Science.gov

Sample records for abundant myxoid stroma

  1. Paratesticular dedifferentiated liposarcoma with prominent myxoid stroma: report of a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Shogo; Koda, Kenji

    2017-06-01

    Paratesticular sarcoma is rare, but liposarcoma is its most common type. Paratesticular liposarcoma sometimes presents as dedifferentiated liposarcoma. Both high-grade and low-grade dedifferentiation have been reported. Herein, we presented a unique case of a 64-year-old man with low-grade dedifferentiated liposarcoma with prominent myxoid stroma. Well-differentiated liposarcoma components extended along the spermatic cord. The constituent cells of the dedifferentiated component were peculiar in that, they were relatively uniform cells with atypia and did not have pleomorphism to such an extent that it mimicked myxofibrosarcoma. This myxoid component was confidently differentiated from myxoid liposarcoma with the help of immunohistochemical analysis using CDK4 and MDM2. These two markers were also expressed in the well-differentiated component. It could therefore be confirmed that this sarcoma is dedifferentiated liposarcoma but is not mixed-type liposarcoma comprising well-differentiated liposarcoma and myxoid liposarcoma.

  2. "Pseudomyxoma Endometrii": Endometrial Deposition of Acellular Mucin from a Low-Grade Appendiceal Mucinous Neoplasm as a Rare Mimic of Myxoid Uterine Tumors.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Kristin C; Kokh, Dina; Ioffe, Olga B; Staats, Paul N

    2015-07-01

    Low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms (LAMNs) are commonly associated with deposition of mucin, with or without admixed low-grade epithelium, on peritoneal surfaces (pseudomyxoma peritonei). We describe a very rare presentation of LAMN as extensive mucin deposition in the endometrium of a 43-yr-old woman initially mistaken for a primary uterine myxoid neoplasm. The patient underwent endometrial curettage that demonstrated abundant myxoid/mucoid material interspersed with small vessels, bland eosinophilic spindled cells, scattered foci of typical endometrial stroma, and occasional endometrioid glands. The endometrial stroma was positive for CD10, and the eosinophilic spindled cells were positive for actin. The lesion was interpreted as "myxoid/mucinous neoplasm, most likely of smooth muscle/endometrial stromal origin." Subsequent laparotomy revealed peritoneal mucin in the anterior cul-de-sac and a dilated appendix. Pathologic review confirmed appendiceal LAMN and multifocal peritoneal mucinosis. The uterus contained scant residual mucoid material. On review of all pathologic material at our institution, the endometrial lesion was consistent with organizing mucin derived from the LAMN with entrapped benign endometrium. "Pseudomyxoma endometrii" is readily mistaken for a primary uterine myxoid neoplasm, particularly myxoid endometrial stromal tumor. A key to diagnosis is recognition that the material is mucin rather than myxoid stroma. This is evidenced by the absence of embedded stromal cells and presence of myofibroblastic, vascular, and macrophage infiltration associated with organization. Epithelium containing goblet cells is an important clue if present. The presence of rare endometrial glands within the endometrial stroma suggests that the latter is entrapped rather than neoplastic.

  3. Ocular myxoid leiomyosarcoma in a cat.

    PubMed

    Labelle, Philippe; Holmberg, Bradford J

    2010-01-01

    A case of myxoid leiomyosarcoma likely of iris dilator muscle origin in the enucleated eye of a 6-year-old domestic short haired cat is reported. The poorly demarcated mass expanded the iris, partially filled the globe and extended into the optic nerve. The mass was composed of spindle cells separated by abundant matrix positive for mucopolysaccharides with alcian blue. The neoplastic cells were immunoreactive for smooth muscle actin (SMA), S100 and vimentin, and negative for cytokeratin, Melan-A, glial fibrillary protein (GFAP) and desmin. There was no evidence of recurrence or metastasis 6 months after enucleation.

  4. Multiple myxoid cysts secondary to occupation.

    PubMed

    Connolly, M; de Berker, D A R

    2006-05-01

    We report the case of a 50-year-old woman who presented with eight digital myxoid cysts (DMCs) involving the fingers of both hands. They developed within 12 months of the patient starting a job that involved pushing a garment into an embroidery mould, thus exerting a downward force on the fingertips. The pressure exerted from this force could have potentially damaged the joint synovial capsule, leading to rupture and loss of synovial gel, thus inducing myxoid cysts. This case suggests that DMCs may be related to occupation, and to our knowledge, this is only the second reported case of occupationally induced DMCs.

  5. Primitive myxoid mesenchymal tumor of infancy in a preterm infant.

    PubMed

    Lam, Joseph; Lara-Corrales, Irene; Cammisuli, Salvatore; Somers, Gino R; Pope, Elena

    2010-01-01

    Primitive myxoid mesenchymal tumor of infancy is a recently recognized entity that has been added to the differential diagnosis of myxoid tumors of the soft tissue. Few cases have been reported of this entity in the literature, but none presenting in a preterm infant. We present the case and clinical course of a preterm boy with a primitive myxoid mesenchymal tumor of infancy that occurred following excision of a congenital juvenile xanthogranuloma. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Myxoid atypical fibroxanthoma: a previously undescribed variant.

    PubMed

    Patton, A; Page, R; Googe, P B; King, R

    2009-11-01

    Atypical fibroxanthomas (AFX) are dermal-based cutaneous tumors typically found in sun-damaged skin of the elderly. Histologic variants include spindle cell, clear cell, osteoid, osteoclastic, chondroid, pigmented, and granular cell. To date, myxoid change in AFX, has not been described. Four cases were retrieved from the consultation and surgical pathology files of Knoxville Dermatopathology Laboratory, Knoxville, Tennessee during a 4-year period. The clinical and histologic findings were reviewed and Alcian blue/periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stain and panel of immunohistochemical stains was obtained. All 4 lesions occurred as solitary lesions in elderly males on the head and neck (2 cases) and upper extremity (2 cases). Histologically all tumors demonstrated a well-circumscribed, cellular lesion centered in the dermis and composed of a mix of atypical pleomorphic and spindle cells in a prominent myxomatous background. A junctional component was absent and the tumors did not arise from the epidermis or adnexal structures. Subcutaneous involvement was absent in all cases. Tumor cells were negative for melanocytic and epithelial markers. Positive staining was noted with CD10 (3/4 cases) and vimentin (4/4 cases). Myxoid change in AFX is rare and previously undescribed in the English literature. Myxoid change may be a prominent finding in benign and malignant cutaneous tumors and awareness of this variant of AFX will avoid misdiagnosis.

  7. Myxoid stroma and delicate vasculature of a superficial angiomyxoma give rise to the red planet sign.

    PubMed

    Green, Margaret; Logemann, Nichola; Sulit, Daryl J

    2014-09-16

    Superficial angiomyxomas are uncommon benign mesenchymal tumors. They often recur locally if partially removed. This case report demonstrates not only the characteristic pathological findings of a superficial angiomyxoma in a 33- year-old man, but also shows a unique dermatoscopic image, which in our estimation resembles a celestial red planet such as the blood moon seen during a lunar eclipse. We propose to call this the "red planet" sign for a superficial angiomyxoma on dermoscopic examination.

  8. Pelvic Myxoid Leiomyoma Mass between Vagina and Rectum.

    PubMed

    AlShalabi, Omar; Alahmar, Fadi Obaied; Aljasem, Hazem; Alsaid, Bayan; AlShalabi, Abdulghani

    2016-01-01

    Leiomyomas are the most common pelvic tumors in women. About 20-30% of women older than 35 are affected. Rare conditions of leiomyomas have extrauterine locations. Myxoid degeneration is a rare type of leiomyoma degeneration. We report a case of solid-cystic myxoid leiomyoma in a 53-year-old woman complained of constipation, urinary hesitation, and malodorous vaginal discharge with palpable 17 × 12 cm mass between vagina and rectum. Regarding the inferior location of the mass, a perineal approach was used to enucleate it. This rare location has not been mentioned before. The woman was finally diagnosed by pathologists which was myxoid leiomyoma.

  9. Primary extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma of the vulva.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Morio; Tochigi, Naobumi; Sasajima, Yuko; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Kasamatsu, Takahiro; Kitawaki, Jo

    2011-11-01

    Primary extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC) of the vulva is extremely rare. There is little available information about the biological behavior and treatment strategy for primary EMC of the vulva. We report a rare case of primary EMC of the vulva treated surgically. A 24-year-old Japanese woman had demonstrated a small and elastic mass of the vulva and underwent enucleation of the mass at a previous hospital, but a definitive histopathological diagnosis was not obtained. Therefore, the patient was referred to our hospital for further evaluation and treatment. We histopathologically diagnosed the tumor as primary EMC of the vulva and performed vulvectomy with vulvoperineal reconstruction. Microscopic examination of the resected specimens demonstrated residual tumor nodules of EMC. However, there were no viable tumor cells at the surgical margin. Approximately two years after wide local excision was performed, the patient is doing well and there is no apparent recurrence of EMC. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. Next generation sequencing of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Davis, Elizabeth J; Wu, Yi-Mi; Robinson, Dan; Schuetze, Scott M; Baker, Laurence H; Athanikar, Jyoti; Cao, Xuhong; Kunju, Lakshmi P; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Chugh, Rashmi

    2017-03-28

    Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC) is an indolent translocation-associated soft tissue sarcoma with a high propensity for metastases. Using a clinical sequencing approach, we genomically profiled patients with metastatic EMC to elucidate the molecular biology and identify potentially actionable mutations. We also evaluated potential predictive factors of benefit to sunitinib, a multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor with reported activity in a subset of EMC patients. Between January 31, 2012 and April 15, 2016, six patients with EMC participated in the clinical sequencing research study. High quality DNA and RNA was isolated and matched normal samples underwent comprehensive next generation sequencing (whole or OncoSeq capture exome of tumor and normal, tumor PolyA+ and capture transcriptome). The expression levels of sunitinib targeted-kinases were measured by transcriptome sequencing for KDR, PDGFRA/B, KIT, RET, FLT1, and FLT4. The previously reported EWSR1-NR4A3 translocation was identified in all patient tumors; however, other recurring genomic abnormalities were not detected. RET expression was significantly greater in patients with EMC relative to other types of sarcomas except for liposarcoma (p<0.0002). The folate receptor was overexpressed in two patients. Our study demonstrated that similar to other translocation-associated sarcomas, the mutational profile of metastatic EMC is limited beyond the pathognomonic translocation. The clinical significance of RET expression in EMC should be explored. Additional pre-clinical investigations of EMC may help elucidate molecular mechanisms contributing to EMC tumorigenesis that could be translated to the clinical setting.

  11. Corneal stroma microfibrils.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Samuel D; Behzad, Ali R; Sakai, Lynn Y; Burns, Alan R

    2015-03-01

    Elastic tissue was first described well over a hundred years ago and has since been identified in nearly every part of the body. In this review, we examine elastic tissue in the corneal stroma with some mention of other ocular structures which have been more thoroughly described in the past. True elastic fibers consist of an elastin core surrounded by fibrillin microfibrils. However, the presence of elastin fibers is not a requirement and some elastic tissue is comprised of non-elastin-containing bundles of microfibrils. Fibers containing a higher relative amount of elastin are associated with greater elasticity and those without elastin, with structural support. Recently it has been shown that the microfibrils, not only serve mechanical roles, but are also involved in cell signaling through force transduction and the release of TGF-β. A well characterized example of elastin-free microfibril bundles (EFMBs) is found in the ciliary zonules which suspend the crystalline lens in the eye. Through contraction of the ciliary muscle they exert enough force to reshape the lens and thereby change its focal point. It is believed that the molecules comprising these fibers do not turn-over and yet retain their tensile strength for the life of the animal. The mechanical properties of the cornea (strength, elasticity, resiliency) would suggest that EFMBs are present there as well. However, many authors have reported that, although present during embryonic and early postnatal development, EFMBs are generally not present in adults. Serial-block-face imaging with a scanning electron microscope enabled 3D reconstruction of elements in murine corneas. Among these elements were found fibers that formed an extensive network throughout the cornea. In single sections these fibers appeared as electron dense patches. Transmission electron microscopy provided additional detail of these patches and showed them to be composed of fibrils (∼10 nm diameter). Immunogold evidence clearly

  12. Corneal Stroma Microfibrils

    PubMed Central

    Hanlon, Samuel D.; Behzad, Ali R.; Sakai, Lynn Y.; Burns, Alan R.

    2015-01-01

    Elastic tissue was first described well over a hundred years ago and has since been identified in nearly every part of the body. In this review, we examine elastic tissue in the corneal stroma with some mention of other ocular structures which have been more thoroughly described in the past. True elastic fibers consist of an elastin core surrounded by fibrillin microfibrils. However, the presence of elastin fibers is not a requirement and some elastic tissue is comprised of non-elastin-containing bundles of microfibrils. Fibers containing a higher relative amount of elastin are associated with greater elasticity and those without elastin, with structural support. Recently it has been shown that the microfibrils, not only serve mechanical roles, but are also involved in cell signaling through force transduction and the release of TGF-β. A well characterized example of elastin-free microfibril bundles (EFMBs) is found in the ciliary zonules which suspend the crystalline lens in the eye. Through contraction of the ciliary muscle they exert enough force to reshape the lens and thereby change its focal point. It is believed that the molecules comprising these fibers do not turn-over and yet retain their tensile strength for the life of the animal. The mechanical properties of the cornea (strength, elasticity, resiliency) would suggest that EFMBs are present there as well. However, many authors have reported that, although present during embryonic and early postnatal development, EFMBs are generally not present in adults. Serial-block-face imaging with a scanning electron microscope enabled 3D reconstruction of elements in murine corneas. Among these elements were found fibers that formed an extensive network throughout the cornea. In single sections these fibers appeared as electron dense patches. Transmission electron microscopy provided additional detail of these patches and showed them to be composed of fibrils (∼10nm diameter). Immunogold evidence clearly

  13. Myxoid malignant fibrous histiocytoma presenting as a midline nasal mass.

    PubMed

    DeRosa, Jaimie; Smit, Jeffrey R

    2012-04-01

    Myxoid malignant fibrous histiocytoma is a rare type of pediatric non-rhabdomyosarcoma soft-tissue sarcoma. The case of a 5-year-old girl is presented, highlighting the potential for multiple pitfalls and aberrant differential diagnoses that need to be identified for successful treatment of pediatric myxofibrosarcomas. An awareness of these tumors and a call for standardized postsurgical treatment protocols is necessary in order to successfully treat children with this disease.

  14. Myxoid liposarcoma of the foot: a study of 8 cases.

    PubMed

    Bekers, Elise M; Song, Wangzhao; Suurmeijer, Albert J H; Bonenkamp, Johannes J; van der Geest, Ingrid C; Braam, Petra M; Ploegmakers, Marieke J M; Desar, Ingrid M E; Tops, Bastiaan B J; van Gorp, Joost M; Creytens, David H; Mentzel, Thomas; Flucke, Uta

    2016-12-01

    Myxoid liposarcoma is the only translocation-associated liposarcoma subtype. It classically originates in the deep soft tissues of the thigh. At distal sites of the extremities, this tumor is exceedingly rare. We present a series of 8 cases occurring in the foot/ankle. Two female and 6 male patients, aged between 32 and 77 years (mean, 54.3 years), were identified. Tumor size ranged from 1.1 to 10 cm (mean, 6.8 cm). Two lesions eroded bone. All tumors were treated by excision and 7 by (neo)adjuvant radiotherapy. R0 status was reached in 2 cases with 1 case followed by metastasis in the groin. All other cases were documented with R1 (n=2) or R2 (n=4) resection status. In 1 patient, the follow-up status was unknown. All other patients were alive 15-135 (mean, 55.8) months after initial diagnosis. We conclude that myxoid liposarcoma at acral sites are exceedingly rare, and in this series, prognosis was good irrespective of resection status. Clinicians and pathologists have to be aware because this sarcoma type shows a peculiar clinical behavior with high radio- and chemosensitivity and metastatic spread to extrapulmonary sites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Remodelling of the pinna in myxoid degeneration of the ear.

    PubMed

    Kean, J; Stewart, K J

    2010-07-01

    Idiopathic deformation of the pinna is not widely reported in the current literature. We present a series of cases in which patients have required surgery for spontaneous thickening and deformation of the auricular cartilage, and a description of a technique for surgical correction. Four cases of idiopathic deformation of the pinna are reported. Our preferred technique of scaphoid rim incision and anterior carving of the cartilage is described, with intra-operative photographs. Each patient reported spontaneous swelling of the upper poles of the ears beginning in the second or third decade of life. In 3 cases the deformity was bilateral, although in each of these cases one side was more severely affected than the other. Histology for these cases was reported as myxoid degeneration of the ear. All of the reported patients were pleased with the aesthetic outcome of their auricular remodelling. Currently, there are no typical patient demographics for idiopathic myxoid degeneration of the ear. We have achieved good aesthetic results by hand carving the anterior aspect of the deformed cartilage via scaphoid rim incisions. Copyright 2009 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Primary extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma of pulmonary arteries: a rare mimic of acute pulmonary thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Gadabanahalli, Karthik; Belaval, Vinay V; Bhat, Venkatraman; Gorur, Imran M

    2015-04-01

    Primary extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma of the pulmonary arteries is a very rare entity. Multimodality imaging reports on this entity are few. Myxoid chondrosarcoma is characterized by chondroid and neurogenic differentiation in extraskeletal locations. These tumours represent fewer than 2.5% of all soft-tissue sarcomas, and are most commonly found in the lower extremities, limb girdles, distal extremities and trunk. We report an unusual case of a 31-year old man with histopathologically proven extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma of the pulmonary arteries mimicking acute pulmonary thromboembolism. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  17. Metachronous multifocal myxoid liposarcoma involving the gastrointestinal tract. Management and literature review.

    PubMed

    Salemis, Nikolaos S; Seretis, Charalambos; Seretis, Fotios; Christofyllakis, Charalambos; Karalis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Multifocal soft tissue sarcoma is a rare clinical entity occurring in 1% of patients with extremity soft tissue sarcoma and in 4.5% of patients with liposarcoma. Multifocal disease may arise either synchronously or metachronously and has been associated with poor prognosis. Herein, we have described a rare case of metachronous multifocal myxoid liposarcoma involving the gastrointestinal tract that developed 14 months after the resection of a myxoid buttock liposarcoma. Diagnostic evaluation and management of the patient are discussed along with a review of the relevant literature. We conclude that multifocal myxoid liposarcoma is a rare clinical entity that usually represents metastatic disease with poor prognosis. A thorough imaging and careful physical examination are essential in the preoperative evaluation and postoperative follow-up of patients with myxoid extremity liposarcomas, as these tumors are known to have a tendency to spread toward extrapulmonary sites, frequently without pulmonary metastases.

  18. Metachronous multifocal myxoid liposarcoma involving the gastrointestinal tract. Management and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Salemis, Nikolaos S.; Seretis, Charalambos; Seretis, Fotios; Christofyllakis, Charalambos; Karalis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Multifocal soft tissue sarcoma is a rare clinical entity occurring in 1% of patients with extremity soft tissue sarcoma and in 4.5% of patients with liposarcoma. Multifocal disease may arise either synchronously or metachronously and has been associated with poor prognosis. Herein, we have described a rare case of metachronous multifocal myxoid liposarcoma involving the gastrointestinal tract that developed 14 months after the resection of a myxoid buttock liposarcoma. Diagnostic evaluation and management of the patient are discussed along with a review of the relevant literature. We conclude that multifocal myxoid liposarcoma is a rare clinical entity that usually represents metastatic disease with poor prognosis. A thorough imaging and careful physical examination are essential in the preoperative evaluation and postoperative follow-up of patients with myxoid extremity liposarcomas, as these tumors are known to have a tendency to spread toward extrapulmonary sites, frequently without pulmonary metastases. PMID:24678225

  19. [A giant myxoid leiomyoma mimicking an inguinal hernia].

    PubMed

    Huszár, Orsolya; Zaránd, Attila; Szántó, Gyöngyi; Juhász, Viktória; Székely, Eszter; Novák, András; Molnár, Béla Ákos; Harsányi, László

    2016-03-06

    Leiomyoma is a rare, smooth muscle tumour that can occur everywhere in the human body. The authors present the history of a 60-year-old female, who had a giant, Mullerian type myxoid leiomyoma in the inguinal region mimicking acute abdominal symptoms. After examination the authors removed the soft tissue mass in the right femoral region reaching down in supine position to the middle third of the leg measuring 335 × 495 × 437 mm in greatest diameters in weight 33 kg. Reconstruction of the tissue defect was performed using oncoplastic guidelines. During the follow-up time no tumour recurrence was detected and the quality of life of the patient improved significantly.

  20. [A rare tumor of the parapharyngeal space: myxoid chondrosarcoma].

    PubMed

    Bahri, I; Boudawara, T; Sellami, A; Khabir, A; Ghorgel, M; Drira, M; Daoud, J; Jlidi, R

    2002-01-01

    Extrasqueletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC) is an uncommon soft tissue malignant tumor, locally aggressive with a high incidence of distant metastasis. It has distinctive clinical, immunophenotypic, cytogenetic and ultrastructural features. Most EMC are associated with the translocation t(9;22) (q22;q12). Their occurrence in the parapharyngeal space is extremely rare. Our objective is to discuss the difficulties of the histological diagnosis of EMC and to describe its immunophenotypic, cytogenetic features and clinical behavior. We report a case of a 67 years old woman who presented with a five months history of dysphagia. The oral examination found a mass displacing the posterior and left walls of the pharynx. Surgical resection of the tumor was undertaken. The pathologic examination concluded to the diagnosis of an EMC of the left parapharygeal space. Now, the patient is receiving an adjuvant radiotherapy.

  1. Regulation of corneal stroma extracellular matrix assembly.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shoujun; Mienaltowski, Michael J; Birk, David E

    2015-04-01

    The transparent cornea is the major refractive element of the eye. A finely controlled assembly of the stromal extracellular matrix is critical to corneal function, as well as in establishing the appropriate mechanical stability required to maintain corneal shape and curvature. In the stroma, homogeneous, small diameter collagen fibrils, regularly packed with a highly ordered hierarchical organization, are essential for function. This review focuses on corneal stroma assembly and the regulation of collagen fibrillogenesis. Corneal collagen fibrillogenesis involves multiple molecules interacting in sequential steps, as well as interactions between keratocytes and stroma matrix components. The stroma has the highest collagen V:I ratio in the body. Collagen V regulates the nucleation of protofibril assembly, thus controlling the number of fibrils and assembly of smaller diameter fibrils in the stroma. The corneal stroma is also enriched in small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) that cooperate in a temporal and spatial manner to regulate linear and lateral collagen fibril growth. In addition, the fibril-associated collagens (FACITs) such as collagen XII and collagen XIV have roles in the regulation of fibril packing and inter-lamellar interactions. A communicating keratocyte network contributes to the overall and long-range regulation of stromal extracellular matrix assembly, by creating micro-domains where the sequential steps in stromal matrix assembly are controlled. Keratocytes control the synthesis of extracellular matrix components, which interact with the keratocytes dynamically to coordinate the regulatory steps into a cohesive process. Mutations or deficiencies in stromal regulatory molecules result in altered interactions and deficiencies in both transparency and refraction, leading to corneal stroma pathobiology such as stromal dystrophies, cornea plana and keratoconus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Regulation of Corneal Stroma Extracellular Matrix Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shoujun; Mienaltowski, Michael J.; Birk, David E.

    2014-01-01

    The transparent cornea is the major refractive element of the eye. A finely controlled assembly of the stromal extracellular matrix is critical to corneal function, as well as in establishing the appropriate mechanical stability required to maintain corneal shape and curvature. In the stroma, homogeneous, small diameter collagen fibrils, regularly packed with a highly ordered hierarchical organization, are essential for function. This review focuses on corneal stroma assembly and the regulation of collagen fibrillogenesis. Corneal collagen fibrillogenesis involves multiple molecules interacting in sequential steps, as well as interactions between keratocytes and stroma matrix components. The stroma has the highest collagen V:I ratio in the body. Collagen V regulates the nucleation of protofibril assembly, thus controlling the number of fibrils and assembly of smaller diameter fibrils in the stroma. The corneal stroma is also enriched in small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) that cooperate in a temporal and spatial manner to regulate linear and lateral collagen fibril growth. In addition, the fibril-associated collagens (FACITs) such as collagen XII and collagen XIV have roles in the regulation of fibril packing and inter-lamellar interactions. A communicating keratocyte network contributes to the overall and long-range regulation of stromal extracellular matrix assembly, by creating micro-domains where the sequential steps in stromal matrix assembly are controlled. Keratocytes control the synthesis of extracellular matrix components, which interact with the keratocytes dynamically to coordinate the regulatory steps into a cohesive process. Mutations or deficiencies in stromal regulatory molecules result in altered interactions and deficiencies in both transparency and refraction, leading to corneal stroma pathobiology such as stromal dystrophies, cornea plana and keratoconus. PMID:25819456

  3. Primary meningeal myxoid liposarcoma with aggressive behavior after recurrence: case report.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Noriyuki; Ohtani, Haruo; Mori, Shuichi; Iguchi, Masahiro; Zaboronok, Alexander; Sakamoto, Noriaki; Matsuda, Masahide; Ishikawa, Eiichi; Matsumura, Akira

    2018-06-19

    Although liposarcomas are the most common soft tissue sarcomas, their intracranial variants are extremely rare. Here, we present a case of a primary intracranial myxoid liposarcoma in a 23-year-old Japanese man who presented with generalized seizures and a mass in the left frontal lobe. The tumor was totally removed, and histological analyses pointed to liposarcoma. Thirteen years after his initial treatment, the patient presented with right-side weakness and local recurrence of tumor was discovered. Histology from the second resection confirmed the diagnosis of myxoid liposarcoma. Shortly after the second resection, progressive, new intracranial lesions were observed and despite a third resection, extensive intracerebral invasion by the tumor proved fatal. The histological features of myxoid liposarcoma were essentially similar with each recurrence, but the aggressive tumor behavior after the second operation did not align with expectations based on histological classification.

  4. Multiple lentigines, myxoid tumours and endocrine overactivity; four cases of Carney's complex.

    PubMed

    Handley, J; Carson, D; Sloan, J; Walsh, M; Thornton, C; Hadden, D; Bingham, E A

    1992-04-01

    Four patients with Carney's complex, one sporadic and three familial, are described. The sporadic case was a young male with centrofacial lentigines, who developed cyclical Cushing's syndrome secondary to bilateral pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease, two separate left atrial myxomas, and buccal mucosal myxomas. The three familial cases, who all had varying degrees of centrofacial/mucosal lentigines and cutaneous myxoid tumours, were a woman with myxoid mammary fibroadenomatosis and a left atrial myxoma, her daughter who developed a prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma, and her son who had bilateral large-cell calcified Sertoli cell testicular tumours, and an axillary psammomatous melanotic schwannoma.

  5. Deep stroma investigation by confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Francesca; Tatini, Francesca; Pini, Roberto; Valente, Paola; Ardia, Roberta; Buzzonetti, Luca; Canovetti, Annalisa; Malandrini, Alex; Lenzetti, Ivo; Menabuoni, Luca

    2015-03-01

    Laser assisted keratoplasty is nowadays largely used to perform minimally invasive surgery and partial thickness keratoplasty [1-3]. The use of the femtosecond laser enables to perform a customized surgery, solving the specific problem of the single patient, designing new graft profiles and partial thickness keratoplasty (PTK). The common characteristics of the PTKs and that make them eligible respect to the standard penetrating keratoplasty, are: the preservation of eyeball integrity, a reduced risk of graft rejection, a controlled postoperative astigmatism. On the other hand, the optimal surgical results after these PTKs are related to a correct comprehension of the deep stroma layers morphology, which can help in the identification of the correct cleavage plane during surgeries. In the last years some studies were published, giving new insights about the posterior stroma morphology in adult subjects [4,5]. In this work we present a study performed on two groups of tissues: one group is from 20 adult subjects aged 59 +/- 18 y.o., and the other group is from 15 young subjects, aged 12+/-5 y.o.. The samples were from tissues not suitable for transplant in patients. Confocal microscopy and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) were used for the analysis of the deep stroma. The preliminary results of this analysis show the main differences in between young and adult tissues, enabling to improve the knowledge of the morphology and of the biomechanical properties of human cornea, in order to improve the surgical results in partial thickness keratoplasty.

  6. Undifferentiated myxoid lipoblastoma with PLAG1-HAS2 fusion in an infant; morphologically mimicking primitive myxoid mesenchymal tumor of infancy (PMMTI)--diagnostic importance of cytogenetic and molecular testing and literature review.

    PubMed

    Warren, Mikako; Turpin, Brian K; Mark, Melissa; Smolarek, Teresa A; Li, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Lipoblastoma is a benign myxoid neoplasm arising in young children that typically demonstrates adipose differentiation. It is often morphologically indistinguishable from primitive myxoid mesenchymal tumor of infancy (PMMTI), which is characterized by a well-circumscribed myxoid mass with a proliferation of primitive mesenchymal cells with mild cytologic atypia. PMMTI occurs in the first year of life and is known to have locally aggressive behavior. No specific genetic rearrangements have been reported to date. In contrast, the presence of PLAG1 (Pleomorphic Adenoma Gene 1) rearrangement is diagnostic for lipoblastoma. We hereby demonstrate the combined application of multiple approaches to tackle the diagnostic challenges of a rapidly growing neck tumor in a 3-month-old female. An incisional tumor biopsy had features of an undifferentiated, myxoid mesenchymal neoplasm mimicking PMMTI. However, tumor cells showed diffuse nuclear expression by immunohistochemical (IHC) stain. Conventional cytogenetic and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses as well as next generation sequencing (NGS) demonstrated evidence of PLAG1 rearrangement, confirming the diagnosis of lipoblastoma. This experience warrants that undifferentiated myxoid lipoblastoma can mimic PMMTI, and the combination of cytogenetic and molecular approaches is essential to distinguish these two myxoid neoplasms. Literature on lipoblastomas with relevant molecular and cytogenetic findings is summarized. Our case is the first lipoblastoma diagnosed with a PLAG1 fusion defined by NGS technology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hierarchy of stroma-derived factors in supporting growth of stroma-dependent hemopoietic cells: membrane-bound SCF is sufficient to confer stroma competence to epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Friel, Jutta; Itoh, Katsuhiko; Bergholz, Ulla; Jücker, Manfred; Stocking, Carol; Harrison, Paul; Ostertag, Wolfram

    2002-03-01

    Hemopoiesis takes place in a microenvironment where hemopoietic cells are closely associated with stroma by various interactions. Stroma coregulates the proliferation and differentiation of hemopoietic cells. Stroma-hemopoietic-cell contact can be supported by locally produced membrane associated growth factors. The stroma derived growth factor, stem cell factor (SCF) is important in hemopoiesis. We examined the different biological interactions of membrane bound and soluble SCF with human hemopoietic cells expressing the SCF receptor, c-kit. To analyze the function of the SCF isoforms in inducing the proliferation of hemopoietic TF1 or Cord blood (CB) CD34+ cells we used stroma cell lines that differ in their presentation of no SCF, membrane SCF, or soluble SCF. We established a new coculture system using an epithelial cell line that excludes potential interfering effects with other known stroma encoded hemopoietic growth factors. We show that soluble SCF, in absence of membrane-bound SCF, inhibits long term clonal growth of primary or established CD34+ hemopoietic cells, whereas membrane-inserted SCF "dominantly" induces long term proliferation of these cells. We demonstrate a hierarchy of these SCF isoforms in the interaction of stroma with hemopoietic TF1 cells. Membrane-bound SCF is "dominant" over soluble SCF, whereas soluble SCF acts epistatically in interacting with hemopoietic cells compared with other stroma derived factors present in SCF deficient stroma. A hierarchy of stroma cell lines can be arranged according to their presentation of membrane SCF or soluble SCF. In our model system, membrane-bound SCF expression is sufficient to confer stroma properties to an epithelial cell line but soluble SCF does not.

  8. Primary dedifferentiated liposarcoma of the axilla arising in a mixed, well-differentiated and myxoid liposarcoma.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Garth S; Lawrence, Thomas J; Porter, Scott E; Rezeanu, Luminita

    2012-01-01

    We describe a case of mixed liposarcoma of the axilla presenting as a high grade undifferentiated sarcoma with areas of well-differentiated and myxoid liposarcoma. MRI demonstrated a lobulated, septated intermuscular mass with marked heterogeneous gadolinium enhancement. A small focus of the tumor demonstrated fat suppressed signal more characteristic of well-differentiated liposarcoma. Pathologic analysis following wide local excision revealed a large, high grade sarcomatous component with highly pleomorphic cells with a thin rim of well-differentiated and myxoid liposarcoma on histologic examination. Dedifferentiated liposarcomas arising outside of the retroperitoneum are very rare, as are dedifferentiated liposarcomas arising from a histologically mixed liposarcoma. In this regard, this case illustrates an unusual combination of tumor location and histology which, to our knowledge, has not previously been reported.

  9. Primary Dedifferentiated Liposarcoma of the Axilla Arising in a Mixed, Well-differentiated and Myxoid Liposarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Garth S.; Lawrence, Thomas J.; Porter, Scott E.; Rezeanu, Luminita

    2012-01-01

    We describe a case of mixed liposarcoma of the axilla presenting as a high grade undifferentiated sarcoma with areas of well-differentiated and myxoid liposarcoma. MRI demonstrated a lobulated, septated intermuscular mass with marked heterogeneous gadolinium enhancement. A small focus of the tumor demonstrated fat suppressed signal more characteristic of well-differentiated liposarcoma. Pathologic analysis following wide local excision revealed a large, high grade sarcomatous component with highly pleomorphic cells with a thin rim of well-differentiated and myxoid liposarcoma on histologic examination. Dedifferentiated liposarcomas arising outside of the retroperitoneum are very rare, as are dedifferentiated liposarcomas arising from a histologically mixed liposarcoma. In this regard, this case illustrates an unusual combination of tumor location and histology which, to our knowledge, has not previously been reported. PMID:22690275

  10. A novel type of EWS-CHOP fusion gene in myxoid liposarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Matsui, Yoshito; Ueda, Takafumi; Kubo, Takahiro

    2006-09-22

    The cytogenetic hallmark of myxoid type and round cell type liposarcoma consists of reciprocal translocation of t(12;16)(q13;p11) and t(12;22)(q13;q12), which results in fusion of TLS/FUS and CHOP, and EWS and CHOP, respectively. Nine structural variations of the TLS/FUS-CHOP chimeric transcript have been reported, however, only two types of EWS-CHOP have been described. We describe here a case of myxoid liposarcoma containing a novel EWS-CHOP chimeric transcript and identified the breakpoint occurring in intron 13 of EWS. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and direct sequence showed that exon 13 of EWS was in-frame fused to exon 2 of CHOP. Genomic analysis revealedmore » that the breaks were located in intron 13 of EWS and intron 1 of CHOP.« less

  11. Mesenteric Primitive Myxoid Mesenchymal Tumor in a 7-Month-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Chacon, Daniella; Correa, Catalina; Luengas, Juan P

    2018-05-01

    Mesenteric tumors are rare, especially in the pediatric population. We present a case of a 7-month-old boy with an incidental abdominal mass identified as a Primitive Myxoid Mesenchymal Tumor of Infancy derived from the small bowel mesentery. This neoplasm is part of a spectrum of myofibroblastic lesions, with distinct clinical, morphologic, IHQ reactivity, and an aggressive clinical course. There is a paucity of evidence for the management of these tumors, and surgical resection remains the mainstay of treatment.

  12. Prognostic significance of MRI findings in patients with myxoid-round cell liposarcoma.

    PubMed

    Tateishi, Ukihide; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Beppu, Yasuo; Kawai, Akira; Satake, Mitsuo; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2004-03-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the prognostic significance of MRI findings in patients with myxoid-round cell liposarcomas and to clarify which MRI features best indicate tumors with adverse clinical behavior. The initial MRI studies of 36 pathologically confirmed myxoid-round cell liposarcomas were retrospectively reviewed, and observations from this review were correlated with the histopathologic features. MR images were evaluated by two radiologists with agreement by consensus, and both univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to evaluate survival with a median clinical follow-up of 33 months (range, 9-276 months). Statistically significant MRI findings that favored a diagnosis of intermediate- or high-grade tumor were large tumor size (> 10 cm), deeply situated tumor, tumor possessing irregular contours, absence of lobulation, absence of thin septa, presence of thick septa, absence of tumor capsule, high-intensity signal pattern, pronounced enhancement, and globular or nodular enhancement. Of these MRI findings, thin septa (p < 0.05), a tumor capsule (p < 0.01), and pronounced enhancement (p < 0.01) were associated significantly, according to univariate analysis, with overall survival. Multivariate analysis indicated that pronounced enhancement was associated significantly with overall survival (p < 0.05). Contrast-enhanced MRI findings can indicate a good or adverse prognosis in patients with myxoid-round cell liposarcomas.

  13. Stroma Targeting Nuclear Imaging and Radiopharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Dinesh; Jeong, Jae-Min; Shim, Hyunsuk

    2012-01-01

    Malignant transformation of tumor accompanies profound changes in the normal neighboring tissue, called tumor stroma. The tumor stroma provides an environment favoring local tumor growth, invasion, and metastatic spreading. Nuclear imaging (PET/SPECT) measures biochemical and physiologic functions in the human body. In oncology, PET/SPECT is particularly useful for differentiating tumors from postsurgical changes or radiation necrosis, distinguishing benign from malignant lesions, identifying the optimal site for biopsy, staging cancers, and monitoring the response to therapy. Indeed, PET/SPECT is a powerful, proven diagnostic imaging modality that displays information unobtainable through other anatomical imaging, such as CT or MRI. When combined with coregistered CT data, [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG)-PET is particularly useful. However, [18F]FDG is not a target-specific PET tracer. This paper will review the tumor microenvironment targeting oncologic imaging such as angiogenesis, invasion, hypoxia, growth, and homing, and also therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals to provide a roadmap for additional applications of tumor imaging and therapy. PMID:22685650

  14. Diagnosis of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma in the thigh using EWSR1-NR4A3 gene fusion: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hiroki; Kikuta, Kazutaka; Sekita, Tetsuya; Susa, Michiro; Nishimoto, Kazumasa; Sasaki, Aya; Kameyama, Kaori; Sugita, Shintaro; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Nakamura, Masaya; Matsumoto, Morio; Morioka, Hideo

    2016-11-10

    Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma is a rare soft tissue sarcoma that has unusual ultrastructural and molecular features. However, unlike other soft tissue sarcomas, it does not have specific clinical symptoms or radiological features, which can make its diagnosis difficult. Nevertheless, extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma has a rare gene fusion (EWSR1-NR4A3) that is useful for making a differential diagnosis. A 43-year-old Japanese man presented with a soft tissue mass in his right thigh. A physical examination and radiography revealed a large soft tissue mass. During magnetic resonance imaging, the mass exhibited isointensity on T1-weighted images and high intensity on T2-weighted images, as well as gadolinium enhancement at the side edge of the partition structure. Thus, we considered a possible diagnosis of a malignant myxoid soft tissue tumor, such as myxoid liposarcoma, myxofibrosarcoma, or metastatic carcinomas, including myoepithelial tumor and neuroendocrine tumor, and performed an incisional biopsy to make a definitive diagnosis. The pathological findings revealed a lobulated tumor with a myxoid structure and atypical spindle-shaped cells that created eosinophilic cord-like forms. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the tumor was positive for S-100 and negative for synaptophysin, chromogranin A, and pan keratin (AE1/AE3). The percentage of Ki-67 was 10 % in the hot spot area. Based on these clinicopathological findings, we initially considered the possibility of a myxoid liposarcoma, although we did not observe any lipoblasts. Therefore, we considered the possibility of an extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. As this tumor is very rare, we searched for the EWSR1-NR4A3 gene fusion using fluorescence in situ hybridization, which confirmed the diagnosis of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography did not identify any obvious metastases, and we performed radical resection of our patient's vastus medialis and

  15. Dynamic stroma reorganization drives blood vessel dysmorphia during glioma growth.

    PubMed

    Mathivet, Thomas; Bouleti, Claire; Van Woensel, Matthias; Stanchi, Fabio; Verschuere, Tina; Phng, Li-Kun; Dejaegher, Joost; Balcer, Marly; Matsumoto, Ken; Georgieva, Petya B; Belmans, Jochen; Sciot, Raf; Stockmann, Christian; Mazzone, Massimiliano; De Vleeschouwer, Steven; Gerhardt, Holger

    2017-12-01

    Glioma growth and progression are characterized by abundant development of blood vessels that are highly aberrant and poorly functional, with detrimental consequences for drug delivery efficacy. The mechanisms driving this vessel dysmorphia during tumor progression are poorly understood. Using longitudinal intravital imaging in a mouse glioma model, we identify that dynamic sprouting and functional morphogenesis of a highly branched vessel network characterize the initial tumor growth, dramatically changing to vessel expansion, leakage, and loss of branching complexity in the later stages. This vascular phenotype transition was accompanied by recruitment of predominantly pro-inflammatory M1-like macrophages in the early stages, followed by in situ repolarization to M2-like macrophages, which produced VEGF-A and relocate to perivascular areas. A similar enrichment and perivascular accumulation of M2 versus M1 macrophages correlated with vessel dilation and malignancy in human glioma samples of different WHO malignancy grade. Targeting macrophages using anti-CSF1 treatment restored normal blood vessel patterning and function. Combination treatment with chemotherapy showed survival benefit, suggesting that targeting macrophages as the key driver of blood vessel dysmorphia in glioma progression presents opportunities to improve efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents. We propose that vessel dysfunction is not simply a general feature of tumor vessel formation, but rather an emergent property resulting from a dynamic and functional reorganization of the tumor stroma and its angiogenic influences. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  16. Cytogenetic evidence of metastatic myxoid liposarcoma and therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome in a bone marrow biopsy.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Sabrina; Canal, Fabio; Licci, Stefano; Zanatta, Lucia; Laurino, Licia; Gottardi, Michele; Gherlinzoni, Filippo; Dei Tos, Angelo Paolo

    2009-07-01

    Myxoid liposarcoma exhibits a peculiar clinical behavior, with a tendency to spread to serosal membranes, distant soft tissues, and bones, even in the absence of lung metastases. Therapy-related hematological neoplasms are well-known side effects of cytotoxic chemotherapy. We describe an exceptional case of metastatic myxoid liposarcoma of the spine associated with therapy-related refractory anemia with excess of blasts in a 37-year-old woman who underwent multi-agent chemotherapy for a myxoid liposarcoma of the left thigh. Microscopic examination of the bone marrow biopsy revealed dysplastic features, with abnormal localization of immature precursors and micromegakaryocytes, and islands of undifferentiated oval small/medium-size cells, suggestive of acute myeloid leukemia arising in the setting of a myelodysplastic syndrome. Immunohistochemistry was not discriminant. Cytogenetic analyses of bone marrow aspirate disclosed the presence of 2 different rearrangements, subsequently confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization and was crucial in making the correct diagnosis.

  17. [A rare extra-skeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma of the lower leg - is amputation absolutely necessary].

    PubMed

    Mroczkowski, P; Evert, M; Tautenhahn, J; Meyer, F; Lippert, H

    2010-02-01

    Sarcomas represent less than 2 % of all malignancies. Special challenges are bone sarcomas in extra-skeletal localisation. The aim of this case report is to show the management of an extraordinary extra-skeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma based on a case report with references from the literature. After a delay in diagnostics for 1.5 years, an MRI scan taken in a 42-year-old male patient with progressive swelling of the left calf showed a soft-tissue tumour in the proximal part of the muscle. Histopathological investigation of a percutaneous biopsy revealed a chondrosarcoma. En-bloc-resection (R 0) of the rear superficial compartment was performed (specimen weight 1 370 g; tumour size 11.5 x 9.5 x 8 cm) leading to the definitive diagnosis of an extra-skeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. The patient was discharged with a bland wound 8 days after surgery. At 4 weeks postoperatively, the patient received adjuvant radiotherapy with a 56-Gy boost. During the follow-up period of 28 months, there have been neither signs of local tumour recurrence nor distant metastases. The myxoid chondrosarcoma is a rare tumour lesion, and according to the literature, only 2 % occur outside of the skeleton. The accurate diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm allowed a precise preparation for surgery and made amputation obsolete. Compartment resection preserving the main neurovascular bundles as well as enabling an early mobilisation resulted in both sufficient radical resection status and adequate postoperative motor function. Intraoperative clip-marking of the former tumour bed is considered a key point for the focused radiotherapy. Each persistent soft tissue swelling must be appropriately diagnosed using adequate imaging and even biopsy (in case of a doubtful finding), which should be performed with definitive surgery in mind. Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart, New York.

  18. Vaginal para-urethral myxoid leiomyoma: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Costantini, Elisabetta; Cochetti, Giovanni; Porena, Massimo

    2008-08-01

    Vaginal leiomyoma is a rare solid tumour of unknown aetiology, which usually develops in women between the ages of 35 and 50. As it presents with a wide range of symptoms, diagnosis is based on histological findings. Here we present the case of a 27-year-old white woman with a painless vaginal mass associated with dyspareunia, dysmenorrhea and foul-smelling vaginal discharge. She underwent surgery by vaginal route, and the histological findings confirmed a myxoid leiomyoma. After 17 months, the patient was disease-free, and symptoms disappeared. Vaginal leiomyomas are rare, local recurrence and transformation into sarcoma are rare, and complete surgical excision as soon as possible is recommended.

  19. Lysyl hydroxylase 2 induces a collagen cross-link switch in tumor stroma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yulong; Terajima, Masahiko; Yang, Yanan; Sun, Li; Ahn, Young-Ho; Pankova, Daniela; Puperi, Daniel S.; Watanabe, Takeshi; Kim, Min P.; Blackmon, Shanda H.; Rodriguez, Jaime; Liu, Hui; Behrens, Carmen; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Minelli, Rosalba; Scott, Kenneth L.; Sanchez-Adams, Johannah; Guilak, Farshid; Pati, Debananda; Thilaganathan, Nishan; Burns, Alan R.; Creighton, Chad J.; Martinez, Elisabeth D.; Zal, Tomasz; Grande-Allen, K. Jane; Yamauchi, Mitsuo; Kurie, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial tumor metastasis is preceded by an accumulation of collagen cross-links that heighten stromal stiffness and stimulate the invasive properties of tumor cells. However, the biochemical nature of collagen cross-links in cancer is still unclear. Here, we postulated that epithelial tumorigenesis is accompanied by changes in the biochemical type of collagen cross-links. Utilizing resected human lung cancer tissues and a p21CIP1/WAF1-deficient, K-rasG12D-expressing murine metastatic lung cancer model, we showed that, relative to normal lung tissues, tumor stroma contains higher levels of hydroxylysine aldehyde–derived collagen cross-links (HLCCs) and lower levels of lysine aldehyde–derived cross-links (LCCs), which are the predominant types of collagen cross-links in skeletal tissues and soft tissues, respectively. Gain- and loss-of-function studies in tumor cells showed that lysyl hydroxylase 2 (LH2), which hydroxylates telopeptidyl lysine residues on collagen, shifted the tumor stroma toward a high-HLCC, low-LCC state, increased tumor stiffness, and enhanced tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Together, our data indicate that LH2 enhances the metastatic properties of tumor cells and functions as a regulatory switch that controls the relative abundance of biochemically distinct types of collagen cross-links in the tumor stroma. PMID:25664850

  20. S100A8+ stroma cells predict a good prognosis and inhibit aggressiveness in colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Si; Xu, Fangying; Li, Hui; Zhang, Jing; Zhong, Anjing; Huang, Bin; Lai, Maode

    2017-01-01

    Gene microarray and bioinformatic analysis showed that S100A8 was more abundant in the stroma surrounding tumor buddings (TBs) than in the stroma surrounding primary tumor cells in colorectal carcinomas. Here, S100A8 + cells in 419 colorectal carcinoma samples were stained by immunohistochemistry and counted using Image-pro plus 6.0. TBs were also counted and biomarkers associated with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and apoptosis were assessed by immunohistochemistry. We evaluated the association between S100A8 + cells and clinico-pathological variables as well as survival. Migration and invasion as well as biomarkers of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and apoptosis were tested in CRC cells, treated with graded concentrations of recombinant human S100A8 protein. We found that the density of S100A8 + cells in the tumor invasive front (S100A8 + TIF ) clearly distinguished patients with 5-y survival from those who did not survive ( p = 0.01). The S100A8 + -associated tumor budding (SATB) index determined by the S100A8 + TIF and TB was an independent predictor of overall survival ( p = 0.001) other than the S100A8 + TIF or TB alone. Migration and invasion properties of CRC cells were inhibited by recombinant human S100A8 treatment. The particular S100A8 + cells in the stroma were associated with important biomarkers of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (E-cadherin and SNAIL) and apoptosis (BCL2). In conclusion, S100A8 + cells in the stroma predict a good prognosis in colorectal carcinoma. An index combining S100A8 + cells and TB independently predicts survival. Recombinant human S100A8 inhibited CRC cell migration and invasion, which was involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (E-cadherin and SNAIL) and apoptosis (BCL2).

  1. S100A8+ stroma cells predict a good prognosis and inhibit aggressiveness in colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Si; Xu, Fangying; Li, Hui; Zhang, Jing; Zhong, Anjing; Huang, Bin; Lai, Maode

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gene microarray and bioinformatic analysis showed that S100A8 was more abundant in the stroma surrounding tumor buddings (TBs) than in the stroma surrounding primary tumor cells in colorectal carcinomas. Here, S100A8+ cells in 419 colorectal carcinoma samples were stained by immunohistochemistry and counted using Image-pro plus 6.0. TBs were also counted and biomarkers associated with the epithelial–mesenchymal transition and apoptosis were assessed by immunohistochemistry. We evaluated the association between S100A8+ cells and clinico-pathological variables as well as survival. Migration and invasion as well as biomarkers of the epithelial–mesenchymal transition and apoptosis were tested in CRC cells, treated with graded concentrations of recombinant human S100A8 protein. We found that the density of S100A8+ cells in the tumor invasive front (S100A8+TIF) clearly distinguished patients with 5-y survival from those who did not survive (p = 0.01). The S100A8+-associated tumor budding (SATB) index determined by the S100A8+TIF and TB was an independent predictor of overall survival (p = 0.001) other than the S100A8+TIF or TB alone. Migration and invasion properties of CRC cells were inhibited by recombinant human S100A8 treatment. The particular S100A8+ cells in the stroma were associated with important biomarkers of the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (E-cadherin and SNAIL) and apoptosis (BCL2). In conclusion, S100A8+ cells in the stroma predict a good prognosis in colorectal carcinoma. An index combining S100A8+ cells and TB independently predicts survival. Recombinant human S100A8 inhibited CRC cell migration and invasion, which was involved in epithelial–mesenchymal transition (E-cadherin and SNAIL) and apoptosis (BCL2). PMID:28197382

  2. Primary extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma of bone: Report of three cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Finos, L; Righi, A; Frisoni, T; Gambarotti, M; Ghinelli, C; Benini, S; Vanel, D; Picci, P

    2017-05-01

    Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma is a rare neoplasm of soft tissue. The usual location is in deep parts of the proximal extremities and limb girdles in middle-aged adults. The bone location as primary location is extremely rare and few cases are reported. We present three cases arising in bone with molecular confirmation using both RT-PCR and FISH analysis. Patients include two men and one woman with an age of 62, 69 and 73 years old. The mean size of the lesion was 13cm (range 8-18cm). Tumors arose in the iliac bone in two cases and in the proximal humerus in the other case. At time of diagnosis the three cases show bone cortex and soft tissue involvement. On imaging, lesions have a lobular pattern, are purely lytic, but take up contrast medium after injection. Two patients are alive with disease (local recurrence and lung metastasis) after five years and five years and six months, respectively and one patient died of disease two years after the diagnosis. The primary extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma of bone seems to have a more aggressive behavior than the soft tissue counterpart. The molecular confirmation of diagnosis using RT-PCR is necessary to do the differential diagnosis with other entities, in particular with myoepithelioma that shows similar morphological features and EWSR1 and FUS genes rearrangement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Stroma Breaking Theranostic Nanoparticles for Targeted Pancreatic Cancer Therapy

    Cancer.gov

    This project develops a dual-targeted and stroma breaking theranostic nanoparticle platform to address an unmet, clinical challenge of poor drug delivery efficiency in the application of nanomedicine to cancer therapy.

  4. ESWR1-CREM Fusion in an Intracranial Myxoid Angiomatoid Fibrous Histiocytoma-Like Tumor: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Gareton, Albane; Pierron, Gaëlle; Mokhtari, Karima; Tran, Suzanne; Tauziède-Espariat, Arnault; Pallud, Johan; Louvel, Guillaume; Meary, Eric; Capelle, Laurent; Chrétien, Fabrice; Varlet, Pascale

    2018-05-19

    Gene fusions of EWSR1 with members of the CREB family of transcription factors (CREB1, ATF1, and CREM) have recently been described in exceptional intracranial myxoid mesenchymal tumors. Although this is a known gene fusion found in various mesenchymal tumors, EWSR1 fusion with CREM has only been observed in 3 intracranial myxoid tumors. In this paper, we present 1 such tumor with in-depth histopathological description and long-term follow-up. There is controversy regarding whether these tumors represent a novel entity or simply an intracranial localization of the myxoid variant of angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma, a rare soft tissue tumor of the extremities. Out of 11 cases mentioned in the literature, the 3 isolated case reports by Dunham et al, Ochalski et al, and Alshareef et al are designated as angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma, whereas the others are defined as a novel tumoral entity called intracranial myxoid mesenchymal tumor with EWSR1-CREB fusion. We believe the vast morphological and immunohistochemical spectrum of angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma makes it difficult to dismiss this diagnosis.

  5. Excellent Local Control Rates and Distinctive Patterns of Failure in Myxoid Liposarcoma Treated With Conservation Surgery and Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh; Zagars, Gunar K.; Ballo, Matthew T.

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the local control rates and patterns of metastatic relapse in patients with localized myxoid liposarcoma treated with conservation surgery and radiotherapy (RT). Patients and Methods: Between 1960 and 2003, 127 patients with non-metastatic myxoid liposarcoma were treated with conservation surgery and RT at our institution. The median patient age was 39 years (range, 14-79 years). Of the 127 patients, 46% underwent preoperative RT (median dose, 50 Gy) and 54% underwent postoperative RT (median dose, 60 Gy). Also, 28% received doxorubicin-based chemotherapy as a part of their treatment. Results: The median follow-up was 9.1 years. The overall survivalmore » rate at 5 and 10 years was 87% and 79%, respectively. The corresponding disease-free survival rates were 81% and 73%. The local control rate at {>=}5 years was 97%. The actuarial rate of distant metastases at 5 and 10 years was 15% and 24%, respectively. Of the 27 patients who developed distant metastases, 48% did so in the retroperitoneum, 22% in other extrapulmonary soft tissues, 22% in the lung, 15% in bone, and 4% in the liver. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that RT and conservation surgery for localized myxoid liposarcoma provide excellent local control. Distant metastatic relapse tended to occur in the retroperitoneum and other nonpulmonary soft tissues. Therefore, staging and surveillance imaging should include the abdomen and pelvis, as well as the thorax, for patients with localized myxoid liposarcoma.« less

  6. A Case of Myxoid Liposarcoma of the Retroperitoneum: A Challenging Tumour for Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Fabio; Simone, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Retroperitoneal sarcomas are rare neoplasms that account for only 1%-2% of all solid tumors and liposarcomas represent the most frequent histological type. We describe the case of a 44-year-old female with a retroperitoneal myxoid liposarcoma of 22 × 19 × 8 cm in size. The only symptoms were persistent pain and progressive tenderness of the abdomen lasting for two months. The mass was radically excised during laparotomy. CT and MRI were useful to clarify the site of origin of the tumor, relationships with other organs, and planning surgery but final diagnosis was based on histological findings. Here we review the literature about the challenging diagnosis, treatment, and prognostic factors of this disease. PMID:25024863

  7. Primary extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma in cerebellum: A case report with literature review.

    PubMed

    Qin, You; Zhang, Hai-Bo; Ke, Chang-Shu; Huang, Jing; Wu, Bian; Wan, Chao; Yang, Chen-Su; Yang, Kun-Yu

    2017-11-01

    Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC) is a rare malignant neoplasm of which intracranial EMC is the rarest. We present an unusual case report of a 41-year-old woman who was sent to the emergency department for a sudden headache and other symptoms related to increased intracranial pressure. Emergent CT revealed an occupying lesion in the left cerebellum with surrounding edema. A complete surgical excision of the lesion through a transcortical approach was performed. After the operation, this patient received adjuvant radiotherapy and temozolomide treatment. Pathology diagnosis was an intracranial EMC. The patient survives with no tumor recurrence as of the last follow-up. Progression-free survival exceeded 20 months. We have reviewed the literature and here summarize the diagnosis and treatment options for intracranial EMC. Diagnosis and treatment options of this rare disease are discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Tumor stroma-containing 3D spheroid arrays: A tool to study nanoparticle penetration.

    PubMed

    Priwitaningrum, Dwi L; Blondé, Jean-Baptiste G; Sridhar, Adithya; van Baarlen, Joop; Hennink, Wim E; Storm, Gert; Le Gac, Séverine; Prakash, Jai

    2016-12-28

    Nanoparticle penetration through tumor tissue after extravasation is considered as a key issue for tumor distribution and therapeutic effects. Most tumors possess abundant stroma, a fibrotic tissue composed of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and extracellular matrix (ECM), which acts as a barrier for nanoparticle penetration. There is however a lack of suitable in vitro systems to study the tumor stroma penetration of nanoparticles. In the present study, we developed and thoroughly characterized a 3D co-culture spheroidal array to mimic tumor stroma and investigated the penetration of silica and PLGA nanoparticles in these spheroids. First, we examined human breast tumor patient biopsies to characterize the content and organization of stroma and found a high expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA; 40% positive area) and collagen-1 (50% positive area). Next, we prepared homospheroids of 4T1 mouse breast cancer cells or 3T3 mouse fibroblasts alone as well as heterospheroids combining 3T3 and 4T1 cells in different ratios (1:1 and 5:1) using a microwell array platform. Confocal live imaging revealed that fibroblasts distributed and reorganized within 48h in heterospheroids. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining and gene expression analysis showed a proportional increase of α-SMA and collagen in heterospheroids with higher fibroblast ratios attaining 35% and 45% positive area at 5:1 (3T3:4T1) ratio, in a good match with the clinical breast tumor stroma. Subsequently, we studied the penetration of high and low negatively charged fluorescent silica nanoparticles (30nm; red and 100 or 70nm; green; zeta potential: -40mV and -20mV) and as well as Cy5-conjugated pegylated PLGA nanoparticles (200nm, -7mV) in both homo- and heterospheroid models. Fluorescent microscopy on spheroid cryosections after incubation with silica nanoparticles showed that 4T1 homospheroids allowed a high penetration of about 75-80% within 24h, with higher penetration in case of the

  9. Metastatic patterns of myxoid/round cell liposarcoma: a review of a 25-year experience.

    PubMed

    Asano, Naofumi; Susa, Michiro; Hosaka, Seiichi; Nakayama, Robert; Kobayashi, Eisuke; Takeuchi, Katsuhito; Horiuchi, Keisuke; Suzuki, Yoshihisa; Anazawa, Ukei; Mukai, Makio; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Yabe, Hiroo; Morioka, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    Myxoid/round cell liposarcoma (MRCL), unlike other soft tissue sarcomas, has been associated with unusual pattern of metastasis to extrapulmonary sites. In an attempt to elucidate the clinical features of MRCL with metastatic lesions, 58 cases, from the medical database of Keio University Hospital were used for the evaluation. 47 patients (81%) had no metastases, whereas 11 patients (11%) had metastases during their clinical course. Among the 11 patients with metastatic lesions, 8 patients (73%) had extrapulmonary metastases and 3 patients (27%) had pulmonary metastases. Patients were further divided into three groups; without metastasis, with extrapulmonary metastasis, and with pulmonary metastasis. When the metastatic patterns were stratified according to tumor size, there was statistical significance between the three groups (P = 0.028). The 8 cases with extrapulmonary metastases were all larger than 10 cm. Similarly, histological grading had a significant impact on metastatic patterns (P = 0.027). 3 cases with pulmonary metastatic lesions were all diagnosed as high grade. In conclusion, large size and low histological grade were significantly associated with extrapulmonary metastasis.

  10. Role of Reactive Stroma in Prostate Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    gel. Proteins were transferred onto nitrocellulose membrane (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA) and incubated in PBS buffer with 5% nonfat milk at...fusion protein, and incubated for 2 hours at room temperature. Secondary antibody was biotin-conjugated sheep anti-mouse IgG (Sigma), diluted at 1...stroma that forms at sites of wound repair, microbial invasion, or carcinoma as we have reported previously (1, 32, 35). Of these, CTGF is a known

  11. Prognostic markers for colorectal cancer: estimating ploidy and stroma

    PubMed Central

    Danielsen, H E; Hveem, T S; Domingo, E; Pradhan, M; Kleppe, A; Syvertsen, R A; Kostolomov, I; Nesheim, J A; Askautrud, H A; Nesbakken, A; Lothe, R A; Svindland, A; Shepherd, N; Novelli, M; Johnstone, E; Tomlinson, I; Kerr, R; Kerr, D J

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background We report here the prognostic value of ploidy and digital tumour-stromal morphometric analyses using material from 2624 patients with early stage colorectal cancer (CRC). Patients and methods DNA content (ploidy) and stroma-tumour fraction were estimated using automated digital imaging systems and DNA was extracted from sections of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue for analysis of microsatellite instability. Samples were available from 1092 patients recruited to the QUASAR 2 trial and two large observational series (Gloucester, n = 954; Oslo University Hospital, n = 578). Resultant biomarkers were analysed for prognostic impact using 5-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) as the clinical end point. Results Ploidy and stroma-tumour fraction were significantly prognostic in a multivariate model adjusted for age, adjuvant treatment, and pathological T-stage in stage II patients, and the combination of ploidy and stroma-tumour fraction was found to stratify these patients into three clinically useful groups; 5-year CSS 90% versus 83% versus 73% [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.77 (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.13–2.77) and HR = 2.95 (95% CI: 1.73–5.03), P < 0.001]. Conclusion A novel biomarker, combining estimates of ploidy and stroma-tumour fraction, sampled from FFPE tissue, identifies stage II CRC patients with low, intermediate or high risk of CRC disease specific death, and can reliably stratify clinically relevant patient sub-populations with differential risks of tumour recurrence and may support choice of adjuvant therapy for these individuals. PMID:29293881

  12. The Functional Role of Reactive Stroma in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Schauer, Isaiah G.; Rowley, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The human prostate gland is one of the only internal organs that continue to enlarge throughout adulthood. The specific mechanisms that regulate this growth, as well as the pathological changes leading to the phenotype observed in the disease benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), are essentially unknown. Recent studies and their associated findings have made clear that many complex alterations occur, involving persistent and chronic inflammation, circulating hormonal level deregulation, and aberrant wound repair processes. BPH has been etiologically characterized as a progressive, albeit discontinuous, hyperplasia of both the glandular epithelial and stromal cell compartments coordinately yielding an expansion of the prostate gland and clinical symptoms. Interestingly, the inflammatory and repair responses observed in BPH are also key components of general wound repair in post-natal tissues. These responses include altered expression of chemokines, cytokines, matrix remodeling factors, chronic inflammatory processes, altered immune surveillance and recognition, as well as the formation of a prototypical ‘reactive’ stroma which is similar to that observed across various fibroplasias and malignancies of a variety of tissue sites. Stromal tissue, both embryonic mesenchyme, and adult reactive stroma myofibroblasts, has been shown to exert potent and functional regulatory control over epithelial proliferation and differentiation as well as immunoresponsive modulation. Thus, the functional biology of a reactive stroma, within the context of an adult disease typified by epithelial and stromal aberrant hyperplasia, is critical to understand within the context of prostate disease and beyond. The mechanisms that regulate reactive stroma biology in BPH represent targets of opportunity for new therapeutic approaches that may extend to other tissue contexts. Accordingly, this review seeks to address the dissection of important factors, signaling pathways, genes, and other

  13. Pancreatic cancer and its stroma: A conspiracy theory

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhihong; Pothula, Srinivasa P; Wilson, Jeremy S; Apte, Minoti V

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is characterised by a prominent desmoplastic/stromal reaction that has received little attention until recent times. Given that treatments focusing on pancreatic cancer cells alone have failed to significantly improve patient outcome over many decades, research efforts have now moved to understanding the pathophysiology of the stromal reaction and its role in cancer progression. In this regard, our Group was the first to identify the cells (pancreatic stellate cells, PSCs) that produced the collagenous stroma of pancreatic cancer and to demonstrate that these cells interacted closely with cancer cells to facilitate local tumour growth and distant metastasis. Evidence is accumulating to indicate that stromal PSCs may also mediate angiogenesis, immune evasion and the well known resistance of pancreatic cancer to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This review will summarise current knowledge regarding the critical role of pancreatic stellate cells and the stroma in pancreatic cancer biology and the therapeutic approaches being developed to target the stroma in a bid to improve the outcome of this devastating disease. PMID:25170206

  14. Physical mapping of chromosome 12q breakpoints in lipoma, pleomorphic salivary gland adenoma, uterine leiomyoma, and myxoid liposarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenmakers, E.F.P.M.; Kools, P.F.J.; Mols, R.

    1994-03-15

    The authors report here the physical mapping of recurrent chromosome 12q13-q15 breakpoints in cell lines derived from primary myxoid liposarcoma, lipoma, uterine leiomyoma, and pleomorphic adenoma of the salivary glands. In fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments, they first mapped the position of the chromosome 12 translocation breakpoint in uterine leiomyoma cell line LM-30.1/SV40 relative to loci COL2A1, D12S4, D12S17, D12S6, D12S19, D12S8, and D12S7. It mapped between linkage probes CRI-C86 (D12S19) and p7G11 (D12S8). They then isolated YAC clones using CRI-C86- and p7G11-derived sequence-tagged sites, constructed corresponding YAC contigs of 310 and 800 kb, respectively, and a mixture ofmore » them was used to routinely study the various tumor cell lines by FISH analysis. The chromosome 12 breakpoints of all tumor cell lines tested mapped between cosmids LLNL12NCO1-98C10 and LLNL12NCO1-113D12. None of the breakpoints appeared to map within any of the isolated YAC clones. Furthermore, FISH analysis using cosmid LLNL12-NCO1-144G3, which maps at the CHOP locus, revealed that the chromosome 12 breakpoints in all cell lines of the three benign solid tumors that were tested were located distal to the chromosome 12 translocation breakpoint with the CHOP gene in myxoid liposarcoma cells with t(12;16). In conclusion, the studies seem to indicate that the chromosome 12 breakpoints of myxoid liposarcoma, lipoma, uterine leiomyoma, and pleomorphic adenoma of the salivary glands are all clustered within the 7-cM interval between D12S19 and D12S8, with those of the benign solid tumors distal to CHOP. Finally, the MYF5 gene mapped telomeric to LLNL12NCO1-113D12, and the MIP gene mapped centromeric to the chromosome 12 translocation breakpoint in myxoid liposarcoma cells. 56 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  15. Effectiveness of Radiotherapy in Myxoid Sarcomas Is Associated With a Dense Vascular Pattern

    SciTech Connect

    Vreeze, Ronald S.A. de; Jong, Daphne de; Haas, Rick L.

    2008-12-01

    Purpose: Surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) have long been the standard treatment for most deep-seated sarcomas; however, since the randomized trial from the National Cancer Institute of Canada, which described similar local control for pre- vs. postoperative RT, both modalities are now widely accepted. As a group, sarcomas are classified as radiation resistant. The subgroup of myxoid liposarcoma (MLS), a sarcoma with a typical vascular crow's feet pattern, is highly radiosensitive, but a mechanism for this phenomenon is unknown. Here we describe our results with preoperative RT and propose a mechanism explaining the high sensitivity based on the distinctive vascularizationmore » pattern of MLS. Methods and Materials: Between 2002 and 2006, 31 sarcoma patients, including 10 with MLS, underwent preoperative RT at our institute. Resected specimens were histologically evaluated, focusing on classification, grade, and vascularization patterns. Results: Twenty sarcomas showed more than 80% pathologic response after preoperative RT. A pathologic complete response was found in all 'pure' MLS specimens after preoperative RT (n = 8). There were no pathologic complete responses in the remaining sarcoma patients (n = 23), although 12 showed 80% to 90% pathologic response. In contrast to the remaining RT-resistant sarcomas, the highly responding specimens contained branching vasculature, partial thrombus formation and inflammation of medium sized arterioles, similar to the vascular changes in MLS. Conclusions: Both MLS and sarcomas with MLS-like vasculature are highly radiosensitive. Radiation sensitivity may be explained by changes in medium-sized arterioles, obstructing the specific crow's feet vascularization and inducing hypoxia with secondary tumor cell death.« less

  16. Role of Reactive Stroma in Prostate Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    buffer with 5% nonfat milk at 4jC overnight. Mouse anti-V5 monoclonal antibody (Invitrogen), diluted at 1:5,000, was used as primary antibody to...detect the presence of CTGF-V5-His fusion protein, and incubated for 2 hours at room temperature. Secondary antibody was biotin-conjugated sheep anti-mouse...genes is associated with reactive stroma that forms at sites of wound repair, microbial invasion, or carcinoma as we have reported previously (1, 32, 35

  17. Quantization of collagen organization in the stroma with a new order coefficient

    PubMed Central

    Germann, James A.; Martinez-Enriquez, Eduardo; Marcos, Susana

    2017-01-01

    Many optical and biomechanical properties of the cornea, specifically the transparency of the stroma and its stiffness, can be traced to the degree of order and direction of the constituent collagen fibers. To measure the degree of order inside the cornea, a new metric, the order coefficient, was introduced to quantify the organization of the collagen fibers from images of the stroma produced with a custom-developed second harmonic generation microscope. The order coefficient method gave a quantitative assessment of the differences in stromal collagen arrangement across the cornea depths and between untreated stroma and cross-linked stroma. PMID:29359095

  18. Tumor-stroma interactions a trademark for metastasis.

    PubMed

    Morales, Monica; Planet, Evarist; Arnal-Estape, Anna; Pavlovic, Milica; Tarragona, Maria; Gomis, Roger R

    2011-10-01

    We aimed to unravel genes that are significantly associated with metastasis in order to identify functions that support disseminated disease. We identify genes associated with metastasis and verify its clinical correlations using publicly available primary tumor expression profile data sets. We used facilities in R and Bioconductor (GSEA). Specific data structures and functions were imported. Our results show that genes associated with metastasis in primary tumor enriched for pathways associated with immune infiltration or cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction. As an example, we focus on the enrichment of TGFBR2 and TGF|X A set of communication tools capital for tumor-stroma interactions that define metastasis to the lung and support bone colonization. We showed that tumor-stroma communication through cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway is selected in primary tumors with high risk of relapse. High levels of these factors support systemic instigation of the far metastatic nest as well as local metastatic-specific functions that provide solid ground for metastatic development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Estimating abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sutherland, Chris; Royle, Andy

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides a non-technical overview of ‘closed population capture–recapture’ models, a class of well-established models that are widely applied in ecology, such as removal sampling, covariate models, and distance sampling. These methods are regularly adopted for studies of reptiles, in order to estimate abundance from counts of marked individuals while accounting for imperfect detection. Thus, the chapter describes some classic closed population models for estimating abundance, with considerations for some recent extensions that provide a spatial context for the estimation of abundance, and therefore density. Finally, the chapter suggests some software for use in data analysis, such as the Windows-based program MARK, and provides an example of estimating abundance and density of reptiles using an artificial cover object survey of Slow Worms (Anguis fragilis).

  20. In vivo confocal microscopic analysis of normal human anterior limbal stroma

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Saumi; Chidambaram, Jaya Devi; Lanjewar, Shruti; Mascarenhas, Jeena; Prajna, Namperumalsamy Venkatesh; Muthukkaruppan, Veerappan; Chidambaranathan, Gowri Priya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the microarchitecture of the anterior limbal stroma in healthy individuals using in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) and to correlate it with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), a component of the limbal-niche. Methods The corneal side of the superior limbus was scanned in 30 eyes of 17 normal subjects beyond the basal epithelium, deep into the stroma using a HRT III laser scanning microscope. The IVCM findings were correlated with the immunohistochemical features of MSCs in the anterior limbal stroma. Results Clusters of hyperreflective structures were observed in the anterior limbal stroma, subjacent to the basal epithelium (depth: 50.2±8.7 - 98±12.8 μm), but not in the corneal stroma. The structures showed unique morphology compared to epithelial cells, keratocytes, neurons and dendritic cells. In parallel, confocal analysis of immunostained sections showed clusters of cells, double positive for MSC specific markers (CD90 and CD105) in the anterior limbal stroma at a depth of 55.3±12.7 μm to 72±37.6 μm. The organization and distribution of the MSC clusters locates them within the hyperreflective region in the anterior limbal stroma. Conclusions The hyperreflective structures, demonstrated for the first time in the human anterior limbal stroma, probably represent an important component of the limbal-niche. Our approach of in vivo imaging may pave the way for assessing the limbal stromal health. PMID:25742388

  1. IL-33 activates tumor stroma to promote intestinal polyposis.

    PubMed

    Maywald, Rebecca L; Doerner, Stephanie K; Pastorelli, Luca; De Salvo, Carlo; Benton, Susan M; Dawson, Emily P; Lanza, Denise G; Berger, Nathan A; Markowitz, Sanford D; Lenz, Heinz-Josef; Nadeau, Joseph H; Pizarro, Theresa T; Heaney, Jason D

    2015-05-12

    Tumor epithelial cells develop within a microenvironment consisting of extracellular matrix, growth factors, and cytokines produced by nonepithelial stromal cells. In response to paracrine signals from tumor epithelia, stromal cells modify the microenvironment to promote tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we identify interleukin 33 (IL-33) as a regulator of tumor stromal cell activation and mediator of intestinal polyposis. In human colorectal cancer, IL-33 expression was induced in the tumor epithelium of adenomas and carcinomas, and expression of the IL-33 receptor, IL1RL1 (also referred to as IL1-R4 or ST2), localized predominantly to the stroma of adenoma and both the stroma and epithelium of carcinoma. Genetic and antibody abrogation of responsiveness to IL-33 in the Apc(Min/+) mouse model of intestinal tumorigenesis inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, and suppressed angiogenesis in adenomatous polyps, which reduced both tumor number and size. Similar to human adenomas, IL-33 expression localized to tumor epithelial cells and expression of IL1RL1 associated with two stromal cell types, subepithelial myofibroblasts and mast cells, in Apc(Min/+) polyps. In vitro, IL-33 stimulation of human subepithelial myofibroblasts induced the expression of extracellular matrix components and growth factors associated with intestinal tumor progression. IL-33 deficiency reduced mast cell accumulation in Apc(Min/+) polyps and suppressed the expression of mast cell-derived proteases and cytokines known to promote polyposis. Based on these findings, we propose that IL-33 derived from the tumor epithelium promotes polyposis through the coordinated activation of stromal cells and the formation of a protumorigenic microenvironment.

  2. Mapping the Extracellular and Membrane Proteome Associated with the Vasculature and the Stroma in the Embryo*

    PubMed Central

    Soulet, Fabienne; Kilarski, Witold W.; Roux-Dalvai, Florence; Herbert, John M. J.; Sacewicz, Izabela; Mouton-Barbosa, Emmanuelle; Bicknell, Roy; Lalor, Patricia; Monsarrat, Bernard; Bikfalvi, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    In order to map the extracellular or membrane proteome associated with the vasculature and the stroma in an embryonic organism in vivo, we developed a biotinylation technique for chicken embryo and combined it with mass spectrometry and bioinformatic analysis. We also applied this procedure to implanted tumors growing on the chorioallantoic membrane or after the induction of granulation tissue. Membrane and extracellular matrix proteins were the most abundant components identified. Relative quantitative analysis revealed differential protein expression patterns in several tissues. Through a bioinformatic approach, we determined endothelial cell protein expression signatures, which allowed us to identify several proteins not yet reported to be associated with endothelial cells or the vasculature. This is the first study reported so far that applies in vivo biotinylation, in combination with robust label-free quantitative proteomics approaches and bioinformatic analysis, to an embryonic organism. It also provides the first description of the vascular and matrix proteome of the embryo that might constitute the starting point for further developments. PMID:23674615

  3. Vulvar Myxoid Liposarcoma and Well Differentiated Liposarcoma With Molecular Cytogenetic Confirmation: Case Reports With Review of Malignant Lipomatous Tumors of the Vulva.

    PubMed

    Schoolmeester, John Kenneth; Leifer, Aaron J; Wang, Lu; Hameed, Meera R

    2015-07-01

    Malignant lipomatous tumors of the vulva are uncommon. We present 2 cases of liposarcoma arising in the vulva: a myxoid liposarcoma harboring DDIT3 and FUS rearrangements and a well differentiated liposarcoma/atypical lipomatous tumor harboring MDM2 amplification detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Both cases are the first liposarcomas of this site to be confirmed by molecular cytogenetic analysis. We also review the literature's cases of liposarcoma to further examine the clinicopathologic features of these tumors.

  4. Fibroblast growth factor-2-induced host stroma reaction during initial tumor growth promotes progression of mouse melanoma via vascular endothelial growth factor A-dependent neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Tsunoda, Satoshi; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Saiki, Ikuo

    2007-04-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 has been considered to play a critical role in neovascularization in several tumors; however, its precise role in tumor progression is not fully understood. In the present study, we have characterized the role of FGF-2 in B16-BL6 mouse melanoma cells, focusing on effects during the initial phase of tumor growth. FGF-2 was injected at the tumor inoculation site of dorsal skin during the initial phase. FGF-2 induced marked tumor growth and lymph node metastasis. This was well correlated with an increase in neovascularization in the host stroma. FGF-2 also recruited inflammatory and mesenchymal cells in host stroma. Marked tumor growth, pulmonary metastasis and intensive neovascularization in tumor parenchyma were also observed after a single injection of FGF-2 into the footpad inoculation site. In contrast, repeated injections of FGF-2 at a site remote from the footpad tumor were ineffective in promoting tumor growth and metastasis. These promoting activities of FGF-2 were blocked by local injections of a glucocorticoid hormone, suggesting that host inflammatory responses induced by FGF-2 are associated with FGF-2-induced tumor progression. In addition, although FGF-2 did not promote cellular proliferation and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) mRNA expression in B16-BL6 cells in vitro, FGF-2 induced VEGFA expression in host stroma rather than tumor tissue, and local injections of a neutralizing antibody against VEGFA inhibited these activities of FGF-2 in vivo. These results indicate that abundant FGF-2 during the initial phase of tumor growth induces VEGFA-dependent intensive neovascularization in host stroma, and supports marked tumor growth and metastasis.

  5. Cancer and Stroma-Targeted Immunotherapy with a Genetically Modified DC Vaccine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    targeting the tumor stroma in addition to breast cancer cells may produce the desired increase in antitumor activity of DC vaccines for breast cancer...vaccination inhibits 4T1-neu progression. We investigated whether DC-shA20-FAP- HER2 may induce more potent anti- stroma and anti-tumor immunity with the...the immunosuppressive tumor microenviroment resulting in potent antitumor activity. Zhu W, Zhou X, Rollins L , Rooney CM, Gottschalk S, Song XT

  6. RIA fractions contain mesenchymal stroma cells with high osteogenic potency.

    PubMed

    Kuehlfluck, Pamela; Moghaddam, Arash; Helbig, Lars; Child, Christopher; Wildemann, Britt; Schmidmaier, Gerhard

    2015-12-01

    The gold standard for treatment of non-union is the transplantation of autologous bone from iliac crest. As an alternative, material can be harvested by femoral reaming with the Reamer-Irrigator-Aspirator(®) (RIA)-System. This material might be a source for human mesenchymal stroma cells (MSCs) with osteogenic potency. The aim of this study was the characterisation of cells harvested with the RIA system and the comparison of their properties with cells isolated from bone marrow ("BM") and fat tissue ("adipose"). The RIA material was separated into the liquid aspiration fraction ("liquid") and the solid RIA fraction. From the solid RIA fraction the cells were cultured either directly ("native") or after collagenase digestion and filtration ("filtrate"). Stem cell characteristics were analysed and the osteogenic potential was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Fat tissue and bone marrow were harvested from nine patients (three women, six males, with a mean of 48.1 years) with atrophic non-union RIA material. The cells were isolated and characterised by flow cytometry, three lineage differentiation capacities and colony-forming unit fibroblast assay. Gene expression profiles were performed and osteogenic differentiation in vivo was analysed. All three RIA fractions contained mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) as demonstrated by CFU-F assay, three linage differentiation and surface marker analysis. The RIA-MSCs exhibited a significantly higher osteogenic potential in vitro compared to adipose-MSCs, whereas no difference was seen compared to BM-MSCs. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed an expression of osteogenic markers in all isolated cells. The implantation of MSCs with β-TCP scaffolds into the mice muscle showed significantly higher bone formation for the filtrate RIA-MSC, native RIA-MSC and BM-MSC groups compared to the adipose-MSC group. The filtrate RIA-MSCs formed twice as much new bone in vivo compared to BM-MSCs. The present study showed high potency of

  7. Multiscale Investigation of the Depth-Dependent Mechanical Anisotropy of the Human Corneal Stroma

    PubMed Central

    Labate, Cristina; Lombardo, Marco; De Santo, Maria P.; Dias, Janice; Ziebarth, Noel M.; Lombardo, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the depth-dependent mechanical anisotropy of the human corneal stroma at the tissue (stroma) and molecular (collagen) level by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Methods. Eleven human donor corneas were dissected at different stromal depths by using a microkeratome. Mechanical measurements were performed in 15% dextran on the surface of the exposed stroma of each sample by using a custom-built AFM in force spectroscopy mode using both microspherical (38-μm diameter) and nanoconical (10-nm radius of curvature) indenters at 2-μm/s and 15-μm/s indentation rates. Young's modulus was determined by fitting force curve data using the Hertz and Hertz-Sneddon models for a spherical and a conical indenter, respectively. The depth-dependent anisotropy of stromal elasticity was correlated with images of the corneal stroma acquired by two-photon microscopy. Results. The force curves were obtained at stromal depths ranging from 59 to 218 μm. At the tissue level, Young's modulus (ES) showed a steep decrease at approximately 140-μm stromal depth (from 0.8 MPa to 0.3 MPa; P = 0.03) and then was stable in the posterior stroma. At the molecular level, Young's modulus (EC) was significantly greater than at the tissue level; EC decreased nonlinearly with increasing stromal depth from 3.9 to 2.6 MPa (P = 0.04). The variation of microstructure through the thickness correlated highly with a nonconstant profile of the mechanical properties in the stroma. Conclusions. The corneal stroma exhibits unique anisotropic elastic behavior at the tissue and molecular levels. This knowledge may benefit modeling of corneal behavior and help in the development of biomimetic materials. PMID:26098472

  8. Reactive stroma in the prostate during late life: The role of microvasculature and antiangiogenic therapy influences.

    PubMed

    Montico, Fabio; Kido, Larissa Akemi; San Martin, Rebeca; Rowley, David R; Cagnon, Valéria H A

    2015-10-01

    Prostate cancer is associated to a reactive stroma microenvironment characterized by angiogenic processes that are favorable for tumor progression. Senescence has been identified as a predisposing factor for prostate malignancies. In turn, the relationships between aging, reactive stroma, and the mechanisms that induce this phenotype are largely unknown. Thus, we investigated the occurrence of reactive stroma in the mouse prostate during advanced age as well as the effects of antiangiogenic and androgen ablation therapies on reactive stroma recruitment. Male mice (52-week-old FVB) were treated with two classes of angiogenesis inhibitors: direct (TNP-470; 15 mg/kg; s.c.) and/or indirect (SU5416; 6 mg/kg; i.p.). Androgen ablation was carried out by finasteride administration (20 mg/kg; s.c.), alone or in association to both inhibitors. The Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) model was used as a paradigm of cancer-associated reactive stroma. The dorsolateral prostate was collected for α-actin (αSMA), vimentin (VIM), and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) immunohistochemical and Western blotting analyses as well as for CD34/αSMA and CD34/VIM colocalization. Senescence was associated with increased αSMA, VIM, and TGF-β expression as well as with the recruitment of CD34/αSMA and CD34/VIM dual-positive fibroblasts. These observations were similar to those verified in TRAMP mice. Antiangiogenic treatment promoted the recovery of senescence-associated stromal changes. Hormonal ablation, despite having led to impaired CD34/αSMA and CD34/VIM dual-positive cell recruitment, did not result in decreased stimulus to reactive stroma development, due to enhanced TGF-β expression in relation to the aged controls. Reactive stroma develops in the prostate of non-transgenic mice as a result of aging. The periacinar microvasculature is a candidate source for the recruitment of reactive stroma-associated cells, which may be derived either from

  9. STUMP un"stumped": anti-tumor response to anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor based targeted therapy in uterine inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor with myxoid features harboring DCTN1-ALK fusion.

    PubMed

    Subbiah, Vivek; McMahon, Caitlin; Patel, Shreyaskumar; Zinner, Ralph; Silva, Elvio G; Elvin, Julia A; Subbiah, Ishwaria M; Ohaji, Chimela; Ganeshan, Dhakshina Moorthy; Anand, Deepa; Levenback, Charles F; Berry, Jenny; Brennan, Tim; Chmielecki, Juliann; Chalmers, Zachary R; Mayfield, John; Miller, Vincent A; Stephens, Philip J; Ross, Jeffrey S; Ali, Siraj M

    2015-06-11

    Recurrent, metastatic mesenchymal myxoid tumors of the gynecologic tract present a management challenge as there is minimal evidence to guide systemic therapy. Such tumors also present a diagnostic dilemma, as myxoid features are observed in leiomyosarcomas, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMT), and mesenchymal myxoid tumors. Comprehensive genomic profiling was performed in the course of clinical care on a case of a recurrent, metastatic myxoid uterine malignancy (initially diagnosed as smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP)), to guide identify targeted therapeutic options. To our knowledge, this case represents the first report of clinical response to targeted therapy in a tumor harboring a DCTN1-ALK fusion protein. Hybridization capture of 315 cancer-related genes plus introns from 28 genes often rearranged or altered in cancer was applied to >50 ng of DNA extracted from this sample and sequenced to high, uniform coverage. Therapy was given in the context of a phase I clinical trial ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: ( NCT01548144 ). Immunostains showed diffuse positivity for ALK1 expression and comprehensive genomic profiling identified an in frame DCTN1-ALK gene fusion. The diagnosis of STUMP was revised to that of an IMT with myxoid features. The patient was enrolled in a clinical trial and treated with an anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor (crizotinib/Xalkori®) and a multikinase VEGF inhibitor (pazopanib/Votrient®). The patient experienced an ongoing partial response (6+ months) by response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST) 1.1 criteria. For myxoid tumors of the gynecologic tract, comprehensive genomic profiling can identify clinical relevant genomic alterations that both direct treatment targeted therapy and help discriminate between similar diagnostic entities.

  10. Localization and Characterization of Photosystem II in Grana and Stroma Lamellae 1

    PubMed Central

    Armond, Paul A.; Arntzen, Charles J.

    1977-01-01

    Attempts have been made to identify intramembranous particles observed in freeze-fracture electron microscopy as specific functional components of the membrane. The intramembranous particles of the exoplasmic fracture (EF) face of freeze-fractured pea (Pisum sativum) chloroplast lamellae are nonuniformly distributed along the membrane. Approximately 20% of the particles are in unpaired membrane regions whereas 80% are localized in regions of stacked lamellae (grana partitions). The EF particles within the grana regions of the chloroplast membrane are of a larger average size than those in stroma lamellae. Photosystem II activity of isolated stroma lamellae is about 20 to 25% of that of grana-enriched membrane fragments when measured at high light intensities. The photosystem II activity of stroma lamellae requires higher light intensities for attainment of maximal rates than does that of grana membranes. Lactoperoxidase-catalyzed iodination of stacked chloroplast lamellae was used to demonstrate that 75 to 80% of all photosystem II centers are localized in grana partition regions. The data presented support the concept that the intramembranous particles of the EF face visualized on freeze-fractured chloroplast lamellae represent a central photosystem II reaction center complex plus associated light-harvesting chlorophyll protein. The fact that the EF particles of stroma lamellae are smaller than those of grana regions can be directly correlated to the presence of photosystem II units with small antennae chlorophyll assemblies in stroma lamellae. Images PMID:16659861

  11. Clinicopathologic and radiologic features of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma: a retrospective study of 40 Chinese cases with literature review.

    PubMed

    Shao, Rui; Lao, I Weng; Wang, Lei; Yu, Lin; Wang, Jian; Fan, Qinhe

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the clinicopathologic and radiologic features of 40 cases of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC) from China. There were 25 males and 15 females (sex ratio, 1.7:1). Apart from an adolescent, all patients were adults with a median age of 49years. Twenty-four tumors (60%) occurred in the lower limb and limb girdles, especially the thigh, followed by the upper limb and limb girdles (20%) and trunk (10%). Other less commonly involved locations included the head and neck, sacrococcygeal region, and perineum. Tumors ranged in size from 1.5 to 19cm (mean, 7cm). By radiology, they appeared as hypoattenuated or isoattenuated masses on computed tomography with hyperintense signal on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Intralesional hypointense septa were present in most cases. Of the 40 tumors, 30 belonged to the classic subtype, whereas 9 cases were cellular, and 1 case had a rhabdoid phenotype. Tumor cells showed variable expression of synaptophysin (36%), S-100 protein (29%), epithelial membrane antigen (11%), and neuron-specific enolase (7%). Ki-67 index was remarkably higher in the cellular variant (mean, 30%). EWSR1-related rearrangement was detected in 12 of 14 cases tested by fluorescence in situ hybridization using break-apart probes. The overall 5- and 7-year survival was 71% and 60%, respectively. Awareness of the imaging features may help pathologists in the diagnosis of EMC. Fluorescence in situ hybridization also serves as a useful diagnostic tool for EMC, especially in the distinction from its mimics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Changes in the Refractive Index of the Stroma and Its Extrafibrillar Matrix When the Cornea Swells

    PubMed Central

    Meek, Keith M.; Dennis, Sally; Khan, Shukria

    2003-01-01

    The transparency of the corneal stroma is critically dependent on the hydration of the tissue; if the cornea swells, light scattering increases. Although this scattering has been ascribed to the disruption caused to the arrangement of the collagen fibrils, theory predicts that light scattering could increase if there is an increased mismatch in the refractive indices of the collagen fibrils and the material between them. The purpose of this article is to use Gladstone and Dale's law of mixtures to calculate volume fractions for a number of different constituents in the stroma, and use these to show how the refractive indices of the stroma and its constituent extrafibrillar material would be expected to change as more solvent enters the tissue. Our calculations predict that solvent entering the extrafibrillar space causes a reduction in its refractive index, and hence a reduction in the overall refractive index of the bovine stroma according to the equation n′s = 1.335 + 0.04/(0.22 + 0.24 H′), where n′s is the refractive index and H′ is the hydration of the swollen stroma. This expression is in reasonable agreement with our experimental measurements of refractive index versus hydration in bovine corneas. When the hydration of the stroma increases from H = 3.2 to H = 8.0, we predict that the ratio of the refractive index of the collagen fibrils to that of the material between them increases from 1.041 to 1.052. This change would be expected to make only a small contribution to the large increase in light scattering observed when the cornea swells to H = 8. PMID:14507686

  13. Inconspicuous Insertion 22;12 in Myxoid/Round Cell Liposarcoma Accompanied by the Secondary Structural Abnormality der(16)t(1;16)

    PubMed Central

    Birch, Nathan C.; Antonescu, Cristina R.; Nelson, Marilu; Sarran, Lisa; Neff, James R.; Seemayer, Thomas; Bridge, Julia A.

    2003-01-01

    In myxoid/round cell liposarcoma, the t(12;16)(q13;p11) and its associated fusion transcript, FUS-CHOP, characterize greater than 95% of cases. The variant translocation t(12;22)(q13;q12) and associated EWS-CHOP fusion transcript are rare. A second non-random aberration observed in roughly 20% of Ewing’s sarcomas, and to a lesser extent other select sarcomas, is the unbalanced 1;16 translocation. Recognition of this secondary aberration in the absence of an obvious primary karyotypic abnormality strongly suggests that the use of other genetic approaches will be informative in uncovering a clinically suspected primary anomaly. The following case illustrates the utility of molecular cytogenetic and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction techniques in diagnosing an ins(22;12)(q12;q13q14) and associated EWS-CHOP fusion transcript in a myxoid/round cell liposarcoma exhibiting a der(16)t(1;16)(q11;q11). PMID:12876210

  14. Inconspicuous insertion 22;12 in myxoid/round cell liposarcoma accompanied by the secondary structural abnormality der(16)t(1;16).

    PubMed

    Birch, Nathan C; Antonescu, Cristina R; Nelson, Marilu; Sarran, Lisa; Neff, James R; Seemayer, Thomas; Bridge, Julia A

    2003-08-01

    In myxoid/round cell liposarcoma, the t(12;16)(q13;p11) and its associated fusion transcript, FUS-CHOP, characterize greater than 95% of cases. The variant translocation t(12;22)(q13;q12) and associated EWS-CHOP fusion transcript are rare. A second non-random aberration observed in roughly 20% of Ewing's sarcomas, and to a lesser extent other select sarcomas, is the unbalanced 1;16 translocation. Recognition of this secondary aberration in the absence of an obvious primary karyotypic abnormality strongly suggests that the use of other genetic approaches will be informative in uncovering a clinically suspected primary anomaly. The following case illustrates the utility of molecular cytogenetic and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction techniques in diagnosing an ins(22;12)(q12;q13q14) and associated EWS-CHOP fusion transcript in a myxoid/round cell liposarcoma exhibiting a der(16)t(1;16)(q11;q11).

  15. Pathophysiological role of microRNA-29 in pancreatic cancer stroma.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jason J; Nabinger, Sarah C; Vega, Zachary; Sahu, Smiti Snigdha; Alluri, Ravi K; Abdul-Sater, Zahi; Yu, Zhangsheng; Gore, Jesse; Nalepa, Grzegorz; Saxena, Romil; Korc, Murray; Kota, Janaiah

    2015-06-22

    Dense fibrotic stroma associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a major obstacle for drug delivery to the tumor bed and plays a crucial role in pancreatic cancer progression. Current, anti-stromal therapies have failed to improve tumor response to chemotherapy and patient survival. Furthermore, recent studies show that stroma impedes tumor progression, and its complete ablation accelerates PDAC progression. In an effort to understand the molecular mechanisms associated with tumor-stromal interactions, using in vitro and in vivo models and PDAC patient biopsies, we show that the loss of miR-29 is a common phenomenon of activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs)/fibroblasts, the major stromal cells responsible for fibrotic stromal reaction. Loss of miR-29 is correlated with a significant increase in extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition, a major component in PDAC stroma. Our in vitro miR-29 gain/loss-of-function studies document the role of miR-29 in PSC-mediated ECM stromal protein accumulation. Overexpression of miR-29 in activated stellate cells reduced stromal deposition, cancer cell viability, and cancer growth in co-culture. Furthermore, the loss of miR-29 in TGF-β1 activated PSCs is SMAD3 dependent. These results provide insights into the mechanistic role of miR-29 in PDAC stroma and its potential use as a therapeutic agent to target PDAC.

  16. RED CELL STROMA PROTEIN RICH IN VITAMIN B12 DURING ACTIVE REGENERATION

    PubMed Central

    Whipple, G. H.; Robscheit-Robbins, F. S.; Bale, W. F.

    1955-01-01

    During active blood regeneration in anemia in dogs an increase occurs in the stroma protein of the red cells. When vitamin B12 with radioactive cobalt is given at the start of this blood regeneration one finds concentration of labeled B 12 in the stroma protein but not in the hemoglobin. After the acute phase of red cell regeneration is ended the concentration of B12 in stroma protein falls rapidly to very low levels within 2 weeks. Subsequent episodes of red blood cell regeneration seems not to cause remobilization of radioactive cobalt into red cells from other body stores. It appears that the vitamin B12 is a factor of importance in the first steps of stroma protein formation in the first few days of the life of the red cell in the dog. This response in dogs and the response in pernicious anemia to vitamin B12 may have some points in common. Distribution of the B12-radioactive cobalt in the organs and tissues at autopsy has been recorded. Some very suggestive localizations were noted and some variation 1 week and 7 weeks after B12 injections. Radioactive cobalt escapes in the urine during the weeks following B12 injections. PMID:13271685

  17. A tissue engineered human endometrial stroma that responds to cues for secretory differentiation, decidualization and menstruation

    PubMed Central

    Schutte, Stacey C.; Taylor, Robert N.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To show the responsiveness of a tissue engineered human endometrial stroma to combinations of hormones mimicking the secretory and menstrual phases of the cycle. Design In vitro experimental study Setting University uterine biology research laboratory Cells Telomerase immortalized human endometrial stromal cells Interventions The stromal cells were cultured in monolayers (2D) or encapsulated in a collagen I hydrogel (3D) to create a simplified tissue engineered stroma. The cells and tissues were exposed to hormone treatments mimicking early and late secretory phases, decidualization and steroid withdrawal conditions to recapitulate menstruation. Main Outcome Measure(s) Morphological and biochemical markers of decidualization and collagenase activity Result(s) The 3D tissue is capable of manifesting changes in morphology and biochemical markers of decidualization similar to 2D culture and characteristic of endometrial stroma in vivo. Unlike 2D culture, the 3D tissue responded to steroid withdrawal by increased collagenase activity and tissue breakdown. Conclusion(s) 3D tissue engineered endometrial stroma can mimic secretory and menstrual phases of the cycle and may be useful for studying uterine receptivity and menstruation in a physiological endocrine environment. PMID:22306710

  18. Inhibition of the hedgehog pathway targets the tumor-associated stroma in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Rosa F; Moore, Todd T; Hattersley, Maureen Mertens; Scarpitti, Meghan; Yang, Bin; Devereaux, Erik; Ramachandran, Vijaya; Arumugam, Thiruvengadam; Ji, Baoan; Logsdon, Craig D; Brown, Jeffrey L; Godin, Robert

    2012-09-01

    The Hedgehog (Hh) pathway has emerged as an important pathway in multiple tumor types and is thought to be dependent on a paracrine signaling mechanism. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of pancreatic cancer-associated fibroblasts (human pancreatic stellate cells, HPSCs) in Hh signaling. In addition, we evaluated the efficacy of a novel Hh antagonist, AZD8542, on tumor progression with an emphasis on the role of the stroma compartment. Expression of Hh pathway members and activation of the Hh pathway were analyzed in both HPSCs and pancreatic cancer cells. We tested the effects of Smoothened (SMO) inhibition with AZD8542 on tumor growth in vivo using an orthotopic model of pancreatic cancer containing varying amounts of stroma. HPSCs expressed high levels of SMO receptor and low levels of Hh ligands, whereas cancer cells showed the converse expression pattern. HPSC proliferation was stimulated by Sonic Hedgehog with upregulation of downstream GLI1 mRNA. These effects were abrogated by AZD8542 treatment. In an orthotopic model of pancreatic cancer, AZD8542 inhibited tumor growth only when HPSCs were present, implicating a paracrine signaling mechanism dependent on stroma. Further evidence of paracrine signaling of the Hh pathway in prostate and colon cancer models is provided, demonstrating the broader applicability of our findings. Based on the use of our novel human-derived pancreatic cancer stellate cells, our results suggest that Hh-targeted therapies primarily affect the tumor-associated stroma, rather than the epithelial compartment.

  19. Understanding tumor-stroma interplays for targeted therapies by armed mesenchymal stromal progenitors: the Mesenkillers

    PubMed Central

    Grisendi, Giulia; Bussolari, Rita; Veronesi, Elena; Piccinno, Serena; Burns, Jorge S; De Santis, Giorgio; Loschi, Pietro; Pignatti, Marco; Di Benedetto, Fabrizio; Ballarin, Roberto; Di Gregorio, Carmela; Guarneri, Valentina; Piccinini, Lino; Horwitz, Edwin M; Paolucci, Paolo; Conte, PierFranco; Dominici, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    A tumor represents a complex structure containing malignant cells strictly coupled with a large variety of surrounding cells constituting the tumor stroma (TS). In recent years, the importance of TS for cancer initiation, development, local invasion and metastases has become increasingly clear allowing the identification of TS as one of the possible ways to indirectly target tumors. Inside the heterogeneous stromal cell population, tumor associated fibroblasts (TAF) play a crucial role providing both functional and supportive environments. During both tumor and stroma development, several findings suggest that TAF could be recruited from different sources such as locally derived host fibroblasts, via epithelial/endothelial mesenchymal transitions or from circulating pools of fibroblasts deriving form mesenchymal progenitors, namely mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC). These insights prompted scientists to identify multimodal approaches to target TS by biomolecules, monoclonal antibodies, and more recently via cell based strategies. These latter strategies appear extremely promising, although still associated with debated and unclear findings. This review discusses crosstalk between cancers and their stroma, dissecting specific tumor types, such as sarcoma, pancreatic and breast carcinoma, where stroma plays distinct paradigmatic roles. The recognition of these distinct stromal functions may help in planning effective and safer approaches aimed either to eradicate or to substitute TS by novel compounds and/or MSC having specific killing activities. PMID:22016827

  20. Results of sub-analysis of a phase 2 study on trabectedin treatment for extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma and mesenchymal chondrosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Morioka, Hideo; Takahashi, Shunji; Araki, Nobuhito; Sugiura, Hideshi; Ueda, Takafumi; Takahashi, Mitsuru; Yonemoto, Tsukasa; Hiraga, Hiroaki; Hiruma, Toru; Kunisada, Toshiyuki; Matsumine, Akihiko; Susa, Michiro; Nakayama, Robert; Nishimoto, Kazumasa; Kikuta, Kazutaka; Horiuchi, Keisuke; Kawai, Akira

    2016-07-14

    Trabectedin is reported to be particularly effective against translocation-related sarcoma. Recently, a randomized phase 2 study in patients with translocation-related sarcomas unresponsive or intolerable to standard chemotherapy was conducted, which showed clinical benefit of trabectedin compared with best supportive care (BSC). Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMCS) and Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma (MCS) are very rare malignant soft tissue sarcomas, and are associated with translocations resulting in fusion genes. In addition, the previous in vivo data showed that trabectedin affect tumor necrosis and reduction in vascularization in a xenograft model of a human high-grade chondrosarcoma. The aim of the present analysis was to clarify the efficacy of trabectedin for EMCS and MCS subjects in the randomized phase 2 study. Five subjects with EMCS and MCS received trabectedin treatment in the randomized phase 2 study. Three MCS subjects were allocated to the BSC group. Objective response and progression-free survival (PFS) were assessed according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1.1 by central radiology imaging review. The median follow-up time of the randomized phase 2 study was 22.7 months, and one subject with MCS was still receiving trabectedin treatment at the final data cutoff. The median PFS was 12.5 months (95 % CI: 7.4-not reached) in the trabectedin group, while 1.0 months (95 % CI: 0.3-1.0 months) in MCS subjects of the BSC group. The six-month progression-free rate was 100 % in the trabectedin group. One subject with MCS showed partial response, and the others in the trabectedin group showed stable disease. Overall survival of EMCS and MCS subjects was 26.4 months (range, 10.4-26.4 months) in the trabectedin group. At the final data cutoff, two of five subjects were still alive. This sub-analysis shows that trabectedin is effective for patients with EMCS and MCS compared with BSC. The efficacy results were

  1. Elastic microfibril distribution in the cornea: Differences between normal and keratoconic stroma.

    PubMed

    White, Tomas L; Lewis, Philip N; Young, Robert D; Kitazawa, Koji; Inatomi, Tsutomu; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Meek, Keith M

    2017-06-01

    The optical and biomechanical properties of the cornea are largely governed by the collagen-rich stroma, a layer that represents approximately 90% of the total thickness. Within the stroma, the specific arrangement of superimposed lamellae provides the tissue with tensile strength, whilst the spatial arrangement of individual collagen fibrils within the lamellae confers transparency. In keratoconus, this precise stromal arrangement is lost, resulting in ectasia and visual impairment. In the normal cornea, we previously characterised the three-dimensional arrangement of an elastic fiber network spanning the posterior stroma from limbus-to-limbus. In the peripheral cornea/limbus there are elastin-containing sheets or broad fibers, most of which become microfibril bundles (MBs) with little or no elastin component when reaching the central cornea. The purpose of the current study was to compare this network with the elastic fiber distribution in post-surgical keratoconic corneal buttons, using serial block face scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. We have demonstrated that the MB distribution is very different in keratoconus. MBs are absent from a region of stroma anterior to Descemet's membrane, an area that is densely populated in normal cornea, whilst being concentrated below the epithelium, an area in which they are absent in normal cornea. We contend that these latter microfibrils are produced as a biomechanical response to provide additional strength to the anterior stroma in order to prevent tissue rupture at the apex of the cone. A lack of MBs anterior to Descemet's membrane in keratoconus would alter the biomechanical properties of the tissue, potentially contributing to the pathogenesis of the disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Structural alterations of the mucosa stroma in the Barrett's esophagus metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence.

    PubMed

    Bobryshev, Yuri V; Killingsworth, Murray C; Lord, Reginald V N

    2012-09-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the extracellular matrix play important roles in intercellular communications and contribute to the development of a number of diseases, including diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. The present study examined the structural characteristics and alterations of the extracellular matrix of the mucosa stroma in the Barrett's esophagus metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence. A total of 41 esophageal tissue specimens (15 esophageal adenocarcinoma, 10 Barrett's esophagus intestinal metaplasia, seven dysplasia and nine normal esophagus) were studied. The present study used transmission electron microscopy and computerized quantitative electron-microscopic analysis in order to investigate the characteristics of the extracellular matrix of the mucosa. The study revealed that marked structural alterations of the mucosa stroma, relating to changes in the distribution and appearance of collagen fibers as well as to changes in numbers of matrix microvesicles, occur in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. It was found that there were 3.1 times more microvesicles in the stroma in Barrett's esophagus than in the stroma of the normal esophagus (P<0.0001) and that there were 5.8 times more microvesicles in esophageal adenocarcinoma than in the normal esophagus (P<0.0001). There were 1.9 times more microvesicles in esophageal adenocarcinoma than in Barrett's esophagus (P=0.0043). The study demonstrates distinctive alterations of the mucosa stroma extracellular matrix in the metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence. The findings suggest that the redistribution of collagen fibers and increases in numbers of matrix microvesicles may play roles in the formation of specialized intestinal metaplasia and the development of adenocarcinoma. © 2012 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Effects of the Loss of Conjunctival Muc16 on Corneal Epithelium and Stroma in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shirai, Kumi; Okada, Yuka; Cheon, Dong-Joo; Miyajima, Masayasu; Behringer, Richard R.; Yamanaka, Osamu; Saika, Shizuya

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the role of conjunctival Muc16 in the homeostasis of the ocular surface epithelium and stroma using Muc16-null knockout (KO) mice. Methods. We used KO mice (n = 58) and C57/BL6 (WT) mice (n = 58). Histology and immunohistochemistry were employed to analyze the phenotypes in the ocular surface epithelium. The expression of phospho-Stat3, AP-1 components, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) in the cornea and conjunctiva was examined. The shape of the nuclei of corneal epithelial cells was examined to evaluate intraepithelial cell differentiation. Epithelial cell proliferation was studied using bromo-deoxyuridine labeling. Finally, the wound healing of a round defect (2-mm diameter) in the corneal epithelium was measured. The keratocyte phenotype and macrophage invasion in the stroma were evaluated after epithelial repair. Results. The loss of Muc16 activated Stat3 signal, affected JunB signal, and upregulated the expression of IL-6 in the conjunctiva. Basal-like cells were observed in the suprabasal layer of the corneal epithelium with an increase in proliferation. The loss of Muc16 accelerated the wound healing of the corneal epithelium. The incidence of myofibroblast appearance and macrophage invasion were more marked in KO stroma than in WT stroma after epithelial repair. Conclusions. The loss of Muc16 in the conjunctiva affected the homeostasis of the corneal epithelium and stroma. The mechanism might include the upregulation of the inflammatory signaling cascade (i.e., Stat3 signal, and IL-6 expression in the KO conjunctiva). Current data provides insight into the research of the pathophysiology of dry eye syndrome. PMID:24812549

  4. Proteomics of the human endometrial glandular epithelium and stroma from the proliferative and secretory phases of the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Hood, Brian L; Liu, Baoquan; Alkhas, Addie; Shoji, Yutaka; Challa, Rusheeswar; Wang, Guisong; Ferguson, Susan; Oliver, Julie; Mitchell, Dave; Bateman, Nicholas W; Zahn, Christopher M; Hamilton, Chad A; Payson, Mark; Lessey, Bruce; Fazleabas, Asgerally T; Maxwell, G Larry; Conrads, Thomas P; Risinger, John I

    2015-04-01

    Despite its importance in reproductive biology and women's health, a detailed molecular-level understanding of the human endometrium is lacking. Indeed, no comprehensive studies have been undertaken to elucidate the important protein expression differences between the endometrial glandular epithelium and surrounding stroma during the proliferative and midsecretory phases of the menstrual cycle. We utilized laser microdissection to harvest epithelial cells and stromal compartments from proliferative and secretory premenopausal endometrial tissue and performed a global, quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics analysis. This analysis identified 1224 total proteins from epithelial cells, among which 318 were differentially abundant between the proliferative and secretory phases (q < 0.05), and 1005 proteins from the stromal compartments, 19 of which were differentially abundant between the phases (q < 0.05). Several proteins were chosen for validation by immunohistochemistry in an independent set of uterine tissues, including carboxypeptidase M, tenascin C, neprilysin, and ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase family member 3 (ENPP3). ENPP3, which was elevated in epithelial glandular cells in the secretory phase, was confirmed to be elevated in midsecretory-phase baboon uterine lavage samples and also observed to have an N-linked glycosylated form that was not observed in the proliferative phase. This study provides a detailed view into the global proteomic alterations of the epithelial cells and stromal compartments of the cycling premenopausal endometrium. These proteomic alterations during endometrial remodeling provide a basis for numerous follow-up investigations on the function of these differentially regulated proteins and their role in reproductive biology and endometrial pathologies. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  5. CD34(+) fibrocytes in normal cervical stroma, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia III, and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix uteri.

    PubMed

    Barth, Peter J; Ramaswamy, Annette; Moll, Roland

    2002-12-01

    CD34(+) fibrocytes are widely distributed in normal connective tissues but have been reported to be absent within the stroma associated with invasive carcinomas. In the present study we investigated the presence and distribution of CD34(+) fibrocytes and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) positive myofibroblasts in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia III (CIN III; n=8), invasive carcinoma of the cervix ( n=18) and adjacent normal cervical stroma. Normal cervical stroma and the stroma adjacent to CIN III disclosed a dense network of CD34(+) fibrocytes, whereas the stroma of invasive carcinoma was virtually free of this cell population. Early stromal invasion by squamous carcinoma was characterized by a focal loss of CD34(+) fibrocytes. alpha-SMA-positive myofibroblasts were not seen in the normal cervical stroma but occurred in six of eight cases of CIN III adjacent to the atypical epithelium. The stroma of invasive carcinoma was made up of large amounts of haphazardly arranged alpha-SMA-positive myofibroblasts. In the setting of the present study, a loss of CD34(+) fibrocytes was specific for stromal alterations associated with invasive carcinoma and proved to be a sensitive tool in detecting small foci of stromal invasion. Therefore, detection of a loss of CD34(+) fibrocytes may constitute an adjunctive tool in detecting (1) early stromal invasion and (2) invasive carcinoma in small biopsy specimens. Moreover, the present study shows that CD34(+) fibrocytes and myofibroblasts play an important role in stromal remodeling associated with invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix.

  6. New avenues for improving pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) treatment: Selective stroma depletion combined with nano drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Bhaw-Luximon, Archana; Jhurry, Dhanjay

    2015-12-28

    The effectiveness of chemotherapy in PDAC is hampered by the dynamic interaction between stroma and cancer cell. The two opposing schools of thought - non-depletion of the stroma vs its depletion - to better drug efficacy are here discussed. Disrupting stroma-cancer cell interaction to reduce tumor progression and promote apoptosis is identified as the new direction of treatment for PDAC. Clinical data have shown that elimination of fibrosis and blockade of the Hedgehog pathway in stroma effectively promote drug delivery to tumor site and apoptosis. Reduced stiffness of ECM, lower fibrosis, higher permeability and higher blood flow after stroma depletion increase drug delivery. Combination strategies involving selective stroma depletion coupled with chemotherapy is currently proving to be the most efficient at clinical level. Striking the right balance between fibrosis depletion and angiogenesis promotion resulting in enhanced drug delivery and apoptosis is a major challenge. The use of nano drug delivery devices coupled with stroma depletion is emerging as the next phase treatment for PDAC. The breakthrough to combat PDAC will likely be a combination of early diagnosis and the emerging chemotherapy strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Confocal microscopy of corneal stroma and endothelium after LASIK and PRK.

    PubMed

    Amoozadeh, Javad; Aliakbari, Soheil; Behesht-Nejad, Amir-Houshang; Seyedian, Mohammad-Amin; Rezvan, Bijan; Hashemi, Hassan

    2009-10-01

    To compare with confocal microscopy the changes in stromal keratocyte density and endothelial cell count due to photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and LASIK. In this prospective study, 32 eyes (16 myopic patients) were examined with the NIDEK Confoscan 3 confocal microscope before and 6 months after PRK and LASIK. The preoperative mean myopia was -2.85+/-0.99 diopters (D) (range: -1.00 to -4.00 D) in 24 eyes that underwent PRK and -2.94+/-0.96 D (range: -2.00 to -4.25 D) in 8 eyes that underwent LASIK. Keratocyte density in the anterior and posterior stroma and the endothelial cell count were measured. Statistically significant changes were assessed using the t test. P<.05 was considered statistically significant. Preoperative hexagonal cell percentage in the LASIK group was 52.17+/-11.43 and 51.33+/-10.98 in the PRK group. Postoperatively, the percentages were 52.96+/-7.55 and 53.34+/-10.2, respectively. Six months postoperatively, keratocyte density changed by 367.12+/-103.35 cells/mm(2) (34.7% reduction) in the anterior stroma (P<.05) and 9.25+/-28.28 cells/mm(2) (1.31% reduction) in the posterior stroma (P>.05) for the LASIK group. In the PRK group, these values were 319.71+/-83.45 cells/mm(2) (31.13% reduction) in the anterior stroma (P<.05) and 0.17+/-38.97 cells/mm(2) (0.02% reduction) in the posterior stroma (P>.05). The changes in keratocyte densities were not statistically significant between groups (P>.05). The mean number of keratocytes decreased by 37.2% in the retroablation zone of the LASIK group (P<.05). No changes were noted in endothelial cell counts. A significant decrease occurred in the number of stromal keratocytes in the anterior stroma. Despite differences in surgery, the change in keratocyte density and endothelial cell counts were similar between LASIK and PRK groups (P>.05). Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Unusual Asymptomatic Fluorodeoxyglucose Avid Pheochromocytoma in a Case of Myxoid Liposarcoma of the Extremity on 18-F Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography-computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Shivdasani, Divya; Singh, Natasha; Pereira, Melvika; Zade, Anand

    2017-01-01

    Sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of rare tumors and arise either from soft tissue or from bone. Soft-tissue sarcomas (STSs) initially metastasize to the lungs. Metastases to extrapulmonary sites such as liver, brain, and soft tissue distant from primary tumor usually develop later. However, cases with isolated adrenal metastasis without disseminated disease have been reported in literature. We present a case of primary myxoid liposarcoma of the lower limb, in which staging 18 -F fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (FDG PET-CT) scan detected a suspicious FDG avid adrenal lesion which eventually on resection was diagnosed as asymptomatic pheochromocytoma. Pheochromocytomas have been reported to demonstrate FDG uptake mimicking metastasis. Hence, while interpreting FDG PET-CT scans in the context of STSs, both the extrapulmonary metastatic potential of aggressive histological subtypes of sarcoma and rare possibility of FDG avid coexistent benign tumor should be taken into consideration.

  9. Characterization of the Tumor Microenvironment and Tumor–Stroma Interaction by Non-invasive Preclinical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ramamonjisoa, Nirilanto; Ackerstaff, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    Tumors are often characterized by hypoxia, vascular abnormalities, low extracellular pH, increased interstitial fluid pressure, altered choline-phospholipid metabolism, and aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect). The impact of these tumor characteristics has been investigated extensively in the context of tumor development, progression, and treatment response, resulting in a number of non-invasive imaging biomarkers. More recent evidence suggests that cancer cells undergo metabolic reprograming, beyond aerobic glycolysis, in the course of tumor development and progression. The resulting altered metabolic content in tumors has the ability to affect cell signaling and block cellular differentiation. Additional emerging evidence reveals that the interaction between tumor and stroma cells can alter tumor metabolism (leading to metabolic reprograming) as well as tumor growth and vascular features. This review will summarize previous and current preclinical, non-invasive, multimodal imaging efforts to characterize the tumor microenvironment, including its stromal components and understand tumor–stroma interaction in cancer development, progression, and treatment response. PMID:28197395

  10. Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung with highly proliferating fibromatosis-like stroma: a rare phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Shogo; Takanashi, Yusuke; Koda, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Few cases of carcinoma with exuberant stromal proliferation have been documented, apart from scirrhous carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, previous cases of carcinoma exhibiting exuberant stromal proliferation have exclusively been reported in the thyroid gland, specifically as papillary carcinoma. The exuberant stromal proliferation has been recognized to be similar to either fibromatosis or nodular fasciitis. Herein, we report a case of a 74-year-old Japanese man whose tumor in the upper lobe of his right lung displayed highly proliferating stroma with dispersed, poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma nests. The stromal spindle cells (fibroblasts/myofibroblasts) had similar molecular profiles to those typically observed in fibromatosis rather than nodular fasciitis, resulting in the designation of "fibromatosis-like" stroma. The presence of carcinoma cells, along with stromal cells, expressing TGF-β in this case likely fostered continuous stromal proliferation, presumably in conjunction with the unique microenvironment in which the carcinoma cells were present.

  11. Thymocyte emigration is mediated by active movement away from stroma-derived factors

    PubMed Central

    Poznansky, Mark C.; Olszak, Ivona T.; Evans, Richard H.; Wang, Zhengyu; Foxall, Russell B.; Olson, Douglas P.; Weibrecht, Kathryn; Luster, Andrew D.; Scadden, David T.

    2002-01-01

    T cells leave the thymus at a specific time during differentiation and do not return despite elaboration of known T cell chemoattractants by thymic stroma. We observed differentiation stage–restricted egress of thymocytes from an artificial thymus in which vascular structures or hemodynamics could not have been playing a role. Hypothesizing that active movement of cells away from a thymic product may be responsible, we demonstrated selective reduction in emigration from primary thymus by inhibitors of active movement down a concentration gradient (chemofugetaxis). Immature intrathymic precursors were insensitive to an emigration signal, whereas mature thymocytes and peripheral blood T cells were sensitive. Thymic stroma was noted to elaborate at least two proteins capable of inducing emigration, one of which was stromal cell–derived factor-1. Thymic emigration is mediated, at least in part, by specific fugetaxis-inducing factors to which only mature cells respond. PMID:11956248

  12. New insights on stromules: stroma filled tubules extended by independent plastids.

    PubMed

    Schattat, Martin H; Klösgen, Ralf Bernd; Mathur, Jaideep

    2012-09-01

    The recognition of stromules as sporadically extended stroma filled tubules from all kinds of plastids constitutes one of the major insights that resulted from the direct application of green fluorescent protein aided imaging of living plant cells. Observations of dynamic green fluorescent stromules strongly suggested that plastids frequently interact with each other while photo-bleaching of interconnected plastids indicated that proteins can move within the stroma filled tubules. These observations readily fit into the prevailing concept of the endosymbiogenic origins of plastids and provided stromules the status of conduits for inter-plastid communication and macromolecule transfer. However, experimental evidence obtained recently through the use of photoconvertible protein labeled stromules strongly supports plastid independence rather than their interconnectivity. Additional information on stress conditions inducing stromules and observations on their alignment with other organelles suggests that the major role of stromules is to increase the interactive surface of a plastid with the rest of the cytoplasm.

  13. CD40 Agonists Alter Tumor Stroma and Show Efficacy Against Pancreatic Carcinoma in Mice and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, Gregory L.; Chiorean, Elena G.; Fishman, Matthew P.; Saboury, Babak; Teitelbaum, Ursina R.; Sun, Weijing; Huhn, Richard D.; Song, Wenru; Li, Dongguang; Sharp, Leslie L.; Torigian, Drew A.; O’Dwyer, Peter J.; Vonderheide, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Immunosuppressive tumor microenvironments can restrain antitumor immunity, particularly in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). Because CD40 activation can reverse immune suppression and drive antitumor T cell responses, we tested the combination of an agonist CD40 antibody with gemcitabine chemotherapy in a small cohort of patients with surgically incurable PDA and observed tumor regressions in some patients. We reproduced this treatment effect in a genetically engineered mouse model of PDA and found unexpectedly that tumor regression required macrophages but not T cells or gemcitabine. CD40-activated macrophages rapidly infiltrated tumors, became tumoricidal, and facilitated the depletion of tumor stroma. Thus, cancer immune surveillance does not necessarily depend on therapy-induced T cells; rather, our findings demonstrate a CD40-dependent mechanism for targeting tumor stroma in the treatment of cancer. PMID:21436454

  14. c-Jun N-terminal kinase in pancreatic tumor stroma augments tumor development in mice.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takeshi; Shibata, Wataru; Hikiba, Yohko; Kaneta, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Nobumi; Ihara, Sozaburo; Ishii, Yasuaki; Sue, Soichiro; Kameta, Eri; Sugimori, Makoto; Yamada, Hiroaki; Kaneko, Hiroaki; Sasaki, Tomohiko; Ishii, Tomohiro; Tamura, Toshihide; Kondo, Masaaki; Maeda, Shin

    2017-11-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a life-threatening disease and there is an urgent need to develop improved therapeutic approaches. The role of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in PDAC stroma is not well defined even though dense desmoplastic reactions are characteristic of PDAC histology. We aimed to explore the role of JNK in PDAC stroma in mice. We crossed Ptf1a Cre/+ ;Kras G12D/+ mice with JNK1 -/- mice to generate Ptf1a Cre/+ ;Kras G12D/+ ;JNK1 -/- (Kras;JNK1 -/- ) mice. Tumor weight was significantly lower in Kras;JNK1 -/- mice than in Kras;JNK1 +/- mice, whereas histopathological features were similar. We also transplanted a murine PDAC cell line (mPC) with intact JNK1 s.c. into WT and JNK1 -/- mice. Tumor diameters were significantly smaller in JNK1 -/- mice. Phosphorylated JNK (p-JNK) was activated in α-smooth muscle actin (SMA)-positive cells in tumor stroma, and mPC-conditioned medium activated p-JNK in tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAF) in vitro. Relative expression of Ccl20 was downregulated in stimulated TAF. Ccl20 is an important chemokine that promotes CD8 + T-cell infiltration by recruitment of dendritic cells, and the number of CD8 + T cells was decreased in Kras;JNK1 +/- mice compared with Kras;JNK1 -/- mice. These results suggest that the cancer secretome decreases Ccl20 secretion from TAF by activation of JNK, and downregulation of Ccl20 secretion might be correlated with reduction of infiltrating CD8 + T cells. Therefore, we concluded that inhibition of activated JNK in pancreatic tumor stroma could be a potential therapeutic target to increase Ccl20 secretion from TAF and induce accumulation of CD8 + T cells, which would be expected to enhance antitumor immunity. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  15. Primary Xenografts of Human Prostate Tissue as a Model to Study Angiogenesis Induced by Reactive Stroma

    PubMed Central

    Montecinos, Viviana P.; Godoy, Alejandro; Hinklin, Jennifer; Vethanayagam, R. Robert; Smith, Gary J.

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of the mechanism(s) of androgen-driven human angiogenesis could have significant implications for modeling new forms of anti-angiogenic therapies for CaP and for developing targeted adjuvant therapies to improve efficacy of androgen-deprivation therapy. However, models of angiogenesis by human endothelial cells localized within an intact human prostate tissue architecture are until now extremely limited. This report characterizes the burst of angiogenesis by endogenous human blood vessels in primary xenografts of fresh surgical specimens of benign prostate or prostate cancer (CaP) tissue that occurs between Days 6–14 after transplantation into SCID mice pre-implanted with testosterone pellets. The wave of human angiogenesis was preceded by androgen-mediated up-regulation of VEGF-A expression in the stromal compartment. The neo-vessel network anastomosed to the host mouse vascular system between Days 6–10 post-transplantation, the angiogenic response ceased by Day 15, and by Day 30 the vasculature had matured and stabilized, as indicated by a lack of leakage of serum components into the interstitial tissue space and by association of nascent endothelial cells with mural cells/pericytes. The angiogenic wave was concurrent with the appearance of a reactive stroma phenotype, as determined by staining for α-SMA, Vimentin, Tenascin, Calponin, Desmin and Masson's trichrome, but the reactive stroma phenotype appeared to be largely independent of androgen availability. Transplantation-induced angiogenesis by endogenous human endothelial cells present in primary xenografts of benign and malignant human prostate tissue was preceded by induction of androgen-driven expression of VEGF by the prostate stroma, and was concurrent with and the appearance of a reactive stroma phenotype. Androgen-modulated expression of VEGF-A appeared to be a causal regulator of angiogenesis, and possibly of stromal activation, in human prostate xenografts. PMID:22303438

  16. Cancer and Stroma-Targeted Immunotherapy with a Genetically Modified DC Vaccine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    of Medicine One Baylor Plaza Houston, TX 77030 REPORT DATE: May 2013 TYPE OF REPORT: Final PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical...information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE May ...2013 2. REPORT TYPE Final report 3. DATES COVERED 01 May 2010 - 30 April 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cancer and Stroma-Targeted Immunotherapy

  17. Stars and stripes in pancreatic cancer: role of stellate cells and stroma in cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Jeremy S.; Pirola, Romano C.; Apte, Minoti V.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease with an unacceptably high mortality to incidence ratio. Traditional therapeutic approaches such as surgery in combination with chemo- or radiotherapy have had limited efficacy in improving the outcome of this disease. Up until just under a decade ago, the prominent desmoplastic reaction which is a characteristic of the majority of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC) had been largely ignored. However, since the identification of the pancreatic stellate cell (PSC) as the key cell responsible for the production of the collagenous stroma in PDAC, increasing attention has been paid to the role of the stromal reaction in pancreatic cancer pathobiology. There is now compelling evidence that PSCs interact not only with cancer cells themselves, but with several other cell types in the stroma (endothelial cells, immune cells, and possibly neuronal cells) to promote cancer progression. This review summarizes current knowledge in the field about the influence of PSCs and the stromal microenvironment on cancer behavior and discusses novel therapeutic approaches which reflect an increasing awareness amongst clinicians and researchers that targeting cancer cells alone is no longer sufficient to improve patient outcome and that combinatorial treatments targeting the stroma as well as the cancer cells will be required to change the clinical course of this disease. PMID:24592240

  18. Hyaluronan and hyaluronectin in the extracellular matrix of human brain tumour stroma.

    PubMed

    Delpech, B; Maingonnat, C; Girard, N; Chauzy, C; Maunoury, R; Olivier, A; Tayot, J; Creissard, P

    1993-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) and the hyaluronan-binding glycoprotein hyaluronectin (HN) were measured in 23 gliomas and 8 meningiomas and their location was revisited in 35 tumours. A clear-cut difference was found in the HN/HA ratio values of glioblastomas (below 0.5) and that of astrocytomas (above 0.5 P < 0.001). Besides their location in the intercellular part of gliomas, HA and HN displayed a perivascular location in 1/3 astrocytomas, 17/24 glioblastomas, and 3/7 meningiomas, suggesting they could be produced also by the vascular stroma of tumours and that they would characterise the neoangiogenesis. All cultivated glioma cells tested produced HA in vitro, whereas only 1/11 cell lines produced HN, at a low level. The results obtained suggest that glioma HA and HN are produced by both cancer cells and vascular stroma cells, which contribute to the edification of the extracellular matrix. In meningiomas only the stroma would be responsible for HA and HN production.

  19. Galectin-1 drives pancreatic carcinogenesis through stroma remodeling and Hedgehog signaling activation

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Bosch, Neus; Fernández-Barrena, Maite G.; Moreno, Mireia; Ortiz-Zapater, Elena; André, Sabine; Gabius, Hans-Joachim; Hwang, Rosa F.; Poirier, Françoise; Munné-Collado, Jessica; Iglesias, Mar; Navas, Carolina; Guerra, Carmen; Fernández-Zapico, Martin E.; Navarro, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is the most aggressive tumor, showing incidence and mortality values almost identical. Despite remarkable advances in PDA molecular characterization, this disease is still refractory to current treatments. Desmoplastic stroma, a constant hallmark of PDA, has recently emerged as the major responsible for PDA therapeutic resistance, therefore representing a promising target. Galectin-1 (Gal1), a glycan-binding protein, is highly expressed in PDA stroma but its role remains unknown. Here, we aim to understand in vivo Gal1 functions and the molecular pathways responsible for its oncogenic properties. Genetic ablation of Gal1 in Ela-myc mice dampens tumor progression through inhibition of proliferation, angiogenesis, desmoplasia and stimulation of tumor-associated immune response, resulting in a 20% increase on the animal life span. In vitro and in vivo studies unveil that these effects are mediated by modulation of the tumor microenvironment in a non-cell autonomous manner. Importantly, acinar-to-ductal metaplasia, a crucial step for PDA initiation, is also regulated by Gal1. Finally, high-throughput gene expression studies and molecular analysis aimed at identifying the underlying mechanism revealed that Gal1 promotes Hedgehog pathway both in PDA cells and stromal fibroblasts. In summary, our studies define a novel role of Gal1 in PDA tumor epithelium-stroma crosstalk and suggest this lectin as potential molecular target for therapy of neoplasms overexpressing Gal1. PMID:24812270

  20. Compartmentalized Culture of Perivascular Stroma and Endothelial Cells in a Microfluidic Model of the Human Endometrium.

    PubMed

    Gnecco, Juan S; Pensabene, Virginia; Li, David J; Ding, Tianbing; Hui, Elliot E; Bruner-Tran, Kaylon L; Osteen, Kevin G

    2017-07-01

    The endometrium is the inner lining of the uterus. Following specific cyclic hormonal stimulation, endometrial stromal fibroblasts (stroma) and vascular endothelial cells exhibit morphological and biochemical changes to support embryo implantation and regulate vascular function, respectively. Herein, we integrated a resin-based porous membrane in a dual chamber microfluidic device in polydimethylsiloxane that allows long term in vitro co-culture of human endometrial stromal and endothelial cells. This transparent, 2-μm porous membrane separates the two chambers, allows for the diffusion of small molecules and enables high resolution bright field and fluorescent imaging. Within our primary human co-culture model of stromal and endothelial cells, we simulated the temporal hormone changes occurring during an idealized 28-day menstrual cycle. We observed the successful differentiation of stroma into functional decidual cells, determined by morphology as well as biochemically as measured by increased production of prolactin. By controlling the microfluidic properties of the device, we additionally found that shear stress forces promoted cytoskeleton alignment and tight junction formation in the endothelial layer. Finally, we demonstrated that the endometrial perivascular stroma model was sustainable for up to 4 weeks, remained sensitive to steroids and is suitable for quantitative biochemical analysis. Future utilization of this device will allow the direct evaluation of paracrine and endocrine crosstalk between these two cell types as well as studies of immunological events associated with normal vs. disease-related endometrial microenvironments.

  1. Retinoic acid signaling determines the fate of uterine stroma in the mouse Müllerian duct

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Tadaaki; Iguchi, Taisen; Sato, Tomomi

    2016-01-01

    The Müllerian duct develops into the oviduct, uterus, and vagina, all of which are quite distinct in their morphology and function. The epithelial fate of these female reproductive organs in developing mice is determined by factors secreted from the stroma; however, how stromal differentiation occurs in the female reproductive organs derived from the Müllerian duct is still unclear. In the present study, roles of retinoic acid (RA) signaling in developing female reproductive tracts were investigated. Retinol dehydrogenase 10 (RDH10) and aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 subfamily A2 (ALDH1A2) mRNAs and proteins and transactivation activity of endogenous RA were found in the stroma of proximal Müllerian ducts and gradually decreased from the proximal to caudal regions in fetal mice. In organ-cultured Müllerian ducts, retinaldehyde or RA treatment induced uterine epithelial differentiation, defined as a layer of columnar epithelial cells negative for oviductal and vaginal epithelial markers. In contrast, inhibition of RA receptor (RAR) signaling induced vaginal epithelial differentiation, characterized as vaginal epithelial marker genes–positive stratified epithelium. Grafting experiments of the organ-cultured Müllerian duct revealed irreversible epithelial fate determination. Although RAR did not directly bind to the homeobox A10 (Hoxa10) promoter region, RA–RAR signaling stimulated Hoxa10 expression. Thus, RA–RAR signaling in the Müllerian duct determines the fate of stroma to form the future uterus and vagina. PMID:27911779

  2. Epithelium-Stroma Classification via Convolutional Neural Networks and Unsupervised Domain Adaptation in Histopathological Images.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yue; Zheng, Han; Liu, Chi; Ding, Xinghao; Rohde, Gustavo K

    2017-11-01

    Epithelium-stroma classification is a necessary preprocessing step in histopathological image analysis. Current deep learning based recognition methods for histology data require collection of large volumes of labeled data in order to train a new neural network when there are changes to the image acquisition procedure. However, it is extremely expensive for pathologists to manually label sufficient volumes of data for each pathology study in a professional manner, which results in limitations in real-world applications. A very simple but effective deep learning method, that introduces the concept of unsupervised domain adaptation to a simple convolutional neural network (CNN), has been proposed in this paper. Inspired by transfer learning, our paper assumes that the training data and testing data follow different distributions, and there is an adaptation operation to more accurately estimate the kernels in CNN in feature extraction, in order to enhance performance by transferring knowledge from labeled data in source domain to unlabeled data in target domain. The model has been evaluated using three independent public epithelium-stroma datasets by cross-dataset validations. The experimental results demonstrate that for epithelium-stroma classification, the proposed framework outperforms the state-of-the-art deep neural network model, and it also achieves better performance than other existing deep domain adaptation methods. The proposed model can be considered to be a better option for real-world applications in histopathological image analysis, since there is no longer a requirement for large-scale labeled data in each specified domain.

  3. Digital histologic analysis reveals morphometric patterns of age-related involution in breast epithelium and stroma.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Rupninder; Chollet-Hinton, Lynn; Kirk, Erin L; Midkiff, Bentley; Troester, Melissa A

    2016-02-01

    Complete age-related regression of mammary epithelium, often termed postmenopausal involution, is associated with decreased breast cancer risk. However, most studies have qualitatively assessed involution. We quantitatively analyzed epithelium, stroma, and adipose tissue from histologically normal breast tissue of 454 patients in the Normal Breast Study. High-resolution digital images of normal breast hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides were partitioned into epithelium, adipose tissue, and nonfatty stroma. Percentage area and nuclei per unit area (nuclear density) were calculated for each component. Quantitative data were evaluated in association with age using linear regression and cubic spline models. Stromal area decreased (P = 0.0002), and adipose tissue area increased (P < 0.0001), with an approximate 0.7% change in area for each component, until age 55 years when these area measures reached a steady state. Although epithelial area did not show linear changes with age, epithelial nuclear density decreased linearly beginning in the third decade of life. No significant age-related trends were observed for stromal or adipose nuclear density. Digital image analysis offers a high-throughput method for quantitatively measuring tissue morphometry and for objectively assessing age-related changes in adipose tissue, stroma, and epithelium. Epithelial nuclear density is a quantitative measure of age-related breast involution that begins to decline in the early premenopausal period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A novel population of local pericyte precursor cells in tumor stroma that require Notch signaling for differentiation.

    PubMed

    Patenaude, Alexandre; Woerher, Stefan; Umlandt, Patricia; Wong, Fred; Ibrahim, Rawa; Kyle, Alastair; Unger, Sandy; Fuller, Megan; Parker, Jeremy; Minchinton, Andrew; Eaves, Connie J; Karsan, Aly

    2015-09-01

    Pericytes are perivascular support cells, the origin of which in tumor tissue is not clear. Recently, we identified a Tie1(+) precursor cell that differentiates into vascular smooth muscle, in a Notch-dependent manner. To understand the involvement of Notch in the ontogeny of tumor pericytes we used a novel flow immunophenotyping strategy to define CD146(+)/CD45(-)/CD31(-/lo) pericytes in the tumor stroma. This strategy combined with ex vivo co-culture experiments identified a novel pericyte progenitor cell population defined as Sca1(hi)/CD146(-)/CD45(-)/CD31(-). The differentiation of these progenitor cells was stimulated by co-culture with endothelial cells. Overexpression of the Notch ligand Jagged1 in endothelial cells further stimulated the differentiation of Sca1(hi)/CD146(-)/CD45(-)/CD31(-) cells into pericytes, while inhibition of Notch signaling with a γ-secretase inhibitor reduced this differentiation. However, Notch inhibition specifically in Tie1-expressing cells did not change the abundance of pericytes in tumors, suggesting that the pericyte precursor is distinct from the vascular smooth muscle cell precursor. Transplant experiments showed that the bone marrow contributes minimally to tumor pericytes. Immunophenotyping revealed that Sca1(hi)/CD146(-)/CD45(-)/CD31(-) cells have greater potential to differentiate into pericytes and have increased expression of classic mesenchymal stem cell markers (CD13, CD44, Nt5e and Thy-1) compared to Sca1(-/lo)/CD146(-)/CD45(-)/CD31(-) cells. Our results suggest that a local Sca1(hi)/CD146(-)/CD45(-)/CD31(-) pericyte progenitor resides in the tumor microenvironment and requires Notch signaling for differentiation into mature pericytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Columnar cell lesions and pseudoangiomatous hyperplasia like stroma: is there an epithelial-stromal interaction?

    PubMed

    Recavarren, Rosemary A; Chivukula, Mamatha; Carter, Gloria; Dabbs, David J

    2009-10-10

    The significance of association between cancer and its microenvironment has been increasingly recognized. It has been shown in animal models that interaction between neoplastic epithelial cells and adjacent stroma can modulate tumor behavior. Carcinoma associated stromal cells can transform normal epithelial cells into neoplastic cells. In breast, columnar cell lesions are non-obligate precursors of low grade ductal carcinoma in situ. Columnar cell lesions can be seen intimately associated with PASH-like-stroma, a lesion we termed as CCPLS. Our aim is to investigate epithelial-stromal interactions in CCPLS and compare them to PASH without columnar cell lesions in breast core needle biopsies. Normal terminal duct lobular unit (TDLU) epithelium was seen in association with columnar cell lesions as well as PASH. Eight (8) cases of each category were examined by a panel of immunostains: CD117 (C-kit), CD34, CD105, bFGF, AR, ER-beta, MIB-1. We observed a markedly decreased expression of c-kit in columnar cell lesions compared to TDLU-epithelium. CD105 showed a quantitative increase in activated vessels in CCPLS compared to PASH. A subset of CCPLS and PASH were androgen receptor positive. A strong nuclear positivity for ER-beta is observed in the epithelium and stroma of all CCPLS cases. We conclude that (1) activated blood vessels predominate in CCPLS; (2) A molecular alteration is signified by c-kit loss in columnar cell lesions; (3) ER-beta and androgen receptor positivity indicate CCPLS are hormonally responsive lesions. Our study suggests an intimate vascular and hormone dependent epithelial-stromal interaction exists in CCPLS lesions.

  6. Impaired Endothelial Progenitor Cell Mobilization and Dysfunctional Bone Marrow Stroma in Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Rafii, Shahin; Jaspers, Janneke E.; White, Ian A.; Hooper, Andrea T.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Verhaar, Marianne C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cell (EPC) levels are reduced in diabetes mellitus. This may be a consequence of impaired mobilization of EPC from the bone marrow. We hypothesized that under diabetic conditions, mobilization of EPC from the bone marrow to the circulation is impaired –at least partly– due to dysfunction of the bone marrow stromal compartment. Methods Diabetes was induced in mice by streptozotocin injection. Circulating Sca-1+Flk-1+ EPC were characterized and quantified by flow cytometry at baseline and after mobilization with G-CSF/SCF injections. In vivo hemangiogenic recovery was tested by 5-FU challenge. Interaction within the bone marrow environment between CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) and supporting stroma was assessed by co-cultures. To study progenitor cell–endothelial cell interaction under normoglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions, a co-culture model using E4Orf1-transfected human endothelial cells was employed. Results In diabetic mice, bone marrow EPC levels were unaffected. However, circulating EPC levels in blood were lower at baseline and mobilization was attenuated. Diabetic mice failed to recover and repopulate from 5-FU injection. In vitro, primary cultured bone marrow stroma from diabetic mice was impaired in its capacity to support human CFU-forming HPC. Finally, hyperglycemia hampered the HPC supportive function of endothelial cells in vitro. Conclusion EPC mobilization is impaired under experimental diabetic conditions and our data suggest that diabetes induces alterations in the progenitor cell supportive capacity of the bone marrow stroma, which could be partially responsible for the attenuated EPC mobilization and reduced EPC levels observed in diabetic patients. PMID:23555959

  7. Impaired endothelial progenitor cell mobilization and dysfunctional bone marrow stroma in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Westerweel, Peter E; Teraa, Martin; Rafii, Shahin; Jaspers, Janneke E; White, Ian A; Hooper, Andrea T; Doevendans, Pieter A; Verhaar, Marianne C

    2013-01-01

    Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cell (EPC) levels are reduced in diabetes mellitus. This may be a consequence of impaired mobilization of EPC from the bone marrow. We hypothesized that under diabetic conditions, mobilization of EPC from the bone marrow to the circulation is impaired -at least partly- due to dysfunction of the bone marrow stromal compartment. Diabetes was induced in mice by streptozotocin injection. Circulating Sca-1(+)Flk-1(+) EPC were characterized and quantified by flow cytometry at baseline and after mobilization with G-CSF/SCF injections. In vivo hemangiogenic recovery was tested by 5-FU challenge. Interaction within the bone marrow environment between CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) and supporting stroma was assessed by co-cultures. To study progenitor cell-endothelial cell interaction under normoglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions, a co-culture model using E4Orf1-transfected human endothelial cells was employed. In diabetic mice, bone marrow EPC levels were unaffected. However, circulating EPC levels in blood were lower at baseline and mobilization was attenuated. Diabetic mice failed to recover and repopulate from 5-FU injection. In vitro, primary cultured bone marrow stroma from diabetic mice was impaired in its capacity to support human CFU-forming HPC. Finally, hyperglycemia hampered the HPC supportive function of endothelial cells in vitro. EPC mobilization is impaired under experimental diabetic conditions and our data suggest that diabetes induces alterations in the progenitor cell supportive capacity of the bone marrow stroma, which could be partially responsible for the attenuated EPC mobilization and reduced EPC levels observed in diabetic patients.

  8. The prognostic value of reactive stroma on prostate needle biopsy: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Saeter, Thorstein; Vlatkovic, Ljiljana; Waaler, Gudmund; Servoll, Einar; Nesland, Jahn M; Axcrona, Karol; Axcrona, Ulrika

    2015-05-01

    Reactive tumor stroma has been shown to play an active role in prostatic carcinogenesis. A grading system for reactive stroma in prostate cancer (PC) has recently been established and found to predict biochemical recurrence and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) in prostatectomized patients. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no study investigating the prognostic value of reactive stromal grading (RSG) with regard to PCSM when evaluated in diagnostic prostate needle biopsies. A population-based study on 318 patients, encompassing all cases of PC diagnosed by needle biopsies and without evidence of systemic metastasis at the time of diagnosis in Aust-Agder County in the period 1991-1999. Patients were identified by cross-referencing the Cancer Registry of Norway. Clinical data were obtained by review of medical charts. The endpoint was PCSM. RSG was evaluated on haematoxylin and eosin stained sections according to previously described criteria; grade 0, 0-5% reactive stroma; grade 1, 6-15%; grade 2, 16-50%; grade 3, 51-100%. RSG could be evaluated in 278 patients. The median follow- up time was 110 months (interquartile range: 51-171). The 10-year PC - specific survival rate for RSGs of 0, 1, 2, and 3 was 96%, 81%, 69%, and 63%, respectively (P < 0.005). RSG remained independently associated with PCSM in a multivariate Cox regression analysis adjusting for prostate-specific antigen level, clinical stage, Gleason score, and mode of treatment. The concordance index of the multivariate model was 0.814 CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that RSG in diagnostic prostate needle biopsies predicts PCSM independently of other evaluable prognostic factors. Hence, RSG could be used in addition to traditional prognostic factors for prognostication and treatment stratification of PC patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. 3D is not enough: Building up a cell instructive microenvironment for tumoral stroma microtissues.

    PubMed

    Brancato, Virginia; Garziano, Alessandro; Gioiella, Filomena; Urciuolo, Francesco; Imparato, Giorgia; Panzetta, Valeria; Fusco, Sabato; Netti, Paolo A

    2017-01-01

    We fabricated three-dimensional microtissues with the aim to replicate in vitro the composition and the functionalities of the tumor microenvironment. By arranging either normal fibroblasts (NF) or cancer-activated fibroblasts (CAF) in two different three dimensional (3D) configurations, two kinds of micromodules were produced: spheroids and microtissues. Spheroids were obtained by means of the traditional cell aggregation technique resulting in a 3D model characterized by high cell density and low amount of extracellular proteins. The microtissues were obtained by culturing cells into porous gelatin microscaffolds. In this latter configuration, cells assembled an intricate network of collagen, fibronectin and hyaluronic acid. We investigated the biophysical properties of both 3D models in terms of cell growth, metabolic activity, texture and composition of the extracellular matrix (via histological analysis and multiphoton imaging) and cell mechanical properties (via Particle Tracking Microrheology). In the spheroid models such biophysical properties remained unchanged regardless to the cell type used. In contrast, normal-microtissues and cancer-activated-microtissues displayed marked differences. CAF-microtissues possessed higher proliferation rate, superior contraction capability, different micro-rheological properties and an extracellular matrix richer in collagen fibronectin and hyaluronic acid. At last, multiphoton investigation revealed differences in the collagen network architecture. Taken together, these results suggested that despite to cell spheroids, microtissues better recapitulate the important differences existing in vivo between normal and cancer-activated stroma representing a more suitable system to mimic in vitro the stromal element of the tumor tissues. This work concerns the engineering of tumor tissue in vitro. Tumor models serve as biological equivalent to study pathologic progression and to screen or validate the drugs efficacy. Tumor

  10. Altered proteomic polymorphisms in the caterpillar body and stroma of natural Cordyceps sinensis during maturation.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yun-Zi; Zhang, Li-Juan; Wu, Zi-Mei; Gao, Ling; Yao, Yi-Sang; Tan, Ning-Zhi; Wu, Jian-Yong; Ni, Luqun; Zhu, Jia-Shi

    2014-01-01

    To examine the maturational changes in proteomic polymorphisms resulting from differential expression by multiple intrinsic fungi in the caterpillar body and stroma of natural Cordyceps sinensis (Cs), an integrated micro-ecosystem. The surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) biochip technique was used to profile the altered protein compositions in the caterpillar body and stroma of Cs during its maturation. The MS chromatograms were analyzed using density-weighted algorithms to examine the similarities and cluster relationships among the proteomic polymorphisms of the Cs compartments and the mycelial products Hirsutella sinensis (Hs) and Paecilomyces hepiali (Ph). SELDI-TOF MS chromatograms displayed dynamic proteomic polymorphism alterations among samples from the different Cs compartments during maturation. More than 1,900 protein bands were analyzed using density-weighted ZUNIX similarity equations and clustering methods, revealing integral polymorphism similarities of 57.4% between the premature and mature stromata and 42.8% between the premature and mature caterpillar bodies. The across-compartment similarity was low, ranging from 10.0% to 18.4%. Consequently, each Cs compartment (i.e., the stroma and caterpillar body) formed a clustering clade, and the 2 clades formed a Cs cluster. The polymorphic similarities ranged from 0.51% to 1.04% between Hs and the Cs compartments and were 2.8- to 4.8-fold higher (1.92%-4.34%) between Ph and the Cs compartments. The Hs and Ph mycelial samples formed isolated clades outside of the Cs cluster. Proteomic polymorphisms in the caterpillar body and stroma of Cs change dynamically during maturation. The proteomic polymorphisms in Hs and Ph differ from those in Cs, suggesting the presence of multiple Cs-associated fungi and multiple Ophiocordyceps sinensis genotypes with altered differential protein expression in the Cs compartments during maturation. In conjunction with

  11. Altered Proteomic Polymorphisms in the Caterpillar Body and Stroma of Natural Cordyceps sinensis during Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zi-Mei; Gao, Ling; Yao, Yi-Sang; Tan, Ning-Zhi; Wu, Jian-Yong; Ni, Luqun; Zhu, Jia-Shi

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the maturational changes in proteomic polymorphisms resulting from differential expression by multiple intrinsic fungi in the caterpillar body and stroma of natural Cordyceps sinensis (Cs), an integrated micro-ecosystem. Methods The surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) biochip technique was used to profile the altered protein compositions in the caterpillar body and stroma of Cs during its maturation. The MS chromatograms were analyzed using density-weighted algorithms to examine the similarities and cluster relationships among the proteomic polymorphisms of the Cs compartments and the mycelial products Hirsutella sinensis (Hs) and Paecilomyces hepiali (Ph). Results: SELDI-TOF MS chromatograms displayed dynamic proteomic polymorphism alterations among samples from the different Cs compartments during maturation. More than 1,900 protein bands were analyzed using density-weighted ZUNIX similarity equations and clustering methods, revealing integral polymorphism similarities of 57.4% between the premature and mature stromata and 42.8% between the premature and mature caterpillar bodies. The across-compartment similarity was low, ranging from 10.0% to 18.4%. Consequently, each Cs compartment (i.e., the stroma and caterpillar body) formed a clustering clade, and the 2 clades formed a Cs cluster. The polymorphic similarities ranged from 0.51% to 1.04% between Hs and the Cs compartments and were 2.8- to 4.8-fold higher (1.92%–4.34%) between Ph and the Cs compartments. The Hs and Ph mycelial samples formed isolated clades outside of the Cs cluster. Conclusion Proteomic polymorphisms in the caterpillar body and stroma of Cs change dynamically during maturation. The proteomic polymorphisms in Hs and Ph differ from those in Cs, suggesting the presence of multiple Cs-associated fungi and multiple Ophiocordyceps sinensis genotypes with altered differential protein expression in the Cs compartments

  12. Host-Derived Pericytes and Sca-1+ Cells Predominate in the MART-1− Stroma Fraction of Experimentally Induced Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Treviño-Villarreal, J. Humberto; Cotanche, Douglas A.; Sepúlveda, Rosalinda; Bortoni, Magda E.; Manneberg, Otto; Udagawa, Taturo

    2011-01-01

    Identification of cell types in tumor-associated stroma that are involved in the development of melanoma is hampered by their heterogeneity. The authors used flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry to demonstrate that anti–MART-1 antibodies can discriminate between melanoma and stroma cells. They investigated the cellular composition of the MART-1−, non-hematopoietic melanoma-associated stroma, finding it consisted mainly of Sca-1+ and CD146+ cells. These cell types were also observed in the skin and muscle adjacent to developing melanomas. The Sca-1+ cell population was observed distributed in the epidermis, hair follicle bulges, and tumor capsule. The CD146+ population was found distributed within the tumor, mainly associated with blood vessels in a perivascular location. In addition to a perivascular distribution, CD146+ cells expressed α-smooth muscle actin, lacked expression of endothelial markers CD31 and CD34, and were therefore identified as pericytes. Pericytes were found to be associated with CD31+ endothelial cells; however, some pericytes were also observed associated with CD31−, MART-1+ B16 melanoma cells that appeared to form blood vessel structures. Furthermore, the authors observed extensive nuclear expression of HIF-1α in melanoma and stroma cells, suggesting hypoxia is an important factor associated with the melanoma microenvironment and vascularization. The results suggest that pericytes and Sca-1+ stroma cells are important contributors to melanoma development. PMID:22147606

  13. Using deep convolutional neural networks to identify and classify tumor-associated stroma in diagnostic breast biopsies.

    PubMed

    Ehteshami Bejnordi, Babak; Mullooly, Maeve; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Fan, Shaoqi; Vacek, Pamela M; Weaver, Donald L; Herschorn, Sally; Brinton, Louise A; van Ginneken, Bram; Karssemeijer, Nico; Beck, Andrew H; Gierach, Gretchen L; van der Laak, Jeroen A W M; Sherman, Mark E

    2018-06-13

    The breast stromal microenvironment is a pivotal factor in breast cancer development, growth and metastases. Although pathologists often detect morphologic changes in stroma by light microscopy, visual classification of such changes is subjective and non-quantitative, limiting its diagnostic utility. To gain insights into stromal changes associated with breast cancer, we applied automated machine learning techniques to digital images of 2387 hematoxylin and eosin stained tissue sections of benign and malignant image-guided breast biopsies performed to investigate mammographic abnormalities among 882 patients, ages 40-65 years, that were enrolled in the Breast Radiology Evaluation and Study of Tissues (BREAST) Stamp Project. Using deep convolutional neural networks, we trained an algorithm to discriminate between stroma surrounding invasive cancer and stroma from benign biopsies. In test sets (928 whole-slide images from 330 patients), this algorithm could distinguish biopsies diagnosed as invasive cancer from benign biopsies solely based on the stromal characteristics (area under the receiver operator characteristics curve = 0.962). Furthermore, without being trained specifically using ductal carcinoma in situ as an outcome, the algorithm detected tumor-associated stroma in greater amounts and at larger distances from grade 3 versus grade 1 ductal carcinoma in situ. Collectively, these results suggest that algorithms based on deep convolutional neural networks that evaluate only stroma may prove useful to classify breast biopsies and aid in understanding and evaluating the biology of breast lesions.

  14. In vitro 3D corneal tissue model with epithelium, stroma, and innervation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Siran; Ghezzi, Chiara E; Gomes, Rachel; Pollard, Rachel E; Funderburgh, James L; Kaplan, David L

    2017-01-01

    The interactions between corneal nerve, epithelium, and stroma are essential for maintaining a healthy cornea. Thus, corneal tissue models that more fully mimic the anatomy, mechanical properties and cellular components of corneal tissue would provide useful systems to study cellular interactions, corneal diseases and provide options for improved drug screening. Here a corneal tissue model was constructed to include the stroma, epithelium, and innervation. Thin silk protein film stacks served as the scaffolding to support the corneal epithelial and stromal layers, while a surrounding silk porous sponge supported neuronal growth. The neurons innervated the stromal and epithelial layers and improved function and viability of the tissues. An air-liquid interface environment of the corneal tissue was also mimicked in vitro, resulting in a positive impact on epithelial maturity. The inclusion of three cell types in co-culture at an air-liquid interface provides an important advance for the field of in vitro corneal tissue engineering, to permit improvements in the study of innervation and corneal tissue development, corneal disease, and tissue responses to environmental factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Targeting galectin-1 inhibits pancreatic cancer progression by modulating tumor-stroma crosstalk.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Carlos A; Martinez-Bosch, Neus; Guerrero, Pedro E; Vinaixa, Judith; Dalotto-Moreno, Tomás; Iglesias, Mar; Moreno, Mireia; Djurec, Magdolna; Poirier, Françoise; Gabius, Hans-Joachim; Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E; Hwang, Rosa F; Guerra, Carmen; Rabinovich, Gabriel A; Navarro, Pilar

    2018-04-17

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) remains one of the most lethal tumor types, with extremely low survival rates due to late diagnosis and resistance to standard therapies. A more comprehensive understanding of the complexity of PDA pathobiology, and especially of the role of the tumor microenvironment in disease progression, should pave the way for therapies to improve patient response rates. In this study, we identify galectin-1 (Gal1), a glycan-binding protein that is highly overexpressed in PDA stroma, as a major driver of pancreatic cancer progression. Genetic deletion of Gal1 in a Kras -driven mouse model of PDA ( Ela-Kras G12V p53 -/- ) results in a significant increase in survival through mechanisms involving decreased stroma activation, attenuated vascularization, and enhanced T cell infiltration leading to diminished metastasis rates. In a human setting, human pancreatic stellate cells (HPSCs) promote cancer proliferation, migration, and invasion via Gal1-driven pathways. Moreover, in vivo orthotopic coinjection of pancreatic tumor cells with Gal1-depleted HPSCs leads to impaired tumor formation and metastasis in mice. Gene-expression analyses of pancreatic tumor cells exposed to Gal1 reveal modulation of multiple regulatory pathways involved in tumor progression. Thus, Gal1 hierarchically regulates different events implicated in PDA biology including tumor cell proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, inflammation, and metastasis, highlighting the broad therapeutic potential of Gal1-specific inhibitors, either alone or in combination with other therapeutic modalities.

  16. Does the peritumoral stroma of basal cell carcinoma recapitulate the follicular connective tissue sheath?

    PubMed

    Sellheyer, Klaus; Krahl, Dieter

    2011-07-01

    There are compelling embryologic and anatomic relationships within adnexal tumors. However, these are mostly perceived within the epithelial component while the stromal component of the tumors is frequently overlooked. In postnatal skin, nestin is almost exclusively expressed in the perifollicular mesenchyme. This study examines the expression of this neuroepithelial stem cell protein in trichoblastoma/trichoepithelioma and in basal cell carcinoma (BCC), which is increasingly being viewed as follicular in nature. We employed standard immunohistochemical methods with three different antibodies to examine the expression of nestin in 25 BCCs and compared the staining pattern with that of 7 trichoblastomas and 11 trichoepitheliomas. Nestin is expressed in the peritumoral stroma of all tumors examined and is limited to the immediate layer of mesenchymal cells surrounding the tumor epithelium. In BCC, nestin-immunoreactive cells are found as a sheath of thin, spindled fibroblasts, while reactive cells are plump in trichoepitheliomas/trichoblastomas. We postulate that the peritumoral stroma of BCC imitates the perifollicular connective tissue sheath, while in contrast that of trichoepithelioma/trichoblastoma is similar to the papillary and immediate peripapillary follicular mesenchyme. Further functional and animal experimental studies are needed to test this hypothesis. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Stroma provides an intestinal stem cell niche in the absence of epithelial Wnts.

    PubMed

    Kabiri, Zahra; Greicius, Gediminas; Madan, Babita; Biechele, Steffen; Zhong, Zhendong; Zaribafzadeh, Hamed; Edison; Aliyev, Jamal; Wu, Yonghui; Bunte, Ralph; Williams, Bart O; Rossant, Janet; Virshup, David M

    2014-06-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling supports intestinal homeostasis by regulating proliferation in the crypt. Multiple Wnts are expressed in Paneth cells as well as other intestinal epithelial and stromal cells. Ex vivo, Wnts secreted by Paneth cells can support intestinal stem cells when Wnt signaling is enhanced with supplemental R-Spondin 1 (RSPO1). However, in vivo, the source of Wnts in the stem cell niche is less clear. Genetic ablation of Porcn, an endoplasmic reticulum resident O-acyltransferase that is essential for the secretion and activity of all vertebrate Wnts, confirmed the role of intestinal epithelial Wnts in ex vivo culture. Unexpectedly, mice lacking epithelial Wnt activity (Porcn(Del)/Villin-Cre mice) had normal intestinal proliferation and differentiation, as well as successful regeneration after radiation injury, indicating that epithelial Wnts are dispensable for these processes. Consistent with a key role for stroma in the crypt niche, intestinal stromal cells endogenously expressing Wnts and Rspo3 support the growth of Porcn(Del) organoids ex vivo without RSPO1 supplementation. Conversely, increasing pharmacologic PORCN inhibition, affecting both stroma and epithelium, reduced Lgr5 intestinal stem cells, inhibited recovery from radiation injury, and at the highest dose fully blocked intestinal proliferation. We conclude that epithelial Wnts are dispensable and that stromal production of Wnts can fully support normal murine intestinal homeostasis.

  18. An unusual initial presentation of mantle cell lymphoma arising from the lymphoid stroma of warthin tumor.

    PubMed

    Arcega, Ramir S; Feinstein, Aaron J; Bhuta, Sunita; Blackwell, Keith E; Rao, Nagesh P; Pullarkat, Sheeja T

    2015-12-03

    Warthin tumors presenting concomitantly with a lymphoma is vanishingly rare with only 15 reported cases in English literature. Herein, we report an unusual initial presentation of a mantle cell lymphoma involving the lymphoid stroma of a Warthin tumor. A seventy-seven year old otherwise healthy gentleman with a 50-pack year smoking history presents with a slowly enlarging left cheek mass. CT scan of the neck demonstrated a left parotid gland tumor measuring 3.4 cm in greatest dimension. He underwent a left superficial parotidectomy, with subsequent histopathologic examination revealing a Warthin tumor with extensive expansion of the lymphoid stroma. Flow cytometric, immunohistochemical, and cytogenetic studies of the stromal component of the tumor confirmed the presence of a mantle cell lymphoma. Clinical staging demonstrated stage IVa disease, and was considered to be at low to intermediate risk due to the slow growth of the parotid lesion. The patient is undergoing close follow up with repeat PET-CT scans at six months. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first well documented collision tumor between mantle cell lymphoma and a Warthin tumor. This case also brings to light the significance of thorough evaluation of the lymphoid component of Warthin tumor.

  19. Classify epithelium-stroma in histopathological images based on deep transferable network.

    PubMed

    Yu, X; Zheng, H; Liu, C; Huang, Y; Ding, X

    2018-04-20

    Recently, the deep learning methods have received more attention in histopathological image analysis. However, the traditional deep learning methods assume that training data and test data have the same distributions, which causes certain limitations in real-world histopathological applications. However, it is costly to recollect a large amount of labeled histology data to train a new neural network for each specified image acquisition procedure even for similar tasks. In this paper, an unsupervised domain adaptation is introduced into a typical deep convolutional neural network (CNN) model to mitigate the repeating of the labels. The unsupervised domain adaptation is implemented by adding two regularisation terms, namely the feature-based adaptation and entropy minimisation, to the object function of a widely used CNN model called the AlexNet. Three independent public epithelium-stroma datasets were used to verify the proposed method. The experimental results have demonstrated that in the epithelium-stroma classification, the proposed method can achieve better performance than the commonly used deep learning methods and some existing deep domain adaptation methods. Therefore, the proposed method can be considered as a better option for the real-world applications of histopathological image analysis because there is no requirement for recollection of large-scale labeled data for every specified domain. © 2018 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2018 Royal Microscopical Society.

  20. Distinct Roles of Cervical Epithelia and Stroma in Pregnancy and Parturition.

    PubMed

    Nallasamy, Shanmugasundaram; Mahendroo, Mala

    2017-03-01

    Through pregnancy the cervix must simultaneously remain competent for pregnancy maintenance and yet become progressively compliant to ensure on time parturition. Cervical changes precede not only term but also preterm birth. Thus, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which the cervix maintains the delicate balance between competence and compliance is required to prevent the potential for lifelong health complications that can result from a premature birth. Recent advances and accumulating evidence support distinct roles for the cervical epithelia and stroma in sustaining competence. Concurrently, structural reorganization of the stromal extracellular matrix allows for the gradual decline in tissue compliance. In recent years, advances in our understanding of the cervical remodeling process has resulted from the collective insights derived from biological, genomics, engineering, and mathematical modeling studies on clinical samples and animal models. This review will highlight recent literature that advances understanding of (1) the importance of barrier function in the lower female reproductive tract in protection against ascending infection, (2) cellular and extracellular matrix changes in the cervical stroma that influence the mechanical function of the cervix, (3) the potential translation of biological insights into clinical tools that impact preterm birth, and (4) the distinction between term and specific pathways of preterm birth. Finally, we present a discussion of future areas of investigation that are likely to advance understanding and lead to the development of clinical tools for accurate detection and prevention of premature birth. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. Complete Metabolome and Lipidome Analysis Reveals Novel Biomarkers in the Human Diabetic Corneal Stroma

    PubMed Central

    Priyadarsini, Shrestha; McKay, Tina B; Sarker-Nag, Akhee; Allegood, Jeremy; Chalfant, Charles; Ma, Jian-Xing; Karamichos, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged hyperglycemia during diabetes mellitus can cause severe ophthalmic complications affecting both the anterior and posterior ocular segments leading to impaired vision or blindness. Diabetes-induced corneal pathologies are associated with decreased wound healing capacity, corneal edema, and altered epithelial basement membrane. The mechanism by which diabetes modulates structure and function within the corneal stroma are unknown. In our study, we characterized the effects of diabetes on extracellular matrix, lipid transport, and cellular metabolism by defining the entire metabolome and lipidome of Type 1 and Type 2 human diabetic corneal stroma. Significant increases in Collagen I and III were found in diabetic corneas suggesting that diabetes promotes defects in matrix structure leading to scarring. Furthermore, increased lipid content, including sphingosine-1-phosphate and dihydrosphingosine, in diabetic corneas compared to healthy controls were measured suggesting altered lipid retention. Metabolomics analysis identified elevated tryptophan metabolites, independent of glucose metabolism, which correlated with upregulation of the Kynurenine pathway in diabetic corneas. We also found significant upregulation of novel biomarkers aminoadipic acid, D,L-pipecolic acid, and dihydroorotate. Our study links aberrant tryptophan metabolism to end-stage pathologies associated with diabetes indicating the potential of the Kynurenine pathway as a therapeutic target for inhibiting diabetes-associated defects in the eye. PMID:27742548

  2. Microscopic analysis of structural changes in diode-laser-welded corneal stroma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matteini, Paolo; Rossi, Francesca; Menabuoni, Luca; Pini, Roberto

    2007-02-01

    Diode laser welding of the cornea is a technique used to provide immediate sealing of corneal wounds: the cut is stained with a water solution of Indocyanine Green and is then irradiated with an 810 nm laser at low power densities (12-16 W/cm2), which induces a localized heating of the stroma in the range 55-66 °C range. In this study, we present a microscopic analysis aimed at evaluating the structural modifications induced in the stromal collagen of pig eyes during the laser welding of corneal wounds. Cornea samples obtained from twenty freshly-enucleated eyes were cut with a pre-calibrated knife and subjected to the laser welding procedure. Histological slices of the laser-welded stroma were examined by means of optical and transmission electron microscopy. These analyses indicated that bridges of lamellar structures crossed the wound edges with no presence of a coagulation effect. After laser welding, collagen fibrils appeared differently oriented among themselves in comparison with those of the control samples, but with similar mean fibril diameters. The laser-induced effect appeared to be confined to the ICG stained area of the cut walls, and no heat damage was observed at the operative power levels of laser corneal welding.

  3. On Orbit Osteobiology Experiments: from "STROMA" to "MDS" -from in vitro to in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi; Cancedda, Ranieri

    Spaceflight causes profound changes in the skeleton, in particular, in the weight-loading bones. Uncoupling of bone remodeling equilibrium between bone formation and resorption is con-sidered responsible for the microgravity-induced bone loss. These changes result in weak-ened and brittle bones prone to fracture on re-entry and in accelerated osteoporosis, making bone deterioration a major problem obstructing the prospects of long-duration manned space flight. Osteoblasts (bone forming cells) and osteocytes (bone resorption cells) are known to be mechano-sensors. Short-exposure of osteoblasts to simulated microgravity ensnarled cell adhe-sion and cytoskeleton. Also osteoblast precursors such as bone marrow stroma cells (BMSC) were shown to be sensitive to mechanical loading. We performed a series of STROMA space-flight experiments by culturing BMSC or co-culturing osteoblasts and osteoclast precursors in automated bioreactors on orbit. Genechip analysis revealed an inhibition of cell proliferation and an unexpected activation of nervous system development genes by spaceflight. To unravel effects of microgravity on genes governing bone mass, transgenic mice with a higher bone mass were flown to orbit inside the Mice Drawer System (MDS) payload. The MDS experiment was launched inside Shuttle Discovery in STS-128 on August 28 2009 at 23:58 EST, and returned to earth by Shuttle Atlantis in STS129 on November 27 2009 at 9:47 EST, marking it as the first long duration animal experiment on the International Space Station (ISS).

  4. Using genipin-crosslinked acellular porcine corneal stroma for cosmetic corneal lens implants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhao; Zhou, Qiang; Zhu, Jixiang; Xiao, Jianhui; Wan, Pengxia; Zhou, Chenjing; Huang, Zheqian; Qiang, Na; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Zheng; Quan, Daping; Wang, Zhichong

    2012-10-01

    Acellular porcine corneal stroma (APCS) has been proven to maintain the matrix microenvironment and is therefore an ideal biomaterial for the repair and reconstruction of corneal stroma. This study aims to develop a method to prepare cosmetic corneal lens implants for leukoma using genipin-crosslinked APCS (Gc-APCS). The Gc-APCS was prepared from APCS immersed in 1.0% genipin aqueous solution (pH 5.5) for 4 h at 37 °C, followed by lyophilization at -10 °C. The color of the Gc-APCS gradually deepened to dark-blue. The degree of crosslinking was 45.7 ± 4.6%, measured by the decrease of basic and hydroxy amino acids. The porous structure and ultrastructure of collagenous lamellae were maintained, and the porosity and BET SSA were 72.7 ± 4.6% and 23.01 ± 3.45 m(2)/g, respectively. The Gc-APCS rehydrated to the physiological water content within 5 min and was highly resistant to collagenase digestion. There were no significant differences in the areal modulus and curvature variation between Gc-APCS and nature porcine cornea. The dark-blue pigments were stable to pH, light and implantation in vivo. Gc-APCS extracts had no inhibitory effects on the proliferation of keratocytes. Corneal neovascularization, graft degradation and corneal rejection were not observed within 6 months. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Distinct subpopulations of FOXD1 stroma-derived cells regulate renal erythropoietin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qingdu; Binns, Thomas C.; Davidoff, Olena; Kapitsinou, Pinelopi P.; Pfaff, Andrew S.; Olauson, Hannes; Fogo, Agnes B.; Fong, Guo-Hua; Gross, Kenneth W.

    2016-01-01

    Renal peritubular interstitial fibroblast-like cells are critical for adult erythropoiesis, as they are the main source of erythropoietin (EPO). Hypoxia-inducible factor 2 (HIF-2) controls EPO synthesis in the kidney and liver and is regulated by prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain (PHD) dioxygenases PHD1, PHD2, and PHD3, which function as cellular oxygen sensors. Renal interstitial cells with EPO-producing capacity are poorly characterized, and the role of the PHD/HIF-2 axis in renal EPO-producing cell (REPC) plasticity is unclear. Here we targeted the PHD/HIF-2/EPO axis in FOXD1 stroma-derived renal interstitial cells and examined the role of individual PHDs in REPC pool size regulation and renal EPO output. Renal interstitial cells with EPO-producing capacity were entirely derived from FOXD1-expressing stroma, and Phd2 inactivation alone induced renal Epo in a limited number of renal interstitial cells. EPO induction was submaximal, as hypoxia or pharmacologic PHD inhibition further increased the REPC fraction among Phd2–/– renal interstitial cells. Moreover, Phd1 and Phd3 were differentially expressed in renal interstitium, and heterozygous deficiency for Phd1 and Phd3 increased REPC numbers in Phd2–/– mice. We propose that FOXD1 lineage renal interstitial cells consist of distinct subpopulations that differ in their responsiveness to Phd2 inactivation and thus regulation of HIF-2 activity and EPO production under hypoxia or conditions of pharmacologic or genetic PHD inactivation. PMID:27088801

  6. Cytomegalovirus infection of the BS-1 human stroma cell line: effect on murine hemopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, H N; Anderson, J; Lim, B; Chatis, P A

    1993-10-01

    BS-1, a stromal cell line derived from human bone marrow, can support the growth of murine erythroid (BFU-E), granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM), and megakaryocyte (CFU-M) progenitor cells in a short term in vitro coculture system. Exposure of BS-1 cells to cytomegalovirus (CMV) for 3 hr prior to coculture results in a marked reduction in the stroma cell's ability to support murine hemopoiesis. CMV's effect on the BS-1 cell's hematopoietic support function is dependent on the multiplicity of infection with total suppression of BFU-E observed at a 1:1 ratio of virus to bone marrow cells. A 50% loss in the ability of BS-1 cells to support BFU-E is observed at a 0.1:1 ratio. No effect of CMV is observed with further log dilutions of virus. CMV infection of BS-1 cells affects its support of erythroid progenitor cell growth to a greater extent than its influence on the development of granulocyte-macrophage colonies. Antibody to CMV or heat inactivation of the virus reverses the inhibitory affect on BS-1 cells. The results suggest that CMV can infect a cell that constitutes one of the cellular elements of the normal bone marrow microenvironment causing a decrease in the stroma's ability to support the growth and development of normal progenitor cells.

  7. Antitumor Effects of Chimeric Receptor Engineered Human T Cells Directed to Tumor Stroma

    PubMed Central

    Kakarla, Sunitha; Chow, Kevin KH; Mata, Melinda; Shaffer, Donald R; Song, Xiao-Tong; Wu, Meng-Fen; Liu, Hao; Wang, Lisa L; Rowley, David R; Pfizenmaier, Klaus; Gottschalk, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), the principle component of the tumor-associated stroma, form a highly protumorigenic and immunosuppressive microenvironment that mediates therapeutic resistance. Co-targeting CAFs in addition to cancer cells may therefore augment the antitumor response. Fibroblast activation protein-α (FAP), a type 2 dipeptidyl peptidase, is expressed on CAFs in a majority of solid tumors making it an attractive immunotherapeutic target. To target FAP-positive CAFs in the tumor-associated stroma, we genetically modified T cells to express a FAP-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). The resulting FAP-specific T cells recognized and killed FAP-positive target cells as determined by proinflammatory cytokine release and target cell lysis. In an established A549 lung cancer model, adoptive transfer of FAP-specific T cells significantly reduced FAP-positive stromal cells, with a concomitant decrease in tumor growth. Combining these FAP-specific T cells with T cells that targeted the EphA2 antigen on the A549 cancer cells themselves significantly enhanced overall antitumor activity and conferred a survival advantage compared to either alone. Our study underscores the value of co-targeting both CAFs and cancer cells to increase the benefits of T-cell immunotherapy for solid tumors. PMID:23732988

  8. Qualitative analysis of connective tissue stroma in different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma: A histochemical study.

    PubMed

    Kullage, Smitha; Jose, Maji; Shanbhag, Vagish Kumar L; Abdulla, Riaz

    2017-01-01

    Detection of oral cancer at an early stage is of utmost importance to decrease morbidity and mortality. Tumor stroma plays a critical role during carcinogenesis. There is lack of information regarding the characteristics of the stroma in relation to the invading malignant epithelial cells and the interdependence between stroma and tumor cells in different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The present study was aimed to analyze and compare the nature of stroma in the vicinity of invading tumor islands in different grades of OSCC, using a histochemical technique picrosirius-polarization method. The present study also evaluated and correlated the possible role of inflammatory response in determining the nature of the stroma. The study included thirty cases of different grades of histologically diagnosed OSCC and ten sections of normal buccal mucosa as a control group. Nature of collagen was analyzed using picrosirius-polarization method, and intensity of inflammatory cell infiltrate was recorded using ImageJ software (1.42q, NIH, USA). The results were tabulated and analyzed statistically. Normal oral mucosa showed predominantly reddish birefringence. All cases of well-differentiated OSCC showed reddish-orange color. Nearly 70% moderately differentiated cases showed yellowish-orange (YO) and 60% of poorly differentiated cases, showed greenish-yellow (GY). The mean inflammatory cell count was highest in well-differentiated group. There was shift to YO and GY collagen when the cell differentiation and inflammatory cell count decreased in moderate and poorly differentiated cases. Both inflammatory cells and tumor cells have a role in determining the nature of the collagen fibers in tumor stroma of OSCC, probably with opposing effects on stromal behavior and hence both are significant in predicting prognosis.

  9. Solar abundance of silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Holweger, H.

    1973-07-01

    An analysis of 19 photospheric Si I lines whose oscillator strengths have recently been detertmined by Garz (1973) leads to a solar abundance of silicon, log epsilon /sub Si/ = 7.65 plus or minus 0.07, on the scale where log epsilon /sub H/ = 12. Together with the sodium abundance determained earlier by the same method, a solar abundance ratio /sup epsilon /Na//sup epsilon /Si = 0.045 ( plus or minus 10%) results. Within the error limits this a grees wtth the meteoritic ratio found in carbonaceous chondrites. Results concerning line-broadening by hydrogen are discussed. (auth)

  10. A new species of Trichoderma hypoxylon harbours abundant secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingzu; Pei, Yunfei; Li, Erwei; Li, Wei; Hyde, Kevin D; Yin, Wen-Bing; Liu, Xingzhong

    2016-11-21

    Some species of Trichoderma are fungicolous on fungi and have been extensively studied and commercialized as biocontrol agents. Multigene analyses coupled with morphology, resulted in the discovery of T. hypoxylon sp. nov., which was isolated from surface of the stroma of Hypoxylon anthochroum. The new taxon produces Trichoderma- to Verticillium-like conidiophores and hyaline conidia. Phylogenetic analyses based on combined ITS, TEF1-α and RPB2 sequence data indicated that T. hypoxylon is a well-distinguished species with strong bootstrap support in the polysporum group. Chemical assessment of this species reveals a richness of secondary metabolites with trichothecenes and epipolythiodiketopiperazines as the major compounds. The fungicolous life style of T. hypoxylon and the production of abundant metabolites are indicative of the important ecological roles of this species in nature.

  11. Estimating abundance: Chapter 27

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J. Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides a non-technical overview of ‘closed population capture–recapture’ models, a class of well-established models that are widely applied in ecology, such as removal sampling, covariate models, and distance sampling. These methods are regularly adopted for studies of reptiles, in order to estimate abundance from counts of marked individuals while accounting for imperfect detection. Thus, the chapter describes some classic closed population models for estimating abundance, with considerations for some recent extensions that provide a spatial context for the estimation of abundance, and therefore density. Finally, the chapter suggests some software for use in data analysis, such as the Windows-based program MARK, and provides an example of estimating abundance and density of reptiles using an artificial cover object survey of Slow Worms (Anguis fragilis).

  12. OXYGEN ABUNDANCES IN CEPHEIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Luck, R. E.; Andrievsky, S. M.; Korotin, S. N.

    2013-07-01

    Oxygen abundances in later-type stars, and intermediate-mass stars in particular, are usually determined from the [O I] line at 630.0 nm, and to a lesser extent, from the O I triplet at 615.7 nm. The near-IR triplets at 777.4 nm and 844.6 nm are strong in these stars and generally do not suffer from severe blending with other species. However, these latter two triplets suffer from strong non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects and thus see limited use in abundance analyses. In this paper, we derive oxygen abundances in a large sample of Cepheids using the near-IR triplets from an NLTEmore » analysis, and compare those abundances to values derived from a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of the [O I] 630.0 nm line and the O I 615.7 nm triplet as well as LTE abundances for the 777.4 nm triplet. All of these lines suffer from line strength problems making them sensitive to either measurement complications (weak lines) or to line saturation difficulties (strong lines). Upon this realization, the LTE results for the [O I] lines and the O I 615.7 nm triplet are in adequate agreement with the abundance from the NLTE analysis of the near-IR triplets.« less

  13. [A Case Report of Gastric Carcinoma with Lymphoid Stroma Differentially Diagnosed from Malignant Lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kazuto; Kosuga, Toshiyuki; Okamoto, Kazuma; Konishi, Hirotaka; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Morimura, Ryo; Murayama, Yasutoshi; Kuriu, Yoshiaki; Ikoma, Hisashi; Nakanishi, Masayoshi; Kuroda, Junya; Kishimoto, Mitsuo; Konishi, Eiichi; Otsuji, Eigo

    2017-11-01

    A 49-year-old man was referred to our hospital for close examination of a submucosal tumor with ulceration located in the upper gastric body. PET-CT showed FDG uptake both in the gastric tumor and an enlarged lymph node. Although routine biopsies and EUS-FNA of this tumor did not demonstrate any malignant findings, he underwent excisional biopsy of the enlarged lymph nodes to rule out malignant lymphoma. Histopathological examination revealed that the excised specimens were metastatic nodes of poorly differentiated carcinoma probably from the known gastric tumor. Subsequently, he underwent total gastrectomy with D2, and histopathological findings confirmed the final diagnosis of gastric carcinoma with lymphoid stroma(GCLS). We report a case of GCLS that was difficult to diagnose.

  14. Infrared spectroscopic imaging: Label-free biochemical analysis of stroma and tissue fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Nazeer, Shaiju S; Sreedhar, Hari; Varma, Vishal K; Martinez-Marin, David; Massie, Christine; Walsh, Michael J

    2017-11-01

    Infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging is a potentially powerful adjunct tool to current histopathology techniques. By coupling the biochemical signature obtained through infrared spectroscopy to the spatial information offered by microscopy, this technique can selectively analyze the chemical composition of different features of unlabeled, unstained tissue sections. In the past, the tissue features that have received the most interest were parenchymal and epithelial cells, chiefly due to their involvement in dysplasia and progression to carcinoma; however, the field has recently turned its focus toward stroma and areas of fibrotic change. These components of tissue present an untapped source of biochemical information that can shed light on many diverse disease processes, and potentially hold useful predictive markers for these same pathologies. Here we review the recent applications of infrared spectroscopic imaging to stromal and fibrotic regions of diseased tissue, and explore the potential of this technique to advance current capabilities for tissue analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Study on a hydroxypropyl chitosan-gelatin based scaffold for corneal stroma tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shilu; Liu, Wanshun; Han, Baoqin; Yang, Lingling

    2009-07-01

    Hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCTS) was crosslinked with gelatin (GEL) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) by 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether to synthesize a scaffold. In this study, this scaffold was tested in physical and biological characteristics as a bioactive corneal stroma surrogate. The results showed the scaffold exhibited 83-88% light transmission values at wavelengths of visible light. Besides that, the scaffold had 96% water content and allowed NaCl and glucose to permeate. Moreover, it was suitable for keratocytes growing on its surface. In the biological part, we compared the scaffold with CS-free ones to investigate the potential effect of CS and found out that CS notablely improved cell compatibility of the scaffold.

  16. Squamous cell carcinoma with sarcomatous stroma in the nasal cavity of a dog.

    PubMed

    Bosward, K L; Kessell, A E; Lucy, R J

    2004-09-01

    This is a report of an unusual squamous cell carcinoma in the nasal cavity of a dog. A 13-year-old Golden Retriever was presented with a unilateral nasal and ocular discharge. Although a nasal tumour was suspected, initial diagnostic investigations were unrewarding, and, with worsening clinical signs, the dog was euthanatized. Necropsy examination confirmed the presence of a nasal tumour that was composed histologically of both a well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma component blending with a predominant spindle cell component. Immunohistochemical staining with anti-human keratin/cytokeratin (AE1/AE3, CAM 5.2 and broad spectrum cytokeratin), Vimentin, Desmin, smooth muscle actin and S-100 protein supported a diagnosis of a squamous cell carcinoma with (pseudo) sarcomatous stroma.

  17. Effect of culture medium on propagation and phenotype of corneal stroma-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sidney, Laura E; Branch, Matthew J; Dua, Harminder S; Hopkinson, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    The limbal area of the corneal stroma has been identified as a source of mesenchymal-like stem cells, which have potential for exploitation as a cell therapy. However, the optimal culture conditions are disputed and few direct media comparisons have been performed. In this report, we evaluated several media types to identify the optimal for inducing an in vitro stem cell phenotype. Primary human corneal stroma-derived stem cells (CSSCs) were extracted from corneoscleral rims. Culture in seven different media types was compared: Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS); M199 with 20% FBS; DMEM-F12 with 20% serum replacement, basic fibroblast growth factor and leukemia inhibitory factor (SCM); endothelial growth medium (EGM); semi-solid MethoCult; serum-free keratinocyte medium (K-SFM); and StemPro-34. Effects on proliferation, morphology, protein and messenger RNA expression were evaluated. All media supported proliferation of CSSCs with the exception of K-SFM and StemPro-34. Morphology differed between media: DMEM produced large cells, whereas EGM produced very small cells. Culture in M199 produced a typical mesenchymal stromal cell phenotype with high expression of CD105, CD90 and CD73 but not CD34. Culture in SCM produced a phenotype more reminiscent of a progenitor cell type with expression of CD34, ABCG2, SSEA-4 and PAX6. Culture medium can significantly influence CSSC phenotype. SCM produced a cell phenotype closest to that of a pluripotent stem cell, and we consider it to be the most appropriate for development as a clinical-grade medium for the production of CSSC phenotypes suitable for cell therapy. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Experience-based surgical approach to pancreatic mucinous cystic neoplasms with ovarian-type stroma

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Chang Moo; Matsushita, Akira; Hwang, Ho Kyoung; Matsuda, Yoko; Kim, Hyunki; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Lee, Woo Jung

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to elucidate the clinicopathological characteristics of resected mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN) with ovarian-type stroma and identify a surgical approach for MCN treatment, on the basis of Republic of Korean (Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea) and Japanese (Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan) bi-institutional collaboration. The present study retrospectively reviewed 55 MCNs with ovarian-type stroma using pathological re-examination. Clinicopathological features and preoperative clinical parameters were evaluated to predict malignant alterations in MCNs. The proportion of surgically treated MCNs has recently been increasing. All patients included in the present study were female, with a mean age of 47.9±13.3 years. Mural nodules were noted in 8 patients (14.5%) and the mean cyst size was 6.1±4.2 cm. A total of 9 patients (16.4%) were identified to exhibit non-invasive mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. The number of patients with small tumors (R2=−0.079, P=0.038) and asymptomatic pancreatic MCNs (P=0.022) was significantly increased (P<0.05), which resulted in the more frequent application of minimally invasive surgery (P<0.001). During the follow-up period (mean, 51.6 months; range, 1.1–242.8 months), no recurrence or tumor-associated mortality was identified. The presence of mural nodules (P=0.002) and a tumor size ≥4.5 cm (P=0.027) were identified as potential clinical parameters for predicting malignant transformation. The significance of mural nodules in predicting malignant transformation was increased in large MCNs (≥4.5 cm) of the pancreas compared with small MCNs (<4.5 cm) (P=0.002). Overall, non-invasive pancreatic MCNs are not aggressive, and minimally invasive pancreatectomy may be an effective approach for suitable patients. PMID:29434957

  19. Biophysical interpretation and ex-vivo characterization of scattered light from tumor-associated breast stroma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laughney, Ashley; Krishnaswamy, Venkat; Schwab, Mary; Wells, Wendy A.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to extract scatter parameters related to tissue ultra-structures from freshly excised breast tissue and to assess whether evident changes in scatter across diagnostic categories is primarily influenced by variation in the composition of each tissues subtypes or by physical remodeling of the extra-cellular environment. Pathologists easily distinguish between epithelium, stroma and adipose tissues, so this classification was adopted for macroscopic subtype classification. Micro-sampling reflectance spectroscopy was used to characterize single-backscattered photons from fresh, excised tumors and normal reduction specimens with sub-millimeter resolution. Phase contrast microscopy (sub-micron resolution) was used to characterize forward-scattered light through frozen tissue from the DHMC Tissue Bank, representing normal, benign and malignant breast tissue, sectioned at 10 microns. The packing density and orientation of collagen fibers in the extracellular matrix (ECM) associated with invasive, normal and benign epithelium was evaluated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Regions of interest (ROIs) in the H&E stained tissues were identified for analysis, as outlined by a pathologist as the gold standard. We conclude that the scatter parameters associated with tumor specimens (Npatients=6, Nspecimens=13) significantly differs from that of normal reductions (Npatients=6, Nspecimens=10). Further, tissue subtypes may be identified by their scatter spectra at sub-micron resolution. Stromal tissue scatters significantly more than the epithelial cells embedded in its ECM and adipose tissue scatters much less. However, the scatter signature of the stroma at the sub-micron level is not particularly differentiating in terms of a diagnosis.

  20. Arousal of cancer-associated stroma: overexpression of palladin activates fibroblasts to promote tumor invasion.

    PubMed

    Brentnall, Teresa A; Lai, Lisa A; Coleman, Joshua; Bronner, Mary P; Pan, Sheng; Chen, Ru

    2012-01-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts, comprised of activated fibroblasts or myofibroblasts, are found in the stroma surrounding solid tumors. These myofibroblasts promote invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. Mechanisms regulating the activation of the fibroblasts and the initiation of invasive tumorigenesis are of great interest. Upregulation of the cytoskeletal protein, palladin, has been detected in the stromal myofibroblasts surrounding many solid cancers and in expression screens for genes involved in invasion. Using a pancreatic cancer model, we investigated the functional consequence of overexpression of exogenous palladin in normal fibroblasts in vitro and its effect on the early stages of tumor invasion. Palladin expression in stromal fibroblasts occurs very early in tumorigenesis. In vivo, concordant expression of palladin and the myofibroblast marker, alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), occurs early at the dysplastic stages in peri-tumoral stroma and progressively increases in pancreatic tumorigenesis. In vitro introduction of exogenous 90 kD palladin into normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) induces activation of stromal fibroblasts into myofibroblasts as marked by induction of α-SMA and vimentin, and through the physical change of cell morphology. Moreover, palladin expression in the fibroblasts enhances cellular migration, invasion through the extracellular matrix, and creation of tunnels through which cancer cells can follow. The fibroblast invasion and creation of tunnels results from the development of invadopodia-like cellular protrusions which express invadopodia proteins and proteolytic enzymes. Palladin expression in fibroblasts is triggered by the co-culture of normal fibroblasts with k-ras-expressing epithelial cells. Overall, palladin expression can impart myofibroblast properties, in turn promoting the invasive potential of these peri-tumoral cells with invadopodia-driven degradation of extracellular matrix. Palladin expression in

  1. Depth-Dependent Transverse Shear Properties of the Human Corneal Stroma

    PubMed Central

    Petsche, Steven J.; Chernyak, Dimitri; Martiz, Jaime; Levenston, Marc E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To measure the transverse shear modulus of the human corneal stroma and its profile through the depth by mechanical testing, and to assess the validity of the hypothesis that the shear modulus will be greater in the anterior third due to increased interweaving of lamellae. Methods. Torsional rheometry was used to measure the transverse shear properties of 6 mm diameter buttons of matched human cadaver cornea pairs. One cornea from each pair was cut into thirds through the thickness with a femtosecond laser and each stromal third was tested individually. The remaining intact corneas were tested to measure full stroma shear modulus. The shear modulus from a 1% shear strain oscillatory test was measured at various levels of axial compression for all samples. Results. After controlling for axial compression, the transverse shear moduli of isolated anterior layers were significantly higher than central and posterior layers. Mean modulus values at 0% axial strain were 7.71 ± 6.34 kPa in the anterior, 1.99 ± 0.45 kPa in the center, 1.31 ± 1.01 kPa in the posterior, and 9.48 ± 2.92 kPa for full thickness samples. A mean equilibrium compressive modulus of 38.7 ± 8.6 kPa at 0% axial strain was calculated from axial compression measured during the shear tests. Conclusions. Transverse shear moduli are two to three orders of magnitude lower than tensile moduli reported in the literature. The profile of shear moduli through the depth displayed a significant increase from posterior to anterior. This gradient supports the hypothesis and corresponds to the gradient of interwoven lamellae seen in imaging of stromal cross-sections. PMID:22205608

  2. E-cadherin regulators are differentially expressed in the epithelium and stroma of keratocystic odontogenic tumors.

    PubMed

    Porto, Lia Pontes Arruda; dos Santos, Jean Nunes; Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira; Figueiredo, Andreia Leal; Carneiro Júnior, Bráulio; Gurgel, Clarissa Araújo; Paiva, Katiúcia Batista Silva; Xavier, Flávia Caló Aquino

    2016-04-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is the process where cells lose their epithelial features and acquire properties of typical mesenchymal cells. The dissociation of tumor cells due to changes in cell-cell adhesion is one of the key principles of tumor invasion and EMT. Thus, the knowledge of the molecular features of EMT in keratocyst odontogenic tumor (KOT) can provide useful markers to aid in the diagnosis and prognosis and perhaps contribute to an alternative therapeutic approach as it shows an aggressive clinical behavior and high recurrence rates. This study aimed to evaluate the EMT in KOT by the immunoexpression of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Snail, and Slug and comparing to radicular cysts and dental follicles. Thirty-two KOTs, 15 radicular cysts, and 08 dental follicles were used for immunohistochemistry, evaluating the extent, intensity, labeling pattern, cellular compartment in the epithelium and stroma, and the presence of inflammation. E-cadherin was preserved in most cases of keratocystic odontogenic tumor. N-cadherin was increased in the tumor epithelium, a result that was positively correlated with the heterogeneous and nuclear immunoexpression of Slug in the epithelium; Slug also correlated with high Snail immunoexpression. N-cadherin was positively correlated with Slug in the stroma of keratocystic odontogenic tumors. The high immunoexpression of Snail and nuclear Slug in keratocystic odontogenic tumors suggests these proteins as transcription factors without necessarily participating in 'cadherin switching'. However, the knowledge of their induction of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in odontogenic tumors is still limited. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Residual corneal stroma in big-bubble deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty: a histological study in eye-bank corneas.

    PubMed

    McKee, Hamish D; Irion, Luciane C D; Carley, Fiona M; Jhanji, Vishal; Brahma, Arun K

    2011-10-01

    To determine if residual corneal stroma remains on the recipient posterior lamella in big-bubble deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK). Pneumodissection using the big-bubble technique was carried out on eye-bank corneas mounted on an artificial anterior chamber. Samples that had a successful big-bubble formation were sent for histological evaluation to determine if any residual stroma remained on the Descemet membrane (DM). Big-bubble formation was achieved in 32 donor corneas. Two distinct types of big-bubble were seen: the bubble had either a white margin (30 corneas) or a clear margin (two corneas). The posterior lamellae of all the white margin corneas showed residual stroma on DM with a mean central thickness of 7.0 μm (range 2.6-17.4 μm). The clear margin corneas showed no residual stroma on DM. It should no longer be assumed that big-bubble DALK, where the bubble has a white margin, routinely bares DM. True baring of DM may only occur with the less commonly seen clear margin bubble.

  4. Association between tumor-stroma ratio and prognosis in solid tumor patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiayuan; Liang, Caixia; Chen, Manyu; Su, Wenmei

    2016-10-18

    Tumor-related stroma plays an active role in tumor invasion and metastasis. The tumor-stroma ratio (TSR) in the pathologic specimen has drawn increasing attention from the field of predicting tumor prognosis. However, the prognostic value of TSR in solid tumors necessitates further elucidation. We conducted a meta-analysis on 14 studies with 4238 patients through a comprehensive electronic search on databases updated on May 2016 to explore the relationship between TSR and prognosis of solid tumors. The overall hazard ratio showed that rich stroma in tumor tissue was associated with poor overall survival (OS) (14 studies, 4238 patients) and disease-free survival (DFS) (9 studies, 2235 patients) of patients with solid tumors. The effect of low TSR on poor OS was observed among various cancer types, but not in the early stage of cervical caner. A significant relationship between low TSR and poor OS was also observed in the subgroup analyses based on study region, blinding status, and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) score. Subgroup analyses indicated that cancer type, clinical stage, study region, blinding status, and NOS score did not affect the prognostic value of TSR for DFS. Moreover, low TSR was significantly correlated with the serious clinical stage, advanced depth of invasion, and positive lymph node metastasis. These findings indicate that a high proportion of stroma in cancer tissue is associated with poor clinical outcomes in cancer patients, and TSR may serve as an independent prognostic factor for solid tumors.

  5. Prognostic value of tumor-stroma ratio combined with the immune status of tumors in invasive breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Vangangelt, K M H; van Pelt, G W; Engels, C C; Putter, H; Liefers, G J; Smit, V T H B M; Tollenaar, R A E M; Kuppen, P J K; Mesker, W E

    2018-04-01

    Complex interactions occur between cancer cells and cells in the tumor microenvironment. In this study, the prognostic value of the interplay between tumor-stroma ratio (TSR) and the immune status of tumors in breast cancer patients was evaluated. A cohort of 574 breast cancer patients was analyzed. The percentage of tumor stroma was visually estimated on Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stained histological tumor tissue sections. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I, HLA-E, HLA-G, markers for regulatory T (Treg) cells, natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs). TSR (P < .001) and immune status of tumors (P < .001) were both statistically significant for recurrence free period (RFP) and both independent prognosticators (P < .001) in which tumors with a high stromal content behave more aggressively as well as tumors with a low immune status. Ten years RFP for patients with a stroma-low tumor and high immune status profile was 87% compared to 17% of patients with a stroma-high tumor combined with low immune status profile (P < .001). Classical HLA class I is the most prominent immune marker in the immune status profiles. Determination of TSR is a simple, fast and cheap method. The effect on RFP of TSR when combined with immune status of tumors or expression of classical HLA class I is even stronger. Both are promising for further prediction and achievement of tailored treatment for breast cancer patients.

  6. Bidirectional Signaling of Mammary Epithelium and Stroma: Implications for Breast Cancer—Preventive Actions of Dietary Factors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The mammary gland is composed of two major cellular compartments: a highly dynamic epithelium that undergoes cycles of proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis in response to local and endocrine signals and the underlying stroma comprised of fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and adipocytes that c...

  7. Mechanoregulatory tumor-stroma crosstalk in pancreatic cancer: Measurements of the effects of extracellular matrix mechanics on tumor growth behavior, and vice-versa, to inform therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celli, Jonathan; Jones, Dustin; El-Hamidi, Hamid; Cramer, Gwendolyn; Hanna, William; Caide, Andrew; Jafari, Seyedehrojin

    The rheological properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM) have been shown to play key roles in regulating tumor growth behavior through mechanotranduction pathways. The role of the mechanical microenvironment may be particularly important tumors of the pancreas, noted for an abundance of rigid fibrotic stroma, implicated in therapeutic resistance. At the same time, cancer cells and their stromal partners (e.g. tumor associated fibroblasts) continually alter the mechanical microenvironment in response to extracellular physical and biochemical cues as part of a two-way mechanoregulatory dialog. Here, we describe experimental studies using 3D pancreatic cell cultures with customized mechanical properties, combined with optical microrheology to provide insight into tumor-driven matrix remodeling. Quantitative microscopy provides measurements of phenotypic changes accompanying systematic variation of ECM composition in collagen and laminin-rich basement membrane admixtures, while analysis of the trajectories of passive tracer particles embedded in ECM report dynamic changes in heterogeneity, microstructure and local shear modulus accompanying both ECM stiffening (fibrosis) processes, and ECM degradation near invading cells. We gratefully acknowledge funding from the National Cancer Institute, R00CA155045 (PI: Celli).

  8. The autophagic tumor stroma model of cancer or "battery-operated tumor growth": A simple solution to the autophagy paradox.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Pavlides, Stephanos; Chiavarina, Barbara; Bonuccelli, Gloria; Casey, Trimmer; Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Migneco, Gemma; Witkiewicz, Agnieszka; Balliet, Renee; Mercier, Isabelle; Wang, Chengwang; Flomenberg, Neal; Howell, Anthony; Lin, Zhao; Caro, Jaime; Pestell, Richard G; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P

    2010-11-01

    The role of autophagy in tumorigenesis is controversial. Both autophagy inhibitors (chloroquine) and autophagy promoters (rapamycin) block tumorigenesis by unknown mechanism(s). This is called the "Autophagy Paradox". We have recently reported a simple solution to this paradox. We demonstrated that epithelial cancer cells use oxidative stress to induce autophagy in the tumor microenvironment. As a consequence, the autophagic tumor stroma generates recycled nutrients that can then be used as chemical building blocks by anabolic epithelial cancer cells. This model results in a net energy transfer from the tumor stroma to epithelial cancer cells (an energy imbalance), thereby promoting tumor growth. This net energy transfer is both unilateral and vectorial, from the tumor stroma to the epithelial cancer cells, representing a true host-parasite relationship. We have termed this new paradigm "The Autophagic Tumor Stroma Model of Cancer Cell Metabolism" or "Battery-Operated Tumor Growth". In this sense, autophagy in the tumor stroma serves as a "battery" to fuel tumor growth, progression and metastasis, independently of angiogenesis. Using this model, the systemic induction of autophagy will prevent epithelial cancer cells from using recycled nutrients, while the systemic inhibiton of autophagy will prevent stromal cells from producing recycled nutrients-both effectively "starving" cancer cells. We discuss the idea that tumor cells could become resistant to the systemic induction of autophagy, by the upregulation of natural endogenous autophagy inhibitors in cancer cells. Alternatively, tumor cells could also become resistant to the systemic induction of autophagy, by the genetic silencing/deletion of pro-autophagic molecules, such as Beclin1. If autophagy resistance develops in cancer cells, then the systemic inhibition of autophagy would provide a therapeutic solution to this type of drug resistance, as it would still target autophagy in the tumor stroma. As such, an

  9. Stellar Oxygen Abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Jeremy

    1994-04-01

    This dissertation addresses several issues concerning stellar oxygen abundances. The 7774 {\\AA} O I triplet equivalent widths of Abia & Rebolo [1989, AJ, 347, 186] for metal-poor dwarfs are found to be systematically too high. I also argue that current effective temperatures used in halo star abundance studies may be ~150 K too low. New color-Teff relations are derived for metal-poor stars. Using the revised Teff values and improved equivalent widths for the 7774A O I triplet, the mean [O/Fe] ratio for a handful of halo stars is found to be +0.52 with no dependence on Teff or [Fe/H]. Possible cosmological implications of the hotter Teff scale are discussed along with additional evidence supporting the need for a higher temperature scale for metal-poor stars. Our Teff scale leads to a Spite Li plateau value of N(Li)=2.28 +/- 0.09. A conservative minimal primordial value of N(Li)=2.35 is inferred. If errors in the observations and models are considered, consistency with standard models of Big Bang nucleosynthesis is still achieved with this larger Li abundance. The revised Teff scale raises the observed B/Be ratio of HD 140283 from 10 to 12, making its value more comfortably consistent with the production of the observed B and Be by ordinary spallation. Our Teff values are found to be in good agreement with values predicted from both the Victoria and Yale isochrone color-Teff relations. Thus, it appears likely that no changes in globular cluster ages would result. Next, we examine the location of the break in the [O/Fe] versus [Fe/H] plane in a quantitative fashion. Analysis of a relatively homogeneous data set does not favor any unique break point in the range -1.7 /= -3), in agreement with the new results for halo dwarfs. We find that the gap in the observed [O/H] distribution, noted by Wheeler et al

  10. [Maturation of Cordyceps sinensis associates with alterations of fungal expressions of multiple Ophiocordyceps sinensis mutants in stroma of Cordyceps sinensis].

    PubMed

    Gao, Ling; Li, Xiao-hong; Zhao, Jian-qing; Lu, Ji-hong; Zhao, Jia-gang; Zhu, Jia-shi

    2012-06-18

    To examine maturational changes in expressions of Ophiocordyceps sinensis (O.sinensis) transition and transversion mutation genotypes in Cordyceps sinensis (C.sinensis) stroma. MassARRAY single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrum genotyping was used, and 8 SNP extension primers were designed based on the scattered, multiple point mutations of known sequences for the O.sinensis mutants within their internal transcribed spacer (ITS) segments. Of the extension primers, 5 (not capable of distinguishing between the 2 AT-biased genotypes) located in rDNA ITS1 and ITS2 regions: 067721-211, 067721-240, 067721-477, 067721-531 and 067721-581. The other 3 extension primers located in 5.8S rDNA region: 067740-324, 067740-328 and 067740-360, to distinguish between the 2 AT-biased genotypes. MS chromatograms at the 8 SNP sites showed dynamic alterations of mutant alleles in C.sinensis stroma. The allele for the AT-biased genotypes at 067721-211 site showed higher peak height than its GC-biased counterpart in the premature C.sinensis stroma, but disappeared with C.sinensis maturation. Chromatograms displayed not only the transition mutation alleles, but also transversion mutants. Some of the transversion mutation alleles displayed higher peak heights than those for GC- and AT-biased alleles, but their peak heights and detection rates tended to be decreased with C.sinensis maturation. When distinguishing between the 2 AT-biases, AB067744 and AB067740 genotype alleles co-existed in the premature C.sinensis stroma. The allele peak height for AB067744 genotype was greatly decreased with C.sinensis maturation, while that for AB067740 genotype increased. Co-existence of at least 5 transition and transversion mutant genotypes of O.sinensis and the dynamic changes in their expressions in C.sinensis stroma along with C.sinensis maturation may be of extreme importance in C.sinensis stroma germination and

  11. Msx homeobox genes critically regulate embryo implantation by controlling paracrine signaling between uterine stroma and epithelium.

    PubMed

    Nallasamy, Shanmugasundaram; Li, Quanxi; Bagchi, Milan K; Bagchi, Indrani C

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian Msx homeobox genes, Msx1 and Msx2, encode transcription factors that control organogenesis and tissue interactions during embryonic development. We observed overlapping expression of these factors in uterine epithelial and stromal compartments of pregnant mice prior to embryo implantation. Conditional ablation of both Msx1 and Msx2 in the uterus resulted in female infertility due to a failure in implantation. In these mutant mice (Msx1/2(d/d)), the uterine epithelium exhibited persistent proliferative activity and failed to attach to the embryos. Gene expression profiling of uterine epithelium and stroma of Msx1/2(d/d) mice revealed an elevated expression of several members of the Wnt gene family in the preimplantation uterus. Increased canonical Wnt signaling in the stromal cells activated β-catenin, stimulating the production of a subset of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) in these cells. The secreted FGFs acted in a paracrine manner via the FGF receptors in the epithelium to promote epithelial proliferation, thereby preventing differentiation of this tissue and creating a non-receptive uterus refractory to implantation. Collectively, these findings delineate a unique signaling network, involving Msx1/2, Wnts, and FGFs, which operate in the uterus at the time of implantation to control the mesenchymal-epithelial dialogue critical for successful establishment of pregnancy.

  12. Msx Homeobox Genes Critically Regulate Embryo Implantation by Controlling Paracrine Signaling between Uterine Stroma and Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Nallasamy, Shanmugasundaram; Li, Quanxi; Bagchi, Milan K.; Bagchi, Indrani C.

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian Msx homeobox genes, Msx1 and Msx2, encode transcription factors that control organogenesis and tissue interactions during embryonic development. We observed overlapping expression of these factors in uterine epithelial and stromal compartments of pregnant mice prior to embryo implantation. Conditional ablation of both Msx1 and Msx2 in the uterus resulted in female infertility due to a failure in implantation. In these mutant mice (Msx1/2 d/d), the uterine epithelium exhibited persistent proliferative activity and failed to attach to the embryos. Gene expression profiling of uterine epithelium and stroma of Msx1/2 d/d mice revealed an elevated expression of several members of the Wnt gene family in the preimplantation uterus. Increased canonical Wnt signaling in the stromal cells activated β-catenin, stimulating the production of a subset of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) in these cells. The secreted FGFs acted in a paracrine manner via the FGF receptors in the epithelium to promote epithelial proliferation, thereby preventing differentiation of this tissue and creating a non-receptive uterus refractory to implantation. Collectively, these findings delineate a unique signaling network, involving Msx1/2, Wnts, and FGFs, which operate in the uterus at the time of implantation to control the mesenchymal-epithelial dialogue critical for successful establishment of pregnancy. PMID:22383889

  13. Interference figures of polarimetric interferometry analysis of the human corneal stroma

    PubMed Central

    Mastropasqua, Rodolfo; Nubile, Mario; Salgari, Niccolò; Lanzini, Manuela; Calienno, Roberta; Mattei, Peter A.; Sborgia, Alessandra; Agnifili, Luca

    2017-01-01

    A rotating polarimetric 90°-cross linear-filter interferometry system was used to detect the morphological characteristics and features of interference patterns produced in in-vivo corneal stroma in healthy human corneas of 23 subjects. The characteristic corneal isogyres presenting with an evident cross-shaped pattern, grossly aligned with the fixation axis, were observed in all patients with centers within the pupillary dark area, impeding the exact determination of the center point. During the rotational scan in 78.3% of the eyes the cross-shaped pattern of the isogyre gradually separated to form two distinct hyperbolic arcs in opposite quadrants, reaching their maximal separation at 45 degrees with respect to angle of cross-shaped pattern formation. The corneal cross and hyperbolic-pattern repeated every 90° throughout the 360° rotational scan. While the interpretation of the isogyres presents particular difficulties, two summary parameters can be extracted for each cornea: the presence/orientation of a single or two dark areas in post-processed images and isochromes. However, the development of dedicated software for semi-quantitative analysis of these parameters and enantiomorphism may become available in the near future. The possible application of polarimetric interferometry in the field of both corneal pathologies and corneal surgery may be of great interest for clinical purposes. PMID:28570631

  14. Interference figures of polarimetric interferometry analysis of the human corneal stroma.

    PubMed

    Mastropasqua, Rodolfo; Nubile, Mario; Salgari, Niccolò; Lanzini, Manuela; Calienno, Roberta; Mattei, Peter A; Sborgia, Alessandra; Agnifili, Luca

    2017-01-01

    A rotating polarimetric 90°-cross linear-filter interferometry system was used to detect the morphological characteristics and features of interference patterns produced in in-vivo corneal stroma in healthy human corneas of 23 subjects. The characteristic corneal isogyres presenting with an evident cross-shaped pattern, grossly aligned with the fixation axis, were observed in all patients with centers within the pupillary dark area, impeding the exact determination of the center point. During the rotational scan in 78.3% of the eyes the cross-shaped pattern of the isogyre gradually separated to form two distinct hyperbolic arcs in opposite quadrants, reaching their maximal separation at 45 degrees with respect to angle of cross-shaped pattern formation. The corneal cross and hyperbolic-pattern repeated every 90° throughout the 360° rotational scan. While the interpretation of the isogyres presents particular difficulties, two summary parameters can be extracted for each cornea: the presence/orientation of a single or two dark areas in post-processed images and isochromes. However, the development of dedicated software for semi-quantitative analysis of these parameters and enantiomorphism may become available in the near future. The possible application of polarimetric interferometry in the field of both corneal pathologies and corneal surgery may be of great interest for clinical purposes.

  15. Human brain metastatic stroma attracts breast cancer cells via chemokines CXCL16 and CXCL12.

    PubMed

    Chung, Brile; Esmaeili, Ali A; Gopalakrishna-Pillai, Sailesh; Murad, John P; Andersen, Emily S; Kumar Reddy, Naveen; Srinivasan, Gayathri; Armstrong, Brian; Chu, Caleb; Kim, Young; Tong, Tommy; Waisman, James; Yim, John H; Badie, Behnam; Lee, Peter P

    2017-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is composed of heterogeneous populations of cells, including cancer, immune, and stromal cells. Progression of tumor growth and initiation of metastasis is critically dependent on the reciprocal interactions between cancer cells and stroma. Through RNA-Seq and protein analyses, we found that cancer-associated fibroblasts derived from human breast cancer brain metastasis express significantly higher levels of chemokines CXCL12 and CXCL16 than fibroblasts from primary breast tumors or normal breast. To further understand the interplay between cancer cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts from each site, we developed three-dimensional organoids composed of patient-derived primary or brain metastasis cancer cells with matching cancer-associated fibroblasts. Three-dimensional CAF aggregates generated from brain metastasis promote migration of cancer cells more effectively than cancer-associated fibroblast aggregates derived from primary tumor or normal breast stromal cells. Treatment with a CXCR4 antagonist and/or CXCL16 neutralizing antibody, alone or in combination, significantly inhibited migration of cancer cells to brain metastatic cancer-associated fibroblast aggregates. These results demonstrate that human brain metastasis cancer-associated fibroblasts potently attract breast cancer cells via chemokines CXCL12 and CXCL16, and blocking CXCR6-CXCL16/CXCR4-CXCL12 receptor-ligand interactions may be an effective therapy for preventing breast cancer brain metastasis.

  16. Targeting PI3K in cancer: impact on tumor cells, their protective stroma, angiogenesis and immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Okkenhaug, Klaus; Graupera, Mariona; Vanhaesebroeck, Bart

    2017-01-01

    The PI3K pathway is hyperactivated in most cancers, yet the capacity of PI3K inhibitors to induce tumor cell death is limited. The efficacy of PI3K inhibition can also derive from interference with the cancer cells’ ability to respond to stromal signals, as illustrated by the approved PI3Kδ inhibitor Idelalisib in B-cell malignancies. Inhibition of the leukocyte-enriched PI3Kδ or PI3Kγ may unleash more potent anti-tumor T-cell responses, by inhibiting regulatory T-cells and immune-suppressive myeloid cells. Moreover, tumor angiogenesis may be targeted by PI3K inhibitors to enhance cancer therapy. Future work should therefore focus on the effects of PI3K inhibitors on the stroma, in addition to their direct effects on tumors. Significance The PI3K pathway extends beyond the direct regulation of cancer cell proliferation and survival. In B-cell malignancies, targeting PI3K purges the tumor cells from their protective microenvironment. Moreover, we propose that PI3K isoform-selective inhibitors may be exploited in the context of cancer immunotherapy and by targeting angiogenesis to improve drug and immune cell delivery. PMID:27655435

  17. Expression between African American and Caucasian Prostate Cancer Tissue Reveals that Stroma is the Site of Aggressive Changes

    PubMed Central

    Kinseth, Matthew A.; Jia, Zhenyu; Rahmatpanah, Farahnaz; Sawyers, Anne; Sutton, Manuel; Wang-Rodriguez, Jessica; Mercola, Dan; McGuire, Kathleen L.

    2013-01-01

    In prostate cancer, race/ethnicity is the highest risk factor after adjusting for age. African Americans have more aggressive tumors at every clinical stage of the disease, resulting in poorer prognosis and increased mortality. A major barrier to identifying crucial gene activity differences is heterogeneity, including tissue composition variation intrinsic to the histology of prostate cancer. We hypothesized differences in gene expression in specific tissue types would reveal mechanisms involved in the racial disparities of prostate cancer. We examined seventeen pairs of arrays for African Americans and Caucasians that were formed by closely matching the samples based on the known tissue type composition of the tumors. Using pair wise T-test we found significantly altered gene expression between African Americans and Caucasians. Independently, we performed multiple linear regression analyses to associate gene expression with race considering variation in percent tumor and stroma tissue. The majority of differentially expressed genes were associated with tumor-adjacent stroma rather than tumor tissue. Extracellular matrix, Integrin family and signaling mediators of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition pathways were all down regulated in stroma of African Americans. Using MetaCore (GeneGo Inc.) analysis, we observed that 35% of significant (p < 10-3) pathways identified EMT and 25% identified immune response pathways especially for Interleukins -2, -4, -5, -6, -7, -10, -13, -15 and -22 as the major changes. Our studies reveal that altered immune and EMT processes in tumor-adjacent stroma may be responsible for the aggressive nature of prostate cancer in African Americans. PMID:23754304

  18. Amount of stroma is associated with mammographic density and stromal expression of oestrogen receptor in normal breast tissues.

    PubMed

    Gabrielson, Marike; Chiesa, Flaminia; Paulsson, Janna; Strell, Carina; Behmer, Catharina; Rönnow, Katarina; Czene, Kamila; Östman, Arne; Hall, Per

    2016-07-01

    Following female sex and age, mammographic density is considered one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer. Despite the association between mammographic density and breast cancer risk, little is known about the underlying histology and biological basis of breast density. To better understand the mechanisms behind mammographic density we assessed morphology, proliferation and hormone receptor status in relation to mammographic density in breast tissues from healthy women. Tissues were obtained from 2012-2013 by ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy from 160 women as part of the Karma (Karolinska mammography project for risk prediction for breast cancer) project. Mammograms were collected through routine mammography screening and mammographic density was calculated using STRATUS. The histological composition, epithelial and stromal proliferation status and hormone receptor status were assessed through immunohistochemical staining. Higher mammographic density was significantly associated with a greater proportion of stromal and epithelial tissue and a lower proportion of adipose tissue. Epithelial expression levels of Ki-67, oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) were not associated with mammographic density. Epithelial Ki-67 was associated with a greater proportion of epithelial tissue, and epithelial PR was associated with a greater proportion of stromal and a lower proportion of adipose tissue. Epithelial ER was not associated with any tissues. In contrast, expression of ER in the stroma was significantly associated with a greater proportion of stroma, and negatively associated with the amount of adipose tissue. High mammographic density is associated with higher amount of stroma and epithelium and less amount of fat, but is not associated with a change in epithelial proliferation or receptor status. Increased expressions of both epithelial PR and stromal ER are associated with a greater proportion of stroma, suggesting hormonal involvement

  19. Cancer-associated stroma affects FDG uptake in experimental carcinomas. Implications for FDG-PET delineation of radiotherapy target.

    PubMed

    Farace, Paolo; D'Ambrosio, Daniela; Merigo, Flavia; Galiè, Mirco; Nanni, Cristina; Spinelli, Antonello; Fanti, Stefano; Degrassi, Anna; Sbarbati, Andrea; Rubello, Domenico; Marzola, Pasquina

    2009-04-01

    To analyse the influence of cancer-associated stroma on FDG-uptake in two carcinoma models characterized by different stromal degrees. Eight nude mice were subcutaneously injected with DU-145 prostate cancer cells or BXPC-3 pancreatic cancer cells, and underwent FDG-PET imaging about 2 weeks after implantation. After the mice were killed, histology, and CD31 and GLUT1 immunohistochemistry were performed. To further evaluate the highly stromalized carcinoma using perfusion-sensitive imaging, four BXPC-3 tumours underwent two successive albumin-binding (MS-325) MRI scans during tumour growth. FDG uptake was significantly higher in the DU-145 than in the BXPC-3 tumours, which were hardly distinguishable from adjacent normal tissue. In the BXPC-3 tumours, histology confirmed the widespread presence of aberrant infiltrated stroma, embedded with numerous vessels marked by CD31. In both tumour types, the stromal matrix was negative for GLUT1. In DU-145 tumour cells, GLUT1 immunostaining was greater than in BXPC-3 tumour cells, but not homogeneously, since it was less evident in the tumour cells which were nearer to vessels and stroma. Finally, MS-325 MRI always clearly showed areas of enhancement in the BXPC-3 tumours. Cancer-associated stroma has been reported to be capable of aerobic metabolism with low glucose consumption. Furthermore, it has been proposed that regions with high vascular perfusion exhibit a significantly lower FDG uptake, suggesting some vascular/metabolic reciprocity. Since our results are consistent with these recent findings, they signal a risk of tumour volume underestimation in radiotherapy if FDG uptake alone is used for target delineation of carcinomas, which suggests that additional evaluation should be performed using vasculature/perfusion-sensitive imaging.

  20. Apparent diffusion coefficient measurement of ovarian stroma: A potential tool for the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Samanci, C; Alis, D; Ustabasioglu, F E; Ozmen, E; Ucar, A K; Aslan, M; Habibi, H A; Bakan, S; Ozcabi, B; Evliyaoğlu, S O; Adaletli, I

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of measuring the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of ovarian stroma in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This study was approved by the institutional review board and informed consent was obtained from each women. A total of 17 women (mean age, 22.2 years±5.1 [SD]; range, 16-33 years) with a diagnosis of PCOS according to the Androgen Excess and PCOS Society criteria and 18 healthy women (mean age, 22.8 years±5.2 [SD]; range, 16-31 years) who served as a control group were included in this prospective study. ADC values of the ovarian stroma during the early follicular phase were calculated by two observers in the two groups. Comparisons were performed using the Student t-test. The mean ADC value in woman with PCOS (1.29±0.27×10 -3  mm 2 /s; range: 0.59×10 -3 - 1.88×10 -3  mm 2 /s) was significantly lower than that in the control group (1.48±0.17×10 -3 mm 2 /s; range: 1.12×10 -3 - 1.86×10 -3 mm 2 /s) (P<0.001). The ADC cutoff value for the determination of PCOS with maximum accuracy was 1.38×10 -3  mm 2 /s (AUC: 0.720; 95% CI: 0.597, 0.843), yielding 78% sensitivity and 62.9% specificity. ADC values of ovarian stroma are lower in patients with PCOS than in control subjects. ADC measurement of ovarian stroma in women with PCOS might help improve the diagnosis of PCOS. Copyright © 2016 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Local Lymphocytes and Nitric Oxide Synthase in the Uterine Cervical Stroma of Patients with Grade III Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Cléber Sergioda; Michelin, Marcia Antoniazi; Etchebehere, Renata Margarida; Adad, Sheila Jorge; Murta, Eddie Fernando Candido

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Precancerous and cancerous cells can trigger an immune response that may limit tumor development and can be used as a prognostic marker. The aims of the present study were to quantify the presence of B and T lymphocytes, macrophages and cells expressing inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the cervical stroma of women with grade III cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN III) or in the intratumoral and peritumoral tissue of women with stage I invasive carcinoma. METHODS: Cervical tissue specimens were obtained from 60 women (20 each from control tissues, CIN III and invasive carcinomas). The average ages in the control, CIN III and invasive groups were 43.9 (± 4.3), 35.5 (± 9.5), and 50 (± 11.2) years, respectively. The specimens were immunohistochemically labeled with antibodies to identify T lymphocytes (CD3), cytotoxic lymphocytes (CD8), B lymphocytes (CD20), macrophages (CD68) and iNOS. We evaluated the markers in the stroma above the squamocolumnar junction (control), at the intraepithelial lesion (CIN cases), and in the nfiltrating tumor. Two independent observers performed the immunohistochemical analysis. RESULTS: T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, macrophages and iNOS were present more frequently (P<0.05) in the stroma of peritumoral invasive tumors compared to the controls and intratumoral invasive cancer samples. CD3+ and CD20+ lymphocytes were present more frequently in CIN III patients compared to samples from patients with intratumoral invasive cancer (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: High numbers of T and B lymphocytes, macrophages and iNOS-expressing cells in the peritumoral stroma of the invasive tumors were observed. Cell migration appeared to be proportional to the progression of the lesion. PMID:20613932

  2. Telomere Attrition in Isolated High-Grade Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Surrounding Stroma Is Predictive of Prostate Cancer1

    PubMed Central

    Joshua, Anthony Michael; Vukovic, Bisera; Braudey, Ilan; Hussein, Sundus; Zielenska, Maria; Srigley, John; Evans, Andrew; Squire, Jeremy Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The causes of early genomic events underlying the development of prostate cancer (CaP) remain unclear. The onset of chromosomal instability is likely to facilitate the formation of crucial genomic aberrations both in the precursor lesion high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HPIN) and in CaP. Instability generated by telomere attrition is one potential mechanism that could initiate chromosomal rearrangements. In this study, normalized telomere length variation was examined in a cohort of 68 men without CaP who had HPIN only on prostatic biopsies. Multiple significant associations between telomere attrition and eventual diagnosis of CaP in the HPIN and in the surrounding stroma were found. Kaplan-Meier analysis of telomere length demonstrated a significantly increased risk for the development of cancer with short telomeres in the surrounding stroma [P = .035; hazard ratio (HR) = 2.12; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.231–0.956], and a trend for HPIN itself (P = .126; HR = 1.72; 95% CI = 0.287–1.168). Cox regression analysis also demonstrated significance between the time from the original biopsy to the diagnosis of cancer and telomere length in HPIN and in the surrounding stroma. These analyses showed significance, both alone and in combination with baseline prostate-specific antigen, and lend support to the hypothesis that telomere attrition in prostatic preneoplasia may be fundamental to the generation of chromosomal instability and to the emergence of CaP. PMID:17325746

  3. Insulin/IGF-driven cancer cell-stroma crosstalk as a novel therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Mutgan, Ayse Ceren; Besikcioglu, H Erdinc; Wang, Shenghan; Friess, Helmut; Ceyhan, Güralp O; Demir, Ihsan Ekin

    2018-02-23

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is unrivalled the deadliest gastrointestinal cancer in the western world. There is substantial evidence implying that insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling axis prompt PDAC into an advanced stage by enhancing tumor growth, metastasis and by driving therapy resistance. Numerous efforts have been made to block Insulin/IGF signaling pathway in cancer therapy. However, therapies that target the IGF1 receptor (IGF-1R) and IGF subtypes (IGF-1 and IGF-2) have been repeatedly unsuccessful. This failure may not only be due to the complexity and homology that is shared by Insulin and IGF receptors, but also due to the complex stroma-cancer interactions in the pancreas. Shedding light on the interactions between the endocrine/exocrine pancreas and the stroma in PDAC is likely to steer us toward the development of novel treatments. In this review, we highlight the stroma-derived IGF signaling and IGF-binding proteins as potential novel therapeutic targets in PDAC.

  4. Six stroma-based RNA markers diagnostic for prostate cancer in European-Americans validated at the RNA and protein levels in patients in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jianguo; Pan, Cong; Jiang, Jun; Deng, Mingsen; Gao, Hengjun; Men, Bozhao; McClelland, Michael; Mercola, Dan; Zhong, Wei-De; Jia, Zhenyu

    2015-01-01

    We previously analyzed human prostate tissue containing stroma near to tumor and from cancer-negative tissues of volunteers. Over 100 candidate gene expression differences were identified and used to develop a classifier that could detect nearby tumor with an accuracy of 97% (sensitivity = 98% and specificity = 88%) based on 364 independent test cases from primarily European American cases. These stroma-based gene signatures have the potential to identify cancer patients among those with negative biopsies. In this study, we used prostate tissues from Chinese cases to validate six of these markers (CAV1, COL4A2, HSPB1, ITGB3, MAP1A and MCAM). In validation by real-time PCR, four genes (COL4A2, HSPB1, ITGB3, and MAP1A) demonstrated significantly lower expression in tumor-adjacent stroma compared to normal stroma (p value ≤ 0.05). Next, we tested whether these expression differences could be extended to the protein level. In IHC assays, all six selected proteins showed lower expression in tumor-adjacent stroma compared to the normal stroma, of which COL4A2, HSPB1 and ITGB3 showed significant differences (p value ≤ 0.05). These results suggest that biomarkers for diagnosing prostate cancer based on tumor microenvironment may be applicable across multiple racial groups. PMID:26158290

  5. Evidence of two distinct functionally specialized fibroblast lineages in breast stroma.

    PubMed

    Morsing, Mikkel; Klitgaard, Marie Christine; Jafari, Abbas; Villadsen, René; Kassem, Moustapha; Petersen, Ole William; Rønnov-Jessen, Lone

    2016-11-03

    The terminal duct lobular unit (TDLU) is the most dynamic structure in the human breast and the putative site of origin of human breast cancer. Although stromal cells contribute to a specialized microenvironment in many organs, this component remains largely understudied in the human breast. We here demonstrate the impact on epithelium of two lineages of breast stromal fibroblasts, one of which accumulates in the TDLU while the other resides outside the TDLU in the interlobular stroma. The two lineages are prospectively isolated by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) based on different expression levels of CD105 and CD26. The characteristics of the two fibroblast lineages are assessed by immunocytochemical staining and gene expression analysis. The differentiation capacity of the two fibroblast populations is determined by exposure to specific differentiating conditions followed by analysis of adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation. To test whether the two fibroblast lineages are functionally imprinted by their site of origin, single cell sorted CD271 low /MUC1 high normal breast luminal epithelial cells are plated on fibroblast feeders for the observation of morphological development. Epithelial structure formation and polarization is shown by immunofluorescence and digitalized quantification of immunoperoxidase-stained cultures. Lobular fibroblasts are CD105 high /CD26 low while interlobular fibroblasts are CD105 low /CD26 high . Once isolated the two lineages remain phenotypically stable and functionally distinct in culture. Lobular fibroblasts have properties in common with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells and they specifically convey growth and branching morphogenesis of epithelial progenitors. Two distinct functionally specialized fibroblast lineages exist in the normal human breast, of which the lobular fibroblasts have properties in common with mesenchymal stem cells and support epithelial growth and morphogenesis. We propose that

  6. Abnormal Mammary Development in 129:STAT1-Null Mice is Stroma-Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Cardiff, Robert D.; Trott, Josephine F.; Hovey, Russell C.; Hubbard, Neil E.; Engelberg, Jesse A.; Tepper, Clifford G.; Willis, Brandon J.; Khan, Imran H.; Ravindran, Resmi K.; Chan, Szeman R.; Schreiber, Robert D.; Borowsky, Alexander D.

    2015-01-01

    Female 129:Stat1-null mice (129S6/SvEvTac-Stat1tm1Rds homozygous) uniquely develop estrogen-receptor (ER)-positive mammary tumors. Herein we report that the mammary glands (MG) of these mice have altered growth and development with abnormal terminal end buds alongside defective branching morphogenesis and ductal elongation. We also find that the 129:Stat1-null mammary fat pad (MFP) fails to sustain the growth of 129S6/SvEv wild-type and Stat1-null epithelium. These abnormalities are partially reversed by elevated serum progesterone and prolactin whereas transplantation of wild-type bone marrow into 129:Stat1-null mice does not reverse the MG developmental defects. Medium conditioned by 129:Stat1-null epithelium-cleared MFP does not stimulate epithelial proliferation, whereas it is stimulated by medium conditioned by epithelium-cleared MFP from either wild-type or 129:Stat1-null females having elevated progesterone and prolactin. Microarrays and multiplexed cytokine assays reveal that the MG of 129:Stat1-null mice has lower levels of growth factors that have been implicated in normal MG growth and development. Transplanted 129:Stat1-null tumors and their isolated cells also grow slower in 129:Stat1-null MG compared to wild-type recipient MG. These studies demonstrate that growth of normal and neoplastic 129:Stat1-null epithelium is dependent on the hormonal milieu and on factors from the mammary stroma such as cytokines. While the individual or combined effects of these factors remains to be resolved, our data supports the role of STAT1 in maintaining a tumor-suppressive MG microenvironment. PMID:26075897

  7. Thymic B Cell-Mediated Attack of Thymic Stroma Precedes Type 1 Diabetes Development

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Ana Isabel; Smith, Jennifer; Kissack, Miriam R.; Hogg, Karen G.; Green, E. Allison

    2018-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from a coordinated autoimmune attack of insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas by the innate and adaptive immune systems, beta cell death being predominantly T cell-mediated. In addition to T cells, peripheral B cells are important in T1D progression. The thymus of mice and man also contains B cells, and lately they have been linked to central tolerance of T cells. The role of thymic B cells in T1D is undefined. Here, we show there are abnormalities in the thymic B cell compartment before beta cell destruction and T1D manifestation. Using non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, we document that preceding T1D development, there is significant accumulation of thymic B cells-partly through in situ development- and the putative formation of ectopic germinal centers. In addition, in NOD mice we quantify thymic plasma cells and observe in situ binding of immunoglobulins to undefined antigens on a proportion of medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs). By contrast, no ectopic germinal centers or pronounced intrathymic autoantibodies are detectable in animals not genetically predisposed to developing T1D. Binding of autoantibodies to thymic stroma correlates with apoptosis of mTECs, including insulin-expressing cells. By contrast, apoptosis of mTECs was decreased by 50% in B cell-deficient NOD mice suggesting intrathymic autoantibodies may selectively target certain mTECs for destruction. Furthermore, we observe that these thymic B cell-associated events correlated with an increased prevalence of premature thymic emigration of T cells. Together, our data suggest that the thymus may be a principal autoimmune target in T1D and contributes to disease progression.

  8. Detecting thermal phase transitions in corneal stroma by fluorescence micro-imaging analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matteini, P.; Rossi, F.; Ratto, F.; Bruno, I.; Nesi, P.; Pini, R.

    2008-02-01

    Thermal modifications induced in corneal stroma were investigated by the use of fluorescence microscopy. Freshly extracted porcine corneas were immersed for 5 minutes in a water bath at temperatures in the 35-90°C range and stored in formalin. The samples were then sliced in 200-μm-thick transversal sections and analyzed under a stereomicroscope to assess corneal shrinkage. Fluorescence images of the thermally treated corneal samples were acquired using a slow-scan cooled CCD camera, after staining the slices with Indocyanine Green (ICG) fluorescent dye which allowed to detect fluorescence signal from the whole tissue. All measurements were performed using an inverted epifluorescence microscope equipped with a mercury lamp. The thermally-induced modifications to the corneal specimens were evaluated by studying the grey level distribution in the fluorescence images. For each acquired image, Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and entropy analyses were performed. The spatial distribution of DFT absolute value indicated the spatial orientation of the lamellar planes, while entropy was used to study the image texture, correlated to the stromal structural transitions. As a result, it was possible to indicate a temperature threshold value (62°C) for high thermal damage, resulting in a disorganization of the lamellar planes and in full agreement with the measured temperature for corneal shrinkage onset. Analysis of the image entropy evidenced five strong modifications in stromal architecture at temperatures of ~45°C, 53°C, 57°C, 66°C, 75°C. The proposed procedure proved to be an effective micro-imaging method capable of detecting subtle changes in corneal tissue subjected to thermal treatment.

  9. Invasion in breast lesions: the role of the epithelial-stroma barrier.

    PubMed

    Rakha, Emad A; Miligy, Islam M; Gorringe, Kylie L; Toss, Michael S; Green, Andrew R; Fox, Stephen B; Schmitt, Fernando C; Tan, Puay-Hoon; Tse, Gary M; Badve, Sunil; Decker, Thomas; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Dabbs, David J; Foschini, Maria P; Moreno, Filipa; Wentao, Yang; Geyer, Felipe C; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Pinder, Sarah E; Lakhani, Sunil R; Ellis, Ian O

    2018-06-01

    Despite the significant biological, behavioural and management differences between ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive carcinoma of the breast, they share many morphological and molecular similarities. Differentiation of these two different lesions in breast pathological diagnosis is based typically on the presence of an intact barrier between the malignant epithelial cells and stroma; namely, the myoepithelial cell (MEC) layer and surrounding basement membrane (BM). Despite being robust diagnostic criteria, the identification of MECs and BM to differentiate in-situ from invasive carcinoma is not always straightforward. The MEC layer around DCIS may be interrupted and/or show an altered immunoprofile. MECs may be absent in some benign locally infiltrative lesions such as microglandular adenosis and infiltrating epitheliosis, and occasionally in non-infiltrative conditions such as apocrine lesions, and in these contexts this does not denote malignancy or invasive disease with metastatic potential. MECs may also be absent around some malignant lesions such as some forms of papillary carcinoma, yet these behave in an indolent fashion akin to some DCIS. In Paget's disease, malignant mammary epithelial cells extend anteriorly from the ducts to infiltrate the epidermis of the nipple but do not typically infiltrate through the BM into the dermis. Conversely, BM-like material can be seen around invasive carcinoma cells and around metastatic tumour cell deposits. Here, we review the role of MECs and BM in breast pathology and highlight potential clinical implications. We advise caution in interpretation of MEC features in breast pathology and mindfulness of the substantive evidence base in the literature associated with behaviour and clinical outcome of lesions classified as benign on conventional morphological examination before changing classification to an invasive lesion on the sole basis of MEC characteristics. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Loss of caveolin-1 and gain of MCT4 expression in the tumor stroma

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Diana; Beça, Francisco F; Sousa, Bárbara; Baltazar, Fátima; Paredes, Joana; Schmitt, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The progression from in situ to invasive breast carcinoma is still an event poorly understood. However, it has been suggested that interactions between the neoplastic cells and the tumor microenvironment may play an important role in this process. Thus, the determination of differential tumor-stromal metabolic interactions could be an important step in invasiveness. The expression of stromal Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) has already been implicated in the progression from ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Additionally, stromal Cav-1 expression has been associated with the expression of stromal monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4) in invasive breast cancer. However, the role of stromal MCT4 in invasiveness has never been explored, neither the association between Cav-1 and MCT4 in the transition from breast DCIS to IDC. Therefore, our aim was to investigate in a series of breast cancer samples including matched in situ and invasive components, if there was a relationship between stromal Cav-1 and MCT4 in the progression from in situ to invasive carcinoma. We found loss of stromal Cav-1 in the progression to IDC in 75% of the cases. In contrast, MCT4 stromal expression was acquired in 87% of the IDCs. Interestingly, a concomitant loss of Cav-1 and gain of MCT4 was observed in the stroma of 75% of the cases, when matched in situ and invasive carcinomas were compared. These results suggest that alterations in Cav-1 and MCT4 may thus mark a critical point in the progression from in situ to invasive breast cancer. PMID:23907124

  11. Patient age, refractive index of the corneal stroma, and outcomes of uneventful laser in situ keratomileusis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sudi; Alió, Jorge L; Walewska, Anna; Amparo, Francisco; Artola, Alberto

    2013-03-01

    To determine the influence of age and the corneal stromal refractive index on the difference between the predicted and actual postoperative refractive error after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and whether the precision of outcomes could be improved by considering age and the refractive index. Vissum Instituto Oftalmologico de Alicante, Alicante, Spain. Case series. Flaps were created using a mechanical microkeratome. The stromal refractive index was measured using a VCH-1 refractometer after flap lifting. Refractive data were obtained 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. Uneventful LASIK was performed in 133 eyes. The mean age, refractive index, and applied corrections were 33.4 years ± 9.49 (SD), 1.368 ± 0.006, and -2.43 ± 3.36 diopters (D), respectively. The difference between the predicted and actual postoperative refractive error = 2.315-0.021 age-1.106 refractive index (F = 3.647, r = 0.254, P=.029; n = 109) at 1 month and = 11.820-0.023 age-7.976 refractive index (F = 3.392, r = 0.261, P=.022, n = 106) at 3 months. A correlation between the actual and calculated postoperative refraction improved from r = -0.178 (P=.064; n = 75) to r = -0.418 (P<.001) after considering the true refractive index 6 months postoperatively. The predicted outcomes of LASIK can be improved by inputting the refractive index of the individual corneal stroma. Unexpected outcomes (>0.50 D) of LASIK could be avoided by considering patient age and the refractive index and by adjusting the applied correction accordingly. Copyright © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Bone marrow-derived cells contribute to regeneration of injured prostate epithelium and stroma.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Wataru; Nakai, Yasutomo; Yoshida, Takahiro; Sato, Mototaka; Hatano, Koji; Nagahara, Akira; Fujita, Kazutoshi; Uemura, Motohide; Nonomura, Norio

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies have reported that bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs), which are recruited to sites of tissue injury and inflammation, can differentiate into epithelial cells, such as liver, lung, gastrointestinal tract, and skin cells. We investigated the role of BMDCs in contributing to regeneration of injured prostate epithelium. Using chimera rats that received allogenic bone marrow grafts from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic rats after lethal whole-body irradiation, we investigated the existence of epithelial marker-positive BMDCs in injured prostate tissue caused by transurethral injection of lipopolysaccharide. Prostate tissues were harvested 2 weeks after transurethral lipopolysaccharide injection. Immunofluorescence staining showed that some cells in the stroma co-expressed GFP and pan-cytokeratin, which suggested the existence of epithelial marker-positive BMDCs. To confirm the existence of such cells, we collected bone marrow-derived non-hematopoietic cells (GFP+/CD45- cells) from the prostate by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis and analyzed the characteristics of the GFP+/CD45- cells. The number of cells in this population significantly increased from 0.042% to 0.492% compared with normal prostate tissue. We found by immunofluorescent analysis and RT-PCR that GFP+/CD45- cells expressed cytokeratin, which suggested that these cells have some features of epithelial cells. In the prostate obtained from the chimera rats 34 weeks after lipopolysaccharide injection, GFP- and cytokeratin-positive cells were observed in the prostate gland, which suggested that some of the cells in the prostate gland regenerated after prostate inflammation derived from bone marrow. BMDCs might be able to differentiate into prostate epithelial cells after prostatic injury. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Prognostic and functional role of subtype-specific tumor-stroma interaction in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Merlino, Giuseppe; Miodini, Patrizia; Callari, Maurizio; D'Aiuto, Francesca; Cappelletti, Vera; Daidone, Maria Grazia

    2017-10-01

    None of the clinically relevant gene expression signatures available for breast cancer were specifically developed to capture the influence of the microenvironment on tumor cells. Here, we attempted to build subtype-specific signatures derived from an in vitro model reproducing tumor cell modifications after interaction with activated or normal stromal cells. Gene expression signatures derived from HER2+, luminal, and basal breast cancer cell lines (treated by normal fibroblasts or cancer-associated fibroblasts conditioned media) were evaluated in clinical tumors by in silico analysis on published gene expression profiles (GEPs). Patients were classified as microenvironment-positive (μENV+ve), that is, with tumors showing molecular profiles suggesting activation by the stroma, or microenvironment-negative (μENV-ve) based on correlation of their tumors' GEP with the respective subtype-specific signature. Patients with estrogen receptor alpha (ER)+/HER2-/μENV+ve tumors were characterized by 2.5-fold higher risk of developing distant metastases (HR = 2.546; 95% CI: 1.751-3.701, P = 9.84E-07), while μENV status did not affect, or only suggested the risk of distant metastases, in women with HER2+ (HR = 1.541; 95% CI: 0.788-3.012, P = 0.206) or ER-/HER2- tumors (HR = 1.894; 95% CI: 0.938-3.824; P = 0.0747), respectively. In ER+/HER2- tumors, the μENV status remained significantly associated with metastatic progression (HR = 2.098; CI: 1.214-3.624; P = 0.00791) in multivariable analysis including size, age, and Genomic Grade Index. Validity of our in vitro model was also supported by in vitro biological endpoints such as cell growth (MTT assay) and migration/invasion (Transwell assay). In vitro-derived gene signatures tracing the bidirectional interaction with cancer activated fibroblasts are subtype-specific and add independent prognostic information to classical prognostic variables in women with ER+/HER2- tumors. © 2017 The Authors. Published

  14. Actinide abundances in ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagee, B.; Bernatowicz, T. J.; Podosek, F. A.; Johnson, M. L.; Burnett, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of actinide and light REE (LREE) abundances and of phosphate abundances in equilibrated ordinary chondrites were obtained and were used to define the Pu abundance in the solar system and to determine the degree of variation of actinide and LREE abundances. The results were also used to compare directly the Pu/U ratio with the earlier obtained ratio determined indirectly, as (Pu/Nd)x(Nd/U), assuming that Pu behaves chemically as a LREE. The data, combined with high-accuracy isotope-dilution data from the literature, show that the degree of gram-scale variability of the Th, U, and LREE abundances for equilibrated ordinary chondrites is a factor of 2-3 for absolute abundances and up to 50 percent for relative abundances. The observed variations are interpreted as reflecting the differences in the compositions and/or proportions of solar nebula components accreted to ordinary chondrite parent bodies.

  15. Twilight of Abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archibald, David

    2014-03-01

    Baby boomers enjoyed the most benign period in human history: fifty years of relative peace, cheap energy, plentiful grain supply, and a warming climate due to the highest solar activity for 8,000 years. The party is over - prepare for the twilight of abundance. David Archibald reveals the grim future the world faces on its current trajectory: massive fuel shortages, the bloodiest warfare in human history, a global starvation crisis, and a rapidly cooling planet. Archibald combines pioneering science with keen economic knowledge to predict the global disasters that could destroy civilization as we know it - disasters that are waiting just around the corner. But there's good news, too: We can have a good future if we prepare for it. Advanced, civilized countries can have a permanently high standard of living if they choose to invest in the technologies that will get them there. Archibald, a climate scientist as well as an inventor and a financial specialist, explains which scientific breakthroughs can save civilization in the coming crisis - if we can cut through the special interest opposition to these innovations and allow free markets to flourish.

  16. MiR-21 Expression in the Tumor Stroma of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: An Independent Biomarker of Disease Free Survival

    PubMed Central

    Specht, Lena; Fiehn, Anne-Marie K.; Therkildsen, Marianne H.; Friis-Hansen, Lennart; Dabelsteen, Erik; von Buchwald, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients have a high mortality rate; thus, new clinical biomarkers and therapeutic options are needed. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs that regulate posttranscriptional gene expression and are commonly deregulated in OSCC and other cancers. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is the most consistently overexpressed miRNA in several types of cancer, and it might be a useful clinical biomarker and therapeutic target. To better understand the role of miR-21 in OSCC, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue samples from 86 patients with primary OSCC were analyzed by in situ hybridization. We found that miR-21 was primarily expressed in the tumor stroma and in some tumor-associated blood vessels with no expression in the adjacent normal epithelia or stroma. Using image analysis, we quantitatively estimated miR-21 expression levels specifically in the stroma of a cohort of OSCC samples. These miR-21 levels significantly correlated with disease free survival with the highest levels being located in the stroma. Stromal miR-21 expression was independently associated with a poorer prognosis, even after adjusting for clinical parameters (perineural invasion and N-stage) in a multivariate analysis. In summary, we have shown that miR-21 is located in the carcinoma cells, stroma and blood vessels of tumors, and its expression specifically in the stromal compartment has a negative prognostic value in OSCC. PMID:24755828

  17. CCL2/CCL5 secreted by the stroma induce IL-6/PYK2 dependent chemoresistance in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Pasquier, Jennifer; Gosset, Marie; Geyl, Caroline; Hoarau-Véchot, Jessica; Chevrot, Audrey; Pocard, Marc; Mirshahi, Massoud; Lis, Raphael; Rafii, Arash; Touboul, Cyril

    2018-02-19

    Minimal residual disease is the main issue of advanced ovarian cancer treatment. According to the literature and previous results, we hypothesized that Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSC) could support this minimal residual disease by protecting ovarian cancer cells (OCC) from chemotherapy. In vitro study confirmed that MSC could induce OCC chemoresistance without contact using transwell setting. Further experiments showed that this induced chemoresistance was dependent on IL-6 OCC stimulation. We combined meticulous in vitro profiling and tumor xenograft models to study the role of IL-6 in MSC/OCC intereactions. We demonstrated that Tocilizumab® (anti-IL-6R therapy) in association with chemotherapy significantly reduced the peritoneal carcinosis index (PCI) than chemotherapy alone in mice xenografted with OCCs+MSCs. Further experiments showed that CCL2 and CCL5 are released by MSC in transwell co-culture and induce OCCs IL-6 secretion and chemoresistance. Finally, we found that IL-6 induced chemoresistance was dependent on PYK2 phosphorylation. These findings highlight the potential key role of the stroma in protecting minimal residual disease from chemotherapy, thus favoring recurrences. Future clinical trials targeting stroma could use anti-IL-6 therapy in association with chemotherapy.

  18. Both the stroma and thylakoid lumen of tobacco chloroplasts are competent for the formation of disulphide bonds in recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Bally, Julia; Paget, Eric; Droux, Michel; Job, Claudette; Job, Dominique; Dubald, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Plant chloroplasts are promising vehicles for recombinant protein production, but the process of protein folding in these organelles is not well understood in comparison with that in prokaryotic systems, such as Escherichia coli. This is particularly true for disulphide bond formation which is crucial for the biological activity of many therapeutic proteins. We have investigated the capacity of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) chloroplasts to efficiently form disulphide bonds in proteins by expressing in this plant cell organelle a well-known bacterial enzyme, alkaline phosphatase, whose activity and stability strictly depend on the correct formation of two intramolecular disulphide bonds. Plastid transformants have been generated that express either the mature enzyme, localized in the stroma, or the full-length coding region, including its signal peptide. The latter has the potential to direct the recombinant alkaline phosphatase into the lumen of thylakoids, giving access to this even less well-characterized organellar compartment. We show that the chloroplast stroma supports the formation of an active enzyme, unlike a normal bacterial cytosol. Sorting of alkaline phosphatase to the thylakoid lumen occurs in the plastid transformants translating the full-length coding region, and leads to larger amounts and more active enzyme. These results are compared with those obtained in bacteria. The implications of these findings on protein folding properties and competency of chloroplasts for disulphide bond formation are discussed.

  19. Identification of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells in the reactive stroma of a prostate cancer xenograft by side population analysis.

    PubMed

    Santamaria-Martínez, Albert; Barquinero, Jordi; Barbosa-Desongles, Anna; Hurtado, Antoni; Pinós, Tomàs; Seoane, Joan; Poupon, Marie-France; Morote, Joan; Reventós, Jaume; Munell, Francina

    2009-10-15

    Cancer stem cells are a distinct cellular population that is believed to be responsible for tumor initiation and maintenance. Recent data suggest that solid tumors also contain another type of stem cells, the mesenchymal stem cells or multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), which contribute to the formation of tumor-associated stroma. The Hoechst 33342 efflux assay has proved useful to identify a rare cellular fraction, named Side Population (SP), enriched in cells with stem-like properties. Using this assay, we identified SP cells in a prostate cancer xenograft containing human prostate cancer cells and mouse stromal cells. The SP isolation, subculture and sequential sorting allowed the generation of single-cell-derived clones of murine origin that were recognized as MSC by their morphology, plastic adherence, proliferative potential, adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation ability and immunophenotype (CD45(-), CD81(+) and Sca-1(+)). We also demonstrated that SP clonal cells secrete transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) and that their inhibition reduces proliferation and accelerates differentiation. These results reveal the existence of SP cells in the stroma of a cancer xenograft, and provide evidence supporting their MSC nature and the role of TGF-beta1 in maintaining their proliferation and undifferentiated status. Our data also reveal the usefulness of the SP assay to identify and isolate MSC cells from carcinomas.

  20. Quantitative diffusion weighted imaging parameters in tumor and peritumoral stroma for prediction of molecular subtypes in breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ting; Fan, Ming; Zhang, Peng; Li, Hui; Zhang, Juan; Shao, Guoliang; Li, Lihua

    2018-03-01

    Breast cancer can be classified into four molecular subtypes of Luminal A, Luminal B, HER2 and Basal-like, which have significant differences in treatment and survival outcomes. We in this study aim to predict immunohistochemistry (IHC) determined molecular subtypes of breast cancer using image features derived from tumor and peritumoral stroma region based on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). A dataset of 126 breast cancer patients were collected who underwent preoperative breast MRI with a 3T scanner. The apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were recorded from DWI, and breast image was segmented into regions comprising the tumor and the surrounding stromal. Statistical characteristics in various breast tumor and peritumoral regions were computed, including mean, minimum, maximum, variance, interquartile range, range, skewness, and kurtosis of ADC values. Additionally, the difference of features between each two regions were also calculated. The univariate logistic based classifier was performed for evaluating the performance of the individual features for discriminating subtypes. For multi-class classification, multivariate logistic regression model was trained and validated. The results showed that the tumor boundary and proximal peritumoral stroma region derived features have a higher performance in classification compared to that of the other regions. Furthermore, the prediction model using statistical features, difference features and all the features combined from these regions generated AUC values of 0.774, 0.796 and 0.811, respectively. The results in this study indicate that ADC feature in tumor and peritumoral stromal region would be valuable for estimating the molecular subtype in breast cancer.

  1. Targeted Disruption of Orchestration between Stroma and Tumor Cells in Pancreatic Cancer: Molecular Basis and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiangyu; Li, Lei; Li, Zhaoshen; Xie, Keping

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal malignancies, with a prominent desmoplastic reaction as the defining hallmark of the disease. The past several decades have seen dramatic progress in understanding of pancreatic cancer pathogenesis, including the identification of precursor lesions, sequential transformation from normal pancreas to invasive pancreatic cancer and corresponding signature genetic events, and the biological impact of those alterations on malignant behaviors. However, the current therapeutic strategies for epithelial tumor cells, which have exhibited potent antitumor activity in cell culture and animal models, have failed to have significant effects in the clinic. The desmoplastic stroma surrounding pancreatic cancer cells, which accounts for about 90% of a tumor’s mass, clearly is not a passive scaffold for cancer cells but an active contributor to carcinogenesis. Improved understanding of the dynamic interaction between cancer cells and their stroma will be important to designing new, effective therapeutic strategies for pancreatic cancer. This review focuses on the origination of stromal molecular and cellular components in pancreatic tumors, their biological effects on pancreatic cancer cells, and the orchestration between these two components. PMID:22749856

  2. Identification of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells in the reactive stroma of a prostate cancer xenograft by side population analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Santamaria-Martinez, Albert; Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona; Barquinero, Jordi

    2009-10-15

    Cancer stem cells are a distinct cellular population that is believed to be responsible for tumor initiation and maintenance. Recent data suggest that solid tumors also contain another type of stem cells, the mesenchymal stem cells or multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), which contribute to the formation of tumor-associated stroma. The Hoechst 33342 efflux assay has proved useful to identify a rare cellular fraction, named Side Population (SP), enriched in cells with stem-like properties. Using this assay, we identified SP cells in a prostate cancer xenograft containing human prostate cancer cells and mouse stromal cells. The SP isolation, subculture andmore » sequential sorting allowed the generation of single-cell-derived clones of murine origin that were recognized as MSC by their morphology, plastic adherence, proliferative potential, adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation ability and immunophenotype (CD45{sup -}, CD81{sup +} and Sca-1{sup +}). We also demonstrated that SP clonal cells secrete transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) and that their inhibition reduces proliferation and accelerates differentiation. These results reveal the existence of SP cells in the stroma of a cancer xenograft, and provide evidence supporting their MSC nature and the role of TGF-{beta}1 in maintaining their proliferation and undifferentiated status. Our data also reveal the usefulness of the SP assay to identify and isolate MSC cells from carcinomas.« less

  3. Diagnostic utility of NCOA2 fluorescence in situ hybridization and Stat6 immunohistochemistry staining for soft tissue angiofibroma and morphologically similar fibrovascular tumors.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Shintaro; Aoyama, Tomoyuki; Kondo, Kei; Keira, Yoshiko; Ogino, Jiro; Nakanishi, Katsuya; Kaya, Mitsunori; Emori, Makoto; Tsukahara, Tomohide; Nakajima, Hisaya; Takagi, Masayuki; Hasegawa, Tadashi

    2014-08-01

    Soft tissue angiofibroma (STA), a recently suggested new histologic entity, is a benign fibrovascular soft tissue tumor composed of bland spindle-shaped tumor cells with abundant collagenous to myxoid stroma and branching small vessels. The lesion has a characteristic AHRR-NCOA2 fusion gene derived from chromosomal translocation of t(5;8)(p15;q13). However, morphologically similar tumors containing abundant fibrovascular and myxoid stroma can complicate diagnosis. We designed an original DNA probe for detecting NCOA2 split signals on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and estimated its utility with 20 fibrovascular tumors: 4 each of STAs, solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs), and cellular angiofibromas and 3 each of low-grade myxofibrosarcomas, myxoid liposarcomas, and low-grade fibromyxoid sarcomas. We also performed FISH for 13q14 deletion and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, retinoblastoma protein, and MUC-4 expression. Furthermore, IHC for Stat6 was conducted in the 20 cases analyzed by FISH and in an additional 26 SFTs. We found moderate to strong nuclear Stat6 expression in all SFTs but no expression in the other tumors. Both estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor expressions were observed in STAs, SFTs, and cellular angiofibromas. Expression of retinoblastoma protein was found in less than 10% of cells in all tumor types except myxoid liposarcoma. The low-grade fibromyxoid sarcomas were strongly positive for MUC-4. All STAs showed NCOA2 split signals on FISH. All tumors, regardless of histologic type, had 13q14 deletion. The NCOA2 FISH technique is a practical method for confirming STA diagnosis. The combination of NCOA2 FISH and Stat6 IHC proved effective for the differential diagnosis of STA, even when using small biopsy specimens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Megadalton Complexes in the Chloroplast Stroma of Arabidopsis thaliana Characterized by Size Exclusion Chromatography, Mass Spectrometry, and Hierarchical Clustering*

    PubMed Central

    Olinares, Paul Dominic B.; Ponnala, Lalit; van Wijk, Klaas J.

    2010-01-01

    To characterize MDa-sized macromolecular chloroplast stroma protein assemblies and to extend coverage of the chloroplast stroma proteome, we fractionated soluble chloroplast stroma in the non-denatured state by size exclusion chromatography with a size separation range up to ∼5 MDa. To maximize protein complex stability and resolution of megadalton complexes, ionic strength and composition were optimized. Subsequent high accuracy tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LTQ-Orbitrap) identified 1081 proteins across the complete native mass range. Protein complexes and assembly states above 0.8 MDa were resolved using hierarchical clustering, and protein heat maps were generated from normalized protein spectral counts for each of the size exclusion chromatography fractions; this complemented previous analysis of stromal complexes up to 0.8 MDa (Peltier, J. B., Cai, Y., Sun, Q., Zabrouskov, V., Giacomelli, L., Rudella, A., Ytterberg, A. J., Rutschow, H., and van Wijk, K. J. (2006) The oligomeric stromal proteome of Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplasts. Mol. Cell. Proteomics 5, 114–133). This combined experimental and bioinformatics analyses resolved chloroplast ribosomes in different assembly and functional states (e.g. 30, 50, and 70 S), which enabled the identification of plastid homologues of prokaryotic ribosome assembly factors as well as proteins involved in co-translational modifications, targeting, and folding. The roles of these ribosome-associating proteins will be discussed. Known RNA splice factors (e.g. CAF1/WTF1/RNC1) as well as uncharacterized proteins with RNA-binding domains (pentatricopeptide repeat, RNA recognition motif, and chloroplast ribosome maturation), RNases, and DEAD box helicases were found in various sized complexes. Chloroplast DNA (>3 MDa) was found in association with the complete heteromeric plastid-encoded DNA polymerase complex, and a dozen other DNA-binding proteins, e.g. DNA gyrase, topoisomerase, and various DNA repair enzymes. The

  5. Diagnostic value of inflammatory cell infiltrates, tumor stroma percentage and disease-free survival in patients with colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jakubowska, Katarzyna; Kisielewski, Wojciech; Kańczuga-Koda, Luiza; Koda, Mariusz; Famulski, Waldemar

    2017-01-01

    The anticancer immune defense mechanism involves humoral and cellular responses. The main effector mechanisms of antitumor responses involve the following: the activity of cytotoxic T cells; the activation of macrophages and neutrophils; the activity of cytokines secreted by T cells; and natural killer cell activity. Selected cell populations are responsible for the stimulation or suppression of the immune system against tumor cells. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the location, extent and composition of the cellular inflammatory infiltration of tumors in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). In addition, the correlation between cellular inflammatory infiltration, and anatomoclinical and histopathological features of patients was evaluated. The study involved 160 patients diagnosed with primary operable CRC. The local inflammatory infiltrate was assessed in the invasive front and center of the tumor using light microscopy with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, according to the Klintrup-Makinen criteria, tumor stroma percentage, and Glasgow microenvironment score. The inflammatory infiltrate in the invasive front of the tumor was correlated with gender (P=0.018), the invasion of blood vessels (P=0.020) and lymph vessels (P=0.038), the presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in the invasive front (P=0.033) and center (P<0.001) of the tumor, fibrosis (P<0.001), and the degree of desmoplasmic stroma (P=0.004). In contrast, inflammatory infiltration in the center of the tumor was associated with the tumor node metastasis stage (P=0.012), Dukes' stage (P=0.009), primary tumor stage (P=0.036), lymph node status (P=0.005), number of lymph nodes (P=0.006), invasion of lymph node pouches (P=0.021), size of lymph node metastasis (P=0.025) and the degree of desmoplasmic stroma (P=0.002). The low-group, who demonstrated an absent or weak inflammatory cell infiltrate in the invasive front of the tumor, had a statistically significant shorter

  6. Oxygen abundances in halo stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessell, Michael S.; Sutherland, Ralph S.; Ruan, Kui

    1991-12-01

    The present study determines the oxygen abundance for a sample of metal-poor G dwarfs by analysis of OH lines between 3080 and 3200 A and the permitted high-excitation far-red O I triple. The oxygen abundances determined from the low-excitation OH lines are up to 0.55 dex lower than those measured from the high-excitation O I lines. The abundances for the far-red O I triplet lines agree with those rederived from Abia and Rebolo (1989), and the abundances from the OH lines in dwarfs and giants are in agreement with the rederived O abundances of Barbuy (1988) and others from the forbidden resonance O I line. Because the chi = 0.1.7 eV OH lines are formed in the same layers as the majority of Fe, Ti, and other neutral metal lines used for abundance analyses, it is argued that the OH lines and the forbidden O I line yield the true oxygen abundances relative to the metals.

  7. Galectin-3 Mediates Tumor Cell-Stroma Interactions by Activating Pancreatic Stellate Cells to Produce Cytokines via Integrin Signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Ajani, Jaffer A; Sushovan, Guha; Ochi, Nobuo; Hwang, Rosa; Hafley, Margarete; Johnson, Randy L; Bresalier, Robert S; Logsdon, Craig D; Zhang, Zhiqian; Song, Shumei

    2018-04-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), abundance of extracellular matrix (ECM), and production of cytokines and chemokines. Galectin 3 (GAL3), a β-galactoside-specific lectin, contributes to PDAC development but its effects on the stroma and cytokine production are unclear. The effect of recombinant human GAL3 (rGAL3) on activation of PSCs, production of cytokines, and ECM proteins was determined by proliferation, invasion, cytokine array, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We assessed co-cultures of PDAC cells with GAL3 genetic alterations with PSCs. Production of interleukin 8 (IL8) and activities of nuclear factor (NF)-κB were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and luciferase reporter analyses. We studied the effects of inhibitors of NF-κB and integrin-linked kinase (ILK) on pathways activated by rGAL3. In analyses of the Gene Expression Omnibus database and our dataset, we observed higher levels of GAL3, IL8, and other cytokines in PDAC than in nontumor tissues. Production of IL8, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, chemokine ligand 1, and C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 increased in PSCs exposed to rGAL3 compared with controls. Culture of PSCs with PDAC cells that express different levels of GAL3 resulted in proliferation and invasion of PSCs that increased with level of GAL3. GAL3 stimulated transcription of IL8 through integrin subunit beta 1 (ITGB1) on PSCs, which activates NF-κB through ILK. Inhibitors of ILK or NF-κB or a neutralizing antibody against ITGB1 blocked transcription and production of IL8 from PSCs induced by rGAL3. The GAL3 inhibitor significantly reduced growth and metastases of orthotopic tumors that formed from PDAC and PSC cells co-implanted in mice. GAL3 activates PSC cells to produce inflammatory cytokines via ITGB1signaling to ILK and activation of NF-κB. Inhibition of this pathway reduced growth and metastases of pancreatic

  8. Malignant Mesothelioma in the Thoracic Cavity of a Crj:CD(SD) Rat Characterized by Round Hyalinous Stroma.

    PubMed

    Doi, Takuya; Kotani, Yuri; Takahashi, Kazuaki; Hashimoto, Satomi; Yamada, Naoaki; Kokoshima, Hiroko; Tomonari, Yuki; Wako, Yumi; Tsuchitani, Minoru

    2010-06-01

    Spontaneous malignant mesothelioma was found in a 104-week-old male Crj:CD(SD) rat. The tumor was scattered on the surface of the lung, heart, mediastinal pleura and thoracic wall and metastasized to the alveolar septa. Histopathologically, small flattened or cuboidal tumor cells proliferated with stroma, formed almost normal papillary structures and reacted positively to colloidal iron stain and immunohistochemical staining for mesothelin. Round hyalinous stromata were pronounced, which is a characteristic feature, and the possible reason for this is as follows; at first, a small amount of collagen fibers was formed in the center of the clusters of several tumor cells, and then the cell clusters expanded like balloons with an increase in the collagen fibers.

  9. The boron abundance of Procyon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemke, Michael; Lambert, David L.; Edvardsson, Bengt

    1993-01-01

    The B I 2496.8 A resonance line and HST/GHRS echelle spectra are used with model atmospheres and synthetic spectra to derive the B abundance of the F dwarfs Procyon (Alpha Canis Minoris), Theta Ursae Majoris, and Iota Pegasi. The B abundance of Theta UMa and Iota Peg is similar to that derived by Boesgaard and Heacox (1978) from the B II resonance line in spectra of A- and B-type stars. These two dwarfs show normal abundances of Li, Be, and B. Procyon, which is highly depleted in Li and Be, is depleted in B by a factor of at least 3. Comparison of the spectra of Procyon and the halo dwarf HD 140283 shows that the B abundance assigned by Duncan et al. (1992) to three halo dwarfs is not greatly overestimated as a result of contamination of the B I line by an unidentified line.

  10. Generation of the novel monoclonal antibody against TLS/EWS-CHOP chimeric oncoproteins that is applicable to one of the most sensitive assays for myxoid and round cell liposarcomas.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Kosuke; Ishida, Tsuyoshi; Imamura, Tetsuo; Yoshida, Keiichi; Takanashi, Masakatsu; Hattori, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Akio; Fujita, Koji; Yamamoto, Kengo; Matsubayashi, Jun; Kuroda, Masahiko; Mukai, Kiyoshi

    2006-03-01

    The fusion oncoproteins, TLS-CHOP and EWS-CHOP, are characteristic markers for myxoid and round cell liposarcomas (MLS/RCLS). Especially, the peptide sequence of 26 amino acids corresponding to the normally untranslated CHOP exon 2 and parts of exon 3 (5'-UTR) is a unique structure for these chimeric proteins. In this report, we have generated monoclonal antibodies against the unique peptide sequence of TLS/EWS-CHOP oncoproteins. These antibodies reacted with TLS-CHOP fusion protein, but not reacted with normal TLS and CHOP proteins by Western blot analysis. In addition, one of the antibodies also recognized the chimeric oncoprotein in archival paraffin-embedded tissue samples of MLS/RCLS. The oncoprotein was detectable by the antibody even in the paraffin-embedded tissue samples whose mRNAs were too degraded to be detected by a nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-based assay. Thus, the molecular assay using the novel antibody is expected to be one of the most sensitive diagnostic assays for MLS/RCLS.

  11. Organized metabolic crime in prostate cancer: The coexpression of MCT1 in tumor and MCT4 in stroma is an independent prognosticator for biochemical failure.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Sigve; Solstad, Ørjan; Moi, Line; Donnem, Tom; Eilertsen, Marte; Nordby, Yngve; Ness, Nora; Richardsen, Elin; Busund, Lill-Tove; Bremnes, Roy M

    2015-08-01

    Lactate import or export over cell membranes is facilitated by monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) 1 and 4. Expression profiles can be markers of an oxidative or glycolytic phenotype. Descriptive studies and functional studies in neoplastic cells and fibroblasts in prostate cancer (PC) have suggested a distinct phenotype. We aimed to explore expression of MCT1 and MCT4 in PC cells and surrounding stroma in a large cohort. Additionally, we wanted to find out if distinct expression profiles were associated with biochemical failure-free survival (BFFS). Tissue microarrays were constructed from 535 patients with radical prostatectomies between January 1, 1995, and December 31, 2005. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect expression, and degrees of expression were evaluated semiquantitatively by 2 pathologists using light microscopy. For MCT1, there was only epithelial expression, whereas there was a low level of expression of MCT4 in tumor and stroma. A total of 172 patients had a low expression of MCT1 in tumor and MCT4 in stroma. There were 232 patients who had a high expression of MCT1 and a low expression of MCT4 in stroma. Only 11 patients had a low tumoral MCT1 expression and a high stromal MCT4 expression, and 26 patients (5%) had a high expression of both. Patients with a high-high combination had a significantly reduced BFFS (P = 0.011), and when adjusting for other factors, its effect was significant and independent (HR = 1.99, CI 95%: 1.09-3.62; P = 0.024). This study adds to the current understanding of the reversed Warburg effect to be a significant phenotype in PC. High coexpression of MCT1 in tumor and MCT4 in stroma is independently associated to a worse BFFS, and the strength of this association is as strong as having a Gleason score of ≥9. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ultrasound in polycystic ovary syndrome--the measuring of ovarian stroma and relationship with circulating androgens: results of a multicentric study.

    PubMed

    Fulghesu, A M; Angioni, S; Frau, E; Belosi, C; Apa, R; Mioni, R; Xamin, N; Capobianco, G P; Dessole, S; Fruzzetti, F; Lazzarini, V; Minerba, L; Melis, G B; Lanzone, A

    2007-09-01

    The introduction of transvaginal approach in ultrasound (US) has enabled the accurate evaluation of the structure of the ovary and stroma. Stroma represents an acknowledged US marker for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The proportion revealed between the stroma and the ovary surface in the median section (S/A ratio) had been indicated as a reliable marker for hyperandrogenism. In order to verify the feasibility of this determination in routine use and to confirm the efficacy of S/A ratio in predicting hyperandrogenism in PCOS, a multicentric study was performed in association with five Italian research groups. A total of 418 subjects of fertile age presenting oligomenorrhoea or secondary amenorrhoea, enlarged ovaries measuring >10 cm(3) and/or >12 follicles measuring 2-9 mm in diameter took part in the study. Clinical, US and hormonal evaluations were performed in the early follicular phase or on random days in amenorrhoeic subjects. US assessment included ovarian volume, follicle number, ovarian and stroma area in median section. The hormonal study included a baseline plasma determination of LH, FSH, estradiol (E(2)), androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), dehydroepiandrosteronesulphate, 17-hydroxy-progesterone, sex hormone-binding globulin and prolactin. Correlations and receiver operator curves were used in statistical analysis of data. S/A was found to be the best significant predictor of elevated A and T levels. In order to ascertain significant cut-off values in relation to A and T levels Youden indexes were calculated and indicated 0.32 as the best cut-off for the S/A ratio. This work underlines the importance of stroma measure in improving US diagnosis of PCOS and suggest that this parameter may be used in routine clinical practice. In fact, multicentre study demonstrated the easy feasibility of such procedure without need of sophisticated machines or intensive training for operators.

  13. TβRIII Expression in Human Breast Cancer Stroma and the Role of Soluble TβRIII in Breast Cancer Associated Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Bojana; Pickup, Michael W; Chytil, Anna; Gorska, Agnieszka E; Johnson, Kimberly C; Moses, Harold L; Owens, Philip

    2016-11-04

    The TGF-β pathway plays a major role in tumor progression through regulation of epithelial and stromal cell signaling. Dysfunction of the pathway can lead to carcinoma progression and metastasis. To gain insight into the stromal role of the TGF-β pathway in breast cancer, we performed laser capture microdissection (LCM) from breast cancer patients and reduction mammoplasty patients. Microdissected tumor stroma and normal breast stroma were examined for gene expression. Expression of the TGF-β type III receptor ( TGFBR3 ) was greatly decreased in the tumor stroma compared to control healthy breast tissue. These results demonstrated a 44-fold decrease in TGFBR3 mRNA in tumor stroma in comparison to control tissue. We investigated publicly available databases, and have identified that TGFBR3 mRNA levels are decreased in tumor stroma. We next investigated fibroblast cell lines derived from cancerous and normal breast tissue and found that in addition to mRNA levels, TβRIII protein levels were significantly reduced. Having previously identified that cancer-associated fibroblasts secrete greater levels of tumor promoting cytokines, we investigated the consequences of soluble-TβRIII (sTβRIII) on fibroblasts. Fibroblast conditioned medium was analyzed for 102 human secreted cytokines and distinct changes in response to sTβRIII were observed. Next, we used the fibroblast-conditioned medium to stimulate human monocyte cell line THP-1. These results indicate a distinct transcriptional response depending on sTβRIII treatment and whether it was derived from normal or cancerous breast tissue. We conclude that the effect of TβRIII has distinct roles not only in cancer-associated fibroblasts but that sTβRIII has distinct paracrine functions in the tumor microenvironment.

  14. Interstellar abundances - Gas and dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Field, G. B.

    1974-01-01

    Data on abundances of interstellar atoms, ions and molecules in front of zeta Oph are assembled and analyzed. The gas-phase abundances of at least 11 heavy elements are significantly lower, relative to hydrogen, than in the solar system. The abundance deficiencies of certain elements correlate with the temperatures derived theoretically for particle condensation in stellar atmospheres or nebulae, suggesting that these elements have condensed into dust grains near stars. There is evidence that other elements have accreted onto such grains after their arrival in interstellar space. The extinction spectrum of zeta Oph can be explained qualitatively and, to a degree, quantitatively by dust grains composed of silicates, graphite, silicon carbide, and iron, with mantles composed of complex molecules of H, C, N, and O. This composition is consistent with the observed gas-phase deficiencies.

  15. Robust Abundance Estimation in Animal Abundance Surveys with Imperfect Detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surveys of animal abundance are central to the conservation and management of living natural resources. However, detection uncertainty complicates the sampling process of many species. One sampling method employed to deal with this problem is depletion (or removal) surveys in whi...

  16. Sunspots, Starspots, and Elemental Abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doschek, George A.; Warren, Harry P.

    2017-08-01

    The composition of plasma in solar and stellar atmospheres is not fixed, but varies from feature to feature. These variations are organized by the First Ionization Potential (FIP) of the element. Solar measurements often indicate that low FIP elements (< 10eV, such as Fe, Si, Mg) are enriched by factors of 3-4 in the corona relative to high FIP elements (>10 eV, such as C, N, O, Ar, He) compared to abundances in the photosphere. Stellar observations have also shown similar enrichments. An inverse FIP effect, where the low FIP elements are depleted, has been observed in stellar coronae of stars believed to have large starspots in their photospheres. The abundances are important for determining radiative loss rates in models, tracing the origin of the slow solar wind, and for understanding wave propagation in the chromosphere and corona. Recently, inverse FIP effects have been discovered in the Sun (Doschek, Warren, & Feldman 2015, ApJ, 808, L7) from spectra obtained by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on the Hinode spacecraft. The inverse FIP regions seem always to be near sunspots and cover only a very small area (characteristic length = a few arcseconds). However, in pursuing the search for inverse FIP regions, we have found that in some sunspot groups the coronal abundance at a temperature of 3-4 MK can be near photospheric over much larger areas of the sun near the sunspots (e.g., 6,000 arcsec2). Also, sometimes the abundances at 3-4 MK are in between coronal and photospheric values. This can occur in small areas of an active region. It is predicted (Laming 2015, Sol. Phys., 12, 2) that the FIP effect should be highly variable in the corona. Several examples of coronal abundance variations are presented. Our work indicates that a comprehensive re-investigation of solar abundances is highly desirable. This work is supported by a NASA Hinode grant.

  17. Coronal Abundances and Their Variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saba, Julia L. R.

    1996-01-01

    This contract supported the investigation of elemental abundances in the solar corona, principally through analysis of high-resolution soft X-ray spectra from the Flat Crystal Spectrometer on NASA's Solar Maximum Mission. The goals of the study were a characterization of the mean values of relative abundances of elements accessible in the FCS data, and information on the extent and circumstances of their variability. This is the Final Report, summarizing the data analysis and reporting activities which occurred during the period of performance, June 1993 - December 1996.

  18. A Model System to Investigate the Effect of BRCA1 and/or p53 Inactivation in the Ovarian Stroma on Growth and Transformation Potential of the Ovarian Epithelium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    Effect of BRCA1 and/or p53 Inactivation in the Ovarian Stroma on Growth and Transformation Potential of the Ovarian Epithelium PRINCIPAL...AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER A Model System To Investigate the Effect of BRCA1 and/or p53 Inactivation in the Ovarian Stroma on Growth and... effects of loss of function of BRCA1 or BRCA1 and Trp53 in the stroma on the growth and neoplastic transformation of epithelial cells using 2D and 3D in

  19. Actinide abundances in ordinary chondrites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagee, B.; Bernatowicz, T.J.; Podosek, F.A.; Johnson, M.L.; Burnett, D.S.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of 244Pu fission Xe, U, Th, and light REE (LREE) abundances, along with modal petrographic determinations of phosphate abundances, were carried out on equilibrated ordinary chondrites in order to define better the solar system Pu abundance and to determine the degree of variation of actinide and LREE abundances. Our data permit comparison of the directly measured Pu/ U ratio with that determined indirectly as (Pu/Nd) ?? (Nd/U) assuming that Pu behaves chemically as a LREE. Except for Guaren??a, and perhaps H chondrites in general, Pu concentrations are similar to that determined previously for St. Se??verin, although less precise because of higher trapped Xe contents. Trapped 130Xe 136Xe ratios appear to vary from meteorite to meteorite, but, relative to AVCC, all are similar in the sense of having less of the interstellar heavy Xe found in carbonaceous chondrite acid residues. The Pu/U and Pu/Nd ratios are consistent with previous data for St. Se??verin, but both tend to be slightly higher than those inferred from previous data on Angra dos Reis. Although significant variations exist, the distribution of our Th/U ratios, along with other precise isotope dilution data for ordinary chondrites, is rather symmetric about the CI chondrite value; however, actinide/(LREE) ratios are systematically lower than the CI value. Variations in actinide or LREE absolute and relative abundances are interpreted as reflecting differences in the proportions and/or compositions of more primitive components (chondrules and CAI materials?) incorporated into different regions of the ordinary chondrite parent bodies. The observed variations of Th/U, Nd/U, or Ce/U suggest that measurements of Pu/U on any single equilibrated ordinary chondrite specimen, such as St. Se??verin, should statistically be within ??20-30% of the average solar system value, although it is also clear that anomalous samples exist. ?? 1990.

  20. Abundance estimation and conservation biology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; MacKenzie, D.I.

    2004-01-01

    Abundance is the state variable of interest in most population–level ecological research and in most programs involving management and conservation of animal populations. Abundance is the single parameter of interest in capture–recapture models for closed populations (e.g., Darroch, 1958; Otis et al., 1978; Chao, 2001). The initial capture–recapture models developed for partially (Darroch, 1959) and completely (Jolly, 1965; Seber, 1965) open populations represented efforts to relax the restrictive assumption of population closure for the purpose of estimating abundance. Subsequent emphases in capture–recapture work were on survival rate estimation in the 1970’s and 1980’s (e.g., Burnham et al., 1987; Lebreton et al.,1992), and on movement estimation in the 1990’s (Brownie et al., 1993; Schwarz et al., 1993). However, from the mid–1990’s until the present time, capture–recapture investigators have expressed a renewed interest in abundance and related parameters (Pradel, 1996; Schwarz & Arnason, 1996; Schwarz, 2001). The focus of this session was abundance, and presentations covered topics ranging from estimation of abundance and rate of change in abundance, to inferences about the demographic processes underlying changes in abundance, to occupancy as a surrogate of abundance. The plenary paper by Link & Barker (2004) is provocative and very interesting, and it contains a number of important messages and suggestions. Link & Barker (2004) emphasize that the increasing complexity of capture–recapture models has resulted in large numbers of parameters and that a challenge to ecologists is to extract ecological signals from this complexity. They offer hierarchical models as a natural approach to inference in which traditional parameters are viewed as realizations of stochastic processes. These processes are governed by hyperparameters, and the inferential approach focuses on these hyperparameters. Link & Barker (2004) also suggest that our attention

  1. Tumour imaging by the detection of fibrin clots in tumour stroma using an anti-fibrin Fab fragment

    PubMed Central

    Obonai, Toshifumi; Fuchigami, Hirobumi; Furuya, Fumiaki; Kozuka, Naoyuki; Yasunaga, Masahiro; Matsumura, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of early and aggressive types of cancer is important for providing effective cancer therapy. Cancer-induced fibrin clots exist only within lesions. Previously, we developed a monoclonal antibody (clone 102-10) that recognizes insoluble fibrin but not fibrinogen or soluble fibrin and confirmed that fibrin clots form continuously in various cancers. Here, we describe the development of a Fab fragment probe of clone 102-10 for tumour imaging. The distribution of 102-10 Fab was investigated in genetically engineered mice bearing pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), and its effect on blood coagulation was examined. Immunohistochemical and ex vivo imaging revealed that 102-10 Fab was distributed selectively in fibrin clots in PDAC tumours 3 h after injection and that it disappeared from the body after 24 h. 102-10 Fab had no influence on blood coagulation or fibrinolysis. Tumour imaging using anti-fibrin Fab may provide a safe and effective method for the diagnosis of invasive cancers by detecting fibrin clots in tumour stroma. PMID:27009516

  2. IGF-1 receptor targeted nanoparticles for image-guided therapy of stroma-rich and drug resistant human cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hongyu; Qian, Weiping; Uckun, Fatih M.; Zhou, Zhiyang; Wang, Liya; Wang, Andrew; Mao, Hui; Yang, Lily

    2016-05-01

    Low drug delivery efficiency and drug resistance from highly heterogeneous cancer cells and tumor microenvironment represent major challenges in clinical oncology. Growth factor receptor, IGF-1R, is overexpressed in both human tumor cells and tumor associated stromal cells. The level of IGF-1R expression is further up-regulated in drug resistant tumor cells. We have developed IGF-1R targeted magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) carrying multiple anticancer drugs into human tumors. This IGF-1R targeted theranostic nanoparticle delivery system has an iron core for non-invasive MR imaging, amphiphilic polymer coating to ensure the biocompatibility as well as for drug loading and conjugation of recombinant human IGF-1 as targeting molecules. Chemotherapy drugs, Doxorubicin (Dox), was encapsulated into the polymer coating and/or conjugated to the IONP surface by coupling with the carboxyl groups. The ability of IGF1R targeted theranostic nanoparticles to penetrate tumor stromal barrier and enhance tumor cell killing has been demonstrated in human pancreatic cancer patient tissue derived xenograft (PDX) models. Repeated systemic administrations of those IGF-1R targeted theranostic IONP carrying Dox led to breaking the tumor stromal barrier and improved therapeutic effect. Near infrared (NIR) optical and MR imaging enabled noninvasive monitoring of nanoparticle-drug delivery and therapeutic responses. Our results demonstrated that IGF-1R targeted nanoparticles carrying multiple drugs are promising combination therapy approaches for image-guided therapy of stroma-rich and drug resistant human cancer, such as pancreatic cancer.

  3. Analysis of tumor- and stroma-supplied proteolytic networks reveals a brain metastasis-promoting role for cathepsin S

    PubMed Central

    Sevenich, Lisa; Bowman, Robert L.; Mason, Steven D.; Quail, Daniela F.; Rapaport, Franck; Elie, Benelita T.; Brogi, Edi; Brastianos, Priscilla K.; Hahn, William C.; Holsinger, Leslie J.; Massagué, Joan; Leslie, Christina S.; Joyce, Johanna A.

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis remains the most common cause of death in most cancers, with limited therapies for combating disseminated disease. While the primary tumor microenvironment is an important regulator of cancer progression, it is less well understood how different tissue environments influence metastasis. We analyzed tumor-stroma interactions that modulate organ tropism of brain, bone and lung metastasis in xenograft models. We identified a number of potential modulators of site-specific metastasis, including cathepsin S as a regulator of breast-to-brain metastasis. High cathepsin S expression at the primary site correlated with decreased brain metastasis-free survival in breast cancer patients. Both macrophages and tumor cells produce cathepsin S, and only the combined depletion significantly reduced brain metastasis in vivo. Cathepsin S specifically mediates blood-brain barrier transmigration via proteolytic processing of the junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-B. Pharmacological inhibition of cathepsin S significantly reduced experimental brain metastasis, supporting its consideration as a therapeutic target for this disease. PMID:25086747

  4. Of CARs and TRUCKs: chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells engineered with an inducible cytokine to modulate the tumor stroma.

    PubMed

    Chmielewski, Markus; Hombach, Andreas A; Abken, Hinrich

    2014-01-01

    Adoptive T-cell therapy recently achieved impressive efficacy in early phase trials, in particular in hematologic malignancies, strongly supporting the notion that the immune system can control cancer. A current strategy of favor is based on ex vivo-engineered patient T cells, which are redirected by a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) and recognize a predefined target by an antibody-derived binding domain. Such CAR T cells can substantially reduce the tumor burden as long as the targeted antigen is present on the cancer cells. However, given the tremendous phenotypic diversity in solid tumor lesions, a reasonable number of cancer cells are not recognized by a given CAR, considerably reducing the therapeutic success. This article reviews a recently described strategy for overcoming this shortcoming of the CAR T-cell therapy by modulating the tumor stroma by a CAR T-cell-secreted transgenic cytokine like interleukin-12 (IL-12). The basic process is that CAR T cells, when activated by their CAR, deposit IL-12 in the targeted tumor lesion, which in turn attracts an innate immune cell response toward those cancer cells that are invisible to CAR T cells. Such TRUCKs, T cells redirected for universal cytokine-mediated killing, exhibited remarkable efficacy against solid tumors with diverse cancer cell phenotypes, suggesting their evaluation in clinical trials. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Tumour imaging by the detection of fibrin clots in tumour stroma using an anti-fibrin Fab fragment.

    PubMed

    Obonai, Toshifumi; Fuchigami, Hirobumi; Furuya, Fumiaki; Kozuka, Naoyuki; Yasunaga, Masahiro; Matsumura, Yasuhiro

    2016-03-24

    The diagnosis of early and aggressive types of cancer is important for providing effective cancer therapy. Cancer-induced fibrin clots exist only within lesions. Previously, we developed a monoclonal antibody (clone 102-10) that recognizes insoluble fibrin but not fibrinogen or soluble fibrin and confirmed that fibrin clots form continuously in various cancers. Here, we describe the development of a Fab fragment probe of clone 102-10 for tumour imaging. The distribution of 102-10 Fab was investigated in genetically engineered mice bearing pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), and its effect on blood coagulation was examined. Immunohistochemical and ex vivo imaging revealed that 102-10 Fab was distributed selectively in fibrin clots in PDAC tumours 3 h after injection and that it disappeared from the body after 24 h. 102-10 Fab had no influence on blood coagulation or fibrinolysis. Tumour imaging using anti-fibrin Fab may provide a safe and effective method for the diagnosis of invasive cancers by detecting fibrin clots in tumour stroma.

  6. Automated tracking of tumor-stroma morphology in microtissues identifies functional targets within the tumor microenvironment for therapeutic intervention

    PubMed Central

    Åkerfelt, Malin; Bayramoglu, Neslihan; Robinson, Sean; Toriseva, Mervi; Schukov, Hannu-Pekka; Härmä, Ville; Virtanen, Johannes; Sormunen, Raija; Kaakinen, Mika; Kannala, Juho; Eklund, Lauri; Heikkilä, Janne; Nees, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) constitute an important part of the tumor microenvironment and promote invasion via paracrine functions and physical impact on the tumor. Although the importance of including CAFs into three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures has been acknowledged, computational support for quantitative live-cell measurements of complex cell cultures has been lacking. Here, we have developed a novel automated pipeline to model tumor-stroma interplay, track motility and quantify morphological changes of 3D co-cultures, in real-time live-cell settings. The platform consists of microtissues from prostate cancer cells, combined with CAFs in extracellular matrix that allows biochemical perturbation. Tracking of fibroblast dynamics revealed that CAFs guided the way for tumor cells to invade and increased the growth and invasiveness of tumor organoids. We utilized the platform to determine the efficacy of inhibitors in prostate cancer and the associated tumor microenvironment as a functional unit. Interestingly, certain inhibitors selectively disrupted tumor-CAF interactions, e.g. focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitors specifically blocked tumor growth and invasion concurrently with fibroblast spreading and motility. This complex phenotype was not detected in other standard in vitro models. These results highlight the advantage of our approach, which recapitulates tumor histology and can significantly improve cancer target validation in vitro. PMID:26375443

  7. Transforming growth factor beta mediates the progesterone suppression of an epithelial metalloproteinase by adjacent stroma in the human endometrium.

    PubMed Central

    Bruner, K L; Rodgers, W H; Gold, L I; Korc, M; Hargrove, J T; Matrisian, L M; Osteen, K G

    1995-01-01

    Unlike most normal adult tissues, cyclic growth and tissue remodeling occur within the uterine endometrium throughout the reproductive years. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a family of structurally related enzymes that degrade specific components of the extracellular matrix are thought to be the physiologically relevant mediators of extracellular matrix composition and turnover. Our laboratory has identified MMPs of the stromelysin family in the cycling human endometrium, implicating these enzymes in mediating the extensive remodeling that occurs in this tissue. While the stromelysins are expressed in vivo during proliferation-associated remodeling and menstruation-associated endometrial breakdown, none of the stromelysins are expressed during the progesterone-dominated secretory phase of the cycle. Our in vitro studies of isolated cell types have confirmed progesterone suppression of stromal MMPs, but a stromal-derived paracrine factor was found necessary for suppression of the epithelial-specific MMP matrilysin. In this report, we demonstrate that transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is produced by endometrial stroma in response to progesterone and can suppress expression of epithelial matrilysin independent of progesterone. Additionally, we find that an antibody directed against the mammalian isoforms of TGF-beta abolishes progesterone suppression of matrilysin in stromal-epithelial cocultures, implicating TGF-beta as the principal mediator of matrilysin suppression in the human endometrium. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7638197

  8. Expression and Function of the Progesterone Receptor in Human Prostate Stroma Provide Novel Insights to Cell Proliferation Control

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yue; Liu, Liangliang; Xie, Ning; Xue, Hui; Fazli, Ladan; Buttyan, Ralph; Wang, Yuzhuo; Gleave, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Context: Like other tissues, the prostate is an admixture of many different cell types that can be segregated into components of the epithelium or stroma. Reciprocal interactions between these 2 types of cells are critical for maintaining prostate homeostasis, whereas aberrant stromal cell proliferation can disrupt this balance and result in diseases such as benign prostatic hyperplasia. Although the androgen and estrogen receptors are relatively well studied for their functions in controlling stromal cell proliferation and differentiation, the role of the progesterone receptor (PR) remains unclear. Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the expression and function of the PR in the prostate. Design and Setting: Human prostate biopsies, renal capsule xenografts, and prostate stromal cells were used. Immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, real-time quantitative PCR, cell proliferation, flow cytometry, and gene microarray analyses were performed. Results: Two PR isoforms, PRA and PRB, are expressed in prostate stromal fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells, but not in epithelial cells. Both PR isoforms suppress prostate stromal cell proliferation through inhibition of the expression of cyclinA, cyclinB, and cdc25c, thus delaying cell cycling through S and M phases. Gene microarray analyses further demonstrated that PRA and PRB regulated different transcriptomes. However, one of the major gene groups commonly regulated by both PR isoforms was the one associated with regulation of cell proliferation. Conclusion: PR plays an inhibitory role in prostate stromal cell proliferation. PMID:23666965

  9. Toward automatic segmentation and quantification of tumor and stroma in whole-slide images of H and E stained rectal carcinomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geessink, Oscar G. F.; Baidoshvili, Alexi; Freling, Gerard; Klaase, Joost M.; Slump, Cornelis H.; van der Heijden, Ferdinand

    2015-03-01

    Visual estimation of tumor and stroma proportions in microscopy images yields a strong, Tumor-(lymph)Node- Metastasis (TNM) classification-independent predictor for patient survival in colorectal cancer. Therefore, it is also a potent (contra)indicator for adjuvant chemotherapy. However, quantification of tumor and stroma through visual estimation is highly subject to intra- and inter-observer variability. The aim of this study is to develop and clinically validate a method for objective quantification of tumor and stroma in standard hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stained microscopy slides of rectal carcinomas. A tissue segmentation algorithm, based on supervised machine learning and pixel classification, was developed, trained and validated using histological slides that were prepared from surgically excised rectal carcinomas in patients who had not received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Whole-slide scanning was performed at 20× magnification. A total of 40 images (4 million pixels each) were extracted from 20 whole-slide images at sites showing various relative proportions of tumor and stroma. Experienced pathologists provided detailed annotations for every extracted image. The performance of the algorithm was evaluated using cross-validation by testing on 1 image at a time while using the other 39 images for training. The total classification error of the algorithm was 9.4% (SD = 3.2%). Compared to visual estimation by pathologists, the algorithm was 7.3 times (P = 0.033) more accurate in quantifying tissues, also showing 60% less variability. Automatic tissue quantification was shown to be both reliable and practicable. We ultimately intend to facilitate refined prognostic stratification of (colo)rectal cancer patients and enable better personalized treatment.

  10. Element abundances at high redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, David M.; Welty, D. E.; York, D. G.

    1989-01-01

    Abundances of Si(+), S(+), Cr(+), Mn(+), Fe(_), and Zn(+) are considered for two absorption-line systems in the spectrum of the QSO PKS 0528 - 250. Zinc and sulfur are underabundant, relative to H, by a factor of 10 compared to their solar and Galactic interstellar abundances. The silicon-, chromium-, iron-, and nickel-to-hydrogen ratios are less than the solar values and comparable to the local interstellar ratios. A straightforward interpretation is that nucleosynthesis in these high-redshift systems has led to only about one-tenth as much heavy production as in the gas clouds around the sun, and that the amount of the observed underabundances attributable to grain depletion is small. The dust-to-gas ratio in these clouds is less than 8 percent of the Galactic value.

  11. Abundance of nitrogen in QSOs

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, G.A.

    1976-03-01

    Models of photoionized QSO emission-line regions show that measurements of O iii/N iv/C iv or N iii/C iii can yield the C/N/O ratios to an accuracy of a factor 2 or better. The N iii/C iii intensity ratios observed for the QSO PKS 1756+237 (z=1.72) implies a N/C abundance ratio 5 times larger than the solar value. This is comparable with the nitrogen overabundance in the nuclei of nearby galaxies, and it points to advanced chemical evolution in this QSO, with Zapproximately-greater-thanZ/sub sun/. Such a large abundance of nitrogen appears to be exceptional; composite spectra indicate that most QSOs havemore » (N/O) approximately one-fourth to one-half the solar value. (AIP)« less

  12. Coronal abundances and their variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saba, Julia L. R.

    1994-01-01

    This contract supports the investigation of elemental abundances in the solar corona, principally through analysis of high-resolution software X-ray spectra from the Flat Crystal Spectrometer on NASA's Solar Maximum Mission. The goals of the study are a characterization of the mean values of relative abundances of elements accessible in the FCS data, and information on the extent and circumstances of their variability. This report is a summation of the data analysis and reporting activities which occurred since the last report, submitted two months early, in April 1994, to facilitate evaluation of the first year's progress for contract renewal. Hence this report covers the period 15 April 1994 - 15 December 1994. A list of publications resulting from this research is included.

  13. Non-coding RNAs, the Trojan horse in two-way communication between tumor and stroma in colorectal and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cătană, Cristina- Sorina; Pichler, Martin; Giannelli, Gianluigi; Mader, Robert M; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana

    2017-04-25

    In a continuous and mutual exchange of information, cancer cells are invariably exposed to microenvironment transformation. This continuous alteration of the genetic, molecular and cellular peritumoral stroma background has become as critical as the management of primary tumor progression events in cancer cells. The communication between stroma and tumor cells within the extracellular matrix is one of the triggers in colon and liver carcinogenesis. All non- codingRNAs including long non-coding RNAs, microRNAs and ultraconserved genes play a critical role in almost all cancers and are responsible for the modulation of the tumor microenvironment in several malignant processes such as initiation, progression and dissemination. This review details the involvement of non codingRNAs in the evolution of human colorectal carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma in relationship with the microenvironment. Recent research has shown that a considerable number of dysregulated non- codingRNAs could be valuable diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in cancer. Therefore, more in-depth knowledge of the role non- codingRNAs play in stroma-tumor communication and of the complex regulatory mechanisms between ultraconserved genes and microRNAs supports the validation of future effective therapeutic targets in patients suffering from hepatocellular and colorectal carcinoma, two distinctive entities which share quite a lot common non-coding RNAs.

  14. Non-coding RNAs, the Trojan horse in two-way communication between tumor and stroma in colorectal and hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cătană, Cristina- Sorina; Pichler, Martin; Giannelli, Gianluigi; Mader, Robert M.; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana

    2017-01-01

    In a continuous and mutual exchange of information, cancer cells are invariably exposed to microenvironment transformation. This continuous alteration of the genetic, molecular and cellular peritumoral stroma background has become as critical as the management of primary tumor progression events in cancer cells. The communication between stroma and tumor cells within the extracellular matrix is one of the triggers in colon and liver carcinogenesis. All non- codingRNAs including long non-coding RNAs, microRNAs and ultraconserved genes play a critical role in almost all cancers and are responsible for the modulation of the tumor microenvironment in several malignant processes such as initiation, progression and dissemination. This review details the involvement of non codingRNAs in the evolution of human colorectal carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma in relationship with the microenvironment. Recent research has shown that a considerable number of dysregulated non- codingRNAs could be valuable diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in cancer. Therefore, more in-depth knowledge of the role non- codingRNAs play in stroma-tumor communication and of the complex regulatory mechanisms between ultraconserved genes and microRNAs supports the validation of future effective therapeutic targets in patients suffering from hepatocellular and colorectal carcinoma, two distinctive entities which share quite a lot common non-coding RNAs. PMID:28392501

  15. Effect of Systemically Used Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Medication on the Corneal Epithelium and Stroma of Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Sedat; Gokmen, Ferhat; Ersan, Ismail; Akbal, Ayla; Resorlu, Hatice; Gencer, Baran; Ali Tufan, Hasan; Kara, Selcuk

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of systemically used anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) medication on the thickness of corneal epithelium and stroma in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). A total of 125 eyes of 69 participants were included in this retrospective study of three groups: healthy participants (Group 1), AS patients receiving anti-TNF-α medication (Group 2), and AS patients receiving a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication (Group 3). According to anterior segment optical coherence tomography, the mean thickness of the corneal epithelium was significantly thicker in Group 2 than in Group 3 (51.6 ± 3.2 µm versus 50.4 ± 3 µm, p = 0.01), as was that of the stroma (475 ± 33 µm versus 443 ± 29 µm, p = 0.002). Anti-TNF-α medication and/or avoidance of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs could improve the thickness of both the corneal epithelium and stroma in AS patients.

  16. Chlorine Abundances in Martian Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, D.D.; Garrison, D.H.; Park, J.

    2009-01-01

    Chlorine measurements made in martian surface rocks by robotic spacecraft typically give Chlorine (Cl) abundances of approximately 0.1-0.8%. In contrast, Cl abundances in martian meteorites appear lower, although data is limited, and martian nakhlites were also subjected to Cl contamination by Mars surface brines. Chlorine abundances reported by one lab for whole rock (WR) samples of Shergotty, ALH77005, and EET79001 range 108-14 ppm, whereas Cl in nakhlites range 73-1900 ppm. Measurements of Cl in various martian weathering phases of nakhlites varied 0.04-4.7% and reveal significant concentration of Cl by martian brines Martian meteorites contain much lower Chlorine than those measured in martian surface rocks and give further confirmation that Cl in these surface rocks was introduced by brines and weathering. It has been argued that Cl is twice as effective as water in lowering the melting point and promoting melting at shallower martian depths, and that significant Cl in the shergottite source region would negate any need for significant water. However, this conclusion was based on experiments that utilized Cl concentrations more analogous to martian surface rocks than to shergottite meteorites, and may not be applicable to shergottites.

  17. Enhanced metastatic capacity of breast cancer cells after interaction and hybrid formation with mesenchymal stroma/stem cells (MSC).

    PubMed

    Melzer, Catharina; von der Ohe, Juliane; Hass, Ralf

    2018-01-05

    Fusion of breast cancer cells with tumor-associated populations of the microenvironment including mesenchymal stroma/stem-like cells (MSC) represents a rare event in cell communication whereby the metastatic capacity of those hybrid cells remains unclear. Functional changes were investigated in vitro and in vivo following spontaneous fusion and hybrid cell formation between primary human MSC and human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Thus, lentiviral eGFP-labeled MSC and breast cancer cells labeled with mcherry resulted in dual-fluorescing hybrid cells after co-culture. Double FACS sorting and single cell cloning revealed two different aneuploid male hybrid populations (MDA-hyb1 and MDA-hyb2) with different STR profiles, pronounced telomerase activities, and enhanced proliferative capacities as compared to the parental cells. Microarray-based mRNA profiling demonstrated marked regulation of genes involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition and increased expression of metastasis-associated genes including S100A4. In vivo studies following subcutaneous injection of the breast cancer and the two hybrid populations substantiated the in vitro findings by a significantly elevated tumor growth of the hybrid cells. Moreover, both hybrid populations developed various distant organ metastases in a much shorter period of time than the parental breast cancer cells. Together, these data demonstrate spontaneous development of new tumor cell populations exhibiting different parental properties after close interaction and subsequent fusion of MSC with breast cancer cells. This formation of tumor hybrids contributes to continuously increasing tumor heterogeneity and elevated metastatic capacities.

  18. Glutamine fuels a vicious cycle of autophagy in the tumor stroma and oxidative mitochondrial metabolism in epithelial cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Ying-Hui; Lin, Zhao; Flomenberg, Neal; Pestell, Richard G; Howell, Anthony; Sotgia, Federica

    2011-01-01

    activity, driving a vicious cycle of catabolism in the tumor stroma and anabolic tumor cell expansion. PMID:22236876

  19. Cancer/stroma interplay via cyclooxygenase-2 and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase promotes breast cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing-Yi; Li, Chien-Feng; Kuo, Cheng-Chin; Tsai, Kelvin K; Hou, Ming-Feng; Hung, Wen-Chun

    2014-07-25

    Expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in primary breast cancer increases tumor growth and metastasis. However, the clinical significance of stromal IDO and the regulation of stromal IDO are unclear. Metabolomics and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to study the effect of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-overexpressing breast cancer cells on IDO expression in co-cultured human breast fibroblasts. Biochemical inhibitors and short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) were used to clarify how prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) upregulates IDO expression. Associations of stromal IDO with clinicopathologic parameters were tested in tumor specimens. An orthotopic animal model was used to examine the effect of COX-2 and IDO inhibitors on tumor growth. Kynurenine, the metabolite generated by IDO, increases in the supernatant of fibroblasts co-cultured with COX-2-overexpressing breast cancer cells. PGE2 released by cancer cells upregulates IDO expression in fibroblasts through an EP4/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-dependent pathway. Conversely, fibroblast-secreted kynurenine promotes the formation of the E-cadherin/Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)/S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) complex, resulting in degradation of E-cadherin to increase breast cancer invasiveness. The enhancement of motility of breast cancer cells induced by co-culture with fibroblasts is suppressed by the IDO inhibitor 1-methyl-tryptophan. Pathological analysis demonstrates that upregulation of stromal IDO is a poor prognosis factor and is associated with of COX-2 overexpression. Co-expression of cancer COX-2 and stromal IDO predicts a worse disease-free and metastasis-free survival. Finally, COX-2 and IDO inhibitors inhibit tumor growth in vivo. Integration of metabolomics and molecular and pathological approaches reveals the interplay between cancer and stroma via COX-2, and IDO promotes tumor progression and predicts poor patient survival.

  20. Successful nucleofection of rat adipose-derived stroma cells with Ambystoma mexicanum epidermal lipoxygenase (AmbLOXe).

    PubMed

    Fülbier, Angela; Schnabel, Reinhild; Michael, Stefanie; Vogt, Peter M; Strauß, Sarah; Reimers, Kerstin; Radtke, Christine

    2014-10-09

    Adipose-derived stroma cells (ASCs) are attractive cells for cell-based gene therapy but are generally difficult to transfect. Nucleofection has proven to be an efficient method for transfection of primary cells. Therefore, we used this technique to transfect ASCs with a vector encoding for Ambystoma mexicanum epidermal lipoxygenase (AmbLOXe) which is a promising bioactive enzyme in regenerative processes. Thereby, we thought to even further increase the large regenerative potential of the ASCs. ASCs were isolated from the inguinal fat pad of Lewis rats and were subsequently transfected in passage 1 using Nucleofector® 2b and the hMSC Nucleofector kit. Transfection efficiency was determined measuring co-transfected green fluorescent protein (GFP) in a flow cytometer and gene expression in transfected cells was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Moreover, cell migration was assessed using a scratch assay and results were tested for statistical significance with ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's post hoc test. High initial transfection rates were achieved with an average of 79.8 ± 2.82% of GFP positive cells although longer cultivation periods reduced the number of positive cells to below 5% after four passages. Although successful production of AmbLOXe transcript could be proven the gene product had no measureable effect on cell migration. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of ASCs to serve as a vehicle of AmbLOXe transport for gene therapeutic purposes in regenerative medicine. One potential field of applications could be peripheral nerve injuries.

  1. Abundance measurements in stellar environments

    SciTech Connect

    Leone, F.

    Most of what we know about stars, and systems of stars, is derived from the analysis of their electromagnetic radiation. This lesson is an attempt to describe to Physicists, without any Astrophysical background, the framework to understand the present status of abundance determination in stellar environments and its limit. These notes are dedicated to the recently passed, November 21, 2013, Prof. Dimitri Mihalas who spent his life confuting the 19th century positivist philosopher Auguste Comte who stated that we shall not at all be able to determine the chemical composition of stars.

  2. The solar abundance of Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grevesse, N.

    2009-07-01

    With Martin Asplund (Max Planck Institute of Astrophysics, Garching) and Jacques Sauval (Observatoire Royal de Belgique, Brussels) I recently published detailed reviews on the solar chemical composition ({Asplund et al. 2005}, {Grevesse et al. 2007}). A new one, with Pat Scott (Stockholm University) as additional co-author, will appear in Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics ({Asplund et al. 2009}). Here we briefly analyze recent works on the solar abundance of Oxygen and recommend a value of 8.70 in the usual astronomical scale.

  3. Elemental Abundances in NGC 3516

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, T. J.; Kraemer, S. B.; Mushotzky, R. F.; George, I. M.; Gabel, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    We present Reflection Grating Spectrometer data from an XMM-Newton observation of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 3516, taken while the continuum source was in an extremely low flux state. This observation offers a rare opportunity for a detailed study of emission from a Seyfert 1 galaxy as these are usually dominated by high nuclear continuum levels and heavy absorption. The spectrum shows numerous narrow emission lines (FWHM approximately less than 1300 kilometers per second) in the 0.3 - 2 keV range, including the H-like lines of C, N, and O and the He-like lines of N, O and Ne. The emission-line ratios and the narrow width of the radiative recombination continuum of CVI indicate that the gas is photoionized and of fairly low temperature (kT approximately less than 0.01 keV). The availability of emission lines from different elements for two iso-electronic sequences allows us to constrain the element abundances. These data show that the N lines are far stronger than would be expected from gas of solar abundances. Based on our photoionization models we find that nitrogen is overabundant in the central regions of the galaxy, compared to carbon, oxygen and neon by at least a factor of 2.5. We suggest that this is the result of secondary production of nitrogen in intermediate mass stars, and indicative of the history of star formation in NGC 3516.

  4. Absolute quantification of microbial taxon abundances.

    PubMed

    Props, Ruben; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Rubbens, Peter; De Vrieze, Jo; Hernandez Sanabria, Emma; Waegeman, Willem; Monsieurs, Pieter; Hammes, Frederik; Boon, Nico

    2017-02-01

    High-throughput amplicon sequencing has become a well-established approach for microbial community profiling. Correlating shifts in the relative abundances of bacterial taxa with environmental gradients is the goal of many microbiome surveys. As the abundances generated by this technology are semi-quantitative by definition, the observed dynamics may not accurately reflect those of the actual taxon densities. We combined the sequencing approach (16S rRNA gene) with robust single-cell enumeration technologies (flow cytometry) to quantify the absolute taxon abundances. A detailed longitudinal analysis of the absolute abundances resulted in distinct abundance profiles that were less ambiguous and expressed in units that can be directly compared across studies. We further provide evidence that the enrichment of taxa (increase in relative abundance) does not necessarily relate to the outgrowth of taxa (increase in absolute abundance). Our results highlight that both relative and absolute abundances should be considered for a comprehensive biological interpretation of microbiome surveys.

  5. Metal abundance of Tal 13

    SciTech Connect

    Zinn, R.; Diaz, A.I.

    1982-08-01

    Low-resolution spectrograms have been obtained of the three RR Lyrae variables in the distant and very sparse globular cluster Pal 13. A comparison of these spectrograms with similar ones of several RR Lyrae variables in the globular clusters M4, M5, and M22 reveals that Pal 13 is intermediate to M5 and M22 in metal abundance. A value of (Fe/H) = -1.67 +- 0.15 is obtained for Pal 13 by adopting Zinn's (1980a (Astrophys. J. Suppl. 42,19)) values of (Fe/H) for these other clusters. Pal 13 is another example of a distant halo object that is not extremely metal poor.

  6. Hematite Abundance Map at Echo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image shows the hematite abundance map for a portion of the Meridiani Planum rock outcrop near where the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity landed. It was acquired by the rover's miniature thermal emission spectrometer instrument from a spot called 'Echo.' Portions of the inner crater wall in this region appear rich in hematite (red). The sharp boundary from hematite-rich to hematite-poor (yellow and green) surfaces corresponds to a change in the surface texture and color. The hematite-rich surfaces have ripple-like forms suggesting wind transported hematite to these surfaces. The bounce marks produced during landing at the base of the slope on the left are low in hematite (blue). The hematite grains that originally covered the surface were pushed below the surface by the lander, exposing a soil that has less hematite.

  7. Palila abundance estimates and trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banko, Paul C.; Brink, Kevin W.; Camp, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The palila (Loxioides bailleui) population was surveyed annually during 1998−2014 on Mauna Kea Volcano to determine abundance, population trend, and spatial distribution. In the latest surveys, the 2013 population was estimated at 1,492−2,132 birds (point estimate: 1,799) and the 2014 population was estimated at 1,697−2,508 (point estimate: 2,070). Similar numbers of palila were detected during the first and subsequent counts within each year during 2012−2014, and there was no difference in their detection probability due to count sequence. This suggests that greater precision in population estimates can be achieved if future surveys include repeat visits. No palila were detected outside the core survey area in 2013 or 2014, suggesting that most if not all palila inhabit the western slope during the survey period. Since 2003, the size of the area containing all annual palila detections do not indicate a significant change among years, suggesting that the range of the species has remained stable; although this area represents only about 5% of its historical extent. During 1998−2003, palila numbers fluctuated moderately (coefficient of variation [CV] = 0.21). After peaking in 2003, population estimates declined steadily through 2011; since 2010, estimates have fluctuated moderately above the 2011 minimum (CV = 0.18). The average rate of decline during 1998−2014 was 167 birds per year with very strong statistical support for an overall declining trend in abundance. Over the 16-year monitoring period, the estimated rate of change equated to a 68% decline in the population.

  8. Role of VLA-4 and VLA-5 in ex vivo maintenance of human and pig hematopoiesis in human stroma-supported long-term cultures.

    PubMed

    Giovino, Maria A; Wang, Hui; Sykes, Megan; Yang, Yong-Guang

    2005-03-01

    The advantage of recipient hematopoiesis over that of xenogeneic donors poses a fundamental obstacle to the induction of xenograft tolerance through mixed hematopoietic chimerism. Here we explore the role of beta1 integrins in maintenance of human vs porcine hematopoiesis within a human hematopoietic environment. Porcine and human c-kit+ bone marrow cells were purified and cultured on human bone marrow stroma for 6 weeks. The role of VLA-4 and VLA-5 in the maintenance of porcine vs human hematopoiesis in this human stroma-supported long-term bone marrow culture (LTBMC) system was evaluated by using blocking mAbs that bind to both species. Blocking VLA-4 with HP2/1 inhibited both human and porcine hematopoiesis, whereas anti-VLA-5 (SAM-1) suppressed the function of human, but not porcine, hematopoietic cells. In mixed LTBMC of porcine and human cells on a human stroma, porcine hematopoietic cells were at a competitive disadvantage, as seen by a rapid decline in cellularity, including clonogenic progenitors. This disadvantage was substantially overcome by the addition of SAM-1. Furthermore, human, but not porcine, cell adhesion to human fibronectin was inhibited by arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides. Taken together, these results indicate that VLA-4 plays critical role for porcine hematopoiesis in a human hematopoietic environment, and raise the possibility that porcine VLA-5 might be unable to bind the respective human ligand and/or to initiate adequate post-ligand-binding signaling. Thus, VLA-5 may provide a potential target for developing approaches to improve porcine hematopoiesis in human recipients.

  9. Distribution of Cd and other cations between the stroma and thylakoids: a quantitative approach to the search for Cd targets in chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Lysenko, Eugene A; Klaus, Alexander A; Kartashov, Alexander V; Kusnetsov, Victor V

    2018-06-21

    Plant growth and photosynthetic activity are usually inhibited due to the overall action of Cd on a whole organism, though few cadmium cations can invade chloroplasts in vivo. We found that in vivo, the major portion of Cd in barley chloroplasts is located in the thylakoids (80%), and the minor portion is in the stroma (20%). Therefore, the electron-transport chain in the thylakoids would be the likely target for direct Cd action in vivo. In vitro, we found the distribution of Cd to be shifted to the stroma (40-60%). In barley chloroplasts, the major portions of Mg, Fe, Mn, and Cu were found to be located in the thylakoids, and most Ca, Zn, and K in the stroma. This finding was true for both control and Cu- or Fe-treated plants. Treatment with Cd affected the contents of all cations, and the largest portions of Ca and Zn were in the thylakoids. Alterations of the K and Mn contents were caused by Cd, Cu, or Fe treatment; the levels of other cations in chloroplasts were changed specifically by Cd treatment. The quantity of Cd in chloroplasts was small in comparison to that of Mg, Ca, and Fe. In thylakoids, the amount of Cd was similar to that of Cu and comparable to the levels of Zn and Mn. Accordingly, the possible targets for direct Cd action in thylakoids are the Mn cluster, plastocyanin, carbonic anhydrase, or FtsH protease. The quantity of Cd in thylakoids is sufficient to replace a cation nearly completely at one of these sites or partially (20-30%) at many of these sites.

  10. Bone stroma-derived cells change coregulators recruitment to androgen receptor and decrease cell proliferation in androgen-sensitive and castration-resistant prostate cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Villagran, Marcelo A.; Gutierrez-Castro, Francisco A.; Pantoja, Diego F.

    Prostate cancer (CaP) bone metastasis is an early event that remains inactive until later-stage progression. Reduced levels of circulating androgens, due to andropause or androgen deprivation therapies, alter androgen receptor (AR) coactivator expression. Coactivators shift the balance towards enhanced AR-mediated gene transcription that promotes progression to androgen-resistance. Disruptions in coregulators may represent a molecular switch that reactivates latent bone metastasis. Changes in AR-mediated transcription in androgen-sensitive LNCaP and androgen-resistant C4-2 cells were analyzed for AR coregulator recruitment in co-culture with Saos-2 and THP-1. The Saos-2 cell line derived from human osteosarcoma and THP-1 cell line representing human monocytes were usedmore » to display osteoblast and osteoclast activity. Increased AR activity in androgen-resistant C4-2 was due to increased AR expression and SRC1/TIF2 recruitment and decreased SMRT/NCoR expression. AR activity in both cell types was decreased over 90% when co-cultured with Saos-2 or THP-1 due to dissociation of AR from the SRC1/TIF2 and SMRT/NCoR coregulators complex, in a ligand-dependent and cell-type specific manner. In the absence of androgens, Saos-2 decreased while THP-1 increased proliferation of LNCaP cells. In contrast, both Saos-2 and THP-1 decreased proliferation of C4-2 in absence and presence of androgens. Global changes in gene expression from both CaP cell lines identified potential cell cycle and androgen regulated genes as mechanisms for changes in cell proliferation and AR-mediated transactivation in the context of bone marrow stroma cells. - Highlights: • Decreased corepressor expression change AR in androgen-resistance prostate cancer. • Bone stroma-derived cells change AR coregulator recruitment in prostate cancer. • Bone stroma cells change cell proliferation in androgen-resistant cancer cells. • Global gene expression in CaP cells is modified by bone stroma cells in

  11. Supra-organization and optical anisotropies of the extracellular matrix in the amniotic membrane and limbal stroma before and after explant culture

    PubMed Central

    Valdetaro, Gisele P.; Aldrovani, Marcela; Padua, Ivan R. M.; Cristovam, Priscila C.; Gomes, José A. P.; Laus, José L.

    2016-01-01

    In this research we evaluated the supramolecular organizations and the optical anisotropical properties of the de-epithelialized human amniotic membrane and rabbit limbal stroma, before and after explant culture. Birefringence, monochromatic light spectral absorption and linear dichroism of the main extracellular matrix biopolymers, that is, the fibrillar collagens and proteoglycans, were investigated by polarized light microscopy combined with image analysis. Our results demonstrated that the culture procedure–induced stimuli altered the supra-organizational characteristics (in terms of collagens/proteoglycans spatial orientation and ordered-aggregational state) of the amniotic and limbal extracellular matrix, which led to changes in optical anisotropical properties. PMID:28018719

  12. Surface abundances of ON stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, F.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Palacios, A.; Howarth, I.; Georgy, C.; Walborn, N. R.; Bouret, J.-C.; Barbá, R.

    2015-06-01

    Context. Massive stars burn hydrogen through the CNO cycle during most of their evolution. When mixing is efficient or when mass transfer in binary systems occurs, chemically processed material is observed at the surface of O and B stars. Aims: ON stars show stronger lines of nitrogen than morphologically normal counterparts. Whether this corresponds to the presence of material processed through the CNO cycle is not known. Our goal is to answer this question. Methods: We performed a spectroscopic analysis of a sample of ON stars with atmosphere models. We determined the fundamental parameters as well as the He, C, N, and O surface abundances. We also measured the projected rotational velocities. We compared the properties of the ON stars to those of normal O stars. Results: We show that ON stars are usually rich in helium. Their CNO surface abundances are fully consistent with predictions of nucleosynthesis. ON stars are more chemically evolved and rotate - on average - faster than normal O stars. Evolutionary models including rotation cannot account for the extreme enrichment observed among ON main sequence stars. Some ON stars are members of binary systems, but others are single stars as indicated by stable radial velocities. Mass transfer is therefore not a simple explanation for the observed chemical properties. Conclusions: We conclude that ON stars show extreme chemical enrichment at their surface, consistent with nucleosynthesis through the CNO cycle. Its origin is not clear at present. Based on observations obtained 1) at the Anglo-Australian Telescope; 2) at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Science de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii; 3) at the ESO/La Silla Observatory under programs 081.D-2008, 083.D-0589, 086.D-0997; 4) the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La

  13. Mineral Abundances in Martian Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, L. M. V.

    2011-01-01

    Using traditional geochemical calculations with in situ Martian cosmochemical data researchers Harry (Hap) McSween Jr. and Ian McGlynn (University of Tennessee) and Deanne Rogers (SUNY at Stony Brook) have developed a method for identifying the major and minor minerals in soils at the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) landing sites. The team used information from the MER Athena instrument package operating on Mars since January, 2004. They created two models using MiniTES spectra, Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) data, and Mossbauer spectrometer data to calculate the mineralogy of average dark soils on the Gusev crater plains and on Meridiani Planum, located on opposite sides of Mars. Soils at both locations are similarly composed of minerals derived from the comminution of basalts (about three quarters by weight) and other minerals derived from rocks altered by chemical weathering (about one quarter by weight). This mixture of possibly unrelated materials (primary and altered) might mean that the alteration of soil did not occur in place and that the basaltic and alteration suites of minerals came from different sources. The nearly identical modal mineralogy at two widely-separated locations on the planet supports a previous hypothesis based on comparable chemical compositions that soils have been homogenized, if not globally then at least over large areas of the Martian surface. Yet, global maps of orbital remote sensing data have not shown surface abundances of alteration minerals as high as those in the Martian soils.

  14. Palila abundance estimates and trend

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Camp, Richad; Banko, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    The Palila (Loxioides bailleui) is an endangered, seed-eating, finch-billed honeycreeper found only on Hawai`i Island. Once occurring on the islands of Kaua`i and O`ahu and Mauna Loa and Hualālai volcanoes of Hawai`i, Palila are now found only in subalpine, dry-forest habitats on Mauna Kea (Banko et al. 2002). Previous analyses showed that Palila numbers fluctuated throughout the 1980s and 1990s but declined rapidly and steadily since 2003 (Jacobi et al. 1996, Leonard et al. 2008, Banko et al. 2009, Gorresen et al. 2009, Banko et al. in press). The aim of this report is to update abundance estimates for the Palila based on the 2012 surveys. We assess Palila trends over two periods: 1) the long-term trend during 1998–2012 and 2) the short-term trajectory between 2003 and 2012. The first period evaluates the population trend for the entire time series since additional transects were established (Johnson et al. 2006). These additional transects were established to produce a more precise population estimate and provide more complete coverage of the Palila range. The initial year for short-term trajectory was chosen subjectively to coincide with the recent decline in the Palila population. Additionally, stations in the core Palila habitat were surveyed on two occasions in 2012, thus allowing us to address the question of how repeat samples improve estimate precision.

  15. Pea chloroplast DnaJ-J8 and Toc12 are encoded by the same gene and localized in the stroma.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chi-Chou; Chen, Lih-Jen; Li, Hsou-min

    2010-11-01

    Toc12 is a novel J domain-containing protein identified in pea (Pisum sativum) chloroplasts. It was shown to be an integral outer membrane protein localizing in the intermembrane space of the chloroplast envelope. Furthermore, Toc12 was shown to associate with an intermembrane space Hsp70, suggesting that Toc12 is important for protein translocation across the chloroplast envelope. Toc12 shares a high degree of sequence similarity with Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) DnaJ-J8, which has been suggested to be a soluble protein of the chloroplast stroma. Here, we isolated genes encoding DnaJ-J8 from pea and found that Toc12 is a truncated clone of one of the pea DnaJ-J8s. Protein import analyses indicate that Toc12 and DnaJ-J8s possess a cleavable transit peptide and are localized in the stroma. Arabidopsis mutants with T-DNA insertions in the DnaJ-J8 gene show no defect in chloroplast protein import. Implications of these results in the energetics and mechanisms of chloroplast protein import are discussed.

  16. [CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes and NK cells in the stroma of the uterine cervix of women infected with human papillomavirus].

    PubMed

    Alves, Daniella Borges; Tozetti, Inês Aparecida; Gatto, Flávia Almeida; Cassandri, Fernanda; Ferreira, Alda Maria Teixeira; Carlos Eurico Dos Santos, Fernandes; Falcão, Gustavo Ribeiro; Scapulatempo, Ilzia Doraci Lins; Padovani, Cacilda Tezelli Junqueira; Abdo, Maria Auxiliadora Gomes Sandim

    2010-01-01

    Immune response might be a key element regarding the progression or regression of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the stroma of the uterine cervix. This study aimed to quantify the presence of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes and NK cells in the cervical stroma, by means of immunohistochemistry, in high and low grade lesions in patients infected by HPV METHODS: Fifty-six biopsy samples from the uterine cervix were used. Forty-three samples were positive for oncogenic high-risk HPV DNA and had a histopathological diagnosis of high and low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or negative for intraepithelial lesion and malignancy (NILM); while the other 13 samples were negative for HPV DNA with a histopathological diagnosis of NILM RESULTS: Higher quantities of CD4 T lymphocytes were observed in CIN II/III, carcinoma and NILM samples (p = 0.04) and in those in which the viral load was between 10 and 1.000 RLU/PCB. CD8 T lymphocytes were predominant in CIN II/III samples (p = 0.02) and also in samples with viral loads between 100 and 1,000 RLU/PCB. NK cells predominated in samples with low-grade lesions and low viral load This study proved that in the initial stages of the infection, in which no high-grade cell abnormalities have yet occurred, no cells that might trigger the effector phase of the immune response.

  17. Tumor-stroma ratio(TSR) as a potential novel predictor of prognosis in digestive system cancers: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Runjin; Song, Wei; Wang, Kai; Zou, Shubing

    2017-09-01

    The tumor-stroma ratio (TSR) has been reported as a prognosis predictor in multiple cancers. The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the potential value of TSR as a prognostic predictor of cancer in the digestive system. We searched PubMed, Embase, Elsevier and Web of Science. All studies exploring the association of TSR with overall survival (OS) or disease-free survival (DFS), and lymph node metastasis (LNM) were identified. In total, eight studies were eligible for analysis, and they included 1959 patients. Meta-analysis showed that the low TSR in the tumor could predict poor overall survival (OS) in multiple cancers (pooled Hazard Ratio [HR]: 2.15, 95%CI: 1.80-2.57, P<0.00001, fixed effects). For disease-free survival (DFS), low TSR was also a significant predictor (pooled Hazard Ratio [HR]: 2.31, 95%CI: 1.88-2.83, P<0.00001, fixed effects). In addition, low TSR was correlated with tumor stage. The tumor-stroma ratio (TSR) may potentially serve as a poor prognostic predictor for the metastasis and prognosis of cancer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Adult-onset renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocations/TFE3 gene fusion with smooth muscle stroma and abnormal vessels.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Naoto; Tamura, Masato; Tanaka, Yukichi; Hes, Ondrej; Michal, Michal; Inoue, Kaori; Ohara, Masahiko; Mizuno, Keiko; Lee, Gang-Hong

    2009-07-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion has been recently identified. Herein is presented a case of RCC with Xp11.2 translocations/TFE3 gene fusions with unusual histological findings. A 68-year-old Japanese woman was incidentally found to have a renal mass on CT. Histological examination showed clear cell neoplasm with alveolar and papillary growth patterns. The nuclear atypia corresponded to Fuhrman grade 3. Additionally, smooth muscle stroma was observed and abnormal vessels showing a heterogeniety in thickness were also identified. On immunohistochemistry, neoplastic cells were diffusely positive for transcription factor E3 (TFE3) and Melan A, and focally positive for CD10 and RCC marker. The smooth muscle stroma was positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin and h-caldesmon, but reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of the tumor using frozen material could not detect any previously reported chimeric transcripts including ASPL-TFE3, PRCC-TFE3, CLTC-TFE3, PSF-TFE3 or NoNo-TFE3. G-band karyotype was unsuccessful. Pathologists should pay attention to the afore-described unusual stromal reaction of adult-onset RCC associated with Xp11.2 translocations/TFE3 gene fusions.

  19. A Tumor-stroma Targeted Oncolytic Adenovirus Replicated in Human Ovary Cancer Samples and Inhibited Growth of Disseminated Solid Tumors in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, M Veronica; Rivera, Angel A; Viale, Diego L; Benedetti, Lorena; Cuneo, Nicasio; Kimball, Kristopher J; Wang, Minghui; Douglas, Joanne T; Zhu, Zeng B; Bravo, Alicia I; Gidekel, Manuel; Alvarez, Ronald D; Curiel, David T; Podhajcer, Osvaldo L

    2012-01-01

    Targeting the tumor stroma in addition to the malignant cell compartment is of paramount importance to achieve complete tumor regression. In this work, we modified a previously designed tumor stroma-targeted conditionally replicative adenovirus (CRAd) based on the SPARC promoter by introducing a mutated E1A unable to bind pRB and pseudotyped with a chimeric Ad5/3 fiber (Ad F512v1), and assessed its replication/lytic capacity in ovary cancer in vitro and in vivo. AdF512v1 was able to replicate in fresh samples obtained from patients: (i) with primary human ovary cancer; (ii) that underwent neoadjuvant treatment; (iii) with metastatic disease. In addition, we show that four intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of 5 × 1010 v.p. eliminated 50% of xenografted human ovary tumors disseminated in nude mice. Moreover, AdF512v1 replication in tumor models was enhanced 15–40-fold when the tumor contained a mix of malignant and SPARC-expressing stromal cells (fibroblasts and endothelial cells). Contrary to the wild-type virus, AdF512v1 was unable to replicate in normal human ovary samples while the wild-type virus can replicate. This study provides evidence on the lytic capacity of this CRAd and highlights the importance of targeting the stromal tissue in addition to the malignant cell compartment to achieve tumor regression. PMID:22948673

  20. Intensity and Pattern of Enhancement on CESM: Prognostic Significance and its Relation to Expression of Podoplanin in Tumor Stroma - A Preliminary Report.

    PubMed

    Luczynska, Elzbieta; Niemiec, Joanna; Heinze, Sylwia; Adamczyk, Agnieszka; Ambicka, Aleksandra; Marcyniuk, Paulina; Rudnicki, Wojciech; Mitus, Jerzy W; Dyczek, Sonia; Rys, Janusz; Sas-Korczynska, Beata

    2018-02-01

    It is possible that the degree of enhancement on contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM), a new diagnostic method, might provide prognostic information for breast cancer patients. Therefore, in a group of 82 breast cancer patients, we analyzed the prognostic significance of degree and pattern of enhancement on CESM as well as its relation to: (a) breast cancer immunophenotype (based on ER/PR/HER2 status) (b) podoplanin expression in cancer stroma (lymphatic vessel density plus podoplanin-positivity of cancer-associated fibroblasts), and (c) other histological parameters. For each tumor the intensity of enhancement on CESM was qualitatively assessed as strong or weak/medium, while the pattern - as homogenous and heterogenous. Herein we report, for the first time, that strong and heterogenous enhancement on CESM was related to unfavorable disease-free survival of breast cancer patients (p=0.005). Moreover, the strong enhancement was more frequent in large and node-positive tumors (pT>1, pN>0) (p=0.002), as well as in carcinomas with podoplanin-sparse stroma (p=0.008). Intensity and pattern of enhancement on CESM might provide (together with the results of other diagnostic imaging methods) not only the confirmation of presence or absence of tumor, but also prognostic information. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  1. In Vivo Adipogenesis in Rats Measured by Cell Kinetics in Adipocytes and Plastic-Adherent Stroma-Vascular Cells in Response to High-Fat Diet and Thiazolidinedione

    PubMed Central

    Tchoukalova, Yourka D.; Fitch, Mark; Rogers, Pamela M.; Covington, Jeffrey D.; Henagan, Tara M.; Ye, Jianping; Hellerstein, Marc K.; Ravussin, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Impairment of adipogenesis contributes to the development of obesity-related insulin resistance. The current in vitro approaches for its assessment represent crude estimates of the adipogenic potential because of the disruption of the in vivo microenvironment. A novel assessment of in vivo adipogenesis using the incorporation of the stable isotope deuterium (2H) into the DNA of isolated adipocytes and stroma-vascular fraction from adipose tissue has been developed. In the current study, we have refined this technique by purifying the adipocytes via a negative immune selection and sorting the plastic adherent stroma-vascular (aSV) subfraction (using 3 h culture) that contains mostly adipocyte progenitor cells and ∼10% of small adipocytes. Using a 3-week 8% 2H2O ingestion with a high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD plus pioglitazone (HFD-P), we demonstrate that the fractions of new aSV cells (faSV) and immunopurified adipocytes (fAD) (the ratio of their 2H-enrichment of DNA to the maximal 2H-enrichment of DNA of bone marrow reference cells) recapitulate the known hyperplastic mechanism of weight gain with pioglitazone treatment. We conclude that faSV and fAD are reliable indices of in vivo adipogenesis. The proposed method represents a valuable tool for studying the effect of interventions (drugs, diets, and exercise) on in vivo adipogenesis. PMID:22124466

  2. Stroma-induced Jagged1 expression drives PC3 prostate cancer cell migration; disparate effects of RIP-generated proteolytic fragments on cell behaviour and Notch signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Delury, Craig, E-mail: c.delury@lancaster.ac.uk; Hart, Claire, E-mail: claire.hart@manchester.ac.uk; Brown, Mick, E-mail: michael.brown@ics.manchester.ac.uk

    The Notch ligand Jagged1 is subject to regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) which yields a soluble ectodomain (sJag) and a soluble Jagged1 intracellular domain (JICD). The full-length Jagged1 protein enhances prostate cancer (PCa) cell proliferation and is highly expressed in metastatic cells. However, little is known regarding the mechanisms by which Jagged1 or its RIP-generated fragments might promote PCa bone metastasis. In the current study we show that bone marrow stroma (BMS) induces Jagged1 expression in bone metastatic prostate cancer PC3 cells and that this enhanced expression is mechanistically linked to the promotion of cell migration. We also show that RIP-generatedmore » Jagged1 fragments exert disparate effects on PC3 cell behaviour and Notch signaling. In conclusion, the expression of both the full-length ligand and its RIP-generated fragments must be considered in tandem when attempting to regulate Jagged1 as a possible PCa therapy. - Highlights: • Bone marrow stroma induces Jagged1 expression in prostate cancer (PCa) PC3 cells. • This enhanced expression of full-length Jagged1 is required for PC3 cell migration. • Proteolytic fragments of Jagged1 exert disparate effects on PC3 cell behaviour. • Effects of fragments on cell behaviour do not correlate with Notch signaling. • Effects of Jagged1 and its fragments on PCa metastasis likely to be complex.« less

  3. Evidence of iodine storage within thyroid stroma after iodine treatment: imaging by secondary ion mass spectometry (SIMS) microscopy in goitrous tissue.

    PubMed

    el May, M; Jeusset, J; el May, A; Mtimet, S; Fragu, P

    1996-06-01

    We measured the 127I distribution within tyroid tissue to find out where intrathyroid iodine was deposited during iodine treatment in eight Tunisian female patients (aged 33-58 yr) with endemic euthyroid goiter. Before surgery, five patients were treated during 6 months either by Lugol's solution (group 1: three patients) or by Lugol's and L-thyroxine (group 2: two patients). All patients remained euthyroid during the course of the treatment, which supplied 3.8 mg/day iodine. Three other patients did not receive Lugol's solution (control group). Secondary ion mass spectrometry microscopy was used to map 127-I quantitatively on thyroid sections. Specimens obtained at thyroid surgery were divided macroscopically into nodular and extranodular tissue and chemically fixed to preserve organified iodine. The iodine profile of patients in group 1 did not differ from that in group 2: large amounts of iodine were localized in thyroid follicles and stroma of both nodular and extranodular tissues. In the control group, iodine within stroma was found only in the extranodular tissue. Despite the limited number of patients studied, these data suggest that stromal iodine might represent a storage compartment in times of large iodine supply.

  4. Abundance of introduced species at home predicts abundance away in herbaceous communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Firn, Jennifer; Moore, Joslin L.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Seabloom, Eric W.; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Harpole, W. Stanley; Cleland, Elsa E.; Brown, Cynthia S.; Knops, Johannes M.H.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Pyke, David A.; Farrell, Kelly A.; Bakker, John D.; O'Halloran, Lydia R.; Adler, Peter B.; Collins, Scott L.; D'Antonio, Carla M.; Crawley, Michael J.; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Hautier, Yann; Morgan, John W.; Leakey, Andrew D.B.; Kay, Adam; McCulley, Rebecca; Davies, Kendi F.; Stevens, Carly J.; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Holl, Karen D.; Klein, Julia A.; Fay, Phillip A.; Hagenah, Nicole; Kirkman, Kevin P.; Buckley, Yvonne M.

    2011-01-01

    Many ecosystems worldwide are dominated by introduced plant species, leading to loss of biodiversity and ecosystem function. A common but rarely tested assumption is that these plants are more abundant in introduced vs. native communities, because ecological or evolutionary-based shifts in populations underlie invasion success. Here, data for 26 herbaceous species at 39 sites, within eight countries, revealed that species abundances were similar at native (home) and introduced (away) sites - grass species were generally abundant home and away, while forbs were low in abundance, but more abundant at home. Sites with six or more of these species had similar community abundance hierarchies, suggesting that suites of introduced species are assembling similarly on different continents. Overall, we found that substantial changes to populations are not necessarily a pre-condition for invasion success and that increases in species abundance are unusual. Instead, abundance at home predicts abundance away, a potentially useful additional criterion for biosecurity programmes.

  5. Climate and local abundance in freshwater fishes

    PubMed Central

    Knouft, Jason H.; Anthony, Melissa M.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying factors regulating variation in numbers of individuals among populations across a species' distribution is a fundamental goal in ecology. A common prediction, often referred to as the abundant-centre hypothesis, suggests that abundance is highest near the centre of a species' range. However, because of the primary focus on the geographical position of a population, this framework provides little insight into the environmental factors regulating local abundance. While range-wide variation in population abundance associated with environmental conditions has been investigated in terrestrial species, the relationship between climate and local abundance in freshwater taxa across species' distributions is not well understood. We used GIS-based temperature and precipitation data to determine the relationships between climatic conditions and range-wide variation in local abundance for 19 species of North American freshwater fishes. Climate predicted a portion of the variation in local abundance among populations for 18 species. In addition, the relationship between climatic conditions and local abundance varied among species, which is expected as lineages partition the environment across geographical space. The influence of local habitat quality on species persistence is well documented; however, our results also indicate the importance of climate in regulating population sizes across a species geographical range, even in aquatic taxa. PMID:27429769

  6. Influence of Coronal Abundance Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scargle, Jeffrey D. (Technical Monitor); Kashyap, Vinay

    2005-01-01

    The PI of this project was Jeff Scargle of NASA/Ames. Co-I's were Alma Connors of Eureka Scientific/Wellesley, and myself. Part of the work was subcontracted to Eureka Scientific via SAO, with Vinay Kashyap as PI. This project was originally assigned grant number NCC2-1206, and was later changed to NCC2-1350 for administrative reasons. The goal of the project was to obtain, derive, and develop statistical and data analysis tools that would be of use in the analyses of high-resolution, high-sensitivity data that are becoming available with new instruments. This is envisioned as a cross-disciplinary effort with a number of "collaborators" including some at SA0 (Aneta Siemiginowska, Peter Freeman) and at the Harvard Statistics department (David van Dyk, Rostislav Protassov, Xiao-li Meng, Epaminondas Sourlas, et al). We have developed a new tool to reliably measure the metallicities of thermal plasma. It is unfeasible to obtain high-resolution grating spectra for most stars, and one must make the best possible determination based on lower-resolution, CCD-type spectra. It has been noticed that most analyses of such spectra have resulted in measured metallicities that were significantly lower than when compared with analyses of high- resolution grating data where available (see, e.g., Brickhouse et al., 2000, ApJ 530,387). Such results have led to the proposal of the existence of so-called Metal Abundance Deficient, or "MAD" stars (e.g., Drake, J.J., 1996, Cool Stars 9, ASP Conf.Ser. 109, 203). We however find that much of these analyses may be systematically underestimating the metallicities, and using a newly developed method to correctly treat the low-counts regime at the high-energy tail of the stellar spectra (van Dyk et al. 2001, ApJ 548,224), have found that the metallicities of these stars are generally comparable to their photospheric values. The results were reported at the AAS (Sourlas, Yu, van Dyk, Kashyap, and Drake, 2000, BAAS 196, v32, #54.02), and at the

  7. Gene expression profiling of rat spermatogonia and Sertoli cells reveals signaling pathways from stem cells to niche and testicular cancer cells to surrounding stroma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Stem cells and their niches are studied in many systems, but mammalian germ stem cells (GSC) and their niches are still poorly understood. In rat testis, spermatogonia and undifferentiated Sertoli cells proliferate before puberty, but at puberty most spermatogonia enter spermatogenesis, and Sertoli cells differentiate to support this program. Thus, pre-pubertal spermatogonia might possess GSC potential and pre-pubertal Sertoli cells niche functions. We hypothesized that the different stem cell pools at pre-puberty and maturity provide a model for the identification of stem cell and niche-specific genes. We compared the transcript profiles of spermatogonia and Sertoli cells from pre-pubertal and pubertal rats and examined how these related to genes expressed in testicular cancers, which might originate from inappropriate communication between GSCs and Sertoli cells. Results The pre-pubertal spermatogonia-specific gene set comprised known stem cell and spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) markers. Similarly, the pre-pubertal Sertoli cell-specific gene set comprised known niche gene transcripts. A large fraction of these specifically enriched transcripts encoded trans-membrane, extra-cellular, and secreted proteins highlighting stem cell to niche communication. Comparing selective gene sets established in this study with published gene expression data of testicular cancers and their stroma, we identified sets expressed genes shared between testicular tumors and pre-pubertal spermatogonia, and tumor stroma and pre-pubertal Sertoli cells with statistic significance. Conclusions Our data suggest that SSC and their niche specifically express complementary factors for cell communication and that the same factors might be implicated in the communication between tumor cells and their micro-enviroment in testicular cancer. PMID:21232125

  8. Understanding of the Viscoelastic Response of the Human Corneal Stroma Induced by Riboflavin/UV-A Cross-Linking at the Nano Level

    PubMed Central

    Labate, Cristina; De Santo, Maria Penelope; Lombardo, Giuseppe; Lombardo, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the viscoelastic changes of the human cornea induced by riboflavin/UV-A cross-linking using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) at the nano level. Methods Seven eye bank donor corneas were investigated, after gently removing the epithelium, using a commercial AFM in the force spectroscopy mode. Silicon cantilevers with tip radius of 10 nm and spring elastic constants between 26- and 86-N/m were used to probe the viscoelastic properties of the anterior stroma up to 3 µm indentation depth. Five specimens were tested before and after riboflavin/UV-A cross-linking; the other two specimens were chemically cross-linked using glutaraldehyde 2.5% solution and used as controls. The Young’s modulus (E) and the hysteresis (H) of the corneal stroma were quantified as a function of the application load and scan rate. Results The Young’s modulus increased by a mean of 1.1-1.5 times after riboflavin/UV-A cross-linking (P<0.05). A higher increase of E, by a mean of 1.5-2.6 times, was found in chemically cross-linked specimens using glutaraldehyde 2.5% (P<0.05). The hysteresis decreased, by a mean of 0.9-1.5 times, in all specimens after riboflavin/UV-A cross-linking (P<0.05). A substantial decrease of H, ranging between 2.6 and 3.5 times with respect to baseline values, was observed in glutaraldehyde-treated corneas (P<0.05). Conclusions The present study provides the first evidence that riboflavin/UV-A cross-linking induces changes of the viscoelastic properties of the cornea at the scale of stromal molecular interactions. PMID:25830534

  9. Selective Akt Inhibitors Synergize with Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors and Effectively Override Stroma-Associated Cytoprotection of Mutant FLT3-Positive AML Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin; Nelson, Erik; Sattler, Martin; Liu, Feiyang; Nicolais, Maria; Zhang, Jianming; Mitsiades, Constantine; Smith, Robert W.; Stone, Richard; Galinsky, Ilene; Nonami, Atsushi; Griffin, James D.; Gray, Nathanael

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-treated acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients commonly show rapid and significant peripheral blood blast cell reduction, however a marginal decrease in bone marrow blasts. This suggests a protective environment and highlights the demand for a better understanding of stromal:leukemia cell communication. As a strategy to improve clinical efficacy, we searched for novel agents capable of potentiating the stroma-diminished effects of TKI treatment of mutant FLT3-expressing cells. Methods We designed a combinatorial high throughput drug screen using well-characterized kinase inhibitor-focused libraries to identify novel kinase inhibitors capable of overriding stromal-mediated resistance to TKIs, such as PKC412 and AC220. Standard liquid culture proliferation assays, cell cycle and apoptosis analysis, and immunoblotting were carried out with cell lines or primary AML to validate putative candidates from the screen and characterize the mechanism(s) underlying observed synergy. Results and Conclusions Our study led to the observation of synergy between selective Akt inhibitors and FLT3 inhibitors against mutant FLT3-positive AML in either the absence or presence of stroma. Our findings are consistent with evidence that Akt activation is characteristic of mutant FLT3-transformed cells, as well as observed residual Akt activity following FLT3 inhibitor treatment. In conclusion, our study highlights the potential importance of Akt as a signaling factor in leukemia survival, and supports the use of the co-culture chemical screen to identify agents able to potentiate TKI anti-leukemia activity in a cytoprotective microenvironment. PMID:23437141

  10. Analysis of Stroma Labeling During Multiple Passage of a Sarcoma Imageable Patient-Derived Orthotopic Xenograft (iPDOX) in Red Fluorescent Protein Transgenic Nude Mice.

    PubMed

    Kiyuna, Tasuku; Murakami, Takashi; Tome, Yasunori; Kawaguchi, Kei; Igarashi, Kentaro; Miyake, Kentaro; Kanaya, Fuminori; Singh, Arun; Eilber, Fritz C; Hoffman, Robert M

    2017-10-01

    A patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) model of undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) was previously established that acquired red fluorescent protein (RFP)-expressing stroma by growth in an RFP transgenic nude mouse. In the present study, an imageable PDOX model (iPDOX) of UPS was established by orthotopic implantation in the biceps femoris of transgenic RFP nude mice. After the tumors grew to a diameter of 10 mm, they were harvested and the brightest portion of the tumors were subsequently orthotopically transplanted to both RFP and non-colored nude mice. The UPS PDOX tumor was again transplanted to RFP transgenic and non-colored nude mice, and finally a 3rd passage was made in the same manner. Five UPS tumors from each passage in both RFP and non-colored mouse models were harvested. The FV1,000 confocal microscope was used to visualize and quantitate the RFP area of the resected tumors. The average percent fluorescent area in the first passage of RFP mice was 34 ± 22%; in the second passage, 34 ± 20%; and 36 ± 11% in the third passage of RFP transgenic nude mice. The average tumor RFP area in the first passage from RFP mice to non-colored mice was 20 ± 7%; in the second passage, 28 ± 11%; in the third passage was 27 ± 13%. The present results demonstrate the extensive and stable acquisition of stroma by the UPS-tumor growing orthotopically in transgenic RFP nude mice (iPDOX). This model can be used for screening for effective drugs for individual patients and drug discovery. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 3367-3371, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Relationship between Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA expression, apoptosis and lymphocytic infiltration in gastric carcinoma with lymphoid-rich stroma.

    PubMed

    Cho, Mee-Yon; Kim, Tae Heon; Yi, Sang Yeop; Jung, Woo Hee; Park, Kwang Hwa

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the association of apoptosis with apoptotic proteins and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) expression in gastric carcinoma with lymphoid-rich stroma (GCLRS) in order to clarify the relationship between lymphocytic infiltration, EBV expression and apoptosis in gastric carcinoma. We performed immunohistochemical stains for bcl-2, bax and in situ hybridization for EBV-encoded RNA and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end labeling technique using the 24 cases of GCLRS and 23 cases of gastric carcinoma with lymphoid-poor stroma (GCLPS) out of 1,635 cases of gastric carcinoma. The prevalence of GCLRS was 1.47% (24/1,635). The prevalence of EBV involvement in GCLRS (79%, 19/24) was significantly higher than in GCLPS (8.7%, 2/23). Apoptosis was revealed in all cases and there was no statistical difference between GCLRS and GCLPS. Immunohistochemical expression for bcl-2 was revealed only in the cytoplasm of lymphocytes in all cases, but bax showed distinct expression in the cytoplasm of neoplastic cells in all cases. There was a significant correlation between bax expression and the apoptotic index (p <0.05). Lymphocytic infiltration was significantly correlated with the expression of EBV (p <0.05) but not with survival rate and apoptosis. Most of the GCLRS cases were rated as low clinical stage (stage IA or B) and seemed to have a good prognosis. These results support the hypothesis that EBV infection plays an important role in the tumorigenesis of GCLRS, which has a better prognosis than usual gastric adenocarcinoma although there was no significant difference in the apoptotic index between GCLRS and GCLPS.

  12. Monitoring Butterfly Abundance: Beyond Pollard Walks

    PubMed Central

    Pellet, Jérôme; Bried, Jason T.; Parietti, David; Gander, Antoine; Heer, Patrick O.; Cherix, Daniel; Arlettaz, Raphaël

    2012-01-01

    Most butterfly monitoring protocols rely on counts along transects (Pollard walks) to generate species abundance indices and track population trends. It is still too often ignored that a population count results from two processes: the biological process (true abundance) and the statistical process (our ability to properly quantify abundance). Because individual detectability tends to vary in space (e.g., among sites) and time (e.g., among years), it remains unclear whether index counts truly reflect population sizes and trends. This study compares capture-mark-recapture (absolute abundance) and count-index (relative abundance) monitoring methods in three species (Maculinea nausithous and Iolana iolas: Lycaenidae; Minois dryas: Satyridae) in contrasted habitat types. We demonstrate that intraspecific variability in individual detectability under standard monitoring conditions is probably the rule rather than the exception, which questions the reliability of count-based indices to estimate and compare specific population abundance. Our results suggest that the accuracy of count-based methods depends heavily on the ecology and behavior of the target species, as well as on the type of habitat in which surveys take place. Monitoring programs designed to assess the abundance and trends in butterfly populations should incorporate a measure of detectability. We discuss the relative advantages and inconveniences of current monitoring methods and analytical approaches with respect to the characteristics of the species under scrutiny and resources availability. PMID:22859980

  13. Predicting the Dynamics of Protein Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Mehdi, Ahmed M.; Patrick, Ralph; Bailey, Timothy L.; Bodén, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Protein synthesis is finely regulated across all organisms, from bacteria to humans, and its integrity underpins many important processes. Emerging evidence suggests that the dynamic range of protein abundance is greater than that observed at the transcript level. Technological breakthroughs now mean that sequencing-based measurement of mRNA levels is routine, but protocols for measuring protein abundance remain both complex and expensive. This paper introduces a Bayesian network that integrates transcriptomic and proteomic data to predict protein abundance and to model the effects of its determinants. We aim to use this model to follow a molecular response over time, from condition-specific data, in order to understand adaptation during processes such as the cell cycle. With microarray data now available for many conditions, the general utility of a protein abundance predictor is broad. Whereas most quantitative proteomics studies have focused on higher organisms, we developed a predictive model of protein abundance for both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe to explore the latitude at the protein level. Our predictor primarily relies on mRNA level, mRNA–protein interaction, mRNA folding energy and half-life, and tRNA adaptation. The combination of key features, allowing for the low certainty and uneven coverage of experimental observations, gives comparatively minor but robust prediction accuracy. The model substantially improved the analysis of protein regulation during the cell cycle: predicted protein abundance identified twice as many cell-cycle-associated proteins as experimental mRNA levels. Predicted protein abundance was more dynamic than observed mRNA expression, agreeing with experimental protein abundance from a human cell line. We illustrate how the same model can be used to predict the folding energy of mRNA when protein abundance is available, lending credence to the emerging view that mRNA folding affects translation

  14. Predicting the dynamics of protein abundance.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Ahmed M; Patrick, Ralph; Bailey, Timothy L; Bodén, Mikael

    2014-05-01

    Protein synthesis is finely regulated across all organisms, from bacteria to humans, and its integrity underpins many important processes. Emerging evidence suggests that the dynamic range of protein abundance is greater than that observed at the transcript level. Technological breakthroughs now mean that sequencing-based measurement of mRNA levels is routine, but protocols for measuring protein abundance remain both complex and expensive. This paper introduces a Bayesian network that integrates transcriptomic and proteomic data to predict protein abundance and to model the effects of its determinants. We aim to use this model to follow a molecular response over time, from condition-specific data, in order to understand adaptation during processes such as the cell cycle. With microarray data now available for many conditions, the general utility of a protein abundance predictor is broad. Whereas most quantitative proteomics studies have focused on higher organisms, we developed a predictive model of protein abundance for both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe to explore the latitude at the protein level. Our predictor primarily relies on mRNA level, mRNA-protein interaction, mRNA folding energy and half-life, and tRNA adaptation. The combination of key features, allowing for the low certainty and uneven coverage of experimental observations, gives comparatively minor but robust prediction accuracy. The model substantially improved the analysis of protein regulation during the cell cycle: predicted protein abundance identified twice as many cell-cycle-associated proteins as experimental mRNA levels. Predicted protein abundance was more dynamic than observed mRNA expression, agreeing with experimental protein abundance from a human cell line. We illustrate how the same model can be used to predict the folding energy of mRNA when protein abundance is available, lending credence to the emerging view that mRNA folding affects translation efficiency

  15. Interstellar Abundances Toward X Per, Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valencic, Lynne A.; Smith, Randall K.

    2014-01-01

    The nearby X-ray binary X Per (HD 24534) provides a useful beacon with which to measure elemental abundances in the local ISM. We examine absorption features of 0, Mg, and Si along this line of sight using spectra from the Chandra Observatory's LETG/ ACIS-S and XMM-Newton's RGS instruments. In general, we find that the abundances and their ratios are similar to those of young F and G stars and the most recent solar values. We compare our results with abundances required by dust grain models.

  16. Interstellar Abundances Toward X Per, Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valencic, Lynne A.; Smith, Randall K.

    2012-01-01

    The nearby X-ray binary X Per (HD 24534) provides a useful beacon with which to measure elemental abundances in the local ISM. We examine absorption features of O, Mg, and Si along this line of sight using spectra from the Chandra Observatory's LETG/ACIS-S and XMM-Newton's RGS instruments. In general, we find that the abundances and their ratios are similar to those of young F and G stars and the most recent solar values. We compare our results with abundances required by dust grain models.

  17. Stochastic species abundance models involving special copulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huillet, Thierry E.

    2018-01-01

    Copulas offer a very general tool to describe the dependence structure of random variables supported by the hypercube. Inspired by problems of species abundances in Biology, we study three distinct toy models where copulas play a key role. In a first one, a Marshall-Olkin copula arises in a species extinction model with catastrophe. In a second one, a quasi-copula problem arises in a flagged species abundance model. In a third model, we study completely random species abundance models in the hypercube as those, not of product type, with uniform margins and singular. These can be understood from a singular copula supported by an inflated simplex. An exchangeable singular Dirichlet copula is also introduced, together with its induced completely random species abundance vector.

  18. Induction of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha and activation of caspase-3 in hypoxia-reoxygenated bone marrow stroma is negatively regulated by the delayed production of substance P.

    PubMed

    Qian, J; Ramroop, K; McLeod, A; Bandari, P; Livingston, D H; Harrison, J S; Rameshwar, P

    2001-10-15

    The bone marrow (BM), which is the major site of immune cell development in the adult, responds to different stimuli such as inflammation and hemorrhagic shock. Substance P (SP) is the major peptide encoded by the immune/hemopoietic modulator gene, preprotachykinin-1 (PPT-I). Differential gene expression using a microarray showed that SP reduced hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) mRNA levels in BM stroma. Because long-term hypoxia induced the expression of PPT-I in BM mononuclear cells, we used timeline studies to determine whether PPT-I is central to the biologic responses of BM stroma subjected to 30-min hypoxia (pO(2) = 35 mm Hg) followed by reoxygenation. HIF-1alpha mRNA and protein levels were increased up to 12 h. At this time, beta-PPT-I mRNA was detected with the release of SP at 16 h. SP release correlated with down-regulation of HIF-1alpha to baseline. A direct role for SP in HIF-1alpha expression was demonstrated as follows: 1) transient knockout of beta-PPT-I showed an increase in HIF-1alpha expression up to 48 h of reoxygenation; and 2) HIF-1alpha expression remained baseline during reoxygenation when stroma was subjected to hypoxia in the presence of SP. Reoxygenation activated the PPT-I promoter with concomitant nuclear translocation of HIF-1alpha that can bind to the respective consensus sequences within the PPT-I promoter. SP reversed active caspase-3, an indicator of apoptosis and erythropoiesis, to homeostasis level after reoxygenation of hypoxic stroma. The results show that during reoxgenation the PPT-I gene acts as a negative regulator on the expression of HIF-1alpha and active caspase-3 in BM stroma subjected to reoxygenation.

  19. Coronae of Stars with Supersolar Elemental Abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peretz, Uria; Behar, Ehud; Drake, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Coronal elemental abundances are known to deviate from the photospheric values of their parent star, with the degree of deviation depending on the first ionization potential (FIP). This study focuses on the coronal composition of stars with supersolar photospheric abundances. We present the coronal abundances of six such stars: 11 LMi, iota Hor, HR 7291, tau Boo, and alpha Cen A and B. These stars all have high-statistics X-ray spectra, three of which are presented for the first time. The abundances we measured were obtained using the line-resolved spectra of the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) in conjunction with the higher throughput EPIC-pn camera spectra onboard the XMM-Newton observatory. A collisionally ionized plasma model with two or three temperature components is found to represent the spectra well. All elements are found to be consistently depleted in the coronae compared to their respective photospheres. For 11 LMi and tau Boo no FIP effect is present, while iota Hor, HR 7291, and alpha Cen A and B show a clear FIP trend. These conclusions hold whether the comparison is made with solar abundances or the individual stellar abundances. Unlike the solar corona, where low-FIP elements are enriched, in these stars the FIP effect is consistently due to a depletion of high-FIP elements with respect to actual photospheric abundances. A comparison with solar (instead of stellar) abundances yields the same fractionation trend as on the Sun. In both cases, a similar FIP bias is inferred, but different fractionation mechanisms need to be invoked.

  20. Composition and abundance of tree regeneration

    Treesearch

    Todd F. Hutchinson; Elaine Kennedy Sutherland; Charles T. Scott

    2003-01-01

    The composition and abundance of tree seedlings and saplings in the four study areas in southern Ohio were related to soil moisture via a GIS-derived integrated moisture index and to soil texture and fertility. For seedlings, the total abundance of small stems (less than 30 cm tall) was significantly greater on xeric plots (81,987/ha) than on intermediate (54,531/ha)...

  1. TEA: A Code Calculating Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver

    2016-07-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature-pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows & Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows & Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA.

  2. Report on carbon and nitrogen abundance studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm-Vitense, Erika

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the proposal was to determine the nitrogen to carbon abundance ratios from transition layer lines in stars with different T(sub eff) and luminosities. The equations which give the surface emission line fluxes and the measured ratio of the NV to CIV emission line fluxes are presented and explained. The abundance results are compared with those of photospheric abundance studies for stars in common with the photospheric investigations. The results show that the analyses are at least as accurate as the photospheric determinations. These studies can be extended to F and early G stars for which photospheric abundance determinations for giants are hard to do because molecular bands become too weak. The abundance determination in the context of stellar evolution is addressed. The N/C abundance ratio increases steeply at the point of evolution for which the convection zone reaches deepest. Looking at the evolution of the rotation velocities v sin i, a steep decrease in v sin i is related to the increasing depth of the convection zone. It is concluded that the decrease in v sin i for T(sub eff) less than or approximately = 5800 K is most probably due to the rearrangement of the angular momentum in the stars due to deep convective mixing. It appears that the convection zone is rotating with nearly depth independent angular momentum. Other research results and ongoing projects are discussed.

  3. TEA: A CODE CALCULATING THERMOCHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM ABUNDANCES

    SciTech Connect

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver, E-mail: jasmina@physics.ucf.edu

    2016-07-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature–pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows and Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows and Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but withmore » higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA.« less

  4. Modeling abundance effects in distance sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J. Andrew; Dawson, D.K.; Bates, S.

    2004-01-01

    Distance-sampling methods are commonly used in studies of animal populations to estimate population density. A common objective of such studies is to evaluate the relationship between abundance or density and covariates that describe animal habitat or other environmental influences. However, little attention has been focused on methods of modeling abundance covariate effects in conventional distance-sampling models. In this paper we propose a distance-sampling model that accommodates covariate effects on abundance. The model is based on specification of the distance-sampling likelihood at the level of the sample unit in terms of local abundance (for each sampling unit). This model is augmented with a Poisson regression model for local abundance that is parameterized in terms of available covariates. Maximum-likelihood estimation of detection and density parameters is based on the integrated likelihood, wherein local abundance is removed from the likelihood by integration. We provide an example using avian point-transect data of Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapillus) collected using a distance-sampling protocol and two measures of habitat structure (understory cover and basal area of overstory trees). The model yields a sensible description (positive effect of understory cover, negative effect on basal area) of the relationship between habitat and Ovenbird density that can be used to evaluate the effects of habitat management on Ovenbird populations.

  5. Clustering in the stellar abundance space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boesso, R.; Rocha-Pinto, H. J.

    2018-03-01

    We have studied the chemical enrichment history of the interstellar medium through an analysis of the n-dimensional stellar abundance space. This work is a non-parametric analysis of the stellar chemical abundance space. The main goal is to study the stars from their organization within this abundance space. Within this space, we seek to find clusters (in a statistical sense), that is, stars likely to share similar chemo-evolutionary history, using two methods: the hierarchical clustering and the principal component analysis. We analysed some selected abundance surveys available in the literature. For each sample, we labelled the group of stars according to its average abundance curve. In all samples, we identify the existence of a main enrichment pattern of the stars, which we call chemical enrichment flow. This flow is set by the structured and well-defined mean rate at which the abundances of the interstellar medium increase, resulting from the mixture of the material ejected from the stars and stellar mass-loss and interstellar medium gas. One of the main results of our analysis is the identification of subgroups of stars with peculiar chemistry. These stars are situated in regions outside of the enrichment flow in the abundance space. These peculiar stars show a mismatch in the enrichment rate of a few elements, such as Mg, Si, Sc and V, when compared to the mean enrichment rate of the other elements of the same stars. We believe that the existence of these groups of stars with peculiar chemistry may be related to the accretion of planetary material on to stellar surfaces or may be due to production of the same chemical element by different nucleosynthetic sites.

  6. Clonal growth and plant species abundance

    PubMed Central

    Herben, Tomáš; Nováková, Zuzana; Klimešová, Jitka

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Both regional and local plant abundances are driven by species' dispersal capacities and their abilities to exploit new habitats and persist there. These processes are affected by clonal growth, which is difficult to evaluate and compare across large numbers of species. This study assessed the influence of clonal reproduction on local and regional abundances of a large set of species and compared the predictive power of morphologically defined traits of clonal growth with data on actual clonal growth from a botanical garden. The role of clonal growth was compared with the effects of seed reproduction, habitat requirements and growth, proxied both by LHS (leaf–height–seed) traits and by actual performance in the botanical garden. Methods Morphological parameters of clonal growth, actual clonal reproduction in the garden and LHS traits (leaf-specific area – height – seed mass) were used as predictors of species abundance, both regional (number of species records in the Czech Republic) and local (mean species cover in vegetation records) for 836 perennial herbaceous species. Species differences in habitat requirements were accounted for by classifying the dataset by habitat type and also by using Ellenberg indicator values as covariates. Key Results After habitat differences were accounted for, clonal growth parameters explained an important part of variation in species abundance, both at regional and at local levels. At both levels, both greater vegetative growth in cultivation and greater lateral expansion trait values were correlated with higher abundance. Seed reproduction had weaker effects, being positive at the regional level and negative at the local level. Conclusions Morphologically defined traits are predictive of species abundance, and it is concluded that simultaneous investigation of several such traits can help develop hypotheses on specific processes (e.g. avoidance of self-competition, support of offspring) potentially

  7. Accurate abundance determinations in S stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neyskens, P.; Van Eck, S.; Plez, B.; Goriely, S.; Siess, L.; Jorissen, A.

    2011-12-01

    S-type stars are thought to be the first objects, during their evolution on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB), to experience s-process nucleosynthesis and third dredge-ups, and therefore to exhibit s-process signatures in their atmospheres. Until present, the modeling of these processes is subject to large uncertainties. Precise abundance determinations in S stars are of extreme importance for constraining e.g., the depth and the formation of the 13C pocket. In this paper a large grid of MARCS model atmospheres for S stars is used to derive precise abundances of key s-process elements and iron. A first estimation of the atmospheric parameters is obtained using a set of well-chosen photometric and spectroscopic indices for selecting the best model atmosphere of each S star. Abundances are derived from spectral line synthesis, using the selected model atmosphere. Special interest is paid to technetium, an element without stable isotopes. Its detection in stars is considered as the best possible signature that the star effectively populates the thermally-pulsing AGB (TP-AGB) phase of evolution. The derived Tc/Zr abundances are compared, as a function of the derived [Zr/Fe] overabundances, with AGB stellar model predictions. The computed [Zr/Fe] overabundances are in good agreement with the AGB stellar evolution model predictions, while the Tc/Zr abundances are slightly over-predicted. This discrepancy can help to set stronger constraints on nucleosynthesis and mixing mechanisms in AGB stars.

  8. Abundances in Eight M31 Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensley, Kerry G.; Kwitter, Karen B.; Corradi, Romano; Galera-Rosillo, R.; Balick, Bruce; Henry, Richard B. C.

    2014-06-01

    As part of a continuing project using planetary nebulae (PNe) to study the chemical evolution and formation history of M31 (see accompanying poster by Balick et al.), we obtained spectra of eight PNe in the fall of 2013 with the OSIRIS spectrograph on the GTC. All of these PNe are located outside M31’s inner disk and bulge. Spectral coverage extended from 3700-7800Å with a resolution of ~6 Å. Especially important in abundance determinations is the detection of the weak, temperature-sensitive auroral line of [O III], at 4363Å, which is often contaminated by Hg I 4358Å from streetlights; the remoteness of the GTC eliminated this difficulty. We reduced and measured the spectra using IRAF, and derived nebular diagnostics and abundances with ELSA, our in-house five-level-atom program. Here we report the chemical abundances determined from these spectra. The bottom line is that the oxygen abundances in these PNe are all within a factor of 2-3 of the solar value, (as are all the other M31 PNe our team has previously measured) despite the significant range of galactocentric distance. Future work will use these abundances to constrain models of the central star to estimate progenitor masses and ages. In particular we will use the results to investigate the hypothesis that these PNe might represent a population related to the encounter between M31 and M33 ~3 Gy ago. We gratefully acknowledge support from Williams College.

  9. RELATIVE ABUNDANCE MEASUREMENTS IN PLUMES AND INTERPLUMES

    SciTech Connect

    Guennou, C.; Hahn, M.; Savin, D. W., E-mail: cguennou@iac.es

    2015-07-10

    We present measurements of relative elemental abundances in plumes and interplumes. Plumes are bright, narrow structures in coronal holes that extend along open magnetic field lines far out into the corona. Previous work has found that in some coronal structures the abundances of elements with a low first ionization potential (FIP) <10 eV are enhanced relative to their photospheric abundances. This coronal-to-photospheric abundance ratio, commonly called the FIP bias, is typically 1 for elements with a high-FIP (>10 eV). We have used Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer observations made on 2007 March 13 and 14 over a ≈24 hr period tomore » characterize abundance variations in plumes and interplumes. To assess their elemental composition, we used a differential emission measure analysis, which accounts for the thermal structure of the observed plasma. We used lines from ions of iron, silicon, and sulfur. From these we estimated the ratio of the iron and silicon FIP bias relative to that for sulfur. From the results, we have created FIP-bias-ratio maps. We find that the FIP-bias ratio is sometimes higher in plumes than in interplumes and that this enhancement can be time dependent. These results may help to identify whether plumes or interplumes contribute to the fast solar wind observed in situ and may also provide constraints on the formation and heating mechanisms of plumes.« less

  10. Hierarchical models of animal abundance and occurrence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J. Andrew; Dorazio, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    Much of animal ecology is devoted to studies of abundance and occurrence of species, based on surveys of spatially referenced sample units. These surveys frequently yield sparse counts that are contaminated by imperfect detection, making direct inference about abundance or occurrence based on observational data infeasible. This article describes a flexible hierarchical modeling framework for estimation and inference about animal abundance and occurrence from survey data that are subject to imperfect detection. Within this framework, we specify models of abundance and detectability of animals at the level of the local populations defined by the sample units. Information at the level of the local population is aggregated by specifying models that describe variation in abundance and detection among sites. We describe likelihood-based and Bayesian methods for estimation and inference under the resulting hierarchical model. We provide two examples of the application of hierarchical models to animal survey data, the first based on removal counts of stream fish and the second based on avian quadrat counts. For both examples, we provide a Bayesian analysis of the models using the software WinBUGS.

  11. Hymenoscyphus fraxineus vs. Hymenoscyphus albidus – A comparative light microscopic study on the causal agent of European ash dieback and related foliicolous, stroma-forming species

    PubMed Central

    Baral, Hans-Otto; Bemmann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Five species of Hymenoscyphus that fruit on black stromatized parts of dead leaves of deciduous trees are presented, giving details on their morphological and ecological characteristics. Several of these species have previously been misplaced in rutstroemiaceous genera because of the presence of a substratal stroma. However, the heteropolar, scutuloid ascospores with an often hook-like lateral protrusion at the rounded apex and the ascus apical ring of the Hymenoscyphus-type represent two reliable morphological characteristics that, together with molecular data, provide clear evidence for their placement in the genus Hymenoscyphus (Helotiaceae). Among the species treated is Hymenoscyphus fraxineus (=Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus), the causal agent of the European ash dieback disease. Since 1992 this species started within Europe to replace the rather uncommon Hymenoscyphus albidus, which is likewise confined to leaves of Fraxinus. Hy. fraxineus has been recorded already since 1990 in Eastern Asia (Japan, Korea, northeast of China), where it had been initially misidentified as Lambertella albida (≡Hy. albidus). In these regions, it occurs as a harmless saprotroph on Fraxinus mandshurica and Fraxinus rhynchophylla, suggesting that those populations are native while the European ash dieback disease has a recent Eastern Asiatic origin. The distinctly higher genetic diversity found in Japanese Hy. fraxineus in contrast to European Hy. fraxineus supports this view. Genetic similarities between Japanese Hy. fraxineus and European Hy. albidus suggest that also Hy. albidus might be a descendant of Asian Hy. fraxineus, though having invaded Europe much earlier. However, consistent genetic deviation between European and Asian Hy. fraxineus at two nucleotide positions of the ITS region indicates that the European ash disease originates from a region different from the presently known areas in Eastern Asia. Our results underline the importance of detailed morphological studies

  12. PET Imaging of Macrophage Mannose Receptor-Expressing Macrophages in Tumor Stroma Using 18F-Radiolabeled Camelid Single-Domain Antibody Fragments.

    PubMed

    Blykers, Anneleen; Schoonooghe, Steve; Xavier, Catarina; D'hoe, Kevin; Laoui, Damya; D'Huyvetter, Matthias; Vaneycken, Ilse; Cleeren, Frederik; Bormans, Guy; Heemskerk, Johannes; Raes, Geert; De Baetselier, Patrick; Lahoutte, Tony; Devoogdt, Nick; Van Ginderachter, Jo A; Caveliers, Vicky

    2015-08-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages constitute a major component of the stroma of solid tumors, encompassing distinct subpopulations with different characteristics and functions. We aimed to identify M2-oriented tumor-supporting macrophages within the tumor microenvironment as indicators of cancer progression and prognosis, using PET imaging. This can be realized by designing (18)F-labeled camelid single-domain antibody fragments (sdAbs) specifically targeting the macrophage mannose receptor (MMR), which has been identified as an important biomarker on this cell population. Cross-reactive anti-MMR sdAbs were generated after immunization of an alpaca with the extracellular domains of both human and mouse MMR. The lead binder was chosen on the basis of comparisons of binding affinity and in vivo pharmacokinetics. The PET tracer (18)F-fluorobenzoate (FB)-anti-MMR sdAb was developed using the prosthetic group N-succinimidyl-4-(18)F-fluorobenzoate ((18)F-SFB), and its biodistribution, tumor-targeting potential, and specificity in terms of macrophage and MMR targeting were evaluated in mouse tumor models. Four sdAbs were selected after affinity screening, but only 2 were found to be cross-reactive for human and mouse MMR. The lead anti-MMR 3.49 sdAb, bearing an affinity of 12 and 1.8 nM for mouse and human MMR, respectively, was chosen for its favorable in vivo biodistribution profile and tumor-targeting capacity. (18)F-FB-anti-MMR 3.49 sdAb was synthesized with a 5%-10% radiochemical yield using an automated and optimized protocol. In vivo biodistribution analyses showed fast clearance via the kidneys and retention in MMR-expressing organs and tumor. The kidney retention of the fluorinated sdAb was 20-fold lower than a (99m)Tc-labeled counterpart. Compared with MMR- and C-C chemokine receptor 2-deficient mice, significantly higher uptake was observed in tumors grown in wild-type mice, demonstrating the specificity of the (18)F tracer for MMR and macrophages, respectively. Anti

  13. Capacity of Lung Stroma to Educate Dendritic Cells Inhibiting Mycobacteria-Specific T-Cell Response Depends upon Genetic Susceptibility to Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Majorov, Konstantin B.; Logunova, Nadezhda N.; Apt, Alexander S.

    2013-01-01

    The balance between activation and inhibition of local immune responses in affected tissues during prolonged chronic infections is important for host protection. There is ample evidence that regulatory, tolerogenic dendritic cells (DC) are developed and present in tissues and inhibit overwhelming inflammatory reactions. Also, it was firmly established that stromal microenvironment of many organs is able to induce development of immature regulatory DC (DCreg), an essential element of a general immune regulatory network. However, direct experimental data demonstrating inhibition of immune responses by stroma-instructed immature DCreg in infectious models are scarce, and virtually nothing is known about functioning of this axis of immunity during tuberculosis (TB) infection. In this study, we demonstrate that lung stromal cells are capable of supporting the development in culture of immature CD11b+CD11clowCD103- DCreg from lineage-negative (lin-) bone marrow precursors. DCreg developed on lung stroma isolated from mice of genetically TB-hyper-susceptible I/St and relatively resistant B6 inbred strains inhibited proliferative response of mycobacteria-specific CD4+ T-cell lines a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, the inhibitory activity of B6 DCreg was substantially higher than that of I/St Dcreg. Moreover, when the donors of stromal cells were chronically infected with virulent mycobacteria, the capacity to instruct inhibitory DCreg was retained in B6, but further diminished in I/St stromal cells. DCreg-provided suppression was mediated by a few soluble mediators, including PGE2, NO and IL-10. The content of CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells in the mediastinal, lung-draining lymph nodes at the advanced stages of chronic infection did not change in I/St, but increased 2-fold in B6 mice, and lung pathology was much more pronounced in the former mice. Taken together, these data provide genetic evidence that the capacity to maintain populations of regulatory cells during M

  14. Capacity of lung stroma to educate dendritic cells inhibiting mycobacteria-specific T-cell response depends upon genetic susceptibility to tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kapina, Marina A; Rubakova, Elvira I; Majorov, Konstantin B; Logunova, Nadezhda N; Apt, Alexander S

    2013-01-01

    The balance between activation and inhibition of local immune responses in affected tissues during prolonged chronic infections is important for host protection. There is ample evidence that regulatory, tolerogenic dendritic cells (DC) are developed and present in tissues and inhibit overwhelming inflammatory reactions. Also, it was firmly established that stromal microenvironment of many organs is able to induce development of immature regulatory DC (DCreg), an essential element of a general immune regulatory network. However, direct experimental data demonstrating inhibition of immune responses by stroma-instructed immature DCreg in infectious models are scarce, and virtually nothing is known about functioning of this axis of immunity during tuberculosis (TB) infection. In this study, we demonstrate that lung stromal cells are capable of supporting the development in culture of immature CD11b(+)CD11c(low)CD103(-) DCreg from lineage-negative (lin(-)) bone marrow precursors. DCreg developed on lung stroma isolated from mice of genetically TB-hyper-susceptible I/St and relatively resistant B6 inbred strains inhibited proliferative response of mycobacteria-specific CD4(+) T-cell lines a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, the inhibitory activity of B6 DCreg was substantially higher than that of I/St Dcreg. Moreover, when the donors of stromal cells were chronically infected with virulent mycobacteria, the capacity to instruct inhibitory DCreg was retained in B6, but further diminished in I/St stromal cells. DCreg-provided suppression was mediated by a few soluble mediators, including PGE2, NO and IL-10. The content of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cells in the mediastinal, lung-draining lymph nodes at the advanced stages of chronic infection did not change in I/St, but increased 2-fold in B6 mice, and lung pathology was much more pronounced in the former mice. Taken together, these data provide genetic evidence that the capacity to maintain populations of regulatory cells

  15. Rare-earth abundances in chondritic meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evensen, N. M.; Hamilton, P. J.; Onions, R. K.

    1978-01-01

    Fifteen chondrites, including eight carbonaceous chondrites, were analyzed for rare earth element abundances by isotope dilution. Examination of REE for a large number of individual chondrites shows that only a small proportion of the analyses have flat unfractionated REE patterns within experimental error. While some of the remaining analyses are consistent with magmatic fractionation, many patterns, in particular those with positive Ce anomalies, can not be explained by known magmatic processes. Elemental abundance anomalies are found in all major chondrite classes. The persistence of anomalies in chondritic materials relatively removed from direct condensational processes implies that anomalous components are resistant to equilibrium or were introduced at a late stage of chondrite formation. Large-scale segregation of gas and condensate is implied, and bulk variations in REE abundances between planetary bodies is possible.

  16. Beryllium Abundances of Six Halo Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorburn, J. A.; Hobbs, L. M.

    1996-05-01

    High signal-to-noise (S/N≍80), high-resolution (R≍25 000) spectra of six warm halo stars have been obtained in the Be II λ3130 region. Beryllium abundances derived through spectrum synthesis are generally consistent with [Be/Fe]≍0 and probably do not support the simplest models of cosmic-ray nucleosynthesis. Alternative scenarios whereby energetic C, N, and O nuclei collide with ambient He nuclei-rather than the converse-are more compatible with the data. However, these observations constrain net Be production only. If Galactic astration of Be is important, then Be production mechanisms must be proportionally more efficient. In the case of the near twin stars HD 94028 and HD 194598, log(Be/H) differs by 0.3 dex despite effectively identical Li abundances. A difference in initial Be abundance rather than stellar depletion is proposed to account for the discrepancy. Our Be abundances are typically ˜0.3 dex lower than those reported by Boesgaard & King [Al, 106, 2309 (1993)] for five stars in common. The disparity in Be abundance scales is due to the combined influences of differences in assigned stellar parameters and overestimated Be ii λ3131.066 line strengths in the Boesgaard & King study. Systematic errors in published Be abundances may be greater than has previously been suggested. A consistency check of the line list used for the synthesis reveals an unidentified blending feature of moderate strength slightly blueward of λ3131.066 in the Sun. Results of the present investigation are not significantly influenced by the ambiguous identity of the contaminating feature. However, studies which include cooler, more metal-rich stars may, as a consequence of neglecting or improperly identifying this line, report incorrect slopes of log(Be/H) vs [Fe/H] or erroneously large scatter in log(Be/H).

  17. ABUNDANT OR RARE? A HYBRID APPROACH FOR DETERMINING SPECIES RELATIVE ABUNDANCE AT AN ECOREGOIONAL SCALE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Everyone knows what abundant and rare species are, but quantifying the concept proves elusive. As part of an EPA/USGS project to assess near-coastal species vulnerability to climate change affects, we designed a hybrid approach to determine species relative abundance at an ecoreg...

  18. ABUNDANT OR RARE? A HYBRID APPROACH FOR DETERMINING SPECIES RELATIVE ABUNDANCE AT AN ECOREGOIONAL SCALE - 2014

    EPA Science Inventory

    Everyone knows what abundant and rare species are, but quantifying the concept proves elusive. As part of an EPA/USGS project to assess near-coastal species vulnerability to climate change affects, we designed a hybrid approach to determine species relative abundance at an ecoreg...

  19. The hollow fiber bioreactor as a stroma-supported, serum-free ex vivo expansion platform for human umbilical cord blood cells.

    PubMed

    Xue, Cao; Kwek, Kenneth Y C; Chan, Jerry K Y; Chen, Qingfeng; Lim, Mayasari

    2014-07-01

    The bone marrow microenvironment plays an integral role in the regulation of hematopoiesis. Residing stromal cells and the extracellular matrix in the bone marrow microenvironment provide biological signals that control hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function. In this study, we developed a bio-mimetic co-culture platform using the hollow fiber bioreactor (HFBR) for ex vivo expansion of HSCs. We evaluated the efficacy of such a platform in comparison to standard cultures performed on tissue culture polystyrene (TCP), using a human stromal cell line (HS-5) as stromal support, co-cultured with lineage-depleted human cord blood cells in serum-free medium supplemented with a cytokine cocktail. Our results showed that the performance of the HFBR in supporting total cell and CD34(+) progenitor cell expansion was comparable to that of cultures on TCP. Cells harvested from the HFBR had a higher clonogenic ability. The performance of ex vivo-expanded cells from the HFBR in hematopoietic reconstitution in humanized mice was comparable to that of the TCP control. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that stroma cell growth inside the HFBR created a three-dimensional cell matrix architecture. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing the HFBR for creating a complex cell matrix architecture, which may provide good in vitro mimicry of the bone marrow, supporting large-scale expansion of HSCs. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. In Abundance: Networked Participatory Practices as Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Bonnie E.

    2015-01-01

    In an era of knowledge abundance, scholars have the capacity to distribute and share ideas and artifacts via digital networks, yet networked scholarship often remains unrecognized within institutional spheres of influence. Using ethnographic methods including participant observation, interviews, and document analysis, this study investigates…

  1. Photoelectric absorption cross sections with variable abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balucinska-Church, Monika; Mccammon, Dan

    1992-01-01

    Polynomial fit coefficients have been obtained for the energy dependences of the photoelectric absorption cross sections of 17 astrophysically important elements. These results allow the calculation of X-ray absorption in the energy range 0.03-10 keV in material with noncosmic abundances.

  2. Cosmological evolution of the nitrogen abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vangioni, Elisabeth; Dvorkin, Irina; Olive, Keith A.; Dubois, Yohan; Molaro, Paolo; Petitjean, Patrick; Silk, Joe; Kimm, Taysun

    2018-06-01

    The abundance of nitrogen in the interstellar medium is a powerful probe of star formation processes over cosmological time-scales. Since nitrogen can be produced both in massive and intermediate-mass stars with metallicity-dependent yields, its evolution is challenging to model, as evidenced by the differences between theoretical predictions and observations. In this work, we attempt to identify the sources of these discrepancies using a cosmic evolution model. To further complicate matters, there is considerable dispersion in the abundances from observations of damped Lyα absorbers (DLAs) at z ˜ 2-3. We study the evolution of nitrogen with a detailed cosmic chemical evolution model and find good agreement with these observations, including the relative abundances of (N/O) and (N/Si). We find that the principal contribution of nitrogen comes from intermediate-mass stars, with the exception of systems with the lowest N/H, where nitrogen production might possibly be dominated by massive stars. This last result could be strengthened if stellar rotation which is important at low metallicity can produce significant amounts of nitrogen. Moreover, these systems likely reside in host galaxies with stellar masses below 108.5 M⊙. We also study the origin of the observed dispersion in nitrogen abundances using the cosmological hydrodynamical simulations Horizon-AGN. We conclude that this dispersion can originate from two effects: difference in the masses of the DLA host galaxies, and difference in their position inside the galaxy.

  3. The Abundance of Large Arcs From CLASH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bingxiao; Postman, Marc; Meneghetti, Massimo; Coe, Dan A.; Clash Team

    2015-01-01

    We have developed an automated arc-finding algorithm to perform a rigorous comparison of the observed and simulated abundance of large lensed background galaxies (a.k.a arcs). We use images from the CLASH program to derive our observed arc abundance. Simulated CLASH images are created by performing ray tracing through mock clusters generated by the N-body simulation calibrated tool -- MOKA, and N-body/hydrodynamic simulations -- MUSIC, over the same mass and redshift range as the CLASH X-ray selected sample. We derive a lensing efficiency of 15 ± 3 arcs per cluster for the X-ray selected CLASH sample and 4 ± 2 arcs per cluster for the simulated sample. The marginally significant difference (3.0 σ) between the results for the observations and the simulations can be explained by the systematically smaller area with magnification larger than 3 (by a factor of ˜4) in both MOKA and MUSIC mass models relative to those derived from the CLASH data. Accounting for this difference brings the observed and simulated arc statistics into full agreement. We find that the source redshift distribution does not have big impact on the arc abundance but the arc abundance is very sensitive to the concentration of the dark matter halos. Our results suggest that the solution to the "arc statistics problem" lies primarily in matching the cluster dark matter distribution.

  4. Abundances in very metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Jennifer Anne

    We measured the abundances of 35 elements in 22 field red giants and a red giant in the globular cluster M92. We found the [Zn/Fe] ratio increases with decreasing [Fe/H], reaching ~0.3 at [Fe/H] = -3.0. While this is a larger [Zn/Fe] than found by previous investigators, it is not sufficient to account for the [Zn/Fe] observed in the damped Lyα systems. We test different models for the production of the s-process elements by comparing our [Y/Zr] values, which have been produced by the r- process, to predictions of what the s-process does not produce. We find that the models of Arlandini et al. (1999), which calculate s-process production in a model AGB star, agree the best. We then look at the r-process abundances across a wide range in mass. The [Y/Ba] values for most of our stars cluster around -0.30, but there are three outliers with [Y/Ba] values up to 1 dex higher. Thus the heavy element abundances do not show the same pattern from Z = 39 to Z = 56. However, our abundances ratios from Pd (Z = 46) to Yb (Z = 70) are consistent with a scaled solar system r- process pattern, arguing that at least the heavy r- process elements are made in a universal pattern. If we assume that this same pattern hold through thorium, we can determine the ages of our stars from the present abundance of radioactive thorium and an initial thorium abundance based on the abundance of stable heavy elements. Our results for five stars are consistent with those stars being the same age. Our mean age is 10.8 +/- 2 Gyr. However that result depends critically on the assumed Th/stable ratio, which we adopt from models of the r-process. For an average age of 15 Gyrs, the initial Th/Eu ratio we would need is 0.590. Finally, the [element/Fe] ratios for elements in the iron group and lower do not show any dispersion, unlike for the r- process elements such as Y and Ba. Therefore the individual contributions of supernovae have been erased for the lighter elements.

  5. Clonal growth and plant species abundance.

    PubMed

    Herben, Tomáš; Nováková, Zuzana; Klimešová, Jitka

    2014-08-01

    Both regional and local plant abundances are driven by species' dispersal capacities and their abilities to exploit new habitats and persist there. These processes are affected by clonal growth, which is difficult to evaluate and compare across large numbers of species. This study assessed the influence of clonal reproduction on local and regional abundances of a large set of species and compared the predictive power of morphologically defined traits of clonal growth with data on actual clonal growth from a botanical garden. The role of clonal growth was compared with the effects of seed reproduction, habitat requirements and growth, proxied both by LHS (leaf-height-seed) traits and by actual performance in the botanical garden. Morphological parameters of clonal growth, actual clonal reproduction in the garden and LHS traits (leaf-specific area - height - seed mass) were used as predictors of species abundance, both regional (number of species records in the Czech Republic) and local (mean species cover in vegetation records) for 836 perennial herbaceous species. Species differences in habitat requirements were accounted for by classifying the dataset by habitat type and also by using Ellenberg indicator values as covariates. After habitat differences were accounted for, clonal growth parameters explained an important part of variation in species abundance, both at regional and at local levels. At both levels, both greater vegetative growth in cultivation and greater lateral expansion trait values were correlated with higher abundance. Seed reproduction had weaker effects, being positive at the regional level and negative at the local level. Morphologically defined traits are predictive of species abundance, and it is concluded that simultaneous investigation of several such traits can help develop hypotheses on specific processes (e.g. avoidance of self-competition, support of offspring) potentially underlying clonal growth effects on abundance. Garden

  6. Thermal relics: Do we know their abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamionkowski, Marc; Turner, Michael S.

    1990-01-01

    The relic abundance of a particle species that was once in thermal equilibrium in the expanding Universe depends upon a competition between the annihilation rate of the species and the expansion rate of the Universe. Assuming that the Universe is radiation dominated at early times the relic abundance is easy to compute and well known. At times earlier than about 1 sec after the bang there is little or no evidence that the Universe had to be radiation dominated, although that is the simplest and standard assumption. Because early-Universe relics are of such importance both to particle physics and to cosmology, three nonstandard possibilities are considered in detail for the Universe at the time a species' abundance froze in: energy density dominated by shear (i.e., anisotropic expansion), energy density dominated by some other nonrelativistic species, and energy density dominated by the kinetic energy of the scalar field that sets the gravitational constant in a Brans-Dicke-Jordan cosmological mode. In the second case the relic abundance is less than the standard value, while in the other two cases it can be enhanced by a significant factor. Two other more exotic possibilities for enhancing the relic abundance of a species are also mentioned--a larger value of Newton's constant at early times (e.g., as might occur in superstring or Kaluza-Klein theories) or a component of the energy density at early times with a very stiff equation of state (p greater than rho/3), e.g., a scalar field phi with potential V(phi) = Beta /phi/ (exp n) with n greater than 4. Results have implications for dark matter searches and searches for particle relics in general.

  7. Stellar Abundance Observations and Heavy Element Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, J. J.

    2005-05-01

    Abundance observations indicate the presence of rapid-neutron capture (i.e., r-process) elements in old Galactic halo and globular cluster stars. These observations provide insight into the nature of the earliest generations of stars in the Galaxy -- the progenitors of the halo stars -- responsible for neutron-capture synthesis of the heavy elements. Abundance comparisons among the r-process-rich halo stars show that the heaviest neutron-capture elements (i.e., Ba and above) are consistent with a scaled solar system r-process abundance distribution, while the lighter neutron-capture elements do not conform to the solar pattern. These comparisons suggest the possibility of two r-process sites in stars. The large star-to-star scatter observed in the abundances of neutron-capture element/iron ratios at low metallicities -- which disappears with increasing metallicity or [Fe/H] -- suggests the formation of these heavy elements (presumably from certain types of supernovae) was rare in the early Galaxy. The stellar abundances also indicate a change from the r-process to the slow neutron capture (i.e., s-) process at higher metallicities in the Galaxy and provide insight into Galactic chemical evolution. Finally, the detection of thorium and uranium in halo and globular cluster stars offers an independent age-dating technique that can put lower limits on the age of the Galaxy, and hence the Universe. This work has been supported in part by NSF grant AST 03-07279 (J.J.C.) and by STScI grants GO-8111, GO-8342 and GO-9359.

  8. Understanding the "lethal" drivers of tumor-stroma co-evolution: emerging role(s) for hypoxia, oxidative stress and autophagy/mitophagy in the tumor micro-environment.

    PubMed

    Lisanti, Michael P; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Chiavarina, Barbara; Pavlides, Stephanos; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Witkiewicz, Agnieszka; Lin, Zhao; Balliet, Renee; Howell, Anthony; Sotgia, Federica

    2010-09-15

    We have recently proposed a new model for understanding how tumors evolve. To achieve successful "Tumor-Stroma Co-Evolution", cancer cells induce oxidative stress in adjacent fibroblasts and possibly other stromal cells. Oxidative stress in the tumor stroma mimics the effects of hypoxia, under aerobic conditions, resulting in an excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Excess stromal production of ROS drives the onset of an anti-oxidant defense in adjacent cancer cells, protecting them from apoptosis. Moreover, excess stromal ROS production has a "Bystander-Effect", leading to DNA damage and aneuploidy in adjacent cancer cells, both hallmarks of genomic instability. Finally, ROS-driven oxidative stress induces autophagy and mitophagy in the tumor micro-environment, leading to the stromal over-production of recycled nutrients (including energy-rich metabolites, such as ketones and L-lactate). These recycled nutrients or chemical building blocks then help drive mitochondrial biogenesis in cancer cells, thereby promoting the anabolic growth of cancer cells (via an energy imbalance). We also show that ketones and lactate help "fuel" tumor growth and cancer cell metastasis and can act as chemo-attractants for cancer cells. We have termed this new paradigm for accelerating tumor-stroma co-evolution, "The Autophagic Tumor Stroma Model of Cancer Cell Metabolism". Heterotypic signaling in cancer-associated fibroblasts activates the transcription factors HIF1alpha and NFκB, potentiating the onset of hypoxic and inflammatory response(s), which further upregulates the autophagic program in the stromal compartment. Via stromal autophagy, this hypoxic/inflammatory response may provide a new escape mechanism for cancer cells during anti-angiogenic therapy, further exacerbating tumor recurrence and metastasis.

  9. Fabrication of a corneal model composed of corneal epithelial and endothelial cells via a collagen vitrigel membrane functioned as an acellular stroma and its application to the corneal permeability test of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Takezawa, Toshiaki

    2018-05-29

    A collagen vitrigel membrane (CVM) we developed can function as both a scaffold for cells and a pathway for chemicals. To extrapolate the corneal permeability of chemicals in vivo, we proposed six corneal models using the CVM. Thin and thick CVMs were utilized as models for Bowman's membrane (BM) and an acellular-stroma (AS), respectively. Models for a corneal epithelium (CEpi), a corneal epithelium-acellular stroma (CEpi-AS), a corneal epithelium-endothelium (CEpi-Endo) and a corneal epithelium-acellular stroma-endothelium (CEpi-AS-Endo) were fabricated by culturing corneal epithelial cells and/or corneal endothelial cells on the surface of CVMs. Subsequently, the permeability coefficient (P app ) value of each model was calculated using five chemicals with different molecular radii; cyanocobalamin and four FITC-dextrans (FD-4, FD-10, FD-20 and FD-40). The slopes of P app versus molecular radii of those chemicals in the both BM and AS models were almost similar to data using an excised rabbit corneal stroma. The ratios of P app values in models for BM, CEpi and CEpi-Endo against those in data using an excised rabbit cornea were calculated as 75.4, 6.4 and 4.5-folds for FD-4 and 38.7, 10.0 and 4.2-folds for FD-10, respectively. Similarly, those in models for AS, CEpi-AS and CEpi-AS-Endo were calculated as 26.1, 2.5 and 0.6-folds for FD-4 and 26.1, 1.5 and 0.6-folds for FD-10, respectively. These results suggest that the CEpi-AS-Endo model with both the barrier function of corneal cell layers and the diffusion capacity of chemicals in thick CVM is most appropriate for extrapolating the corneal permeability of chemicals in vivo . The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  10. Space-based measurements of elemental abundances and their relation to solar abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coplan, M. A.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Bochsler, P.; Geiss, J.

    1990-01-01

    The Ion Composition Instrument (ICI) aboard the ISEE-3/ICE spacecraft was in the solar wind continuously from August 1978 to December 1982. The results made it possible to establish long-term average solar wind abundance values for helium, oxygen, neon, silicon, and iron. The Charge-Energy-Mass instrument aboard the CCE spacecraft of the AMPTE mission has measured the abundance of these elements in the magnetosheath and has also added carbon, nitrogen, magnesium, and sulfur to the list. There is strong evidence that these magnetosheath abundances are representative of the solar wind. Other sources of solar wind abundances are Solar Energetic Particle experiments and Apollo lunar foils. When comparing the abundances from all of these sources with photospheric abundances, it is clear that helium is depleted in the solar wind while silicon and iron are enhanced. Solar wind abundances for carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and neon correlate well with the photospheric values. The incorporation of minor ions into the solar wind appears to depend upon both the ionization times for the elements and the Coulomb drag exerted by the outflowing proton flux.

  11. Deuterium Abundance in Consciousness and Current Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauscher, Elizabeth A.

    We utilize the deuterium-hydrogen abundances and their role in setting limits on the mass and other conditions of cosmogenesis and cosmological evolution. We calculate the dependence of a set of physical variables such as density, temperature, energy mass, entropy and other physical variable parameters through the evolution of the universe under the Schwarzschild conditions as a function from early to present time. Reconciliation with the 3°K and missing mass is made. We first examine the Schwarzschild condition; second, the geometrical constraints of a multidimensional Cartesian space on closed cosmologies, and third we will consider the cosmogenesis and evolution of the universe in a multidimensional Cartesian space, obeying the Schwarzschild condition. Implications of this model for matter creation are made. We also examine experimental evidence for closed versus open cosmologies; x-ray detection of the "missing mass" density. Also the interstellar deuterium abundance, along with the value of the Hubble constant set a general criterion on the value of the curvature constant, k. Once the value of the Hubble constant, H is determined, the deuterium abundance sets stringent restrictions on the value of the curvature constant k by an detailed discussion is presented. The experimental evidences for the determination of H and the primary set of coupled equations to determine D abundance is given. 'The value of k for an open, closed, or flat universe will be discussed in terms of the D abundance which will affect the interpretation of the Schwarzschild, black hole universe. We determine cosmology solutions to Einstein's field obeying the Schwarzschild solutions condition. With this model, we can form a reconciliation of the black hole, from galactic to cosmological scale. Continuous creation occurs at the dynamic blackhole plasma field. We term this new model the multiple big bang or "little whimper model". We utilize the deuteriumhydrogen abundances and their role in

  12. Deuterium Abundance in the Local Interstellar Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferlet, R.; Gry, C.; Vidal-Madjar, A.

    1984-01-01

    The present situation of deuterium abundance evaluation in interstellar space is discussed, and it is shown that it should be or = .00001 by studying in more detail lambda the Sco line of sight and by observing two NaI interstellar components toward that star, it can be shown that the D/H evaluation made toward lambda Sco is in fact related to the local interstellar medium (less than 10 pc from the Sun). Because this evaluation is also or = .00001 it is in striking contrast with the one made toward alpha Aur (D/H or = .000018 confirming the fact that the deuterium abundance in the local interstellar medium varies by at least a factor of two over few parsecs.

  13. Precision measures of the primordial deuterium abundance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, R. J.; Pettini, M.; Jorgenson, R. A.; Murphy, M. T.; Steidel, C. C.

    Near-pristine damped Lyman-alpha systems (DLAs) are the ideal environments to measure the primordial abundance of deuterium. In this conference report, I summarise our ongoing research programme to obtain the most precise determination of the primordial deuterium abundance from five high redshift DLAs. From this sample, we derive (D/H)_p = (2.53±0.04)×105, corresponding to a baryon density 100 Omega_b ,0 h2 = 2.202±0.046 assuming the standard model of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. This value is in striking agreement with that measured from the temperature fluctuations imprinted on the cosmic microwave background. Although we find no strong evidence for new physics beyond the standard model, this line of research shows great promise in the near-future, when the next generation 30+ m telescopes equipped with echelle spectrographs come online.

  14. Lithium Abundance in M3 Red Giant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Givens, Rashad; Pilachowski, Catherine A.

    2015-01-01

    We present the abundance of lithium in the red giant star vZ 1050 (SK 291) in the globular cluster M3. A previous survey of giants in the cluster showed that like IV-101, vZ 1050 displays a prominent Li I 6707 Å feature. vZ 1050 lies on the blue side of the red giant branch about 1.3 magnitudes above the level of the horizontal branch, and may be an asymptotic giant branch star. A high resolution spectrum of M3 vZ1050 was obtained with the ARC 3.5m telescope and the ARC Echelle Spectrograph (ARCES). Atmospheric parameters were determined using Fe I and Fe II lines from the spectrum using the MOOG spectral analysis program, and the lithium abundance was determined using spectrum synthesis.

  15. Attenuation of species abundance distributions by sampling

    PubMed Central

    Shimadzu, Hideyasu; Darnell, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying biodiversity aspects such as species presence/ absence, richness and abundance is an important challenge to answer scientific and resource management questions. In practice, biodiversity can only be assessed from biological material taken by surveys, a difficult task given limited time and resources. A type of random sampling, or often called sub-sampling, is a commonly used technique to reduce the amount of time and effort for investigating large quantities of biological samples. However, it is not immediately clear how (sub-)sampling affects the estimate of biodiversity aspects from a quantitative perspective. This paper specifies the effect of (sub-)sampling as attenuation of the species abundance distribution (SAD), and articulates how the sampling bias is induced to the SAD by random sampling. The framework presented also reveals some confusion in previous theoretical studies. PMID:26064626

  16. Revised Thorium Abundances for Lunar Red Spots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagerty, J. J.; Lawrence, D. J.; Elphic, R. C.; Feldman, W. C.; Vaniman, D. T.; Hawke, B. R.

    2005-01-01

    Lunar red spots are features on the nearside of the Moon that are characterized by high albedo and by a strong absorption in the ultraviolet. These red spots include the Gruithuisen domes, the Mairan domes, Hansteen Alpha, the southern portion of Montes Riphaeus, Darney Chi and Tau, Helmet, and an area near the Lassell crater. It has been suggested that many of the red spots are extrusive, nonmare, volcanic features that could be composed of an evolved lithlogy enriched in thorium. In fact, Hawke et al. used morphological characteristics to show that Hansteen Alpha is a nonmare volcanic construct. However, because the apparent Th abundances (6 - 7 ppm) were lower than that expected for evolved rock types, Hawke et al. concluded that Hansteen Alpha was composed of an unknown rock type. Subsequent studies by Lawrence et al. used improved knowledge of the Th spatial distribution for small area features on the lunar surface to revisit the interpretation of Th abundances at the Hansteen Alpha red spot. As part of their study, Lawrence et al. used a forward modeling technique to show that the Th abundance at Hansteen Alpha is not 6 ppm, but is more likely closer to 25 ppm, a value consistent with evolved lithologies. This positive correlation between the morphology and composition of Hansteen Alpha provides support for the presence of evolved lithologies on the lunar surface. It is possible, however, that Hansteen Alpha represents an isolated occurrence of non-mare volcanism. That is why we have chosen to use the forward modeling technique of Lawrence et al. to investigate the Th abundances at other lunar red spots, starting with the Gruithuisen domes. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  17. Subcutaneous Soft Tissue Sarcoma with Rhabdoid Features in a Dog

    PubMed Central

    Sayama, Ayako; Okado, Keiko; Imaoka, Masako; Yokouchi, Yusuke; Jindo, Toshimasa; Takasaki, Wataru

    2014-01-01

    A nine-year-old male beagle dog had a white spherical mass in the subcutis of the left lumbar region. Microscopically, spindle to oval cells diffusely proliferated in the fibrous and myxoid stroma. Many neoplastic cells showed rhabdoid features or vacuolated cytoplasm. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were positive for vimentin and S100 and partly positive for neuron-specific enolase and glial fibrillary acidic protein but were negative for von Willebrand factor, desmin and α-smooth muscle actin. Ultrastructurally, the neoplastic cells had abundant cytoplasmic processes and desmosome-like structures. Cytoplasmic inclusions of rhabdoid-featured cells in HE sections were composed of aggregates of intermediate filaments, and cytoplasmic vacuoles were identified as an invagination of cytoplasm. Although malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor was suggested according to these results, the present case was diagnosed as a soft tissue sarcoma with rhabdoid features due to a lack of identification of the basal lamina under electron microscopy. PMID:25352714

  18. Subcutaneous soft tissue sarcoma with rhabdoid features in a dog.

    PubMed

    Sayama, Ayako; Okado, Keiko; Imaoka, Masako; Yokouchi, Yusuke; Jindo, Toshimasa; Takasaki, Wataru

    2014-07-01

    A nine-year-old male beagle dog had a white spherical mass in the subcutis of the left lumbar region. Microscopically, spindle to oval cells diffusely proliferated in the fibrous and myxoid stroma. Many neoplastic cells showed rhabdoid features or vacuolated cytoplasm. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were positive for vimentin and S100 and partly positive for neuron-specific enolase and glial fibrillary acidic protein but were negative for von Willebrand factor, desmin and α-smooth muscle actin. Ultrastructurally, the neoplastic cells had abundant cytoplasmic processes and desmosome-like structures. Cytoplasmic inclusions of rhabdoid-featured cells in HE sections were composed of aggregates of intermediate filaments, and cytoplasmic vacuoles were identified as an invagination of cytoplasm. Although malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor was suggested according to these results, the present case was diagnosed as a soft tissue sarcoma with rhabdoid features due to a lack of identification of the basal lamina under electron microscopy.

  19. A global database of ant species abundances

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibb, Heloise; Dunn, Rob R.; Sanders, Nathan J.; Grossman, Blair F.; Photakis, Manoli; Abril, Silvia; Agosti, Donat; Andersen, Alan N.; Angulo, Elena; Armbrecht, Ingre; Arnan, Xavier; Baccaro, Fabricio B.; Bishop, Tom R.; Boulay, Raphael; Bruhl, Carsten; Castracani, Cristina; Cerda, Xim; Del Toro, Israel; Delsinne, Thibaut; Diaz, Mireia; Donoso, David A.; Ellison, Aaron M.; Enriquez, Martha L.; Fayle, Tom M.; Feener Jr., Donald H.; Fisher, Brian L.; Fisher, Robert N.; Fitpatrick, Matthew C.; Gomez, Cristanto; Gotelli, Nicholas J.; Gove, Aaron; Grasso, Donato A.; Groc, Sarah; Guenard, Benoit; Gunawardene, Nihara; Heterick, Brian; Hoffmann, Benjamin; Janda, Milan; Jenkins, Clinton; Kaspari, Michael; Klimes, Petr; Lach, Lori; Laeger, Thomas; Lattke, John; Leponce, Maurice; Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Longino, John; Lucky, Andrea; Luke, Sarah H.; Majer, Jonathan; McGlynn, Terrence P.; Menke, Sean; Mezger, Dirk; Mori, Alessandra; Moses, Jimmy; Munyai, Thinandavha Caswell; Pacheco, Renata; Paknia, Omid; Pearce-Duvet, Jessica; Pfeiffer, Martin; Philpott, Stacy M.; Resasco, Julian; Retana, Javier; Silva, Rogerio R.; Sorger, Magdalena D.; Souza, Jorge; Suarez, Andrew V.; Tista, Melanie; Vasconcelos, Heraldo L.; Vonshak, Merav; Weiser, Michael D.; Yates, Michelle; Parr, Catherine L.

    2017-01-01

    What forces structure ecological assemblages? A key limitation to general insights about assemblage structure is the availability of data that are collected at a small spatial grain (local assemblages) and a large spatial extent (global coverage). Here, we present published and unpublished data from 51,388 ant abundance and occurrence records of more than 2693 species and 7953 morphospecies from local assemblages collected at 4212 locations around the world. Ants were selected because they are diverse and abundant globally, comprise a large fraction of animal biomass in most terrestrial communities, and are key contributors to a range of ecosystem functions. Data were collected between 1949 and 2014, and include, for each geo-referenced sampling site, both the identity of the ants collected and details of sampling design, habitat type and degree of disturbance. The aim of compiling this dataset was to provide comprehensive species abundance data in order to test relationships between assemblage structure and environmental and biogeographic factors. Data were collected using a variety of standardised methods, such as pitfall and Winkler traps, and will be valuable for studies investigating large-scale forces structuring local assemblages. Understanding such relationships is particularly critical under current rates of global change. We encourage authors holding additional data on systematically collected ant assemblages, especially those in dry and cold, and remote areas, to contact us and contribute their data to this growing dataset.

  20. Abundance ratios in dwarf elliptical galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şen, Ş.; Peletier, R. F.; Boselli, A.; den Brok, M.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Hensler, G.; Janz, J.; Laurikainen, E.; Lisker, T.; Mentz, J. J.; Paudel, S.; Salo, H.; Sybilska, A.; Toloba, E.; van de Ven, G.; Vazdekis, A.; Yesilyaprak, C.

    2018-04-01

    We determine abundance ratios of 37 dwarf ellipticals (dEs) in the nearby Virgo cluster. This sample is representative of the early-type population of galaxies in the absolute magnitude range -19.0 < Mr < -16.0. We analyse their absorption line-strength indices by means of index-index diagrams and scaling relations and use the stellar population models to interpret them. We present ages, metallicities, and abundance ratios obtained from these dEs within an aperture size of Re/8. We calculate [Na/Fe] from NaD, [Ca/Fe] from Ca4227, and [Mg/Fe] from Mgb. We find that [Na/Fe] is underabundant with respect to solar, whereas [Mg/Fe] is around solar. This is exactly opposite to what is found for giant ellipticals, but follows the trend with metallicity found previously for the Fornax dwarf NGC 1396. We discuss possible formation scenarios that can result in such elemental abundance patterns, and we speculate that dEs have disc-like star formation history (SFH) favouring them to originate from late-type dwarfs or small spirals. Na-yields appear to be very metal-dependent, in agreement with studies of giant ellipticals, probably due to the large dependence on the neutron-excess in stars. We conclude that dEs have undergone a considerable amount of chemical evolution, they are therefore not uniformly old, but have extended SFH, similar to many of the Local Group galaxies.

  1. The Coronal Abundance Anomalies of M Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Brian E.; Laming, J. Martin; Karovska, Margarita

    2012-07-01

    We analyze Chandra X-ray spectra of the M0 V+M0 V binary GJ 338. As quantified by X-ray surface flux, these are the most inactive M dwarfs ever observed with X-ray grating spectroscopy. We focus on measuring coronal abundances, in particular searching for evidence of abundance anomalies related to first ionization potential (FIP). In the solar corona and wind, low-FIP elements are overabundant, which is the so-called FIP effect. For other stars, particularly very active ones, an "inverse FIP effect" is often observed, with low-FIP elements being underabundant. For both members of the GJ 338 binary, we find evidence for a modest inverse FIP effect, consistent with expectations from a previously reported correlation between spectral type and FIP bias. This amounts to strong evidence that all M dwarfs should exhibit the inverse FIP effect phenomenon, not just the active ones. We take the first step toward modeling the inverse FIP phenomenon in M dwarfs, building on past work that has demonstrated that MHD waves coursing through coronal loops can lead to a ponderomotive force that fractionates elements in a manner consistent with the FIP effect. We demonstrate that in certain circumstances this model can also lead to an inverse FIP effect, pointing the way to more detailed modeling of M dwarf coronal abundances in the future.

  2. A global database of ant species abundances.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Heloise; Dunn, Rob R; Sanders, Nathan J; Grossman, Blair F; Photakis, Manoli; Abril, Silvia; Agosti, Donat; Andersen, Alan N; Angulo, Elena; Armbrecht, Inge; Arnan, Xavier; Baccaro, Fabricio B; Bishop, Tom R; Boulay, Raphaël; Brühl, Carsten; Castracani, Cristina; Cerda, Xim; Del Toro, Israel; Delsinne, Thibaut; Diaz, Mireia; Donoso, David A; Ellison, Aaron M; Enriquez, Martha L; Fayle, Tom M; Feener, Donald H; Fisher, Brian L; Fisher, Robert N; Fitzpatrick, Matthew C; Gómez, Crisanto; Gotelli, Nicholas J; Gove, Aaron; Grasso, Donato A; Groc, Sarah; Guenard, Benoit; Gunawardene, Nihara; Heterick, Brian; Hoffmann, Benjamin; Janda, Milan; Jenkins, Clinton; Kaspari, Michael; Klimes, Petr; Lach, Lori; Laeger, Thomas; Lattke, John; Leponce, Maurice; Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Longino, John; Lucky, Andrea; Luke, Sarah H; Majer, Jonathan; McGlynn, Terrence P; Menke, Sean; Mezger, Dirk; Mori, Alessandra; Moses, Jimmy; Munyai, Thinandavha Caswell; Pacheco, Renata; Paknia, Omid; Pearce-Duvet, Jessica; Pfeiffer, Martin; Philpott, Stacy M; Resasco, Julian; Retana, Javier; Silva, Rogerio R; Sorger, Magdalena D; Souza, Jorge; Suarez, Andrew; Tista, Melanie; Vasconcelos, Heraldo L; Vonshak, Merav; Weiser, Michael D; Yates, Michelle; Parr, Catherine L

    2017-03-01

    What forces structure ecological assemblages? A key limitation to general insights about assemblage structure is the availability of data that are collected at a small spatial grain (local assemblages) and a large spatial extent (global coverage). Here, we present published and unpublished data from 51 ,388 ant abundance and occurrence records of more than 2,693 species and 7,953 morphospecies from local assemblages collected at 4,212 locations around the world. Ants were selected because they are diverse and abundant globally, comprise a large fraction of animal biomass in most terrestrial communities, and are key contributors to a range of ecosystem functions. Data were collected between 1949 and 2014, and include, for each geo-referenced sampling site, both the identity of the ants collected and details of sampling design, habitat type, and degree of disturbance. The aim of compiling this data set was to provide comprehensive species abundance data in order to test relationships between assemblage structure and environmental and biogeographic factors. Data were collected using a variety of standardized methods, such as pitfall and Winkler traps, and will be valuable for studies investigating large-scale forces structuring local assemblages. Understanding such relationships is particularly critical under current rates of global change. We encourage authors holding additional data on systematically collected ant assemblages, especially those in dry and cold, and remote areas, to contact us and contribute their data to this growing data set. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  3. 2015-2016 Palila abundance estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Camp, Richard J.; Brinck, Kevin W.; Banko, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    The palila (Loxioides bailleui) population was surveyed annually during 1998−2016 on Mauna Kea Volcano to determine abundance, population trend, and spatial distribution. In the latest surveys, the 2015 population was estimated at 852−1,406 birds (point estimate: 1,116) and the 2016 population was estimated at 1,494−2,385 (point estimate: 1,934). Similar numbers of palila were detected during the first and subsequent counts within each year during 2012−2016; the proportion of the total annual detections in each count ranged from 46% to 56%; and there was no difference in the detection probability due to count sequence. Furthermore, conducting repeat counts improved the abundance estimates by reducing the width of the confidence intervals between 9% and 32% annually. This suggests that multiple counts do not affect bird or observer behavior and can be continued in the future to improve the precision of abundance estimates. Five palila were detected on supplemental survey stations in the Ka‘ohe restoration area, outside the core survey area but still within Palila Critical Habitat (one in 2015 and four in 2016), suggesting that palila are present in habitat that is recovering from cattle grazing on the southwest slope. The average rate of decline during 1998−2016 was 150 birds per year. Over the 18-year monitoring period, the estimated rate of change equated to a 58% decline in the population.

  4. How selection structures species abundance distributions

    PubMed Central

    Magurran, Anne E.; Henderson, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    How do species divide resources to produce the characteristic species abundance distributions seen in nature? One way to resolve this problem is to examine how the biomass (or capacity) of the spatial guilds that combine to produce an abundance distribution is allocated among species. Here we argue that selection on body size varies across guilds occupying spatially distinct habitats. Using an exceptionally well-characterized estuarine fish community, we show that biomass is concentrated in large bodied species in guilds where habitat structure provides protection from predators, but not in those guilds associated with open habitats and where safety in numbers is a mechanism for reducing predation risk. We further demonstrate that while there is temporal turnover in the abundances and identities of species that comprise these guilds, guild rank order is conserved across our 30-year time series. These results demonstrate that ecological communities are not randomly assembled but can be decomposed into guilds where capacity is predictably allocated among species. PMID:22787020

  5. Abundant Solar Nebula Solids in Comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messenger, S.; Keller, L. P.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Nguyen, A. N.; Clemett, S.

    2016-01-01

    Comets have been proposed to consist of unprocessed interstellar materials together with a variable amount of thermally annealed interstellar grains. Recent studies of cometary solids in the laboratory have shown that comets instead consist of a wide range of materials from across the protoplanetary disk, in addition to a minor complement of interstellar materials. These advances were made possible by the return of direct samples of comet 81P/Wild 2 coma dust by the NASA Stardust mission and recent advances in microscale analytical techniques. Isotopic studies of 'cometary' chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP-IDPs) and comet 81P/Wild 2 Stardust samples show that preserved interstellar materials are more abundant in comets than in any class of meteorite. Identified interstellar materials include sub-micron-sized presolar silicates, oxides, and SiC dust grains and some fraction of the organic material that binds the samples together. Presolar grain abundances reach 1 weight percentage in the most stardust-rich CP-IDPs, 50 times greater than in meteorites. Yet, order of magnitude variations in presolar grain abundances among CP-IDPs suggest cometary solids experienced significant variations in the degree of processing in the solar nebula. Comets contain a surprisingly high abundance of nebular solids formed or altered at high temperatures. Comet 81P/Wild 2 samples include 10-40 micron-sized, refractory Ca- Al-rich inclusion (CAI)-, chondrule-, and ameboid olivine aggregate (AOA)-like materials. The O isotopic compositions of these refractory materials are remarkably similar to their meteoritic counterparts, ranging from 5 percent enrichments in (sup 16) O to near-terrestrial values. Comet 81P/Wild 2 and CP-IDPs also contain abundant Mg-Fe crystalline and amorphous silicates whose O isotopic compositions are also consistent with Solar System origins. Unlike meteorites, that are dominated by locally-produced materials, comets appear to be composed of

  6. Co-Targeting Prostate Cancer Epithelium and Bone Stroma by Human Osteonectin-Promoter-Mediated Suicide Gene Therapy Effectively Inhibits Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer Growth.

    PubMed

    Sung, Shian-Ying; Chang, Junn-Liang; Chen, Kuan-Chou; Yeh, Shauh-Der; Liu, Yun-Ru; Su, Yen-Hao; Hsueh, Chia-Yen; Chung, Leland W K; Hsieh, Chia-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Stromal-epithelial interaction has been shown to promote local tumor growth and distant metastasis. We sought to create a promising gene therapy approach that co-targets cancer and its supporting stromal cells for combating castration-resistant prostate tumors. Herein, we demonstrated that human osteonectin is overexpressed in the prostate cancer epithelium and tumor stroma in comparison with their normal counterpart. We designed a novel human osteonectin promoter (hON-522E) containing positive transcriptional regulatory elements identified in both the promoter and exon 1 region of the human osteonectin gene. In vitro reporter assays revealed that the hON-522E promoter is highly active in androgen receptor negative and metastatic prostate cancer and bone stromal cells compared to androgen receptor-positive prostate cancer cells. Moreover, in vivo prostate-tumor-promoting activity of the hON-522E promoter was confirmed by intravenous administration of an adenoviral vector containing the hON-522E promoter-driven luciferase gene (Ad-522E-Luc) into mice bearing orthotopic human prostate tumor xenografts. In addition, an adenoviral vector with the hON-522E-promoter-driven herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene (Ad-522E-TK) was highly effective against the growth of androgen-independent human prostate cancer PC3M and bone stromal cell line in vitro and in pre-established PC3M tumors in vivo upon addition of the prodrug ganciclovir. Because of the heterogeneity of human prostate tumors, hON-522E promoter-mediated gene therapy has the potential for the treatment of hormone refractory and bone metastatic prostate cancers.

  7. Conditionally immortal ovarian cell lines for investigating the influence of ovarian stroma on the estrogen sensitivity and tumorigenicity of ovarian surface epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Feng; Saunders, Beatriz O; Haller, Edward; Livingston, Sandra; Nicosia, Santo V; Bai, Wenlong

    2003-01-01

    The tendency of the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) to undergo metaplastic and morphogenetic changes during the life cycle, at variance with the adjacent peritoneal mesothelial cells, suggests that its biology may be regulated by underlying ovarian stromal cues. However, little is known about the role that the ovarian stroma plays in the pathobiology of the OSE, largely because of the lack of a suitable in vitro model. Here, we describe the establishment and characterization of conditionally immortalized ovarian stromal and surface epithelial cell lines from H-2K(b)-tsA58 transgenic mice that carry the thermolabile mutant of SV-40 large T antigen under the control of an interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-inducible promoter. These cells express functional T antigens, grow continuously under permissive conditions at 33 degrees C in the presence of IFN-gamma, and stop dividing when the activity and expression of the tumor antigen is suppressed by restrictive conditions without IFN-gamma at 39 degrees C. Morphological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural analyses show that conditionally immortal OSE cells form cobblestone-like monolayers, express cytokeratin and vimentin, contain several microvilli, and develop tight junctions, whereas stromal cells are spindle-like, express vimentin but not cytokeratin, and contain rare microvilli, thus exhibiting epithelial and stromal phenotypes, respectively. At variance with the reported behavior of rat epithelial cells, conditionally immortal mouse epithelial cells are not spontaneously transformed after continuous culture in vitro. More importantly, conditioned media from stromal cells cultured under permissive conditions increase the specific activity of the endogenous estrogen receptor in BG-1 human ovarian epithelial cancer cells and promote these cells' anchorage-independent growth, suggesting the paracrine influence of a stromal factor. In addition, stromal cells cultured under restrictive conditions retain this growth

  8. Alteration of the Tumor Stroma Using a Consensus DNA Vaccine Targeting Fibroblast Activation Protein (FAP) Synergizes with Antitumor Vaccine Therapy in Mice.

    PubMed

    Duperret, Elizabeth K; Trautz, Aspen; Ammons, Dylan; Perales-Puchalt, Alfredo; Wise, Megan C; Yan, Jian; Reed, Charles; Weiner, David B

    2018-03-01

    Purpose: Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) is overexpressed in cancer-associated fibroblasts and is an interesting target for cancer immune therapy, with prior studies indicating a potential to affect the tumor stroma. Our aim was to extend this earlier work through the development of a novel FAP immunogen with improved capacity to break tolerance for use in combination with tumor antigen vaccines. Experimental Design: We used a synthetic consensus (SynCon) sequence approach to provide MHC class II help to support breaking of tolerance. We evaluated immune responses and antitumor activity of this novel FAP vaccine in preclinical studies, and correlated these findings to patient data. Results: This SynCon FAP DNA vaccine was capable of breaking tolerance and inducing both CD8 + and CD4 + immune responses. In genetically diverse, outbred mice, the SynCon FAP DNA vaccine was superior at breaking tolerance compared with a native mouse FAP immunogen. In several tumor models, the SynCon FAP DNA vaccine synergized with other tumor antigen-specific DNA vaccines to enhance antitumor immunity. Evaluation of the tumor microenvironment showed increased CD8 + T-cell infiltration and a decreased macrophage infiltration driven by FAP immunization. We extended this to patient data from The Cancer Genome Atlas, where we find high FAP expression correlates with high macrophage and low CD8 + T-cell infiltration. Conclusions: These results suggest that immune therapy targeting tumor antigens in combination with a microconsensus FAP vaccine provides two-fisted punch-inducing responses that target both the tumor microenvironment and tumor cells directly. Clin Cancer Res; 24(5); 1190-201. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Targeting Fibroblast Activation Protein in Tumor Stroma with Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells Can Inhibit Tumor Growth and Augment Host Immunity Without Severe Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liang-Chuan S; Lo, Albert; Scholler, John; Sun, Jing; Majumdar, Rajrupa S; Kapoor, Veena; Antzis, Michael; Cotner, Cody E.; Johnson, Laura A; Durham, Amy C; Solomides, Charalambos C.; June, Carl H; Puré, Ellen; Albelda, Steven M

    2013-01-01

    The majority of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell research has focused on attacking cancer cells. Here we show that targeting the tumor-promoting, non-transformed stromal cells using CAR T cells may offer several advantages. We developed a retroviral CAR construct specific for the mouse fibroblast activation protein (FAP), comprising a single chain Fv FAP (mAb 73.3) with the CD8α hinge and transmembrane regions, and the human CD3ζ and 4-1BB activation domains. The transduced muFAP-CAR mouse T cells secreted IFNγ and killed FAP-expressing 3T3 target cells specifically. Adoptively transferred 73.3-FAP-CAR mouse T cells selectively reduced FAPhi stromal cells and inhibited the growth of multiple types of subcutaneously transplanted tumors in wild-type, but not FAP-null immune-competent syngeneic mice. The antitumor effects could be augmented by multiple injections of the CAR T cells, by using CAR T cells with a deficiency in diacylglycerol kinase, or by combination with a vaccine. A major mechanism of action of the muFAP-CAR T cells was the augmentation of the endogenous CD8+ T cell antitumor responses. Off-tumor toxicity in our models was minimal following muFAP-CAR T cell therapy. In summary, inhibiting tumor growth by targeting tumor stroma with adoptively transferred CAR T cells directed to FAP can be safe and effective suggesting that further clinical development of anti-human FAP-CAR is warranted. PMID:24778279

  10. Beryllium and Boron abundances in population II stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The scientific focus of this program was to undertake UV spectroscopic abundance analyses of extremely metal poor stars with attention to determining abundances of light elements such as beryllium and boron. The abundances are likely to reflect primordial abundances within the early galaxy and help to constrain models for early galactic nucleosynthesis. The general metal abundances of these stars are also important for understanding stellar evolution.

  11. Can Occupancy–Abundance Models Be Used to Monitor Wolf Abundance?

    PubMed Central

    Latham, M. Cecilia; Latham, A. David M.; Webb, Nathan F.; Mccutchen, Nicole A.; Boutin, Stan

    2014-01-01

    Estimating the abundance of wild carnivores is of foremost importance for conservation and management. However, given their elusive habits, direct observations of these animals are difficult to obtain, so abundance is more commonly estimated from sign surveys or radio-marked individuals. These methods can be costly and difficult, particularly in large areas with heavy forest cover. As an alternative, recent research has suggested that wolf abundance can be estimated from occupancy–abundance curves derived from “virtual” surveys of simulated wolf track networks. Although potentially more cost-effective, the utility of this approach hinges on its robustness to violations of its assumptions. We assessed the sensitivity of the occupancy–abundance approach to four assumptions: variation in wolf movement rates, changes in pack cohesion, presence of lone wolves, and size of survey units. Our simulations showed that occupancy rates and wolf pack abundances were biased high if track surveys were conducted when wolves made long compared to short movements, wolf packs were moving as multiple hunting units as opposed to a cohesive pack, and lone wolves were moving throughout the surveyed landscape. We also found that larger survey units (400 and 576 km2) were more robust to changes in these factors than smaller survey units (36 and 144 km2). However, occupancy rates derived from large survey units rapidly reached an asymptote at 100% occupancy, suggesting that these large units are inappropriate for areas with moderate to high wolf densities (>15 wolves/1,000 km2). Virtually-derived occupancy–abundance relationships can be a useful method for monitoring wolves and other elusive wildlife if applied within certain constraints, in particular biological knowledge of the surveyed species needs to be incorporated into the design of the occupancy surveys. Further, we suggest that the applicability of this method could be extended by directly incorporating some of its

  12. Linking species abundance distributions in numerical abundance and biomass through simple assumptions about community structure.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Peter A; Magurran, Anne E

    2010-05-22

    Species abundance distributions (SADs) are widely used as a tool for summarizing ecological communities but may have different shapes, depending on the currency used to measure species importance. We develop a simple plotting method that links SADs in the alternative currencies of numerical abundance and biomass and is underpinned by testable predictions about how organisms occupy physical space. When log numerical abundance is plotted against log biomass, the species lie within an approximately triangular region. Simple energetic and sampling constraints explain the triangular form. The dispersion of species within this triangle is the key to understanding why SADs of numerical abundance and biomass can differ. Given regular or random species dispersion, we can predict the shape of the SAD for both currencies under a variety of sampling regimes. We argue that this dispersion pattern will lie between regular and random for the following reasons. First, regular dispersion patterns will result if communities are comprised groups of organisms that use different components of the physical space (e.g. open water, the sea bed surface or rock crevices in a marine fish assemblage), and if the abundance of species in each of these spatial guilds is linked to the way individuals of varying size use the habitat. Second, temporal variation in abundance and sampling error will tend to randomize this regular pattern. Data from two intensively studied marine ecosystems offer empirical support for these predictions. Our approach also has application in environmental monitoring and the recognition of anthropogenic disturbance, which may change the shape of the triangular region by, for example, the loss of large body size top predators that occur at low abundance.

  13. Bringing abundance into environmental politics: Constructing a Zionist network of water abundance, immigration, and colonization.

    PubMed

    Alatout, Samer

    2009-06-01

    For more than five decades, resource scarcity has been the lead story in debates over environmental politics. More importantly, and whenever environmental politics implies conflict, resource scarcity is constructed as the culprit. Abundance of resources, if at all visited in the literature, holds less importance. Resource abundance is seen, at best, as the other side of scarcity--maybe the successful conclusion of multiple interventions that may turn scarcity into abundance. This paper reinstates abundance as a politico-environmental category in its own right. Rather than relegating abundance to a second-order environmental actor that matters only on occasion, this paper foregrounds it as a crucial element in modern environmental politics. On the substantive level, and using insights from science and technology studies, especially a slightly modified actor-network framework, I describe the emergence and consolidation of a Zionist network of abundance, immigration, and colonization in Palestine between 1918 and 1948. The essential argument here is that water abundance was constructed as fact, and became a political rallying point around which a techno-political network emerged that included a great number of elements. To name just a few, the following were enrolled in the service of such a network: geologists, geophysicists, Zionist settlement experts, Zionist organizations, political and technical categories of all sorts, Palestinians as the negated others, Palestinian revolts in search of political rights, the British Mandate authorities, the hydrological system of Palestine, and the absorptive capacity of Palestine, among others. The point was to successfully articulate these disparate elements into a network that seeks opening Palestine for Jewish immigration, redefining Palestinian geography and history through Judeo-Christian Biblical narratives, and, in the process, de-legitimizing political Palestinian presence in historic Palestine.

  14. Linking species abundance distributions in numerical abundance and biomass through simple assumptions about community structure

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Peter A.; Magurran, Anne E.

    2010-01-01

    Species abundance distributions (SADs) are widely used as a tool for summarizing ecological communities but may have different shapes, depending on the currency used to measure species importance. We develop a simple plotting method that links SADs in the alternative currencies of numerical abundance and biomass and is underpinned by testable predictions about how organisms occupy physical space. When log numerical abundance is plotted against log biomass, the species lie within an approximately triangular region. Simple energetic and sampling constraints explain the triangular form. The dispersion of species within this triangle is the key to understanding why SADs of numerical abundance and biomass can differ. Given regular or random species dispersion, we can predict the shape of the SAD for both currencies under a variety of sampling regimes. We argue that this dispersion pattern will lie between regular and random for the following reasons. First, regular dispersion patterns will result if communities are comprised groups of organisms that use different components of the physical space (e.g. open water, the sea bed surface or rock crevices in a marine fish assemblage), and if the abundance of species in each of these spatial guilds is linked to the way individuals of varying size use the habitat. Second, temporal variation in abundance and sampling error will tend to randomize this regular pattern. Data from two intensively studied marine ecosystems offer empirical support for these predictions. Our approach also has application in environmental monitoring and the recognition of anthropogenic disturbance, which may change the shape of the triangular region by, for example, the loss of large body size top predators that occur at low abundance. PMID:20071388

  15. Using Genotype Abundance to Improve Phylogenetic Inference

    PubMed Central

    Mesin, Luka; Victora, Gabriel D; Minin, Vladimir N; Matsen, Frederick A

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Modern biological techniques enable very dense genetic sampling of unfolding evolutionary histories, and thus frequently sample some genotypes multiple times. This motivates strategies to incorporate genotype abundance information in phylogenetic inference. In this article, we synthesize a stochastic process model with standard sequence-based phylogenetic optimality, and show that tree estimation is substantially improved by doing so. Our method is validated with extensive simulations and an experimental single-cell lineage tracing study of germinal center B cell receptor affinity maturation. PMID:29474671

  16. Chemical abundances in cold, dark interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, William M.; Kaifu, Norio; Ohishi, Masatoshi

    1991-01-01

    Current tabulations are presented of the entire range of known interstellar molecules, giving attention to that subset which has been identified in the cold, dark interstellar clouds out of which the sun has been suggested to have formed. The molecular abundances of two such clouds, Taurus Molecular Cloud 1 and Lynd's 134N, exhibit prepossessing chemical differences despite considerable physical similarities. This discrepancy may be accounted for by the two clouds' differing evolutionary stages. Two novel classes of interstellar molecules are noted: sulfur-terminated carbon chains and silicon-terminated ones.

  17. Genomic Repeat Abundances Contain Phylogenetic Signal

    PubMed Central

    Dodsworth, Steven; Chase, Mark W.; Kelly, Laura J.; Leitch, Ilia J.; Macas, Jiří; Novák, Petr; Piednoël, Mathieu; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna; Leitch, Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    A large proportion of genomic information, particularly repetitive elements, is usually ignored when researchers are using next-generation sequencing. Here we demonstrate the usefulness of this repetitive fraction in phylogenetic analyses, utilizing comparative graph-based clustering of next-generation sequence reads, which results in abundance estimates of different classes of genomic repeats. Phylogenetic trees are then inferred based on the genome-wide abundance of different repeat types treated as continuously varying characters; such repeats are scattered across chromosomes and in angiosperms can constitute a majority of nuclear genomic DNA. In six diverse examples, five angiosperms and one insect, this method provides generally well-supported relationships at interspecific and intergeneric levels that agree with results from more standard phylogenetic analyses of commonly used markers. We propose that this methodology may prove especially useful in groups where there is little genetic differentiation in standard phylogenetic markers. At the same time as providing data for phylogenetic inference, this method additionally yields a wealth of data for comparative studies of genome evolution. PMID:25261464

  18. Occupancy as a surrogate for abundance estimation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacKenzie, D.I.; Nichols, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    In many monitoring programmes it may be prohibitively expensive to estimate the actual abundance of a bird species in a defined area, particularly at large spatial scales, or where birds occur at very low densities. Often it may be appropriate to consider the proportion of area occupied by the species as an alternative state variable. However, as with abundance estimation, issues of detectability must be taken into account in order to make accurate inferences: the non?detection of the species does not imply the species is genuinely absent. Here we review some recent modelling developments that permit unbiased estimation of the proportion of area occupied, colonization and local extinction probabilities. These methods allow for unequal sampling effort and enable covariate information on sampling locations to be incorporated. We also describe how these models could be extended to incorporate information from marked individuals, which would enable finer questions of population dynamics (such as turnover rate of nest sites by specific breeding pairs) to be addressed. We believe these models may be applicable to a wide range of bird species and may be useful for investigating various questions of ecological interest. For example, with respect to habitat quality, we might predict that a species is more likely to have higher local extinction probabilities, or higher turnover rates of specific breeding pairs, in poor quality habitats.

  19. 3He Abundances in Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman-Ramirez, Lizette

    2017-10-01

    Determination of the 3He isotope is important to many fields of astrophysics, including stellar evolution, chemical evolution, and cosmology. The isotope is produced in stars which evolve through the planetary nebula phase. Planetary nebulae are the final evolutionary phase of low- and intermediate-mass stars, where the extensive mass lost by the star on the asymptotic giant branch is ionised by the emerging white dwarf. This ejecta quickly disperses and merges with the surrounding ISM. 3He abundances in planetary nebulae have been derived from the hyperfine transition of the ionised 3He, 3He+, at the radio rest frequency 8.665 GHz. 3He abundances in PNe can help test models of the chemical evolution of the Galaxy. Many hours have been put into trying to detect this line, using telescopes like the Effelsberg 100m dish of the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) 140-foot telescope, the NRAO Very Large Array, the Arecibo antenna, the Green Bank Telescope, and only just recently, the Deep Space Station 63 antenna from the Madrid Deep Space Communications Complex.

  20. Integral Field Spectroscopy Surveys: Oxygen Abundance Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Sánchez-Menguiano, L.

    2017-07-01

    We present here the recent results on our understanding of oxygen abundance gradients derived using Integral Field Spectroscopic surveys. In particular we analyzed more than 2124 datacubes corresponding to individual objects observed by the CALIFA (˜ 734 objects) and the public data by MaNGA (˜ 1390 objects), deriving the oxygen abundance gradient for each galaxy. We confirm previous results that indicate that the shape of this gradient is very similar for all galaxies with masses above 109.5M⊙, presenting in average a very similar slope of ˜ -0.04 dex within 0.5-2.0 re, with a possible drop in the inner regions (r<0.5re) and a flattennig in the outer regions. For lower masses (>109.5M⊙) the gradient seems to be flatter than for more massive ones. All these results agree with an inside-out growth of massive galaxies and indicate that low mass ones may still be growing in an outside in phase.

  1. The galaxy clustering crisis in abundance matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Duncan; van den Bosch, Frank C.; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Zentner, Andrew R.; Lange, Johannes U.; Jiang, Fangzhou; Villarreal, Antonio

    2018-06-01

    Galaxy clustering on small scales is significantly underpredicted by sub-halo abundance matching (SHAM) models that populate (sub-)haloes with galaxies based on peak halo mass, Mpeak. SHAM models based on the peak maximum circular velocity, Vpeak, have had much better success. The primary reason for Mpeak-based models fail is the relatively low abundance of satellite galaxies produced in these models compared to those based on Vpeak. Despite success in predicting clustering, a simple Vpeak-based SHAM model results in predictions for galaxy growth that are at odds with observations. We evaluate three possible remedies that could `save' mass-based SHAM: (1) SHAM models require a significant population of `orphan' galaxies as a result of artificial disruption/merging of sub-haloes in modern high-resolution dark matter simulations; (2) satellites must grow significantly after their accretion; and (3) stellar mass is significantly affected by halo assembly history. No solution is entirely satisfactory. However, regardless of the particulars, we show that popular SHAM models based on Mpeak cannot be complete physical models as presented. Either Vpeak truly is a better predictor of stellar mass at z ˜ 0 and it remains to be seen how the correlation between stellar mass and Vpeak comes about, or SHAM models are missing vital component(s) that significantly affect galaxy clustering.

  2. NEON AND OXYGEN ABUNDANCES AND ABUNDANCE RATIO IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Landi, E.; Testa, P., E-mail: elandi@umich.edu

    2015-02-20

    In this work we determine the Ne/O abundance ratio from Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)/Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) off-disk observations of quiescent streamers over the 1996-2008 period. We find that the Ne/O ratio is approximately constant over solar cycle 23 from 1996 to 2005, at a value of 0.099 ± 0.017; this value is lower than the transition region determinations from the quiet Sun used to infer the neon photospheric abundance from the oxygen photospheric abundance. Also, the Ne/O ratio we determined from SUMER is in excellent agreement with in situ determinations from ACE/SWICS. In 2005-2008, the Ne/O abundancemore » ratio increased with time and reached 0.25 ± 0.05, following the same trend found in the slowest wind analyzed by ACE/SWICS. Further, we measure the absolute abundance in the corona for both oxygen and neon from the data set of 1996 November 22, obtaining A {sub o} = 8.99 ± 0.04 and A {sub Ne} = 7.92 ± 0.03, and we find that both elements are affected by the first ionization potential (FIP) effect, with oxygen being enhanced by a factor of 1.4-2.1 over its photospheric abundance, and neon being changed by a factor of 0.75-1.20. We conclude that the Ne/O ratio is not constant in the solar atmosphere, both in time and at different heights, and that it cannot be reliably used to infer the neon abundance in the photosphere. Also, we argue that the FIP effect was less effective during the minimum of solar cycle 24, and that the Ne/O = 0.25 ± 0.05 value measured at that time is closer to the true photospheric value, leading to a neon photospheric abundance larger than assumed by ≈40%. We discuss the implications of these results for the solar abundance problem, for the FIP effect, and for the identification of the source regions of the solar wind.« less

  3. ABCG2 is a direct transcriptional target of hedgehog signaling and involved in stroma-induced drug tolerance in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Singh, R R; Kunkalla, K; Qu, C; Schlette, E; Neelapu, S S; Samaniego, F; Vega, F

    2011-12-08

    of Hh signaling with cyclopamine-KAAD abrogated the stroma-induced chemotolerance suggesting that targeting ABCG2 and Hh signaling may have therapeutic value in overcoming chemoresistance in DLBCL.

  4. Elevated S100A8 protein expression in breast cancer cells and breast tumor stroma is prognostic of poor disease outcome.

    PubMed

    Miller, P; Kidwell, K M; Thomas, D; Sabel, M; Rae, J M; Hayes, D F; Hudson, B I; El-Ashry, D; Lippman, M E

    2017-11-01

    Elevated S100A8 expression has been observed in cancers of the bladder, esophagus, colon, ovary, and breast. S100A8 is expressed by breast cancer cells as well as by infiltrating immune and myeloid cells. Here we investigate the association of elevated S100A8 protein expression in breast cancer cells and in breast tumor stroma with survival outcomes in a cohort of breast cancer patients. Tissue microarrays (TMA) were constructed from breast cancer specimens from 417 patients with stage I-III breast cancer treated at the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center between 2004 and 2006. Representative regions of non-necrotic tumor and distant normal tissue from each patient were used to construct the TMA. Automated quantitative immunofluorescence (AQUA) was used to measure S100A8 protein expression, and samples were scored for breast cancer cell and stromal S100A8 expression. S100A8 staining intensity was assessed as a continuous value and by exploratory dichotomous cutoffs. Associations between breast cancer cell and stromal S100A8 expression with disease-free survival and overall survival were determined using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard models. High breast cancer cell S100A8 protein expression (as indicated by AQUA scores), as a continuous measure, was a significant prognostic factor for OS [univariable hazard ratio (HR) 1.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.55, p = 0.05] in this patient cohort. Exploratory analyses identified optimal S100A8 AQUA score cutoffs within the breast cancer cell and stromal compartments that significantly separated survival curves for the complete cohort. Elevated breast cancer cell and stromal S100A8 expression, indicated by higher S100A8 AQUA scores, significantly associates with poorer breast cancer outcomes, regardless of estrogen receptor status. Elevated breast cancer cell and stromal S1008 protein expression are significant indicators of poorer outcomes in early stage breast cancer patients

  5. Hepatobiliary Mucinous Cystic Neoplasms With Ovarian Type Stroma (So-Called "Hepatobiliary Cystadenoma/Cystadenocarcinoma"): Clinicopathologic Analysis of 36 Cases Illustrates Rarity of Carcinomatous Change.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Brian; Reid, Michelle D; Pehlivanoglu, Burcin; Squires, Malcolm H; Maithel, Shishir; Xue, Yue; Hyejeong, Choi; Akkas, Gizem; Muraki, Takashi; Kooby, David A; Sarmiento, Juan M; Cardona, Ken; Sekhar, Aarti; Krasinskas, Alyssa; Adsay, Volkan

    2018-01-01

    The literature is highly conflicting on hepatobiliary mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs), aka "hepatobiliary cystadenoma/cystadenocarcinoma," largely because ovarian stroma (OS) was not a requirement until WHO-2010 and is not widely applied even today. In this study, MCNs (with OS) accounted for 24 of 229 (11%) resected hepatic cysts in one institution. Eight of the 32 (25%) cysts that had been originally designated as hepatobiliary cystadenoma/cystadenocarcinoma at the time of diagnosis proved not to have an OS during this review and were thus re-classified as non-MCN. In total, 36 MCNs (with OS) were analyzed-24 from the institutional files and 12 consultation cases. All were women. Mean age was 51 (28 to 76 y). Mean size was 11 cm (5 to 23 cm). Most (91%) were intrahepatic and in the left lobe (72%). Preoperative imaging mentioned "neoplasm" in 14 (47%) and carcinoma was a differential in 6 (19%) but only 2 proved to have carcinoma. Microscopically, only 47% demonstrated diffuse OS (>75% of the cyst wall/lining); OS was often focal. The cyst lining was often composed of non-mucinous biliary epithelium, and this was predominant in 50% of the cases. Degenerative changes of variable amount were seen in most cases. In situ and invasive carcinoma was seen in only 2 cases (6%), both with small invasion (7 and 8 mm). Five cases had persistence/recurrence, 2 confirmed operatively (at 7 mo and 15 y). Of the 2 cases with carcinoma, one had "residual cyst or hematoma" by radiology at 4 months, and the other was without disease at 3 years. In conclusion, many cysts (25%) previously reported as hepatobiliary cystadenoma/cystadenocarcinoma are not MCNs. True MCNs are uncommon among resected hepatic cysts (11%), occur exclusively in females, are large, mostly intrahepatic and in the left lobe (72%). Invasive carcinomas are small and uncommon (6%) compared with their pancreatic counterpart (16%). Recurrences are not uncommon following incomplete excision.

  6. Mimicking Metastases Including Tumor Stroma: A New Technique to Generate a Three-Dimensional Colorectal Cancer Model Based on a Biological Decellularized Intestinal Scaffold.

    PubMed

    Nietzer, Sarah; Baur, Florentin; Sieber, Stefan; Hansmann, Jan; Schwarz, Thomas; Stoffer, Carolin; Häfner, Heide; Gasser, Martin; Waaga-Gasser, Ana Maria; Walles, Heike; Dandekar, Gudrun

    2016-07-01

    generation, a bioreactor was constructed for dynamic culture approaches. This induced a close tissue-like association of cultured tumor cells with fibroblasts reflecting tumor biopsies. Therapy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was effective only in 3D coculture. In conclusion, our 3D tumor model reflects human tissue-related tumor characteristics, including lower tumor cell proliferation. It is now available for drug testing in metastatic context-especially for substances targeting tumor-stroma interactions.

  7. Transition Element Abundances in MORB Basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S.; Humayun, M.; Salters, V. J.; Fields, D.; Jefferson, G.; Perfit, M. R.

    2012-12-01

    primarily controls the partitioning of Fe, Zn, Ga and Ge; garnet dominates the Sc abundance; spinel exerts exceptionally strong control over Ga and Zn, and cannot be neglected as a source mineral for these elements. MORB FRTE, Ga and Ge abundances are consistent with partial melting of a spinel peridotite source (<1% garnet) similar to that estimated for DMM, although the abundances of many of these elements need to be better constrained in the model sources. [1] Davis et al. GCA (submitted)

  8. Cosmological implications of light element abundances: theory.

    PubMed

    Schramm, D N

    1993-06-01

    Primordial nucleosynthesis provides (with the microwave background radiation) one of the two quantitative experimental tests of the hot Big Bang cosmological model (versus alternative explanations for the observed Hubble expansion). The standard homogeneous-isotropic calculation fits the light element abundances ranging from 1H at 76% and 4He at 24% by mass through 2H and 3He at parts in 105 down to 7Li at parts in 1010. It is also noted how the recent Large Electron Positron Collider (and Stanford Linear Collider) results on the number of neutrinos (Nnu) are a positive laboratory test of this standard Big Bang scenario. The possible alternate scenario of quark-hadron-induced inhomogeneities is also discussed. It is shown that when this alternative scenario is made to fit the observed abundances accurately, the resulting conclusions on the baryonic density relative to the critical density (Omegab) remain approximately the same as in the standard homogeneous case, thus adding to the robustness of the standard model and the conclusion that Omegab approximately 0.06. This latter point is the driving force behind the need for nonbaryonic dark matter (assuming total density Omegatotal = 1) and the need for dark baryonic matter, since the density of visible matter Omegavisible < Omegab. The recent Population II B and Be observations are also discussed and shown to be a consequence of cosmic ray spallation processes rather than primordial nucleosynthesis. The light elements and Nnu successfully probe the cosmological model at times as early as 1 sec and a temperature (T) of approximately 10(10) K (approximately 1 MeV). Thus, they provided the first quantitative arguments that led to the connections of cosmology to nuclear and particle physics.

  9. Cosmological implications of light element abundances: theory.

    PubMed Central

    Schramm, D N

    1993-01-01

    Primordial nucleosynthesis provides (with the microwave background radiation) one of the two quantitative experimental tests of the hot Big Bang cosmological model (versus alternative explanations for the observed Hubble expansion). The standard homogeneous-isotropic calculation fits the light element abundances ranging from 1H at 76% and 4He at 24% by mass through 2H and 3He at parts in 105 down to 7Li at parts in 1010. It is also noted how the recent Large Electron Positron Collider (and Stanford Linear Collider) results on the number of neutrinos (Nnu) are a positive laboratory test of this standard Big Bang scenario. The possible alternate scenario of quark-hadron-induced inhomogeneities is also discussed. It is shown that when this alternative scenario is made to fit the observed abundances accurately, the resulting conclusions on the baryonic density relative to the critical density (Omegab) remain approximately the same as in the standard homogeneous case, thus adding to the robustness of the standard model and the conclusion that Omegab approximately 0.06. This latter point is the driving force behind the need for nonbaryonic dark matter (assuming total density Omegatotal = 1) and the need for dark baryonic matter, since the density of visible matter Omegavisible < Omegab. The recent Population II B and Be observations are also discussed and shown to be a consequence of cosmic ray spallation processes rather than primordial nucleosynthesis. The light elements and Nnu successfully probe the cosmological model at times as early as 1 sec and a temperature (T) of approximately 10(10) K (approximately 1 MeV). Thus, they provided the first quantitative arguments that led to the connections of cosmology to nuclear and particle physics. Images Fig. 2 PMID:11607387

  10. Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Mesenchymal Stroma Cells (hES-MSCs) Engraft In Vivo and Support Hematopoiesis without Suppressing Immune Function: Implications for Off-The Shelf ES-MSC Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ou; Tormin, Ariane; Sundberg, Berit; Hyllner, Johan; Le Blanc, Katarina; Scheding, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stroma cells (MSCs) have a high potential for novel cell therapy approaches in clinical transplantation. Commonly used bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs), however, have a restricted proliferative capacity and cultures are difficult to standardize. Recently developed human embryonic stem cell-derived mesenchymal stroma cells (hES-MSCs) might represent an alternative and unlimited source of hMSCs. We therefore compared human ES-cell-derived MSCs (hES-MP002.5 cells) to normal human bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs). hES-MP002.5 cells had lower yet reasonable CFU-F capacity compared with BM-MSC (8±3 versus 29±13 CFU-F per 100 cells). Both cell types showed similar immunophenotypic properties, i.e. cells were positive for CD105, CD73, CD166, HLA-ABC, CD44, CD146, CD90, and negative for CD45, CD34, CD14, CD31, CD117, CD19, CD 271, SSEA-4 and HLA-DR. hES-MP002.5 cells, like BM-MSCs, could be differentiated into adipocytes, osteoblasts and chondrocytes in vitro. Neither hES-MP002.5 cells nor BM-MSCs homed to the bone marrow of immune-deficient NSG mice following intravenous transplantation, whereas intra-femoral transplantation into NSG mice resulted in engraftment for both cell types. In vitro long-term culture-initiating cell assays and in vivo co-transplantation experiments with cord blood CD34+ hematopoietic cells demonstrated furthermore that hES-MP002.5 cells, like BM-MSCs, possess potent stroma support function. In contrast to BM-MSCs, however, hES-MP002.5 cells showed no or only little activity in mixed lymphocyte cultures and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) lymphocyte stimulation assays. In summary, ES-cell derived MSCs might be an attractive unlimited source for stroma transplantation approaches without suppressing immune function. PMID:23383153

  11. Abundance of introduced species at home predicts abundance away in herbaceous communities

    Treesearch

    J. Firn; J.L. Moore; A.S. MacDougall; E.T. Borer; E.W. Seabloom; J. HilleRisLambers; S. Harpole; E.E. Cleland; C.S. Brown; J.M.H. Knops; S.M. Prober; D.A. Pyke; K.A. Farrell; J.D. Bakker; L.R. O’Halloran; P.B. Adler; S.L. Collins; C.M. D’Antonio; M.J. Crawley; E.M. Wolkovich; K.J. La Pierre; B.A. Melbourne; Y. Hautier; J.W. Morgan; A.D.B. Leakey; A.D. Kay; R.L. McCulley; K.F. Davies; C.J. Stevens; C.J. Chu

    2011-01-01

    Many ecosystems worldwide are dominated by introduced plant species, leading to loss of biodiversity and ecosystem function. A common but rarely tested assumption is that these plants are more abundant in introduced vs. native communities, because ecological or evolutionary-based shifts in populations underlie invasion success. Here, data for 26 herbaceous species at...

  12. Use of abundance of one species as a surrogate for abundance of others

    Treesearch

    Samuel A. Cushman; Kevin S. McKelvey; Barry R. Noon; Kevin McGarigal

    2010-01-01

    Indicator species concepts have a long history in conservation biology. Arguments in favor of these approaches generally stress expediency and assume efficacy. We tested the premise that the abundance patterns of one species can be used to infer those of other species. Our data consisted of 72,495 bird observations on 55 species across 1046 plots distributed across 30...

  13. Solar coronal and photospheric abundances from solar energetic particle measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breneman, H. H.; Stone, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    Solar energetic particle (SEP) elemental abundance data from the cosmic ray subsystem (CRS) aboard the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft are used to derive unfractionated coronal and photospheric abundances for elements with Z = 6-30. It is found that the ionic charge-to-mass ratio (Q/M) is the principal organizing parameter for the fractionation of SEPs by acceleration and propagation processes and for flare-to-flare variability, making possible a single-parameter Q/M-dependent correction to the average SEP abundances to obtain unfractionated coronal abundances. A further correction based on first ionization potential allows the determination of unfractionated photospheric abundances.

  14. Solar coronal and photospheric abundances from solar energetic particle measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breneman, H.; Stone, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    Solar energetic particle (SEP) elemental abundance data from the Cosmic Ray Subsystem (CRS) aboard the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft are used to derive unfractionated coronal and photospheric abundances for elements with 3 = or Z or = 30. The ionic charge-to-mass ratio (Q/M) is the principal organizing parameter for the fractionation of SEPs by acceleration and propagation processes and for flare-to-flare variability, making possible a single-parameter Q/M-dependent correction to the average SEP abundances to obtain unfractionated coronal abundances. A further correction based on first ionization potential allows the determination of unfractionated photospheric abundances.

  15. Solar Coronal and photospheric abundances from solar energetic particle measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breneman, H.; Stone, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    Solar energetic particle (SEP) elemental abundance data from the cosmic ray subsystem (CRS) aboard the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft are used to derive unfractionated coronal and photospheric abundances for elements with 3 Z or = 30. It is found that the ionic charge-to-mass ratio (Q/M) is the principal organizing parameter for the fractionation of SEPs by acceleration and propagation processes and for flare-to-flare variability, making possible a single-parameter Q/M-dependent correction to the average SEP abundances to obtain unfractionated coronal abundances. A further correction based on first ionization potential allows the determination of unfractionated photospheric abundances.

  16. Abundance difference between components of wide binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desidera, S.; Gratton, R. G.; Scuderi, S.; Claudi, R. U.; Cosentino, R.; Barbieri, M.; Bonanno, G.; Carretta, E.; Endl, M.; Lucatello, S.; Martinez Fiorenzano, A. F.; Marzari, F.

    2004-06-01

    We present iron abundance analysis for 23 wide binaries with main sequence components in the temperture range 4900-6300 K, taken from the sample of the pairs currently included in the radial velocity planet search on going at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) using the high resolution spectrograph SARG. The use of a line-by-line differential analysis technique between the components of each pair allows us to reach errors of about 0.02 dex in the iron content difference. Most of the pairs have abundance differences lower than 0.02 dex and there are no pairs with differences larger than 0.07 dex. The four cases of differences larger than 0.02 dex may be spurious because of the larger error bars affecting pairs with large temperature difference, cold stars and rotating stars. The pair HD 219542, previously reported by us to have a different composition, here is shown to be normal. For non-rotating stars warmer than 5500 K, characterized by a thinner convective envelope and for which our analyis appears to be of higher accuracy, we are able to exclude in most cases the consumption of more than 1 Earth Mass of iron (about 5 Earth masses of meteoritic material) during the main sequence lifetime of the stars, placing more stringent limits (about 0.4 Earth masses of iron) in five cases of warm stars. This latter limit is similar to the estimates of rocky material accreted by the Sun during its main sequence lifetime. Combining the results of the present analysis with those for the Hyades and Pleiades, we conclude that the hypothesis that pollution by planetary material is the only mechanism responsible for the highest metallicity of the stars with planets may be rejected at more than 99% level of confidence if the incidence of planets in these samples is as high as 8% and similar to the field stars included in current radial velocity surveys. However, the significance of this result drops considerably if the incidence of planets around stars in binary systems and

  17. Reionization and the Abundance of Galactic Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, James S.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Weinberg, David H.

    2000-08-01

    One of the main challenges facing standard hierarchical structure formation models is that the predicted abundance of Galactic subhalos with circular velocities vc~10-30 km s-1 is an order of magnitude higher than the number of satellites actually observed within the Local Group. Using a simple model for the formation and evolution of dark halos, based on the extended Press-Schechter formalism and tested against N-body results, we show that the theoretical predictions can be reconciled with observations if gas accretion in low-mass halos is suppressed after the epoch of reionization. In this picture, the observed dwarf satellites correspond to the small fraction of halos that accreted substantial amounts of gas before reionization. The photoionization mechanism naturally explains why the discrepancy between predicted halos and observed satellites sets in at vc~30 km s-1, and for reasonable choices of the reionization redshift (zre~5-12) the model can reproduce both the amplitude and shape of the observed velocity function of galactic satellites. If this explanation is correct, then typical bright galaxy halos contain many low-mass dark matter subhalos. These might be detectable through their gravitational lensing effects, through their influence on stellar disks, or as dwarf satellites with very high mass-to-light ratios. This model also predicts a diffuse stellar component produced by large numbers of tidally disrupted dwarfs, perhaps sufficient to account for most of the Milky Way's stellar halo.

  18. Ecotype diversification of an abundant Roseobacter lineage.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying; Zhang, Yao; Hollibaugh, James T; Luo, Haiwei

    2017-04-01

    The Roseobacter DC5-80-3 cluster (also known as the RCA clade) is among the most abundant bacterial lineages in temperate and polar oceans. Previous studies revealed two phylotypes within this cluster that are distinctly distributed in the Antarctic and other ocean provinces. Here, we report a nearly complete genome co-assembly of three closely related single cells co-occurring in the Antarctic, and compare it to the available genomes of the other phylotype from ocean regions where iron is more accessible but phosphorus and nitrogen are less. The Antarctic phylotype exclusively contains an operon structure consisting of a dicitrate transporter fecBCDE and an upstream regulator likely for iron uptake, whereas the other phylotype consistently carry a high-affinity phosphate pst transporter and the phoB-phoR regulatory system, a high-affinity ammonium amtB transporter, urea and taurine utilization systems. Moreover, the Antarctic phylotype uses proteorhodopsin to acquire light, whereas the other uses bacteriochlorophyll-a and the sulfur-oxidizing sox cluster for energy acquisition. This is potentially an iron-saving strategy for the Antarctic phylotype because only the latter two pathways have iron-requiring cytochromes. Therefore, the two DC5-80-3 phylotypes, while diverging by only 1.1% in their 16S rRNA genes, have evolved systematic differences in metabolism to support their distinct ecologies. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Energetic particle abundances in solar electron events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reames, D. V.; Cane, H. V.; Von Rosenvinge, T. T.

    1990-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive search of the ISEE 3 energetic particle data for solar electron events with associated increases in elements with atomic number Z = 6 or greater are reported. A sample of 90 such events was obtained. The events support earlier evidence of a bimodal distribution in Fe/O or, more clearly, in Fe/C. Most of the electron events belong to the group that is Fe-rich in comparison with the coronal abundance. The Fe-rich events are frequently also He-3-rich and are associated with type III and type V radio bursts and impulsive solar flares. Fe-poor events are associated with type IV bursts and with interplanetary shocks. With some exceptions, event-to-event enhancements in the heavier elements vary smoothly with Z and with Fe/C. In fact, these variations extend across the full range of events despite inferred differences in acceleration mechanism. The origin of source material in all events appears to be coronal and not photospheric.

  20. Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins in legumes

    PubMed Central

    Battaglia, Marina; Covarrubias, Alejandra A.

    2013-01-01

    Plants are exposed to different external conditions that affect growth, development, and productivity. Water deficit is one of these adverse conditions caused by drought, salinity, and extreme temperatures. Plants have developed different responses to prevent, ameliorate or repair the damage inflicted by these stressful environments. One of these responses is the activation of a set of genes encoding a group of hydrophilic proteins that typically accumulate to high levels during seed dehydration, at the last stage of embryogenesis, hence named Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins. LEA proteins also accumulate in response to water limitation in vegetative tissues, and have been classified in seven groups based on their amino acid sequence similarity and on the presence of distinctive conserved motifs. These proteins are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, from ferns to angiosperms, suggesting a relevant role in the plant response to this unfavorable environmental condition. In this review, we analyzed the LEA proteins from those legumes whose complete genomes have been sequenced such as Phaseolus vulgaris, Glycine max, Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus, Cajanus cajan, and Cicer arietinum. Considering their distinctive motifs, LEA proteins from the different groups were identified, and their sequence analysis allowed the recognition of novel legume specific motifs. Moreover, we compile their transcript accumulation patterns based on publicly available data. In spite of the limited information on these proteins in legumes, the analysis and data compiled here confirm the high correlation between their accumulation and water deficit, reinforcing their functional relevance under this detrimental conditions. PMID:23805145

  1. Abundance of complex organic molecules in comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biver, N.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Debout, V.; Crovisier, J.; Moreno, R.; Boissier, J.; Lis, D.; Colom, P.; Paubert, G.; Dello Russo, N.; Vervack, R.; Weaver, H.

    2014-07-01

    The IRAM-30m submillimetre radio telescope has now an improved sensitivity and versality thanks to its wide-band EMIR receivers and high-resolution FFT spectrometer. Since 2012, we have undertaken ~70 GHz wide spectral surveys in the 1-mm band in several comets: C/2009 P1 (Garradd), C/2011 L4 (PanSTARRS), C/2012 F6 (Lemmon), C/2012 S1 (ISON), and C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy). Since their discovery in comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) in 1997 (Bockelée-Morvan et al. 2000, Crovisier et al. 2004a, 2004b), we have detected complex CHO(N)-molecules such as formic acid (HCOOH), formamide (NH_2CHO), acetaldehyde (CH_3CHO), and ethylene glycol ((CH_2OH)_2) in several other comets. HCOOH has now been detected in 6 other comets since 2004, and formamide, ethylene glycol, and acetaldehyde were re-detected for the first time in comets Lemmon or Lovejoy in 2013 (Biver et al. 2014). We will present the abundances relative to water we derive for these species, and the sensitive upper limits we obtain for other complex CHO-bearing molecules. We will discuss the implication of these findings on the origin of cometary material in comparison with observations of such molecules in the interstellar medium.

  2. Dust, Abundances, and the Evolution of Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, Charles; Bode, Michael; Evans, Anuerin; Geballe, Thomas; Gehrz, Robert; Helton, Andrew; Krautter, Joachim; Lynch, David; Ness, Jan-Uwe; Rudy, Richard; Schwarz, Greg; Shore, Steve; Starrfield, Sumner; Truran, James; Vanlandingham, Karen; Wagner, R. Mark

    2008-03-01

    Evolved stars are the engines of energy production and chemical evolution in our Universe. They deposit radiative and mechanical energy into their environments. They enrich the ambient ISM with elements synthesized in their interiors and dust grains condensed in their atmospheres. Classical novae (CNe) contribute to this cycle of chemical enrichment through explosive nucleosynthesis and the violent ejection of material dredged from the white dwarf progenitor and mixed with the accreted surface layers. Our capstone study of 10 CNe will provide an ensemble of objects, well-populated in CNe parameter space (fast, slow, 'coronal', dusty) for detailed photoionization modeling and analysis. CNe are laboratories in which several poorly-understood astrophysical processes (e.g., mass transfer, thermonuclear runaway, optically thick winds, common envelope evolution, molecule and grain formation, coronal emission) may be observed. With Spitzer's unique wavelength coverage and point-source sensitivity we can: (i) investigate the in situ formation, astromineralogy, and processing of nova dust, (ii) determine the ejecta elemental abundances resulting from thermonuclear runaway, (iii) constrain the correlation of ejecta mass with progenitor type, (iv) measure the bolometric luminosity of the outburst, and (v) characterize the kinematics and structure of the ejected envelopes. Extensive ground-based and space-based (Chandra, Swift, XMM-Newton) programs led by team CoIs will complement Spitzer CNe observations.

  3. Lead sulphide: Low cost, abundant thermoelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Sajid; Singh, Ajay; Bhattacharya, Shovit; Basu, Ranita; Bhatt, Ranu; Bohra, Anil; Muthe, K. P.; Gadkari, S. C.

    2018-04-01

    Lead and sulphur are the most abundant and low cost materials on the earth's crust, lead chalcogenide (S, Se and Te) materials have got best applications in thermoelectric power generations. Among the chalcogenides, selenium and tellurium are costlier and are more toxic material than sulphur. [1][2] Decreasing the thermal conductivity has been proven to be the easiest approach to improve the thermoelectric performance of a material. In the present work, the lead sulphide (PbS) and SrxPb(1-x)S composite materials were synthesized and investigated. Addition of 0.4 and 0.8 moles of Sr atoms into the PbS lattice has appreciably reduced the thermal conductivity from 2.2 W/mK to 0.43 W/mK for Sr0.4Pb0.6S composition. Temperature (T) dependence of thermoelectric (TE) properties PbS and and SrxPb(1-x)S nanocomposite material has been studied with in the temperature range of 300 K to 700 K. It is observed that there is reduction in the thermal conductivity of PbS alloy on addition of Sr that is mainly attributed to the scattering centres of Sr in the PbS matrix also the presence of the Sr also plays a role in the refinement of the PbS matrix.

  4. High Abundance of Ions in Cosmic Ices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gudipati, Murthy S.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Water-rich, mixed molecular ices and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common throughout interstellar molecular clouds and the Solar System. Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation and particle bombardment of these abiotic ices produces complex organic species, including important biogenic molecules such as amino acids and functionalized PAHs which may have played a role in the origin of life. This ability of such water-rich, oxygen dominated ices to promote production of complex organic species is surprising and points to an important, unusual, but previously overlooked mechanism at play within the ice. Here we report the nature of this mechanism using electronic spectroscopy. VUV-irradiation of PAH/H2O ices leads to an unprecedented and efficient (greater than 70 %) conversion of the neutral PAHs to their cation form (PAH+). Further, these H2O/PAH+ ices are stabile at temperatures below 50 K, a temperature domain common throughout interstellar clouds and the Solar System. Between 50 and 125 K they react to form the complex organics. In view of this, we conclude that charged PAHs and other molecular ions should be common and abundant in many cosmic ices. The chemical, spectroscopic and physical properties of these ion-rich ices can be of fundamental importance for objects as diverse as comets, planets, and molecular clouds and may account for several poorly understood phenomena associated with each of these object classes.

  5. Down-regulation of connective tissue growth factor by inhibition of transforming growth factor beta blocks the tumor-stroma cross-talk and tumor progression in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mazzocca, Antonio; Fransvea, Emilia; Dituri, Francesco; Lupo, Luigi; Antonaci, Salvatore; Giannelli, Gianluigi

    2010-02-01

    Tumor-stroma interactions in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are of key importance to tumor progression. In this study, we show that HCC invasive cells produce high levels of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and generate tumors with a high stromal component in a xenograft model. A transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) receptor inhibitor, LY2109761, inhibited the synthesis and release of CTGF, as well as reducing the stromal component of the tumors. In addition, the TGF-beta-dependent down-regulation of CTGF diminished tumor growth, intravasation, and metastatic dissemination of HCC cells by inhibiting cancer-associated fibroblast proliferation. By contrast, noninvasive HCC cells were found to produce low levels of CTGF. Upon TGF-beta1 stimulation, noninvasive HCC cells form tumors with a high stromal content and CTGF expression, which is inhibited by treatment with LY2109761. In addition, the acquired intravasation and metastatic spread of noninvasive HCC cells after TGF-beta1 stimulation was blocked by LY2109761. LY2109761 interrupts the cross-talk between cancer cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts, leading to a significant reduction of HCC growth and dissemination. Interestingly, patients with high CTGF expression had poor prognosis, suggesting that treatment aimed at reducing TGF-beta-dependent CTGF expression may offer clinical benefits. Taken together, our preclinical results indicate that LY2109761 targets the cross-talk between HCC and the stroma and provide a rationale for future clinical trials.

  6. Lattice-like collagen fiber meshwork in the iris stroma of the cat: a possible mechanism to generate the tension directed towards the iris root which is required for pupillary dilatation in the sympathectomized eye.

    PubMed

    Sakuraba, M; Yun, S; Ichinohe, N; Yonekura, H; Shoumura, K

    1999-10-01

    NaOH digestion technique for collagen fiber dissection and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated a lattice-like meshwork in the anterior surface of the iris stroma of the cat. The mesh threads were made of collagen fibril bundles. In the constricted pupil, the meshes were square to rhomboid with the diagonals in the direction of the radius or circumference of the iris. In the dilated pupil, however, the meshes were strongly flattened rhomboid or ellipse with a longer diagnoal or axis in the circumferential direction. At the mesh corners facing the pupillary margin or the iris root, the collagen fibril bundles were strongly bent in the iris of the constricted pupil, while they were almost straight or slightly wavy in the iris of the dilated pupil. Accumulation of elasticity tension generated by this small distortion of the iris-mesh threads in the constricted pupil was considered to generate a tension directed towards the iris root, which is required for pupillary dilatation in the sympathectomized eye. On the posterior surface of the iris stroma, numerous thin pleats tightly woven with collagen fibrils traversed straightway through the radial length of the ciliary zone of the iris in both constricted and dilated pupils. The structural changes of these pleats in miosis and mydriasis were very small compared with the meshwork of the anterior aspect of the iris. Therefore, they were considered to work mainly as an iris skeleton.

  7. The Open Cluster Chemical Abundances and Mapping (OCCAM) Survey: Galactic Neutron Capture Abundance Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, Julia; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Melendez, Matthew; Cunha, Katia M. L.; Majewski, Steven R.; Zasowski, Gail; APOGEE Team

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of elements, as a function or age, throughout the Milky Way disk provides a key constraint for galaxy evolution models. In an effort to provide these constraints, we have conducted an investigation into the r- and s- process elemental abundances for a large sample of open clusters as part of an optical follow-up to the SDSS-III/APOGEE-1 survey. Stars were identified as cluster members by the Open Cluster Chemical Abundance & Mapping (OCCAM) survey, which culls member candidates by radial velocity, metallicity, and proper motion from the observed APOGEE sample. To obtain data for neutron capture elements in these clusters, we conducted a long-term observing campaign covering three years (2013-2016) using the McDonald Observatory Otto Struve 2.1-m telescope and Sandiford Cass Echelle Spectrograph (R ~ 60,000). We present Galactic neutron-capture abundance gradients using 30+ clusters, within 6 kpc of the Sun, covering a range of ages from ~80 Myr to ~10 Gyr .

  8. The Open Cluster Chemical Abundances and Mapping (OCCAM) Survey: Galactic Neutron CaptureAbundance Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, Julia; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Melendez, Matthew; Cunha, Katia; Majewski, Steven R.; Zasowski, Gail; APOGEE Team

    2017-06-01

    The evolution of elements, as a function or age, throughout the Milky Way disk provides a key constraint for galaxy evolution models. In an effort to provide these constraints, we have conducted an investigation into the r- and s- process elemental abundances for a large sample of open clusters as part of an optical follow-up to the SDSS-III/APOGEE-1 survey. Stars were identified as cluster members by the Open Cluster Chemical Abundance & Mapping (OCCAM) survey, which culls member candidates by radial velocity, metallicity and proper motion from the observed APOGEE sample. To obtain data for neutron capture elements in these clusters, we conducted a long-term observing campaign covering three years (2013-2016) using the McDonald Observatory Otto Struve 2.1-m telescope and Sandiford Cass Echelle Spectrograph (R ~ 60,000). We present Galactic neutron capture abundance gradients using 30+ clusters, within 6 kpc of the Sun, covering a range of ages from ~80 Myr to ~10 Gyr .

  9. Abundance models improve spatial and temporal prioritization of conservation resources.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Alison; Fink, Daniel; Reynolds, Mark D; Hochachka, Wesley M; Sullivan, Brian L; Bruns, Nicholas E; Hallstein, Eric; Merrifield, Matt S; Matsumoto, Sandi; Kelling, Steve

    2015-10-01

    Conservation prioritization requires knowledge about organism distribution and density. This information is often inferred from models that estimate the probability of species occurrence rather than from models that estimate species abundance, because abundance data are harder to obtain and model. However, occurrence and abundance may not display similar patterns and therefore development of robust, scalable, abundance models is critical to ensuring that scarce conservation resources are applied where they can have the greatest benefits. Motivated by a dynamic land conservation program, we develop and assess a general method for modeling relative abundance using citizen science monitoring data. Weekly estimates of relative abundance and occurrence were compared for prioritizing times and locations of conservation actions for migratory waterbird species in California, USA. We found that abundance estimates consistently provided better rankings of observed counts than occurrence estimates. Additionally, the relationship between abundance and occurrence was nonlinear and varied by species and season. Across species, locations prioritized by occurrence models had only 10-58% overlap with locations prioritized by abundance models, highlighting that occurrence models will not typically identify the locations of highest abundance that are vital for conservation of populations.

  10. Solar abundances as derived from solar energetic particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, E. C.

    1989-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that there are well defined average abundances of heavy (Z above 2) solar energetic particles (SEPs), with variations in the acceleration and propagation producing a systematic flare-to-flare fractionation that depends on the charge per unit mass of the ion. Correcting the average SEP abundances for this fractionation yields SEP-derived coronal abundances for 20 elements. High-resolution SEP studies have also provided isotopic abundances for five elements. SEP-derived abundances indicate that elements with high first ionization potentials (greater than 10 eV) are depleted in the corona relative to the photosphere and provide new information on the solar abundance of C and Ne-22.

  11. Fluorine Abundances in AGB Carbon Stars: New Results?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abia, C.; de Laverny, P.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Domínguez, I.; Cristallo, S.; Straniero, O.

    2009-09-01

    A recent reanalysis of the fluorine abundance in three Galactic Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) carbon stars (TX Psc, AQ Sgr and R Scl) by Abia et al. (2009) results in estimates of fluorine abundances systematically lower by ~0.8 dex on average, with respect to the sole previous estimates by Jorissen, Smith & Lambert (1992). The new F abundances are in better agreement with the predictions of full-network stellar models of low-mass (<3 Msolar) AGB stars.

  12. Heavy Element Abundances in NGC 5846

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Christine

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the diffuse X-ray coronae surrounding the elliptical galaxy NGC 5846, combining measurements from two observatories, ROSAT and the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics. We map the gas temperature distribution and find a central cool region within an approximately isothermal gas halo extending to a radius of about 50 kpc and evidence for a temperature decrease at larger radii. With a radially falling temperature profile, the total mass converges to (9.6 +/- 1.0) x 10(exp 12) solar mass at 230 kpc radius. This corresponds to a total mass to blue light ratio of 53 +/- 5 solar mass/solar luminosity. As in other early type galaxies, the gas mass is only a few percent of the total mass. Using the spectroscopic measurements, we also derive radial distributions for the heavy elements silicon and iron and find that the abundances of both decrease with galaxy radius. The mass ratio of Si to Fe lies between the theoretical predictions for element production in SN Ia and SN II, suggesting an important role for SN Ia, as well as SN II, for gas enrichment in ellipticals. Using the 2 SN la yield of Si, we set an upper limit of 0.012 h(sup 2, sub 50) solar neutrino units (SNU) for the SN Ia rate at radii >50 kpc, which is independent of possible uncertainties in the iron L-shell modeling. We compare our observations with the theoretical predictions for the chemical evolution of ellipticals. We conclude that the metal content in stars, if explained by the star formation duration, requires a significant decline in the duration of star formation with galaxy radius, ranging from 1 Gyr at the center to 0.01 Gyr at 100 kpc radius. Alternatively, the decline in metallicity with galaxy radius may be caused by a similar drop with radius in the efficiency of star formation. Based on the Si and Fe measurements presented in this paper, we conclude that the latter scenario is preferred unless a dependence of the SN Ia rate on stellar metallicity is invoked.

  13. Highly Siderophile Element Abundances in Martian Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. H.; Neal, C. R.; Ely, J. C.

    2001-01-01

    Critical evaluation of new and literature data for highly siderophile elements (HSE) in Martian (SNC) meteorites allows several first order conclusions to be drawn. (i) Re concentrations in SNC meteorites are nearly constant (within a factor of two) and do not correlate with rock type. Exceptions to this rule are Chassigny and Dar al Gani (DaG) 476, both of which are inferred to have experienced terrestrial Re contamination. (ii) Fractionations between Rh and Pd are small. Excluding Shergotty, the Rh/Pd ratio of the SNC suite is 0.22\\pm0.05. (iii) Os and Ir contents vary by about four orders of magnitude; and positive correlations with MgO, Cr, and Ni suggest that these variations are not controlled by sulfide fractionation. A possible exception is the orthopyroxenite ALH84001, whose HSE's (including Ni, which is compatible in opx) are very low. (iv) Zagami, Shergotty, and Nakhla have nearly identical HSE signatures. Shergotty and Zagami have experienced assimilation-fractional crystallization (AFC) and have "crustal" Sr and Nd isotopic signatures. Conversely, the Nakhla parent was a small degree partial melt of a depleted mantle that interacted little with the Martian crust. These observations suggest that "evolved" HSE signatures can be produced by either fractional crystallization or small degrees of partial melting. (v) Chassigny and other mafic SNC's have HSE signatures that are very distinct from those of Nakhla-Zagami-Shergotty. The HSE elemental ratios of mafic SNC's approach chondritic, implying that the Martian mantle has nearly chondritic relative abundances of the HSE's. (vi) This chondritic HSE signature is observed in SNC's of various ages, suggesting that this is an ancient feature that has not evolved over time. (vii) No correlation is observed between HSE's and signatures of crustal contamination (e.g., Sr isotopes), indicating that the HSE signatures of the SNC suite are not derived from the crust. (vii) The Ru/Pd for the SNC suite ratio is about

  14. The metal-rich abundance pattern - spectroscopic properties and abundances for 107 main-sequence stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanyuk, O. M.; Jenkins, J. S.; Pavlenko, Ya. V.; Jones, H. R. A.; Pinfield, D. J.

    2017-07-01

    We report results from the high-resolution spectral analysis of the 107 metal-rich (mostly [Fe/H] ≥ 7.67 dex) target stars from the Calan-Hertfordshire Extrasolar Planet Search programme observed with HARPS. Using our procedure of finding the best fit to the absorption line profiles in the observed spectra, we measure the abundances of Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn, and then compare them with known results from different authors. Most of our abundances agree with these works at the level of ±0.05 dex or better for the stars we have in common. However, we do find systematic differences that make direct inferences difficult. Our analysis suggests that the selection of line lists and atomic line data along with the adopted continuum level influence these differences the most. At the same time, we confirm the positive trends of abundances versus metallicity for Na, Mn, Ni and, to a lesser degree, Al. A slight negative trend is observed for Ca, whereas Si and Cr tend to follow iron. Our analysis allows us to determine the positively skewed normal distribution of projected rotational velocities with a maximum peaking at 3 km s-1. Finally, we obtained a Gaussian distribution of microturbulent velocities that has a maximum at 1.2 km s-1 and a full width at half-maximum Δv1/2 = 0.35 km s-1, indicating that metal-rich dwarfs and subgiants in our sample have a very restricted range in microturbulent velocity.

  15. Column abundance measurements of atmospheric hydroxyl at 45 deg S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, S. W.; Keep, D. J.; Burnett, C. R.; Burnett, E. B.

    1994-01-01

    The first Southern Hemisphere measurements of the vertical column abundance of atmospheric hydroxyl (OH) have been obtained at Lauder, New Zealand (45 deg S) with a PEPSIOS instrument measuring the absorption of sunlight at 308 nm. The variation of column OH with solar zenith angle is similar to that measured at other sites. However average annual abundances of OH are about 20% higher than those found by similar measurements at 40 deg N. Minimum OH abundances about 10% less than average levels at 40 deg N, are observed during austral spring. The OH abundance abruptly increases by 30% in early summer and remains at the elevated level until late the following winter.

  16. Differential expression and regulation of vitamin D hydroxylases and inflammatory genes in prostate stroma and epithelium by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in men with prostate cancer and an in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Giangreco, Angeline A; Dambal, Shweta; Wagner, Dennis; Van der Kwast, Theodorus; Vieth, Reinhold; Prins, Gail S; Nonn, Larisa

    2015-04-01

    Previous work on vitamin D in the prostate has focused on the prostatic epithelium, from which prostate cancer arises. Prostatic epithelial cells are surrounded by stroma, which has well-established regulatory control over epithelial proliferation, differentiation, and the inflammatory response. Here we examined the regulation of vitamin D-related genes and inflammatory genes by 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D) in laser-capture microdissected prostate tissue from a vitamin D3 clinical trial and in an in vitro model that facilitates stromal-epithelial crosstalk. Analysis of the trial tissues showed that VDR was present in both cell types, whereas expression of the hydroxylases was the highest in the epithelium. Examination of gene expression by prostatic (1,25(OH)2D) concentrations showed that VDR was significantly lower in prostate tissues with the highest concentration of 1,25(OH)2D, and down-regulation of VDR by 1,25(OH) 2D was confirmed in the primary cell cultures. Analysis of inflammatory genes in the patient tissues revealed that IL-6 expression was the highest in the prostate stroma while PTGS2 (COX2) levels were lowest in the prostate cancer tissues from men in the highest tertile of prostatic 1,25(OH)2D. In vitro, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 were suppressed by 1,25 (OH)2D in the primary epithelial cells, whereas TNF-α and PTGS2 were suppressed by 1,25(OH) 2D in the stromal cells. Importantly, the ability of 1,25(OH)2D to alter pro-inflammatory-induced changes in epithelial cell growth were dependent on the presence of the stromal cells. In summary, whereas both stromal and epithelial cells of the prostate express VDR and can presumably respond to 1,25(OH)2D, the prostatic epithelium appears to be the main producer of 1,25(OH)2D. Further, while the prostate epithelium was more responsive to the anti-inflammatory activity of 1,25 (OH)2D than stromal cells, stroma-epithelial crosstalk enhanced the phenotypic effects of 1,25(OH)2D and the inflammatory

  17. Climatic effects on mosquito abundance in Mediterranean wetlands

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of climate change on vector-borne diseases is highly controversial. One of the principal points of debate is whether or not climate influences mosquito abundance, a key factor in disease transmission. Methods To test this hypothesis, we analysed ten years of data (2003–2012) from biweekly surveys to assess inter-annual and seasonal relationships between the abundance of seven mosquito species known to be pathogen vectors (West Nile virus, Usutu virus, dirofilariasis and Plasmodium sp.) and several climatic variables in two wetlands in SW Spain. Results Within-season abundance patterns were related to climatic variables (i.e. temperature, rainfall, tide heights, relative humidity and photoperiod) that varied according to the mosquito species in question. Rainfall during winter months was positively related to Culex pipiens and Ochlerotatus detritus annual abundances. Annual maximum temperatures were non-linearly related to annual Cx. pipiens abundance, while annual mean temperatures were positively related to annual Ochlerotatus caspius abundance. Finally, we modelled shifts in mosquito abundances using the A2 and B2 temperature and rainfall climate change scenarios for the period 2011–2100. While Oc. caspius, an important anthropophilic species, may increase in abundance, no changes are expected for Cx. pipiens or the salt-marsh mosquito Oc. detritus. Conclusions Our results highlight that the effects of climate are species-specific, place-specific and non-linear and that linear approaches will therefore overestimate the effect of climate change on mosquito abundances at high temperatures. Climate warming does not necessarily lead to an increase in mosquito abundance in natural Mediterranean wetlands and will affect, above all, species such as Oc. caspius whose numbers are not closely linked to rainfall and are influenced, rather, by local tidal patterns and temperatures. The final impact of changes in vector abundance on disease frequency

  18. Stellar oxygen abundances. I - A resolution to the 7774 A O I abundance discrepancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Jeremy R.

    1993-09-01

    We investigate the discrepancy between O/Fe abundance ratios of metal-poor stars derived from the 7774 A O I triplet and O/Fe ratios determined from other oxygen lines. We propose a possible resolution to this discrepancy which also eliminates the correlation of O/Fe and T(eff) found in a recent 7774 A O I analysis. The equivalent widths of Abia & Rebolo (1989) are found to be systematically too high by 25 percent. Arguments are presented that current temperature estimates for halo stars are 150-200 K too low. Using the guidance of both model atmospheres and other empirical color-T(eff) relations, we construct new color temperature relations for metal-poor stars. These relations are tied to the temperature scale of Saxner & Hammarback (1985) for metal-rich stars. We use (b-y) and (V-K) indices to redetermine values of T(eff) for a handful of halo stars. (B-V)-T(eff) relations which do not take into account the effects of metallicity are found to be inadequate. Revised O/Fe ratios are determined using the new temperature scale. The mean abundance ratio of the reanalyzed halo dwarfs is about +0.52. There is no trend of O/Fe with Fe/H or T(eff).

  19. Abundance and productivity of birds over an elevational gradient

    Treesearch

    Kathryn L. Purcell

    2002-01-01

    This study is investigating the abundance and productivity of birds breeding in four forest types over an elevational gradient in conifer forests of the southern Sierra Nevada of California to identify the most productive habitats for each species, and to examine elevational shifts in abundance, especially as they relate to temperature and precipitation. Species...

  20. Influence of summer biogeography on wood warbler stopover abundance

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey F. Kelly; Rob Smith; Deborah M. Finch; Frank R. Moore; Wang Yong

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of summer biogeography of migrant wood warblers (Parulidae) on their stopover abundance. To characterize abundance patterns, we used mist-net capture data from spring and fall migration in the Middle Rio Grande Valley, New Mexico, spring migration on the Gulf Coast of Louisiana, and fall migration on the Gulf Coast of Alabama. To describe the...

  1. The Abundance and Distribution of Presolar Materials in Cluster IDPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messenger, Scott; Keller, Lindsay; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko; Ito, Motoo

    2007-01-01

    Presolar grains and remnants of interstellar organic compounds occur in a wide range of primitive solar system materials, including meteorites, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), and comet Wild-2 samples. Among the most abundant presolar phases are silicate stardust grains and molecular cloud material. However, these materials have also been susceptible to destruction and alteration during parent body and nebular processing. In addition to their importance as direct samples of remote and ancient astrophysical environments, presolar materials thus provide a measure of how well different primitive bodies have preserved the original solar system starting materials. The matrix normalized abundances of presolar silicate grains in meteorites range from 20 ppm in Semarkona and Bishunpur to 170 ppm for Acfer 094. The lower abundances of presolar silicates in Bishunpur and Semarkona has been ascribed to the destruction of presolar silicates during aqueous processes. Presolar silicates appear to be significantly more abundant in anhydrous IDPs, possibly because these materials did not experience parent body hydrothermal alteration. Among IDPs the estimated abundances of presolar silicates vary by more than an order of magnitude, from 480 to 5500 ppm. The wide disparity in the abundances of presolar silicates of IDPs may be a consequence of the relatively small total area analyzed in those studies and the fine grain sizes of the IDPs. Alternatively, there may be a wide range in presolar silicate abundances between different IDPs. This view is supported by the observation that 15N-rich IDPs have higher presolar silicate abundances than those with isotopically normal N.

  2. Mechanisms driving postfire abundance of a generalist mammal

    Treesearch

    R. Zwolak; D. E. Pearson; Y. K. Ortega; E. E. Crone

    2012-01-01

    Changes in vertebrate abundance following disturbance are commonly attributed to shifts in food resources or predation pressure, but underlying mechanisms have rarely been tested. We examined four hypotheses for the commonly reported increase in abundance of deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus (Wagner, 1845)) following forest fires: source-sink dynamics, decreased...

  3. An abundance analysis of Tau Herculis, B5 IV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, S. J.

    1977-01-01

    An abundance analysis of the sharp-lined star Tau Herculis (B5 IV) has been performed using a fully line-blanketed model atmosphere. The derived abundances are similar to those of the sun and the normal main-sequence B stars Iota Her (B3 V) and Nu Cap (B9 V).

  4. Nucleosynthesis: Stellar and Solar Abundances and Atomic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowan, John J.; Lawler, James E.; Sneden, Christopher; DenHartog, E. A.; Collier, Jason; Dodge, Homer L.

    2006-01-01

    Abundance observations indicate the presence of often surprisingly large amounts of neutron capture (i.e., s- and r-process) elements in old Galactic halo and globular cluster stars. These observations provide insight into the nature of the earliest generations of stars in the Galaxy the progenitors of the halo stars responsible for neutron-capture synthesis. Comparisons of abundance trends can be used to understand the chemical evolution of the Galaxy and the nature of heavy element nucleosynthesis. In addition age determinations, based upon long-lived radioactive nuclei abundances, can now be obtained. These stellar abundance determinations depend critically upon atomic data. Improved laboratory transition probabilities have been recently obtained for a number of elements. These new gf values have been used to greatly refine the abundances of neutron-capture elemental abundances in the solar photosphere and in very metal-poor Galactic halo stars. The newly determined stellar abundances are surprisingly consistent with a (relative) Solar System r-process pattern, and are also consistent with abundance predictions expected from such neutron-capture nucleosynthesis.

  5. Interstellar Dust Models Consistent with Extinction, Emission, and Abundance Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubko, Viktor; Dwek, Eli; Arendt, Richard G.

    2004-01-01

    We present new interstellar dust models which have been derived by simultaneously fitting the far ultraviolet to near infrared extinction, the diffuse infrared emission, and, unlike previous models, the elemental abundances in dust for the diffuse interstellar medium. We found that dust models consisting of a mixture of spherical graphite and silicate grains, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules, in addition to porous composite particles containing silicate, organic refractory, and water ice, provide an improved .t to the UV-to-infrared extinction and infrared emission measurements, while consuming the amounts of elements well within the uncertainties of adopted interstellar abundances, including B star abundances. These models are a signi.cant improvement over the recent Li & Draine (2001, ApJ, 554, 778) model which requires an excessive amount of silicon to be locked up in dust: 48 ppm (atoms per million of H atoms), considerably more than the solar abundance of 34 ppm or the B star abundance of 19 ppm.

  6. Carbon and nitrogen abundances determined from transition layer lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm-Vitense, Erika; Mena-Werth, Jose

    1992-01-01

    The possibility of determining relative carbon, nitrogen, and silicon abundances from the emission-line fluxes in the lower transition layers between stellar chromospheres and coronae is explored. Observations for main-sequence and luminosity class IV stars with presumably solar element abundances show that for the lower transition layers Em = BT sup -gamma. For a given carbon abundance the constants gamma and B in this relation can be determined from the C II and C IV emission-line fluxes. From the N V and S IV lines, the abundances of these elements relative to carbon can be determined from their surface emission-line fluxes. Ratios of N/C abundances determined in this way for some giants and supergiants agree within the limits of errors with those determined from molecular bands. For giants, an increase in the ratio of N/C at B-V of about 0.8 is found, as expected theoretically.

  7. Elevated S100A9 expression in tumor stroma functions as an early recurrence marker for early-stage oral cancer patients through increased tumor cell invasion, angiogenesis, macrophage recruitment and interleukin-6 production

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Wei-Yu; Chen, Yi-Wen; Hsiao, Jenn-Ren; Liu, Chiang-Shin; Kuo, Yi-Zih; Wang, Yi-Ching; Chang, Kung-Chao; Tsai, Sen-Tien; Chang, Mei-Zhu; Lin, Siao-Han; Wu, Li-Wha

    2015-01-01

    S100A9 is a calcium-binding protein with two EF-hands and frequently deregulated in several cancer types, however, with no clear role in oral cancer. In this report, the expression of S100A9 in cancer and adjacent tissues from 79 early-stage oral cancer patients was detected by immunohistochemical staining. Although S100A9 protein was present in both tumor and stromal cells, only the early-stage oral cancer patients with high stromal expression had reduced recurrence-free survival. High stromal S100A9 expression was also significantly associated with non-well differentiation and recurrence. In addition to increasing cell migration and invasion, ectopic S100A9 expression in tumor cells promoted xenograft tumorigenesis as well as the dominant expression of myeloid cell markers and pro-inflammatory IL-6. The expression of S100A9 in one stromal component, monocytes, stimulated the aggressiveness of co-cultured oral cancer cells. We also detected the elevation of serum S100A9 levels in early-stage oral cancer patients of a separate cohort of 73 oral cancer patients. The release of S100A9 protein into extracellular milieu enhanced tumor cell invasion, transendothelial monocyte migration and angiogenic activity. S100A9-mediated release of IL-6 requires the crosstalk of tumor cells with monocytes through the activation of NF-κB and STAT-3. Early-stage oral cancer patients with both high S100A9 expression and high CD68+ immune infiltrates in stroma had shortest recurrence-free survival, suggesting the use of both S100A9 and CD68 as poor prognostic markers for oral cancer. Together, both intracellular and extracellular S100A9 exerts a tumor-promoting action through the activation of oral cancer cells and their associated stroma in oral carcinogenesis. PMID:26315114

  8. Elevated S100A9 expression in tumor stroma functions as an early recurrence marker for early-stage oral cancer patients through increased tumor cell invasion, angiogenesis, macrophage recruitment and interleukin-6 production.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wei-Yu; Chen, Yi-Wen; Hsiao, Jenn-Ren; Liu, Chiang-Shin; Kuo, Yi-Zih; Wang, Yi-Ching; Chang, Kung-Chao; Tsai, Sen-Tien; Chang, Mei-Zhu; Lin, Siao-Han; Wu, Li-Wha

    2015-09-29

    S100A9 is a calcium-binding protein with two EF-hands and frequently deregulated in several cancer types, however, with no clear role in oral cancer. In this report, the expression of S100A9 in cancer and adjacent tissues from 79 early-stage oral cancer patients was detected by immunohistochemical staining. Although S100A9 protein was present in both tumor and stromal cells, only the early-stage oral cancer patients with high stromal expression had reduced recurrence-free survival. High stromal S100A9 expression was also significantly associated with non-well differentiation and recurrence. In addition to increasing cell migration and invasion, ectopic S100A9 expression in tumor cells promoted xenograft tumorigenesis as well as the dominant expression of myeloid cell markers and pro-inflammatory IL-6. The expression of S100A9 in one stromal component, monocytes, stimulated the aggressiveness of co-cultured oral cancer cells. We also detected the elevation of serum S100A9 levels in early-stage oral cancer patients of a separate cohort of 73 oral cancer patients. The release of S100A9 protein into extracellular milieu enhanced tumor cell invasion, transendothelial monocyte migration and angiogenic activity. S100A9-mediated release of IL-6 requires the crosstalk of tumor cells with monocytes through the activation of NF-κB and STAT-3. Early-stage oral cancer patients with both high S100A9 expression and high CD68+ immune infiltrates in stroma had shortest recurrence-free survival, suggesting the use of both S100A9 and CD68 as poor prognostic markers for oral cancer. Together, both intracellular and extracellular S100A9 exerts a tumor-promoting action through the activation of oral cancer cells and their associated stroma in oral carcinogenesis.

  9. The Lithium Abundances of a Large Sample of Red Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. J.; Tan, K. F.; Wang, L.; Zhao, G.; Sato, Bun'ei; Takeda, Y.; Li, H. N.

    2014-04-01

    The lithium abundances for 378 G/K giants are derived with non-local thermodynamic equilibrium correction considered. Among these are 23 stars that host planetary systems. The lithium abundance is investigated, as a function of metallicity, effective temperature, and rotational velocity, as well as the impact of a giant planet on G/K giants. The results show that the lithium abundance is a function of metallicity and effective temperature. The lithium abundance has no correlation with rotational velocity at v sin i < 10 km s-1. Giants with planets present lower lithium abundance and slow rotational velocity (v sin i < 4 km s-1). Our sample includes three Li-rich G/K giants, 36 Li-normal stars, and 339 Li-depleted stars. The fraction of Li-rich stars in this sample agrees with the general rate of less than 1% in the literature, and the stars that show normal amounts of Li are supposed to possess the same abundance at the current interstellar medium. For the Li-depleted giants, Li-deficiency may have already taken place at the main sequence stage for many intermediate mass (1.5-5 M ⊙) G/K giants. Finally, we present the lithium abundance and kinematic parameters for an enlarged sample of 565 giants using a compilation of the literature, and confirm that the lithium abundance is a function of metallicity and effective temperature. With the enlarged sample, we investigate the differences between the lithium abundance in thin-/thick-disk giants, which indicate that the lithium abundance in thick-disk giants is more depleted than that in thin-disk giants.

  10. The lithium abundances of a large sample of red giants

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y. J.; Tan, K. F.; Wang, L.

    2014-04-20

    The lithium abundances for 378 G/K giants are derived with non-local thermodynamic equilibrium correction considered. Among these are 23 stars that host planetary systems. The lithium abundance is investigated, as a function of metallicity, effective temperature, and rotational velocity, as well as the impact of a giant planet on G/K giants. The results show that the lithium abundance is a function of metallicity and effective temperature. The lithium abundance has no correlation with rotational velocity at v sin i < 10 km s{sup –1}. Giants with planets present lower lithium abundance and slow rotational velocity (v sin i < 4more » km s{sup –1}). Our sample includes three Li-rich G/K giants, 36 Li-normal stars, and 339 Li-depleted stars. The fraction of Li-rich stars in this sample agrees with the general rate of less than 1% in the literature, and the stars that show normal amounts of Li are supposed to possess the same abundance at the current interstellar medium. For the Li-depleted giants, Li-deficiency may have already taken place at the main sequence stage for many intermediate mass (1.5-5 M {sub ☉}) G/K giants. Finally, we present the lithium abundance and kinematic parameters for an enlarged sample of 565 giants using a compilation of the literature, and confirm that the lithium abundance is a function of metallicity and effective temperature. With the enlarged sample, we investigate the differences between the lithium abundance in thin-/thick-disk giants, which indicate that the lithium abundance in thick-disk giants is more depleted than that in thin-disk giants.« less

  11. Patterns of rare and abundant marine microbial eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Logares, Ramiro; Audic, Stéphane; Bass, David; Bittner, Lucie; Boutte, Christophe; Christen, Richard; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Decelle, Johan; Dolan, John R; Dunthorn, Micah; Edvardsen, Bente; Gobet, Angélique; Kooistra, Wiebe H C F; Mahé, Frédéric; Not, Fabrice; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Pawlowski, Jan; Pernice, Massimo C; Romac, Sarah; Shalchian-Tabrizi, Kamran; Simon, Nathalie; Stoeck, Thorsten; Santini, Sébastien; Siano, Raffaele; Wincker, Patrick; Zingone, Adriana; Richards, Thomas A; de Vargas, Colomban; Massana, Ramon

    2014-04-14

    Biological communities are normally composed of a few abundant and many rare species. This pattern is particularly prominent in microbial communities, in which most constituent taxa are usually extremely rare. Although abundant and rare subcommunities may present intrinsic characteristics that could be crucial for understanding community dynamics and ecosystem functioning, microbiologists normally do not differentiate between them. Here, we investigate abundant and rare subcommunities of marine microbial eukaryotes, a crucial group of organisms that remains among the least-explored biodiversity components of the biosphere. We surveyed surface waters of six separate coastal locations in Europe, independently considering the picoplankton, nanoplankton, and microplankton/mesoplankton organismal size fractions. Deep Illumina sequencing of the 18S rRNA indicated that the abundant regional community was mostly structured by organismal size fraction, whereas the rare regional community was mainly structured by geographic origin. However, some abundant and rare taxa presented similar biogeography, pointing to spatiotemporal structure in the rare microeukaryote biosphere. Abundant and rare subcommunities presented regular proportions across samples, indicating similar species-abundance distributions despite taxonomic compositional variation. Several taxa were abundant in one location and rare in other locations, suggesting large oscillations in abundance. The substantial amount of metabolically active lineages found in the rare biosphere suggests that this subcommunity constitutes a diversity reservoir that can respond rapidly to environmental change. We propose that marine planktonic microeukaryote assemblages incorporate dynamic and metabolically active abundant and rare subcommunities, with contrasting structuring patterns but fairly regular proportions, across space and time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of deer abundance on the abundance of questing adult Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, H.S.; Zhioua, E.

    1999-01-01

    Nymphal and adult Ixodes scapularis Say were sampled by flagging at 2 sites on a barrier island, Fire Island, NY, and at 2 sites on the nearby mainland. Nymphal densities did not differ consistently between island and mainland sites, but adult densities were consistently lower on the island. We tested whether lower adult densities on the island resulted from greater nymphal mortality on the island than the mainland, or whether adult ticks on the island were poorly sampled by flagging because they had attached abundantly to deer, which were common on Fire Island. Differential nymphal mortality on islands vs. mainland did not explain this difference in adult densities because survival of flat and engorged nymphs in enclosures was the same at island and mainland sites. Ticks were infected by parasitic wasps on the island and not the mainland, but the infection rate (4.3%) was too low to explain the difference in adult tick densities. In contrast, exclusion of deer by game fencing on Fire Island resulted in markedly increased numbers of adult ticks in flagging samples inside compared to samples taken outside the exclosures. Therefore, the scarcity of adult ticks in flagging samples on Fire Island resulted, at least in part, from the ticks being unavailable to flagging samples because they were on deer hosts. Differences in the densities of flagged ticks inside and outside the exclosures were used to estimate the percentage of questing adults on Fire Island that found deer hosts, excluding those that attached to other host species. Approximately 56% of these questing adult ticks found deer hosts in 1995 and 50% found deer hosts in 1996. Therefore, in areas where vertebrate hosts are highly abundant, large proportions of the questing tick population can find hosts. Moreover, comparisons of tick densities at different sites by flagging can potentially be biased by differences in host densities among sites.

  13. Model reduction for stochastic chemical systems with abundant species.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephen; Cianci, Claudia; Grima, Ramon

    2015-12-07

    Biochemical processes typically involve many chemical species, some in abundance and some in low molecule numbers. We first identify the rate constant limits under which the concentrations of a given set of species will tend to infinity (the abundant species) while the concentrations of all other species remains constant (the non-abundant species). Subsequently, we prove that, in this limit, the fluctuations in the molecule numbers of non-abundant species are accurately described by a hybrid stochastic description consisting of a chemical master equation coupled to deterministic rate equations. This is a reduced description when compared to the conventional chemical master equation which describes the fluctuations in both abundant and non-abundant species. We show that the reduced master equation can be solved exactly for a number of biochemical networks involving gene expression and enzyme catalysis, whose conventional chemical master equation description is analytically impenetrable. We use the linear noise approximation to obtain approximate expressions for the difference between the variance of fluctuations in the non-abundant species as predicted by the hybrid approach and by the conventional chemical master equation. Furthermore, we show that surprisingly, irrespective of any separation in the mean molecule numbers of various species, the conventional and hybrid master equations exactly agree for a class of chemical systems.

  14. Implications of Abundant Gas and Oil for Climate Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmonds, J.

    2015-12-01

    Perhaps the most important development in the field of energy over the past decade has been the advent of technologies that enable the production of larger volumes of natural gas and oil at lower cost. The availability of more abundant gas and oil is reshaping the global energy system, with implications for both evolving emissions of CO2 and other climate forcers. More abundant gas and oil will also transform the character of greenhouse gas emissions mitigation. We review recent findings regarding the impact of abundant gas and oil for climate forcing and the challenge of emissions mitigation. We find strong evidence that, absent policies to limits its penetration against renewable energy, abundant gas has little observable impact on CO2 emissions, and tends to increase overall climate forcing, though the latter finding is subject to substantial uncertainty. The presence of abundant gas also affects emissions mitigation. There is relatively little literature exploring the implication of expanded gas availability on the difficulty in meeting emissions mitigation goals. However, preliminary results indicate that on global scales abundant gas does not substantially affect the cost of emissions mitigation, even though natural gas could have an expanded role in emissions mitigation scenarios as compared with scenarios in which natural gas is less abundant.

  15. Chemical abundances of globular clusters in NGC 5128 (Centaurus A)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Svea; Larsen, Søren; Trager, Scott; Kaper, Lex; Groot, Paul

    2018-06-01

    We perform a detailed abundance analysis on integrated-light spectra of 20 globular clusters (GCs) in the early-type galaxy NGC 5128 (Centaurus A). The GCs were observed with X-Shooter on the Very Large Telescope (VLT). The cluster sample spans a metallicity range of -1.92 < [Fe/H] < -0.13 dex. Using theoretical isochrones, we compute synthetic integrated-light spectra and iterate the individual abundances until the best fit to the observations is obtained. We measured abundances of Mg, Ca, and Ti, and find a slightly higher enhancement in NGC 5128 GCs with metallicities [Fe/H] < -0.75 dex, of the order of ˜0.1 dex, than in the average values observed in the Milky Way (MW) for GCs of the same metallicity. If this α-enhancement in the metal-poor GCs in NGC 5128 is genuine, it could hint at a chemical enrichment history different than that experienced by the MW. We also measure Na abundances in 9 out of 20 GCs. We find evidence for intracluster abundance variations in six of these clusters where we see enhanced [Na/Fe] > +0.25 dex. We obtain the first abundance measurements of Cr, Mn, and Ni for a sample of the GC population in NGC 5128 and find consistency with the overall trends observed in the MW, with a slight enhancement (<0.1 dex) in the Fe-peak abundances measured in the NGC 5128.

  16. Seasonal Abundance of Aphids and Aphidophagous Insects in Pecan

    PubMed Central

    Dutcher, James D.; Karar, Haider; Abbas, Ghulam

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal occurrence of aphids and aphidophagous insects was monitored for six years (2006–2011) from full leaf expansion in May to leaf fall in October in “Desirable” variety pecan trees that were not treated with insecticides. Aphid outbreaks occurred two times per season, once in the spring and again in the late summer. Yellow pecan and blackmargined aphids exceeded the recommended treatment thresholds one time and black pecan aphids exceeded the recommended treatment levels three times over the six seasons. Increases in aphidophagous insect abundance coincided with aphid outbreaks in five of the six seasons. Among aphidophagous insects Harmonia axyridis and Olla v-nigrum were frequently collected in both the tree canopy and at the ground level, whereas, Coccinella septempunctata, Hippodamia convergens were rarely found in the tree canopy and commonly found at the ground level. Green lacewing abundance was higher in the ground level than in the tree canopy. Brown lacewings were more abundant in the tree canopy than at the ground level. Dolichopodid and syrphid fly abundance, at the ground level increased during peak aphid abundance in the tree canopy. Application of an aqueous solution of fermenting molasses to the pecan foliage during an aphid outbreak significantly increased the abundance of ladybeetles and lacewings and significantly reduced the abundance of yellow pecan, blackmargined and black pecan aphids. PMID:26466738

  17. Model reduction for stochastic chemical systems with abundant species

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Stephen; Cianci, Claudia; Grima, Ramon

    2015-12-07

    Biochemical processes typically involve many chemical species, some in abundance and some in low molecule numbers. We first identify the rate constant limits under which the concentrations of a given set of species will tend to infinity (the abundant species) while the concentrations of all other species remains constant (the non-abundant species). Subsequently, we prove that, in this limit, the fluctuations in the molecule numbers of non-abundant species are accurately described by a hybrid stochastic description consisting of a chemical master equation coupled to deterministic rate equations. This is a reduced description when compared to the conventional chemical master equationmore » which describes the fluctuations in both abundant and non-abundant species. We show that the reduced master equation can be solved exactly for a number of biochemical networks involving gene expression and enzyme catalysis, whose conventional chemical master equation description is analytically impenetrable. We use the linear noise approximation to obtain approximate expressions for the difference between the variance of fluctuations in the non-abundant species as predicted by the hybrid approach and by the conventional chemical master equation. Furthermore, we show that surprisingly, irrespective of any separation in the mean molecule numbers of various species, the conventional and hybrid master equations exactly agree for a class of chemical systems.« less

  18. Dam removal increases American eel abundance in distant headwater streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Eyler, Sheila; Wofford, John E.B.

    2012-01-01

    American eel Anguilla rostrata abundances have undergone significant declines over the last 50 years, and migration barriers have been recognized as a contributing cause. We evaluated eel abundances in headwater streams of Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, to compare sites before and after the removal of a large downstream dam in 2004 (Embrey Dam, Rappahannock River). Eel abundances in headwater streams increased significantly after the removal of Embrey Dam. Observed eel abundances after dam removal exceeded predictions derived from autoregressive models parameterized with data prior to dam removal. Mann–Kendall analyses also revealed consistent increases in eel abundances from 2004 to 2010 but inconsistent temporal trends before dam removal. Increasing eel numbers could not be attributed to changes in local physical habitat (i.e., mean stream depth or substrate size) or regional population dynamics (i.e., abundances in Maryland streams or Virginia estuaries). Dam removal was associated with decreasing minimum eel lengths in headwater streams, suggesting that the dam previously impeded migration of many small-bodied individuals (<300 mm TL). We hypothesize that restoring connectivity to headwater streams could increase eel population growth rates by increasing female eel numbers and fecundity. This study demonstrated that dams may influence eel abundances in headwater streams up to 150 river kilometers distant, and that dam removal may provide benefits for eel management and conservation at the landscape scale.

  19. How Ants Drop Out: Ant Abundance on Tropical Mountains

    PubMed Central

    Longino, John T.; Branstetter, Michael G.; Colwell, Robert K.

    2014-01-01

    In tropical wet forests, ants are a large proportion of the animal biomass, but the factors determining abundance are not well understood. We characterized ant abundance in the litter layer of 41 mature wet forest sites spread throughout Central America (Chiapas, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica) and examined the impact of elevation (as a proxy for temperature) and community species richness. Sites were intentionally chosen to minimize variation in precipitation and seasonality. From sea level to 1500 m ant abundance very gradually declined, community richness declined more rapidly than abundance, and the local frequency of the locally most common species increased. These results suggest that within this elevational zone, density compensation is acting, maintaining high ant abundance as richness declines. In contrast, in sites above 1500 m, ant abundance dropped abruptly to much lower levels. Among these high montane sites, community richness explained much more of the variation in abundance than elevation, and there was no evidence of density compensation. The relative stability of abundance below 1500 m may be caused by opposing effects of temperature on productivity and metabolism. Lower temperatures may decrease productivity and thus the amount of food available for consumers, but slower metabolisms of consumers may allow maintenance of higher biomass at lower resource supply rates. Ant communities at these lower elevations may be highly interactive, the result of continuous habitat presence over geological time. High montane sites may be ephemeral in geological time, resulting in non-interactive communities dominated by historical and stochastic processes. Abundance in these sites may be determined by the number of species that manage to colonize and/or avoid extinction on mountaintops. PMID:25098722

  20. How ants drop out: ant abundance on tropical mountains.

    PubMed

    Longino, John T; Branstetter, Michael G; Colwell, Robert K

    2014-01-01

    In tropical wet forests, ants are a large proportion of the animal biomass, but the factors determining abundance are not well understood. We characterized ant abundance in the litter layer of 41 mature wet forest sites spread throughout Central America (Chiapas, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica) and examined the impact of elevation (as a proxy for temperature) and community species richness. Sites were intentionally chosen to minimize variation in precipitation and seasonality. From sea level to 1500 m ant abundance very gradually declined, community richness declined more rapidly than abundance, and the local frequency of the locally most common species increased. These results suggest that within this elevational zone, density compensation is acting, maintaining high ant abundance as richness declines. In contrast, in sites above 1500 m, ant abundance dropped abruptly to much lower levels. Among these high montane sites, community richness explained much more of the variation in abundance than elevation, and there was no evidence of density compensation. The relative stability of abundance below 1500 m may be caused by opposing effects of temperature on productivity and metabolism. Lower temperatures may decrease productivity and thus the amount of food available for consumers, but slower metabolisms of consumers may allow maintenance of higher biomass at lower resource supply rates. Ant communities at these lower elevations may be highly interactive, the result of continuous habitat presence over geological time. High montane sites may be ephemeral in geological time, resulting in non-interactive communities dominated by historical and stochastic processes. Abundance in these sites may be determined by the number of species that manage to colonize and/or avoid extinction on mountaintops.

  1. High chemical abundances in stripped Virgo spiral galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skillman, E. D.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Shields, G. A.

    1993-01-01

    Based on a comparison of the oxygen abundances in H 2 regions in field and Virgo cluster late type spiral galaxies, Shields, Skillman, & Kennicutt (1991) suggested that the highly stripped spiral galaxies in the Virgo cluster have systematically higher abundances than comparable field galaxies. In April 1991 and May 1992 we used the blue channel spectrograph on the MMT to obtain new observations of 30 H 2 regions in Virgo spiral galaxies. These spectra cover the wavelength range from (O II) lambda 3727 to (S II) lambda 6731. We now have observed at least 4 H II regions in 9 spiral galaxies in the Virgo cluster. Combining (O II) and (O III) line strengths, we calculate the H II region oxygen abundances based on the empirical calibration of Edmunds & Pagel (1984). These observations show: (1) The stripped, low luminosity Virgo spirals (N4689, N4571) truly have abundances characteristic of much more luminous field spirals; (2) Virgo spirals which show no evidence of stripping (N4651, N4713) have abundances comparable to field galaxies; and (3) Evidence for transition galaxies (e.g., N4254, N4321), with marginally stripped disks and marginal abundance enhancements. The new observations presented here confirm the validity of the oxygen over-abundances in the stripped Virgo spirals. Shields et al. (1991) discussed two different mechanisms for producing the higher abundances in the disks of stripped galaxies in Virgo. The first is the supression of infall of near-primordial material, the second is the suppression of radial inflow of metal-poor gas. Distinguishing between the two cases will require more observations of the Virgo cluster spirals and a better understanding of which parameters determine the variation of abundance with radius in field spirals (cf., Garnett & Shields 1987).

  2. Trace-element abundances in several new ureilites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boynton, William V.; Hill, Dolores H.

    1993-01-01

    Four new ureilites are analyzed for trace-element abundances. Frontier Mountain (FRO) 90054 is an augite-rich ureilite and has high rare earth element (REE) abundances with a pattern expected of augite. FRO 90036 and Acfer 277 have REE patterns similar to the V-shape pattern of other ureilites. Nuevo Mercurio (b) has very high REE abundances, but they look like they are due to terrestrial alteration. The siderophile-element pattern of these ureilites are similar to those of known ureilites.

  3. Geographical factors of the abundance of flora in Russian cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselkin, D. V.; Tretyakova, A. S.; Senator, S. A.; Saksonov, S. V.; Mukhin, V. A.; Rozenberg, G. S.

    2017-09-01

    An analysis of data on the species abundance of flora in 89 cities (urban flora) of the Russian Federation facilitated determination of its main factors. It has been revealed that the factors determining the abundance of native and alien components of urban flora vary. The city area and population number are the main factors of the total number of species and of the abundance of native species in urban flora. The diversity and participation of alien species increase in parallel with. the urbanization rate, anthropogenic transformation of the regions, and the age of cities and are in adverse correlation with the climate severity.

  4. Dust formation in a galaxy with primitive abundances.

    PubMed

    Sloan, G C; Matsuura, M; Zijlstra, A A; Lagadec, E; Groenewegen, M A T; Wood, P R; Szyszka, C; Bernard-Salas, J; van Loon, J Th

    2009-01-16

    Interstellar dust plays a crucial role in the evolution of galaxies. It governs the chemistry and physics of the interstellar medium. In the local universe, dust forms primarily in the ejecta from stars, but its composition and origin in galaxies at very early times remain controversial. We report observational evidence of dust forming around a carbon star in a nearby galaxy with a low abundance of heavy elements, 25 times lower than the solar abundance. The production of dust by a carbon star in a galaxy with such primitive abundances raises the possibility that carbon stars contributed carbonaceous dust in the early universe.

  5. Aquifer water abundance evaluation using a fuzzy- comprehensive weighting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Z.

    2016-08-01

    Aquifer water abundance evaluation is a highly relevant issue that has been researched for many years. Despite prior research, problems with the conventional evaluation method remain. This paper establishes an aquifer water abundance evaluation method that combines fuzzy evaluation with a comprehensive weighting method to overcome both the subjectivity and lack of conformity in determining weight by pure data analysis alone. First, this paper introduces the principle of a fuzzy-comprehensive weighting method. Second, the example of well field no. 3 (of a coalfield) is used to illustrate the method's process. The evaluation results show that this method is can more suitably meet the real requirements of aquifer water abundance assessment, leading to more precise and accurate evaluations. Ultimately, this paper provides a new method for aquifer water abundance evaluation.

  6. Trek and ECCO: Abundance measurements of ultraheavy galactic cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, Andrew J.

    2000-06-01

    Using the Trek detector, we have measured the abundances of the heaviest elements (with Z>70) in the galactic cosmic rays with sufficient charge resolution to resolve the even-Z elements. We find that the abundance of Pb compared to Pt is ~3 times lower than the value expected from the most widely-held class of models of the origin of galactic cosmic ray nuclei, that is, origination in a partially ionized medium with solar-like composition. The low abundance of Pb is, however, consistent with the interstellar gas and dust model of Meyer, Drury and Ellison, and with a source enriched in r-process material, proposed by Binns et al. A high-resolution, high-statistics measurement of the abundances of the individual actinides would distinguish between these models. This is the goal of ECCO, the Extremely Heavy Cosmic-ray Composition Observer, which we plan to deploy on the International Space Station. .

  7. Why abundant tropical tree species are phylogenetically old.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaopeng; Chen, Anping; Fang, Jingyun; Pacala, Stephen W

    2013-10-01

    Neutral models of species diversity predict patterns of abundance for communities in which all individuals are ecologically equivalent. These models were originally developed for Panamanian trees and successfully reproduce observed distributions of abundance. Neutral models also make macroevolutionary predictions that have rarely been evaluated or tested. Here we show that neutral models predict a humped or flat relationship between species age and population size. In contrast, ages and abundances of tree species in the Panamanian Canal watershed are found to be positively correlated, which falsifies the models. Speciation rates vary among phylogenetic lineages and are partially heritable from mother to daughter species. Variable speciation rates in an otherwise neutral model lead to a demographic advantage for species with low speciation rate. This demographic advantage results in a positive correlation between species age and abundance, as found in the Panamanian tropical forest community.

  8. BOND: A quantum of solace for nebular abundance determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vale Asari, N.; Stasińska, G.; Morisset, C.; Cid Fernandes, R.

    2017-11-01

    The abundances of chemical elements other than hydrogen and helium in a galaxy are the fossil record of its star formation history. Empirical relations such as mass-metallicity relation are thus seen as guides for studies on the history and chemical evolution of galaxies. Those relations usually rely on nebular metallicities measured with strong-line methods, which assume that H II regions are a one- (or at most two-) parameter family where the oxygen abundance is the driving quantity. Nature is however much more complex than that, and metallicities from strong lines may be strongly biased. We have developed the method BOND (Bayesian Oxygen and Nitrogen abundance Determinations) to simultaneously derive oxygen and nitrogen abundances in giant H II regions by comparing strong and semi-strong observed emission lines to a carefully-defined, finely-meshed grid of photoionization models. Our code and results are public and available at http://bond.ufsc.br.

  9. IUE/IRAS studies of metal abundances and infrared cirrus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vansteenberg, M. E.; Shull, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    A survey is reported of interstellar densities, abundances, and cloud structure in the Galaxy, using the IUE and IRAS satellites. Heavy element depletions are discussed along with their correlations with mean density, reddening, and galactic location. Interesting correlations between the Fe/Si abundance ratio and the infrared diffuse cirrus is also reported, which may provide information on the history and formation of grains in the galactic halo.

  10. Improved Yttrium and Zirconium Abundances in Metal-Poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Violante, Renata; Biemont, E.; Cowan, J. J.; Sneden, C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We present new abundances of the lighter n-capture elements, Yttrium (Z=39) and Zirconium (Z=40) in the very metal poor, r-process rich stars BD+17 3248 and HD 221170. Very accurate abundances were obtained by use of the new transition probabilities for Y II published by Biémont et al. 2011, and Zr II by Malcheva et al. 2006, and by expanding the number of transitions employed for each element. For example, in BD+17 3248, we find log ɛπσιλον=-0.03 +/- 0.03 (σιγμα=0.15, from 23 lines) for Y II. As for Zr II, log ɛπσιλον = 0.65 +/- 0.03 (σɛγμα = 0.1, from 13 lines). The resulting abundance ratio is log ɛπσιλον [Y/Zr] = -0.68 +/- 0.05. The results for HD 221170 are in accord with those of BD+17 3248. The quantity of lines used to form the abundance means has increased significantly since the original studies of these stars, resulting in more trustworthy abundances. These observed abundance ratios are in agreement with an r-process-only value predicted from stellar models, but is under-abundant compared to an empirical model derived from direct analyses of meteoritic material. This ambiguity should stimulate further nucleosynthetic analysis to explain this abundance ratio. We would like to extend our gratitude to NSF grant AST-0908978 and the University of Texas Astronomy Department Rex G. Baker, Jr. Endowment for their financial support in this project.

  11. THE EFFECTS OF INITIAL ABUNDANCES ON NITROGEN IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, Kamber R.; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2014-12-20

    The dominant form of nitrogen provided to most solar system bodies is currently unknown, though available measurements show that the detected nitrogen in solar system rocks and ices is depleted with respect to solar abundances and the interstellar medium. We use a detailed chemical/physical model of the chemical evolution of a protoplanetary disk to explore the evolution and abundance of nitrogen-bearing molecules. Based on this model, we analyze how initial chemical abundances provided as either gas or ice during the early stages of disk formation influence which species become the dominant nitrogen bearers at later stages. We find that amore » disk with the majority of its initial nitrogen in either atomic or molecular nitrogen is later dominated by atomic and molecular nitrogen as well as NH{sub 3} and HCN ices, where the dominant species varies with disk radius. When nitrogen is initially in gaseous ammonia, it later becomes trapped in ammonia ice except in the outer disk where atomic nitrogen dominates. For a disk with the initial nitrogen in the form of ammonia ice, the nitrogen remains trapped in the ice as NH{sub 3} at later stages. The model in which most of the initial nitrogen is placed in atomic N best matches the ammonia abundances observed in comets. Furthermore, the initial state of nitrogen influences the abundance of N{sub 2}H{sup +}, which has been detected in protoplanetary disks. Strong N{sub 2}H{sup +} emission is found to be indicative of an N{sub 2} abundance greater than n{sub N{sub 2}}/n{sub H{sub 2}}>10{sup −6} in addition to tracing the CO snow line. Our models also indicate that NO is potentially detectable, with lower N gas abundances leading to higher NO abundances.« less

  12. SP_Ace: Stellar Parameters And Chemical abundances Estimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeche, C.; Grebel, E. K.

    2018-05-01

    SP_Ace (Stellar Parameters And Chemical abundances Estimator) estimates the stellar parameters Teff, log g, [M/H], and elemental abundances. It employs 1D stellar atmosphere models in Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE). The code is highly automated and suitable for analyzing the spectra of large spectroscopic surveys with low or medium spectral resolution (R = 2000-20 000). A web service for calculating these values with the software is also available.

  13. Galactic Abundance Patterns via Peimbert Types I & II Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milingo, J. B.; Barnes, K. L.; Kwitter, K. B.; Souza, S. P.; Henry, R. B. C.; Skinner, J. N.

    2005-12-01

    Planetary Nebulae (PNe) are well known fonts of information about both stellar evolution and galactic chemical evolution. Abundance patterns in PNe are used to note signatures and constraints of nuclear processing, and as tracers of the distribution of metals throughout galaxies. In this poster abundance gradients and heavy element ratios are presented based upon newly acquired spectrophotometry of a sample of Galactic Peimbert Type I PNe. This new data set is extracted from spectra that extend from λ 3600 - 9600Å allowing the use of [S III] features at λ 9069 and 9532Å. Since a significant portion of S in PNe resides in S+2 and higher ionization stages, including these features improves the extrapolation from observed ion abundances to total element abundance. An alternate metallicity tracer, Sulfur is precluded from enhancement and depletion across the range of PNe progenitor masses. Its stability in intermediate mass stars makes it a useful tool to probe the natal conditions as well as the evolution of PNe progenitors. This is a continuation of our Type II PNe work, the impetus being to compile a relatively large set of line strengths and abundances with internally consistent observation, reduction, calibration, and abundance determination, minimizing systematic affects that come from compiling various data sets. This research is supported by the AAS Small Research Grants program, the Franklin & Marshall Committee on Grants, and NSF grant AST-0307118.

  14. Global abundance of planktonic heterotrophic protists in the deep ocean

    PubMed Central

    Pernice, Massimo C; Forn, Irene; Gomes, Ana; Lara, Elena; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Arrieta, Jesus M; del Carmen Garcia, Francisca; Hernando-Morales, Victor; MacKenzie, Roy; Mestre, Mireia; Sintes, Eva; Teira, Eva; Valencia, Joaquin; Varela, Marta M; Vaqué, Dolors; Duarte, Carlos M; Gasol, Josep M; Massana, Ramon

    2015-01-01

    The dark ocean is one of the largest biomes on Earth, with critical roles in organic matter remineralization and global carbon sequestration. Despite its recognized importance, little is known about some key microbial players, such as the community of heterotrophic protists (HP), which are likely the main consumers of prokaryotic biomass. To investigate this microbial component at a global scale, we determined their abundance and biomass in deepwater column samples from the Malaspina 2010 circumnavigation using a combination of epifluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. HP were ubiquitously found at all depths investigated down to 4000 m. HP abundances decreased with depth, from an average of 72±19 cells ml−1 in mesopelagic waters down to 11±1 cells ml−1 in bathypelagic waters, whereas their total biomass decreased from 280±46 to 50±14 pg C ml−1. The parameters that better explained the variance of HP abundance were depth and prokaryote abundance, and to lesser extent oxygen concentration. The generally good correlation with prokaryotic abundance suggested active grazing of HP on prokaryotes. On a finer scale, the prokaryote:HP abundance ratio varied at a regional scale, and sites with the highest ratios exhibited a larger contribution of fungi molecular signal. Our study is a step forward towards determining the relationship between HP and their environment, unveiling their importance as players in the dark ocean's microbial food web. PMID:25290506

  15. Stronger warming effects on microbial abundances in colder regions

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Ji; Luo, Yiqi; Xia, Jianyang; ...

    2015-12-10

    Soil microbes play critical roles in regulating terrestrial carbon (C) cycle and its feedback to climate change. However, it is still unclear how the soil microbial community and abundance respond to future climate change scenarios. In this meta-analysis, we synthesized the responses of microbial community and abundance to experimental warming from 64 published field studies. Our results showed that warming significantly increased soil microbial abundance by 7.6% on average. When grouped by vegetation or soil types, tundras and histosols had the strongest microbial responses to warming with increased microbial, fungal, and bacterial abundances by 15.0%, 9.5% and 37.0% in tundra,more » and 16.5%, 13.2% and 13.3% in histosols, respectively. We found significant negative relationships of the response ratios of microbial, fungal and bacterial abundances with the mean annual temperature, indicating that warming had stronger effects in colder than warmer regions. Moreover, the response ratios of microbial abundance to warming were positively correlated with those of soil respiration. Our results therefore indicate that the large quantities of C stored in colder regions are likely to be more vulnerable to climate warming than the soil C stored in other warmer regions.« less

  16. Stronger warming effects on microbial abundances in colder regions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ji; Luo, Yiqi; Xia, Jianyang; Jiang, Lifen; Zhou, Xuhui; Lu, Meng; Liang, Junyi; Shi, Zheng; Shelton, Shelby; Cao, Junji

    2015-01-01

    Soil microbes play critical roles in regulating terrestrial carbon (C) cycle and its feedback to climate change. However, it is still unclear how the soil microbial community and abundance respond to future climate change scenarios. In this meta-analysis, we synthesized the responses of microbial community and abundance to experimental warming from 64 published field studies. Our results showed that warming significantly increased soil microbial abundance by 7.6% on average. When grouped by vegetation or soil types, tundras and histosols had the strongest microbial responses to warming with increased microbial, fungal, and bacterial abundances by 15.0%, 9.5% and 37.0% in tundra, and 16.5%, 13.2% and 13.3% in histosols, respectively. We found significant negative relationships of the response ratios of microbial, fungal and bacterial abundances with the mean annual temperature, indicating that warming had stronger effects in colder than warmer regions. Moreover, the response ratios of microbial abundance to warming were positively correlated with those of soil respiration. Our findings therefore indicate that the large quantities of C stored in colder regions are likely to be more vulnerable to climate warming than the soil C stored in other warmer regions. PMID:26658882

  17. Pathogenic Streptomyces spp. abundance affected by potato cultivars.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Kamrun; Goyer, Claudia; Zebarth, Bernie J; Burton, David L; Whitney, Sean

    2018-04-16

    Potato cultivars vary in their tolerance to common scab (CS), however how they affect CS-causing Streptomyces spp. populations over time is poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of potato cultivar on pathogenic Streptomyces spp. abundance, measured using quantitative PCR, in three spatial locations in a CS-infested field: 1) soil close to the plant (SCP); 2) rhizosphere (RS); and 3) geocaulosphere (GS) soils. Two tolerant (Gold Rush, Hindenburg) and two susceptible cultivars (Green Mountain, Agria) were tested. The abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp. significantly increased in late August compared with other dates in RS of susceptible cultivars in both years. Abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp., when averaged over locations and time, was significantly greater in susceptible cultivars compared with tolerant cultivars in 2014. Principal coordinates analysis showed that SCP and RS soil properties (pH, organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations) explained 68% and 76% of total variation in Streptomyces spp. abundance among cultivars in 2013, respectively, suggesting that cultivars influenced CS pathogen growth conditions. The results suggested that the genetic background of potato cultivars influenced the abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp., with 5 to 6 times more abundant Streptomyces spp. in RS of susceptible cultivars compared with tolerant cultivars, which would result in substantially more inoculum left in the field after harvest.  .

  18. Spectral Unmixing Based Construction of Lunar Mineral Abundance Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, V.; Grumpe, A.; Wöhler, C.

    2017-07-01

    In this study we apply a nonlinear spectral unmixing algorithm to a nearly global lunar spectral reflectance mosaic derived from hyper-spectral image data acquired by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) instrument. Corrections for topographic effects and for thermal emission were performed. A set of 19 laboratory-based reflectance spectra of lunar samples published by the Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium (LSCC) were used as a catalog of potential endmember spectra. For a given spectrum, the multi-population population-based incremental learning (MPBIL) algorithm was used to determine the subset of endmembers actually contained in it. However, as the MPBIL algorithm is computationally expensive, it cannot be applied to all pixels of the reflectance mosaic. Hence, the reflectance mosaic was clustered into a set of 64 prototype spectra, and the MPBIL algorithm was applied to each prototype spectrum. Each pixel of the mosaic was assigned to the most similar prototype, and the set of endmembers previously determined for that prototype was used for pixel-wise nonlinear spectral unmixing using the Hapke model, implemented as linear unmixing of the single-scattering albedo spectrum. This procedure yields maps of the fractional abundances of the 19 endmembers. Based on the known modal abundances of a variety of mineral species in the LSCC samples, a conversion from endmember abundances to mineral abundances was performed. We present maps of the fractional abundances of plagioclase, pyroxene and olivine and compare our results with previously published lunar mineral abundance maps.

  19. Global abundance of planktonic heterotrophic protists in the deep ocean.

    PubMed

    Pernice, Massimo C; Forn, Irene; Gomes, Ana; Lara, Elena; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Arrieta, Jesus M; del Carmen Garcia, Francisca; Hernando-Morales, Victor; MacKenzie, Roy; Mestre, Mireia; Sintes, Eva; Teira, Eva; Valencia, Joaquin; Varela, Marta M; Vaqué, Dolors; Duarte, Carlos M; Gasol, Josep M; Massana, Ramon

    2015-03-01

    The dark ocean is one of the largest biomes on Earth, with critical roles in organic matter remineralization and global carbon sequestration. Despite its recognized importance, little is known about some key microbial players, such as the community of heterotrophic protists (HP), which are likely the main consumers of prokaryotic biomass. To investigate this microbial component at a global scale, we determined their abundance and biomass in deepwater column samples from the Malaspina 2010 circumnavigation using a combination of epifluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. HP were ubiquitously found at all depths investigated down to 4000 m. HP abundances decreased with depth, from an average of 72±19 cells ml(-1) in mesopelagic waters down to 11±1 cells ml(-1) in bathypelagic waters, whereas their total biomass decreased from 280±46 to 50±14 pg C ml(-1). The parameters that better explained the variance of HP abundance were depth and prokaryote abundance, and to lesser extent oxygen concentration. The generally good correlation with prokaryotic abundance suggested active grazing of HP on prokaryotes. On a finer scale, the prokaryote:HP abundance ratio varied at a regional scale, and sites with the highest ratios exhibited a larger contribution of fungi molecular signal. Our study is a step forward towards determining the relationship between HP and their environment, unveiling their importance as players in the dark ocean's microbial food web.

  20. Estimating site occupancy and abundance using indirect detection indices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, T.R.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge of factors influencing animal distribution and abundance is essential in many areas of ecological research, management, and policy-making. Because common methods for modeling and estimating abundance (e.g., capture-recapture, distance sampling) are sometimes not practical for large areas or elusive species, indices are sometimes used as surrogate measures of abundance. We present an extension of the Royle and Nichols (2003) generalization of the MacKenzie et al. (2002) site-occupancy model that incorporates length of the sampling interval into the, model for detection probability. As a result, we obtain a modeling framework that shows how useful information can be extracted from a class of index methods we call indirect detection indices (IDIs). Examples of IDIs include scent station, tracking tube, snow track, tracking plate, and hair snare surveys. Our model is maximum likelihood, and it can be used to estimate site occupancy and model factors influencing patterns of occupancy and abundance in space. Under certain circumstances, it can also be used to estimate abundance. We evaluated model properties using Monte Carlo simulations and illustrate the method with tracking tube and scent station data. We believe this model will be a useful tool for determining factors that influence animal distribution and abundance.

  1. CHROMOSPHERIC MODELS AND THE OXYGEN ABUNDANCE IN GIANT STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Dupree, A. K.; Avrett, E. H.; Kurucz, R. L., E-mail: dupree@cfa.harvard.edu

    Realistic stellar atmospheric models of two typical metal-poor giant stars in Omega Centauri, which include a chromosphere (CHR), influence the formation of optical lines of O i: the forbidden lines (λ6300, λ6363) and the infrared triplet (λλ7771−7775). One-dimensional semi-empirical non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) models are constructed based on observed Balmer lines. A full non-LTE formulation is applied for evaluating the line strengths of O i, including photoionization by the Lyman continuum and photoexcitation by Lyα and Lyβ. Chromospheric models (CHR) yield forbidden oxygen transitions that are stronger than those in radiative/convective equilibrium (RCE) models. The triplet oxygen lines from highmore » levels also appear stronger than those produced in an RCE model. The inferred oxygen abundance from realistic CHR models for these two stars is decreased by factors of ∼3 as compared to values derived from RCE models. A lower oxygen abundance suggests that intermediate-mass AGB stars contribute to the observed abundance pattern in globular clusters. A change in the oxygen abundance of metal-poor field giants could affect models of deep mixing episodes on the red giant branch. Changes in the oxygen abundance can impact other abundance determinations that are critical to astrophysics, including chemical tagging techniques and galactic chemical evolution.« less

  2. Inferring invasive species abundance using removal data from management actions.

    PubMed

    Davis, Amy J; Hooten, Mevin B; Miller, Ryan S; Farnsworth, Matthew L; Lewis, Jesse; Moxcey, Michael; Pepin, Kim M

    2016-10-01

    Evaluation of the progress of management programs for invasive species is crucial for demonstrating impacts to stakeholders and strategic planning of resource allocation. Estimates of abundance before and after management activities can serve as a useful metric of population management programs. However, many methods of estimating population size are too labor intensive and costly to implement, posing restrictive levels of burden on operational programs. Removal models are a reliable method for estimating abundance before and after management using data from the removal activities exclusively, thus requiring no work in addition to management. We developed a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate abundance from removal data accounting for varying levels of effort, and used simulations to assess the conditions under which reliable population estimates are obtained. We applied this model to estimate site-specific abundance of an invasive species, feral swine (Sus scrofa), using removal data from aerial gunning in 59 site/time-frame combinations (480-19,600 acres) throughout Oklahoma and Texas, USA. Simulations showed that abundance estimates were generally accurate when effective removal rates (removal rate accounting for total effort) were above 0.40. However, when abundances were small (<50) the effective removal rate needed to accurately estimates abundances was considerably higher (0.70). Based on our post-validation method, 78% of our site/time frame estimates were accurate. To use this modeling framework it is important to have multiple removals (more than three) within a time frame during which demographic changes are minimized (i.e., a closed population; ≤3 months for feral swine). Our results show that the probability of accurately estimating abundance from this model improves with increased sampling effort (8+ flight hours across the 3-month window is best) and increased removal rate. Based on the inverse relationship between inaccurate abundances and

  3. Inferring invasive species abundance using removal data from management actions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Amy J.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Miller, Ryan S.; Farnsworth, Matthew L.; Lewis, Jesse S.; Moxcey, Michael; Pepin, Kim M.

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of the progress of management programs for invasive species is crucial for demonstrating impacts to stakeholders and strategic planning of resource allocation. Estimates of abundance before and after management activities can serve as a useful metric of population management programs. However, many methods of estimating population size are too labor intensive and costly to implement, posing restrictive levels of burden on operational programs. Removal models are a reliable method for estimating abundance before and after management using data from the removal activities exclusively, thus requiring no work in addition to management. We developed a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate abundance from removal data accounting for varying levels of effort, and used simulations to assess the conditions under which reliable population estimates are obtained. We applied this model to estimate site-specific abundance of an invasive species, feral swine (Sus scrofa), using removal data from aerial gunning in 59 site/time-frame combinations (480–19,600 acres) throughout Oklahoma and Texas, USA. Simulations showed that abundance estimates were generally accurate when effective removal rates (removal rate accounting for total effort) were above 0.40. However, when abundances were small (<50) the effective removal rate needed to accurately estimates abundances was considerably higher (0.70). Based on our post-validation method, 78% of our site/time frame estimates were accurate. To use this modeling framework it is important to have multiple removals (more than three) within a time frame during which demographic changes are minimized (i.e., a closed population; ≤3 months for feral swine). Our results show that the probability of accurately estimating abundance from this model improves with increased sampling effort (8+ flight hours across the 3-month window is best) and increased removal rate. Based on the inverse relationship between inaccurate abundances and

  4. Modeling avian abundance from replicated counts using binomial mixture models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kery, Marc; Royle, J. Andrew; Schmid, Hans

    2005-01-01

    Abundance estimation in ecology is usually accomplished by capture–recapture, removal, or distance sampling methods. These may be hard to implement at large spatial scales. In contrast, binomial mixture models enable abundance estimation without individual identification, based simply on temporally and spatially replicated counts. Here, we evaluate mixture models using data from the national breeding bird monitoring program in Switzerland, where some 250 1-km2 quadrats are surveyed using the territory mapping method three times during each breeding season. We chose eight species with contrasting distribution (wide–narrow), abundance (high–low), and detectability (easy–difficult). Abundance was modeled as a random effect with a Poisson or negative binomial distribution, with mean affected by forest cover, elevation, and route length. Detectability was a logit-linear function of survey date, survey date-by-elevation, and sampling effort (time per transect unit). Resulting covariate effects and parameter estimates were consistent with expectations. Detectability per territory (for three surveys) ranged from 0.66 to 0.94 (mean 0.84) for easy species, and from 0.16 to 0.83 (mean 0.53) for difficult species, depended on survey effort for two easy and all four difficult species, and changed seasonally for three easy and three difficult species. Abundance was positively related to route length in three high-abundance and one low-abundance (one easy and three difficult) species, and increased with forest cover in five forest species, decreased for two nonforest species, and was unaffected for a generalist species. Abundance estimates under the most parsimonious mixture models were between 1.1 and 8.9 (median 1.8) times greater than estimates based on territory mapping; hence, three surveys were insufficient to detect all territories for each species. We conclude that binomial mixture models are an important new approach for estimating abundance corrected for

  5. Recombination Line versus Forbidden Line Abundances in Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson-Tessi, Mark; Garnett, Donald R.

    2005-04-01

    Recombination lines (RLs) of C II, N II, and O II in planetary nebulae (PNs) have been found to give abundances that are much larger in some cases than abundances from collisionally excited forbidden lines (CELs). The origins of this abundance discrepancy are highly debated. We present new spectroscopic observations of O II and C II recombination lines for six planetary nebulae. With these data we compare the abundances derived from the optical recombination lines with those determined from collisionally excited lines. Combining our new data with published results on RLs in other PNs, we examine the discrepancy in abundances derived from RLs and CELs. We find that there is a wide range in the measured abundance discrepancy Δ(O+2)=logO+2(RL)-logO+2(CEL), ranging from approximately 0.1 dex (within the 1 σ measurement errors) up to 1.4 dex. This tends to rule out errors in the recombination coefficients as a source of the discrepancy. Most RLs yield similar abundances, with the notable exception of O II multiplet V15, known to arise primarily from dielectronic recombination, which gives abundances averaging 0.6 dex higher than other O II RLs. We compare Δ(O+2) against a variety of physical properties of the PNs to look for clues as to the mechanism responsible for the abundance discrepancy. The strongest correlations are found with the nebula diameter and the Balmer surface brightness; high surface brightness, compact PNs show small values of Δ(O+2), while large low surface brightness PNs show the largest discrepancies. An inverse correlation of Δ(O+2) with nebular density is also seen. A marginal correlation of Δ(O+2) is found with expansion velocity. No correlations are seen with electron temperature, He+2/He+, central star effective temperature and luminosity, stellar mass-loss rate, or nebular morphology. Similar results are found for carbon in comparing C II RL abundances with ultraviolet measurements of C III].

  6. Normalization and microbial differential abundance strategies depend upon data characteristics.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Sophie; Xu, Zhenjiang Zech; Peddada, Shyamal; Amir, Amnon; Bittinger, Kyle; Gonzalez, Antonio; Lozupone, Catherine; Zaneveld, Jesse R; Vázquez-Baeza, Yoshiki; Birmingham, Amanda; Hyde, Embriette R; Knight, Rob

    2017-03-03

    Data from 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) amplicon sequencing present challenges to ecological and statistical interpretation. In particular, library sizes often vary over several ranges of magnitude, and the data contains many zeros. Although we are typically interested in comparing relative abundance of taxa in the ecosystem of two or more groups, we can only measure the taxon relative abundance in specimens obtained from the ecosystems. Because the comparison of taxon relative abundance in the specimen is not equivalent to the comparison of taxon relative abundance in the ecosystems, this presents a special challenge. Second, because the relative abundance of taxa in the specimen (as well as in the ecosystem) sum to 1, these are compositional data. Because the compositional data are constrained by the simplex (sum to 1) and are not unconstrained in the Euclidean space, many standard methods of analysis are not applicable. Here, we evaluate how these challenges impact the performance of existing normalization methods and differential abundance analyses. Effects on normalization: Most normalization methods enable successful clustering of samples according to biological origin when the groups differ substantially in their overall microbial composition. Rarefying more clearly clusters samples according to biological origin than other normalization techniques do for ordination metrics based on presence or absence. Alternate normalization measures are potentially vulnerable to artifacts due to library size. Effects on differential abundance testing: We build on a previous work to evaluate seven proposed statistical methods using rarefied as well as raw data. Our simulation studies suggest that the false discovery rates of many differential abundance-testing methods are not increased by rarefying itself, although of course rarefying results in a loss of sensitivity due to elimination of a portion of available data. For groups with large (~10×) differences in the average

  7. A search for stars of very low metal abundance. VI. Detailed abundances of 313 metal-poor stars

    SciTech Connect

    Roederer, Ian U.; Preston, George W.; Thompson, Ian B.

    2014-06-01

    We present radial velocities, equivalent widths, model atmosphere parameters, and abundances or upper limits for 53 species of 48 elements derived from high resolution optical spectroscopy of 313 metal-poor stars. A majority of these stars were selected from the metal-poor candidates of the HK Survey of Beers, Preston, and Shectman. We derive detailed abundances for 61% of these stars for the first time. Spectra were obtained during a 10 yr observing campaign using the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectrograph on the Magellan Telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory, the Robert G. Tull Coudé Spectrograph on the Harlan J. Smith Telescope atmore » McDonald Observatory, and the High Resolution Spectrograph on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope at McDonald Observatory. We perform a standard LTE abundance analysis using MARCS model atmospheres, and we apply line-by-line statistical corrections to minimize systematic abundance differences arising when different sets of lines are available for analysis. We identify several abundance correlations with effective temperature. A comparison with previous abundance analyses reveals significant differences in stellar parameters, which we investigate in detail. Our metallicities are, on average, lower by ≈0.25 dex for red giants and ≈0.04 dex for subgiants. Our sample contains 19 stars with [Fe/H] ≤–3.5, 84 stars with [Fe/H] ≤–3.0, and 210 stars with [Fe/H] ≤–2.5. Detailed abundances are presented here or elsewhere for 91% of the 209 stars with [Fe/H] ≤–2.5 as estimated from medium resolution spectroscopy by Beers, Preston, and Shectman. We will discuss the interpretation of these abundances in subsequent papers.« less

  8. Non-LTE aluminium abundances in late-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordlander, T.; Lind, K.

    2017-11-01

    Aims: Aluminium plays a key role in studies of the chemical enrichment of the Galaxy and of globular clusters. However, strong deviations from LTE (non-LTE) are known to significantly affect the inferred abundances in giant and metal-poor stars. Methods: We present non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) modeling of aluminium using recent and accurate atomic data, in particular utilizing new transition rates for collisions with hydrogen atoms, without the need for any astrophysically calibrated parameters. For the first time, we perform 3D NLTE modeling of aluminium lines in the solar spectrum. We also compute and make available extensive grids of abundance corrections for lines in the optical and near-infrared using one-dimensional model atmospheres, and apply grids of precomputed departure coefficients to direct line synthesis for a set of benchmark stars with accurately known stellar parameters. Results: Our 3D NLTE modeling of the solar spectrum reproduces observed center-to-limb variations in the solar spectrum of the 7835 Å line as well as the mid-infrared photospheric emission line at 12.33 μm. We infer a 3D NLTE solar photospheric abundance of A(Al) = 6.43 ± 0.03, in exact agreement with the meteoritic abundance. We find that abundance corrections vary rapidly with stellar parameters; for the 3961 Å resonance line, corrections are positive and may be as large as +1 dex, while corrections for subordinate lines generally have positive sign for warm stars but negative for cool stars. Our modeling reproduces the observed line profiles of benchmark K-giants, and we find abundance corrections as large as -0.3 dex for Arcturus. Our analyses of four metal-poor benchmark stars yield consistent abundances between the 3961 Å resonance line and lines in the UV, optical and near-infrared regions. Finally, we discuss implications for the galactic chemical evolution of aluminium.

  9. The shape of oxygen abundance profiles explored with MUSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Sánchez-Menguiano, L.; Pérez, I.

    2017-11-01

    We characterise the oxygen abundance radial distribution of a sample of 102 spiral galaxies observed with VLT/MUSE using the O3N2 calibrator. The high spatial resolution of the data allows us to detect 14345 HII regions with the same image quality as with photometric data, avoiding any dilution effect. We develop a new methodology to automatically fit the abundance radial profiles, finding that 55 galaxies of the sample exhibit a single negative gradient. The remaining 47 galaxies also display, as well as this negative trend, either an inner drop in the abundances (21), an outer flattening (10) or both (16), which suggests that these features are a common property of disc galaxies. The presence and depth of the inner drop depends on the stellar mass of the galaxies with the most massive systems presenting the deepest abundance drops, while there is no such dependence for the outer flattening. We find that the inner drop appears always around 0.5 r_e, while the position of the outer flattening varies over a wide range of galactocentric distances. Regarding the main negative gradient, we find a characteristic slope of α_{O/H} = - 0.10±0.03 dex/r_e. This slope is independent of the presence of bars and the density of the environment. However, when inner drops or outer flattenings are detected, slightly steeper gradients are observed. This suggests that radial motions might play an important role in shaping the abundance profiles. We define a new normalisation scale (r_{O/H}) for the radial profiles based on the characteristic abundance gradient, with which all the galaxies show a similar position for the inner drop (˜0.5 r_{O/H}) and the outer flattening (˜1.5 r_{O/H}).Finally, we find no significant dependence of the dispersion around the negative gradient with any galaxy property, with values compatible with the uncertainties of the derived abundances.

  10. Covariation of Peptide Abundances Accurately Reflects Protein Concentration Differences*

    PubMed Central

    Pirmoradian, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Most implementations of mass spectrometry-based proteomics involve enzymatic digestion of proteins, expanding the analysis to multiple proteolytic peptides for each protein. Currently, there is no consensus of how to summarize peptides' abundances to protein concentrations, and such efforts are complicated by the fact that error control normally is applied to the identification process, and do not directly control errors linking peptide abundance measures to protein concentration. Peptides resulting from suboptimal digestion or being partially modified are not representative of the protein concentration. Without a mechanism to remove such unrepresentative peptides, their abundance adversely impacts the estimation of their protein's concentration. Here, we present a relative quantification approach, Diffacto, that applies factor analysis to extract the covariation of peptides' abundances. The method enables a weighted geometrical average summarization and automatic elimination of incoherent peptides. We demonstrate, based on a set of controlled label-free experiments using standard mixtures of proteins, that the covariation structure extracted by the factor analysis accurately reflects protein concentrations. In the 1% peptide-spectrum match-level FDR data set, as many as 11% of the peptides have abundance differences incoherent with the other peptides attributed to the same protein. If not controlled, such contradicting peptide abundance have a severe impact on protein quantifications. When adding the quantities of each protein's three most abundant peptides, we note as many as 14% of the proteins being estimated as having a negative correlation with their actual concentration differences between samples. Diffacto reduced the amount of such obviously incorrectly quantified proteins to 1.6%. Furthermore, by analyzing clinical data sets from two breast cancer studies, our method revealed the persistent proteomic signatures linked to three subtypes of breast cancer

  11. Change in avian abundance predicted from regional forest inventory data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Tirpak, John M.; Jones-Farrand, D. Todd; Thompson, Frank R.; Uihlein, William B.; Fitzgerald, Jane A.

    2010-01-01

    An inability to predict population response to future habitat projections is a shortcoming in bird conservation planning. We sought to predict avian response to projections of future forest conditions that were developed from nationwide forest surveys within the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program. To accomplish this, we evaluated the historical relationship between silvicolous bird populations and FIA-derived forest conditions within 25 ecoregions that comprise the southeastern United States. We aggregated forest area by forest ownership, forest type, and tree size-class categories in county-based ecoregions for 5 time periods spanning 1963-2008. We assessed the relationship of forest data with contemporaneous indices of abundance for 24 silvicolous bird species that were obtained from Breeding Bird Surveys. Relationships between bird abundance and forest inventory data for 18 species were deemed sufficient as predictive models. We used these empirically derived relationships between regional forest conditions and bird populations to predict relative changes in abundance of these species within ecoregions that are anticipated to coincide with projected changes in forest variables through 2040. Predicted abundances of these 18 species are expected to remain relatively stable in over a quarter (27%) of the ecoregions. However, change in forest area and redistribution of forest types will likely result in changed abundance of some species within many ecosystems. For example, abundances of 11 species, including pine warbler (Dendroica pinus), brown-headed nuthatch (Sitta pusilla), and chuckwills- widow (Caprimulgus carolinensis), are projected to increase within more ecoregions than ecoregions where they will decrease. For 6 other species, such as blue-winged warbler (Vermivora pinus), Carolina wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus), and indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea), we projected abundances will decrease within more ecoregions than ecoregions where they will

  12. Spatial patterns in the abundance of the coastal horned lizard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Robert N.; Suarez, Andrew V.; Case, Ted J.

    2002-01-01

    Coastal horned lizards (   Phrynosoma coronatum) have undergone severe declines in southern California and are a candidate species for state and federal listing under the Endangered Species Act. Quantitative data on their habitat use, abundance, and distribution are lacking, however. We investigated the determinants of abundance for coastal horned lizards at multiple spatial scales throughout southern California. Specifically, we estimated lizard distribution and abundance by establishing 256 pitfall trap arrays clustered within 21 sites across four counties. These arrays were sampled bimonthly for 2–3 years. At each array we measured 26 “local” site descriptors and averaged these values with other “regional” measures to determine site characteristics. Our analyses were successful at identifying factors within and among sites correlated with the presence and abundance of coastal horned lizards. These factors included the absence of the invasive Argentine ant (  Linepithema humile) (and presence of native ant species eaten by the lizards), the presence of chaparral community plants, and the presence of sandy substrates. At a regional scale the relative abundance of Argentine ants was correlated with the relative amount of developed edge around a site. There was no evidence for spatial autocorrelation, even at the scale of the arrays within sites, suggesting that the determinants of the presence or absence and abundance of horned lizard can vary over relatively small spatial scales ( hundreds of meters). Our results suggest that a gap-type approach may miss some of the fine-scale determinants of species abundance in fragmented habitats.

  13. New aerial survey and hierarchical model to estimate manatee abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langimm, Cahterine A.; Dorazio, Robert M.; Stith, Bradley M.; Doyle, Terry J.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring the response of endangered and protected species to hydrological restoration is a major component of the adaptive management framework of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. The endangered Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) lives at the marine-freshwater interface in southwest Florida and is likely to be affected by hydrologic restoration. To provide managers with prerestoration information on distribution and abundance for postrestoration comparison, we developed and implemented a new aerial survey design and hierarchical statistical model to estimate and map abundance of manatees as a function of patch-specific habitat characteristics, indicative of manatee requirements for offshore forage (seagrass), inland fresh drinking water, and warm-water winter refuge. We estimated the number of groups of manatees from dual-observer counts and estimated the number of individuals within groups by removal sampling. Our model is unique in that we jointly analyzed group and individual counts using assumptions that allow probabilities of group detection to depend on group size. Ours is the first analysis of manatee aerial surveys to model spatial and temporal abundance of manatees in association with habitat type while accounting for imperfect detection. We conducted the study in the Ten Thousand Islands area of southwestern Florida, USA, which was expected to be affected by the Picayune Strand Restoration Project to restore hydrology altered for a failed real-estate development. We conducted 11 surveys in 2006, spanning the cold, dry season and warm, wet season. To examine short-term and seasonal changes in distribution we flew paired surveys 1–2 days apart within a given month during the year. Manatees were sparsely distributed across the landscape in small groups. Probability of detection of a group increased with group size; the magnitude of the relationship between group size and detection probability varied among surveys. Probability

  14. Enhanced Abundances in Spiral Galaxies of the Pegasus I Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Paul; Shields, Gregory A.; Blanc, Guillermo A.

    2012-03-01

    We study the influence of cluster environment on the chemical evolution of spiral galaxies in the Pegasus I cluster. We determine the gas-phase heavy element abundances of six galaxies in Pegasus derived from H II region spectra obtained from integral-field spectroscopy. These abundances are analyzed in the context of Virgo, whose spirals are known to show increasing interstellar metallicity as a function of H I deficiency. The galaxies in the Pegasus cluster, despite its lower density and velocity dispersion, also display gas loss due to interstellar-medium-intracluster-medium interaction, albeit to a lesser degree. Based on the abundances of three H I deficient spirals and two H I normal spirals, we observe a heavy element abundance offset of +0.13 ± 0.07 dex for the H I deficient galaxies. This abundance differential is consistent with the differential observed in Virgo for galaxies with a similar H I deficiency, and we observe a correlation between log (O/H) and the H I deficiency parameter DEF for the two clusters analyzed together. Our results suggest that similar environmental mechanisms are driving the heavy element enhancement in both clusters.

  15. ABUNDANCES IN THE LOCAL REGION. I. G AND K GIANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Luck, R. Earle, E-mail: rel2@case.edu

    2015-09-15

    Parameters and abundances for 1133 stars of spectral types F, G, and K of luminosity class III have been derived. In terms of stellar parameters, the primary point of interest is the disagreement between gravities derived with masses determined from isochrones, and gravities determined from an ionization balance. This is not a new result per se, but the size of this sample emphasizes the severity of the problem. A variety of arguments led to the selection of the ionization-balance gravity as the working value. The derived abundances indicate that the giants in the solar region have Sun-like total abundances andmore » abundance ratios. Stellar evolution indicators have also been investigated with the Li abundances and the [C/Fe] and C/O ratios, indicating that standard processing has been operating in these stars. The more salient result for stellar evolution is that the [C/Fe] data across the red-giant clump indicates the presence of mass-dependent mixing in accord with standard stellar evolution predictions.« less

  16. Book review: A new view on the species abundance distribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2018-01-01

    The sampled relative abundances of species of a taxonomic group, whether birds, trees, or moths, in a natural community at a particular place vary in a way that suggests a consistent underlying pattern, referred to as the species abundance distribution (SAD). Preston [1] conjectured that the numbers of species, plotted as a histogram of logarithmic abundance classes called octaves, seemed to fit a lognormal distribution; that is, the histograms look like normal distributions, although truncated on the left-hand, or low-species-abundance, end. Although other specific curves for the SAD have been proposed in the literature, Preston’s lognormal distribution is widely cited in textbooks and has stimulated attempts at explanation. An important aspect of Preston’s lognormal distribution is the ‘veil line’, a vertical line drawn exactly at the point of the left-hand truncation in the distribution, to the left of which would be species missing from the sample. Dewdney rejects the lognormal conjecture. Instead, starting with the long-recognized fact that the number of species sampled from a community, when plotted as histograms against population abundance, resembles an inverted J, he presents a mathematical description of an alternative that he calls the ‘J distribution’, a hyperbolic density function truncated at both ends. When multiplied by species richness, R, it becomes the SAD of the sample.

  17. Determination of lunar ilmenite abundances from remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Stephen M.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Singer, Robert B.

    1991-01-01

    The mineral ilmenite (FeTiO3) was found in abundance in lunar mare soils returned during the Apollo project. Lunar ilmenite often contains greater than 50 weight-percent titanium dioxide (TiO2), and is a primary potential resource for oxygen and other raw materials to supply future lunar bases. Chemical and spectroscopic analysis of the returned lunar soils produced an empirical function that relates the spectral reflectance ratio at 400 and 560 nm to the weight percent abundance of TiO2. This allowed mapping of the lunar TiO2 distribution using telescopic vidicon multispectral imaging from the ground; however, the time variant photometric response of the vidicon detectors produced abundance uncertainties of at least 2 to 5 percent. Since that time, solid-state charge-coupled device (CCD) detector technology capable of much improved photometric response has become available. An investigation of the lunar TiO2 distribution was carried out utilizing groundbased telescopic CCD multispectral imagery and spectroscopy. The work was approached in phases to develop optimum technique based upon initial results. The goal is to achieve the best possible TiO2 abundance maps from the ground as a precursor to lunar orbiter and robotic sample return missions, and to produce a better idea of the peak abundances of TiO2 for benefaction studies. These phases and the results are summarized.

  18. Generalized estimators of avian abundance from count survey data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J. Andrew

    2004-01-01

    I consider modeling avian abundance from spatially referenced bird count data collected according to common protocols such as capture?recapture, multiple observer, removal sampling and simple point counts. Small sample sizes and large numbers of parameters have motivated many analyses that disregard the spatial indexing of the data, and thus do not provide an adequate treatment of spatial structure. I describe a general framework for modeling spatially replicated data that regards local abundance as a random process, motivated by the view that the set of spatially referenced local populations (at the sample locations) constitute a metapopulation. Under this view, attention can be focused on developing a model for the variation in local abundance independent of the sampling protocol being considered. The metapopulation model structure, when combined with the data generating model, define a simple hierarchical model that can be analyzed using conventional methods. The proposed modeling framework is completely general in the sense that broad classes of metapopulation models may be considered, site level covariates on detection and abundance may be considered, and estimates of abundance and related quantities may be obtained for sample locations, groups of locations, unsampled locations. Two brief examples are given, the first involving simple point counts, and the second based on temporary removal counts. Extension of these models to open systems is briefly discussed.

  19. The Mean Life Squared Relationship for Abundances of Extinct Radioactivities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lodders, K.; Cameron, A. G. W.

    2004-01-01

    We discovered that the abundances of now extinct radioactivities (relative to stable reference isotopes) in meteorites vary as a function of their mean lifetimes squared. This relationship applies to chondrites, achondrites, and irons but to calcium-aluminum inclusions (CAIs). Certain meteorites contain excesses in isotopic abundances from the decay of radioactive isotopes with half-lives much less than the age of the solar system. These short-lived radioactivities are now extinct, but they were alive when meteorites assembled in the early solar system. The origin of these radioactivities and the processes which control their abundances in the solar nebula are still not well understood. Some clues may come from our finding that the meteoritic abundances of now extinct radioactivities (relative to stable reference isotopes) vary as a function of their mean lifetimes squared. This relationship applies to chondrites, achondrites, and irons, but not to CAIs. This points to at least two different processes establishing the abundances of short-lived isotopes found in the meteoritic record.

  20. Positive relationships between genetic diversity and abundance in fishes.

    PubMed

    McCusker, Megan R; Bentzen, Paul

    2010-11-01

    Molecular markers, such as mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite loci, are widely studied to assess population genetics and phylogeography; however, the selective neutrality of these markers is increasingly being questioned. Given the importance of molecular markers in fisheries science and conservation, we evaluated the neutrality of both mtDNA and microsatellite loci through their associations with population size. We surveyed mtDNA and microsatellite data from the primary literature and determined whether genetic diversity increased with abundance across a total of 105 marine and freshwater fishes, with both global fisheries catch data and body size as proxies for abundance (with an additional 57 species for which only body size data were assessed). We found that microsatellite data generally yielded higher associations with abundance than mtDNA data, and within mtDNA analyses, number of haplotypes and haplotype diversity were more strongly associated with abundance than nucleotide diversity, particularly for freshwater fishes. We compared genetic diversity between freshwater and marine fishes and found that marine fishes had higher values of all measures of genetic diversity than freshwater fishes. Results for both mtDNA and microsatellites generally conformed to neutral expectations, although weaker relationships were often found between mtDNA nucleotide diversity and 'abundance' compared to any other genetic statistic. We speculate that this is because of historical events unrelated to natural selection, although a role for selection cannot be ruled out. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. The invasive ant, Solenopsis invicta, reduces herpetofauna richness and abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.; Birge, Hannah E.; Slater, J.; Wiggers, E.

    2017-01-01

    Amphibians and reptiles are declining globally. One potential cause of this decline includes impacts resulting from co-occurrence with non-native red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Although a growing body of anecdotal and observational evidence from laboratory experiments supports this hypothesis, there remains a lack of field scale manipulations testing the effect of fire ants on reptile and amphibian communities. We addressed this gap by measuring reptile and amphibian (“herpetofauna”) community response to successful fire ant reductions over the course of 2 years following hydramethylnon application to five 100–200 ha plots in southeastern coastal South Carolina. By assessing changes in relative abundance and species richness of herpetofauna in response to fire ant reductions, we were able to assess whether some species were particularly vulnerable to fire ant presence, and whether this sensitivity manifested at the community level. We found that herpetofauna abundance and species richness responded positively to fire ant reductions. Our results document that even moderate populations of red imported fire ants decrease both the abundance and diversity of herpetofauna. Given global herpetofauna population declines and continued spread of fire ants, there is urgency to understand the impacts of fire ants beyond anecdotal and singles species studies. Our results provides the first community level investigation addressing these dynamics, by manipulating fire ant abundance to reveal a response in herpetofauna species abundance and richness.

  2. Stellar photospheric abundances as a probe of discs and planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jermyn, Adam S.; Kama, Mihkel

    2018-06-01

    Protoplanetary discs, debris discs, and disrupted or evaporating planets can all feed accretion on to stars. The photospheric abundances of such stars may then reveal the composition of the accreted material. This is especially likely in B to mid-F type stars, which have radiative envelopes and hence less bulk-photosphere mixing. We present a theoretical framework (CAM), considering diffusion, rotation, and other stellar mixing mechanisms to describe how the accreted material interacts with the bulk of the star. This allows the abundance pattern of the circumstellar material to be calculated from measured stellar abundances and parameters (vrot, Teff). We discuss the λ Boötis phenomenon and the application of CAM on stars hosting protoplanetary discs (HD 100546, HD 163296), debris discs (HD 141569, HD 21997), and evaporating planets (HD 195689/KELT-9).

  3. First determination of the tropospheric CO abundance in Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouchet, Thierry; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Cavalié, Thibault; Bézard, Bruno

    2017-10-01

    In Giant Planets, CO has two potential origins: i) an external source in form of cometary impacts, infalling ring/satellite dust or/and interplanetary particles; ii) an internal origin that involves convective transport from the deep, dense, hot atmosphere where the thermodynamic equilibrium CO abundance is relatively large.In Saturn, submilimeter stratospheric CO emissions have been detected (Cavalié et al. A&A, 510, A88, 2010; Cavalié et al. Icarus, 203, 531, 2009), suggesting a cometary impact 200 years ago. In contrast, no observation was in position to confirm or rule out the presence of CO in Saturn's troposphere (Noll et al. Icarus, 89, 168, 1990).Here, we present CRIRES/ELT 5-μm observations of Saturn that definitely confirm the presence of CO in Saturn's troposphere. We will present the derived CO abundance and its implication for Saturn's tropospheric transport rate and water deep abundance.

  4. Metaproteomics reveals abundant transposase expression in mutualistic endosymbionts

    SciTech Connect

    Kleiner, Manuel; Young, Jacque C; Shah, Manesh B

    2013-01-01

    Transposases, enzymes that catalyze the movement of mobile genetic elements, are the most abundant genes in nature. While many bacteria encode an abundance of transposases in their genomes, the current paradigm is that transposase gene expression is tightly regulated and generally low due to its severe mutagenic effects. In the current study, we detected the highest number of transposase proteins ever reported in bacteria, in symbionts of the gutless marine worm Olavius algarvensis using metaproteomics. At least 26 different transposases from 12 different families were detected and genomic and proteomic analyses suggest many of these are active. This high expressionmore » of transposases indicates that the mechanisms for their tight regulation have been disabled or destroyed. Based on recent studies on other symbionts and pathogens that showed high transposase transcription, we speculate that abundant transposase expression might be common in symbionts and pathogens.« less

  5. Primordial helium abundance determination using sulphur as metallicity tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Vital; Terlevich, Elena; Díaz, Angeles I.; Terlevich, Roberto; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.

    2018-05-01

    The primordial helium abundance YP is calculated using sulphur as metallicity tracer in the classical methodology (with YP as an extrapolation of Y to zero metals). The calculated value, YP, S = 0.244 ± 0.006, is in good agreement with the estimate from the Planck experiment, as well as, determinations in the literature using oxygen as the metallicity tracer. The chemical analysis includes the sustraction of the nebular continuum and of the stellar continuum computed from simple stellar population synthesis grids. The S+2 content is measured from the near infrared [SIII]λλ9069Å, 9532Å lines, while an ICF(S3 +) is proposed based on the Ar3 +/Ar2 + fraction. Finally, we apply a multivariable linear regression using simultaneously oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur abundances for the same sample to determine the primordial helium abundance resulting in YP - O, N, S = 0.245 ± 0.007.

  6. Carbon and sulfur distributions and abundances in lunar fines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Moore, G. W.

    1973-01-01

    Total sulfur abundances have been determined for 20 Apollo 14, 15, and 16 soil samples and one Apollo 14 breccia. Sulfur concentrations range from 474 to 844 microg S/g. Volatilization experiments on selected samples have been carried out using step-wise heating. Sample residues have been analyzed for their total carbon and sulfur abundances to establish the material balance in lunar fines for these two elements. Volatilization experiments have established that between 31 to 54 microg C/g remains in soils which have been heated at 1100 C for 24 hours under vacuum. The residual carbon is believed to be indigenous lunar carbon whereas all forms of carbon lost from samples below 1100 C is extralunar carbon. Total carbon and sulfur abundances taken from the literature have been used to show the depletion of volatile elements with increasing grade for the Apollo 14 breccias.

  7. The abundant world: Paul Feyerabend's metaphysics of science.

    PubMed

    Brown, Matthew J

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to provide an interpretation of Feyerabend's metaphysics of science as found in late works like Conquest of Abundance and Tyranny of Science. Feyerabend's late metaphysics consists of an attempt to criticize and provide a systematic alternative to traditional scientific realism, a package of views he sometimes referred to as "scientific materialism." Scientific materialism is objectionable not only on metaphysical grounds, nor because it provides a poor ground for understanding science, but because it implies problematic claims about the epistemic and cultural authority of science, claims incompatible with situating science properly in democratic societies. I show how Feyerabend's metaphysical view, which I call "the abundant world" or "abundant realism," constitute a sophisticated and challenging form of ontological pluralism that makes interesting connections with contemporary philosophy of science and issues of the political and policy role of science in a democratic society. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Diversity is maintained by seasonal variation in species abundance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Some of the most marked temporal fluctuations in species abundances are linked to seasons. In theory, multispecies assemblages can persist if species use shared resources at different times, thereby minimizing interspecific competition. However, there is scant empirical evidence supporting these predictions and, to the best of our knowledge, seasonal variation has never been explored in the context of fluctuation-mediated coexistence. Results Using an exceptionally well-documented estuarine fish assemblage, sampled monthly for over 30 years, we show that temporal shifts in species abundances underpin species coexistence. Species fall into distinct seasonal groups, within which spatial resource use is more heterogeneous than would be expected by chance at those times when competition for food is most intense. We also detect seasonal variation in the richness and evenness of the community, again linked to shifts in resource availability. Conclusions These results reveal that spatiotemporal shifts in community composition minimize competitive interactions and help stabilize total abundance. PMID:24007204

  9. Cosmological abundance of the QCD axion coupled to hidden photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitajima, Naoya; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2018-06-01

    We study the cosmological evolution of the QCD axion coupled to hidden photons. For a moderately strong coupling, the motion of the axion field leads to an explosive production of hidden photons by tachyonic instability. We use lattice simulations to evaluate the cosmological abundance of the QCD axion. In doing so, we incorporate the backreaction of the produced hidden photons on the axion dynamics, which becomes significant in the non-linear regime. We find that the axion abundance is suppressed by at most O (102) for the decay constant fa =1016GeV, compared to the case without the coupling. For a sufficiently large coupling, the motion of the QCD axion becomes strongly damped, and as a result, the axion abundance is enhanced. Our results show that the cosmological upper bound on the axion decay constant can be relaxed by a few hundred for a certain range of the coupling to hidden photons.

  10. Mangroves Enhance Reef Fish Abundance at the Caribbean Regional Scale.

    PubMed

    Serafy, Joseph E; Shideler, Geoffrey S; Araújo, Rafael J; Nagelkerken, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Several studies conducted at the scale of islands, or small sections of continental coastlines, have suggested that mangrove habitats serve to enhance fish abundances on coral reefs, mainly by providing nursery grounds for several ontogenetically-migrating species. However, evidence of such enhancement at a regional scale has not been reported, and recently, some researchers have questioned the mangrove-reef subsidy effect. In the present study, using two different regression approaches, we pursued two questions related to mangrove-reef connectivity at the Caribbean regional scale: (1) Are reef fish abundances limited by mangrove forest area?; and (2) Are mean reef fish abundances proportional to mangrove forest area after taking human population density and latitude into account? Specifically, we tested for Caribbean-wide mangrove forest area effects on the abundances of 12 reef fishes that have been previously characterized as "mangrove-dependent". Analyzed were data from an ongoing, long-term (20-year) citizen-scientist fish monitoring program; coastal human population censuses; and several wetland forest information sources. Quantile regression results supported the notion that mangrove forest area limits the abundance of eight of the 12 fishes examined. Linear mixed-effects regression results, which considered potential human (fishing and habitat degradation) and latitudinal influences, suggested that average reef fish densities of at least six of the 12 focal fishes were directly proportional to mangrove forest area. Recent work questioning the mangrove-reef fish subsidy effect likely reflects a failure to: (1) focus analyses on species that use mangroves as nurseries, (2) consider more than the mean fish abundance response to mangrove forest extent; and/or (3) quantitatively account for potentially confounding human impacts, such as fishing pressure and habitat degradation. Our study is the first to demonstrate at a large regional scale (i.e., the Wider

  11. One Percent Determination of the Primordial Deuterium Abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Ryan J.; Pettini, Max; Steidel, Charles C.

    2018-03-01

    We report a reanalysis of a near-pristine absorption system, located at a redshift {z}abs}=2.52564 toward the quasar Q1243+307, based on the combination of archival and new data obtained with the HIRES echelle spectrograph on the Keck telescope. This absorption system, which has an oxygen abundance [O/H] = ‑2.769 ± 0.028 (≃1/600 of the solar abundance), is among the lowest metallicity systems currently known where a precise measurement of the deuterium abundance is afforded. Our detailed analysis of this system concludes, on the basis of eight D I absorption lines, that the deuterium abundance of this gas cloud is {log}}10({{D}}/{{H}})=-4.622+/- 0.015, which is in very good agreement with the results previously reported by Kirkman et al., but with an improvement on the precision of this single measurement by a factor of ∼3.5. Combining this new estimate with our previous sample of six high precision and homogeneously analyzed D/H measurements, we deduce that the primordial deuterium abundance is {log}}10{({{D}}/{{H}})}{{P}}=-4.5974+/- 0.0052 or, expressed as a linear quantity, {10}5{({{D}}/{{H}})}{{P}}=2.527+/- 0.030; this value corresponds to a one percent determination of the primordial deuterium abundance. Combining our result with a big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) calculation that uses the latest nuclear physics input, we find that the baryon density derived from BBN agrees to within 2σ of the latest results from the Planck cosmic microwave background data. Based on observations collected at the W.M. Keck Observatory which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  12. Thermal affinity as the dominant factor changing Mediterranean fish abundances.

    PubMed

    Givan, Or; Edelist, Dor; Sonin, Oren; Belmaker, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Recent decades have seen profound changes in species abundance and community composition. In the marine environment, the major anthropogenic drivers of change comprise exploitation, invasion by nonindigenous species, and climate change. However, the magnitude of these stressors has been widely debated and we lack empirical estimates of their relative importance. In this study, we focused on Eastern Mediterranean, a region exposed to an invasion of species of Red Sea origin, extreme climate change, and high fishing pressure. We estimated changes in fish abundance using two fish trawl surveys spanning a 20-year period, and correlated these changes with estimated sensitivity of species to the different stressors. We estimated sensitivity to invasion using the trait similarity between indigenous and nonindigenous species; sensitivity to fishing using a published composite index based on the species' life-history; and sensitivity to climate change using species climatic affinity based on occurrence data. Using both a meta-analytical method and random forest analysis, we found that for shallow-water species the most important driver of population size changes is sensitivity to climate change. Species with an affinity to warm climates increased in relative abundance and species with an affinity to cold climates decreased suggesting a strong response to warming local sea temperatures over recent decades. This decrease in the abundance of cold-water-associated species at the trailing "warm" end of their distribution has been rarely documented. Despite the immense biomass of nonindigenous species and the presumed high fishing pressure, these two latter factors seem to have only a minor role in explaining abundance changes. The decline in abundance of indigenous species of cold-water origin indicates a future major restructuring of fish communities in the Mediterranean in response to the ongoing warming, with unknown impacts on ecosystem function. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons

  13. The Iron Abundance of IOTA Herculis From Ultraviolet Iron Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigsby, J.; Mulliss, C.; Baer, G.

    1995-03-01

    We have obtained (Adelman 1992, 1993, private comunication) coadded, high-resolution IUE spectra of Iota Herculis (B3 IV) in both short wavelength (SWP) and long wavelength (LWP) regions. The spectra span the ultraviolet spectrum from 110 - 300 nm and have a SNR of roughly 30 -50; they are described in Adelman et. al. (1993, ApJ 419, 276). Abundance indicators were 54 lines of Fe II and 26 lines of Fe III whose atomic parameters have been measured in the laboratory. LTE synthetic spectra for comparison with observations were produced with the Kurucz model atmosphere and spectral synthesis codes ATLAS9/SYNTHE (Kurucz 1979, ApJS 40,1; Kurucz and Avrett 1981, SAO Special Report 391). Model parameters were chosen from the literature: effective temperature = 17500 K, log g =3.75, v sin i= 11 km/s, and turbulent velocity = 0 km/s. (Peters and Polidan 1985, in IAU Symposium 111, ed. D. S. Hayes et al. (Dordrecht: Reidel), 417). We determined the equivalent widths of the chosen lines by fitting gaussian profiles to the lines and by measuring the equivalent widths of the gaussians. We derived abundances by fitting a straight line to a plot of observed equivalent widths vs. synthetic equivalent widths; we adjusted the iron abundance of the models until a slope of unity was achieved. The abundances derived from the different ionization stages are in agreement: Fe II lines indicate an iron abundance that is 34 +15/-10% the solar value([Fe/H]=-0.47 +0.16-0.15dex), while from Fe III lines we obtain 34 +/- 10% ([Fe/H]=-0.47 +0.11/-0.15 dex). A search of the literature suggests that no previous investigations of this star's iron abundance have found agreement between the different ionization stages. We thank Saul Adelman for his generous assistance, and the Faculty Research Fund Board of Wittenberg University for support of this research.

  14. A COMPARISON OF STELLAR ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCE TECHNIQUES AND MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkel, Natalie R.; Young, Patrick A.; Pagano, Michael D.

    2016-09-01

    Stellar elemental abundances are important for understanding the fundamental properties of a star or stellar group, such as age and evolutionary history, as well as the composition of an orbiting planet. However, as abundance measurement techniques have progressed, there has been little standardization between individual methods and their comparisons. As a result, different stellar abundance procedures determine measurements that vary beyond the quoted error for the same elements within the same stars. The purpose of this paper is to better understand the systematic variations between methods and offer recommendations for producing more accurate results in the future. We invited amore » number of participants from around the world (Australia, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States) to calculate 10 element abundances (C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Fe, Ni, Ba, and Eu) using the same stellar spectra for four stars (HD 361, HD 10700, HD 121504, and HD 202206). Each group produced measurements for each star using (1) their own autonomous techniques, (2) standardized stellar parameters, (3) a standardized line list, and (4) both standardized parameters and a line list. We present the resulting stellar parameters, absolute abundances, and a metric of data similarity that quantifies the homogeneity of the data. We conclude that standardization of some kind, particularly stellar parameters, improves the consistency between methods. However, because results did not converge as more free parameters were standardized, it is clear there are inherent issues within the techniques that need to be reconciled. Therefore, we encourage more conversation and transparency within the community such that stellar abundance determinations can be reproducible as well as accurate and precise.« less

  15. Mangroves Enhance Reef Fish Abundance at the Caribbean Regional Scale

    PubMed Central

    Serafy, Joseph E.; Shideler, Geoffrey S.; Araújo, Rafael J.; Nagelkerken, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Several studies conducted at the scale of islands, or small sections of continental coastlines, have suggested that mangrove habitats serve to enhance fish abundances on coral reefs, mainly by providing nursery grounds for several ontogenetically-migrating species. However, evidence of such enhancement at a regional scale has not been reported, and recently, some researchers have questioned the mangrove-reef subsidy effect. In the present study, using two different regression approaches, we pursued two questions related to mangrove-reef connectivity at the Caribbean regional scale: (1) Are reef fish abundances limited by mangrove forest area?; and (2) Are mean reef fish abundances proportional to mangrove forest area after taking human population density and latitude into account? Specifically, we tested for Caribbean-wide mangrove forest area effects on the abundances of 12 reef fishes that have been previously characterized as “mangrove-dependent”. Analyzed were data from an ongoing, long-term (20-year) citizen-scientist fish monitoring program; coastal human population censuses; and several wetland forest information sources. Quantile regression results supported the notion that mangrove forest area limits the abundance of eight of the 12 fishes examined. Linear mixed-effects regression results, which considered potential human (fishing and habitat degradation) and latitudinal influences, suggested that average reef fish densities of at least six of the 12 focal fishes were directly proportional to mangrove forest area. Recent work questioning the mangrove-reef fish subsidy effect likely reflects a failure to: (1) focus analyses on species that use mangroves as nurseries, (2) consider more than the mean fish abundance response to mangrove forest extent; and/or (3) quantitatively account for potentially confounding human impacts, such as fishing pressure and habitat degradation. Our study is the first to demonstrate at a large regional scale (i.e., the Wider

  16. Boron Abundances in A and B-type Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, David L.

    1997-01-01

    Boron abundances in A- and B-type stars may be a successful way to track evolutionary effects in these hot stars. The light elements - Li, Be, and B - are tracers of exposure to temperatures more moderate than those in which the H-burning CN-cycle operates. Thus, any exposure of surface stellar layers to deeper layers will affect these light element abundances. Li and Be are used in this role in investigations of evolutionary processes in cool stars, but are not observable in hotter stars. An investigation of boron, however, is possible through the B II 1362 A resonance line. We have gathered high resolution spectra from the IUE database of A- and B-type stars near 10 solar mass for which nitrogen abundances have been determined. The B II 1362 A line is blended throughout; the temperature range of this program, requiring spectrum syntheses to recover the boron abundances. For no star could we synthesize the 1362 A region using the meteoritic/solar boron abundance of log e (B) = 2.88; a lower boron abundance was necessary which may reflect evolutionary effects (e.g., mass loss or mixing near the main-sequence), the natal composition of the star forming regions, or a systematic error in the analyses (e.g., non-LTE effects). Regardless of the initial boron abundance, and despite the possibility of non-LTE effects, it seems clear that boron is severely depleted in some stars. It may be that the nitrogen and boron abundances are anticorrelated, as would be expected from mixing between the H-burning and outer stellar layers. If, as we suspect, a residue of boron is present in the A-type supergiants, we may exclude a scenario in which mixing occurs continuously between the surface and the deep layers operating the CN-cycle. Further exploitation of the B II 1362 A line as an indicator of the evolutionary status of A- and B-type stars will require a larger stellar sample to be observed with higher signal-to-noise as attainable with the Hubble Space Telescope.

  17. Energetic-particle abundances in impulsive solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reames, D. V.; Cane, H. V.; Von Rosenvinge, T. T.

    1990-01-01

    The abundances of elements and of He-3 in 90 solar electron events have been examined. It is found that the events fall into two distinct groups based upon their F/C ratio. Events in the F-rich group frequently have high He-3/He-4 ratios and are associated with type III and type V radio bursts in the parent flare. The F-poor events are associated with type IV bursts. These results on individual events support the conclusions of earlier work done with daily-averaged abundances.

  18. Extreme possible variations of the deuterium abundance within the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delbourgo-Salvador, P.; Audouze, J.; Vidal-Madjar, A.

    1987-03-01

    In order to reconcile the present baryonic densities deduced respectively from the primordial abundances of D and 4He, some recent chemical evolution models imply that D could have been destroyed more thoroughly during the Galaxy evolution than what was previously predicted. Under the conditions outlined by these models, the present abundance of D may vary by factors as large as 50 in different parts of the Galaxy. If such variations are not observed, this implies that the ratio X(D)prim/X(D)present is not large (2 - 3): the simplest Big Bang models may then be unable to reconcile the baryonic densities predicted by D and 4He respectively.

  19. Climate shapes the protein abundance of dominant soil bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bastida, Felipe; Crowther, Tom W; Prieto, Iván; Routh, Devin; García, Carlos; Jehmlich, Nico

    2018-05-28

    Sensitive models of climate change impacts would require a better integration of multi-omics approaches that connect the abundance and activity of microbial populations. Here, we show that climate is a fundamental driver of the protein abundance of Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes and Proteobacteria, supporting the hypothesis that metabolic activity of some dominant phyla may be closely linked to climate. These results may improve our capacity to construct microbial models that better predict the impact of climate change in ecosystem processes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Echelle Spectroscopy and Abundances in Ruprecht 106 and ARP 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Jeffery A.; Wallerstein, George; Zucker, Daniel

    1996-04-01

    This is a preliminary report on abundances for two red giants each in the young globular clusters Ruprecht 106 and Pal 12. For Rup 106, we find [Fe/H] = -1.50 but almost all other elements are more deficient than iron, in reverse of the pattern in most metal-poor stars; the exception is oxygen, with [O/Fe] =~ 0.0. Pal 12 is less depleted, with [Fe/H] = -1.0, and has more nearly solar abundance ratios; we have no data on oxygen in Pal 12.

  1. 4He abundances: Optical versus radio recombination line measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balser, Dana S.; Rood, Robert T.; Bania, T. M.

    2010-04-01

    Accurate measurements of the 4He/H abundance ratio are important in constraining Big Bang nucleosynthesis, models of stellar and Galactic evolution, and H ii region physics. We discuss observations of radio recombination lines using the Green Bank Telescope toward a small sample of H ii regions and planetary nebulae. We report 4He/H abundance ratio differences as high as 15-20% between optical and ratio data that are difficult to reconcile. Using the H ii regions S206 and M17 we determine 4He production in the Galaxy to be dY/dZ = 1.71 ± 0.86.

  2. Trace Element Abundance Measurements on Cosmic Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, George

    1996-01-01

    The X-Ray Microprobe on beamline X-26A at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory was used to determine the abundances of elements from Cr through Sr in individual interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected from the Earth's stratosphere and the Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscope (STXM) on beamline X-1A at the NSLS was used to determine the carbon abundances and spatial distributions in IDPs. In addition, modeling was performed in an attempt to associate particular types of IDPs with specific types of parent bodies, and thus to infer the chemistry, mineralogy, and structural properties of those parent bodies.

  3. Activity and the Li abundances in the FGK dwarfs⋆

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishenina, T. V.; Soubiran, C.; Kovtyukh, V. V.; Katsova, M. M.; Livshits, M. A.

    2012-11-01

    Aims: The aim of the present study is to determine the Li abundances for a large set of the FGK dwarfs and to analyse the connections between the Li content, stellar parameters, and activity. Methods: The atmospheric parameters, rotational velocities and the Li abundances were determined from a homogeneous collection of the echelle spectra with high resolution and a high signal-to-noise ratio. The rotational velocities vsini were determined by calibrating the cross-correlation function. The effective temperatures Teff were estimated by the line-depth ratio method. The surface gravities log g were computed by two methods: the iron ionization balance and the parallax. The LTE Li abundances were computed using synthetic spectra method. The behaviour of the Li abundance was examined in correlation with Teff, [Fe/H] , as well as with vsini and the level of activity in three stellar groups of the different temperature range. Results: The stellar parameters and the Li abundances are presented for 150 slow rotating stars of the lower part of the main sequence. The studied stars show a decline in the Li abundance with decreasing temperature Teff and a significant spread, which should be due to the difference of age of stars. The correlations between the Li abundances, rotational velocities vsini, and the level of the chromospheric activity were discovered for the stars with 6000 > Teff > 5700 K, and it is tighter for the stars with 5700 > Teff > 5200 K. The target stars with Teff < 5200 K do not show any correlation between log A(Li) and vsini. The relationship between the chromospheric and coronal fluxes in active with detected Li as well as in less active stars gives a hint that there exist different conditions in the action of the dynamo mechanism in those stars. Conclusions: We found that the Li-activity correlation is evident only in a restricted temperature range and the Li abundance spread seems to be present in a group of low chromospheric activity stars that also

  4. Infrared Abundances and the Chemical Enrichment of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. D.

    Elements heavier than helium make up only a small fraction of the mass of the present day Universe, yet they heavily impact how galaxies and stars form and evolve. The chemical enrichment history of the Universe therefore forms an essential part of any complete understanding of galaxy evolution, and with the advent of incredibly sensitive IR/sub-mm/radio facilities, we are poised to begin unraveling it. Nonetheless, significant, decades-old problems plague even the most data-rich local methods of measuring gas phase metal abundance, with large (up to 10x) disagreements stemming principally from unknown and unseen temperature structure in ionized gas. The farinfared fine structure lines of oxygen offer a path out of this deadlock. Oxygen is the most important coolant of ionized gas, and the dominant metal abundance indicator. Its ground state fine structure lines, in particular [OIII] 88¼m, arise from such low-lying energy levels that they are insensitive to temperature. And unlike the faint "auroral" lines used by the gold-standard direct abundance method, they are bright, and readily observable at all metallicities. Indeed this crucial line has already been observed with ALMA in a number of galaxies directly in the era of reionization at z=7-9. Herschel has mapped and archived more than 150 nearby (d<25Mpc) galaxies on scales of 1 kiloparsec and below in the important [OIII] 88¼m line. We propose a comprehensive program to develop the far-infrared fine structure lines of oxygen into direct, empirical gas phase metal abundance measures. We will validate directly against the largest, deepest survey of direct spectroscopic optical metal abundances ever undertaken - the LBT/MODS program CHAOS. We will leverage spatially matched nebular emission lines ([NeII], [NeIII], [SIII], [SIV]) from Spitzer/IRS for ionization balance. We will employ our extensive optical IFU data (PPAK, MUSE, and VENGA) for strong line abundance comparisons, and to bridge the physical scales

  5. Stellar Oxygen Abundances.V.Abundances of Two Hyades Dwarfs Derived from the 6300 Angstroms [OI] Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Jeremy R.; Hiltgen, Daniel D.

    1996-12-01

    We present observations of the 6300 Å [O I] spectral region in two cool Hyades dwarfs, vB 79 and vB 25. We derive a mean iron abundance, [Fe/H]˜+0.11, in good agreement with recent analyses of F and G Hyades dwarfs. The O abundance derived from spectrum synthesis, [O/H]˜+0.15, is between the values deduced by Garcia Lopez et al. (1993, ApJ, 412, 173; [O/H]=-0.05 to -0.10) and King (1993, Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Hawaii; [O/H]=+0.26), who employed the 7774 Å O I triplet in hotter Hyades dwarfs. An accounting of differences between these two 7774 Å analyses is given. Our [O I]-based determination suggests the Hyades O abundance itself is super-solar, though [O/Fe]˜0.0; however, systematic errors as large as 0.10-0.15 dex cannot be ruled out. The Hyades giants show an unexpected ˜0.23 dex O deficit relative to our dwarf value. While some suggestive evidence for non-standard nuclear processing and mixing in the Hyades giants may exist, we find it unconvincing. Rather, model atmosphere deficiencies or [O I] -region blending features that are still unrecognized by laboratory and theoretical efforts may contribute to the giant-dwarf O discrepancy. Finally, our high O abundance is marginally consistent with values claimed to provide a solution to the Hyades Li problem from standard stellar models. However, it is not clear that these models do in fact reproduce the extant Li data. Our Li abundance upper limit for vB 25 is at least 0.5 dex lower than the abundances of two tidally locked binaries of similar Teff. Standard stellar models of uniform composition and age are not able to reproduce such scatter in Li.

  6. Understanding relationships among abundance, extirpation, and climate at ecoregional scales.

    PubMed

    Beever, Erik A; Dobrowski, S Z; Long, J; Mynsberge, A R; Piekielek, N B

    2013-07-01

    Recent research on mountain-dwelling species has illustrated changes in species distributional patterns in response to climate change. Abundance of a species will likely provide an earlier warning indicator of change than will occupancy, yet relationships between abundance and climatic factors have received less attention. We tested whether predictors of counts of American pikas (Ochotona princeps) during surveys from the Great Basin region in 1994-1999 and 2003-2008 differed between the two periods. Additionally, we tested whether various modeled aspects of ecohydrology better predicted relative density than did average annual precipitation, and whether risk of site-wide extirpation predicted subsequent population counts of pikas. We observed several patterns of change in pika abundance at range edges that likely constitute early warnings of distributional shifts. Predictors of pika abundance differed strongly between the survey periods, as did pika extirpation patterns previously reported from this region. Additionally, maximum snowpack and growing-season precipitation resulted in better-supported models than those using average annual precipitation, and constituted two of the top three predictors of pika density in the 2000s surveys (affecting pikas perhaps via vegetation). Unexpectedly, we found that extirpation risk positively predicted subsequent population size. Our results emphasize the need to clarify mechanisms underlying biotic responses to recent climate change at organism-relevant scales, to inform management and conservation strategies for species of concern.

  7. Abundance and characteristics of snags in western Montana forests

    Treesearch

    Richard B. Harris

    1999-01-01

    Plot data from the U.S. Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis program was used to characterize the abundance and selected characteristics of snags from forests in western Montana. Plots were grouped by whether they had a history of timber harvest, and the U.S. Forest Service classifications of forest type, habitat type, and potential vegetation group were...

  8. How well can we predict forage species occurrence and abundance?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As part of a larger effort focused on forage species production and management, we have been developing a statistical modeling approach to predict the probability of species occurrence and the abundance for Orchard Grass over the Northeast region of the United States using two selected statistical m...

  9. Track counts as indices to abundances of arboreal rodents.

    Treesearch

    A.B. Carey; J.W. Witt

    1991-01-01

    Counting tracks to obtain an index of abundance for species difficult to capture offers a promise of efficiency and effectiveness when broad surveys of populations are necessary. Sand plots, smoked kymograph paper, and, recently, smoked aluminum plates have been used to record tracks(Raphael et al., 1986; Taylor and Raphael, 1988). Findings of studies of carnivores...

  10. Estimating the spatial scales of landscape effects on abundance

    Treesearch

    Richard Chandler; Jeffrey Hepinstall-Cymerman

    2016-01-01

    Spatial variation in abundance is influenced by local- and landscape-level environmental variables, but modeling landscape effects is challenging because the spatial scales of the relationships are unknown. Current approaches involve buffering survey locations with polygons of various sizes and using model selection to identify the best scale. The buffering...

  11. Landscape capability predicts upland game bird abundance and occurrence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loman, Zachary G.; Blomberg, Erik J.; DeLuca, William; Harrison, Daniel J.; Loftin, Cyndy; Wood, Petra B.

    2017-01-01

    Landscape capability (LC) models are a spatial tool with potential applications in conservation planning. We used survey data to validate LC models as predictors of occurrence and abundance at broad and fine scales for American woodcock (Scolopax minor) and ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus). Landscape capability models were reliable predictors of occurrence but were less indicative of relative abundance at route (11.5–14.6 km) and point scales (0.5–1 km). As predictors of occurrence, LC models had high sensitivity (0.71–0.93) and were accurate (0.71–0.88) and precise (0.88 and 0.92 for woodcock and grouse, respectively). Models did not predict point-scale abundance independent of the ability to predict occurrence of either species. The LC models are useful predictors of patterns of occurrences in the northeastern United States, but they have limited utility as predictors of fine-scale or route-specific abundances

  12. "Capture" Me if You Can: Estimating Abundance of Dolphin Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Jessica; Curran, Mary Carla; Cox, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Animal populations are monitored over time to assess the effects of environmental disaster and disease, as well as the efficacy of laws designed to protect them. Determining the abundance of a species within a defined area is one method of monitoring a population. In "Capture" Me if You Can, middle school students will use data collected…

  13. Population Abundance and Ecosystem Service Provision: The Case of Birds

    PubMed Central

    Gaston, Kevin J; Cox, Daniel T C; Canavelli, Sonia B; García, Daniel; Hughes, Baz; Maas, Bea; Martínez, Daniel; Ogada, Darcy; Inger, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Although there is a diversity of concerns about recent persistent declines in the abundances of many species, the implications for the associated delivery of ecosystem services to people are surprisingly poorly understood. In principle, there are a broad range of potential functional relationships between the abundance of a species or group of species and the magnitude of ecosystem-service provision. Here, we identify the forms these relationships are most likely to take. Focusing on the case of birds, we review the empirical evidence for these functional relationships, with examples of supporting, regulating, and cultural services. Positive relationships between abundance and ecosystem-service provision are the norm (although seldom linear), we found no evidence for hump-shaped relationships, and negative ones were limited to cultural services that value rarity. Given the magnitude of abundance declines among many previously common species, it is likely that there have been substantial losses of ecosystem services, providing important implications for the identification of potential tipping points in relation to defaunation resilience, biodiversity conservation, and human well-being. PMID:29686433

  14. Potential retention effect at fish farms boosts zooplankton abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Jover, D.; Toledo-Guedes, K.; Valero-Rodríguez, J. M.; Fernandez-Gonzalez, V.; Sanchez-Jerez, P.

    2016-11-01

    Coastal aquaculture activities influence wild macrofauna in natural environments due to the introduction of artificial structures, such as floating cages, that provide structural complexity in the pelagic system. This alters the abundance and distribution of the affected species and also their feeding behaviour and diet. Despite this, the effects of coastal aquaculture on zooplankton assemblages and the potential changes in their abundance and distribution remain largely unstudied. Traditional plankton sampling hauls between the farm mooring systems entail some practical difficulties. As an alternative, light traps were deployed at 2 farms in the SW Mediterranean during a whole warm season. Total zooplankton capture by traps at farms was higher than at control locations on every sampling night. It ranged from 3 to 10 times higher for the taxonomic groups: bivalvia, cladocera, cumacea, fish early-life-stages, gastropoda, polychaeta and tanaidacea; 10-20 times higher for amphipoda, chaetognatha, isopoda, mysidacea and ostracoda, and 22 times higher for copepoda and the crustacean juvenile stages zoea and megalopa. Permutational analysis showed significant differences for the most abundant zooplankton groups (copepoda, crustacean larvae, chaetognatha, cladocera, mysidacea and polychaeta). This marked incremental increase in zooplankton taxa at farms was consistent, irrespective of the changing environmental variables registered every night. Reasons for the greater abundance of zooplankton at farms are discussed, although results suggest a retention effect caused by cage structures rather than active attraction through physical or chemical cues.

  15. Teaching Old Dogs New Tricks: The Luxury of Digital Abundance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, David; Scharber, Cassandra

    2010-01-01

    Today we thrive on an abundance of relatively cheap computing power and have the luxury of wasting most of it. It is quickly becoming not only possible but also financially sound, for educators to significantly complement, supplement, or even replace traditional print curricula with digital print and media, online curricula and websites, and…

  16. Assessing introduction risk using species’ rank-abundance distributions

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Farrah T.; Bradie, Johanna; Briski, Elizabeta; Bailey, Sarah A.; Simard, Nathalie; MacIsaac, Hugh J.

    2015-01-01

    Mixed-species assemblages are often unintentionally introduced into new ecosystems. Analysing how assemblage structure varies during transport may provide insights into how introduction risk changes before propagules are released. Characterization of introduction risk is typically based on assessments of colonization pressure (CP, the number of species transported) and total propagule pressure (total PP, the total abundance of propagules released) associated with an invasion vector. Generally, invasion potential following introduction increases with greater CP or total PP. Here, we extend these assessments using rank-abundance distributions to examine how CP : total PP relationships change temporally in ballast water of ocean-going ships. Rank-abundance distributions and CP : total PP patterns varied widely between trans-Atlantic and trans-Pacific voyages, with the latter appearing to pose a much lower risk than the former. Responses also differed by taxonomic group, with invertebrates experiencing losses mainly in total PP, while diatoms and dinoflagellates sustained losses mainly in CP. In certain cases, open-ocean ballast water exchange appeared to increase introduction risk by uptake of new species or supplementation of existing ones. Our study demonstrates that rank-abundance distributions provide new insights into the utility of CP and PP in characterizing introduction risk. PMID:25473007

  17. Lithium abundance in a sample of solar-like stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Valdivia, R.; Hernández-Águila, J. B.; Bertone, E.; Chávez, M.; Cruz-Saenz de Miera, F.; Amazo-Gómez, E. M.

    2015-08-01

    We report on the determination of the lithium abundance [A(Li)] of 52 solar-like stars. For 41 objects the A(Li) here presented corresponds to the first measurement. We have measured the equivalent widths of the 6708 Å lithium feature in high-resolution spectroscopic images (R ˜ 80 000), obtained at the Observatorio Astrofísico Guillermo Haro (Sonora, Mexico), as part of the first scientific observations of the revitalized Lunar and Planetary Laboratory (LPL) Echelle Spectrograph, now known as the Cananea High-resolution Spectrograph (CanHiS). Lithium abundances were derived with the Fortran code MOOG, using as fundamental input a set of atmospheric parameters recently obtained by our group. With the help of an additional small sample with previous A(Li) determinations, we demonstrate that our lithium abundances are in agreement, to within uncertainties, with other works. Two target objects stand out from the rest of the sample. The star BD+47 3218 (Teff = 6050 ± 52 K, A(Li) = 1.86 ± 0.07 dex) lies inside the so-called lithium desert in the A(Li)-Teff plane. The other object, BD+28 4515, has an A(Li) = 3.05 ± 0.07 dex, which is the highest of our sample and compatible with the expected abundances of relatively young stars.

  18. Abundance Profiles for C3 Hydrocarbons in Titan's Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, Nicholas; Nixon, Conor A.; Achterberg, Richard; Jolly, Antoine; Sung, Keeyoon; Irwin, Patrick; Flasar, F. Michael

    2017-10-01

    The atmosphere of Titan is of astrobiological importance. Its highly reducing composition and prebiotic chemistry make it analogous to that of the early Earth. Since the Voyager era, several complex hydrocarbons and nitriles have been detected, in some cases making Titan the only known planetary body where these gasses occur naturally. In this work, we report abundance profiles of four major C3 gasses expected to occur in Titan’s atmosphere, derived from Cassini/Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) data.Using the NEMESIS iterative radiative transfer module, we retrieved vertical abundance profiles for propane (C3H8) and propyne (CHCCH3), both initially detected by the Voyager IRIS instrument. Using newly available line data, we were also able to determine the first vertical abundance profiles for propene (C3H6), initially detected in 2013. We present profiles for several latitudes and times and compare to photochemical model predictions and previous observations. We also discuss our efforts to further the search for allene (CH2CCH2), an isomer of propyne. The abundances we retrieved will help to further our understanding of the chemical pathways that occur in Titan's atmosphere.

  19. Peudomonas fluorescens diversity and abundance in the rhizosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amina, Melinai; Ahmed, Bensoltane; Khaladi, Mederbel

    2010-05-01

    It is now over 30 years since that a several plant associated strains of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. are known to produce antimicrobial metabolites, playing a significant role in the biological control of a lot of plant diseases. For that, the interest in the use of these bacteria for biocontrol of plant pathogenic agents has increased. However, few comprehensive studies have described the abundance of this soil borne bacteria in the region of Mascara (Northern-Algerian West). In the connection of this problem, this work was done by monitoring the number of indigenous Pseudomonas fluorescens organisms in three stations characterizing different ecosystems, to document their abundance, diversity and investigate the relationship between P. fluorescens abundance and soil properties. Our quantitative plate counting results hence the conception of their ecology in the rhizosphere. Thus, quantitative results has confirmed that P. fluorescens are successful root colonizers with strong predominance and competed for many ecological niche, where their distribution were correlated significantly (P<0.05) with the majority of soil properties. Keywords: P. Fluorescens, Ecosystems, Abundance, Diversity, Correlated, Soil Properties.

  20. Carbon Abundances in Starburst Galaxies of the Local Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Peña-Guerrero, María A.; Leitherer, Claus; Mink, Selma de

    The cosmological origin of carbon, the fourth most abundant element in the universe, is not well known and a matter of heavy debate. We investigate the behavior of C/O to O/H in order to constrain the production mechanism of carbon. We measured emission-line intensities in the spectral range from 1600 to 10000 Å on Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) long-slit spectra of 18 starburst galaxies in the local universe. We determined chemical abundances through traditional nebular analysis, and we used a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to determine where our carbon and oxygen abundances lie in the parameter space. Wemore » conclude that our C and O abundance measurements are sensible. We analyzed the behavior of our sample in the [C/O] versus [O/H] diagram with respect to other objects such as DLAs, neutral ISM measurements, and disk and halo stars, finding that each type of object seems to be located in a specific region of the diagram. Our sample shows a steeper C/O versus O/H slope with respect to other samples, suggesting that massive stars contribute more to the production of C than N at higher metallicities, only for objects where massive stars are numerous; otherwise, intermediate-mass stars dominate the C and N production.« less

  1. Living with Abundant Information: What's a College to Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter

    2015-01-01

    With its October 2014 day-long conference on competency-based education and Higher Education Innovation Challenge (HEIC), the New England Board of Higher Education (NEBHE) is creating a space in which New England states and institutions can wrestle with the critical issues driven by abundant information. The HEIC lists multiple areas where the…

  2. Oceanic heterotrophic dinoflagellates: distribution, abundance, and role as microzooplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Lessard, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    The primary objectives of this thesis were to determine the distribution and abundance of heterotrophic dinoflagellates across the Gulf Stream system off Cape Hatteras and to assess the potential grazing impact of these microheterotrophs in plankton communities. A list of species encountered in this study and their trophic status based on epifluorescence is presented, as well as observations on the presence of external or internal symbionts. The abundance of heterotrophic dinoflagellates across the Gulf Stream region off Cape Hatteras was determined from bimonthly net tow samples over a year and from whole water samples in March. Their average abundance wasmore » twice that of net ciliates in the net plankton and ten times that of ciliates in the nanoplankton. An isotope technique was developed to measure grazing rates of individual dinoflaggellates and other microzooplankton which cannot be separated in natural populations on the basis of size. /sup 3/H-thymidine and /sup 14/C-bicarbonate were used to label natural heterotrophic (bacteria and bacterivores) and autotrophic (phytoplankton and herbivores) food, respectively. Estimates of the grazing impact of heterotrophic kinoflagellates relative to other groups of heterotrophs on phytoplankton and bacteria were made by combining abundance data and clearance rates. Such calculations suggested that heterotrophic dinoflagellates may be an important group of grazers in oceanic waters.« less

  3. Carbon Abundances in Starburst Galaxies of the Local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña-Guerrero, María A.; Leitherer, Claus; de Mink, Selma; Wofford, Aida; Kewley, Lisa

    2017-10-01

    The cosmological origin of carbon, the fourth most abundant element in the universe, is not well known and a matter of heavy debate. We investigate the behavior of C/O to O/H in order to constrain the production mechanism of carbon. We measured emission-line intensities in the spectral range from 1600 to 10000 Å on Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) long-slit spectra of 18 starburst galaxies in the local universe. We determined chemical abundances through traditional nebular analysis, and we used a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to determine where our carbon and oxygen abundances lie in the parameter space. We conclude that our C and O abundance measurements are sensible. We analyzed the behavior of our sample in the [C/O] versus [O/H] diagram with respect to other objects such as DLAs, neutral ISM measurements, and disk and halo stars, finding that each type of object seems to be located in a specific region of the diagram. Our sample shows a steeper C/O versus O/H slope with respect to other samples, suggesting that massive stars contribute more to the production of C than N at higher metallicities, only for objects where massive stars are numerous; otherwise, intermediate-mass stars dominate the C and N production.

  4. Songbird abundance and parasatism differ between urban and rural shrublands

    Treesearch

    Dirk E. Burhans; Frank R. Thompson

    2006-01-01

    Many studies have examined differences in avian community composition between urban and rural habitats, but few, if any, have looked at nesting success of urban shrubland birds in a replicated fashion while controlling for habitat. We tested factors affecting nest survival, parasitism by the Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater), and species abundance in shrubland...

  5. Distribution and abundance of Neotoma in western Oregon and Washington.

    Treesearch

    Andrew B. Carey; Christine C. Maguire; Brian L. Biswell; Todd M. Wilson

    1999-01-01

    Bushy-tailed woodrats (Neotoma cinerea) and dusky-footed woodrats (N. fuscipes) add substantially to the prey base of many avian and mammalian predators. High biomass of woodrats can reduce markedly area requirements of predators; thus, management for woodrats has potential in conservation. But patterns of abundance of woodrats...