Science.gov

Sample records for abundance increased significantly

  1. Dam removal increases American eel abundance in distant headwater streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Eyler, Sheila; Wofford, John E.B.

    2012-01-01

    American eel Anguilla rostrata abundances have undergone significant declines over the last 50 years, and migration barriers have been recognized as a contributing cause. We evaluated eel abundances in headwater streams of Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, to compare sites before and after the removal of a large downstream dam in 2004 (Embrey Dam, Rappahannock River). Eel abundances in headwater streams increased significantly after the removal of Embrey Dam. Observed eel abundances after dam removal exceeded predictions derived from autoregressive models parameterized with data prior to dam removal. Mann–Kendall analyses also revealed consistent increases in eel abundances from 2004 to 2010 but inconsistent temporal trends before dam removal. Increasing eel numbers could not be attributed to changes in local physical habitat (i.e., mean stream depth or substrate size) or regional population dynamics (i.e., abundances in Maryland streams or Virginia estuaries). Dam removal was associated with decreasing minimum eel lengths in headwater streams, suggesting that the dam previously impeded migration of many small-bodied individuals (<300 mm TL). We hypothesize that restoring connectivity to headwater streams could increase eel population growth rates by increasing female eel numbers and fecundity. This study demonstrated that dams may influence eel abundances in headwater streams up to 150 river kilometers distant, and that dam removal may provide benefits for eel management and conservation at the landscape scale.

  2. Severe plant invasions can increase mycorrhizal fungal abundance and diversity.

    PubMed

    Lekberg, Ylva; Gibbons, Sean M; Rosendahl, Søren; Ramsey, Philip W

    2013-07-01

    Invasions by non-native plants can alter ecosystem functions and reduce native plant diversity, but relatively little is known about their effect on belowground microbial communities. We show that invasions by knapweed (Centaurea stoebe) and leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula, hereafter spurge)--but not cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum)--support a higher abundance and diversity of symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) than multi-species native plant communities. The higher AMF richness associated with knapweed and spurge is unlikely due to a co-invasion by AMF, because a separate sampling showed that individual native forbs hosted a similar AMF abundance and richness as exotic forbs. Native grasses associated with fewer AMF taxa, which could explain the reduced AMF richness in native, grass-dominated communities. The three invasive plant species harbored distinct AMF communities, and analyses of co-occurring native and invasive plants indicate that differences were partly driven by the invasive plants and were not the result of pre-invasion conditions. Our results suggest that invasions by mycotrophic plants that replace poorer hosts can increase AMF abundance and richness. The high AMF richness in monodominant plant invasions also indicates that the proposed positive relationship between above and belowground diversity is not always strong. Finally, the disparate responses among exotic plants and consistent results between grasses and forbs suggest that AMF respond more to plant functional group than plant provenance.

  3. Severe plant invasions can increase mycorrhizal fungal abundance and diversity

    PubMed Central

    Lekberg, Ylva; Gibbons, Sean M; Rosendahl, Søren; Ramsey, Philip W

    2013-01-01

    Invasions by non-native plants can alter ecosystem functions and reduce native plant diversity, but relatively little is known about their effect on belowground microbial communities. We show that invasions by knapweed (Centaurea stoebe) and leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula, hereafter spurge)—but not cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum)—support a higher abundance and diversity of symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) than multi-species native plant communities. The higher AMF richness associated with knapweed and spurge is unlikely due to a co-invasion by AMF, because a separate sampling showed that individual native forbs hosted a similar AMF abundance and richness as exotic forbs. Native grasses associated with fewer AMF taxa, which could explain the reduced AMF richness in native, grass-dominated communities. The three invasive plant species harbored distinct AMF communities, and analyses of co-occurring native and invasive plants indicate that differences were partly driven by the invasive plants and were not the result of pre-invasion conditions. Our results suggest that invasions by mycotrophic plants that replace poorer hosts can increase AMF abundance and richness. The high AMF richness in monodominant plant invasions also indicates that the proposed positive relationship between above and belowground diversity is not always strong. Finally, the disparate responses among exotic plants and consistent results between grasses and forbs suggest that AMF respond more to plant functional group than plant provenance. PMID:23486251

  4. Increased seawater temperature increases the abundance and alters the structure of natural Vibrio populations associated with the coral Pocillopora damicornis

    PubMed Central

    Tout, Jessica; Siboni, Nachshon; Messer, Lauren F.; Garren, Melissa; Stocker, Roman; Webster, Nicole S.; Ralph, Peter J.; Seymour, Justin R.

    2015-01-01

    Rising seawater temperature associated with global climate change is a significant threat to coral health and is linked to increasing coral disease and pathogen-related bleaching events. We performed heat stress experiments with the coral Pocillopora damicornis, where temperature was increased to 31°C, consistent with the 2–3°C predicted increase in summer sea surface maxima. 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing revealed a large shift in the composition of the bacterial community at 31°C, with a notable increase in Vibrio, including known coral pathogens. To investigate the dynamics of the naturally occurring Vibrio community, we performed quantitative PCR targeting (i) the whole Vibrio community and (ii) the coral pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus. At 31°C, Vibrio abundance increased by 2–3 orders of magnitude and V. coralliilyticus abundance increased by four orders of magnitude. Using a Vibrio-specific amplicon sequencing assay, we further demonstrated that the community composition shifted dramatically as a consequence of heat stress, with significant increases in the relative abundance of known coral pathogens. Our findings provide quantitative evidence that the abundance of potential coral pathogens increases within natural communities of coral-associated microbes as a consequence of rising seawater temperature and highlight the potential negative impacts of anthropogenic climate change on coral reef ecosystems. PMID:26042096

  5. Counteracting wetland overgrowth increases breeding and staging bird abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehikoinen, Petteri; Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Mikkola-Roos, Markku; Jaatinen, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Human actions have led to loss and degradation of wetlands, impairing their suitability as habitat especially for waterbirds. Such negative effects may be mitigated through habitat management. To date scientific evidence regarding the impacts of these actions remains scarce. We studied guild specific abundances of breeding and staging birds in response to habitat management on 15 Finnish wetlands. In this study management actions comprised several means of vegetation removal to thwart overgrowth. Management cost efficiency was assessed by examining the association between site-specific costs and bird abundances. Several bird guilds exhibited positive connections with both habitat management as well as with invested funds. Most importantly, however, red-listed species and species with special conservation concern as outlined by the EU showed positive correlations with management actions, underlining the conservation value of wetland management. The results suggest that grazing was especially efficient in restoring overgrown wetlands. As a whole this study makes it clear that wetland habitat management constitutes a feasible conservation tool. The marked association between invested funds and bird abundance may prove to be a valuable tool for decision makers when balancing costs and impact of conservation measures against one another.

  6. Counteracting wetland overgrowth increases breeding and staging bird abundances

    PubMed Central

    Lehikoinen, Petteri; Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Mikkola-Roos, Markku; Jaatinen, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Human actions have led to loss and degradation of wetlands, impairing their suitability as habitat especially for waterbirds. Such negative effects may be mitigated through habitat management. To date scientific evidence regarding the impacts of these actions remains scarce. We studied guild specific abundances of breeding and staging birds in response to habitat management on 15 Finnish wetlands. In this study management actions comprised several means of vegetation removal to thwart overgrowth. Management cost efficiency was assessed by examining the association between site-specific costs and bird abundances. Several bird guilds exhibited positive connections with both habitat management as well as with invested funds. Most importantly, however, red-listed species and species with special conservation concern as outlined by the EU showed positive correlations with management actions, underlining the conservation value of wetland management. The results suggest that grazing was especially efficient in restoring overgrown wetlands. As a whole this study makes it clear that wetland habitat management constitutes a feasible conservation tool. The marked association between invested funds and bird abundance may prove to be a valuable tool for decision makers when balancing costs and impact of conservation measures against one another. PMID:28128327

  7. Streptomycin use in apple orchards did not increase abundance of mobile resistance genes.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Brion; Holliger, Eduard; Walsh, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Streptomycin is used as a first-line defense and tetracycline as a second-line defense, in the fight against fire blight disease in apple and pear orchards. We have performed the first study to quantitatively analyze the influence of streptomycin use in agriculture on the abundance of streptomycin and tetracycline resistance genes in apple orchards. Flowers, leaves, and soil were collected from three orchard sites in 2010, 2011, and 2012. Gene abundance distribution was analyzed using two-way anova and principal component analysis to investigate relationships between gene abundance data over time and treatment. The mobile antibiotic resistance genes, strA, strB, tetB, tetM, tetW, and the insertion sequence IS1133, were detected prior to streptomycin treatment in almost all samples, indicating the natural presence of these resistance genes in nature. Statistically significant increases in the resistance gene abundances were occasional, inconsistent, and not reproducible from one year to the next. We conclude that the application of streptomycin in these orchards was not associated with sustained increases in streptomycin or tetracycline resistance gene abundances.

  8. Bison grazing increases arthropod abundance and diversity in a tallgrass prairie.

    PubMed

    Moran, Matthew D

    2014-10-01

    How grazing-induced ecosystem changes by ungulates indirectly affect other consumers is a question of great interest. I investigated the effect of grazing by American Bison (Bos bison L.) on an arthropod community in tallgrass prairie. Grazing increased the abundance of arthropods, an increase that was present in both herbivorous and carnivorous assemblages, but not in detritivores. The increase in herbivores and reduction in plant biomass from grazing resulted in an arthropod herbivore load almost three times higher in grazed plots compared with controls. Among herbivores, the sap-feeding insect guild was dramatically more abundant, while chewing herbivores were not affected. Herbivorous and carnivorous arthropod richness was higher in grazed plots, although the response was strongest among herbivores. Arthropod abundance on individual grasses and forbs was significantly higher in grazed areas, while plant type had no effect on abundance, indicating that the change was ecosystem-wide and not simply in response to a reduction in grass biomass from grazing. The response of arthropods to grazing was strongest in the early part of the growing season. Published research shows that ungulate grazing, although decreasing available biomass to other consumers, enhances plant quality by increasing nitrogen level in plants. The arthropod results of this study suggest higher plant quality outweighs the potential negative competitive effects of plant biomass removal, although other activities of bison could not be ruled out as the causative mechanism. Because arthropods are extremely abundant organisms in grasslands and a food source for other consumers, bison may represent valuable management tools for maintaining biodiversity.

  9. Increasing aridity reduces soil microbial diversity and abundance in global drylands.

    PubMed

    Maestre, Fernando T; Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Jeffries, Thomas C; Eldridge, David J; Ochoa, Victoria; Gozalo, Beatriz; Quero, José Luis; García-Gómez, Miguel; Gallardo, Antonio; Ulrich, Werner; Bowker, Matthew A; Arredondo, Tulio; Barraza-Zepeda, Claudia; Bran, Donaldo; Florentino, Adriana; Gaitán, Juan; Gutiérrez, Julio R; Huber-Sannwald, Elisabeth; Jankju, Mohammad; Mau, Rebecca L; Miriti, Maria; Naseri, Kamal; Ospina, Abelardo; Stavi, Ilan; Wang, Deli; Woods, Natasha N; Yuan, Xia; Zaady, Eli; Singh, Brajesh K

    2015-12-22

    Soil bacteria and fungi play key roles in the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, yet our understanding of their responses to climate change lags significantly behind that of other organisms. This gap in our understanding is particularly true for drylands, which occupy ∼41% of Earth´s surface, because no global, systematic assessments of the joint diversity of soil bacteria and fungi have been conducted in these environments to date. Here we present results from a study conducted across 80 dryland sites from all continents, except Antarctica, to assess how changes in aridity affect the composition, abundance, and diversity of soil bacteria and fungi. The diversity and abundance of soil bacteria and fungi was reduced as aridity increased. These results were largely driven by the negative impacts of aridity on soil organic carbon content, which positively affected the abundance and diversity of both bacteria and fungi. Aridity promoted shifts in the composition of soil bacteria, with increases in the relative abundance of Chloroflexi and α-Proteobacteria and decreases in Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia. Contrary to what has been reported by previous continental and global-scale studies, soil pH was not a major driver of bacterial diversity, and fungal communities were dominated by Ascomycota. Our results fill a critical gap in our understanding of soil microbial communities in terrestrial ecosystems. They suggest that changes in aridity, such as those predicted by climate-change models, may reduce microbial abundance and diversity, a response that will likely impact the provision of key ecosystem services by global drylands.

  10. Increasing aridity reduces soil microbial diversity and abundance in global drylands

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Jeffries, Thomas C.; Eldridge, David J.; Ochoa, Victoria; Gozalo, Beatriz; Quero, José Luis; García-Gómez, Miguel; Gallardo, Antonio; Ulrich, Werner; Bowker, Matthew A.; Arredondo, Tulio; Barraza-Zepeda, Claudia; Bran, Donaldo; Florentino, Adriana; Gaitán, Juan; Gutiérrez, Julio R.; Huber-Sannwald, Elisabeth; Jankju, Mohammad; Mau, Rebecca L.; Miriti, Maria; Naseri, Kamal; Ospina, Abelardo; Stavi, Ilan; Wang, Deli; Woods, Natasha N.; Yuan, Xia; Zaady, Eli; Singh, Brajesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Soil bacteria and fungi play key roles in the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, yet our understanding of their responses to climate change lags significantly behind that of other organisms. This gap in our understanding is particularly true for drylands, which occupy ∼41% of Earth´s surface, because no global, systematic assessments of the joint diversity of soil bacteria and fungi have been conducted in these environments to date. Here we present results from a study conducted across 80 dryland sites from all continents, except Antarctica, to assess how changes in aridity affect the composition, abundance, and diversity of soil bacteria and fungi. The diversity and abundance of soil bacteria and fungi was reduced as aridity increased. These results were largely driven by the negative impacts of aridity on soil organic carbon content, which positively affected the abundance and diversity of both bacteria and fungi. Aridity promoted shifts in the composition of soil bacteria, with increases in the relative abundance of Chloroflexi and α-Proteobacteria and decreases in Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia. Contrary to what has been reported by previous continental and global-scale studies, soil pH was not a major driver of bacterial diversity, and fungal communities were dominated by Ascomycota. Our results fill a critical gap in our understanding of soil microbial communities in terrestrial ecosystems. They suggest that changes in aridity, such as those predicted by climate-change models, may reduce microbial abundance and diversity, a response that will likely impact the provision of key ecosystem services by global drylands. PMID:26647180

  11. Ninespine Stickleback Abundance in Lake Michigan Increases After Dreissenid Mussel Invasion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Bunnell, David B.; Gorman, Owen T.

    2010-01-01

    Based on data from our annual lakewide bottom trawl survey of Lake Michigan, we determined that density of ninespine sticklebacks Pungitius pungitius increased from an average of 0.234 kg/ha during 1973–1995 to an average of 1.318 kg/ha during 1996–2007. This greater-than-fivefold increase in density coincided with the dreissenid mussel invasion of Lake Michigan. Intervention analysis revealed that ninespine stickleback density in Lake Michigan significantly increased between the two time periods. In contrast, based on data from our annual bottom trawl survey of U.S. waters of Lake Superior, ninespine stickleback density decreased from an average of 0.133 kg/ha during 1978–1999 to an average of only 0.026 kg/ha during 2000–2007. This greater-than-fivefold density decrease, which was found to be significant via intervention analysis, coincided with population recovery for both lean and fat morphotypes of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Superior. In contrast to Lake Michigan, dreissenid mussels have not invaded Lake Superior on a lakewide basis. Thus, a comparison of these two lakes indicated that the increase in ninespine stickleback abundance in Lake Michigan was most likely attributable to the dreissenid mussel invasion. In addition, based on our correlation analysis, alewives Alosa pseudoharengus did not have an adverse effect on ninespine stickleback abundance in Lake Michigan. Perhaps the recent increase in biomass of green algae Cladophora spp. associated with the dreissenid mussel invasion improved spawning habitat quality for ninespine sticklebacks and led to their stepwise abundance increase in Lake Michigan beginning in 1996

  12. Apparent increase in coccolithophore abundance in the subtropical North Atlantic from 1990 to 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumhardt, Kristen M.; Lovenduski, Nicole S.; Freeman, Natalie M.; Bates, Nicholas R.

    2016-02-01

    As environmental conditions evolve with rapidly increasing atmospheric CO2, biological communities will change as species reorient their distributions, adapt, or alter their abundance. In the surface ocean, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) has been increasing over the past several decades as anthropogenic CO2 dissolves into seawater, causing acidification (decreases in pH and carbonate ion concentration). Calcifying phytoplankton, such as coccolithophores, are thought to be especially vulnerable to ocean acidification. How coccolithophores will respond to increasing carbon input has been a subject of much speculation and inspired numerous laboratory and mesocosm experiments, but how they are currently responding in situ is less well documented. In this study, we use coccolithophore (haptophyte) pigment data collected at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site together with satellite estimates (1998-2014) of surface chlorophyll and particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) as a proxy for coccolithophore abundance to show that coccolithophore populations in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre have been increasing significantly over the past 2 decades. Over 1990-2012, we observe a 37 % increase in euphotic zone-integrated coccolithophore pigment abundance at BATS, though we note that this is sensitive to the period being analyzed. We further demonstrate that variability in coccolithophore chlorophyll a here is positively correlated with variability in nitrate and DIC (and especially the bicarbonate ion) in the upper 30 m of the water column. Previous studies have suggested that coccolithophore photosynthesis may benefit from increasing CO2, but calcification may eventually be hindered by low pHT (< 7.7). Given that DIC has been increasing at BATS by ˜ 1.4 µmol kg-1 yr-1 over the period of 1991-2012, we speculate that coccolithophore photosynthesis and perhaps calcification may have increased in response to anthropogenic CO2 input.

  13. Increasing coccolithophore abundance in the subtropical North Atlantic from 1990 to 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumhardt, K. M.; Lovenduski, N. S.; Freeman, N. M.; Bates, N. R.

    2015-11-01

    As environmental conditions evolve with rapidly increasing atmospheric CO2, biological communities will change as species reorient their distributions, adapt, or alter their abundance. In the surface ocean, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) has been increasing over the past several decades as anthropogenic CO2 dissolves into seawater, causing acidification (decreases in pH and carbonate ion concentration). Calcifying phytoplankton, such as coccolithophores, are thought to be especially vulnerable to ocean acidification. How coccolithophores will respond to increasing carbon input has been a subject of much speculation and inspired numerous laboratory and mesocosm experiments, but how they are currently responding in situ is less well documented. In this study, we use coccolithophore pigment data collected at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site together with satellite estimates (1998-2014) of surface chlorophyll and particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) to show that coccolithophore populations in the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre have been increasing significantly over the past two decades. Over 1991-2012, we observe a 37 % increase in euphotic zone-integrated coccolithophore abundance at BATS. We further demonstrate that variability in coccolithophore abundance here is positively correlated with variability in DIC (and especially the bicarbonate ion) in the upper 30 m of the water column. Previous studies have suggested that coccolithophore photosynthesis may benefit from increasing CO2, but calcification may eventually be hindered by low pHT (< 7.7). Given that DIC has been increasing at BATS by ∼ 1.4 μmol kg-1 yr-1 over 1991 to 2012, we speculate that coccolithophore photosynthesis and perhaps calcification may have increased in response to anthropogenic CO2 input.

  14. Use of commercial organic fertilizer increases the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotics in soil.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xue; Qiao, Min; Wang, Feng-Hua; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2017-01-01

    The application of manure-based commercial organic fertilizers (COFs) is becoming increasingly extensive because of the expanding market for organic food. The present study examined the effects of repeated applications of chicken or swine manure-based COFs on the fate of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in soil by conducting a soil microcosm experiment. Application of COFs significantly increased antibiotics residues, as well as the relative abundance of ARGs and the integrase gene of class 1 integrons (intΙ1) in soil. Two months after each application, antibiotics and ARGs dissipated in amended soils, but they still remained at an elevated level, compared with the control. And, the accumulation of antibiotics was found due to repeated COF applications. However, the relative abundance of ARGs in most COF-amended soils did not differ significantly between the first application and the repeated application. The results imply that 2 months are not sufficient for ARGs to approach background levels, and that animal manure must be treated more effectively prior to using it in agriculture ecosystems.

  15. Habitat alteration increases invasive fire ant abundance to the detriment of amphibians and reptiles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, B.D.; Rothermel, B.B.; Reed, R.N.; Luhring, T.M.; Schlatter, K.; Trenkamp, L.; Gibbons, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Altered habitats have been suggested to facilitate red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) colonization and dispersal, possibly compounding effects of habitat alteration on native wildlife. In this study, we compared colonization intensity of wood cover boards by S. invicta among four forest management treatments in South Carolina, USA: an unharvested control (>30 years old); a partially thinned stand; a clearcut with coarse woody debris retained; and a clearcut with coarse woody debris removed. Additionally, we compared dehydration rates and survival of recently metamorphosed salamanders (marbled salamanders, Ambystoma opacum, and mole salamanders, A. talpoideum) among treatments. We found that the number of wood cover boards colonized by S. invicta differed significantly among treatments, being lowest in the unharvested forest treatments and increasing with the degree of habitat alteration. Salamanders that were maintained in experimental field enclosures to study water loss were unexpectedly subjected to high levels of S. invicta predation that differed among forest treatments. All known predation by S. invicta was restricted to salamanders in clearcuts. The amount of vegetative ground cover was inversely related to the likelihood of S. invicta predation of salamanders. Our results show that S. invicta abundance increases with habitat disturbance and that this increased abundance has negative consequences for amphibians that remain in altered habitats. Our findings also suggest that the presence of invasive S. invicta may compromise the utility of cover boards and other techniques commonly used in herpetological studies in the Southeast. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  16. Pepino (Solanum muricatum) planting increased diversity and abundance of bacterial communities in karst area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jinxiang; Yang, Hui; Long, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed

    2016-02-01

    Soil nutrients and microbial communities are the two key factors in revegetation of barren environments. Ecological stoichiometry plays an important role in ecosystem function and limitation, but the relationships between above- and belowground stoichiometry and the bacterial communities in a typical karst region are poorly understood. We used pepino (Solanum muricatum) to examine the stoichiometric traits between soil and foliage, and determine diversity and abundance of bacteria in the karst soil. The soil had a relatively high pH, low fertility, and coarse texture. Foliar N:P ratio and the correlations with soil nitrogen and phosphorus suggested nitrogen limitation. The planting of pepino increased soil urease activity and decreased catalase activity. Higher diversity of bacteria was determined in the pepino rhizosphere than bulk soil using a next-generation, Illumina-based sequencing approach. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the dominant phyla in all samples, accounting for more than 80% of the reads. On a genus level, all 625 detected genera were found in all rhizosphere and bulk soils, and 63 genera showed significant differences among samples. Higher Shannon and Chao 1 indices in the rhizosphere than bulk soil indicated that planting of pepino increased diversity and abundance of bacterial communities in karst area.

  17. Pepino (Solanum muricatum) planting increased diversity and abundance of bacterial communities in karst area

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jinxiang; Yang, Hui; Long, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed

    2016-01-01

    Soil nutrients and microbial communities are the two key factors in revegetation of barren environments. Ecological stoichiometry plays an important role in ecosystem function and limitation, but the relationships between above- and belowground stoichiometry and the bacterial communities in a typical karst region are poorly understood. We used pepino (Solanum muricatum) to examine the stoichiometric traits between soil and foliage, and determine diversity and abundance of bacteria in the karst soil. The soil had a relatively high pH, low fertility, and coarse texture. Foliar N:P ratio and the correlations with soil nitrogen and phosphorus suggested nitrogen limitation. The planting of pepino increased soil urease activity and decreased catalase activity. Higher diversity of bacteria was determined in the pepino rhizosphere than bulk soil using a next-generation, Illumina-based sequencing approach. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the dominant phyla in all samples, accounting for more than 80% of the reads. On a genus level, all 625 detected genera were found in all rhizosphere and bulk soils, and 63 genera showed significant differences among samples. Higher Shannon and Chao 1 indices in the rhizosphere than bulk soil indicated that planting of pepino increased diversity and abundance of bacterial communities in karst area. PMID:26902649

  18. Pepino (Solanum muricatum) planting increased diversity and abundance of bacterial communities in karst area.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinxiang; Yang, Hui; Long, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed

    2016-02-23

    Soil nutrients and microbial communities are the two key factors in revegetation of barren environments. Ecological stoichiometry plays an important role in ecosystem function and limitation, but the relationships between above- and belowground stoichiometry and the bacterial communities in a typical karst region are poorly understood. We used pepino (Solanum muricatum) to examine the stoichiometric traits between soil and foliage, and determine diversity and abundance of bacteria in the karst soil. The soil had a relatively high pH, low fertility, and coarse texture. Foliar N:P ratio and the correlations with soil nitrogen and phosphorus suggested nitrogen limitation. The planting of pepino increased soil urease activity and decreased catalase activity. Higher diversity of bacteria was determined in the pepino rhizosphere than bulk soil using a next-generation, Illumina-based sequencing approach. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the dominant phyla in all samples, accounting for more than 80% of the reads. On a genus level, all 625 detected genera were found in all rhizosphere and bulk soils, and 63 genera showed significant differences among samples. Higher Shannon and Chao 1 indices in the rhizosphere than bulk soil indicated that planting of pepino increased diversity and abundance of bacterial communities in karst area.

  19. Long-term increase in Karenia brevis abundance along the Southwest Florida Coast

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Larry E.; Compton, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Data collected along the southwest coast of Florida between Tampa Bay and Sanibel Island on the abundance of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis from 1954 to 2002 were examined for spatial and temporal patterns. K. brevis was found to be approximately 20-fold more abundant within 5 km of the shoreline than 20-30 km offshore. Overall, K. brevis was approximately 13-18-fold more abundant in 1994-2002 than in 1954-1963. In 1954-1963, K. brevis occurred primarily in the fall months. In 1994-2002, it was more abundant not only in the fall, but also in the winter and spring months. It is hypothesized that greater nutrient availability in the ecosystem is the most likely cause of this increase in K. brevis biomass, and the large increase in the human population and its activities in South Florida over the past half century is a major factor. PMID:18437245

  20. Flea abundance on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) increases during plague epizootics.

    PubMed

    Tripp, Daniel W; Gage, Kenneth L; Montenieri, John A; Antolin, Michael F

    2009-06-01

    Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) on the Great Plains of the United States are highly susceptible to plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, with mortality on towns during plague epizootics often approaching 100%. The ability of flea-borne transmission to sustain disease spread has been questioned because of inefficiency of flea vectors. However, even with low individual efficiency, overall transmission can be increased if flea abundance (the number of fleas on hosts) increases. Changes in flea abundance on hosts during plague outbreaks were recorded during a large-scale study of plague outbreaks in prairie dogs in north central Colorado during 3 years (2004-2007). Fleas were collected from live-trapped black-tailed prairie dogs before and during plague epizootics and tested by PCR for the presence of Y. pestis. The predominant fleas were two prairie dog specialists (Oropsylla hirsuta and Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris), and a generalist flea species (Pulex simulans) was also recorded from numerous mammals in the area. The three species differ in seasonal abundance, with greatest abundance in spring (February and March) and fall (September and October). Flea abundance and infestation intensity increased during epizootics and were highest on prairie dogs with Y. pestis-infected fleas. Seasonal occurrence of epizootics among black-tailed prairie dogs was found to coincide with seasonal peaks in flea abundance. Concentration of infected fleas on surviving animals may account for rapid spread of plague during epizootics. In particular, the role of the generalist flea P. simulans was previously underappreciated.

  1. Snow-borne nanosized particles: Abundance, distribution, composition, and significance in ice nucleation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangel-Alvarado, Rodrigo Benjamin; Nazarenko, Yevgen; Ariya, Parisa A.

    2015-11-01

    Physicochemical processes of nucleation constitute a major uncertainty in understanding aerosol-cloud interactions. To improve the knowledge of the ice nucleation process, we characterized physical, chemical, and biological properties of fresh snow using a suite of state-of-the-art techniques based on mass spectrometry, electron microscopy, chromatography, and optical particle sizing. Samples were collected at two North American Arctic sites, as part of international campaigns (2006 and 2009), and in the city of Montreal, Canada, over the last decade. Particle size distribution analyses, in the range of 3 nm to 10 µm, showed that nanosized particles are the most numerous (38-71%) in fresh snow, with a significant portion (11 to 19%) less than 100 nm in size. Particles with diameters less than 200 nm consistently exhibited relatively high ice-nucleating properties (on average ranged from -19.6 ± 2.4 to -8.1 ± 2.6°C). Chemical analysis of the nanosized fraction suggests that they contain bioorganic materials, such as amino acids, as well as inorganic compounds with similar characteristics to mineral dust. The implication of nanoparticle ubiquity and abundance in diverse snow ecosystems are discussed in the context of their importance in understanding atmospheric nucleation processes.

  2. The Significance of Myriophyllum elatinoides for Swine Wastewater Treatment: Abundance and Community Structure of Ammonia-Oxidizing Microorganisms in Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xi; Zhang, Miaomiao; Liu, Feng; Li, Yong; He, Yang; Zhang, Shunan; Wu, Jinshui

    2015-01-01

    Myriophyllum elatinoides was reported to effectively treat wastewater by removing nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). However, little is known about the abundance and community structure of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms associated with M. elatinoides purification systems. The objective of this research was to characterize the abundance and community structure of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in swine wastewater and determine the main nitrogen removal pathways. In this study, five different waters were treated by M. elatinoides in microcosms for one month. The five waters included tap water (Control), swine wastewater (SW), 50% diluted swine wastewater (50% SW), and two synthetic wastewaters: 200 mg NH4+-N L−1 (200 NH4+-N) and 400 mg NH4+-N L−1 (400 NH4+-N). The most dramatic changes were in NH4+-N and total N (TN) concentrations, with average removal rates of 84% and 90%, respectively, in the treatments containing swine wastewater. On days 7, 14, and 28, the dissolved oxygen (DO) increased by 81.8%, 210.4% and 136.5%, respectively, compared with on day 0, in the swine wastewater. The results also showed that the bacterial amoA (AOB) copy numbers in the sediments of the treatments were significantly higher than those of archaeal amoA (AOA) copy numbers (p = 0.015). In addition, the high DO concentrations in swine wastewater responded well to the high abundance of AOB. The AOA and AOB community distributions were positively related with NO3-N and were negatively related with DO in swine wastewater treatments. In summary, our experimental results suggested that the M. elatinoides purification system could improve the activity of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms and consequently might contribute to the significant N removal from the swine wastewater. PMID:26444015

  3. The Significance of Myriophyllum elatinoides for Swine Wastewater Treatment: Abundance and Community Structure of Ammonia-Oxidizing Microorganisms in Sediments.

    PubMed

    Li, Xi; Zhang, Miaomiao; Liu, Feng; Li, Yong; He, Yang; Zhang, Shunan; Wu, Jinshui

    2015-01-01

    Myriophyllum elatinoides was reported to effectively treat wastewater by removing nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). However, little is known about the abundance and community structure of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms associated with M. elatinoides purification systems. The objective of this research was to characterize the abundance and community structure of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in swine wastewater and determine the main nitrogen removal pathways. In this study, five different waters were treated by M. elatinoides in microcosms for one month. The five waters included tap water (Control), swine wastewater (SW), 50% diluted swine wastewater (50% SW), and two synthetic wastewaters: 200 mg NH4+-N L(-1) (200 NH4+-N) and 400 mg NH4+-N L(-1) (400 NH4+-N). The most dramatic changes were in NH4+-N and total N (TN) concentrations, with average removal rates of 84% and 90%, respectively, in the treatments containing swine wastewater. On days 7, 14, and 28, the dissolved oxygen (DO) increased by 81.8%, 210.4% and 136.5%, respectively, compared with on day 0, in the swine wastewater. The results also showed that the bacterial amoA (AOB) copy numbers in the sediments of the treatments were significantly higher than those of archaeal amoA (AOA) copy numbers (p = 0.015). In addition, the high DO concentrations in swine wastewater responded well to the high abundance of AOB. The AOA and AOB community distributions were positively related with NO3-N and were negatively related with DO in swine wastewater treatments. In summary, our experimental results suggested that the M. elatinoides purification system could improve the activity of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms and consequently might contribute to the significant N removal from the swine wastewater.

  4. Increases in the abundance of microbial genes encoding halotolerance and photosynthesis along a sediment salinity gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffries, T. C.; Seymour, J. R.; Newton, K.; Smith, R. J.; Seuront, L.; Mitchell, J. G.

    2012-02-01

    Biogeochemical cycles are driven by the metabolic activity of microbial communities, yet the environmental parameters that underpin shifts in the functional potential coded within microbial community genomes are still poorly understood. Salinity is one of the primary determinants of microbial community structure and can vary strongly along gradients within a variety of habitats. To test the hypothesis that shifts in salinity will also alter the bulk biogeochemical potential of aquatic microbial assemblages, we generated four metagenomic DNA sequence libraries from sediment samples taken along a continuous, natural salinity gradient in the Coorong lagoon, Australia, and compared them to physical and chemical parameters. A total of 392483 DNA sequences obtained from four sediment samples were generated and used to compare genomic characteristics along the gradient. The most significant shifts along the salinity gradient were in the genetic potential for halotolerance and photosynthesis, which were more highly represented in hypersaline samples. At these sites, halotolerance was achieved by an increase in genes responsible for the acquisition of compatible solutes - organic chemicals which influence the carbon, nitrogen and methane cycles of sediment. Photosynthesis gene increases were coupled to an increase in genes matching Cyanobacteria, which are responsible for mediating CO2 and nitrogen cycles. These salinity driven shifts in gene abundance will influence nutrient cycles along the gradient, controlling the ecology and biogeochemistry of the entire ecosystem.

  5. Increases in the abundance of microbial genes encoding halotolerance and photosynthesis along a sediment salinity gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffries, T. C.; Seymour, J. R.; Newton, K.; Smith, R. J.; Seuront, L.; Mitchell, J. G.

    2011-07-01

    Biogeochemical cycles are driven by the metabolic activity of microbial communities, yet the environmental parameters that underpin shifts in the functional potential coded within microbial community genomes are still poorly understood. Salinity is one of the primary determinants of microbial community structure and can vary strongly along gradients within a variety of habitats. To test the hypothesis that shifts in salinity will also alter the bulk biogeochemical potential of aquatic microbial assemblages, we generated four metagenomic DNA sequence libraries from sediment samples taken along a continuous, natural salinity gradient in the Coorong lagoon, Australia, and compared them to physical and chemical parameters. A total of 392483 DNA sequences obtained from four sediment samples were generated and used to compare genomic characteristics along the gradient. The most significant shifts along the salinity gradient were in the genetic potential for halotolerance and photosynthesis, which were more highly represented in hypersaline samples. At these sites, halotolerance was achieved by an increase in genes responsible for the acquisition of compatible solutes - organic chemicals which influence the carbon, nitrogen and methane cycles of sediment. Photosynthesis gene increases were coupled to an increase in genes matching Cyanobacteria, which are responsible for mediating CO2 and nitrogen cycles. These salinity driven shifts in gene abundance will influence nutrient cycles along the gradient, controlling the ecology and biogeochemistry of the entire ecosystem.

  6. Is consolidation drainage an indirect mechanism for increased abundance of cattail in northern prairie wetlands?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiltermuth, Mark T.; Anteau, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    In the Prairie Pothole Region of North America, disturbances to wetlands that disrupt water-level fluctuations in response to wet–dry climatic conditions have the potential to alter natural vegetative communities in favor of species that proliferate in stable environments, such as cattail (Typha spp.). We evaluated the effect of water-level dynamics during a recent fluctuation in wet–dry conditions on cattail coverage within semipermanently and permanently ponded wetlands situated in watersheds with different land use and amounts of wetland drainage. We found that ponded water depth increase was significantly greater in wetlands where water levels were not near the spill point of the topographic basin, where banks were steeper, and in larger wetlands where past dry conditions had less influence on change in pond area. Proportion of the wetland covered by cattail was negatively correlated with increased water depth, bank slope and pond area. Our observations provide evidence that cattail coverage in prairie wetlands is regulated by water-level fluctuations and that land use surrounding the wetland might have an indirect effect on cattail coverage by altering water-level response to wet–dry climate conditions. For example, drainage of smaller wetlands into larger wetlands that are characterized by more permanent hydroperiods, leads to stabilized water levels near their spill point and is therefore a potential mechanism for increased cattail abundance in the northern prairie region.

  7. Uranium in coal and fly ash: Abundance, forms, and environmental significance

    SciTech Connect

    Zielinski, R.A.; Affolter, R.H.; Budahn, J.R.; O'Connor, J.T.; Rice, C.A.

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize recent studies within the US Geological Survey (USGS) that further define the abundance, form, and leachability of uranium in coal and fly ash. Uranium was chosen from the hazardous air pollutant elements because the application of fission-track radiography provided some unique observations of the spatial distribution of uranium on a microscopic scale. Radiation-based measurements of uranium abundance by low energy gamma-ray spectrometry also provided informative determinations of long-lived uranium decay products of environmental concern, i.e. {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb. Accurate determinations of the distribution, abundance, and leachability of uranium have broad applicability as a basis for comparison with other less mobile actinide elements such as Th, and with other hazardous air pollutant elements that may share some similar chemical properties.

  8. Obesity-Dependent Increases in Oocyte mRNAs Are Associated With Increases in Proinflammatory Signaling and Gut Microbial Abundance of Lachnospiraceae in Female Mice.

    PubMed

    Xie, Fang; Anderson, Christopher L; Timme, Kelsey R; Kurz, Scott G; Fernando, Samodha C; Wood, Jennifer R

    2016-04-01

    RNAs stored in the metaphase II-arrested oocyte play important roles in successful embryonic development. Their abundance is defined by transcriptional activity during oocyte growth and selective degradation of transcripts during LH-induced oocyte maturation. Our previous studies demonstrated that mRNA abundance is increased in mature ovulated oocytes collected from obese humans and mice and therefore may contribute to reduced oocyte developmental competence associated with metabolic dysfunction. In the current study mouse models of diet-induced obesity were used to determine whether obesity-dependent increases in proinflammatory signaling regulate ovarian abundance of oocyte-specific mRNAs. The abundance of oocyte-specific Bnc1, Dppa3, and Pou5f1 mRNAs as well as markers of proinflammatory signaling were significantly increased in ovaries of obese compared with lean mice which were depleted of fully grown preovulatory follicles. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation analyses also demonstrated increased association of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 with the Pou5f1 promoter in ovaries of obese mice suggesting that proinflammatory signaling regulates transcription of this gene in the oocyte. The cecum microbial content of lean and obese female mice was subsequently examined to identify potential relationships between microbial composition and proinflammatory signaling in the ovary. Multivariate Association with Linear Models identified significant positive correlations between cecum abundance of the bacterial family Lachnospiraceae and ovarian abundance of Tnfa as well as Dppa3, Bnc1, and Pou5f1 mRNAs. Together, these data suggest that diet-induced changes in gut microbial composition may be contributing to ovarian inflammation which in turn alters ovarian gene expression and ultimately contributes to obesity-dependent reduction in oocyte quality and development of infertility in obese patients.

  9. Increased abundance of ADAM9 transcripts in the blood is associated with tissue damage

    PubMed Central

    Rinchai, Darawan; Kewcharoenwong, Chidchamai; Kessler, Bianca; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana; Chaussabel, Damien

    2016-01-01

    Background: Members of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain) family have emerged as critical regulators of cell-cell signaling during development and homeostasis. ADAM9 is consistently overexpressed in various human cancers, and has been shown to play an important role in tumorigenesis. However, little is known about the involvement of ADAM9 during immune-mediated processes. Results: Mining of an extensive compendium of transcriptomic datasets identified important gaps in knowledge regarding the possible role of ADAM9 in immunological homeostasis and inflammation: 1) The abundance of ADAM9 transcripts in the blood was increased in patients with acute infection but, 2) changed very little after in vitro exposure to a wide range of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). 3) Furthermore it was found to increase significantly in subjects as a result of tissue injury or tissue remodeling, in absence of infectious processes. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that ADAM9 may constitute a valuable biomarker for the assessment of tissue damage, especially in clinical situations where other inflammatory markers are confounded by infectious processes. PMID:27990250

  10. Viral prevalence increases with regional colony abundance in honey bee drones (Apis mellifera L).

    PubMed

    Forfert, Nadège; Natsopoulou, Myrsini E; Paxton, Robert J; Moritz, Robin F A

    2016-10-01

    Transmission among colonies is a central feature for the epidemiology of honey bee pathogens. High colony abundance may promote transmission among colonies independently of apiary layout, making colony abundance a potentially important parameter determining pathogen prevalence in populations of honey bees. To test this idea, we sampled male honey bees (drones) from seven distinct drone congregation areas (DCA), and used their genotypes to estimate colony abundance at each site. A multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification assay (MLPA) was used to assess the prevalence of ten viruses, using five common viral targets, in individual drones. There was a significant positive association between colony abundance and number of viral infections. This result highlights the potential importance of high colony abundance for pathogen prevalence, possibly because high population density facilitates pathogen transmission. Pathogen prevalence in drones collected from DCAs may be a useful means of estimating the disease status of a population of honey bees during the mating season, especially for localities with a large number of wild or feral colonies.

  11. Soil nutrient additions increase invertebrate herbivore abundances, but not herbivory, across three grassland systems.

    PubMed

    La Pierre, Kimberly J; Smith, Melinda D

    2016-02-01

    Resource availability may influence invertebrate communities, with important consequences for ecosystem function, such as biomass production. We assessed: (1) the effects of experimental soil nutrient additions on invertebrate abundances and feeding rates and (2) the resultant changes in the effects of invertebrates on aboveground plant biomass at three grassland sites spanning the North American Central Plains, across which plant tissue chemistry and biomass vary. Invertebrate communities and rates of herbivory were sampled within a long-term nutrient-addition experiment established at each site along the broad Central Plains precipitation gradient. Additionally, the effects of invertebrates on aboveground plant biomass were determined under ambient and elevated nutrient conditions. At the more mesic sites, invertebrate herbivore abundances increased and their per capita rate of herbivory decreased with nutrient additions. In contrast, at the semi-arid site where plant biomass is low and plant nutrient concentrations are high, invertebrate herbivore abundances did not vary and per capita rates of herbivory increased with nutrient additions. No change in the effect of invertebrate herbivores on aboveground plant biomass was observed at any of the sites. In sum, nutrient additions induced shifts in both plant biomass and leaf nutrient content, which altered invertebrate abundances and feeding rate. However, due to the inverse relationship between changes in herbivore abundance and per capita rates of herbivory, nutrient additions did not alter the effect of invertebrates on aboveground biomass. Overall, we suggest that this inverse response of herbivore abundance and per capita feeding rate may buffer ecosystems against changes in invertebrate damage in response to fluctuations in nutrient levels.

  12. Increased natural mortality at low abundance can generate an Allee effect in a marine fish.

    PubMed

    Kuparinen, Anna; Hutchings, Jeffrey A

    2014-10-01

    Negative density-dependent regulation of population dynamics promotes population growth at low abundance and is therefore vital for recovery following depletion. Inversely, any process that reduces the compensatory density-dependence of population growth can negatively affect recovery. Here, we show that increased adult mortality at low abundance can reverse compensatory population dynamics into its opposite-a demographic Allee effect. Northwest Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) stocks collapsed dramatically in the early 1990s and have since shown little sign of recovery. Many experienced dramatic increases in natural mortality, ostensibly attributable in some populations to increased predation by seals. Our findings show that increased natural mortality of a magnitude observed for overfished cod stocks has been more than sufficient to fundamentally alter the dynamics of density-dependent population regulation. The demographic Allee effect generated by these changes can slow down or even impede the recovery of depleted populations even in the absence of fishing.

  13. Increased energy expenditure by a seabird in response to higher food abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jodice, P.G.R.; Roby, D.D.; Suryan, R.M.; Irons, D.B.; Turco, K.R.; Brown, E.D.; Thedinga, J.F.; Visser, G. Henk

    2006-01-01

    Variability in forage fish abundance strongly affects seabird behavior and reproductive success, although details of this relationship are unclear. During 1997 and 1998, we measured (1) daily energy expenditure (DEE) of 80 parent black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla at 2 colonies in Prince William Sound, Alaska (North Icy Bay and Shoup Bay), (2) abundance of surface-schooling forage fishes within the foraging range of each colony, and (3) diet composition, energy delivery rates to nestlings, and reproductive success of kittiwakes at these same colonies. Female DEE was highest at North Icy Bay in 1998, while male DEE did not differ by colony year. Abundances of Pacific herring Clupea pallasi and sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus were highest near North Icy Bay in 1998 and nearly egual in density, although Age 1+ herring comprised the majority of the diet there. Energy delivery rates to nestlings, nestling growth rates, and productivity were also highest at North Icy Bay in 1998. We suggest that female kittiwakes responded to the increased abundance of Age 1+ herring near North Icy Bay in 1998 by increasing their DEE, which in turn positively affected reproductive success. Given that adult kittiwakes have been shown to suffer decreased survival as a response to increased energy expenditure during brood rearing, the positive correlation we observed between increased abundance of a high quality food source, parental effort, and productivity is consistent with maximizing lifetime reproductive success. The lack of a response in male DEE suggests that brood-rearing roles in kittiwakes differ between genders. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  14. Sixteen-Day Bedrest Significantly Increases Plasma Colloid Osmotic Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, Alan R.; Hsieh, S. T.; Murthy, G.; Ballard, R. E.; Convertino, V. A.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Upon exposure to microgravity, astronauts lose up to 10% of their total plasma volume, which may contribute to orthostatic intolerance after space flight. Because plasma colloid osmotic pressure (COP) is a primary factor maintaining plasma volume, our objective was to measure time course changes in COP during microgravity simulated by 6 deg. head-down tilt (HDT). Seven healthy male subjects (30-55 years of age) were placed in HDT for 16 days. For the purpose of another study, three of the seven subjects were chosen to exercise on a cycle ergometer on day 16. Blood samples were drawn immediately before bedrest on day 14 of bedrest, 18-24 hours following exercise while all subjects were still in HDT and 1 hour following bedrest termination. Plasma COP was measured in all 20 microliter EDTA-treated samples using an osmometer fitted with a PM 30 membrane. Data were analyzed with paired and unpaired t-tests. Plasma COP on day 14 of bedrest (29.9 +/- 0.69 mmHg) was significantly higher (p less than 0.005) than the control, pre-bedrest value (23.1 +/- 0.76 mmHg). At one hour of upright recovery after HDT, plasma COP remained significantly elevated (exercise: 26.9 +/- 0.87 mmHg; no exercise: 26.3 +/- 0.85 mmHg). Additionally, exercise had no significant effect on plasma COP 18-24 hours following exercise (exercise: 27.8 +/- 1.09 mmHg; no exercise: 27.1 +/- 0.78 mmHg). Our results demonstrate that plasma COP increases significantly with microgravity simulated by HDT. However, preliminary results indicate exercise during HDT does not significantly affect plasma COP.

  15. Urbanized landscapes favored by fig-eating birds increase invasive but not native juvenile strangler fig abundance.

    PubMed

    Caughlin, Trevor; Wheeler, Jessica H; Jankowski, Jill; Lichstein, Jeremy W

    2012-07-01

    Propagule pressure can determine the success or failure of invasive plant range expansion. Range expansion takes place at large spatial scales, often encompassing many types of land cover, yet the effect of landscape context on propagule pressure remains largely unknown. Many studies have reported a positive correlation between invasive plant abundance and human land use; increased propagule pressure in these landscapes may be responsible for this correlation. We tested the hypothesis that increased rates of seed dispersal by fig-eating birds, which are more common in urban habitats, result in an increase in invasive strangler fig abundance in landscapes dominated by human land use. We quantified abundance of an invasive species (Ficus microcarpa) and a native species (F. aurea) of strangler fig in plots spanning the entire range of human land use in South Florida, USA, from urban parking lots to native forest. We then compared models that predicted juvenile fig abundance based on distance to adult fig seed sources and fig-eating bird habitat quality with models that lacked one or both of these terms. The best model for juvenile invasive fig abundance included both distance to adult and fig-eating bird habitat terms, suggesting that landscape effects on invasive fig abundance are mediated by seed-dispersing birds. In contrast, the best model for juvenile native fig abundance included only presence/absence of adults, suggesting that distance from individual adult trees may have less effect on seed limitation for a native species compared to an invasive species undergoing range expansion. However, models for both species included significant effects of adult seed sources, implying that juvenile abundance is limited by seed arrival. This result was corroborated by a seed addition experiment that indicated that both native and invasive strangler figs were strongly seed limited. Understanding how landscape context affects the mechanisms of plant invasion may lead to

  16. Dietary Keratan Sulfate from Shark Cartilage Modulates Gut Microbiota and Increases the Abundance of Lactobacillus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Qingsen; Li, Qinying; Zhang, Meifang; Song, Guanrui; Shi, Jingjing; Jiang, Hao; Cai, Chao; Hao, Jiejie; Li, Guoyun; Yu, Guangli

    2016-01-01

    Keratan sulfate (KS) represents an important family of glycosaminoglycans that are critical in diverse physiological processes. Recently, accumulating evidence has provided a wealth of information on the bioactivity of KS, which established it as an attractive candidate for drug development. However, although KS has been widely explored, less attention has been given to its effect on gut microbiota. Therefore, given that gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in health homeostasis and disease pathogenesis, we investigated here in detail the effect of KS on gut microbiota by high-throughput sequencing. As revealed by heatmap and principal component analysis, the mice gut microbiota was readily altered at different taxonomic levels by intake of low (8 mg/kg) and high dosage (40 mg/kg) of KS. Interestingly, KS exerted a differing effect on male and female microbiota. Specifically, KS induced a much more drastic increase in the abundance of Lactobacillus spp. in female (sixteen-fold) versus male mice (two-fold). In addition, combined with alterations in gut microbiota, KS also significantly reduced body weight while maintaining normal gut homeostasis. Altogether, we first demonstrated a sex-dependent effect of KS on gut microbiota and highlighted that it may be used as a novel prebiotic for disease management. PMID:27941632

  17. Dietary Keratan Sulfate from Shark Cartilage Modulates Gut Microbiota and Increases the Abundance of Lactobacillus spp.

    PubMed

    Shang, Qingsen; Li, Qinying; Zhang, Meifang; Song, Guanrui; Shi, Jingjing; Jiang, Hao; Cai, Chao; Hao, Jiejie; Li, Guoyun; Yu, Guangli

    2016-12-08

    Keratan sulfate (KS) represents an important family of glycosaminoglycans that are critical in diverse physiological processes. Recently, accumulating evidence has provided a wealth of information on the bioactivity of KS, which established it as an attractive candidate for drug development. However, although KS has been widely explored, less attention has been given to its effect on gut microbiota. Therefore, given that gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in health homeostasis and disease pathogenesis, we investigated here in detail the effect of KS on gut microbiota by high-throughput sequencing. As revealed by heatmap and principal component analysis, the mice gut microbiota was readily altered at different taxonomic levels by intake of low (8 mg/kg) and high dosage (40 mg/kg) of KS. Interestingly, KS exerted a differing effect on male and female microbiota. Specifically, KS induced a much more drastic increase in the abundance of Lactobacillus spp. in female (sixteen-fold) versus male mice (two-fold). In addition, combined with alterations in gut microbiota, KS also significantly reduced body weight while maintaining normal gut homeostasis. Altogether, we first demonstrated a sex-dependent effect of KS on gut microbiota and highlighted that it may be used as a novel prebiotic for disease management.

  18. Intake of Meat Proteins Substantially Increased the Relative Abundance of Genus Lactobacillus in Rat Feces.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yingying; Lin, Xisha; Li, He; Li, Yingqiu; Shi, Xuebin; Zhao, Fan; Xu, Xinglian; Li, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-01-01

    Diet has been shown to have a critical influence on gut bacteria and host health, and high levels of red meat in diet have been shown to increase colonic DNA damage and thus be harmful to gut health. However, previous studies focused more on the effects of meat than of meat proteins. In order to investigate whether intake of meat proteins affects the composition and metabolic activities of gut microbiota, feces were collected from growing rats that were fed with either meat proteins (from beef, pork or fish) or non-meat proteins (casein or soy) for 14 days. The resulting composition of gut microbiota was profiled by sequencing the V4-V5 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA genes and the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were analyzed using gas chromatography. The composition of gut microbiota and SCFA levels were significantly different between the five diet groups. At a recommended dose of 20% protein in the diet, meat protein-fed rats had a higher relative abundance of the beneficial genus Lactobacillus, but lower levels of SCFAs and SCFA-producing bacteria including Fusobacterium, Bacteroides and Prevotella, compared with the soy protein-fed group. Further work is needed on the regulatory pathways linking dietary protein intake to gut microbiota.

  19. Greater deciduous shrub abundance extends tundra peak season and increases modeled net CO2 uptake.

    PubMed

    Sweet, Shannan K; Griffin, Kevin L; Steltzer, Heidi; Gough, Laura; Boelman, Natalie T

    2015-06-01

    Satellite studies of the terrestrial Arctic report increased summer greening and longer overall growing and peak seasons since the 1980s, which increases productivity and the period of carbon uptake. These trends are attributed to increasing air temperatures and reduced snow cover duration in spring and fall. Concurrently, deciduous shrubs are becoming increasingly abundant in tundra landscapes, which may also impact canopy phenology and productivity. Our aim was to determine the influence of greater deciduous shrub abundance on tundra canopy phenology and subsequent impacts on net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) during the growing and peak seasons in the arctic foothills region of Alaska. We compared deciduous shrub-dominated and evergreen/graminoid-dominated community-level canopy phenology throughout the growing season using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). We used a tundra plant-community-specific leaf area index (LAI) model to estimate LAI throughout the green season and a tundra-specific NEE model to estimate the impact of greater deciduous shrub abundance and associated shifts in both leaf area and canopy phenology on tundra carbon flux. We found that deciduous shrub canopies reached the onset of peak greenness 13 days earlier and the onset of senescence 3 days earlier compared to evergreen/graminoid canopies, resulting in a 10-day extension of the peak season. The combined effect of the longer peak season and greater leaf area of deciduous shrub canopies almost tripled the modeled net carbon uptake of deciduous shrub communities compared to evergreen/graminoid communities, while the longer peak season alone resulted in 84% greater carbon uptake in deciduous shrub communities. These results suggest that greater deciduous shrub abundance increases carbon uptake not only due to greater leaf area, but also due to an extension of the period of peak greenness, which extends the period of maximum carbon uptake.

  20. Inherited microbial symbionts increase herbivore abundances and alter arthropod diversity on a native grass.

    PubMed

    Faeth, Stanley H; Shochat, Eyal

    2010-05-01

    Some microbial symbionts of plants are maternally inherited and thus functionally increase genetic and phenotypic variation within plant populations. This variation, coupled with that of the host plant and environment, may alter abundances, diversity, and trophic structure of associated plant and animal communities. Fungal endophytes in the genus Neotyphodium are vertically transmitted, asexual microbial symbionts of grasses that remain asymptomatic and rely upon their hosts for resources and transmission via seeds, often providing benefits to their hosts, including protection against herbivores. Endophyte infections may influence associated arthropod communities in agronomic grasses, but the long-term effects of endophytes and variation in host genotype and resource availability on arthropod communities in native grass populations are unknown. We conducted a long-term field experiment with four maternal genotypes of an infected (E+) native grass (Festuca arizonica) from whence the endophyte was experimentally removed (E-) and water availability was controlled, to test the effects of infection, plant genotype, and resources on abundances, biomass, diversity (richness and evenness), and trophic structure of the arthropod community. Generally, E+ grasses harbored more arthropods, including more herbivores, predators, and detritivores, suggesting that the effects of endophytes cascaded upward through trophic levels in terms of abundances, at least in early ontogeny of the host. That E+ plants harbored more herbivorous insects than E- plants suggests that infection does not increase but instead decreases resistance to herbivores, contrary to prevailing concepts of endophytes as defensive mutualists. Infection did not alter overall species richness of the arthropod community or richness of herbivores but reduced natural enemy richness, especially that of parasites, and increased richness of detritivores. Reduced richness and shifts in evenness of natural enemies on E

  1. Secular increase of the total vertical column abundance of carbon monoxide above central Europe since 1950

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zander, R.; Demoulin, PH.; Ehhalt, D. H.; Schmidt, U.; Rinsland, C. P.

    1989-01-01

    The secular increase of the total vertical column abundance of carbon monoxide has been derived from sets of infrared solar spectra recorded from an altitude of 3.58 km at the Jungfraujoch Station, Switzerland, in 1950-1951 and in 1985-1987. The results are based on equivalent width measurements of the R3 line of the 1-0 vibration-rotation band of (C-12)(0-16) at 2159.30/cm. The set of 1985-1987 observations indicates a strong seasonal cycle in the total column abundance of CO, with a + or - 25 percent modulation between minimum values in late summer and the maximum values in late winter. Variability on shorter time scales is also present in both the old and recent data sets. The mean cumulative rate of increase of the total column abundance of CO above the Jungfraujoch is found to be (0.85 + or - 0.20) percent/yr between 1950-1951 and 1985-1987. The present findings are compared with trends reported in earlier studies.

  2. Increased diffuse radiation fraction does not significantly accelerate plant growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angert, Alon; Krakauer, Nir

    2010-05-01

    ), will result in a measurable decrease (~0.6ppm) in the seasonal CO2 minimum. This holds regardless of whether the sink is the result of 1) An increase in NPP, or 2) The combined effect of a temperature-driven decrease in heterotrophic respiration (Rh) and no change in NPP. This is since both NPP and Rh peak in summer. By contrast, observations from the NOAA global CO2 monitoring network show the opposite change in the seasonal minimum in 1992 and 1993 (~0.2ppm increase) both at Mauna Loa, and in the Marine Boundary Layer mean (>20° N), which is hard to reconcile with increased NPP in northern summer. Another indicator of annual NPP is tree wood increment. Previous work (Krakauer et al., 2003) showed that the average response in tree ring series after past Pinatubo-size volcanic eruptions implied lower NPP north of 45° N, presumably as a result of shorter growing season and lower total irradiance induced by scattering aerosols, and no significant change in NPP at lower latitudes. Here we show that In 1992, after the Pinatubo eruption, ring width in the 25° N-45° N band was 99.3±2.9% of average (n=351 sites), similar to the average of 100.4±2.2% over past eruptions (n=15 eruptions) (Uncertainty is given as 2 SE.). These results are also inconsistent with substantial NPP enhancement, although a limitation of the tree-ring approach is that available measurements do not uniformly sample the latitude band. The combined evidence of tree rings and the CO2 seasonal cycle shows that the enhancement of NPP by scattering aerosols on annual timescales is weak. This result suggests that reducing aerosols through stricter pollution controls may strengthen the land carbon sink, while geo-engineering schemes which aim to mitigate global warming by spreading scattering aerosols in the stratosphere may weaken it.

  3. Abundance and Significance of Neuroligin-1 and Neurexin II in the Enteric Nervous System of Embryonic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongming; Pan, Jingnian; Song, Guoxin; Gao, Ni; Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Qiangye

    2017-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the abundance of neuroligin-1 and neurexin II in the enteric nervous system (ENS) of rats on different embryonic days and to explore their potential significance. Methods. The full-thickness colon specimens proximal to the ileocecal junction of rats on embryonic days 16, 18, and 20 and of newborns within 24 hours (E16, E18, E20, and Ep0) were studied, respectively. qRT-PCR was applied for detecting the expressions of neuroligin-1 and neurexin II on mRNA, and western blotting was employed for detecting their further expressions on the whole tissue. Finally, the histological appearance of neuroligin-1 and neurexin IIα was elucidated using immunohistochemical staining. Results. qRT-PCR showed that the neuroligin-1 and neurexin II mRNA expressions of groups E16, E18, E20, and Ep0 increased gradually with the growth of embryonic rats (P < 0.05). Western blotting confirmed the increasing tendency. In immunohistochemical staining, proteins neuroligin-1 and neurexin IIα positive cells concentrated mostly in the myenteric nerve plexus of the colon and their expressions depend on the embryonic time. Conclusion. Neuroligin-1 and neurexin II were both expressed in the ENS and have temporal correlation with the development of ENS, during which neuronal intestinal malformations (NIM) may occur due to their disruptions and consequent abnormal ENS development. PMID:28194405

  4. Abundance and Significance of Neuroligin-1 and Neurexin II in the Enteric Nervous System of Embryonic Rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongming; Pan, Jingnian; Song, Guoxin; Gao, Ni; Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Qiangye; Li, Aiwu

    2017-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the abundance of neuroligin-1 and neurexin II in the enteric nervous system (ENS) of rats on different embryonic days and to explore their potential significance. Methods. The full-thickness colon specimens proximal to the ileocecal junction of rats on embryonic days 16, 18, and 20 and of newborns within 24 hours (E16, E18, E20, and Ep0) were studied, respectively. qRT-PCR was applied for detecting the expressions of neuroligin-1 and neurexin II on mRNA, and western blotting was employed for detecting their further expressions on the whole tissue. Finally, the histological appearance of neuroligin-1 and neurexin IIα was elucidated using immunohistochemical staining. Results. qRT-PCR showed that the neuroligin-1 and neurexin II mRNA expressions of groups E16, E18, E20, and Ep0 increased gradually with the growth of embryonic rats (P < 0.05). Western blotting confirmed the increasing tendency. In immunohistochemical staining, proteins neuroligin-1 and neurexin IIα positive cells concentrated mostly in the myenteric nerve plexus of the colon and their expressions depend on the embryonic time. Conclusion. Neuroligin-1 and neurexin II were both expressed in the ENS and have temporal correlation with the development of ENS, during which neuronal intestinal malformations (NIM) may occur due to their disruptions and consequent abnormal ENS development.

  5. Significant increase in the optical brightness of V2492 Cyg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibryamov, Sunay; Semkov, Evgeni

    2017-03-01

    We observed a recent increase in the optical brightness of the young eruptive star V2492 Cyg using the 2-m and the 50/70-cm Schmidt telescopes administered by National Astronomical Observatory Rozhen in Bulgaria.

  6. Stromal p16 expression is significantly increased in endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Gun; Koh, Chang Won; Yoon, Nara; Kim, Ji-Ye; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2017-01-17

    p16 is a negative regulator of cell proliferation and is considered a tumor suppressor protein. Alterations in p16 protein expression are associated with tumor development and progression. However, the p16 expression status in the peritumoral stroma has not been investigated in the endometrium. Therefore, we evaluated stromal p16 expression in different types of endometrial lesions using immunohistochemistry. Differences in the p16 expression status according to the degree of malignancy and histological type were analyzed. This study included 62, 26, and 36 cases of benign, precancerous, and malignant endometrial lesions, respectively. Most benign lesions showed negative or weak expression, whereas precancerous lesions showed a variable degree of staining proportion and intensity. Atypical hyperplasia/endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (AH/EIN) and serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (SEIC) had significantly higher stromal p16 expression levels than benign lesions. Endometrioid carcinoma (EC), serous carcinoma (SC), and carcinosarcoma showed significantly elevated stromal p16 expression levels compared with benign and precancerous lesions. In addition, there were significant differences in stromal p16 expression between AH/EIN and SEIC and between EC and SC. In contrast, differences in stromal p16 expression among nonpathological endometrium, atrophic endometrium, endometrial polyp, and hyperplasia without atypia were not statistically significant. Our observations suggest that stromal p16 expression is involved in the development and progression of endometrial carcinoma, and raise the possibility that p16 overexpression in the peritumoral stroma is associated with aggressive oncogenic behavior of endometrial SC.

  7. Increasing thiamine concentrations in lake trout eggs from Lakes Huron and Michigan coincide with low alewife abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, Stephen C.; Rinchard, Jacques; Honeyfield, Dale C.; Evans, Allison N.; Begnoche, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in the Laurentian Great Lakes suffer from thiamine deficiency as a result of adult lake trout consuming prey containing thiaminase, a thiamine-degrading enzyme. Sufficiently low egg thiamine concentrations result in direct mortality of or sublethal effects on newly hatched lake trout fry. To determine the prevalence and severity of low thiamine in lake trout eggs, we monitored thiamine concentrations in lake trout eggs from 15 sites in Lakes Huron and Michigan from 2001 to 2009. Lake trout egg thiamine concentrations at most sites in both lakes were initially low and increased over time at 11 of 15 sites, and the proportion of females with egg thiamine concentrations lower than the recommended management objective of 4 nmol/g decreased over time at eight sites. Egg thiamine concentrations at five of six sites in Lakes Huron and Michigan were significantly inversely related to site-specific estimates of mean abundance of alewives Alosa pseudoharengus, and successful natural reproduction of lake trout has been observed in Lake Huron since the alewife population crashed. These results support the hypothesis that low egg thiamine in Great Lakes lake trout is associated with increased alewife abundance and that low alewife abundance may currently be a prerequisite for successful reproduction by lake trout in the Great Lakes.

  8. Projections of climate conditions that increase coral disease susceptibility and pathogen abundance and virulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, Jeffrey; van Hooidonk, Ruben; Eakin, C. Mark; Puotinen, Marjetta; Garren, Melissa; Williams, Gareth; Heron, Scott F.; Lamb, Joleah; Weil, Ernesto; Willis, Bette; Harvell, C. Drew

    2015-07-01

    Rising sea temperatures are likely to increase the frequency of disease outbreaks affecting reef-building corals through impacts on coral hosts and pathogens. We present and compare climate model projections of temperature conditions that will increase coral susceptibility to disease, pathogen abundance and pathogen virulence. Both moderate (RCP 4.5) and fossil fuel aggressive (RCP 8.5) emissions scenarios are examined. We also compare projections for the onset of disease-conducive conditions and severe annual coral bleaching, and produce a disease risk summary that combines climate stress with stress caused by local human activities. There is great spatial variation in the projections, both among and within the major ocean basins, in conditions favouring disease development. Our results indicate that disease is as likely to cause coral mortality as bleaching in the coming decades. These projections identify priority locations to reduce stress caused by local human activities and test management interventions to reduce disease impacts.

  9. Increasing shrub abundance and N addition in Arctic tundra affect leaf and root litter decomposition differently

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaren, J.; van de Weg, M. J.; Shaver, G. R.; Gough, L.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in global climate have resulted in a ';greening' of the Arctic as the abundance of deciduous shrub species increases. Consequently, not only the living plant community, but also the litter composition changes, which in turn can affect carbon turnover patterns in the Arctic. We examined effects of changing litter composition (both root and leaf litter) on decomposition rates with a litter bag study, and specifically focused on the impact of deciduous shrub Betula nana litter on litter decomposition from two evergreen shrubs (Ledum palustre, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea) and one graminoid (Eriophorum vaginatum) species. Additionally, we investigated how decomposition was affected by nutrient availability by placing the litterbags in an ambient and a fertilized moist acidic tundra environment. Measurements were carried out seasonally over 2 years (after snow melt, mid-growing season, end growing season). We measured litter mass loss over time, as well as the respiration rates (standardized for temperature and moisture) and temperature sensitivity of litter respiration at the time of harvesting the litter bags. For leaves, Betula litter decomposed faster than the other three species, with Eriophorum leaves decomposing the slowest. This pattern was observed for both mass loss and litter respiration rates, although the differences in respiration became smaller over time. Surprisingly, combining Betula with any other species resulted in slower overall weight loss rates than would be predicted based on monoculture weight loss rates. This contrasted with litter respiration at the time of sampling, which showed a positive mixing effect of adding Betula leaf liter to the other species. Apparently, during the first winter months (September - May) Betula litter decomposition is negatively affected by mixing the species and this legacy can still be observed in the total mass loss results later in the year. For root litter there were fewer effects of species identity on root

  10. Heterogeneity of aquatic sediment significantly increases nitrogen removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    In recent decades, nitrate loads to rivers and coasts have increased dramatically and contributed to eutrophication and hypoxia in coastal waters. A major sink for nitrate in the environment is denitrification in aquatic sediments. Here, I show that nitrate removal rates are as much as 100 times more efficient in heterogeneous than equivalent homogeneous aquatic sediments. Numerical experiments quantify nitrate removal from groundwater discharging through shallow columns of heterogeneous aquatic sediment. The steady groundwater flow equation was coupled to the advection-dispersion-reaction equations for dissolved oxygen, nitrate, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Bimodal sediments composed of sand and clay were simulated using TPROGS for a wide range of clay fractions. Small (centimeter-scale) sedimentary structures were intended to represent infilled burrows or clay rip-up clasts. Clay structures were assigned a relatively high organic carbon content (2%). The local source of DOC fuels oxygen consumption in clay structures and promotes restricted zones of denitrification in otherwise aerobic sediments. As a result, redox transformations do not strictly depend on residence times but rather on distributions of organic carbon in aquatic sediments. Furthermore, bimodal sand and clay deposits are more efficient than either clean sand or homogeneous sandy-clay at removing nitrate. These results help explain observations of efficient nitrate removal in relatively sandy, oxygenated aquatic sediments when small organic-rich structures are present. The results also suggest that models of reactive transport in homogeneous sediment underestimate biogeochemical transformation rates relative to heterogeneous sediment. Similarly, laboratory-derived denitrification rates on homogenized cores are likely underestimated relative to intact cores.

  11. Tying Down Loose Ends in the Chlamydomonas Genome: Functional Significance of Abundant Upstream Open Reading Frames

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Frederick R.

    2015-01-01

    The Chlamydomonas genome has been sequenced, assembled, and annotated to produce a rich resource for genetics and molecular biology in this well-studied model organism. The annotated genome is very rich in open reading frames upstream of the annotated coding sequence (‘uORFs’): almost three quarters of the assigned transcripts have at least one uORF, and frequently more than one. This is problematic with respect to the standard ‘scanning’ model for eukaryotic translation initiation. These uORFs can be grouped into three classes: class 1, initiating in-frame with the coding sequence (CDS) (thus providing a potential in-frame N-terminal extension); class 2, initiating in the 5′ untranslated sequences (5UT) and terminating out-of-frame in the CDS; and class 3, initiating and terminating within the 5UT. Multiple bioinformatics criteria (including analysis of Kozak consensus sequence agreement and BLASTP comparisons to the closely related Volvox genome, and statistical comparison to cds and to random sequence controls) indicate that of ∼4000 class 1 uORFs, approximately half are likely in vivo translation initiation sites. The proposed resulting N-terminal extensions in many cases will sharply alter the predicted biochemical properties of the encoded proteins. These results suggest significant modifications in ∼2000 of the ∼20,000 transcript models with respect to translation initiation and encoded peptides. In contrast, class 2 uORFs may be subject to purifying selection, and the existent ones (surviving selection) are likely inefficiently translated. Class 3 uORFs are found in more than half of transcripts, frequently multiple times per transcript; however, they are remarkably similar to random sequence expectations with respect to size, number, and composition, and therefore may in most cases be selectively neutral. PMID:26701783

  12. Application of Bioorganic Fertilizer Significantly Increased Apple Yields and Shaped Bacterial Community Structure in Orchard Soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Li, Jing; Yang, Fang; E, Yaoyao; Raza, Waseem; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2017-02-01

    Application of bioorganic fertilizers has been reported to improve crop yields and change soil bacterial community structure; however, little work has been done in apple orchard soils where the biological properties of the soils are being degraded due to long-term application of chemical fertilizers. In this study, we used Illumina-based sequencing approach to characterize the bacterial community in the 0-60-cm soil profile under different fertilizer regimes in the Loess Plateau. The experiment includes three treatments: (1) control without fertilization (CK); (2) application of chemical fertilizer (CF); and (3) application of bioorganic fertilizer and organic-inorganic mixed fertilizer (BOF). The results showed that the treatment BOF increased the apple yields by 114 and 67 % compared to the CK and CF treatments, respectively. The treatment BOF also increased the soil organic matter (SOM) by 22 and 16 % compared to the CK and CF treatments, respectively. The Illumina-based sequencing showed that Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria were the predominant phyla and Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were the most abundant classes in the soil profile. The bacterial richness for ACE was increased after the addition of BOF. Compared to CK and CF treatments, BOF-treated soil revealed higher abundance of Proteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, Rhizobiales, and Xanthomonadales while Acidobacteria, Gp7, Gp17, and Sphaerobacter were found in lower abundance throughout the soil profile. Bacterial community structure varied with soil depth under different fertilizer treatments, e.g., the bacterial richness, diversity, and the relative abundance of Verruccomicrobia, Candidatus Brocadiales, and Skermanella were decreased with the soil depth in all three treatments. Permutational multivariate analysis showed that the fertilizer regime was the major factor than soil depth in the variations of the bacterial community composition. Two groups, Lysobacter

  13. Wastewater Irrigation Increases the Abundance of Potentially Harmful Gammaproteobacteria in Soils in Mezquital Valley, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Broszat, Melanie; Nacke, Heiko; Blasi, Ronja; Siebe, Christina; Huebner, Johannes; Daniel, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater contains large amounts of pharmaceuticals, pathogens, and antimicrobial resistance determinants. Only a little is known about the dissemination of resistance determinants and changes in soil microbial communities affected by wastewater irrigation. Community DNAs from Mezquital Valley soils under irrigation with untreated wastewater for 0 to 100 years were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR for the presence of sul genes, encoding resistance to sulfonamides. Amplicon sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes from community DNAs from soils irrigated for 0, 8, 10, 85, and 100 years was performed and revealed a 14% increase of the relative abundance of Proteobacteria in rainy season soils and a 26.7% increase in dry season soils for soils irrigated for 100 years with wastewater. In particular, Gammaproteobacteria, including potential pathogens, such as Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, and Acinetobacter spp., were found in wastewater-irrigated fields. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 96 isolates from soils irrigated with wastewater for 100 years (48 from dry and 48 from rainy season soils) revealed that 46% were affiliated with the Gammaproteobacteria (mainly potentially pathogenic Stenotrophomonas strains) and 50% with the Bacilli, whereas all 96 isolates from rain-fed soils (48 from dry and 48 from rainy season soils) were affiliated with the Bacilli. Up to six types of antibiotic resistance were found in isolates from wastewater-irrigated soils; sulfamethoxazole resistance was the most abundant (33.3% of the isolates), followed by oxacillin resistance (21.9% of the isolates). In summary, we detected an increase of potentially harmful bacteria and a larger incidence of resistance determinants in wastewater-irrigated soils, which might result in health risks for farm workers and consumers of wastewater-irrigated crops. PMID:24951788

  14. Wastewater irrigation increases the abundance of potentially harmful gammaproteobacteria in soils in Mezquital Valley, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Broszat, Melanie; Nacke, Heiko; Blasi, Ronja; Siebe, Christina; Huebner, Johannes; Daniel, Rolf; Grohmann, Elisabeth

    2014-09-01

    Wastewater contains large amounts of pharmaceuticals, pathogens, and antimicrobial resistance determinants. Only a little is known about the dissemination of resistance determinants and changes in soil microbial communities affected by wastewater irrigation. Community DNAs from Mezquital Valley soils under irrigation with untreated wastewater for 0 to 100 years were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR for the presence of sul genes, encoding resistance to sulfonamides. Amplicon sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes from community DNAs from soils irrigated for 0, 8, 10, 85, and 100 years was performed and revealed a 14% increase of the relative abundance of Proteobacteria in rainy season soils and a 26.7% increase in dry season soils for soils irrigated for 100 years with wastewater. In particular, Gammaproteobacteria, including potential pathogens, such as Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, and Acinetobacter spp., were found in wastewater-irrigated fields. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 96 isolates from soils irrigated with wastewater for 100 years (48 from dry and 48 from rainy season soils) revealed that 46% were affiliated with the Gammaproteobacteria (mainly potentially pathogenic Stenotrophomonas strains) and 50% with the Bacilli, whereas all 96 isolates from rain-fed soils (48 from dry and 48 from rainy season soils) were affiliated with the Bacilli. Up to six types of antibiotic resistance were found in isolates from wastewater-irrigated soils; sulfamethoxazole resistance was the most abundant (33.3% of the isolates), followed by oxacillin resistance (21.9% of the isolates). In summary, we detected an increase of potentially harmful bacteria and a larger incidence of resistance determinants in wastewater-irrigated soils, which might result in health risks for farm workers and consumers of wastewater-irrigated crops.

  15. Sulfamethoxazole and COD increase abundance of sulfonamide resistance genes and change bacterial community structures within sequencing batch reactors.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xueping; Pang, Weihai; Dou, Chunling; Yin, Daqiang

    2017-05-01

    The abundant microbial community in biological treatment processes in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) may potentially enhance the horizontal gene transfer of antibiotic resistance genes with the presence of antibiotics. A lab-scale sequencing batch reactor was designed to investigate response of sulfonamide resistance genes (sulI, sulII) and bacterial communities to various concentrations of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of wastewater. The SMX concentrations (0.001 mg/L, 0.1 mg/L and 10 mg/L) decreased with treatment time and higher SMX level was more difficult to remove. The presence of SMX also significantly reduced the removal efficiency of ammonia nitrogen, affecting the normal function of WWTPs. All three concentrations of SMX raised both sulI and sulII genes with higher concentrations exhibiting greater increases. The abundance of sul genes was positive correlated with treatment time and followed the second-order reaction kinetic model. Interestingly, these two genes have rather similar activity. SulI and sulII gene abundance also performed similar response to COD. Simpson index and Shannon-Weiner index did not show changes in the microbial community diversity. However, the 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing results showed the bacterial community structures varied during different stages. The results demonstrated that influent antibiotics into WWTPs may facilitate selection of ARGs and affect the wastewater conventional treatment as well as the bacteria community structures.

  16. Significant increase of Echinococcus multilocularis prevalence in foxes, but no increased predicted risk for humans.

    PubMed

    Maas, M; Dam-Deisz, W D C; van Roon, A M; Takumi, K; van der Giessen, J W B

    2014-12-15

    The emergence of the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis (AE), poses a public health risk. A previously designed risk map model predicted a spread of E. multilocularis and increasing numbers of alveolar echinococcosis patients in the province of Limburg, The Netherlands. This study was designed to determine trends in the prevalence and worm burden of E. multilocularis in foxes in a popular recreational area in the southern part of Limburg to assess the risk of infection for humans and to study the prevalence of E. multilocularis in dogs in the adjacent city of Maastricht. Thirty-seven hunted red foxes were tested by the intestinal scraping technique and nested PCR on colon content. Additionally, 142 fecal samples of domestic dogs from Maastricht were analyzed by qPCR for the presence of E. multilocularis. In foxes, a significantly increased prevalence of 59% (95% confidence interval 43-74%) was found, compared to the prevalence of 11% (95% CI 7-18%) in 2005-2006. Average worm burden increased to 37 worms per fox, the highest since the first detection, but consistent with the prediction about the parasite population for this region. Updated prediction on the number of AE cases did not lead to an increase in previous estimates of human AE cases up to 2018. No dogs in the city of Maastricht tested positive, but results of questionnaires showed that deworming schemes were inadequate, especially in dogs that were considered at risk for infection.

  17. Dietary flavonoid fisetin increases abundance of high-molecular-mass hyaluronan conferring resistance to prostate oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lall, Rahul K; Syed, Deeba N; Khan, Mohammad Imran; Adhami, Vaqar M; Gong, Yuansheng; Lucey, John A; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2016-09-01

    We and others have shown previously that fisetin, a plant flavonoid, has therapeutic potential against many cancer types. Here, we examined the probable mechanism of its action in prostate cancer (PCa) using a global metabolomics approach. HPLC-ESI-MS analysis of tumor xenografts from fisetin-treated animals identified several metabolic targets with hyaluronan (HA) as the most affected. Efficacy of fisetin on HA was then evaluated in vitro and also in vivo in the transgenic TRAMP mouse model of PCa. Size exclusion chromatography-multiangle laser light scattering (SEC-MALS) was performed to analyze the molar mass (Mw) distribution of HA. Fisetin treatment downregulated intracellular and secreted HA levels both in vitro and in vivo Fisetin inhibited HA synthesis and degradation enzymes, which led to cessation of HA synthesis and also repressed the degradation of the available high-molecular-mass (HMM)-HA. SEC-MALS analysis of intact HA fragment size revealed that cells and animals have more abundance of HMM-HA and less of low-molecular-mass (LMM)-HA upon fisetin treatment. Elevated HA levels have been shown to be associated with disease progression in certain cancer types. Biological responses triggered by HA mainly depend on the HA polymer length where HMM-HA represses mitogenic signaling and has anti-inflammatory properties whereas LMM-HA promotes proliferation and inflammation. Similarly, Mw analysis of secreted HA fragment size revealed less HMM-HA is secreted that allowed more HMM-HA to be retained within the cells and tissues. Our findings establish that fisetin is an effective, non-toxic, potent HA synthesis inhibitor, which increases abundance of antiangiogenic HMM-HA and could be used for the management of PCa.

  18. Richness-productivity relationships between trophic levels in a detritus-based system: significance of abundance and trophic linkage.

    PubMed

    Yee, Donald A; Yee, Susan Harrell; Kneitel, Jamie M; Juliano, Steven A

    2007-11-01

    Most theoretical and empirical studies of productivity-species richness relationships fail to consider linkages among trophic levels. We quantified productivity-richness relationships in detritus-based, water-filled tree-hole communities for two trophic levels: invertebrate consumers and the protozoans on which they feed. By analogy to theory for biomass partitioning among trophic levels, we predicted that consumer control would result in richness of protozoans in the lower trophic level being unaffected by increases in productivity, whereas richness of invertebrate consumers would increase with productivity. Our data were consistent with this prediction: consumer richness increased linearly, but protozoan richness was unrelated to changes in productivity. The productivity-richness relationships for all taxa combined were not necessarily consistent with relationships within each trophic level. We used path analysis to investigate the mechanisms that may produce the observed responses of trophic levels to changes in productivity. We tested the importance of the direct effect of productivity on richness and the indirect effect of productivity mediated by effects on total abundance. For protozoans, only direct effects of productivity on richness were important, but both direct and indirect effects of productivity on richness were important for invertebrates. Protozoan richness was strongly affected by top-down impacts of abundance of invertebrates. These results are consistent with theory on biomass partitioning among trophic levels and suggest a strong link between richness and abundance within and between trophic levels. Understanding how trophic level interactions determine productivity-richness relationships will likely be necessary in order for us to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the determinants of diversity.

  19. No strong evidence for increasing liana abundance in the Myristicaceae of a Neotropical aseasonal rain forest.

    PubMed

    Smith, James R; Queenborough, Simon A; Alvia, Pablo; Romero-Saltos, Hugo; Valencia, Renato

    2017-02-01

    The "liana dominance hypothesis" posits that lianas are increasing in abundance in tropical forests, thereby potentially reducing tree biomass due to competitive interactions between trees and lianas. This scenario has implications not only for forest ecosystem function and species composition, but also climate change given the mass of carbon stored in tropical trees. In 2003 and 2013, all Myristicaceae trees in the 50-ha Yasuní Forest Dynamics Plot, Ecuador, were surveyed for liana presence and load in their crowns. We tested the hypothesis that the proportion of trees with lianas increased between 2003 and 2013 in line with the liana dominance hypothesis. Contrary to expectations, the total proportion of trees with lianas decreased from 35% to 32%, and when only trees ≥10 cm diameter at breast height were considered liana incidence increased 44-48%. Liana load was dynamic with a large proportion of trees losing or gaining lianas over the 10-yr period; large trees with intermediate liana loads increased in proportion at the expense of those with low and high loads. Lianas also impacted performance: trees with 26-75% crown cover by lianas in 2003 had reduced growth rates of 80% compared to of liana-free trees, and trees with >75% crown cover had 33% the growth rate and a log odds of mortality eight times that of liana-free trees. We suggest that the lack of strong support found for the liana dominance hypothesis is likely due to the aseasonal climate of Yasuní, which limits the competitive advantage lianas maintain over trees during dry seasons due to their efficient capture and use of water. We propose further research of long-term liana dynamics from aseasonal forests is required to determine the generality of the increasing liana dominance hypothesis in Neotropical forests.

  20. Negative plant-soil feedbacks increase with plant abundance, and are unchanged by competition.

    PubMed

    Maron, John L; Laney Smith, Alyssa; Ortega, Yvette K; Pearson, Dean E; Callaway, Ragan M

    2016-08-01

    Plant-soil feedbacks and interspecific competition are ubiquitous interactions that strongly influence the performance of plants. Yet few studies have examined whether the strength of these interactions corresponds with the abundance of plant species in the field, or whether feedbacks and competition interact in ways that either ameliorate or exacerbate their effects in isolation. We sampled soil from two intermountain grassland communities where we also measured the relative abundance of plant species. In greenhouse experiments, we quantified the direction and magnitude of plant-soil feedbacks for 10 target species that spanned a range of abundances in the field. In soil from both sites, plant-soil feedbacks were mostly negative, with more abundant species suffering greater negative feedbacks than rare species. In contrast, the average response to competition for each species was unrelated with its abundance in the field. We also determined how competitive response varied among our target species when plants competed in live vs. sterile soil. Interspecific competition reduced plant size, but the strength of this negative effect was unchanged by plant-soil feedbacks. Finally, when plants competed interspecifically, we asked how conspecific-trained, heterospecific-trained, and sterile soil influenced the competitive responses of our target species and how this varied depending on whether target species were abundant or rare in the field. Here, we found that both abundant and rare species were not as harmed by competition when they grew in heterospecific-trained soil compared to when they grew in conspecific-cultured soil. Abundant species were also not as harmed by competition when growing in sterile vs. conspecific-trained soil, but this was not the case for rare species. Our results suggest that abundant plants accrue species-specific soil pathogens to a greater extent than rare species. Thus, negative feedbacks may be critical for preventing abundant species from

  1. Decreasing Abundance, Increasing Diversity and Changing Structure of the Wild Bee Community (Hymenoptera: Anthophila) along an Urbanization Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Fortel, Laura; Henry, Mickaël; Guilbaud, Laurent; Guirao, Anne Laure; Kuhlmann, Michael; Mouret, Hugues; Rollin, Orianne; Vaissière, Bernard E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Wild bees are important pollinators that have declined in diversity and abundance during the last decades. Habitat destruction and fragmentation associated with urbanization are reported as part of the main causes of this decline. Urbanization involves dramatic changes of the landscape, increasing the proportion of impervious surface while decreasing that of green areas. Few studies have investigated the effects of urbanization on bee communities. We assessed changes in the abundance, species richness, and composition of wild bee community along an urbanization gradient. Methodology/Principal Findings Over two years and on a monthly basis, bees were sampled with colored pan traps and insect nets at 24 sites located along an urbanization gradient. Landscape structure within three different radii was measured at each study site. We captured 291 wild bee species. The abundance of wild bees was negatively correlated with the proportion of impervious surface, while species richness reached a maximum at an intermediate (50%) proportion of impervious surface. The structure of the community changed along the urbanization gradient with more parasitic species in sites with an intermediate proportion of impervious surface. There were also greater numbers of cavity-nesting species and long-tongued species in sites with intermediate or higher proportion of impervious surface. However, urbanization had no effect on the occurrence of species depending on their social behavior or body size. Conclusions/Significance We found nearly a third of the wild bee fauna known from France in our study sites. Indeed, urban areas supported a diverse bee community, but sites with an intermediate level of urbanization were the most speciose ones, including greater proportion of parasitic species. The presence of a diverse array of bee species even in the most urbanized area makes these pollinators worthy of being a flagship group to raise the awareness of urban citizens about

  2. Increases in Calmodulin Abundance and Stabilization of Activated iNOS Mediate Bacterial Killing in RAW 264.7 Macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Smallwood, Heather S.; Shi, Liang; Squier, Thomas C.

    2006-08-01

    The rapid activation of macrophages in response to bacterial antigens is central to the innate immune system that permits the recognition and killing of pathogens to limit infection. To understand regulatory mechanisms underlying macrophage activation, we have investigated changes in the abundance of calmodulin (CaM) and iNOS in response to the bacterial cell wall component lipopolysaccharide (LPS) using RAW 264.7 macrophages. Critical to these measurements was the ability to differentiate free iNOS from the CaM-bound (active) form of iNOS associated with nitric oxide generation. We observe a rapid two-fold increase in CaM abundance during the first 30 minutes that is blocked by inhibition of NF?B nuclear translocation or protein synthesis. A similar two-fold increase in the abundance of the complex between CaM and iNOS is observed with the same time dependence. In contrast, there are no detectable increases in the CaM-free (i.e., inactive) form of iNOS within the first hour; it remains at a very low abundance during the initial phase of macrophage activation. Increasing cellular CaM levels in stably transfected cells results in a corresponding increase in the abundance of the CaM/iNOS complex that promotes effective bacterial killing following challenge by Salmonella typhimurium. Thus, LPS-dependent increases in CaM abundance function in the stabilization and activation of iNOS on the rapid time-scale associated with macrophage activation and bacterial killing. These results explain how CaM and iNOS coordinately function to form a stable complex that is part of a rapid host-response that functions within the first 30 minutes following bacterial infection to up-regulate the innate immune system involving macrophage activation.

  3. Increasing nitrogen abundance relative to phosphorus in the northwestern Pacific Ocean due to anthropogenic nitrogen deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T.; Lee, K.; Najjar, R. G.; Jeong, H.

    2011-12-01

    The increased uses of fossil fuel and agricultural fertilizer have rapidly altered nitrogen availability in many ecosystems over the last several decades. In particular, the coastal waters downwind of highly populated and industrialized areas have been receiving ever higher inputs of anthropogenic nitrogen via rivers and the atmosphere. One of those areas is the coastal and marginal seas of the Northwestern Pacific, which includes the East China Sea, the Yellow Sea and the East/Japan Sea. In this study, we document increases in the availability of nitrogen over phosphorus in these seas by analyzing temporal trend of surface (<50 m) N* (N - RN:P × P, where N, P and RN:P are nitrate concentration, phosphorus concentration, and the mean N:P ratio, respectively). The nutrient data used in the study were collected by the National Fisheries Research and Development Institute in Korea and the Japan Meteorological Agency during the past three decades. The observed N* increase, which was mainly due to an increase in nitrate concentration, was attributed to the riverine and atmospheric input of anthropogenic nitrogen. The N* values in two major rivers (Changjiang and Han River) discharging to the East China Sea and Yellow Sea have increased to >100 μM over the last thirty years. The riverine N* values were compared to those in the selected sea areas where riverine influence is probably greatest and found significant correlations in downstream of the Changjiang River (but not in the Han River). However, the influence of nitrogen flux from the Changjiang River appears to be confined to its estuary based on the analysis of plume extent and nutrient distribution in summer 1998 when the Changjiang River discharge was the greatest observed since the 1950s. We estimated atmospheric nitrogen deposition in the three air monitoring stations in Korea and one in Japan using the data measured by the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia and the Korea Meteorological

  4. Climate warming increases biodiversity of small rodents by favoring rare or less abundant species in a grassland ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guangshun; Liu, Jun; Xu, Lei; Yu, Guirui; He, Honglin; Zhang, Zhibin

    2013-06-01

    Our Earth is facing the challenge of accelerating climate change, which imposes a great threat to biodiversity. Many published studies suggest that climate warming may cause a dramatic decline in biodiversity, especially in colder and drier regions. In this study, we investigated the effects of temperature, precipitation and a normalized difference vegetation index on biodiversity indices of rodent communities in the current or previous year for both detrended and nondetrended data in semi-arid grassland of Inner Mongolia during 1982-2006. Our results demonstrate that temperature showed predominantly positive effects on the biodiversity of small rodents; precipitation showed both positive and negative effects; a normalized difference vegetation index showed positive effects; and cross-correlation function values between rodent abundance and temperature were negatively correlated with rodent abundance. Our results suggest that recent climate warming increased the biodiversity of small rodents by providing more benefits to population growth of rare or less abundant species than that of more abundant species in Inner Mongolia grassland, which does not support the popular view that global warming would decrease biodiversity in colder and drier regions. We hypothesized that higher temperatures might benefit rare or less abundant species (with smaller populations and more folivorous diets) by reducing the probability of local extinction and/or by increasing herbaceous food resources.

  5. Increased waterborne blaNDM-1 resistance gene abundances associated with seasonal human pilgrimages to the upper ganges river.

    PubMed

    Ahammad, Z S; Sreekrishnan, T R; Hands, C L; Knapp, C W; Graham, D W

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance (AR) is often rooted in inappropriate antibiotic use, but poor water quality and inadequate sanitation exacerbate the problem, especially in emerging countries. An example is increasing multi-AR due to mobile carbapenemases, such as NDM-1 protein (coded by blaNDM-1 genes), which can produce extreme drug-resistant phenotypes. In 2010, NDM-1 positive isolates and blaNDM-1 genes were detected in surface waters across Delhi and have since been detected across the urban world. However, little is known about blaNDM-1 levels in more pristine locations, such as the headwaters of the Upper Ganges River. This area is of particular interest because it receives massive numbers of visitors during seasonal pilgrimages in May/June, including visitors from urban India. Here we quantified blaNDM-1 abundances, other AR genes (ARG), and coliform bacteria in sediments and water column samples from seven sites in the Rishikesh-Haridwar region of the Upper Ganges and five sites on the Yamuna River in Delhi to contrast blaNDM-1 levels and water quality conditions between season and region. Water quality in the Yamuna was very poor (e.g., anoxia at all sites), and blaNDM-1 abundances were high across sites in water (5.4 ± 0.4 log(blaNDM-1·mL(-1)); 95% confidence interval) and sediment (6.3 ± 0.7 log(blaNDM-1·mg(-1))) samples from both seasons. In contrast, water column blaNDM-1 abundances were very low across all sites in the Upper Ganges in February (2.1 ± 0.6 log(blaNDM-1·mL(-1))), and water quality was good (e.g., near saturation oxygen). However, per capita blaNDM-1 levels were 20 times greater in June in the Ganges water column relative to February, and blaNDM-1 levels significantly correlated with fecal coliform levels (r = 0.61; p = 0.007). Given that waste management infrastructure is limited in Rishikesh-Haridwar, data imply blaNDM-1 levels are higher in visitor's wastes than local residents, which results in seasonally higher blaNDM-1 levels in the

  6. Increased Waterborne blaNDM-1 Resistance Gene Abundances Associated with Seasonal Human Pilgrimages to the Upper Ganges River

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance (AR) is often rooted in inappropriate antibiotic use, but poor water quality and inadequate sanitation exacerbate the problem, especially in emerging countries. An example is increasing multi-AR due to mobile carbapenemases, such as NDM-1 protein (coded by blaNDM-1 genes), which can produce extreme drug-resistant phenotypes. In 2010, NDM-1 positive isolates and blaNDM-1 genes were detected in surface waters across Delhi and have since been detected across the urban world. However, little is known about blaNDM-1 levels in more pristine locations, such as the headwaters of the Upper Ganges River. This area is of particular interest because it receives massive numbers of visitors during seasonal pilgrimages in May/June, including visitors from urban India. Here we quantified blaNDM-1 abundances, other AR genes (ARG), and coliform bacteria in sediments and water column samples from seven sites in the Rishikesh-Haridwar region of the Upper Ganges and five sites on the Yamuna River in Delhi to contrast blaNDM-1 levels and water quality conditions between season and region. Water quality in the Yamuna was very poor (e.g., anoxia at all sites), and blaNDM-1 abundances were high across sites in water (5.4 ± 0.4 log(blaNDM-1·mL–1); 95% confidence interval) and sediment (6.3 ± 0.7 log(blaNDM-1·mg–1)) samples from both seasons. In contrast, water column blaNDM-1 abundances were very low across all sites in the Upper Ganges in February (2.1 ± 0.6 log(blaNDM-1·mL–1)), and water quality was good (e.g., near saturation oxygen). However, per capita blaNDM-1 levels were 20 times greater in June in the Ganges water column relative to February, and blaNDM-1 levels significantly correlated with fecal coliform levels (r = 0.61; p = 0.007). Given that waste management infrastructure is limited in Rishikesh-Haridwar, data imply blaNDM-1 levels are higher in visitor’s wastes than local residents, which results in seasonally higher blaNDM-1 levels in the

  7. Female offspring desertion and male-only care increase with natural and experimental increase in food abundance.

    PubMed

    Eldegard, Katrine; Sonerud, Geir A

    2009-05-07

    In species with biparental care, one parent may escape the costs of parental care by deserting and leaving the partner to care for the offspring alone. A number of theoretical papers have suggested a link between uniparental offspring desertion and ecological factors, but empirical evidence is scarce. We investigated the relationship between uniparental desertion and food abundance in a natural population of Tengmalm's owl Aegolius funereus, both by means of a 5-year observational study and a 1-year experimental study. Parents and offspring were fitted with radio-transmitters in order to reveal the parental care strategy (i.e. care or desert) of individual parents, and to keep track of the broods post-fledging. We found that 70 per cent of the females from non-experimental nests deserted, while their partner continued to care for their joint offspring alone. Desertion rate was positively related to natural prey population densities and body reserves of the male partner. In response to food supplementation, a larger proportion of the females deserted, and females deserted the offspring at an earlier age. Offspring survival during the post-fledging period tended to be lower in deserted than in non-deserted broods. We argue that the most important benefit of deserting may be remating (sequential polyandry).

  8. Penguins significantly increased phosphine formation and phosphorus contribution in maritime Antarctic soils.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Renbin; Wang, Qing; Ding, Wei; Wang, Can; Hou, Lijun; Ma, Dawei

    2014-11-14

    Most studies on phosphorus cycle in the natural environment focused on phosphates, with limited data available for the reduced phosphine (PH3). In this paper, matrix-bound phosphine (MBP), gaseous phosphine fluxes and phosphorus fractions in the soils were investigated from a penguin colony, a seal colony and the adjacent animal-lacking tundra and background sites. The MBP levels (mean 200.3 ng kg(-1)) in penguin colony soils were much higher than those in seal colony soils, animal-lacking tundra soils and the background soils. Field PH3 flux observation and laboratory incubation experiments confirmed that penguin colony soils produced much higher PH3 emissions than seal colony soils and animal-lacking tundra soils. Overall high MBP levels and PH3 emissions were modulated by soil biogeochemical processes associated with penguin activities: sufficient supply of the nutrients phosphorus, nitrogen, and organic carbon from penguin guano, high soil bacterial abundance and phosphatase activity. It was proposed that organic or inorganic phosphorus compounds from penguin guano or seal excreta could be reduced to PH3 in the Antarctic soils through the bacterial activity. Our results indicated that penguin activity significantly increased soil phosphine formation and phosphorus contribution, thus played an important role in phosphorus cycle in terrestrial ecosystems of maritime Antarctica.

  9. Penguins significantly increased phosphine formation and phosphorus contribution in maritime Antarctic soils

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Renbin; Wang, Qing; Ding, Wei; Wang, Can; Hou, Lijun; Ma, Dawei

    2014-01-01

    Most studies on phosphorus cycle in the natural environment focused on phosphates, with limited data available for the reduced phosphine (PH3). In this paper, matrix-bound phosphine (MBP), gaseous phosphine fluxes and phosphorus fractions in the soils were investigated from a penguin colony, a seal colony and the adjacent animal-lacking tundra and background sites. The MBP levels (mean 200.3 ng kg−1) in penguin colony soils were much higher than those in seal colony soils, animal-lacking tundra soils and the background soils. Field PH3 flux observation and laboratory incubation experiments confirmed that penguin colony soils produced much higher PH3 emissions than seal colony soils and animal-lacking tundra soils. Overall high MBP levels and PH3 emissions were modulated by soil biogeochemical processes associated with penguin activities: sufficient supply of the nutrients phosphorus, nitrogen, and organic carbon from penguin guano, high soil bacterial abundance and phosphatase activity. It was proposed that organic or inorganic phosphorus compounds from penguin guano or seal excreta could be reduced to PH3 in the Antarctic soils through the bacterial activity. Our results indicated that penguin activity significantly increased soil phosphine formation and phosphorus contribution, thus played an important role in phosphorus cycle in terrestrial ecosystems of maritime Antarctica. PMID:25394572

  10. A Doubling of Microphytobenthos Biomass Coincides with a Tenfold Increase in Denitrifier and Total Bacterial Abundances in Intertidal Sediments of a Temperate Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Decleyre, Helen; Heylen, Kim; Sabbe, Koen; Tytgat, Bjorn; Deforce, Dieter; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Van Colen, Carl; Willems, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Surface sediments are important systems for the removal of anthropogenically derived inorganic nitrogen in estuaries. They are often characterized by the presence of a microphytobenthos (MPB) biofilm, which can impact bacterial communities in underlying sediments for example by secretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and competition for nutrients (including nitrogen). Pyrosequencing and qPCR was performed on two intertidal surface sediments of the Westerschelde estuary characterized by a two-fold difference in MPB biomass but no difference in MPB composition. Doubling of MPB biomass was accompanied by a disproportionately (ten-fold) increase in total bacterial abundances while, unexpectedly, no difference in general community structure was observed, despite significantly lower bacterial richness and distinct community membership, mostly for non-abundant taxa. Denitrifier abundances corresponded likewise while community structure, both for nirS and nirK denitrifiers, remained unchanged, suggesting that competition with diatoms for nitrate is negligible at concentrations in the investigated sediments (appr. 1 mg/l NO3-). This study indicates that MPB biomass increase has a general, significantly positive effect on total bacterial and denitrifier abundances, with stimulation or inhibition of specific bacterial groups that however do not result in a re-structured community. PMID:25961719

  11. Salt licks do not increase local densities of the deer ked, Lipoptena cervi, an abundant ectoparasite of cervids.

    PubMed

    Paakkonen, T; Nieminen, P; Roininen, H; Mustonen, A-M

    2014-09-01

    The deer ked, Lipoptena cervi (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), is a common ectoparasite of the moose, Alces alces (Artiodactyla: Cervidae). Salt licks are widely used to manipulate moose movements to prevent damage to saplings and traffic accidents. They may cause moose to gather in small areas, which could create aggregates of deer ked pupae as the parasite is a short-distance flyer and its dispersion depends on its hosts. We investigated whether the population density of flying deer keds could be influenced by manipulating salt licks and how environmental variables affect parasite density. Densities were estimated in 40 experimental sites with four treatments (no salt licks, introduced salt licks, removed salt licks, permanent salt licks) in September during 2007-2010. Forest edges, mixed forests on mineral soil and coniferous forests on peat soil were the habitats with high numbers of parasites. The manipulation of salt licks seemed to be ineffective in reducing the density of deer keds as the only factor to show statistical significance with parasite numbers in the mixed-model analysis was year of determination. Annual deer ked densities correlated with the abundance of moose in the region. Moreover, high spring and summer temperatures seemed to increase the numbers of flying imagos.

  12. The rainy season increases the abundance and richness of the aquatic insect community in a Neotropical reservoir.

    PubMed

    Santana, H S; Silva, L C F; Pereira, C L; Simião-Ferreira, J; Angelini, R

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in aquatic systems and changes in water levels, whether due to rains or dam-mediated control can cause changes in community structure, forcing the community to readjust to the new environment. This study tested the hypothesis that there is an increase in the richness and abundance of aquatic insects during the rainy season in the Serra da Mesa Reservoir, with the premise that increasing the reservoir level provides greater external material input and habitat diversity, and, therefore, conditions that promote colonization by more species. We used the paired t test to test the differences in richness, beta diversity, and abundance, and a Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) was performed to identify patterns in the community under study. Additionally, Pearson correlations were analyzed between the richness, abundance, and beta diversity and the level of the reservoir. We collected 35,028 aquatic insect larvae (9,513 in dry period and 25,515 in the rainy season), predominantly of the Chironomidae family, followed by orders Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Odonata. Among the 33 families collected, only 12 occurred in the dry season, while all occurred in the rainy season. These families are common in lentic environments, and the dominance of Chironomidae was associated with its fast colonization, their behavior of living at high densities and the great tolerance to low levels of oxygen in the environment. The hypothesis was confirmed, as the richness, beta diversity, and abundance were positively affected by the increase in water levels due to the rainy season, which most likely led to greater external material input, greater heterogeneity of habitat, and better conditions for colonization by several families.

  13. Increased stray gas abundance in a subset of drinking water wells near Marcellus shale gas extraction.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Robert B; Vengosh, Avner; Darrah, Thomas H; Warner, Nathaniel R; Down, Adrian; Poreda, Robert J; Osborn, Stephen G; Zhao, Kaiguang; Karr, Jonathan D

    2013-07-09

    Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing are transforming energy production, but their potential environmental effects remain controversial. We analyzed 141 drinking water wells across the Appalachian Plateaus physiographic province of northeastern Pennsylvania, examining natural gas concentrations and isotopic signatures with proximity to shale gas wells. Methane was detected in 82% of drinking water samples, with average concentrations six times higher for homes <1 km from natural gas wells (P = 0.0006). Ethane was 23 times higher in homes <1 km from gas wells (P = 0.0013); propane was detected in 10 water wells, all within approximately 1 km distance (P = 0.01). Of three factors previously proposed to influence gas concentrations in shallow groundwater (distances to gas wells, valley bottoms, and the Appalachian Structural Front, a proxy for tectonic deformation), distance to gas wells was highly significant for methane concentrations (P = 0.007; multiple regression), whereas distances to valley bottoms and the Appalachian Structural Front were not significant (P = 0.27 and P = 0.11, respectively). Distance to gas wells was also the most significant factor for Pearson and Spearman correlation analyses (P < 0.01). For ethane concentrations, distance to gas wells was the only statistically significant factor (P < 0.005). Isotopic signatures (δ(13)C-CH4, δ(13)C-C2H6, and δ(2)H-CH4), hydrocarbon ratios (methane to ethane and propane), and the ratio of the noble gas (4)He to CH4 in groundwater were characteristic of a thermally postmature Marcellus-like source in some cases. Overall, our data suggest that some homeowners living <1 km from gas wells have drinking water contaminated with stray gases.

  14. Increased stray gas abundance in a subset of drinking water wells near Marcellus shale gas extraction

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Robert B.; Vengosh, Avner; Darrah, Thomas H.; Warner, Nathaniel R.; Down, Adrian; Poreda, Robert J.; Osborn, Stephen G.; Zhao, Kaiguang; Karr, Jonathan D.

    2013-01-01

    Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing are transforming energy production, but their potential environmental effects remain controversial. We analyzed 141 drinking water wells across the Appalachian Plateaus physiographic province of northeastern Pennsylvania, examining natural gas concentrations and isotopic signatures with proximity to shale gas wells. Methane was detected in 82% of drinking water samples, with average concentrations six times higher for homes <1 km from natural gas wells (P = 0.0006). Ethane was 23 times higher in homes <1 km from gas wells (P = 0.0013); propane was detected in 10 water wells, all within approximately 1 km distance (P = 0.01). Of three factors previously proposed to influence gas concentrations in shallow groundwater (distances to gas wells, valley bottoms, and the Appalachian Structural Front, a proxy for tectonic deformation), distance to gas wells was highly significant for methane concentrations (P = 0.007; multiple regression), whereas distances to valley bottoms and the Appalachian Structural Front were not significant (P = 0.27 and P = 0.11, respectively). Distance to gas wells was also the most significant factor for Pearson and Spearman correlation analyses (P < 0.01). For ethane concentrations, distance to gas wells was the only statistically significant factor (P < 0.005). Isotopic signatures (δ13C-CH4, δ13C-C2H6, and δ2H-CH4), hydrocarbon ratios (methane to ethane and propane), and the ratio of the noble gas 4He to CH4 in groundwater were characteristic of a thermally postmature Marcellus-like source in some cases. Overall, our data suggest that some homeowners living <1 km from gas wells have drinking water contaminated with stray gases. PMID:23798404

  15. Asexual endophytes and associated alkaloids alter arthropod community structure and increase herbivore abundances on a native grass.

    PubMed

    Jani, Andrea J; Faeth, Stanley H; Gardner, Dale

    2010-01-01

    Despite their minute biomass, microbial symbionts of plants potentially alter herbivory, diversity and community structure. Infection of grasses by asexual endophytic fungi often decreases herbivore loads and alters arthropod diversity. However, most studies to date have involved agronomic grasses and often consider only infection status (infected vs. uninfected), without explicitly measuring endophyte-produced alkaloids, which vary among endophyte isolates and may impact consumers. We combined field experiments and population surveys to investigate how endophyte infection and associated alkaloids influence abundances, species richness, evenness and guild structure of arthropod communities on a native grass, Achnatherum robustum (sleepygrass). Surprisingly, we found that endophyte-produced alkaloids were associated with increased herbivore abundances and species richness. Our results suggest that, unlike what has been found in agronomic grass systems, high alkaloid levels in native grasses may not protect host grasses from arthropod herbivores, and may instead more negatively affect natural enemies of herbivores.

  16. Whale, Whale, Everywhere: Increasing Abundance of Western South Atlantic Humpback Whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in Their Wintering Grounds.

    PubMed

    Bortolotto, Guilherme A; Danilewicz, Daniel; Andriolo, Artur; Secchi, Eduardo R; Zerbini, Alexandre N

    2016-01-01

    The western South Atlantic (WSA) humpback whale population inhabits the coast of Brazil during the breeding and calving season in winter and spring. This population was depleted to near extinction by whaling in the mid-twentieth century. Despite recent signs of recovery, increasing coastal and offshore development pose potential threats to these animals. Therefore, continuous monitoring is needed to assess population status and support conservation strategies. The aim of this work was to present ship-based line-transect estimates of abundance for humpback whales in their WSA breeding ground and to investigate potential changes in population size. Two cruises surveyed the coast of Brazil during August-September in 2008 and 2012. The area surveyed in 2008 corresponded to the currently recognized population breeding area; effort in 2012 was limited due to unfavorable weather conditions. WSA humpback whale population size in 2008 was estimated at 16,410 (CV = 0.228, 95% CI = 10,563-25,495) animals. In order to compare abundance between 2008 and 2012, estimates for the area between Salvador and Cabo Frio, which were consistently covered in the two years, were computed at 15,332 (CV = 0.243, 95% CI = 9,595-24,500) and 19,429 (CV = 0.101, 95% CI = 15,958-23,654) whales, respectively. The difference in the two estimates represents an increase of 26.7% in whale numbers in a 4-year period. The estimated abundance for 2008 is considered the most robust for the WSA humpback whale population because the ship survey conducted in that year minimized bias from various sources. Results presented here indicate that in 2008, the WSA humpback whale population was at least around 60% of its estimated pre-modern whaling abundance and that it may recover to its pre-exploitation size sooner than previously estimated.

  17. Whale, Whale, Everywhere: Increasing Abundance of Western South Atlantic Humpback Whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in Their Wintering Grounds

    PubMed Central

    Danilewicz, Daniel; Andriolo, Artur; Secchi, Eduardo R.; Zerbini, Alexandre N.

    2016-01-01

    The western South Atlantic (WSA) humpback whale population inhabits the coast of Brazil during the breeding and calving season in winter and spring. This population was depleted to near extinction by whaling in the mid-twentieth century. Despite recent signs of recovery, increasing coastal and offshore development pose potential threats to these animals. Therefore, continuous monitoring is needed to assess population status and support conservation strategies. The aim of this work was to present ship-based line-transect estimates of abundance for humpback whales in their WSA breeding ground and to investigate potential changes in population size. Two cruises surveyed the coast of Brazil during August-September in 2008 and 2012. The area surveyed in 2008 corresponded to the currently recognized population breeding area; effort in 2012 was limited due to unfavorable weather conditions. WSA humpback whale population size in 2008 was estimated at 16,410 (CV = 0.228, 95% CI = 10,563–25,495) animals. In order to compare abundance between 2008 and 2012, estimates for the area between Salvador and Cabo Frio, which were consistently covered in the two years, were computed at 15,332 (CV = 0.243, 95% CI = 9,595–24,500) and 19,429 (CV = 0.101, 95% CI = 15,958–23,654) whales, respectively. The difference in the two estimates represents an increase of 26.7% in whale numbers in a 4-year period. The estimated abundance for 2008 is considered the most robust for the WSA humpback whale population because the ship survey conducted in that year minimized bias from various sources. Results presented here indicate that in 2008, the WSA humpback whale population was at least around 60% of its estimated pre-modern whaling abundance and that it may recover to its pre-exploitation size sooner than previously estimated. PMID:27736958

  18. Chronic Trichuris muris Infection Decreases Diversity of the Intestinal Microbiota and Concomitantly Increases the Abundance of Lactobacilli

    PubMed Central

    Kiilerich, Pia; Ramayo-Caldas, Yuliaxis; Estellé, Jordi; Ma, Tao; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten; Svensson-Frej, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota is vital for shaping the local intestinal environment as well as host immunity and metabolism. At the same time, epidemiological and experimental evidence suggest an important role for parasitic worm infections in maintaining the inflammatory and regulatory balance of the immune system. In line with this, the prevalence of persistent worm infections is inversely correlated with the incidence of immune-associated diseases, prompting the use of controlled parasite infections for therapeutic purposes. Despite this, the impact of parasite infection on the intestinal microbiota, as well as potential downstream effects on the immune system, remain largely unknown. We have assessed the influence of chronic infection with the large-intestinal nematode Trichuris muris, a close relative of the human pathogen Trichuris trichiura, on the composition of the murine intestinal microbiota by 16S ribosomal-RNA gene-based sequencing. Our results demonstrate that persistent T. muris infection dramatically affects the large-intestinal microbiota, most notably with a drop in the diversity of bacterial communities, as well as a marked increase in the relative abundance of the Lactobacillus genus. In parallel, chronic T. muris infection resulted in a significant shift in the balance between regulatory and inflammatory T cells in the intestinal adaptive immune system, in favour of inflammatory cells. Together, these data demonstrate that chronic parasite infection strongly influences the intestinal microbiota and the adaptive immune system. Our results illustrate the complex interactions between these factors in the intestinal tract, and contribute to furthering the understanding of this interplay, which is of crucial importance considering that 500 million people globally are suffering from these infections and their potential use for therapeutic purposes. PMID:25942314

  19. Tombaugh 2: the first open cluster with a significant abundance spread or embedded in a cold stellar stream?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frinchaboy, P. M.; Marino, A. F.; Villanova, S.; Carraro, G.; Majewski, S. R.; Geisler, D.

    2008-11-01

    We present new high-resolution spectroscopy from which we derive abundances and radial velocities for stars in the field of the open cluster Tombaugh 2 (To2), which has been suggested to be one of a group of clusters previously identified with the Galactic Anticenter Stellar Structure (GASS) (also known as the Monoceros stream). Using Very Large Telescope/Fibre Large Array Multi-Element Spectrograph (VLT/FLAMES) with the Ultra-Violet and Visible Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) and GIRAFFE spectrographs, we find a radial velocity (RV) of = 121 +/- 0.4kms-1 using 18 To2 cluster stars; this is in agreement with previous studies, but at higher precision. We also make the first measurement of To2's velocity dispersion, which is σint = 1.8 +/- 0.3kms-1. Our abundance analysis of RV-selected members finds that To2 is more metal rich than previous studies have found; moreover, unlike the previous work, our larger sample also reveals that stars with the velocity of the cluster show a relatively large spread in chemical properties (e.g. Δ[Fe/H] > 0.2). This is the first time a possible abundance spread has been observed in an open cluster, though this is one of several possible explanations for our observations. While there is an apparent trend of [α/Fe] with [Fe/H], the distribution of abundances of these `RV cluster members' also may hint at a possible division into two primary groups with different mean chemical characteristics - namely (<[Fe/H]>, <[Ti/Fe]>) ~ (-0.06, +0.02) and (-0.28, +0.36). Isochrone fitting to the colour-magnitude distribution of apparent To2 members yields an age of 2.0Gyr, E(B - V) = 0.3, and (m - M)0 = 14.5 or d = 7.9kpc for both populations - parameters that are within the range of previous findings. Based on position and kinematics To2 is a likely member of the GASS/Monoceros stream, which makes To2 the second star cluster within the originally proposed GASS/Monoceros family after NGC 2808 to show some evidence for internal population

  20. Increased Abundance of M Cells in the Gut Epithelium Dramatically Enhances Oral Prion Disease Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, David S; Sehgal, Anuj; Rios, Daniel; Williams, Ifor R; Mabbott, Neil A

    2016-12-01

    Many natural prion diseases of humans and animals are considered to be acquired through oral consumption of contaminated food or pasture. Determining the route by which prions establish host infection will identify the important factors that influence oral prion disease susceptibility and to which intervention strategies can be developed. After exposure, the early accumulation and replication of prions within small intestinal Peyer's patches is essential for the efficient spread of disease to the brain. To replicate within Peyer's patches, the prions must first cross the gut epithelium. M cells are specialised epithelial cells within the epithelia covering Peyer's patches that transcytose particulate antigens and microorganisms. M cell-development is dependent upon RANKL-RANK-signalling, and mice in which RANK is deleted only in the gut epithelium completely lack M cells. In the specific absence of M cells in these mice, the accumulation of prions within Peyer's patches and the spread of disease to the brain was blocked, demonstrating a critical role for M cells in the initial transfer of prions across the gut epithelium in order to establish host infection. Since pathogens, inflammatory stimuli and aging can modify M cell-density in the gut, these factors may also influence oral prion disease susceptibility. Mice were therefore treated with RANKL to enhance M cell density in the gut. We show that prion uptake from the gut lumen was enhanced in RANKL-treated mice, resulting in shortened survival times and increased disease susceptibility, equivalent to a 10-fold higher infectious titre of prions. Together these data demonstrate that M cells are the critical gatekeepers of oral prion infection, whose density in the gut epithelium directly limits or enhances disease susceptibility. Our data suggest that factors which alter M cell-density in the gut epithelium may be important risk factors which influence host susceptibility to orally acquired prion diseases.

  1. Increased Abundance of M Cells in the Gut Epithelium Dramatically Enhances Oral Prion Disease Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Anuj; Rios, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Many natural prion diseases of humans and animals are considered to be acquired through oral consumption of contaminated food or pasture. Determining the route by which prions establish host infection will identify the important factors that influence oral prion disease susceptibility and to which intervention strategies can be developed. After exposure, the early accumulation and replication of prions within small intestinal Peyer’s patches is essential for the efficient spread of disease to the brain. To replicate within Peyer’s patches, the prions must first cross the gut epithelium. M cells are specialised epithelial cells within the epithelia covering Peyer’s patches that transcytose particulate antigens and microorganisms. M cell-development is dependent upon RANKL-RANK-signalling, and mice in which RANK is deleted only in the gut epithelium completely lack M cells. In the specific absence of M cells in these mice, the accumulation of prions within Peyer’s patches and the spread of disease to the brain was blocked, demonstrating a critical role for M cells in the initial transfer of prions across the gut epithelium in order to establish host infection. Since pathogens, inflammatory stimuli and aging can modify M cell-density in the gut, these factors may also influence oral prion disease susceptibility. Mice were therefore treated with RANKL to enhance M cell density in the gut. We show that prion uptake from the gut lumen was enhanced in RANKL-treated mice, resulting in shortened survival times and increased disease susceptibility, equivalent to a 10-fold higher infectious titre of prions. Together these data demonstrate that M cells are the critical gatekeepers of oral prion infection, whose density in the gut epithelium directly limits or enhances disease susceptibility. Our data suggest that factors which alter M cell-density in the gut epithelium may be important risk factors which influence host susceptibility to orally acquired prion diseases

  2. Fermentable non-starch polysaccharides increases the abundance of Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas in ileal microbial community of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, E; Roos, S; Liu, H Y; Lindberg, J E

    2014-11-01

    Most plant-origin fiber sources used in pig production contains a mixture of soluble and insoluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). The knowledge about effects of these sources of NSP on the gut microbiota and its fermentation products is still scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of feeding diets with native sources of NSP on the ileal and fecal microbial composition and the dietary impact on the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and lactic acid. The experiment comprised four diets and four periods in a change-over design with seven post valve t-cecum cannulated growing pigs. The four diets were balanced to be similar in NSP content and included one of four fiber sources, two diets were rich in pectins, through inclusion of chicory forage (CFO) and sugar beet pulp, and two were rich in arabinoxylan, through inclusion of wheat bran (WB) and grass meal. The gut microbial composition was assessed with terminal restriction fragment (TRF) length polymorphism and the abundance of Lactobacillus spp., Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas and the β-xylosidase gene, xynB, were assessed with quantitative PCR. The gut microbiota did not cluster based on NSP structure (arabinoxylan or pectin) rather, the effect was to a high degree ingredient specific. In pigs fed diet CFO, three TRFs related to Prevotellaceae together consisted of more than 25% of the fecal microbiota, which is about 3 to 23 times higher (P<0.05) than in pigs fed the other diets. Whereas pigs fed diet WB had about 2 to 22 times higher abundance (P<0.05) of Megasphaera elsdenii in feces and about six times higher abundance (P<0.05) of Lactobacillus reuteri in ileal digesta than pigs fed the other diets. The total amount of digested NSP (r=0.57; P=0.002), xylose (r=0.53; P=0.004) and dietary fiber (r=0.60; P=0.001) in ileal digesta were positively correlated with an increased abundance of Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas. The effect on SCFA was

  3. Free-living plathelminthes in sheep-grazed and ungrazed supralittoral salt marshes of the North Sea: Abundance, biomass, and their significance in food chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armonies, W.

    The supralittoral salt marshes of the North Sea are marked by high halophyte primary productivity. The environmental factors are strongly fluctuating. Despite these features the metazoan meiofaunal abundance is equal to that found in other littoral habitats. On average 1250 marine metazoans are found per 10 cm 2 in ungrazed and 770 per 10 cm 2 in sheep-grazed supralittoral salt marshes. Nematoda dominate in numerical abundance, Oligochaeta in biomass. Plathelminthes account for 15% of marine metazoans in ungrazed and 5% in grazed salt marshes. Total plathelminth abundance increases with halophyte density, whereas the abundance of diatom-feeding Plathelminthes decreases. In ungrazed marshes on average 104 Plathelminthes are found per 10 cm 2, accounting for a biomass of 0.65 g DW·m -2. In sheep-grazed marshes the average abundance is only 32 individuals per 10 cm 2, accounting for a biomass of 0.1 g DW·m -2. Average individual weight is 3.2 μg DW or 2.5 μg AFDW. In grazed salt marshes, 30% of plathelminthes feed on diatoms, 66% are predators, and 4% feed on bacteria (gut analysis). In ungrazed salt marshes only 3% are diatom-feeders, and 90% are predators feeding on Nematoda, Copepoda, Oligochaeta, and smaller Plathelminthes. Presumably plathelminthes are top predators on the salt marsh meiofauna.

  4. No significant increase in long-term CH4 emissions on North Slope of Alaska despite significant increase in air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Colm; Dlugokencky, Edward; Miller, Charles E.; Wofsy, Steven; Karion, Anna; Dinardo, Steve; Chang, Rachel Y.-W.; Miller, John B.; Bruhwiler, Lori; Crotwell, Andrew M.; Newberger, Tim; McKain, Kathryn; Stone, Robert S.; Wolter, Sonja E.; Lang, Patricia E.; Tans, Pieter

    2016-06-01

    Continuous measurements of atmospheric methane (CH4) mole fractions measured by NOAA's Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network in Barrow, AK (BRW), show strong enhancements above background values when winds come from the land sector from July to December from 1986 to 2015, indicating that emissions from arctic tundra continue through autumn and into early winter. Twenty-nine years of measurements show little change in seasonal mean land sector CH4 enhancements, despite an increase in annual mean temperatures of 1.2 ± 0.8°C/decade (2σ). The record does reveal small increases in CH4 enhancements in November and December after 2010 due to increased late-season emissions. The lack of significant long-term trends suggests that more complex biogeochemical processes are counteracting the observed short-term (monthly) temperature sensitivity of 5.0 ± 3.6 ppb CH4/°C. Our results suggest that even the observed short-term temperature sensitivity from the Arctic will have little impact on the global atmospheric CH4 budget in the long term if future trajectories evolve with the same temperature sensitivity.

  5. Albuminuria is associated with an increased prostasin in urine while aldosterone has no direct effect on urine and kidney tissue abundance of prostasin.

    PubMed

    Oxlund, Christina; Kurt, Birgül; Schwarzensteiner, Ilona; Hansen, Mie R; Stæhr, Mette; Svenningsen, Per; Jacobsen, Ib A; Hansen, Pernille B; Thuesen, Anne D; Toft, Anja; Hinrichs, Gitte R; Bistrup, Claus; Jensen, Boye L

    2017-02-24

    The proteinase prostasin is a candidate mediator for aldosterone-driven proteolytic activation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). It was hypothesized that the aldosterone-mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) pathway stimulates prostasin abundance in kidney and urine. Prostasin was measured in plasma and urine from type 2 diabetic patients with resistant hypertension (n = 112) randomized to spironolactone/placebo in a clinical trial. Prostasin protein level was assessed by immunoblotting in (1) human and rat urines with/without nephrotic syndrome, (2) human nephrectomy tissue, (3) urine and kidney from aldosterone synthase-deficient (AS(-/-)) mice and ANGII- and aldosterone-infused mice, and in (4) kidney from adrenalectomized rats. Serum aldosterone concentration related to prostasin concentration in urine but not in plasma. Plasma prostasin concentration increased significantly after spironolactone compared to control. Urinary prostasin and albumin related directly and were reduced by spironolactone. In patients with nephrotic syndrome, urinary prostasin protein was elevated compared to controls. In rat nephrosis, proteinuria coincided with increased urinary prostasin, unchanged kidney tissue prostasin, and decreased plasma prostasin while plasma aldosterone was suppressed. Prostasin protein abundance in human nephrectomy tissue was similar across gender and ANGII inhibition regimens. Prostasin urine abundance was not different in AS(-/-) and aldosterone-infused mice. Prostasin kidney level was not different from control in adrenalectomized rats and AS(-/-) mice. We found no evidence for a direct relationship between mineralocorticoid receptor signaling and kidney and urine prostasin abundance. The reduction of urinary prostasin in spironolactone-treated patients is most likely the result of an improved glomerular filtration barrier function and generally reduced proteinuria.

  6. Abundance and Significance of Iron, Zinc, Copper, and Calcium in the Hearts of Patients With Friedreich Ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Pamela C.; Yang, Karl X.; Parsons, Patrick J.; Becker, Alyssa B.; Feustel, Paul J.; Koeppen, Arnulf H.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiomyopathy is a frequent cause of death in patients with Friedreich ataxia (FA), and a characteristic pathological feature is the focal accumulation of iron (Fe) in cardiomyocytes. This restricted localization of the metal contrasts with the diffuse cardiac Fe overload in hemochromatosis and transfusion siderosis. Nevertheless, heart Fe in FA contributes to cardiomyocyte necrosis, inflammation, and scarring as the disease progresses. A putative mechanism of cardiomyopathy in FA is Fe-mediated oxidative damage. Two other transition metals zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), are diffusely distributed throughout normal hearts and the hearts of patients with FA. The myocardium in FA is also prone to deposits of calcium in the form of scattered concretions. In this study, heart tissues (left and right ventricular walls and ventricular septum) of 23 patients with genetically confirmed FA and 8 normal controls were obtained at autopsy and analyzed for Fe, Zn, Cu, and calcium. The principal assay methods were inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and plasma mass spectrometry. Total levels of Fe in bulk extracts were not significantly higher than normal, and the concentrations of Zn also remained in the normal range. Cu levels, however, were significantly lower in FA. In conclusion, the decrease of Cu may be important in consideration of the potential benefit of Cu supplements in FA cardiomyopathy. PMID:27189813

  7. Stratigraphic potential of Bolboforma significantly increased by new finds in the North Atlantic and South Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poag, C. Wylie; Karowe, A. I.

    1986-01-01

    Until now, the genus Bolboforma, a problematic group of calcareous microfossils, has been recorded only in Oligocene to Pliocene marine sedimentary rocks, chiefly in the eastern North Atlantic region. We add to this eastern North Atlantic record six new sites and eleven undescribed species from the continental slopes of Ireland and Morocco. More significantly, we record, for the first time, abundant assemblages of Bolboforma on the western side of the North Atlantic and in the western South Pacific. Seven boreholes on the continental shelf and slope of New Jersey and Virginia contain ten species, three of which are new. Two species are present in two outcrops in eastern Mississippi and four are present in a borehole in the coastal plain of Virginia. On the Lord Howe Rise, west of New Zealand, a DSDP corehole has yielded a rich assemblage including four undescribed species. In addition to expanding the geographic distribution of Bolboforma, our work extends the known stratigraphic range downward into the upper Eocene on both sides of the North Atlantic and in the western South Pacific. Our findings firmly support the inference of a planktonic life style for Bolboforma, which implies a significant potential for biostratigraphic, paleobiogeographic, and paleoenvironmental studies, on both a local and global scale. We recommend a concerted effort to further document the nature and distribution of Bolboforma.

  8. Transferrin-modified PLGA nanoparticles significantly increase the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel in bladder cancer cells by increasing intracellular retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shihua; Zhang, Yi; Yu, Chengfan; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Zhihong; Li, Ningchen; Na, Yanqun

    2014-10-01

    To improve the anticancer effects of paclitaxel (Tax) on bladder cancer, transferrin-modified and unmodified poly( d,l lactide- co-glycolide) nanoparticles (NPs) were generated to deliver Tax. The characteristics of the NPs and the drug-release profiles were evaluated. The cytotoxicity levels of blank NPs and Tax-loaded NPs in the bladder cancer cell lines MBT-2, J-82, and TCC Sup were determined. The uptakes and retentions of the NPs by the cell lines and the intracellular distribution of the NPs were also studied. The results showed similar NPs characteristics and drug-release profiles for NPs with and without transferrin modification. The sizes of NPs with and without transferrin modification were 206 and 278 nm, respectively; the Z-potentials were -23.5 and -24.3 mV, respectively; the drug loadings were 6.5 and 6.7 % w/w, respectively. No cytotoxicity was observed in the bladder cancer cells exposed to blank NPs. Both types of Tax-loaded NPs, however, had significantly higher cytotoxicity levels compared with the Tax solution in the bladder cancer cells. The transferrin-modified, Tax-loaded NPs were significantly more cytotoxic than the Tax-loaded NPs without modification in the MBT-2 and TCC Sup cells. There were no significant differences in NP uptakes between transferrin-modified and unmodified NPs in any of the three studied bladder cancer cell lines; however, the retentions of the modified NPs were significantly higher in the MBT-2 and TCC Sup cells. These findings suggest that NPs can significantly improve the anticancer effect of Tax in bladder cells. Furthermore, transferrin-modified NPs can improve the anticancer effect by increasing intracellular retention and not by increasing uptake. The transferrin-modified NPs are promising drug delivery vehicle for bladder cancer treatment.

  9. Moderate temperature increase leads to disintegration of floating sludge and lower abundance of the filamentous bacterium Microthrix parvicella in anaerobic digesters.

    PubMed

    Lienen, T; Kleyböcker, A; Verstraete, W; Würdemann, H

    2014-11-15

    Filamentous bacteria such as Microthrix parvicella can cause serious foaming and floating sludge problems in anaerobic digesters fed with sewage sludge. The sewage sludge and oil co-fermenting laboratory-scale biogas digesters in this study were fed with substrates from a foaming-prone full-scale biogas plant containing the filamentous bacterium M. parvicella. At 37 °C, in both pneumatically mixed digesters a highly viscous and approximately 3 cm thick floating sludge was observed. A gradual increase of the temperature from 37 °C to 56 °C led to a significant decrease in the floating sludge thickness, which correlated with a strong decrease in the abundance of M. parvicella in the digestate. Furthermore, the stepwise temperature increase allowed for an adaption of the microbial community and prevented process failure. The study indicates that already a moderate temperature increase from 37 °C to 41 °C might help to control the M. parvicella abundance in full-scale biogas plants.

  10. Continuous background light significantly increases flashing-light enhancement of photosynthesis and growth of microalgae.

    PubMed

    Abu-Ghosh, Said; Fixler, Dror; Dubinsky, Zvy; Iluz, David

    2015-01-01

    Under specific conditions, flashing light enhances the photosynthesis rate in comparison to continuous illumination. Here we show that a combination of flashing light and continuous background light with the same integrated photon dose as continuous or flashing light alone can be used to significantly enhance photosynthesis and increase microalgae growth. To test this hypothesis, the green microalga Dunaliella salina was exposed to three different light regimes: continuous light, flashing light, and concomitant application of both. Algal growth was compared under three different integrated light quantities; low, intermediate, and moderately high. Under the combined light regime, there was a substantial increase in all algal growth parameters, with an enhanced photosynthesis rate, within 3days. Our strategy demonstrates a hitherto undescribed significant increase in photosynthesis and algal growth rates, which is beyond the increase by flashing light alone.

  11. St. John's wort significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of methotrexate in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Shih-Ying; Juang, Shin-Hun; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee; Hou, Yu-Chi

    2012-08-15

    St. John's wort (SJW, Hypericum perforatum) is one of the popular nutraceuticals for treating depression. Methotrexate (MTX) is an immunosuppressant with narrow therapeutic window. This study investigated the effect of SJW on MTX pharmacokinetics in rats. Rats were orally given MTX alone and coadministered with 300 and 150 mg/kg of SJW, and 25 mg/kg of diclofenac, respectively. Blood was withdrawn at specific time points and serum MTX concentrations were assayed by a specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. The results showed that 300 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} and C{sub max} of MTX by 163% and 60%, respectively, and 150 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} of MTX by 55%. In addition, diclofenac enhanced the C{sub max} of MTX by 110%. The mortality of rats treated with SJW was higher than that of controls. In conclusion, coadministration of SJW significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of MTX. The combined use of MTX with SJW would need to be with caution. -- Highlights: ► St. John's wort significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} and C{sub max} of methotrexate. ► Coadministration of St. John's wort increased the exposure and toxicity of methotrexate. ► The combined use of methotrexate with St. John's wort will need to be with caution.

  12. Abundances in Przybylski's star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowley, C. R.; Ryabchikova, T.; Kupka, F.; Bord, D. J.; Mathys, G.; Bidelman, W. P.

    2000-09-01

    We have derived abundances for 54 elements in the extreme roAp star HD101065. ESO spectra with a resolution of about 80000, and S/N of 200 or more were employed. The adopted model has Teff=6600K, and log(g)=4.2. Because of the increased line opacity and consequent low gas pressure, convection plays no significant role in the temperature structure. Lighter elemental abundances through the iron group scatter about standard abundance distribution (SAD) (solar) values. Iron and nickel are about one order of magnitude deficient while cobalt is enhanced by 1.5dex. Heavier elements, including the lanthanides, generally follow the solar pattern but enhanced by 3 to 4dex. Odd-Z elements are generally less abundant than their even-Z neighbours. With a few exceptions (e.g. Yb), the abundance pattern among the heavy elements is remarkably coherent, and resembles a displaced solar distribution.

  13. Preventable fine sediment export from the Burdekin River catchment reduces coastal seagrass abundance and increases dugong mortality within the Townsville region of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Wooldridge, Scott A

    2017-01-30

    The coastal seagrass meadows in the Townsville region of the Great Barrier Reef are crucial seagrass foraging habitat for endangered dugong populations. Deteriorating coastal water quality and in situ light levels reduce the extent of these meadows, particularly in years with significant terrestrial runoff from the nearby Burdekin River catchment. However, uncertainty surrounds the impact of variable seagrass abundance on dugong carrying capacity. Here, I demonstrate that a power-law relationship with exponent value of -1 (R(2)~0.87) links mortality data with predicted changes in annual above ground seagrass biomass. This relationship indicates that the dugong carrying capacity of the region is tightly coupled to the biomass of seagrass available for metabolism. Thus, mortality rates increase precipitously following large flood events with a response lag of <12-months. The management implications of this result are discussed in terms of climate scenarios that indicate an increased future likelihood of extreme flood events.

  14. Increase of the Antarctic Sea Ice Extent is highly significant only in the Ross Sea.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Naiming; Ding, Minghu; Ludescher, Josef; Bunde, Armin

    2017-01-24

    In the context of global warming, the question of why Antarctic sea ice extent (SIE) has increased is one of the most fundamental unsolved mysteries. Although many mechanisms have been proposed, it is still unclear whether the increasing trend is anthropogenically originated or only caused by internal natural variability. In this study, we employ a new method where the underlying natural persistence in the Antarctic SIE can be correctly accounted for. We find that the Antarctic SIE is not simply short-term persistent as assumed in the standard significance analysis, but actually characterized by a combination of both short- and long-term persistence. By generating surrogate data with the same persistence properties, the SIE trends over Antarctica (as well as five sub-regions) are evaluated using Monte-Carlo simulations. It is found that the SIE trends over most sub-regions of Antarctica are not statistically significant. Only the SIE over Ross Sea has experienced a highly significant increasing trend (p = 0.008) which cannot be explained by natural variability. Influenced by the positive SIE trend over Ross Sea, the SIE over the entire Antarctica also increased over the past decades, but the trend is only at the edge of being significant (p = 0.034).

  15. Notalgia paresthetica with a significant increase in the number of intradermal nerves.

    PubMed

    Inaloz, H Serhat; Kirtak, Necmettin; Erguven, H Gulcin; Karakok, Metin; Inaloz, Serap S

    2002-11-01

    Notalgia paresthetica is an isolated mononeuropathy involving the skin over or near the scapula. The cause remains unknown. We histologically observed a significant increase in the number of dermal nerves in a case of notalgia paresthetica. Immunohistochemical examination using a neural marker, S-100, positively stained the nerves. Interestingly, a biopsy from perilesional skin also showed an abnormal nerve proliferation.

  16. Increase of the Antarctic Sea Ice Extent is highly significant only in the Ross Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Naiming; Ding, Minghu; Ludescher, Josef; Bunde, Armin

    2017-01-01

    In the context of global warming, the question of why Antarctic sea ice extent (SIE) has increased is one of the most fundamental unsolved mysteries. Although many mechanisms have been proposed, it is still unclear whether the increasing trend is anthropogenically originated or only caused by internal natural variability. In this study, we employ a new method where the underlying natural persistence in the Antarctic SIE can be correctly accounted for. We find that the Antarctic SIE is not simply short-term persistent as assumed in the standard significance analysis, but actually characterized by a combination of both short- and long-term persistence. By generating surrogate data with the same persistence properties, the SIE trends over Antarctica (as well as five sub-regions) are evaluated using Monte-Carlo simulations. It is found that the SIE trends over most sub-regions of Antarctica are not statistically significant. Only the SIE over Ross Sea has experienced a highly significant increasing trend (p = 0.008) which cannot be explained by natural variability. Influenced by the positive SIE trend over Ross Sea, the SIE over the entire Antarctica also increased over the past decades, but the trend is only at the edge of being significant (p = 0.034).

  17. Increasing Comprehension of Students with Significant Intellectual Disabilities and Visual Impairments during Shared Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mims, Pamela J.; Browder, Diane M.; Baker, Joshua N.; Lee, Angel; Spooner, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Shared stories have been shown to help increase emerging literacy skills in students with significant intellectual disabilities. One important literacy skill is the development of listening comprehension. In this study, least-to-most prompt system was used to promote listening comprehension during shared stories for two students with significant…

  18. Increase of the Antarctic Sea Ice Extent is highly significant only in the Ross Sea

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Naiming; Ding, Minghu; Ludescher, Josef; Bunde, Armin

    2017-01-01

    In the context of global warming, the question of why Antarctic sea ice extent (SIE) has increased is one of the most fundamental unsolved mysteries. Although many mechanisms have been proposed, it is still unclear whether the increasing trend is anthropogenically originated or only caused by internal natural variability. In this study, we employ a new method where the underlying natural persistence in the Antarctic SIE can be correctly accounted for. We find that the Antarctic SIE is not simply short-term persistent as assumed in the standard significance analysis, but actually characterized by a combination of both short- and long-term persistence. By generating surrogate data with the same persistence properties, the SIE trends over Antarctica (as well as five sub-regions) are evaluated using Monte-Carlo simulations. It is found that the SIE trends over most sub-regions of Antarctica are not statistically significant. Only the SIE over Ross Sea has experienced a highly significant increasing trend (p = 0.008) which cannot be explained by natural variability. Influenced by the positive SIE trend over Ross Sea, the SIE over the entire Antarctica also increased over the past decades, but the trend is only at the edge of being significant (p = 0.034). PMID:28117453

  19. Significant alterations in reported clinical practice associated with increased oversight of organ transplant center performance.

    PubMed

    Schold, Jesse D; Arrington, Charlotte J; Levine, Greg

    2010-09-01

    In the past several years, emphasis on quality metrics in the field of organ transplantation has increased significantly, largely because of the new conditions of participation issued by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. These regulations directly associate patients' outcomes and measured performance of centers with the distribution of public funding to institutions. Moreover, insurers and marketing ventures have used publicly available outcomes data from transplant centers for business decision making and advertisement purposes. We gave a 10-question survey to attendees of the Transplant Management Forum at the 2009 meeting of the United Network for Organ Sharing to ascertain how centers have responded to the increased oversight of performance. Of 63 responses, 55% indicated a low or near low performance rating at their center in the past 3 years. Respondents from low-performing centers were significantly more likely to indicate increased selection criteria for candidates (81% vs 38%, P = .001) and donors (77% vs 31%, P < .001) as well as alterations in clinical protocols (84% vs 52%, P = .007). Among respondents indicating lost insurance contracts (31%), these differences were also highly significant. Based on respondents' perceptions, outcomes of performance evaluations are associated with significant changes in clinical practice at transplant centers. The transplant community and policy makers should practice vigilance that performance evaluations and regulatory oversight do not inadvertently lead to diminished access to care among viable candidates or decreased transplant volume.

  20. Tassel Removal Positively Affects Biomass Production Coupled with Significantly Increasing Stem Digestibility in Switchgrass

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chunqiao; Fan, Xifeng; Hou, Xincun; Zhu, Yi; Yue, Yuesen; Zhang, Shuang; Wu, Juying

    2015-01-01

    In this study, tassels of Cave-in-Rock (upland) and Alamo (lowland) were removed at or near tassel emergence to explore its effects on biomass production and quality. Tassel-removed (TR) Cave-in-Rock and Alamo both exhibited a significant (P<0.05) increase in plant heights (not including tassel length), tiller number, and aboveground biomass dry weight (10% and 12%, 30% and 13%, 13% and 18%, respectively by variety) compared to a control (CK) treatment. Notably, total sugar yields of TR Cave-in-Rock and Alamo stems increased significantly (P<0.05 or 0.01) by 19% and 19%, 21% and 14%, 52% and 18%, respectively by variety, compared to those of control switchgrass under 3 treatments by direct enzymatic hydrolysis (DEH), enzymatic hydrolysis after 1% NaOH pretreatment (EHAL) and enzymatic hydrolysis after 1% H2SO4 pretreatment (EHAC). These differences were mainly due to significantly (P<0.05 or 0.01) higher cellulose content, lower cellulose crystallinity indexes (CrI) caused by higher arabinose (Ara) substitution in xylans, and lower S/G ratio in lignin. However, the increases of nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) concentration negatively affects the combustion quality of switchgrass aboveground biomass. This work provides information for increasing biomass production and quality in switchgrass and also facilitates the inhibition of gene dispersal of switchgrass in China. PMID:25849123

  1. Tassel removal positively affects biomass production coupled with significantly increasing stem digestibility in switchgrass.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunqiao; Fan, Xifeng; Hou, Xincun; Zhu, Yi; Yue, Yuesen; Zhang, Shuang; Wu, Juying

    2015-01-01

    In this study, tassels of Cave-in-Rock (upland) and Alamo (lowland) were removed at or near tassel emergence to explore its effects on biomass production and quality. Tassel-removed (TR) Cave-in-Rock and Alamo both exhibited a significant (P<0.05) increase in plant heights (not including tassel length), tiller number, and aboveground biomass dry weight (10% and 12%, 30% and 13%, 13% and 18%, respectively by variety) compared to a control (CK) treatment. Notably, total sugar yields of TR Cave-in-Rock and Alamo stems increased significantly (P<0.05 or 0.01) by 19% and 19%, 21% and 14%, 52% and 18%, respectively by variety, compared to those of control switchgrass under 3 treatments by direct enzymatic hydrolysis (DEH), enzymatic hydrolysis after 1% NaOH pretreatment (EHAL) and enzymatic hydrolysis after 1% H2SO4 pretreatment (EHAC). These differences were mainly due to significantly (P<0.05 or 0.01) higher cellulose content, lower cellulose crystallinity indexes (CrI) caused by higher arabinose (Ara) substitution in xylans, and lower S/G ratio in lignin. However, the increases of nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) concentration negatively affects the combustion quality of switchgrass aboveground biomass. This work provides information for increasing biomass production and quality in switchgrass and also facilitates the inhibition of gene dispersal of switchgrass in China.

  2. Why does precipitation in northwest China show a significant increasing trend from 1960 to 2010?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Baofu; Chen, Yaning; Chen, Zhongsheng; Xiong, Heigang; Lian, Lishu

    2016-01-01

    Based on monthly precipitation data from 74 weather stations in the arid region of northwest China, we employed statistical methods to analyse the characteristics of precipitation and investigated the relationships between precipitation and 11 atmospheric circulations. The results showed that the precipitation in northwest China had a significantly increasing trend (P < 0.01), at a rate of 0.61 mm/year, which is higher than the average rate of China (- 0.16 mm/year) for the same period. Annual precipitation increased markedly after 1987, but the increase in precipitation gradually declined from north to south and from west to east. We found that the precipitation variation in spring, summer, autumn, and winter plays an important role in the yearly change, accounting for 21.6%, 42.4%, 18.4%, and 17.6%, respectively. The correlation analysis indicated that the annual precipitation revealed strong and significant associations with the West Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH, R = 0.60, P < 0.001) and the North America Subtropical High (NASH, R = 0.57, P < 0.001) from 1960 to 2010. We therefore suggest that the strengthening of the WPSH and NASH after the mid-1980s is probably the main cause for the significant increasing trend of precipitation in northwest China.

  3. St. John's wort significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of methotrexate in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shih-Ying; Juang, Shin-Hun; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee; Hou, Yu-Chi

    2012-08-15

    St. John's wort (SJW, Hypericum perforatum) is one of the popular nutraceuticals for treating depression. Methotrexate (MTX) is an immunosuppressant with narrow therapeutic window. This study investigated the effect of SJW on MTX pharmacokinetics in rats. Rats were orally given MTX alone and coadministered with 300 and 150 mg/kg of SJW, and 25mg/kg of diclofenac, respectively. Blood was withdrawn at specific time points and serum MTX concentrations were assayed by a specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. The results showed that 300 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC(0-t) and C(max) of MTX by 163% and 60%, respectively, and 150 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC(0-t) of MTX by 55%. In addition, diclofenac enhanced the C(max) of MTX by 110%. The mortality of rats treated with SJW was higher than that of controls. In conclusion, coadministration of SJW significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of MTX. The combined use of MTX with SJW would need to be with caution.

  4. Significant increase of summertime ozone at Mount Tai in Central Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lei; Xue, Likun; Wang, Tao; Gao, Jian; Ding, Aijun; Cooper, Owen R.; Lin, Meiyun; Xu, Pengju; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Xinfeng; Wen, Liang; Zhu, Yanhong; Chen, Tianshu; Yang, Lingxiao; Wang, Yan; Chen, Jianmin; Wang, Wenxing

    2016-08-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is a trace gas playing important roles in atmospheric chemistry, air quality and climate change. In contrast to North America and Europe, long-term measurements of surface O3 are very limited in China. We compile available O3 observations at Mt. Tai - the highest mountain over the North China Plain - during 2003-2015 and analyze the decadal change of O3 and its sources. A linear regression analysis shows that summertime O3 measured at Mt. Tai has increased significantly by 1.7 ppbv yr-1 for June and 2.1 ppbv yr-1 for the July-August average. The observed increase is supported by a global chemistry-climate model hindcast (GFDL-AM3) with O3 precursor emissions varying from year to year over 1980-2014. Analysis of satellite data indicates that the O3 increase was mainly due to the increased emissions of O3 precursors, in particular volatile organic compounds (VOCs). An important finding is that the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) have diminished since 2011, but the increase of VOCs appears to have enhanced the ozone production efficiency and contributed to the observed O3 increase in central eastern China. We present evidence that controlling NOx alone, in the absence of VOC controls, is not sufficient to reduce regional O3 levels in North China in a short period.

  5. Hydrologic effects of large southwestern USA wildfires significantly increase regional water supply: fact or fiction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wine, M. L.; Cadol, D.

    2016-08-01

    In recent years climate change and historic fire suppression have increased the frequency of large wildfires in the southwestern USA, motivating study of the hydrological consequences of these wildfires at point and watershed scales, typically over short periods of time. These studies have revealed that reduced soil infiltration capacity and reduced transpiration due to tree canopy combustion increase streamflow at the watershed scale. However, the degree to which these local increases in runoff propagate to larger scales—relevant to urban and agricultural water supply—remains largely unknown, particularly in semi-arid mountainous watersheds co-dominated by winter snowmelt and the North American monsoon. To address this question, we selected three New Mexico watersheds—the Jemez (1223 km2), Mogollon (191 km2), and Gila (4807 km2)—that together have been affected by over 100 wildfires since 1982. We then applied climate-driven linear models to test for effects of fire on streamflow metrics after controlling for climatic variability. Here we show that, after controlling for climatic and snowpack variability, significantly more streamflow discharged from the Gila watershed for three to five years following wildfires, consistent with increased regional water yield due to enhanced infiltration-excess overland flow and groundwater recharge at the large watershed scale. In contrast, we observed no such increase in discharge from the Jemez watershed following wildfires. Fire regimes represent a key difference between the contrasting responses of the Jemez and Gila watersheds with the latter experiencing more frequent wildfires, many caused by lightning strikes. While hydrologic dynamics at the scale of large watersheds were previously thought to be climatically dominated, these results suggest that if one fifth or more of a large watershed has been burned in the previous three to five years, significant increases in water yield can be expected.

  6. Dietary Yeast Cell Wall Extract Alters the Proteome of the Skin Mucous Barrier in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar): Increased Abundance and Expression of a Calreticulin-Like Protein.

    PubMed

    Micallef, Giulia; Cash, Phillip; Fernandes, Jorge M O; Rajan, Binoy; Tinsley, John W; Bickerdike, Ralph; Martin, Samuel A M; Bowman, Alan S

    2017-01-01

    In order to improve fish health and reduce use of chemotherapeutants in aquaculture production, the immunomodulatory effect of various nutritional ingredients has been explored. In salmon, there is evidence that functional feeds can reduce the abundance of sea lice. This study aimed to determine if there were consistent changes in the skin mucus proteome that could serve as a biomarker for dietary yeast cell wall extract. The effect of dietary yeast cell wall extract on the skin mucus proteome of Atlantic salmon was examined using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Forty-nine spots showed a statistically significant change in their normalised volumes between the control and yeast cell wall diets. Thirteen spots were successfully identified by peptide fragment fingerprinting and LC-MS/MS and these belonged to a variety of functions and pathways. To assess the validity of the results from the proteome approach, the gene expression of a selection of these proteins was studied in skin mRNA from two different independent feeding trials using yeast cell wall extracts. A calreticulin-like protein increased in abundance at both the protein and transcript level in response to dietary yeast cell wall extract. The calreticulin-like protein was identified as a possible biomarker for yeast-derived functional feeds since it showed the most consistent change in expression in both the mucus proteome and skin transcriptome. The discovery of such a biomarker is expected to quicken the pace of research in the application of yeast cell wall extracts.

  7. Dietary Yeast Cell Wall Extract Alters the Proteome of the Skin Mucous Barrier in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar): Increased Abundance and Expression of a Calreticulin-Like Protein

    PubMed Central

    Micallef, Giulia; Cash, Phillip; Fernandes, Jorge M. O.; Rajan, Binoy; Tinsley, John W.; Bickerdike, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    In order to improve fish health and reduce use of chemotherapeutants in aquaculture production, the immunomodulatory effect of various nutritional ingredients has been explored. In salmon, there is evidence that functional feeds can reduce the abundance of sea lice. This study aimed to determine if there were consistent changes in the skin mucus proteome that could serve as a biomarker for dietary yeast cell wall extract. The effect of dietary yeast cell wall extract on the skin mucus proteome of Atlantic salmon was examined using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Forty-nine spots showed a statistically significant change in their normalised volumes between the control and yeast cell wall diets. Thirteen spots were successfully identified by peptide fragment fingerprinting and LC-MS/MS and these belonged to a variety of functions and pathways. To assess the validity of the results from the proteome approach, the gene expression of a selection of these proteins was studied in skin mRNA from two different independent feeding trials using yeast cell wall extracts. A calreticulin-like protein increased in abundance at both the protein and transcript level in response to dietary yeast cell wall extract. The calreticulin-like protein was identified as a possible biomarker for yeast-derived functional feeds since it showed the most consistent change in expression in both the mucus proteome and skin transcriptome. The discovery of such a biomarker is expected to quicken the pace of research in the application of yeast cell wall extracts. PMID:28046109

  8. Association of anthropogenic land use change and increased abundance of the Chagas disease vector Rhodnius pallescens in a rural landscape of Panama.

    PubMed

    Gottdenker, Nicole L; Calzada, José E; Saldaña, Azäel; Carroll, C Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbance is associated with increased vector-borne infectious disease transmission in wildlife, domestic animals, and humans. The objective of this study was to evaluate how disturbance of a tropical forest landscape impacts abundance of the triatomine bug Rhodnius pallescens, a vector of Chagas disease, in the region of the Panama Canal in Panama. Rhodnius pallescens was collected (n = 1,186) from its primary habitat, the palm Attalea butyracea, in five habitat types reflecting a gradient of anthropogenic disturbance. There was a high proportion of palms infested with R. pallescens across all habitat types (range = 77.1-91.4%). Results show that disturbed habitats are associated with increased vector abundance compared with relatively undisturbed habitats. Bugs collected in disturbed sites, although in higher abundance, tended to be in poor body condition compared with bugs captured in protected forest sites. Abundance data suggests that forest remnants may be sources for R. pallescens populations within highly disturbed areas of the landscape.

  9. Breast cancer-associated metastasis is significantly increased in a model of autoimmune arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Das Roy, Lopamudra; Pathangey, Latha B; Tinder, Teresa L; Schettini, Jorge L; Gruber, Helen E; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Sites of chronic inflammation are often associated with the establishment and growth of various malignancies including breast cancer. A common inflammatory condition in humans is autoimmune arthritis (AA) that causes inflammation and deformity of the joints. Other systemic effects associated with arthritis include increased cellular infiltration and inflammation of the lungs. Several studies have reported statistically significant risk ratios between AA and breast cancer. Despite this knowledge, available for a decade, it has never been questioned if the site of chronic inflammation linked to AA creates a milieu that attracts tumor cells to home and grow in the inflamed bones and lungs which are frequent sites of breast cancer metastasis. Methods To determine if chronic inflammation induced by autoimmune arthritis contributes to increased breast cancer-associated metastasis, we generated mammary gland tumors in SKG mice that were genetically prone to develop AA. Two breast cancer cell lines, one highly metastatic (4T1) and the other non-metastatic (TUBO) were used to generate the tumors in the mammary fat pad. Lung and bone metastasis and the associated inflammatory milieu were evaluated in the arthritic versus the non-arthritic mice. Results We report a three-fold increase in lung metastasis and a significant increase in the incidence of bone metastasis in the pro-arthritic and arthritic mice compared to non-arthritic control mice. We also report that the metastatic breast cancer cells augment the severity of arthritis resulting in a vicious cycle that increases both bone destruction and metastasis. Enhanced neutrophilic and granulocytic infiltration in lungs and bone of the pro-arthritic and arthritic mice and subsequent increase in circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), interleukin-17 (IL-17), interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and tumor necrosis factor

  10. Significantly Increasing the Ductility of High Performance Polymer Semiconductors through Polymer Blending.

    PubMed

    Scott, Joshua I; Xue, Xiao; Wang, Ming; Kline, R Joseph; Hoffman, Benjamin C; Dougherty, Daniel; Zhou, Chuanzhen; Bazan, Guillermo; O'Connor, Brendan T

    2016-06-08

    Polymer semiconductors based on donor-acceptor monomers have recently resulted in significant gains in field effect mobility in organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). These polymers incorporate fused aromatic rings and have been designed to have stiff planar backbones, resulting in strong intermolecular interactions, which subsequently result in stiff and brittle films. The complex synthesis typically required for these materials may also result in increased production costs. Thus, the development of methods to improve mechanical plasticity while lowering material consumption during fabrication will significantly improve opportunities for adoption in flexible and stretchable electronics. To achieve these goals, we consider blending a brittle donor-acceptor polymer, poly[4-(4,4-dihexadecyl-4H-cyclopenta[1,2-b:5,4-b']dithiophen-2-yl)-alt-[1,2,5]thiadiazolo[3,4-c]pyridine] (PCDTPT), with ductile poly(3-hexylthiophene). We found that the ductility of the blend films is significantly improved compared to that of neat PCDTPT films, and when the blend film is employed in an OTFT, the performance is largely maintained. The ability to maintain charge transport character is due to vertical segregation within the blend, while the improved ductility is due to intermixing of the polymers throughout the film thickness. Importantly, the application of large strains to the ductile films is shown to orient both polymers, which further increases charge carrier mobility. These results highlight a processing approach to achieve high performance polymer OTFTs that are electrically and mechanically optimized.

  11. Increased Id-1 expression is significantly associated with poor survival of patients with prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Forootan, Shiva S; Wong, Yong-Chuan; Dodson, Andrew; Wang, Xianghong; Lin, Ke; Smith, Paul H; Foster, Christopher S; Ke, Youqiang

    2007-09-01

    The levels of Id-1 (inhibitor of DNA binding or inhibitor of cell differentiation) expression in a series of prostate cell lines and in an archival set of prostate tissues were examined. Western blot analysis showed that the level of Id-1 expressed in the androgen sensitive cell line LNCaP was 1.2 +/- 0.2 times that detected in the benign cell line PNT-2. The level of Id-1 increased further to 1.8 +/- 0.2 and 2.9 +/- 0.3 in the androgen-insensitive cell lines Du-145 and PC-3, respectively. Immunohistochemical staining with Id-1 antibody performed on 113 cases of prostate tissues showed that among the 7 normal cases, 6 (86%) stained either negative or weakly positive whereas only 1 (14%) stained moderately positive. Among the 36 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) samples, 34 (94%) stained either negative or weakly positive; only 1 (3%) stained moderately and 1 (3%) stained strongly. Of the 70 carcinomas, 8 (11.5%) stained weakly, 34 (48.5%) stained moderately, and 28 (40%) stained strongly positive. The intensity of Id-1 staining in carcinomas was significantly stronger than that detected in the normal prostate and BPH (chi(2) test, P < .001) and it was significantly increased as the increasing malignancy of carcinomas measured by Gleason score (chi(2) test, P < .001). The intensity of Id-1 staining was partially associated with the levels of prostate-specific antigen, but not related to the level of androgen receptor. Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis showed that, similar to Gleason scores, overexpression of Id-1 was significantly associated with the reduced length of patient survival (log-rank test, P = .01). These results suggest that Id-1 is a useful prognostic marker to predict the outcomes of patients with prostate cancer.

  12. Diet-Induced Obesity Significantly Increases the Severity of Post-Traumatic Arthritis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Louer, Craig R.; Furman, Bridgette D.; Huebner, Janet L.; Kraus, Virginia B.; Olson, Steven A.; Guilak, Farshid

    2012-01-01

    Objective Obesity and joint injury are both primary risk factors for osteoarthritis (OA) that involve potential alterations in the biomechanical and inflammatory environments of the joint. Post-traumatic arthritis (PTA) is a frequent long-term complication of intra-articular fractures. Obesity has been linked to primary OA and may potentially contribute to the development of PTA by a variety of mechanisms. The objectives of this study were to determine if diet-induced obesity influences the severity of PTA in mice and to examine interrelationships between joint degeneration and serum levels of inflammatory cytokines and adipokines in this response. Methods C57BL/6 mice were fed either normal chow (13% fat) or a high-fat diet (60% fat) starting at 4 weeks of age. At 16 weeks, half of each group received closed intra-articular fracture of the left knee. At 8 weeks post-fracture, knee osteoarthritis was assessed by cartilage and synovium histology in addition to bone morphology. Serum cytokine concentrations were determined with multiplex assay. Results Fractured knee joints of mice on a high-fat diet showed significantly increased osteoarthritic degeneration compared to non-fractured contralateral controls, while fractured knee joints of low-fat mice did not demonstrate significant differences from non-fractured contralateral controls. High-fat diet increased serum concentrations of interleukin-12p70, interleukin-6, and keratinocyte-derived chemokine, while decreasing adiponectin concentrations. Systemic levels of adiponectin were inversely correlated with synovial inflammation in control limbs. Conclusion Diet-induced obesity significantly increased the severity of osteoarthritis following intra-articular fracture. Obesity and joint injury together can alter systemic levels of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-12p70. PMID:22576842

  13. Proposed U.S. Geological Survey Budget Would Provide "Significant" Increase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-04-01

    The White House's proposed budget for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for fiscal year (FY) 2014, which the administration submitted to Congress on 10 April, would provide the agency with 1.17 billion, an increase of 98.02 million, 9.17% more than the FY 2012 enacted budget of $1.07 billion (see Table 1). The proposed budget is a "significant" increase and "makes a statement about the USGS's relevance in the federal research community," USGS acting director Suzette Kimball said at the agency's briefing. Because Congress approved the FY 2013 budget just a few weeks prior to the release of the Obama administration's proposal, the FY 2014 budget is compared with the FY 2012 enacted budget here.

  14. The APC I1307K allele conveys a significant increased risk for cancer.

    PubMed

    Leshno, Ari; Shapira, Shiran; Liberman, Eliezer; Kraus, Sarah; Sror, Miri; Harlap-Gat, Amira; Avivi, Doran; Galazan, Lior; David, Maayan; Maharshak, Nitsan; Moanis, Serhan; Arber, Nadir; Moshkowitz, Menachem

    2016-03-15

    This study is the first attempt to evaluate the association between the APC I1307K variant and overall cancer risk. It is unique in both its large sample size and in the reliability of data in the control group. The findings described in this article have major implications in terms of identifying asymptomatic individuals who are at increased risk to harbor cancer and therefore targeted to be enrolled in specific early detection and prevention programs. The prevalence of the APC I1307K missense mutation among Ashkenazi Jews is ∼ 6%. Carriers are at an increased risk for colorectal neoplasia. In this study, we examined the association of this variant with non-colorectal cancers. Consecutive 13,013 healthy subjects who underwent screening at the Integrated Cancer Prevention Center between 2006 and 2014 were enrolled. This population was supplemented with 1,611 cancer patients from the same institution. Demographics, medical history, and pathological data were recorded. Mortality data were obtained from the Ministry of Health's registry. The prevalence of APC I1307K in cancer patients and healthy subjects was compared. The APC I1307K variant was detected in 189 (11.8%) cancer patients compared to 614 (4.7%) healthy subjects, reflecting an adjusted age and sex odds ratio (OR) of 2.53 (p < 0.0001). History of two or more cancer types was associated with a positive carrier prevalence (OR = 4.38 p < 0.0001). Males had significantly increased carrier prevalence in lung, urologic, pancreatic, and skin cancers. The carrier prevalence among females was significantly higher only in breast and skin cancers. Female carriers developed cancer at a significantly older age compared to non-carriers (average 62.7 years vs. 57.8, respectively, p = 0.027), had better survival rates (HR = 0.58, p = 0.022) and overall increased longevity (average age of death 78.8 vs. 70.4 years, respectively, p = 0.003). In conclusion, the APC I1307K variant is a reliable marker for overall cancer risk

  15. Shotgun metagenomic data reveals significant abundance but low diversity of "Candidatus Scalindua" marine anammox bacteria in the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Laura; Speth, Daan R; van Alen, Theo; Hoischen, Alexander; Jetten, Mike S M

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria are responsible for a significant portion of the loss of fixed nitrogen from the oceans, making them important players in the global nitrogen cycle. To date, marine anammox bacteria found in both water columns and sediments worldwide belong almost exclusively to "Candidatus Scalindua" species. Recently the genome assembly of a marine anammox enrichment culture dominated by "Candidatus Scalindua profunda" became available and can now be used as a template to study metagenome data obtained from various oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). Here, we sequenced genomic DNA from suspended particulate matter recovered at the upper (170 m deep) and center (600 m) area of the OMZ in the Arabian Sea by SOLiD and Ion Torrent technology. The genome of "Candidatus Scalindua profunda" served as a template to collect reads. Based on the mapped reads marine anammox Abundance was estimated to be at least 0.4% in the upper and 1.7% in the center area. Single nucleotide variation (SNV) analysis was performed to assess diversity of the "Candidatus Scalindua" populations. Most highly covered were the two diagnostic anammox genes hydrazine synthase (scal_01318c, hzsA) and hydrazine dehydrogenase (scal_03295, hdh), while other genes involved in anammox metabolism (narGH, nirS, amtB, focA, and ACS) had a lower coverage but could still be assembled and analyzed. The results show that "Candidatus Scalindua" is abundantly present in the Arabian Sea OMZ, but that the diversity within the ecosystem is relatively low.

  16. Processes involved in assisted reproduction technologies significantly increase sperm DNA fragmentation and phosphatidylserine translocation.

    PubMed

    Balasuriya, A; Serhal, P; Doshi, A; Harper, J C

    2014-03-01

    Sperm preparation techniques in assisted reproduction technologies (ART) are potential generators of exogenous stresses that cause additional DNA damage. DNA fragmentation tests, such as the sperm chromatin structure assay, involve freezing sperm samples in the absence of cryoprotectant. Thermal, oxidative stress (OS) and freezing are detrimental to sperm DNA fragmentation and phosphatidylserine (PS) translocation. The primary aim of this study was to subject mature sperm to environmental insults that normally occur during ART. We tested the hypotheses that OS, thermal stress and freeze-thawing caused sperm nuclear and membrane damage and that a positive correlation exists between PS translocation and DNA fragmentation. Sperm DNA integrity deteriorates in semen samples from men with advancing age and a sperm concentration of <15 m ml(-1) . The significant increase in sperm DNA fragmentation at 37 °C after merely 1 h is important clinically as semen liquefaction and short-term sperm storage in an ART cycle involve incubating samples at this temperature. Freezing without a cryoprotectant significantly increases the level of sperm nuclear damage, so it is important not to freeze neat semen prior to DNA fragmentation testing. This study highlights the importance of minimising the production of exogenous stresses during sperm preparation in ART.

  17. Induced expression of Fndc5 significantly increased cardiomyocyte differentiation rate of mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Rabiee, Farzaneh; Forouzanfar, Mahboobeh; Ghazvini Zadegan, Faezeh; Tanhaei, Somayeh; Ghaedi, Kamran; Motovali Bashi, Majid; Baharvand, Hossein; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-11-10

    Fibronectin type III domain-containing 5 protein (Fndc5) is an exercise hormone and its transcript profile in mouse showed high degree of expression in heart, skeletal muscle and brain. Our previous studies indicated a significant increase (approximately 10 fold) in mRNA level of Fndc5 when embryonic stem cells were differentiated into beating bodies. As a step closer to identify the involvement of Fndc5 in the process of cardiomyocyte differentiation, we generated a stably inducible transduced mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) line that overexpressed Fndc5 following Doxycycline induction. Our results indicated that the overexpression of Fndc5 during spontaneous cardiac differentiation significantly increased not only at RNA levels for mesodermal markers but also at the transcriptional levels for cardiac progenitor and cardiac genes. These data suggest that Fndc5 may be involved in cardiomyocyte differentiation. Therefore, a new hope will be arisen for potential application of this myokine for regeneration of damaged cardiac tissues especially in cardiac failure.

  18. A murine skeletal adaptation that significantly increases cortical bone mechanical properties. Implications for human skeletal fragility.

    PubMed Central

    Bonadio, J; Jepsen, K J; Mansoura, M K; Jaenisch, R; Kuhn, J L; Goldstein, S A

    1993-01-01

    Mov13 mice carry a provirus that prevents transcription initiation of the alpha 1(I) collagen gene. Mutant mice homozygous for the null mutation produce no type I collagen and die at mid-gestation, whereas heterozygotes survive to adulthood. Dermal fibroblasts from heterozygous mice produce approximately 50% less type I collagen than normal littermates, and the partial deficiency in collagen production results in a phenotype similar to osteogenesis imperfecta type I (an inherited form of skeletal fragility). In this study, we have identified an adaptation of Mov13 skeletal tissue that significantly improves the bending strength of long bone. The adaptive response occurred over a 2-mo period, during which time a small number of newly proliferated osteogenic cells produced a significant amount of matrix components and thus generated new bone along periosteal surfaces. New bone deposition resulted in a measurable increase in cross-sectional geometry which, in turn, led to a dramatic increase in long bone bending strength. Images PMID:8408623

  19. Significant Increase in Ecosystem C Can Be Achieved with Sustainable Forest Management in Subtropical Plantation Forests

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaohua; Blanco, Juan A.

    2014-01-01

    Subtropical planted forests are rapidly expanding. They are traditionally managed for intensive, short-term goals that often lead to long-term yield decline and reduced carbon sequestration capacity. Here we show how it is possible to increase and sustain carbon stored in subtropical forest plantations if management is switched towards more sustainable forestry. We first conducted a literature review to explore possible management factors that contribute to the potentials in ecosystem C in tropical and subtropical plantations. We found that broadleaves plantations have significantly higher ecosystem C than conifer plantations. In addition, ecosystem C increases with plantation age, and reaches a peak with intermediate stand densities of 1500–2500 trees ha−1. We then used the FORECAST model to simulate the regional implications of switching from traditional to sustainable management regimes, using Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations in subtropical China as a study case. We randomly simulated 200 traditional short-rotation pure stands and 200 sustainably-managed mixed Chinese fir – Phoebe bournei plantations, for 120 years. Our results showed that mixed, sustainably-managed plantations have on average 67.5% more ecosystem C than traditional pure conifer plantations. If all pure plantations were gradually transformed into mixed plantations during the next 10 years, carbon stocks could rise in 2050 by 260.22 TgC in east-central China. Assuming similar differences for temperate and boreal plantations, if sustainable forestry practices were applied to all new forest plantation types in China, stored carbon could increase by 1,482.80 TgC in 2050. Such an increase would be equivalent to a yearly sequestration rate of 40.08 TgC yr−1, offsetting 1.9% of China’s annual emissions in 2010. More importantly, this C increase can be sustained in the long term through the maintenance of higher amounts of soil organic carbon and the production of timber

  20. Significant increase in ecosystem C can be achieved with sustainable forest management in subtropical plantation forests.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaohua; Blanco, Juan A

    2014-01-01

    Subtropical planted forests are rapidly expanding. They are traditionally managed for intensive, short-term goals that often lead to long-term yield decline and reduced carbon sequestration capacity. Here we show how it is possible to increase and sustain carbon stored in subtropical forest plantations if management is switched towards more sustainable forestry. We first conducted a literature review to explore possible management factors that contribute to the potentials in ecosystem C in tropical and subtropical plantations. We found that broadleaves plantations have significantly higher ecosystem C than conifer plantations. In addition, ecosystem C increases with plantation age, and reaches a peak with intermediate stand densities of 1500-2500 trees ha⁻¹. We then used the FORECAST model to simulate the regional implications of switching from traditional to sustainable management regimes, using Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations in subtropical China as a study case. We randomly simulated 200 traditional short-rotation pure stands and 200 sustainably-managed mixed Chinese fir--Phoebe bournei plantations, for 120 years. Our results showed that mixed, sustainably-managed plantations have on average 67.5% more ecosystem C than traditional pure conifer plantations. If all pure plantations were gradually transformed into mixed plantations during the next 10 years, carbon stocks could rise in 2050 by 260.22 TgC in east-central China. Assuming similar differences for temperate and boreal plantations, if sustainable forestry practices were applied to all new forest plantation types in China, stored carbon could increase by 1,482.80 TgC in 2050. Such an increase would be equivalent to a yearly sequestration rate of 40.08 TgC yr⁻¹, offsetting 1.9% of China's annual emissions in 2010. More importantly, this C increase can be sustained in the long term through the maintenance of higher amounts of soil organic carbon and the production of timber products

  1. Planting increases the abundance and structure complexity of soil core functional genes relevant to carbon and nitrogen cycling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Liang, Yuting; Jiang, Yuji; Yang, Yunfeng; Xue, Kai; Xiong, Jinbo; Zhou, Jizhong; Sun, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Plants have an important impact on soil microbial communities and their functions. However, how plants determine the microbial composition and network interactions is still poorly understood. During a four-year field experiment, we investigated the functional gene composition of three types of soils (Phaeozem, Cambisols and Acrisol) under maize planting and bare fallow regimes located in cold temperate, warm temperate and subtropical regions, respectively. The core genes were identified using high-throughput functional gene microarray (GeoChip 3.0), and functional molecular ecological networks (fMENs) were subsequently developed with the random matrix theory (RMT)-based conceptual framework. Our results demonstrated that planting significantly (P < 0.05) increased the gene alpha-diversity in terms of richness and Shannon – Simpson’s indexes for all three types of soils and 83.5% of microbial alpha-diversity can be explained by the plant factor. Moreover, planting had significant impacts on the microbial community structure and the network interactions of the microbial communities. The calculated network complexity was higher under maize planting than under bare fallow regimes. The increase of the functional genes led to an increase in both soil respiration and nitrification potential with maize planting, indicating that changes in the soil microbial communities and network interactions influenced ecological functioning. PMID:26396042

  2. Planting increases the abundance and structure complexity of soil core functional genes relevant to carbon and nitrogen cycling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Liang, Yuting; Jiang, Yuji; Yang, Yunfeng; Xue, Kai; Xiong, Jinbo; Zhou, Jizhong; Sun, Bo

    2015-09-23

    Plants have an important impact on soil microbial communities and their functions. However, how plants determine the microbial composition and network interactions is still poorly understood. During a four-year field experiment, we investigated the functional gene composition of three types of soils (Phaeozem, Cambisols and Acrisol) under maize planting and bare fallow regimes located in cold temperate, warm temperate and subtropical regions, respectively. The core genes were identified using high-throughput functional gene microarray (GeoChip 3.0), and functional molecular ecological networks (fMENs) were subsequently developed with the random matrix theory (RMT)-based conceptual framework. Our results demonstrated that planting significantly (P < 0.05) increased the gene alpha-diversity in terms of richness and Shannon - Simpson's indexes for all three types of soils and 83.5% of microbial alpha-diversity can be explained by the plant factor. Moreover, planting had significant impacts on the microbial community structure and the network interactions of the microbial communities. The calculated network complexity was higher under maize planting than under bare fallow regimes. The increase of the functional genes led to an increase in both soil respiration and nitrification potential with maize planting, indicating that changes in the soil microbial communities and network interactions influenced ecological functioning.

  3. Planting increases the abundance and structure complexity of soil core functional genes relevant to carbon and nitrogen cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Liang, Yuting; Jiang, Yuji; Yang, Yunfeng; Xue, Kai; Xiong, Jinbo; Zhou, Jizhong; Sun, Bo

    2015-09-01

    Plants have an important impact on soil microbial communities and their functions. However, how plants determine the microbial composition and network interactions is still poorly understood. During a four-year field experiment, we investigated the functional gene composition of three types of soils (Phaeozem, Cambisols and Acrisol) under maize planting and bare fallow regimes located in cold temperate, warm temperate and subtropical regions, respectively. The core genes were identified using high-throughput functional gene microarray (GeoChip 3.0), and functional molecular ecological networks (fMENs) were subsequently developed with the random matrix theory (RMT)-based conceptual framework. Our results demonstrated that planting significantly (P < 0.05) increased the gene alpha-diversity in terms of richness and Shannon - Simpson’s indexes for all three types of soils and 83.5% of microbial alpha-diversity can be explained by the plant factor. Moreover, planting had significant impacts on the microbial community structure and the network interactions of the microbial communities. The calculated network complexity was higher under maize planting than under bare fallow regimes. The increase of the functional genes led to an increase in both soil respiration and nitrification potential with maize planting, indicating that changes in the soil microbial communities and network interactions influenced ecological functioning.

  4. Ozone fumigation increases the abundance of nutrients in Brassica vegetables: broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Rozpądek, Piotr; Nosek, Michał; Ślesak, Irenusz; Kunicki, Edward; Dziurka, Michał; Miszalski, Zbigniew

    Brassicaceae vegetables, among them broccoli and Chinese cabbage, are well recognized due to the nutritional properties. Four-week-old Chinese cabbage and broccoli seedlings were fumigated with O3 for 3 days before being transplanted into the field. The effect of O3 treatment was determined after reaching marketable quality (ca. 10 weeks). The inflorescences of O3-treated broccoli were enriched in vitamin E (α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol), whereas Chinese cabbage heads had an increased content of anthocyanins and β-carotene. Ozone treatment did not significantly affect the productivity of both examined vegetables.

  5. Significant increase of Curie temperature in nano-scale BaTiO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yueliang; Liao, Zhenyu; Fang, Fang; Zhu, Jing; Wang, Xiaohui; Li, Longtu

    2014-11-03

    The low Curie temperature (T{sub c} = 130 °C) of bulk BaTiO{sub 3} greatly limits its applications. In this work, the phase structures of BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles with sizes ranging from 2.5 nm to 10 nm were studied at various temperatures by using aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM) equipped with an in-situ heating holder. The results implied that each BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticle was composed of different phases, and the ferroelectric ones were observed in the shells due to the complicated surface structure. The ferroelectric phases in BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles remained at 600 °C, suggesting a significant increase of T{sub c}. Based on the in-situ TEM results and the data reported by others, temperature-size phase diagrams for BaTiO{sub 3} particles and ceramics were proposed, showing that the phase transition became diffused and the T{sub c} obviously increased with decreasing size. The present work sheds light on the design and fabrication of advanced devices for high temperature applications.

  6. Phytohormone supplementation significantly increases growth of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cultivated for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Park, Won-Kun; Yoo, Gursong; Moon, Myounghoon; Kim, Chul Woong; Choi, Yoon-E; Yang, Ji-Won

    2013-11-01

    Cultivation is the most expensive step in the production of biodiesel from microalgae, and substantial research has been devoted to developing more cost-effective cultivation methods. Plant hormones (phytohormones) are chemical messengers that regulate various aspects of growth and development and are typically active at very low concentrations. In this study, we investigated the effect of different phytohormones on microalgal growth and biodiesel production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and their potential to lower the overall cost of commercial biofuel production. The results indicated that all five of the tested phytohormones (indole-3-acetic acid, gibberellic acid, kinetin, 1-triacontanol, and abscisic acid) promoted microalgal growth. In particular, hormone treatment increased biomass production by 54 to 69 % relative to the control growth medium (Tris-acetate-phosphate, TAP). Phytohormone treatments also affected microalgal cell morphology but had no effect on the yields of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) as a percent of biomass. We also tested the effect of these phytohormones on microalgal growth in nitrogen-limited media by supplementation in the early stationary phase. Maximum cell densities after addition of phytohormones were higher than in TAP medium, even when the nitrogen source was reduced to 40 % of that in TAP medium. Taken together, our results indicate that phytohormones significantly increased microalgal growth, particularly in nitrogen-limited media, and have potential for use in the development of efficient microalgal cultivation for biofuel production.

  7. Large and abundant flowers increase indirect costs of corollas: a study of coflowering sympatric Mediterranean species of contrasting flower size.

    PubMed

    Teixido, Alberto L; Valladares, Fernando

    2013-09-01

    Large floral displays receive more pollinator visits but involve higher production and maintenance costs. This can result in indirect costs which may negatively affect functions like reproductive output. In this study, we explored the relationship between floral display and indirect costs in two pairs of coflowering sympatric Mediterranean Cistus of contrasting flower size. We hypothesized that: (1) corolla production entails direct costs in dry mass, N and P, (2) corollas entail significant indirect costs in terms of fruit set and seed production, (3) indirect costs increase with floral display, (4) indirect costs are greater in larger-flowered sympatric species, and (5) local climatic conditions influence indirect costs. We compared fruit set and seed production of petal-removed flowers and unmanipulated control flowers and evaluated the influence of mean flower number and mean flower size on relative fruit and seed gain of petal-removed and control flowers. Fruit set and seed production were significantly higher in petal-removed flowers in all the studied species. A positive relationship was found between relative fruit gain and mean individual flower size within species. In one pair of species, fruit gain was higher in the large-flowered species, as was the correlation between fruit gain and mean number of open flowers. In the other pair, the correlation between fruit gain and mean flower size was also higher in the large-flowered species. These results reveal that Mediterranean environments impose significant constraints on floral display, counteracting advantages of large flowers from the pollination point of view with increased indirect costs of such flowers.

  8. Clopidogrel Within Few Hours of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Does Significantly Increase the Risk of Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Hijazi, Emad M.; Musleh, Ghassan S

    2012-01-01

    Background Postoperative bleeding after coronary artery surgery is partly related to platelet dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a single loading dose of clopidogrel (300 mg) before coronary angiography on bleeding and use of blood and blood products after emergency coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). Methods This is a nonrandomized observational prospective study between January, 2006 till December 2009, at a university hospital, we compare the results of a cohort of 65 patients who received 300 mg clopidogrel during coronary angiography that was followed by emergency CABG (group A or study group) to a cohort of 206 patients who underwent elective coronary artery bypass surgery during the same period by the same surgeons in whom clopidogrel was stopped 7 days before surgery (Group B or control group). Emergency surgery was done because of critical coronary anatomy or because of ongoing chest pain. All patients in the two groups were kept on 100 mg of aspirin until the day of surgery. Outcome data used to compare the two groups, Chest tube drainage in first 12 hours (12 h), need for re-exploration and use of blood and blood product transfusion were prospectively collected. Results Postoperative bleeding, reoperation rates for bleeding and use of blood products are significantly more in those who received a loading dose of clopedogril within few hours of CABG (group A) compared to those who stopped clopedogril for a week before CABG. Conclusions Preoperative 300 mg of clopidogrel is associated with significant increase in post operative bleeding, need for surgical exploration and use of blood and blood product transfusion after CABG.

  9. Defense against dermal exposures is only skin deep: significantly increased penetration through slightly damaged skin.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Nielsen, Flemming; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2007-11-01

    The OECD guideline for studies on percutaneous penetration to be used in hazard and risk evaluations prescribes experimental conditions with optimal barrier integrity of the skin, which in many occupational settings probably is not true. Thus, workers may have compromised skin due to chemical or mechanical damage, due to different medical conditions (eczema, dermatitis, skin irritation) or related to occupational scenarios involving prolonged wet work. The present study used the OECD guideline procedures to study the in vitro percutaneous penetration through human skin of a number of model substances (glyphosat, caffeine, benzoic acid, malathion) covering a range of solubilities. Further, we studied the extent to which a slightly damaged skin would change the rate, the amount absorbed during dermal exposure and the distribution of chemical deposition between epidermis and dermis. The present study demonstrates that a limited damage to the skin significantly increases the permeability coefficient (K (p)) as well as total percutaneous penetration of chemicals, and most significantly for those compounds that due to their physicochemical characteristics (the most hydrophilic as well as the most lipophilic) have low penetration rates through intact skin. The present experiment not only confirms the proportionality between lipophilicity and potential for percutaneous penetration, but also illustrates that at a certain degree of lipophilicity of a model compound, the different skin compartments become more attractive for temporary deposition of model compounds. Moreover, a clear change from epidermal deposition towards a dominating dermis deposition of chemicals temporarily deposited within the skin is seen following damage to the skin barrier. Thus, the distribution of chemicals within the skin compartments is affected by the physicochemical characteristics of the chemicals as well as by the integrity of the skin. This observation may have implications when evaluating

  10. Effect of sludge retention on UF membrane fouling: The significance of sludge crystallization and EPS increase.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wenzheng; Graham, Nigel; Yang, Yunjia; Zhou, Zhiqi; Campos, Luiza C

    2015-10-15

    This paper concerns a previously unreported mechanism of membrane ultrafiltration (UF) fouling when a UF process with coagulation pre-treatment is used in drinking water treatment. The significance of settled coagulant solids (sludge) with different age within the membrane tank on UF fouling has been investigated at laboratory-scale, using model micro-polluted surface water. The process of floc crystallization and increasing bacterial EPS with solids (sludge) retention time may be detrimental to UF operation by causing an increased rate of membrane fouling. In this study the performance of two alum pre-treated hollow-fibre UF units, operated in parallel but with different settled sludge retention times (1 and 7 days), was compared. The results showed that over 34 days of operation the extent of reversible and irreversible fouling was much greater for the 7-day solids retention time. This was attributed to the greater extent of bacterial activity and the presence of Al-nanoparticles, arising from sludge crystallization, at the longer retention time. In particular, greater quantities of organic matter, particularly EPS (proteins and polysaccharides), were found in the UF cake layer and pores for the 7-day retention time. The addition of chlorine later in the membrane run substantially reduced the rate of membrane fouling for both sludge retention times, and this corresponded to reduced quantities of organic substances, including EPS, in the cake layer and pores of both membranes. The results suggest that bacterial activity (and EPS production) is more important than the production of Al-nanoparticles from solids crystallization in causing membrane fouling. However, it is likely that both phenomena are interactive and possibly synergistic.

  11. Significantly increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis with arsenic exposure and polymorphisms in arsenic metabolism genes

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Lien, Li-Ming; Chung, Wen-Ting; Hsieh, Fang-I; Hsieh, Pei-Fan; Wu, Meei-Maan; Tseng, Hung-Pin; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2011-08-15

    Individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced carotid atherosclerosis might be associated with genetic variations in arsenic metabolism. The purpose of this study is to explore the interaction effect on risk of carotid atherosclerosis between arsenic exposure and risk genotypes of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), arsenic (+3) methyltransferase (As3MT), and glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) and omega 2 (GSTO2). A community-based case-control study was conducted in northeastern Taiwan to investigate the arsenic metabolic-related genetic susceptibility to carotid atherosclerosis. In total, 863 subjects, who had been genotyped and for whom the severity of carotid atherosclerosis had been determined, were included in the present study. Individual well water was collected and arsenic concentration determined using hydride generation combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The result showed that a significant dose-response trend (P=0.04) of carotid atherosclerosis risk associated with increasing arsenic concentration. Non-significant association between genetic polymorphisms of PNP Gly51Ser, Pro57Pro, As3MT Met287Thr, GSTO1 Ala140Asp, and GSTO2 A-183G and the risk for development of carotid atherosclerosis were observed. However, the significant interaction effect on carotid atherosclerosis risk was found for arsenic exposure (>50 {mu}g/l) and the haplotypes of PNP (p=0.0115). A marked elevated risk of carotid atherosclerosis was observed in subjects with arsenic exposure of >50 {mu}g/l in drinking water and those who carried the PNP A-T haplotype and at least either of the As3MT risk polymorphism or GSTO risk haplotypes (OR, 6.43; 95% CI, 1.79-23.19). In conclusion, arsenic metabolic genes, PNP, As3MT, and GSTO, may exacerbate the formation of atherosclerosis in individuals with high levels of arsenic concentration in well water (>50 {mu}g/l). - Highlights: {yields}Arsenic metabolic genes might be associated with carotid atherosclerosis. {yields

  12. Templated assembly of photoswitches significantly increases the energy-storage capacity of solar thermal fuels.

    PubMed

    Kucharski, Timothy J; Ferralis, Nicola; Kolpak, Alexie M; Zheng, Jennie O; Nocera, Daniel G; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale utilization of solar-energy resources will require considerable advances in energy-storage technologies to meet ever-increasing global energy demands. Other than liquid fuels, existing energy-storage materials do not provide the requisite combination of high energy density, high stability, easy handling, transportability and low cost. New hybrid solar thermal fuels, composed of photoswitchable molecules on rigid, low-mass nanostructures, transcend the physical limitations of molecular solar thermal fuels by introducing local sterically constrained environments in which interactions between chromophores can be tuned. We demonstrate this principle of a hybrid solar thermal fuel using azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes. We show that, on composite bundling, the amount of energy stored per azobenzene more than doubles from 58 to 120 kJ mol(-1), and the material also maintains robust cyclability and stability. Our results demonstrate that solar thermal fuels composed of molecule-nanostructure hybrids can exhibit significantly enhanced energy-storage capabilities through the generation of template-enforced steric strain.

  13. Factors associated with an increased risk of vertebral fracture in monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance

    PubMed Central

    Piot, J M; Royer, M; Schmidt-Tanguy, A; Hoppé, E; Gardembas, M; Bourrée, T; Hunault, M; François, S; Boyer, F; Ifrah, N; Renier, G; Chevailler, A; Audran, M; Chappard, D; Libouban, H; Mabilleau, G; Legrand, E; Bouvard, B

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance (MGUS) have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of fractures. This study describes prospectively the bone status of MGUS patients and determines the factors associated with vertebral fracture. We included prospectively 201 patients with MGUS, incidentally discovered, and with no known history of osteoporosis: mean age 66.6±12.5 years, 48.3% women, 51.7% immunoglobulin G (IgG), 33.3% IgM and 10.4% IgA. Light chain was kappa in 64.2% patients. All patients had spinal radiographs and bone mineral density measurement in addition to gammopathy assessment. At least one prevalent non-traumatic vertebral fracture was discovered in 18.4% patients and equally distributed between men and women. Fractured patients were older, had a lower bone density and had also more frequently a lambda light chain isotype. Compared with patients with κ light chain, the odds ratio of being fractured for patients with λ light chain was 4.32 (95% confidence interval 1.80–11.16; P=0.002). These results suggest a high prevalence of non-traumatic vertebral fractures in MGUS associated with lambda light chain isotype and not only explained by low bone density. PMID:26314987

  14. Increased Mortality in Diabetic Foot Ulcer Patients: The Significance of Ulcer Type

    PubMed Central

    Chammas, N. K.; Hill, R. L. R.; Edmonds, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) patients have a greater than twofold increase in mortality compared with nonulcerated diabetic patients. We investigated (a) cause of death in DFU patients, (b) age at death, and (c) relationship between cause of death and ulcer type. This was an eleven-year retrospective study on DFU patients who attended King's College Hospital Foot Clinic and subsequently died. A control group of nonulcerated diabetic patients was matched for age and type of diabetes mellitus. The cause of death was identified from death certificates (DC) and postmortem (PM) examinations. There were 243 DFU patient deaths during this period. Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) was the major cause of death in 62.5% on PM compared to 45.7% on DC. Mean age at death from IHD on PM was 5 years lower in DFU patients compared to controls (68.2 ± 8.7 years versus 73.1 ± 8.0 years, P = 0.015). IHD as a cause of death at PM was significantly linked to neuropathic foot ulcers (OR 3.064, 95% CI 1.003–9.366, and P = 0.049). Conclusions. IHD is the major cause of premature mortality in DFU patients with the neuropathic foot ulcer patients being at a greater risk. PMID:27213157

  15. Increases in soil aggregation following phosphorus additions in a tropical premontane forest are not driven by root and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camenzind, Tessa; Papathanasiou, Helena; Foerster, Antje; Dietrich, Karla; Hertel, Dietrich; Homeier, Juergen; Oelmann, Yvonne; Olsson, Pål Axel; Suárez, Juan; Rillig, Matthias

    2015-12-01

    Tropical ecosystems have an important role in global change scenarios, in part because they serve as a large terrestrial carbon pool. Carbon protection is mediated by soil aggregation processes, whereby biotic and abiotic factors influence the formation and stability of aggregates. Nutrient additions may affect soil structure indirectly by simultaneous shifts in biotic factors, mainly roots and fungal hyphae, but also via impacts on abiotic soil properties. Here, we tested the hypothesis that soil aggregation will be affected by nutrient additions primarily via changes in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) hyphae and root length in a pristine tropical forest system. Therefore, the percentage of water-stable macroaggregates (> 250µm) (WSA) and the soil mean weight diameter (MWD) was analyzed, as well as nutrient contents, pH, root length and AMF abundance. Phosphorus additions significantly increased the amount of WSA, which was consistent across two different sampling times. Despite a positive effect of phosphorus additions on extraradical AMF biomass, no relationship between WSA and extra-radical AMF nor roots was revealed by regression analyses, contrary to the proposed hypothesis. These findings emphasize the importance of analyzing soil structure in understudied tropical systems, since it might be affected by increasing nutrient deposition expected in the future.

  16. Increased Abundance of Proteins Involved in Phytosiderophore Production in Boron-Tolerant Barley1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, John; Ford, Kris; Cassin, Andrew; Natera, Siria; Bacic, Antony

    2007-01-01

    Boron (B) phytotoxicity affects cereal-growing regions worldwide. Although B-tolerant barley (Hordeum vulgare) germplasm is available, molecules responsible for this tolerance mechanism have not been defined. We describe and use a new comparative proteomic technique, iTRAQ peptide tagging (iTRAQ), to compare the abundances of proteins from B-tolerant and -intolerant barley plants from a ‘Clipper’ × ‘Sahara’ doubled-haploid population selected on the basis of a presence or absence of two B-tolerance quantitative trait loci. iTRAQ was used to identify three enzymes involved in siderophore production (Iron Deficiency Sensitive2 [IDS2], IDS3, and a methylthio-ribose kinase) as being elevated in abundance in the B-tolerant plants. Following from this result, we report a potential link between iron, B, and the siderophore hydroxymugineic acid. We believe that this study highlights the potency of the iTRAQ approach to better understand mechanisms of abiotic stress tolerance in cereals, particularly when applied in conjunction with bulked segregant analysis. PMID:17478636

  17. Can heavy isotopes increase lifespan? Studies of relative abundance in various organisms reveal chemical perspectives on aging

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Stable heavy isotopes co‐exist with their lighter counterparts in all elements commonly found in biology. These heavy isotopes represent a low natural abundance in isotopic composition but impose great retardation effects in chemical reactions because of kinetic isotopic effects (KIEs). Previous isotope analyses have recorded pervasive enrichment or depletion of heavy isotopes in various organisms, strongly supporting the capability of biological systems to distinguish different isotopes. This capability has recently been found to lead to general decline of heavy isotopes in metabolites during yeast aging. Conversely, supplementing heavy isotopes in growth medium promotes longevity. Whether this observation prevails in other organisms is not known, but it potentially bears promise in promoting human longevity. PMID:27554342

  18. 13C Natural Abundance in Serum Retinol Acts as a Biomarker for Increases in Dietary Provitamin A

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Julie A; Valentine, Ashley R; Hull, Angela K; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2009-01-01

    The natural isotopic composition of 13C and 12C in tissues is largely determined by the diet. Sources of provitamin A carotenoids (e.g., vegetables) typically have a lower 13C to 12C ratio (13C:12C) than preformed vitamin A sources (i.e., dairy and meat) from corn-fed animals, which are prevalent in the US. The 13C:12C of serum retinol (13C:12C-retinol) was evaluated as a biomarker for vegetable intake in a 3-mo dietary intervention designed to promote weight-loss by increased vegetable consumption or reduced calorie and fat intake. Subjects were 21–50 y of age with a BMI between 30–40 kg/m2 and were enrolled from one geographic area in the US. The high vegetable group (n = 20) was encouraged to increase daily vegetable and fruit consumption to 0.95 liter vegetables and 0.24–0.35 liter fruits. The caloric reduction group (n = 17) was encouraged to lower caloric intake by 500 kcal and consume ≤25% kcal from fat daily. Provided meals supplied 75–100% vegetable and fruit goals and 50–67% kcal and fat g per day. Carotenoid supplementation was discontinued by subjects during the study. Serum retinol and provitamin A carotenoid concentrations; intake of preformed vitamin A, provitamin A, and fat; and body weight, fat mass, and lean mass were analyzed for correlations to 13C:12C-retinol. 13C:12C-Retinol decreased in the vegetable group after intervention (P = 0.050) and the correlation with provitamin A intake was approaching significance (P = 0.079). 13C:12C-Retinol did not change in the caloric reduction group (P = 0.43). 13C:12C-Retinol changes with the vitamin A source in the diet and can be used as a biomarker for increases in dietary provitamin A vegetable intake. PMID:19116317

  19. Food intake inhibition in rainbow trout induced by activation of serotonin 5-HT2C receptors is associated with increases in POMC, CART and CRF mRNA abundance in hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Maceira, Jorge J; Otero-Rodiño, Cristina; Mancebo, María J; Soengas, José L; Aldegunde, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    In rainbow trout, the food intake inhibition induced by serotonin occurs through 5-HT2C and 5-HT1A receptors, though the mechanisms involved are still unknown. Therefore, we assessed if a direct stimulation of 5-HT2C and 5-HT1A serotonin receptors (resulting in decreased food intake in rainbow trout), affects gene expression of neuropeptides involved in the control of food intake, such as pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF), and agouti-related peptide (AgRP). In a first set of experiments, the injection of the 5-HT2C receptor agonists MK212 (60 μg kg(-1) icv) and WAY 161503 (1 mg kg(-1) ip), and of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT (1 mg kg(-1) ip and 30 μg kg(-1) icv) induced food intake inhibition. In a second set of experiments, we observed that the injection of MK212 or WAY 161503 (1 and 3 mg kg(-1)) significantly increased hypothalamic POMC mRNA abundance. CART mRNA abundance in hypothalamus was enhanced by treatment with MK212 and unaffected by WAY 161503. The administration of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT did not induce any significant variation in the hypothalamic POMC or CART mRNA levels. CRF mRNA abundance was only affected by MK212 that increased hypothalamic values. Finally, hypothalamic AgRP mRNA abundance was only evaluated with the agonist 5-HT2C MK212 resulting in no significant effects. The results show that the reduction in food intake mediated by 5-HT2C receptors is associated with increases in hypothalamic POMC, CART and CRF mRNA abundance.

  20. Association of Anthropogenic Land Use Change and Increased Abundance of the Chagas Disease Vector Rhodnius pallescens in a Rural Landscape of Panama

    PubMed Central

    Gottdenker, Nicole L.; Calzada, José E.; Saldaña, Azäel; Carroll, C. Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbance is associated with increased vector-borne infectious disease transmission in wildlife, domestic animals, and humans. The objective of this study was to evaluate how disturbance of a tropical forest landscape impacts abundance of the triatomine bug Rhodnius pallescens, a vector of Chagas disease, in the region of the Panama Canal in Panama. Rhodnius pallescens was collected (n = 1,186) from its primary habitat, the palm Attalea butyracea, in five habitat types reflecting a gradient of anthropogenic disturbance. There was a high proportion of palms infested with R. pallescens across all habitat types (range = 77.1–91.4%). Results show that disturbed habitats are associated with increased vector abundance compared with relatively undisturbed habitats. Bugs collected in disturbed sites, although in higher abundance, tended to be in poor body condition compared with bugs captured in protected forest sites. Abundance data suggests that forest remnants may be sources for R. pallescens populations within highly disturbed areas of the landscape. PMID:21212205

  1. Chronic high fat feeding increases anxiety-like behaviour and reduces transcript abundance of glucocorticoid signalling genes in the hippocampus of female rats.

    PubMed

    Sivanathan, Shathveekan; Thavartnam, Kabriya; Arif, Shahneen; Elegino, Trisha; McGowan, Patrick O

    2015-06-01

    The consumption of diets high in saturated fats and obesity have been associated with impaired physical and mental health. Previous studies indicate that chronic high fat diet consumption leads to systemic inflammation in humans and non-human animal models. Studies in non-human animals suggest that altered physiological responses to stress are also a consequence of high fat diet consumption. Glucocorticoid signalling mechanisms may link immune and stress-related pathways in the brain, and were shown to be significantly altered in the brains of female rat offspring of mothers exposed to chronic high fat diet during pregnancy and lactation. For adult females, the consequence of chronic high fat diet consumption on these signalling pathways and their relationship to stress-related behaviour is not known. In this study, we examined the effects of chronic consumption of a high fat diet compared to a low fat control diet among adult female Long Evans rats. We found significant differences in weight gain, caloric intake, anxiety-related behaviours, and glucocorticoid-related gene expression over a 10-week exposure period. As expected, rats in the high fat diet group gained the most weight and consumed the greatest number of calories. Rats in the high fat diet group showed significantly greater levels of anxiety-related behaviour in the Light Dark and Open Field tasks compared to rats in the low fat diet group. Rats consuming high fat diet also exhibited reduced transcript abundance in the hippocampus of stress-related mineralocorticoid receptor and glucocorticoid receptor genes, as well as nuclear factor kappa beta gene expression, implicated in inflammatory processes. Together, these data indicate that chronic high fat diet consumption may increase anxiety-like behaviour at least in part via alterations in glucocorticoid signalling mechanisms in limbic brain regions.

  2. Stromal p16 expression is significantly increased in malignant ovarian neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Nara; Yoon, Gun; Park, Cheol Keun; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in p16 protein expression have been reported to be associated with tumor development and progression. However, p16 expression status in the peritumoral stroma has been rarely investigated. We investigated the stromal p16 expression in ovarian neoplasms using immunohistochemistry, and differences in the expression status depending on the degree of malignancy and histological type were analyzed. This study included 24, 21, and 46 cases of benign, borderline, and malignant ovarian lesions, respectively, of which 29, 25, and 32 cases were serous, mucinous, and endometriosis-associated lesions. Most benign lesions showed negative or weak expression, whereas borderline lesions showed focal, moderate expression. Malignant lesions showed markedly elevated stromal p16 expression compared with benign or borderline lesions. There were significant differences in stromal p16 expression between benign and borderline lesions (P < 0.001) and between borderline and malignant lesions (P < 0.001). These significances remained when analysis was performed based on lesion classification as serous, mucinous, and endometriosis-associated. In contrast, differences in stromal p16 expression among the histological types were not significant. Stromal p16 expression in ovarian neoplasms was absent or weak in benign and focal, moderate in borderline lesions, whereas malignant lesions exhibited diffuse, moderate-to-strong p16 immunoreactivity. Our observations suggest that stromal p16 expression is involved in the development of ovarian carcinoma. Further studies are necessary to confirm our preliminary results. PMID:27572321

  3. Stromal p16 expression is significantly increased in malignant ovarian neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Nara; Yoon, Gun; Park, Cheol Keun; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2016-10-04

    Alterations in p16 protein expression have been reported to be associated with tumor development and progression. However, p16 expression status in the peritumoral stroma has been rarely investigated. We investigated the stromal p16 expression in ovarian neoplasms using immunohistochemistry, and differences in the expression status depending on the degree of malignancy and histological type were analyzed. This study included 24, 21, and 46 cases of benign, borderline, and malignant ovarian lesions, respectively, of which 29, 25, and 32 cases were serous, mucinous, and endometriosis-associated lesions. Most benign lesions showed negative or weak expression, whereas borderline lesions showed focal, moderate expression. Malignant lesions showed markedly elevated stromal p16 expression compared with benign or borderline lesions. There were significant differences in stromal p16 expression between benign and borderline lesions (P < 0.001) and between borderline and malignant lesions (P < 0.001). These significances remained when analysis was performed based on lesion classification as serous, mucinous, and endometriosis-associated. In contrast, differences in stromal p16 expression among the histological types were not significant. Stromal p16 expression in ovarian neoplasms was absent or weak in benign and focal, moderate in borderline lesions, whereas malignant lesions exhibited diffuse, moderate-to-strong p16 immunoreactivity. Our observations suggest that stromal p16 expression is involved in the development of ovarian carcinoma. Further studies are necessary to confirm our preliminary results.

  4. Staphylococcus epidermidis Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesin Production Significantly Increases during Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Stress

    PubMed Central

    Vuong, Cuong; Kidder, Joshua B.; Jacobson, Erik R.; Otto, Michael; Proctor, Richard A.; Somerville, Greg A.

    2005-01-01

    Staphylococcal polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) is important for the development of a mature biofilm. PIA production is increased during growth in a nutrient-replete or iron-limited medium and under conditions of low oxygen availability. Additionally, stress-inducing stimuli such as heat, ethanol, and high concentrations of salt increase the production of PIA. These same environmental conditions are known to repress tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity, leading us to hypothesize that altering TCA cycle activity would affect PIA production. Culturing Staphylococcus epidermidis with a low concentration of the TCA cycle inhibitor fluorocitrate dramatically increased PIA production without impairing glucose catabolism, the growth rate, or the growth yields. These data lead us to speculate that one mechanism by which staphylococci perceive external environmental change is through alterations in TCA cycle activity leading to changes in the intracellular levels of biosynthetic intermediates, ATP, or the redox status of the cell. These changes in the metabolic status of the bacteria result in the attenuation or augmentation of PIA production. PMID:15838022

  5. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate increases autophagy signaling in resting and unloaded plantaris muscles but selectively suppresses autophagy protein abundance in reloaded muscles of aged rats.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hideyuki; Suzuki, Yutaka; Mohamed, Junaith S; Gotoh, Takafumi; Pereira, Suzette L; Alway, Stephen E

    2017-03-07

    We have previously found that Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCg), an abundant catechin in green tea, reduced apoptotic signaling and improved muscle recovery in response to reloading after hindlimb suspension (HS). In this study, we investigated if EGCg altered autophagy signaling in skeletal muscle of old rats in response to HS or reloading after HS. Fischer 344×Brown Norway inbred rats (age 34months) were given 1ml/day of purified EGCg (50mg/kg body weight), or the same sample volume of the vehicle by gavage. One group of animals received HS for 14days and the second group of rats received 14days of HS, then the HS was removed and they were allowed to recover by ambulating normally around the cage for two weeks. EGCg decreased a small number of autophagy genes in control muscles, but it increased the expression of other autophagy genes (e.g., ATG16L2, SNCA, TM9SF1, Pink1, PIM-2) and HS did not attenuate these increases. HS increased Beclin1, ATG7 and LC3-II/I protein abundance in hindlimb muscles. Relative to vehicle treatment, EGCg treatment had greater ATG12 protein abundance (35.8%, P<0.05), but decreased Beclin1 protein levels (-101.1%, P<0.05) after HS. However, in reloaded muscles, EGCg suppressed Beclin1 and LC3-II/I protein abundance as compared to vehicle treated muscles. EGCg appeared to "prime" autophagy signaling before and enhance autophagy gene expression and protein levels during unloading in muscles of aged rats, perhaps to improve the clearance of damaged organelles. However, EGCg suppressed autophagy signaling after reloading, potentially to increase the recovery of hindlimb muscles mass and function after loading is restored.

  6. Strong Selection Significantly Increases Epistatic Interactions in the Long-Term Evolution of a Protein

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Aditi; Adami, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Epistatic interactions between residues determine a protein’s adaptability and shape its evolutionary trajectory. When a protein experiences a changed environment, it is under strong selection to find a peak in the new fitness landscape. It has been shown that strong selection increases epistatic interactions as well as the ruggedness of the fitness landscape, but little is known about how the epistatic interactions change under selection in the long-term evolution of a protein. Here we analyze the evolution of epistasis in the protease of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) using protease sequences collected for almost a decade from both treated and untreated patients, to understand how epistasis changes and how those changes impact the long-term evolvability of a protein. We use an information-theoretic proxy for epistasis that quantifies the co-variation between sites, and show that positive information is a necessary (but not sufficient) condition that detects epistasis in most cases. We analyze the “fossils” of the evolutionary trajectories of the protein contained in the sequence data, and show that epistasis continues to enrich under strong selection, but not for proteins whose environment is unchanged. The increase in epistasis compensates for the information loss due to sequence variability brought about by treatment, and facilitates adaptation in the increasingly rugged fitness landscape of treatment. While epistasis is thought to enhance evolvability via valley-crossing early-on in adaptation, it can hinder adaptation later when the landscape has turned rugged. However, we find no evidence that the HIV-1 protease has reached its potential for evolution after 9 years of adapting to a drug environment that itself is constantly changing. We suggest that the mechanism of encoding new information into pairwise interactions is central to protein evolution not just in HIV-1 protease, but for any protein adapting to a changing environment. PMID

  7. Big data integration shows Australian bush-fire frequency is increasing significantly.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Ritaban; Das, Aruneema; Aryal, Jagannath

    2016-02-01

    Increasing Australian bush-fire frequencies over the last decade has indicated a major climatic change in coming future. Understanding such climatic change for Australian bush-fire is limited and there is an urgent need of scientific research, which is capable enough to contribute to Australian society. Frequency of bush-fire carries information on spatial, temporal and climatic aspects of bush-fire events and provides contextual information to model various climate data for accurately predicting future bush-fire hot spots. In this study, we develop an ensemble method based on a two-layered machine learning model to establish relationship between fire incidence and climatic data. In a 336 week data trial, we demonstrate that the model provides highly accurate bush-fire incidence hot-spot estimation (91% global accuracy) from the weekly climatic surfaces. Our analysis also indicates that Australian weekly bush-fire frequencies increased by 40% over the last 5 years, particularly during summer months, implicating a serious climatic shift.

  8. Big data integration shows Australian bush-fire frequency is increasing significantly

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Ritaban; Das, Aruneema; Aryal, Jagannath

    2016-01-01

    Increasing Australian bush-fire frequencies over the last decade has indicated a major climatic change in coming future. Understanding such climatic change for Australian bush-fire is limited and there is an urgent need of scientific research, which is capable enough to contribute to Australian society. Frequency of bush-fire carries information on spatial, temporal and climatic aspects of bush-fire events and provides contextual information to model various climate data for accurately predicting future bush-fire hot spots. In this study, we develop an ensemble method based on a two-layered machine learning model to establish relationship between fire incidence and climatic data. In a 336 week data trial, we demonstrate that the model provides highly accurate bush-fire incidence hot-spot estimation (91% global accuracy) from the weekly climatic surfaces. Our analysis also indicates that Australian weekly bush-fire frequencies increased by 40% over the last 5 years, particularly during summer months, implicating a serious climatic shift. PMID:26998312

  9. Dietary phosphorus is associated with a significant increase in left ventricular mass

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kalani T.; Robinson-Cohen, Cassianne; de Oliveira, Marcia C.; Kostina, Alina; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Ix, Joachim H.; Nguyen, Ha; Eng, John; Lima, Joao A.C.; Siscovick, David; Weiss, Noel S.; Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    Dietary phosphorus consumption has risen steadily in the United States. Oral phosphorus loading alters key regulatory hormones and impairs vascular endothelial function which may lead to an increase in left ventricular mass (LVM). We investigated the association of dietary phosphorus with LVM in 4,494 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a community-based study of individuals free of known cardiovascular disease. The intake of dietary phosphorus was estimated using a 120-item food frequency questionnaire and the LVM was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Regression models were used to determine associations of estimated dietary phosphorus with LVM and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Mean estimated dietary phosphorus intake was 1,167 mg/day in men and 1,017 mg/day in women. After adjustment for demographics, dietary sodium, total calories, lifestyle factors, comorbidities, and established LVH risk factors, each quintile increase in the estimated dietary phosphate intake was associated with an estimated 1.1 gram greater LVM. The highest gender-specific dietary phosphorus quintile was associated with an estimated 6.1 gram greater LVM compared to the lowest quintile. Higher dietary phosphorus intake was associated with greater odds of LVH among women, but not men. These associations require confirmation in other studies. PMID:23283134

  10. Modern Environmental Health Hazards: A Public Health Issue of Increasing Significance in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Nweke, Onyemaechi C.; Sanders III, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Traditional hazards such as poor sanitation currently account for most of Africa’s environmentally related disease burden. However, with rapid development absent appropriate safeguards for environment and health, modern environmental health hazards (MEHHs) may emerge as critical contributors to the continent’s disease burden. We review recent evidence of human exposure to and health effects from MEHHs, and their occurrence in environmental media and consumer products. Our purpose is to highlight the growing significance of these hazards as African countries experience urbanization, industrial growth, and development. Data sources We reviewed published epidemiologic, exposure, and environmental studies of chemical agents such as heavy metals and pesticides. Data synthesis The body of evidence demonstrates ongoing environmental releases of MEHHs and human exposures sometimes at toxicologically relevant levels. Several sources of MEHHs in environmental media have been identified, including natural resource mining and processing and automobile exhaust. Biomonitoring studies provided direct evidence of human exposure to metals such as mercury and lead and pesticides such as p,p′-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and organophosphates. Land and water resource pollution and industrial air toxics are areas of significant data gaps, notwithstanding the presence of several emitting sources. Conclusion Unmitigated MEHH releases and human exposure have implications for Africa’s disease burden. For Africans encumbered by conditions such as malnutrition that impair resilience to toxicologic challenges, the burden may be higher. A shift in public health policy toward accommodating the emerging diversity in Africa’s environmental health issues is necessary to successfully alleviate the burden of avoidable ill health and premature death for all its communities now and in the future. PMID:19590675

  11. Break dance significantly increases static balance in 9 years-old soccer players.

    PubMed

    Ricotti, Leonardo; Ravaschio, Andrea

    2011-03-01

    Static balance in young athletes is an important ability that has a relevant influence on their present and future sport performances, as well as on the reduction in risk of injury. The present study reports data collected on three homogeneous groups of 9 years-old athletes (n=10 for each group), whose static balance was monitored every two months during an overall period of six months. At the beginning of the study, all of the children in each of the three groups were performing soccer activity with a frequency (three times a week) that was kept constant during the observation period. During the six months, group 1 maintained only the soccer activity, group 2 also performed swimming activity (twice a week) in parallel with the soccer activity, while group 3 started, at month 2, to perform soccer activity with a break dance course (twice a week). Double leg stance (with eyes open and closed) and single leg stance (on dominant and non-dominant leg) tests were performed using a force platform, and the COP area calculated for each trial. Results show a clear decrease in the "soccer+break dance" players COP area values during the six months, suggesting an improvement in their static balance. The difference was significantly greater with respect to that of soccer players and "soccer+swimming" players. This was evident in all the tests performed starting from two months after the break dance activity began.

  12. Space radiation does not induce a significant increase of intrachromosomal exchanges in astronauts' lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Horstmann, M; Durante, M; Johannes, C; Pieper, R; Obe, G

    2005-12-01

    Chromosome aberration analysis in astronauts has been used to provide direct, biologically motivated estimates of equivalent doses and risk associated to cosmic radiation exposure during space flight. However, the past studies concentrated on measurements of dicentrics and translocations, while chromosome intrachanges (inversions) have never been measured in astronauts' samples. Recent data reported in the literature suggest that densely ionizing radiation can induce a large fraction of intrachanges, thus leading to the suspicion that interchanges grossly underestimate the cosmic radiation-induced cytogenetic damage in astronauts. We have analyzed peripheral blood lymphocytes from 11 astronauts involved in short- or long-term space flights in low-Earth orbit using high-resolution multicolor banding to assess the frequency of intrachromosomal exchanges in both pre- and post-flight samples. We did not detect any inversions in chromosome 5 from a total of 2800 cells in astronauts' blood. In addition, no complex type exchanges were found in a total of 3590 astronauts' lymphocytes analyzed by multifluor fluorescence in situ hybridisation. We conclude that, within the statistical power of this study, the analysis of interchanges for biological dosimetry in astronauts does not significantly underestimate the space radiation-induced cytogenetic damage, and complex-type exchanges or intrachanges have limited practical use for biodosimetry at very low doses.

  13. Delaying diagnostic procedure significantly increases mortality in patients with invasive mucormycosis.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Su Jin; Lee, Ji Un; Song, Young Goo; Lee, Kyoung Hwa; Lee, Min Joo

    2015-12-01

    Invasive mucormycosis is an uncommon but increasing life-threatening fungal infection. The present study investigated clinical characteristics and mortality among patients diagnosed as invasive mucormycosis infection. We retrospectively reviewed a total of 24 histologically proven cases of invasive mucormycosis at two tertiary care referral hospitals between November 2005 and February 2014. Overall survival was 50% (n = 12). The time between onset of symptom and diagnostic procedure proved to be associated with mortality (P = 0.009). In addition, preexisting renal failure and thrombocytopenia demonstrated trends toward a poor outcome in our study (P = 0.089 and 0.065, respectively). On multivariate regression analysis, delayed diagnostic procedure (more than 16 days after the onset of symptoms) was an independent predictor of mortality (OR= 12.34, 95% CI, 1.43-10.64; P = 0.022). Mucormycosis is a destructive fungal infection that is associated with high mortality rates, ranging from 40% to 100% depending on the form of disease. When a clinician suspects invasive mucormycosis infection, an early diagnostic procedure performed within 16 days from the onset of symptom and early initiation of antifungal therapy will lead to successful management of this highly fatal disease.

  14. Significance of Increasing n-3 PUFA Content in Pork on Human Health.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xianyong; Jiang, Zongyong; Lai, Chaoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Evidence for the health-promoting effects of food rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) is reviewed. Pork is an important meat source for humans. According to a report by the US Department of Agriculture ( http://www.ers.usda.gov/topics ), the pork consumption worldwide in 2011 was about 79.3 million tons, much higher than that of beef (48.2 million tons). Pork also contains high levels of unsaturated fatty acids relative to ruminant meats (Enser, M., Hallett, K., Hewett, B., Fursey, G. A. J. and Wood, J. D. (1996) . Fatty acid content and composition of English beef, lamb, and pork at retail. Meat Sci. 44:443-458). The available literature indicates that the levels of eicosatetraenoic and docosahexaenoic in pork may be increased by fish-derived or linseed products, the extent of which being dependent on the nature of the supplementation. Transgenic pigs and plants show promise with high content of n-3 PUFA and low ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids in their tissues. The approaches mentioned for decreasing n-6/n-3 ratios have both advantages and disadvantages. Selected articles are critically reviewed and summarized.

  15. Marine animals significantly increase tundra N2O and CH4 emissions in maritime Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Renbin; Liu, Yashu; Xu, Hua; Ma, Dawei; Jiang, Shan

    2013-12-01

    studies on greenhouse gas emissions from animals concentrated on domestic animals, with limited data available from wild animals. The number of marine animals is potentially large in coastal Antarctica. In this paper, N2O and CH4 emissions were investigated from a penguin colony, a seal colony, a skua colony, the adjacent animal-lacking tundra, and background tundra sites to test the effects of marine animals on their fluxes in maritime Antarctica. Extremely high N2O emissions occurred in the penguin puddles (mean 392 µg N2O m-2 h-1) and seal wallows (mean 579 µg N2O m-2 h-1). The N2O emissions from animal colony tundra (13-57 µg N2O m-2 h-1) are much higher than those from the animal-lacking tundra, whereas the background tundra showed negligible N2O fluxes. Penguin puddles and seal wallows were stronger CH4 emitters than animal colony tundra soils, while animal-lacking tundra soils were strong CH4 sinks. Overall high N2O and CH4 emissions were modulated by soil physical and chemical processes associated with marine animal activities: sufficient supply of the nutrients NH4+-N and NO3--N, total nitrogen, and total organic carbon from marine animal excreta, animal tramp, and high soil water-filled pore space. Laboratory incubation experiments further confirmed that penguin and seal colony soils produced much higher N2O and CH4 emissions than animal-lacking tundra soils. Our results indicate that marine animal colonies are the hot spots for N2O and CH4 emissions in maritime Antarctica, and even at the global scale, and current climate warming will further increase their emissions.

  16. Increased abundance of translation machinery in stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells from four schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Topol, A; English, J A; Flaherty, E; Rajarajan, P; Hartley, B J; Gupta, S; Desland, F; Zhu, S; Goff, T; Friedman, L; Rapoport, J; Felsenfeld, D; Cagney, G; Mackay-Sim, A; Savas, J N; Aronow, B; Fang, G; Zhang, B; Cotter, D; Brennand, K J

    2015-10-20

    The genetic and epigenetic factors contributing to risk for schizophrenia (SZ) remain unresolved. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, perturbed global protein translation in human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived forebrain neural progenitor cells (NPCs) from four SZ patients relative to six unaffected controls. We report increased total protein levels and protein synthesis, together with two independent sets of quantitative mass spectrometry evidence indicating markedly increased levels of ribosomal and translation initiation and elongation factor proteins, in SZ hiPSC NPCs. We posit that perturbed levels of global protein synthesis in SZ hiPSC NPCs represent a novel post-transcriptional mechanism that might contribute to disease progression.

  17. Increased abundance of translation machinery in stem cell–derived neural progenitor cells from four schizophrenia patients

    PubMed Central

    Topol, A; English, J A; Flaherty, E; Rajarajan, P; Hartley, B J; Gupta, S; Desland, F; Zhu, S; Goff, T; Friedman, L; Rapoport, J; Felsenfeld, D; Cagney, G; Mackay-Sim, A; Savas, J N; Aronow, B; Fang, G; Zhang, B; Cotter, D; Brennand, K J

    2015-01-01

    The genetic and epigenetic factors contributing to risk for schizophrenia (SZ) remain unresolved. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, perturbed global protein translation in human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived forebrain neural progenitor cells (NPCs) from four SZ patients relative to six unaffected controls. We report increased total protein levels and protein synthesis, together with two independent sets of quantitative mass spectrometry evidence indicating markedly increased levels of ribosomal and translation initiation and elongation factor proteins, in SZ hiPSC NPCs. We posit that perturbed levels of global protein synthesis in SZ hiPSC NPCs represent a novel post-transcriptional mechanism that might contribute to disease progression. PMID:26485546

  18. Dramatic increase in the relative abundance of large male dungeness crabs Cancer magister following closure of commercial fishing in Glacier Bay, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taggart, S.J.; Shirley, Thomas C.; O'Clair, Charles E.; Mondragon, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    The size structure of the population of the Dungeness crab Cancer magister was studied at six sites in or near Glacier Bay, Alaska, before and after the closure of commercial fishing. Seven years of preclosure and 4 years of postclosure data are presented. After the closure of Glacier Bay to commercial fishing, the number and size of legal-sized male Dungeness crabs increased dramatically at the experimental sites. Female and sublegal-sized male crabs, the portions of the population not directly targeted by commercial fishing, did not increase in size or abundance following the closure. There was not a large shift in the size-abundance distribution of male crabs at the control site that is still open to commercial fishing. Marine protected areas are being widely promoted as effective tools for managing fisheries while simultaneously meeting marine conservation goals and maintaining marine biodiversity. Our data demonstrate that the size of male Dungeness crabs can markedly increase in a marine reserve, which supports the concept that marine reserves could help maintain genetic diversity in Dungeness crabs and other crab species subjected to size-limit fisheries and possibly increase the fertility of females. ?? 2004 by the American Fisheries Society.

  19. Few apparent short-term effects of elevated soil temperature and increased frequency of summer precipitation on the abundance and taxonomic diversity of desert soil micro- and meso-fauna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darby, B.J.; Neher, D.A.; Housman, D.C.; Belnap, J.

    2011-01-01

    Frequent hydration and drying of soils in arid systems can accelerate desert carbon and nitrogen mobilization due to respiration, microbial death, and release of intracellular solutes. Because desert microinvertebrates can mediate nutrient cycling, and the autotrophic components of crusts are known to be sensitive to rapid desiccation due to elevated temperatures after wetting events, we studied whether altered soil temperature and frequency of summer precipitation can also affect the composition of food web consumer functional groups. We conducted a two-year field study with experimentally-elevated temperature and frequency of summer precipitation in the Colorado Plateau desert, measuring the change in abundance of nematodes, protozoans, and microarthropods. We hypothesized that microfauna would be more adversely affected by the combination of elevated temperature and frequency of summer precipitation than either effect alone, as found previously for phototrophic crust biota. Microfauna experienced normal seasonal fluctuations in abundance, but the effect of elevated temperature and frequency of summer precipitation was statistically non-significant for most microfaunal groups, except amoebae. The seasonal increase in abundance of amoebae was reduced with combined elevated temperature and increased frequency of summer precipitation compared to either treatment alone, but comparable with control (untreated) plots. Based on our findings, we suggest that desert soil microfauna are relatively more tolerant to increases in ambient temperature and frequency of summer precipitation than the autotrophic components of biological soil crust at the surface.

  20. Episodic sucrose intake during food restriction increases synaptic abundance of AMPA receptors in nucleus accumbens and augments intake of sucrose following restoration of ad libitum feeding.

    PubMed

    Peng, X-X; Lister, A; Rabinowitsch, A; Kolaric, R; Cabeza de Vaca, S; Ziff, E B; Carr, K D

    2015-06-04

    Weight-loss dieting often leads to loss of control, rebound weight gain, and is a risk factor for binge pathology. Based on findings that food restriction (FR) upregulates sucrose-induced trafficking of glutamatergic AMPA receptors to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) postsynaptic density (PSD), this study was an initial test of the hypothesis that episodic "breakthrough" intake of forbidden food during dieting interacts with upregulated mechanisms of synaptic plasticity to increase reward-driven feeding. Ad libitum (AL) fed and FR subjects consumed a limited amount of 10% sucrose, or had access to water, every other day for 10 occasions. Beginning three weeks after return of FR rats to AL feeding, when 24-h chow intake and rate of body weight gain had normalized, subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR consumed more sucrose during a four week intermittent access protocol than the two AL groups and the group that had access to water during FR. In an experiment that substituted noncontingent administration of d-amphetamine for sucrose, FR subjects displayed an enhanced locomotor response during active FR but a blunted response, relative to AL subjects, during recovery from FR. This result suggests that the enduring increase in sucrose consumption is unlikely to be explained by residual enhancing effects of FR on dopamine signaling. In a biochemical experiment which paralleled the sucrose behavioral experiment, rats with a history of sucrose intake during FR displayed increased abundance of pSer845-GluA1, GluA2, and GluA3 in the NAc PSD relative to rats with a history of FR without sucrose access and rats that had been AL throughout, whether they had a history of episodic sucrose intake or not. A history of FR, with or without a history of sucrose intake, was associated with increased abundance of GluA1. A terminal 15-min bout of sucrose intake produced a further increase in pSer845-GluA1 and GluA2 in subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR

  1. Increased abundance of frost mRNA during recovery from cold stress is not essential for cold tolerance in adult Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Udaka, H; Percival-Smith, A; Sinclair, B J

    2013-10-01

    Frost (Fst) is a candidate gene associated with the response to cold in Drosophila melanogaster because Fst mRNA accumulation increases during recovery from low temperature exposure. We investigated the contribution of Fst expression to chill-coma recovery time, acute cold tolerance and rapid cold hardening (RCH) in adult D. melanogaster by knocking down Fst mRNA expression using GAL4/UAS-mediated RNA interference. In this experiment, four UAS-Fst and one tubulin-GAL4 lines were used. We predicted that if Fst is essential for cold tolerance phenotypes, flies with low Fst mRNA levels should be less cold tolerant than flies with normal levels of cold-induced Fst mRNA. Cold-induced Fst abundance and recovery time from chill-coma were not negatively correlated in male or female flies. Survival of 2 h exposures to sub-zero temperatures in Fst knockdown lines was not lower than that in a control line. Moreover, a low temperature pretreatment increased survival of severe cold exposure in flies regardless of Fst abundance level during recovery from cold stress, suggesting that Fst expression is not essential for RCH. Thus, cold-induced Fst accumulation is not essential for cold tolerance measured as chill-coma recovery time, survival to acute cold stress and RCH response in adult D. melanogaster.

  2. Increased abundance of insulin/insulin-like growth factor-I hybrid receptors in skeletal muscle of obese subjects is correlated with in vivo insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Federici, M; Porzio, O; Lauro, D; Borboni, P; Giovannone, B; Zucaro, L; Hribal, M L; Sesti, G

    1998-08-01

    We reported that in noninsulin-dependent diabetes melitus (NIDDM) patients expression of insulin/insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) hybrid receptors is increased in insulin target tissues. Whether this is a defect associated with NIDDM or represents a generalized abnormality associated with insulin resistant states is still unsettled. To address this, we applied a microwell-based immunoassay to measure abundance of insulin receptors, type 1 IGF receptors, and hybrid receptors in muscle of eight normal and eight obese subjects. Maximal insulin binding to insulin receptors was lower in obese than in control subjects (B/T = 1.8 +/- 0.20 and 2.6 +/- 0.30; P < 0.03, respectively) and was negatively correlated with insulinemia (r = -0.60; P < 0.01). Maximal IGF-I binding to type 1 IGF receptors was higher in obese than in controls (B/T = 1.9 +/- 0.20 and 0.86 +/- 0.10; P < 0.0001, respectively) and was negatively correlated with plasma IGF-I levels (r = -0.69; P < 0.003). Hybrid receptor abundance was higher in obese than in normal subjects (B/T = 1.21 +/- 0.14 and 0.44 +/- 0.06; P < 0.0003, respectively) and was negatively correlated with insulin binding (r = -0.60; P < 0.01) and positively correlated with IGF-I binding (r = 0.92; P < 0.0001). Increased abundance of hybrids was correlated with insulinemia (r = 0.70; P < 0.002) and body mass index (r = 0.71; P < 0.0019), whereas it was negatively correlated with in vivo insulin sensitivity measured by ITT (r = -0.67; P < 0.016). These results indicate that downregulation of insulin receptors or upregulation of type 1 IGF receptors because of changes in plasma insulin and IGF-I levels may result in modifications in hybrid receptor abundance.

  3. A significant increase in both basal and maximal calcineurin activity in the rat pilocarpine model of status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Kurz, J E; Sheets, D; Parsons, J T; Rana, A; Delorenzo, R J; Churn, S B

    2001-07-01

    This study focused on the effects of status epilepticus on the activity of calcineurin, a neuronally enriched, calcium-dependent phosphatase. Calcineurin is an important modulator of many neuronal processes, including learning and memory, induction of apoptosis, receptor function and neuronal excitability. Therefore, a status epilepticus-induced alteration of the activity of this important phosphatase would have significant physiological implications. Status epilepticus was induced by pilocarpine injection and allowed to continue for 60 min. Brain region homogenates were then assayed for calcineurin activity by dephosphorylation of p-nitrophenol phosphate. A significant status epilepticus-dependent increase in both basal and Mn(2+)-dependent calcineurin activity was observed in homogenates isolated from the cortex and hippocampus, but not the cerebellum. This increase was resistant to 150 nM okadaic acid, but sensitive to 50 microM okadaic acid. The increase in basal activity was also resistant to 100 microM sodium orthovanadate. Both maximal dephosphorylation rate and substrate affinity were increased following status epilepticus. However, the increase in calcineurin activity was not found to be due to an increase in calcineurin enzyme levels. Finally, increase in calcineurin activity was found to be NMDA-receptor activation dependent. The data demonstrate that status epilepticus resulted in a significant increase in both basal and maximal calcineurin activity.

  4. A significant increase in both basal and maximal calcineurin activity following fluid percussion injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kurz, Jonathan E; Parsons, J Travis; Rana, Aniruddha; Gibson, Cynthia J; Hamm, Robert J; Churn, Severn B

    2005-04-01

    Calcineurin, a neuronally enriched, calcium-stimulated phosphatase, is an important modulator of many neuronal processes, including several that are physiologically related to the pathology of traumatic brain injury. This study examined the effects of moderate, central fluid percussion injury on the activity of this important neuronal enzyme. Animals were sacrificed at several time-points postinjury and cortical, hippocampal, and cerebellar homogenates were assayed for calcineurin activity by dephosphorylation of p-nitrophenol phosphate. A significant brain injury-dependent increase was observed in both hippocampal and cortical homogenates under both basal and maximally-stimulated reaction conditions. This increase persisted 2-3 weeks post-injury. Brain injury did not alter substrate affinity, but did induce a significant increase in the apparent maximal dephosphorylation rate. Unlike the other brain regions, no change in calcineurin activity was observed in the cerebellum following brain injury. No brain region tested displayed a significant change in calcineurin enzyme levels as determined by Western blot, demonstrating that increased enzyme synthesis was not responsible for the observed increase in activity. The data support the conclusion that fluid percussion injury results in increased calcineurin activity in the rat forebrain. This increased activity has broad physiological implications, possibly resulting in altered cellular excitability or a greater likelihood of neuronal cell death.

  5. A Naturally Occurring Single Amino Acid Replacement in Multiple Gene Regulator of Group A Streptococcus Significantly Increases Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Sanson, Misu; O'Neill, Brian E.; Kachroo, Priyanka; Anderson, Jeff R.; Flores, Anthony R.; Valson, Chandni; Cantu, Concepcion C.; Makthal, Nishanth; Karmonik, Christof; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Kumaraswami, Muthiah; Musser, James M.; Olsen, Randall J.

    2016-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common source of genetic variation within a species; however, few investigations demonstrate how naturally occurring SNPs may increase strain virulence. We recently used group A Streptococcus as a model pathogen to study bacteria strain genotype–patient disease phenotype relationships. Whole-genome sequencing of approximately 800 serotype M59 group A Streptococcus strains, recovered during an outbreak of severe invasive infections across North America, identified a disproportionate number of SNPs in the gene encoding multiple gene regulator of group A Streptococcus (mga). Herein, we report results of studies designed to test the hypothesis that the most commonly occurring SNP, encoding a replacement of arginine for histidine at codon 201 of Mga (H201R), significantly increases virulence. Whole transcriptome analysis revealed that the H201R replacement significantly increased expression of mga and 54 other genes, including many proven virulence factors. Compared to the wild-type strain, a H201R isogenic mutant strain caused significantly larger skin lesions in mice. Serial quantitative bacterial culture and noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging also demonstrated that the isogenic H201R strain was significantly more virulent in a nonhuman primate model of joint infection. These findings show that the H201R replacement in Mga increases the virulence of M59 group A Streptococcus and provide new insight to how a naturally occurring SNP in bacteria contributes to human disease phenotypes. PMID:25476528

  6. Exploiting the right side of the Ramachandran plot: substitution of glycines by D-alanine can significantly increase protein stability.

    PubMed

    Anil, Burcu; Song, Benben; Tang, Yuefeng; Raleigh, Daniel P

    2004-10-20

    A major goal of protein engineering is the enhancement of protein stability. Here we demonstrate a rational method for enhancing the stability of globular proteins by targeting glycine residues which adopt conformations with Phi > 0. Replacement of such a glycine by d-alanine can lead to a significant increase in stability. The approach is tested at three sites in two model proteins. NMR and CD indicated that the substitutions do not alter the structure. Replacement of glycine-24 of the N-terminal domain of L9 (NTL9) with d-Ala results in an increase in stability of 1.3 kcal mol-1, while replacement of glycine-34 of NTL9 leads to an increase of 1.9 kcal mol-1. Replacement of glycine-331 of the UBA domain with d-Ala leads to an increase in stability of 0.6 kcal mol-1.

  7. Significance of rises in urinary bicarbonate contents and pH related with increased atmospheric carbon dioxide in Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Tomoda, A; Kazuka, M; Yashima, K; Niiyama, K; Muro, D

    1997-09-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration was measured at several locations in Tokyo, for two weeks, in December, 1995 and 1996, and was found to be increased up to 550 ppm, while it was shown by us to be 450 ppm in December, 1994. These results demonstrate that atmospheric carbon dioxide is steadily increasing at faster rates in Tokyo than we expect, though it has been considered that the atmospheric carbon dioxide is still as much as 350 ppm. Bicarbonate concentration and pH of urine of 13 medical students in Tokyo were also measured for the same period in December of 1995 and 1996, and were found to be significantly increased compared with the values that were reported in the past. Furthermore, urinary bicarbonate and pH were extensively increased, when 4 and 5 students made 3-hour car trip in two different cars with all windows closed, where carbon dioxide was increased up to about 5000 ppm within 1 hour. These results support our previous hypothesis that the increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide may be reflected by the increase of urinary bicarbonate and pH. Our results also suggest that the environmental situation is being seriously aggravated in Tokyo, year by year, in terms of atmospheric carbon dioxide.

  8. A study on directions of significant efficiency increase of rock fracture by tools equipped with super hard inserts from composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvornikov, L. T.; Klishin, V. I.; Nikitenko, S. M.; Korneyev, V. A.; Korneyev, P. A.

    2016-10-01

    In the paper the directions of a significant increase in effectiveness of mine rocks destruction by tools equipped with super hard inserts from composite materials are reviewed and justified. Designs of mining drill bits with the cutting insert in the form of elliptical Cassinian oval and the asymmetric ring cleaves are suggested. Versions of laboratory stand constructions are developed in order to determine the power consumption of rock destruction.

  9. Permafrost response to increasing Arctic shrub abundance depends on the relative influence of shrubs on local soil cooling versus large-scale climate warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, David M.; Swenson, Sean C.

    2011-10-01

    Deciduous shrub abundance is increasing across the Arctic in response to climatic warming. In a recent field manipulation experiment in which shrubs were removed from a plot and compared to a control plot with shrubs, Blok et al (2010 Glob. Change Biol. 16 1296-305) found that shrubs protect the ground through shading, resulting in a ~ 9% shallower active layer thickness (ALT) under shrubs compared to grassy-tundra, which led them to argue that continued Arctic shrub expansion could mitigate future permafrost thaw. We utilize the Community Land Model (CLM4) coupled to the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM4) to evaluate this hypothesis. CLM4 simulates shallower ALT (~- 11 cm) under shrubs, consistent with the field manipulation study. However, in an idealized pan-Arctic + 20% shrub area experiment, atmospheric heating, driven mainly by surface albedo changes related to protrusion of shrub stems above the spring snowpack, leads to soil warming and deeper ALT (~+ 10 cm). Therefore, if climate feedbacks are considered, shrub expansion may actually increase rather than decrease permafrost vulnerability. When we account for blowing-snow redistribution from grassy-tundra to shrubs, shifts in snowpack distribution in low versus high shrub area simulations counter the climate warming impact, resulting in a grid cell mean ALT that is unchanged. These results reinforce the need to consider vegetation dynamics and blowing-snow processes in the permafrost thaw model projections.

  10. Maternal supplementation with rumen-protected methionine increases prepartal plasma methionine concentration and alters hepatic mRNA abundance of 1-carbon, methionine, and transsulfuration pathways in neonatal Holstein calves.

    PubMed

    Jacometo, C B; Zhou, Z; Luchini, D; Corrêa, M N; Loor, J J

    2017-02-01

    An important mechanism of nutritional "programming" induced by supplementation with methyl donors during pregnancy is the alteration of mRNA abundance in the offspring. We investigated the effects of rumen-protected Met (RPM) on abundance of 17 genes in the 1-carbon, Met, and transsulfuration pathways in calf liver from cows fed the same basal diet without (control, CON) or with RPM at 0.08% of diet dry matter/d (MET) from -21 through +30 d around calving. Biopsies (n = 8 calves per diet) were harvested on d 4, 14, 28, and 50 of age. Cows fed RPM had greater plasma concentration of Met (17.8 vs. 28.2 μM) at -10 d from calving. However, no difference was present in colostrum yield and free AA concentrations. Greater abundance on d 4 and 14 of betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase 2 (BHMT2), adenosylhomocysteinase (AHCY; also known as SAHH), and cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) in MET calves indicated alterations in Met, choline, and homocysteine metabolism. Those data agree with the greater abundance of methionine adenosyltransferase 1A (MAT1A) in MET calves. Along with CBS, the greater abundance of glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCLC) and glutathione reductase (GSR) on d 4 in MET calves indicated a short-term postnatal alteration in the use of homocysteine for taurine and glutathione synthesis (both are potent intracellular antioxidants). The striking 7-fold upregulation at d 50 versus 4 of cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase (CSAD), catalyzing the last step of taurine synthesis, in MET and CON calves underscores an important role of taurine during postnatal calf growth. The unique role of taurine in the young calf is further supported by the upregulation of CBS, GCLC, and GSR at d 50 versus 14 and 28 in MET and CON. Although betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT) activity did not differ in MET and CON, it increased ∼50% at d 14 and 28 versus 4. A significant positive correlation (r = 0.79) was present between BHMT abundance and BHMT activity regardless

  11. Reduced brain levels of DHEAS in hepatic coma patients: significance for increased GABAergic tone in hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Ahboucha, Samir; Talani, Giuseppe; Fanutza, Tomas; Sanna, Enrico; Biggio, Giovanni; Gamrani, Halima; Butterworth, Roger F

    2012-07-01

    Increased neurosteroids with allosteric modulatory activity on GABA(A) receptors such as 3α-5α tertrahydroprogesterone; allopregnanolone (ALLO), are candidates to explain the phenomenon of "increased GABAergic tone" in hepatic encephalopathy (HE). However, it is not known how changes of other GABA(A) receptor modulators such as dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) contribute to altered GABAergic tone in HE. Concentrations of DHEAS were measured by radioimmunoassay in frontal cortex samples obtained at autopsy from 11 cirrhotic patients who died in hepatic coma and from an equal number of controls matched for age, gender, and autopsy delay intervals free from hepatic or neurological diseases. To assess whether reduced brain DHEAS contributes to increased GABAergic tone, in vitro patch clamp recordings in rat prefrontal cortex neurons were performed. A significant reduction of DHEAS (5.81±0.88 ng/g tissue) compared to control values (9.70±0.79 ng/g, p<0.01) was found. Brain levels of DHEAS in patients with liver disease who died without HE (11.43±1.74 ng/g tissue), and in a patient who died in uremic coma (12.56 ng/g tissue) were within the control range. Increasing ALLO enhances GABAergic tonic currents concentration-dependently, but increasing DHEAS reduces these currents. High concentrations of DHEAS (50 μM) reduce GABAergic tonic currents in the presence of ALLO, whereas reduced concentrations of DHEAS (1 μM) further stimulate these currents. These findings demonstrate that decreased concentrations of DHEAS together with increased brain concentrations of ALLO increase GABAergic tonic currents synergistically; suggesting that reduced brain DHEAS could further increase GABAergic tone in human HE.

  12. The increased expression of fatty acid-binding protein 9 in prostate cancer and its prognostic significance

    PubMed Central

    Al Fayi, Majed Saad; Gou, Xiaojun; Forootan, Shiva S.; Al-Jameel, Waseem; Bao, Zhengzheng; Rudland, Philip R.; Cornford, Philip A.; Hussain, Syed A.; Ke, Youqiang

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to numerous studies conducted to investigate the crucial role of fatty acid binding protein 5 (FABP5) in prostate cancer, investigations on the possible involvement of other FABPs are rare. Here we first measured the mRNA levels of 10 FABPs in benign and malignant prostate cell lines and identified the differentially expressed FABP6 and FABP9 mRNAs whose levels in all malignant cell lines were higher than those in the benign cells. Thereafter we assessed the expression status of FABP6 and FABP9 in both prostate cell lines and in human tissues. FABP6 protein was overexpressed only in 1 of the 5 malignant cell lines and its immunostaining intensities were not significantly different between benign and malignant prostate tissues. In contrast, FABP9 protein was highly expressed in highly malignant cell lines PC-3 and PC3-M, but its level in the benign PNT-2 and other malignant cell lines was not detectable. When analysed in an archival set of human prostate tissues, immunohistochemical staining intensity for FABP9 was significantly higher in carcinomas than in benign cases and the increase in FABP9 was significantly correlated with reduced patient survival times. Moreover, the increased level of staining for FABP9 was significantly associated with the increased joint Gleason scores (GS) and androgen receptor index (AR). Suppression of FABP9 expression in highly malignant PC3-M cells inhibited their invasive potential. Our results suggest that FABP9 is a valuable prognostic marker to predict the outcomes of prostate cancer patients, perhaps by playing an important role in prostate cancer cell invasion. PMID:27779102

  13. Interspecific rice hybrid of Oryza sativa x Oryza nivara reveals a significant increase in seed protein content.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Ahmed A; Sukumar, S; Krishnan, Hari B

    2008-01-23

    Wild species offer a potential reservoir of genetic variation for crop improvement. Besides the valuable genes for disease resistance that the wild species have provided for rice improvement, recent studies have shown that these wild species could also provide favorable alleles for the improvement of yield and yield-related traits. The present study reports yet another potential of wild relatives of rice, which involves the improvement of seed protein content. A significant increase in seed protein content was observed in an interspecific hybrid between Oryza sativa ssp. indica and the wild species Oryza nivara. The hybrid showed a protein content of 12.4%, which was 28 and 18.2% higher than those of the parents O. nivara and IR 64, respectively. The increase in protein content was dependent on the genetic background of the rice variety used in the hybridization. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of seed storage proteins demonstrated that a significant increase in prolamins and glutelins was mainly responsible for the elevated protein content of the hybrid. Amino acid analysis of seed proteins revealed that the hybrid had net gains of 19.5% in lysine and 19.4% in threonine over the O. nivara parent on a seed dry weight basis. Molecular analysis indicated that the increase in protein content of the hybrid was not a result of chromosomal rearrangements or transposable element activation, at least in the chromosomal regions containing seed storage protein genes. A preliminary genetic analysis of the F 2 segregating population showed that the inheritance of the increased protein content was polygenic in nature. The development of this interspecific hybrid offers a great potential for selecting new rice cultivars that combine the high yield and superior cooking quality of IR 64 with improved seed protein content.

  14. Analysis of a large dataset of mycorrhiza inoculation field trials on potato shows highly significant increases in yield.

    PubMed

    Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    An increasing human population requires more food production in nutrient-efficient systems in order to simultaneously meet global food needs while reducing the environmental footprint of agriculture. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have the potential to enhance crop yield, but their efficiency has yet to be demonstrated in large-scale crop production systems. This study reports an analysis of a dataset consisting of 231 field trials in which the same AMF inoculant (Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM 197198) was applied to potato over a 4-year period in North America and Europe under authentic field conditions. The inoculation was performed using a liquid suspension of AMF spores that was sprayed onto potato seed pieces, yielding a calculated 71 spores per seed piece. Statistical analysis showed a highly significant increase in marketable potato yield (ANOVA, P < 0.0001) for inoculated fields (42.2 tons/ha) compared with non-inoculated controls (38.3 tons/ha), irrespective of trial year. The average yield increase was 3.9 tons/ha, representing 9.5 % of total crop yield. Inoculation was profitable with a 0.67-tons/ha increase in yield, a threshold reached in almost 79 % of all trials. This finding clearly demonstrates the benefits of mycorrhizal-based inoculation on crop yield, using potato as a case study. Further improvements of these beneficial inoculants will help compensate for crop production deficits, both now and in the future.

  15. RelB/p52-mediated NF-κB signaling alters histone acetylation to increase the abundance of corticotropin-releasing hormone in human placenta.

    PubMed

    Di Stefano, Valeria; Wang, Bingbing; Parobchak, Nataliya; Roche, Natalie; Rosen, Todd

    2015-08-25

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) produced in the placenta may be part of a clock that regulates the length of human gestation. Maternal plasma CRH abundance exponentially increases as pregnancy advances. Glucocorticoid stimulates CRH expression in full-term human placenta by promoting noncanonical (RelB/p52 heterodimer-mediated) nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway activity. Using dexamethasone to mimic glucocorticoid exposure, we found that an epigenetic switch mediated the glucocorticoid-induced expression of CRH as gestation advances. The amount of acetylated histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) associated with the CRH promoter was greater in cytotrophoblasts from full-term placenta than in those from midterm placenta. Knocking down the lysine acetyltransferase CBP reduced H3K9 histone acetylation and prevented dexamethasone-induced CRH expression. Unexpectedly, knocking down the histone deacetylase HDAC1 or pharmacologically inhibiting type I and II HDACs also decreased the expression of CRH yet increased the acetylation of H3K9 and other histone regions. Both CBP and HDAC1 bound at the CRH promoter in a complex with the RelB/p52 heterodimer in a mutually dependent manner; knocking down any one factor in the complex prevented binding of the others as well as the dexamethasone-induced CRH expression. Our results suggest that glucocorticoids induce a transcription complex consisting of RelB/p52, CBP, and HDAC1 that triggers a dynamic acetylation-mediated epigenetic change to induce CRH expression in full-term human placenta.

  16. GSTT1 Null Genotype Significantly Increases the Susceptibility to Urinary System Cancer: Evidences from 63,876 Subjects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; He, Jing; Ma, Tian-Jiao; Lei, Wei; Li, Feng; Shen, Han; Shen, Zhen-Ya

    2016-01-01

    GSTT1 gene plays an important role in detoxification and clearance of reactive oxygen species(ROS). A null variant in this gene has been demonstrated to confer cancer susceptibility. Although many studies have demonstrated the association between GSTT1 null polymorphism and urinary system cancer susceptibility, several publications reported opposite conclusions. For better understanding the effects of this polymorphism on the risk of urinary system cancer, a updated meta-analysis was performed with a total of 26,666 cases and 37,210 controls extracted from 117 studies, by following the latest meta-analysis guidelines (PRISMA). The results suggested that the GSTT1 null genotype was significantly associated with an increased risk of urinary system cancer (OR=1.13, 95%CI=1.05-1.22). Furthermore, stratified analyses by the type of cancer, ethnicity, source of control and quality score presented a significantly increased risk associated with GSTT1 null genotype in bladder and prostate cancer subgroup, Caucasians and Indians subgroup, population-based(PB) subgroup, medium quality and low quality subgroup. Overall, our meta-analysis suggested that GSTT1 null genotype is a potential cancer susceptibility variant. Well-designed and large-cohort studies are needed to confirm the association between GSTT1 null genotype and urinary system cancer risk.

  17. GSTT1 Null Genotype Significantly Increases the Susceptibility to Urinary System Cancer: Evidences from 63,876 Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; He, Jing; Ma, Tian-Jiao; Lei, Wei; Li, Feng; Shen, Han; Shen, Zhen-Ya

    2016-01-01

    GSTT1 gene plays an important role in detoxification and clearance of reactive oxygen species(ROS). A null variant in this gene has been demonstrated to confer cancer susceptibility. Although many studies have demonstrated the association between GSTT1 null polymorphism and urinary system cancer susceptibility, several publications reported opposite conclusions. For better understanding the effects of this polymorphism on the risk of urinary system cancer, a updated meta-analysis was performed with a total of 26,666 cases and 37,210 controls extracted from 117 studies, by following the latest meta-analysis guidelines (PRISMA). The results suggested that the GSTT1 null genotype was significantly associated with an increased risk of urinary system cancer (OR=1.13, 95%CI=1.05-1.22). Furthermore, stratified analyses by the type of cancer, ethnicity, source of control and quality score presented a significantly increased risk associated with GSTT1 null genotype in bladder and prostate cancer subgroup, Caucasians and Indians subgroup, population-based(PB) subgroup, medium quality and low quality subgroup. Overall, our meta-analysis suggested that GSTT1 null genotype is a potential cancer susceptibility variant. Well-designed and large-cohort studies are needed to confirm the association between GSTT1 null genotype and urinary system cancer risk. PMID:27698905

  18. Expression of a bacterial catalase in a strictly anaerobic methanogen significantly increases tolerance to hydrogen peroxide but not oxygen.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Matthew E; Schaff, Cody W; Horne, Alexandra J; Lessner, Faith H; Lessner, Daniel J

    2014-02-01

    Haem-dependent catalase is an antioxidant enzyme that degrades H2O2, producing H2O and O2, and is common in aerobes. Catalase is present in some strictly anaerobic methane-producing archaea (methanogens), but the importance of catalase to the antioxidant system of methanogens is poorly understood. We report here that a survey of the sequenced genomes of methanogens revealed that the majority of species lack genes encoding catalase. Moreover, Methanosarcina acetivorans is a methanogen capable of synthesizing haem and encodes haem-dependent catalase in its genome; yet, Methanosarcina acetivorans cells lack detectable catalase activity. However, inducible expression of the haem-dependent catalase from Escherichia coli (EcKatG) in the chromosome of Methanosarcina acetivorans resulted in a 100-fold increase in the endogenous catalase activity compared with uninduced cells. The increased catalase activity conferred a 10-fold increase in the resistance of EcKatG-induced cells to H2O2 compared with uninduced cells. The EcKatG-induced cells were also able to grow when exposed to levels of H2O2 that inhibited or killed uninduced cells. However, despite the significant increase in catalase activity, growth studies revealed that EcKatG-induced cells did not exhibit increased tolerance to O2 compared with uninduced cells. These results support the lack of catalase in the majority of methanogens, since methanogens are more likely to encounter O2 rather than high concentrations of H2O2 in the natural environment. Catalase appears to be a minor component of the antioxidant system in methanogens, even those that are aerotolerant, including Methanosarcina acetivorans. Importantly, the experimental approach used here demonstrated the feasibility of engineering beneficial traits, such as H2O2 tolerance, in methanogens.

  19. Significance of increasing poverty levels for determining late-stage breast cancer diagnosis in 1990 and 2000.

    PubMed

    Barry, Janis; Breen, Nancy; Barrett, Michael

    2012-08-01

    We examine the association between late-stage breast cancer diagnosis and residential poverty in Detroit, Atlanta, and San Francisco in 1990 and 2000. We tested whether residence in census tracts with increasing levels of poverty were associated with increased odds of a late-stage diagnosis in 1990 and 2000 and found that it was. To test this, we linked breast cancer cases from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registries with poverty data from the census. Tracts were grouped into low, moderate, and high poverty based on the percentage of households reporting income below the poverty level. While late-stage breast cancer rates and the number of women living in high and moderate-poverty areas declined absolutely between 1990 and 2000, estimates from our combined three-city model showed that odds of a late-stage diagnosis remained stubbornly elevated in increasingly poor areas in both years. Non-Hispanic black women faced higher odds of a late-stage diagnosis relative to non-Hispanic white women in both years. In separate regressions for each city, the odds ratios affirm that combining data across cities may be misleading. In 1990 and 2000, only women living in moderately poor neighborhoods of San Francisco faced elevated odds, while in Detroit women in both moderate- and high-poverty areas faced increased likelihood of late-stage diagnosis. In Atlanta, none of the poverty measures were significant in 1990 or 2000. In our test of physician supply on stage, an increase in the number of neighborhood primary care doctor's offices was associated with decreased odds of a late-stage diagnosis only for Detroit residents and for non-Hispanic whites in the three-city model.

  20. The adipokine leptin increases skeletal muscle mass and significantly alters skeletal muscle miRNA expression profile in aged mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hamrick, Mark W.; Herberg, Samuel; Arounleut, Phonepasong; He, Hong-Zhi; Shiver, Austin; Qi, Rui-Qun; Zhou, Li; Isales, Carlos M.; and others

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Aging is associated with muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass, known as the sarcopenia of aging. {yields} We demonstrate that age-related muscle atrophy is associated with marked changes in miRNA expression in muscle. {yields} Treating aged mice with the adipokine leptin significantly increased muscle mass and the expression of miRNAs involved in muscle repair. {yields} Recombinant leptin therapy may therefore be a novel approach for treating age-related muscle atrophy. -- Abstract: Age-associated loss of muscle mass, or sarcopenia, contributes directly to frailty and an increased risk of falls and fractures among the elderly. Aged mice and elderly adults both show decreased muscle mass as well as relatively low levels of the fat-derived hormone leptin. Here we demonstrate that loss of muscle mass and myofiber size with aging in mice is associated with significant changes in the expression of specific miRNAs. Aging altered the expression of 57 miRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle, and many of these miRNAs are now reported to be associated specifically with age-related muscle atrophy. These include miR-221, previously identified in studies of myogenesis and muscle development as playing a role in the proliferation and terminal differentiation of myogenic precursors. We also treated aged mice with recombinant leptin, to determine whether leptin therapy could improve muscle mass and alter the miRNA expression profile of aging skeletal muscle. Leptin treatment significantly increased hindlimb muscle mass and extensor digitorum longus fiber size in aged mice. Furthermore, the expression of 37 miRNAs was altered in muscles of leptin-treated mice. In particular, leptin treatment increased the expression of miR-31 and miR-223, miRNAs known to be elevated during muscle regeneration and repair. These findings suggest that aging in skeletal muscle is associated with marked changes in the expression of specific miRNAs, and that nutrient

  1. Polyp detection rate in transverse and sigmoid colon significantly increases with longer withdrawal time during screening colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Nagamu; Yoshida, Toshifumi; Bessyo, Rieko; Yoneno, Kazuaki; Imaeda, Hiroyuki; Ogata, Haruhiko; Kanai, Takanori; Sugino, Yoshinori; Iwao, Yasushi

    2017-01-01

    Background The guidelines for colonoscopy present withdrawal time (WT) and adenoma detection rate (ADR) as the quality indicator. The purpose of this retrospective study is to analyze the predicting factors with polyp detection rate (PDR) as a surrogate for ADR by using comprehensive health checkup data, and assess the correlation between PDR per each colonic segment and WT, and factors influencing WT. Methods One thousand and thirty six consecutive health checkup cases from April 2015 to March 2016 were enrolled in this study, and 880 subjects who undertook colonoscopy without polyp removal or biopsy were divided into the two groups (polyp not detected group vs polyp detected group). The two groups were compared by subjects and clinical characteristics with univariate analysis followed by multivariate analysis. Colonoscopies with longer WT (≥ 6 min) and those with shorter WT (< 6 min) were compared by PDR per each colonic segment, and also by subjects and clinical characteristics. Results A total of 1009 subjects included two incomplete colonoscopies (CIR, 99.9%) and overall PDR was 35.8%. A multiple logistic regression model demonstrated that age, gender, and WT were significantly related factors for polyp detection (odds ratio, 1.036; 1.771; 1.217). PDR showed a linear increase as WT increased from 3 min to 9 min (r = 0.989, p = 0.000) and PDR with long WT group was higher than that with short WT group per each colonic segment, significantly in transverse (2.3 times, p = 0.004) and sigmoid colon (2.1 times, p = 0.001). Not only bowel preparation quality but also insertion difficulty evaluated by endoscopist were significant factors relating with WT (odds ratio, 3.811; 1.679). Conclusion This study suggests that endoscopists should be recommended to take more time up to 9 min of WT to observe transverse and sigmoid colon, especially when they feel no difficulty during scope insertion. PMID:28328936

  2. Activating killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and their cognate HLA ligands are significantly increased in autism

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Anthony R.; Westover, Jonna B.; Gibbons, Cole; Johnson, Randall C.; Ward, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) proteins are expressed on natural killer (NK) cells and appear important in innate and adaptive immunity. There are about 14 KIR genes on chromosome 19q13.4, composed of those that inhibit and those that activate NK cell killing. Haplotypes have different combinations of these genes meaning that not all genes are present in a subject. There are two main classes of cognate human leukocyte antigen (HLA) ligands (HLA-Bw4 and HLA-C1/C2) that bind to the inhibitory/activating receptors. As a general rule, the inhibitory state is maintained except when virally infected or tumor cells are encountered; however, both increased activation and inhibition states have been associated with susceptibility and protection against numerous disease states including cancer, arthritis, and psoriasis. Utilizing DNA from 158 Caucasian subjects with autism and 176 KIR control subjects we show for the first time a highly significant increase in four activating KIR genes (2DS5, 3DS1, 2DS1 and 2DS4) as measured by chi square values and odds ratios. In addition, our data suggests a highly significant increase in the activating KIR gene 2DS1 and its cognate HLA-C2 ligand (2DS1+C2; p=0.00003 [Odds Ratio=2.87]). This information ties together two major immune gene complexes, the Human Leukocyte Complex and the Leukocyte Receptor Complex, and may partially explain immune abnormalities observed in many subjects with autism. PMID:22884899

  3. Neurite outgrowth is significantly increased by the simultaneous presentation of Schwann cells and moderate exogenous electric fields.

    PubMed

    Koppes, Abigail N; Seggio, Angela M; Thompson, Deanna M

    2011-08-01

    Axonal extension is influenced by a variety of external guidance cues; therefore, the development and optimization of a multi-faceted approach is probably necessary to address the intricacy of functional regeneration following nerve injury. In this study, primary dissociated neonatal rat dorsal root ganglia neurons and Schwann cells were examined in response to an 8 h dc electrical stimulation (0-100 mV mm(-1)). Stimulated samples were then fixed immediately, immunostained, imaged and analyzed to determine Schwann cell orientation and characterize neurite outgrowth relative to electric field strength and direction. Results indicate that Schwann cells are viable following electrical stimulation with 10-100 mV mm(-1), and retain a normal morphology relative to unstimulated cells; however, no directional bias is observed. Neurite outgrowth was significantly enhanced by twofold following exposure to either a 50 mV mm(-1) electric field (EF) or co-culture with unstimulated Schwann cells by comparison to neurons cultured alone. Neurite outgrowth was further increased in the presence of simultaneously applied cues (Schwann cells + 50 mV mm(-1) dc EF), exhibiting a 3.2-fold increase over unstimulated control neurons, and a 1.2-fold increase over either neurons cultured with unstimulated Schwann cells or the electrical stimulus alone. These results indicate that dc electric stimulation in combination with Schwann cells may provide synergistic guidance cues for improved axonal growth relevant to nerve injuries in the peripheral nervous system.

  4. The GIP/GIPR axis is functionally linked to GH-secretion increase in a significant proportion of gsp(-) somatotropinomas.

    PubMed

    Regazzo, Daniela; Losa, Marco; Albiger, Nora; Terreni, Maria Rosa; Vazza, Giovanni; Ceccato, Filippo; Emanuelli, Enzo; Denaro, Luca; Scaroni, Carla; Occhi, Gianluca

    2017-02-08

    Objective: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor (GIPR) overexpression has been recently described in a proportion of gsp(-) somatotropinomas and suggested to be associated with the paradoxical increase of GH (GH-PI) during an oral glucose load. Design and Methods: This study was aimed at linking the GIP/GIPR pathway to GH secretion in 25 somatotropinomas-derived primary cultures and correlating molecular with clinical features in acromegalic patients. Given the impairment of the GIPR/GIPR axis in acromegaly, an additional aim was to assess the effect of GH/IGF-1 stimulation on GIP expression in the enteroendocrine cell line STC-1. Results: nearly 80% of GIPR-expressing somatotropinomas, all of them negative for gsp mutations, show increased GH secretion upon GIP stimulation, higher sensitivity to forskolin but not to somatostatin analogues. Beside increased frequency of GH-PI, GIPR overexpression does not appear to affect acromegalic patients' clinical features. In STC-1 cells transfected with GIP promoter-driven luciferase vector, IGF-1 but not GH induced dose-dependent increase in luciferase activity. Conclusions: we demonstrate that GIPR mediates the GH-PI in a significant proportion of gsp(-) acromegalic patients. In these cases the stimulatory effect of IGF-I on GIP promoter support the hypothesis of a functional GH-IGF1-GIP axis. Further studies based on larger cohorts and the development of a stable transgenic model with inducible GIPR overexpression targeted to pituitary somatotroph lineage will be mandatory to establish the real role of GIPR in the pathogenesis of somatotropinomas.

  5. HIV-1 Structural Proteins Serve as PAMPs for TLR2 Heterodimers Significantly Increasing Infection and Innate Immune Activation

    PubMed Central

    Henrick, Bethany M.; Yao, Xiao-Dan; Rosenthal, Kenneth Lee

    2015-01-01

    Immune activation is critical to HIV infection and pathogenesis; however, our understanding of HIV innate immune activation remains incomplete. Recently we demonstrated that soluble TLR2 (sTLR2) physically inhibited HIV-induced NFκB activation and inflammation, as well as HIV-1 infection. In light of these findings, we hypothesized that HIV-1 structural proteins may serve as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) for cellular TLR2 heterodimers. These studies made use of primary human T cells and TZMbl cells stably transformed to express TLR2 (TZMbl-2). Our results demonstrated that cells expressing TLR2 showed significantly increased proviral DNA compared to cells lacking TLR2, and mechanistically this may be due to a TLR2-mediated increased CCR5 expression. Importantly, we show that HIV-1 structural proteins, p17, p24, and gp41, act as viral PAMPs signaling through TLR2 and its heterodimers leading to significantly increased immune activation via the NFκB signaling pathway. Using co-immunoprecipitation and a dot blot method, we demonstrated direct protein interactions between these viral PAMPs and TLR2, while only p17 and gp41 bound to TLR1. Specifically, TLR2/1 heterodimer recognized p17 and gp41, while p24 lead to immune activation through TLR2/6. These results were confirmed using TLR2/1 siRNA knock down assays which ablated p17 and gp41-induced cellular activation and through studies of HEK293 cells expressing selected TLRs. Interestingly, our results show in the absence of TLR6, p24 bound to TLR2 and blocked p17 and gp41-induced activation, thus providing a novel mechanism by which HIV-1 can manipulate innate sensing. Taken together, our results identified, for the first time, novel HIV-1 PAMPs that play a role in TLR2-mediated cellular activation and increased proviral DNA. These findings have important implications for our fundamental understanding of HIV-1 immune activation and pathogenesis, as well as HIV-1 vaccine development. PMID:26347747

  6. Significant increase in wavelength, power, and temperature operating envelopes for semiconductor laser diode bars for solid-state lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haden, J.; Plano, B.; Major, J.; Harnagel, G.; Endriz, J.

    Attention is given to the substantial increase in the performance envelope of AlGaAs base semiconductor laser diode array bars (QCW bars) that are available to designers of diode pumped solid-state lasers. Reliable QCW bar performance includes operation to 100 W/cm with greater than 10 exp 9 pulse life, 65 C operation, and 780 to 980 nm wavelength availability (60 W/cm). Consideration is also given to 247-W QCW operation. At Nd:YAG, YLF wavelengths (798-807 nm), significant improvements have been achieved in allowable operating temperature (to 65 C) and operating power (to 100 W). These improvements offer the opportunity for the design of high-efficiency solid-state laser systems that need to operate in relatively severe environments.

  7. Hypoalbuminemia is significantly associated with increased clearance time of high dose methotrexate in patients being treated for lymphoma or leukemia.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Samantha N; Buie, Larry W; Adel, Nelly; Goldman, Debra A; Devlin, Sean M; Douer, Dan

    2016-12-01

    As a weak acid, methotrexate (MTX) is bound to serum albumin and has variable protein binding. The purpose of this study was to assess serum albumin's relationship with MTX pharmacokinetics by comparing MTX clearance and toxicities between patients with normal serum albumin to those with hypoalbuminemia. This single-center retrospective study included adult patients with leukemia or lymphoma who received their first MTX at a dose ≥1 g/m(2). Hypoalbuminemia was defined as serum albumin ≤3.4 g/dL. MTX clearance was defined as the first documented time the MTX level ≤0.05 μM. Fisher's exact tests and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to examine differences in toxicities, and Cox proportional hazard regression was used to assess relationship with time to clearance. Of 523 patients identified, 167 patients were evaluable. One hundred thirty-five patients had normal serum albumin and 32 had hypoalbuminemia. Hypoalbuminemia was associated with a higher proportion of patients experiencing edema, ascites or pleural effusions (34 vs. 12 %, p = 0.006), and the concomitant use of nephrotoxic agents (41 vs. 20 %, p = 0.021). Hypoalbuminemia was associated with a significantly longer time to MTX clearance (median 96 vs. 72 h, p = 0.004). In addition, patients with hypoalbuminemia had a higher proportion of hyperbilirubinemia and significantly longer hospitalization (median 14 vs. 5 days, p < 0.001). In conclusion, hypoalbuminemia was associated with increased time to MTX clearance and increased length of hospitalization. High dose MTX is safe to administer in patients with low albumin levels, with appropriate leucovorin rescue, and good supportive care.

  8. A Prolonged Time Interval Between Trauma and Prophylactic Radiation Therapy Significantly Increases the Risk of Heterotopic Ossification

    SciTech Connect

    Mourad, Waleed F.; Packianathan, Satyaseelan; Shourbaji, Rania A.; Zhang Zhen; Graves, Mathew; Khan, Majid A.; Baird, Michael C.; Russell, George; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To ascertain whether the time from injury to prophylactic radiation therapy (RT) influences the rate of heterotopic ossification (HO) after operative treatment of displaced acetabular fractures. Methods and Materials: This is a single-institution, retrospective analysis of patients referred for RT for the prevention of HO. Between January 2000 and January 2009, 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures were treated surgically followed by RT for HO prevention. We analyzed the effect of time from injury on prevention of HO by RT. In all patients, 700 cGy was prescribed in a single fraction and delivered within 72 hours postsurgery. The patients were stratified into five groups according to time interval (in days) from the date of their accident to the date of RT: Groups A {<=}3, B {<=}7, C {<=}14, D {<=}21, and E >21days. Results: Of the 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures treated with RT, (18%) 106 patients developed HO within the irradiated field. The risk of HO after RT increased from 10% for RT delivered {<=}3 days to 92% for treatment delivered >21 days after the initial injury. Wilcoxon test showed a significant correlation between the risk of HO and the length of time from injury to RT (p < 0.0001). Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis showed no significant association between all other factors and the risk of HO (race, gender, cause and type of fracture, surgical approach, or the use of indomethacin). Conclusions: Our data suggest that there is higher incidence and risk of HO if prophylactic RT is significantly delayed after a displaced acetabular fracture. Thus, RT should be administered as early as clinically possible after the trauma. Patients undergoing RT >3 weeks from their displaced acetabular fracture should be informed of the higher risk (>90%) of developing HO despite prophylaxis.

  9. State Children's Health Insurance Program financing and the need for significant federal funding increases as part of reauthorization.

    PubMed

    Broaddus, Matt; Park, Edwin

    2006-01-01

    In order to better inform the debate as federal policymakers prepare to reauthorize the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) in 2007, this brief analyzes the key components of the financing structure of SCHIP including capped federal block-grant funding, the methodology for determining state's allotments of federal funding, the period of availability of allotments, and the redistribution of unspent funds. In addition, estimates presented in this brief indicate that under Congressional Budget Office baseline assumptions, SCHIP is reauthorized but annual SCHIP funding will be permanently frozen at 5.04 billion US dollars without any increases for population growth or healthcare inflation. As a result, states will suffer an aggregate federal SCHIP funding shortfall of 10.4 billion US dollars to 12.1 billion US dollars over the 5-year period from 2008 through 2012, thus placing SCHIP coverage of many low-income children at significant risk. As part of SCHIP reauthorization, federal policymakers should include substantial increases to SCHIP funding above baseline levels to avert these shortfalls.

  10. Can Participation in a Summer Program Significantly Increase Interest in Geoscience Among Hispanic High School Students?: A Quantitative Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, K. C.; Carrick, T.; Andronicos, C. L.; Langford, R. P.; Martinez-Sussmann, C.; Levine, R.

    2004-12-01

    Since the summer of 2002, the Department of Geological Sciences at the University of Texas at El Paso has run five sessions of a two-week long summer camp design to introduce high school juniors and seniors, and teachers to the geosciences, a discipline that is largely omitted from the high school science curriculum in Texas. Among the desired outcomes of the activity are 1) an increased interest in geoscience on the part of the students, and 2) an increased likelihood that students will major in science, preferably geoscience, or engineering in college. Thus far, 72 students, of whom 77% were Hispanic and 55% were female, and 14 science teachers, of whom 71% were Hispanic and 43% were female, have participated in the camp. Students were selected from an applicant pool that was 3 to 4 times larger than number of available slots on the basis of their GPA, interest in science as demonstrated in an essay, and teacher recommendations. To assess whether participation in camp activities lead to statistically significant changes in student attitudes toward science and in particular to the geosciences, pre- and post- participation surveys were administered (at the beginning and at the end of the camp). The surveys were designed to measure attitudes that serve as indicators of retention in the geosciences career pipeline. Students were asked the extent to which they agreed with several statements regarding the geosciences. These responses were coded by assigning numerical values for each one (i.e., 4 = Strongly agree, 3 = agree, 2 = disagree, 1 = strongly disagree). There were statistically significant positive changes in the students' attitudes toward the geosciences after their participation in the camp. For example, in response to the statement "The geosciences are interesting," the mean value for student responses was 3.1 (N = 27, SD = .4) before their participation in the camp. After participating, their mean response to this item was significantly higher (M = 3.4, SD

  11. Unequivocal detection of ozone recovery in the Antarctic Ozone Hole through significant increases in atmospheric layers with minimum ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Laat, Jos; van Weele, Michiel; van der A, Ronald

    2015-04-01

    An important new landmark in present day ozone research is presented through MLS satellite observations of significant ozone increases during the ozone hole season that are attributed unequivocally to declining ozone depleting substances. For many decades the Antarctic ozone hole has been the prime example of both the detrimental effects of human activities on our environment as well as how to construct effective and successful environmental policies. Nowadays atmospheric concentrations of ozone depleting substances are on the decline and first signs of recovery of stratospheric ozone and ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole have been observed. The claimed detection of significant recovery, however, is still subject of debate. In this talk we will discuss first current uncertainties in the assessment of ozone recovery in the Antarctic ozone hole by using multi-variate regression methods, and, secondly present an alternative approach to identify ozone hole recovery unequivocally. Even though multi-variate regression methods help to reduce uncertainties in estimates of ozone recovery, great care has to be taken in their application due to the existence of uncertainties and degrees of freedom in the choice of independent variables. We show that taking all uncertainties into account in the regressions the formal recovery of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole cannot be established yet, though is likely before the end of the decade (before 2020). Rather than focusing on time and area averages of total ozone columns or ozone profiles, we argue that the time evolution of the probability distribution of vertically resolved ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole contains a better fingerprint for the detection of ozone recovery in the Antarctic ozone hole. The advantages of this method over more tradition methods of trend analyses based on spatio-temporal average ozone are discussed. The 10-year record of MLS satellite measurements of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole shows a

  12. Enterococcus durans EP1 a Promising Anti-inflammatory Probiotic Able to Stimulate sIgA and to Increase Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Abundance.

    PubMed

    Carasi, Paula; Racedo, Silvia María; Jacquot, Claudine; Elie, Anne Marie; Serradell, María de Los Ángeles; Urdaci, María C

    2017-01-01

    Enterococcus species, principally Enterococcus faecium are used as probiotics since a long time with preference in animal applications but safety considerations were updated and also new uses as probiotics can be envisaged. Fifteen Enterococcus strains isolated from different foods were identified and analyzed for virulence factors and antibiotic resistance. Three Enterococcus durans strains were selected to study their immunomodulatory properties on PBMC and Caco2 cells. Two strains presented a profile toward a mild inflammatory Th1 response considering TNF-α/IL-10 and IL-1β/IL-10 cytokines ratios. The third strain EP1, presented an anti-inflammatory potential and was selected for in vivo studies. In mice, the strain was well tolerated and did not cause any adverse effects. EP1 administration increased the amount of IgA+ cells in mesenteric lymph node (MLN) after 7 days of administration. In fecal samples, the IgA content increased gradually and significantly from day 7 to day 21 in treated group. Additionally, IL-17, IL-6, IL-1β, IFN-γ, and CXCL1 gene expression significantly decreased on day 21 in Peyer's patches and IL-17 decreased in MLN. Mice treated with the probiotic showed significant lower mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mucins in the ileum at day 7 while their expression was normalized at day 21. Colonic expression of il-1β, il6, and mucins remain diminished at day 21. Ileum and colon explants from treated mice stimulated in vitro with LPS showed a significant reduction in IL-6 and an increase in IL-10 secretion suggesting an in vivo protective effect of the probiotic treatment against a proinflammatory stimulus. Interestingly, analysis of feces microbiota demonstrated that EP1 administration increase the amount of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a butyrate-producing bacteria, which is known for its anti-inflammatory effects. In conclusion, we demonstrated that EP1 strain is a strong sIgA inducer and possess mucosal anti

  13. Enterococcus durans EP1 a Promising Anti-inflammatory Probiotic Able to Stimulate sIgA and to Increase Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Carasi, Paula; Racedo, Silvia María; Jacquot, Claudine; Elie, Anne Marie; Serradell, María de los Ángeles; Urdaci, María C.

    2017-01-01

    Enterococcus species, principally Enterococcus faecium are used as probiotics since a long time with preference in animal applications but safety considerations were updated and also new uses as probiotics can be envisaged. Fifteen Enterococcus strains isolated from different foods were identified and analyzed for virulence factors and antibiotic resistance. Three Enterococcus durans strains were selected to study their immunomodulatory properties on PBMC and Caco2 cells. Two strains presented a profile toward a mild inflammatory Th1 response considering TNF-α/IL-10 and IL-1β/IL-10 cytokines ratios. The third strain EP1, presented an anti-inflammatory potential and was selected for in vivo studies. In mice, the strain was well tolerated and did not cause any adverse effects. EP1 administration increased the amount of IgA+ cells in mesenteric lymph node (MLN) after 7 days of administration. In fecal samples, the IgA content increased gradually and significantly from day 7 to day 21 in treated group. Additionally, IL-17, IL-6, IL-1β, IFN-γ, and CXCL1 gene expression significantly decreased on day 21 in Peyer’s patches and IL-17 decreased in MLN. Mice treated with the probiotic showed significant lower mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mucins in the ileum at day 7 while their expression was normalized at day 21. Colonic expression of il-1β, il6, and mucins remain diminished at day 21. Ileum and colon explants from treated mice stimulated in vitro with LPS showed a significant reduction in IL-6 and an increase in IL-10 secretion suggesting an in vivo protective effect of the probiotic treatment against a proinflammatory stimulus. Interestingly, analysis of feces microbiota demonstrated that EP1 administration increase the amount of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a butyrate-producing bacteria, which is known for its anti-inflammatory effects. In conclusion, we demonstrated that EP1 strain is a strong sIgA inducer and possess mucosal anti

  14. Spatial and temporal abundance patterns of oceanic chaetognaths in the western North Atlantic—I. Hydrographic and seasonal abundance patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheney, Jerry

    1985-09-01

    Chaetognath abundance was measured from 38 MOCNESS tows collected in the western North Atlantic from August 1975 to November 1977. Twenty-one species were identified from 18 slope water (SW), 18 northern Sargasso Sea (NSS) and two Gulf Stream (GS) tows. Sagitta elegans, S. hispida and S. megalophthalma were collected in only one or two tows. Eukrohnia bathypelagica, E. fowleri, E. hamata, Sagitta helenae, S. macrocephala, S. maxima and S. tasmanica are significantly more abundant in the SW than in the NSS. Krohnitta subtilis, Pterosagitta draco, Sagitta bipunctata, S. decipiens, S. hexaptera, S. lyra, S. minima, S. planctonis and S. serratodentata are significantly more abundant in the NSS. Krohnitta pacifica and Sagitta enflata show no significant abundance differences between the SW and NSS. Most species show at least an order of magnitude abundance difference between the SW and NSS, with intermediate GS abundances. A simple mixing model and previous reports of chaetognath distributions in the North Atlantic indicate that most species have expatriate populations in either the SW or NSS or in both regions. Increased temperature and food abundance probably limit SW species from the NSS, while decreased temperature and increased predator abundance probably limit NSS species from the SW. Spring abundance peaks were observed for many species in the NSS, but no seasonal peaks were detected for species in the SW. The spring abundance peaks in the NSS are probably due to increased food abundance, although temperature could not be ruled out as an important factor.

  15. Edge effect and significant increase of the superconducting transition onset temperature of 2D superconductors in flat and curved geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Chi Ho; Lortz, Rolf

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we present a simple method to model the curvature activated phonon softening in a 2D superconducting layer. The superconducting transition temperature Tc in the case of a 2D rectangular sheet, a hollow cylinder and a hollow sphere of one coherence length thickness is calculated by the quantum mechanical electron-phonon scattering matrix, and a series of collective lattice vibrations in the surface state. We will show that being extremely thin in a flat rectangular shape is not enough to significantly enhance the Tc through phonon softening. However, if a curvature is added, Tc can be strongly enhanced. The increase in Tc with respect to the bulk is greatest in a hollow sphere, intermediate in a hollow cylinder and weakest for the rectangular sheet, when systems of identical length scale are considered. In addition, we find that the edge effect of such a 2D sheet has a strong broadening effect on Tc in addition to the effect of order parameter phase fluctuations.

  16. Levels of vitamin C In the blood plasma patients treated with coronary artery bypass grafting increases significantly after surgery.

    PubMed

    Kleszczewski, Tomasz; Modzelewska, Beata; Lisowska, Anna; Buzun, Leszek; Kleszczewska, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    One strong risk factor of coronary artery disease (CAD), which affects the levels of vitamin C in the blood is cigarette smoking. The supplementary effects of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is smoking cessation by patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the level of vitamin C in the blood plasma one day before and one month after CABG. Human blood were collected from 20 patients (men); 1day before and 1 month after CABG. All patients were smoker and after CABG they declared their not smoking. The concentration of vitamin C in the blood plasma was assayed by FIA method with spectrophotometric detection. The mean value of the vitamin C concentration 1day before CABG was 12.36±2.84μmol/L (mean±SD), 1 month after CABG 40.07±10.95μmol/L (mean±SD). The average increase in the concentration of vitamin C was 3.27±0.73 times (mean±SD) and showed significant positive correlations (Pearson r=0.657, p=0.002). It should be consider incorporating the recommendations of preoperative smoking cessation for at least one month prior to CABG and/or additional supplementation. In addition it would be relevant to monitor the level of vitamin C in the patients' blood in the preoperative period.

  17. Increased Abundance of Proteins Involved in Resistance to Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress at the Last Stages of Growth and Development of Leishmania amazonensis Promastigotes Revealed by Proteome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Ana; García-Tabares, Francisco; Mena, María C.; Ciordia, Sergio; Larraga, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania amazonensis is one of the major etiological agents of the neglected, stigmatizing disease termed american cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL). ACL is a zoonosis and rodents are the main reservoirs. Most cases of ACL are reported in Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia and Peru. The biological cycle of the parasite is digenetic because sand fly vectors transmit the motile promastigote stage to the mammalian host dermis during blood meal intakes. The amastigote stage survives within phagocytes of the mammalian host. The purpose of this study is detection and identification of changes in protein abundance by 2DE/MALDI-TOF/TOF at the main growth phases of L. amazonensis promastigotes in axenic culture and the differentiation process that takes place simultaneously. The average number of proteins detected per gel is 202 and the non-redundant cumulative number is 339. Of those, 63 are differentially abundant throughout growth and simultaneous differentiation of L. amazonensis promastigotes. The main finding is that certain proteins involved in resistance to nitrosative and oxidative stress are more abundant at the last stages of growth and differentiation of cultured L. amazonensis promastigotes. These proteins are the arginase, a light variant of the tryparedoxin peroxidase, the iron superoxide dismutase, the regulatory subunit of the protein kinase A and a light HSP70 variant. These data taken together with the decrease of the stress-inducible protein 1 levels are additional evidence supporting the previously described pre-adaptative hypothesis, which consists of preparation in advance towards the amastigote stage. PMID:27776144

  18. The significant increasing of atmospheric bi-weekly disturbances over Northeast Asia during the global-warming hiatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.; Gong, D.

    2015-12-01

    Based on daily 500 hPa heights from ERA-Interim reanalysis, this study analyzed the day-to-day circulation variance in cold season (October-March) during the global-warming hiatus by employing composite and correlation analysis. Two same-length time periods, i.e., the hiatus period (1999-2013) and the rapid warming period (1984-1998), are compared. Spectral analysis reveals that over the mid-high latitude northern hemisphere the most outstanding peak in the daily 500hPa height variance is of quasi bi-weekly (QBW) time scale (about 10-20d), which accounts for about 32% of the total variance. During the global-warming hiatus, the QBW disturbances have changed remarkably in Northeast Asia. On average in the domain of 128°E-142°E, 42°N-50°N the QBW variance has changed from 1860m2 in the rapid warming period to 2475m2 in the hiatus, increasing by about 33% and being statistically significant at the 95% level. The time-lag analysis shows that the QBW signal could be traced back to about 14 days ago with a origin around Ural Mountains, then the signals developed and moved southeastward, its location about 10 days ago was located in West Siberia, about 6 days ago located in Mongolian Plat. at finally move to Northeast Asia. Compared the propagation process between the two periods, we found that the path was basically the same, but there are evident difference in their signal intensity along its eastward propagation. Comparing with the rapid warm period, the QBW during the hiatus got much intensive as the signal move across the West Siberia. And the enhanced signal keeps its intensity till to Northeast Asia. The intensification of QBW may be related to the changes in the background circulation. During the hiatus period, there are anomalous large-scale changes in 500hPa heights, with a strengthened Ural ridge and a westward East Asia trough. Accordingly, there is a stronger east-west pressure gradient in western Siberia, being a condition beneficial to strengthen the

  19. Abundance of the Multiheme c-Type Cytochrome OmcB Increases in Outer Biofilm Layers of Electrode-Grown Geobacter sulfurreducens

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Camille S.; LaBelle, Edward V.; Brantley, Susan L.; Bond, Daniel R.

    2014-01-01

    When Geobacter sulfurreducens utilizes an electrode as its electron acceptor, cells embed themselves in a conductive biofilm tens of microns thick. While environmental conditions such as pH or redox potential have been shown to change close to the electrode, less is known about the response of G. sulfurreducens to growth in this biofilm environment. To investigate whether respiratory protein abundance varies with distance from the electrode, antibodies against an outer membrane multiheme cytochrome (OmcB) and cytoplasmic acetate kinase (AckA) were used to determine protein localization in slices spanning ∼25 µm-thick G. sulfurreducens biofilms growing on polished electrodes poised at +0.24 V (vs. Standard Hydrogen Electrode). Slices were immunogold labeled post-fixing, imaged via transmission electron microscopy, and digitally reassembled to create continuous images allowing subcellular location and abundance per cell to be quantified across an entire biofilm. OmcB was predominantly localized on cell membranes, and 3.6-fold more OmcB was detected on cells 10–20 µm distant from the electrode surface compared to inner layers (0–10 µm). In contrast, acetate kinase remained constant throughout the biofilm, and was always associated with the cell interior. This method for detecting proteins in intact conductive biofilms supports a model where the utilization of redox proteins changes with depth. PMID:25090411

  20. Middle School Teams Increasing Access to General Education for Students with Significant Disabilities: Issues Encountered and Activities Observed across Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matzen, Katherine; Ryndak, Diane; Nakao, Taketo

    2010-01-01

    The experiences of three students with significant disabilities and their educational teams were studied during these students' first year of receiving general education services. Interviews were conducted with general educators, special educators, and parents to identify issues encountered during the year. Also, classroom observations were…

  1. Increased microcirculation detected by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is of prognostic significance in asymptomatic myeloma.

    PubMed

    Hillengass, Jens; Ritsch, Judith; Merz, Maximilian; Wagner, Barbara; Kunz, Christina; Hielscher, Thomas; Laue, Hendrik; Bäuerle, Tobias; Zechmann, Christian M; Ho, Anthony D; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Moehler, Thomas M; Delorme, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    This prospective study aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) as a non-invasive imaging technique delivering the quantitative parameters amplitude A (reflecting blood volume) and exchange rate constant kep (reflecting vascular permeability) in patients with asymptomatic monoclonal plasma cell diseases. We analysed DCE-MRI parameters in 33 healthy controls and 148 patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) or smouldering multiple myeloma (SMM) according to the 2003 IMWG guidelines. All individuals underwent standardized DCE-MRI of the lumbar spine. Regions of interest were drawn manually on T1-weighted images encompassing the bone marrow of each of the 5 lumbar vertebrae sparing the vertebral vessel. Prognostic significance for median of amplitude A (univariate: P < 0·001, hazard ratio (HR) 2·42, multivariate P = 0·02, HR 2·7) and exchange rate constant kep (univariate P = 0·03, HR 1·92, multivariate P = 0·46, HR 1·5) for time to progression of 79 patients with SMM was found. Patients with amplitude A above the optimal cut-off point of 0·89 arbitrary units had a 2-year progression rate into symptomatic disease of 80%. In conclusion, DCE-MRI parameters are of prognostic significance for time to progression in patients with SMM but not in individuals with MGUS.

  2. Sequential elution liquid chromatography can significantly increase the probability of a successful separation by simultaneously increasing the peak capacity and reducing the separation disorder.

    PubMed

    Socia, Adam; Foley, Joe P

    2014-01-10

    This paper demonstrates that sequential elution liquid chromatography (SE-LC), an approach in which two or more elution modes are employed in series for the separation of two or more groups of compounds, can be used to separate not only weak acids (or weak bases) from neutral compounds, but weak acids and weak bases from neutral compounds (and each other) by the sequential application of either of two types of an extended pH gradient prior to a solvent gradient. It also details a comparison, based on peak capacity and separation disorder, of the probability of success of this approach with the unimodal elution approach taken by conventional column liquid chromatography. For an HPLC peak capacity of 120 and samples of moderate complexity (e.g., 12 components), the probability of success (Rs≥1) increases from 37.9% (HPLC) to 85.8% (SE-LC). Different columns were evaluated for their utility for SE-LC using the following criteria: (1) the prediction of the elution order of the groups based on the degree of ionization of the compounds; and (2) the closeness of the peak shape to the ideal Gaussian distribution. The best columns overall were the Zorbax SB-AQ and Waters XBridge Shield columns, as they provided both between-class and within-class separations of all compounds, as well as the lowest degree of tailing of 4-ethylaniline using the pH 2 to pH 8 gradient.

  3. Turbulence significantly increases pressure and fluid shear stress in an aortic aneurysm model under resting and exercise flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Khanafer, Khalil M; Bull, Joseph L; Upchurch, Gilbert R; Berguer, Ramon

    2007-01-01

    The numerical models of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in use do not take into account the non-Newtonian behavior of blood and the development of local turbulence. This study examines the influence of pulsatile, turbulent, non-Newtonian flow on fluid shear stresses and pressure changes under rest and exercise conditions. We numerically analyzed pulsatile turbulent flow, using simulated physiological rest and exercise waveforms, in axisymmetric-rigid aortic aneurysm models (AAMs). Discretization of governing equations was achieved using a finite element scheme. Maximum turbulence-induced shear stress was found at the distal end of an AAM. In large AAMs (dilated to undilated diameter ratio = 3.33) at peak systolic flow velocity, fluid shear stress during exercise is 70.4% higher than at rest. Our study provides a numerical, noninvasive method for obtaining detailed data on the forces generated by pulsatile turbulent flow in AAAs that are difficult to study in humans and in physical models. Our data suggest that increased flow turbulence results in increased shear stress in aneurysms. While pressure readings are fairly uniform along the length of an aneurysm, the kinetic energy generated by turbulence impacting on the wall of the distal half of the aneurysm increases fluid and wall shear stress at this site. If the increased fluid shear stress results in further dilation and hence further turbulence, wall stress may be a mechanism for aneurysmal growth and eventual rupture.

  4. Regulated expression of an isopentenyltransferase gene (IPT) in peanut significantly improves drought tolerance and increases yield under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hua; Gu, Qiang; Zhang, Junling; Sun, Li; Kuppu, Sundaram; Zhang, Yizheng; Burow, Mark; Payton, Paxton; Blumwald, Eduardo; Zhang, Hong

    2011-11-01

    Isopentenyltransferase (IPT) is a critical enzyme in the cytokinin biosynthetic pathway. The expression of IPT under the control of a maturation- and stress-induced promoter was shown to delay stress-induced plant senescence that resulted in an enhanced drought tolerance in both monocot and dicot plants. This report extends the earlier findings in tobacco and rice to peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), an important oil crop and protein source. Regulated expression of IPT in peanut significantly improved drought tolerance in both laboratory and field conditions. Transgenic peanut plants maintained higher photosynthetic rates, higher stomatal conductance and higher transpiration than wild-type control plants under reduced irrigation conditions. More importantly, transgenic peanut plants produced significantly higher yields than wild-type control plants in the field, indicating a great potential for the development of crops with improved performance and yield in water-limited areas of the world.

  5. Love is the triumph of the imagination: Daydreams about significant others are associated with increased happiness, love and connection.

    PubMed

    Poerio, Giulia L; Totterdell, Peter; Emerson, Lisa-Marie; Miles, Eleanor

    2015-05-01

    Social relationships and interactions contribute to daily emotional well-being. The emotional benefits that come from engaging with others are known to arise from real events, but do they also come from the imagination during daydreaming activity? Using experience sampling methodology with 101 participants, we obtained 371 reports of naturally occurring daydreams with social and non-social content and self-reported feelings before and after daydreaming. Social, but not non-social, daydreams were associated with increased happiness, love and connection and this effect was not solely attributable to the emotional content of the daydreams. These effects were only present when participants were lacking in these feelings before daydreaming and when the daydream involved imagining others with whom the daydreamer had a high quality relationship. Findings are consistent with the idea that social daydreams may function to regulate emotion: imagining close others may serve the current emotional needs of daydreamers by increasing positive feelings towards themselves and others.

  6. Increased Risk of Clinically Significant Gallstones following an Appendectomy: A Five-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Ming-Chieh; Chen, Chao-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Although the vermiform appendix is commonly considered a vestigial organ, adverse health consequences after an appendectomy have garnered increasing attention. In this study, we investigated the risks of gallstone occurrence during a 5-year follow-up period after an appendectomy, using a population-based dataset. We used data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. The exposed cohort included 4916 patients who underwent an appendectomy. The unexposed cohort was retrieved by randomly selecting 4916 patients matched with the exposed cohort in terms of sex, age, and year. We individually tracked each patient for a 5-year period to identify those who received a diagnosis of gallstones during the follow-up period. Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed for the analysis. During the 5-year follow-up period, the incidence rate per 1000 person-years was 4.71 for patients who had undergone an appendectomy, compared to a rate of 2.59 for patients in the unexposed cohort (p<0.001). Patients who had undergone an appendectomy were independently associated with a 1.79 (95% CI = 1.29~2.48)-fold increased risk of being diagnosed with gallstones during the 5-year follow-up period. We found that among female patients, the adjusted hazard ratio of gallstones was 2.25 (95% CI = 1.41~3.59) for patients who underwent an appendectomy compared to unexposed patients. However, for male patients, we failed to observe an increased hazard for gallstones among patients who underwent an appendectomy compared to unexposed patients. We found an increased risk of a subsequent gallstone diagnosis within 5 years after an appendectomy. PMID:27788255

  7. Was there significant tax evasion after the 1999 50 cent per pack cigarette tax increase in California?

    PubMed Central

    Emery, S; White, M; Gilpin, E; Pierce, J

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Several states, including California, have implemented large cigarette excise tax increases, which may encourage smokers to purchase their cigarettes in other lower taxed states, or from other lower or non-taxed sources. Such tax evasion thwarts tobacco control objectives and may cost the state substantial tax revenues. Thus, this study investigates the extent of tax evasion in the 6–12 months after the implementation of California's $0.50/pack excise tax increase. Design and setting: Retrospective data analysis from the 1999 California Tobacco Surveys (CTS), a random digit dialled telephone survey of California households. Main outcome measures: Sources of cigarettes, average daily cigarette consumption, and reported price paid. Results: Very few (5.1 (0.7)% (±95% confidence limits)) of California smokers avoided the excise tax by usually purchasing cigarettes from non- or lower taxed sources, such as out-of-state outlets, military commissaries, or the internet. The vast majority of smokers purchased their cigarettes from the most convenient and expensive sources: convenience stores/gas (petrol) stations (45.0 (1.9)%), liquor/drug stores (16.4 (1.6)%), and supermarkets (8.8 (1.2)%). Conclusions: Despite the potential savings, tax evasion by individual smokers does not appear to pose a serious threat to California's excise tax revenues or its tobacco control objectives. PMID:12035006

  8. Growth hormone significantly increases the adult height of children with idiopathic short stature: comparison of subgroups and benefit

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Children with Idiopathic Short Stature do not attain a normal adult height. The improvement of adult height with treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH), at doses of 0.16 to 0.28 mg/kg/week is modest, usually less that 4 cm, and they remain short as adults. The benefit obtained seems dose dependent and benefits of 7.0 to 8.0 cm have been reported with higher doses of 0.32 to 0.4 mg/kg/week, but the number of studies is limited. The topic has remained controversial. Objective The objective was to conduct a retrospective analysis of our experience with 123 children with ISS treated with 0.32 ± 0.03 mg/kg/week of rhGH, with the aim of comparing the different subgroups of non-familial short stature, familial short stature, normal puberty, and delayed puberty and to assess the benefit by comparison with 305 untreated historical controls, from nine different randomized and nonrandomized controlled studies. Results Eighty eight of our children (68 males and 20 females) attained an adult height or near adult height of -0.71 SDS (0.74 SD) (95% CI, -0.87 to -0.55) with a benefit over untreated controls of 9.5 cm (7.4 to 11.6 cm) for males and 8.6 cm (6.7 to 10.5 cm) for females. In the analysis of the subgroups, the adult height and adult height gain of children with non-familial short stature were significantly higher than of familial short stature. No difference was found in the cohorts with normal or delayed puberty in any of the subgroups, except between the non-familial short stature and familial short stature puberty cohorts. This has implications for the interpretation of the benefit of treatment in studies where the number of children with familial short stature in the controls or treated subjects is not known. The treatment was safe. There were no significant adverse events. The IGF-1 values were essentially within the levels expected for the stages of puberty. Conclusion Our experience was quite positive with normalization of

  9. Irrigation Is Significantly Associated with an Increased Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in Produce Production Environments in New York State.

    PubMed

    Weller, Daniel; Wiedmann, Martin; Strawn, Laura K

    2015-06-01

    Environmental (i.e., meteorological and landscape) factors and management practices can affect the prevalence of foodborne pathogens in produce production environments. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria species (including L. monocytogenes), Salmonella, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in produce production environments and to identify environmental factors and management practices associated with their isolation. Ten produce farms in New York State were sampled during a 6-week period in 2010, and 124 georeferenced samples (80 terrestrial, 33 water, and 11 fecal) were collected. L. monocytogenes, Listeria spp., Salmonella, and STEC were detected in 16, 44, 4, and 5% of terrestrial samples, 30, 58, 12, and 3% of water samples, and 45, 45, 27, and 9% of fecal samples, respectively. Environmental factors and management practices were evaluated for their association with terrestrial samples positive for L. monocytogenes or other Listeria species by univariate logistic regression; analysis was not conducted for Salmonella or STEC because the number of samples positive for these pathogens was low. Although univariate analysis identified associations between isolation of L. monocytogenes or Listeria spp. from terrestrial samples and various water-related factors (e.g., proximity to wetlands and precipitation), multivariate analysis revealed that only irrigation within 3 days of sample collection was significantly associated with isolation of L. monocytogenes (odds ratio = 39) and Listeria spp. (odds ratio = 5) from terrestrial samples. These findings suggest that intervention at the irrigation level may reduce the risk of produce contamination.

  10. Effects of Experimental High Flow Releases and Increased Fluctuations in Flow from Glen Canyon Dam on Abundance, Growth, and Survival Rates of Early Life Stages of Rainbow Trout in the Lee's Ferry Reach of the Colorado River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korman, Josh

    2010-05-01

    The abundance of adult fish populations is controlled by the growth and survival rates of early life stages. Evaluating the effects of flow regimes on early life stages is therefore critical to determine how these regimes affect the abundance of adult populations. Experimental high flow releases from Glen Canyon Dam, primarily intended to conserve fine sediment and improve habitat conditions for native fish in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, AZ, have been conducted in 1996, 2004, and 2008. These flows potentially affect the Lee's Ferry reach rainbow trout population, located immediately downstream of the dam, which supports a highly valued fishery and likely influences the abundance of rainbow trout in Grand Canyon. Due to concerns about negative effects of high trout abundance on endangered native fish, hourly variation in flow from Glen Canyon Dam was experimentally increased between 2003 and 2005 to reduce trout abundance. This study reports on the effects of experimental high flow releases and fluctuating flows on early life stages of rainbow trout in the Lee's Ferry reach based on monthly sampling of redds (egg nests) and the abundance and growth of age-0 trout between 2003 and 2009. Data on spawn timing, spawning elevations, and intergravel temperatures were integrated in a model to estimate the magnitude and seasonal trend in incubation mortality resulting from redd dewatering due to fluctuations in flow. Experimental fluctuations from January through March promoted spawning at higher elevations where the duration of dewatering was longer and intergravel temperatures exceeded lethal thresholds. Flow-dependent incubation mortality rates were 24% (2003) and 50% (2004) in years with higher flow fluctuations, compared to 5-11% under normal operations (2006-2009). Spatial and temporal predictions of mortality were consistent with direct observations of egg mortality determined from the excavation of 125 redds. The amount of variation in backcalculated hatch

  11. Changes in rocket salad phytochemicals within the commercial supply chain: Glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, amino acids and bacterial load increase significantly after processing.

    PubMed

    Bell, Luke; Yahya, Hanis Nadia; Oloyede, Omobolanle Oluwadamilola; Methven, Lisa; Wagstaff, Carol

    2017-04-15

    Five cultivars of Eruca sativa and a commercial variety of Diplotaxis tenuifolia were grown in the UK (summer) and subjected to commercial growth, harvesting and processing, with subsequent shelf life storage. Glucosinolates (GSL), isothiocyanates (ITC), amino acids (AA), free sugars, and bacterial loads were analysed throughout the supply chain to determine the effects on phytochemical compositions. Bacterial load of leaves increased significantly over time and peaked during shelf life storage. Significant correlations were observed with GSL and AA concentrations, suggesting a previously unknown relationship between plants and endemic leaf bacteria. GSLs, ITCs and AAs increased significantly after processing and during shelf life. The supply chain did not significantly affect glucoraphanin concentrations, and its ITC sulforaphane significantly increased during shelf life in E. sativa cultivars. We hypothesise that commercial processing may increase the nutritional value of the crop, and have added health benefits for the consumer.

  12. Infrared measurements of HF and HCl total column abundances above Kitt Peak, 1977-1990: seasonal cycles, long-term increases, and comparisons with model calculations.

    PubMed

    Rinsland, C P; Levine, J S; Goldman, A; Sze, N D; Ko, M K; Johnson, D W

    1991-08-20

    Series of high-resolution (approximately 0.01 cm-1) solar absorption spectra recorded with the McMath Fourier transform spectrometer on Kitt Peak (altitude 2.09 km, 31.9 degrees N, 111.6 degrees W) have been analyzed to deduce total column amounts of HF on 93 different days and HCl on 35 different days between May 1977 and June 1990. The results are based on the analysis of the HF and H35Cl (1-0) vibration-rotation band R(1) lines which are located at 4038.9625 and 2925.8970 cm-1, respectively. All of the data were analyzed using a multilayer, nonlinear least squares spectral fitting procedure and a consistent set of spectroscopic line parameters. The results indicate a rapid increase in total HF and a more gradual increase in total HCl with both trends superimposed on short-term variability. In addition, the total columns of both gases undergo a seasonal cycle with an early spring maximum and an early fall minimum, with peak-to-peak amplitudes equal to 25% for HF and 13% for HCl. In the case of HF, the changes over the 13 years of measurement are sufficiently large to determine that a better fit is obtained assuming a linear rather than an exponential increase with time. For HCl, linear and exponential models fit the data equally well. Referenced to calendar year 1981.0 and assuming a sinusoidal seasonal cycle superimposed on a linear total column increase with time, HF and HCl increase rates of (10.9 +/- 1.1)% yr-1 and (5.1 +/- 0.7)% yr-1 and total columns of (3.17 +/- 0.11) x 10(14) and (1.92 +/- 0.06) x 10(15) molecules cm-2 (2 sigma) are derived, respectively; the corresponding best fit mean exponential increase rates are equal to (7.6 +/- 0.6)% yr-1 and (4.2 +/- 0.5)% yr-1 (2 sigma). Over the 13-year observing period, the HF and HCl total columns increased by factors of 3.2 and 1.8, respectively. Based on HF and HCl total columns deduced from measurements on the same day, the HF/HCl total columns ratio increased from 0.14 in May 1977 to 0.23 in June 1990

  13. Dietary supplementation of Bifidobacterium longum strain AH1206 increases its cecal abundance and elevates intestinal interleukin-10 expression in the neonatal piglet.

    PubMed

    Herfel, Tina M; Jacobi, Sheila K; Lin, Xi; Jouni, Zeina E; Chichlowski, Maciej; Stahl, Chad H; Odle, Jack

    2013-10-01

    Intestinal microbiota of infants differ in response to gestational age, delivery mode and feeding regimen. Dietary supplementation of probiotic bacteria is one method of promoting healthy populations. We examined the impact of a novel probiotic strain of Bifidobacterium longum (AH1206) on the health, growth and development of neonatal pigs as a model for infants. Day-old pigs were fed milk-based formula containing AH1206 at 0, 10⁹, or 10¹¹ CFU/d for 18 d (n=10/treatment). Differences were not detected in growth, organ weights or body temperatures (P>0.1); however pigs fed the high dose showed a small (2%) reduction in feed intake. Bacterial translocation was not affected as indicated by total anaerobic and aerobic counts (CFU) in samples of spleen, liver and mesenteric lymph nodes (P>0.1). Feeding AH1206 had no effects on fecal consistency, but increased the density of B. longum in the cecum. Ileal TNF expression tended to increase (P=0.08) while IL-10 expression increased linearly (P=0.01) with supplementation. Based upon findings in the suckling piglet model, we suggest that dietary supplementation with B. longum (AH1206) may be safe for human infants based on a lack of growth, development or deleterious immune-related effects observed in piglets.

  14. Elevated CO2 decreases the response of the ethylene signaling pathway in Medicago truncatula and increases the abundance of the pea aphid.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huijuan; Sun, Yucheng; Li, Yuefei; Liu, Xianghui; Zhang, Wenhao; Ge, Feng

    2014-01-01

    The performance of herbivorous insects is greatly affected by plant nutritional quality and resistance, which are likely to be altered by rising concentrations of atmospheric CO2 . We previously reported that elevated CO2 enhanced biological nitrogen (N) fixation of Medicago truncatula, which could result in an increased supply of amino acids to the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum). The current study examined the N nutritional quality and aphid resistance of sickle, an ethylene-insensitive mutant of M. truncatula with supernodulation, and its wild-type control A17 under elevated CO2 in open-top field chambers. Regardless of CO2 concentration, growth and amino acid content were greater and aphid resistance was lower in sickle than in A17. Elevated CO2 up-regulated N assimilation and transamination-related enzymes activities and increased phloem amino acids in both genotypes. Furthermore, elevated CO2 down-regulated expression of 1-amino-cyclopropane-carboxylic acid (ACC), sickle gene (SKL) and ethylene response transcription factors (ERF) genes in the ethylene signaling pathway of A17 when infested by aphids and decreased resistance against aphids in terms of lower activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Our results suggest that elevated CO2 suppresses the ethylene signaling pathway in M. truncatula, which results in an increase in plant nutritional quality for aphids and a decrease in plant resistance against aphids.

  15. Carbon Storage, Leaf Wax Abundances, D/H ratios, and Moss Diversity Linked to Increased Moisture in Early Holocene Arctic Alaska Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peteet, D. M.; Nichols, J. E.; Fedio, C.; Gemma, M.; Mann, D. H.

    2013-12-01

    Lake of the Pleistocene (LOP) is a drained lake basin with a lithostratigraphic sequence ranging from 50,000 to 5000 yr BP (Mann et al., 2002). Previous sedimentological and palynological investigations documented the shifts in moisture ranging from the dry, cold conditions during the glacial maximum; to warm, moist conditions between 15,000 and 12,800 cal yr BP; to maximal moisture during the early Holocene. Our analysis of the carbon accumulation rate and plant macrofossils in the lake sediments, primarily composed of bryophyte remains, indicate an increase in carbon accumulation rate from the Pleistocene to the Holocene, with a maximum in carbon accumulation rate between 10-9000 cal years ago. Enriched D/H ratios of terrestrial plant biomarkers during this interval indicate warm, moist conditions in the early Holocene. Distributions of leaf wax alkanes indicate reduced input by shallow water macrophytes during this period, supporting the interpretation of increased lake level. Our dates support regional and global assessments that have shown maximal C storage in wetlands and shallow lakes throughout the Arctic in a warm, wetter climate.

  16. Infrared measurements of HF and HCl total column abundances above Kitt Peak, 1977-1990 - Seasonal cycles, long-term increases, and comparisons with model calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Levine, J. S.; Goldman, A.; Sze, N. D.; Ko, M. K. W.; Johnson, D. W.

    1991-01-01

    The paper deals with hydrogen-chloride and hydrogen-fluoride total column measurements, their estimated long-term rates of increase, seasonal cycles, and variability, deduced from the analysis of a set of high-resolution infrared solar spectra recorded at Kitt Peak. The Kitt Peak observations and methods of analysis are described, the results are presented and compared with previously reported measurements and trends. The data is analyzed by using a multilayer nonlinear least-squares spectral fitting procedure and a consistent set of spectroscopic line parameters. Model-calculated hydrogen-chloride and hydrogen-fluoride total columns obtained with a two-dimensional model are discussed, and the model results are compared with the measured hydrogen-chloride and hydrogen-fluoride total columns, seasonal cycles, and trends. It is pointed out that the observed trends of both molecules are in satisfactory agreement with the model results calculated from emission histories and photooxidation rates for the source molecules.

  17. Deletion of a Tandem Gene Family in Arabidopsis: Increased MEKK2 Abundance Triggers Autoimmunity when the MEKK1-MKK1/2-MPK4 Signaling Cascade Is Disrupted[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shih-Heng; Bush, Susan M.; Zaman, Najia; Stecker, Kelly; Sussman, Michael R.; Krysan, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    An Arabidopsis thaliana mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade composed of MEKK1, MKK1/MKK2, and MPK4 was previously described as a negative regulator of defense response. MEKK1 encodes a MAP kinase kinase kinase and is a member of a tandemly duplicated gene family with MEKK2 and MEKK3. Using T-DNA insertion lines, we isolated a novel deletion mutant disrupting this gene family and found it to be phenotypically wild-type, in contrast with the mekk1 dwarf phenotype. Follow-up genetic analyses indicated that MEKK2 is required for the mekk1, mkk1 mkk2, and mpk4 autoimmune phenotypes. We next analyzed a T-DNA insertion in the MEKK2 promoter region and found that although it does not reduce the basal expression of MEKK2, it does prevent the upregulation of MEKK2 that is observed in mpk4 plants. This mekk2 allele can rescue the mpk4 autoimmune phenotype in a dosage-dependent manner. We also found that expression of constitutively active MPK4 restored MEKK2 abundance to wild-type levels in mekk1 mutant plants. Finally, using mass spectrometry, we showed that MEKK2 protein levels mirror MEKK2 mRNA levels. Taken together, our results indicate that activated MPK4 is responsible for regulating MEKK2 RNA abundance. In turn, the abundance of MEKK2 appears to be under cellular surveillance such that a modest increase can trigger defense response activation. PMID:23695980

  18. Nitrate transport in cucumber leaves is an inducible process involving an increase in plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity and abundance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The mechanisms by which nitrate is transported into the roots have been characterized both at physiological and molecular levels. It has been demonstrated that nitrate is taken up in an energy-dependent way by a four-component uptake machinery involving high- and low- affinity transport systems. In contrast very little is known about the physiology of nitrate transport towards different plant tissues and in particular at the leaf level. Results The mechanism of nitrate uptake in leaves of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Chinese long) plants was studied and compared with that of the root. Net nitrate uptake by roots of nitrate-depleted cucumber plants proved to be substrate-inducible and biphasic showing a saturable kinetics with a clear linear non saturable component at an anion concentration higher than 2 mM. Nitrate uptake by leaf discs of cucumber plants showed some similarities with that operating in the roots (e.g. electrogenic H+ dependence via involvement of proton pump, a certain degree of induction). However, it did not exhibit typical biphasic kinetics and was characterized by a higher Km with values out of the range usually recorded in roots of several different plant species. The quantity and activity of plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase of the vesicles isolated from leaf tissues of nitrate-treated plants for 12 h (peak of nitrate foliar uptake rate) increased with respect to that observed in the vesicles isolated from N-deprived control plants, thus suggesting an involvement of this enzyme in the leaf nitrate uptake process similar to that described in roots. Molecular analyses suggest the involvement of a specific isoform of PM H+-ATPase (CsHA1) and NRT2 transporter (CsNRT2) in root nitrate uptake. At the leaf level, nitrate treatment modulated the expression of CsHA2, highlighting a main putative role of this isogene in the process. Conclusions Obtained results provide for the first time evidence that a saturable and substrate

  19. Ammonia abundances in comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyckoff, S.; Tegler, S.; Engel, L.

    The emission band strengths of the NH2 bands of Comets Halley, Hartley-Good, Thiele, and Borrelly were measured to determine the NH2 column densities for the comets. Production rates obtained using the Haser and vectorial models are in agreement within the observational errors, suggesting that a simple two-step decay model may be used to approximate the NH2 distribution in a comet's coma. Ammonia-to-water abundance ratios from 0.01 to 0.4 percent were found for the four comets. The ratio in Comet Halley is found to be Q(NH3)/Q(H2O) = 0.002 + or - 0.001. No significant difference in the ammonia abundance was found before or after perihelion in Comet Halley.

  20. Early-Onset Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Mutations Significantly Increase the Velocity, Force, and Actin-Activated ATPase Activity of Human β-Cardiac Myosin.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Arjun S; Kooiker, Kristina B; Sarkar, Saswata S; Liu, Chao; Bernstein, Daniel; Spudich, James A; Ruppel, Kathleen M

    2016-12-13

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a heritable cardiovascular disorder that affects 1 in 500 people. A significant percentage of HCM is attributed to mutations in β-cardiac myosin, the motor protein that powers ventricular contraction. This study reports how two early-onset HCM mutations, D239N and H251N, affect the molecular biomechanics of human β-cardiac myosin. We observed significant increases (20%-90%) in actin gliding velocity, intrinsic force, and ATPase activity in comparison to wild-type myosin. Moreover, for H251N, we found significantly lower binding affinity between the S1 and S2 domains of myosin, suggesting that this mutation may further increase hyper-contractility by releasing active motors. Unlike previous HCM mutations studied at the molecular level using human β-cardiac myosin, early-onset HCM mutations lead to significantly larger changes in the fundamental biomechanical parameters and show clear hyper-contractility.

  1. Increased prevalence of light chain monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (LC-MGUS) in first-degree relatives of individuals with multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Alexandra J.; Rajkumar, S. Vincent; Larson, Dirk R.; Dispenzieri, Angela; Therneau, Terry M.; Colby, Colin L.; Phelps, Tara K.; Kumar, Shaji K.; Katzmann, Jerry A.; Kyle, Robert A.; Slager, Susan L.; Vachon, Celine M.

    2012-01-01

    Previously, we reported increased risk of heavy-chain (HC) monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) among first-degree (1°) relatives of multiple myeloma (MM) or HC-MGUS probands. This study investigated whether there was comparable risk for light-chain (LC) MGUS among 911 relatives of the same HC-MGUS/MM probands versus a reference population of 21,463. Seventeen 1° relatives had LC-MGUS (adjusted prevalence =1.7%, 95% CI=0.9%–2.6%). There was increased risk of LC-MGUS in relatives of MM probands (RR=3.4, 95% CI=2.0–5.5). We saw no increased risk in relatives of HC-MGUS probands. We conclude that the prevalence of LC-MGUS is significantly higher among 1° relatives of MM probands. PMID:22629552

  2. Increased prevalence of light chain monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (LC-MGUS) in first-degree relatives of individuals with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Alexandra J; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Larson, Dirk R; Dispenzieri, Angela; Therneau, Terry M; Colby, Colin L; Phelps, Tara K; Kumar, Shaji K; Katzmann, Jerry A; Kyle, Robert A; Slager, Susan L; Vachon, Celine M

    2012-05-01

    Previously, we reported increased risk of heavy-chain (HC) monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) among first-degree (1°) relatives of multiple myeloma (MM) or HC-MGUS probands. This study investigated whether there was comparable risk for light-chain (LC) MGUS among 911 relatives of the same HC-MGUS/MM probands versus a reference population of 21 463. Seventeen 1° relatives had LC-MGUS (adjusted prevalence = 1·7%, 95% CI = 0·9–2·6%). There was increased risk of LC-MGUS in relatives of MM probands (RR = 3·4, 95% CI = 2·0–5·5). We saw no increased risk in relatives of HC-MGUS probands. We conclude that the prevalence of LC-MGUS is significantly higher among 1° relatives of MM probands compared to the reference population.

  3. Abundance of sea kraits correlates with precipitation.

    PubMed

    Lillywhite, Harvey B; Tu, Ming-Chung

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that sea kraits (Laticauda spp.)--amphibious sea snakes--dehydrate without a source of fresh water, drink only fresh water or very dilute brackish water, and have a spatial distribution of abundance that correlates with freshwater sites in Taiwan. The spatial distribution correlates with sites where there is a source of fresh water in addition to local precipitation. Here we report six years of longitudinal data on the abundance of sea kraits related to precipitation at sites where these snakes are normally abundant in the coastal waters of Lanyu (Orchid Island), Taiwan. The number of observed sea kraits varies from year-to-year and correlates positively with previous 6-mo cumulative rainfall, which serves as an inverse index of drought. Grouped data for snake counts indicate that mean abundance in wet years is nearly 3-fold greater than in dry years, and this difference is significant. These data corroborate previous findings and suggest that freshwater dependence influences the abundance or activity of sea kraits on both spatial and temporal scales. The increasing evidence for freshwater dependence in these and other marine species have important implications for the possible impact of climate change on sea snake distributions.

  4. Seasonal Abundance of Aphids and Aphidophagous Insects in Pecan.

    PubMed

    Dutcher, James D; Karar, Haider; Abbas, Ghulam

    2012-12-05

    Seasonal occurrence of aphids and aphidophagous insects was monitored for six years (2006-2011) from full leaf expansion in May to leaf fall in October in "Desirable" variety pecan trees that were not treated with insecticides. Aphid outbreaks occurred two times per season, once in the spring and again in the late summer. Yellow pecan and blackmargined aphids exceeded the recommended treatment thresholds one time and black pecan aphids exceeded the recommended treatment levels three times over the six seasons. Increases in aphidophagous insect abundance coincided with aphid outbreaks in five of the six seasons. Among aphidophagous insects Harmonia axyridis and Olla v-nigrum were frequently collected in both the tree canopy and at the ground level, whereas, Coccinella septempunctata, Hippodamia convergens were rarely found in the tree canopy and commonly found at the ground level. Green lacewing abundance was higher in the ground level than in the tree canopy. Brown lacewings were more abundant in the tree canopy than at the ground level. Dolichopodid and syrphid fly abundance, at the ground level increased during peak aphid abundance in the tree canopy. Application of an aqueous solution of fermenting molasses to the pecan foliage during an aphid outbreak significantly increased the abundance of ladybeetles and lacewings and significantly reduced the abundance of yellow pecan, blackmargined and black pecan aphids.

  5. Aggregative response in bats: prey abundance versus habitat.

    PubMed

    Müller, Jörg; Mehr, Milenka; Bässler, Claus; Fenton, M Brock; Hothorn, Torsten; Pretzsch, Hans; Klemmt, Hans-Joachim; Brandl, Roland

    2012-07-01

    In habitats where prey is either rare or difficult to predict spatiotemporally, such as open habitats, predators must be adapted to react effectively to variations in prey abundance. Open-habitat foraging bats have a wing morphology adapted for covering long distances, possibly use information transfer to locate patches of high prey abundance, and would therefore be expected to show an aggregative response at these patches. Here, we examined the effects of prey abundance on foraging activities of open-habitat foragers in comparison to that of edge-habitat foragers and closed-habitat foragers. Bat activity was estimated by counting foraging calls recorded with bat call recorders (38,371 calls). Prey abundance was estimated concurrently at each site using light and pitfall traps. The habitat was characterized by terrestrial laser scanning. Prey abundance increased with vegetation density. As expected, recordings of open-habitat foragers clearly decreased with increasing vegetation density. The foraging activity of edge- and closed-habitat foragers was not significantly affected by the vegetation density, i.e., these guilds were able to forage from open habitats to habitats with dense vegetation. Only open-habitat foragers displayed a significant and proportional aggregative response to increasing prey abundance. Our results suggest that adaptations for effective and low-cost foraging constrains habitat use and excludes the guild of open-habitat foragers from foraging in habitats with high prey abundance, such as dense forest stands.

  6. Carica papaya Leaves Juice Significantly Accelerates the Rate of Increase in Platelet Count among Patients with Dengue Fever and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever.

    PubMed

    Subenthiran, Soobitha; Choon, Tan Chwee; Cheong, Kee Chee; Thayan, Ravindran; Teck, Mok Boon; Muniandy, Prem Kumar; Afzan, Adlin; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Ismail, Zakiah

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the platelet increasing property of Carica papaya leaves juice (CPLJ) in patients with dengue fever (DF). An open labeled randomized controlled trial was carried out on 228 patients with DF and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). Approximately half the patients received the juice, for 3 consecutive days while the others remained as controls and received the standard management. Their full blood count was monitored 8 hours for 48 hours. Gene expression studies were conducted on the ALOX 12 and PTAFR genes. The mean increase in platelet counts were compared in both groups using repeated measure ANCOVA. There was a significant increase in mean platelet count observed in the intervention group (P < 0.001) but not in the control group 40 hours since the first dose of CPLJ. Comparison of mean platelet count between intervention and control group showed that mean platelet count in intervention group was significantly higher than control group after 40 and 48 hours of admission (P < 0.01). The ALOX 12 (FC  =  15.00) and PTAFR (FC  =  13.42) genes were highly expressed among those on the juice. It was concluded that CPLJ does significantly increase the platelet count in patients with DF and DHF.

  7. Carica papaya Leaves Juice Significantly Accelerates the Rate of Increase in Platelet Count among Patients with Dengue Fever and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever

    PubMed Central

    Subenthiran, Soobitha; Choon, Tan Chwee; Cheong, Kee Chee; Thayan, Ravindran; Teck, Mok Boon; Muniandy, Prem Kumar; Afzan, Adlin; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Ismail, Zakiah

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the platelet increasing property of Carica papaya leaves juice (CPLJ) in patients with dengue fever (DF). An open labeled randomized controlled trial was carried out on 228 patients with DF and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). Approximately half the patients received the juice, for 3 consecutive days while the others remained as controls and received the standard management. Their full blood count was monitored 8 hours for 48 hours. Gene expression studies were conducted on the ALOX 12 and PTAFR genes. The mean increase in platelet counts were compared in both groups using repeated measure ANCOVA. There was a significant increase in mean platelet count observed in the intervention group (P < 0.001) but not in the control group 40 hours since the first dose of CPLJ. Comparison of mean platelet count between intervention and control group showed that mean platelet count in intervention group was significantly higher than control group after 40 and 48 hours of admission (P < 0.01). The ALOX 12 (FC  =  15.00) and PTAFR (FC  =  13.42) genes were highly expressed among those on the juice. It was concluded that CPLJ does significantly increase the platelet count in patients with DF and DHF. PMID:23662145

  8. Significant Increase in Hydrogen Photoproduction Rates and Yields by Wild-Type Algae is Detected at High Photobioreactor Gas Phase Volume (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    This NREL Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Highlight describes how hydrogen photoproduction activity in algal cultures can be improved dramatically by increasing the gas-phase to liquid-phase volume ratio of the photobioreactor. NREL, in partnership with subcontractors from the Institute of Basic Biological Problems in Pushchino, Russia, demonstrated that the hydrogen photoproduction rate in algal cultures always decreases exponentially with increasing hydrogen partial pressure above the culture. The inhibitory effect of high hydrogen concentrations in the photobioreactor gas phase on hydrogen photoproduction by algae is significant and comparable to the effect observed with some anaerobic bacteria.

  9. Significant increase of the ferroelectric phase transition temperature in partially deuterated KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} by proton irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Se Hun; Lee, Kyu Won; Oh, B. H.; Kweon, J. J.; Lee, Cheol Eui

    2007-09-17

    The ferroelectric phase transition temperature was significantly raised by 5 K in partially deuterated KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} irradiated by a proton beam. Increase in the hydrogen bond length was indicated by the dielectric constant analysis. Deuteron nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements of the electric field gradient tensor showed atomic displacement after the proton irradiation, and {sup 31}P NMR measurements of the chemical shift tensor revealed phosphorous displacement in the hydrogen-bonded direction and the PO{sub 4} tetrahedral distortion. Increase of the phase transition temperature can be closely related to the structural modification involving the hydrogen-bond geometry.

  10. Editorial Commentary: Big Data Suggest That Because of a Significant Increased Risk of Postoperative Infection, Steroid Injection Is Not Recommended After Ankle Arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Brand, Jefferson C

    2016-02-01

    A recent study addressing infection rate after intra-articular steroid injection during ankle arthroscopy gives pause to this practice, with an odds ratio of 2.2 in the entire population that was injected with a steroid simultaneously with ankle arthroscopy compared with patients who did not receive an ankle injection. Big data, used in the study upon which the Editor comments here, suggest that because of a significant increased risk of postoperative infection, steroid injection is not recommended after ankle arthroscopy.

  11. Increased abundance of aromatase and follicle stimulating hormone receptor mRNA and decreased insulin-like growth factor-2 receptor mRNA in small ovarian follicles of cattle selected for twin births.

    PubMed

    Echternkamp, S E; Aad, P Y; Eborn, D R; Spicer, L J

    2012-07-01

    Cattle genetically selected for twin ovulations and births (Twinner) exhibit increased ovarian follicular development, increased ovulation rate, and greater blood and follicular fluid IGF-1 concentrations compared with contemporary cattle not selected for twins (Control). Experimental objectives were to 1) assess relationships among aromatase (CYP19A1), IGF-1 (IGF1), IGF-2 receptor (IGF2R), and FSH receptor (FSHR) mRNA expression in small (≤5 mm) antral follicles and 2) determine their association with increased numbers of developing follicles in ovaries of Twinner females. Ovaries were collected from mature, cyclic (d 3 to 6) Twinner (n = 11), and Control (n = 12) cows at slaughter and pieces of cortical tissue were fixed and embedded in paraffin. Expression of mRNA was evaluated by in situ hybridization using (35)S-UTP-labeled antisense and sense probes for CYP19A1, FSHR, IGF1, and IGF2R mRNA. Silver grain density was quantified within the granulosa and theca cells of individual follicles (2 to 7 follicles/cow) by Bioquant image analysis. Follicles of Twinners tended to be smaller in diameter than Controls (1.9 ± 0.1 vs. 2.3 ± 0.1 mm; P = 0.08), but thickness of granulosa layer did not differ (P > 0.1) by genotype. Relative abundance of CYP19A1 (P < 0.01) and FSHR (P < 0.05) mRNA was greater in granulosa cells of Twinners vs. Controls, respectively, whereas IGF2R mRNA expression was less in both granulosa (P < 0.01) and theca (P < 0.05) cells in follicles of Twinners vs. Controls, respectively. Abundance of CYP19A1 mRNA in granulosa cells was correlated negatively with IGF2R mRNA expression in both granulosa (r = -0.33; P < 0.01) and theca (r = -0.21; P = 0.05) cells. Expression of IGF1 mRNA was primarily in granulosa cells, including cumulus cells, and its expression did not differ between Twinners vs. Controls (P > 0.10). Detected increases in CYP19A1 and FSHR, but not IGF1, mRNA expression along with decreases in IGF2R mRNA expression in individual

  12. Significant increases in pulping efficiency in C4H-F5H-transformed poplars: improved chemical savings and reduced environmental toxins.

    PubMed

    Huntley, Shannon K; Ellis, Dave; Gilbert, Margarita; Chapple, Clint; Mansfield, Shawn D

    2003-10-08

    The gene encoding ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H) was overexpressed in poplar (Populus tremula x Populus alba) using the cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) promoter to drive expression specifically in cells involved in the lignin biosynthetic pathway and was shown to significantly alter the mole percentage of syringyl subunits in the lignin, as determined by thioacidolysis. Analysis of poplar transformed with a C4H-F5H construct demonstrated significant increases in chemical (kraft) pulping efficiency from greenhouse-grown trees. Compared to wild-type wood, decreases of 23 kappa units and increases of >20 ISO brightness units were observed in trees exhibiting high syringyl monomer concentrations. These changes were associated with no significant modification in total lignin content and no observed phenotypic differences. C4H-F5H-transformed trees could increase pulp throughputs at mills by >60% while concurrently decreasing chemicals employed during processing (chemical pulping and bleaching) and, consequently, the amount of deleterious byproducts released into the environment.

  13. Liver-Specific Deletion of Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog Deleted on Chromosome 10 Significantly Ameliorates Chronic EtOH-Induced Increases in Hepatocellular Damage

    PubMed Central

    Orlicky, David J.; McCullough, Rebecca L.; Jiang, Hua; Maclean, Kenneth N.; Mercer, Kelly E.; Stiles, Bangyan L.; Saba, Laura M.; Ronis, Martin J.; Petersen, Dennis R.

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is a significant contributor to global liver failure. In murine models, chronic ethanol consumption dysregulates PTEN/Akt signaling. Hepatospecific deletion of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTENLKO) mice possess constitutive activation of Akt(s) and increased de novo lipogenesis resulting in increased hepatocellular steatosis. This makes PTENLKO a viable model to examine the effects of ethanol in an environment of preexisting steatosis. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of chronic ethanol consumption and the absence of PTEN (PTENLKO) compared to Alb-Cre control mice (PTENf/f) on hepatocellular damage as evidenced by changes in lipid accumulation, protein carbonylation and alanine amino transferase (ALT). In the control PTENf/f animals, ethanol significantly increased ALT, liver triglycerides and steatosis. In contrast, chronic ethanol consumption in PTENLKO mice decreased hepatocellular damage when compared to PTENLKO pair-fed controls. Consumption of ethanol elevated protein carbonylation in PTENf/f animals but had no effect in PTENLKO animals. In PTENLKO mice, overall hepatic mRNA expression of genes that contribute to GSH homeostasis as well as reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) concentrations were significantly elevated compared to respective PTENf/f counterparts. These data indicate that during conditions of constitutive Akt activation and steatosis, increased GSH homeostasis assists in mitigation of ethanol-dependent induction of oxidative stress and hepatocellular damage. Furthermore, data herein suggest a divergence in EtOH-induced hepatocellular damage and increases in steatosis due to polyunsaturated fatty acids downstream of PTEN. PMID:27124661

  14. Will Abundant Natural Gas Solve Climate Change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McJeon, H. C.; Edmonds, J.; Bauer, N.; Leon, C.; Fisher, B.; Flannery, B.; Hilaire, J.; Krey, V.; Marangoni, G.; Mi, R.; Riahi, K.; Rogner, H.; Tavoni, M.

    2015-12-01

    The rapid deployment of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling technologies enabled the production of previously uneconomic shale gas resources in North America. Global deployment of these advanced gas production technologies could bring large influx of economically competitive unconventional gas resources to the energy system. It has been hoped that abundant natural gas substituting for coal could reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, which in turn could reduce climate forcing. Other researchers countered that the non-CO2 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with shale gas production make its lifecycle emissions higher than those of coal. In this study, we employ five state-of-the-art integrated assessment models (IAMs) of energy-economy-climate systems to assess the full impact of abundant gas on climate change. The models show large additional natural gas consumption up to +170% by 2050. The impact on CO2 emissions, however, is found to be much smaller (from -2% to +11%), and a majority of the models reported a small increase in climate forcing (from -0.3% to +7%) associated with the increased use of abundant gas. Our results show that while globally abundant gas may substantially change the future energy market equilibrium, it will not significantly mitigate climate change on its own in the absence of climate policies.

  15. Depletion of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells increases severity of mechanical allodynia and significantly alters systemic cytokine levels following peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Lees, Justin G; Duffy, Samuel S; Perera, Chamini J; Moalem-Taylor, Gila

    2015-02-01

    Neuropathic pain is a debilitating condition caused by damage to the somatosensory nervous system, such as peripheral nerve injury. The immune system, and in particular the adaptive T cell response, plays a key role in mediating such pain. Regulatory T (Treg) cells are a small subpopulation of inhibitory T cells that prevent autoimmunity, limit immunopathology and maintain immune homeostasis. Here, we investigated the effects of conditional depletion of Treg cells on mechanical allodynia and serum cytokines in mice with chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve, an animal model of neuropathic pain. We demonstrate that CCI induced the infiltration of small numbers of Treg cells within effected neuronal tissue. Utilising the transgenic DEREG (DEpletion of REGulatory T cells) mice, we confirmed effective depletion of Foxp3+ Treg cells by diphtheria toxin injections. Following CCI we observed a transient, though significant, increase in pain hypersensitivity for Treg-depleted DEREG mice compared to non-Treg-depleted mice. Analysis of systemic cytokine levels demonstrated significant changes in serum cytokine expression profiles. In particular, we observed significant increases in systemic concentration of RANTES, IL-2 and IL-5, and significant decreases in IL-12 and IFN-γ in nerve-injured Treg-depleted DEREG mice. Further analysis indicated a substantial increase in the serum concentration of IL-12p40 as a direct result of Treg cell depletion. These results suggest that depletion of Foxp3+ Treg cells promote nerve injury-induced pain hypersensitivity, partially by inducing altered systemic concentrations of cytokines, which may act to regulate neuropathic pain.

  16. Significant association between glycemic status and increased estimated postglomerular resistance in nondiabetic subjects – study of inulin and para-aminohippuric acid clearance in humans

    PubMed Central

    Yasumoto, Mari; Tsuda, Akihiro; Ishimura, Eiji; Uedono, Hideki; Ohno, Yoshiteru; Ichii, Mitsuru; Ochi, Akinobu; Nakatani, Shinya; Mori, Katsuhito; Uchida, Junji; Emoto, Masanori; Nakatani, Tatsuya; Inaba, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether glomerular hemodynamic parameters in nondiabetic subjects, including healthy subjects, are associated with glycemic status indices, by simultaneous measurement of inulin (Cin) and para-aminohippuric acid (CPHA) clearance. Twenty-six subjects (age 49.5 ± 13.3 years; 13 men and 13 women; 14 healthy subjects and 12 subjects with mild proteinuria) were enrolled. Cin and CPAH were measured simultaneously. All 26 subjects were nondiabetics. Estimated preglomerular resistance, estimated postglomerular resistance, and estimated glomerular hydrostatic pressure (Pglo) were calculated according to Gomez’ formula. Pglo correlated significantly and positively with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in both healthy subjects (r = 0.532, P = 0.0498) and subjects with mild proteinuria (r = 0.681, P = 0.015). While there was no significant correlation between estimated preglomerular resistance and HbA1c, estimated postglomerular resistance correlated significantly and positively with HbA1c both in healthy subjects (r = 0.643, P = 0.013) and subjects with mild proteinuria (r = 0.589, P = 0.044). Glomerular filtration fraction, estimated Pglo and estimated postglomerular resistance in total subjects were associated significantly with HbA1c after adjustment for age, gender, and body mass index. These results demonstrate that, even in nondiabetic subjects, glycemic status is associated with estimated postglomerular resistance, but not estimated preglomerular resistance. It is suggested that increased estimated postglomerular resistance associated with higher HbA1c levels, even within the normal range, causes increased estimated Pglo, leading to increased FF. Thus, hemodynamic abnormalities associated with higher HbA1c levels may be related to glomerular hypertension, even in nondiabetic subjects. PMID:25742958

  17. Prickly business: abundance of sea urchins on breakwaters and coral reefs in Dubai.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Andrew G; Dunshea, Glenn; Feary, David A; Hoey, Andrew S

    2016-04-30

    Echinometra mathaei is a common echinoid on tropical reefs and where abundant plays an important role in the control of algal communities. Despite high prevalence of E. mathaei on southern Persian/Arabian Gulf reefs, their abundance and distribution is poorly known. Spatial and temporal patterns in population abundance were examined at 12 sites between breakwater and natural reef habitats in Dubai (UAE) every 3 months from 2008 to 2010. Within the breakwater habitat, densities were greatest at shallow wave-exposed sites, and reduced with both decreasing wave-exposure and increasing depth. Interestingly, E. mathaei were significantly more abundant on exposed breakwaters than natural reef sites, presumably due to differences in habitat structure and benthic cover. Population abundances differed seasonally, with peak abundances during summer (July-September) and lower abundances in winter (December-February). Seasonal fluctuations are likely the result of peak annual recruitment pulses coupled with increased fish predation from summer to winter.

  18. Functional variants of the 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase gene significantly increase susceptibility to prostate cancer: Results from an ethnic Han Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Yuan-Yuan; Zhou, Shu-Xian; Zhang, Xuan; Zhao, Rui; Gu, Cheng-Yuan; Chang, Kun; Yang, Xiao-Qun; Gan, Hua-Lei; Dai, Bo; Zhang, Hai-Liang; Shi, Guo-Hai; Zhu, Yao; Ye, Ding-Wei; Zhao, Jian-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation has been implicated in prostate carcinogenesis. The one-carbon metabolism pathway and related metabolites determine cellular DNA methylation and thus is thought to play a pivotal role in PCa occurrence. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of genetic variants in one-carbon metabolism genes to prostate cancer (PCa) risk and the underlying biological mechanisms. In this hospital-based case-control study of 1817 PCa cases and 2026 cancer-free controls, we genotyped six polymorphisms in three one-carbon metabolism genes and assessed their association with the risk of PCa. We found two noncoding MTR variants, rs28372871 T > G and rs1131450 G > A, were independently associated with a significantly increased risk of PCa. The rs28372871 GG genotype (adjusted OR = 1.40, P = 0.004) and rs1131450 AA genotype (adjusted OR = 1.64, P = 0.007) exhibited 1.40-fold and 1.64-fold higher risk of PCa, respectively, compared with their respective homozygous wild-type genotypes. Further functional analyses revealed these two variants contribute to reducing MTR expression, elevating homocysteine and SAH levels, reducing methionine and SAM levels, increasing SAH/SAM ratio, and promoting the invasion of PCa cells in vitro. Collectively, our data suggest regulatory variants of the MTR gene significantly increase the PCa risk via decreasing methylation potential. These findings provide a novel molecular mechanism for the prostate carcinogenesis. PMID:27808252

  19. Ammonia abundances in four comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyckoff, S.; Tegler, S. C.; Engel, L.

    1991-02-01

    NH2 emission band strengths were measured in four comets and the NH2 column densities were determined in order to measure the ammonia content of the comets. The mean ammonia/water abundance ratio derived for the four comets is found to be 0.13 + or - 0.06 percent, with no significant variation among the comets. The uniformity of this abundance attests to a remarkable degree of chemical homogeneity over large scales in the comet-forming region of the primordial solar nebula, and contrasts with the CO abundance variations found previously in comets. The N2 and NH3 abundances indicate a condensation temperature in the range 20-160 K, consistent with virtually all comet formation hypotheses.

  20. Avastin® in combination with gemcitabine and cisplatin significantly inhibits tumor angiogenesis and increases the survival rate of human A549 tumor-bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    LIU, YING; XIA, XIZHENG; ZHOU, MINGKAI; LIU, XIAOJUN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Avastin® in combination with gemcitabine and cisplatin (GP) on the tumor growth of A549 tumor-bearing mice and the potential anti-tumor mechanism. A total of 30 human A549 tumor-bearing nude mice were randomly divided into the Avastin, chemotherapy and combined treatment groups for treatment with an intraperitoneal injection of Avastin (5 mg/kg) (Avastin group); an intraperitoneal injection of gemcitabine (4 mg/kg) and cisplatin (4 mg/kg) (chemotherapy group); or intraperitoneal injections of Avastin and GP (combined treatment group). The mice were observed for 30 days and the tumor growth, survival and body weight of the mice in the three groups were analyzed. The protein level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the tumor tissues was analyzed by ELISA. The vascular density and structural changes of the tumor were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. Compared with the Avastin and chemotherapy groups, the tumor growth of mice in the combined treatment group was significantly inhibited, and the survival rate of the mice was increased significantly. No difference in body weight was observed among the three groups of mice (P>0.05). The levels of VEGF in the combined treatment group tumor tissues were significantly reduced compared with those in the chemotherapy group tumor tissues (P<0.05). Furthermore, the vessel density of the tumor tissue in the combined treatment group was significantly reduced compared with that in the chemotherapy group (P<0.05), and the number of normal vessels in the combined treatment group tumors was significantly higher than that in the chemotherapy group tumors after 7 days of treatment (P<0.05). In conclusion, Avastin can significantly decrease the level of VEGF in tumor tissue, inhibit tumor angiogenesis and promote the normalization of tumor vascular structure, which may explain the enhanced efficacy of Avastin in combination with chemotherapy. PMID:26136956

  1. Flare Plasma Iron Abundance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Dan, Chau; Jain, Rajmal; Schwartz, Richard A.; Tolbert, Anne K.

    2008-01-01

    The equivalent width of the iron-line complex at 6.7 keV seen in flare X-ray spectra suggests that the iron abundance of the hottest plasma at temperatures >approx.10 MK may sometimes be significantly lower than the nominal coronal abundance of four times the photospheric value that is commonly assumed. This conclusion is based on X-ray spectral observations of several flares seen in common with the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) and the Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) on the second Indian geostationary satellite, GSAT-2. The implications of this will be discussed as it relates to the origin of the hot flare plasma - either plasma already in the corona that is directly heated during the flare energy release process or chromospheric plasma that is heated by flare-accelerated particles and driven up into the corona. Other possible explanations of lower-than-expected equivalent widths of the iron-line complex will also be discussed.

  2. Acute coronary syndromes with significant troponin increase in patients with hip fracture prior to surgical repair: differential diagnosis and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Rostagno, Carlo; Cammilli, Alessandra; Di Cristo, Annalaura; Polidori, Gian Luca; Ranalli, Claudia; Cartei, Alessandro; Buzzi, Roberto; Prisco, Domenico

    2016-03-01

    Myocardial infarction after hip fracture but before surgical repair is associated with a 30-day mortality as high as 30 % at 1 month. In Florence, since 2011, hip fractures are referred to a multidisciplinary hip fracture team including internal medicine specialists, anesthesiologists, and orthopaedic surgeons. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of patients with hip fracture who had at hospital admission a significant increase of troponin (>10 times reference levels), the diagnostic and therapeutic strategies adopted, and overall 1-year survival. Protocol at admission included careful clinical evaluation (including bedside echocardiography) in order to stratify surgical risk and schedule surgery and anaesthesiology strategy. 21/1025 patients had preoperative significant troponin increase. In sixteen patients, a diagnosis of NSTEMI was made, five presented with ST elevation. In five patients with NSTEMI considered at very high surgical risk (ASA ≥ 3, severe cognitive and functional impairment), surgery was not performed. None survived at 1 year. Hip surgery was performed in the other 11. Four underwent coronary revascularization after hip surgery. In this group, 1-year survival was 80 %. Four of five ST elevation patients fulfilled criteria for stress cardiomyopathy confirmed by angiography. Hip surgery was performed, and the patients are alive at 1-year follow-up. Close to 2 % of patients with hip fracture are found to have a significant troponin increase before surgery. Three out of four have an NSTEMI diagnosis. In patients undergoing hip surgery, survival at 1 year is close to 80 %. In patients with ST elevation at admission, stress cardiomyopathy should be considered in the differential diagnosis. This clinical condition is associated with a favourable prognosis after hip surgery.

  3. Intense interval training in healthy older adults increases skeletal muscle [(3)H]ouabain-binding site content and elevates Na(+),K(+)-ATPase α2 isoform abundance in Type II fibers.

    PubMed

    Wyckelsma, Victoria L; Levinger, Itamar; Murphy, Robyn M; Petersen, Aaron C; Perry, Ben D; Hedges, Christopher P; Anderson, Mitchell J; McKenna, Michael J

    2017-04-01

    Young adults typically adapt to intense exercise training with an increased skeletal muscle Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (NKA) content, concomitant with reduced extracellular potassium concentration [K(+)] during exercise and enhanced exercise performance. Whether these changes with longitudinal training occur in older adults is unknown and was investigated here. Fifteen older adults (69.4 ± 3.5 years, mean ± SD) were randomized to either 12 weeks of intense interval training (4 × 4 min at 90-95% peak heart rate), 3 days/week (IIT, n = 8); or no exercise controls (n = 7). Before and after training, participants completed an incremental cycle ergometer exercise test until a rating of perceived exertion of 17 (very hard) on a 20-point scale was attained, with measures of antecubital venous [K(+)]v Participants underwent a resting muscle biopsy prior to and at 48-72 h following the final training session. After IIT, the peak exercise work rate (25%), oxygen uptake (16%) and heart rate (6%) were increased (P < 0.05). After IIT, the peak exercise plasma [K(+)]v tended to rise (P = 0.07), while the rise in plasma [K(+)]v relative to work performed (nmol.L(-1)J(-1)) was unchanged. Muscle NKA content increased by 11% after IIT (P < 0.05). Single fiber measurements, increased in NKA α2 isoform in Type II fibers after IIT (30%, P < 0.05), with no changes to the other isoforms in single fibers or homogenate. Thus, intense exercise training in older adults induced an upregulation of muscle NKA, with a fiber-specific increase in NKA α2 abundance in Type II fibers, coincident with increased muscle NKA content and enhanced exercise performance.

  4. N-Terminal Truncation of an Isolated Human IgG1 CH2 Domain Significantly Increases its Stability and Aggregation Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Rui; Wang, Yanping; Ying, Tianlei; Feng, Yang; Streaker, Emily; Prabakaran, Ponraj; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.

    2013-01-01

    Isolated human immunoglobulin G (IgG) CH2 domains are promising scaffolds for novel candidate therapeutics. Unlike other human IgG domains, CH2 is not involved in strong interchain interactions and isolated CH2 is relatively stable. However, isolated single CH2 is prone to aggregation. In native IgG and Fc molecules, the N-terminal residues of CH2 from the two heavy chains interact with each other and form hinge regions. By contrast, the N-terminal residues are highly disordered in isolated CH2. We have hypothesized that removal of the CH2 N-terminal residues may not only increase its stability but also its aggregation resistance. To test this hypothesis we constructed a shortened variant of IgG1 CH2 (CH2s) where the first seven residues of the N-terminus were deleted. We found that the thermal stability of CH2s was increased by 5°C compared to CH2. Importantly, we demonstrated that CH2s is significantly less prone to aggregation than CH2 as measured by Thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence, turbidity and light scattering. We also found that the CH2s exhibited pH-dependent binding to a soluble single-chain human neonatal Fc receptor (shFcRn) which was significantly stronger than the very weak shFcRn binding to CH2 as measured by flow cytometry. Computer modeling suggested a possible mode of CH2 aggregation involving its N-terminal residues. Therefore, deletion of the N-terminal residues could increase drugability of CH2-based therapeutic candidates. This strategy to increase stability and aggregation resistance could also be applicable to other Ig-related proteins. PMID:23641816

  5. Prostatic specific antigen and bone scan in the diagnosis and follow-up of prostate cancer. Can diagnostic significance of PSA be increased?

    PubMed

    Bantis, Athanasios; Grammaticos, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is currently the most frequently diagnosed cancer in males and constitutes a major health issue in developed countries. On the other hand, the majority of PC cases are considered clinically not significant and certainly not lethal. These discrepancies highlight the need for the early detection of especially those cases that have aggressive features and call for early and radical intervention. The clinical use of prostatic specific antigen (PSA) towards this end is recognized as inadequate since PSA is prostate specific, but not a PC specific marker, as it is known to increase in other prostate diseases such as benign hyperplasia, inflammations, transrectal ultrasound examination, biopsy and after transurethral prostatectomy. However due to lack of other more specific markers, digital rectal examination combined with serum PSA are suggested for PC screening and diagnosis. With regard to advanced disease where bone involvement is the rule, nuclear medicine bone scan using radioactive bisphosphonates such as technetium-99m methylene-diphosphonate is quite common and reliable technique for detecting and monitoring bone metastases. The major advantage of nuclear scintigraphy is its ability to reveal bone metastases significantly earlier than the conventional X-ray imaging techniques. PSA density, velocity, doubling time and free to total PSA ratio increase the significance of serum PSA in diagnosing PC. The combination of an increased PSA (>20ng/mL) and a high biopsy Gleason score (>8) enhances the possibility of bone metastases (P<0001) and mandates a bone scan. In conclusion, serum PSA testing is currently recommended in symptomatic PC patients for disease staging and treatment monitoring and in asymptomatic selected population groups aged more than 50 years. It is reasonable to suggest that PSA density, velocity, doubling time and free to total PSA ratio or combining PSA with Gleason score shall greatly increase PSA specificity in detecting PC

  6. Solar-system abundances of the elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, E.; Ebihara, M.

    1982-01-01

    Elemental analyses of the Ogueil Cl meteorite and all previous Cl chondrite analyses were employed to develop a new solar system abundance table, including the standard deviation and number of analyses for each element. The table also comprises the abundances of radioactive and radiogenic nuclides at the present and 4.55 AE ago, as well as abundances by weight in a typical Cl chondrite. The new abundances were within 20% of those determined by Cameron (1982), except for 14 cases in the range 20-50%, and 5 over 50%. The solar abundances were compared with the Cl abundances, showing a total of only 7 disagreements. No significant discrepancies were detected in the major cosmochemical groups, and a smooth trend was found in the abundances of odd-A nuclides. The new set is interpreted as accurate to 10%, with the Cl chondrites matching the primordial solar system abundances to at most 10% deviation.

  7. Intratesticular expression of mRNAs of both interferon γ and tumor necrosis factor α is significantly increased in experimental autoimmune orchitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Terayama, Hayato; Naito, Munekazu; Qu, Ning; Hirai, Shuichi; Kitaoka, Miyuki; Ogawa, Yuki; Itoh, Masahiro

    2011-04-01

    Experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) is one of the models of immunological male infertility. Murine EAO is CD4+T cell-dependent and classically induced by immunization with a testicular homogenate and adjuvants. We previously established that immunization with viable syngeneic testicular germ cells (TGC) can also induce murine EAO with no use of any adjuvant. Analyses of this EAO model have already revealed that cultured spleen cells of immunized mice secreted interferon (IFN)-γ and that treatment of the immunized mice with anti-IFN-γ monoclonal antibodies significantly suppressed the EAO. It is known that both IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α are representative cytokines of Th1 cells and exhibit local toxicity toward the seminiferous epithelium in vivo. However, changes in these two cytokines in EAO-affected testes have not yet been investigated. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the expression of intratesticular IFN-γ and TNF- α mRNAs in TGC-induced EAO using real-time RT-PCR. The results demonstrated that the intratesticular mRNAs for both IFN-γ and TNF-α significantly increased, while other cytokines such as IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6 and TGF-β did not show dramatic changes in the immunized mice. These results suggest that secretion of significant amounts of IFN-γ and TNF-α in situ contributes to the spermatogenic disturbance in EAO.

  8. Addition of a third field significantly increases dose to the brachial plexus for patients undergoing tangential whole-breast therapy after lumpectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Stanic, Sinisa; Mathai, Mathew; Mayadev, Jyoti S.; Do, Ly V.; Purdy, James A.; Chen, Allen M.

    2012-07-01

    Our goal was to evaluate brachial plexus (BP) dose with and without the use of supraclavicular (SCL) irradiation in patients undergoing breast-conserving therapy with whole-breast radiation therapy (RT) after lumpectomy. Using the standardized Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG)-endorsed guidelines delineation, we contoured the BP for 10 postlumpectomy breast cancer patients. The radiation dose to the whole breast was 50.4 Gy using tangential fields in 1.8-Gy fractions, followed by a conedown to the operative bed using electrons (10 Gy). The prescription dose to the SCL field was 50.4 Gy, delivered to 3-cm depth. The mean BP volume was 14.5 {+-} 1.5 cm{sup 3}. With tangential fields alone, the median mean dose to the BP was 0.57 Gy, the median maximum dose was 1.93 Gy, and the irradiated volume of the BP receiving 40, 45, and 50 Gy was 0%. When the third (SCL field) was added, the dose to the BP was significantly increased (P = .01): the median mean dose to the BP was 40.60 Gy, and the median maximum dose was 52.22 Gy. With 3-field RT, the median irradiated volume of the BP receiving 40, 45, and 50 Gy was 83.5%, 68.5%, and 24.6%, respectively. The addition of the SCL field significantly increases dose to the BP. The possibility of increasing the risk of BP morbidity should be considered in the context of clinical decision making.

  9. Clinical significance of increased cerebellar default-mode network connectivity in resting-state patients with drug-naive somatization disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Houliang; Guo, Wenbin; Liu, Feng; Chen, Jindong; Wu, Renrong; Zhang, Zhikun; Yu, Miaoyu; Li, Lehua; Zhao, Jingping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The cerebellum has been proven to be connected to the brain network, as in the default-mode network (DMN), among healthy subjects and patients with psychiatric disorders. However, whether or not abnormal cerebellar DMN connectivity exists and what its clinical significance is among drug-naive patients with somatization disorder (SD) at rest remain unclear. A total of 25 drug-naive patients with SD and 28 healthy controls were enrolled for a resting-state scan. The imaging data were analyzed using the seed-based functional connectivity (FC) method. Compared with the controls, patients with SD showed increased left/right Crus I-left/right angular gyrus (AG) connectivity and Lobule IX-left superior medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) connectivity. The FC values of the left/right Crus I-right AG connectivity of the patients were positively correlated with their scores in the somatization subscale of the symptom checklist-90 (Scl-90). A trend level of correlations was observed between the FC values of the left Crus I-left AG connectivity of the patients and their scores for the somatization subscale of Scl-90, as well as between the FC values of their Lobule IX-left superior MPFC connectivity and their scores for the Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ) extraversion. Our findings show the increased cerebellar DMN connectivity in patients with SD and therefore highlight the importance of the DMN in the neurobiology of SD. Increased cerebellar DMN connectivities are also correlated with their somatization severity and personality, both of which bear clinical significance. PMID:27428190

  10. Synbiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and cellobiose does not affect human gut bacterial diversity but increases abundance of lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and branched-chain fatty acids: a randomized, double-blinded cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    van Zanten, Gabriella C; Krych, Lukasz; Röytiö, Henna; Forssten, Sofia; Lahtinen, Sampo J; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed; Sørensen, Søren; Svensson, Birte; Jespersen, Lene; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2014-10-01

    Probiotics, prebiotics, and combinations thereof, that is synbiotics, have been reported to modulate gut microbiota of humans. In this study, effects of a novel synbiotic on the composition and metabolic activity of human gut microbiota were investigated. Healthy volunteers (n = 18) were enrolled in a double-blinded, randomized, and placebo-controlled cross-over study and received synbiotic [Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (10(9) CFU) and cellobiose (5 g)] or placebo daily for 3 weeks. Fecal samples were collected and lactobacilli numbers were quantified by qPCR. Furthermore, 454 tag-encoded amplicon pyrosequencing was used to monitor the effect of synbiotic on the composition of the microbiota. The synbiotic increased levels of Lactobacillus spp. and relative abundances of the genera Bifidobacterium, Collinsella, and Eubacterium while the genus Dialister was decreased (P < 0.05). No other effects were found on microbiota composition. Remarkably, however, the synbiotic increased concentrations of branched-chain fatty acids, measured by gas chromatography, while short-chain fatty acids were not affected.

  11. n-3 PUFA fortification of high n-6 PUFA farmed tilapia with linseed could significantly increase dietary contribution and support nutritional expectations of fish.

    PubMed

    Shapira, Niva; Weill, Pierre; Sharon, Ossie; Loewenbach, Rachel; Berzak, Ofer

    2009-03-25

    Farmed fish high in n-6 PUFA may undermine fish nutritional expectations and intake recommendations for n-3 PUFA requirements and exacerbate rather than improve already high n-6/n-3 PUFA diets. Dietary contribution of fish fortification by linseed-based n-3 PUFA was evaluated. Mango tilapia (12 months old) with high n-6 PUFA (21.8 FA%, n-6/n-3 ratio 4.6:1) were fed standard/control (T(C)) or linseed-supplemented (5%, T(5%); 7%, T(7%)) feed for 61 days regular-growth and 120 days stock-growth (to 650 g). Compared to T(C), n-3 PUFA increased in T(5%) 46% and T(7%) 58%; ALA in T(5%) increased 100% and T(7%) 167%; EPA+DHA in T(5%) increased 14% and T(7%) 23% (p < 0.05); n-6 PUFA/LCPUFA were unchanged. T(7%) EPA+DHA 168 mg/100 g of raw fillet is comparable to current American intake and Dietary Reference Intakes; controlled cooking preserved approximately 90% EPA+DHA. n-6/n-3 ratios decreased 16-38% in total PUFA to 2.3:1 and in LCPUFA to 0.61:1. Linseed supplementation could improve tilapia n-3 PUFA/LCPUFA, ameliorating n-3 PUFA scarcity and unexpectedly high fish n-6 PUFA content, potentially making a significant nutritional contribution.

  12. Immunization of teenagers with a fifth dose of reduced DTaP-IPV induces high levels of pertussis antibodies with a significant increase in opsonophagocytic activity.

    PubMed

    Aase, Audun; Herstad, Tove Karin; Merino, Samuel; Bolstad, Merete; Sandbu, Synne; Bakke, Hilde; Aaberge, Ingeborg S

    2011-08-01

    Waning vaccine-induced immunity against Bordetella pertussis is observed among adolescents and adults. A high incidence of pertussis has been reported in this population, which serves as a reservoir for B. pertussis. A fifth dose of reduced antigen of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular-pertussis and inactivated polio vaccine was given as a booster dose to healthy teenagers. The antibody activity against B. pertussis antigens was measured prior to and 4 to 8 weeks after the booster by different assays: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) of IgG and IgA against pertussis toxin (PT) and filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), IgG against pertactin (PRN), opsonophagocytic activity (OPA), and IgG binding to live B. pertussis. There was a significant increase in the IgG activity against PT, FHA, and PRN following the booster immunization (P < 0.001). The prebooster sera showed a geometric mean OPA titer of 65.1 and IgG binding to live bacteria at a geometric mean concentration of 164.9 arbitrary units (AU)/ml. Following the fifth dose, the OPA increased to a titer of 360.4, and the IgG concentration against live bacteria increased to 833.4 AU/ml (P < 0.001 for both). The correlation analyses between the different assays suggest that antibodies against FHA and PRN contribute the most to the OPA and IgG binding.

  13. Herbivore regulation of plant abundance in aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Wood, Kevin A; O'Hare, Matthew T; McDonald, Claire; Searle, Kate R; Daunt, Francis; Stillman, Richard A

    2017-05-01

    Herbivory is a fundamental process that controls primary producer abundance and regulates energy and nutrient flows to higher trophic levels. Despite the recent proliferation of small-scale studies on herbivore effects on aquatic plants, there remains limited understanding of the factors that control consumer regulation of vascular plants in aquatic ecosystems. Our current knowledge of the regulation of primary producers has hindered efforts to understand the structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems, and to manage such ecosystems effectively. We conducted a global meta-analysis of the outcomes of plant-herbivore interactions using a data set comprised of 326 values from 163 studies, in order to test two mechanistic hypotheses: first, that greater negative changes in plant abundance would be associated with higher herbivore biomass densities; second, that the magnitude of changes in plant abundance would vary with herbivore taxonomic identity. We found evidence that plant abundance declined with increased herbivore density, with plants eliminated at high densities. Significant between-taxa differences in impact were detected, with insects associated with smaller reductions in plant abundance than all other taxa. Similarly, birds caused smaller reductions in plant abundance than echinoderms, fish, or molluscs. Furthermore, larger reductions in plant abundance were detected for fish relative to crustaceans. We found a positive relationship between herbivore species richness and change in plant abundance, with the strongest reductions in plant abundance reported for low herbivore species richness, suggesting that greater herbivore diversity may protect against large reductions in plant abundance. Finally, we found that herbivore-plant nativeness was a key factor affecting the magnitude of herbivore impacts on plant abundance across a wide range of species assemblages. Assemblages comprised of invasive herbivores and native plant assemblages were associated with

  14. The in vitro mass-produced model mycorrhizal fungus, Rhizophagus irregularis, significantly increases yields of the globally important food security crop cassava.

    PubMed

    Ceballos, Isabel; Ruiz, Michael; Fernández, Cristhian; Peña, Ricardo; Rodríguez, Alia; Sanders, Ian R

    2013-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is formed between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant roots. The fungi provide the plant with inorganic phosphate (P). The symbiosis can result in increased plant growth. Although most global food crops naturally form this symbiosis, very few studies have shown that their practical application can lead to large-scale increases in food production. Application of AMF to crops in the tropics is potentially effective for improving yields. However, a main problem of using AMF on a large-scale is producing cheap inoculum in a clean sterile carrier and sufficiently concentrated to cheaply transport. Recently, mass-produced in vitro inoculum of the model mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis became available, potentially making its use viable in tropical agriculture. One of the most globally important food plants in the tropics is cassava. We evaluated the effect of in vitro mass-produced R. irregularis inoculum on the yield of cassava crops at two locations in Colombia. A significant effect of R. irregularis inoculation on yield occurred at both sites. At one site, yield increases were observed irrespective of P fertilization. At the other site, inoculation with AMF and 50% of the normally applied P gave the highest yield. Despite that AMF inoculation resulted in greater food production, economic analyses revealed that AMF inoculation did not give greater return on investment than with conventional cultivation. However, the amount of AMF inoculum used was double the recommended dose and was calculated with European, not Colombian, inoculum prices. R. irregularis can also be manipulated genetically in vitro, leading to improved plant growth. We conclude that application of in vitro R. irregularis is currently a way of increasing cassava yields, that there is a strong potential for it to be economically profitable and that there is enormous potential to improve this efficiency further in the future.

  15. A Three-Lesson Teaching Unit Significantly Increases High School Students' Knowledge about Epilepsy and Positively Influences Their Attitude towards This Disease.

    PubMed

    Simon, Uwe K; Gesslbauer, Lisa; Fink, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is not a regular topic in many countries' schools. Thus many people harbor misconceptions about people suffering from this disease. It was our aim to a) examine what grade ten students know and believe about epilepsy, and b) to develop and test a teaching unit to improve their knowledge and attitude. The test group comprised eight grade ten classes from six different Austrian high schools (54 girls and 51 boys aged 14-17), the control group (no intervention) five grade ten classes from the same schools (26 girls and 37 boys aged 14-17). The teaching unit consisted of three 45-min lessons using different methods and material. Changes in knowledge about and attitude towards epilepsy as a result of the intervention were psychometrically assessed in a pre-test intervention post-test design (along with a follow-up assessment two months after the intervention) by means of a questionnaire capturing different facets of epilepsy-related knowledge and attitude. Across all knowledge/attitude domains, students of the test group had a significantly improved knowledge about and a more positive attitude towards epilepsy and people suffering from it after the teaching unit. However, starting levels were different between the five knowledge/attitude domains tested. Medical background knowledge was lowest and consequently associated with the highest increase after the intervention. This study shows that epilepsy-related knowledge of many grade ten high school students is fragmentary and that some harbor beliefs and attitudes which require improvement. Our comprehensive but concise teaching unit significantly increased knowledge about epilepsy and positively influenced attitude towards individuals with epilepsy. Thus we recommend implementing this unit into regular school curricula.

  16. A Three-Lesson Teaching Unit Significantly Increases High School Students’ Knowledge about Epilepsy and Positively Influences Their Attitude towards This Disease

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Uwe K.; Gesslbauer, Lisa; Fink, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is not a regular topic in many countries’ schools. Thus many people harbor misconceptions about people suffering from this disease. It was our aim to a) examine what grade ten students know and believe about epilepsy, and b) to develop and test a teaching unit to improve their knowledge and attitude. The test group comprised eight grade ten classes from six different Austrian high schools (54 girls and 51 boys aged 14–17), the control group (no intervention) five grade ten classes from the same schools (26 girls and 37 boys aged 14–17). The teaching unit consisted of three 45-min lessons using different methods and material. Changes in knowledge about and attitude towards epilepsy as a result of the intervention were psychometrically assessed in a pre-test intervention post-test design (along with a follow-up assessment two months after the intervention) by means of a questionnaire capturing different facets of epilepsy-related knowledge and attitude. Across all knowledge/attitude domains, students of the test group had a significantly improved knowledge about and a more positive attitude towards epilepsy and people suffering from it after the teaching unit. However, starting levels were different between the five knowledge/attitude domains tested. Medical background knowledge was lowest and consequently associated with the highest increase after the intervention. This study shows that epilepsy-related knowledge of many grade ten high school students is fragmentary and that some harbor beliefs and attitudes which require improvement. Our comprehensive but concise teaching unit significantly increased knowledge about epilepsy and positively influenced attitude towards individuals with epilepsy. Thus we recommend implementing this unit into regular school curricula. PMID:26919557

  17. Stronger warming effects on microbial abundances in colder regions

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Ji; Luo, Yiqi; Xia, Jianyang; ...

    2015-12-10

    Soil microbes play critical roles in regulating terrestrial carbon (C) cycle and its feedback to climate change. However, it is still unclear how the soil microbial community and abundance respond to future climate change scenarios. In this meta-analysis, we synthesized the responses of microbial community and abundance to experimental warming from 64 published field studies. Our results showed that warming significantly increased soil microbial abundance by 7.6% on average. When grouped by vegetation or soil types, tundras and histosols had the strongest microbial responses to warming with increased microbial, fungal, and bacterial abundances by 15.0%, 9.5% and 37.0% in tundra,more » and 16.5%, 13.2% and 13.3% in histosols, respectively. We found significant negative relationships of the response ratios of microbial, fungal and bacterial abundances with the mean annual temperature, indicating that warming had stronger effects in colder than warmer regions. Moreover, the response ratios of microbial abundance to warming were positively correlated with those of soil respiration. Our results therefore indicate that the large quantities of C stored in colder regions are likely to be more vulnerable to climate warming than the soil C stored in other warmer regions.« less

  18. Stronger warming effects on microbial abundances in colder regions

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ji; Luo, Yiqi; Xia, Jianyang; Jiang, Lifen; Zhou, Xuhui; Lu, Meng; Liang, Junyi; Shi, Zheng; Shelton, Shelby; Cao, Junji

    2015-12-10

    Soil microbes play critical roles in regulating terrestrial carbon (C) cycle and its feedback to climate change. However, it is still unclear how the soil microbial community and abundance respond to future climate change scenarios. In this meta-analysis, we synthesized the responses of microbial community and abundance to experimental warming from 64 published field studies. Our results showed that warming significantly increased soil microbial abundance by 7.6% on average. When grouped by vegetation or soil types, tundras and histosols had the strongest microbial responses to warming with increased microbial, fungal, and bacterial abundances by 15.0%, 9.5% and 37.0% in tundra, and 16.5%, 13.2% and 13.3% in histosols, respectively. We found significant negative relationships of the response ratios of microbial, fungal and bacterial abundances with the mean annual temperature, indicating that warming had stronger effects in colder than warmer regions. Moreover, the response ratios of microbial abundance to warming were positively correlated with those of soil respiration. Our results therefore indicate that the large quantities of C stored in colder regions are likely to be more vulnerable to climate warming than the soil C stored in other warmer regions.

  19. Stronger warming effects on microbial abundances in colder regions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ji; Luo, Yiqi; Xia, Jianyang; Jiang, Lifen; Zhou, Xuhui; Lu, Meng; Liang, Junyi; Shi, Zheng; Shelton, Shelby; Cao, Junji

    2015-12-10

    Soil microbes play critical roles in regulating terrestrial carbon (C) cycle and its feedback to climate change. However, it is still unclear how the soil microbial community and abundance respond to future climate change scenarios. In this meta-analysis, we synthesized the responses of microbial community and abundance to experimental warming from 64 published field studies. Our results showed that warming significantly increased soil microbial abundance by 7.6% on average. When grouped by vegetation or soil types, tundras and histosols had the strongest microbial responses to warming with increased microbial, fungal, and bacterial abundances by 15.0%, 9.5% and 37.0% in tundra, and 16.5%, 13.2% and 13.3% in histosols, respectively. We found significant negative relationships of the response ratios of microbial, fungal and bacterial abundances with the mean annual temperature, indicating that warming had stronger effects in colder than warmer regions. Moreover, the response ratios of microbial abundance to warming were positively correlated with those of soil respiration. Our findings therefore indicate that the large quantities of C stored in colder regions are likely to be more vulnerable to climate warming than the soil C stored in other warmer regions.

  20. A Case-Control Study of Elective Hip Surgery among HIV-Infected Patients: Exposure to Systemic Glucocorticoids Significantly Increases the Risk

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Elizabeth; Middleton, Annie; Churchill, Duncan; Walker-Bone, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This was a cross-sectional case-control study amongst a cohort of HIV-infected adults aiming to explore the prevalence of and risk factors for elective hip surgery (total hip arthroplasty and resurfacing). Methods Cases were identified from the outpatient database of HIV-infected adults attending one tertiary hospital service. For each case, 5 controls matched by age, gender and ethnicity were identified. From the case notes, information about demographic factors, HIV factors and risk factors for hip surgery due to osteoarthritis or avascular necrosis (body mass index, lipids, alcohol, comorbidities and treatment with oral glucocorticoids) were extracted. Results Amongst the cohort of 1900 HIV-infected outpatients, 13 cases (12 male) who had undergone hip surgery (0.7%) were identified, median age 47 years.11/13 (85%) were Caucasian and 7/13 were in stage 3 of HIV. Significantly more of the control subjects (46% vs. 16%, p=0.04) were in the asymptomatic stage of infection. Ever use of oral glucocorticoids was highly significantly associated with elective hip surgery (92% vs. 11%, P<0.001). Conclusions Amongst this young cohort, the prevalence of elective hip surgery was 0.7% with median age at surgery (47 years) considerably younger than that amongst the general population. Ever exposure to systemic glucocorticoids was highly significantly associated with elective hip surgery, suggesting that the principal mechanism underlying the need for surgery was avascular necrosis. There may be an increased need for elective hip surgery associated with HIV. PMID:24025108

  1. The metabolic cost of changing walking speeds is significant, implies lower optimal speeds for shorter distances, and increases daily energy estimates.

    PubMed

    Seethapathi, Nidhi; Srinivasan, Manoj

    2015-09-01

    Humans do not generally walk at constant speed, except perhaps on a treadmill. Normal walking involves starting, stopping and changing speeds, in addition to roughly steady locomotion. Here, we measure the metabolic energy cost of walking when changing speed. Subjects (healthy adults) walked with oscillating speeds on a constant-speed treadmill, alternating between walking slower and faster than the treadmill belt, moving back and forth in the laboratory frame. The metabolic rate for oscillating-speed walking was significantly higher than that for constant-speed walking (6-20% cost increase for ±0.13-0.27 m s(-1) speed fluctuations). The metabolic rate increase was correlated with two models: a model based on kinetic energy fluctuations and an inverted pendulum walking model, optimized for oscillating-speed constraints. The cost of changing speeds may have behavioural implications: we predicted that the energy-optimal walking speed is lower for shorter distances. We measured preferred human walking speeds for different walking distances and found people preferred lower walking speeds for shorter distances as predicted. Further, analysing published daily walking-bout distributions, we estimate that the cost of changing speeds is 4-8% of daily walking energy budget.

  2. Decreased MCM2-6 in Drosophila S2 Cells Does Not Generate Significant DNA Damage or Cause a Marked Increase in Sensitivity to Replication Interference

    PubMed Central

    Crevel, Isabelle; Crevel, Gilles; Gostan, Thierry; de Renty, Christelle; Coulon, Vincent; Cotterill, Sue

    2011-01-01

    A reduction in the level of some MCM proteins in human cancer cells (MCM5 in U20S cells or MCM3 in Hela cells) causes a rapid increase in the level of DNA damage under normal conditions of cell proliferation and a loss of viability when the cells are subjected to replication interference. Here we show that Drosophila S2 cells do not appear to show the same degree of sensitivity to MCM2-6 reduction. Under normal cell growth conditions a reduction of >95% in the levels of MCM3, 5, and 6 causes no significant short term alteration in the parameters of DNA replication or increase in DNA damage. MCM depleted cells challenged with HU do show a decrease in the density of replication forks compared to cells with normal levels of MCM proteins, but this produces no consistent change in the levels of DNA damage observed. In contrast a comparable reduction of MCM7 levels has marked effects on viability, replication parameters and DNA damage in the absence of HU treatment. PMID:22102875

  3. Significant increase of salivary testosterone levels after single therapeutic transdermal administration of testosterone: suitability as a potential screening parameter in doping control.

    PubMed

    Thieme, Detlef; Rautenberg, Claudia; Grosse, Joachim; Schoenfelder, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The legally defensible proof of the abuse of endogenous steroids in sports is currently based on carbon isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), i.e. a comparison between (13)C/(12)C ratios of diagnostic precursors and metabolites of testosterone. The application of this technique requires a chromatographic baseline separation of respective steroids prior to IRMS detection and hence laborious sample pre-processing of the urinary steroid extracts including clean up by solid-phase extraction and/or liquid chromatography. Consequently, an efficient pre-selection of suspicious control urine samples is essential for appropriate follow up confirmation by IRMS and effective doping control. Two single transdermal administration studies of testosterone (50 mg Testogel® and Testopatch® at 3.8 mg in 16 h, respectively) were conducted and resulting profiles of salivary testosterone and urinary steroid profiles and corresponding carbon isotope ratios were determined. Conventional doping control markers (testosterone/epitestosterone ratio, threshold concentrations of androsterone, etiocholanolone, or androstanediols) did not approach or exceed critical thresholds. In contrast to these moderate variations, the testosterone concentration in oral fluid increased from basal values (30-142 pg/mg) to peak concentrations above 1000 pg/mg. It is likely that this significant increase in oral fluid is due to a pulsatile elevation of free (protein unbound) circulating testosterone after transdermal administration and may be assumed to represent a more diagnostic marker for transdermal testosterone administration.

  4. In vivo administration of a JAK3 inhibitor during acute SIV infection leads to significant increases in viral load during chronic infection.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoshiaki; Byrareddy, Siddappa N; Albrecht, Christina; Brameier, Markus; Walter, Lutz; Mayne, Ann E; Dunbar, Paul; Russo, Robert; Little, Dawn M; Villinger, Tara; Khowawisetsut, Ladawan; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit; Villinger, Francois; Ansari, Aftab A

    2014-03-01

    The studies reported herein are the first to document the effect of the in vivo administration of a JAK3 inhibitor for defining the potential role of NK cells during acute SIV infection of a group of 15 rhesus macaques (RM). An additional group of 16 MHC/KIR typed RM was included as controls. The previously optimized in vivo dose regimen (20 mg/kg daily for 35 days) led to a marked depletion of each of the major NK cell subsets both in the blood and gastro-intestinal tissues (GIT) during acute infection. While such depletion had no detectable effects on plasma viral loads during acute infection, there was a significant sustained increase in plasma viral loads during chronic infection. While the potential mechanisms that lead to such increased plasma viral loads during chronic infection remain unclear, several correlates were documented. Thus, during acute infection, the administration of the JAK3 inhibitor besides depleting all NK cell subsets also decreased some CD8⁺ T cells and inhibited the mobilization of the plasmacytoid dendritic cells in the blood and their localization to the GIT. Of interest is the finding that the administration of the JAK3 inhibitor during acute infection also resulted in the sustained maintenance during chronic infection of a high number of naïve and central memory CD4⁺ T cells, increases in B cells in the blood, but decreases in the frequencies and function of NKG2a⁺ NK cells within the GIT and blood, respectively. These data identify a unique role for JAK3 inhibitor sensitive cells, that includes NK cells during acute infection that in concert lead to high viral loads in SIV infected RM during chronic infection without affecting detectable changes in antiviral humoral/cellular responses. Identifying the precise mechanisms by which JAK3 sensitive cells exert their influence is critical with important implications for vaccine design against lentiviruses.

  5. Top consumer abundance influences lake methane efflux.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Shawn P; Saarenheimo, Jatta; Syväranta, Jari; Jones, Roger I

    2015-11-04

    Lakes are important habitats for biogeochemical cycling of carbon. The organization and structure of aquatic communities influences the biogeochemical interactions between lakes and the atmosphere. Understanding how trophic structure regulates ecosystem functions and influences greenhouse gas efflux from lakes is critical to understanding global carbon cycling and climate change. With a whole-lake experiment in which a previously fishless lake was divided into two treatment basins where fish abundance was manipulated, we show how a trophic cascade from fish to microbes affects methane efflux to the atmosphere. Here, fish exert high grazing pressure and remove nearly all zooplankton. This reduction in zooplankton density increases the abundance of methanotrophic bacteria, which in turn reduce CH4 efflux rates by roughly 10 times. Given that globally there are millions of lakes emitting methane, an important greenhouse gas, our findings that aquatic trophic interactions significantly influence the biogeochemical cycle of methane has important implications.

  6. Overexpression of two cambium-abundant Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) α-expansin genes ClEXPA1 and ClEXPA2 affect growth and development in transgenic tobacco and increase the amount of cellulose in stem cell walls.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guifeng; Gao, Yan; Wang, Jinjun; Yang, Liwei; Song, Rentao; Li, Xiaorong; Shi, Jisen

    2011-05-01

    Expansins are unique plant cell wall proteins that possess the ability to induce immediately cell wall extension in vitro and cell expansion in vivo. To investigate the biological functions of expansins that are abundant in wood-forming tissues, we cloned two expansin genes from the differentiating xylem of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook). Phylogenetic reconstruction indicated that they belong to α-expansin (EXPA), named ClEXPA1 and ClEXPA2. Expression pattern analysis demonstrated that they are preferentially expressed in the cambium region. Overexpression of ClEXPA1 and ClEXPA2 in tobacco plants yielded pleiotropic phenotypes of plant height, stem diameter, leaf number and seed pod. The height and diameter growth of the 35S(pro) :ClEXPA1 and 35S(pro) :ClEXPA2 transgenic plants were increased drastically, exhibiting an enlargement of pith parenchyma cell size. Isolated cell walls of ClEXPA1 and ClEXPA2 overexpressors contained 30%-50% higher cellulose contents than the wild type, accompanied by a thickening of the cell walls in the xylem region. Both ClEXPA1 and ClEXPA2 are involved in plant growth and development, with a partially functional overlap. Expansins are not only able to induce cell expansion in different tissues/organs in vivo, but they also can act as a potential activator during secondary wall formation by directly or indirectly affecting cellulose metabolism, probably in a cell type-dependent manner.

  7. OH Column Abundance Apparent Response to Solar Cycle 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, C. R.; Minschwaner, K. R.

    2009-12-01

    The 33-year series of high spectral resolution measurements of absorption of sunlight by OH at 308 nm has exhibited temporary decreases of column abundances in 1986, 1997, and 2008 near the times of minimum solar activity. These observations and analyses are of significance as they encompass three complete solar cycles for comparison. During solar cycle 23, the annual average abundances increased approximately 20% from the minimum abundance in 1997 to high-sun enhanced values in 2000-2006, then dropped approximately 15% in 2008. The abundances exhibited a pronounced reduction at solar minimum in August-October 2008, similar to that seen in fall 1986 and fall 1997. The average morning abundances on those occasions were 13% smaller than the 1980-88 corresponding average, about 0.9 x 1013 cm-2, with minimum values broadly consistent with model results. In contrast, high-sun OH abundances observed during periods of solar maximum are approximately 33% larger than modeled abundances. This discrepancy cannot be explained by reasonable adjustments of reaction rates or modeled constituent concentrations in the stratosphere or mesosphere. However, the observed responses to a tropopause fold event in 1988 and to the Pinatubo aerosol in 1991 do suggest an important contribution to the total OH column from the lower stratosphere. In addition to the apparent variations with solar activity, this OH column database contains a number of other effects such as diurnal and seasonal patterns, and geographic differences between observations from Colorado, Florida, Alaska, Micronesia, New Zealand, and New Mexico.

  8. Abundance of introduced species at home predicts abundance away in herbaceous communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Firn, Jennifer; Moore, Joslin L.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Seabloom, Eric W.; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Harpole, W. Stanley; Cleland, Elsa E.; Brown, Cynthia S.; Knops, Johannes M.H.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Pyke, David A.; Farrell, Kelly A.; Bakker, John D.; O'Halloran, Lydia R.; Adler, Peter B.; Collins, Scott L.; D'Antonio, Carla M.; Crawley, Michael J.; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Hautier, Yann; Morgan, John W.; Leakey, Andrew D.B.; Kay, Adam; McCulley, Rebecca; Davies, Kendi F.; Stevens, Carly J.; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Holl, Karen D.; Klein, Julia A.; Fay, Phillip A.; Hagenah, Nicole; Kirkman, Kevin P.; Buckley, Yvonne M.

    2011-01-01

    Many ecosystems worldwide are dominated by introduced plant species, leading to loss of biodiversity and ecosystem function. A common but rarely tested assumption is that these plants are more abundant in introduced vs. native communities, because ecological or evolutionary-based shifts in populations underlie invasion success. Here, data for 26 herbaceous species at 39 sites, within eight countries, revealed that species abundances were similar at native (home) and introduced (away) sites - grass species were generally abundant home and away, while forbs were low in abundance, but more abundant at home. Sites with six or more of these species had similar community abundance hierarchies, suggesting that suites of introduced species are assembling similarly on different continents. Overall, we found that substantial changes to populations are not necessarily a pre-condition for invasion success and that increases in species abundance are unusual. Instead, abundance at home predicts abundance away, a potentially useful additional criterion for biosecurity programmes.

  9. Abundance of introduced species at home predicts abundance away in herbaceous communities.

    PubMed

    Firn, Jennifer; Moore, Joslin L; MacDougall, Andrew S; Borer, Elizabeth T; Seabloom, Eric W; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Harpole, W Stanley; Cleland, Elsa E; Brown, Cynthia S; Knops, Johannes M H; Prober, Suzanne M; Pyke, David A; Farrell, Kelly A; Bakker, John D; O'Halloran, Lydia R; Adler, Peter B; Collins, Scott L; D'Antonio, Carla M; Crawley, Michael J; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M; La Pierre, Kimberly J; Melbourne, Brett A; Hautier, Yann; Morgan, John W; Leakey, Andrew D B; Kay, Adam; McCulley, Rebecca; Davies, Kendi F; Stevens, Carly J; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Holl, Karen D; Klein, Julia A; Fay, Philip A; Hagenah, Nicole; Kirkman, Kevin P; Buckley, Yvonne M

    2011-03-01

    Many ecosystems worldwide are dominated by introduced plant species, leading to loss of biodiversity and ecosystem function. A common but rarely tested assumption is that these plants are more abundant in introduced vs. native communities, because ecological or evolutionary-based shifts in populations underlie invasion success. Here, data for 26 herbaceous species at 39 sites, within eight countries, revealed that species abundances were similar at native (home) and introduced (away) sites - grass species were generally abundant home and away, while forbs were low in abundance, but more abundant at home. Sites with six or more of these species had similar community abundance hierarchies, suggesting that suites of introduced species are assembling similarly on different continents. Overall, we found that substantial changes to populations are not necessarily a pre-condition for invasion success and that increases in species abundance are unusual. Instead, abundance at home predicts abundance away, a potentially useful additional criterion for biosecurity programmes.

  10. Dephytinisation with intrinsic wheat phytase and iron fortification significantly increase iron absorption from fonio (Digitaria exilis) meals in West African women.

    PubMed

    Koréissi-Dembélé, Yara; Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; Moretti, Diego; Schuth, Stephan; Dossa, Romain A M; Egli, Ines; Zimmermann, Michael B; Brouwer, Inge D

    2013-01-01

    Low iron and high phytic acid content make fonio based meals a poor source of bioavailable iron. Phytic acid degradation in fonio porridge using whole grain cereals as phytase source and effect on iron bioavailability when added to iron fortified fonio meals were investigated. Grains, nuts and seeds collected in Mali markets were screened for phytic acid and phytase activity. We performed an iron absorption study in Beninese women (n = 16), using non-dephytinised fonio porridge (FFP) and dephytinised fonio porridge (FWFP; 75% fonio-25% wheat), each fortified with (57)Fe or (58)Fe labeled FeSO4. Iron absorption was quantified by measuring the erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes. Phytic acid varied from 0.39 (bambara nut) to 4.26 g/100 g DM (pumpkin seed), with oilseeds values higher than grains and nuts. Phytase activity ranged from 0.17±1.61 (fonio) to 2.9±1.3 phytase unit (PU) per g (whole wheat). Phytic acid was almost completely degraded in FWFP after 60 min of incubation (pH≈5.0, 50°C). Phytate∶iron molar ratios decreased from 23.7∶1 in FFP to 2.7∶1 in FWFP. Iron fortification further reduced phytate∶iron molar ratio to 1.9∶1 in FFP and 0.3∶1 in FWFP, respectively. Geometric mean (95% CI) iron absorption significantly increased from 2.6% (0.8-7.8) in FFP to 8.3% (3.8-17.9) in FWFP (P<0.0001). Dephytinisation of fonio porridge with intrinsic wheat phytase increased fractional iron absorption 3.2 times, suggesting it could be a possible strategy to decrease PA in cereal-based porridges.

  11. The significance of the increased expression of phosphorylated MeCP2 in the membranes from patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaohua; Liu, Xiaohui; Guo, Haoyi; Zhao, Zhaoxia; Li, Yun Sui; Chen, Guoming

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation of expression of phosphorylated methyl-CpG binding protein 2-Ser421 (MeCP2-S421) and VEGF in the membranes of patients with PDR. We examined the expression of phospho-MeCP2-S80, S421, VEGF and PEDF in surgically excised PDR membranes from 33 patients with diabetes, and idiopathic epiretinal membranes from 11 patients without diabetes, using immunohistochemistry and western blot. The colocalization of MeCP2-S421 with VEGF, PEDF, CD31, GFAP and αSMA was revealed by fluorescent double labeling. The effect of CoCl2 and knock down MeCP2 using specific siRNA on the expression of MeCP2 and VEGF were analyzed in HUCAC cells by Western blot. We found that phospho-MeCP2-S421 was significantly increased in the membranes from the patients with PDR compared with the specimens from patients without diabetes (P < 0.01). The expression of phospho-MeCP2-S421 was much stronger than that of phospho-MeCP2-S80 in the PDR membranes. Double labeling showed that the high phospho-MeCP2-S421 expression was associated with strong expression of VEGF, but not PEDF. Further, phospho-MeCP2-S421 and VEGF were increased by the stimulation of CoCl2 and knock down MeCP2 inhibited the expression of VEGF. Our result suggests that phospho-MeCP2-S421 might involve in the pathogenesis of PDR. PMID:27616658

  12. Significant increase in factual knowledge with web-assisted problem-based learning as part of an undergraduate cardio-respiratory curriculum.

    PubMed

    Raupach, T; Münscher, C; Pukrop, T; Anders, S; Harendza, S

    2010-08-01

    In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to web-based learning although the advantages of computer-aided instruction over traditional teaching formats still need to be confirmed. This study examined whether participation in an online module on the differential diagnosis of dyspnoea impacts on student performance in a multiple choice examination of factual knowledge in cardiology and pneumology. A virtual problem-based learning environment for medical students supervised by postgraduate teachers was created. Seventy-four out of 183 fourth-year medical students volunteered to use the online module while attending a 6-week cardio-respiratory curriculum in summer 2007. Of these, 40 were randomly selected to be included (intervention group); the remaining 34 served as an internal control group. Analysis of all written exams taken during the preceding term showed that both groups were comparable (86.4 ± 1.1 vs. 85.9 ± 1.1%; p = 0.751). Students in the intervention group scored significantly higher in the final course assessment than students allocated to the control group (84.8 ± 1.3 vs. 79.5 ± 1.4%; p = 0.006; effect size 0.67). Thus, additional problem-based learning with an online module as part of an undergraduate cardio-respiratory curriculum lead to higher students' scores in an exam testing factual knowledge. Whether using this teaching format increases overall student motivation to engage in the learning process needs to be further investigated.

  13. Dephytinisation with Intrinsic Wheat Phytase and Iron Fortification Significantly Increase Iron Absorption from Fonio (Digitaria exilis) Meals in West African Women

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Diego; Schuth, Stephan; Egli, Ines; Zimmermann, Michael B.; Brouwer, Inge D.

    2013-01-01

    Low iron and high phytic acid content make fonio based meals a poor source of bioavailable iron. Phytic acid degradation in fonio porridge using whole grain cereals as phytase source and effect on iron bioavailability when added to iron fortified fonio meals were investigated. Grains, nuts and seeds collected in Mali markets were screened for phytic acid and phytase activity. We performed an iron absorption study in Beninese women (n = 16), using non-dephytinised fonio porridge (FFP) and dephytinised fonio porridge (FWFP; 75% fonio-25% wheat), each fortified with 57Fe or 58Fe labeled FeSO4. Iron absorption was quantified by measuring the erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes. Phytic acid varied from 0.39 (bambara nut) to 4.26 g/100 g DM (pumpkin seed), with oilseeds values higher than grains and nuts. Phytase activity ranged from 0.17±1.61 (fonio) to 2.9±1.3 phytase unit (PU) per g (whole wheat). Phytic acid was almost completely degraded in FWFP after 60 min of incubation (pH≈5.0, 50°C). Phytate∶iron molar ratios decreased from 23.7∶1 in FFP to 2.7∶1 in FWFP. Iron fortification further reduced phytate∶iron molar ratio to 1.9∶1 in FFP and 0.3∶1 in FWFP, respectively. Geometric mean (95% CI) iron absorption significantly increased from 2.6% (0.8–7.8) in FFP to 8.3% (3.8–17.9) in FWFP (P<0.0001). Dephytinisation of fonio porridge with intrinsic wheat phytase increased fractional iron absorption 3.2 times, suggesting it could be a possible strategy to decrease PA in cereal-based porridges. PMID:24124445

  14. Significantly increased detection rate of drugs of abuse in urine following the introduction of new German driving licence re-granting guidelines.

    PubMed

    Agius, Ronald; Nadulski, Thomas; Kahl, Hans-Gerhard; Dufaux, Bertin

    2012-02-10

    In this paper we present the first assessment of the new German driving licence re-granting medical and psychological assessment (MPA) guidelines by comparing over 3500 urine samples tested under the old MPA cut-offs to over 5000 samples tested under the new MPA cut-offs. Since the enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) technology used previously was not sensitive enough to screen for drugs at such low concentrations, as suggested by the new MPA guidelines, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screening kits were used to screen for the drugs of abuse at the new MPA cut-offs. The above comparison revealed significantly increased detection rates of drug use or exposure during the rehabilitation period as follows: 1.61, 2.33, 3.33, and 7 times higher for 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH), morphine, benzoylecgonine and amphetamine respectively. The present MPA guidelines seem to be more effective to detect non-abstinence from drugs of abuse and hence to detecting drivers who do not yet fulfil the MPA requirements to regain their revoked driving licence.

  15. Down-regulation of crambe fatty acid desaturase and elongase in Arabidopsis and crambe resulted in significantly increased oleic acid content in seed oil.

    PubMed

    Li, Xueyuan; Mei, Desheng; Liu, Qing; Fan, Jing; Singh, Surinder; Green, Allan; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Zhu, Li-Hua

    2016-01-01

    High oleic oil is an important industrial feedstock that has been one of the main targets for oil improvement in a number of oil crops. Crambe (Crambe abyssinica) is a dedicated oilseed crop, suitable for industrial oil production. In this study, we down-regulated the crambe fatty acid desaturase (FAD) and fatty acid elongase (FAE) genes for creating high oleic seed oil. We first cloned the crambe CaFAD2, CaFAD3 and CaFAE1 genes. Multiple copies of each of these genes were isolated, and the highly homologous sequences were used to make RNAi constructs. These constructs were first tested in Arabidopsis, which led to the elevated oleic or linoleic levels depending on the genes targeted, indicating that the RNAi constructs were effective in regulating the expression of the target genes in nonidentical but closely related species. Furthermore, down-regulation of CaFAD2 and CaFAE1 in crambe with the FAD2-FAE1 RNAi vector resulted in even more significant increase in oleic acid level in the seed oil with up to 80% compared to 13% for wild type. The high oleic trait has been stable in subsequent five generations and the GM line grew normally in greenhouse. This work has demonstrated the great potential of producing high oleic oil in crambe, thus contributing to its development into an oil crop platform for industrial oil production.

  16. Lipopolysaccharide Induces a Significant Increase in Expression of Iron Regulatory Hormone Hepcidin in the Cortex and Substantia Nigra in Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qin; Du, Fang; Qian, Zhong-Ming; Ge, Xiao Hu; Zhu, Li; Yung, Wing Ho; Yang, Lei; Ke, Ya

    2008-01-01

    Hepcidin plays an essential role in maintaining normal iron homeostasis outside the brain. This recently discovered iron regulation hormone is predominantly expressed in the liver, and regulated by iron and hypoxia. As an antimicrobial peptide, this hormone is also elevated during infections and inflammation. In this study we investigated the expression of hepcidin mRNA and protein in different brain regions, including the cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and substantia nigra, and the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the expression of hepcidin using quantitative real-time RT-PCR and immunofluorescence analysis. Our data provided further evidence for the existence of hepcidin in all the regions we examined. We also demonstrated for the first time that LPS administration by iv injection can regulate the expression of hepcidin mRNA and protein not only in peripheral organs such as the liver, but also in the brain. LPS induced a significant increase in the expression of hepcidin mRNA and protein in the cortex and substantia nigra, but not in the hippocampus and striatum, indicating a regionally specific regulation of LPS on hepcidin in the brain. The relevant mechanisms and the functions of hepcidin in the brain remain to be elucidated. PMID:18450970

  17. In vitro exposure to the herbicide atrazine inhibits T cell activation, proliferation, and cytokine production and significantly increases the frequency of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Thueson, Lindsay E; Emmons, Tiffany R; Browning, Dianna L; Kreitinger, Joanna M; Shepherd, David M; Wetzel, Scott A

    2015-02-01

    The herbicide atrazine (2-chloro-4-[ethylamino]-6-[isopropylamino]-s-triazine) is the most common water contaminant in the United States. Atrazine is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor and is classified as an estrogen disrupting compound because it elevates estrogen levels via induction of the enzyme aromatase. Previous studies have shown that atrazine exposure alters the function of innate immune cells such as NK cells, DC, mast cells, and macrophages. In this study we have examined the impact of in vitro atrazine exposure on the activation, proliferation, and effector cytokine production by primary murine CD4(+) T lymphocytes. We found that atrazine exposure significantly inhibited CD4(+) T cell proliferation and accumulation as well as the expression of the activation markers CD25 and CD69 in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, the effects were more pronounced in cells from male animals. These effects were partially mimicked by pharmacological reagents that elevate intracellular cAMP levels and addition of exogenous rmIL-2 further inhibited proliferation and CD25 expression. Consistent with these findings, atrazine exposure during T cell activation resulted in a 2- to 5-fold increase in the frequency of Foxp3(+) CD4(+) T cells.

  18. Plerixafor on-demand combined with chemotherapy and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor: significant improvement in peripheral blood stem cells mobilization and harvest with no increase in costs.

    PubMed

    Milone, Giuseppe; Martino, Massimo; Spadaro, Andrea; Leotta, Salvatore; Di Marco, Annalia; Scalzulli, Potito; Cupri, Alessandra; Di Martina, Valentina; Schinocca, Elena; Spina, Eleonora; Tripepi, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    To date, no prospective study on Plerixafor 'on-demand' in combination with chemotherapy and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been reported. We present an interim analysis of the first prospective study in which Plerixafor was administered on-demand in patients affected by multiple myeloma and lymphoma who received high dose cyclophosphamide or DHAP (dexamethasone, cytarabine, cisplatin) plus G-CSF to mobilize peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC). One hundred and two patients were evaluable for response. A cohort of 240 patients receiving the same mobilizing chemotherapy was retrospectively studied. Failure to mobilize CD34(+) cells in peripheral blood was reduced by 'on-demand' strategy compared to conventional mobilization; from 13·0 to 3·0% (P = 0·004). Failure to harvest CD34(+) cells 2 × 10(6) /kg decreased from 20·9 to 4·0% (P = 0·0001). The on-demand Plerixafor strategy also resulted in a lower rate of mobilization failure (P = 0·03) and harvest failure (P = 0·0008) when compared to a 'bias-adjusted set of controls'. Evaluation of economic costs of the two strategies showed that the overall cost of the two treatments were comparable when salvage mobilizations were taken into account. When in combination with cyclophosphamide or DHAP plus G-CSF, the 'on-demand' use of Plerixafor showed, in comparison to conventionally treated patients, a significant improvement in mobilization of PBSC with no increase in overall cost.

  19. Capella: Structure and Abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickhouse, Nancy S.

    1999-01-01

    This grant covers the analysis of EUVE spectra of the cool star binary system Capella. This project has also required the analysis of simultaneous Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) data. The ASCA spectrum of Capella could not be fit with standard models; by imposing models based on strong lines observed with EUVE, a problem wavelength region was identified. Correcting the problem required calculations of atomic collision strengths of higher principal quantum number than had ever been calculated. With these new models applied to the ASCA spectrum, better fits were obtained. Findings are that: (1) ASCA and EUVE spectra are both dominated by a region at 6 x 10(exp 6) K. (2) The high energy cut-off of the ASCA spectrum is consistent with emission from the highest ionization stages of EUVE, namely Fe XXIV. (3) EUVE requires a continuous emission measure distribution with more than two temperatures. (4) The ASCA spectra are of such high statistical significance that systematic uncertainties dominate, including atomic physics issues and calibration issues. (5) While the ASCA spectral fits achieve lower Chi(exp 2 with two-temperature fits, the EUVE-derived emission measure distribution models are also consistent with the spectra. (6) The Fe/H ratio obtained from the ASCA fit is within 20 % of the Fe/H abundance obtained from the summed spectra of Capella over 5 EUVE pointings, as well as the 1996 EUVE data. This result confirms our claims that quasi-continua composed of weak emission lines in the short wavelength spectrometer of EUVE are not major contributors to the measured Capella continuum. Other abundance ratios are also determined from the ASCA data, using models derived with EUVE. Si, Si, and Mg appear to be close to solar photospheric values, while the ratio of Ne/Fe is three to four times lower than solar photospheric values. Whether there is a general First Ionization Potential (FIP) effect or a specific neon anomaly cannot be determined

  20. Absolute Quantification of Endogenous Ras Isoform Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Mageean, Craig J.; Griffiths, John R.; Smith, Duncan L.; Clague, Michael J.; Prior, Ian A.

    2015-01-01

    Ras proteins are important signalling hubs situated near the top of networks controlling cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. Three almost identical isoforms, HRAS, KRAS and NRAS, are ubiquitously expressed yet have differing biological and oncogenic properties. In order to help understand the relative biological contributions of each isoform we have optimised a quantitative proteomics method for accurately measuring Ras isoform protein copy number per cell. The use of isotopic protein standards together with selected reaction monitoring for diagnostic peptides is sensitive, robust and suitable for application to sub-milligram quantities of lysates. We find that in a panel of isogenic SW48 colorectal cancer cells, endogenous Ras proteins are highly abundant with ≥260,000 total Ras protein copies per cell and the rank order of isoform abundance is KRAS>NRAS≥HRAS. A subset of oncogenic KRAS mutants exhibit increased total cellular Ras abundance and altered the ratio of mutant versus wild type KRAS protein. These data and methodology are significant because Ras protein copy number is required to parameterise models of signalling networks and informs interpretation of isoform-specific Ras functional data. PMID:26560143

  1. OXYGEN ABUNDANCES IN CEPHEIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Luck, R. E.; Andrievsky, S. M.; Korotin, S. N.; Kovtyukh, V. V. E-mail: serkor@skyline.od.ua E-mail: scan@deneb1.odessa.ua

    2013-07-01

    Oxygen abundances in later-type stars, and intermediate-mass stars in particular, are usually determined from the [O I] line at 630.0 nm, and to a lesser extent, from the O I triplet at 615.7 nm. The near-IR triplets at 777.4 nm and 844.6 nm are strong in these stars and generally do not suffer from severe blending with other species. However, these latter two triplets suffer from strong non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects and thus see limited use in abundance analyses. In this paper, we derive oxygen abundances in a large sample of Cepheids using the near-IR triplets from an NLTE analysis, and compare those abundances to values derived from a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of the [O I] 630.0 nm line and the O I 615.7 nm triplet as well as LTE abundances for the 777.4 nm triplet. All of these lines suffer from line strength problems making them sensitive to either measurement complications (weak lines) or to line saturation difficulties (strong lines). Upon this realization, the LTE results for the [O I] lines and the O I 615.7 nm triplet are in adequate agreement with the abundance from the NLTE analysis of the near-IR triplets.

  2. Capella: Structure and Abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickhouse, Nancy S.

    1999-01-01

    This grant covers the analysis of ASCA spectra of the cool star binary system Capella. This project has also required the analysis of simultaneous EUVE data. The ASCA spectrum of Capella could not be fit with standard models; by imposing models based on strong lines observed with EUVE, a problem wavelength region was identified. Correcting the problem required calculations of atomic collision strengths of higher principal quantum number than had ever been calculated, resulting in a paper in process by Liedahl and Brickhouse. With these new models applied to the ASCA spectrum, better fits were obtained. While solar abundance ratios are generally consistent with the ASCA data, the ratio of Ne/Fe is three to four times lower than solar photospheric values. Whether there is a general First Ionization Potential (FIP) effect or a specific neon anomaly cannot be determined from these data. Detailed discussion has been provided to NASA in the most recent annual report (1997). Two poster presentations have been made regarding modeling requirements. A substantial paper is in the final revision form, following review by six co-authors. The results of this work have wide implications, since the newly calculated emission lines almost certainly contribute to other problems in fitting not only other stellar spectra, but also composite supernova remnants, galaxies, and cooling flow clusters of galaxies. Furthermore, Liedahl and Brickhouse have identified other species for which lines of a similar nature (high principal quantum number) will contribute significant flux. For moderate resolution X-ray spectra, lines left out of the models in relatively isolated bands, will be attributed to continuum flux by spectral fitting engines, causing errors in line-to-continuum ratios. Thus addressing the general theoretical problem is of crucial importance.

  3. Chlorine Abundances in Martian Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, D.D.; Garrison, D.H.; Park, J.

    2009-01-01

    Chlorine measurements made in martian surface rocks by robotic spacecraft typically give Chlorine (Cl) abundances of approximately 0.1-0.8%. In contrast, Cl abundances in martian meteorites appear lower, although data is limited, and martian nakhlites were also subjected to Cl contamination by Mars surface brines. Chlorine abundances reported by one lab for whole rock (WR) samples of Shergotty, ALH77005, and EET79001 range 108-14 ppm, whereas Cl in nakhlites range 73-1900 ppm. Measurements of Cl in various martian weathering phases of nakhlites varied 0.04-4.7% and reveal significant concentration of Cl by martian brines Martian meteorites contain much lower Chlorine than those measured in martian surface rocks and give further confirmation that Cl in these surface rocks was introduced by brines and weathering. It has been argued that Cl is twice as effective as water in lowering the melting point and promoting melting at shallower martian depths, and that significant Cl in the shergottite source region would negate any need for significant water. However, this conclusion was based on experiments that utilized Cl concentrations more analogous to martian surface rocks than to shergottite meteorites, and may not be applicable to shergottites.

  4. Community reinforcement training for family and significant others of drug abusers: a unilateral intervention to increase treatment entry of drug users.

    PubMed

    Kirby, K C; Marlowe, D B; Festinger, D S; Garvey, K A; La Monaca, V

    1999-08-02

    We randomly assigned 32 concerned family members and significant others (FSOs) of drug users (DUs) to a community reinforcement training intervention or a popular 12-step self-help group. We measured problems arising from the DU's behavior, social functioning of the DU and FSO, and mood of the FSO at baseline and 10 weeks later. We also monitored the FSOs' treatment attendance and treatment entry of the DUs. The treatment groups showed equal reductions from baseline to follow-up in problems and improvements in social functioning and mood of the FSO. However the community reinforcement intervention was significantly better at retaining FSOs in treatment and inducing treatment entry of the DUs.

  5. Abundance estimation and conservation biology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; MacKenzie, D.I.

    2004-01-01

    Abundance is the state variable of interest in most population–level ecological research and in most programs involving management and conservation of animal populations. Abundance is the single parameter of interest in capture–recapture models for closed populations (e.g., Darroch, 1958; Otis et al., 1978; Chao, 2001). The initial capture–recapture models developed for partially (Darroch, 1959) and completely (Jolly, 1965; Seber, 1965) open populations represented efforts to relax the restrictive assumption of population closure for the purpose of estimating abundance. Subsequent emphases in capture–recapture work were on survival rate estimation in the 1970’s and 1980’s (e.g., Burnham et al., 1987; Lebreton et al.,1992), and on movement estimation in the 1990’s (Brownie et al., 1993; Schwarz et al., 1993). However, from the mid–1990’s until the present time, capture–recapture investigators have expressed a renewed interest in abundance and related parameters (Pradel, 1996; Schwarz & Arnason, 1996; Schwarz, 2001). The focus of this session was abundance, and presentations covered topics ranging from estimation of abundance and rate of change in abundance, to inferences about the demographic processes underlying changes in abundance, to occupancy as a surrogate of abundance. The plenary paper by Link & Barker (2004) is provocative and very interesting, and it contains a number of important messages and suggestions. Link & Barker (2004) emphasize that the increasing complexity of capture–recapture models has resulted in large numbers of parameters and that a challenge to ecologists is to extract ecological signals from this complexity. They offer hierarchical models as a natural approach to inference in which traditional parameters are viewed as realizations of stochastic processes. These processes are governed by hyperparameters, and the inferential approach focuses on these hyperparameters. Link & Barker (2004) also suggest that our attention

  6. Experimentally-induced immune activation in natural hosts of SIV induces significant increases in viral replication and CD4+ T cell depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro, Ruy M

    2008-01-01

    Chronically SIVagm-infected African green monkeys (AGMs) have a remarkably stable non-pathogenic disease course, with levels of immune activation in chronic SIVagm infection similar to those observed in uninfected monkeys and stable viral loads (VLs) for long periods of time. In vivo administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or an IL-2/diphtheria toxin fusion protein (Ontak) to chronically SIVagm-infected AGMs triggered increases in immune activation and subsequently of viral replication and depletion of intestinal CD4{sup +} T cells. Our study indicates that circulating microbial products can increase viral replication by inducing immune activation and increasing the number of viral target cells, thus demonstrating that immune activation and T cell prolifeation are key factors in AIDS pathogenesis.

  7. A diet with 3% of energy from a mixture of Omega-3 fatty acids significantly increases in vivo lipid peroxidation in postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are recommended by public health organizations to reduce the risk of disease. However, n-3 PUFA are susceptible to an increase in lipid peroxidation in the human body. As part of a crossover dietary intervention study of a diet (20% of energy ...

  8. Significant Increase in Factual Knowledge with Web-Assisted Problem-Based Learning as Part of an Undergraduate Cardio-Respiratory Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raupach, T.; Munscher, C.; Pukrop, T.; Anders, S.; Harendza, S.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to web-based learning although the advantages of computer-aided instruction over traditional teaching formats still need to be confirmed. This study examined whether participation in an online module on the differential diagnosis of dyspnoea impacts on student performance in a multiple choice…

  9. Co-downregulation of the hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase and coumarate 3-hydroxylase significantly increases cellulose content in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Tong, Zongyong; Li, Heng; Zhang, Rongxue; Ma, Lei; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2015-10-01

    Lignin is a component of the cell wall that is essential for growth, development, structure and pathogen resistance in plants, but high lignin is an obstacle to the conversion of cellulose to ethanol for biofuel. Genetically modifying lignin and cellulose contents can be a good approach to overcoming that obstacle. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is rich in lignocellulose biomass and used as a model plant for the genetic modification of lignin in this study. Two key enzymes in the lignin biosynthesis pathway-hydroxycinnamoyl -CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) and coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H)-were co-downregulated. Compared to wild-type plants, the lignin content in the modified strain was reduced by 38%, cellulose was increased by 86.1%, enzyme saccharification efficiency was increased by 10.9%, and cell wall digestibility was increased by 13.0%. The modified alfalfa exhibited a dwarf phenotype, but normal above ground biomass. This approach provides a new strategy for reducing lignin and increasing cellulose contents and creates a new genetically modified crop with enhanced value for biofuel.

  10. Significant Increase in Band Gap and Emission Efficiency of In2O3 Quantum Dots by Size-Tuning around 1 nm in Supermicroporous Silicas.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takafumi; Watanabe, Hiroto; Ueno, Taiki; Oaki, Yuya; Imai, Hiroaki

    2017-03-28

    The size of In2O3 quantum dots (QDs) is tuned from 0.57 to 1.80 nm by using supermicroporous silicas (SMPSs) as a template. The band gap energy and photoluminescence quantum yields of In2O3-QDs increase remarkably when their size is decreased below 1 nm.

  11. Actinide abundances in ordinary chondrites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagee, B.; Bernatowicz, T.J.; Podosek, F.A.; Johnson, M.L.; Burnett, D.S.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of 244Pu fission Xe, U, Th, and light REE (LREE) abundances, along with modal petrographic determinations of phosphate abundances, were carried out on equilibrated ordinary chondrites in order to define better the solar system Pu abundance and to determine the degree of variation of actinide and LREE abundances. Our data permit comparison of the directly measured Pu/ U ratio with that determined indirectly as (Pu/Nd) ?? (Nd/U) assuming that Pu behaves chemically as a LREE. Except for Guaren??a, and perhaps H chondrites in general, Pu concentrations are similar to that determined previously for St. Se??verin, although less precise because of higher trapped Xe contents. Trapped 130Xe 136Xe ratios appear to vary from meteorite to meteorite, but, relative to AVCC, all are similar in the sense of having less of the interstellar heavy Xe found in carbonaceous chondrite acid residues. The Pu/U and Pu/Nd ratios are consistent with previous data for St. Se??verin, but both tend to be slightly higher than those inferred from previous data on Angra dos Reis. Although significant variations exist, the distribution of our Th/U ratios, along with other precise isotope dilution data for ordinary chondrites, is rather symmetric about the CI chondrite value; however, actinide/(LREE) ratios are systematically lower than the CI value. Variations in actinide or LREE absolute and relative abundances are interpreted as reflecting differences in the proportions and/or compositions of more primitive components (chondrules and CAI materials?) incorporated into different regions of the ordinary chondrite parent bodies. The observed variations of Th/U, Nd/U, or Ce/U suggest that measurements of Pu/U on any single equilibrated ordinary chondrite specimen, such as St. Se??verin, should statistically be within ??20-30% of the average solar system value, although it is also clear that anomalous samples exist. ?? 1990.

  12. Does the use of salmon frames as bait for lobster/crab creel fishing significantly increase the risk of disease in farmed salmon in Scotland?

    PubMed

    Murray, Alexander G

    2015-07-01

    Salmon farming is an important economic activity, and employer, particularly for remoter areas of Scotland; crustacean fisheries are also significant small businesses in these areas. Salmon frames (the head and spine that remain after evisceration and filleting) are sometimes used to bait the creel pots used to catch lobsters and crabs. These frames may contain pathogens that could potentially be spread to salmon farms in the vicinity of creel fisheries. Therefore, an analysis has been carried out for key pathogens of farmed salmon to assess the risks associated with this process. Infection of farms via creel bait requires that: (1) pathogens are present in salmon at harvest; (2) they are not removed from the salmon that used for bait during processing; (3) they transmit from creel pot baits to salmon farms. This last step is critical and leads to most of the uncertainty in results. Risk were assessed for 7 viruses, 3 bacteria, and 3 eukaryotic parasites of importance to salmon farming. A potentially significant risk was identified in association with disease control programmes if fish were filleted at a secondary processor; such a situation should arise only rarely. A very low risk, per event, was identified from imports, however, because of large numbers of Norwegian imports processed in the UK this risk is always present. Risks were at worst of low (disease control) or very low (imports) probability and are significant only because of the magnitude of consequences.

  13. Abundances of the elements - Meteoritic and solar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, Edward; Grevesse, Nicolas

    1989-01-01

    New abundance tables have been compiled for C1 chondrites and the solar photosphere and corona, based on a critical review of the literature to mid-1988. The meteorite data are generally accurate to + or - 5-10 percent. Significant discrepancies between the sun and meteorites occur only for Fe, Mn, Ge, Pb, and W; other well-determined elements agree to + or - 9 percent on the average. There is no evidence for group fractionations in C1 chondrites of cosmochemically similar elements (refractories, siderophiles, volatiles, etc.), but a selective fractionation of Fe cannot be ruled out. Abundances of odd-A nuclides between A = 65 and 209 show a generally smooth trend, with elemental abundances conforming to the slope defined by isotopic abundances. Significant irregularities occur in the Nd-Sm-Eu region, however, suggesting that the abundance curve is dependably smooth only down to about 20 percent level.

  14. Increased levels of IL-6 in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with chronic schizophrenia — significance for activation of the kynurenine pathway

    PubMed Central

    Schwieler, Lilly; Larsson, Markus K.; Skogh, Elisabeth; Kegel, Magdalena E.; Orhan, Funda; Abdelmoaty, Sally; Finn, Anja; Bhat, Maria; Samuelsson, Martin; Lundberg, Kristina; Dahl, Marja-Liisa; Sellgren, Carl; Schuppe-Koistinen, Ina; Svensson, Camilla I.; Erhardt, Sophie; Engberg, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence indicates that schizophrenia is associated with brain immune activation. While a number of reports suggest increased cytokine levels in patients with schizophrenia, many of these studies have been limited by their focus on peripheral cytokines or confounded by various antipsychotic treatments. Here, well-characterized patients with schizophrenia, all receiving olanzapine treatment, and healthy volunteers were analyzed with regard to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of cytokines. We correlated the CSF cytokine levels to previously analyzed metabolites of the kynurenine (KYN) pathway. Methods We analyzed the CSF from patients and controls using electrochemiluminescence detection with regard to cytokines. Cell culture media from human cortical astrocytes were analyzed for KYN and kynurenic acid (KYNA) using high-pressure liquid chromatography or liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results We included 23 patients and 37 controls in our study. Patients with schizophrenia had increased CSF levels of interleukin (IL)-6 compared with healthy volunteers. In patients, we also observed a positive correlation between IL-6 and the tryptophan:KYNA ratio, indicating that IL-6 activates the KYN pathway. In line with this, application of IL-6 to cultured human astrocytes increased cell medium concentration of KYNA. Limitations The CSF samples had been frozen and thawed twice before analysis of cytokines. Median age differed between patients and controls. When appropriate, all present analyses were adjusted for age. Conclusion We have shown that IL-6, KYN and KYNA are elevated in patients with chronic schizophrenia, strengthening the idea of brain immune activation in patients with this disease. Our concurrent cell culture and clinical findings suggest that IL-6 induces the KYN pathway, leading to increased production of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist KYNA in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:25455350

  15. Seed-specific expression of a lysine-rich protein gene, GhLRP, from cotton significantly increases the lysine content in maize seeds.

    PubMed

    Yue, Jing; Li, Cong; Zhao, Qian; Zhu, Dengyun; Yu, Jingjuan

    2014-03-27

    Maize seed storage proteins are a major source of human and livestock consumption. However, these proteins have poor nutritional value, because they are deficient in lysine and tryptophan. Much research has been done to elevate the lysine content by reducing zein content or regulating the activities of key enzymes in lysine metabolism. Using the naturally lysine-rich protein genes, sb401 and SBgLR, from potato, we previously increased the lysine and protein contents of maize seeds. Here, we examined another natural lysine-rich protein gene, GhLRP, from cotton, which increased the lysine content of transgenic maize seeds at levels varying from 16.2% to 65.0% relative to the wild-type. The total protein content was not distinctly different, except in the six transgenic lines. The lipid and starch levels did not differ substantially in Gossypium hirsutum L. lysine-rich protein (GhLRP) transgenic kernels when compared to wild-type. The agronomic characteristics of all the transgenic maize were also normal. GhLRP is a high-lysine protein candidate gene for increasing the lysine content of maize. This study provided a valuable model system for improving maize lysine content.

  16. Impact of warming on abundance and occurrence of flatfish populations in the Bay of Biscay (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermant, Marie; Lobry, Jeremy; Bonhommeau, Sylvain; Poulard, Jean-Charles; Le Pape, Olivier

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the influence of warming on flatfish populations in the Bay of Biscay. 17 autumn cruises conducted from 1987 to 2006 over the whole shelf of the Bay of Biscay provided data for the abundance and occurrence of adults for twenty flatfish species. Trends in flatfish abundance were analysed with regard to geographic range of populations and interannual fluctuations in abundance were related to seawater temperature. Results showed significant trends in abundance and occurrence for 55% of the flatfish species in the Bay of Biscay. The response to warming of seawater was correlated to geographic ranges of species. While the abundance of the northern temperate species decreased, that of southern ones increased. Moreover, for 40% of the species which densities have significantly changed, abundances were correlated to temperatures in their year of birth, positively for southern species and negatively for northern ones. Last, the abundance of flatfish adults over the Bay of Biscay was compared to previous data on juveniles in the Bay of Vilaine, one of the estuarine nursery ground in this area. For the northern species which have disappeared, the decline in juvenile abundances preceded that of adults by several years, indicating that the recruitment is the process affected. We concluded on a major impact of warming to explain changes in flatfish species abundances. Nevertheless, the impact of fishing interacts with that of climate change because the exploited species appeared to be the most negatively affected.

  17. Significant heat sensitivity increase detected in various types of diabetes mellitus patients by Akabane test for use of management of diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Muzhikov, Valery; Vershinina, Elena; Belenky, Vadim; Muzhikov, Ruslan

    2016-01-01

    In order to assess patterns of heat sensitivity thresholds in patients with diabetes mellitus, the Akabane test was carried out on patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) (250 men and 309 women) and patients with noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) (158 men and 227 women). For comparison, a group of healthy subjects made up of 116 men and 277 women was also used. As soon as we revealed the influence of factors of pathology with a high significance level and gender and the interaction "gender*pathology", all the results are described separately for groups of men and women and for groups with IDDM and NIDDM. Simple effects of paired comparisons between healthy subjects, IDDM and NIDDM in groups of men and women, as well as comparisons between the profiles of men and women with IDDM and NIDDM showed significant differences between ACs in healthy subjects and those with each type of diabetes. The most significant differences are seen in the AC connected with the digestive system (SP pancreas channel), LR (liver channel), ST (stomach channel), GB (gall bladder channel). Thus, we revealed characteristic pattern of acupuncture channels (AC) lesions inherent to diabetes pathology, i.e. most vulnerable in diabetes ACs, being compromised in dependence from such factors, as type of diabetes, hyper or hypoglycemia, and from gender. The main value of the method lies in the fact that we observe the entire food chain from food ingestion to the utilization of carbohydrates with the opportunity to assess the activity of each organ and its regulatory contribution. On the basis of the body's response, an individual selection of medicines can be made, and by evaluating the individual biorhythms it is possible to determine the optimal time of administration.

  18. Distribution of Report on Procedures to Estimate Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) Emission Increases from Mobile and Area Sources for Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) Increment Analyses

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  19. Nontraditional approaches to first-in-human studies to increase efficiency of drug development: will microdose studies make a significant impact?

    PubMed

    Boyd, R A; Lalonde, R L

    2007-01-01

    Much has been written recently about low productivity in the pharmaceutical industry and the high cost of drug development. Over a 10-year period ending in 2000, only approximately 11% of compounds tested in humans across 10 large pharmaceutical companies were eventually approved for marketing in the United States and/or Europe. Attrition was highest during phase II (62%) but still significant in phase III (45%) and at the time of registration (23%). Clearly, given the high cost and time required for clinical development, these late-stage failures are unsustainable.

  20. The stage-classified matrix models project a significant increase in biomass carbon stocks in China’s forests between 2005 and 2050

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Huifeng; Wang, Shaopeng; Guo, Zhaodi; Xu, Bing; Fang, Jingyun

    2015-01-01

    China’s forests are characterized by young age, low carbon (C) density and a large plantation area, implying a high potential for increasing C sinks in the future. Using data of provincial forest area and biomass C density from China’s forest inventories between 1994 and 2008 and the planned forest coverage of the country by 2050, we developed a stage-classified matrix model to predict biomass C stocks of China’s forests from 2005 to 2050. The results showed that total forest biomass C stock would increase from 6.43 Pg C (1 Pg = 1015 g) in 2005 to 9.97 Pg C (95% confidence interval: 8.98 ~ 11.07 Pg C) in 2050, with an overall net C gain of 78.8 Tg C yr−1 (56.7 ~ 103.3 Tg C yr−1; 1 Tg = 1012 g). Our findings suggest that China’s forests will be a large and persistent biomass C sink through 2050. PMID:26110831

  1. Temporal, spatial and tidal influences on benthic and demersal fish abundance in the Forth estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, M. F. D.; Hill, A. S.

    2003-10-01

    The 10 most common demersal and benthic fish species collected during a 1982-2001 Agassiz trawling programme in the mid/lower Forth estuary, east Scotland, were assessed for possible influences of trawl site, month of sampling and tide height on abundance. All species were seasonal in their occurrence in the study area, with trends generally similar to those shown in other temperate European estuaries. Six species (whiting ( Merlangius merlangus), dab ( Limanda limanda), pogge ( Agonus cataphractus), fatherlasher ( Myoxocephalus scorpius), 'gobies' ( Pomatoschistus spp.) and sea snail ( Liparis liparis)) exhibited high winter and low summer abundance while plaice ( Pleuronectes platessa), flounder ( Platichthys flesus) and eelpout ( Zoarces viviparous) were least numerous in winter and mostly present in summer. Cod ( Gadus morhua) were low in abundance in late spring, but did not show pronounced peaks of abundance. Trawl station significantly influenced fish abundance in all but one case ('gobies'). There was relatively low abundance of most species at the middle trawl location, Tancred; only plaice, dab and whiting were numerous at this site. The majority of species were abundant at Port Edgar, adjacent to the estuary mouth, which may have reflected the relatively stable salinity conditions at this station. Flounder was most abundant at the mid-estuarine site of Longannet, and this was likely to have been in order to feed on the large mudflats nearby. Dispersal of fish onto inundated intertidal areas is suggested as a possible mechanism explaining the significant decrease in abundance of several species (flounder, pogge, eelpout and 'gobies') at high water (HW). The significant increase in abundance of whiting in the study area at HW may have been attributable to immigration of individuals from inshore regions of the Firth of Forth by the action of the flood tide. Interactions of location, month and tide height significantly influenced abundance of most species

  2. Statistical analysis from recent abundance determinations in HgMn stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazaryan, S.; Alecian, G.

    2016-08-01

    To better understand the hot chemically peculiar group of HgMn stars, we have considered a compilation of a large number of recently published data obtained for these stars from spectroscopy. We compare these data to the previous compilation by Smith. We confirm the main trends of the abundance peculiarities, namely the increasing overabundances with increasing atomic number of heavy elements, and their large spread from star to star. For all the measured elements, we have looked for correlations between abundances and effective temperature (Teff). In addition to the known correlation for Mn, some other elements are found to show some connection between their abundances and Teff. We have also checked if multiplicity is a determinant parameter for abundance peculiarities determined for these stars. A statistical analysis using a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test shows that the abundances anomalies in the atmosphere of HgMn stars do not present significant dependence on the multiplicity.

  3. Human circulating plasma DNA significantly decreases while lymphocyte DNA damage increases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma-neutron and tritium β-radiation.

    PubMed

    Korzeneva, Inna B; Kostuyk, Svetlana V; Ershova, Liza S; Osipov, Andrian N; Zhuravleva, Veronika F; Pankratova, Galina V; Porokhovnik, Lev N; Veiko, Natalia N

    2015-09-01

    The blood plasma of healthy people contains cell-fee (circulating) DNA (cfDNA). Apoptotic cells are the main source of the cfDNA. The cfDNA concentration increases in case of the organism's cell death rate increase, for example in case of exposure to high-dose ionizing radiation (IR). The objects of the present research are the blood plasma and blood lymphocytes of people, who contacted occupationally with the sources of external gamma/neutron radiation or internal β-radiation of tritium N = 176). As the controls (references), blood samples of people, who had never been occupationally subjected to the IR sources, were used (N = 109). With respect to the plasma samples of each donor there were defined: the cfDNA concentration (the cfDNA index), DNase1 activity (the DNase1 index) and titre of antibodies to DNA (the Ab DNA index). The general DNA damage in the cells was defined (using the Comet assay, the tail moment (TM) index). A chronic effect of the low-dose ionizing radiation on a human being is accompanied by the enhancement of the DNA damage in lymphocytes along with a considerable cfDNA content reduction, while the DNase1 content and concentration of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA) increase. All the aforementioned changes were also observed in people, who had not worked with the IR sources for more than a year. The ratio cfDNA/(DNase1×Ab DNA × TM) is proposed to be used as a marker of the chronic exposure of a person to the external low-dose IR. It was formulated the assumption that the joint analysis of the cfDNA, DNase1, Ab DNA and TM values may provide the information about the human organism's cell resistivity to chronic exposure to the low-dose IR and about the development of the adaptive response in the organism that is aimed, firstly, at the effective cfDNA elimination from the blood circulation, and, secondly - at survival of the cells, including the cells with the damaged DNA.

  4. Viral abundance and distribution in mesopelagic and bathypelagic waters of the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magagnini, Mirko; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Monticelli, Luis S.; De Domenico, Emilio; Danovaro, Roberto

    2007-08-01

    Despite the fact that marine viruses have been increasingly investigated in the last decade, knowledge on virus abundance, biomass and distribution in mesopelagic and bathypelagic waters is limited. We report here the results of a large-spatial-scale study (covering more than 3000 km) on the virioplankton distribution in epi-, meso- and bathypelagic waters in 19 areas of the Mediterranean Sea, from the Alboran Sea and Western Mediterranean, to the Tyrrhenian Sea, Sicily Channel and Ionian Sea. Integrated viral abundance in epipelagic waters was significantly higher than in deep-sea waters (on average, 2.4 vs. 0.5×10 12 viruses m -3). However, abundance of viruses in the deep-Mediterranean waters was the highest reported so far for deep seas worldwide (7.0 and 3.1×10 11 viruses m -3 in mesopelagic and bathypelagic waters, respectively) and their biomass accounted for 13-18% of total prokaryotic C biomass. The significant relationship between viral abundance and prokaryotic abundance and production in deep waters suggests that also deep-sea viruses are closely dependent on the abundance and metabolism of their hosts. Moreover, virus to prokaryote (and nucleoid-containing cell (NuCC)) abundance ratio increased with increasing depths suggesting that deep waters may represent optimal environments for viral survival or proliferation. Overall, our results indicate that deep waters may represent a significant reservoir of viruses and open new perspectives for future investigations of viral impact on the functioning of meso-bathypelagic ecosystems.

  5. The Prevalence of Erosive Esophagitis Is Not Significantly Increased in a Healthy Korean Population - Could It Be Explained?: A Multi-center Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Geom Seog; Jeon, Byung Jun; Chung, Jin Soo; Joo, Young-Eun; Kim, Dae Yong; Shin, Jeong Eun; Kim, Heung Up; Park, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Nayoung

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Researches on the potential risk factors for the development of erosive esophagitis have been conducted extensively, however, the results are conflicting. The aim of this multicenter study was to identify the prevalence rate and risk factors of erosive esophagitis and their interactions with residency status. Methods A total of 4,023 eligible subjects at 8 tertiary health care centers were evaluated using questionnaires, laboratory tests and endoscopy. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify independent risk factors for erosive esophagitis. Results The prevalence rate of reflux esophagitis was 8.8%. Los Angeles grade A was common type of erosive esophagitis. Residence in a large urban areas was negatively associated with the development of erosive esophagitis (OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.40-0.90). The high body mass index (≥ 25 kg/m2) was more frequent in residents of small and medium-sized cities than those in big cities (38.8% and 26.9%, respectively; P < 0.001). Seronegativity of Helicobacter pylori was associated with increased erosive esophagitis (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.48-2.46). Triglyceride ≥ 150 mg/dL (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.08-2.07), fasting glucose level ≥ 126 mg/dL (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.06-2.81), and hiatal hernia (OR, 3.11; 95% CI, 1.87-5.16) were also associated with erosive esophagitis. Conclusions The prevalence rate of erosive esophagitis and its risk factors in this study were similar to the result of 8.0% of nationwide study in 2006. Residency and obesity are more important independent risk factors than H. pylori infection status for development of erosive esophagitis in Korea. These results suggest that the prevalence rate of erosive esophagitis in Korea might not increase as in the Western countries. PMID:23350050

  6. Microflow liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry--an approach to significantly increase sensitivity, decrease matrix effects, and reduce organic solvent usage in pesticide residue analysis.

    PubMed

    Uclés Moreno, Ana; Herrera López, Sonia; Reichert, Barbara; Lozano Fernández, Ana; Hernando Guil, María Dolores; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo Rodríguez

    2015-01-20

    This manuscript reports a new pesticide residue analysis method employing a microflow-liquid chromatography system coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (microflow-LC-ESI-QqQ-MS). This uses an electrospray ionization source with a narrow tip emitter to generate smaller droplets. A validation study was undertaken to establish performance characteristics for this new approach on 90 pesticide residues, including their degradation products, in three commodities (tomato, pepper, and orange). The significant benefits of the microflow-LC-MS/MS-based method were a high sensitivity gain and a notable reduction in matrix effects delivered by a dilution of the sample (up to 30-fold); this is as a result of competition reduction between the matrix compounds and analytes for charge during ionization. Overall robustness and a capability to withstand long analytical runs using the microflow-LC-MS system have been demonstrated (for 100 consecutive injections without any maintenance being required). Quality controls based on the results of internal standards added at the samples' extraction, dilution, and injection steps were also satisfactory. The LOQ values were mostly 5 μg kg(-1) for almost all pesticide residues. Other benefits were a substantial reduction in solvent usage and waste disposal as well as a decrease in the run-time. The method was successfully applied in the routine analysis of 50 fruit and vegetable samples labeled as organically produced.

  7. Evidence for significant radial increase of the mass-to-light ratio based on phenomenological analysis of eight early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samurović, Srdjan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the sample of eight nearby early-type galaxies for which we have reliable estimates of their total dynamical mass in their interior and exterior parts based on the observed globular clusters. We use a phenomenological approach in the study of the gradient of the mass-to-light ratio of the galaxies in the sample. Since the outermost point for which we have the estimates of the mass-to-light ratios is fixed at 5 effective radii, this provides the opportunity to study the dark matter content of early-type galaxies which is expected to dominate in their outer parts, i.e., beyond ˜ 2-3 effective radii. We find that all the galaxies in our sample show the increase of the cumulative mass-to-light ratio which indicates various amount of additional, dark, component in their mass content. We show that galaxies with higher values of α+β (where α and β are slope parameters) have higher virial masses. We show that two galaxies which are slow rotators (NGC 1407 and NGC 5846) have α+β>1 whereas the remaining 6 galaxies are all fast rotators, and for these objects we found that α+β≤ 1. We also compare our findings with the theoretical expectations coming from numerical simulations.

  8. Heterozygous carriers of the I171V mutation of the NBS1 gene have a significantly increased risk of solid malignant tumours.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Jerzy; Mosor, Maria; Ziółkowska, Iwona; Wierzbicka, Malgorzta; Pernak-Schwarz, Monika; Przyborska, Marta; Roznowski, Krzysztof; Pławski, Andrzej; Słomski, Ryszard; Januszkiewicz, Danuta

    2008-03-01

    Homozygous mutation 657del5 within the NBS1 gene is responsible for the majority of Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) cases. NBS patients are characterised by increased susceptibility to malignancies mainly of lymphoid origin. Recently it has been postulated that heterozygous carriers of 657del5 NBS1 mutation are at higher risk of cancer development. The aim of the study was to analyse the frequency of I171V mutation in NBS1 gene in 270 women with breast cancer, 176 patients with larynx cancer, 81 with second primary tumours of head and neck, 131 with colorectal carcinoma and 600 healthy individuals. I171V mutation was present in 17 cancer patients compared with only one in healthy individuals. This constitutes 2.58% in studied patients with malignancies and 0.17% in the control group (P=0.0002; relative risk 1.827; odds ratio 15.886; 95% confidence interval 2.107-119.8). Since DNA was isolated from non malignant cells, all mutations found in cancer patients appeared to be of germinal origin. It can be concluded that NBS1 allele I171V may be a general susceptibility gene in solid tumours.

  9. Deficiencies in both starch synthase IIIa and branching enzyme IIb lead to a significant increase in amylose in SSIIa-inactive japonica rice seeds.

    PubMed

    Asai, Hiroki; Abe, Natsuko; Matsushima, Ryo; Crofts, Naoko; Oitome, Naoko F; Nakamura, Yasunori; Fujita, Naoko

    2014-10-01

    Starch synthase (SS) IIIa has the second highest activity of the total soluble SS activity in developing rice endosperm. Branching enzyme (BE) IIb is the major BE isozyme, and is strongly expressed in developing rice endosperm. A mutant (ss3a/be2b) was generated from wild-type japonica rice which lacks SSIIa activity. The seed weight of ss3a/be2b was 74-94% of that of the wild type, whereas the be2b seed weight was 59-73% of that of the wild type. There were significantly fewer amylopectin short chains [degree of polymerization (DP) ≤13] in ss3a/be2b compared with the wild type. In contrast, the amount of long chains (DP ≥25) connecting clusters of amylopectin in ss3a/be2b was higher than in the wild type and lower than in be2b. The apparent amylose content of ss3a/be2b was 45%, which was >1.5 times greater than that of either ss3a or be2b. Both SSIIIa and BEIIb deficiencies led to higher activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) and granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI), which partly explains the high amylose content in the ss3a/be2b endosperm. The percentage apparent amylose content of ss3a and ss3a/be2b at 10 days after flowering (DAF) was higher than that of the wild type and be2b. At 20 DAF, amylopectin biosynthesis in be2b and ss3a/be2b was not observed, whereas amylose biosynthesis in these lines was accelerated at 30 DAF. These data suggest that the high amylose content in the ss3a/be2b mutant results from higher amylose biosynthesis at two stages, up to 20 DAF and from 30 DAF to maturity.

  10. Molecular basis and functional significance of Angiotensin II-induced increase in Discoidin Domain Receptor 2 gene expression in cardiac fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    George, Mereena; Vijayakumar, Anupama; Dhanesh, Sivadasan Bindu; James, Jackson; Shivakumar, K

    2016-01-01

    Delineation of mechanisms underlying the regulation of fibrosis-related genes in the heart is an important clinical goal as cardiac fibrosis is a major cause of myocardial dysfunction. This study probed the regulation of Discoidin Domain Receptor 2 (DDR2) gene expression and the regulatory links between Angiotensin II, DDR2 and collagen in Angiotensin II-stimulated cardiac fibroblasts. Real-time PCR and western blot analyses showed that Angiotensin II enhances DDR2 mRNA and protein expression in rat cardiac fibroblasts via NADPH oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species induction. NF-κB activation, demonstrated by gel shift assay, abolition of DDR2 expression upon NF-κB inhibition, and luciferase and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed transcriptional control of DDR2 by NF-κB in Angiotensin II-treated cells. Inhibitors of Phospholipase C and Protein kinase C prevented Angiotensin II-dependent p38 MAPK phosphorylation that in turn blocked NF-κB activation. Angiotensin II also enhanced collagen gene expression. Importantly, the stimulatory effects of Angiotensin II on DDR2 and collagen were inter-dependent as siRNA-mediated silencing of one abolished the other. Angiotensin II promoted ERK1/2 phosphorylation whose inhibition attenuated Angiotensin II-stimulation of collagen but not DDR2. Furthermore, DDR2 knockdown prevented Angiotensin II-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation, indicating that DDR2-dependent ERK1/2 activation enhances collagen expression in cells exposed to Angiotensin II. DDR2 knockdown was also associated with compromised wound healing response to Angiotensin II. To conclude, Angiotensin II promotes NF-κB activation that up-regulates DDR2 transcription. A reciprocal regulatory relationship between DDR2 and collagen, involving cross-talk between the GPCR and RTK pathways, is central to Angiotensin II-induced increase in collagen expression in cardiac fibroblasts.

  11. Targeting CXCR1/2 Significantly Reduces Breast Cancer Stem Cell Activity and Increases the Efficacy of Inhibiting HER2 via HER2-dependent and -independent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jagdeep K.; Farnie, Gillian; Bundred, Nigel J.; Simões, Bruno M; Shergill, Amrita; Landberg, Göran; Howell, Sacha; Clarke, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Breast cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are an important therapeutic target as they are predicted to be responsible for tumour initiation, maintenance and metastases. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is upregulated in breast cancer and associated with poor prognosis. Breast cancer cell line studies indicate that IL-8 via its cognate receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2, is important in regulating breast CSC activity. We investigated the role of IL-8 in the regulation of CSC activity using patient-derived breast cancers and determined the potential benefit of combining CXCR1/2 inhibition with HER2-targeted therapy. Experimental design CSC activity of metastatic and invasive human breast cancers (n=19) was assessed ex vivo using the mammosphere colony forming assay. Results Metastatic fluid IL-8 level correlated directly with mammosphere formation (r=0.652; P<0.05; n=10). Recombinant IL-8 directly increased mammosphere formation/self-renewal in metastatic and invasive breast cancers (n=17). IL-8 induced activation of EGFR/HER2 and downstream signalling pathways and effects were abrogated by inhibition of SRC, EGFR/HER2, PI3K or MEK. Furthermore, lapatinib inhibited the mammosphere-promoting effect of IL-8 in both HER2-positive and negative patient-derived cancers. CXCR1/2 inhibition also blocked the effect of IL-8 on mammosphere formation and added to the efficacy of lapatinib in HER2-positive cancers. Conclusions These studies establish a role for IL-8 in the regulation of patient-derived breast CSC activity and demonstrate that IL-8/CXCR1/2 signalling is partly mediated via a novel SRC and EGFR/HER2-dependent pathway. Combining CXCR1/2 inhibitors with current HER2-targeted therapies has potential as an effective therapeutic strategy to reduce CSC activity in breast cancer and improve the survival of HER2-positive patients. PMID:23149820

  12. Effects of Grain Growth on Molecular Abundances in Young Stellar Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Nanase; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Aikawa, Yuri; Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Liu, Haoyu Baobab; Hirano, Naomi

    2017-03-01

    Recent observations suggested that the growth of dust grains may have already occurred in class 0/I young stellar objects (YSOs). Since chemical reactions on dust grain surfaces are important in determining molecular abundances, the dust size growth may affect chemical compositions in YSOs significantly. In this work, we aim to determine how grain growth affects chemical abundances. We use a time-dependent gas-grain chemical model for a star-forming core to calculate the gas-phase and grain-surface chemical abundances with variation of surface areas of grains to imitate grain growth. We also perform parameter studies in which the initial molecular abundances vary. Our results show that a smaller extent of the surface areas caused by grain growth changes the dominant form of sulfur-bearing molecules by decreasing H2S abundances and increasing SO and/or SO2 abundances. We also find that complex organic molecules such as CH3CN decrease in abundances with larger grain sizes, while the abundance of other species such as CH3OCH3 is dependent on other parameters such as the initial conditions. Comparisons with observations of a class 0 protostar, IRAS 16293-2422, indicate that the observed abundance ratios between sulfur-bearing molecules H2S, SO, and SO2 can be reproduced very well when dust grains grow to a maximum grain size of a max = 10–100 μm.

  13. On the influence of the environment on galactic chemical abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilyugin, L. S.; Grebel, E. K.; Zinchenko, I. A.; Nefedyev, Y. A.; Mattsson, L.

    2017-02-01

    We examine the influence of the environment on the chemical abundances of late-type galaxies with masses of 109.1-1011 M⊙ using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We find that the environmental influence on galactic chemical abundances is strongest for galaxies with masses of 109.1-109.6 M⊙. The galaxies in the densest environments may exceed the average oxygen abundances by about ∼0.05 dex (the median value of the overabundances for 101 galaxies in the densest environments) and show higher abundances in nitrogen by about ∼0.1. The abundance excess decreases with increasing galaxy mass and with decreasing environmental density. Since only a small fraction of late-type galaxies is located in high-density environments, these galaxies do not have a significant influence on the general X/H-M relation. The metallicity-mass relations for isolated galaxies and for galaxies with neighbours are very similar. The mean shift of non-isolated galaxies around the metallicity-mass relation traced by the isolated galaxies is less than ∼0.01 dex for oxygen and less than ∼0.02 dex for nitrogen. The scatter in the galactic chemical abundances is large for any number of neighbour galaxies (at any environmental density), i.e. galaxies with both enhanced and reduced abundances can be found at any environmental density. This suggests that environmental effects do not play a key role in evolution of late-type galaxies, as was also concluded in some of the previous studies.

  14. The role of carrion supply in the abundance of deep-water fish off California.

    PubMed

    Drazen, Jeffrey C; Bailey, David M; Ruhl, Henry A; Smith, Kenneth L

    2012-01-01

    Few time series of deep-sea systems exist from which the factors affecting abyssal fish populations can be evaluated. Previous analysis showed an increase in grenadier abundance, in the eastern North Pacific, which lagged epibenthic megafaunal abundance, mostly echinoderms, by 9-20 months. Subsequent diet studies suggested that carrion is the grenadier's most important food. Our goal was to evaluate if changes in carrion supply might drive the temporal changes in grenadier abundance. We analyzed a unique 17 year time series of abyssal grenadier abundance and size, collected at Station M (4100 m, 220 km offshore of Pt. Conception, California), and reaffirmed the increase in abundance and also showed an increase in mean size resulting in a ∼6 fold change in grenadier biomass. We compared this data with abundance estimates for surface living nekton (pacific hake and jack mackerel) eaten by the grenadiers as carrion. A significant positive correlation between Pacific hake (but not jack mackerel) and grenadiers was found. Hake seasonally migrate to the waters offshore of California to spawn. They are the most abundant nekton species in the region and the target of the largest commercial fishery off the west coast. The correlation to grenadier abundance was strongest when using hake abundance metrics from the area within 100 nmi of Station M. No significant correlation between grenadier abundance and hake biomass for the entire California current region was found. Given the results and grenadier longevity, migration is likely responsible for the results and the location of hake spawning probably is more important than the size of the spawning stock in understanding the dynamics of abyssal grenadier populations. Our results suggest that some abyssal fishes' population dynamics are controlled by the flux of large particles of carrion. Climate and fishing pressures affecting epipelagic fish stocks could readily modulate deep-sea fish dynamics.

  15. The Role of Carrion Supply in the Abundance of Deep-Water Fish off California

    PubMed Central

    Drazen, Jeffrey C.; Bailey, David M.; Ruhl, Henry A.; Smith, Kenneth L.

    2012-01-01

    Few time series of deep-sea systems exist from which the factors affecting abyssal fish populations can be evaluated. Previous analysis showed an increase in grenadier abundance, in the eastern North Pacific, which lagged epibenthic megafaunal abundance, mostly echinoderms, by 9–20 months. Subsequent diet studies suggested that carrion is the grenadier's most important food. Our goal was to evaluate if changes in carrion supply might drive the temporal changes in grenadier abundance. We analyzed a unique 17 year time series of abyssal grenadier abundance and size, collected at Station M (4100 m, 220 km offshore of Pt. Conception, California), and reaffirmed the increase in abundance and also showed an increase in mean size resulting in a ∼6 fold change in grenadier biomass. We compared this data with abundance estimates for surface living nekton (pacific hake and jack mackerel) eaten by the grenadiers as carrion. A significant positive correlation between Pacific hake (but not jack mackerel) and grenadiers was found. Hake seasonally migrate to the waters offshore of California to spawn. They are the most abundant nekton species in the region and the target of the largest commercial fishery off the west coast. The correlation to grenadier abundance was strongest when using hake abundance metrics from the area within 100 nmi of Station M. No significant correlation between grenadier abundance and hake biomass for the entire California current region was found. Given the results and grenadier longevity, migration is likely responsible for the results and the location of hake spawning probably is more important than the size of the spawning stock in understanding the dynamics of abyssal grenadier populations. Our results suggest that some abyssal fishes' population dynamics are controlled by the flux of large particles of carrion. Climate and fishing pressures affecting epipelagic fish stocks could readily modulate deep-sea fish dynamics. PMID:23133679

  16. Instructional Approaches that Significantly Increase Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Cathy Collins; Parris, Sheri R.; Reed, Kelly L.; Whiteley, Cinnamon S.; Cleveland, Maggie D.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of the most widely used literacy instructional approaches on the reading comprehension of Grade 2-6 students. Participants (N = 660) were enrolled in 4 districts in the United States; 53% were male (n = 348) and 47% were female (n = 312); 51% were Caucasian (n = 338), 23% were African American…

  17. Bee Abundance and Nutritional Status in Relation to Grassland Management Practices in an Agricultural Landscape.

    PubMed

    Smith, Griffin W; Debinski, Diane M; Scavo, Nicole A; Lange, Corey J; Delaney, John T; Moranz, Raymond A; Miller, James R; Engle, David M; Toth, Amy L

    2016-04-01

    Grasslands provide important resources for pollinators in agricultural landscapes. Managing grasslands with fire and grazing has the potential to benefit plant and pollinator communities, though there is uncertainty about the ideal approach. We examined the relationships among burning and grazing regimes, plant communities, and Bombus species and Apis mellifera L. abundance and nutritional indicators at the Grand River Grasslands in southern Iowa and northern Missouri. Treatment regimes included burn-only, grazed-and-burned, and patch-burn graze (pastures subdivided into three temporally distinct fire patches with free access by cattle). The premise of the experimental design was that patch-burn grazing would increase habitat heterogeneity, thereby providing more diverse and abundant floral resources for pollinators. We predicted that both bee abundance and individual bee nutritional indicators (bee size and lipid content) would be positively correlated with floral resource abundance. There were no significant differences among treatments with respect to bee abundance. However, some of the specific characteristics of the plant community showed significant relationships with bee response variables. Pastures with greater abundance of floral resources had greater bee abundance but lower bee nutritional indicators. Bee nutritional variables were positively correlated with vegetation height, but, in some cases, negatively correlated with stocking rate. These results suggest grassland site characteristics such as floral resource abundance and stocking rate are of potential importance to bee pollinators and suggest avenues for further research to untangle the complex interactions between grassland management, plant responses, and bee health.

  18. Abundances in Globular Cluster Red Giant Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallo, R. M.

    1997-12-01

    Observations of globular cluster red giant branch (RGB) stars have shown star-to-star variations in the abundances of C, N, O, Na, Mg, and Al, contrary to predictions of standard stellar evolutionary theory. I have modeled the variations in the abundance profiles around the hydrogen-burning shell (H shell) of metal-poor red giant stars by combining four RGB stellar evolutionary sequences of different metallicities with a detailed nuclear reaction network. This approach has significant advantages over previous research: (1) it allows for the variation in the temperature and density around the H shell; (2) it follows the effects of the changing H-shell structure as the sequence evolves; (3) it accounts for the effect of the metallicity on the abundance profiles; (4) it allows the reaction rates to be varied so that their uncertainties may be explored. The results are in good qualitative agreement with the observations. All the models show a region above the H shell in which first C, then O, is depleted in the CN and ON nuclear burning cycles. Within the C-depleted region, the (12) C/(13) C ratio is reduced to its equilibrium value. Just above the O-depleted region, Na is enhanced from proton captures on (22) Ne. In brighter models, Na becomes greatly enhanced within the O-depleted region as the NeNa cycle converts (20) Ne into (23) Na before attaining equilibrium inside the H shell. The more metal-poor models also show Al being increased around the H shell, first from (25,26) Mg, then from (24) Mg in the MgAl cycle. Despite the diminution (24) Mg suffers in synthesizing Al, the models show its abundance is increased due to the NeNa-cycle breakout reaction, (23) Na(p,γ)(24) Mg. This latter result is at odds with observations that show (24) Mg is depleted in a sample of M 13 and NGC 6752 giants (Shetrone 1996, 1997).

  19. Fish abundance, distribution, and habitat use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffnagle, Timothy L.; Valdez, Richard A.; Speas, David W.

    The 1996 controlled flood in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, was designed, in part, to improve conditions for juvenile native fishes by reshaping habitat and displacing non-native fishes. We examined changes in abundance and distributions of native and non-native fishes immediately before and after the controlled flood and recovery of affected species 2.5 and 6 months after. Catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) of humpback chub and flannelmouth sucker did not differ in pre- versus post-flood periods. CPUE of plains killifish, bluehead sucker and fathead minnow decreased following the flood, and CPUE of speckled dace and rainbow trout increased. Juvenile humpback chub remained primarily along talus shorelines at all discharges, while at higher discharges, speckled dace shifted from mid-channel riffles to debris fans and talus and fathead minnows used primarily vegetated shorelines. There was evidence of some downstream displacement of plains killifish, fathead minnows and rainbow trout. Catch rates of all species showed seasonal variation following the flood, with summer recruitment of young-of-the-year, particularly fathead minnows and plains killifish. Although short-term reductions in catch rates of fathead minnows and plains killifish occurred, these populations returned to pre-flood densities by 6 months after the flood. Catch rates of all species before and after the flood were similar to those recorded in previous years. We determined that the controlled flood did not significantly alter native fish distributions or abundances through Grand Canyon.

  20. Increased abundance of aromatase and follicle stimulating hormone receptor mRNA and decreased insulin-like growth factor-2 receptor mRNA in small ovarian follicles of cattle selected for twin births

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle genetically selected for twin ovulations and births (Twinner) exhibit increased ovarian follicular development, increased ovulation rate, and greater blood and follicular fluid IGF 1 concentrations compared with contemporary cattle not selected for twins (Control). Experimental objectives wer...

  1. Oxygen abundance maps of CALIFA galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinchenko, I. A.; Pilyugin, L. S.; Grebel, E. K.; Sánchez, S. F.; Vílchez, J. M.

    2016-11-01

    We construct maps of the oxygen abundance distribution across the discs of 88 galaxies using Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey (CALIFA) Data Release 2 (DR2) spectra. The position of the centre of a galaxy (coordinates on the plate) was also taken from the CALIFA DR2. The galaxy inclination, the position angle of the major axis, and the optical radius were determined from the analysis of the surface brightnesses in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) g and r bands of the photometric maps of SDSS Data Release 9. We explore the global azimuthal abundance asymmetry in the discs of the CALIFA galaxies and the presence of a break in the radial oxygen abundance distribution. We found that there is no significant global azimuthal asymmetry for our sample of galaxies, i.e. the asymmetry is small, usually lower than 0.05 dex. The scatter in oxygen abundances around the abundance gradient has a comparable value, ≲0.05 dex. A significant (possibly dominant) fraction of the asymmetry can be attributed to the uncertainties in the geometrical parameters of these galaxies. There is evidence for a flattening of the radial abundance gradient in the central part of 18 galaxies. We also estimated the geometric parameters (coordinates of the centre, the galaxy inclination and the position angle of the major axis) of our galaxies from the analysis of the abundance map. The photometry-map-based and the abundance-map-based geometrical parameters are relatively close to each other for the majority of the galaxies but the discrepancy is large for a few galaxies with a flat radial abundance gradient.

  2. Elemental Abundances from Very Low Abundance HII Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skillman, Evan D.; Terlevich, Roberto J.; Terlevich, Elena

    1992-12-01

    In 1987 we initiated a program to mitigate the deficiency of known low metallicity galaxies. Following our discoveries of very low abundance H II regions in nearby dwarf galaxies (Skillman et al. 1988, 1989a,b), we used the IDS on the INT to to collect spectra of dwarf galaxies in the Second Byurakan Survey (SBS) of UV excess galaxies. Our survey of over 40 SBS galaxies was completed in January 1990 and we have identified roughly one dozen very low metallicity H II galaxies. Now, with a significant sample of these galaxies, several observational programs are possible; foremost of these is the measurement of the primordial helium abundance (eg., Pagel et al. 1992). We report here on observations from March 1991 and 1992 using the ISIS spectrograph on the WHT to obtain very high quality spectra of 8 of these newly discovered metal-poor galaxies. The ISIS double spectrograph allows simultaneous observations of the blue (3600 - 5100 Angstroms) and red (6300 - 6800 Angstroms). Thus, He, N, O, Ne and S abundances can be derived with relatively small observational uncertainties. We compare our new observations with those in the literature. Our preliminary analysis indicates a slightly larger scatter in He/H at low O/H than had been seen previously. The small scatter may have been due simply to the paucity of observations at low metallicity. References: Pagel, B.E.J., Simonson, E.A., Terlevich, R.J., & Edmunds, M.G. 1992, MNRAS, 255, 325 Skillman, E.D., Kennicutt, R.C., & Hodge, P.W. 1989a, ApJ, 347, 875 Skillman, E.D., Melnick, J., Terlevich, R., & Moles, M. 1988, A&A, 196, 31 Skillman, E.D., Terlevich, R., & Melnick, J. 1989b, MNRAS, 240, 563

  3. Large brown seaweeds of the British Isles: Evidence of changes in abundance over four decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesson, Chris; Bush, Laura E.; Davies, Andrew J.; Maggs, Christine A.; Brodie, Juliet

    2015-03-01

    The large brown seaweeds (macroalgae) are keystone species in intertidal and shallow subtidal marine ecosystems and are harvested for food and other products. Recently, there have been sporadic, often anecdotal, reports of local abundance declines around the British Isles, but regional surveys have rarely revisited sites to determine possible changes. An assessment was undertaken of changes in the abundance of large brown seaweeds around the British Isles using historical survey data, and determination of whether any changes were linked with climate change. Data were analysed from multiple surveys for 14 habitat-forming and commercially important species of Phaeophyceae, covering orders Laminariales, Fucales and Tilopteridales. Changes in abundance were assessed for sites over the period 1974-2010. Trends in distribution were compared to summer and winter sea surface temperatures (SST). Results revealed regional patterns of both increase and decrease in abundance for multiple species, with significant declines in the south for kelp species and increases in northern and central areas for some kelp and wracks. Abundance patterns of 10 of the 14 species showed a significant association with SSTs, but there was a mixture of positive and negative responses. This is the first British Isles-wide observation of declining abundance of large brown seaweeds. Historical surveys provide useful data to examine trends in abundance, but the ad hoc nature of these studies limit the conclusions that can be drawn. Although the British Isles remains a stronghold for large brown algae, it is imperative that systematic surveys are undertaken to monitor changes.

  4. Peudomonas fluorescens diversity and abundance in the rhizosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amina, Melinai; Ahmed, Bensoltane; Khaladi, Mederbel

    2010-05-01

    It is now over 30 years since that a several plant associated strains of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. are known to produce antimicrobial metabolites, playing a significant role in the biological control of a lot of plant diseases. For that, the interest in the use of these bacteria for biocontrol of plant pathogenic agents has increased. However, few comprehensive studies have described the abundance of this soil borne bacteria in the region of Mascara (Northern-Algerian West). In the connection of this problem, this work was done by monitoring the number of indigenous Pseudomonas fluorescens organisms in three stations characterizing different ecosystems, to document their abundance, diversity and investigate the relationship between P. fluorescens abundance and soil properties. Our quantitative plate counting results hence the conception of their ecology in the rhizosphere. Thus, quantitative results has confirmed that P. fluorescens are successful root colonizers with strong predominance and competed for many ecological niche, where their distribution were correlated significantly (P<0.05) with the majority of soil properties. Keywords: P. Fluorescens, Ecosystems, Abundance, Diversity, Correlated, Soil Properties.

  5. Relationships beetween the regional distribution of carabid beetles ( Coleoptera, Carabidae) and the abundance of their potential prey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillemain, Matthieu; Loreau, Michel; Daufresne, Tanguy

    We studied regional variation in abundance of carabid beetles in relation to both abiotic factors and prey availability in 19 forest sites, with a focus on the relationship between the distributions of the carabid beetle Abax ater Villers and its prey, earthworms. No significant correlation was found between the abundance of Abax ater and any of the abiotic factors considered. On the other had, litter thickness was strongly associated with the composition and structure of the whole carabid community: an increase in litter thickness was accompanied by a decrease in both total carabid abundance and carabid species richnes, and by an increase in the proportion of forest species. The relationship between the regional distributions of abundance of carabid beetles and their potential prev was very different for soil-dwelling and litter-dwelling prey. There was a significant pattern of association between low soil prey abundance and low carabid abundance, which suggests that carabid abundance is partly controlled by prey numbers in the soil. On the other hand, there was a significant pattern of association between high prey density per volume of litter and low Abax ater abundance, thus showing a negative relationship between the abundance of this species and prey density in the litter. We propose two complementary hypotheses to explain this pattern: prey depletion by predation in the litter, and biased sampling of carabids due to differential mobility. The prey depletion hypothesis considers that soil acts as a refuge from predation, so that prey numbers in the soil control carabid abundance, while dominant carabids in turn deplete prey and control their abundance in the litter. This hypothesis suggests a complex relationship between the abundances of carabids and their prey.

  6. Modeling void abundance in modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voivodic, Rodrigo; Lima, Marcos; Llinares, Claudio; Mota, David F.

    2017-01-01

    We use a spherical model and an extended excursion set formalism with drifting diffusive barriers to predict the abundance of cosmic voids in the context of general relativity as well as f (R ) and symmetron models of modified gravity. We detect spherical voids from a suite of N-body simulations of these gravity theories and compare the measured void abundance to theory predictions. We find that our model correctly describes the abundance of both dark matter and galaxy voids, providing a better fit than previous proposals in the literature based on static barriers. We use the simulation abundance results to fit for the abundance model free parameters as a function of modified gravity parameters, and show that counts of dark matter voids can provide interesting constraints on modified gravity. For galaxy voids, more closely related to optical observations, we find that constraining modified gravity from void abundance alone may be significantly more challenging. In the context of current and upcoming galaxy surveys, the combination of void and halo statistics including their abundances, profiles and correlations should be effective in distinguishing modified gravity models that display different screening mechanisms.

  7. Investigating the spatial distribution and effects of nearshore topography on Acropora cervicornis abundance in Southeast Florida.

    PubMed

    D'Antonio, Nicole L; Gilliam, David S; Walker, Brian K

    2016-01-01

    Dense Acropora cervicornis aggregations, or patches, have been documented within nearshore habitats in Southeast Florida (SE FL) despite close proximity to numerous anthropogenic stressors and subjection to frequent natural disturbance events. Limited information has been published concerning the distribution and abundance of A. cervicornis outside of these known dense patches. The first goal of this study was to conduct a spatially extensive and inclusive survey (9.78 km(2)) to determine whether A. cervicornis distribution in the nearshore habitat of SE FL was spatially uniform or clustered. The second goal was to investigate potential relationships between broad-scale seafloor topography and A. cervicornis abundance using high resolution bathymetric data. Acropora cervicornis was distributed throughout the study area, and the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic and Anselin Local Moran's I spatial cluster analysis showed significant clustering along topographic features termed ridge crests. Significant clustering was further supported by the inverse distance weighted surface model. Ordinal logistic regression indicated 1) as distance from a ridge increases, odds of reduced A. cervicornis abundance increases; 2) as topographic elevation increases, odds of increased abundance increases; and 3) as mean depth increases, odds of increased abundance increases. This study provides detailed information on A. cervicornis distribution and abundance at a regional scale and supports modeling its distributions in similar habitats elsewhere throughout the western Atlantic and Caribbean. Acropora cervicornis is frequently observed and in areas an abundant species within the nearshore habitat along the SE FL portion of the Florida Reef Tract (FRT). This study provides a better understanding of local habitat associations thus facilitating appropriate management of the nearshore environment and species conservation. The portion of the FRT between Hillsboro and Port Everglades inlets should be

  8. Investigating the spatial distribution and effects of nearshore topography on Acropora cervicornis abundance in Southeast Florida

    PubMed Central

    Gilliam, David S.; Walker, Brian K.

    2016-01-01

    Dense Acropora cervicornis aggregations, or patches, have been documented within nearshore habitats in Southeast Florida (SE FL) despite close proximity to numerous anthropogenic stressors and subjection to frequent natural disturbance events. Limited information has been published concerning the distribution and abundance of A. cervicornis outside of these known dense patches. The first goal of this study was to conduct a spatially extensive and inclusive survey (9.78 km2) to determine whether A. cervicornis distribution in the nearshore habitat of SE FL was spatially uniform or clustered. The second goal was to investigate potential relationships between broad-scale seafloor topography and A. cervicornis abundance using high resolution bathymetric data. Acropora cervicornis was distributed throughout the study area, and the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic and Anselin Local Moran’s I spatial cluster analysis showed significant clustering along topographic features termed ridge crests. Significant clustering was further supported by the inverse distance weighted surface model. Ordinal logistic regression indicated 1) as distance from a ridge increases, odds of reduced A. cervicornis abundance increases; 2) as topographic elevation increases, odds of increased abundance increases; and 3) as mean depth increases, odds of increased abundance increases. This study provides detailed information on A. cervicornis distribution and abundance at a regional scale and supports modeling its distributions in similar habitats elsewhere throughout the western Atlantic and Caribbean. Acropora cervicornis is frequently observed and in areas an abundant species within the nearshore habitat along the SE FL portion of the Florida Reef Tract (FRT). This study provides a better understanding of local habitat associations thus facilitating appropriate management of the nearshore environment and species conservation. The portion of the FRT between Hillsboro and Port Everglades inlets should be

  9. Oxygen abundance and convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van't Veer, C.; Cayrel, R.

    The triplet IR lines of O I near 777 nm are computed with the Kurucz's code, modified to accept several convection models. The program has been run with the MLT algorithm, with l/H = 1.25 and 0.5, and with the Canuto-Mazzitelli and Canuto-Goldman-Mazzitelli approaches, on a metal-poor turnoff-star model atmosphere with Teff=6200 K, log g = 4.3, [Fe/H]= -1.5. The results show that the differences in equivalent widths for the 4 cases do not exceed 2 per cent (0.3 mA). The convection treatment is therefore not an issue for the oxygen abundance derived from the permitted lines.

  10. Ablation of the Stimulatory G Protein α-Subunit in Renal Proximal Tubules Leads to Parathyroid Hormone-Resistance With Increased Renal Cyp24a1 mRNA Abundance and Reduced Serum 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan; He, Qing; Aydin, Cumhur; Rubera, Isabelle; Tauc, Michel; Chen, Min; Weinstein, Lee S; Marshansky, Vladimir; Jüppner, Harald; Bastepe, Murat

    2016-02-01

    PTH regulates serum calcium, phosphate, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) levels by acting on bone and kidney. In renal proximal tubules (PTs), PTH inhibits reabsorption of phosphate and stimulates the synthesis of 1,25(OH)2D. The PTH receptor couples to multiple G proteins. We here ablated the α-subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gsα) in mouse PTs by using Cre recombinase driven by the promoter of type-2 sodium-glucose cotransporter (Gsα(Sglt2KO) mice). Gsα(Sglt2KO) mice were normophosphatemic but displayed, relative to controls, hypocalcemia (1.19 ±0.01 vs 1.23 ±0.01 mmol/L; P < .05), reduced serum 1,25(OH)2D (59.3 ±7.0 vs 102.5 ±12.2 pmol/L; P < .05), and elevated serum PTH (834 ±133 vs 438 ±59 pg/mL; P < .05). PTH-induced elevation in urinary cAMP excretion was blunted in Gsα(Sglt2KO) mice (2- vs 4-fold over baseline in controls; P < .05). Relative to baseline in controls, PTH-induced reduction in serum phosphate tended to be blunted in Gsα(Sglt2KO) mice (-0.39 ±0.33 vs -1.34 ±0.36 mg/dL; P = .07). Gsα(Sglt2KO) mice showed elevated renal vitamin D 24-hydroxylase and bone fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) mRNA abundance (∼3.4- and ∼11-fold over controls, respectively; P < .05) and tended to have elevated serum FGF23 (829 ±76 vs 632 ±60 pg/mL in controls; P = .07). Heterozygous mice having constitutive ablation of the maternal Gsα allele (E1(m-/+)) (model of pseudohypoparathyroidism type-Ia), in which Gsα levels in PT are reduced, also exhibited elevated serum FGF23 (474 ±20 vs 374 ±27 pg/mL in controls; P < .05). Our findings indicate that Gsα is required in PTs for suppressing renal vitamin D 24-hydroxylase mRNA levels and for maintaining normal serum 1,25(OH)2D.

  11. Report on carbon and nitrogen abundance studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm-Vitense, Erika

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the proposal was to determine the nitrogen to carbon abundance ratios from transition layer lines in stars with different T(sub eff) and luminosities. The equations which give the surface emission line fluxes and the measured ratio of the NV to CIV emission line fluxes are presented and explained. The abundance results are compared with those of photospheric abundance studies for stars in common with the photospheric investigations. The results show that the analyses are at least as accurate as the photospheric determinations. These studies can be extended to F and early G stars for which photospheric abundance determinations for giants are hard to do because molecular bands become too weak. The abundance determination in the context of stellar evolution is addressed. The N/C abundance ratio increases steeply at the point of evolution for which the convection zone reaches deepest. Looking at the evolution of the rotation velocities v sin i, a steep decrease in v sin i is related to the increasing depth of the convection zone. It is concluded that the decrease in v sin i for T(sub eff) less than or approximately = 5800 K is most probably due to the rearrangement of the angular momentum in the stars due to deep convective mixing. It appears that the convection zone is rotating with nearly depth independent angular momentum. Other research results and ongoing projects are discussed.

  12. The influence of weather and lemmings on spatiotemporal variation in the abundance of multiple avian guilds in the arctic.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Barry G; Franke, Alastair; Derocher, Andrew E

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is occurring more rapidly in the Arctic than other places in the world, which is likely to alter the distribution and abundance of migratory birds breeding there. A warming climate can provide benefits to birds by decreasing spring snow cover, but increases in the frequency of summer rainstorms, another product of climate change, may reduce foraging opportunities for insectivorous birds. Cyclic lemming populations in the Arctic also influence bird abundance because Arctic foxes begin consuming bird eggs when lemmings decline. The complex interaction between summer temperature, precipitation, and the lemming cycle hinder our ability to predict how Arctic-breeding birds will respond to climate change. The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between annual variation in weather, spring snow cover, lemming abundance and spatiotemporal variation in the abundance of multiple avian guilds in a tundra ecosystem in central Nunavut, Canada: songbirds, shorebirds, gulls, loons, and geese. We spatially stratified our study area based on vegetation productivity, terrain ruggedness, and freshwater abundance, and conducted distance sampling to estimate strata-specific densities of each guild during the summers of 2010-2012. We also monitored temperature, rainfall, spring snow cover, and lemming abundance each year. Spatial variation in bird abundance matched what was expected based on previous ecological knowledge, but weather and lemming abundance also significantly influenced the abundance of some guilds. In particular, songbirds were less abundant during the cool, wet summer with moderate snow cover, and shorebirds and gulls declined with lemming abundance. The abundance of geese did not vary over time, possibly because benefits created by moderate spring snow cover were offset by increased fox predation when lemmings were scarce. Our study provides an example of a simple way to monitor the correlation between weather, spring snow

  13. Microbial carbonate abundance compared with fluctuations in metazoan diversity over geological time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riding, Robert

    2006-03-01

    Secular variation in microbial carbonate abundance may be reflected by stromatolite morphotype diversity and reefal microbial carbonate abundance. These datasets reveal long-term changes over the past 3000 Myr that include a peak of abundance 1250 Myr ago, Late Proterozoic decline, Cambrian resurgence, and fluctuating decline during the remainder of the Phanerozoic. It is conceivable that Proterozoic metazoan diversification coincided with inception of stromatolite decline ˜1250 Myr ago, but microbial carbonate increase during Cambrian metazoan radiation together with failure of microbial carbonates to increase in the aftermaths of the End-Ordovician, End-Triassic and End-Cretaceous Mass Extinctions suggest that factors in addition to metazoan competition significantly influenced long-term changes in microbial carbonate abundance.

  14. Actinide abundances in ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagee, B.; Bernatowicz, T. J.; Podosek, F. A.; Johnson, M. L.; Burnett, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of actinide and light REE (LREE) abundances and of phosphate abundances in equilibrated ordinary chondrites were obtained and were used to define the Pu abundance in the solar system and to determine the degree of variation of actinide and LREE abundances. The results were also used to compare directly the Pu/U ratio with the earlier obtained ratio determined indirectly, as (Pu/Nd)x(Nd/U), assuming that Pu behaves chemically as a LREE. The data, combined with high-accuracy isotope-dilution data from the literature, show that the degree of gram-scale variability of the Th, U, and LREE abundances for equilibrated ordinary chondrites is a factor of 2-3 for absolute abundances and up to 50 percent for relative abundances. The observed variations are interpreted as reflecting the differences in the compositions and/or proportions of solar nebula components accreted to ordinary chondrite parent bodies.

  15. Potential retention effect at fish farms boosts zooplankton abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Jover, D.; Toledo-Guedes, K.; Valero-Rodríguez, J. M.; Fernandez-Gonzalez, V.; Sanchez-Jerez, P.

    2016-11-01

    Coastal aquaculture activities influence wild macrofauna in natural environments due to the introduction of artificial structures, such as floating cages, that provide structural complexity in the pelagic system. This alters the abundance and distribution of the affected species and also their feeding behaviour and diet. Despite this, the effects of coastal aquaculture on zooplankton assemblages and the potential changes in their abundance and distribution remain largely unstudied. Traditional plankton sampling hauls between the farm mooring systems entail some practical difficulties. As an alternative, light traps were deployed at 2 farms in the SW Mediterranean during a whole warm season. Total zooplankton capture by traps at farms was higher than at control locations on every sampling night. It ranged from 3 to 10 times higher for the taxonomic groups: bivalvia, cladocera, cumacea, fish early-life-stages, gastropoda, polychaeta and tanaidacea; 10-20 times higher for amphipoda, chaetognatha, isopoda, mysidacea and ostracoda, and 22 times higher for copepoda and the crustacean juvenile stages zoea and megalopa. Permutational analysis showed significant differences for the most abundant zooplankton groups (copepoda, crustacean larvae, chaetognatha, cladocera, mysidacea and polychaeta). This marked incremental increase in zooplankton taxa at farms was consistent, irrespective of the changing environmental variables registered every night. Reasons for the greater abundance of zooplankton at farms are discussed, although results suggest a retention effect caused by cage structures rather than active attraction through physical or chemical cues.

  16. Measuring Solar Abundances with Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mussack, K.; Gough, D.

    2009-12-01

    The revision of the photospheric abundances proferred by Asplund et al. (2005) has rendered opacity theory inconsistent with the seismologically determined opacity through the Sun. This highlights the need for a direct seismological measurement of solar abundances. Here we describe the technique used to measure abundances with seismology, examine our ability to detect differences between solar models using this technique, and discuss its application in the Sun.

  17. Do phytoplankton communities evolve through a self-regulatory abundance-diversity relationship?

    PubMed

    Roy, Shovonlal

    2009-02-01

    A small group of phytoplankton species that produce toxic or allelopathic chemicals has a significant effect on plankton dynamics in marine ecosystems. The species of non-toxic phytoplankton, which are large in number, are affected by the toxin-allelopathy of those species. By analysis of the abundance data of marine phytoplankton collected from the North-West coast of the Bay of Bengal, an empirical relationship between the abundance of the potential toxin-producing species and the species diversity of the non-toxic phytoplankton is formulated. A change-point analysis demonstrates that the diversity of non-toxic phytoplankton increases with the increase of toxic species up to a certain level. However, for a massive increase of the toxin-producing species the diversity of phytoplankton at species level reduces gradually. Following the results, a deterministic relationship between the abundance of toxic phytoplankton and the diversity of non-toxic phytoplankton is developed. The abundance-diversity relationship develops a unimodal pathway through which the abundance of toxic species regulates the diversity of phytoplankton. These results contribute to the current understanding of the coexistence and biodiversity of phytoplankton, the top-down vs. bottom-up debate, and to that of abundance-diversity relationship in marine ecosystems.

  18. Genetic diversity is positively associated with fine-scale momentary abundance of an invasive ant

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Monica A M; Hoffmann, Benjamin D; Ritchie, Peter A; Lester, Philip J

    2012-01-01

    Many introduced species become invasive despite genetic bottlenecks that should, in theory, decrease the chances of invasion success. By contrast, population genetic bottlenecks have been hypothesized to increase the invasion success of unicolonial ants by increasing the genetic similarity between descendent populations, thus promoting co-operation. We investigated these alternate hypotheses in the unicolonial yellow crazy ant, Anoplolepis gracilipes, which has invaded Arnhem Land in Australia's Northern Territory. We used momentary abundance as a surrogate measure of invasion success, and investigated the relationship between A. gracilipes genetic diversity and its abundance, and the effect of its abundance on species diversity and community structure. We also investigated whether selected habitat characteristics contributed to differences in A. gracilipes abundance, for which we found no evidence. Our results revealed a significant positive association between A. gracilipes genetic diversity and abundance. Invaded communities were less diverse and differed in structure from uninvaded communities, and these effects were stronger as A. gracilipes abundance increased. These results contradict the hypothesis that genetic bottlenecks may promote unicoloniality. However, our A. gracilipes study population has diverged since its introduction, which may have obscured evidence of the bottleneck that would likely have occurred on arrival. The relative importance of genetic diversity to invasion success may be context dependent, and the role of genetic diversity may be more obvious in the absence of highly favorable novel ecological conditions. PMID:23139870

  19. Fishing drives declines in fish parasite diversity and has variable effects on parasite abundance.

    PubMed

    Wood, Chelsea L; Sandin, Stuart A; Zgliczynski, Brian; Guerra, Ana Sofía; Micheli, Fiorenza

    2014-07-01

    Despite the ubiquity and ecological importance of parasites, relatively few studies have assessed their response to anthropogenic environmental change. Heuristic models have predicted both increases and decreases in parasite abundance in response to human disturbance, with empirical support for both. However, most studies focus on one or a few selected parasite species. Here, we assess the abundance of parasites of seven species of coral reef fishes collected from three fished and three unfished islands of the Line Islands archipelago in the central equatorial Pacific. Because we chose fish hosts that spanned different trophic levels, taxonomic groups, and body sizes, we were able to compare parasite responses across a broad cross section of the total parasite community in the presence and absence of fishing, a major human impact on marine ecosystems. We found that overall parasite species richness was substantially depressed on fished islands, but that the response of parasite abundance varied among parasite taxa: directly transmitted parasites were significantly more abundant on fished than on unfished islands, while the reverse was true for trophically transmitted parasites. This probably arises because trophically transmitted parasites require multiple host species, some of which are the top predators most sensitive to fishing impacts. The increase in directly transmitted parasites appeared to be due to fishing-driven compensatory increases in the abundance of their hosts. Together, these results provide support for the predictions of both heuristic models, and indicate that the direction of fishing's impact on parasite abundance is mediated by parasite traits, notably parasite transmission strategies.

  20. Carbon and Oxygen Abundances in Low Metallicity Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Danielle A.; Skillman, Evan D.; Henry, Richard B. C.; Erb, Dawn K.; Carigi, Leticia

    2016-08-01

    The study of carbon and oxygen abundances yields information on the time evolution and nucleosynthetic origins of these elements, yet they remain relatively unexplored. At low metallicities, (12+log(O/H) < 8.0), nebular carbon measurements are limited to rest-frame UV collisionally excited emission lines. Therefore, we present the UV spectrophotometry of 12 nearby low-metallicity high-ionization H ii regions in dwarf galaxies obtained using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. We present the first analysis of the C/O ratio in local galaxies based solely on simultaneous significant detections of the UV {{{O}}}+2 and {{{C}}}+2 collisionally excited lines in seven of our targets and five objects from the literature to create a final sample of 12 significant detections. Our sample is complemented by optical SDSS spectra, from which we measured the nebular physical conditions and oxygen abundances using the direct method. At low metallicity, (12+log(O/H) < 8.0), no clear trend is evident in C/O versus O/H for the present sample given the large dispersion observed. When combined with recombination line observations at higher values of O/H, a general trend of increasing C/O with increasing O/H is also viable but with some significant outliers. Additionally, we find the C/N ratio appears to be constant (but with significant scatter) over a large range in oxygen abundance, indicating that carbon is predominantly produced by similar nucleosynthetic mechanisms as nitrogen. If true, and our current understanding of nitrogen production is correct, this would indicate that primary production of carbon (a flat trend) dominates at low metallicity, but quasi-secondary production (an increasing trend) becomes prominent at higher metallicities. A larger sample will be needed to determine the true nature and dispersion of the relation.

  1. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry of Zeolite Materials: Observation of Abundant Aluminosilicate Oligomers Using an Ion Trap

    SciTech Connect

    Groenewold, Gary Steven; Kessinger, Glen Frank; Scott, Jill Rennee; Gianotto, Anita Kay; Appelhans, Anthony David; Delmore, James Edward

    2000-12-01

    Oligomeric oxyanions were observed in the secondary ion mass spectra (SIMS) of zeolite materials. The oxyanions have the general composition AlmSinO2(m+n)H(m-1)- (m + n = 2 to 8) and are termed dehydrates. For a given mass, multiple elemental compositions are possible because (Al + H) is an isovalent and isobaric substitute for Si. Using 18 keV Ga+ as a projectile, oligomer abundances are low relative to the monomers. Oligomer abundance can be increased by using the polyatomic projectile ReO4- (~5 keV). Oligomer abundance can be further increased using an ion trap (IT-) SIMS; in this instrument, long ion lifetimes (tens of ms) and relatively high He pressure result in significant collisional stabilization and increased high-mass abundance. The dehydrates rapidly react with adventitious H2O present in the IT-SIMS to form mono-, di-, and trihydrates. The rapidity of the reaction and comparison to aluminum oxyanion hydration suggest that H2O adds to the aluminosilicate oxyanions in a dissociative fashion, forming covalently bound product ions. In addition to these findings, it was noted that production of abundant oligomeric aluminosilicates could be significantly increased by substituting the countercation (NH4+) with the larger alkali ions Rb+ and Cs+. This constitutes a useful tactic for generating large aluminosilicate oligomers for surface characterization and ion-molecule reactivity studies.

  2. Species-abundance--seed-size patterns within a plant community affected by grazing disturbance.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gao-lin; Shang, Zhan-huan; Zhu, Yuan-jun; Ding, Lu-ming; Wang, Dong

    2015-04-01

    Seed size has been advanced as a key factor that influences the dynamics of plant communities, but there are few empirical or theoretical predictions of how community dynamics progress based on seed size patterns. Information on the abundance of adults, seedlings, soil seed banks, seed rains, and the seed mass of 96 species was collected in alpine meadows of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (China), which had different levels of grazing disturbance. The relationships between seed-mass-abundance patterns for adults, seedlings, the soil seed bank, and seed rain in the plant community were evaluated using regression models. Results showed that grazing levels affected the relationship between seed size and abundance properties of adult species, seedlings, and the soil seed bank, suggesting that there is a shift in seed-size--species-abundance relationships as a response to the grazing gradient. Grazing had no effect on the pattern of seed-size-seed-rain-abundance at four grazing levels. Grazing also had little effect on the pattern of seed-size--species-abundance and pattern of seed-size--soil-seed-bank-abundance in meadows with no grazing, light grazing, and moderate grazing), but there was a significant negative effect in meadows with heavy grazing. Grazing had little effect on the pattern of seed-size--seedling-abundance with no grazing, but had significant negative effects with light, moderate, and heavy grazing, and the |r| values increased with grazing levels. This indicated that increasing grazing pressure enhanced the advantage of smaller-seeded species in terms of the abundances of adult species, seedlings, and soil seed banks, whereas only the light grazing level promoted the seed rain abundance of larger-seeded species in the plant communities. This study suggests that grazing disturbances are favorable for increasing the species abundance for smaller-seeded species but not for the larger-seeded species in an alpine meadow community. Hence, there is a clear

  3. DETERMINING INTERSTELLAR CARBON ABUNDANCES FROM STRONG-LINE TRANSITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Sofia, U. J.; Parvathi, V. S.; Babu, B. R. S.; Murthy, J.

    2011-01-15

    Carbon is arguably the most important element in the interstellar medium, yet its abundance in gas and dust is poorly understood due to a paucity of data. We explore the possibility of substantially increasing our knowledge of interstellar carbon by applying and assessing a new method for determining the column density of the dominant ion of interstellar carbon in diffuse neutral lines of sight. The method relies on profile fitting of the strong transition of C II at 1334 A in spectra continuum normalized with stellar models. We apply our method to six sight lines for which the carbon abundance has previously been determined with a weak intersystem absorption transition. Our strong-line method consistently shows a significantly lower gas-phase C abundance than the measurements from the weak lines. This result implies that more carbon could reside in dust than was previously thought. This has implications for dust models, which often suffer from a lack of sufficient carbon to plausibly explain extinction. There is no immediately clear explanation for the difference found between the strong- and weak-line C II determinations, but there are indications that the results from the method presented here have advantages over the weak-line column densities. If this is the case, then the reported oscillator strength for the C II transition at 2325 A may be too small. Our findings further suggest that damping wings modeled with a single absorption component may not produce accurate abundances. This problem could affect a large number of H I abundances determined through absorption line analysis that are reported in the literature.

  4. Juvenile Chinook Salmon abundance in the northern Bering Sea: Implications for future returns and fisheries in the Yukon River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, James M.; Howard, Kathrine G.; Gann, Jeanette C.; Cieciel, Kristin C.; Templin, William D.; Guthrie, Charles M.

    2017-01-01

    Juvenile Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) abundance in the northern Bering Sea is used to provide insight into future returns and fisheries in the Yukon River. The status of Yukon River Chinook Salmon is of concern due to recent production declines and subsequent closures of commercial, sport, and personal use fisheries, and severe restrictions on subsistence fisheries in the Yukon River. Surface trawl catch data, mixed layer depth adjustments, and genetic stock mixtures are used to estimate juvenile abundance for the Canadian-origin stock group from the Yukon River. Abundance ranged from a low of 0.62 million in 2012 to a high of 2.58 million in 2013 with an overall average of 1.5 million from 2003 to 2015. Although abundance estimates indicate that average survival is relatively low (average of 5.2%), juvenile abundance was significantly correlated (r=0.87, p=0.005) with adult returns, indicating that much of the variability in survival occurs during early life-history stages (freshwater and initial marine). Juvenile abundance in the northern Bering Sea has increased since 2013 due to an increase in early life-history survival (average juveniles-per-spawner increased from 29 to 59). The increase in juvenile abundance is projected to produce larger runs and increased subsistence fishing opportunities for Chinook Salmon in the Yukon River as early as 2016.

  5. Abundances in Eight M31 Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensley, Kerry G.; Kwitter, Karen B.; Corradi, Romano; Galera-Rosillo, R.; Balick, Bruce; Henry, Richard B. C.

    2014-06-01

    As part of a continuing project using planetary nebulae (PNe) to study the chemical evolution and formation history of M31 (see accompanying poster by Balick et al.), we obtained spectra of eight PNe in the fall of 2013 with the OSIRIS spectrograph on the GTC. All of these PNe are located outside M31’s inner disk and bulge. Spectral coverage extended from 3700-7800Å with a resolution of ~6 Å. Especially important in abundance determinations is the detection of the weak, temperature-sensitive auroral line of [O III], at 4363Å, which is often contaminated by Hg I 4358Å from streetlights; the remoteness of the GTC eliminated this difficulty. We reduced and measured the spectra using IRAF, and derived nebular diagnostics and abundances with ELSA, our in-house five-level-atom program. Here we report the chemical abundances determined from these spectra. The bottom line is that the oxygen abundances in these PNe are all within a factor of 2-3 of the solar value, (as are all the other M31 PNe our team has previously measured) despite the significant range of galactocentric distance. Future work will use these abundances to constrain models of the central star to estimate progenitor masses and ages. In particular we will use the results to investigate the hypothesis that these PNe might represent a population related to the encounter between M31 and M33 ~3 Gy ago. We gratefully acknowledge support from Williams College.

  6. Why is Trichodesmium abundant in the Kuroshio?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiozaki, T.; Takeda, S.; Itoh, S.; Kodama, T.; Liu, X.; Hashihama, F.; Furuya, K.

    2015-12-01

    The genus Trichodesmium is recognized as an abundant and major diazotroph in the Kuroshio, but the reason for this remains unclear. The present study investigated the abundance of Trichodesmium spp. and nitrogen fixation together with concentrations of dissolved iron and phosphate in the Kuroshio and its marginal seas. We performed the observations near the Miyako Islands, which form part of the Ryukyu Islands, situated along the Kuroshio, since our satellite analysis suggested that material transport could occur from the islands to the Kuroshio. Trichodesmium spp. bloomed (> 20 000 filaments L-1) near the Miyako Islands, abundance was high in the Kuroshio and the Kuroshio bifurcation region of the East China Sea, but was low in the Philippine Sea. The abundance of Trichodesmium spp. was significantly correlated with the total nitrogen fixation activity. The surface concentrations of dissolved iron (0.19-0.89 nM) and phosphate (< 3-36 nM) were similar for all of the study areas, indicating that the nutrient distribution could not explain the spatial differences in Trichodesmium spp. abundance and nitrogen fixation. Numerical particle-tracking experiments simulated the transportation of water around the Ryukyu Islands to the Kuroshio. Our results indicate that Trichodesmium growing around the Ryukyu Islands could be advected into the Kuroshio.

  7. Novel Cell-Ess ® supplement used as a feed or as an initial boost to CHO serum free media results in a significant increase in protein yield and production.

    PubMed

    Elhofy, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Many metrics, including metabolic profiles, have been used to analyze cell health and optimize productivity. In this study, we investigated the ability of a lipid supplement to increase protein yield. At a concentration of 1% (v/v) the lipid supplement caused a significant increase in protein titer (1118 ± 65.4 ng 10(5) cells(- 1) days(- 1)) when compared to cultures grown in the absence of supplementation (819.3 ± 38.1 ng 10(5) cells(- 1) days(- 1); p < 0.05). This equated to a 37% increase in productivity. Furthermore, metabolic profiles of ammonia, glutamate, lactate, and glucose were not significantly altered by the polar lipid supplement. In a separate set of experiments, using the supplement as a feed resulted in 2 notable effects. The first was a 25% increase in protein titer. The second was an extension of peak protein production from 1 day to 2 days. These results suggest that lipid supplementation is a promising avenue for enhancing protein production. In addition, our results also suggest that an increase in protein production may not necessarily require a change in the metabolic state of the cells.

  8. NEW RADIAL ABUNDANCE GRADIENTS FOR NGC 628 AND NGC 2403

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Danielle A.; Skillman, Evan D.; Croxall, Kevin V.; Marble, Andrew R.; Smith, J. D.; Gordon, Karl; Kennicutt, Robert C. Jr.; Garnett, Donald R. E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu E-mail: amarble@nso.edu E-mail: kgordon@stsci.edu

    2013-10-01

    Motivated by recent interstellar medium studies, we present high quality MMT and Gemini spectroscopic observations of H II regions in the nearby spiral galaxies NGC 628 and NGC 2403 in order to measure their chemical abundance gradients. Using long-slit and multi-object mask optical spectroscopy, we obtained measurements of the temperature sensitive auroral lines [O III] λ4363 and/or [N II] λ5755 at a strength of 4σ or greater in 11 H II regions in NGC 628 and 7 regions in NGC 2403. These observations allow us, for the first time, to derive an oxygen abundance gradient in NGC 628 based solely on 'direct' oxygen abundances of H II regions: 12 + log(O/H) = (8.43 ± 0.03) + (–0.017 ± 0.002) × R{sub g} (dex kpc{sup –1}), with a dispersion in log(O/H) of σ = 0.10 dex, from 14 regions with a radial coverage of ∼2-19 kpc. This is a significantly shallower slope than found by previous 'strong-line' abundance studies. In NGC 2403, we derive an oxygen abundance gradient of 12 + log(O/H) = (8.48 ± 0.04) + (–0.032 ± 0.007)× R{sub g} (dex kpc{sup –1}), with a dispersion in log(O/H) of σ = 0.07 dex, from seven H II with a radial coverage of ∼1-10 kpc. Additionally, we measure the N, S, Ne, and Ar abundances. We find the N/O ratio decreases with increasing radius for the inner disk, but reaches a plateau past R{sub 25} in NGC 628. NGC 2403 also has a negative N/O gradient with radius, but we do not sample the outer disk of the galaxy past R{sub 25} and so do not see evidence for a plateau. This bi-modal pattern measured for NGC 628 indicates dominant contributions from secondary nitrogen inside of the R{sub 25} transition and dominantly primary nitrogen farther out. As expected for α-process elements, S/O, Ne/O, and Ar/O are consistent with constant values over a range in oxygen abundance.

  9. Plant community diversity and native plant abundance decline with increasing abundance of an exotic annual grass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exotic plants are generally considered a serious problem in wildlands around the globe. However, some argue that the impacts of exotic plants have been exaggerated and that biodiversity and other important plant community characteristics are commonly improved with invasion. Thus, disagreement exis...

  10. High frequency (hourly) variation in vertical distribution and abundance of meroplanktonic larvae in nearshore waters during strong internal tidal forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liévana MacTavish, A.; Ladah, L. B.; Lavín, M. F.; Filonov, A.; Tapia, Fabian J.; Leichter, J.

    2016-04-01

    We related the vertical distribution and abundance of nearshore meroplankton at hourly time scales with internal tidal wave events. We proposed that significant changes in plankter abundance would occur across internal tidal fronts, and that surface and bottom strata would respond in opposite fashions. First-mode internal tidal bores propagating in the alongshore direction were detected in water-column currents and baroclinic temperature changes. Surface and bottom currents always flowed in opposite directions, and abrupt flow reversals coincided with large temperature changes during arrival of bores. Crab zoeae and barnacle cyprids were more abundant in the bottom strata, whereas barnacle nauplii showed the opposite pattern. Significant changes in vertical distribution and abundance of target meroplankters occurred across internal tidal fronts, especially for crabs at depth, with surface and bottom organisms responding in opposite fashions. Changes in plankter abundance were significantly correlated with current flows in the strata where they were most abundant. The manner in which plankters were affected (increasing or decreasing abundance) appeared to be modulated by their vertical position within the water column. The significant differences found at the high frequencies of this study, maintained across sampling days, suggest that nearshore meroplankton populations may have greater and more consistent temporal and vertical variability than previously considered.

  11. Decadal Changes in the Abundance and Length of Snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) in Subtropical Marine Sanctuaries

    PubMed Central

    Malcolm, Hamish A.; Schultz, Arthur L.; Sachs, Patrick; Johnstone, Nicola; Jordan, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Abundance and length of the highly-targeted snapper Chysophrys auratus were compared between sites in 'no take' areas (Sanctuary Zones: SZ), partial protected areas which are fished (Habitat Protection Zones: HPZ), and areas outside (Outside) the Solitary Islands Marine Park (SIMP), Australia. Baited Remote Underwater Video (BRUV) sampling on shallow rocky reef (15 - 25 m) was conducted annually from 2002 until 2014 in the Austral-winter, covering the decade after these marine park zones were established (2002). Additional deeper sites (25 - 40 m) were sampled in 2010-2011 to assess if findings were more-broadly applicable. Lengths were measured using stereo-BRUVs from 2011-2014. Snapper were significantly more abundant in SZ overall and in most years compared with the other two management types, which did not significantly differ. Snapper rapidly increased after 2 - 3 years protection in all management types, especially SZ. Snapper were present on more SZ deployments than HPZ and Outside after the same period. The positive SZ response in snapper abundance on shallower reef was also found at a broader spatial scale on deeper sites. Again the two fished management types did not show significant differences among each other. There was considerable variation in snapper abundance between years, with strong peaks in 2005, 2009 and 2014 especially in SZ. Abundances remained higher in SZ in the year or two following a strong peak, but decreased to similar abundances to fished areas before the next peak. Snapper length frequency distribution significantly differed between SZ and both fished management types, with more larger snapper within SZ including a higher proportion (58%) that were legal-sized (>25.7 cm FL). HPZ and Outside did not significantly differ from each other, and were dominated by individuals below legal size. Overall, SZ's have positively influenced abundance and length of snapper on these subtropical rocky reefs. PMID:26061036

  12. Predicted correspondence between species abundances and dendrograms of niche similarities

    PubMed Central

    Sugihara, George; Bersier, Louis-Félix; Southwood, T. Richard E.; Pimm, Stuart L.; May, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    We examine a hypothesized relationship between two descriptions of community structure: the niche-overlap dendrogram that describes the ecological similarities of species and the pattern of relative abundances. Specifically, we examine the way in which this relationship follows from the niche hierarchy model, whose fundamental assumption is a direct connection between abundances and underlying hierarchical community organization. We test three important, although correlated, predictions of the niche hierarchy model and show that they are upheld in a set of 11 communities (encompassing fishes, amphibians, lizards, and birds) where both abundances and dendrograms were reported. First, species that are highly nested in the dendrogram are on average less abundant than species from branches less subdivided. Second, and more significantly, more equitable community abundances are associated with more evenly branched dendrogram structures, whereas less equitable abundances are associated with less even dendrograms. This relationship shows that abundance patterns can give insight into less visible aspects of community organization. Third, one can recover the distribution of proportional abundances seen in assemblages containing two species by treating each branch point in the dendrogram as a two-species case. This reconstruction cannot be achieved if abundances and the dendrogram are unrelated and suggests a method for hierarchically decomposing systems. To our knowledge, this is the first test of a species abundance model based on nontrivial predictions as to the origins and causes of abundance patterns, and not simply on the goodness-of-fit of distributions. PMID:12702773

  13. The distribution of lianas and their change in abundance in temperate forests over the past 45 years.

    PubMed

    Londré, Ronald A; Schnitzer, Stefan A

    2006-12-01

    Lianas (woody vines) are an important and dynamic component of many forests throughout the world, and increases in CO2, mean winter temperature, and forest fragmentation may promote their growth and proliferation in temperate forests. In this study, we used a 45-year data set to test the hypothesis that lianas have increased in abundance and basal area in the interiors of 14 deciduous temperate forests in Wisconsin (USA) since 1959. We also censused woody plants along a gradient from the forest edge to the interior in seven of these forests to test the hypothesis that the abundance of lianas declines significantly with increasing distance from the forest edge. We found that lianas did not increase in abundance within the interiors of temperate forests in Wisconsin over the last 45 years. However, relative and absolute liana abundance decreased sharply with increasing distance from forest edges. Our findings suggest that forest fragmentation, not climate change, may be increasing the abundance of lianas in northern deciduous temperate forests, and that lianas may further increase in abundance if the severity of forest fragmentation intensifies.

  14. Infections and mixed infections with the selected species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in eastern Poland: a significant increase in the course of 5 years.

    PubMed

    Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Zając, Violetta; Sawczyn, Anna; Sroka, Jacek; Cisak, Ewa; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2016-02-01

    In the years 2008-2009 and 2013-2014, 1620 and 1500 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks, respectively, were examined on the territory of the Lublin province (eastern Poland). The presence of three pathogenic species causing Lyme disease was investigated: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii and B. garinii. The proportion of I. ricinus ticks infected with B. burgdorferi sensu lato showed a highly significant increase between 2008-2009 and 2013-2014, from 6.0 to 15.3%. A significant increase was noted with regard to all types of infections with individual species: single (4.7-7.8%), dual (1.2-6.6%), and triple (0.1-0.9%). When expressed as the percent of all infections, the frequency of mixed infections increased from 21.4 to 49.2%. Statistical analysis performed with two methods (by calculating of odds ratios and by Fisher's exact test) showed that the frequencies of mixed infections in most cases proved to be significantly greater than expected. The strongest associations were found between B. burgdorferi s. s. and B. afzelii, and between B. burgdorferi s. s. and B. garinii. They appeared to be highly significant (P < 0.0001) when assessed by two methods for 2013-2014, and for the sum of findings for both time periods. The proportions of the individual species detected in the mixed infections in 2008-2009 and 2013-2014 revealed highly significant increases for B. burgdorferi s. s. and B. garinii (from 33.9 to 71.1% and from 18.2 to 82.9%, respectively), and an insignificant decrease for B. afzelii (from 51.4 to 41.6%). The proportions of the species B. burgdorferi s. s., B. afzelii and B. garinii (with combined single and mixed infections) for 2008-2009 and 2013-2014 were: 51.2/44.0 %, 30.6/24.9% and 18.2/31.1%, respectively. In conclusion, our results seem to indicate the detrimental trend of the increasing infection rate of I. ricinus ticks with B. burgdorferi s. l. in eastern Poland, and dramatic enhancement of mixed infections with individual species, which

  15. Fuel breaks affect nonnative species abundance in Californian plant communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merriam, K.E.; Keeley, J.E.; Beyers, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the abundance of nonnative plants on fuel breaks and in adjacent untreated areas to determine if fuel treatments promote the invasion of nonnative plant species. Understanding the relationship between fuel treatments and nonnative plants is becoming increasingly important as federal and state agencies are currently implementing large fuel treatment programs throughout the United States to reduce the threat of wildland fire. Our study included 24 fuel breaks located across the State of California. We found that nonnative plant abundance was over 200% higher on fuel breaks than in adjacent wildland areas. Relative nonnative cover was greater on fuel breaks constructed by bulldozers (28%) than on fuel breaks constructed by other methods (7%). Canopy cover, litter cover, and duff depth also were significantly lower on fuel breaks constructed by bulldozers, and these fuel breaks had significantly more exposed bare ground than other types of fuel breaks. There was a significant decline in relative nonnative cover with increasing distance from the fuel break, particularly in areas that had experienced more numerous fires during the past 50 years, and in areas that had been grazed. These data suggest that fuel breaks could provide establishment sites for nonnative plants, and that nonnatives may invade surrounding areas, especially after disturbances such as fire or grazing. Fuel break construction and maintenance methods that leave some overstory canopy and minimize exposure of bare ground may be less likely to promote nonnative plants. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  16. Temporal factors influencing killifish abundance and recruitment in Gulf of Mexico salt marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipcius, Romuald N.; Subrahmanyam, C. B.

    1986-01-01

    Killifish ( Fundulus grandis and F. similis ) were seined monthly for two years near the mounths of three tidal creeks in each of two north Florida salt marshes. Abundance patterns were identified by a combination of multivariate analyses and quantitative graphical techniques. Abundance (numbers and biomass) peaked in the summer and fall as successive waves of juveniles accumulated. Relative abundance of age groups that reached their second breeding and growing seasons was low; the largest individuals of both species were less than two years old. Most killifish reproduced frequently in their first year of life. Temporal abundance patterns were regulated significantly by tidal phase, water depth, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen, but not by salinity or percent cloud cover. There were no significant differences between populations in the various creeks and marshes. Killifish apparently moved over submerged marsh surfaces at high tide, then retreated to tidal creeks at low tide, resulting in high abundance near creek mouths at low tide. However, these tidal movements were modulated by water depth; regardless of tidal phase, abundance at creek mouths was correlated negatively with water depth, indicating that killifish remained in the salt marsh when its surface was inundated. Thus, tidal movements of killifish were flexible and influenced by environmental conditions producing variation in water depth (e.g. wind-driven effects). Abundance correlated positively with water temperature and dissolved oxygen, reflecting juvenile recruitment peaks during warmer seasons and increased recruitment in year 2 of this study when dissolved oxygen values were higher. In both abundance and recruitment, Fundulus grandis and F. similis responded similarly to varying temporal environmental conditions. Fundulus similis is now considered to be F. majalis by some authors (e.g. Relyea, 1983).

  17. High-throughput method for comparative analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles from human fecal samples reveals significant increases in two bifidobacterial species after inulin-type prebiotic intake.

    PubMed

    Joossens, Marie; Huys, Geert; Van Steen, Kristel; Cnockaert, Margo; Vermeire, Séverine; Rutgeerts, Paul; Verbeke, Kristin; Vandamme, Peter; De Preter, Vicky

    2011-02-01

    Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) is one of the most commonly used molecular tools to study complex microbial communities. Despite its widespread use, meaningful interpretative analysis remains a major drawback of this method. We evaluated the combination of computer-assisted band-matching with nonparametric statistics for comparative analysis of DGGE banding patterns. Fecal samples from 17 healthy volunteers who consumed 20 g of the prebiotic compound oligofructose-enriched inulin (OF-IN) for 4 weeks were analyzed before and after treatment. DGGE fingerprinting profiles were analyzed using bionumerics software version 4.6., which resulted in a data matrix that was used for statistical analysis. When comparing DGGE profiles before and after OF-IN intake with a Wilcoxon nonparametric test for paired data, two band-classes increased significantly after OF-IN intake (P<0.003 and <0.02). These two band-classes could be assigned to the species Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidobacterium adolescentis by band-sequencing analysis, and their significant increase was quantitatively confirmed with real-time PCR using species-specific primers (respectively P<0.012 and <0.010). Therefore, the nonparametric analysis of a data matrix obtained by computer-assisted band-matching of complex profiles facilitated the interpretative analysis of these profiles and provided an objective and high-throughput method for the detection of significant taxonomic differences in larger numbers of complex profiles.

  18. The boron abundance of Procyon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemke, Michael; Lambert, David L.; Edvardsson, Bengt

    1993-01-01

    The B I 2496.8 A resonance line and HST/GHRS echelle spectra are used with model atmospheres and synthetic spectra to derive the B abundance of the F dwarfs Procyon (Alpha Canis Minoris), Theta Ursae Majoris, and Iota Pegasi. The B abundance of Theta UMa and Iota Peg is similar to that derived by Boesgaard and Heacox (1978) from the B II resonance line in spectra of A- and B-type stars. These two dwarfs show normal abundances of Li, Be, and B. Procyon, which is highly depleted in Li and Be, is depleted in B by a factor of at least 3. Comparison of the spectra of Procyon and the halo dwarf HD 140283 shows that the B abundance assigned by Duncan et al. (1992) to three halo dwarfs is not greatly overestimated as a result of contamination of the B I line by an unidentified line.

  19. The boron abundance of Procyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, Michael; Lambert, David L.; Edvardsson, Bengt

    1993-05-01

    The B I 2496.8 A resonance line and HST/GHRS echelle spectra are used with model atmospheres and synthetic spectra to derive the B abundance of the F dwarfs Procyon (Alpha Canis Minoris), Theta Ursae Majoris, and Iota Pegasi. The B abundance of Theta UMa and Iota Peg is similar to that derived by Boesgaard and Heacox (1978) from the B II resonance line in spectra of A- and B-type stars. These two dwarfs show normal abundances of Li, Be, and B. Procyon, which is highly depleted in Li and Be, is depleted in B by a factor of at least 3. Comparison of the spectra of Procyon and the halo dwarf HD 140283 shows that the B abundance assigned by Duncan et al. (1992) to three halo dwarfs is not greatly overestimated as a result of contamination of the B I line by an unidentified line.

  20. Variations of the abundance and nucleic acid content of heterotrophic bacteria in Beaufort Shelf waters during winter and spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belzile, Claude; Brugel, Sonia; Nozais, Christian; Gratton, Yves; Demers, Serge

    2008-12-01

    Depth profiles of heterotrophic bacteria abundance were measured weekly over a 6-month period from December to May in Franklin Bay, a 230 m-deep coastal Arctic Ocean site of the southeastern Beaufort Sea. Total bacteria, low nucleic acid (LNA) and high nucleic acid (HNA) bacteria abundances were measured using flow cytometry after SYBR Green I staining. The HNA bacteria abundance in surface waters started to increase 5-6 weeks after phytoplankton growth resumed in spring, increasing from 1 × 10 5 to 3 × 10 5 cells mL - 1 over an 8-week period, with a net growth rate of 0.018 d - 1 . LNA bacteria response was delayed by more than two months relative to the beginning of the phytoplankton biomass accumulation and had a lower net growth rate of 0.013 d - 1 . The marked increase in bacterial abundance occurred before any significant increase in organic matter input from river discharge (as indicated by the unchanged surface water salinity and DOC concentrations), and in the absence of water temperature increase. The abundance of bacteria below the halocline was relatively high until January (up to 5 × 10 5 cells mL - 1 ) but then decreased to values close to 2 × 10 5 cells mL - 1 . The three-fold bacterial abundance increase observed in surface waters in spring was mostly due to HNA bacteria, supporting the idea that these cells are the most active.

  1. Effects of QCD bound states on dark matter relic abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liew, Seng Pei; Luo, Feng

    2017-02-01

    We study scenarios where there exists an exotic massive particle charged under QCD in the early Universe. We calculate the formation and dissociation rates of bound states formed by pairs of these particles, and apply the results in dark matter (DM) coannihilation scenarios, including also the Sommerfeld effect. We find that on top of the Sommerfeld enhancement, bound-state effects can further significantly increase the largest possible DM masses which can give the observed DM relic abundance, by ˜ 30-100% with respect to values obtained by considering the Sommerfeld effect only, for the color triplet or octet exotic particles we consider. In particular, it indicates that the Bino DM mass in the right-handed stop-Bino coannihilation scenario in the Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM) can reach ˜ 2.5 TeV, even though the potential between the stop and antistop prior to forming a bound state is repulsive. We also apply the bound-state effects in the calculations of relic abundance of long-lived or metastable massive colored particles, and discuss the implications on the BBN constraints and the abundance of a super-weakly interacting DM. The corrections for the bound-state effect when the exotic massive colored particles also carry electric charges, and the collider bounds are also discussed.

  2. Chlorine Abundances in Cool Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maas, Z. G.; Pilachowski, C. A.; Hinkle, K.

    2016-12-01

    Chlorine abundances are reported in 15 evolved giants and 1 M dwarf in the solar neighborhood. The Cl abundance was measured using the vibration-rotation 1-0 P8 line of H35Cl at 3.69851 μm. The high-resolution L-band spectra were observed using the Phoenix infrared spectrometer on the Kitt Peak Mayall 4 m telescope. The average [35Cl/Fe] abundance in stars with -0.72 < [Fe/H] < 0.20 is [35Cl/Fe] = (-0.10 ± 0.15) dex. The mean difference between the [35Cl/Fe] ratios measured in our stars and chemical evolution model values is (0.16 ± 0.15) dex. The [35Cl/Ca] ratio has an offset of ˜0.35 dex above model predictions, suggesting that chemical evolution models are underproducing Cl at the high metallicity range. Abundances of C, N, O, Si, and Ca were also measured in our spectral region and are consistent with F and G dwarfs. The Cl versus O abundances from our sample match Cl abundances measured in planetary nebula and H ii regions. In one star where both H35Cl and H37Cl could be measured, a 35Cl/37Cl isotope ratio of 2.2 ± 0.4 was found, consistent with values found in the Galactic ISM and predicted chemical evolution models.

  3. Age-related increase in food spilling by laboratory mice may lead to significant overestimation of actual food consumption: implications for studies on dietary restriction, metabolism, and dose calculations.

    PubMed

    Starr, Marlene E; Saito, Hiroshi

    2012-10-01

    It is widely accepted that food consumption in humans declines with advanced age; however, data from mice remain controversial. Based on our previous observation that mice spill a considerable amount of food while eating, we hypothesized that increased food spillage in old mice masks actual food intake. To investigate whether mice exhibit age-associated declines in food consumption, we evaluated the actual food consumption of C57BL/6 mice at various ages by measuring both the amount of food in the food receptacle and the amount dropped to the cage bottom during feeding. We found that old mice dropped significantly more food (36% ± 8%) than young mice (18% ± 5%), which led to overestimations of food consumption, particularly in old mice. Although actual food consumption decreased in very old mice, food intake per body weight did not significantly change. These findings suggest that caution should be taken to accurately quantify food consumption by aged animals.

  4. The highly selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A receptor antagonist, EMD 281014, significantly increases swimming and decreases immobility in male congenital learned helpless rats in the forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jignesh G; Bartoszyk, Gerd D; Edwards, Emmeline; Ashby, Charles R

    2004-04-01

    We examined the effect of the highly selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(2A) receptor antagonist 7-[4-[2-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-ethyl]-piperazine-1-carbonyl]-1H-indole-3-carbonitrile HCl (EMD 281014) in congenital learned helpless male rats in the forced swim test. The administration of EMD-281014 (0.3-30 mg/kg i.p.) to congenital learned helpless rats dose-dependently and significantly (at 10 and 30 mg/kg) decreased immobility and increased swimming compared to vehicle-treated animals. Thus, EMD 281014 produces effects in the forced swim test resembling those of antidepressants.

  5. Zooprophylaxis: impact of breeding rabbits around houses on reducing the indoor abundance of Phlebotomus papatasi.

    PubMed

    Chelbi, Ifhem; Kaabi, Belhassen; Derbali, Mohamed; Ahmed, Sami Ben Hadj; Dellagi, Koussay; Zhioua, Elyes

    2008-12-01

    Zooprophylaxis is the use of animals to deviate vectors from humans. The indoor abundance of Phlebotomus papatasi in houses with rabbit holes in the peridomestic areas are significantly lower than the indoor abundance in houses without rabbit holes in their peridomestic areas. Introduction of rabbits in artificial underground holes in peridomestic areas reduced significantly the indoor abundance of P. papatasi. Cleaning rabbit holes in peridomestic area by removing all rabbit feces induced a significant increase in the abundance of P. papatasi inside bedrooms. The ecologic niche made around houses in endemic areas by creating active rabbit holes is a major source of attractiveness of P. papatasi, and therefore it may deviate the vector from humans to rabbits. Although rabbit holes are breeding sites for P. papatasi, rabbits are not competent reservoirs for Leishmania major. Our overall findings strongly suggest that zooprophylaxis could be effective in reducing the indoor abundance of P. papatasi and subsequently may be used to control the transmission L. major in rural areas.

  6. Abundance of birds in Fukushima as judged from Chernobyl.

    PubMed

    Møller, Anders Pape; Hagiwara, Atsushi; Matsui, Shin; Kasahara, Satoe; Kawatsu, Kencho; Nishiumi, Isao; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Keisuke; Mousseau, Timothy A

    2012-05-01

    The effects of radiation on abundance of common birds in Fukushima can be assessed from the effects of radiation in Chernobyl. Abundance of birds was negatively related to radiation, with a significant difference between Fukushima and Chernobyl. Analysis of 14 species common to the two areas revealed a negative effect of radiation on abundance, differing between areas and species. The relationship between abundance and radiation was more strongly negative in Fukushima than in Chernobyl for the same 14 species, demonstrating a negative consequence of radiation for birds immediately after the accident on 11 March 2011 during the main breeding season in March-July, when individuals work close to their maximum sustainable level.

  7. Distribution and abundance of Larvaceans in the Southern Ocean between 30 and 80°E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, M. C. M.; Williams, G. D.

    2010-05-01

    Larvaceans are gelatinous zooplankton that inhabit most oceans, coastal waters and estuaries, and are thought to be important grazers of the ocean's primary production. To date there is little known about larvaceans in the Southern Ocean and their ecological role. This paper details a Larvacean survey conducted during the BROKE-West voyage (Jan-Mar 2006) to the southwest Indian Ocean sector of the East Antarctic margin between 30 and 80°E and 60 and 70°S. Larvacean abundances were quantified from three sampling devices: a ring net with 150-μm mesh and cross-sectional area of 0.8 m 2; a Rectangular Mid-Water Trawl (RMT1) with 300-μm mesh and a nominal cross-sectional area of 1 m 2; and a Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) with a 270-μm mesh and a 1.6-cm 2 cross-sectional area. The samples collected from the ring net were identified to the species level using stereo dissecting microscopes and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The survey revealed two species: Oikopleura gaussica and Fritillaria drygalski. The abundance of both species increased from <1 ind. m -3 to 5.8 ind. m -3 as the survey progressed from west to east and decreased from 5.8 ind. m -3 in the north to 2 ind. m -3 in the south until the shelf region and marginal sea-ice zone where abundances increased to 4 ind. m -3. Statistically significant relationships were identified between abundance and latitude in samples from the RMT1 and Ring net. There was also a relationship between the larvacean abundance from the RMT1 and longitude. Although larvacean distribution and abundance patterns appeared to agree with the large-scale oceanographic boundaries of the survey area, there were no statistically significant relationships between larvacean abundance and any physical oceanography parameters.

  8. Species richness and relative species abundance of Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera) in three forests with different perturbations in the North-Central Caribbean of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Carolyn; Sánchez, Ragde

    2014-09-01

    Measurements of species richness and species abundance can have important implications for regulations and conservation. This study investigated species richness and abundance of butterflies in the family Nymphalidae at undisturbed, and disturbed habitats in Tirimbina Biological Reserve and Nogal Private Reserve, Sarapiquí, Costa Rica. Traps baited with rotten banana were placed in the canopy and the understory of three habitats: within mature forest, at a river/forest border, and at a banana plantation/forest border. In total, 71 species and 487 individuals were caught and identified during May and June 2011 and May 2013. Species richness and species abundance were found to increase significantly at perturbed habitats (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, respectively). The edge effect, in which species richness and abundance increase due to greater complementary resources from different habitats, could be one possible explanation for increased species richness and abundance.

  9. 3D model atmospheres and the solar photospheric oxygen abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caffau, E.; Ludwig, H.-G.

    2008-10-01

    In recent years the photospheric solar oxygen abundance experienced a significant downward revision. However, a low photospheric abundance is incompatible with the value in the solar interior inferred from helioseismology. For contributing to the dispute whether the solar oxygen abundance is “high” or “low”, we re-derived its photospheric abundance independently of previous analyses. We applied 3D (CO5BOLD) as well as 1D model atmospheres. We considered standard disc-centre and disc-integrated spectral atlases, as well as newly acquired solar intensity spectra at different heliocentric angles. We determined the oxygen abundances from equivalent width and/or line profile fitting of a number of atomic lines. As preliminary result, we find an oxygen abundance in the range 8.73 8.79, encompassing the value obtained by Holweger (2001), and somewhat higher than the value obtained by Asplund et al. (2005).

  10. The Abundance of Large Arcs From CLASH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bingxiao; Postman, Marc; Meneghetti, Massimo; Coe, Dan A.; Clash Team

    2015-01-01

    We have developed an automated arc-finding algorithm to perform a rigorous comparison of the observed and simulated abundance of large lensed background galaxies (a.k.a arcs). We use images from the CLASH program to derive our observed arc abundance. Simulated CLASH images are created by performing ray tracing through mock clusters generated by the N-body simulation calibrated tool -- MOKA, and N-body/hydrodynamic simulations -- MUSIC, over the same mass and redshift range as the CLASH X-ray selected sample. We derive a lensing efficiency of 15 ± 3 arcs per cluster for the X-ray selected CLASH sample and 4 ± 2 arcs per cluster for the simulated sample. The marginally significant difference (3.0 σ) between the results for the observations and the simulations can be explained by the systematically smaller area with magnification larger than 3 (by a factor of ˜4) in both MOKA and MUSIC mass models relative to those derived from the CLASH data. Accounting for this difference brings the observed and simulated arc statistics into full agreement. We find that the source redshift distribution does not have big impact on the arc abundance but the arc abundance is very sensitive to the concentration of the dark matter halos. Our results suggest that the solution to the "arc statistics problem" lies primarily in matching the cluster dark matter distribution.

  11. Putative Effect of Aquifer Recharge on the Abundance and Taxonomic Composition of Endemic Microbial Communities.

    PubMed

    Smith, Renee J; Paterson, James S; Sibley, Cally A; Hutson, John L; Mitchell, James G

    2015-01-01

    Drought events and the overexploitation of freshwater resources have led to the increased need to manage groundwater reserves. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR), whereby artificial water is injected into aquifers for storage, is one of the proposed methods by which freshwater supplies can be increased. Microbial clogging following injection, however, is a major issue. Here, during laboratory simulations of ASR, we used flow cytometry and bar-coded pyrosequencing to investigate changes in microbial abundance and community dynamics. Bacterial abundance ranged from 5.0 × 104 to 1.4 × 107 cells ml-1 before the addition of synthetic wastewater. Following wastewater addition, a 25-fold decrease in abundance was observed, coinciding with a 12-fold increase in viral abundance. Taxa shifted from an overrepresentation of Sphingomonadales, Sphingobacteriales, Rhodospirillales, Caulobacterales, Legionellales, Bacillales, Fusobacteriales and Verrucomicrobiales prior to the addition of synthetic wastewater to Burkholderiales, Actinomycetales, Pseudomonadales, Xanthomonadales, Rhodobacterales, Thizobiales and Thiotrichales following the addition of synthetic wastewater. Furthermore, a significant difference in overall taxonomic composition between the groundwater samples before and after the addition of synthetic wastewater was observed, with water samples exhibiting more similarity to sediment samples after wastewater was added. Collectively, these results suggest that ASR may alter the taxonomic composition of endemic microbial communities and that complete profiles of groundwater properties, including microbial community abundance and composition need to be taken into consideration when selecting aquifers for ASR practices.

  12. Putative Effect of Aquifer Recharge on the Abundance and Taxonomic Composition of Endemic Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, Cally A.; Hutson, John L.; Mitchell, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Drought events and the overexploitation of freshwater resources have led to the increased need to manage groundwater reserves. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR), whereby artificial water is injected into aquifers for storage, is one of the proposed methods by which freshwater supplies can be increased. Microbial clogging following injection, however, is a major issue. Here, during laboratory simulations of ASR, we used flow cytometry and bar-coded pyrosequencing to investigate changes in microbial abundance and community dynamics. Bacterial abundance ranged from 5.0 × 104 to 1.4 × 107 cells ml-1 before the addition of synthetic wastewater. Following wastewater addition, a 25-fold decrease in abundance was observed, coinciding with a 12-fold increase in viral abundance. Taxa shifted from an overrepresentation of Sphingomonadales, Sphingobacteriales, Rhodospirillales, Caulobacterales, Legionellales, Bacillales, Fusobacteriales and Verrucomicrobiales prior to the addition of synthetic wastewater to Burkholderiales, Actinomycetales, Pseudomonadales, Xanthomonadales, Rhodobacterales, Thizobiales and Thiotrichales following the addition of synthetic wastewater. Furthermore, a significant difference in overall taxonomic composition between the groundwater samples before and after the addition of synthetic wastewater was observed, with water samples exhibiting more similarity to sediment samples after wastewater was added. Collectively, these results suggest that ASR may alter the taxonomic composition of endemic microbial communities and that complete profiles of groundwater properties, including microbial community abundance and composition need to be taken into consideration when selecting aquifers for ASR practices. PMID:26083532

  13. Impact of Grassland Reseeding, Herbicide Spraying and Ploughing on Diversity and Abundance of Soil Arthropods

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Junling; Norris, Stuart L.; Murray, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    In order to determine the interactive effect of reseeding, herbicide spraying and ploughing on soil fauna communities, we conducted a grassland reseeding experiment combined with pre-reseed management to examine how with the whole reseeding process affects soil faunal composition. Sampling occasions and exact treatments were as follows: (1) before chemical herbicide spray; (2) after spray but before ploughing; (3) after ploughing but before reseeding; and (4) after 1 year of recovery. Our results demonstrate that, Acari and Collembola were the two soil fauna taxa with the highest abundance and accounted for around 96% of the relative total abundance among the various managements. Herbicide application tended to increase soil invertebrate abundance. Conversely, subsequent ploughing significantly reduced soil invertebrate abundance and had an obvious negative effect on soil primary and secondary decomposers, which were mainly due to the variations of Acari (especially Oribatida) and Coleoptera group abundance. Moreover, reseeding also reduced the individual number of the groups mentioned above, and favored those predators with a larger body size and individual weight. After 1 year recovery, Collembola abundance recovered to the pre-treatment levels, while with Arthropod and Acari groups were still fluctuating. PMID:27555863

  14. Variability of subseafloor viral abundance at the geographically and geologically distinct continental margins.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Katsunori; Morono, Yuki; Yoshida-Takashima, Yukari; Eitoku, Masamitsu; Sunamura, Michinari; Inagaki, Fumio; Imachi, Hiroyuki; Takai, Ken; Nunoura, Takuro

    2014-04-01

    We studied the relationship between viral particle and microbial cell abundances in marine subsurface sediments from three geographically distinct locations in the continental margins (offshore of the Shimokita Peninsula of Japan, the Cascadia Margin off Oregon, and the Gulf of Mexico) and found depth variations in viral abundances among these sites. Viruses in sediments obtained offshore of the Shimokita and in the Cascadia Margin generally decreased with increasing depth, whereas those in sediments from the Gulf of Mexico were relatively constant throughout the investigated depths. In addition, the abundance ratios of viruses to microbial cells notably varied among the sites, ranging between 10(-3) and 10(1) . The subseafloor viral abundance offshore of the Shimokita showed a positive relationship with the microbial cell abundance and the sediment porosity. In contrast, no statistically significant relationship was observed in the Cascadia Margin and the Gulf of Mexico sites, presumably due to the long-term preservation of viruses from enzymatic degradation within the low-porosity sediments. Our observations indicate that viral abundance in the marine subsurface sedimentary environment is regulated not only by in situ production but also by the balance of preservation and decay, which is associated with the regional sedimentation processes in the geological settings.

  15. Distribution and abundance of macrobenthic polychaetes along the South Indian coast.

    PubMed

    Musale, Amar S; Desai, Dattesh V

    2011-07-01

    Macrobenthic polychaetes play a significant role in marine benthic food chain. A study was carried out to observe the abundance and diversity of soft bottom macrobenthic polychaetes along the South Indian coast, along with observations on sediment characteristics. The present study indicated an increase in the polychaete diversity as compared to earlier reports. Sixty-three different forms of polychaetes were identified along the coast, which constitute the bulk of the macrobenthic fauna. Thirty-eight species of polychaetes showed higher abundance along the west coast, whereas 25 species showed higher abundance along the east coast. Seabed composition showed a spatial variation in its composition along the coast. Occurrence of Prionospio pinnata and Capitella capitata the deposit feeders and indicators of organic pollution suggesting the sampled area is organically rich. Polychaete abundance was found to be higher along the west coast and was attributed to loose texture of sediment due to high sand and sandy-silt resulting in higher interstitial space for organisms to harbor. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that majority of polychaete species preferred low organic carbon, sandy silt, or sandy-clay substratum. The lower polychaete abundance at high organic carbon and high silt and clay areas can be attributed to avoidance of organisms to rich organic matter and suboxic levels, being a possible indication that these characteristics adversely affects the polychaete abundance and distribution.

  16. Impact of Grassland Reseeding, Herbicide Spraying and Ploughing on Diversity and Abundance of Soil Arthropods.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Junling; Norris, Stuart L; Murray, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    In order to determine the interactive effect of reseeding, herbicide spraying and ploughing on soil fauna communities, we conducted a grassland reseeding experiment combined with pre-reseed management to examine how with the whole reseeding process affects soil faunal composition. Sampling occasions and exact treatments were as follows: (1) before chemical herbicide spray; (2) after spray but before ploughing; (3) after ploughing but before reseeding; and (4) after 1 year of recovery. Our results demonstrate that, Acari and Collembola were the two soil fauna taxa with the highest abundance and accounted for around 96% of the relative total abundance among the various managements. Herbicide application tended to increase soil invertebrate abundance. Conversely, subsequent ploughing significantly reduced soil invertebrate abundance and had an obvious negative effect on soil primary and secondary decomposers, which were mainly due to the variations of Acari (especially Oribatida) and Coleoptera group abundance. Moreover, reseeding also reduced the individual number of the groups mentioned above, and favored those predators with a larger body size and individual weight. After 1 year recovery, Collembola abundance recovered to the pre-treatment levels, while with Arthropod and Acari groups were still fluctuating.

  17. Comparative Analysis of Mars Odyssey GRS Chemical Abundances with Other Mission Global Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, B. C.; McLennan, S. M.; Odyssey GRS Science Team

    2006-12-01

    The 2001 Mars Odyssey Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) instrument package has returned chemical abundance maps of the Martian surface for a suite of elements (Fe, Si, Cl, H, K, Th). Due to a low resolution (>250 km footprint), smoothing effects inherent to the instruments, and the data processing methods, analysis of smaller geologic features can be statistically problematic. However, mean elemental abundances can be determined for larger geologic provinces and specifically defined regions with enough areal extent to produce sufficiently robust statistics. Here we compare GRS-derived element abundances to other Martian global datasets in order to evaluate statistically and geologically meaningful differences. Although outlier regions exist, GRS data reveal a Martian surface more chemically homogeneous than the surfaces of the Earth or moon. Chemical variations are often subtle and difficult to discern. However, even with muted variation and large uncertainties, comparing GRS elemental means and other datasets still reveal statistically robust differences using standard z-statistic tests at high confidence intervals. Note that "statistically significant" differences may not be geologically significant. This method has been employed to determine subtle but statistically significant variations in several element abundances with apparent surface age (e.g., Fe and Cl abundances increase with younger ages; K and Th decrease with younger ages) revealing possible constraints on crustal evolution and surficial processes. We also compared the variations in elemental abundances to variations in specific mineralogies and dust abundance as determined by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument. This allows an important link between chemistry and mineralogy and further helps constrain the effects of surface dust on remote sensing data.

  18. Heavy element abundances and massive star formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Boqi; Silk, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    The determination of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) remains a great challenge in astronomy. In the solar neighborhood, the IMF is reasonable well determined for stellar masses from about 0.1 to 60 solar mass. However, outside the solar neighborhood, the IMF is poorly known. Among those frequently discussed arguments favoring a different IMF outside the solar neighborhood are the estimated time to consume the remaining gas in spiral galaxies, and the high rate of forming massive stars in starburst galaxies. An interesting question then is whether there may be an independent way of testing possible variations in the IMF. Indeed, the heavy elements in the interstellar medium are mostly synthesized in massive stars, so increasing, or decreasing, the fraction of massive stars naturally leads to a variation in the heavy element yield, and thus, the metallicity. The observed abundance should severely constrain any deviations of the IMF from the locally determined IMF. We focus on element oxygen, which is the most abundant heavy element in the interstellar medium. Oxygen is ejected only by massive stars that can become Type 1 supernovae, and the oxygen abundance is, therefore, a sensitive function of the fraction of massive stars in the IMF. Adopting oxygen enables us to avoid uncertainties in Type 1 supernovae. We use the nucleosynthesis results to calculate the oxygen yield for given IMF. We then calculate the oxygen abundance in the interstellar medium assuming instantaneous recycling of oxygen.

  19. Abiotic mediation of a mutualism drives herbivore abundance.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Emily H; Phillips, Joseph S; Tillberg, Chadwick V; Sandrow, Cheryl; Nelson, Annika S; Mooney, Kailen A

    2016-01-01

    Species abundance is typically determined by the abiotic environment, but the extent to which such effects occur through the mediation of biotic interactions, including mutualisms, is unknown. We explored how light environment (open meadow vs. shaded understory) mediates the abundance and ant tending of the aphid Aphis helianthi feeding on the herb Ligusticum porteri. Yearly surveys consistently found aphids to be more than 17-fold more abundant on open meadow plants than on shaded understory plants. Manipulations demonstrated that this abundance pattern was not due to the direct effects of light environment on aphid performance, or indirectly through host plant quality or the effects of predators. Instead, open meadows had higher ant abundance and per capita rates of aphid tending and, accordingly, ants increased aphid population growth in meadow but not understory environments. The abiotic environment thus drives the abundance of this herbivore exclusively through the mediation of a protection mutualism.

  20. Light-element abundances in 20 F and G dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomkin, J.; Lambert, D. L.; Balachandran, S.

    1985-03-01

    Red and near-IR spectral lines of the Galaxy are analyzed to extract Na, Mg, Al, Si and Ca abundances. The data were obtained using a 2.7 m telescope fitted with a coudespectrograph and a Reticon photodiode array tuned to the 6160, 6350, 6570, 6696, 7860 and 8740 wavelengths of 20 F and G dwarfs in the disk and halo. The abundances were then compared to recorded Fe abundances, particularly the forbidden Fe/H ratio. Even numbered atomic number elemental abundances followed the ratio down to values of -0.4, then increased relative to Fe in the transition from disk to halo. The abundances of odd-numbered elements more closely tracked the abundance of Mg in the disk, and experienced a fairly abrupt decrease in the disk-halo transition.

  1. The relative influence of abundance and priority effects on colonization success in a coral-reef fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geange, Shane W.; Poulos, Davina E.; Stier, Adrian C.; McCormick, Mark I.

    2017-03-01

    The sequence of species colonization is increasingly recognized as an important determinant of community structure, yet the significance of sequence of arrival relative to colonizer abundance is seldom assessed. We manipulated the magnitude and timing of coral-reef fish settlement to investigate whether the competitive dominance of early-arriving Ambon damselfish (i.e., a priority effect) decreased in strength with increasing abundance of late-arriving lemon damselfish. Sequence of arrival had a stronger effect on survival than the number of competing individuals. Relative to when both species arrived simultaneously, lemon damselfish were less aggressive, avoided competitive interactions more frequently and experienced depressed survival when they arrived later than Ambon damselfish, with these effects occurring independently of lemon damselfish abundance. These results suggest priority effects are more important than colonizer abundance and should motivate the integration of priority effects into future studies of density dependence to determine their relative importance.

  2. Fluorine Abundances in the Milky Way Bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V.; Gibson, Brad K.

    2008-05-01

    Fluorine (19F) abundances are derived in a sample of six bulge red giants in Baade's window. These giants span a factor of 10 in metallicity, and this is the first study to define the behavior of 19F with metallicity in the bulge. The bulge results show an increase in F/O with increasing oxygen. This trend overlaps what is found in the disk at comparable metallicities, with the most oxygen-rich bulge target extending the disk trend. The increase in F/O in the disk arises from 19F synthesis in both asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and metal-rich Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars through stellar winds. The lack of an s-process enhancement in the most fluorine-rich bulge giant in this study suggests that WR stars represented a larger contribution than did AGB stars to 19F production in the bulge, when compared to the disk. If this result for fluorine is combined with the previously published overall decline in the O/Mg abundance ratios in metal-rich bulge stars, it suggests that WR winds played a role in shaping chemical evolution in the bulge. One star in this study exhibits a very low value of F/O while having a large O abundance; this chemical mixture can be understood if this star formed from gas that was enriched by metal-poor core-collapse supernovae, and it may indicate that chemical evolution in the bulge was inhomogeneous.

  3. Thermal relics: Do we know their abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamionkowski, Marc; Turner, Michael S.

    1990-01-01

    The relic abundance of a particle species that was once in thermal equilibrium in the expanding Universe depends upon a competition between the annihilation rate of the species and the expansion rate of the Universe. Assuming that the Universe is radiation dominated at early times the relic abundance is easy to compute and well known. At times earlier than about 1 sec after the bang there is little or no evidence that the Universe had to be radiation dominated, although that is the simplest and standard assumption. Because early-Universe relics are of such importance both to particle physics and to cosmology, three nonstandard possibilities are considered in detail for the Universe at the time a species' abundance froze in: energy density dominated by shear (i.e., anisotropic expansion), energy density dominated by some other nonrelativistic species, and energy density dominated by the kinetic energy of the scalar field that sets the gravitational constant in a Brans-Dicke-Jordan cosmological mode. In the second case the relic abundance is less than the standard value, while in the other two cases it can be enhanced by a significant factor. Two other more exotic possibilities for enhancing the relic abundance of a species are also mentioned--a larger value of Newton's constant at early times (e.g., as might occur in superstring or Kaluza-Klein theories) or a component of the energy density at early times with a very stiff equation of state (p greater than rho/3), e.g., a scalar field phi with potential V(phi) = Beta /phi/ (exp n) with n greater than 4. Results have implications for dark matter searches and searches for particle relics in general.

  4. Meiofaunal abundances and faunal similarity on the continental rise off the coast of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohal, Melissa; Thistle, David; Easton, Erin E.

    2014-11-01

    Metazoan meiofauna (e.g., nematodes, benthic copepods) play important roles in deep-sea sediment communities, but information as basic as standing stocks is not known for much of the world ocean. We therefore sampled six stations: one near the 2700-m isobath and one near the 3700-m isobath off northern, central, and southern California. We counted benthic copepods, both Desmoscolecidae and nondesmoscolecid nematodes, kinorhynchs, nauplii, and ostracods from multiple-corer samples. Nematodes from our 2700-m and 3700-m stations, and ostracods and nauplii from our 3700-m stations, were unusually abundant compared to those from other stations from comparable depths in the Pacific. Off California, the abundances of benthic copepods, kinorhynchs, and nondesmoscolecids at the 2700-m stations were significantly greater than those at the 3700-m stations. Abundance of benthic copepods was correlated with the percentage of medium sand in the sediment, so sediment texture could be important to them. That of kinorhynchs was correlated with the concentration of chloroplastic-pigment equivalents and percentage nitrogen, so consumable material from the euphotic zone could be important to them. In contrast to the usual pattern of decreasing abundance with depth, Desmoscolecidae abundance in the central region was greater at the 3700-m than at the 2700-m station. The three regions differed significantly in both kinorhynch and ostracod abundances, independently of depth. In the food-poor deep sea, animals are expected to be more abundant where food is plentiful. Unexpectedly, ostracod abundance was negatively correlated with all food variables. A possible explanation is that the natural enemies of ostracods are abundant where food is abundant. Multivariate faunal similarity at 2700 m differed significantly from that at 3700 m, independently of regions. Benthic copepods were most responsible for the difference. Regions also differed in multivariate faunal similarity independently of

  5. Solar and stellar photospheric abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allende Prieto, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    The determination of photospheric abundances in late-type stars from spectroscopic observations is a well-established field, built on solid theoretical foundations. Improving those foundations to refine the accuracy of the inferred abundances has proven challenging, but progress has been made. In parallel, developments on instrumentation, chiefly regarding multi-object spectroscopy, have been spectacular, and a number of projects are collecting large numbers of observations for stars across the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, promising important advances in our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. After providing a brief description of the basic physics and input data involved in the analysis of stellar spectra, a review is made of the analysis steps, and the available tools to cope with large observational efforts. The paper closes with a quick overview of relevant ongoing and planned spectroscopic surveys, and highlights of recent research on photospheric abundances.

  6. Robust Abundance Estimation in Animal Abundance Surveys with Imperfect Detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surveys of animal abundance are central to the conservation and management of living natural resources. However, detection uncertainty complicates the sampling process of many species. One sampling method employed to deal with this problem is depletion (or removal) surveys in whi...

  7. On the OVI abundance in the circumgalactic medium of low-redshift galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, Joshua; Rubin, Kate H. R.; Kannan, Rahul; Werk, Jessica K.; Hernquist, Lars; Vogelsberger, Mark

    2017-03-01

    We analyse the mass, temperature, metal enrichment, and OVI abundance of the circumgalactic medium (CGM) around z ∼ 0.2 galaxies of mass 109 M⊙ < M* < 1011.5 M⊙ in the Illustris simulation. Among star-forming galaxies, the mass, temperature, and metallicity of the CGM increase with stellar mass, driving an increase in the OVI column-density profile of ∼0.5 dex with each 0.5 dex increase in stellar mass. Observed OVI column-density profiles exhibit a weaker mass dependence than predicted; the simulated OVI abundance profiles are consistent with those observed for star-forming galaxies of mass M* = 1010.5-11.5 M⊙, but underpredict the observed OVI abundances by ≳0.8 dex for lower mass galaxies. We suggest that this discrepancy may be alleviated with additional heating of the abundant cool gas in low-mass haloes, or with increased numerical resolution capturing turbulent/conductive mixing layers between CGM phases. Quenched galaxies of mass M* = 1010.5-11.5 M⊙ are found to have 0.3-0.8 dex lower OVI column-density profiles than star-forming galaxies of the same mass, in qualitative agreement with the observed OVI abundance bimodality. This offset is driven by AGN feedback, which quenches galaxies by heating the CGM and ejecting significant amounts of gas from the halo. Finally, we find that the inclusion of the central-galaxy's radiation field may enhance the photoionization of the CGM within ∼50 kpc, further increasing the predicted OVI abundance around star-forming galaxies.

  8. The solar abundance of beryllium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, J. E.; Aller, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    The solar abundance of beryllium is deduced from high-resolution Kitt Peak observations of the 3130.43- and 3131.08-A lines of Be II interpreted by the method of spectrum synthesis. The results are in good agreement with those previously obtained by Grevesse (1968) and by Hauge and Engvold (1968) and indicate that in the photospheric layers, beryllium is depleted below the chondritic value by a factor of about two. It is found that the beryllium abundance is equal to logN(Be)/N(H) + 12 = 1.08 plus or minus 0.05.

  9. Prolonged continuous intravenous infusion of the dipeptide L-alanine- L-glutamine significantly increases plasma glutamine and alanine without elevating brain glutamate in patients with severe traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Low plasma glutamine levels are associated with worse clinical outcome. Intravenous glutamine infusion dose- dependently increases plasma glutamine levels, thereby correcting hypoglutaminemia. Glutamine may be transformed to glutamate which might limit its application at a higher dose in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). To date, the optimal glutamine dose required to normalize plasma glutamine levels without increasing plasma and cerebral glutamate has not yet been defined. Methods Changes in plasma and cerebral glutamine, alanine, and glutamate as well as indirect signs of metabolic impairment reflected by increased intracranial pressure (ICP), lactate, lactate-to-pyruvate ratio, electroencephalogram (EEG) activity were determined before, during, and after continuous intravenous infusion of 0.75 g L-alanine-L-glutamine which was given either for 24 hours (group 1, n = 6) or 5 days (group 2, n = 6) in addition to regular enteral nutrition. Lab values including nitrogen balance, urea and ammonia were determined daily. Results Continuous L-alanine-L-glutamine infusion significantly increased plasma and cerebral glutamine as well as alanine levels, being mostly sustained during the 5 day infusion phase (plasma glutamine: from 295 ± 62 to 500 ± 145 μmol/ l; brain glutamine: from 183 ± 188 to 549 ± 120 μmol/ l; plasma alanine: from 327 ± 91 to 622 ± 182 μmol/ l; brain alanine: from 48 ± 55 to 89 ± 129 μmol/ l; p < 0.05, ANOVA, post hoc Dunn’s test). Plasma glutamate remained unchanged and cerebral glutamate was decreased without any signs of cerebral impairment. Urea and ammonia were significantly increased within normal limits without signs of organ dysfunction (urea: from 2.7 ± 1.6 to 5.5 ± 1.5 mmol/ l; ammonia: from 12 ± 6.3 to 26 ± 8.3 μmol/ l; p < 0.05, ANOVA, post hoc Dunn’s test). Conclusions High dose L-alanine-L-glutamine infusion (0

  10. Plastic traits of an exotic grass contribute to its abundance but are not always favourable.

    PubMed

    Firn, Jennifer; Prober, Suzanne M; Buckley, Yvonne M

    2012-01-01

    In herbaceous ecosystems worldwide, biodiversity has been negatively impacted by changed grazing regimes and nutrient enrichment. Altered disturbance regimes are thought to favour invasive species that have a high phenotypic plasticity, although most studies measure plasticity under controlled conditions in the greenhouse and then assume plasticity is an advantage in the field. Here, we compare trait plasticity between three co-occurring, C(4) perennial grass species, an invader Eragrostis curvula, and natives Eragrostis sororia and Aristida personata to grazing and fertilizer in a three-year field trial. We measured abundances and several leaf traits known to correlate with strategies used by plants to fix carbon and acquire resources, i.e. specific leaf area (SLA), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), leaf nutrient concentrations (N, C:N, P), assimilation rates (Amax) and photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE). In the control treatment (grazed only), trait values for SLA, leaf C:N ratios, Amax and PNUE differed significantly between the three grass species. When trait values were compared across treatments, E. curvula showed higher trait plasticity than the native grasses, and this correlated with an increase in abundance across all but the grazed/fertilized treatment. The native grasses showed little trait plasticity in response to the treatments. Aristida personata decreased significantly in the treatments where E. curvula increased, and E. sororia abundance increased possibly due to increased rainfall and not in response to treatments or invader abundance. Overall, we found that plasticity did not favour an increase in abundance of E. curvula under the grazed/fertilized treatment likely because leaf nutrient contents increased and subsequently its' palatability to consumers. E. curvula also displayed a higher resource use efficiency than the native grasses. These findings suggest resource conditions and disturbance regimes can be manipulated to disadvantage

  11. How climate warming impacts the distribution and abundance of two small flatfish species in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hal, Ralf; Smits, Kalle; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.

    2010-07-01

    Climate change, specifically temperature, affects the distribution and densities of species in marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we looked at the effect of temperature during winter and spawning period on latitudinal range shifts and changes in abundance of two non-commercial North Sea fish species, solenette ( Buglossidium luteum) and scaldfish ( Arnoglossus laterna). Both species have increased in abundance and moved to the north since the late 1980s, coinciding with a series of mild winters. In 1996, following a very cold winter, the abundance of both species temporarily decreased as they retracted to the south. The shift in temperature affected adult habitat conditions, allowing them to immigrate into new areas where they subsequently reproduced successfully. We can conclude this because recruitment improved following the increase in abundance. The recruitment relates significantly to the higher adult stock and higher temperatures. The predictions of higher average temperatures and milder winters in the North Sea make it likely that these species will increase further in abundance and move northward. The observed increase in abundance of these small flatfish species will affect the North Sea food web and therefore commercial species, e.g. plaice, by predation on juveniles and competition for benthic food resources.

  12. Plant characteristics associated with natural enemy abundance at Michigan native plants.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, A K; Landis, D A

    2007-08-01

    Habitat management is a type of conservation biological control that focuses on increasing natural enemy populations by providing them with plant resources such as pollen and nectar. Insects are known to respond to a variety of plant characteristics in their search for plant-provided resources. A better understanding of the specific characteristics used by natural enemy insects in selecting these resources could greatly improve efficiency in screening plants for habitat management. We examined 5 previously tested and widely recommended resource plants and 43 candidate plants to test whether the number and type of natural enemies and herbivores at each plant were predicted by plant characteristics including: period of peak bloom, floral area, maximum flower height, hue, chroma, and corolla size. Natural enemy abundance increased with week of peak bloom and greater floral area across all plants tested. Ordination of plant characteristics indicated that increasing floral area, period of peak bloom, maximum flower height, and decreasing corolla width grouped together into a single principal component. Both natural enemy and herbivore abundance increased significantly with the principal component for this set of characteristics, but the relationship with herbivore abundance was weaker. These results indicate that, for a given time of the season, selection of plants with the largest floral area has potential to increase natural enemy abundance in habitat management plantings and streamline plant selection for habitat management.

  13. Three energy variables predict ant abundance at a geographical scale.

    PubMed Central

    Kaspari, M; Alonso, L; O'Donnell, S

    2000-01-01

    Energy theory posits three processes that link local abundance of ectotherms to geographical gradients in temperature. A survey of 49 New World habitats found a two order of magnitude span in the abundance (nests m(-2)) of ground nesting ants (Formicidae). Abundance increased with net primary productivity (r2=0.55), a measure of the baseline supply of harvestable energy. Abundance further increased with mean temperature (r2=0.056), a constraint on foraging activity for this thermophilic taxon. Finally for a given mean temperature, ants were more abundant in seasonal sites with longer, colder winters (r2 = 0.082) that help ectotherm taxa sequester harvested energy in non-productive months. All three variables are currently changing on a global scale. All should be useful in predicting biotic responses to climate change. PMID:10737406

  14. Low larval abundance in the Sargasso Sea: new evidence about reduced recruitment of the Atlantic eels.

    PubMed

    Hanel, Reinhold; Stepputtis, Daniel; Bonhommeau, Sylvain; Castonguay, Martin; Schaber, Matthias; Wysujack, Klaus; Vobach, Michael; Miller, Michael J

    2014-12-01

    The European eel Anguilla anguilla has shown decreased recruitment in recent decades. Despite increasing efforts to establish species recovery measures, it is unclear if the decline was caused by reduced numbers of reproductive-stage silver eels reaching the spawning area, low early larval survival, or increased larval mortality during migration to recruitment areas. To determine if larval abundances in the spawning area significantly changed over the past three decades, a plankton trawl sampling survey for anguillid leptocephali was conducted in March and April 2011 in the spawning area of the European eel that was designed to directly compare to collections made in the same way in 1983 and 1985. The catch rates of most anguilliform leptocephali were lower in 2011, possibly because of the slightly smaller plankton trawl used, but the relative abundances of European eel and American eel, Anguilla rostrata, leptocephali were much lower in 2011 than in 1983 and 1985 when compared to catches of other common leptocephali. The leptocephali assemblage was the same in 2011 as in previous years, but small larvae of mesopelagic snipe eels, Nemichthys scolopaceus, which spawn sympatrically with anguillid eels, were less abundant. Temperature fronts in the spawning area were also poorly defined compared to previous years. Although the causes for low anguillid larval abundances in 2011 are unclear, the fact that there are presently fewer European and American eel larvae in the spawning area than during previous time periods indicates that decreased larval abundance and lower eventual recruitment begin within the spawning area.

  15. Low larval abundance in the Sargasso Sea: new evidence about reduced recruitment of the Atlantic eels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanel, Reinhold; Stepputtis, Daniel; Bonhommeau, Sylvain; Castonguay, Martin; Schaber, Matthias; Wysujack, Klaus; Vobach, Michael; Miller, Michael J.

    2014-12-01

    The European eel Anguilla anguilla has shown decreased recruitment in recent decades. Despite increasing efforts to establish species recovery measures, it is unclear if the decline was caused by reduced numbers of reproductive-stage silver eels reaching the spawning area, low early larval survival, or increased larval mortality during migration to recruitment areas. To determine if larval abundances in the spawning area significantly changed over the past three decades, a plankton trawl sampling survey for anguillid leptocephali was conducted in March and April 2011 in the spawning area of the European eel that was designed to directly compare to collections made in the same way in 1983 and 1985. The catch rates of most anguilliform leptocephali were lower in 2011, possibly because of the slightly smaller plankton trawl used, but the relative abundances of European eel and American eel, Anguilla rostrata, leptocephali were much lower in 2011 than in 1983 and 1985 when compared to catches of other common leptocephali. The leptocephali assemblage was the same in 2011 as in previous years, but small larvae of mesopelagic snipe eels, Nemichthys scolopaceus, which spawn sympatrically with anguillid eels, were less abundant. Temperature fronts in the spawning area were also poorly defined compared to previous years. Although the causes for low anguillid larval abundances in 2011 are unclear, the fact that there are presently fewer European and American eel larvae in the spawning area than during previous time periods indicates that decreased larval abundance and lower eventual recruitment begin within the spawning area.

  16. The primordial helium abundance from updated emissivities

    SciTech Connect

    Aver, Erik; Olive, Keith A.; Skillman, Evan D.; Porter, R.L. E-mail: olive@umn.edu E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu

    2013-11-01

    Observations of metal-poor extragalactic H II regions allow the determination of the primordial helium abundance, Y{sub p}. The He I emissivities are the foundation of the model of the H II region's emission. Porter, Ferland, Storey, and Detisch (2012) have recently published updated He I emissivities based on improved photoionization cross-sections. We incorporate these new atomic data and update our recent Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis of the dataset published by Izotov, Thuan, and Stasi'nska (2007). As before, cuts are made to promote quality and reliability, and only solutions which fit the data within 95% confidence level are used to determine the primordial He abundance. The previously qualifying dataset is almost entirely retained and with strong concordance between the physical parameters. Overall, an upward bias from the new emissivities leads to a decrease in Y{sub p}. In addition, we find a general trend to larger uncertainties in individual objects (due to changes in the emissivities) and an increased variance (due to additional objects included). From a regression to zero metallicity, we determine Y{sub p} = 0.2465 ± 0.0097, in good agreement with the BBN result, Y{sub p} = 0.2485 ± 0.0002, based on the Planck determination of the baryon density. In the future, a better understanding of why a large fraction of spectra are not well fit by the model will be crucial to achieving an increase in the precision of the primordial helium abundance determination.

  17. Insights into Abundant Rumen Ureolytic Bacterial Community Using Rumen Simulation System

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Di; Zhao, Shengguo; Wang, Pengpeng; Zheng, Nan; Bu, Dengpan; Beckers, Yves; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-01-01

    Urea, a non-protein nitrogen for dairy cows, is rapidly hydrolyzed to ammonia by urease produced by ureolytic bacteria in the rumen, and the ammonia is used as nitrogen for rumen bacterial growth. However, there is limited knowledge with regard to the ureolytic bacteria community in the rumen. To explore the ruminal ureolytic bacterial community, urea, or acetohydroxamic acid (AHA, an inhibitor of urea hydrolysis) were supplemented into the rumen simulation systems. The bacterial 16S rRNA genes were sequenced by Miseq high-throughput sequencing and used to reveal the ureoltyic bacteria by comparing different treatments. The results revealed that urea supplementation significantly increased the ammonia concentration, and AHA addition inhibited urea hydrolysis. Urea supplementation significantly increased the richness of bacterial community and the proportion of ureC genes. The composition of bacterial community following urea or AHA supplementation showed no significant difference compared to the groups without supplementation. The abundance of Bacillus and unclassified Succinivibrionaceae increased significantly following urea supplementation. Pseudomonas, Haemophilus, Neisseria, Streptococcus, and Actinomyces exhibited a positive response to urea supplementation and a negative response to AHA addition. Results retrieved from the NCBI protein database and publications confirmed that the representative bacteria in these genera mentioned above had urease genes or urease activities. Therefore, the rumen ureolytic bacteria were abundant in the genera of Pseudomonas, Haemophilus, Neisseria, Streptococcus, Actinomyces, Bacillus, and unclassified Succinivibrionaceae. Insights into abundant rumen ureolytic bacteria provide the regulation targets to mitigate urea hydrolysis and increase efficiency of urea nitrogen utilization in ruminants. PMID:27446045

  18. Combined Effects of Ocean Warming and Acidification on Copepod Abundance, Body Size and Fatty Acid Content.

    PubMed

    Garzke, Jessica; Hansen, Thomas; Ismar, Stefanie M H; Sommer, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global warming have initiated studies on the consequences of multiple-stressor interactions on marine organisms and ecosystems. We present a fully-crossed factorial mesocosm study and assess how warming and acidification affect the abundance, body size, and fatty acid composition of copepods as a measure of nutritional quality. The experimental set-up allowed us to determine whether the effects of warming and acidification act additively, synergistically, or antagonistically on the abundance, body size, and fatty acid content of copepods, a major group of lower level consumers in marine food webs. Copepodite (developmental stages 1-5) and nauplii abundance were antagonistically affected by warming and acidification. Higher temperature decreased copepodite and nauplii abundance, while acidification partially compensated for the temperature effect. The abundance of adult copepods was negatively affected by warming. The prosome length of copepods was significantly reduced by warming, and the interaction of warming and CO2 antagonistically affected prosome length. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by warming. The content of saturated fatty acids increased, and the ratios of the polyunsaturated essential fatty acids docosahexaenoic- (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) to total fatty acid content increased with higher temperatures. Additionally, here was a significant additive interaction effect of both parameters on arachidonic acid. Our results indicate that in a future ocean scenario, acidification might partially counteract some observed effects of increased temperature on zooplankton, while adding to others. These may be results of a fertilizing effect on phytoplankton as a copepod food source. In summary, copepod populations will be more strongly affected by warming rather than by acidifying oceans, but ocean acidification effects can modify some temperature impacts.

  19. Combined Effects of Ocean Warming and Acidification on Copepod Abundance, Body Size and Fatty Acid Content

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Thomas; Ismar, Stefanie M. H.; Sommer, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global warming have initiated studies on the consequences of multiple-stressor interactions on marine organisms and ecosystems. We present a fully-crossed factorial mesocosm study and assess how warming and acidification affect the abundance, body size, and fatty acid composition of copepods as a measure of nutritional quality. The experimental set-up allowed us to determine whether the effects of warming and acidification act additively, synergistically, or antagonistically on the abundance, body size, and fatty acid content of copepods, a major group of lower level consumers in marine food webs. Copepodite (developmental stages 1–5) and nauplii abundance were antagonistically affected by warming and acidification. Higher temperature decreased copepodite and nauplii abundance, while acidification partially compensated for the temperature effect. The abundance of adult copepods was negatively affected by warming. The prosome length of copepods was significantly reduced by warming, and the interaction of warming and CO2 antagonistically affected prosome length. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by warming. The content of saturated fatty acids increased, and the ratios of the polyunsaturated essential fatty acids docosahexaenoic- (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) to total fatty acid content increased with higher temperatures. Additionally, here was a significant additive interaction effect of both parameters on arachidonic acid. Our results indicate that in a future ocean scenario, acidification might partially counteract some observed effects of increased temperature on zooplankton, while adding to others. These may be results of a fertilizing effect on phytoplankton as a copepod food source. In summary, copepod populations will be more strongly affected by warming rather than by acidifying oceans, but ocean acidification effects can modify some temperature impacts. PMID:27224476

  20. The Effects of Site Characterization Activities on the Abundance of Ravens (Corvus corax) in the Yucca Mountain Area

    SciTech Connect

    P.E. Lederle

    1998-05-08

    In response to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) developed and is implementing the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Raven abundance was measured from August 1991 through August 1995 along treatment and control routes to evaluate whether site characterization activities resulted in increased raven abundance at Yucca Mountain. This study fulfills the requirement set forth in the incidental take provisions of the Biological Opinion that DOE monitor the abundance of ravens at Yucca Mountain. Ravens were more abundant at Yucca Mountain than in the control area, and raven abundance in both areas increased over time. However, the magnitude of differences between Yucca Mountain and control surveys did not change over time, indicating that the increase in raven abundance observed during this study was not related to site characterization activities. Increases over time on both Yucca Mountain and control routes are consistent with increases in raven abundance in the Mojave Desert reported by the annual Breeding Bird Survey of the US. Fish and Wildlife Service. Evidence from the Desert Tortoise Monitoring Program at Yucca Mountain suggests that ravens are not a significant predator of small tortoises in this locale. Carcasses of small tortoises (less than 110 mm in length) collected during the study showed little evidence of raven predation, and 59 radiomarked hatchlings that were monitored on a regular basis were not preyed upon by ravens. Overall, no direct evidence of raven predation on tortoises was observed during this study. Small tortoises are probably encountered so infrequently by ravens that they are rarely exploited as a food source. This is likely due to the relatively low abundance of both desert tortoises and ravens in the Yucca Mountain area.

  1. THE SOLAR FLARE IRON ABUNDANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, K. J. H.; Dennis, B. R. E-mail: Brian.R.Dennis@nasa.gov

    2012-03-20

    The abundance of iron is measured from emission line complexes at 6.65 keV (Fe line) and 8 keV (Fe/Ni line) in RHESSI X-ray spectra during solar flares. Spectra during long-duration flares with steady declines were selected, with an isothermal assumption and improved data analysis methods over previous work. Two spectral fitting models give comparable results, viz., an iron abundance that is lower than previous coronal values but higher than photospheric values. In the preferred method, the estimated Fe abundance is A(Fe) = 7.91 {+-} 0.10 (on a logarithmic scale, with A(H) = 12) or 2.6 {+-} 0.6 times the photospheric Fe abundance. Our estimate is based on a detailed analysis of 1898 spectra taken during 20 flares. No variation from flare to flare is indicated. This argues for a fractionation mechanism similar to quiet-Sun plasma. The new value of A(Fe) has important implications for radiation loss curves, which are estimated.

  2. Climatic effects on mosquito abundance in Mediterranean wetlands

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of climate change on vector-borne diseases is highly controversial. One of the principal points of debate is whether or not climate influences mosquito abundance, a key factor in disease transmission. Methods To test this hypothesis, we analysed ten years of data (2003–2012) from biweekly surveys to assess inter-annual and seasonal relationships between the abundance of seven mosquito species known to be pathogen vectors (West Nile virus, Usutu virus, dirofilariasis and Plasmodium sp.) and several climatic variables in two wetlands in SW Spain. Results Within-season abundance patterns were related to climatic variables (i.e. temperature, rainfall, tide heights, relative humidity and photoperiod) that varied according to the mosquito species in question. Rainfall during winter months was positively related to Culex pipiens and Ochlerotatus detritus annual abundances. Annual maximum temperatures were non-linearly related to annual Cx. pipiens abundance, while annual mean temperatures were positively related to annual Ochlerotatus caspius abundance. Finally, we modelled shifts in mosquito abundances using the A2 and B2 temperature and rainfall climate change scenarios for the period 2011–2100. While Oc. caspius, an important anthropophilic species, may increase in abundance, no changes are expected for Cx. pipiens or the salt-marsh mosquito Oc. detritus. Conclusions Our results highlight that the effects of climate are species-specific, place-specific and non-linear and that linear approaches will therefore overestimate the effect of climate change on mosquito abundances at high temperatures. Climate warming does not necessarily lead to an increase in mosquito abundance in natural Mediterranean wetlands and will affect, above all, species such as Oc. caspius whose numbers are not closely linked to rainfall and are influenced, rather, by local tidal patterns and temperatures. The final impact of changes in vector abundance on disease frequency

  3. Abundance fluctuations among benthic invertebrates in two pacific estuaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, Frederic H.

    1985-01-01

    Long-term studies were used to examine (1) contrasting time scales and mechanisms of structural variations within two benthic communities and (2) the usefulness of long data sets for evaluating human impact. A 10-year study of a San Francisco Bay mudflat, the details of which are reported elsewhere, has revealed large short-term (on the order of months) variations in species abundances within a community composed predominantly of opportunistic species. The study site, located in a highly urbanized estuary, is subject to the influence of a nearby sewage-treatment facility. However, rapid changes in population size of the common species, in part due to periodic natural habitat disturbance, impedes the detection of anthropogenic influences on community composition. Only a very long-term data set may provide evidence of progressive change. Data collected for a 20-year period on the benthic community at 200 m depth in the main basin of Puget Sound, an environment subject to little apparent habitat disturbance show that numerical abundance of the common species can also change markedly. Here, however, numerical dominance shifts from one species to another at irregular, multiyear intervals. Recent increases in two heretofore rare species, and a significant increase in total numbers of individuals suggest that long-term changes may be occurring in this community. These two long-term data sets demonstrate the importance of measuring both the amplitude and the periodicity of fluctuations in population size of aquatic species as well as long-term fluctuations and patterns in environmental factors before attempting to demonstrate the effect of anthropogenic influences on aquatic communities. The results of these studies also demonstrate the usefulness of long-term data sets for revealing the potential importance of interactions among species in determining abundance patterns in the soft-bottom benthos.

  4. NEON AND OXYGEN ABUNDANCES AND ABUNDANCE RATIO IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Landi, E.; Testa, P.

    2015-02-20

    In this work we determine the Ne/O abundance ratio from Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)/Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) off-disk observations of quiescent streamers over the 1996-2008 period. We find that the Ne/O ratio is approximately constant over solar cycle 23 from 1996 to 2005, at a value of 0.099 ± 0.017; this value is lower than the transition region determinations from the quiet Sun used to infer the neon photospheric abundance from the oxygen photospheric abundance. Also, the Ne/O ratio we determined from SUMER is in excellent agreement with in situ determinations from ACE/SWICS. In 2005-2008, the Ne/O abundance ratio increased with time and reached 0.25 ± 0.05, following the same trend found in the slowest wind analyzed by ACE/SWICS. Further, we measure the absolute abundance in the corona for both oxygen and neon from the data set of 1996 November 22, obtaining A {sub o} = 8.99 ± 0.04 and A {sub Ne} = 7.92 ± 0.03, and we find that both elements are affected by the first ionization potential (FIP) effect, with oxygen being enhanced by a factor of 1.4-2.1 over its photospheric abundance, and neon being changed by a factor of 0.75-1.20. We conclude that the Ne/O ratio is not constant in the solar atmosphere, both in time and at different heights, and that it cannot be reliably used to infer the neon abundance in the photosphere. Also, we argue that the FIP effect was less effective during the minimum of solar cycle 24, and that the Ne/O = 0.25 ± 0.05 value measured at that time is closer to the true photospheric value, leading to a neon photospheric abundance larger than assumed by ≈40%. We discuss the implications of these results for the solar abundance problem, for the FIP effect, and for the identification of the source regions of the solar wind.

  5. Abundances in Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewolfe, O. M.; Salzer, J. J.

    1994-12-01

    The nebular abundances in dwarf galaxies provide valuable clues to their star-formation histories. We have been engaged in an extensive observational study of actively star-forming blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs). Our program combines optical and NIR imaging, optical spectroscopy, and HI and CO radio data in an attempt to understand the status of star-formation and chemical evolution in these systems. Luminosities of the BCDs in our sample lie in the range M_B = -13 -- -16. We have obtained high-quality optical spectra of 21 BCDs for the purpose of deriving nebular abundances. We present values for the abundances of He, N, O, S, Ne, and Ar for this sample. In addition, we have estimated O and N abundances for a sample of 7 non-dwarf starburst galaxies of higher luminosity. For the BCD sample, we find that the N/O ratio remains constant at a mean value of 0.032 +/- 0.004 with increasing O/H. This result, which extends over a factor of more than 10 in O/H, is indicative of the N being chiefly of primary origin in these systems. The value of N/O is observed to increase in the sample of larger starburst galaxies for log(O/H) above -3.5, consistent with previous studies. S/O and Ne/O are also both constant with increasing O/H, and have mean values of 0.032 +/- 0.007 and 0.135 +/- 0.013 respectively. The BCD and starburst O/H values were used to calibrate an abundance sequence for a number of key emission-line diagnostic ratios which allow us to estimate metallicities for a large sample of emission-line galaxies (ELGs) to an accuracy of 0.1 -- 0.2 dex. The calibrations were applied to spectral data from two large published samples of ELGs from the Michigan and Case surveys. We use these data, representing nearly 200 individual galaxies, to investigate the existence of a metallicity-luminosity relationship for actively star-forming galaxies. We find the ELGs exhibit a relationship very similar to that found for more quiescent dwarf and Magellanic irregular galaxies by

  6. Calibrating abundance indices with population size estimators of red back salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) in a New England forest

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, Aaron M.; Jackson, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Herpetologists and conservation biologists frequently use convenient and cost-effective, but less accurate, abundance indices (e.g., number of individuals collected under artificial cover boards or during natural objects surveys) in lieu of more accurate, but costly and destructive, population size estimators to detect and monitor size, state, and trends of amphibian populations. Although there are advantages and disadvantages to each approach, reliable use of abundance indices requires that they be calibrated with accurate population estimators. Such calibrations, however, are rare. The red back salamander, Plethodon cinereus, is an ecologically useful indicator species of forest dynamics, and accurate calibration of indices of salamander abundance could increase the reliability of abundance indices used in monitoring programs. We calibrated abundance indices derived from surveys of P. cinereus under artificial cover boards or natural objects with a more accurate estimator of their population size in a New England forest. Average densities/m2 and capture probabilities of P. cinereus under natural objects or cover boards in independent, replicate sites at the Harvard Forest (Petersham, Massachusetts, USA) were similar in stands dominated by Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock) and deciduous hardwood species (predominantly Quercus rubra [red oak] and Acer rubrum [red maple]). The abundance index based on salamanders surveyed under natural objects was significantly associated with density estimates of P. cinereus derived from depletion (removal) surveys, but underestimated true density by 50%. In contrast, the abundance index based on cover-board surveys overestimated true density by a factor of 8 and the association between the cover-board index and the density estimates was not statistically significant. We conclude that when calibrated and used appropriately, some abundance indices may provide cost-effective and reliable measures of P. cinereus abundance that could

  7. Calibrating abundance indices with population size estimators of red back salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) in a New England forest.

    PubMed

    Siddig, Ahmed A; Ellison, Aaron M; Jackson, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Herpetologists and conservation biologists frequently use convenient and cost-effective, but less accurate, abundance indices (e.g., number of individuals collected under artificial cover boards or during natural objects surveys) in lieu of more accurate, but costly and destructive, population size estimators to detect and monitor size, state, and trends of amphibian populations. Although there are advantages and disadvantages to each approach, reliable use of abundance indices requires that they be calibrated with accurate population estimators. Such calibrations, however, are rare. The red back salamander, Plethodon cinereus, is an ecologically useful indicator species of forest dynamics, and accurate calibration of indices of salamander abundance could increase the reliability of abundance indices used in monitoring programs. We calibrated abundance indices derived from surveys of P. cinereus under artificial cover boards or natural objects with a more accurate estimator of their population size in a New England forest. Average densities/m(2) and capture probabilities of P. cinereus under natural objects or cover boards in independent, replicate sites at the Harvard Forest (Petersham, Massachusetts, USA) were similar in stands dominated by Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock) and deciduous hardwood species (predominantly Quercus rubra [red oak] and Acer rubrum [red maple]). The abundance index based on salamanders surveyed under natural objects was significantly associated with density estimates of P. cinereus derived from depletion (removal) surveys, but underestimated true density by 50%. In contrast, the abundance index based on cover-board surveys overestimated true density by a factor of 8 and the association between the cover-board index and the density estimates was not statistically significant. We conclude that when calibrated and used appropriately, some abundance indices may provide cost-effective and reliable measures of P. cinereus abundance that

  8. A Broad Assessment of Factors Determining Culicoides imicola Abundance: Modelling the Present and Forecasting Its Future in Climate Change Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Pelayo; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Estrada, Rosa; Márquez, Ana Luz; Miranda, Miguel Angel; Gortázar, Christian; Lucientes, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is still present in Europe and the introduction of new serotypes from endemic areas in the African continent is a possible threat. Culicoides imicola remains one of the most relevant BT vectors in Spain and research on the environmental determinants driving its life cycle is key to preventing and controlling BT. Our aim was to improve our understanding of the biotic and abiotic determinants of C. imicola by modelling its present abundance, studying the spatial pattern of predicted abundance in relation to BT outbreaks, and investigating how the predicted current distribution and abundance patterns might change under future (2011–2040) scenarios of climate change according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. C. imicola abundance data from the bluetongue national surveillance programme were modelled with spatial, topoclimatic, host and soil factors. The influence of these factors was further assessed by variation partitioning procedures. The predicted abundance of C. imicola was also projected to a future period. Variation partitioning demonstrated that the pure effect of host and topoclimate factors explained a high percentage (>80%) of the variation. The pure effect of soil followed in importance in explaining the abundance of C. imicola. A close link was confirmed between C. imicola abundance and BT outbreaks. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to consider wild and domestic hosts in predictive modelling for an arthropod vector. The main findings regarding the near future show that there is no evidence to suggest that there will be an important increase in the distribution range of C. imicola; this contrasts with an expected increase in abundance in the areas where it is already present in mainland Spain. What may be expected regarding the future scenario for orbiviruses in mainland Spain, is that higher predicted C. imicola abundance may significantly change the rate of transmission of orbiviruses. PMID:21151914

  9. A broad assessment of factors determining Culicoides imicola abundance: modelling the present and forecasting its future in climate change scenarios.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Pelayo; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Estrada, Rosa; Márquez, Ana Luz; Miranda, Miguel Angel; Gortázar, Christian; Lucientes, Javier

    2010-12-06

    Bluetongue (BT) is still present in Europe and the introduction of new serotypes from endemic areas in the African continent is a possible threat. Culicoides imicola remains one of the most relevant BT vectors in Spain and research on the environmental determinants driving its life cycle is key to preventing and controlling BT. Our aim was to improve our understanding of the biotic and abiotic determinants of C. imicola by modelling its present abundance, studying the spatial pattern of predicted abundance in relation to BT outbreaks, and investigating how the predicted current distribution and abundance patterns might change under future (2011-2040) scenarios of climate change according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. C. imicola abundance data from the bluetongue national surveillance programme were modelled with spatial, topoclimatic, host and soil factors. The influence of these factors was further assessed by variation partitioning procedures. The predicted abundance of C. imicola was also projected to a future period. Variation partitioning demonstrated that the pure effect of host and topoclimate factors explained a high percentage (>80%) of the variation. The pure effect of soil followed in importance in explaining the abundance of C. imicola. A close link was confirmed between C. imicola abundance and BT outbreaks. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to consider wild and domestic hosts in predictive modelling for an arthropod vector. The main findings regarding the near future show that there is no evidence to suggest that there will be an important increase in the distribution range of C. imicola; this contrasts with an expected increase in abundance in the areas where it is already present in mainland Spain. What may be expected regarding the future scenario for orbiviruses in mainland Spain, is that higher predicted C. imicola abundance may significantly change the rate of transmission of orbiviruses.

  10. Decline in relative abundance of bottlenose dolphins exposed to long-term disturbance.

    PubMed

    Bejder, Lars; Samuels, Amy; Whitehead, Hal; Gales, Nick; Mann, Janet; Connor, Richard; Heithaus, Mike; Watson-Capps, Jana; Flaherty, Cindy; Krützen, Michael

    2006-12-01

    Studies evaluating effects of human activity on wildlife typically emphasize short-term behavioral responses from which it is difficult to infer biological significance or formulate plans to mitigate harmful impacts. Based on decades of detailed behavioral records, we evaluated long-term impacts of vessel activity on bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) in Shark Bay, Australia. We compared dolphin abundance within adjacent 36-km2 tourism and control sites, over three consecutive 4.5-year periods wherein research activity was relatively constant but tourism levels increased from zero, to one, to two dolphin-watching operators. A nonlinear logistic model demonstrated that there was no difference in dolphin abundance between periods with no tourism and periods in which one operator offered tours. As the number of tour operators increased to two, there was a significant average decline in dolphin abundance (14.9%; 95% CI=-20.8 to -8.23), approximating a decline of one per seven individuals. Concurrently, within the control site, the average increase in dolphin abundance was not significant (8.5%; 95% CI=-4.0 to +16.7). Given the substantially greater presence and proximity of tour vessels to dolphins relative to research vessels, tour-vessel activity contributed more to declining dolphin numbers within the tourism site than research vessels. Although this trend may not jeopardize the large, genetically diverse dolphin population of Shark Bay, the decline is unlikely to be sustainable for local dolphin tourism. A similar decline would be devastating for small, closed, resident, or endangered cetacean populations. The substantial effect of tour vessels on dolphin abundance in a region of low-level tourism calls into question the presumption that dolphin-watching tourism is benign.

  11. Soil physicochemical conditions, denitrification rates, and abundance in north Carolina coastal plain restored wetlands.

    PubMed

    Ducey, T F; Miller, J O; Lang, M W; Szogi, A A; Hunt, P G; Fenstermacher, D E; Rabenhorst, M C; McCarty, G W

    2015-05-01

    Over the last century, North Carolina has seen a severe reduction in the percentage of wetlands and a rise in negative environmental impacts related to this loss. To counter these effects, efforts have been enacted to mitigate wetland loss and create new wetland areas. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of hydrological restoration at several sites in the North Carolina coastal plain. Nine sites were selected for study. Hydrologically restored wetlands were compared with natural wetlands and prior converted (PC) croplands (i.e., historic wetlands under agricultural production). Each site was analyzed along a relative wetness gradient, and physicochemical properties, denitrification enzyme activity, and NO reductase gene () abundances using real-time PCR were measured. Physicochemically, restoration resulted in significantly increased levels of total C as compared with PC cropland sites. Restored wetland sites also saw pH, soil moisture, P, and NO+NO approximate levels similar to those of natural wetlands. Denitrification enzyme activity rates varied based on relative wetness within individual sites, generally increasing with increasing soil moisture. However, denitrification tended to be lower in restored wetland sites relative to natural wetlands. Gene abundances of saw statistically significant decreases in restored wetland soils. In conclusion, although analysis of restored wetlands reveals clear changes in several physicochemical characteristics and significant decreases in gene abundances, restoration efforts appear to have not significantly affected the denitrification component of the N cycle.

  12. The abundance of boron in diffuse interstellar clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchey, Adam M.

    The origins of the stable isotopes of boron remain uncertain despite much theoretical and observational effort. Spallation reactions between relativistic Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and interstellar nuclei can adequately account for the production of 10 B and contribute to the cosmic abundance of 11 B. However, an additional source of 11 B synthesis is required to raise the isotopic ratio of 11 B/ 10 B from its GCR spallation value (2.4) to the value measured in carbonaceous chondrites (4.0). The n-process, neutrino-induced spallation in Type II supernovae, is a potentially significant source of 11 B production. Since neutrino-induced spallation does not result in substantial yields for 10 B, this process could naturally explain the enhancement in 11 B/ 10 B over the predictions of standard GCR spallation. Without the n-process, enhanced 11 B production, relative to 10 B, could be attributed to an increased flux of low- energy (5-40 MeV nucleon -1 ) cosmic rays, which are unobservable from Earth due to magnetic shielding by the solar wind. In this thesis, I present a comprehensive survey of boron abundances in diffuse interstellar clouds from Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) observations made with the Hubble Space Telescope in an effort to identify the sources responsible for light element nucleosynthesis. The present sample of 56 Galactic sight lines is the result of a complete search of archival STIS data for the B II l1362 resonance line. Each detection is confirmed by the presence of absorption due to O I l1355, Cu II l1358, and Ga II l1414 (when available) at the same velocity. Like B + , these species represent the dominant ionization stage of their element in neutral diffuse clouds and therefore should coexist. Profile templates based on synthesized absorption profiles of O I, Cu II, and Ga II are fitted to the B II line, yielding the total boron column density along each line of sight. By synthesizing B II profiles with components seen in high

  13. Carbon and nitrogen abundances determined from transition layer lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm-Vitense, Erika; Mena-Werth, Jose

    1992-01-01

    The possibility of determining relative carbon, nitrogen, and silicon abundances from the emission-line fluxes in the lower transition layers between stellar chromospheres and coronae is explored. Observations for main-sequence and luminosity class IV stars with presumably solar element abundances show that for the lower transition layers Em = BT sup -gamma. For a given carbon abundance the constants gamma and B in this relation can be determined from the C II and C IV emission-line fluxes. From the N V and S IV lines, the abundances of these elements relative to carbon can be determined from their surface emission-line fluxes. Ratios of N/C abundances determined in this way for some giants and supergiants agree within the limits of errors with those determined from molecular bands. For giants, an increase in the ratio of N/C at B-V of about 0.8 is found, as expected theoretically.

  14. Element abundances at high redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, David M.; Welty, D. E.; York, D. G.

    1989-01-01

    Abundances of Si(+), S(+), Cr(+), Mn(+), Fe(_), and Zn(+) are considered for two absorption-line systems in the spectrum of the QSO PKS 0528 - 250. Zinc and sulfur are underabundant, relative to H, by a factor of 10 compared to their solar and Galactic interstellar abundances. The silicon-, chromium-, iron-, and nickel-to-hydrogen ratios are less than the solar values and comparable to the local interstellar ratios. A straightforward interpretation is that nucleosynthesis in these high-redshift systems has led to only about one-tenth as much heavy production as in the gas clouds around the sun, and that the amount of the observed underabundances attributable to grain depletion is small. The dust-to-gas ratio in these clouds is less than 8 percent of the Galactic value.

  15. Coronal abundances and their variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saba, Julia L. R.

    1994-01-01

    This contract supports the investigation of elemental abundances in the solar corona, principally through analysis of high-resolution software X-ray spectra from the Flat Crystal Spectrometer on NASA's Solar Maximum Mission. The goals of the study are a characterization of the mean values of relative abundances of elements accessible in the FCS data, and information on the extent and circumstances of their variability. This report is a summation of the data analysis and reporting activities which occurred since the last report, submitted two months early, in April 1994, to facilitate evaluation of the first year's progress for contract renewal. Hence this report covers the period 15 April 1994 - 15 December 1994. A list of publications resulting from this research is included.

  16. The CALIFA survey: Oxygen abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Aff001

    We present here the last results we obtained on the spatial resolved analysis of the ionized gas of disk-dominated galaxies based on CALIFA data. CALIFA is an ongoing IFS survey of galaxies in the Local Univese (0.005 < z < 0.03) that has already obtained spectroscopic information up to ~2.5r e with a spatial resolution better than ~1 kpc for a total number of an statiscal sample of galaxies of different morphological types, covering the CM-diagram up to Mr<-18 mag. With nearly 2000 spectra obtained for each galaxy, CALIFA offer one of the best IFU data to study the starformation histories and chemical enrichment of galaxies. In this article we focus on the main results based on the analysis of the oxygen abundances based on the study of ionized gas in H ii regions and individual spaxels, and their relations with the global properties of galaxies. In summary we have found that: (1) the -Z relation does not present a secondary relation with the star-formation rate, when the abundance is measured at the effective radius; (2) the oxygen abundance present a strong correlation with the stellar surface density (Σ-Z relation); (3) the oxygen abundance profiles present three well defined regimes, (a) an overall negative radial gradient, between 0.5-2 r e , with a characteristic slope of α O/H ~-0.1 dex/r e , (b) an universal flatenning beyond >2r e and (c) an inner drop at <0.5r e which presence depends on the mass. All these results indicates that disk-galaxies present an overall inside-out growth, although with clear deviations from this simple scenario.

  17. The solar abundance of thulium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, J. E.; Aller, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    Consideration of one relatively unblended line of the solar spectrum, namely, the 3131.258-A line of Tm II, which yields a thulium abundance of 0.80 plus or minus 0.10 with the Corliss and Bozman (1962) f-value. The uncertainty of this figure is discussed in conjunction with the contradictory findings of some other investigators. The need for further detailed study of the lanthanides by the method of spectrum synthesis is pointed out.

  18. The Abundance and Distribution of Presolar Materials in Cluster IDPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messenger, Scott; Keller, Lindsay; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko; Ito, Motoo

    2007-01-01

    Presolar grains and remnants of interstellar organic compounds occur in a wide range of primitive solar system materials, including meteorites, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), and comet Wild-2 samples. Among the most abundant presolar phases are silicate stardust grains and molecular cloud material. However, these materials have also been susceptible to destruction and alteration during parent body and nebular processing. In addition to their importance as direct samples of remote and ancient astrophysical environments, presolar materials thus provide a measure of how well different primitive bodies have preserved the original solar system starting materials. The matrix normalized abundances of presolar silicate grains in meteorites range from 20 ppm in Semarkona and Bishunpur to 170 ppm for Acfer 094. The lower abundances of presolar silicates in Bishunpur and Semarkona has been ascribed to the destruction of presolar silicates during aqueous processes. Presolar silicates appear to be significantly more abundant in anhydrous IDPs, possibly because these materials did not experience parent body hydrothermal alteration. Among IDPs the estimated abundances of presolar silicates vary by more than an order of magnitude, from 480 to 5500 ppm. The wide disparity in the abundances of presolar silicates of IDPs may be a consequence of the relatively small total area analyzed in those studies and the fine grain sizes of the IDPs. Alternatively, there may be a wide range in presolar silicate abundances between different IDPs. This view is supported by the observation that 15N-rich IDPs have higher presolar silicate abundances than those with isotopically normal N.

  19. Disruption of Ant-Aphid Mutualism in Canopy Enhances the Abundance of Beetles on the Forest Floor

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Keming

    2012-01-01

    Ant-aphid mutualism is known to play a key role in the structure of the arthropod community in the tree canopy, but its possible ecological effects for the forest floor are unknown. We hypothesized that aphids in the canopy can increase the abundance of ants on the forest floor, thus intensifying the impacts of ants on other arthropods on the forest floor. We tested this hypothesis in a deciduous temperate forest in Beijing, China. We excluded the aphid-tending ants Lasius fuliginosus from the canopy using plots of varying sizes, and monitored the change in the abundance of ants and other arthropods on the forest floor in the treated and control plots. We also surveyed the abundance of ants and other arthropods on the forest floor to explore the relationships between ants and other arthropods in the field. Through a three-year experimental study, we found that the exclusion of ants from the canopy significantly decreased the abundance of ants on the forest floor, but increased the abundance of beetles, although the effect was only significant in the large ant-exclusion plot (80*60 m). The field survey showed that the abundance of both beetles and spiders was negatively related to the abundance of ants. These results suggest that aphids located in the tree canopy have indirect negative effects on beetles by enhancing the ant abundance on the forest floor. Considering that most of the beetles in our study are important predators, the ant-aphid mutualism can have further trophic cascading effects on the forest floor food web. PMID:22558156

  20. Relative abundance and size of coastal sharks derived from commercial shark longline catch and effort data.

    PubMed

    Carlson, J K; Hale, L F; Morgan, A; Burgess, G

    2012-04-01

    In the north-west Atlantic Ocean, stock assessments conducted for some commercially harvested coastal sharks indicate declines from 64 to 80% with respect to virgin population levels. While the status of commercially important species is available, abundance trend information for other coastal shark species in the north-west Atlantic Ocean are unavailable. Using a generalized linear modelling (GLM) approach, a relative abundance index was derived from 1994 to 2009 using observer data collected in a commercial bottom longline fishery. Trends in abundance and average size were estimated for bull shark Carcharhinus leucas, spinner shark Carcharhinus brevipinna, tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier and lemon shark Negaprion brevirostris. Increases in relative abundance for all shark species ranged from 14% for C. brevipinna, 12% for C. leucas, 6% for N. brevirostris and 3% for G. cuvier. There was no significant change in the size at capture over the time period considered for all species. While the status of shark populations should not be based exclusively on abundance trend information, but ultimately on stock assessment models, results from this study provide some cause for optimism on the status of these coastal shark species.

  1. Temporal variability in abundance of Marbled Murrelets at sea in southeast Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Speckman, Suzann G.; Springer, Alan M.; Piatt, John F.; Thomas, Dana

    2000-01-01

    We examined effects of season, time of day, tide stage, tidal oscillation, and sea surface temperature on Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) abundance and distribution at sea. We also evaluated whether constraining surveys to specific time periods or tide stages would reduce temporal variability in counts. Murrelets were surveyed daily from small boats and from shore in Auke Bay and Fritz Cove, Alaska, from May through August in 1992 and 1993. Murrelet numbers were high before egg-laying, declined by more than half during egg-laying and incubation and were highly variable during chick-rearing and fledging. Murrelet numbers were highest in early and late morning and declined throughout the day, sometimes increasing slightly in the evening. Peak murrelet numbers occurred on high or falling morning tides, especially in shallow areas where Pacific sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus) were abundant. Differences between years in murrelet abundance and breeding phenology probably resulted from interannual differences in the pattern of seasonal warming and subsequent effects on production at lower trophic levels. We recommend that surveys for trends in abundance in Southeast Alaska be conducted in early morning, in June, at high or falling tides. Power analyses indicated that surveys conducted in this manner would minimize the number of years required to detect a significant change in abundance.

  2. Temporal variation in copepod abundance and composition in a strong, persistent coastal upwelling zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, Rachel E.; Elliott, Meredith L.; Largier, John L.; Jahncke, Jaime

    2016-03-01

    Zooplankton abundance and species composition provide information on environmental variability in the ocean. While zooplankton time series span the west coast of North America, less data exist off north-central California. Here, we investigated a zooplankton time series, focusing specifically on copepods, collected within the Gulf of the Farallones-Cordell Bank area (37.5° to 38.5°N) from 2004 to 2009. Impacted by seasonally strong, persistent upwelling, this study area is located downstream of a major upwelling center (Point Arena). We found copepod abundance and species composition differed significantly, particularly between the first three years (2004-2006) and the latter three years (2007-2009) of the study. These changes were mainly observed as changes in abundance of boreal copepod species, Pseudocalanus mimus and Acartia longiremis. These taxa showed increasing abundances for the latter three years of the study (2007-2009). During the first three years of the time series, environmental measurements in the region showed lower alongshore wind stress, weaker upwelling, minimal surface alongshore flow, and warmer surface ocean temperatures. Temporal variations in copepod abundance and species composition correlated with several of these environmental measurements (e.g., surface cross-shore and alongshore flows, upwelling, and alongshore wind stress), indicating environmental forcing of primary consumers and ecosystem productivity in this strong, persistent upwelling zone.

  3. Postnatal changes in the relative abundance of intestinal Lactobacillus spp. in newborn calves

    PubMed Central

    TAKINO, Tadashi; KATO-MORI, Yuko; MOTOOKA, Daisuke; NAKAMURA, Shota; IIDA, Tetsuya; HAGIWARA, Katsuro

    2017-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota of newborn calves changes during the early postnatal period and influences their health and immune function. We studied the compositional changes in the intestinal microbiome of newborn calves during the first week after birth by metagenomic analysis. In feces from newborn calves, we identified 4 bacterial phyla, namely, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. The relative abundance of Lactobacillaceae significantly increased from day 1 to day 7. We evaluated Lactobacillus spp. colony numbers using selective agar plates and confirmed that the abundance of Lactobacillus spp. significantly increased during the first 7 days after birth. In conclusion, Lactobacillus spp. colonized the intestinal tract of calves during the first 7 days after birth. PMID:28070087

  4. Abundance and persistence of antibiotic resistance genes in livestock farms: a comprehensive investigation in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Weixiao; Chen, Hong; Su, Chao; Yan, Shuhai

    2013-11-01

    Increases of antibiotic resistance genes in the environment may pose a threat to public health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the abundance and diversity of tetracycline (tet) and sulfonamide (sul) resistance genes in eight livestock farms in Hangzhou, eastern China. Ten tet genes (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetG, tetL, tetM, tetO, tetQ, tetW, and tetX), two sul genes (sulI and sulII), and one genetic element associated with mobile antibiotic resistance genes [class 1 integron (intI1)] were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. No significant difference was found in the abundance of the tet and sul genes in various scales of pig, chicken, and duck farms (P>0.05). The average abundance of ribosomal protection protein genes (tetQ, tetM, tetW, and tetO) in the manure and wastewater samples was higher than most of the efflux pump genes (tetA, tetB, tetC, and tetL) and enzymatic modification gene (tetX) (P<0.05), except for efflux pump gene tetG, which was abundant and showed no difference from tetM. Most ARGs had higher relative abundance in the wastewater lagoon than in manures even after treatment. Although the three ribosomal protection protein genes (tetQ, tetW, and tetO) had higher relative abundance, numbers were reduced during the complete wastewater treatment process in pig farms (P<0.05). The relative abundance of tetG, sulI, and sulII increased after the wastewater treatment and the removal of these three genes exhibited significant positive correlations with the intI1 gene (tetG: R(2)=0.60, P<0.05; sulI: R(2)=0.72, P<0.05; sulII: R(2)=0.62, P<0.05), suggesting that intI1 may be involved in their proliferation. As for tetM and sulII genes, a highly significant difference was found in manure samples between pig farms and duck farms (P<0.001). Phylogenetic analysis showed that tetM was more diverse in duck farms than in pig farms. Additionally, sulII sequence was conserved both in pig and duck farms. This is the first comprehensive study to

  5. The Abundance of Interstellar Fluorine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauroesch, James T.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this program was to obtain FUSE observations of the interstellar absorption lines of F I at 951 and 954 Angstroms to derive the abundance of fluorine toward the star HD 164816. The nucleosynthetic source(s) of fluorine are still a matter of debate - the present day abundance of fluorine can potentially constrain models for pulsationally driven dredge-up in asymptotic giant branch stars. An accurate measure for the depletion behavior of fluorine will determine whether it may be detectable in QSO absorption line systems - an unambiguous detection of fluorine at suitably high redshifts would provide the best evidence to date for the neutrino process in massive stars. Furthermore, due to its extreme reactivity, measurement of the gas-phase interstellar fluorine abundance is important for models of grain chemistry. Despite the importance of measuring the interstellar fluorine abundance, at the time of our proposal only one previous detection has been made due to the low relative abundance of fluorine, the lack of lines outside the far-UV, and the blending of the available F I transitions with lines of Hz. The star HD 164816 is associated with the Lagoon nebula (M8), and at a distance of approximately 1.5 kpc probes both distant and local gas. Beginning April 8th, 2004 FUSE FP-Split observations of the star HD 164816 were obtained for this program. This data became available in the FUSE data archive May 21, 2004, and these observations were then downloaded and we began our analysis. Our analysis procedure has involved (1) fitting stellar models to the FUSE spectra, (2) using the multiple lines of Hz and N I at other wavelengths in the FUSE bandpass to derive column densities for the lines of H2 and N I which are blended with the F I features at 951 and 954 angstroms (3) the measurement of the column densities of F I and the species O I and C1 I which are important species for the dis-entangling of dust and nucleosynthetic effects. As discussed in

  6. Inactivation of the Pseudomonas putida cytochrome o ubiquinol oxidase leads to a significant change in the transcriptome and to increased expression of the CIO and cbb3-1 terminal oxidases.

    PubMed

    Morales, Gracia; Ugidos, Ana; Rojo, Fernando

    2006-10-01

    Pseudomonas putida KT2440 contains a branched aerobic respiratory chain with several terminal oxidases. Inactivation of the cyo terminal ubiquinol oxidase has little effect on growth rate but is known to relieve the inhibition by global control that modulates induction of genes required to assimilate alkanes in cells growing in the presence of preferred carbon sources. We show that inactivation of other terminal oxidases has no effect on regulation of the alkane degradation pathway, which points to cyo as the oxidase that transmits a regulatory signal related to the activity of the electron transport chain. Using a genome-wide DNA microarray we found that inactivation of cyo has a significant effect on the transcriptome, supporting that it participates in global regulation of gene expression. Among the genes affected stand out those coding for transporters of organic acids, porins, transcriptional regulators and terminal oxidases. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that, in cells growing exponentially in a complete medium, the absence of cyo was compensated by increased expression of the cyanide-insensitive and cbb3-1 terminal oxidases, while cbb3-2 and aa3 oxidases remained unaffected. When cells enter into stationary phase cyo levels decrease and inhibition of the alkane degradation genes ceases. This was paralleled by upregulation of the cyanide-insensitive, cbb3-1, cbb3-2 and aa3 terminal oxidases. The results suggest that P. putida adapts the composition of the electron transport chain not only to optimize energy generation, but also to influence the transcriptome profile of the cell through global control of gene expression.

  7. Influence of prescribed burns on the abundance of Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Missouri Ozarks.

    PubMed

    Allan, Brian F

    2009-09-01

    The increasingly widespread use of prescribed burns to manage oak (Quercus spp.)-hickory (Carya spp.) forests in the Missouri Ozarks, USA, has considerable potential to alter the abundance of Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae), the lone star tick, an important vector of several emerging pathogens. In particular, responses of important tick hosts, primarily white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), to fire management and the resultant changes in the distribution and abundance of A. americanum are largely unknown. Using several large burn units (61-242 ha) within the Ozark ecosystem, I measured the effect of the time elapsed since sites were burned on the density of white-tailed deer and the larval life stage of A. americanum. Larval tick densities were highest in areas that were 2 yr postburn and were > 6 times higher than tick densities in control units. Deer densities were highest in sites that were burned in the same year as this study and decreased significantly with time