editing Specificity.

    PubMed

    Tycko, Josh; Myer, Vic E; Hsu, Patrick D

    2016-08-01

    Advances in the development of delivery, repair, and specificity strategies for the CRISPR-Cas9 genome engineering toolbox are helping researchers understand gene function with unprecedented precision and sensitivity. CRISPR-Cas9 also holds enormous therapeutic potential for the treatment of genetic disorders by directly correcting disease-causing mutations. Although the Cas9 protein has been shown to bind and cleave DNA at off-target sites, the field of Cas9 specificity is rapidly progressing, with marked improvements in guide RNA selection, protein and guide engineering, novel enzymes, and off-target detection methods. We review important challenges and breakthroughs in the field as a comprehensive practical guide to interested users of genome editing technologies, highlighting key tools and strategies for optimizing specificity. The genome editing community should now strive to standardize such methods for measuring and reporting off-target activity, while keeping in mind that the goal for specificity should be continued improvement and vigilance.

  7. Greenbook Abstract and Catalog--1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coole, Walter A.; Reitan, Henry M.

    This catalog is intended to be issued periodically as a means of extending and updating teaching materials which have been previously published through ERIC by these authors. The materials include the Alpha and Gamma levels of the "Greenbook System," pre-professional and entry in-service professional levels of an integrated sequence of five…

  8. Abstraction of Seepage into Drifts

    SciTech Connect

    M.L. Wilson; C.K. Ho

    2000-09-26

    A total-system performance assessment (TSPA) for a potential nuclear-waste repository requires an estimate of the amount of water that might contact waste. This paper describes the model used for part of that estimation in a recent TSPA for the Yucca Mountain site. The discussion is limited to estimation of how much water might enter emplacement drifts; additional considerations related to flow within the drifts, and how much water might actually contact waste, are not addressed here. The unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being considered for the potential repository, and a drift opening in unsaturated rock tends to act as a capillary barrier and divert much of the percolating water around it. For TSPA, the important questions regarding seepage are how many waste packages might be subjected to water flow and how much flow those packages might see. Because of heterogeneity of the rock and uncertainty about the future (how the climate will evolve, etc.), it is not possible to predict seepage amounts or locations with certainty. Thus, seepage is treated as a stochastic quantity in TSPA simulations, with the magnitude and spatial distribution of seepage sampled from uncertainty distributions. The distillation of the essential components of process modeling into a form suitable for use in TSPA simulations is referred to as abstraction. In the following sections, seepage process models and abstractions will be summarized and then some illustrative results are presented.

  9. Calibrated Ancillary System (CAS) user's guide, volume 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Calibrated Ancillary System (CAS) provides real-time calibrated parameters from the orbiter downlink (ancillary data) to the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This user's guide contains the introduction to the equipment, operation, general procedures, and specific procedures of CAS. Volume 6 describes ancillary products procedures, enhancement menu and processing task procedures for SDT/TDT (shuttle data tape/telemetry descriptor tape), database errors and network data driver (NDD) product menu procedures, and utility menu procedures.

  10. Potential pitfalls of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing.

    PubMed

    Peng, Rongxue; Lin, Guigao; Li, Jinming

    2016-04-01

    Recently, a novel technique named the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas)9 system has been rapidly developed. This genome editing tool has improved our ability tremendously with respect to exploring the pathogenesis of diseases and correcting disease mutations, as well as phenotypes. With a short guide RNA, Cas9 can be precisely directed to target sites, and functions as an endonuclease to efficiently produce breaks in DNA double strands. Over the past 30 years, CRISPR has evolved from the 'curious sequences of unknown biological function' into a promising genome editing tool. As a result of the incessant development in the CRISPR/Cas9 system, Cas9 co-expressed with custom guide RNAs has been successfully used in a variety of cells and organisms. This genome editing technology can also be applied to synthetic biology, functional genomic screening, transcriptional modulation and gene therapy. However, although CRISPR/Cas9 has a broad range of action in science, there are several aspects that affect its efficiency and specificity, including Cas9 activity, target site selection and short guide RNA design, delivery methods, off-target effects and the incidence of homology-directed repair. In the present review, we highlight the factors that affect the utilization of CRISPR/Cas9, as well as possible strategies for handling any problems. Addressing these issues will allow us to take better advantage of this technique. In addition, we also review the history and rapid development of the CRISPR/Cas system from the time of its initial discovery in 2012.

  11. Rational design of a split-Cas9 enzyme complex

    DOE PAGES

    Wright, Addison V.; Sternberg, Samuel H.; Taylor, David W.; Staahl, Brett T.; Bardales, Jorge A.; Kornfeld, Jack E.; Doudna, Jennifer A.

    2015-02-23

    Cas9, an RNA-guided DNA endonuclease found in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) bacterial immune systems, is a versatile tool for genome editing, transcriptional regulation, and cellular imaging applications. Structures of Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 alone or bound to single-guide RNA (sgRNA) and target DNA revealed a bilobed protein architecture that undergoes major conformational changes upon guide RNA and DNA binding. To investigate the molecular determinants and relevance of the interlobe rearrangement for target recognition and cleavage, we designed a split-Cas9 enzyme in which the nuclease lobe and α-helical lobe are expressed as separate polypeptides. The lobes do not interactmore » on their own, the sgRNA recruits them into a ternary complex that recapitulates the activity of full-length Cas9 and catalyzes site-specific DNA cleavage. The use of a modified sgRNA abrogates split-Cas9 activity by preventing dimerization, allowing for the development of an inducible dimerization system. We propose that split-Cas9 can act as a highly regulatable platform for genome-engineering applications.« less

  12. Rational design of a split-Cas9 enzyme complex

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Addison V.; Sternberg, Samuel H.; Taylor, David W.; Staahl, Brett T.; Bardales, Jorge A.; Kornfeld, Jack E.; Doudna, Jennifer A.

    2015-02-23

    Cas9, an RNA-guided DNA endonuclease found in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) bacterial immune systems, is a versatile tool for genome editing, transcriptional regulation, and cellular imaging applications. Structures of Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 alone or bound to single-guide RNA (sgRNA) and target DNA revealed a bilobed protein architecture that undergoes major conformational changes upon guide RNA and DNA binding. To investigate the molecular determinants and relevance of the interlobe rearrangement for target recognition and cleavage, we designed a split-Cas9 enzyme in which the nuclease lobe and α-helical lobe are expressed as separate polypeptides. The lobes do not interact on their own, the sgRNA recruits them into a ternary complex that recapitulates the activity of full-length Cas9 and catalyzes site-specific DNA cleavage. The use of a modified sgRNA abrogates split-Cas9 activity by preventing dimerization, allowing for the development of an inducible dimerization system. We propose that split-Cas9 can act as a highly regulatable platform for genome-engineering applications.

  13. Internal guide RNA interactions interfere with Cas9-mediated cleavage.

    PubMed

    Thyme, Summer B; Akhmetova, Laila; Montague, Tessa G; Valen, Eivind; Schier, Alexander F

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas system uses guide RNAs (gRNAs) to direct sequence-specific DNA cleavage. Not every gRNA elicits cleavage and the mechanisms that govern gRNA activity have not been resolved. Low activity could result from either failure to form a functional Cas9-gRNA complex or inability to recognize targets in vivo. Here we show that both phenomena influence Cas9 activity by comparing mutagenesis rates in zebrafish embryos with in vitro cleavage assays. In vivo, our results suggest that genomic factors such as CTCF inhibit mutagenesis. Comparing near-identical gRNA sequences with different in vitro activities reveals that internal gRNA interactions reduce cleavage. Even though gRNAs containing these structures do not yield cleavage-competent complexes, they can compete with active gRNAs for binding to Cas9. These results reveal that both genomic context and internal gRNA interactions can interfere with Cas9-mediated cleavage and illuminate previously uncharacterized features of Cas9-gRNA complex formation. PMID:27282953

  14. Internal guide RNA interactions interfere with Cas9-mediated cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Thyme, Summer B.; Akhmetova, Laila; Montague, Tessa G.; Valen, Eivind; Schier, Alexander F.

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas system uses guide RNAs (gRNAs) to direct sequence-specific DNA cleavage. Not every gRNA elicits cleavage and the mechanisms that govern gRNA activity have not been resolved. Low activity could result from either failure to form a functional Cas9–gRNA complex or inability to recognize targets in vivo. Here we show that both phenomena influence Cas9 activity by comparing mutagenesis rates in zebrafish embryos with in vitro cleavage assays. In vivo, our results suggest that genomic factors such as CTCF inhibit mutagenesis. Comparing near-identical gRNA sequences with different in vitro activities reveals that internal gRNA interactions reduce cleavage. Even though gRNAs containing these structures do not yield cleavage-competent complexes, they can compete with active gRNAs for binding to Cas9. These results reveal that both genomic context and internal gRNA interactions can interfere with Cas9-mediated cleavage and illuminate previously uncharacterized features of Cas9–gRNA complex formation. PMID:27282953

  15. Rational design of a split-Cas9 enzyme complex

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Addison V.; Sternberg, Samuel H.; Taylor, David W.; Staahl, Brett T.; Bardales, Jorge A.; Kornfeld, Jack E.; Doudna, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Cas9, an RNA-guided DNA endonuclease found in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) bacterial immune systems, is a versatile tool for genome editing, transcriptional regulation, and cellular imaging applications. Structures of Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 alone or bound to single-guide RNA (sgRNA) and target DNA revealed a bilobed protein architecture that undergoes major conformational changes upon guide RNA and DNA binding. To investigate the molecular determinants and relevance of the interlobe rearrangement for target recognition and cleavage, we designed a split-Cas9 enzyme in which the nuclease lobe and α-helical lobe are expressed as separate polypeptides. Although the lobes do not interact on their own, the sgRNA recruits them into a ternary complex that recapitulates the activity of full-length Cas9 and catalyzes site-specific DNA cleavage. The use of a modified sgRNA abrogates split-Cas9 activity by preventing dimerization, allowing for the development of an inducible dimerization system. We propose that split-Cas9 can act as a highly regulatable platform for genome-engineering applications. PMID:25713377

  16. CRISPR-Cas9 Based Engineering of Actinomycetal Genomes.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yaojun; Charusanti, Pep; Zhang, Lixin; Weber, Tilmann; Lee, Sang Yup

    2015-09-18

    Bacteria of the order Actinomycetales are one of the most important sources of pharmacologically active and industrially relevant secondary metabolites. Unfortunately, many of them are still recalcitrant to genetic manipulation, which is a bottleneck for systematic metabolic engineering. To facilitate the genetic manipulation of actinomycetes, we developed a highly efficient CRISPR-Cas9 system to delete gene(s) or gene cluster(s), implement precise gene replacements, and reversibly control gene expression in actinomycetes. We demonstrate our system by targeting two genes, actIORF1 (SCO5087) and actVB (SCO5092), from the actinorhodin biosynthetic gene cluster in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Our CRISPR-Cas9 system successfully inactivated the targeted genes. When no templates for homology-directed repair (HDR) were present, the site-specific DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) introduced by Cas9 were repaired through the error-prone nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway, resulting in a library of deletions with variable sizes around the targeted sequence. If templates for HDR were provided at the same time, precise deletions of the targeted gene were observed with near 100% frequency. Moreover, we developed a system to efficiently and reversibly control expression of target genes, deemed CRISPRi, based on a catalytically dead variant of Cas9 (dCas9). The CRISPR-Cas9 based system described here comprises a powerful and broadly applicable set of tools to manipulate actinomycetal genomes.

  17. Functional Analysis of Porphyromonas gingivalis W83 CRISPR-Cas Systems

    PubMed Central

    Burmistrz, Michał; Dudek, Bartosz; Staniec, Dominika; Rodriguez Martinez, Jose Ignacio; Bochtler, Matthias; Potempa, Jan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated genes) system provides prokaryotic cells with an adaptive and heritable immune response to foreign genetic elements, such as viruses, plasmids, and transposons. It is present in the majority of Archaea and almost half of species of Bacteria. Porphyromonas gingivalis is an important human pathogen that has been proven to be an etiological agent of periodontitis and has been linked to systemic conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis and cardiovascular disease. At least 95% of clinical strains of P. gingivalis carry CRISPR arrays, suggesting that these arrays play an important function in vivo. Here we show that all four CRISPR arrays present in the P. gingivalis W83 genome are transcribed. For one of the arrays, we demonstrate in vivo activity against double-stranded DNA constructs containing protospacer sequences accompanied at the 3′ end by an NGG protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM). Most of the 44 spacers present in the genome of P. gingivalis W83 share no significant similarity with any known sequences, although 4 spacers are similar to sequences from bacteria found in the oral cavity and the gastrointestinal tract. Four spacers match genomic sequences of the host; however, none of these is flanked at its 3′ terminus by the appropriate PAM element. IMPORTANCE The CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated genes) system is a unique system that provides prokaryotic cells with an adaptive and heritable immunity. In this report, we show that the CRISPR-Cas system of P. gingivalis, an important human pathogen associated with periodontitis and possibly also other conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis and cardiovascular disease, is active and provides protection from foreign genetic elements. Importantly, the data presented here may be useful for better understanding the communication between cells in larger bacterial

  18. Highly specific targeted mutagenesis in plants using Staphylococcus aureus Cas9

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Hidetaka; Mikami, Masafumi; Endo, Akira; Endo, Masaki; Toki, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is an efficient and convenient tool for genome editing in plants. Cas9 nuclease derived from Streptococcus pyogenes (Sp) is commonly used in this system. Recently, Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 (SaCas9)-mediated genome editing was reported in human cells and Arabidopsis. Because SaCas9 (1053 a.a.) is smaller than SpCas9 (1368 a.a.), SaCas9 could have substantial advantages for delivering and expressing Cas9 protein, especially using virus vectors. Since the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) sequence of SaCas9 (5′-NNGRRT-3′) differs from that of SpCas9 (5′-NGG-3′), the use of this alternative Cas9 nuclease could expand the selectivity at potential cleavage target sites of the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Here we show that SaCas9 can mutagenize target sequences in tobacco and rice with efficiencies similar to those of SpCas9. We also analyzed the base preference for ‘T’ at the 6th position of the SaCas9 PAM. Targeted mutagenesis efficiencies in target sequences with non-canonical PAMs (5′-NNGRRV-3′) were much lower than those with a canonical PAM (5′-NNGRRT-3′). The length of target sequence recognized by SaCas9 is one or two nucleotides longer than that recognized by SpCas9. Taken together, our results demonstrate that SaCas9 has higher sequence recognition capacity than SpCas9 and is useful for reducing off-target mutations in crop. PMID:27226350

  19. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU 3) Technical Interchange Meeting: Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU III) Technical Interchange Meeting, February 11-12, 1999, hosted by the Lockheed Martin Astronautics Waterton Facility, Denver, Colorado. Administration and publication support for this meeting were provided by the staff of the Publications and Program Services Department at the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

  20. ESEA Title I Components: Executive Abstracts; Evaluation 1969-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

    This report includes abstracts and evaluations of various ESEA Title I programs in the Los Angeles City Schools during 1969-70. In the five years since spring 1966, ESEA funds and programs have produced great variability in density of services, pupil-teacher ratios, curriculum materials, etc. In 1969-70, under new state guidelines, the following…

  1. Infant Mortality Review: Project Abstracts, Meeting Proceedings, and Product Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Washington, DC.

    This publication includes proceedings from a fall 1989 meeting attended by representatives of projects funded by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau of the U.S. Public Health Service as part of its infant mortality reduction initiative. It also contains abstracts describing the funded projects and a list of products available to others interested…

  2. Soft modes and superconductivity in the layered hexagonal carbides V2CAs, Nb2CAs, and Nb2CS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halilov, S. V.; Singh, D. J.; Papaconstantopoulos, D. A.

    2002-05-01

    The electronic structure, selected phonon frequencies, and electron phonon coupling of the hexagonal layered compounds Nb2CS, Nb2CAs, and V2CAs are elucidated using density functional calculations. All materials are good three-dimensional metals with moderate values of the density of states, N(EF). The electronic structure of Nb2CS, the only superconductor within this family of materials, consists of well-hybridized Nb d-S p-C p derived bands characteristic around the Fermi energy. The S is more ionic in this compound than the As in the related arsenides Nb2CAs or V2CAs. This results in a relative softness for phonon modes involving S. Rigid muffin tin approximation calculations show moderate electron phonon couplings consistent with low-temperature superconductivity. The key difference from the carbo-arsenides is the presence of soft moderately coupled S modes.

  3. Community Service and Continuing Education. Program Abstracts. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lorna M., Ed.

    This comprehensive volume of innovative continuing education programs contains complete descriptions of some 750 cross-indexed projects in four general areas--human resource development, natural resource development, economic development, and community development--directed at community problems that can benefit from adult education. It brings…

  4. Experience with abstract notation one

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, James D.; Weaver, Alfred C.

    1990-01-01

    The development of computer science has produced a vast number of machine architectures, programming languages, and compiler technologies. The cross product of these three characteristics defines the spectrum of previous and present data representation methodologies. With regard to computer networks, the uniqueness of these methodologies presents an obstacle when disparate host environments are to be interconnected. Interoperability within a heterogeneous network relies upon the establishment of data representation commonality. The International Standards Organization (ISO) is currently developing the abstract syntax notation one standard (ASN.1) and the basic encoding rules standard (BER) that collectively address this problem. When used within the presentation layer of the open systems interconnection reference model, these two standards provide the data representation commonality required to facilitate interoperability. The details of a compiler that was built to automate the use of ASN.1 and BER are described. From this experience, insights into both standards are given and potential problems relating to this development effort are discussed.

  5. Abstraction Planning in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washington, R.

    1994-01-01

    When a planning agent works in a complex, real-world domain, it is unable to plan for and store all possible contingencies and problem situations ahead of time. This thesis presents a method for planning a run time that incrementally builds up plans at multiple levels of abstraction. The plans are continually updated by information from the world, allowing the planner to adjust its plan to a changing world during the planning process. All the information is represented over intervals of time, allowing the planner to reason about durations, deadlines, and delays within its plan. In addition to the method, the thesis presents a formal model of the planning process and uses the model to investigate planning strategies.

  6. Abstraction Planning in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washington, Richard

    1994-01-01

    When a planning agent works in a complex, real-world domain, it is unable to plan for and store all possible contingencies and problem situations ahead of time. The agent needs to be able to fall back on an ability to construct plans at run time under time constraints. This thesis presents a method for planning at run time that incrementally builds up plans at multiple levels of abstraction. The plans are continually updated by information from the world, allowing the planner to adjust its plan to a changing world during the planning process. All the information is represented over intervals of time, allowing the planner to reason about durations, deadlines, and delays within its plan. In addition to the method, the thesis presents a formal model of the planning process and uses the model to investigate planning strategies. The method has been implemented, and experiments have been run to validate the overall approach and the theoretical model.

  7. Toward Millimagnitude Photometric Calibration (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dose, E.

    2014-12-01

    (Abstract only) Asteroid roation, exoplanet transits, and similar measurements will increasingly call for photometric precisions better than about 10 millimagnitudes, often between nights and ideally between distant observers. The present work applies detailed spectral simulations to test popular photometric calibration practices, and to test new extensions of these practices. Using 107 synthetic spectra of stars of diverse colors, detailed atmospheric transmission spectra computed by solar-energy software, realistic spectra of popular astronomy gear, and the option of three sources of noise added at realistic millimagnitude levels, we find that certain adjustments to current calibration practices can help remove small systematic errors, especially for imperfect filters, high airmasses, and possibly passing thin cirrus clouds.

  8. Strategies for writing a competitive research abstract.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, R A

    1993-01-01

    This article focuses on the process of preparing research abstracts for submission to scientific meetings of professional organizations. Perspectives on the process of specifying an abstract's focus, choosing a scientific meeting, selecting the type of presentation, developing an abstract, and writing an abstract in its form are presented.

  9. Les tumeurs malignes naso-sinusiennes: à propos de 32 cas et revues de la littérature

    PubMed Central

    Darouassi, Youssef; Touati, Mohamed Mliha; Chihani, Mehdi; El Alami, Jihane; Bouaity, Brahim; Ammar, Haddou

    2015-01-01

    Sous l’appellation tumeurs malignes naso-sinusiennes est regroupé un vaste éventail de tumeurs, aux histologies et localisations variées, mais aux tableaux cliniques souvent similaires. Le diagnostic de ces tumeurs est difficile, nécessitant une approche multidisciplinaire, à savoir oto-rhino-laryngologique, radiologique et anatomopathologique. Notre étude rétrospective concerne 32 cas de tumeurs malignes naso-sinusiennes, colligées au service d’ORL de l’hôpital militaire Avicenne de Marrakech, entre Janvier 2004 et Décembre 2014. L’analyse des données a noté que la fréquence des tumeurs épithéliales (75% des cas) était supérieure à celle des tumeurs non épithéliales (25% des cas), avec en tête de file l’adénocarcinome de l’ethmoïde (31,25%) et le carcinome épidermoïde du sinus maxillaire (18,75%). Ces tumeurs surviennent le plus souvent chez le sujet âgé avec une moyenne d’âge de 52 ans et une répartition équitable entre les deux sexes. Le délai de consultation moyen était de 12 mois avec une symptomatologie dominée par un syndrome nasosinusien (71,8%), associé dans certains cas à des signes ophtalmologiques (12,5%) ou neurologiques (15,6%). Tous nos patients ont bénéficié d’un examen clinique notamment endoscopique, d’une exploration radiologique des tumeurs et de leurs extensions, et d’une confirmation diagnostique par un examen anatomopathologique. Le traitement a consisté en une exérèse chirurgicale de la tumeur dès que cela était possible, soit dans 81,3% des cas (26 patients), généralement complété par un traitement adjuvant radio-chimiothérapique (77%). Le suivi à un an de nos patients a permis de noter une bonne évolution pour 08 d’entre eux (25%), une récidive dans 6 cas (18,75%), le décès de neuf patients (28,1%), et l’absence d’information concernant les autres cas (28,1%). PMID:26985260

  10. Le médulloblastome chez l'adulte: à propos de 13 cas et revue de la literature

    PubMed Central

    Drissi, Jamal; Affane, Mariam; Elomrani, Abdelhamid; Khouchani, Mouna

    2015-01-01

    Le médulloblastome est une tumeur neuro-ectodermique primitive maligne. Il s'agit d'une tumeur rare chez l'adulte, représentant moins de 1% des tumeurs cérébrales. Nous proposons une étude rétrospective réalisée au sein du service d'Oncologie-Radiothérapie du CHU Mohamed VI de Marrakech sur une période de 13 ans. Le but de notre travail est de déterminer le profil épidémioclinique, thérapeutique, évolutif ainsi que les facteurs pronostiques de cette entité pathologique avec une revue de la littérature. Notre série comportait 13 patients, 10 hommes et 3 femmes, l’âge médian a été 20,8 ans. Le tableau clinique a été révélé par un syndrome d'hypertension intracrânienne (100%), associée à un syndrome cérébelleux (84%). La localisation était hémisphérique (31%) et vermio-hémisphérique (54%). 31% des patients ont bénéficié d'une exérèse chirurgicale totale. 85% des cas avaient une variante classique et 15% une variante desmoplasique. 30% des cas avaient été classés à «risque standard» et 70% à «haut risque». La chirurgie avait été complétée d'une radiothérapie de l'ensemble du névraxe selon la technique de «jonctions mobiles» dans tous les cas. Le délai moyen était de 73 jours. Une chimiothérapie adjuvante avait été réalisée chez 9 cas. Avec un recul moyen de 21.3 mois, l’évolution a été marquée par une récidive tumorale (4 cas), une toxicité auditive (6 cas) et des troubles cognitifs chez un cas. La prise en charge du médulloblastome doit être multidisciplinaire associant neurochirurgiens et oncologues radiothérapeutes. Cette collaboration est le seul garant d'une amélioration de son pronostic. PMID:26889307

  11. Les hémorragies post coïtales: à propos de 68 cas et revue de literature

    PubMed Central

    Boukhanni, Lahssen; Dhibou, Hanane; Zilfi, Wafaa; Housseini, Kawtar Iraki; Benkeddour, Yasser Ait; Aboulfalah, Abderrahim; Asmouki, Hamid; Soummani, Abderraouf

    2016-01-01

    L'acte sexuel consenti ou imposé, peut être à l'origine des traumatismes. L'hémorragie post coïtale est un symptôme gynécologique commun. Elle peut révéler de sérieux problèmes. Le but de notre travail est d’étudier le profil épidémiologique, diagnostique et thérapeutique ainsi que les moyens préventifs en cas de déchirure post coïtale. Il s'agit d'une étude prospective, étalée sur deux ans, mené au service de gynécologie obstétrique du CHU Med VI de Marrakech. Nous avons colligé 68 patientes. L’âge moyen est de 27 ans, la majorité des patientes étaient des nullipares soit 89,7% des cas. La moitié des patientes avaient un mariage traditionnel. Le rapport était consentent dans 74% des cas. L'hémorragie génitale a constitue le motif de consultation le plus fréquent soit 98% des cas. Les lésions hyménales ont été retrouvées dans 39% des cas et la lésion siégeait dans le cul de sac postérieur chez 35% des cas. La prise en charge thérapeutique a consisté en une suture chirurgicale chez 97% des cas, associé à une transfusion sanguine chez deux patientes et une abstinence sexuelle pendant minimum deux semaines chez toutes nous patientes. Le contexte social ainsi que le manque d’éducation sexuelle sont souvent incriminé d'où l'intérêt d'une prise en charge psychologique pour prévenir aussi bien le retentissement du traumatisme sur la sexualité que les récidives. PMID:27279958

  12. A non-inheritable maternal Cas9-based multiple-gene editing system in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Takayuki; Kamiyoshi, Akiko; Kawate, Hisaka; Mori, Chie; Watanabe, Satoshi; Tanaka, Megumu; Uetake, Ryuichi; Sato, Masahiro; Shindo, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is capable of editing multiple genes through one-step zygote injection. The preexisting method is largely based on the co-injection of Cas9 DNA (or mRNA) and guide RNAs (gRNAs); however, it is unclear how many genes can be simultaneously edited by this method, and a reliable means to generate transgenic (Tg) animals with multiple gene editing has yet to be developed. Here, we employed non-inheritable maternal Cas9 (maCas9) protein derived from Tg mice with systemic Cas9 overexpression (Cas9 mice). The maCas9 protein in zygotes derived from mating or in vitro fertilization of Tg/+ oocytes and +/+ sperm could successfully edit the target genome. The efficiency of such maCas9-based genome editing was comparable to that of zygote microinjection–based genome editing widely used at present. Furthermore, we demonstrated a novel approach to create “Cas9 transgene-free” gene-modified mice using non-Tg (+/+) zygotes carrying maCas9. The maCas9 protein in mouse zygotes edited nine target loci simultaneously after injection with nine different gRNAs alone. Cas9 mouse-derived zygotes have the potential to facilitate the creation of genetically modified animals carrying the Cas9 transgene, enabling repeatable genome engineering and the production of Cas9 transgene-free mice. PMID:26817415

  13. Angiomyolipome rénale: à propos de huit cas

    PubMed Central

    Statoua, Mouad; El Ghanmi, Jihad; Karmouni, Tarik; El Khader, Khalid; Koutani, Abdellatif; Attya, Ahmed Iben

    2014-01-01

    L'angiomyolipome est la tumeur bénigne la plus fréquente des masses dolides du rein, elle représente un cadre de fréquence de 1 à 3% des tumeurs du rein, sa composition histologique est faite de trois contingents: graisseux, fibres musculaires lisses et vasculaires a des proportions variables, elle sévit sur un cadre sporadique et peut s'exprimer dans un cadre congénitale comme manifestation de la sclérose tubéreuse de Bourneville. Nous rapportons l'expérience du service d'Urologie B du CHU IBN Sina de Rabat dans la prise en charge de huit cas d'angiomyolipome sur une période s’étalant sur six ans en précisant les manifestations cliniques, données de l'imagerie, le résultat histologique et la conduite thérapeutique. Les manifestations cliniques ne lui sont pas spécifiques, elle peut se manifester par des lombalgies, crise de colique néphritiques, hématurie, masse palpable dans le flanc. La TDM reste l'examen radiologique le plus sensible en mettant en évidence la présence de graisse au sein de la masse, l'histologie confirme le diagnostic et il n'y a aucun consensus qui régit la prise en charge de ce type de tumeur, on peut admettre une surveillance pour les petites masses de moins de 4 cm et traité les formes symptomatiques ou qui dépasse les 4 cm par embolisation ou chirurgie partielle ou totale. Les nouvelles thérapeutiques focales peuvent révolutionner la prise en charge de ce type de tumeur bénigne, mais les études sont toujours en cours. PMID:25767658

  14. Attracting Girls into Physics (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadalla, Afaf

    2009-04-01

    A recent international study of women in physics showed that enrollment in physics and science is declining for both males and females and that women are severely underrepresented in careers requiring a strong physics background. The gender gap begins early in the pipeline, from the first grade. Girls are treated differently than boys at home and in society in ways that often hinder their chances for success. They have fewer freedoms, are discouraged from accessing resources or being adventurous, have far less exposure to problem solving, and are not encouraged to choose their lives. In order to motivate more girl students to study physics in the Assiut governorate of Egypt, the Assiut Alliance for the Women and Assiut Education District collaborated in renovating the education of physics in middle and secondary school classrooms. A program that helps in increasing the number of girls in science and physics has been designed in which informal groupings are organized at middle and secondary schools to involve girls in the training and experiences needed to attract and encourage girls to learn physics. During implementation of the program at some schools, girls, because they had not been trained in problem-solving as boys, appeared not to be as facile in abstracting the ideas of physics, and that was the primary reason for girls dropping out of science and physics. This could be overcome by holding a topical physics and technology summer school under the supervision of the Assiut Alliance for the Women.

  15. 1986 annual information meeting. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Abstracts are presented for the following papers: Geohydrological Research at the Y-12 Plant (C.S. Haase); Ecological Impacts of Waste Disposal Operations in Bear Creek Valley Near the Y-12 Plant (J.M. Loar); Finite Element Simulation of Subsurface Contaminant Transport: Logistic Difficulties in Handling Large Field Problems (G.T. Yeh); Dynamic Compaction of a Radioactive Waste Burial Trench (B.P. Spalding); Comparative Evaluation of Potential Sites for a High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository (E.D. Smith); Changing Priorities in Environmental Assessment and Environmental Compliance (R.M. Reed); Ecology, Ecotoxicology, and Ecological Risk Assessment (L.W. Barnthouse); Theory and Practice in Uncertainty Analysis from Ten Years of Practice (R.H. Gardner); Modeling Landscape Effects of Forest Decline (V.H. Dale); Soil Nitrogen and the Global Carbon Cycle (W.M. Post); Maximizing Wood Energy Production in Short-Rotation Plantations: Effect of Initial Spacing and Rotation Length (L.L. Wright); and Ecological Communities and Processes in Woodland Streams Exhibit Both Direct and Indirect Effects of Acidification (J.W. Elwood).

  16. Ozone Conference II: Abstract Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-01

    Ozone Conference II: Pre- and Post-Harvest Applications Two Years After Gras, was held September 27-28, 1999 in Tulare, California. This conference, sponsored by EPRI's Agricultural Technology Alliance and Southern California Edison's AgTAC facility, was coordinated and organized by the on-site ATA-AgTAC Regional Center. Approximately 175 people attended the day-and-a-half conference at AgTAC. During the Conference twenty-two presentations were given on ozone food processing and agricultural applications. Included in the presentations were topics on: (1) Ozone fumigation; (2) Ozone generation techniques; (3) System and design applications; (4) Prewater treatment requirements; (5) Poultry water reuse; (6) Soil treatments with ozone gas; and (7) Post-harvest aqueous and gaseous ozone research results. A live videoconference between Tulare and Washington, D.C. was held to discuss the regulators' view from inside the beltway. Attendees participated in two Roundtable Question and Answer sessions and visited fifteen exhibits and demonstrations. The attendees included university and governmental researchers, regulators, consultants and industry experts, technology developers and providers, and corporate and individual end-users. This report is comprised of the Abstracts of each presentation, biographical sketches for each speaker and a registration/attendees list.

  17. Handedness shapes children's abstract concepts.

    PubMed

    Casasanto, Daniel; Henetz, Tania

    2012-03-01

    Can children's handedness influence how they represent abstract concepts like kindness and intelligence? Here we show that from an early age, right-handers associate rightward space more strongly with positive ideas and leftward space with negative ideas, but the opposite is true for left-handers. In one experiment, children indicated where on a diagram a preferred toy and a dispreferred toy should go. Right-handers tended to assign the preferred toy to a box on the right and the dispreferred toy to a box on the left. Left-handers showed the opposite pattern. In a second experiment, children judged which of two cartoon animals looked smarter (or dumber) or nicer (or meaner). Right-handers attributed more positive qualities to animals on the right, but left-handers to animals on the left. These contrasting associations between space and valence cannot be explained by exposure to language or cultural conventions, which consistently link right with good. Rather, right- and left-handers implicitly associated positive valence more strongly with the side of space on which they can act more fluently with their dominant hands. Results support the body-specificity hypothesis (Casasanto, 2009), showing that children with different kinds of bodies think differently in corresponding ways. PMID:21916951

  18. An abstract approach to music.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

    1999-04-19

    In this article we have outlined a formal framework for an abstract approach to music and music composition. The model is formulated in terms of objects that have attributes, obey relationships, and are subject to certain well-defined operations. The motivation for this approach uses traditional terms and concepts of music theory, but the approach itself is formal and uses the language of mathematics. The universal object is an audio wave; partials, sounds, and compositions are special objects, which are placed in a hierarchical order based on time scales. The objects have both static and dynamic attributes. When we realize a composition, we assign values to each of its attributes: a (scalar) value to a static attribute, an envelope and a size to a dynamic attribute. A composition is then a trajectory in the space of aural events, and the complex audio wave is its formal representation. Sounds are fibers in the space of aural events, from which the composer weaves the trajectory of a composition. Each sound object in turn is made up of partials, which are the elementary building blocks of any music composition. The partials evolve on the fastest time scale in the hierarchy of partials, sounds, and compositions. The ideas outlined in this article are being implemented in a digital instrument for additive sound synthesis and in software for music composition. A demonstration of some preliminary results has been submitted by the authors for presentation at the conference.

  19. Spectroscopic studies of three Cepheids with high positive pulsation period increments: SZ Cas, BY Cas, and RU Sct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usenko, I. A.; Klochkova, V. G.

    2015-07-01

    Three high-resolution spectra have been taken at different times with the 6-m SAO RAS telescope (LYNX and PFES spectrographs) for three Cepheids exhibiting high positive period increments: the small-amplitude (DCEPS) SZ Cas and BY Cas and the classical (DCEP) RU Sct. SZ Cas and RU Sct are members of the Galactic open clusters χ and h Per and Trump 35, respectively. Analysis of the spectra has shown that the interstellar Na I D1 and D2 lines in all objects are considerably stronger than the atmospheric ones and are redshifted in SZ Cas and BY Cas and blushifted in RU Sct. The core of the H α absorption line in BY Cas has an asymmetric knifelike shape, while RU Sct exhibits an intense emission in the blue wing of this line. Such phenomena are observed in long-period Cepheids and bright hypergiants with an extended envelope. In this case, the strong Mg Ib 5183.62 Å and Ba II 5853.67, 6141.713, and 6496.90 Å lines with low χlow in SZ Cas and RU Sct also show characteristic knifelike profiles with an asymmetry in the red region, while the Ba II 4934.095 Å line shows similar profiles in the blue one. The absorption lines of neutral atoms and singly ionized metals with different lowerlevel excitation potentials exhibit different degrees of asymmetry: from a pronounced one with secondary components in BY Cas (similar to those in the small-amplitude Cepheid BG Cru pulsating in the first overtone and having an envelope) to its insignificance or virtual absence in SZ Cas and RU Sct. Analysis of the secular changes in mean T eff determined from photometric color indices and spectra over the last 55 years for these stars has revealed periodic fluctuations of 200 K for SZ Cas and BY Cas and 500 K for RU Sct. For SZ Cas and RU Sct, T eff determined in some years from some color indices show much lower values, which together with the temperature fluctuations can be associated with mass loss and dust formation. Based on these facts, we hypothesize the existence of

  20. Annotating user-defined abstractions for optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, D; Schordan, M; Vuduc, R; Yi, Q

    2005-12-05

    This paper discusses the features of an annotation language that we believe to be essential for optimizing user-defined abstractions. These features should capture semantics of function, data, and object-oriented abstractions, express abstraction equivalence (e.g., a class represents an array abstraction), and permit extension of traditional compiler optimizations to user-defined abstractions. Our future work will include developing a comprehensive annotation language for describing the semantics of general object-oriented abstractions, as well as automatically verifying and inferring the annotated semantics.

  1. Abstraction and reformulation in artificial intelligence.

    PubMed Central

    Holte, Robert C.; Choueiry, Berthe Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper contributes in two ways to the aims of this special issue on abstraction. The first is to show that there are compelling reasons motivating the use of abstraction in the purely computational realm of artificial intelligence. The second is to contribute to the overall discussion of the nature of abstraction by providing examples of the abstraction processes currently used in artificial intelligence. Although each type of abstraction is specific to a somewhat narrow context, it is hoped that collectively they illustrate the richness and variety of abstraction in its fullest sense. PMID:12903653

  2. Repurposing CRISPR/Cas9 for in situ functional assays.

    PubMed

    Malina, Abba; Mills, John R; Cencic, Regina; Yan, Yifei; Fraser, James; Schippers, Laura M; Paquet, Marilène; Dostie, Josée; Pelletier, Jerry

    2013-12-01

    RNAi combined with next-generation sequencing has proven to be a powerful and cost-effective genetic screening platform in mammalian cells. Still, this technology has its limitations and is incompatible with in situ mutagenesis screens on a genome-wide scale. Using p53 as a proof-of-principle target, we readapted the CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 (CRISPR associated 9) genome-editing system to demonstrate the feasibility of this methodology for targeted gene disruption positive selection assays. By using novel "all-in-one" lentiviral and retroviral delivery vectors heterologously expressing both a codon-optimized Cas9 and its synthetic guide RNA (sgRNA), we show robust selection for the CRISPR-modified Trp53 locus following drug treatment. Furthermore, by linking Cas9 expression to GFP fluorescence, we use an "all-in-one" system to track disrupted Trp53 in chemoresistant lymphomas in the Eμ-myc mouse model. Deep sequencing analysis of the tumor-derived endogenous Cas9-modified Trp53 locus revealed a wide spectrum of mutants that were enriched with seemingly limited off-target effects. Taken together, these results establish Cas9 genome editing as a powerful and practical approach for positive in situ genetic screens.

  3. Measurement of Flux Density of Cas A at Low Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Ajinkya; Fisher, R.

    2012-01-01

    Cas A is used as a flux calibrator throughout the radio spectrum. Therefore it is important to know the spectral and secular variations in its flux density. Earlier observations by Scott et. al. (1969) and Baars et. al. (1972) suggested a secular decrease in flux density of Cas A at a rate of about 1% per year at all frequencies. However later observations by Erickson & Perley (1975) and Read (1977) indicated anomalously high flux from Cas A at 38 MHz. Also, these observations suggested that the original idea of faster decay of the flux density rate at low frequencies may be in error or that something more complex than simple decay is affecting the flux density at low frequencies. The source changes at 38 MHz still remains a mystery. We intend to present the results of follow up observations made from 1995 to 1998 with a three element interferometer in Green Bank operating in frequency range 30 to 120 MHz. We will discuss the problems at such low frequencies due to large beamwidth and unstable ionosphere. We will also discuss the strategies we have used so far to to find the flux density of Cas A by calculating the ratio of flux density of Cas A to that of Cyg A, assuming flux density of Cyg A to be constant. Above mentioned work was performed in summer student program sponsored by National Radio Astronomy Observatory.

  4. Scientific meeting abstracts: significance, access, and trends.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, J A

    1998-01-01

    Abstracts of scientific papers and posters that are presented at annual scientific meetings of professional societies are part of the broader category of conference literature. They are an important avenue for the dissemination of current data. While timely and succinct, these abstracts present problems such as an abbreviated peer review and incomplete bibliographic access. METHODS: Seventy societies of health sciences professionals were surveyed about the publication of abstracts from their annual meetings. Nineteen frequently cited journals also were contacted about their policies on the citation of meeting abstracts. Ten databases were searched for the presence of meetings abstracts. RESULTS: Ninety percent of the seventy societies publish their abstracts, with nearly half appearing in the society's journal. Seventy-seven percent of the societies supply meeting attendees with a copy of each abstract, and 43% make their abstracts available in an electronic format. Most of the journals surveyed allow meeting abstracts to be cited. Bibliographic access to these abstracts does not appear to be widespread. CONCLUSIONS: Meeting abstracts play an important role in the dissemination of scientific knowledge. Bibliographic access to meeting abstracts is very limited. The trend toward making meeting abstracts available via the Internet has the potential to give a broader audience access to the information they contain. PMID:9549015

  5. Cancer du sein de l'homme: à propos de 6 cas

    PubMed Central

    Laabadi, Kamilia; Jayi, Sofia; Alaoui, Fatimazohra Fdili; Bouguern, Hakima; Chaara, Hikmat; Melhouf, My Abdelilah; Hassani, Karim Ibn Majdoub; Laalim, Said Ait; Anoun, Hicham; Toughrai, Imane; Mazaz, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Le but de ce travail était d'analyser les caractéristiques cliniques, histologiques, thérapeutiques et pronostiques du cancer du sein chez l'homme. Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective portant sur six patients colligés au service de gynécologie obstétrique II, CHU Hassan II durant la période 2009-2012. L’âge moyen de nos patients est de 65.3 ans. Il s'agit dans 83.3% des cas, d'une tumeur rétroaréolaire dont la taille moyenne est de 44.16 mm. Nous avons retrouvé 4 (66.7%) T4, 1 (16.7%) T3 et dans un cas, une tumeur inclassable. Le type histologique le plus représenté est le carcinome canalaire infiltrant (66.7%). Le taux d'envahissement ganglionnaire axillaire est de 66.7%. L'hormonodépendance de ces tumeurs est prouvée dans 100% des cas. La survie à cinq ans est en cours d’évaluation. L'envahissement ganglionnaire, l'invasion du derme, le stade clinique TNM sont des facteurs qui influencent significativement la survenue de métastases. Aucun de ces facteurs de risque n'est apparu significatif en termes de survie globale. Le cancer du sein chez l'homme est une maladie rare (environ 1% des cancers du sein) au pronostic sombre. Le diagnostic est le plus souvent tardif et les lésions sont traitées à des stades avancés. PMID:24711870

  6. Les Brulures Electriques par Haut Voltage - A Propos de 10 Cas

    PubMed Central

    Belmir, R.; Fejjal, N.; El Omari, M.; El Mazouz, S.; Gharib, N.; Abassi, A.; Belmahi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Les accidents électriques par haute tension (AEHT) provoquent des brûlures profondes par effet Joule le long des axes vasculo-nerveux entre les points d'entrée et de sortie, qui sont le siège de lésions délabrantes. Les Auteurs rapportent une série de dix cas d'AEHT admis au service de chirurgie réparatrice et de brûlés de l'Hôpital Ibn Sina de Rabat à travers laquelle ils étudient les caractéristiques épidémiologiques, cliniques et thérapeutiques. Tous les patients étaient des adultes de sexe masculin dont l'âge moyen était de 31 ans. Dans 70% des cas, ces brûlures étaient secondaires à un contact avec les distributeurs d'électricité avec une surface brûlée inférieure à 20%. Le traitement des lésions électrothermiques a nécessité des interventions itératives avec amputation des segments de membres nécrosés dans 70% des cas, dont les suites étaient marquées par des séquelles fonctionnelles invalidantes. La prévention des AEHT, en particulier pour les accidents du travail au sein des professions exposées, reste fondamentale. PMID:21991124

  7. An algorithm for generating abstract syntax trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noonan, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The notion of an abstract syntax is discussed. An algorithm is presented for automatically deriving an abstract syntax directly from a BNF grammar. The implementation of this algorithm and its application to the grammar for Modula are discussed.

  8. Abstracted model for ceramic coating

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J C; Stockman, C

    1998-11-14

    Engineers are exploring several mechanisms to delay corrosive attack of the CAM (corrosion allowance material) by dripping water, including drip shields and ceramic coatings. Ceramic coatings deposited with high-velocity oxyfuels (HVOF's) have exhibited a porosity of only 2% at a thickness of 0.15 cm. The primary goal of this document is to provide a detailed description of an abstracted process-level model for Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) that has been developed to account for the inhibition of corrosion by protective ceramic coatings. A second goal was to address as many of the issues raised during a recent peer review as possible (direct reaction of liquid water with carbon steel, stress corrosion cracking of the ceramic coating, bending stresses in coatings of finite thickness, limitations of simple correction factors, etc.). During the periods of dry oxidation (T ≥ 100°C) and humid-air corrosion (T ≤ 100°C & RH < 8O%), it is assumed that the growth rate of oxide on the surface is diminished in proportion to the surface covered by solid ceramic. The mass transfer impedance imposed by a ceramic coating with gas-filled pores is assumed to be negligible. During the period of aqueous phase corrosion (T ≤ 100°C & RH ≥ 80%), it is assumed that the overall mass transfer resistance governing the corrosion rate is due to the combined resistance of ceramic coating & interfacial corrosion products. Two porosity models (simple cylinder & cylinder-sphere chain) are considered in estimation of the mass transfer resistance of the ceramic coating. It is evident that substantial impedance to 0₂ transport is encountered if pores are filled with liquid water. It may be possible to use a sealant to eliminate porosity. Spallation (rupture) of the ceramic coating is assumed to occur if the stress introduced by the expanding corrosion products at the ceramic- CAM interface exceeds fracture stress. Since this model does not account for the possibility of

  9. CRISPR/Cas9 mediates efficient conditional mutagenesis in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhaoyu; Wu, Menghua; Wen, Kejia; Ren, Menda; Long, Li; Zhang, Xuedi; Gao, Guanjun

    2014-11-01

    Existing transgenic RNA interference (RNAi) methods greatly facilitate functional genome studies via controlled silencing of targeted mRNA in Drosophila. Although the RNAi approach is extremely powerful, concerns still linger about its low efficiency. Here, we developed a CRISPR/Cas9-mediated conditional mutagenesis system by combining tissue-specific expression of Cas9 driven by the Gal4/upstream activating site system with various ubiquitously expressed guide RNA transgenes to effectively inactivate gene expression in a temporally and spatially controlled manner. Furthermore, by including multiple guide RNAs in a transgenic vector to target a single gene, we achieved a high degree of gene mutagenesis in specific tissues. The CRISPR/Cas9-mediated conditional mutagenesis system provides a simple and effective tool for gene function analysis, and complements the existing RNAi approach. PMID:25193494

  10. CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Editing in Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Andrey, Guillaume; Spielmann, Malte

    2017-01-01

    Targeted mutagenesis is required to evaluate the function of DNA segments across the genome. In recent years the CRISPR/Cas9 technology has been widely used for functional genome studies and is partially replacing classical homologous recombination methods in different aspects. CRISPR/Cas9-derived tools indeed allow the production of a wide-range of engineered mutations: from point mutations to large chromosomal rearrangements such as deletions, duplications and inversions. Here we present a protocol to engineer Embryonic Stem Cells (ESC) with desired mutations using transfection of custom-made CRISPR/Cas9 vectors. These methods allow the in vivo modeling of congenital mutations and the functional interrogation of DNA sequences. PMID:27662879

  11. Genome engineering using CRISPR-Cas9 system.

    PubMed

    Cong, Le; Zhang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 system is an adaptive immune system that exists in a variety of microbes. It could be engineered to function in eukaryotic cells as a fast, low-cost, efficient, and scalable tool for manipulating genomic sequences. In this chapter, detailed protocols are described for harnessing the CRISPR-Cas9 system from Streptococcus pyogenes to enable RNA-guided genome engineering applications in mammalian cells. We present all relevant methods including the initial site selection, molecular cloning, delivery of guide RNAs (gRNAs) and Cas9 into mammalian cells, verification of target cleavage, and assays for detecting genomic modification including indels and homologous recombination. These tools provide researchers with new instruments that accelerate both forward and reverse genetics efforts.

  12. CRISPR-Cas adaptation: insights into the mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Amitai, Gil; Sorek, Rotem

    2016-02-01

    Since the first demonstration that CRISPR-Cas systems provide bacteria and archaea with adaptive immunity against phages and plasmids, numerous studies have yielded key insights into the molecular mechanisms governing how these systems attack and degrade foreign DNA. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptation stage, in which new immunological memory is formed, have until recently represented a major unresolved question. In this Progress article, we discuss recent discoveries that have shown both how foreign DNA is identified by the CRISPR-Cas adaptation machinery and the molecular basis for its integration into the chromosome to form an immunological memory. Furthermore, we describe the roles of each of the specific CRISPR-Cas components that are involved in memory formation, and consider current models for their evolutionary origin.

  13. Harnessing CRISPR-Cas systems for bacterial genome editing.

    PubMed

    Selle, Kurt; Barrangou, Rodolphe

    2015-04-01

    Manipulation of genomic sequences facilitates the identification and characterization of key genetic determinants in the investigation of biological processes. Genome editing via clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated (Cas) constitutes a next-generation method for programmable and high-throughput functional genomics. CRISPR-Cas systems are readily reprogrammed to induce sequence-specific DNA breaks at target loci, resulting in fixed mutations via host-dependent DNA repair mechanisms. Although bacterial genome editing is a relatively unexplored and underrepresented application of CRISPR-Cas systems, recent studies provide valuable insights for the widespread future implementation of this technology. This review summarizes recent progress in bacterial genome editing and identifies fundamental genetic and phenotypic outcomes of CRISPR targeting in bacteria, in the context of tool development, genome homeostasis, and DNA repair.

  14. Structure Principles of CRISPR-Cas Surveillance and Effector Complexes.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Tsz Kin Martin; Li, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The pathway of CRISPR-Cas immunity redefines the roles of RNA in the flow of genetic information and ignites excitement for next-generation gene therapy tools. CRISPR-Cas machineries offer a fascinating set of new enzyme assemblies from which one can learn principles of molecular interactions and chemical activities. The interference step of the CRISPR-Cas immunity pathway congregates proteins, RNA, and DNA into a single molecular entity that selectively destroys invading nucleic acids. Although much remains to be discovered, a picture of how the interference process takes place is emerging. This review focuses on the current structural data for the three known types of RNA-guided nucleic acid interference mechanisms. In it, we describe key features of individual complexes and we emphasize comparisons across types and along functional stages. We aim to provide readers with a set of core principles learned from the three types of interference complexes and a deep appreciation of the diversity among them.

  15. CRISPR-Cas9: A Revolutionary Tool for Cancer Modelling.

    PubMed

    Torres-Ruiz, Raul; Rodriguez-Perales, Sandra

    2015-09-14

    The cancer-modelling field is now experiencing a conversion with the recent emergence of the RNA-programmable CRISPR-Cas9 system, a flexible methodology to produce essentially any desired modification in the genome. Cancer is a multistep process that involves many genetic mutations and other genome rearrangements. Despite their importance, it is difficult to recapitulate the degree of genetic complexity found in patient tumors. The CRISPR-Cas9 system for genome editing has been proven as a robust technology that makes it possible to generate cellular and animal models that recapitulate those cooperative alterations rapidly and at low cost. In this review, we will discuss the innovative applications of the CRISPR-Cas9 system to generate new models, providing a new way to interrogate the development and progression of cancers.

  16. Writing a Structured Abstract for the Thesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's suggestions on how to improve thesis abstracts. The author describes two books on writing abstracts: (1) "Creating Effective Conference Abstracts and Posters in Biomedicine: 500 tips for Success" (Fraser, Fuller & Hutber, 2009), a compendium of clear advice--a must book to have in one's hand as one prepares a…

  17. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  18. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  19. On abstract degenerate neutral differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Eduardo; O'Regan, Donal

    2016-10-01

    We introduce a new abstract model of functional differential equations, which we call abstract degenerate neutral differential equations, and we study the existence of strict solutions. The class of problems and the technical approach introduced in this paper allow us to generalize and extend recent results on abstract neutral differential equations. Some examples on nonlinear partial neutral differential equations are presented.

  20. At the HeART of Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berdit, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Abstraction has long been a concept difficult to define for students. Students often feel the pressure of making their artwork "look real" and frustration can often lead to burnout in the classroom. In this article, the author describes how her lesson on abstraction has alleviated much of that pressure as students created an abstract acrylic…

  1. 41 CFR 102-33.130 - If we hire CAS, what are our management responsibilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... responsible for— (a) Establishing agency-specific Flight Program Standards, as defined in §§ 102-33.140... your aircraft hired as CAS; and (d) Reporting the cost and usage data for your CAS hires (for...

  2. 41 CFR 102-33.130 - If we hire CAS, what are our management responsibilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... responsible for— (a) Establishing agency-specific Flight Program Standards, as defined in §§ 102-33.140... your aircraft hired as CAS; and (d) Reporting the cost and usage data for your CAS hires (for...

  3. Ultra-superovulation for the CRISPR-Cas9-mediated production of gene-knockout, single-amino-acid-substituted, and floxed mice

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Yoshiko; Nishimichi, Norihisa; Yokosaki, Yasuyuki; Yanaka, Noriyuki; Takeo, Toru; Nakagata, Naomi; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Current advances in producing genetically modified mice using genome-editing technologies have indicated the need for improvement of limiting factors including zygote collection for microinjection and their cryopreservation. Recently, we developed a novel superovulation technique using inhibin antiserum and equine chorionic gonadotropin to promote follicle growth. This method enabled the increased production of fertilized oocytes via in vitro fertilization compared with the conventional superovulation method. Here, we verify that the ultra-superovulation technique can be used for the efficient generation of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9)-mediated knockout mice by microinjection of plasmid vector or ribonucleoprotein into zygotes. We also investigated whether single-amino-acid-substituted mice and conditional knockout mice could be generated. Founder mice bearing base substitutions were generated more efficiently by co-microinjection of Cas9 protein, a guide RNA and single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide (ssODN) than by plasmid microinjection with ssODN. The conditional allele was successfully introduced by the one-step insertion of an ssODN designed to carry an exon flanked by two loxP sequences and homology arms using a double-cut CRISPR-Cas9 strategy. Our study presents a useful method for the CRISPR-Cas9-based generation of genetically modified mice from the viewpoints of animal welfare and work efficiency. PMID:27387532

  4. Observational Activities at Manipur University, India (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, K. Y.; Meitei, I. A.; Singh, S. A.; Singh, R. B.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) We have innovatively designed and constructed three observatories each costing a few hundred USD for housing three small Schmidt-Cassegrain type telescopes namely, Celestron CGE925, Celestron CGE1400, Meade 12-inch LX200GPS. These observatories are completely different in design and are found to be perfectly usable for doing serious work on astronomical observation and measurements. The observatory with the Celestron CGE1400 telescope has been inducted, since January 2012, as one of the observatories of the international “Orion Project” headquartered at Phoenix, Arizona, which is dedicated for photometric and spectroscopic observations of five bright variable stars of the Orion constellation namely, Betelgeuse (alpha Ori), Rigel (beta Ori), Mintaka (delta Ori), Alnilam (epsilon Ori) and Alnitak (zeta Ori). Using this observatory, we have been producing BVRI photometric data for the five stars of the Orion project. The other observatory with the Meade 12-inch LX200GPS telescope is being inducted into service for CCD photometric study of SU UMa stars in connection with implementation of a project funded by Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). In the present paper, we would like to describe our self-built observatories, our observational facilities, the BVRI photometric data that we acquired for the Orion project, and our future plan for observation of variable stars of interest.

  5. Abstract User Interfaces for Mobile Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaplata, Sonja; Vilenica, Ante; Bade, Dirk; Kunze, Christian P.

    An important focus of recent business process management systems is on the distributed, self-contained and even disconnected execution of processes involving mobile devices. Such an execution context leads to the class of mobile processes which are able to migrate between mobile and stationary devices in order to share functionalities and resources provided by the entire (mobile) environment. However, both the description and the execution of tasks which involve interactions of mobile users still require the executing device and its context to be known in advance in order to come up with a suitable user interface. Since this seems not appropriate for such decentralized and highly dynamic mobile processes, this work focuses on the integration of manual tasks on the respective ad-hoc creation of user interfaces at runtime. As an important prerequisite for that, this paper first presents an abstract and modality-independent interaction model to support the development and execution of user-centric mobile processes. Furthermore, the paper describes a prototype implementation for a corresponding system infrastructure component based on a service-oriented execution module, and, finally, shows its integration into the DEMAC (Distributed Environment for Mobility-Aware Computing) middleware.

  6. Abstract models of molecular walkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Oleg

    Recent advances in single-molecule chemistry have led to designs for artificial multi-pedal walkers that follow tracks of chemicals. The walkers, called molecular spiders, consist of a rigid chemically inert body and several flexible enzymatic legs. The legs can reversibly bind to chemical substrates on a surface, and through their enzymatic action convert them to products. We study abstract models of molecular spiders to evaluate how efficiently they can perform two tasks: molecular transport of cargo over tracks and search for targets on finite surfaces. For the single-spider model our simulations show a transient behavior wherein certain spiders move superdiffusively over significant distances and times. This gives the spiders potential as a faster-than-diffusion transport mechanism. However, analysis shows that single-spider motion eventually decays into an ordinary diffusive motion, owing to the ever increasing size of the region of products. Inspired by cooperative behavior of natural molecular walkers, we propose a symmetric exclusion process (SEP) model for multiple walkers interacting as they move over a one-dimensional lattice. We show that when walkers are sequentially released from the origin, the collective effect is to prevent the leading walkers from moving too far backwards. Hence, there is an effective outward pressure on the leading walkers that keeps them moving superdiffusively for longer times. Despite this improvement the leading spider eventually slows down and moves diffusively, similarly to a single spider. The slowdown happens because all spiders behind the leading spiders never encounter substrates, and thus they are never biased. They cannot keep up with leading spiders, and cannot put enough pressure on them. Next, we investigate search properties of a single and multiple spiders moving over one- and two-dimensional surfaces with various absorbing and reflecting boundaries. For the single-spider model we evaluate by how much the

  7. Cas9 gRNA engineering for genome editing, activation and repression

    PubMed Central

    Kiani, Samira; Chavez, Alejandro; Tuttle, Marcelle; Hall, Richard N; Chari, Raj; Ter-Ovanesyan, Dmitry; Qian, Jason; Pruitt, Benjamin W; Beal, Jacob; Vora, Suhani; Buchthal, Joanna; Kowal, Emma J K; Ebrahimkhani, Mohammad R; Collins, James J; Weiss, Ron; Church, George

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that by altering the length of Cas9-associated guide RNA(gRNA) we were able to control Cas9 nuclease activity and simultaneously perform genome editing and transcriptional regulation with a single Cas9 protein. We exploited these principles to engineer mammalian synthetic circuits with combined transcriptional regulation and kill functions governed by a single multifunctional Cas9 protein. PMID:26344044

  8. Cas9 gRNA engineering for genome editing, activation and repression.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Samira; Chavez, Alejandro; Tuttle, Marcelle; Hall, Richard N; Chari, Raj; Ter-Ovanesyan, Dmitry; Qian, Jason; Pruitt, Benjamin W; Beal, Jacob; Vora, Suhani; Buchthal, Joanna; Kowal, Emma J K; Ebrahimkhani, Mohammad R; Collins, James J; Weiss, Ron; Church, George

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate that by altering the length of Cas9-associated guide RNA (gRNA) we were able to control Cas9 nuclease activity and simultaneously perform genome editing and transcriptional regulation with a single Cas9 protein. We exploited these principles to engineer mammalian synthetic circuits with combined transcriptional regulation and kill functions governed by a single multifunctional Cas9 protein. PMID:26344044

  9. Les sarcomes des tissus mous: à propos de 33 cas

    PubMed Central

    Abdou, Jiddou; Elkabous, Mustapha; M'rabti, Hind; Errihani, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    L'objectif de cette étude est de rapporter les particularités épidémiologiques, cliniques, histologiques, thérapeutiques et évolutives des sarcomes des tissus mous à l'Institut National d'Oncologie et de définir les facteurs influençant la survie des patients. C'est une étude rétrospective de 33 cas de sarcome des tissus mous, colligés entre janvier 2008 et décembre 2010. Les critères d’éligibilité étaient un âge supérieur à 16 ans, une épreuve histologique d'un sarcome des tissus mous à l'exclusion des tumeurs stromales gastro-intestinales (GIST). Les items recueillis étaient: épidémiologiques, cliniques, histologiques, Radiologiques, et thérapeutiques. Des analyses univariées puis multivariées ont été réalisées à la recherche de facteurs influençant la survie à 2 ans. Il s'agit de 33 cas, 17 Hommes et 16 Femmes, l’âge moyen était de 43,21 ans (Extrêmes= 18-76 ans). La tumeur était localisée aux extrémités dans 24 cas (72,72%). Le type histologique prédominant était le Liposarcome dans 9 cas (27,27%). Le stade tumoral était localisé dans 25 cas (75,8%), métastatique dans 8 cas (24,2%). Vingt-cinq tumeurs ont été traitées chirurgicalement dont 21 cas (84%) de chirurgie conservatrice et 4 cas (16%) de chirurgie radicale. La radiothérapie a été réalisée chez 10 patients (30,3%). La chimiothérapie a été faite chez 20 patients. En analyse univariée les facteurs pronostiques étaient l’âge (p=0,03) et le stade tumoral (p=0,09). L’âge et le stade tumoral sont des facteurs pronostiques influençant la survie des sarcomes des tissus mous. PMID:27022434

  10. Expanding the Biologist's Toolkit with CRISPR-Cas9.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Samuel H; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2015-05-21

    Few discoveries transform a discipline overnight, but biologists today can manipulate cells in ways never possible before, thanks to a peculiar form of prokaryotic adaptive immunity mediated by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR). From elegant studies that deciphered how these immune systems function in bacteria, researchers quickly uncovered the technological potential of Cas9, an RNA-guided DNA cleaving enzyme, for genome engineering. Here we highlight the recent explosion in visionary applications of CRISPR-Cas9 that promises to usher in a new era of biological understanding and control.

  11. Applications of CRISPR-Cas systems in neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Heidenreich, Matthias; Zhang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Genome-editing tools, and in particular those based on CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein) systems, are accelerating the pace of biological research and enabling targeted genetic interrogation in almost any organism and cell type. These tools have opened the door to the development of new model systems for studying the complexity of the nervous system, including animal models and stem cell-derived in vitro models. Precise and efficient gene editing using CRISPR-Cas systems has the potential to advance both basic and translational neuroscience research.

  12. Mouse Genome Editing using CRISPR/Cas System

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Donald W; Quadros, Rolen M; Seruggia, Davide; Ohtsuka, Masato; Takahashi, Gou

    2015-01-01

    The availability of techniques to create desired genetic mutations has enabled the laboratory mouse as an extensively used model organism in biomedical research including human genetics. A new addition to this existing technical repertoire is the CRISPR/Cas system. Specifically, this system allows editing of the mouse genome much faster than the previously used techniques and more importantly multiple mutations can be created in a single experiment. Here we provide protocols for preparation of CRISPR/Cas reagents and microinjection into one cell mouse embryos to create knockout or knock-in mouse models. PMID:25271839

  13. Applications of CRISPR-Cas9 mediated genome engineering.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Targeted mutagenesis based on homologous recombination has been a powerful tool for understanding the mechanisms underlying development, normal physiology, and disease. A recent breakthrough in genome engineering technology based on the class of RNA-guided endonucleases, such as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated Cas9, is further revolutionizing biology and medical studies. The simplicity of the CRISPR-Cas9 system has enabled its widespread applications in generating germline animal models, somatic genome engineering, and functional genomic screening and in treating genetic and infectious diseases. This technology will likely be used in all fields of biomedicine, ranging from basic research to human gene therapy.

  14. Research & writing basics: elements of the abstract.

    PubMed

    Krasner, D; Van Rijswijk, L

    1995-04-01

    Writing an abstract is a challenging skill that requires precision and care. Criteria for well-formulated abstracts and abstract guidelines for 2 types of articles (empirical studies and reviews or theoretical articles) as well as a description of the content of a structured abstract are presented. Details were gleaned from a review of the literature including the American Medical Association Manual of Style, Eighth Edition and the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Fourth Edition. A good abstract is like a crystal: it is a clear, sharp synthesis that elucidates meaning for the reader.

  15. Research & writing basics: elements of the abstract.

    PubMed

    Krasner, D; Van Rijswijk, L

    1995-04-01

    Writing an abstract is a challenging skill that requires precision and care. Criteria for well-formulated abstracts and abstract guidelines for 2 types of articles (empirical studies and reviews or theoretical articles) as well as a description of the content of a structured abstract are presented. Details were gleaned from a review of the literature including the American Medical Association Manual of Style, Eighth Edition and the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Fourth Edition. A good abstract is like a crystal: it is a clear, sharp synthesis that elucidates meaning for the reader. PMID:7546111

  16. Le cavernome porte chez l'enfant: a propos de 11 cas

    PubMed Central

    Ilham, Tadmori; Mounia, Lakhdar Idrissi; Moustapha, Hida

    2014-01-01

    Le cavernome portal est la conséquence d'une occlusion chronique, du système porte extra-hépatique formé d'un réseau de veines dont le calibre est augmenté et au sein desquelles chemine un sang portal hépatopéte. Chez l'enfant, est une cause majeure d'hypertension portale dite «pré ou infra-hépatique» ou encore «extra-hépatique». Onze cas de cavernome porte parmi 78 cas d'hypertension portale ont été colligés au service sur une période allant du Janvier 2003 au Septembre 2012. L’âge de nos patients variait entre 2 et 15 ans et le sexe ratio est de 1,75. Tous nos patients étaient admis au stade d'hypertension portale avec la splénomégalie SMG (100% des cas); hémorragies digestives (63%); ascite (36%); la circulation veineuse collatérale CVC et l'hépatomégalie HMG (27%). L'exploration endoscopique a objectivé la présence de varices ‘sophagiennes dans tous les cas avec une gastropathie hypertensive dans 27% et des varices ectopiques chez 36%. Les perturbations biologiques étaient dominées par la pancytopénie. Le bilan de thrombophilie était demandé pour tous les malades mais réalisé mais n'est réalisé que chez trois revenus normaux chez deux et a objectivé une baisse de protéine S chez le troisième. L’échographie abdominale était le moyen de diagnostic positif et l’écho-doppler a confirmé l'HTP chez tous nos patients. Aucun de nos malades n'a pu être opéré pour le moment. La ligature a été réalisée chez 54,5%. Dix patients ont nécessité une transfusion sanguine. L’évolution globale de nos patients est favorable. La durée moyenne d’évolution du cavernome porte chez nos patients est de quatre ans. PMID:25870732

  17. CRISPR/Cas-Mediated Site-Specific Mutagenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana Using Cas9 Nucleases and Paired Nickases.

    PubMed

    Schiml, Simon; Fauser, Friedrich; Puchta, Holger

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas system has recently become the most important tool for genome engineering due to its simple architecture that allows for rapidly changing the target sequence and its applicability to organisms throughout all kingdoms of life. The need for an easy-to-use and reliable nuclease is especially high in plant research, as precise genome modifications are almost impossible to achieve by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and the regeneration of plants from protoplast cultures is very labor intensive. Here, we describe the application of the Cas9 nuclease to Arabidopsis thaliana for the induction of heritable targeted mutations, which may also be used for other plant species. To cover the concern for off-target activity, we also describe the generation of stable mutants using paired Cas9 nickases. PMID:27557689

  18. The role of Cas8 in type I CRISPR interference.

    PubMed

    Cass, Simon D B; Haas, Karina A; Stoll, Britta; Alkhnbashi, Omer S; Sharma, Kundan; Urlaub, Henning; Backofen, Rolf; Marchfelder, Anita; Bolt, Edward L

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat) systems provide bacteria and archaea with adaptive immunity to repel invasive genetic elements. Type I systems use 'cascade' [CRISPR-associated (Cas) complex for antiviral defence] ribonucleoprotein complexes to target invader DNA, by base pairing CRISPR RNA (crRNA) to protospacers. Cascade identifies PAMs (protospacer adjacent motifs) on invader DNA, triggering R-loop formation and subsequent DNA degradation by Cas3. Cas8 is a candidate PAM recognition factor in some cascades. We analysed Cas8 homologues from type IB CRISPR systems in archaea Haloferax volcanii (Hvo) and Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus (Mth). Cas8 was essential for CRISPR interference in Hvo and purified Mth Cas8 protein responded to PAM sequence when binding to nucleic acids. Cas8 interacted physically with Cas5-Cas7-crRNA complex, stimulating binding to PAM containing substrates. Mutation of conserved Cas8 amino acid residues abolished interference in vivo and altered catalytic activity of Cas8 protein in vitro. This is experimental evidence that Cas8 is important for targeting Cascade to invader DNA. PMID:26182359

  19. The role of Cas8 in type I CRISPR interference

    PubMed Central

    Cass, Simon D.B.; Haas, Karina A.; Stoll, Britta; Alkhnbashi, Omer S.; Sharma, Kundan; Urlaub, Henning; Backofen, Rolf; Marchfelder, Anita; Bolt, Edward L.

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat) systems provide bacteria and archaea with adaptive immunity to repel invasive genetic elements. Type I systems use ‘cascade’ [CRISPR-associated (Cas) complex for antiviral defence] ribonucleoprotein complexes to target invader DNA, by base pairing CRISPR RNA (crRNA) to protospacers. Cascade identifies PAMs (protospacer adjacent motifs) on invader DNA, triggering R-loop formation and subsequent DNA degradation by Cas3. Cas8 is a candidate PAM recognition factor in some cascades. We analysed Cas8 homologues from type IB CRISPR systems in archaea Haloferax volcanii (Hvo) and Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus (Mth). Cas8 was essential for CRISPR interference in Hvo and purified Mth Cas8 protein responded to PAM sequence when binding to nucleic acids. Cas8 interacted physically with Cas5–Cas7–crRNA complex, stimulating binding to PAM containing substrates. Mutation of conserved Cas8 amino acid residues abolished interference in vivo and altered catalytic activity of Cas8 protein in vitro. This is experimental evidence that Cas8 is important for targeting Cascade to invader DNA. PMID:26182359

  20. How Do Traditional Examination Questions Fare in the Presence of a Computer Algebra System (CAS)?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malabar, Ian; Pountney, Dave

    2001-01-01

    Describes the outcomes and discusses possible implications for the development of assessment with a Computer Algebra System (CAS) when a group of undergraduate mathematics students, familiar with using a CAS in examinations, tackled an assortment of traditional (i.e., non-CAS type) questions. (Author/MM)

  1. 48 CFR 9904.412-64.1 - Transition Method for the CAS Pension Harmonization Rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CAS Pension Harmonization Rule. 9904.412-64.1 Section 9904.412-64.1 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Transition Method for the CAS Pension Harmonization Rule. Contractors or subcontractors that become subject... through 7 Notes (Note 1) Actuarial Accrued Liability $2,470,500 $14,225,000 2 CAS Actuarial Value...

  2. 48 CFR 9904.412-64.1 - Transition Method for the CAS Pension Harmonization Rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CAS Pension Harmonization Rule. 9904.412-64.1 Section 9904.412-64.1 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Transition Method for the CAS Pension Harmonization Rule. Contractors or subcontractors that become subject... through 7 Notes (Note 1) Actuarial Accrued Liability $2,470,500 $14,225,000 2 CAS Actuarial Value...

  3. 48 CFR 9904.413-64.1 - Transition Method for the CAS Pension Harmonization Rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CAS Pension Harmonization Rule. 9904.413-64.1 Section 9904.413-64.1 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Transition Method for the CAS Pension Harmonization Rule. The transition method for the CAS Pension Harmonization Rule under this Standard shall be in accordance with 9904.412.64.1 Transition Method for...

  4. 48 CFR 9904.413-64.1 - Transition Method for the CAS Pension Harmonization Rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CAS Pension Harmonization Rule. 9904.413-64.1 Section 9904.413-64.1 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Transition Method for the CAS Pension Harmonization Rule. The transition method for the CAS Pension Harmonization Rule under this Standard shall be in accordance with 9904.412.64.1 Transition Method for...

  5. 48 CFR 9904.413-64.1 - Transition Method for the CAS Pension Harmonization Rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CAS Pension Harmonization Rule. 9904.413-64.1 Section 9904.413-64.1 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Transition Method for the CAS Pension Harmonization Rule. The transition method for the CAS Pension Harmonization Rule under this Standard shall be in accordance with 9904.412.64.1 Transition Method for...

  6. 76 FR 40817 - Cost Accounting Standards: Change to the CAS Applicability Threshold for the Inflation Adjustment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... to the CAS Applicability Threshold for the Inflation Adjustment to the Truth in Negotiations Act... revising the threshold for the application of CAS from ``$650,000'' to ``the Truth in Negotiations Act... are open for comment. Simply type ``CAS-TINA Threshold'' (without quotation marks) in the Comment...

  7. On the Integration of Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) by Canadian Mathematicians: Results of a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buteau, Chantal; Jarvis, Daniel H.; Lavicza, Zsolt

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we outline the findings of a Canadian survey study (N = 302) that focused on the extent of computer algebra systems (CAS)-based technology use in postsecondary mathematics instruction. Results suggest that a considerable number of Canadian mathematicians use CAS in research and teaching. CAS use in research was found to be the…

  8. Mismatch Negativity Responses in Children with a Diagnosis of Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froud, Karen; Khamis-Dakwar, Reem

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether a hypothesis suggesting that apraxia of speech results from phonological overspecification could be relevant for childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Method: High-density EEG was recorded from 5 children with CAS and 5 matched controls, ages 5-8 years, with and without CAS, as they listened to randomized sequences of CV…

  9. The Impact on Student Achievement of When CAS Technology Is Introduced

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driver, David

    2012-01-01

    When a Computer Algebra System (CAS) is used as a pedagogical and functional tool in class and as a functional tool in exams, its effect on student achievement can be quite profound. The timing of when students are first introduced to a CAS has an impact on gains in student achievement. In this action research project, the CAS calculator was…

  10. La maladie de Wilson chez l'enfant: à propos de 20 cas

    PubMed Central

    Idrissi, Mounia Lakhdar; Babakhoya, Abdeladim; Khabbache, Kawtar; Souilmi, Fatimzohra; Benmiloud, Sara; Abourrazak, Sanae; Chaouki, Sanae; Atmani, Samir; Bouharrou, Abdelhak; Hida, Moustapha

    2013-01-01

    La maladie de Wilson ou dégénérescence hépato-lenticulaire est une affection génétique autosomique récessive caractérisée par une accumulation toxique de cuivre dans l'organisme, essentiellement dans le foie, le système nerveux central et la cornée. L'objectif de ce travail était de soulever les difficultés diagnostiques et thérapeutiques dans la prise en charge de la maladie de Wilson dans notre contexte. Nous avons réalisé une étude rétrospective portant sur 20 cas de maladie de Wilson colligés au sein du service de pédiatrie du CHU HASSAN II de Fès sur une période de 7 ans et demi. Il s'agit de 13 garçons et 7 filles dont l’âge moyen est de 9 ans avec des extrêmes allant de 5 à 13 ans. La consanguinité est retrouvée chez 13 malades. Sur le plan clinique, l'ictère est noté dans 13 cas, un syndrome oedémateux est retrouvé dans 13 cas aussi et un syndrome hémorragique dans 6 cas. Les signes neurologiques sont présents dans 7cas. Trois enfants étaient asymptomatiques diagnostiqués à l'occasion d'un dépistage. Sur le plan biologique les signes d'insuffisance hépatocellulaire sont retrouvés chez 17 malades avec une cytolyse dans 8 cas. Une anémie hémolytique est retrouvée chez 8 malades (soit 40%). La céruléoplasminémie est abaissée chez 17 malades, la cuprurie réalisée chez 19 malades s'est révélée augmentée chez 17 soit 89,4%. L'anneau de Kayser- Fleischer est retrouvé chez 14 patients. L’échographie abdominale a montré des signes d'hypertension portale (HTP) sur foie de cirrhose chez 16 malades soit 80%. La D pénicillamine est instaurée chez 17 patients et trois sont mis sous sulfate de zinc. Trois malades ont bénéficié de la vitamine B6. L’évolution est favorable chez 11 malades avec un recul moyen de 3 ans. Nous déplorons 4 décès chez des malades ayant consulté au stade de cirrhose décompensé. Le pronostic de la maladie de Wilson dépend de la précocité du traitement. Le dépistage chez

  11. Apport de l'imagerie dans le diagnostic des sacroiliites infectieuses : à propos de 19 cas

    PubMed Central

    Abid, Hanen; Chaabouni, Salim; Frikha, Faten; Toumi, Nozha; Souissi, Basma; Lahiani, Dorra; Bahloul, Zouhir; Ben Mahfoudh, Khaireddine

    2014-01-01

    Les sacro-iliites infectieuses méritent d’être mieux connues. Leur diagnostic est souvent retardé en raison d'une symptomatologie trompeuse et des diffcultés d'exploration de l'articulation sacro-iliaque. Notre travail est basé sur une étude rétrospective portant sur les cas de SII, recueillis sur une période comprise entre 1997 et 2008 dans notre centre universitaire Sfax-Tunisie. Le diagnostic de sacro-iliite était retenu en présence d'arguments cliniques et radiologiques d'atteinte sacroiliaque. Nous rapportons dix neuf cas de sacroiliites infectieuses (10 hommes et 9 femmes), avec un âge moyen de 32 ans. L'atteinte était unilatérale dans tous les cas. Les radiographies standard faites dans tous les cas ont été suggestives dans 14 cas et normales dans les autres cas. La TDM faite dans 13 cas a montré, un abcès des parties molles dans 8 cas et un séquestre osseux dans 2 cas. L'IRM réalisée dans 8 cas, a objectivé une infiltration des parties molles dans tous les cas et un abcès dans 3 cas. Le germe a été identifié dans 9 cas (3 cas de tuberculose, 3 cas de brucellose, 2 sacro-iliites à pyogène et un cas de candidose). Cette identification était faite par biopsie dans 3 cas, hémocultures dans 2 cas, prélèvement au niveau de la porte d'entrée dans 1 cas et sérodiagnostic dans 3 cas. Pour les autres cas, l'origine pyogène a été retenue sur des arguments cliniques et biologiques. L'imagerie joue un rôle primordial dans le diagnostic précoce et l'orientation étiologique d'une sacroiliite infectieuse. PMID:25120884

  12. Fire Technology Abstracts, volume 4, issue 1, August, 1981

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtschlag, L. J.; Kuvshinoff, B. W.; Jernigan, J. B.

    This bibliography contains over 400 citations with abstracts addressing various aspects of fire technology. Subjects cover the dynamics of fire, behavior and properties of materials, fire modeling and test burns, fire protection, fire safety, fire service organization, apparatus and equipment, fire prevention, suppression, planning, human behavior, medical problems, codes and standards, hazard identification, safe handling of materials, insurance, economics of loss and prevention, and more.

  13. Les fistules œsotrachéales congénitales isolées à propos de 2 cas

    PubMed Central

    El Biache, Imad; Lechqar, Maryem; Rami, Mohammed; Bouabdallah, Youssef

    2014-01-01

    Les auteurs rapportent 2 cas de fistules oesotrachéales isolées sans atrésie de l'oesophage, colligés au service de chirurgie pédiatrique au CHU Hassan II de Fès au Maroc entre 2008 et 2013. Il s'agit d'une anomalie rare représentée par un fin canal ascendant entre l'oesophage et la face postérieure de la trachée, à la hauteur du défilé cervico-thoracique. Elle se manifeste cliniquement par une symptomatologie respiratoire parfois digestive. Le diagnostic a été confirmé par le transit oesophagien dans les 2 cas et a permis aussi de déterminer le siège de la fistule. Le traitement était chirurgical, il a permis de supprimer la communication anormale entre l'oesophage et la trachée par un abord cervical avec interposition musculaire dans les 2 cas. Les suites post-opératoires et l’évolution à long terme étaient simples. Le but de ce travail est d'exposer les différents moyens diagnostique et thérapeutique. PMID:25328600

  14. CRISPR-Cas and Restriction-Modification Act Additively against Conjugative Antibiotic Resistance Plasmid Transfer in Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Price, Valerie J.; Huo, Wenwen; Sharifi, Ardalan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enterococcus faecalis is an opportunistic pathogen and a leading cause of nosocomial infections. Conjugative pheromone-responsive plasmids are narrow-host-range mobile genetic elements (MGEs) that are rapid disseminators of antibiotic resistance in the faecalis species. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas and restriction-modification confer acquired and innate immunity, respectively, against MGE acquisition in bacteria. Most multidrug-resistant E. faecalis isolates lack CRISPR-Cas and possess an orphan locus lacking cas genes, CRISPR2, that is of unknown function. Little is known about restriction-modification defense in E. faecalis. Here, we explore the hypothesis that multidrug-resistant E. faecalis strains are immunocompromised. We assessed MGE acquisition by E. faecalis T11, a strain closely related to the multidrug-resistant hospital isolate V583 but which lacks the ~620 kb of horizontally acquired genome content that characterizes V583. T11 possesses the E. faecalis CRISPR3-cas locus and a predicted restriction-modification system, neither of which occurs in V583. We demonstrate that CRISPR-Cas and restriction-modification together confer a 4-log reduction in acquisition of the pheromone-responsive plasmid pAM714 in biofilm matings. Additionally, we show that the orphan CRISPR2 locus is functional for genome defense against another pheromone-responsive plasmid, pCF10, only in the presence of cas9 derived from the E. faecalis CRISPR1-cas locus, which most multidrug-resistant E. faecalis isolates lack. Overall, our work demonstrated that the loss of only two loci led to a dramatic reduction in genome defense against a clinically relevant MGE, highlighting the critical importance of the E. faecalis accessory genome in modulating horizontal gene transfer. Our results rationalize the development of antimicrobial strategies that capitalize upon the immunocompromised status of multidrug-resistant E

  15. Genome Editing with CRISPR-Cas9: Can It Get Any Better?

    PubMed

    Haeussler, Maximilian; Concordet, Jean-Paul

    2016-05-20

    The CRISPR-Cas revolution is taking place in virtually all fields of life sciences. Harnessing DNA cleavage with the CRISPR-Cas9 system of Streptococcus pyogenes has proven to be extraordinarily simple and efficient, relying only on the design of a synthetic single guide RNA (sgRNA) and its co-expression with Cas9. Here, we review the progress in the design of sgRNA from the original dual RNA guide for S. pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 (SpCas9 and SaCas9). New assays for genome-wide identification of off-targets have provided important insights into the issue of cleavage specificity in vivo. At the same time, the on-target activity of thousands of guides has been determined. These data have led to numerous online tools that facilitate the selection of guide RNAs in target sequences. It appears that for most basic research applications, cleavage activity can be maximized and off-targets minimized by carefully choosing guide RNAs based on computational predictions. Moreover, recent studies of Cas proteins have further improved the flexibility and precision of the CRISPR-Cas toolkit for genome editing. Inspired by the crystal structure of the complex of sgRNA-SpCas9 bound to target DNA, several variants of SpCas9 have recently been engineered, either with novel protospacer adjacent motifs (PAMs) or with drastically reduced off-targets. Novel Cas9 and Cas9-like proteins called Cpf1 have also been characterized from other bacteria and will benefit from the insights obtained from SpCas9. Genome editing with CRISPR-Cas9 may also progress with better understanding and control of cellular DNA repair pathways activated after Cas9-induced DNA cleavage.

  16. CRISPR-Cas9 Genome Editing in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Gratz, Scott J; Rubinstein, C Dustin; Harrison, Melissa M; Wildonger, Jill; O'Connor-Giles, Kate M

    2015-01-01

    The CRISPR-Cas9 system has transformed genome engineering of model organisms from possible to practical. CRISPR-Cas9 can be readily programmed to generate sequence-specific double-strand breaks that disrupt targeted loci when repaired by error-prone non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or to catalyze precise genome modification through homology-directed repair (HDR). Here we describe a streamlined approach for rapid and highly efficient engineering of the Drosophila genome via CRISPR-Cas9-mediated HDR. In this approach, transgenic flies expressing Cas9 are injected with plasmids to express guide RNAs (gRNAs) and positively marked donor templates. We detail target-site selection; gRNA plasmid generation; donor template design and construction; and the generation, identification, and molecular confirmation of engineered lines. We also present alternative approaches and highlight key considerations for experimental design. The approach outlined here can be used to rapidly and reliably generate a variety of engineered modifications, including genomic deletions and replacements, precise sequence edits, and incorporation of protein tags. PMID:26131852

  17. Preparing Students to Take SOA/CAS Exam FM/2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchand, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides suggestions for preparing students to take the actuarial examination on financial mathematics, SOA/CAS Exam FM/2. It is based on current practices employed at Slippery Rock University, a small public liberal arts university. Detailed descriptions of our Theory of Interest course and subsequent Exam FM/2 prep course are provided…

  18. New Insight in Mathematics by Live CAS Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cnop, Ivan

    Traditional education in mathematics is mostly a matter of hindsight, and many mathematics texts offer little opportunity for students and learners to gain insight. This paper shows how experiments in CAS (computer algebra systems) can lead to new ways of handling problems, new conjectures, new visualizations, new proofs, new correspondences…

  19. 48 CFR 970.3002 - CAS program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false CAS program requirements. 970.3002 Section 970.3002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Cost Accounting Standards Administration...

  20. Cas9-based genome editing in Arabidopsis and tobacco.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Feng; Zhang, Dandan; Sheen, Jen

    2014-01-01

    Targeted modification of plant genome is key to elucidating and manipulating gene functions in plant research and biotechnology. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) technology is emerging as a powerful genome-editing method in diverse plants that traditionally lacked facile and versatile tools for targeted genetic engineering. This technology utilizes easily reprogrammable guide RNAs (sgRNAs) to direct Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 endonuclease to generate DNA double-stranded breaks in targeted genome sequences, which facilitates efficient mutagenesis by error-prone nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) or sequence replacement by homology-directed repair (HDR). In this chapter, we describe the procedure to design and evaluate dual sgRNAs for plant codon-optimized Cas9-mediated genome editing using mesophyll protoplasts as model cell systems in Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana. We also discuss future directions in sgRNA/Cas9 applications for generating targeted genome modifications and gene regulations in plants.

  1. Targeted mutagenesis in chicken using CRISPR/Cas9 system

    PubMed Central

    Oishi, Isao; Yoshii, Kyoko; Miyahara, Daichi; Kagami, Hiroshi; Tagami, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a simple and powerful tool for genome editing in various organisms including livestock animals. However, the system has not been applied to poultry because of the difficulty in accessing their zygotes. Here we report the implementation of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene targeting in chickens. Two egg white genes, ovalbumin and ovomucoid, were efficiently (>90%) mutagenized in cultured chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) by transfection of circular plasmids encoding Cas9, a single guide RNA, and a gene encoding drug resistance, followed by transient antibiotic selection. We transplanted CRISPR-induced mutant-ovomucoid PGCs into recipient chicken embryos and established three germline chimeric roosters (G0). All of the roosters had donor-derived mutant-ovomucoid spermatozoa, and the two with a high transmission rate of donor-derived gametes produced heterozygous mutant ovomucoid chickens as about half of their donor-derived offspring in the next generation (G1). Furthermore, we generated ovomucoid homozygous mutant offspring (G2) by crossing the G1 mutant chickens. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is a simple and effective gene-targeting method in chickens. PMID:27050479

  2. Does CAS Use Disadvantage Girls in VCE Mathematics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgasz, Helen; Tan, Hazel

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, four mathematics subjects were offered at the year 12 level in the Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE). The two subjects at the intermediate level--Mathematical Methods and Mathematical Methods CAS--run in parallel, that is, a student can be enrolled in only one or the other, the choice being made at the school level. The curricular…

  3. Prospective Mathematics Teachers' Interactions with CAS-Based Textbook Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Jon D.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how a group of 10 prospective secondary mathematics teachers (PST) read, evaluated, and adapted a textbook lesson involving the symbolic manipulation capabilities of computer algebra systems (CASS). PST read the entire lesson and tended to focus on the organizing question at the beginning of the student lesson and the CAS-S…

  4. Toward Whole-Transcriptome Editing with CRISPR-Cas9.

    PubMed

    Heckl, Dirk; Charpentier, Emmanuelle

    2015-05-21

    Targeted regulation of gene expression holds huge promise for biomedical research. In a series of recent publications (Gilbert et al., 2014; Konermann et al., 2015; Zalatan et al., 2015), sophisticated, multiplex-compatible transcriptional activator systems based on the CRISPR-Cas9 technology and genome-scale libraries advance the field toward whole-transcriptome control. PMID:26000839

  5. CRISPR/Cas9 advances engineering of microbial cell factories.

    PubMed

    Jakočiūnas, Tadas; Jensen, Michael K; Keasling, Jay D

    2016-03-01

    One of the key drivers for successful metabolic engineering in microbes is the efficacy by which genomes can be edited. As such there are many methods to choose from when aiming to modify genomes, especially those of model organisms like yeast and bacteria. In recent years, clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and its associated proteins (Cas) have become the method of choice for precision genome engineering in many organisms due to their orthogonality, versatility and efficacy. Here we review the strategies adopted for implementation of RNA-guided CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing with special emphasis on their application for metabolic engineering of yeast and bacteria. Also, examples of how nuclease-deficient Cas9 has been applied for RNA-guided transcriptional regulation of target genes will be reviewed, as well as tools available for computer-aided design of guide-RNAs will be highlighted. Finally, this review will provide a perspective on the immediate challenges and opportunities foreseen by the use of CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering and regulation in the context of metabolic engineering.

  6. 48 CFR 970.3002 - CAS program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CAS program requirements. 970.3002 Section 970.3002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Cost Accounting Standards Administration...

  7. Equivalent Expressions Using CAS and Paper-and-Pencil Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonger, Nicole L.

    2014-01-01

    How can the key concept of equivalent expressions be addressed so that students strengthen their representational fluency with symbols, graphs, and numbers? How can research inform the synergistic use of both paper-and-pencil analysis and computer algebra systems (CAS) in a classroom learning environment? These and other related questions have…

  8. Maximizing mutagenesis with solubilized CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoprotein complexes.

    PubMed

    Burger, Alexa; Lindsay, Helen; Felker, Anastasia; Hess, Christopher; Anders, Carolin; Chiavacci, Elena; Zaugg, Jonas; Weber, Lukas M; Catena, Raul; Jinek, Martin; Robinson, Mark D; Mosimann, Christian

    2016-06-01

    CRISPR-Cas9 enables efficient sequence-specific mutagenesis for creating somatic or germline mutants of model organisms. Key constraints in vivo remain the expression and delivery of active Cas9-sgRNA ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) with minimal toxicity, variable mutagenesis efficiencies depending on targeting sequence, and high mutation mosaicism. Here, we apply in vitro assembled, fluorescent Cas9-sgRNA RNPs in solubilizing salt solution to achieve maximal mutagenesis efficiency in zebrafish embryos. MiSeq-based sequence analysis of targeted loci in individual embryos using CrispRVariants, a customized software tool for mutagenesis quantification and visualization, reveals efficient bi-allelic mutagenesis that reaches saturation at several tested gene loci. Such virtually complete mutagenesis exposes loss-of-function phenotypes for candidate genes in somatic mutant embryos for subsequent generation of stable germline mutants. We further show that targeting of non-coding elements in gene regulatory regions using saturating mutagenesis uncovers functional control elements in transgenic reporters and endogenous genes in injected embryos. Our results establish that optimally solubilized, in vitro assembled fluorescent Cas9-sgRNA RNPs provide a reproducible reagent for direct and scalable loss-of-function studies and applications beyond zebrafish experiments that require maximal DNA cutting efficiency in vivo.

  9. Medical marijuana: CAS releases report, government cuts research funding.

    PubMed

    Betteridge, Glenn

    2006-12-01

    In June 2006, the Canadian AIDS Society (CAS) released a comprehensive report with recommendations to overcome barriers to the use of cannabis for medical purposes faced by people living with HIV/AIDS in Canada. On 25 September 2006, as part of package of spending cuts, the federal government announced plans to eliminate its marijuana medical research program. PMID:17373064

  10. Problem Solving in Calculus with Symbolic Geometry and CAS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Philip; Wiechmann, James

    2008-01-01

    Computer algebra systems (CAS) have been around for a number of years, as has dynamic geometry. Symbolic geometry software is new. It bears a superficial similarity to dynamic geometry software, but differs in that problems may be set up involving symbolic variables and constants, and measurements are given as symbolic expressions. Mathematical…

  11. Les aspergillomes pulmonaires: à propos de 37 cas à Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Rakotoson, Joëlson Lovaniaina; Razafindramaro, Notahiana; Rakotomizao, Jocelyn Robert; Vololontiana, Hanta Marie Danielle; Andrianasolo, Radonirina Lazasoa; Ravahatra, Kiady; Tiaray, Michel; Rajaoarifetra, Jobeline; Rakotoharivelo, Hendriniaina; Andrianarisoa, Ange Christophe Félix

    2011-01-01

    L'aspergillome pulmonaire est une colonisation par Aspergillus d'une cavité pulmonaire préformée. Nos objectifs étaient de définir le profil épidémio-clinique et thérapeutique des aspergillomes pulmonaires et essayer de dégager les facteurs favorisants de cette affection à Madagascar. Nous avons réalisés une étude prospective, descriptive, analytique durant 59 mois sur les aspergillomes pulmonaires à Antananarivo Madagascar. Etaient inclus dans cette étude les malades ayant un diagnostic d'aspergillome pulmonaire. Trente-sept (37) cas d'aspergillome pulmonaire étaient recensés parmi les 8 392 patients hospitalisés dans le service de Pneumologie (0,44%). Il s'agit de 29 hommes (78,38%) et 8 femmes (21,61%), d’âge moyen de 43 ans. Les facteurs prédisposant étaient dominés par la tuberculose pulmonaire (89,19%). Le délai moyen d'apparition de l'aspergillome chez les malades ayant un antécédent de tuberculose pulmonaire à bacilloscopie positive (TPM+) était de 8 ans et 6 mois avec un délai extrême de un mois à 23 ans. L'hémoptysie était le mode de révélation le plus fréquent (91,89%). Le traitement était médical chez 27 patients (72,97%) et médico-chirurgical chez 10 patients (27,03%). Vingt sept patients étaient perdus de vue (72,97%), et pour les 10 patients suivis (27,02%), 70% avaient une évolution favorable avec disparition des signes, et 30% présentaient des hémoptysies récidivantes. Le taux de mortalité postopératoire était de 4% et 50% des patients avaient des complications postopératoires. La surveillance des lésions séquellaires de tuberculose pulmonaire qui constituent les facteurs favorisants prédominant d'aspergillome pulmonaire à Madagascar nécessite une attention particulière. La prise en charge de la tuberculose doit être précoce et adaptée surtout dans les pays à forte prévalence tuberculeuse. PMID:22187586

  12. Abstract Object Creation in Dynamic Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahrendt, Wolfgang; de Boer, Frank S.; Grabe, Immo

    In this paper we give a representation of a weakest precondition calculus for abstract object creation in dynamic logic, the logic underlying the KeY theorem prover. This representation allows to both specify and verify properties of objects at the abstraction level of the (object-oriented) programming language. Objects which are not (yet) created never play any role, neither in the specification nor in the verification of properties. Further, we show how to symbolically execute abstract object creation.

  13. Abstract and concrete sentences, embodiment, and languages.

    PubMed

    Scorolli, Claudia; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Buccino, Giovanni; Nicoletti, Roberto; Riggio, Lucia; Borghi, Anna Maria

    2011-01-01

    One of the main challenges of embodied theories is accounting for meanings of abstract words. The most common explanation is that abstract words, like concrete ones, are grounded in perception and action systems. According to other explanations, abstract words, differently from concrete ones, would activate situations and introspection; alternatively, they would be represented through metaphoric mapping. However, evidence provided so far pertains to specific domains. To be able to account for abstract words in their variety we argue it is necessary to take into account not only the fact that language is grounded in the sensorimotor system, but also that language represents a linguistic-social experience. To study abstractness as a continuum we combined a concrete (C) verb with both a concrete and an abstract (A) noun; and an abstract verb with the same nouns previously used (grasp vs. describe a flower vs. a concept). To disambiguate between the semantic meaning and the grammatical class of the words, we focused on two syntactically different languages: German and Italian. Compatible combinations (CC, AA) were processed faster than mixed ones (CA, AC). This is in line with the idea that abstract and concrete words are processed preferentially in parallel systems - abstract in the language system and concrete more in the motor system, thus costs of processing within one system are the lowest. This parallel processing takes place most probably within different anatomically predefined routes. With mixed combinations, when the concrete word preceded the abstract one (CA), participants were faster, regardless of the grammatical class and the spoken language. This is probably due to the peculiar mode of acquisition of abstract words, as they are acquired more linguistically than perceptually. Results confirm embodied theories which assign a crucial role to both perception-action and linguistic experience for abstract words. PMID:21954387

  14. Writing an abstract for a scientific conference.

    PubMed

    Simkhada, P; van Teijlingen, E; Hundley, V; Simkhada, B D

    2013-01-01

    For most students and junior researchers, writing an abstract for a poster or oral presentation at a conference is the first piece they may write for an audience other than their university tutors or examiners. Since some researchers struggle with this process we have put together some advice on issues to consider when writing a conference abstract. We highlight a number of issues to bear in mind when constructing one's abstract.

  15. Adenovirus-Mediated Somatic Genome Editing of Pten by CRISPR/Cas9 in Mouse Liver in Spite of Cas9-Specific Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Mou, Haiwei; Li, Shaoyong; Li, Yingxiang; Hough, Soren; Tran, Karen; Li, Jia; Yin, Hao; Anderson, Daniel G; Sontheimer, Erik J; Weng, Zhiping; Gao, Guangping; Xue, Wen

    2015-07-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 derived from the bacterial adaptive immunity pathway is a powerful tool for genome editing, but the safety profiles of in vivo delivered Cas9 (including host immune responses to the bacterial Cas9 protein) have not been comprehensively investigated in model organisms. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a prevalent human liver disease characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the liver. In this study, we used adenovirus (Ad) vector to deliver a Streptococcus pyogenes-derived Cas9 system (SpCas9) targeting Pten, a gene involved in NASH and a negative regulator of the PI3K-AKT pathway, in mouse liver. We found that the Ad vector mediated efficient Pten gene editing even in the presence of typical Ad vector-associated immunotoxicity in the liver. Four months after vector infusion, mice receiving the Pten gene-editing Ad vector showed massive hepatomegaly and features of NASH, consistent with the phenotypes following Cre-loxP-induced Pten deficiency in mouse liver. We also detected induction of humoral immunity against SpCas9 and the potential presence of an SpCas9-specific cellular immune response. Our findings provide a strategy to model human liver diseases in mice and highlight the importance considering Cas9-specific immune responses in future translational studies involving in vivo delivery of CRISPR/Cas9. PMID:26086867

  16. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeted mutagenesis in Nicotiana tabacum.

    PubMed

    Gao, Junping; Wang, Genhong; Ma, Sanyuan; Xie, Xiaodong; Wu, Xiangwei; Zhang, Xingtan; Wu, Yuqian; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-01-01

    Genome editing is one of the most powerful tools for revealing gene function and improving crop plants. Recently, RNA-guided genome editing using the type II clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein (Cas) system has been used as a powerful and efficient tool for genome editing in various organisms. Here, we report genome editing in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) mediated by the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Two genes, NtPDS and NtPDR6, were used for targeted mutagenesis. First, we examined the transient genome editing activity of this system in tobacco protoplasts, insertion and deletion (indel) mutations were observed with frequencies of 16.2-20.3% after transfecting guide RNA (gRNA) and the nuclease Cas9 in tobacco protoplasts. The two genes were also mutated using multiplexing gRNA at a time. Additionally, targeted deletions and inversions of a 1.8-kb fragment between two target sites in the NtPDS locus were demonstrated, while indel mutations were also detected at both the sites. Second, we obtained transgenic tobacco plants with NtPDS and NtPDR6 mutations induced by Cas9/gRNA. The mutation percentage was 81.8% for NtPDS gRNA4 and 87.5% for NtPDR6 gRNA2. Obvious phenotypes were observed, etiolated leaves for the psd mutant and more branches for the pdr6 mutant, indicating that highly efficient biallelic mutations occurred in both transgenic lines. No significant off-target mutations were obtained. Our results show that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is a useful tool for targeted mutagenesis of the tobacco genome.

  17. Mobile CRISPR/Cas-Mediated Bacteriophage Resistance in Lactococcus lactis

    PubMed Central

    Millen, Anne M.; Horvath, Philippe; Boyaval, Patrick; Romero, Dennis A.

    2012-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis is a biotechnological workhorse for food fermentations and potentially therapeutic products and is therefore widely consumed by humans. It is predominantly used as a starter microbe for fermented dairy products, and specialized strains have adapted from a plant environment through reductive evolution and horizontal gene transfer as evidenced by the association of adventitious traits with mobile elements. Specifically, L. lactis has armed itself with a myriad of plasmid-encoded bacteriophage defensive systems to protect against viral predation. This known arsenal had not included CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated proteins), which forms a remarkable microbial immunity system against invading DNA. Although CRISPR/Cas systems are common in the genomes of closely related lactic acid bacteria (LAB), none was identified within the eight published lactococcal genomes. Furthermore, a PCR-based search of the common LAB CRISPR/Cas systems (Types I and II) in 383 industrial L. lactis strains proved unsuccessful. Here we describe a novel, Type III, self-transmissible, plasmid-encoded, phage-interfering CRISPR/Cas discovered in L. lactis. The native CRISPR spacers confer resistance based on sequence identity to corresponding lactococcal phage. The interference is directed at phages problematic to the dairy industry, indicative of a responsive system. Moreover, targeting could be modified by engineering the spacer content. The 62.8-kb plasmid was shown to be conjugally transferrable to various strains. Its mobility should facilitate dissemination within microbial communities and provide a readily applicable system to naturally introduce CRISPR/Cas to industrially relevant strains for enhanced phage resistance and prevention against acquisition of undesirable genes. PMID:23240053

  18. A brief on writing a successful abstract.

    PubMed

    Gambescia, Stephen F

    2013-01-01

    The abstract for an article submitted to a clinical or academic journal often gets little attention in the manuscript preparation process. The abstract serves multiple purposes in scholarly work dissemination, including the one piece of information reviewers have to invite presenters to professional conferences. Therefore, the abstract can be the most important and should be the most powerful 150-250 words written by authors of scholarly work. This brief for healthcare practitioners, junior faculty, and students provides general comments, details, nuances and tips and explains the various uses of the abstract for publications and presentations in the healthcare field.

  19. Neural correlates of abstract verb processing.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ferreiro, Javier; Gennari, Silvia P; Davies, Robert; Cuetos, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the neural correlates of the processing of abstract (low imageability) verbs. An extensive body of literature has investigated concrete versus abstract nouns but little is known about how abstract verbs are processed. Spanish abstract verbs including emotion verbs (e.g., amar, "to love"; molestar, "to annoy") were compared to concrete verbs (e.g., llevar, "to carry"; arrastrar, "to drag"). Results indicated that abstract verbs elicited stronger activity in regions previously associated with semantic retrieval such as inferior frontal, anterior temporal, and posterior temporal regions, and that concrete and abstract activation networks (compared to that of pseudoverbs) were partially distinct, with concrete verbs eliciting more posterior activity in these regions. In contrast to previous studies investigating nouns, verbs strongly engage both left and right inferior frontal gyri, suggesting, as previously found, that right prefrontal cortex aids difficult semantic retrieval. Together with previous evidence demonstrating nonverbal conceptual roles for the active regions as well as experiential content for abstract word meanings, our results suggest that abstract verbs impose greater demands on semantic retrieval or property integration, and are less consistent with the view that abstract words recruit left-lateralized regions because they activate verbal codes or context, as claimed by proponents of the dual-code theory. Moreover, our results are consistent with distributed accounts of semantic memory because distributed networks may coexist with varying retrieval demands.

  20. Neural correlates of abstract verb processing.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ferreiro, Javier; Gennari, Silvia P; Davies, Robert; Cuetos, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the neural correlates of the processing of abstract (low imageability) verbs. An extensive body of literature has investigated concrete versus abstract nouns but little is known about how abstract verbs are processed. Spanish abstract verbs including emotion verbs (e.g., amar, "to love"; molestar, "to annoy") were compared to concrete verbs (e.g., llevar, "to carry"; arrastrar, "to drag"). Results indicated that abstract verbs elicited stronger activity in regions previously associated with semantic retrieval such as inferior frontal, anterior temporal, and posterior temporal regions, and that concrete and abstract activation networks (compared to that of pseudoverbs) were partially distinct, with concrete verbs eliciting more posterior activity in these regions. In contrast to previous studies investigating nouns, verbs strongly engage both left and right inferior frontal gyri, suggesting, as previously found, that right prefrontal cortex aids difficult semantic retrieval. Together with previous evidence demonstrating nonverbal conceptual roles for the active regions as well as experiential content for abstract word meanings, our results suggest that abstract verbs impose greater demands on semantic retrieval or property integration, and are less consistent with the view that abstract words recruit left-lateralized regions because they activate verbal codes or context, as claimed by proponents of the dual-code theory. Moreover, our results are consistent with distributed accounts of semantic memory because distributed networks may coexist with varying retrieval demands. PMID:20044889

  1. Analysis of complex networks using aggressive abstraction.

    SciTech Connect

    Colbaugh, Richard; Glass, Kristin.; Willard, Gerald

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for analyzing complex networks in which the network of interest is first abstracted to a much simpler (but equivalent) representation, the required analysis is performed using the abstraction, and analytic conclusions are then mapped back to the original network and interpreted there. We begin by identifying a broad and important class of complex networks which admit abstractions that are simultaneously dramatically simplifying and property preserving we call these aggressive abstractions -- and which can therefore be analyzed using the proposed approach. We then introduce and develop two forms of aggressive abstraction: 1.) finite state abstraction, in which dynamical networks with uncountable state spaces are modeled using finite state systems, and 2.) onedimensional abstraction, whereby high dimensional network dynamics are captured in a meaningful way using a single scalar variable. In each case, the property preserving nature of the abstraction process is rigorously established and efficient algorithms are presented for computing the abstraction. The considerable potential of the proposed approach to complex networks analysis is illustrated through case studies involving vulnerability analysis of technological networks and predictive analysis for social processes.

  2. Chemical and Biophysical Modulation of Cas9 for Tunable Genome Engineering.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, James K; Harrington, Lucas B; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2016-03-18

    The application of the CRISPR-Cas9 system for genome engineering has revolutionized the ability to interrogate genomes of mammalian cells. Programming the Cas9 endonuclease to induce DNA breaks at specified sites is achieved by simply modifying the sequence of its cognate guide RNA. Although Cas9-mediated genome editing has been shown to be highly specific, cleavage events at off-target sites have also been reported. Minimizing, and eventually abolishing, unwanted off-target cleavage remains a major goal of the CRISPR-Cas9 technology before its implementation for therapeutic use. Recent efforts have turned to chemical biology and biophysical approaches to engineer inducible genome editing systems for controlling Cas9 activity at the transcriptional and protein levels. Here, we review recent advancements to modulate Cas9-mediated genome editing by engineering split-Cas9 constructs, inteins, small molecules, protein-based dimerizing domains, and light-inducible systems.

  3. Primary processing of CRISPR RNA by the endonuclease Cas6 in Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Noelle; Rajan, Rakhi; Sontheimer, Erik J

    2015-10-01

    In many bacteria and archaea, an adaptive immune system (CRISPR-Cas) provides immunity against foreign genetic elements. This system uses CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) derived from the CRISPR array, along with CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins, to target foreign nucleic acids. In most CRISPR systems, endonucleolytic processing of crRNA precursors (pre-crRNAs) is essential for the pathway. Here we study the Cas6 endonuclease responsible for crRNA processing in the Type III-A CRISPR-Cas system from Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62a, a model for Type III-A CRISPR-Cas systems, and define substrate requirements for SeCas6 activity. We find that SeCas6 is necessary and sufficient for full-length crRNA biogenesis in vitro, and that it relies on both sequence and stem-loop structure in the 3' half of the CRISPR repeat for recognition and processing.

  4. Structures of Cas9 Endonucleases Reveal RNA-Mediated Conformational Activation

    PubMed Central

    Jinek, Martin; Jiang, Fuguo; Taylor, David W.; Sternberg, Samuel H.; Kaya, Emine; Ma, Enbo; Anders, Carolin; Hauer, Michael; Zhou, Kaihong; Lin, Steven; Kaplan, Matias; Iavarone, Anthony T.; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Nogales, Eva; Doudna, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Type II CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)–Cas (CRISPR-associated) systems use an RNA-guided DNA endonuclease, Cas9, to generate double-strand breaks in invasive DNA during an adaptive bacterial immune response. Cas9 has been harnessed as a powerful tool for genome editing and gene regulation in many eukaryotic organisms. We report 2.6 and 2.2 angstrom resolution crystal structures of two major Cas9 enzyme subtypes, revealing the structural core shared by all Cas9 family members. The architectures of Cas9 enzymes define nucleic acid binding clefts, and single-particle electron microscopy reconstructions show that the two structural lobes harboring these clefts undergo guide RNA–induced reorientation to form a central channel where DNA substrates are bound. The observation that extensive structural rearrangements occur before target DNA duplex binding implicates guide RNA loading as a key step in Cas9 activation. PMID:24505130

  5. CRISPR/Cas9 for genome editing: progress, implications and challenges.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Wen, Yan; Guo, Xiong

    2014-09-15

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) protein 9 system provides a robust and multiplexable genome editing tool, enabling researchers to precisely manipulate specific genomic elements, and facilitating the elucidation of target gene function in biology and diseases. CRISPR/Cas9 comprises of a nonspecific Cas9 nuclease and a set of programmable sequence-specific CRISPR RNA (crRNA), which can guide Cas9 to cleave DNA and generate double-strand breaks at target sites. Subsequent cellular DNA repair process leads to desired insertions, deletions or substitutions at target sites. The specificity of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated DNA cleavage requires target sequences matching crRNA and a protospacer adjacent motif locating at downstream of target sequences. Here, we review the molecular mechanism, applications and challenges of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing and clinical therapeutic potential of CRISPR/Cas9 in future.

  6. A simplified and efficient germline-specific CRISPR/Cas9 system for Drosophila genomic engineering.

    PubMed

    Sebo, Zachary L; Lee, Han B; Peng, Ying; Guo, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The type II CRISPR/Cas9 system (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated) has recently emerged as an efficient and simple tool for site-specific engineering of eukaryotic genomes. To improve its applications in Drosophila genome engineering, we simplified the standard two-component CRISPR/Cas9 system by generating a stable transgenic fly line expressing the Cas9 endonuclease in the germline (Vasa-Cas9 line). By injecting vectors expressing engineered target-specific guide RNAs into Vasa-Cas9 fly embryos, mutations were generated from site-specific DNA cleavages and efficiently transmitted into progenies. Because Cas9 endonuclease is the universal component of the type II CRISPR/Cas9 system, site-specific genomic engineering based on this improved platform can be achieved with lower complexity and toxicity, greater consistency, and excellent versatility.

  7. CRISPR/Cas9 Platforms for Genome Editing in Plants: Developments and Applications.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xingliang; Zhu, Qinlong; Chen, Yuanling; Liu, Yao-Guang

    2016-07-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated protein9 (Cas9) genome editing system (CRISPR/Cas9) is adapted from the prokaryotic type II adaptive immunity system. The CRISPR/Cas9 tool surpasses other programmable nucleases, such as ZFNs and TALENs, for its simplicity and high efficiency. Various plant-specific CRISPR/Cas9 vector systems have been established for adaption of this technology to many plant species. In this review, we present an overview of current advances on applications of this technology in plants, emphasizing general considerations for establishment of CRISPR/Cas9 vector platforms, strategies for multiplex editing, methods for analyzing the induced mutations, factors affecting editing efficiency and specificity, and features of the induced mutations and applications of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in plants. In addition, we provide a perspective on the challenges of CRISPR/Cas9 technology and its significance for basic plant research and crop genetic improvement.

  8. Anti-cas spacers in orphan CRISPR4 arrays prevent uptake of active CRISPR-Cas I-F systems.

    PubMed

    Almendros, Cristóbal; Guzmán, Noemí M; García-Martínez, Jesús; Mojica, Francisco J M

    2016-01-01

    Archaea and bacteria harbour clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) loci. These arrays encode RNA molecules (crRNA), each containing a sequence of a single repeat-intervening spacer. The crRNAs guide CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins to cleave nucleic acids complementary to the crRNA spacer, thus interfering with targeted foreign elements. Notably, pre-existing spacers may trigger the acquisition of new spacers from the target molecule by means of a primed adaptation mechanism. Here, we show that naturally occurring orphan CRISPR arrays that contain spacers matching sequences of the cognate (absent) cas genes are able to elicit both primed adaptation and direct interference against genetic elements carrying those genes. Our findings show the existence of an anti-cas mechanism that prevents the transfer of a fully equipped CRISPR-Cas system. Hence, they suggest that CRISPR immunity may be undesired by particular prokaryotes, potentially because they could limit possibilities for gaining favourable sequences by lateral transfer. PMID:27573106

  9. Observation d'un minimum plat pour RZ Cas [Observation of a flat minimum of RZ Cas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, M.

    1995-07-01

    We observed a minimum of RZ Cas during the night 15/16 august 1991 with the 76 cm telescope of the Fungfraujoch Observatory. We found: Min = HJD 2,448,484.50062 and observed a flat minimum during 10 minutes.

  10. Nuclease Activity of Legionella pneumophila Cas2 Promotes Intracellular Infection of Amoebal Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gunderson, Felizza F.; Mallama, Celeste A.; Fairbairn, Stephanie G.

    2014-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the primary agent of Legionnaires' disease, flourishes in both natural and man-made environments by growing in a wide variety of aquatic amoebae. Recently, we determined that the Cas2 protein of L. pneumophila promotes intracellular infection of Acanthamoeba castellanii and Hartmannella vermiformis, the two amoebae most commonly linked to cases of disease. The Cas2 family of proteins is best known for its role in the bacterial and archeal clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)–CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) system that constitutes a form of adaptive immunity against phage and plasmid. However, the infection event mediated by L. pneumophila Cas2 appeared to be distinct from this function, because cas2 mutants exhibited infectivity defects in the absence of added phage or plasmid and since mutants lacking the CRISPR array or any one of the other cas genes were not impaired in infection ability. We now report that the Cas2 protein of L. pneumophila has both RNase and DNase activities, with the RNase activity being more pronounced. By characterizing a catalytically deficient version of Cas2, we determined that nuclease activity is critical for promoting infection of amoebae. Also, introduction of Cas2, but not its catalytic mutant form, into a strain of L. pneumophila that naturally lacks a CRISPR-Cas locus caused that strain to be 40- to 80-fold more infective for amoebae, unequivocally demonstrating that Cas2 facilitates the infection process independently of any other component encoded within the CRISPR-Cas locus. Finally, a cas2 mutant was impaired for infection of Willaertia magna but not Naegleria lovaniensis, suggesting that Cas2 promotes infection of most but not all amoebal hosts. PMID:25547789

  11. Interactional Metadiscourse in Research Article Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillaerts, Paul; Van de Velde, Freek

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with interpersonality in research article abstracts analysed in terms of interactional metadiscourse. The evolution in the distribution of three prominent interactional markers comprised in Hyland's (2005a) model, viz. hedges, boosters and attitude markers, is investigated in three decades of abstract writing in the field of…

  12. Tour the Galaxy of the Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Describes an abstract art unit in which students in an introductory art course created abstract art inspired by the work of M. C. Escher. Explains that some students are unsure of their drawing ability. States this unit helps them overcome their fears. (CMK)

  13. Abstracting in the Context of Spontaneous Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gaye

    2007-01-01

    There is evidence that spontaneous learning leads to relational understanding and high positive affect. To study spontaneous abstracting, a model was constructed by combining the RBC model of abstraction with Krutetskii's mental activities. Using video-stimulated interviews, the model was then used to analyze the behavior of two Year 8 students…

  14. Interpreting Abstract Interpretations in Membership Equational Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Rosu, Grigore

    2001-01-01

    We present a logical framework in which abstract interpretations can be naturally specified and then verified. Our approach is based on membership equational logic which extends equational logics by membership axioms, asserting that a term has a certain sort. We represent an abstract interpretation as a membership equational logic specification, usually as an overloaded order-sorted signature with membership axioms. It turns out that, for any term, its least sort over this specification corresponds to its most concrete abstract value. Maude implements membership equational logic and provides mechanisms to calculate the least sort of a term efficiently. We first show how Maude can be used to get prototyping of abstract interpretations "for free." Building on the meta-logic facilities of Maude, we further develop a tool that automatically checks and abstract interpretation against a set of user-defined properties. This can be used to select an appropriate abstract interpretation, to characterize the specified loss of information during abstraction, and to compare different abstractions with each other.

  15. Title I, Higher Education Act Program Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lorna M., Ed.

    The 1979 edition of the Title I, Higher Education Act Program Abstracts is presented. Directed toward state Title I, HEA administrators, the program abstracts are made available in order to encourage nationwide program replication of those tested and evaluated programs that have been conducted with Title I support by institutions of higher…

  16. Youth Studies Abstracts. Vol. 4 No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youth Studies Abstracts, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts of 76 projects (most of which were conducted in Australia and New Zealand) concerned with programs for youth and with social and educational developments affecting youth. The abstracts are arranged in the following two categories: (1) Social and Educational Developments: Policy, Analysis, Research; and (2) Programs:…

  17. Abstractions of Awareness: Aware of What?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxas, Georgios; Markopoulos, Panos

    This chapter presents FN-AAR, an abstract model of awareness systems. The purpose of the model is to capture in a concise and abstract form essential aspects of awareness systems, many of which have been discussed in design essays or in the context of evaluating specific design solutions.

  18. Third LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Arlene S. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This volume is a compilation of abstracts submitted to the Third Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Post-Retrieval Symposium. The abstracts represent the data analysis of the 57 experiments flown on the LDEF. The experiments include materials, coatings, thermal systems, power and propulsion, science (cosmic ray, interstellar gas, heavy ions, micrometeoroid, etc.), electronics, optics, and life science.

  19. Some Call It Stone: Teaching Abstract Sculpture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asher, Rikki

    2004-01-01

    Abstract visual art is not for everybody. Some people find it threatening, uncomfortable, and often, inaccessible. Understandably, this can result in a lack of attention paid to nonrepresentational works of art in the visual arts curriculum. This article describes an experiential, hands-on, field trip that sought to demystify abstract sculpture,…

  20. Foundations of the Bandera Abstraction Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatcliff, John; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Robby

    2003-01-01

    Current research is demonstrating that model-checking and other forms of automated finite-state verification can be effective for checking properties of software systems. Due to the exponential costs associated with model-checking, multiple forms of abstraction are often necessary to obtain system models that are tractable for automated checking. The Bandera Tool Set provides multiple forms of automated support for compiling concurrent Java software systems to models that can be supplied to several different model-checking tools. In this paper, we describe the foundations of Bandera's data abstraction mechanism which is used to reduce the cardinality (and the program's state-space) of data domains in software to be model-checked. From a technical standpoint, the form of data abstraction used in Bandera is simple, and it is based on classical presentations of abstract interpretation. We describe the mechanisms that Bandera provides for declaring abstractions, for attaching abstractions to programs, and for generating abstracted programs and properties. The contributions of this work are the design and implementation of various forms of tool support required for effective application of data abstraction to software components written in a programming language like Java which has a rich set of linguistic features.

  1. Abstraction and context in concept representation.

    PubMed Central

    Hampton, James A

    2003-01-01

    This paper develops the notion of abstraction in the context of the psychology of concepts, and discusses its relation to context dependence in knowledge representation. Three general approaches to modelling conceptual knowledge from the domain of cognitive psychology are discussed, which serve to illustrate a theoretical dimension of increasing levels of abstraction. PMID:12903660

  2. A Method for Automatically Abstracting Visual Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rorvig, Mark E.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a method for automatically selecting key frames that can be used to represent the total image sequence of visual documents. An abstracting algorithm developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is explained, and extensive examples of abstracted motion sequences are presented. (eight references) (LRW)

  3. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1.438 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF... application will not affect the granting of a filing date. However, failure to furnish an abstract within...

  4. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1.438 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF... application will not affect the granting of a filing date. However, failure to furnish an abstract within...

  5. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1.438 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF... application will not affect the granting of a filing date. However, failure to furnish an abstract within...

  6. BCAR3/AND-34 can signal independent of complex formation with CAS family members or the presence of p130Cas

    PubMed Central

    Borre, Pierre Vanden; Near, Richard I.; Makkinje, Anthony; Mostoslavsky, Gustavo; Lerner, Adam

    2011-01-01

    BCAR3 binds to the carboxy-terminus of p130Cas, a focal adhesion adapter protein. Both BCAR3 and p130Cas have been linked to resistance to anti-estrogens in breast cancer, Rac activation and cell motility. Using R743A BCAR3, a point mutant that has lost the ability to bind p130Cas, we find that BCAR3-p130Cas complex formation is not required for BCAR3-mediated anti-estrogen resistance, Rac activation or discohesion of epithelial breast cancer cells. Complex formation was also not required for BCAR3-induced lamellipodia formation in BALB/c-3T3 fibroblasts but was required for optimal BCAR3-induced motility. Although both wildtype and R743A BCAR3 induced phosphorylation of p130Cas and the related adapter protein HEF1/NEDD9, chimeric NSP3:BCAR3 experiments demonstrate that such phosphorylation does not correlate with BCAR3-induced anti-estrogen resistance or lamellipodia formation. Wildtype but not R743A BCAR3 induced lamellipodia formation and augmented cell motility in p130Cas-/- murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), suggesting that while p130Cas itself is not strictly required for these endpoints, complex formation with other CAS family members is, at least in cells lacking p130Cas. Overall, our work suggests that many, but not all, BCAR3-mediated signaling events in epithelial and mesenchymal cells are independent of p130Cas association. These studies also indicate that disruption of the BCAR3-p130Cas complex is unlikely to reverse BCAR3-mediated anti-estrogen resistance. PMID:21262352

  7. Insights into the CRISPR/Cas system of Gardnerella vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gardnerella vaginalis is identified as the predominant colonist of the vaginal tracts of women diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis (BV). G. vaginalis can be isolated from healthy women, and an asymptomatic BV state is also recognised. The association of G. vaginalis with different clinical phenotypes could be explained by different cytotoxicity of the strains, presumably based on disparate gene content. The contribution of horizontal gene transfer to shaping the genomes of G. vaginalis is acknowledged. The CRISPR loci of the recently discovered CRISPR/Cas microbial defence system provide a historical view of the exposure of prokaryotes to a variety of foreign genetic elements. Results The CRISPR/Cas loci were analysed using available sequence data from three G. vaginalis complete genomes and 18 G. vaginalis draft genomes in the NCBI database, as well as PCR amplicons of the genomic DNA of 17 clinical isolates. The cas genes in the CRISPR/Cas loci of G. vaginalis belong to the E. coli subtype. Approximately 20% of the spacers had matches in the GenBank database. Sequence analysis of the CRISPR arrays revealed that nearly half of the spacers matched G. vaginalis chromosomal sequences. The spacers that matched G. vaginalis chromosomal sequences were determined to not be self-targeting and were presumably neither constituents of mobile-element-associated genes nor derived from plasmids/viruses. The protospacers targeted by these spacers displayed conserved protospacer-adjacent motifs. Conclusions The CRISPR/Cas system has been identified in about one half of the analysed G. vaginalis strains. Our analysis of CRISPR sequences did not reveal a potential link between their presence and the virulence of the G. vaginalis strains. Based on the origins of the spacers found in the G. vaginalis CRISPR arrays, we hypothesise that the transfer of genetic material among G. vaginalis strains could be regulated by the CRISPR/Cas mechanism. The present study is the first

  8. Abstract Spatial Reasoning as an Autistic Strength

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Jennifer L.; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2013-01-01

    Autistic individuals typically excel on spatial tests that measure abstract reasoning, such as the Block Design subtest on intelligence test batteries and the Raven’s Progressive Matrices nonverbal test of intelligence. Such well-replicated findings suggest that abstract spatial processing is a relative and perhaps absolute strength of autistic individuals. However, previous studies have not systematically varied reasoning level – concrete vs. abstract – and test domain – spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal, which the current study did. Autistic participants (N = 72) and non-autistic participants (N = 72) completed a battery of 12 tests that varied by reasoning level (concrete vs. abstract) and domain (spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal). Autistic participants outperformed non-autistic participants on abstract spatial tests. Non-autistic participants did not outperform autistic participants on any of the three domains (spatial, numerical, and verbal) or at either of the two reasoning levels (concrete and abstract), suggesting similarity in abilities between autistic and non-autistic individuals, with abstract spatial reasoning as an autistic strength. PMID:23533615

  9. Broadening Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 Targeting Range by Modifying PAM Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Kleinstiver, Benjamin P.; Prew, Michelle S.; Tsai, Shengdar Q.; Nguyen, Nhu T.; Topkar, Ved V.; Zheng, Zongli; Joung, J. Keith

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases are primarily guided by RNA-DNA interactions but also require Cas9-mediated recognition of a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM). While potentially advantageous for specificity, extended PAM sequences limit the targeting range of Cas9 orthologues for genome editing. One possible strategy to relieve this restriction is to relax specificities for certain positions within the PAM. Here we used molecular evolution to modify the NNGRRT PAM specificity of Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 (SaCas9). One variant we identified, referred to as KKH SaCas9, shows robust genome editing activities at endogenous human target sites with NNNRRT PAMs. Importantly, using GUIDE-seq, we show that both wild-type and KKH SaCas9 induce comparable numbers of off-target effects in human cells. KKH SaCas9 increased the targeting range of SaCas9 by nearly two- to four-fold. Our molecular evolution strategy does not require structural information and therefore should be applicable to a wide range of Cas9 orthologues. PMID:26524662

  10. Nucleosomes impede Cas9 access to DNA in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Horlbeck, Max A; Witkowsky, Lea B; Guglielmi, Benjamin; Replogle, Joseph M; Gilbert, Luke A; Villalta, Jacqueline E; Torigoe, Sharon E; Tjian, Robert; Weissman, Jonathan S

    2016-01-01

    The prokaryotic CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats)-associated protein, Cas9, has been widely adopted as a tool for editing, imaging, and regulating eukaryotic genomes. However, our understanding of how to select single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs) that mediate efficient Cas9 activity is incomplete, as we lack insight into how chromatin impacts Cas9 targeting. To address this gap, we analyzed large-scale genetic screens performed in human cell lines using either nuclease-active or nuclease-dead Cas9 (dCas9). We observed that highly active sgRNAs for Cas9 and dCas9 were found almost exclusively in regions of low nucleosome occupancy. In vitro experiments demonstrated that nucleosomes in fact directly impede Cas9 binding and cleavage, while chromatin remodeling can restore Cas9 access. Our results reveal a critical role of eukaryotic chromatin in dictating the targeting specificity of this transplanted bacterial enzyme, and provide rules for selecting Cas9 target sites distinct from and complementary to those based on sequence properties. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12677.001 PMID:26987018

  11. CRISPR/Cas9-induced knockout and knock-in mutations in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sung-Eun; Lim, Jong-Min; Koh, Hyun Gi; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kang, Nam Kyu; Jeon, Seungjib; Kwon, Sohee; Shin, Won-Sub; Lee, Bongsoo; Hwangbo, Kwon; Kim, Jungeun; Ye, Sung Hyeok; Yun, Jae-Young; Seo, Hogyun; Oh, Hee-Mock; Kim, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Jin-Soo; Jeong, Won-Joong; Chang, Yong Keun; Jeong, Byeong-ryool

    2016-01-01

    Genome editing is crucial for genetic engineering of organisms for improved traits, particularly in microalgae due to the urgent necessity for the next generation biofuel production. The most advanced CRISPR/Cas9 system is simple, efficient and accurate in some organisms; however, it has proven extremely difficult in microalgae including the model alga Chlamydomonas. We solved this problem by delivering Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) comprising the Cas9 protein and sgRNAs to avoid cytotoxicity and off-targeting associated with vector-driven expression of Cas9. We obtained CRISPR/Cas9-induced mutations at three loci including MAA7, CpSRP43 and ChlM, and targeted mutagenic efficiency was improved up to 100 fold compared to the first report of transgenic Cas9-induced mutagenesis. Interestingly, we found that unrelated vectors used for the selection purpose were predominantly integrated at the Cas9 cut site, indicative of NHEJ-mediated knock-in events. As expected with Cas9 RNPs, no off-targeting was found in one of the mutagenic screens. In conclusion, we improved the knockout efficiency by using Cas9 RNPs, which opens great opportunities not only for biological research but also industrial applications in Chlamydomonas and other microalgae. Findings of the NHEJ-mediated knock-in events will allow applications of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in microalgae, including “safe harboring” techniques shown in other organisms. PMID:27291619

  12. CRISPR/Cas9-induced knockout and knock-in mutations in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sung-Eun; Lim, Jong-Min; Koh, Hyun Gi; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kang, Nam Kyu; Jeon, Seungjib; Kwon, Sohee; Shin, Won-Sub; Lee, Bongsoo; Hwangbo, Kwon; Kim, Jungeun; Ye, Sung Hyeok; Yun, Jae-Young; Seo, Hogyun; Oh, Hee-Mock; Kim, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Jin-Soo; Jeong, Won-Joong; Chang, Yong Keun; Jeong, Byeong-Ryool

    2016-01-01

    Genome editing is crucial for genetic engineering of organisms for improved traits, particularly in microalgae due to the urgent necessity for the next generation biofuel production. The most advanced CRISPR/Cas9 system is simple, efficient and accurate in some organisms; however, it has proven extremely difficult in microalgae including the model alga Chlamydomonas. We solved this problem by delivering Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) comprising the Cas9 protein and sgRNAs to avoid cytotoxicity and off-targeting associated with vector-driven expression of Cas9. We obtained CRISPR/Cas9-induced mutations at three loci including MAA7, CpSRP43 and ChlM, and targeted mutagenic efficiency was improved up to 100 fold compared to the first report of transgenic Cas9-induced mutagenesis. Interestingly, we found that unrelated vectors used for the selection purpose were predominantly integrated at the Cas9 cut site, indicative of NHEJ-mediated knock-in events. As expected with Cas9 RNPs, no off-targeting was found in one of the mutagenic screens. In conclusion, we improved the knockout efficiency by using Cas9 RNPs, which opens great opportunities not only for biological research but also industrial applications in Chlamydomonas and other microalgae. Findings of the NHEJ-mediated knock-in events will allow applications of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in microalgae, including "safe harboring" techniques shown in other organisms. PMID:27291619

  13. High-fidelity CRISPR-Cas9 variants with undetectable genome-wide off-targets

    PubMed Central

    Kleinstiver, Benjamin P.; Pattanayak, Vikram; Prew, Michelle S.; Tsai, Shengdar Q.; Nguyen, Nhu; Zheng, Zongli; Joung, J. Keith

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases are widely used for genome editing but can induce unwanted off-target mutations. Existing strategies for reducing genome-wide off-targets of the broadly used Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) are imperfect, possessing only partial or unproven efficacies and other limitations that constrain their use. Here we describe SpCas9-HF1, a high-fidelity variant harboring alterations designed to reduce non-specific DNA contacts. SpCas9-HF1 retains on-target activities comparable to wild-type SpCas9 with >85% of single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs) tested in human cells. Strikingly, with sgRNAs targeted to standard non-repetitive sequences, SpCas9-HF1 rendered all or nearly all off-target events undetectable by genome-wide break capture and targeted sequencing methods. Even for atypical, repetitive target sites, the vast majority of off-targets induced by SpCas9-HF1 were not detected. With its exceptional precision, SpCas9-HF1 provides an alternative to wild-type SpCas9 for research and therapeutic applications. More broadly, our results suggest a general strategy for optimizing genome-wide specificities of other RNA-guided nucleases. PMID:26735016

  14. An Effective Strategy for Reliably Isolating Heritable and Cas9-Free Arabidopsis Mutants Generated by CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Genome Editing.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiuhua; Chen, Jilin; Dai, Xinhua; Zhang, Da; Zhao, Yunde

    2016-07-01

    Mutations generated by CRISPR/Cas9 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) are often somatic and are rarely heritable. Isolation of mutations in Cas9-free Arabidopsis plants can ensure the stable transmission of the identified mutations to next generations, but the process is laborious and inefficient. Here, we present a simple visual screen for Cas9-free T2 seeds, allowing us to quickly obtain Cas9-free Arabidopsis mutants in the T2 generation. To demonstrate this in principle, we targeted two sites in the AUXIN-BINDING PROTEIN1 (ABP1) gene, whose function as a membrane-associated auxin receptor has been challenged recently. We obtained many T1 plants with detectable mutations near the target sites, but only a small fraction of T1 plants yielded Cas9-free abp1 mutations in the T2 generation. Moreover, the mutations did not segregate in Mendelian fashion in the T2 generation. However, mutations identified in the Cas9-free T2 plants were stably transmitted to the T3 generation following Mendelian genetics. To further simplify the screening procedure, we simultaneously targeted two sites in ABP1 to generate large deletions, which can be easily identified by PCR. We successfully generated two abp1 alleles that contained 1,141- and 711-bp deletions in the ABP1 gene. All of the Cas9-free abp1 alleles we generated were stable and heritable. The method described here allows for effectively isolating Cas9-free heritable CRISPR mutants in Arabidopsis. PMID:27208253

  15. An Effective Strategy for Reliably Isolating Heritable and Cas9-Free Arabidopsis Mutants Generated by CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Genome Editing1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiuhua; Chen, Jilin; Dai, Xinhua; Zhang, Da

    2016-01-01

    Mutations generated by CRISPR/Cas9 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) are often somatic and are rarely heritable. Isolation of mutations in Cas9-free Arabidopsis plants can ensure the stable transmission of the identified mutations to next generations, but the process is laborious and inefficient. Here, we present a simple visual screen for Cas9-free T2 seeds, allowing us to quickly obtain Cas9-free Arabidopsis mutants in the T2 generation. To demonstrate this in principle, we targeted two sites in the AUXIN-BINDING PROTEIN1 (ABP1) gene, whose function as a membrane-associated auxin receptor has been challenged recently. We obtained many T1 plants with detectable mutations near the target sites, but only a small fraction of T1 plants yielded Cas9-free abp1 mutations in the T2 generation. Moreover, the mutations did not segregate in Mendelian fashion in the T2 generation. However, mutations identified in the Cas9-free T2 plants were stably transmitted to the T3 generation following Mendelian genetics. To further simplify the screening procedure, we simultaneously targeted two sites in ABP1 to generate large deletions, which can be easily identified by PCR. We successfully generated two abp1 alleles that contained 1,141- and 711-bp deletions in the ABP1 gene. All of the Cas9-free abp1 alleles we generated were stable and heritable. The method described here allows for effectively isolating Cas9-free heritable CRISPR mutants in Arabidopsis. PMID:27208253

  16. Reliability Abstracts and Technical Reviews January - December 1970. Volume 10, Nos. 1-12; R70-14805 - R70-15438

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Reliability Abstracts and Technical Reviews is an abstract and critical analysis service covering published and report literature on reliability. The service is designed to provide information on theory and practice of reliability as applied to aerospace and an objective appraisal of the quality, significance, and applicability of the literature abstracted.

  17. Chemical information science coverage in Chemical Abstracts.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, G

    1987-02-01

    For many years Chemical Abstracts has included in its coverage publications on chemical documentation or chemical information science. Although the bulk of those publications can be found in section 20 of Chemical Abstracts, many relevant articles were found scattered among 39 other sections of CA in 1984-1985. In addition to the scattering of references in CA, the comprehensiveness of Chemical Abstracts as a secondary source for chemical information science is called into question. Data are provided on the journals that contributed the most references on chemical information science and on the languages of publication of relevant articles.

  18. Hématome sous capsulaire de foie compliquant une pré-éclampsie: à propos de 6 cas

    PubMed Central

    Mamouni, Nisrine; Derkaoui, Ali; Bougern, Hakima; Bouchikhi, Chehrazad; Chaara, Hikmat; Banani, Abdelaziz; Abdelilah, Melhouf Moulay

    2011-01-01

    L'hématome sous capsulaire du foie (HSCF) est une complication rare mais gravissime de la grossesse. Devant une symptomatologie clinique souvent non spécifique et un tableau biologique retardé, son diagnostic est basé essentiellement sur les moyens de l'imagerie (échographie, TDM, IRM). Son traitement est fonction de l'intégrité ou non de la capsule de Glisson. Nous rapportons les observations de 6 patientes, à travers une étude rétrospective s’étalant sur la période du Janvier 2005 à Octobre 2008, incluant tous les cas de preeclampsie colligés au service de gynécologie obstétrique du CHU Hassan II. Durant la période d’étude, L'incidence de l'hématome sous capsulaire de foie chez les patientes préeclamptiques admises durant la période d’étude est de 1,49 %. Aucune des patientes n'a benificié d'un suivi prénatal au sein de notre formation. La moyenne d’âge des patientes est de 37,6 ans avec des extrêmes allant de 33 à 45 ans. La gestité moyenne était de 4,8 avec une parité moyenne de 4,5.l'hematome sous capsulaire est survenu en post partum chez tous nos cas avec un délai moyen de 4 jours et des extrêmes allant de J0 et J10 du post partum .Toutes les patientes ont présenté un HELLP syndrome concomitant à la survenue de cette complication gravissime.Le diagnostic positif s'est basé sur les données échographiques dans 5 cas (hemoperitoine –HSCF).l’équipe a opté pour une abstention thérapeutique avec surveillance armée chez 2 cas et l'exploration chirurgicale a été indiquée chez quatre patientes en instabilité hemodynamique.Nous avons déploré deux cas de décès maternel. PMID:22145072

  19. Photometry of stars in the Cas OB5 Associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanriver, Mehmet; Keskin, Ahmet

    2016-07-01

    OB associations are a grouping of very young associations, contain 10-100 very hot massive stars, spectral types O and B. Also, the OB associations contain low and intermediate mass stars, too. Association members are believed to form within the same small volume inside a giant molecular cloud. Once the surrounding dust and gas is blown away, the remaining stars become not tied up and begin to drift separately. It is believed that the majority of all stars in the Milky Way were formed in OB associations. O type stars are short-lived, and will be at an end as supernovae after roundly a million years. OB associations are generally only a few million years in age or less. In this study, the photometry of UU Cas and field star which been Cas OB5 association member was carried out. Light curves and color diagrams are given in the study.

  20. Analysis of estimation algorithms for CDTI and CAS applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goka, T.

    1985-01-01

    Estimation algorithms for Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI) and Collision Avoidance System (CAS) applications were analyzed and/or developed. The algorithms are based on actual or projected operational and performance characteristics of an Enhanced TCAS II traffic sensor developed by Bendix and the Federal Aviation Administration. Three algorithm areas are examined and discussed. These are horizontal x and y, range and altitude estimation algorithms. Raw estimation errors are quantified using Monte Carlo simulations developed for each application; the raw errors are then used to infer impacts on the CDTI and CAS applications. Applications of smoothing algorithms to CDTI problems are also discussed briefly. Technical conclusions are summarized based on the analysis of simulation results.

  1. Adapting CRISPR/Cas9 for functional genomics screens.

    PubMed

    Malina, Abba; Katigbak, Alexandra; Cencic, Regina; Maïga, Rayelle Itoua; Robert, Francis; Miura, Hisashi; Pelletier, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    The use of CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein) for targeted genome editing has been widely adopted and is considered a "game changing" technology. The ease and rapidity by which this approach can be used to modify endogenous loci in a wide spectrum of cell types and organisms makes it a powerful tool for customizable genetic modifications as well as for large-scale functional genomics. The development of retrovirus-based expression platforms to simultaneously deliver the Cas9 nuclease and single guide (sg) RNAs provides unique opportunities by which to ensure stable and reproducible expression of the editing tools and a broad cell targeting spectrum, while remaining compatible with in vivo genetic screens. Here, we describe methods and highlight considerations for designing and generating sgRNA libraries in all-in-one retroviral vectors for such applications.

  2. Energy biotechnology in the CRISPR-Cas9 era.

    PubMed

    Estrela, Raissa; Cate, Jamie Harrison Doudna

    2016-04-01

    The production of bioenergy from plant biomass previously relied on using microorganisms that rapidly and efficiently convert simple sugars into fuels and chemicals. However, to exploit the far more abundant carbon fixed in plant cell walls, future industrial production hosts will need to be engineered to leverage the most efficient biochemical pathways and most robust traits that can be found in nature. The CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing technology now enables writing the genome at will, which will allow biotechnology to become an 'information science.' This review covers recent advances in using CRISPR-Cas9 to engineer the genomes of a wide variety of organisms that could be use in the industrial production of biofuels and renewable chemicals.

  3. Inactivation of Cancer Mutations Utilizing CRISPR/Cas9.

    PubMed

    Gebler, Christina; Lohoff, Tim; Paszkowski-Rogacz, Maciej; Mircetic, Jovan; Chakraborty, Debojyoti; Camgoz, Aylin; Hamann, Martin V; Theis, Mirko; Thiede, Christian; Buchholz, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Although whole-genome sequencing has uncovered a large number of mutations that drive tumorigenesis, functional ratification for most mutations remains sparse. Here, we present an approach to test functional relevance of tumor mutations employing CRISPR/Cas9. Combining comprehensive sgRNA design and an efficient reporter assay to nominate efficient and selective sgRNAs, we establish a pipeline to dissect roles of cancer mutations with potential applicability to personalized medicine and future therapeutic use. PMID:27576906

  4. Surveying for Historical Supernovae Light Echoes in the Milky Way Field (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    (Abstract only) Very luminous, transient events can produce detectable “light echoes”—light scattered by interstellar dust which can arrive much later than the direct light from an outburst. In the last 1,000 years, there have been half a dozen supernovae in the Milky Way which are capable of producing detectable light echoes. Light echo systems have already been found for Tycho (SN 1572) and Cas A. The three-dimensional distribution of light echoes provides one of the few menas for an astronomical source to be inspected from more than one viewpoint. Indications of the degree of asymmetry of supernovae are extremely valuable for understanding the details of the event itself. Amateurs are well-equipped to find the brighter light echoes and in this work I will provide practical guidance on how such surveys may be accomplished and the various science opportunities they provide.

  5. CRISPR/Cas-mediated targeted mutagenesis in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Takashi; Kato, Yasuhiko; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Hajime

    2014-01-01

    The water flea Daphnia magna has been used as an animal model in ecology, evolution, and environmental sciences. Thanks to the recent progress in Daphnia genomics, genetic information such as the draft genome sequence and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) is now available. To investigate the relationship between phenotypes and the available genetic information about Daphnia, some gene manipulation methods have been developed. However, a technique to induce targeted mutagenesis into Daphnia genome remains elusive. To overcome this problem, we focused on an emerging genome editing technique mediated by the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated (CRISPR/Cas) system to introduce genomic mutations. In this study, we targeted a functionally conserved regulator of eye development, the eyeless gene in D. magna. When we injected Cas9 mRNAs and eyeless-targeting guide RNAs into eggs, 18-47% of the survived juveniles exhibited abnormal eye morphology. After maturation, up to 8.2% of the adults produced progenies with deformed eyes, which carried mutations in the eyeless loci. These results showed that CRISPR/Cas system could introduce heritable mutations into the endogenous eyeless gene in D. magna. This is the first report of a targeted gene knockout technique in Daphnia and will be useful in uncovering Daphnia gene functions.

  6. Embolie de liquide amniotique: à propos de deux cas

    PubMed Central

    Elbahraoui, Houda; Bouziane, Hanane; Elghanmi, Adil; Lakhdar, Amina; Elhanchi, Zaki; Ferhati, Driss

    2012-01-01

    L’embolie de liquide amniotique (ELA) est une complication imprévisible de l’accouchement, souvent fatale, associant un collapsus cardiovasculaire sévère, un syndrome de détresse respiratoire aiguë et une hémorragie avec coagulation intra vasculaire disséminée (CIVD). Dès l’évocation du diagnostic, la prise en charge doit être multidisciplinaire et intensive. ELA est responsable d’une mortalité maternelle et néonatale importante, son incidence est extrêmement variable selon les études et le taux de mortalité maternelle varie entre 26 et 86 % selon les études. Ces dix dernières années, le pronostic materno-fœtal semble en amélioration grâce aux progrès de prise en charge standardisée multidisciplinaire sur les lieux d’accouchement. Nous rapportons deux cas d’embolie de liquide amniotique. Le premier cas s’est manifesté au cours du travail et le deuxième cas est survenu dans les suites immédiates de l’accouchement. PMID:22655108

  7. CRISPR-Cas systems for editing, regulating and targeting genomes.

    PubMed

    Sander, Jeffry D; Joung, J Keith

    2014-04-01

    Targeted genome editing using engineered nucleases has rapidly gone from being a niche technology to a mainstream method used by many biological researchers. This widespread adoption has been largely fueled by the emergence of the clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) technology, an important new approach for generating RNA-guided nucleases, such as Cas9, with customizable specificities. Genome editing mediated by these nucleases has been used to rapidly, easily and efficiently modify endogenous genes in a wide variety of biomedically important cell types and in organisms that have traditionally been challenging to manipulate genetically. Furthermore, a modified version of the CRISPR-Cas9 system has been developed to recruit heterologous domains that can regulate endogenous gene expression or label specific genomic loci in living cells. Although the genome-wide specificities of CRISPR-Cas9 systems remain to be fully defined, the power of these systems to perform targeted, highly efficient alterations of genome sequence and gene expression will undoubtedly transform biological research and spur the development of novel molecular therapeutics for human disease.

  8. The semantic richness of abstract concepts

    PubMed Central

    Recchia, Gabriel; Jones, Michael N.

    2012-01-01

    We contrasted the predictive power of three measures of semantic richness—number of features (NFs), contextual dispersion (CD), and a novel measure of number of semantic neighbors (NSN)—for a large set of concrete and abstract concepts on lexical decision and naming tasks. NSN (but not NF) facilitated processing for abstract concepts, while NF (but not NSN) facilitated processing for the most concrete concepts, consistent with claims that linguistic information is more relevant for abstract concepts in early processing. Additionally, converging evidence from two datasets suggests that when NSN and CD are controlled for, the features that most facilitate processing are those associated with a concept's physical characteristics and real-world contexts. These results suggest that rich linguistic contexts (many semantic neighbors) facilitate early activation of abstract concepts, whereas concrete concepts benefit more from rich physical contexts (many associated objects and locations). PMID:23205008

  9. Hierarchical abstract semantic model for image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Zhipeng; Liu, Peng; Zhao, Wei; Tang, Xianglong

    2015-09-01

    Semantic gap limits the performance of bag-of-visual-words. To deal with this problem, a hierarchical abstract semantics method that builds abstract semantic layers, generates semantic visual vocabularies, measures semantic gap, and constructs classifiers using the Adaboost strategy is proposed. First, abstract semantic layers are proposed to narrow the semantic gap between visual features and their interpretation. Then semantic visual words are extracted as features to train semantic classifiers. One popular form of measurement is used to quantify the semantic gap. The Adaboost training strategy is used to combine weak classifiers into strong ones to further improve performance. For a testing image, the category is estimated layer-by-layer. Corresponding abstract hierarchical structures for popular datasets, including Caltech-101 and MSRC, are proposed for evaluation. The experimental results show that the proposed method is capable of narrowing semantic gaps effectively and performs better than other categorization methods.

  10. Program Aims at Improving Abstract Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Describes a program being conducted within the chemistry department of Xavier University, New Orleans, Louisiana, to improve the abstract reasoning abilities of freshmen science majors. The project is based upon the philosophy developed by Jean Piaget. (SL)

  11. Introducing Abstraction to Junior High Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanzo, Nancy

    1981-01-01

    Suggests a way to introduce abstract art to junior high school students who, more than students of any other age, emphasize realism both in their artwork and in their appreciation of works of art. (Author/SJL)

  12. Writing a research abstract: eloquence in miniature.

    PubMed

    Papanas, N; Georgiadis, G S; Maltezos, E; Lazarides, M K

    2012-06-01

    Abstracts are summaries, usually of a full article or conference presentation, and may be classified into structured and unstructured ones. The former have a predefined layout necessitating the use of headings. Most journals and conferences now use the structured abstract format. Research abstracts are increasingly vital for scientific communication and are expected to continue playing a key role for the dissemination of medicine in the near future. Abstracts take time and need meticulous preparation. They must aptly summarise the content of the study or presentation and avoid vague statements and poor style. Moreover, they must comply with provided instructions. Finally, they should be pleasant to read and encourage study of the corresponding full work.

  13. Pulmonary toxicology of respirable particles. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, C.L.; Cross, F.T.; Dagle, G.E.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1980-09-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 44 papers presented in these proceedings. The last paper (Stannard) in the proceedings is an historical review of the field of inhalation toxicology and is not included in the analytics. (DS)

  14. Earth Sciences Division collected abstracts: 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, A.L.; Hornady, B.F.

    1981-10-15

    This report is a compilation of abstracts of papers, reports, and talks presented during 1980 at national and international meetings by members of the Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The arrangement is alphabetical (by author). For a given report, a bibliographic reference appears under the name of each coauthor, but the abstract itself is given only under the name of the first author (indicated in capital letters) or the first Earth Sciences Division author.

  15. Finding Feasible Abstract Counter-Examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Visser, Willem; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A strength of model checking is its ability to automate the detection of subtle system errors and produce traces that exhibit those errors. Given the high computational cost of model checking most researchers advocate the use of aggressive property-preserving abstractions. Unfortunately, the more aggressively a system is abstracted the more infeasible behavior it will have. Thus, while abstraction enables efficient model checking it also threatens the usefulness of model checking as a defect detection tool, since it may be difficult to determine whether a counter-example is feasible and hence worth developer time to analyze. We have explored several strategies for addressing this problem by extending an explicit-state model checker, Java PathFinder (JPF), to search for and analyze counter-examples in the presence of abstractions. We demonstrate that these techniques effectively preserve the defect detection ability of model checking in the presence of aggressive abstraction by applying them to check properties of several abstracted multi-threaded Java programs. These new capabilities are not specific to JPF and can be easily adapted to other model checking frameworks; we describe how this was done for the Bandera toolset.

  16. L'otospongiose: étude rétrospective à propos de 36 cas

    PubMed Central

    Bouaity, Brahim; Chihani, Mehdi; Touati, Mohammed; Darouassi, Youssef; Nadour, Karim; Ammar, Haddou

    2014-01-01

    L'objectif de l’étude est de rapporter notre expérience concernant la prise en charge de l'otospongiose et comparer nos résultats avec ceux de la littérature. Nous rapportons une étude rétrospective concernant 36 cas d'otospongiose colligés au service d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie de l'hôpital militaire Avicenne de Marrakech, entre Janvier 2009 et Décembre 2012. L’âge moyen des patients était de 38 ans avec une nette prédominance masculine (77%). Notre étude a révélé un retard diagnostique (stades audiométriques II et III). Ce diagnostic est le plus souvent simple, très fortement suspecté dès la première consultation devant l'existence d'une surdité de transmission ou mixte à tympan normal qui constitue le signe de découverte le plus prépondérant et constant dans notre série (100%), accompagnée parfois d'acouphènes (41%). L'existence d'antécédents familiaux de la maladie a été retenue chez 33,33%. L'audiométrie tonale liminaire et la tympanométrie ont été réalisées chez tous nos patients (100%) évoquant le diagnostic dans la majorité des cas. La tomodensitométrie, non obligatoire, reste indispensable pour le diagnostic différentiel et surtout permet de prévoir les difficultés opératoires ainsi que les éventuelles associations pathologiques. Tous les patients ont subit une intervention chirurgicale comportant soit une platinectomie partielle ou totale(83%) ou une platinotomie. L’évolution et les résultats ont été généralement satisfaisants, par ailleurs nous avons constaté la survenue d'un cas de fistule périlymphatique, la persistance des acouphènes chez six patients et une surdité de transmission chez trois patients. PMID:25426200

  17. Syndrome coronaire aigu du sujet jeune caucasien: à propos de 62 cas

    PubMed Central

    Hamadou, Bâ; Thuaire, Christophe; Range, Grégoire; Demicheli, Thibaud; Kane, Abdoul; Albert, Franck

    2013-01-01

    Chez les sujets jeunes, la survenue d'un syndrome coronaire aigu (SCA) est souvent la première manifestation de la maladie coronaire. Les objectifs de notre travail étaient de caractériser les données coronarographiques, d'étudier la survie moyenne, et la qualité de vie chez les sujets jeunes caucasiens. C'est une étude rétrospective (2000-2007) descriptive et analytique qui incluaient 62 patients d'âge inférieur ou égal à 40 ans et hospitalisés pour SCA dans le service de cardiologie de l'hôpital Louis Pasteur. Nous avons étudié les paramètres épidémiologiques, coronarographiques et le suivi évolutif moyen de 3 ans. Le sex-ratio des patients étudiés était de 7,8. La moyenne d'âge était de 34,14 ± 2,96 ans chez les femmes et de 35,02 ± 4,41ans chez les hommes. Dans 60% des cas il s'agissait d'un SCA ST-, et dans 40% des cas d'un SCA ST+. Chez 64% de nos patients, on retrouve à la coronarographie des lésions coronaires supérieures à 50% avec une prédominance des lésions coronaires monotronculaires (34%). 97% des patients ayant été traités par angioplastie ont bénéficié d'une implantation d'endoprothèses. Pendant la période de suivi 7% des patients traités médicalement, ont présenté un angor résiduel et 34% de ceux traités par angioplastie. La plupart des sujets jeunes caucasiens atteints de syndrome coronaire aigu sont de sexe masculin avec des lésions monotronculaires (type B1). Tous étaient survivants et asymptomatiques dans 2/3 des cas lors de la période de suivi. PMID:23717729

  18. Les leishmanioses cutanées à Leishmania major et à Leishmania tropica au Maroc: aspects épidémio-cliniques comparatifs de 268 cas

    PubMed Central

    Chiheb, Soumia; Slaoui, Widad; Mouttaqui, Tarik; Riyad, Meriem; Benchikhi, Hakima

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Depuis 1995, le Maroc a connu une réactivation des foyers de leishmanioses cutanées (LC) à L. major et une nouvelle répartition géographique des foyers à L. tropica. Le but de cette étude est de comparer les aspects épidémio-cliniques associés aux LC potentiellement dûes à L. major et à L. tropica. Méthodes Une étude rétrospective a colligé 268 cas de LC au service de dermatologie du CHU Ibn Rochd de Casablanca entre Janvier 1995 et Septembre 2010. Les données étaient analysées par Epi info version 3.5.1. Le test X2 était appliqué (Différence significative = p< 0,05). Résultats Deux cent soixante-huit cas de LC ont été colligés, dont 160 femmes et 108 hommes. Ils ont été répartis en 123 patients originaires des foyers à L.major et 145 patients originaires des foyers à L. tropica. L'aspect ulcéronodulaire, ulcérovégétant ou végétant était retrouvé dans 58 cas (47,2%) des cas de LC à L. major versus 24 cas (16,7%) dans la L.C à L. tropica. L'aspect papulonodulaire était retrouvé dans 84 cas (58%) de LC à L. tropica contre 41 cas (33,3%) de LC à L. major. Conclusion Dans la LC à L. major, l'atteinte des membres et les aspects cliniques végétant ou ulcéro-végétant restent toujours prédominants. Dans la L.C à L. tropica, l'atteinte papulonodulaire unique du visage reste prédominante mais des formes ulcéronodulaires, végétantes ou ulcérovégétantes existent également dans les foyers récents à L. tropica, prêtant à confusion cliniquement avec des LC à L. major. PMID:25810796

  19. Integration and exchange of split dCas9 domains for transcriptional controls in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Dacheng; Peng, Shuguang; Xie, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Programmable and precise regulation of dCas9 functions in response to multiple molecular signals by using synthetic gene circuits will expand the application of the CRISPR-Cas technology. However, the application of CRISPR-Cas therapeutic circuits is still challenging due to the restrictive cargo size of existing viral delivery vehicles. Here, we construct logic AND circuits by integrating multiple split dCas9 domains, which is useful to reduce the size of synthetic circuits. In addition, we engineer sensory switches by exchanging split dCas9 domains, allowing differential regulations on one gene, or activating two different genes in response to cell-type specific microRNAs. Therefore, we provide a valuable split-dCas9 toolkit to engineer complex transcription controls, which may inspire new biomedical applications. PMID:27694915

  20. Generation of an Oocyte-Specific Cas9 Transgenic Mouse for Genome Editing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linlin; Zhou, Jiankui; Han, Jinxiong; Hu, Bian; Hou, Ningning; Shi, Yun; Huang, Xingxu

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system has been developed as an easy-handle and multiplexable approach for engineering eukaryotic genomes by zygote microinjection of Cas9 and sgRNA, while preparing Cas9 for microinjection is laborious and introducing inconsistency into the experiment. Here, we describe a modified strategy for gene targeting through using oocyte-specific Cas9 transgenic mouse. With this mouse line, we successfully achieve precise gene targeting by injection of sgRNAs only into one-cell-stage embryos. Through comprehensive analysis, we also show allele complexity and off-target mutagenesis induced by this strategy is obviously lower than Cas9 mRNA/sgRNA injection. Thus, injection of sgRNAs into oocyte-specific Cas9 transgenic mouse embryo provides a convenient, efficient and reliable approach for mouse genome editing. PMID:27119535

  1. Direct CRISPR spacer acquisition from RNA by a natural reverse transcriptase-Cas1 fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Silas, Sukrit; Mohr, Georg; Sidote, David J; Markham, Laura M; Sanchez-Amat, Antonio; Bhaya, Devaki; Lambowitz, Alan M; Fire, Andrew Z

    2016-02-26

    CRISPR systems mediate adaptive immunity in diverse prokaryotes. CRISPR-associated Cas1 and Cas2 proteins have been shown to enable adaptation to new threats in type I and II CRISPR systems by the acquisition of short segments of DNA (spacers) from invasive elements. In several type III CRISPR systems, Cas1 is naturally fused to a reverse transcriptase (RT). In the marine bacterium Marinomonas mediterranea (MMB-1), we showed that a RT-Cas1 fusion protein enables the acquisition of RNA spacers in vivo in a RT-dependent manner. In vitro, the MMB-1 RT-Cas1 and Cas2 proteins catalyze the ligation of RNA segments into the CRISPR array, which is followed by reverse transcription. These observations outline a host-mediated mechanism for reverse information flow from RNA to DNA. PMID:26917774

  2. Direct CRISPR spacer acquisition from RNA by a natural reverse-transcriptase-Cas1 fusion protein

    PubMed Central

    Sidote, David J.; Markham, Laura M.; Sanchez-Amat, Antonio; Bhaya, Devaki; Lambowitz, Alan M.; Fire, Andrew Z.

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat) systems mediate adaptive immunity in diverse prokaryotes. CRISPR-associated Cas1 and Cas2 proteins have been shown to enable adaptation to new threats in Type I and II CRISPR systems by the acquisition of short segments of DNA (“spacers”) from invasive elements. In several Type III CRISPR systems, Cas1 is naturally fused to a reverse transcriptase (RT). In the marine bacterium Marinomonas mediterranea (MMB-1), we show that an RT-Cas1 fusion enables the acquisition of RNA spacers in vivo in an RT-dependent manner. In vitro, the MMB-1 RT-Cas1 and Cas2 proteins catalyze ligation of RNA segments into the CRISPR array, followed by reverse transcription. These observations outline a host-mediated mechanism for reverse information flow from RNA to DNA. PMID:26917774

  3. Evidence for the widespread distribution of CRISPR-Cas system in the Phylum Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Fei; Axen, Seth D.; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.

    2013-01-01

    Members of the phylum Cyanobacteria inhabit ecologically diverse environments. However, the CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats, CRISPR associated genes), an extremely adaptable defense system, has not been surveyed in this phylum. We analyzed 126 cyanobacterial genomes and, surprisingly, found CRISPR-Cas in the majority except the marine subclade (Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus), in which cyanophages are a known force shaping their evolution. Multiple observations of CRISPR loci in the absence of cas1/cas2 genes may represent an early stage of losing a CRISPR-Cas locus. Our findings reveal the widespread distribution of their role in the phylum Cyanobacteria and provide a first step to systematically understanding CRISPR-Cas systems in cyanobacteria. PMID:23628889

  4. [Application of CRISPR/Cas9 mediated genome editing in farm animals].

    PubMed

    Yuyun, Xing; Qiang, Yang; Jun, Ren

    2016-03-01

    CRISPR (Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas (CRISPR associated proteins) is an acquired immune system found in bacteria and archaea that fight against invasion of viruses or plasmids. CRISPR/Cas systems are currently classified into three main types: I, II and III, of which type II has relatively simple components. The CRISPR/Cas9 technology modified from type II CRISPR/Cas system has been developed as an efficient genome editing tool. Since the initial application of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology in mammals in 2013, the reports of this system for genomic editing has skyrocketed. Farm animals are not only economically important animals, but also ideal animal models for human diseases and biomedical studies. In this review, we summarize the applications of CRISPR/Cas9 in farm animals, briefly describe the off-target effects and the main solutions, and finally highlight the future perspectives of this technology.

  5. NASA Patent Abstracts Bibliography: A Continuing Bibliography. Supplement 62

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Several thousand inventions result each year from research supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. NASA seeks patent protection on inventions to which it has title if the invention has important use in government programs or significant commercial potential. These inventions cover a broad range of technologies and include many that have useful and valuable commercial application. NASA inventions best serve the interests of the United States when their benefits are available to the public. In many instances, the granting of nonexclusive or exclusive licenses for the practice of these inventions may assist in the accomplishment of this objective. This bibliography is published as a service to companies, firms, and individuals seeking new, licensable products for the commercial market. The NASA Patent Abstracts Bibliography is a semiannual NASA publication containing comprehensive abstracts of NASA owned inventions covered by U.S. patents. The citations included in the bibliography arrangement of citations were originally published in NASA's Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports (STAR) and cover STAR announcements made since May 1969. The citations published in this issue cover the period July 2002 through. December 2002. This issue includes 10 major subject divisions separated into 76 specific categories and one general category/division. (See Table of Contents for the scope note of each category, under which are grouped appropriate NASA inventions.) This scheme was devised in 1975 and revised in 1987 in lieu of the 34 category divisions which were utilized in supplements (01) through (06) covering STAR abstracts from May 1969 through January 1974. Each entry consists of a STAR citation accompanied by an abstract and, when appropriate, a key illustration taken from the patent or application for patent. Entries are arranged by subject category in ascending order. A typical citation and abstract presents the various data elements included

  6. NASA Patent Abstracts Bibliography: A Continuing Bibliography. Supplement 58

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This report lists reports, articles and other documents recently announced in the NASA STI Database. Several thousand inventions result each year from the aeronautical and space research supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The inventions having important use in government programs or significant commercial potential are usually patented by NASA. These inventions cover practically all fields of technology and include many that have useful and valuable commercial application. NASA inventions best serve the interests of the United States when their benefits are available to the public. In many instances, the granting of nonexclusive or exclusive licenses for the practice of these inventions may assist in the accomplishment of this objective. This bibliography is published as a service to companies, firms, and individuals seeking new, licensable products for the commercial market. The NASA Patent Abstracts Bibliography is a semiannual NASA publication containing comprehensive abstracts of NASA owned inventions covered by U.S. patents. The citations included in the bibliography arrangement of citations were originally published in NASA's Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports (STAR) and cover STAR announcements made since May 1969. The citations published in this issue cover the period July 2000 through December 2000. This issue includes 10 major subject divisions separated into 76 specific categories and one general category/division. This scheme was devised in 1975 and revised in 1987 in lieu of the 34 category divisions which were utilized in supplements (01) through (06) covering STAR abstracts from May 1969 through January 1974. Each entry consists of a STAR citation accompanied by an abstract and, when appropriate, a key illustration taken from the patent or application for patent. Entries are arranged by subject category in ascending order. A typical citation and abstract presents the various data elements included in most records

  7. NASA Patent Abstracts Bibliography: A Continuing Bibliography. Supplement 60

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Several thousand inventions result each year from the aeronautical and space research supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The inventions having important use in government programs or significant commercial potential are usually patented by NASA. These inventions cover practically all fields of technology and include many that have useful and valuable commercial application. NASA inventions best serve the interests of the United States when their benefits are available to the public. In many instances, the granting of nonexclusive or exclusive licenses for the practice of these inventions may assist in the accomplishment of this objective. This bibliography is published as a service to companies, firms, and individuals seeking new, licensable products for the commercial market. The NASA Patent Abstracts Bibliography is a semiannual NASA publication containing comprehensive abstracts of NASA owned inventions covered by U.S. patents. The citations included in the bibliography arrangement of citations were originally published in NASA's Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports (STAR) and cover STAR announcements made since May 1969. The citations published in this issue cover the period July 2001 through December 2001. This issue includes 10 major subject divisions separated into 76 specific categories and one general category/division. (See Table of Contents for the scope note of each category, under which are grouped appropriate NASA inventions.) This scheme was devised in 1975 and revised in 1987 in lieu of the 34 category divisions which were utilized in supplements (01) through (06) covering STAR abstracts from May 1969 through January 1974. Each entry consists of a STAR citation accompanied by an abstract and, when appropriate, a key illustration taken from the patent or application for patent. Entries are arranged by subject category in ascending order. A typical citation and abstract presents the various data elements included in

  8. TQM: A bibliography with abstracts. [total quality management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottlich, Gretchen L. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This document is designed to function as a special resource for NASA Langley scientists, engineers, and managers during the introduction and development of total quality management (TQM) practices at the Center. It lists approximately 300 bibliographic citations for articles and reports dealing with various aspects of TQM. Abstracts are also available for the majority of the citations. Citations are organized by broad subject areas, including case studies, customer service, senior management, leadership, communication tools, TQM basics, applications, and implementation. An introduction and indexes provide additional information on arrangement and availability of these materials.

  9. Diagnostic étiologique du diabète insipide central: à propos de 41 cas

    PubMed Central

    Chaker, Fatma; Chihaoui, Melika; Yazidi, Meriem; Slimane, Hedia

    2016-01-01

    La survenue d'un syndrome polyuro-polydipsiqueavec des urines hypotoniques nécessite une stratégie diagnostique rigoureuse. Le but de cette étude était d’étudier les modalités de diagnostic du diabète insipide central. A travers une étude rétrospective de 41 cas de diabète insipide central(DIC) colligés au service d'Endocrinologie à l'hôpital de la Rabta de Tunis, allant de l'année 1990 à l'an 2013, nous avons relevé les circonstances de découverte du DIC, les anomalies du bilan anté-hypophysaire etde l'imagerie hypophysaire. Le DIC était post opératoire chez 20 patients. La diurèse moyenne de 24 heures était significativement plus élevée chez les patients ayant un DIC en dehors d'un contexte chirurgical. L’épreuve de restriction hydrique était concluante chez tous les patients qui en ont bénéficié. En dehors d'un contexte neurochirurgical, les causes infiltratives étaient retrouvées chez 6 patientset les causes tumorales chez 6 patients. Le DIC était associé à une selle turcique vide dans 1 cas et idiopathique chez 3 malades. L'imagerie par résonnance magnétique hypothalamo-hypophysaire et le bilan anté-hypophysaire sont systématiques en dehors d'un contexte de chirurgie hypophysaire et d'une polydipsie primaire évidente. PMID:27642481

  10. Efficient Production of Gene-Modified Mice using Staphylococcus aureus Cas9.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiya; Liang, Puping; Ding, Chenhui; Zhang, Zhen; Zhou, Jianwen; Xie, Xiaowei; Huang, Rui; Sun, Ying; Sun, Hongwei; Zhang, Jinran; Xu, Yanwen; Songyang, Zhou; Huang, Junjiu

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas system is an efficient genome-editing tool to modify genes in mouse zygotes. However, only the Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) has been systematically tested for generating gene-modified mice. The protospacer adjacent motif (PAM, 5'-NGG-3') recognized by SpCas9 limits the number of potential target sites for this system. Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 (SaCas9), with its smaller size and unique PAM (5'-NNGRRT-3') preferences, presents an alternative for genome editing in zygotes. Here, we showed that SaCas9 could efficiently and specifically edit the X-linked gene Slx2 and the autosomal gene Zp1 in mouse zygotes. SaCas9-mediated disruption of the tyrosinase (Tyr) gene led to C57BL/6J mice with mosaic coat color. Furthermore, multiplex targeting proved efficient multiple genes disruption when we co-injected gRNAs targeting Slx2, Zp1, and Tyr together with SaCas9 mRNA. We were also able to insert a Flag tag at the C-terminus of histone H1c, when a Flag-encoding single-stranded DNA oligo was co-introduced into mouse zygotes with SaCas9 mRNA and the gRNA. These results indicate that SaCas9 can specifically cleave the target gene locus, leading to successful gene knock-out and precise knock-in in mouse zygotes, and highlight the potential of using SaCas9 for genome editing in preimplantation embryos and producing gene-modified animal models. PMID:27586692

  11. Modified RNAs in CRISPR/Cas9: An Old Trick Works Again.

    PubMed

    Latorre, Alfonso; Latorre, Ana; Somoza, Álvaro

    2016-03-01

    Old tricks, new dog: CRISPR/Cas9 is a powerful tool for gene editing that requires an endonuclease (Cas9) and RNA strands. It has been shown that chemical modification of the RNA structures, an approach that has been used to improve the efficiency of RNA interference, can also be applied to enhance the activity of CRISPR/Cas9 and reduce its off-target effects.

  12. Efficient Production of Gene-Modified Mice using Staphylococcus aureus Cas9

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiya; Liang, Puping; Ding, Chenhui; Zhang, Zhen; Zhou, Jianwen; Xie, Xiaowei; Huang, Rui; Sun, Ying; Sun, Hongwei; Zhang, Jinran; Xu, Yanwen; Songyang, Zhou; Huang, Junjiu

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas system is an efficient genome-editing tool to modify genes in mouse zygotes. However, only the Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) has been systematically tested for generating gene-modified mice. The protospacer adjacent motif (PAM, 5′-NGG-3′) recognized by SpCas9 limits the number of potential target sites for this system. Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 (SaCas9), with its smaller size and unique PAM (5′-NNGRRT-3′) preferences, presents an alternative for genome editing in zygotes. Here, we showed that SaCas9 could efficiently and specifically edit the X-linked gene Slx2 and the autosomal gene Zp1 in mouse zygotes. SaCas9-mediated disruption of the tyrosinase (Tyr) gene led to C57BL/6J mice with mosaic coat color. Furthermore, multiplex targeting proved efficient multiple genes disruption when we co-injected gRNAs targeting Slx2, Zp1, and Tyr together with SaCas9 mRNA. We were also able to insert a Flag tag at the C-terminus of histone H1c, when a Flag-encoding single-stranded DNA oligo was co-introduced into mouse zygotes with SaCas9 mRNA and the gRNA. These results indicate that SaCas9 can specifically cleave the target gene locus, leading to successful gene knock-out and precise knock-in in mouse zygotes, and highlight the potential of using SaCas9 for genome editing in preimplantation embryos and producing gene-modified animal models. PMID:27586692

  13. Successful transient expression of Cas9 and single guide RNA genes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenzhi; Brueggeman, Andrew J; Horken, Kempton M; Plucinak, Thomas M; Weeks, Donald P

    2014-11-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 system has become a powerful and precise tool for targeted gene modification (e.g., gene knockout and gene replacement) in numerous eukaryotic organisms. Initial attempts to apply this technology to a model, the single-cell alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, failed to yield cells containing edited genes. To determine if the Cas9 and single guide RNA (sgRNA) genes were functional in C. reinhardtii, we tested the ability of a codon-optimized Cas9 gene along with one of four different sgRNAs to cause targeted gene disruption during a 24-h period immediately following transformation. All three exogenously supplied gene targets as well as the endogenous FKB12 (rapamycin sensitivity) gene of C. reinhardtii displayed distinct Cas9/sgRNA-mediated target site modifications as determined by DNA sequencing of cloned PCR amplicons of the target site region. Success in transient expression of Cas9 and sgRNA genes contrasted with the recovery of only a single rapamycin-resistant colony bearing an appropriately modified FKB12 target site in 16 independent transformation experiments involving >10(9) cells. Failure to recover transformants with intact or expressed Cas9 genes following transformation with the Cas9 gene alone (or even with a gene encoding a Cas9 lacking nuclease activity) provided strong suggestive evidence for Cas9 toxicity when Cas9 is produced constitutively in C. reinhardtii. The present results provide compelling evidence that Cas9 and sgRNA genes function properly in C. reinhardtii to cause targeted gene modifications and point to the need for a focus on development of methods to properly stem Cas9 production and/or activity following gene editing.

  14. Functional annotation of native enhancers with a Cas9 -histone demethylase fusion

    PubMed Central

    Tabak, Barbara; Genga, Ryan M; Silverstein, Noah J; Garber, Manuel; Maehr, René

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of mammalian enhancer function is limited by the lack of a technology to rapidly and thoroughly test their cell type-specific function. Here, we use a nuclease-deficient (d)Cas9 histone demethylase fusion to functionally characterize previously described and novel enhancer elements for their roles in the embryonic stem cell state. Further, we distinguish the mechanism of action of dCas9-LSD1 at enhancers from previous dCas9-effectors. PMID:25775043

  15. Highly efficient heritable plant genome engineering using Cas9 orthologues from Streptococcus thermophilus and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Steinert, Jeannette; Schiml, Simon; Fauser, Friedrich; Puchta, Holger

    2015-12-01

    The application of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas system of Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9) is currently revolutionizing genome engineering in plants. However, synthetic plant biology will require more complex manipulations of genomes and transcriptomes. The simultaneous addressing of different specific genomic sites with independent enzyme activities within the same cell is a key to this issue. Such approaches can be achieved by the adaptation of additional bacterial orthologues of the CRISPR/Cas system for use in plant cells. Here, we show that codon-optimised Cas9 orthologues from Streptococcus thermophilus (St1Cas9) and Staphylococcus aureus (SaCas9) can both be used to induce error-prone non-homologous end-joining-mediated targeted mutagenesis in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana at frequencies at least comparable to those that have previously been reported for the S. pyogenes CRISPR/Cas system. Stable inheritance of the induced targeted mutations of the ADH1 gene was demonstrated for both St1Cas9- and SaCas9-based systems at high frequencies. We were also able to demonstrate that the SaCas9 and SpCas9 proteins enhance homologous recombination via the induction of double-strand breaks only in the presence of their species-specific single guide (sg) RNAs. These proteins are not prone to inter-species interference with heterologous sgRNA expression constructs. Thus, the CRISPR/Cas systems of S. pyogenes and S. aureus should be appropriate for simultaneously addressing different sequence motifs with different enzyme activities in the same plant cell. PMID:26576927

  16. La place de la thoracoscopie dans la prise en charge des pathologies thoraciques: à propos de 104 cas

    PubMed Central

    Lakranbi, Marwane; Rabiou, Sani; Ghalimi, Jamal; Issoufou, Ibrahim; Ouadnouni, Yassine; Smahi, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction La thoracoscopie est l'exploration endoscopique de la cavité pleurale, des organes avoisinants (diaphragme, péricarde, médiastin) et du poumon. Le but de ce travail se veut d'abord didactique; décrivant la thoracoscopie, ses techniques ainsi que sa place dans la prise en charge de la pathologie thoracique (indications et perspectives thérapeutiques) et informatif en rapportant l'expérience de notre équipe. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective intéressant 104 thoracoscopies à visée diagnostique et/ou thérapeutique réalisées au service de chirurgie thoracique du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Hassan II de Fès, sur une période de 04 ans (Août 2008-décembre 2012). Nous avons exclu de notre étude les cas ayant bénéficié d'une médiastinoscopie ainsi que les cas ayant bénéficié d'une thoracoscopie dans le cadre des traumatismes fermés du thorax ou des plaies thoraciques. Résultats L’ âge moyen des patients est de 47 ans, avec des extrêmes allant de 18 à 80 ans, et une légère prédominance masculine à 54%. La thoracoscopie est d'ordre pleural chez 86 patients, pulmonaire chez 10 patients et médiastinale chez 8 patients. La thoracoscopie avait une indication à visée diagnostique chez 87 cas et thérapeutique chez 52 patients (talcage dans 45 cas, décortication pleuropulmonaire dans 2 cas, résection de kystepleuro-péricardique dans 2 cas, cure de pneumothorax dans 2 cas et une fenêtre péricardique). L’évolution post opératoire etait marquée par une amélioration clinico-radiologique chez 40 malades, 11 ont présenté une amélioration clinique seule, 6 ont présenté une persistance ou une récidive de l’épanchement. Conclusion La thoracoscopie représente un réel gain en matière de diagnostic de certaines pathologies intra-thoraciques. Son intérêt thérapeutique limité doit être éventuellement étendu grâce à la chirurgie thoracique vidéo assistée, qui est une technique récente fiable

  17. Analyse des facteurs prédictifs de malignité des goitres nodulaires : à propos de 500 cas

    PubMed Central

    Bouaity, Brahim; Darouassi, Youssef; Chihani, Mehdi; Touati, Mohamed Mliha; Ammar, Haddou

    2016-01-01

    Les nodules thyroïdiens sont très fréquents et moins de 10% d'entre eux sont malin. Ils posent un véritable problème diagnostique et thérapeutique surtout par rapport à leur nature bénigne ou maligne. L’étude de certains facteurs cliniques et paracliniques de présomption de malignité permet de bien codifier la stratégie thérapeutique. Le but de ce travail est d’étudier les facteurs prédictifs de malignité des goitres nodulaires et comparer nos résultats à ceux de la littérature. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective à propos de 500 cas de goitres nodulaires opérés au service d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie (ORL) et Chirurgie cervico-faciale (CCF) de l'hôpital militaire Avicenne de Marrakech entre 2006 et 2012. Le pourcentage de cancers a été de 6,8%. L’âge moyen de nos patients était de 46 ans, avec une sex-ratio de 5 (F/H). A la palpation cervicale; le caractère dure du nodule a été constaté dans 94,4% des cas de cancer, avec des limites irrégulières dans 64,70% des cas de cancer. Trois nodules étaient fixes et ils étaient tous malins. Les adénopathies cervicales ont été constatées chez 8 malades dont 7 présentaient des cancers. A l’échographie, 61,8% des nodules malins présentaient un aspect hypoéchogène, avec des contours flous dans 88,24% des cas. La vascularisation intra nodulaire était présente dans 35,3% de ces cas des cancers avec des microcalcifications chez 55,9% d'entre eux. Le halo hypoéchogene périnodulaire était incomplet dans 73,5% des cas de cancer. Nos patients étaient en euthyroïdie dans 84,6% des cas. Les facteurs prédictifs de malignité d'un goitre nodulaire, étaient donc dans notre étude d'abord cliniques: l’âge supérieur à 60 ans, la consistance dure du nodule, sa fixité, son caractère irrégulier et mal limité à la palpation, ainsi que la présence d'adénopathie(s) cervicale(s) à l'examen; et échographiques: le caractère hypoéchogène, les limites floues, la présence de

  18. Multiple mechanisms for CRISPR-Cas inhibition by anti-CRISPR proteins.

    PubMed

    Bondy-Denomy, Joseph; Garcia, Bianca; Strum, Scott; Du, Mingjian; Rollins, MaryClare F; Hidalgo-Reyes, Yurima; Wiedenheft, Blake; Maxwell, Karen L; Davidson, Alan R

    2015-10-01

    The battle for survival between bacteria and the viruses that infect them (phages) has led to the evolution of many bacterial defence systems and phage-encoded antagonists of these systems. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and the CRISPR-associated (cas) genes comprise an adaptive immune system that is one of the most widespread means by which bacteria defend themselves against phages. We identified the first examples of proteins produced by phages that inhibit a CRISPR-Cas system. Here we performed biochemical and in vivo investigations of three of these anti-CRISPR proteins, and show that each inhibits CRISPR-Cas activity through a distinct mechanism. Two block the DNA-binding activity of the CRISPR-Cas complex, yet do this by interacting with different protein subunits, and using steric or non-steric modes of inhibition. The third anti-CRISPR protein operates by binding to the Cas3 helicase-nuclease and preventing its recruitment to the DNA-bound CRISPR-Cas complex. In vivo, this anti-CRISPR can convert the CRISPR-Cas system into a transcriptional repressor, providing the first example-to our knowledge-of modulation of CRISPR-Cas activity by a protein interactor. The diverse sequences and mechanisms of action of these anti-CRISPR proteins imply an independent evolution, and foreshadow the existence of other means by which proteins may alter CRISPR-Cas function.

  19. Generating Mouse Models Using CRISPR-Cas9-Mediated Genome Editing.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wenning; Kutny, Peter M; Maser, Richard S; Dion, Stephanie L; Lamont, Jeffrey D; Zhang, Yingfan; Perry, Greggory A; Wang, Haoyi

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR-Cas9 system in bacteria and archaea has recently been exploited for genome editing in various model organisms, including mice. The CRISPR-Cas9 reagents can be delivered directly into the mouse zygote to derive a mutant animal carrying targeted genetic modifications. The major components of the system include the guide RNA, which provides target specificity, the Cas9 nuclease that creates the DNA double-strand break, and the donor oligonucleotide or plasmid carrying the intended mutation flanked by sequences homologous to the target site. Here we describe the general considerations and experimental protocols for creating genetically modified mice using the CRISPR-Cas9 system. PMID:26928663

  20. CRISPR-Cas: New Tools for Genetic Manipulations from Bacterial Immunity Systems.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenyan; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2015-01-01

    Prokaryotic CRISPR-Cas loci encode proteins that function as an adaptive immune system against infectious viruses and plasmids. Immunity is mediated by Cas nucleases and small RNA guides, which specify a cleavage site within the genome of the invader. In type II CRISPR-Cas systems, the RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease cleaves the DNA. Cas9 can be reprogrammed to create double-strand DNA breaks in the genomes of a variety of organisms, from bacteria to human cells. Repair of Cas9 lesions by homologous recombination or nonhomologous end joining mechanisms can lead to the introduction of specific nucleotide substitutions or indel mutations, respectively. Furthermore, a nuclease-null Cas9 has been developed to regulate endogenous gene expression and to label genomic loci in living cells. Targeted genome editing and gene regulation mediated by Cas9 are easy to program, scale, and multiplex, allowing researchers to decipher the causal link between genetic and phenotypic variation. In this review, we describe the most notable applications of Cas9 in basic biology, translational medicine, synthetic biology, biotechnology, and other fields. PMID:26209264

  1. Modulating the Cascade architecture of a minimal Type I-F CRISPR-Cas system

    PubMed Central

    Gleditzsch, Daniel; Müller-Esparza, Hanna; Pausch, Patrick; Sharma, Kundan; Dwarakanath, Srivatsa; Urlaub, Henning; Bange, Gert; Randau, Lennart

    2016-01-01

    Shewanella putrefaciens CN-32 contains a single Type I-Fv CRISPR-Cas system which confers adaptive immunity against bacteriophage infection. Three Cas proteins (Cas6f, Cas7fv, Cas5fv) and mature CRISPR RNAs were shown to be required for the assembly of an interference complex termed Cascade. The Cas protein-CRISPR RNA interaction sites within this complex were identified via mass spectrometry. Additional Cas proteins, commonly described as large and small subunits, that are present in all other investigated Cascade structures, were not detected. We introduced this minimal Type I system in Escherichia coli and show that it provides heterologous protection against lambda phage. The absence of a large subunit suggests that the length of the crRNA might not be fixed and recombinant Cascade complexes with drastically shortened and elongated crRNAs were engineered. Size-exclusion chromatography and small-angle X-ray scattering analyses revealed that the number of Cas7fv backbone subunits is adjusted in these shortened and extended Cascade variants. Larger Cascade complexes can still confer immunity against lambda phage infection in E. coli. Minimized Type I CRISPR-Cas systems expand our understanding of the evolution of Cascade assembly and diversity. Their adjustable crRNA length opens the possibility for customizing target DNA specificity. PMID:27216815

  2. Multiple mechanisms for CRISPR-Cas inhibition by anti-CRISPR proteins.

    PubMed

    Bondy-Denomy, Joseph; Garcia, Bianca; Strum, Scott; Du, Mingjian; Rollins, MaryClare F; Hidalgo-Reyes, Yurima; Wiedenheft, Blake; Maxwell, Karen L; Davidson, Alan R

    2015-10-01

    The battle for survival between bacteria and the viruses that infect them (phages) has led to the evolution of many bacterial defence systems and phage-encoded antagonists of these systems. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and the CRISPR-associated (cas) genes comprise an adaptive immune system that is one of the most widespread means by which bacteria defend themselves against phages. We identified the first examples of proteins produced by phages that inhibit a CRISPR-Cas system. Here we performed biochemical and in vivo investigations of three of these anti-CRISPR proteins, and show that each inhibits CRISPR-Cas activity through a distinct mechanism. Two block the DNA-binding activity of the CRISPR-Cas complex, yet do this by interacting with different protein subunits, and using steric or non-steric modes of inhibition. The third anti-CRISPR protein operates by binding to the Cas3 helicase-nuclease and preventing its recruitment to the DNA-bound CRISPR-Cas complex. In vivo, this anti-CRISPR can convert the CRISPR-Cas system into a transcriptional repressor, providing the first example-to our knowledge-of modulation of CRISPR-Cas activity by a protein interactor. The diverse sequences and mechanisms of action of these anti-CRISPR proteins imply an independent evolution, and foreshadow the existence of other means by which proteins may alter CRISPR-Cas function. PMID:26416740

  3. Development of an intein-mediated split–Cas9 system for gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Dong-Jiunn Jeffery; Kühner, Karin; Kühn, Ralf; Werfel, Stanislas; Engelhardt, Stefan; Wurst, Wolfgang; Ortiz, Oskar

    2015-01-01

    Using CRISPR/Cas9, it is possible to target virtually any gene in any organism. A major limitation to its application in gene therapy is the size of Cas9 (>4 kb), impeding its efficient delivery via recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV). Therefore, we developed a split–Cas9 system, bypassing the packaging limit using split-inteins. Each Cas9 half was fused to the corresponding split-intein moiety and, only upon co-expression, the intein-mediated trans-splicing occurs and the full Cas9 protein is reconstituted. We demonstrated that the nuclease activity of our split-intein system is comparable to wild-type Cas9, shown by a genome-integrated surrogate reporter and by targeting three different endogenous genes. An analogously designed split-Cas9D10A nickase version showed similar activity as Cas9D10A. Moreover, we showed that the double nick strategy increased the homologous directed recombination (HDR). In addition, we explored the possibility of delivering the repair template accommodated on the same dual-plasmid system, by transient transfection, showing an efficient HDR. Most importantly, we revealed for the first time that intein-mediated split–Cas9 can be packaged, delivered and its nuclease activity reconstituted efficiently, in cells via rAAV. PMID:26082496

  4. Harnessing heterologous and endogenous CRISPR-Cas machineries for efficient markerless genome editing in Clostridium

    PubMed Central

    Pyne, Michael E.; Bruder, Mark R.; Moo-Young, Murray; Chung, Duane A.; Chou, C. Perry

    2016-01-01

    Application of CRISPR-Cas9 systems has revolutionized genome editing across all domains of life. Here we report implementation of the heterologous Type II CRISPR-Cas9 system in Clostridium pasteurianum for markerless genome editing. Since 74% of species harbor CRISPR-Cas loci in Clostridium, we also explored the prospect of co-opting host-encoded CRISPR-Cas machinery for genome editing. Motivation for this work was bolstered from the observation that plasmids expressing heterologous cas9 result in poor transformation of Clostridium. To address this barrier and establish proof-of-concept, we focus on characterization and exploitation of the C. pasteurianum Type I-B CRISPR-Cas system. In silico spacer analysis and in vivo interference assays revealed three protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) sequences required for site-specific nucleolytic attack. Introduction of a synthetic CRISPR array and cpaAIR gene deletion template yielded an editing efficiency of 100%. In contrast, the heterologous Type II CRISPR-Cas9 system generated only 25% of the total yield of edited cells, suggesting that native machinery provides a superior foundation for genome editing by precluding expression of cas9 in trans. To broaden our approach, we also identified putative PAM sequences in three key species of Clostridium. This is the first report of genome editing through harnessing native CRISPR-Cas machinery in Clostridium. PMID:27157668

  5. Generating Mouse Models Using CRISPR-Cas9-Mediated Genome Editing.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wenning; Kutny, Peter M; Maser, Richard S; Dion, Stephanie L; Lamont, Jeffrey D; Zhang, Yingfan; Perry, Greggory A; Wang, Haoyi

    2016-03-01

    The CRISPR-Cas9 system in bacteria and archaea has recently been exploited for genome editing in various model organisms, including mice. The CRISPR-Cas9 reagents can be delivered directly into the mouse zygote to derive a mutant animal carrying targeted genetic modifications. The major components of the system include the guide RNA, which provides target specificity, the Cas9 nuclease that creates the DNA double-strand break, and the donor oligonucleotide or plasmid carrying the intended mutation flanked by sequences homologous to the target site. Here we describe the general considerations and experimental protocols for creating genetically modified mice using the CRISPR-Cas9 system.

  6. Categorization of sentence types in medical abstracts.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Larry; Srinivasan, Padmini

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of machine learning techniques in the classification of sentence type. 7253 structured abstracts and 204 unstructured abstracts of Randomized Controlled Trials from MedLINE were parsed into sentences and each sentence was labeled as one of four types (Introduction, Method, Result, or Conclusion). Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Linear Classifier models were generated and evaluated on cross-validated data. Treating sentences as a simple "bag of words", the SVM model had an average ROC area of 0.92. Adding a feature of relative sentence location improved performance markedly for some models and overall increasing the average ROC to 0.95. Linear classifier performance was significantly worse than the SVM in all datasets. Using the SVM model trained on structured abstracts to predict unstructured abstracts yielded performance similar to that of models trained with unstructured abstracts in 3 of the 4 types. We conclude that classification of sentence type seems feasible within the domain of RCT's. Identification of sentence types may be helpful for providing context to end users or other text summarization techniques.

  7. Abstract folding space analysis based on helices

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiabin; Backofen, Rolf; Voß, Björn

    2012-01-01

    RNA has many pivotal functions especially in the regulation of gene expression by ncRNAs. Identification of their structure is an important requirement for understanding their function. Structure prediction alone is often insufficient for this task, due to algorithmic problems, parameter inaccuracies, and biological peculiarities. Among the latter, there are base modifications, cotranscriptional folding leading to folding traps, and conformational switching as in the case of riboswitches. All these require more in-depth analysis of the folding space. The major drawback, which all methods have to cope with, is the exponential growth of the folding space. Therefore, methods are often limited in the sequence length they can analyze, or they make use of heuristics, sampling, or abstraction. Our approach adopts the abstraction strategy and remedies some problems of existing methods. We introduce a position-specific abstraction based on helices that we term helix index shapes, or hishapes for short. Utilizing a dynamic programming framework, we have implemented this abstraction in the program RNAHeliCes. Furthermore, we developed two hishape-based methods, one for energy barrier estimation, called HiPath, and one for abstract structure comparison, termed HiTed. We demonstrate the superior performance of HiPath compared to other existing methods and the competitive accuracy of HiTed. RNAHeliCes, together with HiPath and HiTed, are available for download at http://www.cyanolab.de/software/RNAHeliCes.htm. PMID:23104999

  8. CRISPR/Cas mutagenesis of soybean and Medicago truncatula using a new web-tool and a modified Cas9 enzyme.

    PubMed

    Michno, Jean-Michel; Wang, Xiaobo; Liu, Junqi; Curtin, Shaun J; Kono, Thomas Jy; Stupar, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is rapidly becoming the reagent of choice for targeted mutagenesis and gene editing in crop species. There are currently intense research efforts in the crop sciences to identify efficient CRISPR/Cas9 platforms to carry out targeted mutagenesis and gene editing projects. These efforts typically result in the incremental tweaking of various platform components including the identification of crop-specific promoters and terminators for optimal expression of the Cas9 enzyme and identification of promoters for expression of the CRISPR guide RNA. In this report, we demonstrate the development of an online web tool for fast identification of CRISPR/Cas9 target loci within soybean gene models, and generic DNA sequences. The web-tool described in this work can quickly identify a high number of potential CRISPR/Cas9 target sites, including restriction enzyme sites that can facilitate the detection of new mutations. In conjunction with the web tool, a soybean codon-optimized CRISPR/Cas9 platform was designed to direct double-stranded breaks to the targeted loci in hairy root transformed cells. The modified Cas9 enzyme was shown to successfully mutate target genes in somatic cells of 2 legume species, soybean and Medicago truncatula. These new tools may help facilitate targeted mutagenesis in legume and other plant species. PMID:26479970

  9. Cas5d protein processes pre-crRNA and assembles into a Cascade-like interference complex in Subtype I-C/Dvulg CRISPR-Cas system

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Ki Hyun; Haitjema, Charles; Liu, Xueqi; Ding, Fran; Wang, Hongwei; DeLisa, Matthew P.; Ke, Ailong

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs), together with an operon of CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins, form an RNA-based prokaryotic immune system against exogenous genetic elements. Cas5 family proteins are found in several Type I CRISPR-Cas systems. Here we report the molecular function of Subtype I-C/Dvulg Cas5d from B. halodurans. We show that Cas5d cleaves pre-crRNA into unit length by recognizing both the hairpin structure and the 3′ single stranded sequence in the CRISPR repeat region. Cas5d structure reveals a ferredoxin domain-based architecture and a catalytic triad formed by Y46, K116 and H117 residues. We further show that after pre-crRNA processing, Cas5d assembles with crRNA, Csd1, and Csd2 proteins to form a multi-subunit interference complex similar to E. coli Cascade (CRISPR-associated complex for antiviral defense) in architecture. Our results suggest that formation of a crRNA-presenting Cascade-like complex is likely a common theme among Type I CRISPR subtypes. PMID:22841292

  10. Cas3 is a single-stranded DNA nuclease and ATP-dependent helicase in the CRISPR/Cas immune system.

    PubMed

    Sinkunas, Tomas; Gasiunas, Giedrius; Fremaux, Christophe; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Horvath, Philippe; Siksnys, Virginijus

    2011-04-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) is a recently discovered adaptive prokaryotic immune system that provides acquired immunity against foreign nucleic acids by utilizing small guide crRNAs (CRISPR RNAs) to interfere with invading viruses and plasmids. In Escherichia coli, Cas3 is essential for crRNA-guided interference with virus proliferation. Cas3 contains N-terminal HD phosphohydrolase and C-terminal Superfamily 2 (SF2) helicase domains. Here, we provide the first report of the cloning, expression, purification and in vitro functional analysis of the Cas3 protein of the Streptococcus thermophilus CRISPR4 (Ecoli subtype) system. Cas3 possesses a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-stimulated ATPase activity, which is coupled to unwinding of DNA/DNA and RNA/DNA duplexes. Cas3 also shows ATP-independent nuclease activity located in the HD domain with a preference for ssDNA substrates. To dissect the contribution of individual domains, Cas3 separation-of-function mutants (ATPase(+)/nuclease(-) and ATPase(-)/nuclease(+)) were obtained by site-directed mutagenesis. We propose that the Cas3 ATPase/helicase domain acts as a motor protein, which assists delivery of the nuclease activity to Cascade-crRNA complex targeting foreign DNA. PMID:21343909

  11. Cas5d Protein Processes Pre-crRNA and Assembles into a Cascade-like Interference Complex in Subtype I-C/Dvulg CRISPR-Cas System

    SciTech Connect

    Nam, Ki Hyun; Haitjema, Charles; Liu, Xueqi; Ding, Fran; Wang, Hongwei; DeLisa, Matthew P.; Ke, Ailong

    2012-10-10

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs), together with an operon of CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins, form an RNA-based prokaryotic immune system against exogenous genetic elements. Cas5 family proteins are found in several type I CRISPR-Cas systems. Here, we report the molecular function of subtype I-C/Dvulg Cas5d from Bacillus halodurans. We show that Cas5d cleaves pre-crRNA into unit length by recognizing both the hairpin structure and the 3 single stranded sequence in the CRISPR repeat region. Cas5d structure reveals a ferredoxin domain-based architecture and a catalytic triad formed by Y46, K116, and H117 residues. We further show that after pre-crRNA processing, Cas5d assembles with crRNA, Csd1, and Csd2 proteins to form a multi-sub-unit interference complex similar to Escherichia coli Cascade (CRISPR-associated complex for antiviral defense) in architecture. Our results suggest that formation of a crRNA-presenting Cascade-like complex is likely a common theme among type I CRISPR subtypes.

  12. Computing abstraction hierarchies by numerical simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Bundy, A.; Giunchiglia, F.; Sebastiani, R.; Walsh, T.

    1996-12-31

    We present a novel method for building ABSTRIPS-style abstraction hierarchies in planning. The aim of this method is to minimize the amount of backtracking between abstraction levels. Previous approaches have determined the criticality of operator preconditions by reasoning about plans directly. Here, we adopt a simpler and faster approach where we use numerical simulation of the planning process. We demonstrate the theoretical advantages of our approach by identifying some simple properties lacking in previous approaches but possessed by our method. We demonstrate the empirical advantages of our approach by a set of four benchmark experiments using the ABTWEAK system. We compare the quality of the abstraction hierarchies generated with those built by the ALPINE and HIGHPOINT algorithms.

  13. Southern Orthopaedic Association Abstract Publication Rate.

    PubMed

    Tait, Mark Adam; Petrus, Cara; Barnes, C Lowry

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the publication rate of manuscripts presented at the Southern Orthopaedic Association's (SOA) annual meetings. An extensive literature search was performed using Google Scholar and PubMed search engines and all accepted abstracts (posters or podium presentations) presented at an SOA annual meeting from 2005 to 2011 were evaluated. A total of 568 abstracts were presented at SOA meetings between 2005 and 2011. Of these, 234 (41%) were published in the peer-reviewed literature. The publication rate was 66% in 2005 and 28% in 2010. The average time from presentation to peer-reviewed publication was 1.6 ± 0.24 years (range, 2 years in 2006 to 1 year in 2011). The SOA publication rate was comparable with other major orthopaedic conference publication rates, yet more than half of all abstracts remain unpublished. SOA attendees should be aware that approximately 40% of all accepted presentations will go unpublished. PMID:27518291

  14. Information Leakage Analysis by Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanioli, Matteo; Cortesi, Agostino

    Protecting the confidentiality of information stored in a computer system or transmitted over a public network is a relevant problem in computer security. The approach of information flow analysis involves performing a static analysis of the program with the aim of proving that there will not be leaks of sensitive information. In this paper we propose a new domain that combines variable dependency analysis, based on propositional formulas, and variables' value analysis, based on polyhedra. The resulting analysis is strictly more accurate than the state of the art abstract interpretation based analyses for information leakage detection. Its modular construction allows to deal with the tradeoff between efficiency and accuracy by tuning the granularity of the abstraction and the complexity of the abstract operators.

  15. Cue abstraction and exemplar memory in categorization.

    PubMed

    Juslin, Peter; Jones, Sari; Olsson, Henrik; Winman, Anders

    2003-09-01

    In this article, the authors compare 3 generic models of the cognitive processes in a categorization task. The cue abstraction model implies abstraction in training of explicit cue-criterion relations that are mentally integrated to form a judgment, the lexicographic heuristic uses only the most valid cue, and the exemplar-based model relies on retrieval of exemplars. The results from 2 experiments showed that, in lieu of the lexicographic heuristic, most participants spontaneously integrate cues. In contrast to single-system views, exemplar memory appeared to dominate when the feedback was poor, but when the feedback was rich enough to allow the participants to discern the task structure, it was exploited for abstraction of explicit cue-criterion relations. PMID:14516225

  16. Generalizations of the abstract boundary singularity theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whale, Ben E.; Ashley, Michael J. S. L.; Scott, Susan M.

    2015-07-01

    The abstract boundary singularity theorem was first proven by Ashley and Scott. It links the existence of incomplete causal geodesics in strongly causal, maximally extended spacetimes to the existence of abstract boundary essential singularities, i.e., non-removable singular boundary points. We give two generalizations of this theorem: the first to continuous causal curves and the distinguishing condition, the second to locally Lipschitz curves in manifolds such that no inextendible locally Lipschitz curve is totally imprisoned. To do this we extend generalized affine parameters from C1 curves to locally Lipschitz curves.

  17. Earth Sciences Division collected abstracts: 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, A.L.; Schwartz, L.L.

    1980-04-30

    This report is a compilation of abstracts of papers, internal reports, and talks presented during 1979 at national and international meetings by members of the Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The arrangement is alphabetical (by author). For a given report, a bibliographic reference appears under the name of each coauthor, but the abstract iself is given only under the name of the first author or the first Earth Sciences Division author. A topical index at the end of the report provides useful cross references, while indicating major areas of research interest in the Earth Sciences Division.

  18. 2011 statistical abstract of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krisanda, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    The Statistical Abstract of the United States, published since 1878, is the authoritative and comprehensive summary of statistics on the social, political, and economic organization of the United States.


    Use the Abstract as a convenient volume for statistical reference, and as a guide to sources of more information both in print and on the Web.


    Sources of data include the Census Bureau, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bureau of Economic Analysis, and many other Federal agencies and private organizations.

  19. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 13)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and Section 2 - Indexes. This issue of the Abstract Section cites 161 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1978 through June 1978. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  20. Utilization of the CRISPR/Cas9 system for the efficient production of mutant mice using crRNA/tracrRNA with Cas9 nickase and FokI-dCas9

    PubMed Central

    Terao, Miho; Tamano, Moe; Hara, Satoshi; Kato, Tomoko; Kinoshita, Masato; Takada, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a powerful genome editing tool for the production of genetically modified animals. To produce mutant mice, chimeric single-guide RNA (sgRNA) is cloned in a plasmid vector and a mixture of sgRNA and Cas9 are microinjected into the fertilized eggs. An issue associated with gene manipulation using the CRISPR/Cas9 system is that there can be off-target effects. To simplify the production of mutant mice with low risks of off-target effects caused by the CRISPR/Cas9 system, we demonstrated that genetically modified mice can be efficiently obtained using chemically synthesized CRISPR RNA (crRNA), trans-activating crRNA (tracrRNA), and modified Cas9s, such as the nickase version and FokI-fused catalytically inactive Cas9, by microinjection into fertilized eggs. Using this method, it is no longer necessary to clone sgRNA into a plasmid vector, and this enables high-throughput production of mutant mice. PMID:26972821