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Sample records for abundant algal mats

  1. Method and system of culturing an algal mat

    DOEpatents

    Das, Keshav C; Cannon, Benjamin R; Bhatnagar, Ashish; Chinnasamy, Senthil

    2014-05-13

    A system and method for culturing algae are presented. The system and method utilize a fog of growth medium that is delivered to an algal mat generator along with a stream of CO.sub.2 to promote growth of algal cells contained in the generator.

  2. Invasive algal mats degrade coral reef physical habitat quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Jonathan A.; Smith, Celia M.; Richmond, Robert H.

    2012-03-01

    Invasive species alter the ecology of marine ecosystems through a variety of mechanisms or combination of mechanisms. This study documented critical physical parameters altered by the invasive red macroalga Gracilaria salicornia in situ, including: reduced irradiance, increased sedimentation, and marked variation in diurnal dissolved oxygen and pH cycles in Kāne'ohe Bay, O'ahu, Hawai'i. Paired studies showed that algal mats reduced irradiance by 99% and doubled sediment accumulation. Several mats developed hypoxia and hyperoxia in the extreme minima and maxima, though there was no statistical difference detected in the mean or the variability of dissolved oxygen between different 30 min time points of 24 h cycles between algal mat-open reef pairs. The algal mat significantly acidified the water under the algal mat by decreasing pH by 0.10-0.13 pH units below open reef pH. A minimum of pH 7.47 occurred between 14 and 19 h after sunrise. Our combined results suggest that mats of G. salicornia can alter various physical parameters on a fine scale and time course not commonly detected. These changes in parameters give insight into the underlying basis for negative impact, and suggest new ways in which the presence of invasive species leads to decline of coral reef ecosystems.

  3. Tracking the Effect of Algal Mats on Coral Bleaching Using Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Askary, H. M.; Johnson, S. H.; Idris, N.; Qurban, M. A. B.

    2014-12-01

    Benthic habitats rely on relatively stable environmental conditions for survival. The introduction of algal mats into an ecosystem can have a notable effect on the livelihood of organisms such as coral reefs by causing changes in the biogeochemistry of the surrounding water. Increasing levels of acidity and new competition for sunlight caused by congregations of cyanobacteria essentially starve coral reefs of natural resources. These changes are particularly prevalent in waters near quickly developing population centers, such as the ecologically diverse Arabian Gulf. While ground-truthing studies to determine the extensiveness of coral death proves useful on a microcosmic level, new ventures in remote sensing research allow scientists to utilize satellite data to track these changes on a broader scale. Satellite images acquired from Landsat 5, 1987, Landsat 7, 2000, and Landsat 8, 2013 along with higher resolution IKONOS data are digitally analyzed in order to create spectral libraries for relevant benthic types, which in turn can be used to perform supervised classifications and change detection analyses over a larger area. The supervised classifications performed over the three scenes show five significant marine-related classes, namely coral, mangroves, macro-algae, and seagrass, in different degrees of abundance, yet here we focus only on the algal mats impact on corals bleaching. The change detection analysis is introduced to study see the degree of algal mats impact on coral bleaching over the course of time with possible connection to the local meteorology and current climate scenarios.

  4. Lipids of recently-deposited algal mats at Laguna Mormona, Baja California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardoso, J.; Brooks, P. W.; Eglinton, G.; Goodfellow, R.; Maxwell, J. R.; Philp, R. P.

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary survey of the lipid composition of the core of a recently deposited algal mat of a subtropical, hypersaline coastal pond is described. Two layers of the core were examined: the upper, 2-cm-thick layer, comprising the fresh algal mat of predominantly the blue-green species Microcoleus chthonoplastes, and the black anaerobic algal ooze at a depth of 10 cm. About 75% of the n-alkanes in the mat were accounted for by n-C17, with smaller amounts of higher homologues maximizing at n-C27. The ooze was characterized by a bimodal distribution with maxima at n-C17 and n-C27. The n-alkanoic acids distributions were similar to the corresponding n-alkane distributions. A marked decrease in the ratio of monounsaturated to saturated acids in the ooze relative to the mat was observed, which indicates a preferential removal of unsaturated components. Certain triterpenes of the hopane skeletal type were present in the mat and ooze. The presence of stanols and sterenes in the ooze with similar carbon number distributions suggests a relationship between them.

  5. Microbial dynamics of an epilithic algal-bacterial mat community in an oligotrophic, high alpine stream

    SciTech Connect

    McFeters, G.A.; Haack, T.K.

    1982-04-01

    Previous studies of an epilithic algal-bacterial community in a pristine mountain stream suggested that heterotrophic bacteria were responding to the metabolic activities of the photorophic population. Subsequent studies were performed to follow the flow of labeled carbon, from its initial inorganic form, through the trophic levels of the mat community. A majority of primary production metabolites were excreted by the algal population during active growth; this shifted to an incorporation into cellular material as phototrophic activity declined. Results suggest that there was a direct flux of soluble algal products to the bacterial population, with little heterotrophic utilization of dissolved organics from the overlying stream water. Both phototrophic productivity and bacterial utilization of algal products peaked at approximately the same time of year. Activity of the diatom-dominated algal population declined as silica concentrations in the stream water dropped, leading to a situation in which the sessile bacteria were substrate limited. These events resulted in an almost complete disappearance of the community in early September.

  6. Algal Species and Light Microenvironment in a Low-pH, Geothermal Microbial Mat Community

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, M. J.; Sheehan, K. B.; Kühl, M.; Cooksey, K.; Wigglesworth-Cooksey, B.; Harvey, R.; Henson, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    Unicellular algae are the predominant microbial mat-forming phototrophs in the extreme environments of acidic geothermal springs. The ecology of these algae is not well known because concepts of species composition are inferred from cultivated isolates and microscopic observations, methods known to provide incomplete and inaccurate assessments of species in situ. We used sequence analysis of 18S rRNA genes PCR amplified from mat samples from different seasons and different temperatures along a thermal gradient to identify algae in an often-studied acidic (pH 2.7) geothermal creek in Yellowstone National Park. Fiber-optic microprobes were used to show that light for algal photosynthesis is attenuated to <1% over the 1-mm surface interval of the mat. Three algal sequences were detected, and each was present year-round. A Cyanidioschyzon merolae sequence was predominant at temperatures of ≥49°C. A Chlorella protothecoides var. acidicola sequence and a Paradoxia multisita-like sequence were predominant at temperatures of ≤39°C. PMID:16269755

  7. An extraterrestrial habitat on earth: The algal mat of Don Jaun Pond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, B. Z.; Siegel, S. M.; Chen, J.; Larock, P.

    On the edge of Don Juan Pond in the Wright Valley of Antarctica lies a mat of mineral and detritus cemented by organic matter. In spite of a CaCl2 concentration of about 33% (w/v), the mat contains Oscillatoria and other cyanobacteria, unicellular forms, colonial forms rich in carotenoids, and diatoms. Bacteria are rare; fungal filaments are not. Oscillatoria showed motility, but only at temperatures <10°C. Acetone extracts of the mat and nearby muds yielded visible spectra similar to those of laboratory grown O. sancta, with 50- to 70-fold molar ratio of chlorophyll a to b. Although rare, tardigrades were also found. The algal mat had enzymatic activities characteristic of peroxidase, catalase, dehydrogenase, and amylase. Cellulose, chitin, protein, lipid and ATP were present. Previously, algae in the Wright Valley have been described in melt water, not in the brine itself. Wright Valley has been used as a near sterile Martian model. It obviously contains an array of hardy terrestrial organisms.

  8. Fate of Immediate Methane Precursors in Low-Sulfate, Hot-Spring Algal-Bacterial Mats

    PubMed Central

    Sandbeck, Kenneth A.; Ward, David M.

    1981-01-01

    The fates of acetate and carbon dioxide were examined in several experiments designed to indicate their relative contributions to methane production at various temperatures in two low-sulfate, hot-spring algal-bacterial mats. [2-14C]acetate was predominantly incorporated into cell material, although some 14CH4 and 14CO2 was produced. Acetate incorporation was reduced by dark incubation in short-term experiments and severely depressed by a 2-day preincubation in darkness. Autoradiograms showed that acetate was incorporated by long filaments resembling phototrophic microorganisms of the mat communities. [3H]acetate was not converted to C3H4 in samples from Octopus Spring collected at the optimum temperature for methanogenesis. NaH14CO3 was readily converted to 14CH4 at temperatures at which methanogenesis was active in both mats. Comparisons of the specific activities of methane and carbon dioxide suggested that of the methane produced, 80 ± 6% in Octopus Spring and 71 ± 21% in Wiegert Channel were derived from carbon dioxide. Addition of acetate to 1 mM did not reduce the relative importance of carbon dioxide as a methane precursor in samples from Octopus Spring. Experiments with pure cultures of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum suggested that the measured ratio of specific activities might underestimate the true contribution of carbon dioxide in methanogenesis. Images PMID:16345736

  9. Structure, Growth, and Decomposition of Laminated Algal-Bacterial Mats in Alkaline Hot Springs

    PubMed Central

    Doemel, W. N.; Brock, Thomas D.

    1977-01-01

    Laminated mats of unique character in siliceous alkaline hot springs of Yellowstone Park are formed predominantly by two organisms, a unicellular blue-green alga, Synechococcus lividus, and a filamentous, gliding, photosynthetic bacterium, Chloroflexus aurantiacus. The mats can be divided approximately into two major zones: an upper, aerobic zone in which sufficient light penetrates for net photosynthesis, and a lower, anaerobic zone, where photosynthesis does not occur and decomposition is the dominant process. Growth of the mat was followed by marking the mat surface with silicon carbide particles. The motile Chloroflexus migrates vertically at night, due to positive aerotaxis, responding to reduced O2 levels induced by dark respiration. The growth rates of mats were estimated at about 50 μm/day. Observations of a single mat at Octopus Spring showed that despite the rapid growth rate, the thickness of the mat remained essentially constant, and silicon carbide layers placed on the surface gradually moved to the bottom of the mat, showing that decomposition was taking place. There was a rapid initial rate of decomposition, with an apparent half-time of about 1 month, followed by a slower period of decomposition with a half-time of about 12 months. Within a year, complete decomposition of a mat of about 2-cm thickness can occur. Also, the region in which decomposition occurs is strictly anaerobic, showing that complete decomposition of organic matter from these organisms can occur in the absence of O2. Images PMID:16345254

  10. Stress-Survival Gene Identification From an Acid Mine Drainage Algal Mat Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbina-Navarrete, J.; Fujishima, K.; Paulino-Lima, I. G.; Rothschild-Mancinelli, B.; Rothschild, L. J.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial communities from acid mine drainage environments are exposed to multiple stressors to include low pH, high dissolved metal loads, seasonal freezing, and desiccation. The microbial and algal communities that inhabit these niche environments have evolved strategies that allow for their ecological success. Metagenomic analyses are useful in identifying species diversity, however they do not elucidate the mechanisms that allow for the resilience of a community under these extreme conditions. Many known or predicted genes encode for protein products that are unknown, or similarly, many proteins cannot be traced to their gene of origin. This investigation seeks to identify genes that are active in an algal consortium during stress from living in an acid mine drainage environment. Our approach involves using the entire community transcriptome for a functional screen in an Escherichia coli host. This approach directly targets the genes involved in survival, without need for characterizing the members of the consortium.The consortium was harvested and stressed with conditions similar to the native environment it was collected from. Exposure to low pH (< 3.2), high metal load, desiccation, and deep freeze resulted in the expression of stress-induced genes that were transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA). These mRNA transcripts were harvested to build complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries in E. coli. The transformed E. coli were exposed to the same stressors as the original algal consortium to select for surviving cells. Successful cells incorporated the transcripts that encode survival mechanisms, thus allowing for selection and identification of the gene(s) involved. Initial selection screens for freeze and desiccation tolerance have yielded E. coli that are 1 order of magnitude more resistant to freezing (0.01% survival of control with no transcript, 0.2% survival of E. coli with transcript) and 3 orders of magnitude more resistant to desiccation (0.005% survival of

  11. Microbial Diversity and Lipid Abundance in Microbial Mats from a Sulfidic, Saline, Warm Spring in Utah, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, J.; Edwardson, C.; Mackey, T. J.; Dzaugis, M.; Ibarra, Y.; Course 2012, G.; Frantz, C. M.; Osburn, M. R.; Hirst, M.; Williamson, C.; Hanselmann, K.; Caporaso, J.; Sessions, A. L.; Spear, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    The microbial diversity of Stinking Springs, a sulfidic, saline, warm spring northeast of the Great Salt Lake was investigated. The measured pH, temperature, salinity, and sulfide concentration along the flow path ranged from 6.64-7.77, 40-28° C, 2.9-2.2%, and 250 μM to negligible, respectively. Five sites were selected along the flow path and within each site microbial mats were dissected into depth profiles based on the color and texture of the mat layers. Genomic DNA was extracted from each layer, and the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced on the Roche 454 Titanium platform. Fatty acids were also extracted from the mat layers and analyzed by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The mats at Stinking Springs were classified into roughly two morphologies with respect to their spatial distribution: loose, sometimes floating mats proximal to the spring source; and thicker, well-laminated mats distal to the spring source. Loosely-laminated mats were found in turbulent stream flow environments, whereas well-laminated mats were common in less turbulent sheet flows. Phototrophs, sulfur oxidizers, sulfate reducers, methanogens, other bacteria and archaea were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequences. Diatoms, identified by microscopy and lipid analysis were found to increase in abundance with distance from the source. Methanogens were generally more abundant in deeper mat laminae. Photoheterotrophs were found in all mat layers. Microbial diversity increased significantly with depth at most sites. In addition, two distinct microbial streamers were identified and characterized at the two fast flowing sites. These two streamer varieties were dominated by either cyanobacteria or flavobacteria. Overall, our genomic and lipid analysis suggest that the physical and chemical environment is more predictive of the community composition than mat morphology. Site Map

  12. Microbial mat controls on infaunal abundance and diversity in modern marine microbialites.

    PubMed

    Tarhan, L G; Planavsky, N J; Laumer, C E; Stolz, J F; Reid, R P

    2013-09-01

    Microbialites are the most abundant macrofossils of the Precambrian. Decline in microbialite abundance and diversity during the terminal Proterozoic and early Phanerozoic has historically been attributed to the concurrent radiation of complex metazoans. Similarly, the apparent resurgence of microbialites in the wake of Paleozoic and Mesozoic mass extinctions is frequently linked to drastic declines in metazoan diversity and abundance. However, it has become increasing clear that microbialites are relatively common in certain modern shallow, normal marine carbonate environments-foremost the Bahamas. For the first time, we present data, collected from the Exuma Cays, the Bahamas, systematically characterizing the relationship between framework-building cyanobacteria, microbialite fabrics, and microbialite-associated metazoan abundance and diversity. We document the coexistence of diverse microbialite and infaunal metazoan communities and demonstrate that the predominant control upon both microbialite fabric and metazoan community structure is microbial mat type. These findings necessitate that we rethink prevalent interpretations of microbialite-metazoan interactions and imply that microbialites are not passive recipients of metazoan-mediated alteration. Additionally, this work provides support for the theory that certain Precambrian microbialites may have been havens of early complex metazoan life, rather than bereft of metazoans, as has been traditionally envisaged. PMID:23889904

  13. Microbial mat controls on infaunal abundance and diversity in modern marine microbialites.

    PubMed

    Tarhan, L G; Planavsky, N J; Laumer, C E; Stolz, J F; Reid, R P

    2013-09-01

    Microbialites are the most abundant macrofossils of the Precambrian. Decline in microbialite abundance and diversity during the terminal Proterozoic and early Phanerozoic has historically been attributed to the concurrent radiation of complex metazoans. Similarly, the apparent resurgence of microbialites in the wake of Paleozoic and Mesozoic mass extinctions is frequently linked to drastic declines in metazoan diversity and abundance. However, it has become increasing clear that microbialites are relatively common in certain modern shallow, normal marine carbonate environments-foremost the Bahamas. For the first time, we present data, collected from the Exuma Cays, the Bahamas, systematically characterizing the relationship between framework-building cyanobacteria, microbialite fabrics, and microbialite-associated metazoan abundance and diversity. We document the coexistence of diverse microbialite and infaunal metazoan communities and demonstrate that the predominant control upon both microbialite fabric and metazoan community structure is microbial mat type. These findings necessitate that we rethink prevalent interpretations of microbialite-metazoan interactions and imply that microbialites are not passive recipients of metazoan-mediated alteration. Additionally, this work provides support for the theory that certain Precambrian microbialites may have been havens of early complex metazoan life, rather than bereft of metazoans, as has been traditionally envisaged.

  14. Lipophilic pigments from cyanobacterial (blue-green algal) and diatom mats in Hamelin Pool, Shark Bay, Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmisano, A. C.; Summons, R. E.; Cronin, S. E.; Des Marais, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    Lipophilic pigments were examined in microbial mat communities dominated by cyanobacteria in the intertidal zone and by diatoms in the subtidal and sublittoral zones of Hamelin Pool, Shark Bay, Western Australia. These microbial mats have evolutionary significance because of their similarity to lithfied stromatolites from the Proterozoic and Early Paleozoic eras. Fucoxanthin, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, beta-carotene, and chlorophylls a and c characterized the diatom mats, whereas cyanobacterial mats contained myxoxanthophyll, zeaxanthin, echinenone, beta-carotene, chlorophyll a and, in some cases, sheath pigment. The presence of bacteriochlorophyll a within the mats suggest a close association of photosynthetic bacteria with diatoms and cyanobacteria. The high carotenoids : chlorophyll a ratios (0.84-2.44 wt/wt) in the diatom mats suggest that carotenoids served a photoprotective function in this high light environment. By contrast, cyanobacterial sheath pigment may have largely supplanted the photoprotective role of carotenoids in the intertidal mats.

  15. Organic matter degradation drives benthic cyanobacterial mat abundance on Caribbean coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Brocke, Hannah J; Polerecky, Lubos; de Beer, Dirk; Weber, Miriam; Claudet, Joachim; Nugues, Maggy M

    2015-01-01

    Benthic cyanobacterial mats (BCMs) are impacting coral reefs worldwide. However, the factors and mechanisms driving their proliferation are unclear. We conducted a multi-year survey around the Caribbean island of Curaçao, which revealed highest BCM abundance on sheltered reefs close to urbanised areas. Reefs with high BCM abundance were also characterised by high benthic cover of macroalgae and low cover of corals. Nutrient concentrations in the water-column were consistently low, but markedly increased just above substrata (both sandy and hard) covered with BCMs. This was true for sites with both high and low BCM coverage, suggesting that BCM growth is stimulated by a localised, substrate-linked release of nutrients from the microbial degradation of organic matter. This hypothesis was supported by a higher organic content in sediments on reefs with high BCM coverage, and by an in situ experiment which showed that BCMs grew within days on sediments enriched with organic matter (Spirulina). We propose that nutrient runoff from urbanised areas stimulates phototrophic blooms and enhances organic matter concentrations on the reef. This organic matter is transported by currents and settles on the seabed at sites with low hydrodynamics. Subsequently, nutrients released from the organic matter degradation fuel the growth of BCMs. Improved management of nutrients generated on land should lower organic loading of sediments and other benthos (e.g. turf and macroalgae) to reduce BCM proliferation on coral reefs. PMID:25941812

  16. Organic Matter Degradation Drives Benthic Cyanobacterial Mat Abundance on Caribbean Coral Reefs

    PubMed Central

    Brocke, Hannah J.; Polerecky, Lubos; de Beer, Dirk; Weber, Miriam; Claudet, Joachim; Nugues, Maggy M.

    2015-01-01

    Benthic cyanobacterial mats (BCMs) are impacting coral reefs worldwide. However, the factors and mechanisms driving their proliferation are unclear. We conducted a multi-year survey around the Caribbean island of Curaçao, which revealed highest BCM abundance on sheltered reefs close to urbanised areas. Reefs with high BCM abundance were also characterised by high benthic cover of macroalgae and low cover of corals. Nutrient concentrations in the water-column were consistently low, but markedly increased just above substrata (both sandy and hard) covered with BCMs. This was true for sites with both high and low BCM coverage, suggesting that BCM growth is stimulated by a localised, substrate-linked release of nutrients from the microbial degradation of organic matter. This hypothesis was supported by a higher organic content in sediments on reefs with high BCM coverage, and by an in situ experiment which showed that BCMs grew within days on sediments enriched with organic matter (Spirulina). We propose that nutrient runoff from urbanised areas stimulates phototrophic blooms and enhances organic matter concentrations on the reef. This organic matter is transported by currents and settles on the seabed at sites with low hydrodynamics. Subsequently, nutrients released from the organic matter degradation fuel the growth of BCMs. Improved management of nutrients generated on land should lower organic loading of sediments and other benthos (e.g. turf and macroalgae) to reduce BCM proliferation on coral reefs. PMID:25941812

  17. Organic matter degradation drives benthic cyanobacterial mat abundance on Caribbean coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Brocke, Hannah J; Polerecky, Lubos; de Beer, Dirk; Weber, Miriam; Claudet, Joachim; Nugues, Maggy M

    2015-01-01

    Benthic cyanobacterial mats (BCMs) are impacting coral reefs worldwide. However, the factors and mechanisms driving their proliferation are unclear. We conducted a multi-year survey around the Caribbean island of Curaçao, which revealed highest BCM abundance on sheltered reefs close to urbanised areas. Reefs with high BCM abundance were also characterised by high benthic cover of macroalgae and low cover of corals. Nutrient concentrations in the water-column were consistently low, but markedly increased just above substrata (both sandy and hard) covered with BCMs. This was true for sites with both high and low BCM coverage, suggesting that BCM growth is stimulated by a localised, substrate-linked release of nutrients from the microbial degradation of organic matter. This hypothesis was supported by a higher organic content in sediments on reefs with high BCM coverage, and by an in situ experiment which showed that BCMs grew within days on sediments enriched with organic matter (Spirulina). We propose that nutrient runoff from urbanised areas stimulates phototrophic blooms and enhances organic matter concentrations on the reef. This organic matter is transported by currents and settles on the seabed at sites with low hydrodynamics. Subsequently, nutrients released from the organic matter degradation fuel the growth of BCMs. Improved management of nutrients generated on land should lower organic loading of sediments and other benthos (e.g. turf and macroalgae) to reduce BCM proliferation on coral reefs.

  18. Abundance and Size Distribution of the Sacoglossan Elysia viridis on Co-Occurring Algal Hosts on the Swedish West Coast

    PubMed Central

    Baumgartner, Finn A.; Toth, Gunilla B.

    2014-01-01

    Sacoglossans are specialized marine herbivores that tend to have a close evolutionary relationship with their macroalgal hosts, but the widely distributed species Elysia viridis can associate with several algal species. However, most previous investigations on the field abundance and size distribution of E. viridis have focussed on Codium spp. in the British Isles, and algae from this genus are considered superior hosts for E. viridis. In the present study, we investigated the abundance and size distribution of E. viridis on 6 potential host algae with differing morphologies (the septate species Cladophora sericea, Cladophora rupestris, Chaetomorpha melagonium, and Ceramium virgatum, as well as the siphonaceous species Codium fragile and Bryopsis sp.) at 2 sites on the Swedish west coast over the course of a year. In spring, slugs were almost absent from all algal hosts. In summer and autumn, E. viridis consistently occurred on several of the algal species at both sites. The highest number of small E. viridis were found on C. sericea, intermediate numbers of significantly larger E. viridis were found on C. rupestris, while fewer, intermediate sized animals were found on C. fragile. Throughout the study period, only a few E. viridis individuals were found on C. melagonium, Bryopsis sp., and C. virgatum. Our results indicate that E. viridis is an annual species in Sweden, capable of exploiting co-occurring congeneric and intergeneric algal hosts with differing morphologies. These results corroborate previous findings that E. viridis can exploit several different algal species, but does not indicate that C. fragile is a superior host. PMID:24647524

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Cryophilic Basidiomycetous Yeast Mrakia blollopis SK-4, Isolated from an Algal Mat of Naga-ike Lake in the Skarvsnes Ice-Free Area, East Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Masaharu; Kudoh, Sakae; Hoshino, Tamotsu

    2015-01-01

    Mrakia blollopis strain SK-4 was isolated from an algal mat of Naga-ike, a lake in Skarvsnes, East Antarctica. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of M. blollopis SK-4. This is the first report on the genome sequence of any cold-adapted fungal species.

  20. Plankton communities and summertime declines in algal abundance associated with low dissolved oxygen in the Tualatin River, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, Kurt D.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplankton populations in the Tualatin River in northwestern Oregon are an important component of the dissolved oxygen (DO) budget of the river and are critical for maintaining DO levels in summer. During the low-flow summer period, sufficient nutrients and a long residence time typically combine with ample sunshine and warm water to fuel blooms of cryptophyte algae, diatoms, green and blue-green algae in the low-gradient, slow-moving reservoir reach of the lower river. Algae in the Tualatin River generally drift with the water rather than attach to the river bottom as a result of moderate water depths, slightly elevated turbidity caused by suspended colloidal material, and dominance of silty substrates. Growth of algae occurs as if on a “conveyor belt” of streamflow, a dynamic system that is continually refreshed with inflowing water. Transit through the system can take as long as 2 weeks during the summer low-flow period. Photosynthetic production of DO during algal blooms is important in offsetting oxygen consumption at the sediment-water interface caused by the decomposition of organic matter from primarily terrestrial sources, and the absence of photosynthesis can lead to low DO concentrations that can harm aquatic life. The periods with the lowest DO concentrations in recent years (since 2003) typically occur in August following a decline in algal abundance and activity, when DO concentrations often decrease to less than State standards for extended periods (nearly 80 days). Since 2003, algal populations have tended to be smaller and algal blooms have terminated earlier compared to conditions in the 1990s, leading to more frequent declines in DO to levels that do not meet State standards. This study was developed to document the current abundance and species composition of phytoplankton in the Tualatin River, identify the possible causes of the general decline in algae, and evaluate hypotheses to explain why algal blooms diminish in midsummer. Plankton

  1. Plankton communities and summertime declines in algal abundance associated with low dissolved oxygen in the Tualatin River, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, Kurt D.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplankton populations in the Tualatin River in northwestern Oregon are an important component of the dissolved oxygen (DO) budget of the river and are critical for maintaining DO levels in summer. During the low-flow summer period, sufficient nutrients and a long residence time typically combine with ample sunshine and warm water to fuel blooms of cryptophyte algae, diatoms, green and blue-green algae in the low-gradient, slow-moving reservoir reach of the lower river. Algae in the Tualatin River generally drift with the water rather than attach to the river bottom as a result of moderate water depths, slightly elevated turbidity caused by suspended colloidal material, and dominance of silty substrates. Growth of algae occurs as if on a “conveyor belt” of streamflow, a dynamic system that is continually refreshed with inflowing water. Transit through the system can take as long as 2 weeks during the summer low-flow period. Photosynthetic production of DO during algal blooms is important in offsetting oxygen consumption at the sediment-water interface caused by the decomposition of organic matter from primarily terrestrial sources, and the absence of photosynthesis can lead to low DO concentrations that can harm aquatic life. The periods with the lowest DO concentrations in recent years (since 2003) typically occur in August following a decline in algal abundance and activity, when DO concentrations often decrease to less than State standards for extended periods (nearly 80 days). Since 2003, algal populations have tended to be smaller and algal blooms have terminated earlier compared to conditions in the 1990s, leading to more frequent declines in DO to levels that do not meet State standards. This study was developed to document the current abundance and species composition of phytoplankton in the Tualatin River, identify the possible causes of the general decline in algae, and evaluate hypotheses to explain why algal blooms diminish in midsummer. Plankton

  2. Enhanced algal abundance in northwest Ontario (Canada) lakes during the warmer early-to mid-Holocene period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Moumita; Leavitt, Peter R.; Cumming, Brian F.

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates regional changes in primary producers in boreal head-water lakes during the warmer early-to-mid-Holocene (EMH) period, across the present-day boreal forest in northwest Ontario, a region that is adjacent to the prairie-forest ecotone. We quantified changes in algal abundance and composition over the Holocene period using pigments, spectrally-inferred chlorophyll a and diatom assemblages in well-dated sediment cores from three lakes. All three indicators showed a coherent pattern of enhanced primary producers in two of the study lakes (Gall Lake and Lake 239) during the EMH, whereas only diatom assemblages suggested higher levels of nutrients in Meekin Lake. Overall, this study supports a regional pattern of enhanced primary producers during the EMH, likely as a function of lower water-levels and warmer temperatures. Elevated concentrations of cyanobacterial pigments also occurred in two of the three lakes during the EMH, whereas pigments from purple-sulphur bacteria provide evidence of enhanced deep-water anoxia in one lake. These findings suggest that future climatic warming in boreal regions could include regional eutrophication and associated increases in cyanobacteria.

  3. Emergence of Algal Blooms: The Effects of Short-Term Variability in Water Quality on Phytoplankton Abundance, Diversity, and Community Composition in a Tidal Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Egerton, Todd A.; Morse, Ryan E.; Marshall, Harold G.; Mulholland, Margaret R.

    2014-01-01

    Algal blooms are dynamic phenomena, often attributed to environmental parameters that vary on short timescales (e.g., hours to days). Phytoplankton monitoring programs are largely designed to examine long-term trends and interannual variability. In order to better understand and evaluate the relationships between water quality variables and the genesis of algal blooms, daily samples were collected over a 34 day period in the eutrophic Lafayette River, a tidal tributary within Chesapeake Bay’s estuarine complex, during spring 2006. During this period two distinct algal blooms occurred; the first was a cryptomonad bloom and this was followed by a bloom of the mixotrophic dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium instriatum. Chlorophyll a, nutrient concentrations, and physical and chemical parameters were measured daily along with phytoplankton abundance and community composition. While 65 phytoplankton species from eight major taxonomic groups were identified in samples and total micro- and nano-phytoplankton cell densities ranged from 5.8 × 106 to 7.8 × 107 cells L−1, during blooms, cryptomonads and G. instriatum were 91.6% and 99.0%, respectively, of the total phytoplankton biomass during blooms. The cryptomonad bloom developed following a period of rainfall and concomitant increases in inorganic nitrogen concentrations. Nitrate, nitrite and ammonium concentrations 0 to 5 days prior were positively lag-correlated with cryptomonad abundance. In contrast, the G. insriatum bloom developed during periods of low dissolved nitrogen concentrations and their abundance was negatively correlated with inorganic nitrogen concentrations. PMID:27694775

  4. Emergence of Algal Blooms: The Effects of Short-Term Variability in Water Quality on Phytoplankton Abundance, Diversity, and Community Composition in a Tidal Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Egerton, Todd A.; Morse, Ryan E.; Marshall, Harold G.; Mulholland, Margaret R.

    2014-01-01

    Algal blooms are dynamic phenomena, often attributed to environmental parameters that vary on short timescales (e.g., hours to days). Phytoplankton monitoring programs are largely designed to examine long-term trends and interannual variability. In order to better understand and evaluate the relationships between water quality variables and the genesis of algal blooms, daily samples were collected over a 34 day period in the eutrophic Lafayette River, a tidal tributary within Chesapeake Bay’s estuarine complex, during spring 2006. During this period two distinct algal blooms occurred; the first was a cryptomonad bloom and this was followed by a bloom of the mixotrophic dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium instriatum. Chlorophyll a, nutrient concentrations, and physical and chemical parameters were measured daily along with phytoplankton abundance and community composition. While 65 phytoplankton species from eight major taxonomic groups were identified in samples and total micro- and nano-phytoplankton cell densities ranged from 5.8 × 106 to 7.8 × 107 cells L−1, during blooms, cryptomonads and G. instriatum were 91.6% and 99.0%, respectively, of the total phytoplankton biomass during blooms. The cryptomonad bloom developed following a period of rainfall and concomitant increases in inorganic nitrogen concentrations. Nitrate, nitrite and ammonium concentrations 0 to 5 days prior were positively lag-correlated with cryptomonad abundance. In contrast, the G. insriatum bloom developed during periods of low dissolved nitrogen concentrations and their abundance was negatively correlated with inorganic nitrogen concentrations.

  5. Flocculation of harmful algal blooms by modified attapulgite and its safety evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yi; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Xianan; Cai, Dongqing; Feng, Huiyun; Miao, Chunguang; Wang, Xiangqin; Wu, Zhengyan; Yu, Zengliang

    2011-04-01

    Natural attapulgite (N-AT) and modified attapulgite (M-AT) were used in this study to evaluate their flocculation efficiencies and mechanisms in freshwater containing harmful algal blooms through conventional jar test procedure. The experimental results showed that the efficiency of flocculation can be significantly improved by M-AT under appropriate conditions. It was found that the attapulgite modified by hydrochloric acid was similar to polyaluminum ferric silicate chloride (PAFSiC). The high efficiency for M-AT to flocculate Microcystis aeruginosa in freshwater was due to the mechanism of bridging and netting effect. Caenorhabditis elegans was used to detect the toxicity of N-AT and M-AT. The results showed that there was no significant toxicity on this organism. Attapulgite is a natural material, which can be readily available, abundant, and relatively inexpensive. Using modified attapulgite to remove the harmful algal blooms could have the advantages of high effectiveness, low cost, and low impact on the environment.

  6. Artificial soft sediment resuspension and high density opportunistic macroalgal mat fragmentation as method for increasing sediment zoobenthic assemblage diversity in a eutrophic lagoon.

    PubMed

    Martelloni, Tatiana; Tomassetti, Paolo; Gennaro, Paola; Vani, Danilo; Persia, Emma; Persiano, Marco; Falchi, Riccardo; Porrello, Salvatore; Lenzi, Mauro

    2016-09-15

    Superficial soft sediment resuspension and partial fragmentation of high density opportunistic macroalgal mats were investigated by boat to determine the impact on zoobenthic assemblages in a eutrophic Mediterranean lagoon. Sediment resuspension was used to oxidise superficial organic sediments as a method to counteract the effects of eutrophication. Likewise, artificial decay of macroalgal mat was calculated to reduce a permanent source of sediment organic matter. An area of 9ha was disturbed (zone D) and two other areas of the same size were left undisturbed (zones U). We measured chemical-physical variables, estimated algal biomass and sedimentary organic matter, and conducted qualitative and quantitative determinations of the zoobenthic species detected in sediment and among algal mats. The results showed a constant major reduction in labile organic matter (LOM) and algal biomass in D, whereas values in U remained stable or increased. In the three zones, however, bare patches of lagoon bed increased in size, either by direct effect of the boats in D or by anaerobic decay of the algal mass in U. Zoobenthic assemblages in algal mats reduced the number of species in D, probably due to the sharp reduction in biomass, but remained stable in U, whereas in all three areas abundance increased. Sediment zoobenthic assemblages increased the number of species in D, as expected, due to drastic reduction in LOM, whereas values in U remained stable and again abundance increased in all three zones. In conclusion, we confirmed that reduction of sediment organic load enabled an increase in the number of species, while the algal mats proved to be an important substrate in the lagoon environment for zoobenthic assemblages, especially when mat alternated with bare intermat areas of lagoon bed. Sediment resuspension is confirmed as a management criterion for counteracting the effects of eutrophication and improving the biodiversity of zoobenthic assemblages in eutrophic lagoon

  7. Artificial soft sediment resuspension and high density opportunistic macroalgal mat fragmentation as method for increasing sediment zoobenthic assemblage diversity in a eutrophic lagoon.

    PubMed

    Martelloni, Tatiana; Tomassetti, Paolo; Gennaro, Paola; Vani, Danilo; Persia, Emma; Persiano, Marco; Falchi, Riccardo; Porrello, Salvatore; Lenzi, Mauro

    2016-09-15

    Superficial soft sediment resuspension and partial fragmentation of high density opportunistic macroalgal mats were investigated by boat to determine the impact on zoobenthic assemblages in a eutrophic Mediterranean lagoon. Sediment resuspension was used to oxidise superficial organic sediments as a method to counteract the effects of eutrophication. Likewise, artificial decay of macroalgal mat was calculated to reduce a permanent source of sediment organic matter. An area of 9ha was disturbed (zone D) and two other areas of the same size were left undisturbed (zones U). We measured chemical-physical variables, estimated algal biomass and sedimentary organic matter, and conducted qualitative and quantitative determinations of the zoobenthic species detected in sediment and among algal mats. The results showed a constant major reduction in labile organic matter (LOM) and algal biomass in D, whereas values in U remained stable or increased. In the three zones, however, bare patches of lagoon bed increased in size, either by direct effect of the boats in D or by anaerobic decay of the algal mass in U. Zoobenthic assemblages in algal mats reduced the number of species in D, probably due to the sharp reduction in biomass, but remained stable in U, whereas in all three areas abundance increased. Sediment zoobenthic assemblages increased the number of species in D, as expected, due to drastic reduction in LOM, whereas values in U remained stable and again abundance increased in all three zones. In conclusion, we confirmed that reduction of sediment organic load enabled an increase in the number of species, while the algal mats proved to be an important substrate in the lagoon environment for zoobenthic assemblages, especially when mat alternated with bare intermat areas of lagoon bed. Sediment resuspension is confirmed as a management criterion for counteracting the effects of eutrophication and improving the biodiversity of zoobenthic assemblages in eutrophic lagoon

  8. Vertical differences in species turnover and diversity of amphipod assemblages associated with coralline mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, M.; Tanaka, M. O.; Flores, A. A. V.; Leite, F. P. P.

    2016-11-01

    Environmental gradients are common in rocky shore habitats and may determine species spatial distributions at different scales. In this study, we tested whether environmental filtering affects amphipod assemblages inhabiting coralline algal mats at different vertical heights in southeastern Brazil. Samples obtained from the upper and lower zones of the infralittoral fringe were used to estimate mat descriptors (algal mass, sediment retention, organic matter contents, grain size and sediment sorting) and describe amphipod assemblages (abundance, species richness and diversity indices). Coralline algal mats and amphipod assemblages were similar between intertidal zones in several aspects. However, a more variable retention of sediment (positively related to algal mass), together with the accumulation of larger grains lower on the shore, likely provide higher habitat heterogeneity that hosts generally more diverse (both α- and β-diversity, as well as higher species turnover) amphipod assemblages in the lower intertidal zone. Poorer assemblages in the upper intertidal zone are dominated by omnivores, while carnivorous species are more often found in richer assemblages in the lower intertidal zone, as predicted by traditional niche theory.

  9. The influence of a toxic cyanobacterial bloom and water hydrology on algal populations and macroinvertebrate abundance in the upper littoral zone of Lake Krugersdrift, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Oberholster, Paul J; Botha, Anna-Maria; Ashton, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    The biological interactions and the physical and chemical properties of the littoral zone of Lake Krugersdrift were studied for a 4-month period when a dense, toxic cyanobacterial bloom dominated by Microcystis aeruginosa was present in the main lake basin. The presence of a toxic strain of M. aeruginosa was confirmed through the use of ELISA and molecular markers that detect the presence of the mcyB and mcyD genes of the mcy gene cluster that synthesizes microcystin. An increase in Microcystis toxicity at sites dominated by the cyanobacterial scum was accompanied by an increase in total abundance of the macroinvertebrate families Hirudinae, Chironomidae, and Tubificidae. Sites located away from the cyanobacterial scum had a lower abundance but a higher diversity of macroinvertebrates. The water quality under the Microcystis scum was characterized by low pH values, low concentrations of dissolved oxygen, and lower total alkalinity values. The periphytic alga Ulothrix zonata was absent in areas dominated by the cyanobacterial scum, possibly as a result of overshadowing by the scum or direct toxic allelopathic effects on growth and photosynthesis. The diatom Diatoma vulgare dominated the benthic algal flora beneath the cyanobacterial scum.

  10. Didymosphenia geminata: Algal blooms in oligotrophic streams and rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundareshwar, P. V.; Upadhayay, S.; Abessa, M.; Honomichl, S.; Berdanier, B.; Spaulding, S. A.; Sandvik, C.; Trennepohl, A.

    2011-05-01

    In recent decades, the diatom Didymosphenia geminata has emerged as nuisance species in river systems around the world. This periphytic alga forms large “blooms” in temperate streams, presenting a counterintuitive result: the blooms occur primarily in oligotrophic streams and rivers, where phosphorus (P) availability typically limits primary production. The goal of this study is to examine how high algal biomass is formed under low P conditions. We reveal a biogeochemical process by which D. geminata mats concentrate P from flowing waters. First, the mucopolysaccaride stalks of D. geminata adsorb both iron (Fe) and P. Second, enzymatic and bacterial processes interact with Fe to increase the biological availability of P. We propose that a positive feedback between total stalk biomass and high growth rate is created, which results in abundant P for cell division. The affinity of stalks for Fe in association with iron-phosphorus biogeochemistry suggest a resolution to the paradox of algal blooms in oliogotrophic streams and rivers.

  11. The algal lift: Buoyancy-mediated sediment transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Lera, Clara; Federlein, Laura L.; Knie, Matthias; Mutz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The role of benthic algae as biostabilizers of sediments is well-known, however, their potential to lift and transport sediments remains unclear. Under low-flow conditions, matured algal mats may detach from the bed and may lift up sediment, thereby causing disturbance to the uppermost streambed sediment. We tested the potential of algal mats to lift sediments in 12 indoor flumes filled with sand (0.2 - 0.8 mm), gravel (2 - 8 mm) or a sand-gravel mixture (25/75% mass). After four weeks, the algal mats covered about 50% of the flumes area. Due to the accumulation of oxygen gas bubbles in the mats, that developed from high primary production at 4.5 weeks, about half of the algal mats detached from the bed carrying entangled sediments. Both the area covered by algal mats and detached area were similar among sediment types, but the amount of sediment transported tended to be higher for sand and sand-gravel mixture compared to gravel. Our results reveal that biologically mediated sediment transport mainly depends on the development of a dense filamentous algal matrix, that traps gas bubbles, increasing the mats buoyancy. This novel mechanism of sediment transport will occur in shallow ecosystems during low-flow periods, with the highest impact for sandy sediments.

  12. Biogeochemistry of Microbial Mats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David J.; DeVincenizi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The hierarchical organization of microbial ecosystems determines the rates of processes that shape Earth's environment, define the stage upon which major evolutionary events occurred, and create biosignatures in sediments and atmospheres. In cyanobacterial mats, oxygenic photosynthesis provides energy, organic substrates and oxygen to the ecosystem. Incident light changes with depth in the mat, both in intensity and spectral composition, and counteracting gradients of oxygen and sulfide shape the chemical microenvironment. A combination of benefits and hazards of light, oxygen and sulfide promotes the allocation of the various essential mat processes between light and dark periods and to various depths in the mat. Microliters produce hydrogen, small organic acids, nitrogen and sulfur species. Such compounds fuel a flow of energy and electrons in these ecosystems and thus shape interactions between groups of microorganisms. Coordinated observations of population distribution, abundance, and activity for an entire community are making fundamental questions in ecology accessible. These questions address those factors that sustain the remarkable diversity of microorganisms that are now being revealed by molecular techniques. These questions also target the processes that shape the various kinds of biosignatures that we will seek, both in ancient rocks from Earth and Mars, and in atmospheres of distant planets beyond our Solar System.

  13. Didymosphenia geminata: Algal blooms in oligotrophic streams and rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sundareshwar, P.V.; Upadhayay, S.; Abessa, M.; Honomichl, S.; Berdanier, B.; Spaulding, S.A.; Sandvik, C.; Trennepohl, A.

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades, the diatom Didymosphenia geminata has emerged as nuisance species in river systems around the world. This periphytic alga forms large "blooms" in temperate streams, presenting a counterintuitive result: the blooms occur primarily in oligotrophic streams and rivers, where phosphorus (P) availability typically limits primary production. The goal of this study is to examine how high algal biomass is formed under low P conditions. We reveal a biogeochemical process by which D. geminata mats concentrate P from flowing waters. First, the mucopolysaccaride stalks of D. geminata adsorb both iron (Fe) and P. Second, enzymatic and bacterial processes interact with Fe to increase the biological availability of P. We propose that a positive feedback between total stalk biomass and high growth rate is created, which results in abundant P for cell division. The affinity of stalks for Fe in association with iron-phosphorus biogeochemistry suggest a resolution to the paradox of algal blooms in oliogotrophic streams and rivers. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Archean Microbial Mat Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tice, Michael M.; Thornton, Daniel C. O.; Pope, Michael C.; Olszewski, Thomas D.; Gong, Jian

    2011-05-01

    Much of the Archean record of microbial communities consists of fossil mats and stromatolites. Critical physical emergent properties governing the evolution of large-scale (centimeters to meters) topographic relief on the mat landscape are (a) mat surface roughness relative to the laminar sublayer and (b) cohesion. These properties can be estimated for fossil samples under many circumstances. A preliminary analysis of Archean mat cohesion suggests that mats growing in shallow marine environments from throughout this time had cohesions similar to those of modern shallow marine mats. There may have been a significant increase in mat strength at the end of the Archean.

  15. Nitrogen fixation rates in algal turf communities of a degraded versus less degraded coral reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Haan, Joost; Visser, Petra M.; Ganase, Anjani E.; Gooren, Elfi E.; Stal, Lucas J.; van Duyl, Fleur C.; Vermeij, Mark J. A.; Huisman, Jef

    2014-12-01

    Algal turf communities are ubiquitous on coral reefs in the Caribbean and are often dominated by N2-fixing cyanobacteria. However, it is largely unknown (1) how much N2 is actually fixed by turf communities and (2) which factors affect their N2 fixation rates. Therefore, we compared N2 fixation activity by turf communities at different depths and during day and night-time on a degraded versus a less degraded coral reef site on the island of Curaçao. N2 fixation rates measured with the acetylene reduction assay were slightly higher in shallow (5-10-m depth) than in deep turf communities (30-m depth), and N2 fixation rates during the daytime significantly exceeded those during the night. N2 fixation rates by the turf communities did not differ between the degraded and less degraded reef. Both our study and a literature survey of earlier studies indicated that turf communities tend to have lower N2 fixation rates than cyanobacterial mats. However, at least in our study area, turf communities were more abundant than cyanobacterial mats. Our results therefore suggest that turf communities play an important role in the nitrogen cycle of coral reefs. N2 fixation by turfs may contribute to an undesirable positive feedback that promotes the proliferation of algal turf communities while accelerating coral reef degradation.

  16. Algal biofuels.

    PubMed

    Razeghifard, Reza

    2013-11-01

    The world is facing energy crisis and environmental issues due to the depletion of fossil fuels and increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Growing microalgae can contribute to practical solutions for these global problems because they can harvest solar energy and capture CO2 by converting it into biofuel using photosynthesis. Microalgae are robust organisms capable of rapid growth under a variety of conditions including in open ponds or closed photobioreactors. Their reduced biomass compounds can be used as the feedstock for mass production of a variety of biofuels. As another advantage, their ability to accumulate or secrete biofuels can be controlled by changing their growth conditions or metabolic engineering. This review is aimed to highlight different forms of biofuels produced by microalgae and the approaches taken to improve their biofuel productivity. The costs for industrial-scale production of algal biofuels in open ponds or closed photobioreactors are analyzed. Different strategies for photoproduction of hydrogen by the hydrogenase enzyme of green algae are discussed. Algae are also good sources of biodiesel since some species can make large quantities of lipids as their biomass. The lipid contents for some of the best oil-producing strains of algae in optimized growth conditions are reviewed. The potential of microalgae for producing petroleum related chemicals or ready-make fuels such as bioethanol, triterpenic hydrocarbons, isobutyraldehyde, isobutanol, and isoprene from their biomass are also presented.

  17. Pyrosequencing of plastid 23S rRNA genes reveals diverse and dynamic cyanobacterial and algal populations in two eutrophic lakes.

    PubMed

    Steven, Blaire; McCann, Sage; Ward, Naomi L

    2012-12-01

    Pyrosequencing of plastid 23S rRNA genes was performed to determine the usefulness of this methodology for describing spatial and temporal patterns of algal diversity in two eutrophic lakes. The majority of the sequences were identified as known cyanobacteria or eukaryotic algae (> 70% of sequence reads), indicating this approach can specifically recover algal sequences from complex communities. Furthermore, estimated coverage of the data sets indicated that the majority of the 23S rRNA genetic diversity was recovered in these surveys. Communities from algal mats could be clearly distinguished from algae in the water column, and the communities could be readily differentiated between the two lakes, suggesting that the plastid 23S rRNA sequencing was able to distinguish niche and biogeographic partitioning of algal communities. Within the sequence data sets, the ratio of cyanobacteria to eukaryotic algae fluctuated over the course of sampling, with cyanobacteria 23S rRNA sequences being more abundant in later samples. In addition, the eukaryotic algae communities showed large shifts in composition over the course of sampling. Taken together, these data demonstrate the usefulness of targeted plastid 23S rRNA sequencing for describing the structure and dynamics of complex algal communities.

  18. Mat2exo

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-11

    MAT2EXO is a program which translates mesh data from Matlab mat-file format to Exodus II format. This tool is the inverse of the commonly used tool exo2mat which translates Exodus II data to the Matlab mat-file format. These tools provide a means for preprocessing an Exodus II model file or postprocessing an Exodus II results file using Matlab

  19. Nutrient treatments alter microbial mat colonization in two glacial meltwater streams from the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Tyler J; Van Horn, David J; Darling, Joshua P; Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina D; McKnight, Diane M

    2016-04-01

    Microbial mats are abundant in many alpine and polar aquatic ecosystems. With warmer temperatures, new hydrologic pathways are developing in these regions and increasing dissolved nutrient fluxes. In the McMurdo Dry Valleys, thermokarsting may release both nutrients and sediment, and has the potential to influence mats in glacial meltwater streams. To test the role of nutrient inputs on community structure, we created nutrient diffusing substrata (NDS) with agar enriched in N, P and N + P, with controls, and deployed them into two Dry Valley streams. We found N amendments (N and N + P) to have greater chlorophyll-a concentrations, total algal biovolume, more fine filamentous cyanobacteria and a higher proportion of live diatoms than other treatments. Furthermore, N treatments were substantially elevated in Bacteroidetes and the small diatom, Fistulifera pelliculosa. On the other hand, species richness was almost double in P and N + P treatments over others, and coccoid green algae and Proteobacteria were more abundant in both streams. Collectively, these data suggest that nutrients have the potential to stimulate growth and alter community structure in glacial meltwater stream microbial mats, and the recent erosion of permafrost and accelerated glacial melt will likely impact resident biota in polar lotic systems here and elsewhere.

  20. Hypersaline Microbial Mat Lipid Biomarkers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, Linda L.; Embaye, Tsegereda; Turk, Kendra A.; Summons, Roger E.

    2002-01-01

    Lipid biomarkers and compound specific isotopic abundances are powerful tools for studies of contemporary microbial ecosystems. Knowledge of the relationship of biomarkers to microbial physiology and community structure creates important links for understanding the nature of early organisms and paleoenvironments. Our recent work has focused on the hypersaline microbial mats in evaporation ponds at Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Specific biomarkers for diatoms, cyanobacteria, archaea, green nonsulfur (GNS), sulfate reducing, sulfur oxidizing and methanotrophic bacteria have been identified. Analyses of the ester-bound fatty acids indicate a highly diverse microbial community, dominated by photosynthetic organisms at the surface. The delta C-13 of cyanobacterial biomarkers such as the monomethylalkanes and hopanoids are consistent with the delta C-13 measured for bulk mat (-10%o), while a GNS biomarker, wax esters (WXE), suggests a more depleted delta C-13 for GNS biomass (-16%o). This isotopic relationship is different than that observed in mats at Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park (YSNP) where GNS appear to grow photoheterotrophic ally. WXE abundance, while relatively low, is most pronounced in an anaerobic zone just below the cyanobacterial layer. The WXE isotope composition at GN suggests that these bacteria utilize photoautotrophy incorporating dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) via the 3-hydroxypropionate pathway using H2S or H2.

  1. Microbial mats and modern stromatolites in Shark Bay, Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golubic, S.

    1985-01-01

    Distribution, external morphology, texture, and microbial composition of microbial mats in Hamelin Pool, Shark Bay, Western Australia, have been studied and reviewed along a composite representative profile starting from the permanently submerged zone, across the zones of periodic flooding, toward permanently emerged land and coastal dunes. The following nine types of algal mats have been recognized: colloform, gelatinous, smooth, pincushion, tufted, mamillate, film, reticulate, and blister. Solar ponds represent a particular environment. The mat types represent microbial communities that are characterized by one or more dominant microorganisms. The colonization and stabilization of loose sediment is carried out by a microbial assemblage of generalists that prepare the ground for later replacement and succession by specialized microflora. Lithification of microbial mats takes place periodically, mainly during the austral summer. This process is destructive for the microbial community but increases the preservation potential of the stromatolitic structures.

  2. Algal bloom-associated disease outbreaks among users of freshwater lakes-United States, 2009 - 2010

    EPA Science Inventory

    Algal blooms’ are local abundances of phytoplankton – microscopic photosynthesizing aquatic organisms found in surface waters worldwide; blooms are variable temporally and spatially and frequently produce a visible algal scum on the water. Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are abundan...

  3. Regulation of electron transfer processes affects phototrophic mat structure and activity.

    PubMed

    Ha, Phuc T; Renslow, Ryan S; Atci, Erhan; Reardon, Patrick N; Lindemann, Stephen R; Fredrickson, James K; Call, Douglas R; Beyenal, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    electrochemical conditions under which mats were generated significantly impacted the relative abundances of mat members and mat metabolism.

  4. Regulation of electron transfer processes affects phototrophic mat structure and activity.

    PubMed

    Ha, Phuc T; Renslow, Ryan S; Atci, Erhan; Reardon, Patrick N; Lindemann, Stephen R; Fredrickson, James K; Call, Douglas R; Beyenal, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    electrochemical conditions under which mats were generated significantly impacted the relative abundances of mat members and mat metabolism. PMID:26388853

  5. Regulation of electron transfer processes affects phototrophic mat structure and activity

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Phuc T.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Atci, Erhan; Reardon, Patrick N.; Lindemann, Stephen R.; Fredrickson, James K.; Call, Douglas R.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    electrochemical conditions under which mats were generated significantly impacted the relative abundances of mat members and mat metabolism. PMID:26388853

  6. Protocyanobacteria: Oxygenic and Anoxygenic photosynthesis in mat-forming bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The oldest record of life is preserved in prePhanerozoic stromatolites dated 3500 million years old and is most likely of filamentous mat-forming cyanobacteria. The sedimentary records of cyanobacterial mats in stromatolites are the most abundant record of life throughout the prePhanerozoic. Stromatolites persisted into the Phanerozoic Eon, yet they become much less pronounced relative to earlier ones. The abundance and persistence of cyanobacterial mats throughout most of geological time point to the evolutionary success of these kinds of microbial communities and their possible role in the evolution of the earth and atmosphere.

  7. ProMat

    SciTech Connect

    2008-06-12

    ProMAT is a software tool for statistically analyzing data from enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay microarray experiments. The software estimates standard curves, sample protein concentrations and their uncertainties for multiple assays. ProMAT generates a set of comprehensive figures for assessing results and diagnosing process quality. The tool is available for Windows or Mac, and is distributed as open-source Java and R code

  8. Benthic Marine Cyanobacterial Mat Ecosystems: Biogeochemistry and Biomarkers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David J.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Cyanobacterial mats are complete ecosystems that can include processes of primary production, diagenesis and lithification. Light sustains oxygenic photosynthesis, which in turn provides energy, organic matter and oxygen to the community. Due to both absorption and scattering phenomena, incident light is transformed with depth in the mat, both in intensity and spectral composition. Mobile photo synthesizers optimize their position with respect to this light gradient. When photosynthesis ceases at night, the upper layers of the mat become reduced and sulfidic. Counteracting gradients of oxygen and sulfide combine to provide daily-contrasting environments separated on a scale of a few mm. The functional complexity of mats, coupled with the highly proximal and ordered spatial arrangement of biota, offers the potential for a staggering number of interactions. At a minimum, the products of each functional group of microorganisms affect the other groups both positively and negatively. For example, cyanobacteria generate organic matter (potential substrates) but also oxygen (a toxin for many anaerobes). Anaerobic activity recycles nutrients to the photosynthesizers but also generates potentially toxic sulfide. The combination of benefits and hazards of light, oxygen and sulfide promotes the allocation of the various essential mat processes between light and dark periods, and to various depths in the mat. Observations of mats have produced numerous surprises. For example, obligately anaerobic processes can occur in the presence of abundant oxygen, highly reduced gases are produced in the presence of abundant sulfate, meiofauna thrive at high sulfide concentrations, and the mats' constituent populations respond to environmental changes in complex ways. While photosynthetic bacteria dominate the biomass and productivity of the mat, nonphotosynthetic, anaerobic processes constitute the ultimate biological filter on the ecosystem's emergent biosignatures, including those

  9. Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topics Eighth Annual National Conference on Health Communication, Marketing & Media August 19-21, 2014 Atlanta, GA Harmful Algal Blooms Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this Page What's the ...

  10. Harmful Algal Blooms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    What are Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)? Freshwater and marine harmful algal blooms (HABs) can occur anytime water use is impaired due to excessive accumulations of algae. HAB occurrence is affected by a complex set of physical, chemical, biological, hydrological, and meteorological conditions making it difficult to isolate specific causative environmental factors. Potential impairments include reduction in water quality, accumulation of malodorous scums in beach areas, algal production of toxins potent enough to poison both aquatic and terrestrial organisms, and algal production of taste-and-odor compounds that cause unpalatable drinking water and fish. HABs are a global problem, and toxic freshwater and (or) marine algae have been implicated in human and animal illness and death in over 45 countries worldwide and in at least 27 U.S. States (Yoo and others, 1995; Chorus and Bartram, 1999; Huisman and others, 2005).

  11. Nitrification and Nitrifying Bacteria in a Coastal Microbial Mat.

    PubMed

    Fan, Haoxin; Bolhuis, Henk; Stal, Lucas J

    2015-01-01

    The first step of nitrification, the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite, can be performed by ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) or ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). We investigated the presence of these two groups in three structurally different types of coastal microbial mats that develop along the tidal gradient on the North Sea beach of the Dutch barrier island Schiermonnikoog. The abundance and transcription of amoA, a gene encoding for the alpha subunit of ammonia monooxygenase that is present in both AOA and AOB, were assessed and the potential nitrification rates in these mats were measured. The potential nitrification rates in the three mat types were highest in autumn and lowest in summer. AOB and AOA amoA genes were present in all three mat types. The composition of the AOA and AOB communities in the mats of the tidal and intertidal stations, based on the diversity of amoA, were similar and clustered separately from the supratidal microbial mat. In all three mats AOB amoA genes were significantly more abundant than AOA amoA genes. The abundance of neither AOB nor AOA amoA genes correlated with the potential nitrification rates, but AOB amoA transcripts were positively correlated with the potential nitrification rate. The composition and abundance of amoA genes seemed to be partly driven by salinity, ammonium, temperature, and the nitrate/nitrite concentration. We conclude that AOB are responsible for the bulk of the ammonium oxidation in these coastal microbial mats. PMID:26648931

  12. Nitrification and Nitrifying Bacteria in a Coastal Microbial Mat

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Haoxin; Bolhuis, Henk; Stal, Lucas J.

    2015-01-01

    The first step of nitrification, the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite, can be performed by ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) or ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). We investigated the presence of these two groups in three structurally different types of coastal microbial mats that develop along the tidal gradient on the North Sea beach of the Dutch barrier island Schiermonnikoog. The abundance and transcription of amoA, a gene encoding for the alpha subunit of ammonia monooxygenase that is present in both AOA and AOB, were assessed and the potential nitrification rates in these mats were measured. The potential nitrification rates in the three mat types were highest in autumn and lowest in summer. AOB and AOA amoA genes were present in all three mat types. The composition of the AOA and AOB communities in the mats of the tidal and intertidal stations, based on the diversity of amoA, were similar and clustered separately from the supratidal microbial mat. In all three mats AOB amoA genes were significantly more abundant than AOA amoA genes. The abundance of neither AOB nor AOA amoA genes correlated with the potential nitrification rates, but AOB amoA transcripts were positively correlated with the potential nitrification rate. The composition and abundance of amoA genes seemed to be partly driven by salinity, ammonium, temperature, and the nitrate/nitrite concentration. We conclude that AOB are responsible for the bulk of the ammonium oxidation in these coastal microbial mats. PMID:26648931

  13. Algal Biofuels Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-27

    This fact sheet provides information on algal biofuels, which are generating considerable interest around the world. They may represent a sustainable pathway for helping to meet the U.S. biofuel production targets set by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007.

  14. Effects of macroalgal mats and hypoxia on burrowing depth of the New Zealand cockle ( Austrovenus stutchburyi)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsden, Islay D.; Bressington, Melanie J.

    2009-02-01

    Macroalgal mats commonly occur in estuaries and sheltered embayments where they are thought to affect the oxygen conditions in the sediment, influence the geochemical process and influence the burrowing activity of bivalves. Laboratory experiments evaluated the effects of sediment hypoxia and algal mats on the burrowing ability and survival of the New Zealand cockle Austrovenus stutchburyi at 15 °C. Both dissolved oxygen concentration and time affected the burial depth of the cockles over the 12 days of the experiment. In hypoxic conditions (<2 mg L -1), cockles migrated to the sediment surface after 3.5 days and mortality occurred after 11 days. Bivalves exposed to oxygen concentrations of 2-3 mg L -1 buried closer to the sediment surface than those in the other treatments. Using a simulated tidal regime, in a mesocosm, burrowing behaviour of the cockle and pore-water oxygen conditions in the sediment were measured on exposure to experimental mats of Gracilaria chilensis and Ulva spp. for over 6 days. Algal mats on the surface of the sediment significantly lowered the dissolved oxygen concentration of the sediment pore-water and this effect was greater for the Ulva spp. treatment than the G. chilensis treatment. Cockles were buried more deeply in the control treatment without algae than in either of the two algal treatments. It is concluded that reduced oxygen conditions (<3.5 mg L -1) develop under macroalgal mats and that this reduces the burial depth of cockles. The potential harmful effects of the mats can depend on the species forming the mat and these effects are likely to be greater in the field than they are in controlled laboratory conditions.

  15. Algal functional annotation tool

    SciTech Connect

    2012-07-12

    Abstract BACKGROUND: Progress in genome sequencing is proceeding at an exponential pace, and several new algal genomes are becoming available every year. One of the challenges facing the community is the association of protein sequences encoded in the genomes with biological function. While most genome assembly projects generate annotations for predicted protein sequences, they are usually limited and integrate functional terms from a limited number of databases. Another challenge is the use of annotations to interpret large lists of 'interesting' genes generated by genome-scale datasets. Previously, these gene lists had to be analyzed across several independent biological databases, often on a gene-by-gene basis. In contrast, several annotation databases, such as DAVID, integrate data from multiple functional databases and reveal underlying biological themes of large gene lists. While several such databases have been constructed for animals, none is currently available for the study of algae. Due to renewed interest in algae as potential sources of biofuels and the emergence of multiple algal genome sequences, a significant need has arisen for such a database to process the growing compendiums of algal genomic data. DESCRIPTION: The Algal Functional Annotation Tool is a web-based comprehensive analysis suite integrating annotation data from several pathway, ontology, and protein family databases. The current version provides annotation for the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and in the future will include additional genomes. The site allows users to interpret large gene lists by identifying associated functional terms, and their enrichment. Additionally, expression data for several experimental conditions were compiled and analyzed to provide an expression-based enrichment search. A tool to search for functionally-related genes based on gene expression across these conditions is also provided. Other features include dynamic visualization of genes on KEGG

  16. Algal functional annotation tool

    2012-07-12

    Abstract BACKGROUND: Progress in genome sequencing is proceeding at an exponential pace, and several new algal genomes are becoming available every year. One of the challenges facing the community is the association of protein sequences encoded in the genomes with biological function. While most genome assembly projects generate annotations for predicted protein sequences, they are usually limited and integrate functional terms from a limited number of databases. Another challenge is the use of annotations tomore » interpret large lists of 'interesting' genes generated by genome-scale datasets. Previously, these gene lists had to be analyzed across several independent biological databases, often on a gene-by-gene basis. In contrast, several annotation databases, such as DAVID, integrate data from multiple functional databases and reveal underlying biological themes of large gene lists. While several such databases have been constructed for animals, none is currently available for the study of algae. Due to renewed interest in algae as potential sources of biofuels and the emergence of multiple algal genome sequences, a significant need has arisen for such a database to process the growing compendiums of algal genomic data. DESCRIPTION: The Algal Functional Annotation Tool is a web-based comprehensive analysis suite integrating annotation data from several pathway, ontology, and protein family databases. The current version provides annotation for the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and in the future will include additional genomes. The site allows users to interpret large gene lists by identifying associated functional terms, and their enrichment. Additionally, expression data for several experimental conditions were compiled and analyzed to provide an expression-based enrichment search. A tool to search for functionally-related genes based on gene expression across these conditions is also provided. Other features include dynamic visualization of genes on

  17. Counting Viruses and Bacteria in Photosynthetic Microbial Mats

    PubMed Central

    Staal, Marc; Middelboe, Mathias; Brussaard, Corina P. D.

    2015-01-01

    Viral abundances in benthic environments are the highest found in aquatic systems. Photosynthetic microbial mats represent benthic environments with high microbial activity and possibly high viral densities, yet viral abundances have not been examined in such systems. Existing extraction procedures typically used in benthic viral ecology were applied to the complex matrix of microbial mats but were found to inefficiently extract viruses. Here, we present a method for extraction and quantification of viruses from photosynthetic microbial mats using epifluorescence microscopy (EFM) and flow cytometry (FCM). A combination of EDTA addition, probe sonication, and enzyme treatment applied to a glutaraldehyde-fixed sample resulted in a substantially higher viral (5- to 33-fold) extraction efficiency and reduced background noise compared to previously published methods. Using this method, it was found that in general, intertidal photosynthetic microbial mats harbor very high viral abundances (2.8 × 1010 ± 0.3 × 1010 g−1) compared with benthic habitats (107 to 109 g−1). This procedure also showed 4.5- and 4-fold-increased efficacies of extraction of viruses and bacteria, respectively, from intertidal sediments, allowing a single method to be used for the microbial mat and underlying sediment. PMID:25595761

  18. Algal sensory photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Hegemann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Only five major types of sensory photoreceptors (BLUF-proteins, cryptochromes, phototropins, phytochromes, and rhodopsins) are used in nature to regulate developmental processes, photosynthesis, photoorientation, and control of the circadian clock. Sensory photoreceptors of algae and protists are exceptionally rich in structure and function; light-gated ion channels and photoactivated adenylate cyclases are unique examples. During the past ten years major progress has been made with respect to understanding the function, photochemistry, and structure of key sensory players of the algal kingdom.

  19. Detection of surface algal blooms using the newly developed algorithm surface algal bloom index (SABI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alawadi, Fahad

    2010-10-01

    Quantifying ocean colour properties has evolved over the past two decades from being able to merely detect their biological activity to the ability to estimate chlorophyll concentration using optical satellite sensors like MODIS and MERIS. The production of chlorophyll spatial distribution maps is a good indicator of plankton biomass (primary production) and is useful for the tracing of oceanographic currents, jets and blooms, including harmful algal blooms (HABs). Depending on the type of HABs involved and the environmental conditions, if their concentration rises above a critical threshold, it can impact the flora and fauna of the aquatic habitat through the introduction of the so called "red tide" phenomenon. The estimation of chlorophyll concentration is derived from quantifying the spectral relationship between the blue and the green bands reflected from the water column. This spectral relationship is employed in the standard ocean colour chlorophyll-a (Chlor-a) product, but is incapable of detecting certain macro-algal species that float near to or at the water surface in the form of dense filaments or mats. The ability to accurately identify algal formations that sometimes appear as oil spill look-alikes in satellite imagery, contributes towards the reduction of false-positive incidents arising from oil spill monitoring operations. Such algal formations that occur in relatively high concentrations may experience, as in land vegetation, what is known as the "red-edge" effect. This phenomena occurs at the highest reflectance slope between the maximum absorption in the red due to the surrounding ocean water and the maximum reflectance in the infra-red due to the photosynthetic pigments present in the surface algae. A new algorithm termed the surface algal bloom index (SABI), has been proposed to delineate the spatial distributions of floating micro-algal species like for example cyanobacteria or exposed inter-tidal vegetation like seagrass. This algorithm was

  20. Regulation of electron transfer processes affects phototrophic mat structure and activity

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, Phuc T.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Atci, Erhan; Reardon, Patrick N.; Lindemann, Stephen R.; Fredrickson, James K.; Call, Douglas R.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2015-09-03

    that variation in the electrochemical conditions under which mats were generated significantly impacted the relative abundances of mat members and mat metabolism.

  1. Regulation of electron transfer processes affects phototrophic mat structure and activity

    DOE PAGES

    Ha, Phuc T.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Atci, Erhan; Reardon, Patrick N.; Lindemann, Stephen R.; Fredrickson, James K.; Call, Douglas R.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2015-09-03

    variation in the electrochemical conditions under which mats were generated significantly impacted the relative abundances of mat members and mat metabolism.« less

  2. National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, John; Sarisky-Reed, Valerie

    2010-05-01

    The framework for National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap was constructed at the Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap Workshop, held December 9-10, 2008, at the University of Maryland-College Park. The Workshop was organized by the Biomass Program to discuss and identify the critical challenges currently hindering the development of a domestic, commercial-scale algal biofuels industry. This Roadmap presents information from a scientific, economic, and policy perspectives that can support and guide RD&D investment in algal biofuels. While addressing the potential economic and environmental benefits of using algal biomass for the production of liquid transportation fuels, the Roadmap describes the current status of algae RD&D. In doing so, it lays the groundwork for identifying challenges that likely need to be overcome for algal biomass to be used in the production of economically viable biofuels.

  3. Comparing new and conventional methods to estimate benthic algal biomass and composition in freshwaters.

    PubMed

    Kahlert, Maria; McKie, Brendan G

    2014-11-01

    We compared conventional microscope-based methods for quantifying biomass and community composition of stream benthic algae with output obtained for these parameters from a new instrument (the BenthoTorch), which measures fluorescence of algal pigments in situ. Benthic algae were studied in 24 subarctic oligotrophic (1.7-26.9, median 7.2 μg total phosphorus L(-1)) streams in Northern Sweden. Readings for biomass of the total algal mat, quantified as chlorophyll a, did not differ significantly between the BenthoTorch (median 0.52 μg chlorophyll a cm(-2)) and the conventional method (median 0.53 μg chlorophyll a cm(-2)). However, quantification of community composition of the benthic algal mat obtained using the BenthoTorch did not match those obtained from conventional methods. The BenthoTorch indicated a dominance of diatoms, whereas microscope observations showed a fairly even distribution between diatoms, blue-green algae (mostly nitrogen-fixing) and green algae (mostly large filamentous), and also detected substantial biovolumes of red algae in some streams. These results most likely reflect differences in the exact parameters quantified by the two methods, as the BenthoTorch does not account for variability in cell size and the presence of non-chlorophyll bearing biomass in estimating the proportion of different algal groups, and does not distinguish red algal chlorophyll from that of other algal groups. Our findings suggest that the BenthoTorch has utility in quantifying biomass expressed as μg chlorophyll a cm(-2), but its output for the relative contribution of different algal groups to benthic algal biomass should be used with caution. PMID:25277172

  4. Compositions of constructed microbial mats

    DOEpatents

    Bender, Judith A.; Phillips, Peter C.

    1999-01-01

    Compositions and methods of use of constructed microbial mats, comprising cyanobacteria and purple autotrophic bacteria and an organic nutrient source, in a laminated structure, are described. The constructed microbial mat is used for bioremediation of different individual contaminants and for mixed or multiple contaminants, and for production of beneficial compositions and molecules.

  5. M.A.T. Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildman, Louis

    A proposal is presented for developing a Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT) program at California State University, Bakersfield. The criteria for a MAT program are examined by outlining existing programs at: (1) Harvard Graduate School; (2) University of California, Berkeley; (3) Portland State University; (4) Stanford University; (5) University of…

  6. Hospital use of decontaminating mats.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, M G; Finzi, G; Cugini, P; Manfrini, M; Salvatorelli, G

    2003-09-01

    Decontaminating mats made of several layers of adhesive sheets (water-based acrylic 6 g/m2) supplemented with a bactericidal agent (3-1 benzoisothiazolin) at a concentration of 25% were placed in the passages providing access to the operating rooms of an orthopaedic service. Contact plates containing tryptone soy agar were used to assess bacterial concentration at specific points in front of and beyond the mats. For trolley passageways two areas were defined: central and lateral paths, corresponding to the areas walked upon by the personnel pushing the trolleys and to the paths covered by the trolley wheels, respectively. In order to exclude a simple mechanical effect, a comparison of bacterial loads at defined sites beyond the mats was carried out in the presence and in the absence of decontaminating mats. Bacterial colony counts in the presence of decontaminating mats were substantially and statistically significantly reduced compared with the absence of mats. The lower mean number of colony-forming units detected at points located beyond the mats parallels this finding; this difference is also statistically significant. We thus conclude that decontaminating mats are potentially useful in decreasing micro-organism carry-over due to personnel or the passage of trolleys into areas at high risk of infection such as operating rooms.

  7. MueMat Multicrid Toolbox

    2010-11-23

    MueMat is intended for the research and development of multigrid algorithms used in the solution of sparse linear systems arising from systems of partial differential equations. The software can generate example linear systems and provides short programs to demonstrate the various interfaces for creating, accessing, and applying the solvers. MueMat currently includes two types of algebraic multigrid methods and many commonly used smoothers. However, the software is intended to be extensible, and new methods canmore » be incorporated easily. MueMat also allows for advanced usage, such as combining multiple methods and segregated solves. The library supports point and block access to matrix data. MueMat has been designed for use within the programming environment of the Mathworks program MATLAB®. All algorithms and methods in MueMat have been or will be published in the open scientific literature.« less

  8. MueMat Multicrid Toolbox

    SciTech Connect

    2010-11-23

    MueMat is intended for the research and development of multigrid algorithms used in the solution of sparse linear systems arising from systems of partial differential equations. The software can generate example linear systems and provides short programs to demonstrate the various interfaces for creating, accessing, and applying the solvers. MueMat currently includes two types of algebraic multigrid methods and many commonly used smoothers. However, the software is intended to be extensible, and new methods can be incorporated easily. MueMat also allows for advanced usage, such as combining multiple methods and segregated solves. The library supports point and block access to matrix data. MueMat has been designed for use within the programming environment of the Mathworks program MATLAB®. All algorithms and methods in MueMat have been or will be published in the open scientific literature.

  9. Mesoproterozoic graphite deposits, New Jersey Highlands: Geologic and stable isotopic evidence for possible algal origins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Volkert, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Graphite deposits of Mesoproterozoic age are locally abundant in the eastern New Jersey Highlands, where they are hosted by sulphidic biotite-quartz-feldspar gneiss, metaquartzite, and anatectic pegmatite. Gneiss and metaquartzite represent a shallow marine shelf sequence of locally organic-rich sand and mud. Graphite from massive deposits within metaquartzite yielded ??13C values of -26 ?? 2??? (1??), and graphite from massive deposits within biotite-quartz-feldspar gneiss yielded ??13C values of -23 ??4???. Disseminated graphite from biotite-quartz-feldspar gneiss country rock was -22 ??3???, indistinguishable from the massive deposits hosted by the same lithology. Anatectic pegmatite is graphitic only where generated from graphite-bearing host rocks; one sample gave a ??13C value of -15???. The ??34S values of trace pyrrhotite are uniform within individual deposits, but vary from 0 to 9??? from one deposit to another. Apart from pegmatitic occurrences, evidence is lacking for long-range mobilization of carbon during Grenvillian orogenesis or post-Grenvillian tectonism. The field, petrographic, and isotope data suggest that massive graphite was formed by granulite-facies metamorphism of Proterozoic accumulations of sedimentary organic matter, possibly algal mats. Preservation of these accumulations in the sedimentary environment requires anoxic basin waters or rapid burial. Anoxia would also favour the accumulation of dissolved ferrous iron in basin waters, which may explain some of the metasediment-hosted massive magnetite deposits in the New Jersey Highlands. ?? 2000 NRC.

  10. The biogeochemistry of microbial mats, stromatolites and the ancient biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desmarais, D. J.; Canfield, D. E.

    1991-01-01

    Stromatolites offer an unparalleled geologic record of early life, because they constitute the oldest and most abundant recognizable remains of microbial ecosystems. Microbial mats are living homologs of stromatolites; thus, the physiology of the microbiota as well as the processes which create those features of mats (e.g., biomarker organic compounds, elemental and stable isotopic compositions) which are preserved in the ancient record. Observations of the carbon isotopic composition (delta C-13) of stromatolites and microbial mats were made and are consistent with the hypothesis that atmospheric CO2 concentrations have declined by at least one to two orders of magnitude during the past 2.5 Ga. Whereas delta C-13 values of carbonate carbon average about 0 permil during both the early and mid-Proterozoic, the delta C-13 values of stromatolitic organic matter increase from an average of -35 between 2.0 and 2.6 Ga ago to an average of about -28 about 1.0 Ga ago. Modern microbial mats in hypersaline environments have delta C-13 values typically in the range of -5 to -9, relative to an inorganic bicarbonate source at 0 permil. Both microbial mats and pur cultures of cyanobacteria grown in waters in near equilibrium with current atmospheric CO2 levels exhibit minimal discrimination against C-13. In contrast, hot spring cyanobacterial mats or cyanobacterial cultures grown under higher CO2 levels exhibit substantially greater discrimination. If care is taken to compare modern mats with stromatolites from comparable environments, it might be possible to estimate ancient levels of atmospheric CO2. In modern microbial mats, a tight coupling exists between photosynthetic organic carbon production and subsequent carbon oxidation, mostly by sulfate reduction. The rate of one process fuels a high rate of the other, with much of the sulfate reduction occurring within the same depth interval as oxygenic photosynthesis. Other aspects of this study are presented.

  11. Algal functional annotation tool

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, D.; Casero, D.; Cokus, S. J.; Merchant, S. S.; Pellegrini, M.

    2012-07-01

    The Algal Functional Annotation Tool is a web-based comprehensive analysis suite integrating annotation data from several pathway, ontology, and protein family databases. The current version provides annotation for the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and in the future will include additional genomes. The site allows users to interpret large gene lists by identifying associated functional terms, and their enrichment. Additionally, expression data for several experimental conditions were compiled and analyzed to provide an expression-based enrichment search. A tool to search for functionally-related genes based on gene expression across these conditions is also provided. Other features include dynamic visualization of genes on KEGG pathway maps and batch gene identifier conversion.

  12. Community structure of a microbial mat: The phylogenetic dimension

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risatti, J.B.; Capman, W.C.; Stahl, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Traditional studies of microbial communities are incomplete because of the inability to identify and quantify all contributing populations. In the present study, we directly determine the abundance and distribution of sulfate-reducing bacterial populations in a microbial mat community by using hybridization probes complementary to the 16S-like rRNAs of major phylogenetic groups. Most of the major groups were found in this single community, distributed for the most part in nonoverlapping depth intervals of the mat. The reflection of the phylogenetic structure in the community structure suggests that those species making up the major phylogenetic groups perform specific interrelated metabolic functions in the community. Comparison of population profiles to previously observed rates of sulfate reduction suggests there are additional populations of sulfate-reducing bacteria both within the photooxic zone and deeper in the mat.

  13. Algal Biofuels; Algal Biofuels R&D at NREL (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-09-01

    An overview of NREL's algal biofuels projects, including U.S. Department of Energy-funded work, projects with U.S. and international partners, and Laboratory Directed Research and Development projects.

  14. The Extracellular Matrix in Photosynthetic Mats: A Cyanobacterial Gingerbread House

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, R.; Stannard, W.; Bebout, B.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Mayali, X.; Weber, P. K.; Lipton, M. S.; Lee, J.; Everroad, R. C.; Thelen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Hypersaline laminated cyanobacterial mats are excellent model systems for investigating photoautotrophic contributions to biogeochemical cycling on a millimeter scale. These self-sustaining ecosystems are characterized by steep physiochemical gradients that fluctuate dramatically on hour timescales, providing a dynamic environment to study microbial response. However, elucidating the distribution of energy from light absorption into biomass requires a complete understanding of the various constituents of the mat. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which can be composed of proteins, polysaccharides, lipids and DNA are a major component of these mats and may function in the redistribution of nutrients and metabolites within the community. To test this notion, we established a model mat-building culture for comparison with the phylogenetically diverse natural mat communities. In these two systems we determined how proteins and glycans in the matrix changed as a function of light and tracked nutrient flow from the matrix. Using mass spectrometry metaproteomics analysis, we found homologous proteins in both field and culture extracellular matrix that point to cyanobacterial turnover of amino acids, inorganic nutrients, carbohydrates and nucleic acids from the EPS. Other abundant functions identified included oxidative stress response from both the cyanobacteria and heterotrophs and cyanobacterial structural proteins that may play a role in mat cohesion. Several degradative enzymes also varied in abundance in the EPS in response to light availability, suggesting active secretion. To further test cyanobacterial EPS turnover, we generated isotopically-labeled EPS and used NanoSIMS to trace uptake of this labeled EPS. Our findings suggest Cyanobacteria may facilitate nutrient transfer to other groups, as well as uptake of their own products through degradation of EPS components. This work provides evidence for the essential roles of EPS for storage, structural

  15. Capillography of Mats of Nanofibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noca, Flavio; Sansom, Elijah; Zhou, Jijie; Gharib, Mory

    2008-01-01

    Capillography (from the Latin capillus, 'hair', and the Greek graphein, to write ) is a recently conceived technique for forming mats of nanofibers into useful patterns. The concept was inspired by experiments on carpetlike mats of multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Capillography may have the potential to be a less-expensive, less-time-consuming alternative to electron-beam lithography as a means of nanoscale patterning for the fabrication of small devices and instruments. In capillography, one exploits the lateral capillary forces exerted on small objects that pierce the surface of a liquid. If the small objects are identical, then the forces are always attractive. Two examples of the effects of such forces are the agglomeration of small particles floating on the surface of a pond and the drawing together of hairs of a wet paintbrush upon removal of the brush from water. Because nanoscale objects brought into contact remain stuck together indefinitely due to Van der Waals forces, patterns formed by capillography remain even upon removal of the liquid. For the experiments on the mats of carbon nanotubes, a surfactant solution capable of wetting carbon nanotubes (which are ultra-hydrophobic) was prepared. The mats were wetted with the solution, then dried. Once the mats were dry, it was found that the nanotubes had become ordered into various patterns, including nestlike indentations, trenches, and various combinations thereof. It may be possible to exploit such ordering effects through controlled wetting and drying of designated portions of mats of carbon nanotubes (and, perhaps, mats of nanofibers of other materials) to obtain patterns similar to those heretofore formed by use of electron-beam lithography. For making patterns that include nestlike indentations, it has been conjectured that it could be possible to control the nesting processes by use of electrostatic fields. Further research is needed to understand the physics of the patterning processes in order to

  16. Significance of cyclic Pennsylvanian-Permian coral/algal buildups Snaky Canyon

    SciTech Connect

    Canter, K.L. ); Isaacson, P.E. )

    1991-02-01

    Five cyclic algal, hydrozoan, and coral buildups occur within a thick sequence of Pennsylvanian-Permian (Virgilian through Wolfcampain) carbonates in south-central Idaho. The Juniper Gulch Member of the Snaky Canyon Formation, as described by Skipp and coworkers, is approximately 600 m thick and contains four depositional facies, including: (1) open circulation outer( ) platform, (2) hydrozoan and phylloid algal mound-dominated carbonate buildup, (3) backmound, restricted platform/lagoon, and (4) restricted inner platform facies. Several microlithofacies, including lime mud-rich bafflestone, diversely fossiliferous packstone and grainstone, bryozoan lime floatstone, and phylloid algal and hydrozoan (Palaeoaplysina) lime bindstone are described within the phylloid algal mounds. Successional faunal assemblage stages are recognized within the buildups. Colonial rugose corals comprise a stabilization stage. When the algal communities of the diversification stage reached wave base, because of their rapid upward growth, cross-bedded oolitic grainstone and occasional cross-bedded dolomite shoals developed. Supratidal to high intertidal platform sedimentation is represented by dolomitic Palaeoaplysina bindstone, algal mat bindstone, and vuggy dolomite. Five vertical sequences of buildup development, each terminate by intertidal, supratidal, or erosional events, are seen in the Juniper Gulch Member in the North Howe stratigraphic section of the southern Lost River Range. The carbonate platform was constructed within a depositional basin that includes an eroded highland to the west, and a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate inner platform with craton uplifts to the east.

  17. Novel resource utilization of refloated algal sludge to improve the quality of organic fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Li, Rong; Liu, Hongjun; Wang, Beibei; Zhang, Chenmin; Shen, Qirong

    2014-08-01

    Without further management, large amounts of refloated algal sludge from Taihu Lake to retrieve nitrogen and phosphorus resources may result in serious secondary environmental pollution. The possibility of utilization of algal sludge to improve the quality of organic fertilizer was investigated in this study. Variations of physicochemical properties, germination index (GI) and microcystin (MC) content were analysed during the composting process. The results showed that the addition of algal sludge improved the contents of nutrients, common free amino acids and total common amino acids in the novel organic fertilizer. Rapid degradation rates of MC-LR and MC-RR, a high GI value and more abundance of culturable protease-producing bacteria were observed during the composting process added with algal sludge. Growth experiments showed that the novel organic fertilizer efficiently promoted plant growth. This study provides a novel resource recovery method to reclaim the Taihu Lake algal sludge and highlights a novel method to produce a high-quality organic fertilizer.

  18. Fueling Future with Algal Genomics

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-07-05

    Algae constitute a major component of fundamental eukaryotic diversity, play profound roles in the carbon cycle, and are prominent candidates for biofuel production. The US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) is leading the world in algal genome sequencing (http://jgi.doe.gov/Algae) and contributes of the algal genome projects worldwide (GOLD database, 2012). The sequenced algal genomes offer catalogs of genes, networks, and pathways. The sequenced first of its kind genomes of a haptophyte E.huxleyii, chlorarachniophyte B.natans, and cryptophyte G.theta fill the gaps in the eukaryotic tree of life and carry unique genes and pathways as well as molecular fossils of secondary endosymbiosis. Natural adaptation to conditions critical for industrial production is encoded in algal genomes, for example, growth of A.anophagefferens at very high cell densities during the harmful algae blooms or a global distribution across diverse environments of E.huxleyii, able to live on sparse nutrients due to its expanded pan-genome. Communications and signaling pathways can be derived from simple symbiotic systems like lichens or complex marine algae metagenomes. Collectively these datasets derived from algal genomics contribute to building a comprehensive parts list essential for algal biofuel development.

  19. Molecular ecology of microbial mats.

    PubMed

    Bolhuis, Henk; Cretoiu, Mariana Silvia; Stal, Lucas J

    2014-11-01

    Phototrophic microbial mats are ideal model systems for ecological and evolutionary analysis of highly diverse microbial communities. Microbial mats are small-scale, nearly closed, and self-sustaining benthic ecosystems that comprise the major element cycles, trophic levels, and food webs. The steep and fluctuating physicochemical microgradients, that are the result of the ever changing environmental conditions and of the microorganisms' own activities, give rise to a plethora of potential niches resulting in the formation of one of the most diverse microbial ecosystems known to date. For several decades, microbial mats have been studied extensively and more recently molecular biological techniques have been introduced that allowed assessing and investigating the diversity and functioning of these systems. These investigations also involved metagenomics analyses using high-throughput DNA and RNA sequencing. Here, we summarize some of the latest developments in metagenomic analysis of three representative phototrophic microbial mat types (coastal, hot spring, and hypersaline). We also present a comparison of the available metagenomic data sets from mats emphasizing the major differences between them as well as elucidating the overlap in overall community composition. PMID:25109247

  20. Molecular ecology of microbial mats.

    PubMed

    Bolhuis, Henk; Cretoiu, Mariana Silvia; Stal, Lucas J

    2014-11-01

    Phototrophic microbial mats are ideal model systems for ecological and evolutionary analysis of highly diverse microbial communities. Microbial mats are small-scale, nearly closed, and self-sustaining benthic ecosystems that comprise the major element cycles, trophic levels, and food webs. The steep and fluctuating physicochemical microgradients, that are the result of the ever changing environmental conditions and of the microorganisms' own activities, give rise to a plethora of potential niches resulting in the formation of one of the most diverse microbial ecosystems known to date. For several decades, microbial mats have been studied extensively and more recently molecular biological techniques have been introduced that allowed assessing and investigating the diversity and functioning of these systems. These investigations also involved metagenomics analyses using high-throughput DNA and RNA sequencing. Here, we summarize some of the latest developments in metagenomic analysis of three representative phototrophic microbial mat types (coastal, hot spring, and hypersaline). We also present a comparison of the available metagenomic data sets from mats emphasizing the major differences between them as well as elucidating the overlap in overall community composition.

  1. Growth of Heterotrophic Bacteria and Algal Extracellular Products in Oligotrophic Waters

    PubMed Central

    McFeters, Gordon A.; Stuart, Sidney A.; Olson, Susan B.

    1978-01-01

    The unexpected observation of 200 to 400 coliform bacteria per 100 ml in an unpolluted pristine stream was studied within Grand Teton National Park, Wyo. The high numbers of waterborne bacteria occurred in mid- to late summer at a location where there was a coincidental bloom of an algal mat community. Periphyton samplers were used to measure the algal growth that coincided with the increase in number of bacteria. Laboratory studies followed the growth of various coliform bacteria in the supernatant obtained from a Chlorella culture isolated from the mat community. Mixed natural bacterial populations from the stream and pure cultures of water-isolated fecal and nonfecal coliforms increased by two to three orders of magnitude at 13°C when grown in the algal supernatant. Radioactive algal products were obtained by feeding an axenic Chlorella culture 14C-labeled bicarbonate under laboratory cultivation at 13°C with illumination. Radioactive organic material from the algae became incorporated into the particulate fraction of pure cultures of coliform bacteria as they reproduced and was later released as they died. PMID:16345278

  2. Chemical and Physical Environmental Conditions Underneath Mat- and Canopy-Forming Macroalgae, and Their Effects on Understorey Corals

    PubMed Central

    Hauri, Claudine; Fabricius, Katharina E.; Schaffelke, Britta; Humphrey, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Disturbed coral reefs are often dominated by dense mat- or canopy-forming assemblages of macroalgae. This study investigated how such dense macroalgal assemblages change the chemical and physical microenvironment for understorey corals, and how the altered environmental conditions affect the physiological performance of corals. Field measurements were conducted on macroalgal-dominated inshore reefs in the Great Barrier Reef in quadrats with macroalgal biomass ranging from 235 to 1029 g DW m−2 dry weight. Underneath mat-forming assemblages, the mean concentration of dissolved oxygen was reduced by 26% and irradiance by 96% compared with conditions above the mat, while concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and soluble reactive phosphorous increased by 26% and 267%, respectively. The difference was significant but less pronounced under canopy-forming assemblages. Dissolved oxygen declined and dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity increased with increasing algal biomass underneath mat-forming but not under canopy-forming assemblages. The responses of corals to conditions similar to those found underneath algal assemblages were investigated in an aquarium experiment. Coral nubbins of the species Acropora millepora showed reduced photosynthetic yields and increased RNA/DNA ratios when exposed to conditions simulating those underneath assemblages (pre-incubating seawater with macroalgae, and shading). The magnitude of these stress responses increased with increasing proportion of pre-incubated algal water. Our study shows that mat-forming and, to a lesser extent, canopy-forming macroalgal assemblages alter the physical and chemical microenvironment sufficiently to directly and detrimentally affect the metabolism of corals, potentially impeding reef recovery from algal to coral-dominated states after disturbance. Macroalgal dominance on coral reefs therefore simultaneously represents a consequence and cause of coral reef degradation. PMID:20856882

  3. Anoxic carbon flux in photosynthetic microbial mats as revealed by metatranscriptomics

    PubMed Central

    Burow, Luke C; Woebken, Dagmar; Marshall, Ian PG; Lindquist, Erika A; Bebout, Brad M; Prufert-Bebout, Leslie; Hoehler, Tori M; Tringe, Susannah G; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Weber, Peter K; Spormann, Alfred M; Singer, Steven W

    2013-01-01

    Photosynthetic microbial mats possess extraordinary phylogenetic and functional diversity that makes linking specific pathways with individual microbial populations a daunting task. Close metabolic and spatial relationships between Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi have previously been observed in diverse microbial mats. Here, we report that an expressed metabolic pathway for the anoxic catabolism of photosynthate involving Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi in microbial mats can be reconstructed through metatranscriptomic sequencing of mats collected at Elkhorn Slough, Monterey Bay, CA, USA. In this reconstruction, Microcoleus spp., the most abundant cyanobacterial group in the mats, ferment photosynthate to organic acids, CO2 and H2 through multiple pathways, and an uncultivated lineage of the Chloroflexi take up these organic acids to store carbon as polyhydroxyalkanoates. The metabolic reconstruction is consistent with metabolite measurements and single cell microbial imaging with fluorescence in situ hybridization and NanoSIMS. PMID:23190731

  4. Anoxic carbon flux in photosynthetic microbial mats as revealed by metatranscriptomics.

    PubMed

    Burow, Luke C; Woebken, Dagmar; Marshall, Ian P G; Lindquist, Erika A; Bebout, Brad M; Prufert-Bebout, Leslie; Hoehler, Tori M; Tringe, Susannah G; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Weber, Peter K; Spormann, Alfred M; Singer, Steven W

    2013-04-01

    Photosynthetic microbial mats possess extraordinary phylogenetic and functional diversity that makes linking specific pathways with individual microbial populations a daunting task. Close metabolic and spatial relationships between Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi have previously been observed in diverse microbial mats. Here, we report that an expressed metabolic pathway for the anoxic catabolism of photosynthate involving Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi in microbial mats can be reconstructed through metatranscriptomic sequencing of mats collected at Elkhorn Slough, Monterey Bay, CA, USA. In this reconstruction, Microcoleus spp., the most abundant cyanobacterial group in the mats, ferment photosynthate to organic acids, CO2 and H2 through multiple pathways, and an uncultivated lineage of the Chloroflexi take up these organic acids to store carbon as polyhydroxyalkanoates. The metabolic reconstruction is consistent with metabolite measurements and single cell microbial imaging with fluorescence in situ hybridization and NanoSIMS. PMID:23190731

  5. Relations of habitat-specific algal assemblages to land use and water chemistry in the Willamette Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, K.D.; Waite, I.R.

    2000-01-01

    Benthic algal assemblages, water chemistry, and habitat were characterized at 25 stream sites in the Willamette Basin, Oregon, during low flow in 1994. Seventy-three algal samples yielded 420 taxa - Mostly diatoms, blue-green algae, and green algae. Algal assemblages from depositional samples were strongly dominated by diatoms (76% mean relative abundance), whereas erosional samples were dominated by blue-green algae (68% mean relative abundance). Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of semiquantitative and qualitative (presence/absence) data sets identified four environmental variables (maximum specific conductance, % open canopy, pH, and drainage area) that were significant in describing patterns of algal taxa among sites. Based on CCA, four groups of sites were identified: Streams in forested basins that supported oligotrophic taxa, such as Diatoma mesodon; small streams in agricultural and urban basins that contained a variety of eutrophic and nitrogen-heterotrophic algal taxa; larger rivers draining areas of mixed land use that supported planktonic, eutrophic, and nitrogen-heterotrophic algal taxa; and streams with severely degraded or absent riparian vegetation (> 75% open canopy) that were dominated by other planktonic, eutrophic, and nitrogen-heterotrophic algal taxa. Patterns in water chemistry were consistent with the algal autecological interpretations and clearly demonstrated relationships between land use, water quality, and algal distribution patterns.

  6. Algal culture studies for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radmer, R.; Behrens, P.; Arnett, K.; Gladue, R.; Cox, J.; Lieberman, D.

    1987-01-01

    Microalgae are well-suited as a component of a Closed Environmental Life Support System (CELSS), since they can couple the closely related functions of food production and atmospheric regeneration. The objective was to provide a basis for predicting the response of CELSS algal cultures, and thus the food supply and air regeneration system, to changes in the culture parameters. Scenedesmus growth was measured as a function of light intensity, and the spectral dependence of light absorption by the algae as well as algal respiration in the light were determined as a function of cell concentration. These results were used to test and confirm a mathematical model that describes the productivity of an algal culture in terms of the competing processes of photosynthesis and respiration. The relationship of algal productivity to cell concentration was determined at different carbon dioxide concentrations, temperatures, and light intensities. The maximum productivity achieved by an air-grown culture was found to be within 10% of the computed maximum productivity, indicating that CO2 was very efficiently removed from the gas stream by the algal culture. Measurements of biomass productivity as a function of cell concentration at different light intensities indicated that both the productivity and efficiency of light utilization were greater at higher light intensities.

  7. ON TEACHING ARCELLANA'S "THE MATS".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ANDERSON, TOMMY R.

    FRANCISCO ARCELLANA'S "THE MATS," LIKE ANY WELL-CONSTRUCTED SHORT STORY, CAN SERVE AS AN IMPORTANT TEACHING DEVICE IN GUIDING STUDENTS, ESPECIALLY THOSE LEARNING ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE, TO READ WITH UNDERSTANDING AND APPRECIATION, THE TECHNIQUES OF CONVERTING VERBALS BACK INTO VERBS, REPLACING ALL PRONOUNS WITH THEIR ANTECEDENTS IN PARALLEL…

  8. Methylmercury enters an aquatic food web through acidophilic microbial mats in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyd, E.S.; King, S.; Tomberlin, J.K.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Barkay, T.; Geesey, G.G.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Microbial mats are a visible and abundant life form inhabiting the extreme environments in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), WY, USA. Little is known of their role in food webs that exist in the Park's geothermal habitats. Eukaryotic green algae associated with a phototrophic green/purple Zygogonium microbial mat community that inhabits low-temperature regions of acidic (pH ??? 3.0) thermal springs were found to serve as a food source for stratiomyid (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae. Mercury in spring source water was taken up and concentrated by the mat biomass. Monomethylmercury compounds (MeHg +), while undetectable or near the detection limit (0.025 ng l -1) in the source water of the springs, was present at concentrations of 4-7 ng g-1 dry weight of mat biomass. Detection of MeHg + in tracheal tissue of larvae grazing the mat suggests that MeHg+ enters this geothermal food web through the phototrophic microbial mat community. The concentration of MeHg+ was two to five times higher in larval tissue than mat biomass indicating MeHg+ biomagnification occurred between primary producer and primary consumer trophic levels. The Zygogonium mat community and stratiomyid larvae may also play a role in the transfer of MeHg+ to species in the food web whose range extends beyond a particular geothermal feature of YNP. ?? 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation ?? 2008 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Methylmercury enters an aquatic food web through acidophilic microbial mats in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Eric S; King, Susan; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Nordstrom, D Kirk; Krabbenhoft, David P; Barkay, Tamar; Geesey, Gill G

    2009-04-01

    Microbial mats are a visible and abundant life form inhabiting the extreme environments in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), WY, USA. Little is known of their role in food webs that exist in the Park's geothermal habitats. Eukaryotic green algae associated with a phototrophic green/purple Zygogonium microbial mat community that inhabits low-temperature regions of acidic (pH approximately 3.0) thermal springs were found to serve as a food source for stratiomyid (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae. Mercury in spring source water was taken up and concentrated by the mat biomass. Monomethylmercury compounds (MeHg(+)), while undetectable or near the detection limit (0.025 ng l(-1)) in the source water of the springs, was present at concentrations of 4-7 ng g(-1) dry weight of mat biomass. Detection of MeHg(+) in tracheal tissue of larvae grazing the mat suggests that MeHg(+) enters this geothermal food web through the phototrophic microbial mat community. The concentration of MeHg(+) was two to five times higher in larval tissue than mat biomass indicating MeHg(+) biomagnification occurred between primary producer and primary consumer trophic levels. The Zygogonium mat community and stratiomyid larvae may also play a role in the transfer of MeHg(+) to species in the food web whose range extends beyond a particular geothermal feature of YNP.

  10. Algal taxonomy forum: Algal Taxonomist, Let Serendipity Reign!

    PubMed

    Druehl, Louis

    2013-04-01

    The publication of a mini-review by Olivier De Clerck et al. in this issue of the Journal of Phycology presented an opportunity to open a dialogue on challenges faced by contemporary algal taxonomists. The Editorial Office solicited the following two additional contributions in response to De Clerck et al.'s paper; the responses were edited solely for clarity, space and format.

  11. ProMAT: protein microarray analysis tool

    SciTech Connect

    White, Amanda M.; Daly, Don S.; Varnum, Susan M.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Bollinger, Nikki; Zangar, Richard C.

    2006-04-04

    Summary: ProMAT is a software tool for statistically analyzing data from ELISA microarray experiments. The software estimates standard curves, sample protein concentrations and their uncertainties for multiple assays. ProMAT generates a set of comprehensive figures for assessing results and diagnosing process quality. The tool is available for Windows or Mac, and is distributed as open-source Java and R code. Availability: ProMAT is available at http://www.pnl.gov/statistics/ProMAT. ProMAT requires Java version 1.5.0 and R version 1.9.1 (or more recent versions) which are distributed with the tool.

  12. Changing Microspatial Patterns of Sulfate-Reducing Microorganisms (SRM) during Cycling of Marine Stromatolite Mats

    PubMed Central

    Petrisor, Alexandru I.; Szyjka, Sandra; Kawaguchi, Tomohiro; Visscher, Pieter T.; Norman, Robert Sean; Decho, Alan W.

    2014-01-01

    Microspatial arrangements of sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) in surface microbial mats (~1.5 mm) forming open marine stromatolites were investigated. Previous research revealed three different mat types associated with these stromatolites, each with a unique petrographic signature. Here we focused on comparing “non-lithifying” (Type-1) and “lithifying” (Type-2) mats. Our results revealed three major trends: (1) Molecular typing using the dsrA probe revealed a shift in the SRM community composition between Type-1 and Type-2 mats. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) coupled to confocal scanning-laser microscopy (CSLM)-based image analyses, and 35SO4 2−-silver foil patterns showed that SRM were present in surfaces of both mat types, but in significantly (p < 0.05) higher abundances in Type-2 mats. Over 85% of SRM cells in the top 0.5 mm of Type-2 mats were contained in a dense 130 μm thick horizontal layer comprised of clusters of varying sizes; (2) Microspatial mapping revealed that locations of SRM and CaCO3 precipitation were significantly correlated (p < 0.05); (3) Extracts from Type-2 mats contained acylhomoserine-lactones (C4-, C6-, oxo-C6 C7-, C8-, C10-, C12-, C14-AHLs) involved in cell-cell communication. Similar AHLs were produced by SRM mat-isolates. These trends suggest that development of a microspatially-organized SRM community is closely-associated with the hallmark transition of stromatolite surface mats from a non-lithifying to a lithifying state. PMID:24413754

  13. Kelp canopy facilitates understory algal assemblage via competitive release during early stages of secondary succession.

    PubMed

    Benes, Kylla M; Carpenter, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    Kelps are conspicuous foundation species in marine ecosystems that alter the composition of understory algal assemblages. While this may be due to changes in the competitive interactions between algal species, how kelp canopies mediate propagule supply and establishment success of understory algae is not well known. In Southern California, USA, Eisenia arborea forms dense kelp canopies in shallow subtidal environments and is associated with an understory dominated by red algal species. In canopy-free areas, however, the algal assemblage is comprised of mostly brown algal species. We used a combination of mensurative and manipulative experiments to test whether Eisenia facilitates the understory assemblage by reducing competition between these different types of algae by changes in biotic interactions and/or recruitment. Our results show Eisenia facilitates a red algal assemblage via inhibition of brown algal settlement into the canopy zone, allowing recruitment to occur by vegetative means rather than establishment of new individuals. In the canopy-free zone, however, high settlement and recruitment rates suggest competitive interactions shape the community there. These results demonstrate that foundation species alter the distribution and abundance of associated organisms by affecting not only interspecific interactions but also propagule supply and recruitment limitation.

  14. Stable and sporadic symbiotic communities of coral and algal holobionts

    PubMed Central

    Hester, Eric R; Barott, Katie L; Nulton, Jim; Vermeij, Mark JA; Rohwer, Forest L

    2016-01-01

    Coral and algal holobionts are assemblages of macroorganisms and microorganisms, including viruses, Bacteria, Archaea, protists and fungi. Despite a decade of research, it remains unclear whether these associations are spatial–temporally stable or species-specific. We hypothesized that conflicting interpretations of the data arise from high noise associated with sporadic microbial symbionts overwhelming signatures of stable holobiont members. To test this hypothesis, the bacterial communities associated with three coral species (Acropora rosaria, Acropora hyacinthus and Porites lutea) and two algal guilds (crustose coralline algae and turf algae) from 131 samples were analyzed using a novel statistical approach termed the Abundance-Ubiquity (AU) test. The AU test determines whether a given bacterial species would be present given additional sampling effort (that is, stable) versus those species that are sporadically associated with a sample. Using the AU test, we show that coral and algal holobionts have a high-diversity group of stable symbionts. Stable symbionts are not exclusive to one species of coral or algae. No single bacterial species was ubiquitously associated with one host, showing that there is not strict heredity of the microbiome. In addition to the stable symbionts, there was a low-diversity community of sporadic symbionts whose abundance varied widely across individual holobionts of the same species. Identification of these two symbiont communities supports the holobiont model and calls into question the hologenome theory of evolution. PMID:26555246

  15. Floating Ice-Algal Aggregates below Melting Arctic Sea Ice

    PubMed Central

    Assmy, Philipp; Ehn, Jens K.; Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Hop, Haakon; Katlein, Christian; Sundfjord, Arild; Bluhm, Katrin; Daase, Malin; Engel, Anja; Fransson, Agneta; Granskog, Mats A.; Hudson, Stephen R.; Kristiansen, Svein; Nicolaus, Marcel; Peeken, Ilka; Renner, Angelika H. H.; Spreen, Gunnar; Tatarek, Agnieszka; Wiktor, Jozef

    2013-01-01

    During two consecutive cruises to the Eastern Central Arctic in late summer 2012, we observed floating algal aggregates in the melt-water layer below and between melting ice floes of first-year pack ice. The macroscopic (1-15 cm in diameter) aggregates had a mucous consistency and were dominated by typical ice-associated pennate diatoms embedded within the mucous matrix. Aggregates maintained buoyancy and accumulated just above a strong pycnocline that separated meltwater and seawater layers. We were able, for the first time, to obtain quantitative abundance and biomass estimates of these aggregates. Although their biomass and production on a square metre basis was small compared to ice-algal blooms, the floating ice-algal aggregates supported high levels of biological activity on the scale of the individual aggregate. In addition they constituted a food source for the ice-associated fauna as revealed by pigments indicative of zooplankton grazing, high abundance of naked ciliates, and ice amphipods associated with them. During the Arctic melt season, these floating aggregates likely play an important ecological role in an otherwise impoverished near-surface sea ice environment. Our findings provide important observations and measurements of a unique aggregate-based habitat during the 2012 record sea ice minimum year. PMID:24204642

  16. Stable and sporadic symbiotic communities of coral and algal holobionts.

    PubMed

    Hester, Eric R; Barott, Katie L; Nulton, Jim; Vermeij, Mark Ja; Rohwer, Forest L

    2016-05-01

    Coral and algal holobionts are assemblages of macroorganisms and microorganisms, including viruses, Bacteria, Archaea, protists and fungi. Despite a decade of research, it remains unclear whether these associations are spatial-temporally stable or species-specific. We hypothesized that conflicting interpretations of the data arise from high noise associated with sporadic microbial symbionts overwhelming signatures of stable holobiont members. To test this hypothesis, the bacterial communities associated with three coral species (Acropora rosaria, Acropora hyacinthus and Porites lutea) and two algal guilds (crustose coralline algae and turf algae) from 131 samples were analyzed using a novel statistical approach termed the Abundance-Ubiquity (AU) test. The AU test determines whether a given bacterial species would be present given additional sampling effort (that is, stable) versus those species that are sporadically associated with a sample. Using the AU test, we show that coral and algal holobionts have a high-diversity group of stable symbionts. Stable symbionts are not exclusive to one species of coral or algae. No single bacterial species was ubiquitously associated with one host, showing that there is not strict heredity of the microbiome. In addition to the stable symbionts, there was a low-diversity community of sporadic symbionts whose abundance varied widely across individual holobionts of the same species. Identification of these two symbiont communities supports the holobiont model and calls into question the hologenome theory of evolution.

  17. Floating ice-algal aggregates below melting arctic sea ice.

    PubMed

    Assmy, Philipp; Ehn, Jens K; Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Hop, Haakon; Katlein, Christian; Sundfjord, Arild; Bluhm, Katrin; Daase, Malin; Engel, Anja; Fransson, Agneta; Granskog, Mats A; Hudson, Stephen R; Kristiansen, Svein; Nicolaus, Marcel; Peeken, Ilka; Renner, Angelika H H; Spreen, Gunnar; Tatarek, Agnieszka; Wiktor, Jozef

    2013-01-01

    During two consecutive cruises to the Eastern Central Arctic in late summer 2012, we observed floating algal aggregates in the melt-water layer below and between melting ice floes of first-year pack ice. The macroscopic (1-15 cm in diameter) aggregates had a mucous consistency and were dominated by typical ice-associated pennate diatoms embedded within the mucous matrix. Aggregates maintained buoyancy and accumulated just above a strong pycnocline that separated meltwater and seawater layers. We were able, for the first time, to obtain quantitative abundance and biomass estimates of these aggregates. Although their biomass and production on a square metre basis was small compared to ice-algal blooms, the floating ice-algal aggregates supported high levels of biological activity on the scale of the individual aggregate. In addition they constituted a food source for the ice-associated fauna as revealed by pigments indicative of zooplankton grazing, high abundance of naked ciliates, and ice amphipods associated with them. During the Arctic melt season, these floating aggregates likely play an important ecological role in an otherwise impoverished near-surface sea ice environment. Our findings provide important observations and measurements of a unique aggregate-based habitat during the 2012 record sea ice minimum year.

  18. Patterns of epipelic algal distribution in an acidic adirondack lake. [Hapalosiphon pumilus; Fragilaria acidobiontica; Navicula tenuicephala; Navicula subtilissima

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.A.; Boylen, C.W.

    1988-06-01

    The biovolume and species composition of epipelic algae along sediment depth gradients were sampled seasonally in an acidic oligotrophic lake in the Adirondack Park in New York State. The epipelic algal community of Woods Lake (Herkimer Co., NY) was dominated by diatoms and cyanobacteria. Distinct depth zonation patterns of community composition were evident. Total algal biovolume increased with depth due to a dense cyanobacterial mat on the sediments in deeper water (5-8 m). This mat was dominated by a single species of cyanobacteria, Hapalosiphon pumilus (Kuetz). Kirchner, which accounted for the later summer maximum in total biovolume at 7 m. The shallower (1-4 m) epipelic communities were dominated by diatoms, which showed a spring maximum in total biovolume and were dominated by Fragilaria acidobiontica Charles, Navicula tenuicephala Hust, and N. subtilissima Cl.

  19. Ecosystem function decays by fungal outbreaks in Antarctic microbial mats

    PubMed Central

    Velázquez, David; López-Bueno, Alberto; Aguirre de Cárcer, Daniel; de los Ríos, Asunción; Alcamí, Antonio; Quesada, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Antarctica harbours a remarkably diverse range of freshwater bodies and terrestrial ecosystems, where microbial mats are considered the most important systems in terms of biomass and metabolic capabilities. We describe the presence of lysis plaque-like macroscopic blighted patches within the predominant microbial mats on Livingston Island (Antarctic Peninsula). Those blighting circles are associated with decay in physiological traits as well as nitrogen depletion and changes in the spatial microstructure; these alterations were likely related to disruption of the biogeochemical gradients within the microbial ecosystem caused by an unusually high fungal abundance and consequent physical alterations. This phenomenon has been evidenced at a time of unprecedented rates of local warming in the Antarctic Peninsula area, and decay of these ecosystems is potentially stimulated by warmer temperatures. PMID:26972923

  20. Ecosystem function decays by fungal outbreaks in Antarctic microbial mats.

    PubMed

    Velázquez, David; López-Bueno, Alberto; Aguirre de Cárcer, Daniel; de los Ríos, Asunción; Alcamí, Antonio; Quesada, Antonio

    2016-03-14

    Antarctica harbours a remarkably diverse range of freshwater bodies and terrestrial ecosystems, where microbial mats are considered the most important systems in terms of biomass and metabolic capabilities. We describe the presence of lysis plaque-like macroscopic blighted patches within the predominant microbial mats on Livingston Island (Antarctic Peninsula). Those blighting circles are associated with decay in physiological traits as well as nitrogen depletion and changes in the spatial microstructure; these alterations were likely related to disruption of the biogeochemical gradients within the microbial ecosystem caused by an unusually high fungal abundance and consequent physical alterations. This phenomenon has been evidenced at a time of unprecedented rates of local warming in the Antarctic Peninsula area, and decay of these ecosystems is potentially stimulated by warmer temperatures.

  1. Distribution of epipelic algal communities in an oligotrophic Adirondack lake

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    The biovolume and species composition of algae on the sediment along depth gradients were determined before and after artificial neutralization of an oligotrophic lake in the Adirondack Park in New York State. The epipelic algal community of Woods Lake (Herkimer Co., NY) was dominated by diatoms and cyanobacteria prior to and following liming. Distinct depth-zonation patterns of community composition were evident and unaffected by the base (CaCO/sub 3/) addition. Prior to liming, there was an increase in total algal biovolume with depth, due to the presence of a dense cyanobacterial community on the sediments in deeper water (5 m to 8 m). This mat was dominated by a single species of cyanobacteria, Hapalosiphon pumilus, which accounted for the late summer maximum in total biovolume at 7 m. The shallower (1 m-4 m) epipelic communities were dominated by diatoms, which showed a spring maximum in total biovolume. Woods Lake, one of the sites of the Lake Acidification Mitigation Project (LAMP), was treated with CaCO/sub 3/ on May 31, 1985. Among other physical and chemical changes, the base treatment increased the pH from 5.0 to above 9.0, ANC from 0 to > 400 ..mu..eq/L. Water clarity was reduced immediately after liming and cleared gradually over an eight-week period.

  2. Algal taxonomy forum: Algal Taxonomist, Let Serendipity Reign!

    PubMed

    Druehl, Louis

    2013-04-01

    The publication of a mini-review by Olivier De Clerck et al. in this issue of the Journal of Phycology presented an opportunity to open a dialogue on challenges faced by contemporary algal taxonomists. The Editorial Office solicited the following two additional contributions in response to De Clerck et al.'s paper; the responses were edited solely for clarity, space and format. PMID:27008510

  3. Relations between water physico-chemistry and benthic algal communities in a northern Canadian watershed: defining reference conditions using multiple descriptors of community structure.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kathryn E; Hall, Roland I; Scrimgeour, Garry J

    2015-09-01

    Defining reference conditions is central to identifying environmental effects of anthropogenic activities. Using a watershed approach, we quantified reference conditions for benthic algal communities and their relations to physico-chemical conditions in rivers in the South Nahanni River watershed, NWT, Canada, in 2008 and 2009. We also compared the ability of three descriptors that vary in terms of analytical costs to define algal community structure based on relative abundances of (i) all algal taxa, (ii) only diatom taxa, and (iii) photosynthetic pigments. Ordination analyses showed that variance in algal community structure was strongly related to gradients in environmental variables describing water physico-chemistry, stream habitats, and sub-watershed structure. Water physico-chemistry and local watershed-scale descriptors differed significantly between algal communities from sites in the Selwyn Mountain ecoregion compared to sites in the Nahanni-Hyland ecoregions. Distinct differences in algal community types between ecoregions were apparent irrespective of whether algal community structure was defined using all algal taxa, diatom taxa, or photosynthetic pigments. Two algal community types were highly predictable using environmental variables, a core consideration in the development of Reference Condition Approach (RCA) models. These results suggest that assessments of environmental impacts could be completed using RCA models for each ecoregion. We suggest that use of algal pigments, a high through-put analysis, is a promising alternative compared to more labor-intensive and costly taxonomic approaches for defining algal community structure.

  4. Relations between water physico-chemistry and benthic algal communities in a northern Canadian watershed: defining reference conditions using multiple descriptors of community structure.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kathryn E; Hall, Roland I; Scrimgeour, Garry J

    2015-09-01

    Defining reference conditions is central to identifying environmental effects of anthropogenic activities. Using a watershed approach, we quantified reference conditions for benthic algal communities and their relations to physico-chemical conditions in rivers in the South Nahanni River watershed, NWT, Canada, in 2008 and 2009. We also compared the ability of three descriptors that vary in terms of analytical costs to define algal community structure based on relative abundances of (i) all algal taxa, (ii) only diatom taxa, and (iii) photosynthetic pigments. Ordination analyses showed that variance in algal community structure was strongly related to gradients in environmental variables describing water physico-chemistry, stream habitats, and sub-watershed structure. Water physico-chemistry and local watershed-scale descriptors differed significantly between algal communities from sites in the Selwyn Mountain ecoregion compared to sites in the Nahanni-Hyland ecoregions. Distinct differences in algal community types between ecoregions were apparent irrespective of whether algal community structure was defined using all algal taxa, diatom taxa, or photosynthetic pigments. Two algal community types were highly predictable using environmental variables, a core consideration in the development of Reference Condition Approach (RCA) models. These results suggest that assessments of environmental impacts could be completed using RCA models for each ecoregion. We suggest that use of algal pigments, a high through-put analysis, is a promising alternative compared to more labor-intensive and costly taxonomic approaches for defining algal community structure. PMID:26255271

  5. Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in algal food products.

    PubMed

    Machu, Ludmila; Misurcova, Ladislava; Ambrozova, Jarmila Vavra; Orsavova, Jana; Mlcek, Jiri; Sochor, Jiri; Jurikova, Tunde

    2015-01-01

    The study objective was to investigate total phenolic content using Folin-Ciocalteu's method, to assess nine phenols by HPLC, to determine antioxidant capacity of the water soluble compounds (ACW) by a photochemiluminescence method, and to calculate the correlation coefficients in commercial algal food products from brown (Laminaria japonica, Eisenia bicyclis, Hizikia fusiformis, Undaria pinnatifida) and red (Porphyra tenera, Palmaria palmata) seaweed, green freshwater algae (Chlorella pyrenoidosa), and cyanobacteria (Spirulina platensis). HPLC analysis showed that the most abundant phenolic compound was epicatechin. From spectrophotometry and ACW determination it was evident that brown seaweed Eisenia bicyclis was the sample with the highest phenolic and ACW values (193 mg·g-1 GAE; 7.53 µmol AA·g-1, respectively). A linear relationship existed between ACW and phenolic contents (r = 0.99). Some algal products seem to be promising functional foods rich in polyphenols. PMID:25587787

  6. Localized electron transfer rates and microelectrode-based enrichment of microbial communities within a phototrophic microbial mat

    SciTech Connect

    Babauta, Jerome T.; Atci, Erhan; Ha, Phuc T.; Lindemann, Stephen R.; Ewing, Timothy; Call, Douglas R.; Fredrickson, James K.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2014-01-01

    Phototrophic microbial mats frequently exhibit sharp, light-dependent redox gradients that regulate microbial respiration on specific electron acceptors as a function of depth. In this work, a benthic phototrophic microbial mat from Hot Lake, a hypersaline, epsomitic lake located near Oroville in north-central Washington, was used to develop a microscale electrochemical method to study local electron transfer processes within the mat. To characterize the physicochemical variables influencing electron transfer, we initially quantified redox potential, pH, and dissolved oxygen gradients by depth in the mat under photic and aphotic conditions. We further demonstrated that power output of a mat fuel cell was light-dependent. To study local electron transfer processes, we deployed a microscale electrode (microelectrode) with tip size ~20 μm. To enrich a subset of microorganisms capable of interacting with the microelectrode, we anodically polarized the microelectrode at depth in the mat. Subsequently, to characterize the microelectrode- associated community and compare it to the neighboring mat community, we performed amplicon sequencing of the V1-V3 region of the 16S gene. Differences in Bray-Curtis beta diversity, illustrated by large changes in relative abundance at the phylum level, suggested successful enrichment of specific mat community members on the microelectrode surface. The microelectrode-associated community exhibited substantially reduced alpha diversity and elevated relative abundances of Prosthecochloris, Loktanella, Catellibacterium, other unclassified members of Rhodobacteraceae, Thiomicrospira, and Limnobacter, compared with the community at an equivalent depth in the mat. Our results suggest that local electron transfer to an anodically polarized microelectrode selected for a specific microbial population, with substantially more abundance and diversity of sulfur-oxidizing phylotypes compared with the neighboring mat community.

  7. Localized electron transfer rates and microelectrode-based enrichment of microbial communities within a phototrophic microbial mat

    PubMed Central

    Babauta, Jerome T.; Atci, Erhan; Ha, Phuc T.; Lindemann, Stephen R.; Ewing, Timothy; Call, Douglas R.; Fredrickson, James K.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2014-01-01

    Phototrophic microbial mats frequently exhibit sharp, light-dependent redox gradients that regulate microbial respiration on specific electron acceptors as a function of depth. In this work, a benthic phototrophic microbial mat from Hot Lake, a hypersaline, epsomitic lake located near Oroville in north-central Washington, was used to develop a microscale electrochemical method to study local electron transfer processes within the mat. To characterize the physicochemical variables influencing electron transfer, we initially quantified redox potential, pH, and dissolved oxygen gradients by depth in the mat under photic and aphotic conditions. We further demonstrated that power output of a mat fuel cell was light-dependent. To study local electron transfer processes, we deployed a microscale electrode (microelectrode) with tip size ~20 μm. To enrich a subset of microorganisms capable of interacting with the microelectrode, we anodically polarized the microelectrode at depth in the mat. Subsequently, to characterize the microelectrode-associated community and compare it to the neighboring mat community, we performed amplicon sequencing of the V1–V3 region of the 16S gene. Differences in Bray-Curtis beta diversity, illustrated by large changes in relative abundance at the phylum level, suggested successful enrichment of specific mat community members on the microelectrode surface. The microelectrode-associated community exhibited substantially reduced alpha diversity and elevated relative abundances of Prosthecochloris, Loktanella, Catellibacterium, other unclassified members of Rhodobacteraceae, Thiomicrospira, and Limnobacter, compared with the community at an equivalent depth in the mat. Our results suggest that local electron transfer to an anodically polarized microelectrode selected for a specific microbial population, with substantially more abundance and diversity of sulfur-oxidizing phylotypes compared with the neighboring mat community. PMID:24478768

  8. Organic S13C values vary slightly with salinity in microbial mats at Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico: Implications for stromatolite S13C values

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desmarais, D. J.; Peterson, E.; Kwong, E.; Bui, H.

    1986-01-01

    Stromatolites, layered sedimentary rock structures produced by communities of microorganisms, constitute the most abundant early evidence of life on Earth. Microbial mats, which are found most frequently in hypersaline marine or hot spring environments, serve as useful modern analogs of stromatolitic communities. Biochemical studies of mats were conducted to assist in the interpretations of stromatolites. The data suggest that salinity effects are insufficient by themselves to cause the C-13 differences observed betwwen Precambrain stromatolites and modern microbial mats.

  9. Algal biofuels: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Leite, Gustavo B; Abdelaziz, Ahmed E M; Hallenbeck, Patrick C

    2013-10-01

    Biodiesel production using microalgae is attractive in a number of respects. Here a number of pros and cons to using microalgae for biofuels production are reviewed. Algal cultivation can be carried out using non-arable land and non-potable water with simple nutrient supply. In addition, algal biomass productivities are much higher than those of vascular plants and the extractable content of lipids that can be usefully converted to biodiesel, triacylglycerols (TAGs) can be much higher than that of the oil seeds now used for first generation biodiesel. On the other hand, practical, cost-effective production of biofuels from microalgae requires that a number of obstacles be overcome. These include the development of low-cost, effective growth systems, efficient and energy saving harvesting techniques, and methods for oil extraction and conversion that are environmentally benign and cost-effective. Promising recent advances in these areas are highlighted.

  10. Algal blooms and public health

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, P.R. . Harvard Medical School)

    1993-06-01

    Alterations in coastal ecology are expanding the geographic extent, frequency, magnitude, and species complexity'' of algal blooms throughout the world, increasing the threat of fish and shellfish poisonings, anoxia in marine nurseries, and of cholera. The World Health Organization and members of the medical profession have described the potential health effects of global climate change. They warn of the consequences of increased ultraviolet-B (UV-B) rays and of warming: the possible damage to agriculture and nutrition, and the impact on habitats which may alter the distribution of vector-borne and water-based infectious diseases. Algal growth due to increased nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) and warming are already affecting marine microflora and aquatic plants; and there is now clear evidence that marine organisms are a reservoir for enteric pathogens. The pattern of cholera in the Western Hemisphere suggests that environmental changes have already begun to influence the epidemiology of this infectious disease. 106 refs.

  11. Sedimentary Parameters Controlling Occurrence and Preservation of Microbial Mats in Siliciclastic Depositional Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noffke, Nora; Knoll, Andrew H.

    2001-01-01

    Shallow-marine, siliciclastic depositional systems are governed by physical sedimentary processes. Mineral precipitation or penecontemporaneous cementation play minor roles. Today, coastal siliciclastic environments may be colonized by a variety of epibenthic, mat-forming cyanobacteria. Studies on microbial mats showed that they are not randomly distributed in modern tidal environments. Distribution and abundancy is mainly function of a particular sedimentary facies. Fine-grained sands composed of "clear" (translucent) quartz particles constitute preferred substrates for cyanobacteria. Mat-builders also favor sites characterized by moderate hydrodynamic flow regimes, which permit biomass enrichment and construction of mat fabrics without lethal burial of mat populations by fine sediments. A comparable facies relationship can be observed in ancient siliciclastic shelf successions from the terminal Neoproterozoic Nama Group, Namibia. Wrinkle structures that record microbial mats are present but sparsely distributed in mid- to inner shelf sandstones of the Nudaus Formation. The sporadic distribution of these structures reflects both the narrow ecological window that governs mat development and the distinctive taphonomic conditions needed to preserve the structures. These observations caution that statements about changing mat abundance across the Proterozoic-Cambrian boundary must be firmly rooted in paleoenvironmental and taphonomic analysis. Understanding the factors that influence the formation and preservation of microbial structures in siliciclastic regimes can facilitate exploration for biological signatures in Earth's oldest rocks. Moreover, insofar as these structures can be preserved on bedding surfaces and are not easily mimicked by physical processes, they constitute a set of biological markers that can be searched for on Mars by remotely controlled rovers.

  12. Comparative metagenomics of two microbial mats at Cuatro Ciénegas Basin II: community structure and composition in oligotrophic environments.

    PubMed

    Bonilla-Rosso, Germán; Peimbert, Mariana; Alcaraz, Luis David; Hernández, Ismael; Eguiarte, Luis E; Olmedo-Alvarez, Gabriela; Souza, Valeria

    2012-07-01

    Microbial mats are self-sustained, functionally complex ecosystems that make good models for the understanding of past and present microbial ecosystems as well as putative extraterrestrial ecosystems. Ecological theory suggests that the composition of these communities might be affected by nutrient availability and disturbance frequency. We characterized two microbial mats from two contrasting environments in the oligotrophic Cuatro Ciénegas Basin: a permanent green pool and a red desiccation pond. We analyzed their taxonomic structure and composition by means of 16S rRNA clone libraries and metagenomics and inferred their metabolic role by the analysis of functional traits in the most abundant organisms. Both mats showed a high diversity with metabolically diverse members and strongly differed in structure and composition. The green mat had a higher species richness and evenness than the red mat, which was dominated by a lineage of Pseudomonas. Autotrophs were abundant in the green mat, and heterotrophs were abundant in the red mat. When comparing with other mats and stromatolites, we found that taxonomic composition was not shared at species level but at order level, which suggests environmental filtering for phylogenetically conserved functional traits with random selection of particular organisms. The highest diversity and composition similarity was observed among systems from stable environments, which suggests that disturbance regimes might affect diversity more strongly than nutrient availability, since oligotrophy does not appear to prevent the establishment of complex and diverse microbial mat communities. These results are discussed in light of the search for extraterrestrial life.

  13. Comparative metagenomics of two microbial mats at Cuatro Ciénegas Basin II: community structure and composition in oligotrophic environments.

    PubMed

    Bonilla-Rosso, Germán; Peimbert, Mariana; Alcaraz, Luis David; Hernández, Ismael; Eguiarte, Luis E; Olmedo-Alvarez, Gabriela; Souza, Valeria

    2012-07-01

    Microbial mats are self-sustained, functionally complex ecosystems that make good models for the understanding of past and present microbial ecosystems as well as putative extraterrestrial ecosystems. Ecological theory suggests that the composition of these communities might be affected by nutrient availability and disturbance frequency. We characterized two microbial mats from two contrasting environments in the oligotrophic Cuatro Ciénegas Basin: a permanent green pool and a red desiccation pond. We analyzed their taxonomic structure and composition by means of 16S rRNA clone libraries and metagenomics and inferred their metabolic role by the analysis of functional traits in the most abundant organisms. Both mats showed a high diversity with metabolically diverse members and strongly differed in structure and composition. The green mat had a higher species richness and evenness than the red mat, which was dominated by a lineage of Pseudomonas. Autotrophs were abundant in the green mat, and heterotrophs were abundant in the red mat. When comparing with other mats and stromatolites, we found that taxonomic composition was not shared at species level but at order level, which suggests environmental filtering for phylogenetically conserved functional traits with random selection of particular organisms. The highest diversity and composition similarity was observed among systems from stable environments, which suggests that disturbance regimes might affect diversity more strongly than nutrient availability, since oligotrophy does not appear to prevent the establishment of complex and diverse microbial mat communities. These results are discussed in light of the search for extraterrestrial life. PMID:22920516

  14. Bacterial contamination control mats: a comparative study.

    PubMed Central

    Meddick, H. M.

    1977-01-01

    The ability of six different types of contamination control mats currently in use at the entrances to theatre suites and other clean areas to remove bacteria-carrying particles from theatre trolley wheeels was compared. Marked differences in the effectiveness of this property were obtained; and all mats showed some disadvantages. Modification of one of the mats has resulted in improved efficiency under working conditions. Images Plate 1 PMID:267665

  15. Archaean metabolic evolution of microbial mats

    PubMed Central

    Nisbet, E. G.; Fowler, C. M. R.

    1999-01-01

    Microbial mats of coexisting bacteria and archaea date back to the early Archaean: many of the major steps in early evolution probably took place within them. The earliest mats may have formed as biofilms of cooperative chemolithotrophs in hyperthermophile settings, with microbial exploitation of diversifying niches. Anoxygenic photosynthesis using bacteriochlorophyll could have allowed mats, including green gliding bacteria, to colonize anaerobic shallow-water mesothermophile habitats. Exploitation of the Calvin–Benson cycle by purple bacteria allowed diversification of microbial mats, with some organisms in more aerobic habitats, while green sulphur bacteria specialized in anaerobic niches. Cyanobacterial evolution led to more complex mats and plankton, allowing widespread colonization of the globe and the creation of further aerobic habitat. Microbial mat structure may reflect this evolutionary development in broad terms, with anaerobic lower levels occupied by archaeal and bacterial respirers, fermenters and green bacteria, while the higher levels contain aerobic purple bacteria and are dominated by cyanobacteria. A possible origin of eukaryotes is from a fusion of symbiotic partners living across a redox boundary in a mat. The geological record of Archaean mats may be present as isotopic fingerprints: with the presence of cyanobacteria, mats may have had a nearly modern structure as early as 3.5 Ga ago (1 Ga = 109 years).

  16. MatLab Script and Functional Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    MatLab Script and Functional Programming: MatLab is one of the most widely used very high level programming languages for scientific and engineering computations. It is very user-friendly and needs practically no formal programming knowledge. Presented here are MatLab programming aspects and not just the MatLab commands for scientists and engineers who do not have formal programming training and also have no significant time to spare for learning programming to solve their real world problems. Specifically provided are programs for visualization. The MatLab seminar covers the functional and script programming aspect of MatLab language. Specific expectations are: a) Recognize MatLab commands, script and function. b) Create, and run a MatLab function. c) Read, recognize, and describe MatLab syntax. d) Recognize decisions, loops and matrix operators. e) Evaluate scope among multiple files, and multiple functions within a file. f) Declare, define and use scalar variables, vectors and matrices.

  17. Bentonite mat demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Serrato, M.G.

    1994-12-30

    The Bentonite Mat Demonstration was developed to provide the Environmental Restoration Department with field performance characteristics and engineering data for an alternative closure cover system configuration. The demonstration was initiated in response to regulatory concerns regarding the use of an alternative cover system for future design configurations. These design considerations are in lieu of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Recommended Design for Closure Cover Systems and specifically a single compacted kaolin clay layer with a hydraulic conductivity of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} cm/sec. This alternative configuration is a composite geosynthetic material hydraulic barrier consisting from bottom to top: 2 ft compacted sandy clay layer (typical local Savannah River Site soil type) that is covered by a bentonite mat--geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) and is overlaid by a 40 mil High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane--flexible membrane liner. This effort was undertaken to obtain and document the necessary field performance/engineering data for future designs and meet regulatory technical requirements for an alternative cover system configuration. The composite geosynthetic materials hydraulic barrier is the recommended alternative cover system configuration for containment of hazardous and low level radiological waste layers that have a high potential of subsidence to be used at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This alternative configuration mitigates subsidence effects in providing a flexible, lightweight cover system to maintain the integrity of the closure. The composite geosynthetic materials hydraulic barrier is recommended for the Sanitary Landfill and Low Level Radiological Waste Disposal Facility (LLRWDF) Closures.

  18. Comparative metagenomics of two microbial mats at Cuatro Ciénegas Basin I: ancient lessons on how to cope with an environment under severe nutrient stress.

    PubMed

    Peimbert, Mariana; Alcaraz, Luis David; Bonilla-Rosso, Germán; Olmedo-Alvarez, Gabriela; García-Oliva, Felipe; Segovia, Lorenzo; Eguiarte, Luis E; Souza, Valeria

    2012-07-01

    The Cuatro Ciénegas Basin (CCB) is an oasis in the desert of Mexico characterized by low phosphorus availability and by its great diversity of microbial mats. We compared the metagenomes of two aquatic microbial mats from the CCB with different nutrient limitations. We observed that the red mat was P-limited and dominated by Pseudomonas, while the green mat was N-limited and had higher species richness, with Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria as the most abundant phyla. From their gene content, we deduced that both mats were very metabolically diverse despite their use of different strategies to cope with their respective environments. The red mat was found to be mostly heterotrophic, while the green mat was more autotrophic. The red mat had a higher number of transporters in general, including transporters of cellobiose and osmoprotectants. We suggest that generalists with plastic genomes dominate the red mat, while specialists with minimal genomes dominate the green mat. Nutrient limitation was a common scenario on the early planet; despite this, biogeochemical cycles were performed, and as a result the planet changed. The metagenomes of microbial mats from the CCB show the different strategies a community can use to cope with oligotrophy and persist.

  19. Comparative Metagenomics of Two Microbial Mats at Cuatro Ciénegas Basin I: Ancient Lessons on How to Cope with an Environment Under Severe Nutrient Stress

    PubMed Central

    Peimbert, Mariana; Alcaraz, Luis David; Bonilla-Rosso, Germán; Olmedo-Alvarez, Gabriela; García-Oliva, Felipe; Segovia, Lorenzo; Eguiarte, Luis E.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Cuatro Ciénegas Basin (CCB) is an oasis in the desert of Mexico characterized by low phosphorus availability and by its great diversity of microbial mats. We compared the metagenomes of two aquatic microbial mats from the CCB with different nutrient limitations. We observed that the red mat was P-limited and dominated by Pseudomonas, while the green mat was N-limited and had higher species richness, with Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria as the most abundant phyla. From their gene content, we deduced that both mats were very metabolically diverse despite their use of different strategies to cope with their respective environments. The red mat was found to be mostly heterotrophic, while the green mat was more autotrophic. The red mat had a higher number of transporters in general, including transporters of cellobiose and osmoprotectants. We suggest that generalists with plastic genomes dominate the red mat, while specialists with minimal genomes dominate the green mat. Nutrient limitation was a common scenario on the early planet; despite this, biogeochemical cycles were performed, and as a result the planet changed. The metagenomes of microbial mats from the CCB show the different strategies a community can use to cope with oligotrophy and persist. Key Words: Microbial mats—Metagenomics—Metabolism. Astrobiology 12, 648–658. PMID:22920515

  20. Effects of mat characteristics on plantar pressure patterns and perceived mat properties during landing in gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Soriano, Pedro; Llana-Belloch, Salvador; Morey-Klapsing, Gaspar; Perez-Turpin, Jose Antonio; Cortell-Tormo, Juan Manuel; van den Tillaar, Roland

    2010-11-01

    Shock absorption and stability during landings is provided by both, gymnast ability and mat properties. The aims of this study were to determine the influence of different mat constructions on their energy absorption and stability capabilities, and to analyse how these properties affect gymnast's plantar pressures as well as subjective mat perception during landing. Six mats were tested using a standard mechanical drop test. In addition, plantar pressures and subjective perception during landing were obtained from 15 expert gymnasts. The different mats influenced plantar pressures and gymnasts' subjective perception during landing of gymnasts. Significant correlations between plantar pressures at the medial metatarsal and lateral metatarsal zones of the gymnasts' feet with the different shock absorption characteristics of the mats were found. However, subjective perception tests were not able to discriminate mat functionality between the six mats as no significant correlations between the mechanical mat properties with the subjective perception of these properties were found. This study demonstrated that plantar pressures are a useful tool for discriminating different landing mats. Using similar approaches, ideally including kinematics as well, could help us in our understanding about the influences of different mats upon gymnast-mat interaction. PMID:21309299

  1. Air pollutant production by algal cell cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, F.; Funkhouser, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    The production of phytotoxic air pollutants by cultures of Chlorella vulgaris and Euglena gracilis is considered. Algal and plant culture systems, a fumigation system, and ethylene, ethane, cyanide, and nitrogen oxides assays are discussed. Bean, tobacco, mustard green, cantaloupe and wheat plants all showed injury when fumigated with algal gases for 4 hours. Only coleus plants showed any resistance to the gases. It is found that a closed or recycled air effluent system does not produce plant injury from algal air pollutants.

  2. Methods for removing contaminants from algal oil

    DOEpatents

    Lupton, Francis Stephen

    2016-09-27

    Methods for removing contaminants from algal oil are provided. In an embodiment, a method comprises the steps of combining a sulfuric acid-aqueous solution that has a pH of about 1 or less with a contaminant-containing algal oil at treatment conditions effective to form an effluent. The effluent comprises a treated algal oil phase and contaminants in an acidic aqueous phase. The contaminants comprise metals, phosphorus, or combinations thereof. The acidic aqueous phase is removed from the effluent to form a contaminant-depleted algal oil.

  3. Lipid Biomarkers for a Hypersaline Microbial Mat Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, Linda; Orphan, Victoria; Embaye, Tsegereda; Turk, Kendra; Kubo, Mike; Summons, Roger

    2004-01-01

    The use of lipid biomarkers and their carbon isotopic compositions are valuable tools for establishing links to ancient microbial ecosystems. Various lipids associated with specific microbial groups can serve as biomarkers for establishing organism source and function in contemporary microbial ecosystems (membrane lipids), and by analogy, potential relevance to ancient organic-rich sedimentary rocks (geolipids). As witnessed by the stromatolite record, benthic microbial mats grew in shallow water lagoonal environments. Our recent work has focused on lipid biomarker analysis of a potential analogue for such ancient mats growing in a set of hypersaline evaporation ponds at Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico. The aerobic, surface layer of this mat (0 to 1 mm) contained a variety of ester-bound fatty acids (FA) representing a diverse bacterial population including cyanobacteria, sulphate reducers (SRB) and heterotrophs. Biomarkers for microeukaryotes detected in this layer included sterols, C-20 polyunsaturated FA and a highly branched isoprenoid, diagnostic for diatoms. Cyanobacteria were also indicated by the presence of a diagnostic set of mid-chain methylalkanes. C-28, to C-34 wax esters (WXE) present in relatively small amounts in the upper 3 mm of the mat are considered biomarkers for green non-sulphur bacteria. Ether-bound isoprenoids were also identified although in considerably lower abundance than ester-bound FA (approx. 1:l0). These complex ether lipids included archatol, hydroxyarchaeol and a C-40 tetraether, all in small amounts. After ether cleavage with boron tribromide, the major recovered isoprenyl was a C-30:1. This C(sub 30;1) yelded squalane after hydrogenation, a known geobiomarker for hypersaline environments in ancient oils and sediments. In this mat, it represents the dominant Archaeal population. The carbon isotopic composition of biomarker lipids were generally depleted relative to the bulk organic material (delta C-13 TOC -10%). Most

  4. Study of cnidarian-algal symbiosis in the "omics" age.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Eli; Weis, Virginia M

    2012-08-01

    The symbiotic associations between cnidarians and dinoflagellate algae (Symbiodinium) support productive and diverse ecosystems in coral reefs. Many aspects of this association, including the mechanistic basis of host-symbiont recognition and metabolic interaction, remain poorly understood. The first completed genome sequence for a symbiotic anthozoan is now available (the coral Acropora digitifera), and extensive expressed sequence tag resources are available for a variety of other symbiotic corals and anemones. These resources make it possible to profile gene expression, protein abundance, and protein localization associated with the symbiotic state. Here we review the history of "omics" studies of cnidarian-algal symbiosis and the current availability of sequence resources for corals and anemones, identifying genes putatively involved in symbiosis across 10 anthozoan species. The public availability of candidate symbiosis-associated genes leaves the field of cnidarian-algal symbiosis poised for in-depth comparative studies of sequence diversity and gene expression and for targeted functional studies of genes associated with symbiosis. Reviewing the progress to date suggests directions for future investigations of cnidarian-algal symbiosis that include (i) sequencing of Symbiodinium, (ii) proteomic analysis of the symbiosome membrane complex, (iii) glycomic analysis of Symbiodinium cell surfaces, and (iv) expression profiling of the gastrodermal cells hosting Symbiodinium. PMID:22983032

  5. Effects of simetryne on growth of various freshwater algal taxa.

    PubMed

    Kasai, F; Takamura, N; Hatakeyama, S

    1993-01-01

    The sensitivity of 56 algal strains, representing 7 taxonomic groups to the triazine herbicide, simetryne, was examined using EC50 values for growth. There was a wide range of values from 6.5 to 1500 microg litre(-1). The Volvocales (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta) and Cyanophyceae (Cyanophyta) as a whole were the most sensitive, whereas the Desmidiales (Charophyceae, Chlorophyta) and Bacillariophyceae (Chromophyta) were the most tolerant, although sensitivity differed among strains of a single species. Sensitive and tolerant species were both isolated from samples collected at the same site. The results suggest that changes in species composition and relative abundance will occur when herbicides are applied in natural habitats.

  6. An MAT Program to Meet Future Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuman, R. Baird

    1981-01-01

    The history of Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT) programs is outlined. The areas in which teaching shortages continue to exist are identified and MAT programs are urged to work to alleviate these shortages. Teacher shortages for prison inmates, youngsters with reading and language handicaps, and ghetto children are described. (MLW)

  7. User's guide to the MATS data

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, S. )

    1990-08-01

    Data collected for the 37 Mesoscale Transport Studies (MATS) experiments are available on a single, double-sided, high-density (1.2MB), IBM-formatted, 5.25 in. floppy disk (MATS disk). Standard ASCII characters are used. This report discusses how to install this disk, symbols used, format of the ratio, and the sample experiment.

  8. Nonwoven glass fiber mat reinforces polyurethane adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roseland, L. M.

    1967-01-01

    Nonwoven glass fiber mat reinforces the adhesive properties of a polyurethane adhesive that fastens hardware to exterior surfaces of aluminum tanks. The mat is embedded in the uncured adhesive. It ensures good control of the bond line and increases the peel strength.

  9. Investigation of VEGGIE Root Mat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subbiah, Arun M.

    2013-01-01

    VEGGIE is a plant growth facility that utilizes the phenomenon of capillary action as its primary watering system. A cloth made of Meta Aramid fiber, known as Nomex is used to wick water up from a reservoir to the bottom of the plants roots. This root mat system is intended to be low maintenance with no moving parts and requires minimal crew interface time. Unfortunately, the water wicking rates are inconsistent throughout the plant life cycle, thus causing plants to die. Over-wicking of water occurs toward the beginning of the cycle, while under-wicking occurs toward the middle. This inconsistency of wicking has become a major issue, drastically inhibiting plant growth. The primary objective is to determine the root cause of the inconsistent wicking through experimental testing. Suspect causes for the capillary water column to break include: a vacuum effect due to a negative pressure gradient in the water reservoir, contamination of material due to minerals in water and back wash from plant fertilizer, induced air bubbles while using syringe refill method, and material limitations of Nomex's ability to absorb and retain water. Experimental testing will be conducted to systematically determine the cause of under and over-wicking. Pressure gages will be used to determine pressure drop during the course of the plant life cycle and during the water refill process. A debubbler device will be connected to a root mat in order to equalize pressure inside the reservoir. Moisture and evaporation tests will simultaneously be implemented to observe moisture content and wicking rates over the course of a plant cycle. Water retention tests will be performed using strips of Nomex to determine materials wicking rates, porosity, and absorptivity. Through these experimental tests, we will have a better understanding of material properties of Nomex, as well as determine the root cause of water column breakage. With consistent test results, a forward plan can be achieved to resolve

  10. Flat laminated microbial mat communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franks, Jonathan; Stolz, John F.

    2009-10-01

    Flat laminated microbial mats are complex microbial ecosystems that inhabit a wide range of environments (e.g., caves, iron springs, thermal springs and pools, salt marshes, hypersaline ponds and lagoons, methane and petroleum seeps, sea mounts, deep sea vents, arctic dry valleys). Their community structure is defined by physical (e.g., light quantity and quality, temperature, density and pressure) and chemical (e.g., oxygen, oxidation/reduction potential, salinity, pH, available electron acceptors and donors, chemical species) parameters as well as species interactions. The main primary producers may be photoautotrophs (e.g., cyanobacteria, purple phototrophs, green phototrophs) or chemolithoautophs (e.g., colorless sulfur oxidizing bacteria). Anaerobic phototrophy may predominate in organic rich environments that support high rates of respiration. These communities are dynamic systems exhibiting both spatial and temporal heterogeneity. They are characterized by steep gradients with microenvironments on the submillimeter scale. Diel oscillations in the physical-chemical profile (e.g., oxygen, hydrogen sulfide, pH) and species distribution are typical for phototroph-dominated communities. Flat laminated microbial mats are often sites of robust biogeochemical cycling. In addition to well-established modes of metabolism for phototrophy (oxygenic and non-oxygenic), respiration (both aerobic and anaerobic), and fermentation, novel energetic pathways have been discovered (e.g., nitrate reduction couple to the oxidation of ammonia, sulfur, or arsenite). The application of culture-independent techniques (e.g., 16S rRNA clonal libraries, metagenomics), continue to expand our understanding of species composition and metabolic functions of these complex ecosystems.

  11. Topographic control of mat-surface structures evolution: Examples from modern evaporitic carbonate (Abu Dhabi) and evaporitic siliciclastic (Tunisia) tidal flats.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafid Bouougri, El; Porada, Hubertus

    2010-05-01

    typical shore-parallel zonality. In contrast, in tidal flats with slight changes in topography, the typical shore-parallel zonality appears disturbed mainly along the intertidal and lower supratidal zones. The mat surface structures within each tidal zone show local and lateral transitions but all evolve from an incipient flat or polygonal mat. On the mat scale, microtopographic differences are created by the mats themselves, e.g., in the form of upturned crack margins, bulges and domes. All these are small-scale topographic highs that influence the distribution of microbial activity and mat growth dynamics. In the Abu Dhabi area it is observed that smooth or polygonal mats may grade temporally into mammilate, cinder or pustular and tufted mats along an evolutionary path controlled by preferred growth along bulges and upturned crack margins. A similar temporal evolution appears in the intertidal and supratidal zones in Tunisia where local changes on mat-surface induce a variety of mat-growth struc¬tures on and along upturned crack margins, gas domes and isolated to polygonal bulges and petee ridges. References Kendall C.G.St.C, Skipwith, P.A.d'E. (1968) Recent algal mats of a Persian gulf lagoon. J. Sedim. Res., 38, 1040-1058. Logan B.W. Hoffman P. Gebelein, C.D. (1974) Algal mats, cryptalgal fabrics, and structures, Hamelin Pool, Western Australia. AAPG Mem., 22, 140-194.

  12. The MAT1-1:MAT1-2 ratio of Sporothrix globosa isolates in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kano, Rui; Tsui, Clement K-M; Hamelin, Richard C; Anzawa, Kazushi; Mochizuki, Takashi; Nishimoto, Katsutaro; Hiruma, Masataro; Kamata, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2015-02-01

    In order to understand the reproductive biology of pathogenic species in the Sporothrix schenckii complex, we characterized the partial mating type (MAT1-1) loci of Sporothrix schenckii, as well as the S. globosa MAT1-1-1 gene, which encoded 262 amino acid sequences. The data confirmed that the MAT1-1 locus of S. globosa was divergent from the MAT1-2 locus of the opposite mating type, suggesting that the fungus is heterothallic. To determine the mating type ratio of 20 isolates from Japanese patients, we analyzed the MAT loci by specific PCR amplification of MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 genes. The MAT1-1-1 was detected in 5 isolates but not in the other 15 isolates with the presence of MAT1-2-1. The MAT1-1:1-2 ratio of S. globosa isolates in Japan was estimated to be 1:3. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the sequences of the MAT1-1-1 were identical among S. globosa isolates but different from S. schenckii and Ophiostoma montium.

  13. Stressor-Response Models Relating Nutrient Enrichment to Algal Communities in Pacific Northwest Streams and Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobota, D. J.; Hubler, S.; Paul, M. J.; Labiosa, R.

    2015-12-01

    Excessive algal growth in streams and rivers from nutrient enrichment can cause costly human health and environmental problems. As part of the US Environmental Protection Agency's Nutrient Scientific Technical Exchange Partnership and Support (N-STEPS) program, we have been developing stressor-response (S-R) models relating nutrients to attached algal (periphyton) communities to help prioritize monitoring for water quality impairments in Oregon (Pacific Northwest, USA) streams and rivers. Existing data from the state and neighboring states were compiled and standardized from the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, US Environmental Protection Agency, and the US Geological Survey. To develop S-R models, algal community and biomass metrics were compared with nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentration data, including total, dissolved, and inorganic forms of these nutrients. In total, 928 paired algal-nutrient samples were compiled from the 8 Level-III Ecoregions occurring in Oregon. Relationships between algal biomass metrics and nutrient concentrations were weak, with only ash-free dry mass and standing stock of chlorophyll a showing slight positive relationships across gradients of total N and soluble reactive P concentrations, respectively. In contrast, metrics describing algal community composition, including percent diatoms and abundance of nutrient-sensitive species, showed very strong nonlinear relationships with total N or P concentrations. This suggests that data describing algal community composition can help identify specific nutrient stressors across environmentally-diverse streams and rivers in the Pacific Northwest. Future analyses will examine if nutrient-algal S-R models vary across different hydrological, physiographical, and ecological settings in the region.

  14. The ichthyofauna of drifting macrophyte mats in the Ivinhema River, upper Paraná River basin, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bulla, C. K.; Gomes, Luiz Carlos; Miranda, Leandro E.; Agostinho, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the fish assemblages associated with drifting macrophyte mats and consider their possible role as dispersal vectors in the Ivinhema River, a major tributary of the upper Paraná River, Brazil. Fish associated with drifting mats were sampled in the main river channel during January and March 2005, when the wind and/or the increased water level were sufficient to transport macrophyte stands. Fish in the drifting mats were sampled with a floating sieve (4 m long x 2 m wide x 0.6 m high, and 2 mm mesh size). In the laboratory, larvae, juvenile, and adult fish were counted and identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level. In four drifting macrophyte mats we captured 218 individuals belonging to at least 28 species, 17 families, and 6 orders. Aphyocharax dentatus, Serrasalmus spp., and Trachelyopterus galeatus were the most abundant taxa associated with the mats, but species richness ranged from 6 to 24 species per mat. In addition, 85% of the total number of individuals caught was larvae and juveniles. Although preliminary and based on limited samples, this study of drifting macrophyte mats was the first one in the last unregulated stretch of the Paraná River remaining inside Brazilian territory, and alerts us to the potential role of macrophytes mats as dispersers of fish species in the region.

  15. Microbial Mat Communities along an Oxygen Gradient in a Perennially Ice-Covered Antarctic Lake.

    PubMed

    Jungblut, Anne D; Hawes, Ian; Mackey, Tyler J; Krusor, Megan; Doran, Peter T; Sumner, Dawn Y; Eisen, Jonathan A; Hillman, Colin; Goroncy, Alexander K

    2016-01-01

    Lake Fryxell is a perennially ice-covered lake in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, with a sharp oxycline in a water column that is density stabilized by a gradient in salt concentration. Dissolved oxygen falls from 20 mg liter(-1) to undetectable over one vertical meter from 8.9- to 9.9-m depth. We provide the first description of the benthic mat community that falls within this oxygen gradient on the sloping floor of the lake, using a combination of micro- and macroscopic morphological descriptions, pigment analysis, and 16S rRNA gene bacterial community analysis. Our work focused on three macroscopic mat morphologies that were associated with different parts of the oxygen gradient: (i) "cuspate pinnacles" in the upper hyperoxic zone, which displayed complex topography and were dominated by phycoerythrin-rich cyanobacteria attributable to the genus Leptolyngbya and a diverse but sparse assemblage of pennate diatoms; (ii) a less topographically complex "ridge-pit" mat located immediately above the oxic-anoxic transition containing Leptolyngbya and an increasing abundance of diatoms; and (iii) flat prostrate mats in the upper anoxic zone, dominated by a green cyanobacterium phylogenetically identified as Phormidium pseudopriestleyi and a single diatom, Diadesmis contenta. Zonation of bacteria was by lake depth and by depth into individual mats. Deeper mats had higher abundances of bacteriochlorophylls and anoxygenic phototrophs, including Chlorobi and Chloroflexi. This suggests that microbial communities form assemblages specific to niche-like locations. Mat morphologies, underpinned by cyanobacterial and diatom composition, are the result of local habitat conditions likely defined by irradiance and oxygen and sulfide concentrations. PMID:26567300

  16. Assembly and Succession of Iron Oxide Microbial Mat Communities in Acidic Geothermal Springs.

    PubMed

    Beam, Jacob P; Bernstein, Hans C; Jay, Zackary J; Kozubal, Mark A; Jennings, Ryan deM; Tringe, Susannah G; Inskeep, William P

    2016-01-01

    Biomineralized ferric oxide microbial mats are ubiquitous features on Earth, are common in hot springs of Yellowstone National Park (YNP, WY, USA), and form due to direct interaction between microbial and physicochemical processes. The overall goal of this study was to determine the contribution of different community members to the assembly and succession of acidic high-temperature Fe(III)-oxide mat ecosystems. Spatial and temporal changes in Fe(III)-oxide accretion and the abundance of relevant community members were monitored over 70 days using sterile glass microscope slides incubated in the outflow channels of two acidic geothermal springs (pH = 3-3.5; temperature = 68-75°C) in YNP. Hydrogenobaculum spp. were the most abundant taxon identified during early successional stages (4-40 days), and have been shown to oxidize arsenite, sulfide, and hydrogen coupled to oxygen reduction. Iron-oxidizing populations of Metallosphaera yellowstonensis were detected within 4 days, and reached steady-state levels within 14-30 days, corresponding to visible Fe(III)-oxide accretion. Heterotrophic archaea colonized near 30 days, and emerged as the dominant functional guild after 70 days and in mature Fe(III)-oxide mats (1-2 cm thick). First-order rate constants of Fe(III)-oxide accretion ranged from 0.046 to 0.05 day(-1), and in situ microelectrode measurements showed that the oxidation of Fe(II) is limited by the diffusion of O2 into the Fe(III)-oxide mat. The formation of microterracettes also implicated O2 as a major variable controlling microbial growth and subsequent mat morphology. The assembly and succession of Fe(III)-oxide mat communities follows a repeatable pattern of colonization by lithoautotrophic organisms, and the subsequent growth of diverse organoheterotrophs. The unique geochemical signatures and micromorphology of extant biomineralized Fe(III)-oxide mats are also useful for understanding other Fe(II)-oxidizing systems.

  17. Microbial Mat Communities along an Oxygen Gradient in a Perennially Ice-Covered Antarctic Lake.

    PubMed

    Jungblut, Anne D; Hawes, Ian; Mackey, Tyler J; Krusor, Megan; Doran, Peter T; Sumner, Dawn Y; Eisen, Jonathan A; Hillman, Colin; Goroncy, Alexander K

    2015-11-13

    Lake Fryxell is a perennially ice-covered lake in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, with a sharp oxycline in a water column that is density stabilized by a gradient in salt concentration. Dissolved oxygen falls from 20 mg liter(-1) to undetectable over one vertical meter from 8.9- to 9.9-m depth. We provide the first description of the benthic mat community that falls within this oxygen gradient on the sloping floor of the lake, using a combination of micro- and macroscopic morphological descriptions, pigment analysis, and 16S rRNA gene bacterial community analysis. Our work focused on three macroscopic mat morphologies that were associated with different parts of the oxygen gradient: (i) "cuspate pinnacles" in the upper hyperoxic zone, which displayed complex topography and were dominated by phycoerythrin-rich cyanobacteria attributable to the genus Leptolyngbya and a diverse but sparse assemblage of pennate diatoms; (ii) a less topographically complex "ridge-pit" mat located immediately above the oxic-anoxic transition containing Leptolyngbya and an increasing abundance of diatoms; and (iii) flat prostrate mats in the upper anoxic zone, dominated by a green cyanobacterium phylogenetically identified as Phormidium pseudopriestleyi and a single diatom, Diadesmis contenta. Zonation of bacteria was by lake depth and by depth into individual mats. Deeper mats had higher abundances of bacteriochlorophylls and anoxygenic phototrophs, including Chlorobi and Chloroflexi. This suggests that microbial communities form assemblages specific to niche-like locations. Mat morphologies, underpinned by cyanobacterial and diatom composition, are the result of local habitat conditions likely defined by irradiance and oxygen and sulfide concentrations.

  18. Assembly and Succession of Iron Oxide Microbial Mat Communities in Acidic Geothermal Springs

    PubMed Central

    Beam, Jacob P.; Bernstein, Hans C.; Jay, Zackary J.; Kozubal, Mark A.; Jennings, Ryan deM.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Inskeep, William P.

    2016-01-01

    Biomineralized ferric oxide microbial mats are ubiquitous features on Earth, are common in hot springs of Yellowstone National Park (YNP, WY, USA), and form due to direct interaction between microbial and physicochemical processes. The overall goal of this study was to determine the contribution of different community members to the assembly and succession of acidic high-temperature Fe(III)-oxide mat ecosystems. Spatial and temporal changes in Fe(III)-oxide accretion and the abundance of relevant community members were monitored over 70 days using sterile glass microscope slides incubated in the outflow channels of two acidic geothermal springs (pH = 3–3.5; temperature = 68–75°C) in YNP. Hydrogenobaculum spp. were the most abundant taxon identified during early successional stages (4–40 days), and have been shown to oxidize arsenite, sulfide, and hydrogen coupled to oxygen reduction. Iron-oxidizing populations of Metallosphaera yellowstonensis were detected within 4 days, and reached steady-state levels within 14–30 days, corresponding to visible Fe(III)-oxide accretion. Heterotrophic archaea colonized near 30 days, and emerged as the dominant functional guild after 70 days and in mature Fe(III)-oxide mats (1–2 cm thick). First-order rate constants of Fe(III)-oxide accretion ranged from 0.046 to 0.05 day−1, and in situ microelectrode measurements showed that the oxidation of Fe(II) is limited by the diffusion of O2 into the Fe(III)-oxide mat. The formation of microterracettes also implicated O2 as a major variable controlling microbial growth and subsequent mat morphology. The assembly and succession of Fe(III)-oxide mat communities follows a repeatable pattern of colonization by lithoautotrophic organisms, and the subsequent growth of diverse organoheterotrophs. The unique geochemical signatures and micromorphology of extant biomineralized Fe(III)-oxide mats are also useful for understanding other Fe(II)-oxidizing systems. PMID:26913020

  19. Microbial Mat Communities along an Oxygen Gradient in a Perennially Ice-Covered Antarctic Lake

    PubMed Central

    Hawes, Ian; Mackey, Tyler J.; Krusor, Megan; Doran, Peter T.; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Hillman, Colin; Goroncy, Alexander K.

    2015-01-01

    Lake Fryxell is a perennially ice-covered lake in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, with a sharp oxycline in a water column that is density stabilized by a gradient in salt concentration. Dissolved oxygen falls from 20 mg liter−1 to undetectable over one vertical meter from 8.9- to 9.9-m depth. We provide the first description of the benthic mat community that falls within this oxygen gradient on the sloping floor of the lake, using a combination of micro- and macroscopic morphological descriptions, pigment analysis, and 16S rRNA gene bacterial community analysis. Our work focused on three macroscopic mat morphologies that were associated with different parts of the oxygen gradient: (i) “cuspate pinnacles” in the upper hyperoxic zone, which displayed complex topography and were dominated by phycoerythrin-rich cyanobacteria attributable to the genus Leptolyngbya and a diverse but sparse assemblage of pennate diatoms; (ii) a less topographically complex “ridge-pit” mat located immediately above the oxic-anoxic transition containing Leptolyngbya and an increasing abundance of diatoms; and (iii) flat prostrate mats in the upper anoxic zone, dominated by a green cyanobacterium phylogenetically identified as Phormidium pseudopriestleyi and a single diatom, Diadesmis contenta. Zonation of bacteria was by lake depth and by depth into individual mats. Deeper mats had higher abundances of bacteriochlorophylls and anoxygenic phototrophs, including Chlorobi and Chloroflexi. This suggests that microbial communities form assemblages specific to niche-like locations. Mat morphologies, underpinned by cyanobacterial and diatom composition, are the result of local habitat conditions likely defined by irradiance and oxygen and sulfide concentrations. PMID:26567300

  20. Assembly and Succession of Iron Oxide Microbial Mat Communities in Acidic Geothermal Springs.

    PubMed

    Beam, Jacob P; Bernstein, Hans C; Jay, Zackary J; Kozubal, Mark A; Jennings, Ryan deM; Tringe, Susannah G; Inskeep, William P

    2016-01-01

    Biomineralized ferric oxide microbial mats are ubiquitous features on Earth, are common in hot springs of Yellowstone National Park (YNP, WY, USA), and form due to direct interaction between microbial and physicochemical processes. The overall goal of this study was to determine the contribution of different community members to the assembly and succession of acidic high-temperature Fe(III)-oxide mat ecosystems. Spatial and temporal changes in Fe(III)-oxide accretion and the abundance of relevant community members were monitored over 70 days using sterile glass microscope slides incubated in the outflow channels of two acidic geothermal springs (pH = 3-3.5; temperature = 68-75°C) in YNP. Hydrogenobaculum spp. were the most abundant taxon identified during early successional stages (4-40 days), and have been shown to oxidize arsenite, sulfide, and hydrogen coupled to oxygen reduction. Iron-oxidizing populations of Metallosphaera yellowstonensis were detected within 4 days, and reached steady-state levels within 14-30 days, corresponding to visible Fe(III)-oxide accretion. Heterotrophic archaea colonized near 30 days, and emerged as the dominant functional guild after 70 days and in mature Fe(III)-oxide mats (1-2 cm thick). First-order rate constants of Fe(III)-oxide accretion ranged from 0.046 to 0.05 day(-1), and in situ microelectrode measurements showed that the oxidation of Fe(II) is limited by the diffusion of O2 into the Fe(III)-oxide mat. The formation of microterracettes also implicated O2 as a major variable controlling microbial growth and subsequent mat morphology. The assembly and succession of Fe(III)-oxide mat communities follows a repeatable pattern of colonization by lithoautotrophic organisms, and the subsequent growth of diverse organoheterotrophs. The unique geochemical signatures and micromorphology of extant biomineralized Fe(III)-oxide mats are also useful for understanding other Fe(II)-oxidizing systems. PMID:26913020

  1. Algal Bloom Detection from HICO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Ruhul; Gould, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Ocean color satellites provide daily, global views of marine bio-optical properties in the upper ocean at various spatial scales. The most productive area of the global ocean is the coastal zone which is heavily impacted by urban and agricultural runoff, transportation, recreation, and oil and gas production. In recent years, harmful algal blooms (HABs) have become one of the serious environmental problems in the coastal areas on a global scale. The global nature of the problem has expanded in its frequency, severity, and extent over the last several decades. Human activities and population increases have contributed to an increase in various toxic and noxious algal species in the coastal regions worldwide. Eutrophication in estuaries and coastal waters is believed to be the major factor causing HABs. In this study, we assess the applicability of the Red Band Difference (RBD) HAB detection algorithm on data from the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO). Our preliminary results show that due to various uncertainties such as atmospheric correction, calibration and possibly also the relatively low signal-to-noise ratio of HICO for fluorescence detection, it is difficult to extract the fluorescence portion of the reflectance spectrum that RBD uses for bloom detection. We propose an improved bloom detection technique for HICO using red and NIR bands. Our results are validated using other space-borne and ground based measurements.

  2. Competition between macroalgae and corals: effects of herbivore exclusion and increased algal biomass on coral survivorship and growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lirman, D.

    2001-05-01

    Recent declines in coral abundance accompanied by increases in macroalgal cover on Florida reefs highlight the importance of competition for space between these groups. This paper documents the frequency of coral-algal interactions on the Northern Florida Reef Tract and evaluates the effects of grazer exclusions and experimental algal addition on growth and tissue mortality of three coral species, Siderastrea siderea, Porites astreoides, and Montastraea faveolata. The frequency of interactions between corals and macroalgae was high as more than 50% of the basal perimeter of colonies was in contact with macroalgae; turf forms, Halimeda spp., and Dictyota spp. were the most common groups in contact with corals. Decreased grazing pressure resulted in significant increases in algal biomass within cages, and caged corals showed species-specific susceptibility to increased algal biomass. While no effects were detected for S. siderea, significant decreases in growth rates were documented for caged P. astreoides which had growth rates three to four times lower than uncaged colonies. When an algal addition treatment was included to duplicate maximum algal biomass levels documented for reefs in the area, colonies of P. astreoides in the algal addition treatment had growth rates up to ten times lower than uncaged colonies. High susceptibility to algal overgrowth was also found for the reef-building coral M. faveolata, which experienced significant tissue mortality under both uncaged (5.2% decrease in live tissue area per month) and caged (10.2% per month) conditions. The documented effects of increased algal biomass on coral growth and tissue mortality suggest a potential threat for the long-term survivorship and growth of corals in the Florida Reef Tract if present rates of algal growth and space utilization are maintained.

  3. Constraints to commercialization of algal fuels.

    PubMed

    Chisti, Yusuf

    2013-09-10

    Production of algal crude oil has been achieved in various pilot scale facilities, but whether algal fuels can be produced in sufficient quantity to meaningfully displace petroleum fuels, has been largely overlooked. Limitations to commercialization of algal fuels need to be understood and addressed for any future commercialization. This review identifies the major constraints to commercialization of transport fuels from microalgae. Algae derived fuels are expensive compared to petroleum derived fuels, but this could change. Unfortunately, improved economics of production are not sufficient for an environmentally sustainable production, or its large scale feasibility. A low-cost point supply of concentrated carbon dioxide colocated with the other essential resources is necessary for producing algal fuels. An insufficiency of concentrated carbon dioxide is actually a major impediment to any substantial production of algal fuels. Sustainability of production requires the development of an ability to almost fully recycle the phosphorous and nitrogen nutrients that are necessary for algae culture. Development of a nitrogen biofixation ability to support production of algal fuels ought to be an important long term objective. At sufficiently large scale, a limited supply of freshwater will pose a significant limitation to production even if marine algae are used. Processes for recovering energy from the algal biomass left after the extraction of oil, are required for achieving a net positive energy balance in the algal fuel oil. The near term outlook for widespread use of algal fuels appears bleak, but fuels for niche applications such as in aviation may be likely in the medium term. Genetic and metabolic engineering of microalgae to boost production of fuel oil and ease its recovery, are essential for commercialization of algal fuels. Algae will need to be genetically modified for improved photosynthetic efficiency in the long term. PMID:23886651

  4. Microbial communities and exopolysaccharides from Polynesian mats.

    PubMed

    Rougeaux, H; Guezennec, M; Che, L M; Payri, C; Deslandes, E; Guezennec, J

    2001-03-01

    Microbial mats present in two shallow atolls of French Polynesia were characterized by high amounts of exopolysaccharides associated with cyanobacteria as the predominating species. Cyanobacteria were found in the first centimeters of the gelatinous mats, whereas deeper layers showing the occurrence of the sulfate reducers Desulfovibrio and Desulfobacter species as determined by the presence of specific biomarkers. Exopolysaccharides were extracted from these mats and partially characterized. All fractions contained both neutral sugars and uronic acids with a predominance of the former. The large diversity in monosaccharides can be interpreted as the result of exopolymer biosynthesis by either different or unidentified cyanobacterial species. PMID:14961381

  5. Bacterial Diversity and Spatial Variability Found in a Mn-Fe Oxide Encrusted Microbial Mat From the 5000 Meter-Deep Hydrothermal Vent 'Ula Nui, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, R. E.; Moyer, C. L.; Curtis, A. C.; Staudigel, H.; Tebo, B. M.

    2007-12-01

    'Ula Nui Vent Field was discovered on the southern flank of Loihi Seamount during the 2006 FeMO Microbial Observatory expedition at over 5000 meters depth. The vent field exhibited abundant low temperature (<2°C above ambient) seeps which were covered with extensive mineral-encrusted microbial mat material. The microbial mats consisted of a 0.5-3 cm thick upper mat which was comprised of laminated layers of manganese oxides and iron oxides which overlayed a flocculent iron oxide mat that could attain depths of over 1 m deep. Bacterial communities from the top and bottom mats were analyzed using SSU rRNA terminal-restriction fragment polymorphisms (T-RFLP) coupled with traditional clone library analysis. T-RFLP chromatograms indicate dominance of the ζ- Proteobacteria in both the top and lower mat. Cluster analysis of the T- RFLP fingerprints show a strong correlation between the bottom mat and iron oxide-encrusted microbial mats found in the hydrothermally active Pele's Pit near the summit of Loihi Seamount. The top mat clusters with iron and manganese oxide encrusted microbial mats found at various sites on Loihi Seamount not associated with measurable active hydrothermal venting. Clone library analysis show that the top mat was dominated by phylotypes related to the δ- γ- and the recently described ζ- Proteobacteria, along with members of the Planctomycete Division. The dominance of ζ- Proteobacteria and Planctomycete phylotypes implies that neutrophilic iron oxidation and anaerobic ammonia oxidation are active metabolisms in the top mat bacterial community. Anaerobic ammonia oxidation coupled with nitrite reduction may also be an integral metabolism in this community since some Planctomycete phylotypes from the top mat cluster within the anammox clade.

  6. Cyanobacterial mats: Microanalysis of community metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Y.; Bermudes, D.; Fischer, U.; Haddad, R.; Prufert, L.; Scheulderman-Suylen, T.; Shaw, T.

    1985-01-01

    The microbial communities in two sites were studied using several approaches: (1) light microscopy; (2) the measurement of microprofiles of oxygen and sulfide at the surface of the microbial mat; (3) the study of diurnal variation of oxygen and sulfides; (4) in situ measurement of photosynthesis and sulfate reduction and study of the coupling of these two processes; (5) measurement of glutathione in the upper layers of the microbial mat as a possible oxygen quencher; (6) measurement of reduced iron as a possible intermediate electron donor along the established redoxcline in the mats; (7) measurement of dissolved phosphate as an indicator of processes of break down of organic matter in these systems; and (8) measurement of carbon dioxide in the interstitial water and its delta C-13 in an attempt to understand the flow of CO2 through the systems. Microbial processes of primary production and initial degradation at the most active zone of the microbial mat were analyzed.

  7. Thermal actuation of graphene oxide nanoribbon mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jiyoung; Kozlov, Mikhail E.; Carretero-González, Javier; Castillo-Martínez, Elizabeth; Baughman, Ray H.

    2011-03-01

    Graphene oxide nanoribbons (GOr), obtained by chemically unzipping multi-walled carbon nanotubes, were assembled into macroscopic mats by vacuum filtration. These mats exhibited up to 1.6% reversible contraction when electrically heated at ambient. The experimentally derived work capacity of the mats was about 40 J/kg, which is similar to that of natural muscle. It was limited by the mechanical strength of mats and can be increased upon optimization of their preparation conditions. X-ray diffraction measurements indicated reversible changes in the interplanar spacing of GOr layers during heating. These dimensional changes can be associated with reversible adsorption/desorption of water molecules between GOr layers and used in thermally-driven high performance artificial muscles and moisture sensors.

  8. Nonwoven filtration mat production by electrospinning method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackowski, M.; Krupa, A.; Jaworek, A.

    2011-06-01

    The filtration of nanoparticles and submicron particles is an important problem in industry and health protection. One of the methods which can be used to solve this problem is to use nonwoven nanofibrous filters. The process of producing filtration mats of different thickness by electrospinning is presented in the paper. The experimental results on filtration properties of nanofibrous filter mat, including the efficiency of removal of cigarette smoke particles from a gas are also presented.

  9. Bioremediation of oil by marine microbial mats.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Yehuda

    2002-12-01

    Cyanobacterial mats developing in oil-contaminated sabkhas along the African coasts of the Gulf of Suez and in the pristine Solar Lake, Sinai, were collected for laboratory studies. Samples of both mats showed efficient degradation of crude oil in the light, followed by development of an intense bloom of Phormidium spp. and Oscillatoria spp. Isolated cyanobacterial strains, however, did not degrade crude oil in axenic cultures. Strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria and aerobic heterotrophs were capable of degrading model compounds of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Results indicate that degradation of oil was done primarily by aerobic heterotrophic bacteria. The oxygenic photosynthesis of oil-insensitive cyanobacteria supplied the molecular oxygen for the efficient aerobic metabolism of organisms, such as Marinobacter sp. The diurnal shifts in environmental conditions at the mat surface, from highly oxic conditions in the light to anaerobic sulfide-rich habitat in the dark, may allow the combined aerobic and anaerobic degradation of crude oil at the mat surface. Hence, coastal cyanobacterial mats may be used for the degradation of coastline oil spills. Oxygen microelectrodes detected a significant inhibition of photosynthetic activity subsequent to oil addition. This prevailed for a few hours and then rapidly recovered. In addition, shifts in bacterial community structure following exposure to oil were determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified fractions of 16S rRNA from eubacteria, cyanobacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria. Since the mats used for the present study were obtained from oil-contaminated environments, they were believed to be preequilibrated for petroleum remediation. The mesocosm system at Eilat provided a unique opportunity to study petroleum degradation by mats formed under different salinities (up to 21%). These mats, dominated by cyanobacteria, can serve as close analogues to the sabkhas contaminated during the

  10. Species composition and cyanotoxin production in periphyton mats from three lakes of varying trophic status.

    PubMed

    Wood, Susie A; Kuhajek, Jeannie M; de Winton, Mary; Phillips, Ngaire R

    2012-02-01

    In lakes, benthic micro-algae and cyanobacteria (periphyton) can contribute significantly to total primary productivity and provide important food sources for benthic invertebrates. Despite recognition of their importance, few studies have explored the diversity of the algal and cyanobacterial composition of periphyton mats in temperate lakes. In this study, we sampled periphyton from three New Zealand lakes: Tikitapu (oligotrophic), Ōkāreka (mesotrophic) and Rotoiti (eutrophic). Statistical analysis of morphological data showed a clear delineation in community structure among lakes and highlighted the importance of cyanobacteria. Automated rRNA intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were used to investigate cyanobacterial diversity. Despite the close geographic proximity of the lakes, cyanobacterial species differed markedly. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis identified eight cyanobacterial OTUs. A comparison with other known cyanobacterial sequences in GenBank showed relatively low similarities (91-97%). Cyanotoxin analysis identified nodularin in all mats from Lake Tikitapu. ndaF gene sequences from these samples had very low (≤ 89%) homology to sequences in other known nodularin producers. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of nodularin in a freshwater environment in the absence of Nodularia. Six cyanobacteria species were isolated from Lake Tikitapu mats. None were found to produce nodularin. Five of the species shared low (< 97%) 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with other cultured cyanobacteria.

  11. How hydrodynamics control algal blooms in the Ythan estuary, Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champangern, Khruewan; Hoey, Trevor; Thomas, Rhian

    2016-04-01

    The Ythan estuary, northeast Scotland, was designated in 2000 as a Nitrate Vulnerable Zone (NVZ) under the European Commission (EC) Nitrates Directive. Much of the catchment is intensively farmed and water quality has been adversely affected by nutrients from agricultural fertilizers. As a result, algal mats develop annually on tidal flats where sediment from upstream and from the adjacent dune systems is deposited. Understanding the patterns of water (river and ocean) circulation in the estuary as well as understanding how nutrients and sediments are transported in the estuary is crucial for understanding the role of several factors (elevation; sediment characteristics; nutrient flux) control the locations and scale of annual algal blooms. In order to understand those controls, study of interactions between hydrodynamic factors and water quality, in particular chlorophyll levels, at different time scales has been carried out. The results from the study reveal complex seasonal and event-scale relationships of river flow with the amount of chlorophyll, which provide an initial comprehension of controls over the concentrations of chlorophyll in the estuary. The concentration of chlorophyll changes, whether increasing or decreasing, with regards to changes in river flow. During high flow events, high amounts of chlorophyll are found when the tide is low. During low flow events, high amounts of chlorophyll are found at high tides. These phenomena reveal that both river flow and tidal cycle affect the amount of chlorophyll in the estuary. In addition, the Delft3d flow model, which has been extensively applied to many coastal and estuarine studies is used to simulate hydrodynamic patterns in the estuary during high flow and low flow events. The model is composed of 36,450 fine resolution grids and the upstream/ downstream boundary that represents water level is based on time-series data from river flow and tidal measurements. The bathymetry used for the model domain is

  12. Exploring the Utilization of Complex Algal Communities to Address Algal Pond Crash and Increase Annual Biomass Production for Algal Biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Cyd E.

    2014-03-25

    This white paper briefly reviews the research literature exploring complex algal communities as a means of increasing algal biomass production via increased tolerance, resilience, and resistance to a variety of abiotic and biotic perturbations occurring within harvesting timescales. This paper identifies what data are available and whether more research utilizing complex communities is needed to explore the potential of complex algal community stability (CACS) approach as a plausible means to increase biomass yields regardless of ecological context and resulting in decreased algal-based fuel prices by reducing operations costs. By reviewing the literature for what we do and do not know, in terms of CACS methodologies, this report will provide guidance for future research addressing pond crash phenomena.

  13. A comparison of the influences of urbanization in contrasting environmental settings on stream benthic algal assemblages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Potapova, M.; Coles, J.F.; Giddings, E.M.P.; Zappia, H.

    2005-01-01

    Patterns of stream benthic algal assemblages along urbanization gradients were investigated in three metropolitan areas-Boston (BOS), Massachusetts; Birmingham (BIR), Alabama; and Salt Lake City (SLC), Utah. An index of urban intensity derived from socioeconomic, infrastructure, and land-use characteristics was used as a measure of urbanization. Of the various attributes of the algal assemblages, species composition changed along gradients of urban intensity in a more consistent manner than biomass or diversity. In urban streams, the relative abundance of pollution-tolerant species was often higher than in less affected streams. Shifts in assemblage composition were associated primarily with increased levels of conductivity, nutrients, and alterations in physical habitat. Water mineralization and nutrients were the most important determinants of assemblage composition in the BOS and SLC study areas; flow regime and grazers were key factors in the BIR study area. Species composition of algal assemblages differed significantly among geographic regions, and no particular algal taxa were found to be universal indicators of urbanization. Patterns in algal biomass and diversity along urban gradients varied among study areas, depending on local environmental conditions and habitat alteration. Biomass and diversity increased with urbanization in the BOS area, apparently because of increased nutrients, light, and flow stability in urban streams, which often are regulated by dams. Biomass and diversity decreased with urbanization in the BIR study area because of intensive fish grazing and less stable flow regime. In the SLC study area, correlations between algal biomass, diversity, and urban intensity were positive but weak. Thus, algal responses to urbanization differed considerably among the three study areas. We concluded that the wide range of responses of benthic algae to urbanization implied that tools for stream bioassessment must be region specific. ?? 2005 by the

  14. Novel resource utilization of refloated algal sludge to improve the quality of organic fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Li, Rong; Liu, Hongjun; Wang, Beibei; Zhang, Chenmin; Shen, Qirong

    2014-08-01

    Without further management, large amounts of refloated algal sludge from Taihu Lake to retrieve nitrogen and phosphorus resources may result in serious secondary environmental pollution. The possibility of utilization of algal sludge to improve the quality of organic fertilizer was investigated in this study. Variations of physicochemical properties, germination index (GI) and microcystin (MC) content were analysed during the composting process. The results showed that the addition of algal sludge improved the contents of nutrients, common free amino acids and total common amino acids in the novel organic fertilizer. Rapid degradation rates of MC-LR and MC-RR, a high GI value and more abundance of culturable protease-producing bacteria were observed during the composting process added with algal sludge. Growth experiments showed that the novel organic fertilizer efficiently promoted plant growth. This study provides a novel resource recovery method to reclaim the Taihu Lake algal sludge and highlights a novel method to produce a high-quality organic fertilizer. PMID:24956756

  15. Two coexisting tank bromeliads host distinct algal communities on a tropical inselberg.

    PubMed

    Carrias, J-F; Céréghino, R; Brouard, O; Pélozuelo, L; Dejean, A; Couté, A; Corbara, B; Leroy, C

    2014-09-01

    The tank bromeliads Aechmea aquilega (Salisb.) and Catopsis berteroniana (Schultes f.) coexist on a sun-exposed Neotropical inselberg in French Guiana, where they permit conspicuous freshwater pools to form that differ in size, complexity and detritus content. We sampled the algal communities (both eukaryotic and cyanobacterial taxa, including colourless forms) inhabiting either A. aquilega (n = 31) or C. berteroniana (n = 30) and examined differences in community composition and biomass patterns in relation to several biotic and abiotic variables. Chlorella sp. and Bumilleriopsis sp. were the most common taxa and dominated the algal biomass in A. aquilega and C. berteroniana, respectively. Using a redundancy analysis, we found that water volume, habitat complexity and the density of phagotrophic protozoa and collector-gatherer invertebrates were the main factors explaining the distribution of the algal taxa among the samples. Hierarchical clustering procedures based on abundance and presence/absence data clearly segregated the samples according to bromeliad species, revealing that the algal communities in the smaller bromeliad species were not a subset of the communities found in the larger bromeliad species. We conclude that, even though two coexisting tank bromeliad populations create adjacent aquatic habitats, each population hosts a distinct algal community. Hence, bromeliad diversity is thought to promote the local diversity of freshwater algae in the Neotropics. PMID:24400863

  16. The Epsomitic Phototrophic Microbial Mat of Hot Lake, Washington. Community Structural Responses to Seasonal Cycling

    SciTech Connect

    Lindemann, Stephen R.; Moran, James J.; Stegen, James C.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Hutchison, Janine R.; Cole, Jessica K.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Tremblay, Julien; Singh, Kanwar; Malfatti, Stephanie; Chen, Feng; Tringe, Susannah; Beyenal, Haluk; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2013-11-13

    Phototrophic microbial mats are compact ecosystems composed of highly interactive organisms in which energy and element cycling take place over millimeter-to-centimeter-scale distances. Although microbial mats are common in hypersaline environments, they have not been extensively characterized in systems dominated by divalent ions. Hot Lake is a meromictic, epsomitic lake that occupies a small, endorheic basin in north-central Washington. The lake harbors a benthic, phototrophic mat that assembles each spring, disassembles each fall, and is subject to greater than tenfold variation in salinity (primarily Mg2+ and SO2-4) and irradiation over the annual cycle. We examined spatiotemporal variation in the mat community at five time points throughout the annual cycle with respect to prevailing physicochemical parameters by amplicon sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene coupled to near-full-length 16S RNA clone sequences. The composition of these microbial communities was relatively stable over the seasonal cycle and included dominant populations of Cyanobacteria, primarily a group IV cyanobacterium (Leptolyngbya), and Alphaproteobacteria (specifically, members of Rhodobacteraceae and Geminicoccus). Members of Gammaproteobacteria (e.g., Thioalkalivibrio and Halochromatium) and Deltaproteobacteria (e.g., Desulfofustis) that are likely to be involved in sulfur cycling peaked in summer and declined significantly by mid-fall, mirroring larger trends in mat community richness and evenness. Phylogenetic turnover analysis of abundant phylotypes employing environmental metadata suggests that seasonal shifts in light variability exert a dominant influence on the composition of Hot Lake microbial mat communities. The seasonal development and organization of these structured microbial mats provide opportunities for analysis of the temporal and physical dynamics that feed back to community function.

  17. The epsomitic phototrophic microbial mat of Hot Lake, Washington: community structural responses to seasonal cycling

    PubMed Central

    Lindemann, Stephen R.; Moran, James J.; Stegen, James C.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Hutchison, Janine R.; Cole, Jessica K.; Dohnalkova, Alice C.; Tremblay, Julien; Singh, Kanwar; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; Chen, Feng; Tringe, Susannah G.; Beyenal, Haluk; Fredrickson, James K.

    2013-01-01

    Phototrophic microbial mats are compact ecosystems composed of highly interactive organisms in which energy and element cycling take place over millimeter-to-centimeter-scale distances. Although microbial mats are common in hypersaline environments, they have not been extensively characterized in systems dominated by divalent ions. Hot Lake is a meromictic, epsomitic lake that occupies a small, endorheic basin in north-central Washington. The lake harbors a benthic, phototrophic mat that assembles each spring, disassembles each fall, and is subject to greater than tenfold variation in salinity (primarily Mg2+ and SO2−4) and irradiation over the annual cycle. We examined spatiotemporal variation in the mat community at five time points throughout the annual cycle with respect to prevailing physicochemical parameters by amplicon sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene coupled to near-full-length 16S RNA clone sequences. The composition of these microbial communities was relatively stable over the seasonal cycle and included dominant populations of Cyanobacteria, primarily a group IV cyanobacterium (Leptolyngbya), and Alphaproteobacteria (specifically, members of Rhodobacteraceae and Geminicoccus). Members of Gammaproteobacteria (e.g., Thioalkalivibrio and Halochromatium) and Deltaproteobacteria (e.g., Desulfofustis) that are likely to be involved in sulfur cycling peaked in summer and declined significantly by mid-fall, mirroring larger trends in mat community richness and evenness. Phylogenetic turnover analysis of abundant phylotypes employing environmental metadata suggests that seasonal shifts in light variability exert a dominant influence on the composition of Hot Lake microbial mat communities. The seasonal development and organization of these structured microbial mats provide opportunities for analysis of the temporal and physical dynamics that feed back to community function. PMID:24312082

  18. Effect of lake water on algal biomass and microbial community structure in municipal wastewater-based lab-scale photobioreactors.

    PubMed

    Krustok, I; Truu, J; Odlare, M; Truu, M; Ligi, T; Tiirik, K; Nehrenheim, E

    2015-08-01

    Photobioreactors are a novel environmental technology that can produce biofuels with the simultaneous removal of nutrients and pollutants from wastewaters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lake water inoculation on the production of algal biomass and phylogenetic and functional structure of the algal and bacterial communities in municipal wastewater-treating lab-scale photobioreactors. Inoculating the reactors with lake water had a significant benefit to the overall algal biomass growth and nutrient reduction in the reactors with wastewater and lake water (ratio 70/30 v/v). The metagenome-based survey showed that the most abundant algal phylum in these reactors was Chlorophyta with Scenedesmus being the most prominent genus. The most abundant bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes with most dominant families being Sphingobacteriaceae, Cytophagaceae, Flavobacteriaceae, Comamonadaceae, Planctomycetaceae, Nocardiaceae and Nostocaceae. These photobioreactors were also effective in reducing the overall amount of pathogens in wastewater compared to reactors with wastewater/tap water mixture. Functional analysis of the photobioreactor metagenomes revealed an increase in relative abundance genes related to photosynthesis, synthesis of vitamins important for auxotrophic algae and decrease in virulence and nitrogen metabolism subsystems in lake water reactors. The results of the study indicate that adding lake water to the wastewater-based photobioreactor leads to an altered bacterial community phylogenetic and functional structure that could be linked to higher algal biomass production, as well as to enhanced nutrient and pathogen reduction in these reactors.

  19. Eukaryotic algal phytochromes span the visible spectrum.

    PubMed

    Rockwell, Nathan C; Duanmu, Deqiang; Martin, Shelley S; Bachy, Charles; Price, Dana C; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Worden, Alexandra Z; Lagarias, J Clark

    2014-03-11

    Plant phytochromes are photoswitchable red/far-red photoreceptors that allow competition with neighboring plants for photosynthetically active red light. In aquatic environments, red and far-red light are rapidly attenuated with depth; therefore, photosynthetic species must use shorter wavelengths of light. Nevertheless, phytochrome-related proteins are found in recently sequenced genomes of many eukaryotic algae from aquatic environments. We examined the photosensory properties of seven phytochromes from diverse algae: four prasinophyte (green algal) species, the heterokont (brown algal) Ectocarpus siliculosus, and two glaucophyte species. We demonstrate that algal phytochromes are not limited to red and far-red responses. Instead, different algal phytochromes can sense orange, green, and even blue light. Characterization of these previously undescribed photosensors using CD spectroscopy supports a structurally heterogeneous chromophore in the far-red-absorbing photostate. Our study thus demonstrates that extensive spectral tuning of phytochromes has evolved in phylogenetically distinct lineages of aquatic photosynthetic eukaryotes.

  20. Environmental performance of algal biofuel technology options.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Venkatesh; Stratton, Russell W; Pearlson, Matthew N; Jersey, Gilbert R; Beyene, Abraham G; Weissman, Joseph C; Rubino, Michele; Hileman, James I

    2012-02-21

    Considerable research and development is underway to produce fuels from microalgae, one of several options being explored for increasing transportation fuel supplies and mitigating greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). This work models life-cycle GHG and on-site freshwater consumption for algal biofuels over a wide technology space, spanning both near- and long-term options. The environmental performance of algal biofuel production can vary considerably and is influenced by engineering, biological, siting, and land-use considerations. We have examined these considerations for open pond systems, to identify variables that have a strong influence on GHG and freshwater consumption. We conclude that algal biofuels can yield GHG reductions relative to fossil and other biobased fuels with the use of appropriate technology options. Further, freshwater consumption for algal biofuels produced using saline pond systems can be comparable to that of petroleum-derived fuels. PMID:22324757

  1. High Frequency Monitoring for Harmful Algal Blooms

    EPA Science Inventory

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are increasingly becoming a significant ecologic, economic, and social driver in the use of water resources. Cyanobacteria and their toxins play an important role in management decisions for drinking water utilities and public health officials. Online ...

  2. Diel Metagenomics and Metatranscriptomics of Elkhorn Slough Hypersaline Microbial Mat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Detweiler, A. M.; Everroad, R. C.; Bebout, L. E.; Weber, P. K.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Bebout, B.

    2014-12-01

    To understand the variation in gene expression associated with the daytime oxygenic phototrophic and nighttime fermentation regimes seen in hypersaline microbial mats, a contiguous mat piece was subjected to sampling at regular intervals over a 24-hour diel period. Additionally, to understand the impact of sulfate reduction on biohydrogen consumption, molybdate was added to a parallel experiment in the same run. 4 metagenome and 12 metatranscriptome Illumina HiSeq lanes were completed over day / night, and control / molybdate experiments. Preliminary comparative examination of noon and midnight metatranscriptomic samples mapped using bowtie2 to reference genomes has revealed several notable results about the dominant mat-building cyanobacterium Microcoleus chthonoplastes PCC 7420. Dominant cyanobacterium M. chthonoplastes PCC 7420 shows expression in several pathways for nitrogen scavenging, including nitrogen fixation. Reads mapped to M. chthonoplastes PCC 7420 shows expression of two starch storage and utilization pathways, one as a starch-trehalose-maltose-glucose pathway, another through UDP-glucose-cellulose-β-1,4 glucan-glucose pathway. The overall trend of gene expression was primarily light driven up-regulation followed by down-regulation in dark, while much of the remaining expression profile appears to be constitutive. Co-assembly of quality-controlled reads from 4 metagenomes was performed using Ray Meta with progressively smaller K-mer sizes, with bins identified and filtered using principal component analysis of coverages from all libraries and a %GC filter, followed by reassembly of the remaining co-assembly reads and binned reads. Despite having relatively similar abundance profiles in each metagenome, this binning approach was able to distinctly resolve bins from dominant taxa, but also sulfate reducing bacteria that are desired for understanding molybdate inhibition. Bins generated from this iterative assembly process will be used for downstream

  3. Direct conversion of algal biomass to biofuel

    DOEpatents

    Deng, Shuguang; Patil, Prafulla D; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    2014-10-14

    A method and system for providing direct conversion of algal biomass. Optionally, the method and system can be used to directly convert dry algal biomass to biodiesels under microwave irradiation by combining the reaction and combining steps. Alternatively, wet algae can be directly processed and converted to fatty acid methyl esters, which have the major components of biodiesels, by reacting with methanol at predetermined pressure and temperature ranges.

  4. Lipid biomarkers, pigments and cyanobacterial diversity of microbial mats across intertidal flats of the arid coast of the Arabian Gulf (Abu Dhabi, UAE).

    PubMed

    Abed, Raeid M M; Kohls, Katharina; Schoon, Raphaela; Scherf, Ann-Kathrin; Schacht, Marion; Palinska, Katarzyna A; Al-Hassani, Huda; Hamza, Waleed; Rullkötter, Jürgen; Golubic, Stjepko

    2008-09-01

    Variations in morphology, fatty acids, pigments and cyanobacterial community composition were studied in microbial mats across intertidal flats of the arid Arabian Gulf coast. These mats experience combined extreme conditions of salinity, temperature, UV radiation and desiccation depending on their tidal position. Different mat forms were observed depending on the topology of the coast and location. The mats contained 63 fatty acids in different proportions. The increased amounts of unsaturated fatty acids (12-39%) and the trans/cis ratio (0.6-1.6%) of the cyanobacterial fatty acid n-18:1omega9 in the higher tidal mats suggested an adaptation of the mat microorganisms to environmental stress. Chlorophyll a concentrations suggested lower cyanobacterial abundance in the higher than in the lower intertidal mats. Scytonemin concentrations were dependent on the increase in solar irradiation, salinity and desiccation. The mats showed richness in cyanobacterial species, with Microcoleus chthonoplastes and Lyngbya aestuarii morphotypes as the dominant cyanobacteria. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis patterns suggested shifts in the cyanobacterial community dependent on drainage efficiency and salinity from lower to higher tidal zones. We conclude that the topology of the coast and the variable extreme environmental conditions across the tidal flat determine the distribution of microbial mats as well as the presence or absence of different microorganisms.

  5. Algal and fungal diversity in Antarctic lichens.

    PubMed

    Park, Chae Haeng; Kim, Kyung Mo; Elvebakk, Arve; Kim, Ok-Sun; Jeong, Gajin; Hong, Soon Gyu

    2015-01-01

    The composition of lichen ecosystems except mycobiont and photobiont has not been evaluated intensively. In addition, recent studies to identify algal genotypes have raised questions about the specific relationship between mycobiont and photobiont. In the current study, we analyzed algal and fungal community structures in lichen species from King George Island, Antarctica, by pyrosequencing of eukaryotic large subunit (LSU) and algal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) domains of the nuclear rRNA gene. The sequencing results of LSU and ITS regions indicated that each lichen thallus contained diverse algal species. The major algal operational taxonomic unit (OTU) defined at a 99% similarity cutoff of LSU sequences accounted for 78.7-100% of the total algal community in each sample. In several cases, the major OTUs defined by LSU sequences were represented by two closely related OTUs defined by 98% sequence similarity of ITS domain. The results of LSU sequences indicated that lichen-associated fungi belonged to the Arthoniomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Lecanoromycetes, Leotiomycetes, and Sordariomycetes of the Ascomycota, and Tremellomycetes and Cystobasidiomycetes of the Basidiomycota. The composition of major photobiont species and lichen-associated fungal community were mostly related to the mycobiont species. The contribution of growth forms or substrates on composition of photobiont and lichen-associated fungi was not evident. PMID:25105247

  6. Algal and fungal diversity in Antarctic lichens.

    PubMed

    Park, Chae Haeng; Kim, Kyung Mo; Elvebakk, Arve; Kim, Ok-Sun; Jeong, Gajin; Hong, Soon Gyu

    2015-01-01

    The composition of lichen ecosystems except mycobiont and photobiont has not been evaluated intensively. In addition, recent studies to identify algal genotypes have raised questions about the specific relationship between mycobiont and photobiont. In the current study, we analyzed algal and fungal community structures in lichen species from King George Island, Antarctica, by pyrosequencing of eukaryotic large subunit (LSU) and algal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) domains of the nuclear rRNA gene. The sequencing results of LSU and ITS regions indicated that each lichen thallus contained diverse algal species. The major algal operational taxonomic unit (OTU) defined at a 99% similarity cutoff of LSU sequences accounted for 78.7-100% of the total algal community in each sample. In several cases, the major OTUs defined by LSU sequences were represented by two closely related OTUs defined by 98% sequence similarity of ITS domain. The results of LSU sequences indicated that lichen-associated fungi belonged to the Arthoniomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Lecanoromycetes, Leotiomycetes, and Sordariomycetes of the Ascomycota, and Tremellomycetes and Cystobasidiomycetes of the Basidiomycota. The composition of major photobiont species and lichen-associated fungal community were mostly related to the mycobiont species. The contribution of growth forms or substrates on composition of photobiont and lichen-associated fungi was not evident.

  7. Biodiversity within hot spring microbial mat communities: molecular monitoring of enrichment cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, D. M.; Santegoeds, C. M.; Nold, S. C.; Ramsing, N. B.; Ferris, M. J.; Bateson, M. M.

    1997-01-01

    We have begun to examine the basis for incongruence between hot spring microbial mat populations detected by cultivation or by 16S rRNA methods. We used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to monitor enrichments and isolates plated therefrom. At near extincting inoculum dilutions we observed Chloroflexus-like and cyanobacterial populations whose 16S rRNA sequences have been detected in the 'New Pit' Spring Chloroflexus mat and the Octopus Spring cyanobacterial mat. Cyanobacterial populations enriched from 44 to 54 degrees C and 56 to 63 degrees C samples at near habitat temperatures were similar to those previously detected in mat samples of comparable temperatures. However, a lower temperature enrichment from the higher temperature sample selected for the populations found in the lower temperature sample. Three Thermus populations detected by both DGGE and isolation exemplify even more how enrichment may bias our view of community structure. The most abundant population was adapted to the habitat temperature (50 degrees C), while populations adapted to 65 degrees C and 70 degrees C were 10(2)- and 10(4)-fold less abundant, respectively. However, enrichment at 70 degrees C favored the least abundant strain. Inoculum dilution and incubation at the habitat temperature favored the more numerically relevant populations. We enriched many other aerobic chemoorganotrophic populations at various inoculum dilutions and substrate concentrations, most of whose 16S rRNA sequences have not been detected in mats. A common feature of numerically relevant cyanobacterial, Chloroflexus-like and aerobic chemorganotrophic populations, is that they grow poorly and resist cultivation on solidified medium, suggesting plating bias, and that the medium composition and incubation conditions may not reflect the natural microenvironments these populations inhabit.

  8. Cultivation of aerobic chemoorganotrophic proteobacteria and gram-positive bacteria from a hot spring microbial mat.

    PubMed Central

    Nold, S C; Kopczynski, E D; Ward, D M

    1996-01-01

    The diversity of aerobic chemoorganotrophic bacteria inhabiting the Octopus Spring cyanobacterial mat community (Yellowstone National Park) was examined by using serial-dilution enrichment culture and a variety of enrichment conditions to cultivate the numerically significant microbial populations. The most abundant bacterial populations cultivated from dilutions to extinction were obtained from enrichment flasks which contained 9.0 x 10(2) primary producer (Synechococcus spp.) cells in the inoculum. Two isolates exhibited 16S rRNA nucleotide sequences typical of beta-proteobacteria. One of these isolates contained a 16S rRNA sequence identical to a sequence type previously observed in the mat by molecular retrieval techniques. Both are distantly related to a new sequence directly retrieved from the mat and contributed by a beta-proteobacterial community member. Phenotypically diverse gram-positive isolates genetically similar to Bacillus flavothermus were obtained from a variety of dilutions and enrichment types. These isolates exhibited identical 16S rRNA nucleotide sequences through a variable region of the molecule. Of the three unique sequences observed, only one had been previously retrieved from the mat, illustrating both the inability of the cultivation methods to describe the composition of a microbial community and the limitations of the ability of molecular retrieval techniques to describe populations which may be less abundant in microbial communities. PMID:8899976

  9. Sterol phylogenesis and algal evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Nes, W.D.; Norton, R.A.; Crumley, F.G. ); Madigan, S.J.; Katz, E.R. )

    1990-10-01

    The stereochemistry of several sterol precursors and end products synthesized by two fungal-like microorganisms Prototheca wickerhamii (I) and Dictyostelium discoideum (II) have been determined by chromatographic (TLC, GLC, and HPLC) and spectral (UV, MS, and {sup 1}H NMR) methods. From I and II the following sterols were isolated from the cells: cycloartenol, cyclolaudenol, 24(28)-methylenecy-cloartanol, ergosterol, protothecasterol, 4{alpha}-methylergostanol, 4{alpha}-methylclionastanol, clionastanol, 24{beta}-ethylcholesta-8,22-enol, and dictyosterol. In addition, the mechanism of C-24 methylation was investigated in both organisms by feeding to I (2-{sup 3}H)lanosterol, (2-{sup 3}H)cycloartenol, (24{sup 3}H)lanosterol, and (methyl-{sup 2}H{sub 3})methionine and by feeding to II (methyl-{sup 2}H{sub 3})methionine. The results demonstrate that the 24{beta} configuration is formed by different alkylation routes in I and II. The authors conclude that Prototheca is an apoplastic Chlorella (i.e., an alga) and that Dictyostelium as well as the other soil amoebae that synthesize cycloartenol evolved from algal rather than fungal ancestors.

  10. Towards developing algal synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Scaife, Mark Aden; Smith, Alison Gail

    2016-06-15

    The genetic, physiological and metabolic diversity of microalgae has driven fundamental research into photosynthesis, flagella structure and function, and eukaryotic evolution. Within the last 10 years these organisms have also been investigated as potential biotechnology platforms, for example to produce high value compounds such as long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, pigments and antioxidants, and for biodiesel precursors, in particular triacylglycerols (TAGs). Transformation protocols, molecular tools and genome sequences are available for a number of model species including the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, although for both species there are bottlenecks to be overcome to allow rapid and predictable genetic manipulation. One approach to do this would be to apply the principles of synthetic biology to microalgae, namely the cycle of Design-Build-Test, which requires more robust, predictable and high throughput methods. In this mini-review we highlight recent progress in the areas of improving transgene expression, genome editing, identification and design of standard genetic elements (parts), and the use of microfluidics to increase throughput. We suggest that combining these approaches will provide the means to establish algal synthetic biology, and that application of standard parts and workflows will avoid parallel development and capitalize on lessons learned from other systems. PMID:27284033

  11. Microflotation performance for algal separation.

    PubMed

    Hanotu, James; Bandulasena, H C Hemaka; Zimmerman, William B

    2012-07-01

    The performance of microflotation, dispersed air flotation with microbubble clouds with bubble size about 50 µm, for algae separation using fluidic oscillation for microbubble generation is investigated. This fluidic oscillator converts continuous air supply into oscillatory flow with a regular frequency to generate bubbles of the scale of the exit pore. Bubble characterization results showed that average bubble size generated under oscillatory air flow state was 86 µm, approximately twice the size of the diffuser pore size of 38 µm. In contrast, continuous air flow at the same rate through the same diffusers yielded an average bubble size of 1,059 µm, 28 times larger than the pore size. Following microbubble generation, the separation of algal cells under fluidic oscillator generated microbubbles was investigated by varying metallic coagulant types, concentration and pH. Best performances were recorded at the highest coagulant dose (150 mg/L) applied under acidic conditions (pH 5). Amongst the three metallic coagulants studied, ferric chloride yielded the overall best result of 99.2% under the optimum conditions followed closely by ferric sulfate (98.1%) and aluminum sulfate with 95.2%. This compares well with conventional dissolved air flotation (DAF) benchmarks, but has a highly turbulent flow, whereas microflotation is laminar with several orders of magnitude lower energy density.

  12. Towards developing algal synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Scaife, Mark Aden; Smith, Alison Gail

    2016-06-15

    The genetic, physiological and metabolic diversity of microalgae has driven fundamental research into photosynthesis, flagella structure and function, and eukaryotic evolution. Within the last 10 years these organisms have also been investigated as potential biotechnology platforms, for example to produce high value compounds such as long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, pigments and antioxidants, and for biodiesel precursors, in particular triacylglycerols (TAGs). Transformation protocols, molecular tools and genome sequences are available for a number of model species including the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, although for both species there are bottlenecks to be overcome to allow rapid and predictable genetic manipulation. One approach to do this would be to apply the principles of synthetic biology to microalgae, namely the cycle of Design-Build-Test, which requires more robust, predictable and high throughput methods. In this mini-review we highlight recent progress in the areas of improving transgene expression, genome editing, identification and design of standard genetic elements (parts), and the use of microfluidics to increase throughput. We suggest that combining these approaches will provide the means to establish algal synthetic biology, and that application of standard parts and workflows will avoid parallel development and capitalize on lessons learned from other systems.

  13. Lipid Biomarkers for a Hypersaline Microbial Mat Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, Linda L.; Embaye, Tsege; Turk, Kendra A.

    2003-01-01

    The use of lipid biomarkers and their carbon isotopic compositions are valuable tools for establishing links to ancient microbial ecosystems. As witnessed by the stromatolite record, benthic microbial mats grew in shallow water lagoonal environments where microorganisms had virtually no competition apart from the harsh conditions of hypersalinity, desiccation and intense light. Today, the modern counterparts of these microbial ecosystems find appropriate niches in only a few places where extremes eliminate eukaryotic grazers. Answers to many outstanding questions about the evolution of microorganisms and their environments on early Earth are best answered through study of these extant analogs. Lipids associated with various groups of bacteria can be valuable biomarkers for identification of specific groups of microorganisms both in ancient organic-rich sedimentary rocks (geolipids) and contemporary microbial communities (membrane lipids). Use of compound specific isotope analysis adds additional refinement to the identification of biomarker source, so that it is possible to take advantage of the 3C-depletions associated with various functional groups of organisms (i.e. autotrophs, heterotrophs, methanotrophs, methanogens) responsible for the cycling of carbon within a microbial community. Our recent work has focused on a set of hypersaline evaporation ponds at Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico which support the abundant growth of Microcoleus-dominated microbial mats. Specific biomarkers for diatoms, cyanobacteria, archaea, green nonsulfur (GNS), sulfate reducing, and methanotrophic bacteria have been identified. Analyses of the ester-bound fatty acids indicate a highly diverse microbial community, dominated by photosynthetic organisms at the surface.

  14. Structure and function of natural sulphide-oxidizing microbial mats under dynamic input of light and chemical energy.

    PubMed

    Klatt, Judith M; Meyer, Steffi; Häusler, Stefan; Macalady, Jennifer L; de Beer, Dirk; Polerecky, Lubos

    2016-04-01

    We studied the interaction between phototrophic and chemolithoautotrophic sulphide-oxidizing microorganisms in natural microbial mats forming in sulphidic streams. The structure of these mats varied between two end-members: one characterized by a layer dominated by large sulphur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB; mostly Beggiatoa-like) on top of a cyanobacterial layer (B/C mats) and the other with an inverted structure (C/B mats). C/B mats formed where the availability of oxygen from the water column was limited (<5 μm). Aerobic chemolithotrophic activity of the SOB depended entirely on oxygen produced locally by cyanobacteria during high light conditions. In contrast, B/C mats formed at locations where oxygen in the water column was comparatively abundant (>45 μM) and continuously present. Here SOB were independent of the photosynthetic activity of cyanobacteria and outcompeted the cyanobacteria in the uppermost layer of the mat where energy sources for both functional groups were concentrated. Outcompetition of photosynthetic microbes in the presence of light was facilitated by the decoupling of aerobic chemolithotrophy and oxygenic phototrophy. Remarkably, the B/C mats conserved much less energy than the C/B mats, although similar amounts of light and chemical energy were available. Thus ecosystems do not necessarily develop towards optimal energy usage. Our data suggest that, when two independent sources of energy are available, the structure and activity of microbial communities is primarily determined by the continuous rather than the intermittent energy source, even if the time-integrated energy flux of the intermittent energy source is greater. PMID:26405833

  15. Structure and function of natural sulphide-oxidizing microbial mats under dynamic input of light and chemical energy.

    PubMed

    Klatt, Judith M; Meyer, Steffi; Häusler, Stefan; Macalady, Jennifer L; de Beer, Dirk; Polerecky, Lubos

    2016-04-01

    We studied the interaction between phototrophic and chemolithoautotrophic sulphide-oxidizing microorganisms in natural microbial mats forming in sulphidic streams. The structure of these mats varied between two end-members: one characterized by a layer dominated by large sulphur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB; mostly Beggiatoa-like) on top of a cyanobacterial layer (B/C mats) and the other with an inverted structure (C/B mats). C/B mats formed where the availability of oxygen from the water column was limited (<5 μm). Aerobic chemolithotrophic activity of the SOB depended entirely on oxygen produced locally by cyanobacteria during high light conditions. In contrast, B/C mats formed at locations where oxygen in the water column was comparatively abundant (>45 μM) and continuously present. Here SOB were independent of the photosynthetic activity of cyanobacteria and outcompeted the cyanobacteria in the uppermost layer of the mat where energy sources for both functional groups were concentrated. Outcompetition of photosynthetic microbes in the presence of light was facilitated by the decoupling of aerobic chemolithotrophy and oxygenic phototrophy. Remarkably, the B/C mats conserved much less energy than the C/B mats, although similar amounts of light and chemical energy were available. Thus ecosystems do not necessarily develop towards optimal energy usage. Our data suggest that, when two independent sources of energy are available, the structure and activity of microbial communities is primarily determined by the continuous rather than the intermittent energy source, even if the time-integrated energy flux of the intermittent energy source is greater.

  16. [Analysis of algal blooms in Da-Ning River of Three Gorges Reservoir].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bing-Hui; Cao, Cheng-Jin; Zhang, Jia-Lei; Huang, Min-Sheng; Chen, Zhen-Lou

    2009-11-01

    According to the survey conducted from Apr. to Jun. 2007 and from Apr. to May. 2008, the changes of water quality, forms and distributions of nutrient salts and characters of algal blooms in Da-ning River of Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) were studied. The results indicated that the concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient were abundant during sensitive period of algal blooms in Da-ning River. Total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) values are 0.84-3.21 mg/L and 0.011-0.531 mg/L respectively, and the nutrients concentrations become high gradually from upstream to downstream. Total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) is the major form of TN accounting for 84%, and total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) is dominant (TDP/TP = 60%). Algal blooms bring phosphorus nutrient bio-concentration. The rates of TN and TP are all in excess of 16, which show eutrophication is limited by phosphorus. Potassium permanganate index and dissolved oxygen (DO) are at low levels and change stably. But chlorophyll a (Chl-a) becomes frequently, the value is 1.41-219.04 mg x m(-3). Significant positive correlations are all observed by correlation analysis between Chl-a and the main parameters (r(Chla-TP) = 0.453, r(Chla-potassium permanganate index) = 0.641, r(Chla-DO) = 0.584, r(Chla-pH) = 0.409, p < 0.01), but significant negative correlations are observed between Chl-a and Secchi depth (SD) (r(Chla-SD) = - 0.392, p < 0.01). The pH is fluctuated by multiparameter esp. in algal blooms. Widespread algae are observed by microscope during sensitive period of algal blooms in Da-ning River accounting for 8 phylum 82 genus 124 species, which Bacillariophyta and Chlorophyta are dominant, and then Cyanophyta and Pyrrophyta. Three whole watershed algal blooms break out in Da-ning River during the period, and the highest values of algal density are 14-1 427 times as many as the normal values. The dominant species of algal blooms are mostly involved with O. borgei, C. microporum, Chlorococcum humicola, P

  17. Algal blooms in the spread and persistence of cholera.

    PubMed

    Epstein, P R

    1993-01-01

    Cholera has been long associated with the seasonality of coastal algal blooms off Bangladesh. Using fluorescent antibody (FA) techniques, microbiologists have now identified a viable, non-cultivable form of Vibrio cholerae in a wide range of marine life, including cyanobacteria (Anabaena variabilis), diatoms (Skeletonema costatum), phaeophytes (Ascophyllum nodosum), in copepod molts, and in freshwater vascular aquatic plants (water hyacinths and duckweed). In unfavourable conditions V. cholerae assumes spore-like forms; with proper nutrients, pH and temperature, it reverts to a readily transmissible and infectious state. Nitrates and phosphates in sewage and fertilizers cause eutrophication, and scientists report an increase in intensity, duration and shifts in the biodiversity of algal blooms in many coastal, brackish and fresh waters worldwide. V. cholerae has been isolated from phyto- and zooplankton in marine and fresh waters near Lima, Peru. V. cholera 01, biotype El Tor, serotype Inaba, may have arrived in the Americas in the bilge of a Chinese freighter. There, in the abundant coastal sea life along the Latin American Pacific coast, nourished by the Humboldt current and eutrophication, it found a reservoir for surviving unfavourable conditions. It is hypothesized that the algae and Vibrio populations grew exponentially; consumed by fish, mollusks and crustacea, a heavy 'inoculum' of carriers infected with V. cholerae was generated and transported into multiple coastal communities. PMID:8155853

  18. Algal Supply System Design - Harmonized Version

    SciTech Connect

    Abodeely, Jared; Stevens, Daniel; Ray, Allison; Newby, Deborah; Schaller, Kastli

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this design report is to provide an assessment of current technologies used for production, dewatering, and converting microalgae cultivated in open-pond systems to biofuel. The original draft design was created in 2011 and has subsequently been brought into agreement with the DOE harmonized model. The design report extends beyond this harmonized model to discuss some of the challenges with assessing algal production systems, including the ability to (1) quickly assess alternative algal production system designs, (2) assess spatial and temporal variability, and (3) perform large-scale assessments considering multiple scenarios for thousands of potential sites. The Algae Logistics Model (ALM) was developed to address each of these limitations of current modeling efforts to enable assessment of the economic feasibility of algal production systems across the United States. The (ALM) enables (1) dynamic assessments using spatiotemporal conditions, (2) exploration of algal production system design configurations, (3) investigation of algal production system operating assumptions, and (4) trade-off assessments with technology decisions and operating assumptions. The report discusses results from the ALM, which is used to assess the baseline design determined by harmonization efforts between U.S. DOE national laboratories. Productivity and resource assessment data is provided by coupling the ALM with the Biomass Assessment Tool developed at PNNL. This high-fidelity data is dynamically passed to the ALM and used to help better understand the impacts of spatial and temporal constraints on algal production systems by providing a cost for producing extracted algal lipids annually for each potential site.

  19. Algal Energy Conversion and Capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazendonk, P.

    2015-12-01

    We address the potential for energy conversions and capture for: energy generation; reduction in energy use; reduction in greenhouse gas emissions; remediation of water and air pollution; protection and enhancement of soil fertility. These processes have the potential to sequester carbon at scales that may have global impact. Energy conversion and capture strategies evaluate energy use and production from agriculture, urban areas and industries, and apply existing and emerging technologies to reduce and recapture energy embedded in waste products. The basis of biocrude production from Micro-algal feedstocks: 1) The nutrients from the liquid fraction of waste streams are concentrated and fed into photo bioreactors (essentially large vessels in which microalgae are grown) along with CO2 from flue gasses from down stream processes. 2) The algae are processed to remove high value products such as proteins and beta-carotenes. The advantage of algae feedstocks is the high biomass productivity is 30-50 times that of land based crops and the remaining biomass contains minimal components that are difficult to convert to biocrude. 3) The remaining biomass undergoes hydrothermal liquefaction to produces biocrude and biochar. The flue gasses of this process can be used to produce electricity (fuel cell) and subsequently fed back into the photobioreactor. The thermal energy required for this process is small, hence readily obtained from solar-thermal sources, and furthermore no drying or preprocessing is required keeping the energy overhead extremely small. 4) The biocrude can be upgraded and refined as conventional crude oil, creating a range of liquid fuels. In principle this process can be applied on the farm scale to the municipal scale. Overall, our primary food production is too dependent on fossil fuels. Energy conversion and capture can make food production sustainable.

  20. Sterol phylogenesis and algal evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Nes, W D; Norton, R A; Crumley, F G; Madigan, S J; Katz, E R

    1990-01-01

    The stereochemistry of several sterol precursors and end products synthesized by two fungal-like micro-organisms Prototheca wickerhamii (I) and Dictyostelium discoideum (II) have been determined by chromatographic (TLC, GLC, and HPLC) and spectral (UV, MS, and 1H NMR) methods. From I and II the following sterols were isolated from the cells: cycloartenol, cyclolaudenol, 24(28)-methylenecycloartanol, ergosterol, protothecasterol, 4alpha-methylergostanol, 4alpha-methylclionastanol, clionastanol, 24beta-ethylcholesta-8,22-enol, and dictyosterol. In addition, the mechanism of C-24 methylation was investigated in both organisms by feeding to I [2-3H]lanosterol, [2-3H]cycloartenol, [24-3H]lanosterol, and [methyl-2H3]methionine and by feeding to II [methyl-2H3]methionine. The results demonstrate that the 24beta configuration is formed by different alkylation routes in I and II. The Delta25(27) route operates in I while the Delta24(28) route operates in II. Based on what is known in the literature regarding sterol distribution and phylogenesis together with our findings that the stereochemical outcome of squalene oxide cyclization leads to the production of cycloartenol rather than lanosterol (characteristic of the fungal genealogy) and the chirality of the C-24 alkyl group is similar in the two nonphotosynthetic microbes (beta oriented), we conclude that Prototheca is an apoplastic Chlorella (i.e., an alga) and that Dictyostelium as well as the other soil amoebae that synthesize cycloartenol evolved from algal rather than fungal ancestors. PMID:11607106

  1. Black Mats, Spring-Fed Streams, and Late-Glacial-Age Recharge in the Southern Great Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quade, Jay; Forester, R.M.; Pratt, W.L.; Carter, C.

    1998-01-01

    Black mats are prominent features of the late Pleistocene and Holocene stratigraphic record in the southern Great Basin. Faunal, geochemical, and sedimentological evidence shows that the black mats formed in several microenvironments related to spring discharge, ranging from wet meadows to shallow ponds. Small land snails such as Gastrocopta tappaniana and Vertigo berryi are the most common mollusk taxa present. Semiaquatic and aquatic taxa are less abundant and include Catinellids, Fossaria parva, Gyraulus parvus, and others living today in and around perennial seeps and ponds. The ostracodes Cypridopsis okeechobi and Scottia tumida, typical of seeps and low-discharge springs today, as well as other taxa typical of springs and wetlands, are common in the black mats. Several new species that lived in the saturated subsurface also are present, but lacustrine ostracodes are absent. The ??13C values of organic matter in the black mats range from -12 to -26???, reflecting contributions of tissue from both C3 (sedges, most shrubs and trees) and C4 (saltbush, saltgrass) plants. Carbon-14 dates on the humate fraction of 55 black mats fall between 11,800 to 6300 and 2300 14C yr B.P. to modern. The total absence of mats in our sample between 6300 and 2300 14C yr B.P. likely reflects increased aridity associated with the mid-Holocene Altithermal. The oldest black mats date to 11,800-11,600 14C yr B.P., and the peak in the 14C black mat distribution falls at ???10,000 14C yr B.P. As the formation of black mats is spring related, their abundance reflects refilling of valley aquifers starting no later than 11,800 and peaking after 11,000 14C yrB.P. Reactivation of spring-fed channels shortly before 11,200 14C yr B.P. is also apparent in the stratigraphic records from the Las Vegas and Pahrump Valleys. This age distribution suggests that black mats and related spring-fed channels in part may have formed in response to Younger Dryas (YD)-age recharge in the region. However, the

  2. Black Mats, Spring-Fed Streams, and Late-Glacial-Age Recharge in the Southern Great Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quade, Jay; Forester, Richard M.; Pratt, William L.; Carter, Claire

    1998-03-01

    Black mats are prominent features of the late Pleistocene and Holocene stratigraphic record in the southern Great Basin. Faunal, geochemical, and sedimentological evidence shows that the black mats formed in several microenvironments related to spring discharge, ranging from wet meadows to shallow ponds. Small land snails such as Gastrocopta tappanianaand Vertigo berryiare the most common mollusk taxa present. Semiaquatic and aquatic taxa are less abundant and include Catinellids, Fossaria parva, Gyraulus parvus,and others living today in and around perennial seeps and ponds. The ostracodes Cypridopsis okeechobiand Scottia tumida,typical of seeps and low-discharge springs today, as well as other taxa typical of springs and wetlands, are common in the black mats. Several new species that lived in the saturated subsurface also are present, but lacustrine ostracodes are absent. The δ 13C values of organic matter in the black mats range from -12 to -26‰, reflecting contributions of tissue from both C 3(sedges, most shrubs and trees) and C 4(saltbush, saltgrass) plants. Carbon-14 dates on the humate fraction of 55 black mats fall between 11,800 to 6300 and 2300 14C yr B.P. to modern. The total absence of mats in our sample between 6300 and 2300 14C yr B.P. likely reflects increased aridity associated with the mid-Holocene Altithermal. The oldest black mats date to 11,800-11,600 14C yr B.P., and the peak in the 14C black mat distribution falls at ˜10,000 14C yr B.P. As the formation of black mats is spring related, their abundance reflects refilling of valley aquifers starting no later than 11,800 and peaking after 11,000 14C yr B.P. Reactivation of spring-fed channels shortly before 11,200 14C yr B.P. is also apparent in the stratigraphic records from the Las Vegas and Pahrump Valleys. This age distribution suggests that black mats and related spring-fed channels in part may have formed in response to Younger Dryas (YD)-age recharge in the region. However, the

  3. Reactive composite compositions and mat barriers

    DOEpatents

    Langton, Christine A.; Narasimhan, Rajendran; Karraker, David G.

    2001-01-01

    A hazardous material storage area has a reactive multi-layer composite mat which lines an opening into which a reactive backfill and hazardous material are placed. A water-inhibiting cap may cover the hazardous material storage area. The reactive multi-layer composite mat has a backing onto which is placed an active layer which will neutralize or stabilize hazardous waste and a fronting layer so that the active layer is between the fronting and backing layers. The reactive backfill has a reactive agent which can stabilize or neutralize hazardous material and inhibit the movement of the hazardous material through the hazardous material storage area.

  4. Nitrogen cycle in microbial mats: completely unknown?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coban, O.; Bebout, B.

    2015-12-01

    Microbial mats are thought to have originated around 3.7 billion years ago, most likely in the areas around submarine hydrothermal vents, which supplied a source of energy in the form of reduced chemical species from the Earth's interior. Active hydrothermal vents are also believed to exist on Jupiter's moon Europa, Saturn's moon Enceladus, and on Mars, earlier in that planet's history. Microbial mats have been an important force in the maintenance of Earth's ecosystems and the first photosynthesis was also originated there. Microbial mats are believed to exhibit most, if not all, biogeochemical processes that exist in aquatic ecosystems, due to the presence of different physiological groups of microorganisms therein. While most microbially mediated biogeochemical transformations have been shown to occur within microbial mats, the nitrogen cycle in the microbial mats has received very little study in spite of the fact that nitrogen usually limits growth in marine environments. We will present the first results in the determination of a complete nitrogen budget for a photosynthetic microbial mat. Both in situ sources and sinks of nitrogen in photosynthetic microbial mats are being measured using stable isotope techniques. Our work has a particular focus on recently described, but poorly understood, processes, e.g., anammox and dissimilatory nitrate reduction, and an emphasis on understanding the role that nitrogen cycling may play in generating biogenic nitrogen isotopic signatures and biomarker molecules. Measurements of environmental controls on nitrogen cycling should offer insight into the nature of co-evolution of these microbial communities and their planets of origin. Identifying the spatial (microscale) as well as temporal (diel and seasonal) distribution of nitrogen transformations, e.g., rates of nitrification and denitrification, within mats, particularly with respect to the distribution of photosynthetically-produced oxygen, is anticipated. The results

  5. Comparative Metagenomics of Two Microbial Mats at Cuatro Ciénegas Basin II: Community Structure and Composition in Oligotrophic Environments

    PubMed Central

    Bonilla-Rosso, Germán; Peimbert, Mariana; Alcaraz, Luis David; Hernández, Ismael; Eguiarte, Luis E.; Olmedo-Alvarez, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Microbial mats are self-sustained, functionally complex ecosystems that make good models for the understanding of past and present microbial ecosystems as well as putative extraterrestrial ecosystems. Ecological theory suggests that the composition of these communities might be affected by nutrient availability and disturbance frequency. We characterized two microbial mats from two contrasting environments in the oligotrophic Cuatro Ciénegas Basin: a permanent green pool and a red desiccation pond. We analyzed their taxonomic structure and composition by means of 16S rRNA clone libraries and metagenomics and inferred their metabolic role by the analysis of functional traits in the most abundant organisms. Both mats showed a high diversity with metabolically diverse members and strongly differed in structure and composition. The green mat had a higher species richness and evenness than the red mat, which was dominated by a lineage of Pseudomonas. Autotrophs were abundant in the green mat, and heterotrophs were abundant in the red mat. When comparing with other mats and stromatolites, we found that taxonomic composition was not shared at species level but at order level, which suggests environmental filtering for phylogenetically conserved functional traits with random selection of particular organisms. The highest diversity and composition similarity was observed among systems from stable environments, which suggests that disturbance regimes might affect diversity more strongly than nutrient availability, since oligotrophy does not appear to prevent the establishment of complex and diverse microbial mat communities. These results are discussed in light of the search for extraterrestrial life. Key Words: Cuatro Ciénegas—Metagenomics—Microbial mats—Oligotrophic—Phosphorus limitation—Stromatolites. Astrobiology 12, 659–673. PMID:22920516

  6. Platy algal banks: Modern and ancient

    SciTech Connect

    Brinton, L. )

    1990-05-01

    Plaly algal banks and associated cycles in the lower Ismay zone of the Paradox Formation are exposed along the walls of the San Juan River canyon, southeastern Utah. These complexes closely resemble algal bank reservoirs in the lower Ismay zone of Ismay and Cache, and possibly other Paradox basin fields. Similarities include facies relationships, lateral and vertical textural variations, and early diagenesis. Extensive algal banks exposed along the San Juan canyon generally have flat bases and mound and swale topographic surfaces, and are separated by interbank channels. The surficial mounds have a regular amplitude and wavelength suggesting a hydrologic rather than biologic influence on topography. The banks themselves, however, are believed to be thick, predominantly in-situ accumulations of platy algae. Distribution of algal banks can be mapped on a field scale; mound and swale topographic features may be identified in core on the basis of depositional and early diagenetic characteristics. Halimeda bioherms (Holocene) cover large areas behind the Great Barrier Reef, developing adjacent to the deep passes that separate the individual reefs. These large in-situ accumulations (20-50 m deep) display similar bank geometries, interbank features, topographic features, vertical textural sequence (including porosity type and distribution), and facies relationships to algal banks observed in the outcropping and subsurface Paradox Formation. Although the hydrodynamic and paleobathymetric settings differ markedly between these two examples, analogies between the mounds themselves are very close. The resemblance lends relevance to exploration and development drilling.

  7. Coral host cells acidify symbiotic algal microenvironment to promote photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Barott, Katie L.; Venn, Alexander A.; Perez, Sidney O.; Tambutté, Sylvie; Tresguerres, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Symbiotic dinoflagellate algae residing inside coral tissues supply the host with the majority of their energy requirements through the translocation of photosynthetically fixed carbon. The algae, in turn, rely on the host for the supply of inorganic carbon. Carbon must be concentrated as CO2 in order for photosynthesis to proceed, and here we show that the coral host plays an active role in this process. The host-derived symbiosome membrane surrounding the algae abundantly expresses vacuolar H+-ATPase (VHA), which acidifies the symbiosome space down to pH ∼4. Inhibition of VHA results in a significant decrease in average H+ activity in the symbiosome of up to 75% and a significant reduction in O2 production rate, a measure of photosynthetic activity. These results suggest that host VHA is part of a previously unidentified carbon concentrating mechanism for algal photosynthesis and provide mechanistic evidence that coral host cells can actively modulate the physiology of their symbionts. PMID:25548188

  8. Distribution of cultivated and uncultivated cyanobacteria and Chloroflexus-like bacteria in hot spring microbial mats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff-Roberts, A. L.; Kuenen, J. G.; Ward, D. M.

    1994-01-01

    Oligodeoxynucleotide hybridization probes were developed to complement specific regions of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA sequences of cultivated and uncultivated cyanobacteria and Chloroflexus-like bacteria, which inhabit hot spring microbial mats. The probes were used to investigate the natural distribution of SSU rRNAs from these species in mats of Yellowstone hot springs of different temperatures and pHs as well as changes in SSU rRNA distribution resulting from 1-week in situ shifts in temperature, pH, and light intensity. Synechococcus lividus Y-7c-s SSU rRNA was detected only in the mat of a slightly acid spring, from which it may have been initially isolated, or when samples from a more alkaline spring were incubated in the more acid spring. Chloroflexus aurantiacus Y-400-fl SSU rRNA was detected only in a high-temperature mat sample from the alkaline Octopus Spring or when lower-temperature samples from this mat were incubated at the high-temperature site. SSU rRNAs of uncultivated species were more widely distributed. Temperature distributions and responses to in situ temperature shifts suggested that some of the uncultivated cyanobacteria might be adapted to high-, moderate-, and low-temperature ranges whereas an uncultivated Chloroflexus-like bacterium appears to have broad temperature tolerance. SSU rRNAs of all uncultivated species inhabiting a 48 to 51 degrees C Octopus Spring mat site were most abundant in the upper 1 mm and were not detected below a 2.5-to 3.5-mm depth, a finding consistent with their possible phototrophic nature. However, the effects of light intensity reduction on these SSU rRNAs were variable, indicating the difficulty of demonstrating a phototrophic phenotype in light reduction experiments.

  9. Distribution of cultivated and uncultivated cyanobacteria and Chloroflexus-like bacteria in hot spring microbial mats.

    PubMed Central

    Ruff-Roberts, A L; Kuenen, J G; Ward, D M

    1994-01-01

    Oligodeoxynucleotide hybridization probes were developed to complement specific regions of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA sequences of cultivated and uncultivated cyanobacteria and Chloroflexus-like bacteria, which inhabit hot spring microbial mats. The probes were used to investigate the natural distribution of SSU rRNAs from these species in mats of Yellowstone hot springs of different temperatures and pHs as well as changes in SSU rRNA distribution resulting from 1-week in situ shifts in temperature, pH, and light intensity. Synechococcus lividus Y-7c-s SSU rRNA was detected only in the mat of a slightly acid spring, from which it may have been initially isolated, or when samples from a more alkaline spring were incubated in the more acid spring. Chloroflexus aurantiacus Y-400-fl SSU rRNA was detected only in a high-temperature mat sample from the alkaline Octopus Spring or when lower-temperature samples from this mat were incubated at the high-temperature site. SSU rRNAs of uncultivated species were more widely distributed. Temperature distributions and responses to in situ temperature shifts suggested that some of the uncultivated cyanobacteria might be adapted to high-, moderate-, and low-temperature ranges whereas an uncultivated Chloroflexus-like bacterium appears to have broad temperature tolerance. SSU rRNAs of all uncultivated species inhabiting a 48 to 51 degrees C Octopus Spring mat site were most abundant in the upper 1 mm and were not detected below a 2.5-to 3.5-mm depth, a finding consistent with their possible phototrophic nature. However, the effects of light intensity reduction on these SSU rRNAs were variable, indicating the difficulty of demonstrating a phototrophic phenotype in light reduction experiments. Images PMID:11536630

  10. Bacillamides from a hypersaline microbial mat bacterium.

    PubMed

    Socha, Aaron M; Long, Richard A; Rowley, David C

    2007-11-01

    Chemical studies of a Bacillus endophyticus isolated from a Bahamian hypersaline microbial mat led to the isolation of bacillamides B and C, new tryptamide thiazole metabolites. Bioassay-guided fractionation using a HPLC-UV-MS bioassay technique enabled the detection of these trace fermentation products, and their total structures were elucidated by combined spectroscopic techniques.

  11. Following the kinetics: iron-oxidizing microbial mats in cold icelandic volcanic habitats and their rock-associated carbonaceous signature.

    PubMed

    Cockell, Charles S; Kelly, Laura C; Summers, Stephen; Marteinsson, Viggo

    2011-09-01

    Icelandic streams with mean annual temperatures of less than 5 °C, which receive the cationic products of basaltic rock weathering, were found to host mats of iron-cycling microorganisms. We investigated two representative sites. Iron-oxidizing Gallionella and iron-reducing Geobacter species were present. The mats host a high bacterial diversity as determined by culture-independent methods. β-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, α-Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were abundant microbial taxa. The mat contained a high number of phototroph sequences. The carbon compounds in the mat displayed broad G and D bands with Raman spectroscopy. This signature becomes incorporated into the weathered oxidized surface layer of the basaltic rocks and was observed on rocks that no longer host mats. The presence of iron-oxidizing taxa in the stream microbial mats, and the lack of them in previously studied volcanic rocks in Iceland that have intermittently been exposed to surface water flows, can be explained by the kinetic limitations to the extraction of reduced iron from rocks. This type of ecosystem illustrates key factors that control the distribution of chemolithotrophs in cold volcanic environments. The data show that one promising sample type for which the hypothesis of the existence of past life on Mars can be tested is the surface of volcanic rocks that, previously, were situated within channels carved by flowing water. Our results also show that the carbonaceous signatures of life, if life had occurred, could be found in or on these rocks.

  12. Comparison of benthic foraminifera inside and outside a sulphur-oxidizing bacterial mat from the present oxygen-minimum zone off Pakistan (NE Arabian Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erbacher, Jochen; Nelskamp, Susanne

    2006-05-01

    Assemblages of live (Rose-Bengal-stained) and dead benthic foraminifera and stable oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of live benthic foraminifera were studied in and outside a bacterial mat composed of the large sulphur-oxidizing bacteria Thioploca and Beggiatoa from the oxygen-minimum zone off Pakistan (NE Arabian Sea). Two cores from the same Multicorer retrieved a bacterial mat and ambient sediment. The dominant species ( Globobulimina affinis, G. turgida, Bolivina pacifica, B. pseudopunctata, Uvigerina peregrina and Buliminella tenuata) in both cores are characteristic for dysoxic oxygen minimum zone conditions. The most significant difference between the two cores is the reduced number of stained benthic foraminifera (SBF) in the top 0.5 cm of the bacterial mat. Faunal densities of stained species are more than four times higher in the sediment surface sample (0-0.5 cm) outside the bacterial mat, at a distance of only 1.5 m. All stained species, however, observed outside the Beggiatoa/Thioploca mat were also observed in the core with the mat. Two species, Virgulinella fragilis and Bolivina dilatata, occur exclusively in the core with the bacterial mat. The diversity within the bacterial mat core is thus slightly higher than outside. Furthermore, the abundances of the species Buliminella morgani, B. tenuata and Alliatina primitiva are substantially higher in the bacterial mat than outside. Globobuliminids, on the other hand, seem to prefer the conditions outside the bacterial mat and are five times more frequent in the core taken outside the bacterial mat. Benthic foraminifers inhabit a broader microhabitat range outside the bacterial mat (˜5 cm) than within (3.5 cm). A marked decrease in SBF abundances was observed at the level of a black sulphur-rich layer which is interpreted to mark the shallow redox front below the bacterial mat. Stable carbon isotope analyses on live benthic foraminifera do not support a relation of the investigated Beggiatoa

  13. Organic geochemical studies of modern microbial mats from Shark Bay: Part I: Influence of depth and salinity on lipid biomarkers and their isotopic signatures.

    PubMed

    Pagès, A; Grice, K; Ertefai, T; Skrzypek, G; Jahnert, R; Greenwood, P

    2014-09-01

    The present study investigated the influence of abiotic conditions on microbial mat communities from Shark Bay, a World Heritage area well known for a diverse range of extant mats presenting structural similarities with ancient stromatolites. The distributions and stable carbon isotopic values of lipid biomarkers [aliphatic hydrocarbons and polar lipid fatty acids (PLFAs)] and bulk carbon and nitrogen isotope values of biomass were analysed in four different types of mats along a tidal flat gradient to characterize the microbial communities and systematically investigate the relationship of the above parameters with water depth. Cyanobacteria were dominant in all mats, as demonstrated by the presence of diagnostic hydrocarbons (e.g. n-C17 and n-C17:1). Several subtle but important differences in lipid composition across the littoral gradient were, however, evident. For instance, the shallower mats contained a higher diatom contribution, concordant with previous mat studies from other locations (e.g. Antarctica). Conversely, the organic matter (OM) of the deeper mats showed evidence for a higher seagrass contribution [high C/N, 13C-depleted long-chain n-alkanes]. The morphological structure of the mats may have influenced CO2 diffusion leading to more 13C-enriched lipids in the shallow mats. Alternatively, changes in CO2 fixation pathways, such as increase in the acetyl COA-pathway by sulphate-reducing bacteria, could have also caused the observed shifts in δ13C values of the mats. In addition, three smooth mats from different Shark Bay sites were analysed to investigate potential functional relationship of the microbial communities with differing salinity levels. The C25:1 HBI was identified in the high salinity mat only and a lower abundance of PLFAs associated with diatoms was observed in the less saline mats, suggesting a higher abundance of diatoms at the most saline site. Furthermore, it appeared that the most and least saline mats were dominated by

  14. Critical evaluation and modeling of algal harvesting using dissolved air flotation. DAF Algal Harvesting Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xuezhi; Hewson, John C.; Amendola, Pasquale; Reynoso, Monica; Sommerfeld, Milton; Chen, Yongsheng; Hu, Qiang

    2014-07-14

    In our study, Chlorella zofingiensis harvesting by dissolved air flotation (DAF) was critically evaluated with regard to algal concentration, culture conditions, type and dosage of coagulants, and recycle ratio. Harvesting efficiency increased with coagulant dosage and leveled off at 81%, 86%, 91%, and 87% when chitosan, Al3+, Fe3+, and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) were used at dosages of 70, 180, 250, and 500 mg g-1, respectively. The DAF efficiency-coagulant dosage relationship changed with algal culture conditions. In evaluating the influence of the initial algal concentration and recycle ratio revealed that, under conditions typical for algal harvesting, we found that it is possible that the number of bubbles is insufficient. A DAF algal harvesting model was developed to explain this observation by introducing mass-based floc size distributions and a bubble limitation into the white water blanket model. Moreover, the model revealed the importance of coagulation to increase floc-bubble collision and attachment, and the preferential interaction of bubbles with larger flocs, which limited the availability of bubbles to the smaller sized flocs. The harvesting efficiencies predicted by the model agree reasonably with experimental data obtained at different Al3+ dosages, algal concentrations, and recycle ratios. Based on this modeling, critical parameters for efficient algal harvesting were identified.

  15. Critical evaluation and modeling of algal harvesting using dissolved air flotation. DAF Algal Harvesting Modeling

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Xuezhi; Hewson, John C.; Amendola, Pasquale; Reynoso, Monica; Sommerfeld, Milton; Chen, Yongsheng; Hu, Qiang

    2014-07-14

    In our study, Chlorella zofingiensis harvesting by dissolved air flotation (DAF) was critically evaluated with regard to algal concentration, culture conditions, type and dosage of coagulants, and recycle ratio. Harvesting efficiency increased with coagulant dosage and leveled off at 81%, 86%, 91%, and 87% when chitosan, Al3+, Fe3+, and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) were used at dosages of 70, 180, 250, and 500 mg g-1, respectively. The DAF efficiency-coagulant dosage relationship changed with algal culture conditions. In evaluating the influence of the initial algal concentration and recycle ratio revealed that, under conditions typical for algal harvesting, we found that itmore » is possible that the number of bubbles is insufficient. A DAF algal harvesting model was developed to explain this observation by introducing mass-based floc size distributions and a bubble limitation into the white water blanket model. Moreover, the model revealed the importance of coagulation to increase floc-bubble collision and attachment, and the preferential interaction of bubbles with larger flocs, which limited the availability of bubbles to the smaller sized flocs. The harvesting efficiencies predicted by the model agree reasonably with experimental data obtained at different Al3+ dosages, algal concentrations, and recycle ratios. Based on this modeling, critical parameters for efficient algal harvesting were identified.« less

  16. Algal recycling enhances algal productivity and settleability in Pediastrum boryanum pure cultures.

    PubMed

    Park, Jason B K; Craggs, Rupert J; Shilton, Andy N

    2015-12-15

    Recycling a portion of gravity harvested algae (i.e. algae and associated bacteria biomass) has been shown to improve both algal biomass productivity and harvest efficiency by maintaining the dominance of a rapidly-settleable colonial alga, Pediastrum boryanum in both pilot-scale wastewater treatment High Rate Algal Ponds (HRAP) and outdoor mesocosms. While algal recycling did not change the relative proportions of algae and bacteria in the HRAP culture, the contribution of the wastewater bacteria to the improved algal biomass productivity and settleability with the recycling was not certain and still required investigation. P. boryanum was therefore isolated from the HRAP and grown in pure culture on synthetic wastewater growth media under laboratory conditions. The influence of recycling on the productivity and settleability of the pure P. boryanum culture was then determined without wastewater bacteria present. Six 1 L P. boryanum cultures were grown over 30 days in a laboratory growth chamber simulating New Zealand summer conditions either with (Pr) or without (Pc) recycling of 10% of gravity harvested algae. The cultures with recycling (Pr) had higher algal productivity than the controls (Pc) when the cultures were operated at both 4 and 3 d hydraulic retention times by 11% and 38% respectively. Furthermore, algal recycling also improved 1 h settleability from ∼60% to ∼85% by increasing the average P. boryanum colony size due to the extended mean cell residence time and promoted formation of large algal bio-flocs (>500 μm diameter). These results demonstrate that the presence of wastewater bacteria was not necessary to improve algal productivity and settleability with algal recycling.

  17. Method for production of carbon nanofiber mat or carbon paper

    SciTech Connect

    Naskar, Amit K.

    2015-08-04

    Method for the preparation of a non-woven mat or paper made of carbon fibers, the method comprising carbonizing a non-woven mat or paper preform (precursor) comprised of a plurality of bonded sulfonated polyolefin fibers to produce said non-woven mat or paper made of carbon fibers. The preforms and resulting non-woven mat or paper made of carbon fiber, as well as articles and devices containing them, and methods for their use, are also described.

  18. Microbial Mat Compositional and Functional Sensitivity to Environmental Disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Preisner, Eva C.; Fichot, Erin B.; Norman, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of ecosystems to adapt to environmental perturbations depends on the duration and intensity of change and the overall biological diversity of the system. While studies have indicated that rare microbial taxa may provide a biological reservoir that supports long-term ecosystem stability, how this dynamic population is influenced by environmental parameters remains unclear. In this study, a microbial mat ecosystem located on San Salvador Island, The Bahamas was used as a model to examine how environmental disturbance affects the protein synthesis potential (PSP) of rare and abundant archaeal and bacterial communities and how these changes impact potential biogeochemical processes. This ecosystem experienced a large shift in salinity (230 to 65 g kg-1) during 2011–2012 following the landfall of Hurricane Irene on San Salvador Island. High throughput sequencing and analysis of 16S rRNA and rRNA genes from samples before and after the pulse disturbance showed significant changes in the diversity and PSP of abundant and rare taxa, suggesting overall compositional and functional sensitivity to environmental change. In both archaeal and bacterial communities, while the majority of taxa showed low PSP across conditions, the overall community PSP increased post-disturbance, with significant shifts occurring among abundant and rare taxa across and within phyla. Broadly, following the post-disturbance reduction in salinity, taxa within Halobacteria decreased while those within Crenarchaeota, Thaumarchaeota, Thermoplasmata, Cyanobacteria, and Proteobacteria, increased in abundance and PSP. Quantitative PCR of genes and transcripts involved in nitrogen and sulfur cycling showed concomitant shifts in biogeochemical cycling potential. Post-disturbance conditions increased the expression of genes involved in N-fixation, nitrification, denitrification, and sulfate reduction. Together, our findings show complex community adaptation to environmental change and help

  19. Microbial Diversity in Sediment Ecosystems (Evaporites Domes, Microbial Mats, and Crusts) of Hypersaline Laguna Tebenquiche, Salar de Atacama, Chile.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Ana B; Rasuk, Maria C; Visscher, Pieter T; Contreras, Manuel; Novoa, Fernando; Poire, Daniel G; Patterson, Molly M; Ventosa, Antonio; Farias, Maria E

    2016-01-01

    We combined nucleic acid-based molecular methods, biogeochemical measurements, and physicochemical characteristics to investigate microbial sedimentary ecosystems of Laguna Tebenquiche, Atacama Desert, Chile. Molecular diversity, and biogeochemistry of hypersaline microbial mats, rhizome-associated concretions, and an endoevaporite were compared with: The V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified by pyrosequencing to analyze the total microbial diversity (i.e., bacteria and archaea) in bulk samples, and in addition, in detail on a millimeter scale in one microbial mat and in one evaporite. Archaea were more abundant than bacteria. Euryarchaeota was one of the most abundant phyla in all samples, and particularly dominant (97% of total diversity) in the most lithified ecosystem, the evaporite. Most of the euryarchaeal OTUs could be assigned to the class Halobacteria or anaerobic and methanogenic archaea. Planctomycetes potentially also play a key role in mats and rhizome-associated concretions, notably the aerobic organoheterotroph members of the class Phycisphaerae. In addition to cyanobacteria, members of Chromatiales and possibly the candidate family Chlorotrichaceae contributed to photosynthetic carbon fixation. Other abundant uncultured taxa such as the candidate division MSBL1, the uncultured MBGB, and the phylum Acetothermia potentially play an important metabolic role in these ecosystems. Lithifying microbial mats contained calcium carbonate precipitates, whereas endoevoporites consisted of gypsum, and halite. Biogeochemical measurements revealed that based on depth profiles of O2 and sulfide, metabolic activities were much higher in the non-lithifying mat (peaking in the least lithified systems) than in lithifying mats with the lowest activity in endoevaporites. This trend in decreasing microbial activity reflects the increase in salinity, which may play an important role in the biodiversity. PMID:27597845

  20. Microbial Diversity in Sediment Ecosystems (Evaporites Domes, Microbial Mats, and Crusts) of Hypersaline Laguna Tebenquiche, Salar de Atacama, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Ana B.; Rasuk, Maria C.; Visscher, Pieter T.; Contreras, Manuel; Novoa, Fernando; Poire, Daniel G.; Patterson, Molly M.; Ventosa, Antonio; Farias, Maria E.

    2016-01-01

    We combined nucleic acid-based molecular methods, biogeochemical measurements, and physicochemical characteristics to investigate microbial sedimentary ecosystems of Laguna Tebenquiche, Atacama Desert, Chile. Molecular diversity, and biogeochemistry of hypersaline microbial mats, rhizome-associated concretions, and an endoevaporite were compared with: The V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified by pyrosequencing to analyze the total microbial diversity (i.e., bacteria and archaea) in bulk samples, and in addition, in detail on a millimeter scale in one microbial mat and in one evaporite. Archaea were more abundant than bacteria. Euryarchaeota was one of the most abundant phyla in all samples, and particularly dominant (97% of total diversity) in the most lithified ecosystem, the evaporite. Most of the euryarchaeal OTUs could be assigned to the class Halobacteria or anaerobic and methanogenic archaea. Planctomycetes potentially also play a key role in mats and rhizome-associated concretions, notably the aerobic organoheterotroph members of the class Phycisphaerae. In addition to cyanobacteria, members of Chromatiales and possibly the candidate family Chlorotrichaceae contributed to photosynthetic carbon fixation. Other abundant uncultured taxa such as the candidate division MSBL1, the uncultured MBGB, and the phylum Acetothermia potentially play an important metabolic role in these ecosystems. Lithifying microbial mats contained calcium carbonate precipitates, whereas endoevoporites consisted of gypsum, and halite. Biogeochemical measurements revealed that based on depth profiles of O2 and sulfide, metabolic activities were much higher in the non-lithifying mat (peaking in the least lithified systems) than in lithifying mats with the lowest activity in endoevaporites. This trend in decreasing microbial activity reflects the increase in salinity, which may play an important role in the biodiversity.

  1. Microbial Diversity in Sediment Ecosystems (Evaporites Domes, Microbial Mats, and Crusts) of Hypersaline Laguna Tebenquiche, Salar de Atacama, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Ana B.; Rasuk, Maria C.; Visscher, Pieter T.; Contreras, Manuel; Novoa, Fernando; Poire, Daniel G.; Patterson, Molly M.; Ventosa, Antonio; Farias, Maria E.

    2016-01-01

    We combined nucleic acid-based molecular methods, biogeochemical measurements, and physicochemical characteristics to investigate microbial sedimentary ecosystems of Laguna Tebenquiche, Atacama Desert, Chile. Molecular diversity, and biogeochemistry of hypersaline microbial mats, rhizome-associated concretions, and an endoevaporite were compared with: The V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified by pyrosequencing to analyze the total microbial diversity (i.e., bacteria and archaea) in bulk samples, and in addition, in detail on a millimeter scale in one microbial mat and in one evaporite. Archaea were more abundant than bacteria. Euryarchaeota was one of the most abundant phyla in all samples, and particularly dominant (97% of total diversity) in the most lithified ecosystem, the evaporite. Most of the euryarchaeal OTUs could be assigned to the class Halobacteria or anaerobic and methanogenic archaea. Planctomycetes potentially also play a key role in mats and rhizome-associated concretions, notably the aerobic organoheterotroph members of the class Phycisphaerae. In addition to cyanobacteria, members of Chromatiales and possibly the candidate family Chlorotrichaceae contributed to photosynthetic carbon fixation. Other abundant uncultured taxa such as the candidate division MSBL1, the uncultured MBGB, and the phylum Acetothermia potentially play an important metabolic role in these ecosystems. Lithifying microbial mats contained calcium carbonate precipitates, whereas endoevoporites consisted of gypsum, and halite. Biogeochemical measurements revealed that based on depth profiles of O2 and sulfide, metabolic activities were much higher in the non-lithifying mat (peaking in the least lithified systems) than in lithifying mats with the lowest activity in endoevaporites. This trend in decreasing microbial activity reflects the increase in salinity, which may play an important role in the biodiversity. PMID:27597845

  2. Occurrence and origin of mono-, di-, and trimethylalkanes in modern and Holocene cyanobacterial mats from Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    SciTech Connect

    Kenig, F. |; Huc, A.Y.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.

    1995-07-01

    n-Alkanes, highly branched isoprenoids, monomethylalkanes (MMAs), dimethyalkanes (DMAs), and trimethylalkanes (TMAs) are the most abundant components in the hydrocarbon fractions of extracts of four modern and two Holocene cyanobacterial mats ({approximately}1500 and 5110 {+-} 170 y BP) collected in Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates). The homologous families of MMAs, DMAs, and TMAs were identified by comparison of mass spectral and relative retention time data with published data. DMAs were also identified by synthesis of authentic standards, 3,9-dimethyltricosane, 5,9-dimethyltricosane, and 11,15-dimethylheptacosane. MMAs, DMAs, and TMAs of the cyanobacterial mats can be separated into two groups on the basis of their distribution patterns and structures. MMAs and DMAs in the C{sub 16}-C{sub 22} range are characterized by methyl substituents mainly located at C-6 (or {omega}6) and C-7 (or {omega}7) and are derived from cyanobacteria. They are relatively abundant components in the modern cyanobacterial mats, but with increasing age of the mats they become much less abundant. On the contrary MMAs, DMAs, and TMAs in the C{sub 24}-C{sub 45} range are exclusively found in the Holocene cyanobacterial mats. Their longest chains mainly contain an odd number of carbon atoms and they always carry the methyl substituents at odd numbered carbon atoms. The similarity in composition of this very specific group of branched alkanes with that encountered in insect epicuticular waxes suggests that these sedimentary hydrocarbons originate from insects, which probably grazed on the cyanobacterial mats.

  3. Microbial Diversity in Sediment Ecosystems (Evaporites Domes, Microbial Mats, and Crusts) of Hypersaline Laguna Tebenquiche, Salar de Atacama, Chile.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Ana B; Rasuk, Maria C; Visscher, Pieter T; Contreras, Manuel; Novoa, Fernando; Poire, Daniel G; Patterson, Molly M; Ventosa, Antonio; Farias, Maria E

    2016-01-01

    We combined nucleic acid-based molecular methods, biogeochemical measurements, and physicochemical characteristics to investigate microbial sedimentary ecosystems of Laguna Tebenquiche, Atacama Desert, Chile. Molecular diversity, and biogeochemistry of hypersaline microbial mats, rhizome-associated concretions, and an endoevaporite were compared with: The V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified by pyrosequencing to analyze the total microbial diversity (i.e., bacteria and archaea) in bulk samples, and in addition, in detail on a millimeter scale in one microbial mat and in one evaporite. Archaea were more abundant than bacteria. Euryarchaeota was one of the most abundant phyla in all samples, and particularly dominant (97% of total diversity) in the most lithified ecosystem, the evaporite. Most of the euryarchaeal OTUs could be assigned to the class Halobacteria or anaerobic and methanogenic archaea. Planctomycetes potentially also play a key role in mats and rhizome-associated concretions, notably the aerobic organoheterotroph members of the class Phycisphaerae. In addition to cyanobacteria, members of Chromatiales and possibly the candidate family Chlorotrichaceae contributed to photosynthetic carbon fixation. Other abundant uncultured taxa such as the candidate division MSBL1, the uncultured MBGB, and the phylum Acetothermia potentially play an important metabolic role in these ecosystems. Lithifying microbial mats contained calcium carbonate precipitates, whereas endoevoporites consisted of gypsum, and halite. Biogeochemical measurements revealed that based on depth profiles of O2 and sulfide, metabolic activities were much higher in the non-lithifying mat (peaking in the least lithified systems) than in lithifying mats with the lowest activity in endoevaporites. This trend in decreasing microbial activity reflects the increase in salinity, which may play an important role in the biodiversity.

  4. Carbon and Oxygen Budgets of Hypersaline Cyanobacterial Mats: Effects of Tidal Cycle and Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David J.; Bebout, Brad M.; Carpenter, Steven; Discipulo, Mykell; Turk, Kendra

    2003-01-01

    The hierarchical organization of microbial ecosystems determines the rates of processes that shape Earth#s environment, define the stage upon which major evolutionary events occurred, and create biosignatures in sediments and atmospheres. In cyanobacterial mats, oxygenic photosynthesis provides energy, organic substrates and oxygen to the ecosystem. Incident light changes with depth in the mat, both in intensity and spectral composition, and counteracting gradients of oxygen and sulfide shape the chemical microenvironment. A combination of benefits and hazards of light, oxygen and sulfide promotes the allocation of the various essential mat processes between light and dark periods and to various depths in the mat. Microbiota produce hydrogen, small organic acids, and nitrogen and sulfur species. Such compounds fuel a flow of energy and electrons in these ecosystems and thus shape interactions between groups of microorganisms. Coordinated observations of population distribution, abundance, and activity for an entire community are making fundamental questions in ecology accessible. These questions address those factors that sustain the remarkable diversity of microorganisms that are now being revealed by molecular techniques. These questions also target the processes that shape the various kinds of biosignatures that we will seek, both in ancient rocks from Earth and Mars, and in atmospheres of distant planets beyond our Solar System.

  5. Ecophysiological Changes in Microbial Mats Incubated in a Greenhouse Collaboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bebout, Brad; DesMarais, David J.; GarciaPichel, Ferran; Hogan, Mary; Jahnke, Linda; Keller, Richard M.; Miller, Scott R.

    2001-01-01

    Microbial mats are modern examples of the earliest microbial communities known. Among the best studied are microbial mats growing in hypersaline ponds managed for the production of salt by Exportadora de Sal, S.A. de C.V., Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico. In May, 2001, we collected mats from Ponds 4 and 5 in this system and returned them to Ames Research Center, where they have been maintained for a period of over nine months. We report here on both the ecophysiological changes occurring in the mats over that period of time as well as the facility in which they were incubated. Mats (approximately 1 sq. meter total area) were incubated in a greenhouse facility modified to provide the mats with natural levels of visible and ultraviolet radiation as well as constantly flowing, temperature-controlled water. Two replicated treatments were maintained, a 'high salinity' treatment (about 120 ppt) and a 'low salinity' treatment (about 90 ppt). Rates of net biological activity (e.g., photosynthesis, respiration, trace gas production) in the mats were relatively constant over the several months, and were similar to rates of activity measured in the field. However, over the course of the incubation, mats in both treatments changed in physical appearance. The most obvious change was that mats in the higher salinity treatments developed a higher proportion of carotenoid pigments (relative to chlorophyll), resulting in a noticeably orange color in the high salinity mats. This trend is also seen in the natural salinity gradient present at the field site. Changes in the community composition of the mats, as assayed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), as well as biomarker compounds produced in the mats were also monitored. The degree to which the mats kept in the greenhouse changed from the originally collected mats, as well as differences between high and low salinity mats will be discussed. Additional information is contained in the original extended

  6. Diverse Thermus species inhabit a single hot spring microbial mat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nold, S. C.; Ward, D. M.

    1995-01-01

    Through an effort to characterize aerobic chemoorganotrophic bacteria in the Octopus Spring cyano-bacterial mat community, we cultivated four Thermus isolates with unique 16S rRNA sequences. Isolates clustered within existing Thermus clades, including those containing Thermus ruber, Thermus aquaticus, and a subgroup closely related to T. aquaticus. One Octopus Spring isolate is nearly identical (99.9% similar) to isolates from Iceland, and two others are closely related to a T. ruber isolated from Russia. Octopus Spring isolates similar to T. aquaticus and T. ruber exhibited optimal growth rates at high (65-70 degrees C) and low (50 degrees C) temperatures, respectively, with the most abundant species best adapted to the temperature of the habitat (50-55 degrees C). Our results display a diversity of Thermus genotypes defined by 16S rRNA within one hot spring microbial community. We suggest that specialization to temperature and perhaps other local environmental features controls the abundance of Thermus populations.

  7. Optimization of DNA Extractions from Iron-rich Microbial Mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullerton, H.; Hilton, T. S.; Moyer, C. L.

    2013-12-01

    Iron is the fourth most abundant element in the Earth's crust and is potentially one of the most abundant energy sources on the earth as an electron donor for chemolithoautotrophicgrowth coupled to Fe(II) oxidation. Many microbes have adapted to this energy source. One such bacterial class are the Zetaproteobacteria, which dominate Iron-rich microbial mats at Loihi seamount. Although cell counts are very high (up to 5.3x108 cells/ml), efficient DNA yields are low in comparison. In this study we compared extraction efficiency across different methods and with the addition of various buffers. Regardless of protocol (i.e., kit), the addition of sodium citrate drastically increased the DNA yield. The addition of sodium citrate did not alter community structure as determined by T-RFLP and qPCR. Citrate is a well-known ferric iron chelator and will bind ferrous as well. The chelated iron is then unable to participate in the Fenton reaction and this stops the generation of hydroxyl radicals which in turn can react and degrade the extracted DNA. We have utilized this relationship to allow us to obtain nearly an order of magnitude more microbial community DNA per sample, which should also have implications when processing low biomass samples, e.g., from the deep subsurface.

  8. Using hyperspectral imagery to monitor algal persence

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.M.; Monk, J.; Yan, Gu; Brignal, W.

    1997-08-01

    This paper illustrates how an inexpensive and easily deployable imaging spectrometer can be used to monitor and identify algal blooms at short notice, thus making practical the addition of airborne data to the usual in-situ measurements. Two examples are described, one in the Irish Sea and the other in a reservoir system in the London area.

  9. Algal production in wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds for potential biofuel use.

    PubMed

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J

    2011-01-01

    Wastewater treatment High Rate Algal Ponds with CO2 addition could provide cost-effective and efficient tertiary-level wastewater treatment with the co-benefit of algal biomass production for biofuel use. Wastewater grown algal biomass can have a lipid content of 10-30% of dry weight, which could be used to make biodiesel. This research investigated algal biomass and total lipid production by two pilot-scale wastewater treatment HRAP(S) (4-day HRT) with and without CO2 addition under New Zealand mid summer (Nov-Jan) conditions. The influence of CO2 addition on wastewater treatment performance was also determined. CO2 was added to one of the HRAPs (the HRAP(E)) by maintaining the maximum pH of the pond below 8. Measurements of HRAP influent and effluent water qualities, total lipid content and algal biomass production were made twice a week over the experimental period. Both HRAP(S) achieved high levels of organic compound and nutrient removal, with >85% SBOD5, >92 NH4(+)-N and >70% DRP removal. Algal/bacterial biomass production in the HRAP(E) (15.2 g/m2/d) was improved by CO2 addition by approximately 30% compared with that of the control HRAP(W) (10.6 g/m2/d). Total lipid content of the biomass grown on both HRAP(S) was slightly reduced (from 25% to 20%) with CO2 addition and the maximum total lipid content of approximately 40% was observed in the HRAP(W) when low NH4(+)-N concentration (<0.5 mg/L) and high maximum pH (>10.0) occurred. Total lipid content of the biomass increased by approximately 15% under nitrogen limiting conditions, however, overall algal/bacterial biomass production was reduced by half during the period of nitrogen limitation. More research is required to maintain algal production under near nitrogen-limiting conditions. PMID:21977667

  10. Astronaut Thomas Mattingly performs EVA during Apollo 16 transearth coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Thomas K. Mattingly II, command module pilot of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, performs extravehicular activity (EVA) during the Apollo 16 transearth coast. mattingly is assisted by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot. Mattingly inspected the SIM bay of the Service Module, and retrieved film from the Mapping and Panoramic cameras. Mattingly is wearing the helmet of Astronaut John W. Young, commander. The helmet's lunar extravehicular visor assembly helped protect Mattingly's eyes frmo the bright sun. This view is a frame from motion picture film exposed by a 16mm Maurer camera.

  11. Distribution and abundance of sea urchins in Singapore reefs and their potential ecological impacts on macroalgae and coral communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goh, Beverly P. L.; Lim, Dawn Y. F.

    2015-06-01

    The sea urchin Diadema setosum is often encountered in the coral reefs in the Southern Islands of Singapore. While sea urchins have been known to play a role in regulating algal communities and influencing coral recruitment in other parts of the world, their role in Singapore reefs has not been determined. This study was conducted to determine the distribution and abundance of sea urchins in Singapore reefs, to examine algal cover, algal biomass, algal species and live coral cover, and to determine any interactions between urchin density and algal communities that may impact coral cover. Several reefs in Singapore were surveyed using belt transects measuring 20 m by 2 m, laid down on the reef crest. Abundance of urchins, algal species, biomass, and live coral cover were determined by the use of quadrats within each belt transect. This study revealed an increasing abundance of the sea urchin Diadema setosum in reefs progressing southwards away from mainland Singapore with low density of urchins occurring in Sisters' Island, St John's Island, Pulau Tekukor, and Kusu Island, and the highest density observed at Raffles Lighthouse. A significant negative linear relationship between algal cover and live coral cover (P < 0.05) was established. The results of this study indicate that sea urchins may not be an important component of the herbivore guild in Singapore.

  12. Algal Toxins Alter Copepod Feeding Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jiarong; Talapatra, Siddharth; Katz, Joseph; Tester, Patricia A.; Waggett, Rebecca J.; Place, Allen R.

    2012-01-01

    Using digital holographic cinematography, we quantify and compare the feeding behavior of free-swimming copepods, Acartia tonsa, on nutritional prey (Storeatula major) to that occurring during exposure to toxic and non-toxic strains of Karenia brevis and Karlodinium veneficum. These two harmful algal species produce polyketide toxins with different modes of action and potency. We distinguish between two different beating modes of the copepod’s feeding appendages–a “sampling beating” that has short durations (<100 ms) and involves little fluid entrainment and a longer duration “grazing beating” that persists up to 1200 ms and generates feeding currents. The durations of both beating modes have log-normal distributions. Without prey, A. tonsa only samples the environment at low frequency. Upon introduction of non-toxic food, it increases its sampling time moderately and the grazing period substantially. On mono algal diets for either of the toxic dinoflagellates, sampling time fraction is high but the grazing is very limited. A. tonsa demonstrates aversion to both toxic algal species. In mixtures of S. major and the neurotoxin producing K. brevis, sampling and grazing diminish rapidly, presumably due to neurological effects of consuming brevetoxins while trying to feed on S. major. In contrast, on mixtures of cytotoxin producing K. veneficum, both behavioral modes persist, indicating that intake of karlotoxins does not immediately inhibit the copepod’s grazing behavior. These findings add critical insight into how these algal toxins may influence the copepod’s feeding behavior, and suggest how some harmful algal species may alter top-down control exerted by grazers like copepods. PMID:22629336

  13. Algal toxins alter copepod feeding behavior.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jiarong; Talapatra, Siddharth; Katz, Joseph; Tester, Patricia A; Waggett, Rebecca J; Place, Allen R

    2012-01-01

    Using digital holographic cinematography, we quantify and compare the feeding behavior of free-swimming copepods, Acartia tonsa, on nutritional prey (Storeatula major) to that occurring during exposure to toxic and non-toxic strains of Karenia brevis and Karlodinium veneficum. These two harmful algal species produce polyketide toxins with different modes of action and potency. We distinguish between two different beating modes of the copepod's feeding appendages-a "sampling beating" that has short durations (<100 ms) and involves little fluid entrainment and a longer duration "grazing beating" that persists up to 1200 ms and generates feeding currents. The durations of both beating modes have log-normal distributions. Without prey, A. tonsa only samples the environment at low frequency. Upon introduction of non-toxic food, it increases its sampling time moderately and the grazing period substantially. On mono algal diets for either of the toxic dinoflagellates, sampling time fraction is high but the grazing is very limited. A. tonsa demonstrates aversion to both toxic algal species. In mixtures of S. major and the neurotoxin producing K. brevis, sampling and grazing diminish rapidly, presumably due to neurological effects of consuming brevetoxins while trying to feed on S. major. In contrast, on mixtures of cytotoxin producing K. veneficum, both behavioral modes persist, indicating that intake of karlotoxins does not immediately inhibit the copepod's grazing behavior. These findings add critical insight into how these algal toxins may influence the copepod's feeding behavior, and suggest how some harmful algal species may alter top-down control exerted by grazers like copepods. PMID:22629336

  14. ChemMatCARS Data Archive

    DOE Data Explorer

    ChemMatCARS is a high-brilliance national synchrotron x-ray facility dedicated primarily to static and dynamic condensed matter chemistry and materials science. The scientific focus of the facility includes the study of surface and interfacial properties of liquids and solids as well as their bulk structure at atomic, molecular and mesoscopic length scales with high spatial and energy resolution. Experimental techniques supported by the facility include: 1) Liquid Surface X-ray Scattering; 2) Solid Surface X-ray Scattering; 3) Time-Resolved Crystallography; 4) Micro-Crystal Diffraction; 5) Small and Wide-angle X-ray Scattering. The data archive referenced here contains data for various components along the beamline within the First Optics Enclosure and is intended to be input or parameter data. See the Science Nuggets at http://cars9.uchicago.edu/chemmat/pages/nuggets.html for leads to some of the research conducted at the ChemMatCARS beamline.

  15. Bioflumology: Microbial mat growth in flumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airo, A.; Weigert, S.; Beck, C.

    2014-04-01

    The emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis resulted in a transformational change of Earth's geochemical cycles and the subsequent evolution of life. However, it remains vigorously debated when this metabolic ability had evolved in cyanobacteria. This is largely because studies of Archean microfossil morphology, molecular biomarkers, and isotopic characteristics are frequently ambiguous. However, the high degree of morphological similarities between modern photosynthetic and Archean fossil mats has been interpreted to indicate phototactic microbial behavior or oxygenic photosynthesis. In order to better evaluate the relationship between mat morphology and metabolism, we here present a laboratory set-up for conducting month-long experiments in several sterilizable circular flumes designed to allow single-species cyanobacterial growth under adjustable fluid-flow conditions and protected from contamination.

  16. Microbial mats: an ecological niche for fungi

    PubMed Central

    Cantrell, Sharon A.; Duval-Pérez, Lisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Fungi were documented in tropical hypersaline microbial mats and their role in the degradation of complex carbohydrates (exopolymeric substance – EPS) was explored. Fungal diversity is higher during the wet season with Acremonium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, and Penicillium among the more common genera. Diversity is also higher in the oxic layer and in young and transient mats. Enrichments with xanthan (a model EPS) show that without antibiotics (full community) degradation is faster than enrichments with antibacterial (fungal community) and antifungal (bacterial community) agents, suggesting that degradation is performed by a consortium of organisms (bacteria and fungi). The combined evidence from all experiments indicates that bacteria carried out approximately two-third of the xanthan degradation. The pattern of degradation is similar between seasons and layers but degradation is faster in enrichments from the wet season. The research suggests that fungi thrive in these hypersaline consortia and may participate in the carbon cycle through the degradation of complex carbohydrates. PMID:23577004

  17. The effects of mats on back and leg fatigue.

    PubMed

    Kim, J Y; Stuart-Buttle, C; Marras, W S

    1994-02-01

    Prolonged standing is common in many industrial workplaces. It is also quite common for workers to complain of discomfort in the back and legs as a result of prolonged standing. Mats are often provided for the worker to relieve this fatigue. However, there is no quantitative evidence that these mats relieve leg and back fatigue. Five subjects were asked to stand on a concrete surface and two mat surfaces for prolonged periods of time. Spectral electromyographic analyses indicated that mats reduced localized muscle fatigue in the erector spinae muscle only. Furthermore, this fatigue reduction occurred only with the more compressible of the two mats tested. These results imply that localized muscular fatigue in the leg may not be relieved with 'anti-fatigue' mats, and some of these mats only benefit the back. PMID:15676945

  18. Commander Mattingly prepares meal on middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Commander Mattingly, wearing flight coveralls, opens beverage container using a pair of scissors in front of middeck lockers (covered with spacecrew supplies, meal tray assemblies, and additional food items). Continuous Flow Electrophoresis System (CFES) and control panel ML86B appear on port side wall. CFES is designed to separate biological materials according to their surface electrical charges as they pass through an electrical field.

  19. Depositional and diagenetic history of a Pennsylvanian algal-mound complex: Bug and Papoose Canyon fields, Paradox basin, Utah and Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Roylance, M.H.

    1990-07-01

    During the Middle Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian), the Paradox basin was an enclosed, evaporitic basin consisting of a deep trough with a shallow shelf rimming its south and west side. During Desert Creek deposition, at least two large phylloid algal-mound complexes flourished on or at the edge of the shelf. One complex is now delineated by Aneth field and the other is partly delineated by Bug and Papoose Canyon fields. In the Bug-Papoose Canyon algal-mound complex of southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado, carbonate mud mounds grew by accumulation of platy algal fragments, by baffling and trapping of fine sediment by the algae, and by precipitation of botryoidal aragonite cement between fragments. Extensive diagenesis of the accumulations began with syndepositional precipitation of botryoidal cement, inferred to have been aragonite, on phylloid algal plates, creating a topographically prominent, rigid framework containing abundant pore space. Brecciation during compaction created more pores. Parts of voids were subsequently filled by internal sediment and by calcite and gypsum cements. Finally, the algal-mound accumulations were extensively dolomitized and their porosity increased by dissolution. The relationship of these algal mounds to the Desert Creek shelf edge suggests that delineation of the shelf edge holds the promise of further discoveries of algal mounds as it is traced to the west and east of Bug and Papoose Canyon fields. 17 figs., 1 tab.

  20. The Archaea of a Hypersaline Microbial Mat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, C.; Spear, J. R.; Pace, N. R.

    2006-12-01

    The overarching goal of this work is to describe and understand the organismal composition within the domain Archaea for the microbial ecosystem of a hypersaline microbial mat. Sea salt is crystallized by solar evaporation at North America's largest saltworks, the Exportadora de Sal, in Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur. Sea water flows through a series of evaporative basins with an increase in salinity until saturation is reached and halite crystallization begins. Several of these ponds are underlined with thick microbial mats. To date, it has not been known what kinds of organisms comprise these complex microbial ecosystems. Here, we report a survey of the stratified microbial communities for the distribution of representatives of Archaea in layers of the mats. This survey uses molecular approaches, based on cloning and sequencing of SSU rRNA genes for phylogenetic analyses, to determine the nature and extent of archaeal diversity that constitute these ecosystems. We compiled an altogether new phylogenetic backbone for the domain Archaea and placed representative sequences from this hypersaline analysis onto that framework. Analyses to date indicate the ubiquitous dominance of uncultured organisms of phylogenetic kinds not generally thought to be associated with hypersaline environments. Collectively, the results indicate that the diversity of life is extensive even in this seemingly inhospitable "extreme" environment.

  1. Individual and combined suppressive effects of submerged and floating-leaved macrophytes on algal blooms.

    PubMed

    Seto, Mayumi; Takamura, Noriko; Iwasa, Yoh

    2013-02-21

    Shallow lakes and ponds are often characterised either by clear water with abundant submerged macrophytes or by turbid water with abundant phytoplankton. Blooms of toxic filamentous blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) often dominate the phytoplankton community in eutrophic lakes, which threatens ecological functions and biodiversity of freshwater ecosystems. We studied a simple lake model in order to evaluate individual and combined suppressive effects of rooted submerged and rooted floating-leaved macrophytes on algal blooms. Floating-leaved plants are superior competitors for light, whereas submerged plants absorb and reduce available phosphorus in a water column that rooted floating-leaved plants exploit to a lesser extent. We found that mixed vegetation that includes both submerged and floating-leaved plants is more resistant than vegetation comprised by a single plant type to algal invasion triggered by phosphorus loading. In addition, competitive exclusion of submerged plants by floating-leaved plants may promote an algal bloom. These predictions were confirmed by the decision tree analysis of field data from 35 irrigation ponds in Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. PMID:23219493

  2. Metagenomic Assembly of the Dominant Zetaproteobacteria in an Iron-oxidizing Hydrothermal Microbial Mat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyer, C. L.; Fullerton, H.

    2013-12-01

    Iron is the fourth most abundant element in the Earth's crust and is potentially one of the most abundant energy sources on the earth as an electron donor for chemolithoautotrophic growth coupled to Fe(II) oxidation. Despite the rapid abiotic oxidation rate of iron, many microbes have adapted to feeding off this fleeting energy source. One such bacterial class is the Zetaproteobacteria. Iron-dominated microbial mat material was collected with a small-scale syringe sampler from Loihi Seamount, Hawaii. From this sample, gDNA was extracted and prepared for paired-end Illumina sequencing. Reconstruction of SSU rDNA genes using EMERGE allowed for comparison to previous SSU rDNA surveys. Clone libraries and qPCR show these microbial mats to be dominated by Zetaproteobacteria. Results from our in silico reconstruction confirm these initial findings. RDP classification of the EMERGE reconstructed sequences resulted in 44% of the community being identified as Zetaproteobacteria. The most abundant SSU rDNA has 99% similarity to Zeta OTU-2, and only a 94% similarity to M. ferrooxidans PV-1. Zeta OTU-2 has been shown to be the most cosmopolitan population in iron-dominated hydrothermal systems from across Pacific Ocean. Metagenomic assembly has resulted in many contigs with high identity to M. ferrooxidans as identified, by BLAST. However, with large differences in SSU rRNA similarity, M. ferrooxidans PV-1 is not an adequate reference. Current work is focusing on reconstruction of the dominant microbial mat member, without the use of a reference genome through an iterative assembly approach. The resulting 'pan-genome' will be compared to other Zetaproteobacteria (at the class level) and the functional ecology of this cosmopolitan microbial mat community member will be extrapolated. Thus far, we have detected multiple housekeeping genes involved in DNA replication, transcription and translation. The most abundant metabolic gene we have found is Aconitase, a key enzyme in the

  3. Primary production of edaphic algal communities in a Mississippi salt marsh

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, M.J.; Moncreiff, C.A.

    1988-03-01

    Primary production rates of edaphic algae associated with the sediments beneath four monospecific canopies of vascular plants were determined over an annual cycle in a Mississippi salt marsh. The edaphic algal flora was dominated by small, motile pennate diatoms. Algal production (as measured by /sup 14/C uptake) was generally highest in spring-early summer and lowest in fall. Hourly rates ranged from a low of 1.4 mg C/m/sup 2/ in Juncus roemerianus Scheele to a high of 163 mg C/m/sup 2/ beneath the Scirpus olneyi Gray canopy. Stepwise multiple regressions identified a soil moisture index and chlorophyll a as the best environmental predictors of hourly production; light energy reaching the marsh surface and sediment and air temperature proved of little value. Adding the relative abundances of 33 diatom taxa to the set of independent variables only slightly increased R/sup 2/; however, virtually all variables selected were diatom taxa. R/sup 2/ was only 0.38 for the Spartina alterniflora Loisel. habitat but ranged from 0.70 to 0.87 for the remaining three vascular plant zones. Annual rates of algal production (g C/m/sup 2/) were estimated as follows: Juncus (28), Spartina (57), Distichlis spicata (L.) Greene (88), and Scirpus (151). The ratio of annual edaphic algal production to vascular plant net aerial production (EAP/VPP) was 10-12% for the first three habitats and 61% for Scirpus. Chlorophyll a concentrations, annual algal production rates, and EAP/VPP values were comparable to those determined in Texas, Delaware, and Massachusetts salt marshes but lower than those reported for Georgia and particularly California marshes.

  4. Metagenomic analysis of stress genes in microbial mat communities from Antarctica and the High Arctic.

    PubMed

    Varin, Thibault; Lovejoy, Connie; Jungblut, Anne D; Vincent, Warwick F; Corbeil, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Polar and alpine microbial communities experience a variety of environmental stresses, including perennial cold and freezing; however, knowledge of genomic responses to such conditions is still rudimentary. We analyzed the metagenomes of cyanobacterial mats from Arctic and Antarctic ice shelves, using high-throughput pyrosequencing to test the hypotheses that consortia from these extreme polar habitats were similar in terms of major phyla and subphyla and consequently in their potential responses to environmental stresses. Statistical comparisons of the protein-coding genes showed similarities between the mats from the two poles, with the majority of genes derived from Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria; however, the relative proportions differed, with cyanobacterial genes more prevalent in the Antarctic mat metagenome. Other differences included a higher representation of Actinobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria in the Arctic metagenomes, which may reflect the greater access to diasporas from both adjacent ice-free lands and the open ocean. Genes coding for functional responses to environmental stress (exopolysaccharides, cold shock proteins, and membrane modifications) were found in all of the metagenomes. However, in keeping with the greater exposure of the Arctic to long-range pollutants, sequences assigned to copper homeostasis genes were statistically (30%) more abundant in the Arctic samples. In contrast, more reads matching the sigma B genes were identified in the Antarctic mat, likely reflecting the more severe osmotic stress during freeze-up of the Antarctic ponds. This study underscores the presence of diverse mechanisms of adaptation to cold and other stresses in polar mats, consistent with the proportional representation of major bacterial groups. PMID:22081564

  5. Phylogenetic diversity and activity of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria from a hypersaline oil-polluted microbial mat.

    PubMed

    Abed, Raeid M M; Zein, Burhanuddin; Al-Thukair, Assad; de Beer, Dirk

    2007-06-01

    The diversity and function of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria (AHB) in cyanobacterial mats have been largely overlooked. We used culture-dependent and molecular techniques to explore the species diversity, degradative capacities and functional guilds of AHB in the photic layer (2mm) of an oil-polluted microbial mat from Saudi Arabia. Enrichment isolation was carried out at different salinities (5% and 12%) and temperatures (28 and 45 degrees C) and on various substrates (acetate, glycolate, Spirulina extract and crude oils). Counts of most probable number showed a numerical abundance of AHB in the range of 1.15-8.13x10(6) cellsg(-1) and suggested the presence of halotolerant and thermotolerant populations. Most of the 16S rRNA sequences of the obtained clones and isolates were phylogenetically affiliated to the groups Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteriodetes and Alphaproteobacteria. Groups like Deltaproteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Planctomycetes, Spirochaetes, Acidobacteria and Deinococcus-Thermus were only detected by cloning. The strains isolated on acetate and glycolate belonged to the genera Marinobacter, Halomonas, Roseobacter and Rhodobacter whereas the strains enriched on crude oil belonged to Marinobacter and Alcanivorax. Members of the Bacteriodetes group were only enriched on Spirulina extract indicating their specialization in the degradation of cyanobacterial dead cells. The substrate spectra of representative strains showed the ability of all AHB to metabolize cyanobacterial photosynthetic and fermentation products. However, the unique in situ conditions of the mat apparently favored the enrichment of versatile strains that grew on both the cyanobacterial exudates and the hydrocarbons. We conclude that AHB in cyanobacterial mats represent a diverse community that plays an important role in carbon-cycling within microbial mats. PMID:17056222

  6. Water-quality parameters and benthic algal communities at selected streams in Minnesota, August 2000 - Study design, methods and data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, K.E.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the study design, sampling methods, and summarizes the physical, chemical, and benthic algal data for a component of the multiagency study that was designed to document diurnal water-quality measurements (specific conductance, pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen), benthic algal community composition and chlorophyll-a content, and primary productivity at 12 stream sites on 6 streams in Minnesota during August 2000. Specific conductance, pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen concentrations and percent dissolved oxygen saturation measurements were made with submersible data recorders at 30 minute intervals for a period of 3-6 days during August 2000. Benthic algae collected from wood and rock substrate were identified and enumerated. Biovolume (volume of algal cells per unit area), density (number of cells per unit area), and chlorophyll-a content from benthic algae were determined. These data can be used as part of the multiagency study to develop an understanding of the relations among nutrient concentrations, algal abundance, algal community composition, and primary production and respiration processes in rivers of differing ecoregions in Minnesota.

  7. Quantitative PCR analysis of functional genes in iron-rich microbial mats at an active hydrothermal vent system (Lō'ihi Seamount, Hawai'i).

    PubMed

    Jesser, Kelsey J; Fullerton, Heather; Hager, Kevin W; Moyer, Craig L

    2015-05-01

    The chemolithotrophic Zetaproteobacteria represent a novel class of Proteobacteria which oxidize Fe(II) to Fe(III) and are the dominant bacterial population in iron-rich microbial mats. Zetaproteobacteria were first discovered at Lō'ihi Seamount, located 35 km southeast off the big island of Hawai'i, which is characterized by low-temperature diffuse hydrothermal venting. Novel nondegenerate quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays for genes associated with microbial nitrogen fixation, denitrification, arsenic detoxification, Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB), and reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycles were developed using selected microbial mat community-derived metagenomes. Nitrogen fixation genes were not detected, but all other functional genes were present. This suggests that arsenic detoxification and denitrification processes are likely cooccurring in addition to two modes of carbon fixation. Two groups of microbial mat community types were identified by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and were further described based on qPCR data for zetaproteobacterial abundance and carbon fixation mode preference. qPCR variance was associated with mat morphology but not with temperature or sample site. Geochemistry data were significantly associated with sample site and mat morphology. Together, these qPCR assays constitute a functional gene signature for iron microbial mat communities across a broad array of temperatures, mat types, chemistries, and sampling sites at Lō'ihi Seamount.

  8. Quantitative PCR Analysis of Functional Genes in Iron-Rich Microbial Mats at an Active Hydrothermal Vent System (Lō'ihi Seamount, Hawai'i)

    PubMed Central

    Jesser, Kelsey J.; Fullerton, Heather; Hager, Kevin W.

    2015-01-01

    The chemolithotrophic Zetaproteobacteria represent a novel class of Proteobacteria which oxidize Fe(II) to Fe(III) and are the dominant bacterial population in iron-rich microbial mats. Zetaproteobacteria were first discovered at Lō'ihi Seamount, located 35 km southeast off the big island of Hawai'i, which is characterized by low-temperature diffuse hydrothermal venting. Novel nondegenerate quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays for genes associated with microbial nitrogen fixation, denitrification, arsenic detoxification, Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB), and reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycles were developed using selected microbial mat community-derived metagenomes. Nitrogen fixation genes were not detected, but all other functional genes were present. This suggests that arsenic detoxification and denitrification processes are likely cooccurring in addition to two modes of carbon fixation. Two groups of microbial mat community types were identified by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and were further described based on qPCR data for zetaproteobacterial abundance and carbon fixation mode preference. qPCR variance was associated with mat morphology but not with temperature or sample site. Geochemistry data were significantly associated with sample site and mat morphology. Together, these qPCR assays constitute a functional gene signature for iron microbial mat communities across a broad array of temperatures, mat types, chemistries, and sampling sites at Lō'ihi Seamount. PMID:25681182

  9. Identification of a novel cyanobacterial group as active diazotrophs in a coastal microbial mat using NanoSIMS analysis

    PubMed Central

    Woebken, Dagmar; Burow, Luke C; Prufert-Bebout, Leslie; Bebout, Brad M; Hoehler, Tori M; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Spormann, Alfred M; Weber, Peter K; Singer, Steven W

    2012-01-01

    N2 fixation is a key process in photosynthetic microbial mats to support the nitrogen demands associated with primary production. Despite its importance, groups that actively fix N2 and contribute to the input of organic N in these ecosystems still remain largely unclear. To investigate the active diazotrophic community in microbial mats from the Elkhorn Slough estuary, Monterey Bay, CA, USA, we conducted an extensive combined approach, including biogeochemical, molecular and high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) analyses. Detailed analysis of dinitrogenase reductase (nifH) transcript clone libraries from mat samples that fixed N2 at night indicated that cyanobacterial nifH transcripts were abundant and formed a novel monophyletic lineage. Independent NanoSIMS analysis of 15N2-incubated samples revealed significant incorporation of 15N into small, non-heterocystous cyanobacterial filaments. Mat-derived enrichment cultures yielded a unicyanobacterial culture with similar filaments (named Elkhorn Slough Filamentous Cyanobacterium-1 (ESFC-1)) that contained nifH gene sequences grouping with the novel cyanobacterial lineage identified in the transcript clone libraries, displaying up to 100% amino-acid sequence identity. The 16S rRNA gene sequence recovered from this enrichment allowed for the identification of related sequences from Elkhorn Slough mats and revealed great sequence diversity in this cluster. Furthermore, by combining 15N2 tracer experiments, fluorescence in situ hybridization and NanoSIMS, in situ N2 fixation activity by the novel ESFC-1 group was demonstrated, suggesting that this group may be the most active cyanobacterial diazotroph in the Elkhorn Slough mat. Pyrotag sequences affiliated with ESFC-1 were recovered from mat samples throughout 2009, demonstrating the prevalence of this group. This work illustrates that combining standard and single-cell analyses can link phylogeny and function to identify previously unknown key

  10. Coupling of algal biofuel production with wastewater.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Neha Chamoli; Panwar, Amit; Bisht, Tara Singh; Tamta, Sushma

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae have gained enormous consideration from scientific community worldwide emerging as a viable feedstock for a renewable energy source virtually being carbon neutral, high lipid content, and comparatively more advantageous to other sources of biofuels. Although microalgae are seen as a valuable source in majority part of the world for production of biofuels and bioproducts, still they are unable to accomplish sustainable large-scale algal biofuel production. Wastewater has organic and inorganic supplements required for algal growth. The coupling of microalgae with wastewater is an effective way of waste remediation and a cost-effective microalgal biofuel production. In this review article, we will primarily discuss the possibilities and current scenario regarding coupling of microalgal cultivation with biofuel production emphasizing recent progress in this area.

  11. Improved algal harvesting using suspended air flotation.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Patrick E; Brenneman, Kristine J; Jacobson, Arne E

    2009-07-01

    Current methods to remove algae from a liquid medium are energy intensive and expensive. This study characterized algae contained within a wastewater oxidation pond and sought to identify a more efficient harvesting technique. Analysis of oxidation pond wastewater revealed that algae, consisting primarily of Chlorella and Scenedesmus, composed approximately 80% of the solids inventory during the study period. Results demonstrated that suspended air flotation (SAF) could harvest algae with a lower air:solids (A/S) ratio, lower energy requirements, and higher loading rates compared to dissolved air flotation (DAF) (P < 0.001). Identification of a more efficient algal harvesting system may benefit wastewater treatment plants by enabling cost effective means to reduce solids content of the final effluent. Furthermore, use of SAF to harvest commercially grown Chlorella and Scenedesmus may reduce manufacturing costs of algal-based products such as fuel, fertilizer, and fish food.

  12. Coupling of Algal Biofuel Production with Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Panwar, Amit; Bisht, Tara Singh; Tamta, Sushma

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae have gained enormous consideration from scientific community worldwide emerging as a viable feedstock for a renewable energy source virtually being carbon neutral, high lipid content, and comparatively more advantageous to other sources of biofuels. Although microalgae are seen as a valuable source in majority part of the world for production of biofuels and bioproducts, still they are unable to accomplish sustainable large-scale algal biofuel production. Wastewater has organic and inorganic supplements required for algal growth. The coupling of microalgae with wastewater is an effective way of waste remediation and a cost-effective microalgal biofuel production. In this review article, we will primarily discuss the possibilities and current scenario regarding coupling of microalgal cultivation with biofuel production emphasizing recent progress in this area. PMID:24982930

  13. Algal diseases: spotlight on a black box.

    PubMed

    Gachon, Claire M M; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore; Strittmatter, Martina; Chambouvet, Aurélie; Kim, Gwang Hoon

    2010-11-01

    Like any other living organisms, algae are plagued by diseases caused by fungi, protists, bacteria or viruses. As aquaculture continues to rise worldwide, pathogens of nori or biofuel sources are becoming a significant economic burden. Parasites are also increasingly being considered of equal importance with predators for ecosystem functioning. Altered disease patterns in disturbed environments are blamed for sudden extinctions, regime shifts, and spreading of alien species. Here we review the biodiversity and impact of pathogens and parasites of aquatic primary producers in freshwater and marine systems. We also cover recent advances on algal defence reactions, and discuss how emerging technologies can be used to reassess the profound, multi-faceted, and so far broadly-overlooked influence of algal diseases on ecosystem properties.

  14. Lava Cave Microbial Communities Within Mats and Secondary Mineral Deposits: Implications for Life Detection on Other Planets

    PubMed Central

    Melim, L.A.; Spilde, M.N.; Hathaway, J.J.M.; Garcia, M.G.; Moya, M.; Stone, F.D.; Boston, P.J.; Dapkevicius, M.L.N.E.; Riquelme, C.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Lava caves contain a wealth of yellow, white, pink, tan, and gold-colored microbial mats; but in addition to these clearly biological mats, there are many secondary mineral deposits that are nonbiological in appearance. Secondary mineral deposits examined include an amorphous copper-silicate deposit (Hawai‘i) that is blue-green in color and contains reticulated and fuzzy filament morphologies. In the Azores, lava tubes contain iron-oxide formations, a soft ooze-like coating, and pink hexagons on basaltic glass, while gold-colored deposits are found in lava caves in New Mexico and Hawai‘i. A combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and molecular techniques was used to analyze these communities. Molecular analyses of the microbial mats and secondary mineral deposits revealed a community that contains 14 phyla of bacteria across three locations: the Azores, New Mexico, and Hawai‘i. Similarities exist between bacterial phyla found in microbial mats and secondary minerals, but marked differences also occur, such as the lack of Actinobacteria in two-thirds of the secondary mineral deposits. The discovery that such deposits contain abundant life can help guide our detection of life on extraterrestrial bodies. Key Words: Biosignatures—Astrobiology—Bacteria—Caves—Life detection—Microbial mats. Astrobiology 11, 601–618. PMID:21879833

  15. Collection and conversion of algal lipid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ching-Chieh

    Sustainable economic activities mandate a significant replacement of fossil energy by renewable forms. Algae-derived biofuels are increasingly seen as an alternative source of energy with potential to supplement the world's ever increasing demand. Our primary objective is, once the algae were cultivated, to eliminate or make more efficient energy-intensive processing steps of collection, drying, grinding, and solvent extraction prior to conversion. To overcome the processing barrier, we propose to streamline from cultivated algae to biodiesel via algal biomass collection by sand filtration, cell rupturing with ozone, and immediate transesterification. To collect the algal biomass, the specific Chlorococcum aquaticum suspension was acidified to pH 3.3 to promote agglomeration prior to sand filtration. The algae-loaded filter bed was drained of free water and added with methanol and ozonated for 2 min to rupture cell membrane to accelerate release of the cellular contents. The methanol solution now containing the dissolved lipid product was collected by draining, while the filter bed was regenerated by further ozonation when needed. The results showed 95% collection of the algal biomass from the suspension and a 16% yield of lipid from the algae, as well as restoration of filtration velocity of the sand bed via ozonation. The results further showed increased lipid yield upon cell rupturing and transesterified products composed entirely of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) compounds, demonstrating that the rupture and transesterification processes could proceed consecutively in the same medium, requiring no separate steps of drying, extraction, and conversion. The FAME products from algae without exposure to ozone were mainly of 16 to 18 carbons containing up to 3 double bonds, while those from algae having been ozonated were smaller, highly saturated hydrocarbons. The new technique streamlines individual steps from cultivated algal lipid to transesterified products and

  16. Control of algal production in a high rate algal pond: investigation through batch and continuous experiments.

    PubMed

    Derabe Maobe, H; Onodera, M; Takahashi, M; Satoh, H; Fukazawa, T

    2014-01-01

    For decades, arid and semi-arid regions in Africa have faced issues related to water availability for drinking, irrigation and livestock purposes. To tackle these issues, a laboratory scale greywater treatment system based on high rate algal pond (HRAP) technology was investigated in order to guide the operation of the pilot plant implemented in the 2iE campus in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). Because of the high suspended solids concentration generally found in effluents of this system, the aim of this study is to improve the performance of HRAPs in term of algal productivity and removal. To determine the selection mechanism of self-flocculated algae, three sets of sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) and three sets of continuous flow reactors (CFRs) were operated. Despite operation with the same solids retention time and the similarity of the algal growth rate found in these reactors, the algal productivity was higher in the SBRs owing to the short hydraulic retention time of 10 days in these reactors. By using a volume of CFR with twice the volume of our experimental CFRs, the algal concentration can be controlled during operation under similar physical conditions in both reactors. PMID:24960016

  17. Influence of Diadema antillarum populations (Echinodermata: Diadematidae) on algal community structure in Jardines de la Reina, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Martín Blanco, Félix; Clero Alonso, Lídice; González Sansón, Gaspar; Amargós Fabián, Pina

    2011-09-01

    The 1983-1984 mass mortality of Diadema antillarum produced severe damages on Caribbean reefs contributing to substantial changes in community structure that still persist. Despite the importance of Diadema grazing in structuring coral reefs, available information on current abundances and algal-urchin interactions in Cuba is scarce. We analyzed spatial variations in Diadema abundance and its influence on algal community structure in 22 reef sites in Jardines de la Reina, in June/2004 and April/2005. Urchins were counted in five 30 x 2m transects per site, and algal coverage was estimated in randomly located 0.25m side quadrats (15 per site). Abundances of Diadema were higher at reef crests (0.013-1.553 ind/m2), while reef slope populations showed values up to three orders of magnitude lower and were overgrown by macroalgae (up to 87%, local values). Algal community structure at reef slopes were dominated by macroalgae, especially Dictyota, Lobophora and Halimeda while the most abundant macroalgae at reef crests were Halimeda and Amphiroa. Urchin densities were negatively and positively correlated with mean coverage of macroalgae and crustose coralline algae, respectively, when analyzing data pooled across all sites, but not with data from separate habitats (specially reef crest), suggesting, along with historical fish biomass, that shallow reef community structure is being shaped by the synergistic action of other factors (e.g. fish grazing) rather than the influence of Diadema alone. However, we observed clear signs of Diadema grazing at reef crests and decreased macroalgal cover according to 2001 data, what suggest that grazing intensity at this habitat increased at the same time that Diadema recruitment began to be noticeable. Furthermore, the excessive abundance of macroalgae at reef slopes and the scarcity of crustose coralline algae seems to be due by the almost complete absence of D. antillarum at mid depth reefs, where local densities of this urchin were

  18. Liquid transportation fuels from algal oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Daichuan

    Liquid transportation fuels from renewable sources are becoming more prominent and important in modem society. Processing of hydrocarbon oils from algae has not been studied in detail in the past, so components which have been proposed for incorporation in algal oils via genetic engineering, such as cuparene, farnesene, phytol and squalene, have been subjected to processing via catalytic cracking in a pulse reactor at different temperatures. The cracking results showed that liquid products contained numerous high octane molecules which make it feasible for use in automobiles. Additionally, canola oil, chosen as an algal oil model compound, was studied as a feed for catalytic cracking in a fixed-bed reactor at atmospheric pressure over different types of zeolites. The results showed that MFI catalysts gave the highest yield of gasoline range products and lowest coke formation. Gallium loaded MFI zeolites increased the total aromatics yield for the canola oil cracking relative to the acid form of the zeolite. Finally, algal oils were cracked on several selected zeolites, and the results showed the same trend as canola oil cracking. MFI gave the highest gasoline yield (43.8 wt%) and lowest coke (4.7 wt%). The total aromatics yield from algae oil cracking is improved 7.8 wt% when MFI is loaded with gallium.

  19. Study of harmful algal blooms in a eutrophic pond, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Roksana; Khan, Saleha; Haque, Md Mahfuzul; Choi, Joong Ki

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to analyze the underlying mechanisms and contributing factors related to the seasonal dynamic of harmful algal blooms in a shallow eutrophic pond, Bangladesh during September 2005-July 2006. Two conspicuous events were noted simultaneously throughout the study period: high concentration of phosphate-phosphorus (>3.03; SD 1.29 mg l(-1)) and permanent cyanobacterial blooms {>3,981.88×10(3) cells l(-1) (SD 508.73)}. Cyanobacterial blooms were characterized by three abundance phases, each of which was associated with different ecological processes. High nitrate-nitrogen (>2.35; SD 0.83 mg l(-1)), for example, was associated with high cyanobacterial abundance, while low nitrate-nitrogen (0.36; SD 0.2 mg l(-1)) was recorded during moderate abundance phase. Extremely low NO3-N/PO4-P ratio (>3.55, SD 2.31) was recorded, and all blooming taxa were negatively correlated with this ratio. Cyanobacterial blooms were positively correlated with temperature (r=0.345) and pH (0.833; p=0.05) and negatively correlated with transparency (r=-0.956; p=0.01). Although Anabaena showed similar relationship with water quality parameters as cyanobacteria, the co-dominant Microcystis exhibited negative relationship with temperature (r=-0.386) and nitrate-nitrogen (r=-0.172). This was attributed to excessive growth of Anabaena that suppressed Microcystis's growth. Planktothrix was the third most dominant taxa, while Euglena was regarded as opportunistic. PMID:19856121

  20. Study of harmful algal blooms in a eutrophic pond, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Roksana; Khan, Saleha; Haque, Md Mahfuzul; Choi, Joong Ki

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to analyze the underlying mechanisms and contributing factors related to the seasonal dynamic of harmful algal blooms in a shallow eutrophic pond, Bangladesh during September 2005-July 2006. Two conspicuous events were noted simultaneously throughout the study period: high concentration of phosphate-phosphorus (>3.03; SD 1.29 mg l(-1)) and permanent cyanobacterial blooms {>3,981.88×10(3) cells l(-1) (SD 508.73)}. Cyanobacterial blooms were characterized by three abundance phases, each of which was associated with different ecological processes. High nitrate-nitrogen (>2.35; SD 0.83 mg l(-1)), for example, was associated with high cyanobacterial abundance, while low nitrate-nitrogen (0.36; SD 0.2 mg l(-1)) was recorded during moderate abundance phase. Extremely low NO3-N/PO4-P ratio (>3.55, SD 2.31) was recorded, and all blooming taxa were negatively correlated with this ratio. Cyanobacterial blooms were positively correlated with temperature (r=0.345) and pH (0.833; p=0.05) and negatively correlated with transparency (r=-0.956; p=0.01). Although Anabaena showed similar relationship with water quality parameters as cyanobacteria, the co-dominant Microcystis exhibited negative relationship with temperature (r=-0.386) and nitrate-nitrogen (r=-0.172). This was attributed to excessive growth of Anabaena that suppressed Microcystis's growth. Planktothrix was the third most dominant taxa, while Euglena was regarded as opportunistic.

  1. Algal taxonomy: a road to nowhere?

    PubMed

    De Clerck, Olivier; Guiry, Michael D; Leliaert, Frederik; Samyn, Yves; Verbruggen, Heroen

    2013-04-01

    The widespread view of taxonomy as an essentially retrogressive and outmoded science unable to cope with the current biodiversity crisis stimulated us to analyze the current status of cataloguing global algal diversity. Contrary to this largely pessimistic belief, species description rates of algae through time and trends in the number of active taxonomists, as revealed by the web resource AlgaeBase, show a much more positive picture. More species than ever before are being described by a large community of algal taxonomists. The lack of any decline in the rate at which new species and genera are described, however, is indicative of the large proportion of undiscovered diversity and bears heavily on any prediction of global algal species diversity and the time needed to catalogue it. The saturation of accumulation curves of higher taxa (family, order, and classes) on the other hand suggest that at these taxonomic levels most diversity has been discovered. This reasonably positive picture does not imply that algal taxonomy does not face serious challenges in the near future. The observed levels of cryptic diversity in algae, combined with the shift in methods used to characterize them, have resulted in a rampant uncertainty about the status of many older species. As a consequence, there is a tendency in phycology to move gradually away from traditional names to a more informal system whereby clade-, specimen- or strain-based identifiers are used to communicate biological information. Whether these informal names for species-level clades represent a temporary situation stimulated by the lag between species discovery and formal description, or an incipient alternative or parallel taxonomy, will be largely determined by how well we manage to integrate historical collections into modern taxonomic research. Additionally, there is a pressing need for a consensus about the organizational framework to manage the information about algal species names. An eventual strategy

  2. Algal taxonomy: a road to nowhere?

    PubMed

    De Clerck, Olivier; Guiry, Michael D; Leliaert, Frederik; Samyn, Yves; Verbruggen, Heroen

    2013-04-01

    The widespread view of taxonomy as an essentially retrogressive and outmoded science unable to cope with the current biodiversity crisis stimulated us to analyze the current status of cataloguing global algal diversity. Contrary to this largely pessimistic belief, species description rates of algae through time and trends in the number of active taxonomists, as revealed by the web resource AlgaeBase, show a much more positive picture. More species than ever before are being described by a large community of algal taxonomists. The lack of any decline in the rate at which new species and genera are described, however, is indicative of the large proportion of undiscovered diversity and bears heavily on any prediction of global algal species diversity and the time needed to catalogue it. The saturation of accumulation curves of higher taxa (family, order, and classes) on the other hand suggest that at these taxonomic levels most diversity has been discovered. This reasonably positive picture does not imply that algal taxonomy does not face serious challenges in the near future. The observed levels of cryptic diversity in algae, combined with the shift in methods used to characterize them, have resulted in a rampant uncertainty about the status of many older species. As a consequence, there is a tendency in phycology to move gradually away from traditional names to a more informal system whereby clade-, specimen- or strain-based identifiers are used to communicate biological information. Whether these informal names for species-level clades represent a temporary situation stimulated by the lag between species discovery and formal description, or an incipient alternative or parallel taxonomy, will be largely determined by how well we manage to integrate historical collections into modern taxonomic research. Additionally, there is a pressing need for a consensus about the organizational framework to manage the information about algal species names. An eventual strategy

  3. Algal biomass production and wastewater treatment in high rate algal ponds receiving disinfected effluent.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Aníbal Fonseca; Calijuri, Maria Lucia; Assemany, Paula Peixoto; Calijuri, Maria do Carmo; dos Reis, Alberto José Delgado

    2013-01-01

    Algal biomass production associated with wastewater is usually carried out in high rate algal ponds (HRAPs), which are concomitantly used in the treatment of such effluent. However, most types of wastewater have high levels of bacteria that can inhibit the growth of algal biomass by competing for space and nutrients. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of ultraviolet (UV) pre-disinfection on the performance of HRAPs used for wastewater treatment and algal biomass production. Two HRAPs were tested: one received effluent from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor- HRAP -and the second received UASB effluent pre-disinfected by UV radiation-(UV)HRAP. Physical, chemical and microbiological parameters were monitored, as well as algal biomass productivity and daily pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) variation. The (UV)HRAP presented highest DO and pH values, as well as greater percentage of chlorophyll a in the biomass, which indicates greater algal biomass productivity. The average percentages of chlorophyll a found in the biomass obtained from the HRAP and the (UV)HRAP were 0.95 +/- 0.65% and 1.58 +/- 0.65%, respectively. However, total biomass productivity was greater in the HRAP (11.4 gVSSm(-2) day(-1)) compared with the (UV)HRAP (9.3 gVSSm(-2) day(-1)). Mean pH values were 7.7 +/- 0.7 in the HRAP and 8.1 +/- 1.0 in the (UV)HRAP, and mean values of DO percent saturation were 87 +/- 26% and 112 +/- 31% for the HRAP and the (UV)HRAP, respectively. Despite these differences, removal efficiencies of organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand, ammoniacal nitrogen and soluble phosphorus were statistically equal at the 5% significance level.

  4. Bioremediation of metals, organic and mixed contaminants with microbial mats

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, J.

    1995-12-31

    Microbial mats are natural heterotrophic and autotrophic communities dominated by cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). They are self-organized laminated structures annealed tightly together by slimy secretions from various microbial components. The surface slime of the mats effectively immobilizes the ecosystem to a variety of substrates, thereby stabilizing the most efficient internal microbial structure. Cyanobacteria mats are generated for bioremediation applications by enriching a water surface with ensiled grass clippings. These constructed mats have been used to reduce selenate to elemental selenium, remove Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Co, Cr, Fe and Mn from water and to remove Pb from sediments of shallow laboratory ponds. Uranium, U{sup 238}, was removed from groundwater samples at the rate of 3.19 Mg/m{sup 2}/h. Degradation of recalcitrant organic contaminants by mats is relatively rapid under both dark and light conditions. The following contaminants have been degraded in water and/or soil media by constructed mats: TNT, chrysene, naphthalene, hexadecane, phenanthrene, PCB, TCE, pulp and paper mill wastes, and three pesticides: chlordane, carbofuran and paraquat. Radio-labeled experiments with mat-treated carbofuran, petroleum distillates, TNT, chlordane, PCB and TCE show that these compounds are mineralized by the constructed mats. Mats applied to mixed contaminant solutions (TCE + Zn and TNT + pb) sequestered the metal while mineralizing the TCE. Remediation rates of the organic and inorganic components were the same in mixed solution as they were in single application.

  5. Reduced Gas Cycling in Microbial Mats: Implications for Early Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; Bebout, Brad M.; DesMarais, David J.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    For more than half the history of life on Earth, biological productivity was dominated by photosynthetic microbial mats. During this time, mats served as the preeminent biological influence on earth's surface and atmospheric chemistry and also as the primary crucible for microbial evolution. We find that modern analogs of these ancient mat communities generate substantial quantities of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane. Escape of these gases from the biosphere would contribute strongly to atmospheric evolution and potentially to the net oxidation of earth's surface; sequestration within the biosphere carries equally important implications for the structure, function, and evolution of anaerobic microbial communities within the context of mat biology.

  6. Mechanism and challenges in commercialisation of algal biofuels.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anoop; Nigam, Poonam Singh; Murphy, Jerry D

    2011-01-01

    Biofuels made from algal biomass are being considered as the most suitable alternative energy in current global and economical scenario. Microalgae are known to produce and accumulate lipids within their cell mass which is similar to those found in many vegetable oils. The efficient lipid producer algae cell mass has been reported to contain more than 30% of their cell weight as lipids. According to US DOE microalgae have the potential to produce 100 times more oil per acre land than any terrestrial plants. This article reviews up to date literature on the composition of algae, mechanism of oil droplets, triacylglycerol (TAG) production in algal biomass, research and development made in the cultivation of algal biomass, harvesting strategies, and recovery of lipids from algal mass. The economical challenges in the production of biofuels from algal biomass have been discussed in view of the future prospects in the commercialisation of algal fuels.

  7. Biogeochemistry of Stinking Springs, Utah. Part II: Microbial Diversity and Photo- and Chemo-Autotrophic Growth Rates in a Layered Microbial Mat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteverde, D.; Metzger, J. G.; Bournod, C.; Kelly, H.; Johnson, H.; Sessions, A. L.; Osburn, M.; Shapiro, R. S.; Rideout, J.; Johnston, D. T.; Stevenson, B.; Stamps, B. W.; Vuono, D.; Hanselmann, K.; Spear, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Layered microbial mats have garnered attention for their high phylogenetic diversity and exploitation of geochemical gradients often on the mm scale. However, despite their novelty and implications for early life diversification, little is known about layered microbial mat growth rates or the interdependence of the microbial communities within the system. Stinking Springs, a warm, sulfidic, saline spring northeast of the Great Salt Lake, serves as our test-site to investigate some of these questions. Stinking Springs undergoes downstream changes in pH (6.59-8.14), sulfide (527μM - below detection), sulfate (13-600μM), TCO2 (7.77-3.71mM), and temperature (40-21°C) along its ~150m flow path. The first 10m of discharge is channelized, beyond that, the spring supports a 10 to 40mm-thick layered microbial mat covering ~40% of the total spring runoff area. The mat was divided into four texturally-distinct layers which were each analyzed for 16S rRNA, lipid abundance, and bicarbonate and acetate uptake rates in addition to standard microscopy analyses. 16S rRNA analyses confirmed high taxa diversity within each layer, which varied significantly in taxa makeup such that no single phylum dominated the abundance (>33%) in more than one mat layer. The taxonomic diversity tended to increase with mat depth, a similar finding to other studies on layered microbial mats. A mat sampling transect across 16 meters showed that layer taxonomic diversity was conserved horizontally for all four mat layers, which implies mat depth has a larger control on diversity than physical or chemical parameters. Microscopy indicated the presence of diatoms in all layers which was confirmed by lipid abundance of sterols and long-branch fatty acid methyl esters. Incubation experiments were conducted in light and dark conditions over 24 hours with separate 13C-tagged bicarbonate and acetate additions. Heterotrophic growth rates (acetate uptake; 0.03-0.65%/day) were higher than autotrophic growth

  8. Optimizing algal cultivation & productivity : an innovative, multidiscipline, and multiscale approach.

    SciTech Connect

    Murton, Jaclyn K.; Hanson, David T.; Turner, Tom; Powell, Amy Jo; James, Scott Carlton; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Scholle, Steven; August, Andrew; Dwyer, Brian P.; Ruffing, Anne; Jones, Howland D. T.; Ricken, James Bryce; Reichardt, Thomas A.

    2010-04-01

    Progress in algal biofuels has been limited by significant knowledge gaps in algal biology, particularly as they relate to scale-up. To address this we are investigating how culture composition dynamics (light as well as biotic and abiotic stressors) describe key biochemical indicators of algal health: growth rate, photosynthetic electron transport, and lipid production. Our approach combines traditional algal physiology with genomics, bioanalytical spectroscopy, chemical imaging, remote sensing, and computational modeling to provide an improved fundamental understanding of algal cell biology across multiple cultures scales. This work spans investigations from the single-cell level to ensemble measurements of algal cell cultures at the laboratory benchtop to large greenhouse scale (175 gal). We will discuss the advantages of this novel, multidisciplinary strategy and emphasize the importance of developing an integrated toolkit to provide sensitive, selective methods for detecting early fluctuations in algal health, productivity, and population diversity. Progress in several areas will be summarized including identification of spectroscopic signatures for algal culture composition, stress level, and lipid production enabled by non-invasive spectroscopic monitoring of the photosynthetic and photoprotective pigments at the single-cell and bulk-culture scales. Early experiments compare and contrast the well-studied green algae chlamydomonas with two potential production strains of microalgae, nannochloropsis and dunnaliella, under optimal and stressed conditions. This integrated approach has the potential for broad impact on algal biofuels and bioenergy and several of these opportunities will be discussed.

  9. Stromatolites, Metals, Statistics and Microbial Mats: A Complex Interplay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spear, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Initially thought to be relatively 'simple' ecosystems for study, microbial mats have long been considered ideal for any number of research questions. Microbial mats can be found in any number of environments, both natural and manmade, and are typically dependent upon the physiochemical environment for their structure, maintenance and longevity. Ultimately, these and other parameters govern community whereby a microbial mat provides overall ecosystem services to their environment. On the edge of a hotspring in Yellowstone National Park we have found an active microbial mat community that can form a laminated, lithified, accretionary structure that is likely the best example of a living and growing stromatolite. In the outfall channel of the sulfidic Stinking Spring, Utah, we have found examples of both naturally occurring laminated and floating mats where the carbon flux is controlled by abiotic degassing of CO2 rather than metabolism. δ13C-bicarbonate uptake experiments reveal an autotrophic growth rate of 0 - 0.16%/day while δ13C-acetate reveals a higher heterotrophic growth rate of 0.03 - 0.65%/day, which highlights the role of heterotrophs in these mats. Similar growth experiments on Little Hot Creek, California laminated microbial mats reveal a trend for top-down microbial growth with similar microbial taxonomy and diversity to other mat-types. Of a curious note is that incubation experiments with Little Hot Creek mats reveals the importance of particular metals in mat structure and function. Statistically, alpha- and beta-diversity metrics are often used to characterize microbial communities in such systems, but from an analysis of a wastewater treatment system, Hill diversities can better interpret the effective number of species to produce an ecologically intuitive quantity to better understand a microbial mat ecosystem.

  10. Detection of bacteria associated with harmful algal blooms from coastal and microcosm environments using electronic microarrays.

    PubMed

    Barlaan, Edward A; Furukawa, Seiji; Takeuchi, Kazuhisa

    2007-03-01

    With the global expansion of harmful algal blooms (HABs), several measures, including molecular approaches, have been undertaken to monitor its occurrence. Many reports have indicated the significant roles of bacteria in controlling algal bloom dynamics. Attempts have been made to utilize the bacteria/harmful algae relationship in HAB monitoring. In this study, bacterial assemblages monitored during coastal HABs and bacterial communities in induced microcosm blooms were investigated. Samples were analysed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the 16S rRNA gene. DGGE bands with peculiar patterns before, during, and after algal blooms were isolated and identified. Probes for six ribotypes representing organisms associated with Chatonella spp., Heterocapsa circularisquama, or Heterosigma akashiwo were used for analysis on NanoChip electronic microarray. In addition, a new approach using cultured bacteria species was developed to detect longer (533 bp) polymerase chain reaction-amplified products on the electronic microarray. The use of fluorescently labelled primers allowed the detection of individual species in single or mixed DNA conditions. The developed approach enabled the detection of the presence or absence and relative abundance of the HAB-related ribotypes in coastal and microcosm blooms. This study indicates the ability of electronic microarray platform to detect or monitor bacteria in natural and induced environments.

  11. Algal Lipids as Quantitative Paleosalinity Proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloney, A.; Shinneman, A.; Hemeon, K.; Sachs, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The tropics play an important role in driving climate. However it is difficult to uncover past changes in tropical precipitation due to a lack of tree ring records and low accumulation rates of marine sediments. Hydrogen isotope ratios of algal lipids preserved in lacustrine and marine sediments have been used to qualitatively reconstruct tropical paleohydrology. Changes in the hydrologic balance are reflected in salinity and in lake water D/H ratios, which are closely tracked by lipid D/H ratios of algal biomarkers. While useful for determining past periods of "wetter" or "drier" conditions, variability in isotope fractionation in algal lipids during lipid biosynthesis can be exploited to more quantitatively determine how much wetter or drier conditions were in the past. The estuarine diatom, Thalassiosira pseudonnana, was grown in continuous cultures under controlled light, temperature, nutrient, and growth rate conditions to assess the influence of salinity (9-40 PSU) on D/H fractionation between lipids and source water. Three fatty acids, 24-methylcholesta-5,24(28)-dien-3B-ol, and phytol show decreasing fractionation between lipid and source water as salinity increases with 0.8-1.3‰ change in fractionation per salinity unit. These results compliment field-based empirical observations of dinosterol in Chesapeake Bay suspended particles that change 0.99‰ per salinity unit and lipid biomarkers from hyper-saline ponds on Christmas Island that change 0.7-1.1‰ per salinity unit. Biological pathways responsible for the inverse relationship between fractionation and salinity will be discussed.

  12. Algal populations controlled by fish herbivory across a wave exposure gradient on southern temperate shores.

    PubMed

    Taylor, David I; Schiel, David R

    2010-01-01

    Consumers that forage across habitats can affect communities by altering the abundance and distribution of key species. In marine communities, studies of trophic interactions have generally focused on the effects of herbivorous and predatory invertebrates on benthic algae and mussel populations. However, large mobile consumers that move across habitats, such as fishes, can strongly affect community dynamics through consumption of habitat-dominating species, but their effects often vary over environmental gradients. On temperate rocky shores, herbivorous fishes are generally a small part of the fish fauna compared to the tropics, and there is sparse evidence that they play a major direct role in algal community dynamics, particularly of large brown algae that dominate many reefs. In New Zealand, however, a wide-ranging herbivorous fish, Odax pullus, feeds exclusively on macroalgae, including Durvillaea antarctica, a large low-intertidal fucoid reaching 10 m in length and 70 kg in mass. In four experiments we tested the extent of fish herbivory and how it was affected by algal canopy structure across a gradient of wave exposure at multiple sites. Exclusion experiments showed that fish impacts greatly reduced the cover and biomass of Durvillaea and that these effects decreased with increasing wave stress and algal canopy cover, effectively restricting the alga to exposed conditions. Almost all plants were entirely removed by fish where there was a sparse algal canopy in sheltered and semi-exposed sites, but there was significantly less grazing in exposed sites. Recruit Durvillaea beneath canopies were less affected by fish grazing, but they grew slowly. Successful natural recruitment, therefore, occurred almost exclusively on exposed shores outside canopies where many plants escaped severe grazing, and growth to maturity was far greater than elsewhere. Such large and direct impacts on the local and regional distribution of large brown algal populations by mobile

  13. Algal Attributes: An Autecological Classification of Algal Taxa Collected by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porter, Stephen D.

    2008-01-01

    Algae are excellent indicators of water-quality conditions, notably nutrient and organic enrichment, and also are indicators of major ion, dissolved oxygen, and pH concentrations and stream microhabitat conditions. The autecology, or physiological optima and tolerance, of algal species for various water-quality contaminants and conditions is relatively well understood for certain groups of freshwater algae, notably diatoms. However, applications of autecological information for water-quality assessments have been limited because of challenges associated with compiling autecological literature from disparate sources, tracking name changes for a large number of algal species, and creating an autecological data base from which algal-indicator metrics can be calculated. A comprehensive summary of algal autecological attributes for North American streams and rivers does not exist. This report describes a large, digital data file containing 28,182 records for 5,939 algal taxa, generally species or variety, collected by the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The data file includes 37 algal attributes classified by over 100 algal-indicator codes or metrics that can be calculated easily with readily available software. Algal attributes include qualitative classifications based on European and North American autecological literature, and semi-quantitative, weighted-average regression approaches for estimating optima using regional and national NAWQA data. Applications of algal metrics in water-quality assessments are discussed and national quartile distributions of metric scores are shown for selected indicator metrics.

  14. Matting of hair: what is the role of conditioners?

    PubMed

    Rigopoulos, D; Kontochristopoulos, G; Kalogirou, O; Gregoriou, S; Katsambas, A

    2006-03-01

    Matting of the hair is a very rare and multifactorial condition affecting usually women. We present three female patients with matting of the hair as a result of the shampoo used. In all three cases, cutting of the affected hair was unavoidable. PMID:16503900

  15. MAT@USC Candidates and Latino English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lomeli, Cynthia Leticia

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to further understand the perceptions of MAT@USC teacher candidates and how their perceptions and previous experiences affect the educational experiences of Latino English language learners. Three questions were developed to guide this study: (1) What are the perceptions of MAT@USC candidates in selected courses…

  16. User`s guide to the MATS data

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, S.

    1990-08-01

    Data collected for the 37 Mesoscale Transport Studies (MATS) experiments are available on a single, double-sided, high-density (1.2MB), IBM-formatted, 5.25 in. floppy disk (MATS disk). Standard ASCII characters are used. This report discusses how to install this disk, symbols used, format of the ratio, and the sample experiment.

  17. Use of constructed mixed microbial mats for landfill leachate treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Goodroad, L.; Bender, J.; Phillips, P.

    1995-12-31

    BIOMAT{trademark} (Mats) is a system of constructed microbial mats which are natural heterotrophic and autotrophic communities dominated by cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). Mats constructed with specific microbial components have been developed for various bioremediation applications: removal of metals, organic degradation, removal of radionuclides, treatment of mixed contaminants, biological treatment ponds, and soil remediation. Based on the potential applications of the constructed microbial mat system, a pilot scale leachate treatment system has been constructed at the Waste Management, Inc. Outer Loop RDF near Louisville, KY in conjunction with M.A.T.S., Inc. The system consists of two lined lagoons with various constructed mat configurations. Changes in leachate chemistry including: pH, dissolved oxygen, color, nitrate/nitrite and ammonium concentration were monitored on influent and effluent leachate streams and within the pilot system to determine operational characteristics of the constructed microbial mat system. The M.A.T.S., Inc. treatment system is expected to reduce capital costs for leachate treatment plants, decrease leachate treatment operating costs, and create a {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} self-contained image for landfills.

  18. Compositions and method of use of constructed microbial mats

    DOEpatents

    Bender, Judith A.; Phillips, Peter C.

    1997-01-01

    Compositions and methods of use of constructed microbial mats, comprising cyanobacteria and purple autotrophic bacteria and an organic nutrient source, in a laminated structure, are described. The constructed microbial mat is used for bioremediation of different individual contaminants and for mixed or multiple contaminants, and for production of beneficial compositions and molecules.

  19. Microbial mats for multiple applications in aquaculture and bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Bender, Judith; Phillips, Peter

    2004-09-01

    Microbial mats occur in nature as stratified communities of cyanobacteria and bacteria, but they can be cultured on large-scale and manipulated for a variety of functions. They are complex systems, but require few external inputs. The functional uses of mats broadly cover the areas of aquaculture and bioremediation. Preliminary research also points to promising uses in agriculture and energy production. Regarding aquaculture, mats were shown to produce protein, via nitrogen fixation, and were capable of supplying nutrition to tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Current research is examining the role of mats in the nitrification of nutrient-enriched effluents from aquaculture. Most research has addressed bioremediation, within which two majors categories of contaminants were examined: metals and radionuclides, and organic contaminants. Mats sequester or precipitate metals/radionuclides by surface absorption or by conditioning the surrounding chemical environment, thus bioconcentrating the metal/radionuclide in a small volume. Organic contaminants are degraded and may be completely mineralized. For agriculture mats hold promise as a soil amendment and nitrogen fertilizer. The use of mats in biohydrogen production has been verified, but is in a preliminary phase of development. We propose a comprehensive closed system based on microbial mats for aquaculture and waste management.

  20. Characterizing Microbial Mat Morphology with Structure from Motion Techniques in Ice-Covered Lake Joyce, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, T. J.; Leidman, S. Z.; Allen, B.; Hawes, I.; Lawrence, J.; Jungblut, A. D.; Krusor, M.; Coleman, L.; Sumner, D. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Structure from Motion (SFM) techniques can provide quantitative morphological documentation of otherwise inaccessible benthic ecosystems such as microbial mats in Lake Joyce, a perennially ice-covered lake of the Antarctic McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV). Microbial mats are a key ecosystem of MDV lakes, and diverse mat morphologies like pinnacles emerge from interactions among microbial behavior, mineralization, and environmental conditions. Environmental gradients can be isolated to test mat growth models, but assessment of mat morphology along these gradients is complicated by their inaccessibility: the Lake Joyce ice cover is 4-5 m thick, water depths containing diverse pinnacle morphologies are 9-14 m, and relevant mat features are cm-scale. In order to map mat pinnacle morphology in different sedimentary settings, we deployed drop cameras (SeaViewer and GoPro) through 29 GPS referenced drill holes clustered into six stations along a transect spanning 880 m. Once under the ice cover, a boom containing a second GoPro camera was unfurled and rotated to collect oblique images of the benthic mats within dm of the mat-water interface. This setup allowed imaging from all sides over a ~1.5 m diameter area of the lake bottom. Underwater lens parameters were determined for each camera in Agisoft Lens; images were reconstructed and oriented in space with the SFM software Agisoft Photoscan, using the drop camera axis of rotation as up. The reconstructions were compared to downward facing images to assess accuracy, and similar images of an object with known geometry provided a test for expected error in reconstructions. Downward facing images identify decreasing pinnacle abundance in higher sedimentation settings, and quantitative measurements of 3D reconstructions in KeckCAVES LidarViewer supplement these mat morphological facies with measurements of pinnacle height and orientation. Reconstructions also help isolate confounding variables for mat facies trends with measurements

  1. Accelerating Commercialization of Algal Biofuels Through Partnerships (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This brochure describes National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) algal biofuels research capabilities and partnership opportunities. NREL is accelerating algal biofuels commercialization through: (1) Advances in applied biology; (2) Algal strain development; (3) Development of fuel conversion pathways; (4) Techno-economic analysis; and (5) Development of high-throughput lipid analysis methodologies. NREL scientists and engineers are addressing challenges across the algal biofuels value chain, including algal biology, cultivation, harvesting and extraction, and fuel conversion. Through partnerships, NREL can share knowledge and capabilities in the following areas: (1) Algal Biology - A fundamental understanding of algal biology is key to developing cost-effective algal biofuels processes. NREL scientists are experts in the isolation and characterization of microalgal species. They are identifying genes and pathways involved in biofuel production. In addition, they have developed a high-throughput, non-destructive technique for assessing lipid production in microalgae. (2) Cultivation - NREL researchers study algal growth capabilities and perform compositional analysis of algal biomass. Laboratory-scale photobioreactors and 1-m2 open raceway ponds in an on-site greenhouse allow for year-round cultivation of algae under a variety of conditions. A bioenergy-focused algal strain collection is being established at NREL, and our laboratory houses a cryopreservation system for long-term maintenance of algal cultures and preservation of intellectual property. (3) Harvesting and Extraction - NREL is investigating cost-effective harvesting and extraction methods suitable for a variety of species and conditions. Areas of expertise include cell wall analysis and deconstruction and identification and utilization of co-products. (4) Fuel Conversion - NREL's excellent capabilities and facilities for biochemical and thermochemical conversion of biomass to biofuels are being

  2. Bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHE) in chlorophyte algal mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Atteia, Ariane; van Lis, Robert; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Henze, Katrin; Martin, William; Riveros-Rosas, Hector; González-Halphen, Diego

    2003-09-01

    Protein profiles of mitochondria isolated from the heterotrophic chlorophyte Polytomella sp. grown on ethanol at pH 6.0 and pH 3.7 were analyzed by Blue Native and denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Steady-state levels of oxidative phosphorylation complexes were influenced by external pH. Levels of an abundant, soluble, mitochondrial protein of 85 kDa and its corresponding mRNA increased at pH 6.0 relative to pH 3.7. N-terminal and internal sequencing of the 85 kDa mitochondrial protein together with the corresponding cDNA identified it as a bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHE) with strong similarity to homologues from eubacteria and amitochondriate protists. A mitochondrial targeting sequence of 27 amino acids precedes the N-terminus of the mature mitochondrial protein. A gene encoding an ADHE homologue was also identified in the genome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a photosynthetic relative of Polytomella. ADHE reveals a complex picture of sequence similarity among homologues. The lack of ADHE from archaebacteria indicates a eubacterial origin for the eukaryotic enzyme. Among eukaryotes, ADHE has hitherto been characteristic of anaerobes since it is essential to cytosolic energy metabolism of amitochondriate protists such as Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica. Its abundance and expression pattern suggest an important role for ADHE in mitochondrial metabolism of Polytomella under the conditions studied. The current data are compatible with the view that Polytomella ADHE could be involved either in ethanol production or assimilation, or both, depending upon environmental conditions. Presence of ADHE in an oxygen-respiring algal mitochondrion and co-expression at ambient oxygen levels with respiratory chain components is unexpected with respect to the view that eukaryotes acquired ADHE genes specifically as an adaptation to an anaerobic lifestyle.

  3. Bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHE) in chlorophyte algal mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Atteia, Ariane; van Lis, Robert; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Henze, Katrin; Martin, William; Riveros-Rosas, Hector; González-Halphen, Diego

    2003-09-01

    Protein profiles of mitochondria isolated from the heterotrophic chlorophyte Polytomella sp. grown on ethanol at pH 6.0 and pH 3.7 were analyzed by Blue Native and denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Steady-state levels of oxidative phosphorylation complexes were influenced by external pH. Levels of an abundant, soluble, mitochondrial protein of 85 kDa and its corresponding mRNA increased at pH 6.0 relative to pH 3.7. N-terminal and internal sequencing of the 85 kDa mitochondrial protein together with the corresponding cDNA identified it as a bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHE) with strong similarity to homologues from eubacteria and amitochondriate protists. A mitochondrial targeting sequence of 27 amino acids precedes the N-terminus of the mature mitochondrial protein. A gene encoding an ADHE homologue was also identified in the genome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a photosynthetic relative of Polytomella. ADHE reveals a complex picture of sequence similarity among homologues. The lack of ADHE from archaebacteria indicates a eubacterial origin for the eukaryotic enzyme. Among eukaryotes, ADHE has hitherto been characteristic of anaerobes since it is essential to cytosolic energy metabolism of amitochondriate protists such as Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica. Its abundance and expression pattern suggest an important role for ADHE in mitochondrial metabolism of Polytomella under the conditions studied. The current data are compatible with the view that Polytomella ADHE could be involved either in ethanol production or assimilation, or both, depending upon environmental conditions. Presence of ADHE in an oxygen-respiring algal mitochondrion and co-expression at ambient oxygen levels with respiratory chain components is unexpected with respect to the view that eukaryotes acquired ADHE genes specifically as an adaptation to an anaerobic lifestyle. PMID:14756315

  4. Precipitation of iron in microbial mats of the spring waters of Borra Caves, Vishakapatnam, India: some geomicrobiological aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskar, Sushmitha; Baskar, R.; Lee, Natuschka; Kaushik, A.; Theophilus, P. K.

    2008-11-01

    The Borra caves, Vishakapatnam, India, can be described as a speleothem cave with significant amounts of unexplored microbial mats in spring waters. Here, we present the first observations and hypotheses on the possible impact of the microorganisms in these mats on the cave formation, focusing on their role on iron mineral precipitation. The spring waters (pH neutral 7.5 7.7) contained dissolved metals like iron and the organic mat sludge (pH 7.0 7.3) had a TOC content of approximately 5.4 wt%. Geochemically, the spring waters deep below the microbial mats contained Fe 369 ppb, Sr 198 ppb; and the organic mat sludge contained Mg 9 ppm, Fe 427 ppb, Zn 149 ppb, Sr 190 ppb. XRD observations displayed Fe minerals (dominantly hematite), minor amounts of zinc gallium sulfide and nitrofuryl compounds. At least four groups of bacteria identified by direct microscopy and SEM-EDX on the basis of morphology could be observed in all samples: Leptothrix-like organisms, entombed bacterial mineral sheaths, a few stalks of Gallionella-like organisms and some additional bacteria that could not be further identified. Leptothrix-like organisms contained 43.22 60.08 wt % Fe and the mineral precipitated near and around these bacteria (in the actual unaltered samples on site) contained 30.76 45.22 wt% Fe as identified and quantified by SEM-EDX. This study indicates that the precipitation of these iron-rich mats in the spring waters could be linked to the presence of abundant active communities of iron precipitating bacteria at Borra caves, Vishakapatanam.

  5. Anoxygenic Photosynthesis and Nitrogen Fixation by a Microbial Mat Community in a Bahamian Hypersaline Lagoon

    PubMed Central

    Pinckney, J. L.; Paerl, H. W.

    1997-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of photosynthesis (both oxygenic and anoxygenic) and N(inf2) fixation were conducted to discern the relationships between photosynthesis, N(inf2) fixation, and environmental factors potentially regulating these processes in microbial mats in a tropical hypersaline lagoon (Salt Pond, San Salvador Island, Bahamas). Major photoautotrophs included cyanobacteria, purple phototrophic bacteria, and diatoms. Chemosystematic photopigments were used as indicators of the relative abundance of mat phototrophs. Experimental manipulations consisted of light and dark incubations of intact mat samples exposed to the photosystem II inhibitor DCMU [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea], a dissolved organic carbon source (D-glucose), and normal seawater (37(permil)). Photosynthetic rates were measured by both O(inf2) and (sup14)C methods, and nitrogenase activity (NA) was estimated by the acetylene reduction assay. Moderate reductions in salinity (from 74 to 37(permil)) had no measurable effect on photosynthesis, O(inf2) consumption, or NA. CO(inf2) fixation in DCMU-amended samples was (symbl)25% of that in the control (nonamended) samples and demonstrated photosynthetic activity by anoxygenic phototrophs. NA in DCMU-amended samples, which was consistently higher (by a factor of 2 to 3) than the other (light and dark) treatments, was also attributed to purple phototrophic bacteria. The ecological implication is that N(inf2) fixation by anoxygenic phototrophs (purple phototrophic bacteria and possibly cyanobacteria) may be regulated by the activity of oxygenic phototrophs (cyanobacteria and diatoms). Consortial interactions that enhance the physiological plasticity of the mat community may be a key for optimizing production, N(inf2) fixation, and persistence in these extreme environments. PMID:16535506

  6. Evidence of novel phylogenetic lineages of methanogenic archaea from hypersaline microbial mats.

    PubMed

    García-Maldonado, José Q; Bebout, Brad M; Everroad, R Craig; López-Cortés, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Methanogenesis in hypersaline and high-sulfate environments is typically dominated by methylotrophic methanogens because sulfate reduction is thermodynamically favored over hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis in these environments. We characterized the community composition of methanogenic archaea in both unmanipulated and incubated microbial mats from different hypersaline environments in Baja California Sur, Mexico. Clone libraries of methyl coenzyme-M reductase (mcrA) sequences and DGGE band patterns of 16S rRNA and mcrA sequences showed that the methanogen community in these microbial mats is dominated by methylotrophic methanogens of the genus Methanohalophilus. However, phylogenetic analyses of mcrA sequences from these mats also revealed two new lineages corresponding to putative hydrogenotrophic methanogens related with the strictly hydrogenotrophic order Methanomicrobiales. Stimulated methane production under decreased salinity and sulfate concentrations also suggested the presence of hydrogenotrophic methanogens in these samples. The relative abundance of mcrA gene and transcripts, estimated by SYBR green I qPCR assays, suggested the activity of different phylogenetic groups of methanogens, including the two novel clusters, in unmanipulated samples of hypersaline microbial mats. Using geochemical and molecular approaches, we show that substrate limitation and values of salinity and sulfate higher than 3 % and 25 mM (respectively) are potential environmental constraints for methanogenesis in these environments. Microcosm experiments with modifications of salinity and sulfate concentrations and TMA addition showed that upper salt and sulfate concentrations for occurrence of methylotrophic methanogenesis were 28 % and 263 mM, respectively. This study provides phylogenetic information about uncultivated and undescribed methanogenic archaea from hypersaline environments.

  7. Metagenomic analysis reveals that modern microbialites and polar microbial mats have similar taxonomic and functional potential

    PubMed Central

    White, Richard Allen; Power, Ian M.; Dipple, Gregory M.; Southam, Gordon; Suttle, Curtis A.

    2015-01-01

    Within the subarctic climate of Clinton Creek, Yukon, Canada, lies an abandoned and flooded open-pit asbestos mine that harbors rapidly growing microbialites. To understand their formation we completed a metagenomic community profile of the microbialites and their surrounding sediments. Assembled metagenomic data revealed that bacteria within the phylum Proteobacteria numerically dominated this system, although the relative abundances of taxa within the phylum varied among environments. Bacteria belonging to Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were dominant in the microbialites and sediments, respectively. The microbialites were also home to many other groups associated with microbialite formation including filamentous cyanobacteria and dissimilatory sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacteria, consistent with the idea of a shared global microbialite microbiome. Other members were present that are typically not associated with microbialites including Gemmatimonadetes and iron-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria, which participate in carbon metabolism and iron cycling. Compared to the sediments, the microbialite microbiome has significantly more genes associated with photosynthetic processes (e.g., photosystem II reaction centers, carotenoid, and chlorophyll biosynthesis) and carbon fixation (e.g., CO dehydrogenase). The Clinton Creek microbialite communities had strikingly similar functional potentials to non-lithifying microbial mats from the Canadian High Arctic and Antarctica, but are functionally distinct, from non-lithifying mats or biofilms from Yellowstone. Clinton Creek microbialites also share metabolic genes (R2 < 0.750) with freshwater microbial mats from Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico, but are more similar to polar Arctic mats (R2 > 0.900). These metagenomic profiles from an anthropogenic microbialite-forming ecosystem provide context to microbialite formation on a human-relevant timescale. PMID:26441900

  8. Effects of algal food quality on sexual reproduction of Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jong-Yun; Kim, Seong-Ki; La, Geung-Hwan; Chang, Kwang-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Kyun; Jeong, Keon-Young; Park, Min S; Joo, Gea-Jae; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Jeong, Kwang-Seuk

    2016-05-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate sexual reproduction of Daphnia magna associated with mating behaviors and hatching rates, according to different algal food sources. Since a diatom is known to contain more abundant long-chain poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), we hypothesized that the diatom-consuming D. magna would exhibit more successful reproduction rates. Upon the hypothesis, we designed three experiments using two algal species, a green alga (Chlorella vulgaris) and a diatom (Stephanodiscus hantzschii). From the results, we found that the mating frequency and copulation duration increased in the treatment with S. hantzschii, resulting in a significant increase of hatching rates of resting eggs. In the other two repetitive mating strategies (e.g., one female vs. multiple males, and one male vs. multiple females), we found that the hatching rates of resting eggs were greater in the S. hantzschii treatment. In addition to the mating strategy, male body size significantly increased in the diatom treatment, hence average diameter of penis was also statistically different among the treatments (greater diameter in the S. hantzschii treatment). To examine the effect of algal food quality, we estimated quantity of fatty acids in the two algal species. Our result showed that S. hantzschii had a higher proportion of long-chain PUFAs than C. vulgaris. Furthermore, a stable isotope analysis revealed that carbon and nitrogen originated from S. hantzschii were more assimilated to D. magna. In summary, our study manifested that diatom consumption of D. magna leads to more successful sexual reproduction. We then discussed how the diatom consumption of zooplankton influences food web dynamics in a freshwater ecosystem.

  9. Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Algal Blooms in the Lower Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, R.; Sultan, M.; Boyer, G. L.; Atkinson, J. F.; Konopko, E.

    2005-12-01

    As part of the MERHAB (Monitoring and Event Response for Harmful Algal Blooms) project, we are exploring the utility of chlorophyll extraction techniques to map the spatial and temporal distribution of algal blooms in Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. We have processed over 250 images (SeaWiFS and MODIS) acquired in the summers of 2003, 2004, and 2005 over the investigated lakes. Images were processed in SeaDas 4.8 using the Carder semi-analytical algorithm for chlorophyll-a (Carder et. al. 2003), as well as with the OC4 (SeaWiFS) and OC3 (MODIS) algorithms for chlorophyll-a. Results were compared with in-situ chlorophyll-a measurements acquired largely from mooring stations, buoys, and from cruise measurements that were acquired during the summers of 2004 and 2005. Examination of these temporal chlorophyll-a images showed an annual re-occurrence (same location and time) of chlorophyll distribution patterns as well as unique algal bloom events in Lakes Erie and Ontario. Comparisons to in situ measurements indicated that the Carder semi-analytical algorithm applied to SeaWiFS and MODIS data provided good correspondence between satellite-based chlorophyll-a concentrations and in-situ chlorophyll measurements and significantly better correlation with the in-situ measurements than the OC3 and OC4 protocols. One of the primary goals of the MERHAB project is to discriminate between potentially harmful and non-harmful algal blooms In the Great Lakes. We are currently refining our algorithms (mixing models) to allow the identification of potentially toxic cyanobacterial blooms from Sea-WiFS satellite data, based on spectral characteristics of their phycocyanin pigment. Preliminary outputs of our mixing models indicate a general correspondence between satellite derived phycocyanin distribution and relative abundance of phycocyanin from in-situ fluorescence measurements (July 13-16, 2004).

  10. Effects of algal food quality on sexual reproduction of Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jong-Yun; Kim, Seong-Ki; La, Geung-Hwan; Chang, Kwang-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Kyun; Jeong, Keon-Young; Park, Min S; Joo, Gea-Jae; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Jeong, Kwang-Seuk

    2016-05-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate sexual reproduction of Daphnia magna associated with mating behaviors and hatching rates, according to different algal food sources. Since a diatom is known to contain more abundant long-chain poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), we hypothesized that the diatom-consuming D. magna would exhibit more successful reproduction rates. Upon the hypothesis, we designed three experiments using two algal species, a green alga (Chlorella vulgaris) and a diatom (Stephanodiscus hantzschii). From the results, we found that the mating frequency and copulation duration increased in the treatment with S. hantzschii, resulting in a significant increase of hatching rates of resting eggs. In the other two repetitive mating strategies (e.g., one female vs. multiple males, and one male vs. multiple females), we found that the hatching rates of resting eggs were greater in the S. hantzschii treatment. In addition to the mating strategy, male body size significantly increased in the diatom treatment, hence average diameter of penis was also statistically different among the treatments (greater diameter in the S. hantzschii treatment). To examine the effect of algal food quality, we estimated quantity of fatty acids in the two algal species. Our result showed that S. hantzschii had a higher proportion of long-chain PUFAs than C. vulgaris. Furthermore, a stable isotope analysis revealed that carbon and nitrogen originated from S. hantzschii were more assimilated to D. magna. In summary, our study manifested that diatom consumption of D. magna leads to more successful sexual reproduction. We then discussed how the diatom consumption of zooplankton influences food web dynamics in a freshwater ecosystem. PMID:27217941

  11. Nutrient limitation of algal periphyton in streams along an acid mine drainage gradient.

    PubMed

    DeNicola, Dean M; Lellock, Amber J

    2015-08-01

    Metal oxyhydroxide precipitates that form from acid mine drainage (AMD) may indirectly limit periphyton by sorbing nutrients, particularly P. We examined effects of nutrient addition on periphytic algal biomass (chl a), community structure, and carbon and nitrogen content along an AMD gradient. Nutrient diffusing substrata with treatments of +P, +NP and control were placed at seven stream sites. Conductivity and SO4 concentration ranged over an order of magnitude among sites and were used to define the AMD gradient, as they best indicate mine discharge sources of metals that create oxyhydroxide precipitates. Aqueous total phosphorous (TP) ranged from 2 to 23 μg · L(-1) and significantly decreased with increasing SO4 . Mean chl a concentrations at sites ranged from 0.2 to 8.1 μg · cm(-2) . Across all sites, algal biomass was significantly higher on +NP than control treatments (Co), and significantly increased with +NP. The degree of nutrient limitation was determined by the increase in chl a concentration on +NP relative to Co (response ratio), which ranged from 0.6 to 9.7. Response to nutrient addition significantly declined with increasing aqueous TP, and significantly increased with increasing SO4 . Thus, nutrient limitation of algal biomass increased with AMD impact, indicating metal oxyhydroxides associated with AMD likely decreased P availability. Algal species composition was significantly affected by site but not nutrient treatment. Percent carbon content of periphyton on the Co significantly increased with AMD impact and corresponded to an increase in the relative abundance of Chlorophytes. Changes in periphyton biomass and cellular nutrient content associated with nutrient limitation in AMD streams may affect higher trophic levels. PMID:26986794

  12. Preliminary evaluation of an in vivo fluorometer to quantify algal periphyton biomass and community composition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Theodore D.; Graham, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The bbe-Moldaenke BenthoTorch (BT) is an in vivo fluorometer designed to quantify algal biomass and community composition in benthic environments. The BT quantifies total algal biomass via chlorophyll a (Chl-a) concentration and may differentiate among cyanobacteria, green algae, and diatoms based on pigment fluorescence. To evaluate how BT measurements of periphytic algal biomass (as Chl-a) compared with an ethanol extraction laboratory analysis, we collected BT- and laboratory-measured Chl-a data from 6 stream sites in the Indian Creek basin, Johnson County, Kansas, during August and September 2012. BT-measured Chl-a concentrations were positively related to laboratory-measured concentrations (R2 = 0.47); sites with abundant filamentous algae had weaker relations (R2 = 0.27). Additionally, on a single sample date, we used the BT to determine periphyton biomass and community composition upstream and downstream from 2 wastewater treatment facilities (WWTF) that discharge into Indian Creek. We found that algal biomass increased immediately downstream from the WWTF discharge then slowly decreased as distance from the WWTF increased. Changes in periphyton community structure also occurred; however, there were discrepancies between BT- and laboratory-measured community composition data. Most notably, cyanobacteria were present at all sites based on BT measurements but were present at only one site based on laboratory-analyzed samples. Overall, we found that the BT compared reasonably well with laboratory methods for relative patterns in Chl-a but not as well with absolute Chl-aconcentrations. Future studies need to test the BT over a wider range of Chl-aconcentrations, in colored waters, and across various periphyton assemblages.

  13. Chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments in solar saltern microbial mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Joan; Grimalt, Joan O.; de Wit, Rutger; Keely, Brendan J.; Maxwell, James R.

    1994-11-01

    The distributions of carotenoids, chlorophylls, and their degradation products have been studied in two microbial mat systems developed in the calcite and calcite/gypsum evaporite domains of a solar saltern system. Phormidium valderianum and Microcoleus chthonoplastes are the dominant cyanobacterial species, respectively, and large amounts of Chloroflexus-like bacteria occur in the carbonate/gypsum mat. In both systems, the major pigments are chlorophyll a, zeaxanthin, β-carotene and myxoxanthophyll, which originate from these mat-building cyanobacteria. This common feature contrasts with differences in other pigments that are specific for each mat community. Thus, chlorophyll c and fucoxanthin, reflecting diatom inputs, are only found in the calcite mat, whereas the calcite/gypsum mat contains high concentrations of bacteriochlorophylls c produced by the multicellular green filamentous bacteria. In both cases, the depth concentration profiles (0-30 and 0-40 mm) show a relatively good preservation of the cyanobacterial carotenoids, zeaxanthin, β-carotene, myxoxanthophyll, and echinenone. This contrasts with the extensive biodegradation of cyanobacterial remains observed microscopically. Fucoxanthin in the calcite mat is also transformed at a faster rate than the cyanobacterial carotenoids. Chlorophyll a, the major pigment in both mats, exhibits different transformation pathways. In the calcite/gypsum mat, it is transformed via C-13 2 carbomethoxy defunctionalization prior to loss of the phytyl chain, leading to the formation of pyrophaeophytin a and, subsequently, pyrophaeophorbide a. On the other hand, the occurrence of the enzyme chlorophyllase, attributed to diatoms in the calcite mat, gives rise to extensive phytyl hydrolysis, with the formation of chlorophyllide a, pyrophaeophorbide a and, in minor proportion, phaeophorbide a. Studies of the sources of the photosynthetic pigments and of their transformation pathways in such simplified ecosystems provide a

  14. Elastic-plastic behavior of non-woven fibrous mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silberstein, Meredith N.; Pai, Chia-Ling; Rutledge, Gregory C.; Boyce, Mary C.

    2012-02-01

    Electrospinning is a novel method for creating non-woven polymer mats that have high surface area and high porosity. These attributes make them ideal candidates for multifunctional composites. Understanding the mechanical properties as a function of fiber properties and mat microstructure can aid in designing these composites. Further, a constitutive model which captures the membrane stress-strain behavior as a function of fiber properties and the geometry of the fibrous network would be a powerful design tool. Here, mats electrospun from amorphous polyamide are used as a model system. The elastic-plastic behavior of single fibers are obtained in tensile tests. Uniaxial monotonic and cyclic tensile tests are conducted on non-woven mats. The mat exhibits elastic-plastic stress-strain behavior. The transverse strain behavior provides important complementary data, showing a negligible initial Poisson's ratio followed by a transverse:axial strain ratio greater than -1:1 after an axial strain of 0.02. A triangulated framework has been developed to emulate the fibrous network structure of the mat. The micromechanically based model incorporates the elastic-plastic behavior of single fibers into a macroscopic membrane model of the mat. This representative volume element based model is shown to capture the uniaxial elastic-plastic response of the mat under monotonic and cyclic loading. The initial modulus and yield stress of the mat are governed by the fiber properties, the network geometry, and the network density. The transverse strain behavior is linked to discrete deformation mechanisms of the fibrous mat structure including fiber alignment, fiber bending, and network consolidation. The model is further validated in comparison to experiments under different constrained axial loading conditions and found to capture the constraint effect on stiffness, yield, post-yield hardening, and post-yield transverse strain behavior. Due to the direct connection between

  15. Bacterially induced precipitation of CaCO sub 3 : An example from studies of cyanobacterial mats

    SciTech Connect

    Chafetz, H.S.

    1990-04-30

    Bacteria induce the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the laboratory and in nature by altering their chemical environment. Geologists are recognizing the possibility that bacterially induced precipitates may form significant mineral deposits, unfortunately, there are currently no sound criteria by which they can be recognized in recent sediments, or in the rock record. Cultures of aerobic and facultative bacteria from cyanobacterial mats on Andros Island, Bahamas, and Baffin Bay, Texas, induced the precipitation of calcium carbonate under controlled conditions. Crusts, the largest features formed, are composed of 5--200{mu}m diameter bundles which are, in turn, composed of numerous individual crystals. The smallest observed features are 0.1--0.4{mu}m spheres and rods which comprise some individual crystals and crystal bundles. Crystal bundles resembling rhombohedra, tetragonal disphenoids, tetragonal dipyramids, and calcite dumbbells appear to be uniquely bacterial in origin, and they have all been observed in recent sediments. Swollen rods, discs, curved dumbbells, and 50--200{mu}m optically continuous crystals resembling brushes may be uniquely bacterial in origin, however, they have not been reported by other laboratories nor observed in natural settings. Presence of any of these forms in recent sediments should be taken as strong evidence for bacterial influence. Spheres and aragonite dumbbells have also been observed in natural environments, however, they are not always bacterial in origin. Precipitation of calcium carbonate occurs preferentially on dead cyanobacteria in the presence of bacteria. Lithification of algal mats to form stromatolites may take place in the zone of decaying organic matter due to bacterial activity.

  16. Mechanical algal disruption for efficient biodiesel extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krehbiel, Joel David

    Biodiesel from algae provides several benefits over current biodiesel feedstocks, but the energy requirements of processing algae into a useable fuel are currently so high as to be prohibitive. One route to improving this is via disruption of the cells prior to lipid extraction, which can significantly increase energy recovery. Unfortunately, several obvious disruption techniques require more energy than can be gained. This dissertation examines the use of microbubbles to improve mechanical disruption of algal cells using experimental, theoretical, and computational methods. New laboratory experiments show that effective ultrasonic disruption of algae is achieved by adding microbubbles to an algal solution. The configuration studied flows the solution through a tube and insonifies a small section with a high-pressure ultrasound wave. Previous biomedical research has shown effective cell membrane damage on animal cells with similar methods, but the present research is the first to extend such study to algal cells. Results indicate that disruption increases with peak negative pressure between 1.90 and 3.07 MPa and with microbubble concentration up to 12.5 x 107 bubbles/ml. Energy estimates of this process suggest that it requires only one-fourth the currently most-efficient laboratory-scale disruption process. Estimates of the radius near each bubble that causes disruption (i.e. the disruption radius) suggest that it increases with peak negative pressure and is near 9--20 microm for all cases tested. It is anticipated that these procedures can be designed for better efficiency and efficacy, which will be facilitated by identifying the root mechanisms of the bubble-induced disruption. We therefore examine whether bubble expansion alone creates sufficient cell deformation for cell rupture. The spherically-symmetric Marmottant model for bubble dynamics allows estimation of the flow regime under experimental conditions. Bubble expansion is modeled as a point source of

  17. Potential of carbon nanotubes in algal biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Lambreva, Maya Dimova; Lavecchia, Teresa; Tyystjärvi, Esa; Antal, Taras Kornelievich; Orlanducci, Silvia; Margonelli, Andrea; Rea, Giuseppina

    2015-09-01

    A critical mass of knowledge is emerging on the interactions between plant cells and engineered nanomaterials, revealing the potential of plant nanobiotechnology to promote and support novel solutions for the development of a competitive bioeconomy. This knowledge can foster the adoption of new methodological strategies to empower the large-scale production of biomass from commercially important microalgae. The present review focuses on the potential of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to enhance photosynthetic performance of microalgae by (i) widening the spectral region available for the energy conversion reactions and (ii) increasing the tolerance of microalgae towards unfavourable conditions occurring in mass production. To this end, current understanding on the mechanisms of uptake and localization of CNTs in plant cells is discussed. The available ecotoxicological data were used in an attempt to assess the feasibility of CNT-based applications in algal biotechnology, by critically correlating the experimental conditions with the observed adverse effects. Furthermore, main structural and physicochemical properties of single- and multi-walled CNTs and common approaches for the functionalization and characterization of CNTs in biological environment are presented. Here, we explore the potential that nanotechnology can offer to enhance functions of algae, paving the way for a more efficient use of photosynthetic algal systems in the sustainable production of energy, biomass and high-value compounds.

  18. Luminescent Solar Concentrators in the Algal Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellier, Katie; Corrado, Carley; Carter, Sue; Detweiler, Angela; Bebout, Leslie

    2013-03-01

    Today's industry for renewable energy sources and highly efficient energy management systems is rapidly increasing. Development of increased efficiency Luminescent Solar Concentrators (LSCs) has brought about new applications for commercial interests, including greenhouses for agricultural crops. This project is taking first steps to explore the potential of LSCs to enhance production and reduce costs for algae and cyanobacteria used in biofuels and nutraceuticals. This pilot phase uses LSC filtered light for algal growth trials in greenhouses and laboratory experiments, creating specific wavelength combinations to determine effects of discrete solar light regimes on algal growth and the reduction of heating and water loss in the system. Enhancing the optimal spectra for specific algae will not only increase production, but has the potential to lessen contamination of large scale production due to competition from other algae and bacteria. Providing LSC filtered light will reduce evaporation and heating in regions with limited water supply, while the increased energy output from photovoltaic cells will reduce costs of heating and mixing cultures, thus creating a more efficient and cost effective production system.

  19. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.; Biddy, M.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  20. EFFECTS OF MARINE ALGAL TOXINS ON THERMOREGULATION IN MICE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hypothermia is often seen in mice and rats exposed acutely to marine algal toxins, but the mechanism of action of these toxins on thermoregulation is not well understood. Our laboratory has assessed the thermoregulatory mechanisms of two marine algal toxins, maitotoxin and brevet...

  1. What is causing the harmful algal blooms in Lake Erie?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harmful and nuisance algal blooms have been increasing in size and extent since about 2000. In recent years, the release of the algal toxin microcystin has become a growing concern and has resulted in the inability to use water from Lake Erie as a drinking water source to the 400,000 residents of T...

  2. COMPARISON OF LARGE RIVER SAMPLING METHODS ON ALGAL METRICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared the results of four methods used to assess the algal communities at 60 sites distributed among four rivers. Based on Principle Component Analysis of physical habitat data collected concomitantly with the algal data, sites were separated into those with a mean thalweg...

  3. Mechanical algal disruption for efficient biodiesel extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krehbiel, Joel David

    Biodiesel from algae provides several benefits over current biodiesel feedstocks, but the energy requirements of processing algae into a useable fuel are currently so high as to be prohibitive. One route to improving this is via disruption of the cells prior to lipid extraction, which can significantly increase energy recovery. Unfortunately, several obvious disruption techniques require more energy than can be gained. This dissertation examines the use of microbubbles to improve mechanical disruption of algal cells using experimental, theoretical, and computational methods. New laboratory experiments show that effective ultrasonic disruption of algae is achieved by adding microbubbles to an algal solution. The configuration studied flows the solution through a tube and insonifies a small section with a high-pressure ultrasound wave. Previous biomedical research has shown effective cell membrane damage on animal cells with similar methods, but the present research is the first to extend such study to algal cells. Results indicate that disruption increases with peak negative pressure between 1.90 and 3.07 MPa and with microbubble concentration up to 12.5 x 107 bubbles/ml. Energy estimates of this process suggest that it requires only one-fourth the currently most-efficient laboratory-scale disruption process. Estimates of the radius near each bubble that causes disruption (i.e. the disruption radius) suggest that it increases with peak negative pressure and is near 9--20 microm for all cases tested. It is anticipated that these procedures can be designed for better efficiency and efficacy, which will be facilitated by identifying the root mechanisms of the bubble-induced disruption. We therefore examine whether bubble expansion alone creates sufficient cell deformation for cell rupture. The spherically-symmetric Marmottant model for bubble dynamics allows estimation of the flow regime under experimental conditions. Bubble expansion is modeled as a point source of

  4. Characterization of bacterial diversity associated with microbial mats, gypsum evaporites and carbonate microbialites in thalassic wetlands: Tebenquiche and La Brava, Salar de Atacama, Chile.

    PubMed

    Farías, M E; Contreras, M; Rasuk, M C; Kurth, D; Flores, M R; Poiré, D G; Novoa, F; Visscher, P T

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we report the presence of sedimentary microbial ecosystems in wetlands of the Salar de Atacama. These laminated systems, which bind, trap and precipitate mineral include: microbial mats at Laguna Tebenquiche and Laguna La Brava, gypsum domes at Tebenquiche and carbonate microbialites at La Brava. Microbial diversity and key biogeochemical characteristics of both lakes (La Brava and Tebenquiche) and their various microbial ecosystems (non-lithifying mats, flat and domal microbialites) were determined. The composition and abundance of minerals ranged from trapped and bound halite in organic-rich non-lithifying mats to aragonite-dominated lithified flat microbialites and gypsum in lithified domal structures. Pyrosequencing of the V4 region of the 16s rDNA gene showed that Proteobacteria comprised a major phylum in all of the microbial ecosystems studied, with a marked lower abundance in the non-lithifying mats. A higher proportion of Bacteroidetes was present in Tebenquiche sediments compared to La Brava samples. The concentration of pigments, particularly that of Chlorophyll a, was higher in the Tebenquiche than in La Brava. Pigments typically associated with anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria were present in lower amounts. Organic-rich, non-lithifying microbial mats frequently formed snake-like, bulbous structures due to gas accumulation underneath the mat. We hypothesize that the lithified microbialites might have developed from these snake-like microbial mats following mineral precipitation in the surface layer, producing domes with endoevaporitic communities in Tebenquiche and carbonate platforms in La Brava. Whereas the potential role of microbes in carbonate platforms is well established, the contribution of endoevaporitic microbes to formation of gypsum domes needs further investigation.

  5. Characterization of bacterial diversity associated with microbial mats, gypsum evaporites and carbonate microbialites in thalassic wetlands: Tebenquiche and La Brava, Salar de Atacama, Chile.

    PubMed

    Farías, M E; Contreras, M; Rasuk, M C; Kurth, D; Flores, M R; Poiré, D G; Novoa, F; Visscher, P T

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we report the presence of sedimentary microbial ecosystems in wetlands of the Salar de Atacama. These laminated systems, which bind, trap and precipitate mineral include: microbial mats at Laguna Tebenquiche and Laguna La Brava, gypsum domes at Tebenquiche and carbonate microbialites at La Brava. Microbial diversity and key biogeochemical characteristics of both lakes (La Brava and Tebenquiche) and their various microbial ecosystems (non-lithifying mats, flat and domal microbialites) were determined. The composition and abundance of minerals ranged from trapped and bound halite in organic-rich non-lithifying mats to aragonite-dominated lithified flat microbialites and gypsum in lithified domal structures. Pyrosequencing of the V4 region of the 16s rDNA gene showed that Proteobacteria comprised a major phylum in all of the microbial ecosystems studied, with a marked lower abundance in the non-lithifying mats. A higher proportion of Bacteroidetes was present in Tebenquiche sediments compared to La Brava samples. The concentration of pigments, particularly that of Chlorophyll a, was higher in the Tebenquiche than in La Brava. Pigments typically associated with anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria were present in lower amounts. Organic-rich, non-lithifying microbial mats frequently formed snake-like, bulbous structures due to gas accumulation underneath the mat. We hypothesize that the lithified microbialites might have developed from these snake-like microbial mats following mineral precipitation in the surface layer, producing domes with endoevaporitic communities in Tebenquiche and carbonate platforms in La Brava. Whereas the potential role of microbes in carbonate platforms is well established, the contribution of endoevaporitic microbes to formation of gypsum domes needs further investigation. PMID:24442191

  6. Evaluation of anticoagulant activity of two algal polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Faggio, C; Pagano, M; Dottore, A; Genovese, G; Morabito, M

    2016-09-01

    Marine algae are important sources of phycocolloids like agar, carrageenans and alginates used in industrial applications. Algal polysaccharides have emerged as an important class of bioactive products showing interesting properties. The aim of our study was to evaluate the potential uses as anticoagulant drugs of algal sulphate polysaccharides extracted from Ulva fasciata (Chlorophyta) and Agardhiella subulata (Rhodophyta) collected in Ganzirri Lake (Cape Peloro Lagoon, north-eastern Sicily, Italy). Toxicity of algal extracts through trypan blue test and anticoagulant action measured by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT) test has been evaluated. Algal extracts showed to prolong the PT and APTT during the coagulation cascade and to avoid the blood coagulation of samples. Furthermore, the algal extracts lack toxic effects towards cellular metabolism and their productions are relatively at low cost. This permits to consider the algae as the biological source of the future.

  7. A Recombinationally Repressed Region between Mat2 and Mat3 Loci Shares Homology to Centromeric Repeats and Regulates Directionality of Mating-Type Switching in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Grewal, SIS.; Klar, AJS.

    1997-01-01

    Cells of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe switch mating type by replacing genetic information at the transcriptionally active mat1 locus with sequences copied from one of two closely linked silent loci, mat2-P or mat3-M. By a process referred to as directionality of switching, cells predominantly switch to the opposite mat1 allele; the mat1-P allele preferentially recombines with mat3, while mat1-M selects the mat2. In contrast to efficient recombination at mat1, recombination within the adjoining mat2-mat3 interval is undetectable. We defined the role of sequences between mat2 and mat3, designated the K-region, in directionality as well as recombinational suppression. Cloning and sequencing analysis revealed that a part of the K-region is homologous to repeat sequences present at centromeres, which also display transcriptional and recombinational suppression. Replacement of 7.5 kb of the K-region with the ura4(+) gene affected directionality in a variegated manner. Analysis of the swi6-mod locus, which was previously shown to affect directionality, in KΔ::ura4(+) strains suggested the existence of at least two overlapping directionality mechanisms. Our work furthers the model that directionality is regulated by cell-type-specific organization of the heterochromatin-like structure in the mating-type region and provides evidence that the K-region contributes to silencing of the mat2-mat3 interval. PMID:9258669

  8. Effect of algal recycling rate on the performance of Pediastrum boryanum dominated wastewater treatment high rate algal pond.

    PubMed

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J

    2014-01-01

    Recycling a portion of gravity harvested algae promoted the dominance of a rapidly settling colonial alga, Pediastrum boryanum (P. boryanum) and improved both biomass productivity and settleability in High Rate Algal Pond (HRAP) treating domestic wastewater. The effect of algal recycling rate on HRAP performance was investigated using 12 replicate mesocosms (18 L) that were operated semi-continuously under ambient conditions. Three experiments were conducted during different seasons with each experiment lasting up to 36 days. Recycling 10%, 25%, and 50% of the 'mass' of daily algal production all increased total biomass concentration in the mesocosms. However, recycling >10% reduced the organic content (volatile suspended solids (VSS)) of the mesocosm biomass from 83% to 68% and did not further increase biomass productivity (based on VSS). This indicates that if a HRAP is operated with a low algal concentration and does not utilise all the available sunlight, algal recycling increases the algal concentration up to an optimum level, resulting in higher algal biomass productivity. Recycling 10% of the daily algal production not only increased biomass productivity by ∼40%, but increased biomass settleability by ∼25%, which was probably a consequence of the ∼30% increase in P. boryanum dominance in the mesocosms compared with controls without recycling.

  9. Assimilation of trace elements ingested by the mussel Mytilus edulis: effects of algal food abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, W.-X.; Fisher, N.S.; Luoma, S. N.

    1995-01-01

    Pulse-chase feeding and multi-labeled radiotracer techniques were employed to measure the assimilation of 6 trace elements (110mAg, 241Am, 109Cd, 57Co, 75Se and 65Zn) from ingested diatoms in the mussel Mytilus edulis feeding at different rates (0.1, 0.49 and 1.5 mg dry wt h-1). Uniformly radiolabeled diatoms Thalassiosira pseudonana were fed to mussels for 0.5 h, and the behavior of the radiotracers in individual mussels was followed for 96 h in a depuration seawater system. Assimilation efficiency (AE) of each element declined with increasing ingestion rate and increased with gut passage time. The importance of extracellular digestion relative to intracellular digestion increased with ingestion activity, which, when coupled with a decline in AE, suggested that extracellular digestion is less efficient in metal absorption. Zn assimilation was most affected by ingestion rate, suggesting that AE may play a role in the physiological regulation of this metal in M. edulis. In an experiment to simulate the effects of an acidic gut, lowered pH (5.5) enhanced the release of elements from intact diatom cells, especially at low particle concentration. These results indicate that both feeding components of the mussel (i.e. gut passage time, digestive partitioning) and metal chemistry (i.e. metal release at lowered pH within the bivalve gut) are responsible for the difference in the assimilation of trace metals at different food quantities observed in mussels.

  10. Algal Assemblages for Large River Monitoring: Comparison Among Biovolume, Absolute and Relative Abundance Metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Periphyton and phytoplankton samples were collected and analyzed from 393 locations in three mid-continent (US) great rivers: the Upper Mississippi, Missouri and Ohio rivers. From the 410 taxa identified, 303 taxa were common enough for multivariate analyses. Algae assemblages we...

  11. ATP and related purines stimulate motility, spatial congregation, and coalescence in red algal spores.

    PubMed

    Huidobro-Toro, Juan P; Donoso, Verónica; Flores, Verónica; Santelices, Bernabé

    2015-04-01

    Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is a versatile extracellular signal along the tree of life, whereas cAMP plays a major role in vertebrates as an intracellular messenger for hormones, transmitters, tastants, and odorants. Since red algal spore coalescence may be considered analogous to the congregation process of social amoeba, which is stimulated by cAMP, we ascertained whether exogenous applications of ATP, cAMP, adenine, or adenosine modified spore survival and motility, spore settlement and coalescence. Concentration-response studies were performed with carpospores of Mazzaella laminarioides (Gigartinales), incubated with and without added purines. Stirring of algal blades released ADP/ATP to the cell media in a time-dependent manner. 10-300 μM ATP significantly increased spore survival; however, 1,500 μM ATP, cAMP or adenine induced 100% mortality within less than 24 h; the exception was adenosine, which up to 3,000 μM, did not alter spore survival. ATP exposure elicited spore movement with speeds of 2.2-2.5 μm · s(-1) . 14 d after 1,000 μM ATP addition, spore abundance in the central zone of the plaques was increased 2.7-fold as compared with parallel controls. Likewise, 1-10 μM cAMP or 30-100 μM adenine also increased central zone spore abundance, albeit these purines were less efficacious than ATP; adenosine up to 3,000 μM did not influence settlement. Moreover, 1,000 μM ATP markedly accelerated coalescence, the other purines caused a variable effect. We conclude that exogenous cAMP, adenine, but particularly ATP, markedly influence red algal spore physiology; effects are compatible with the expression of one or more membrane purinoceptor(s), discarding adenosine receptor participation. PMID:26986520

  12. ATP and related purines stimulate motility, spatial congregation, and coalescence in red algal spores.

    PubMed

    Huidobro-Toro, Juan P; Donoso, Verónica; Flores, Verónica; Santelices, Bernabé

    2015-04-01

    Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is a versatile extracellular signal along the tree of life, whereas cAMP plays a major role in vertebrates as an intracellular messenger for hormones, transmitters, tastants, and odorants. Since red algal spore coalescence may be considered analogous to the congregation process of social amoeba, which is stimulated by cAMP, we ascertained whether exogenous applications of ATP, cAMP, adenine, or adenosine modified spore survival and motility, spore settlement and coalescence. Concentration-response studies were performed with carpospores of Mazzaella laminarioides (Gigartinales), incubated with and without added purines. Stirring of algal blades released ADP/ATP to the cell media in a time-dependent manner. 10-300 μM ATP significantly increased spore survival; however, 1,500 μM ATP, cAMP or adenine induced 100% mortality within less than 24 h; the exception was adenosine, which up to 3,000 μM, did not alter spore survival. ATP exposure elicited spore movement with speeds of 2.2-2.5 μm · s(-1) . 14 d after 1,000 μM ATP addition, spore abundance in the central zone of the plaques was increased 2.7-fold as compared with parallel controls. Likewise, 1-10 μM cAMP or 30-100 μM adenine also increased central zone spore abundance, albeit these purines were less efficacious than ATP; adenosine up to 3,000 μM did not influence settlement. Moreover, 1,000 μM ATP markedly accelerated coalescence, the other purines caused a variable effect. We conclude that exogenous cAMP, adenine, but particularly ATP, markedly influence red algal spore physiology; effects are compatible with the expression of one or more membrane purinoceptor(s), discarding adenosine receptor participation.

  13. High dissolved organic carbon release by benthic cyanobacterial mats in a Caribbean reef ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocke, Hannah J.; Wenzhoefer, Frank; de Beer, Dirk; Mueller, Benjamin; van Duyl, Fleur C.; Nugues, Maggy M.

    2015-03-01

    Benthic cyanobacterial mats (BCMs) are increasing in abundance on coral reefs worldwide. However, their impacts on biogeochemical cycling in the surrounding water and sediment are virtually unknown. By measuring chemical fluxes in benthic chambers placed over sediment covered by BCMs and sediment with BCMs removed on coral reefs in Curaçao, Southern Caribbean, we found that sediment covered by BCMs released 1.4 and 3.5 mmol C m-2 h-1 of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) during day and night, respectively. Conversely, sediment with BCMs removed took up DOC, with day and night uptake rates of 0.9 and 0.6 mmol C m-2 h-1. DOC release by BCMs was higher than reported rates for benthic algae (turf and macroalgae) and was estimated to represent 79% of the total DOC released over a 24 h diel cycle at our study site. The high nocturnal release of DOC by BCMs is most likely the result of anaerobic metabolism and degradation processes, as shown by high respiration rates at the mat surface during nighttime. We conclude that BCMs are significant sources of DOC. Their increased abundance on coral reefs will lead to increased DOC release into the water column, which is likely to have negative implications for reef health.

  14. High dissolved organic carbon release by benthic cyanobacterial mats in a Caribbean reef ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Brocke, Hannah J; Wenzhoefer, Frank; de Beer, Dirk; Mueller, Benjamin; van Duyl, Fleur C; Nugues, Maggy M

    2015-01-01

    Benthic cyanobacterial mats (BCMs) are increasing in abundance on coral reefs worldwide. However, their impacts on biogeochemical cycling in the surrounding water and sediment are virtually unknown. By measuring chemical fluxes in benthic chambers placed over sediment covered by BCMs and sediment with BCMs removed on coral reefs in Curaçao, Southern Caribbean, we found that sediment covered by BCMs released 1.4 and 3.5 mmol C m(-2) h(-1) of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) during day and night, respectively. Conversely, sediment with BCMs removed took up DOC, with day and night uptake rates of 0.9 and 0.6 mmol C m(-2) h(-1). DOC release by BCMs was higher than reported rates for benthic algae (turf and macroalgae) and was estimated to represent 79% of the total DOC released over a 24 h diel cycle at our study site. The high nocturnal release of DOC by BCMs is most likely the result of anaerobic metabolism and degradation processes, as shown by high respiration rates at the mat surface during nighttime. We conclude that BCMs are significant sources of DOC. Their increased abundance on coral reefs will lead to increased DOC release into the water column, which is likely to have negative implications for reef health. PMID:25747523

  15. High dissolved organic carbon release by benthic cyanobacterial mats in a Caribbean reef ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Brocke, Hannah J.; Wenzhoefer, Frank; de Beer, Dirk; Mueller, Benjamin; van Duyl, Fleur C.; Nugues, Maggy M.

    2015-01-01

    Benthic cyanobacterial mats (BCMs) are increasing in abundance on coral reefs worldwide. However, their impacts on biogeochemical cycling in the surrounding water and sediment are virtually unknown. By measuring chemical fluxes in benthic chambers placed over sediment covered by BCMs and sediment with BCMs removed on coral reefs in Curaçao, Southern Caribbean, we found that sediment covered by BCMs released 1.4 and 3.5 mmol C m−2 h−1 of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) during day and night, respectively. Conversely, sediment with BCMs removed took up DOC, with day and night uptake rates of 0.9 and 0.6 mmol C m−2 h−1. DOC release by BCMs was higher than reported rates for benthic algae (turf and macroalgae) and was estimated to represent 79% of the total DOC released over a 24 h diel cycle at our study site. The high nocturnal release of DOC by BCMs is most likely the result of anaerobic metabolism and degradation processes, as shown by high respiration rates at the mat surface during nighttime. We conclude that BCMs are significant sources of DOC. Their increased abundance on coral reefs will lead to increased DOC release into the water column, which is likely to have negative implications for reef health. PMID:25747523

  16. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis used to monitor the enrichment culture of aerobic chemoorganotrophic bacteria from a hot spring cyanobacterial mat.

    PubMed Central

    Santegoeds, C M; Nold, S C; Ward, D M

    1996-01-01

    Previous studies investigating microbial diversity in the Octopus Spring cyanobacterial mat community (Yellowstone National Park) have shown a discrepancy between bacterial populations observed by molecular retrieval and cultivation techniques. To investigate how selective enrichment culture techniques affect species composition, we used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) separation of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments to monitor the populations contained within enrichment cultures of aerobic chemoorganotrophic bacteria from the ca. 50 degrees C region of the mat community. By varying the degree of dilution of the inoculum, medium composition, and enrichment conditions and duration and by analyzing the cultures by DGGE, we detected 14 unique 16S rRNA sequence types. These corresponded to alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-proteobacteria, Thermus relatives, and gram-positive bacteria with high G + C ratio and, at the highest inoculum dilutions, Chloroflexus aurantiacus relatives, which were estimated to still be approximately 300 times less abundant than cells of the mat primary producer, Synechococcus spp. Only three of these populations were previously cultivated on solidified medium after similar enrichment. Only two of these population have 16S rRNA sequences which were previously cloned directly from the mat. These results reveal a diversity of bacterial populations in enrichment culture which were not detected by either molecular retrieval or strain purification techniques. PMID:8899977

  17. Lava cave microbial communities within mats and secondary mineral deposits: implications for life detection on other planets.

    PubMed

    Northup, D E; Melim, L A; Spilde, M N; Hathaway, J J M; Garcia, M G; Moya, M; Stone, F D; Boston, P J; Dapkevicius, M L N E; Riquelme, C

    2011-09-01

    Lava caves contain a wealth of yellow, white, pink, tan, and gold-colored microbial mats; but in addition to these clearly biological mats, there are many secondary mineral deposits that are nonbiological in appearance. Secondary mineral deposits examined include an amorphous copper-silicate deposit (Hawai'i) that is blue-green in color and contains reticulated and fuzzy filament morphologies. In the Azores, lava tubes contain iron-oxide formations, a soft ooze-like coating, and pink hexagons on basaltic glass, while gold-colored deposits are found in lava caves in New Mexico and Hawai'i. A combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and molecular techniques was used to analyze these communities. Molecular analyses of the microbial mats and secondary mineral deposits revealed a community that contains 14 phyla of bacteria across three locations: the Azores, New Mexico, and Hawai'i. Similarities exist between bacterial phyla found in microbial mats and secondary minerals, but marked differences also occur, such as the lack of Actinobacteria in two-thirds of the secondary mineral deposits. The discovery that such deposits contain abundant life can help guide our detection of life on extraterrestrial bodies.

  18. First insights into fern matK phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Li-Yaung; Li, Fay-Wei; Chiou, Wen-Liang; Wang, Chun-Neng

    2011-06-01

    MatK, the only maturase gene in the land plant plastid genome, is a very popular phylogenetic marker that has been extensively applied in reconstructing angiosperm phylogeny. However, the use of matK in fern phylogeny is largely unknown, due to difficulties with amplification: ferns have lost the flanking trnK exons, typically the region used for designing stable priming sites. We developed primers that are either universal or lineage-specific that successfully amplify matK across all fern families. To evaluate whether matK is as powerful a phylogenetic marker in ferns as in angiosperms, we compared its sequence characteristics and phylogenetic performance to those of rbcL and atpA. Among these three genes, matK has the highest variability and substitution evenness, yet shows the least homoplasy. Most importantly, applying matK in fern phylogenetics better resolved relationships among families, especially within eupolypods I and II. Here we demonstrate the power of matK for fern phylogenetic reconstruction, as well as provide primers and extensive sequence data that will greatly facilitate future evolutionary studies of ferns.

  19. Potential for bioremediating using constructed mixed microbial mats

    SciTech Connect

    Goodroad, L.; Bender, J.; Phillips, P.; Gould, J.; Saha, G.; Rodriguez-Eaton, S.; Vatcharapijarn, Y.; Lee, R.; Word, J.

    1994-12-31

    Microbial mats are natural heterotrophic and autotrophic communities dominated by cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). They are self-organized laminated structures annealed tightly together by slimy secretions from various Microbial components. The surface slime of the mats effectively immobilizes the ecosystem to a variety of substrates, thereby stabilizing the most efficient internal microbial structure. Constructed microbial mats can be generated rapidly by enriching a water surface with ensiled grass clippings. These constructed mats are durable, tolerant to a variety of toxins and resilient under changing environmental conditions. The mats can he designed for specific tasks by inoculating the cyanobacteria/silage with selected microorganisms. Mats constructed with specific microbial components have been developed for various bioremediation applications: removal of metals, organic degradation, treatment of mixed contaminants, biological treatment ponds, and soil remediation. Constructed mats offer a broad range of mechanisms related to the sequestration of heavy metals, the biodegradation of recalcitrant organic compounds, and the remediation of mixed organic/inorganic contaminants such as TCE and carbofuran with heavy metals.

  20. The MAT locus genes play different roles in sexual reproduction and pathogenesis in Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qian; Hou, Rui; Juanyu; Zhang; Ma, Jiwen; Wu, Zhongshou; Wang, Guanghui; Wang, Chenfang; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Sexual reproduction plays a critical role in the infection cycle of Fusarium graminearum because ascospores are the primary inoculum. As a homothallic ascomycete, F. graminearum contains both the MAT1-1 and MAT1-2-1 loci in the genome. To better understand their functions and regulations in sexual reproduction and pathogenesis, in this study we assayed the expression, interactions, and mutant phenotypes of individual MAT locus genes. Whereas the expression of MAT1-1-1 and MAT12-1 rapidly increased after perithecial induction and began to decline after 1 day post-perithecial induction (dpi), the expression of MAT1-1-2 and MAT1-1-3 peaked at 4 dpi. MAT1-1-2 and MAT1-1-3 had a similar expression profile and likely are controlled by a bidirectional promoter. Although none of the MAT locus genes were essential for perithecium formation, all of them were required for ascosporogenesis in self-crosses. In outcrosses, the mat11-1-2 and mat11-1-3 mutants were fertile but the mat1-1-1 and mat1-2-1 mutants displayed male- and female-specific defects, respectively. The mat1-2-1 mutant was reduced in FgSO expression and hyphal fusion. Mat1-1-2 interacted with all other MAT locus transcription factors, suggesting that they may form a protein complex during sexual reproduction. Mat1-1-1 also interacted with FgMcm1, which may play a role in controlling cell identity and sexual development. Interestingly, the mat1-1-1 and mat1-2-1 mutants were reduced in virulence in corn stalk rot assays although none of the MAT locus genes was important for wheat infection. The MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 genes may play a host-specific role in colonization of corn stalks. PMID:23826182

  1. The MAT Locus Genes Play Different Roles in Sexual Reproduction and Pathogenesis in Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Juanyu; Zhang; Ma, Jiwen; Wu, Zhongshou; Wang, Guanghui; Wang, Chenfang; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Sexual reproduction plays a critical role in the infection cycle of Fusarium graminearum because ascospores are the primary inoculum. As a homothallic ascomycete, F. graminearum contains both the MAT1-1 and MAT1-2-1 loci in the genome. To better understand their functions and regulations in sexual reproduction and pathogenesis, in this study we assayed the expression, interactions, and mutant phenotypes of individual MAT locus genes. Whereas the expression of MAT1-1-1 and MAT12-1 rapidly increased after perithecial induction and began to decline after 1 day post-perithecial induction (dpi), the expression of MAT1-1-2 and MAT1-1-3 peaked at 4 dpi. MAT1-1-2 and MAT1-1-3 had a similar expression profile and likely are controlled by a bidirectional promoter. Although none of the MAT locus genes were essential for perithecium formation, all of them were required for ascosporogenesis in self-crosses. In outcrosses, the mat11-1-2 and mat11-1-3 mutants were fertile but the mat1-1-1 and mat1-2-1 mutants displayed male- and female-specific defects, respectively. The mat1-2-1 mutant was reduced in FgSO expression and hyphal fusion. Mat1-1-2 interacted with all other MAT locus transcription factors, suggesting that they may form a protein complex during sexual reproduction. Mat1-1-1 also interacted with FgMcm1, which may play a role in controlling cell identity and sexual development. Interestingly, the mat1-1-1 and mat1-2-1 mutants were reduced in virulence in corn stalk rot assays although none of the MAT locus genes was important for wheat infection. The MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 genes may play a host-specific role in colonization of corn stalks. PMID:23826182

  2. The MAT locus genes play different roles in sexual reproduction and pathogenesis in Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qian; Hou, Rui; Juanyu; Zhang; Ma, Jiwen; Wu, Zhongshou; Wang, Guanghui; Wang, Chenfang; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Sexual reproduction plays a critical role in the infection cycle of Fusarium graminearum because ascospores are the primary inoculum. As a homothallic ascomycete, F. graminearum contains both the MAT1-1 and MAT1-2-1 loci in the genome. To better understand their functions and regulations in sexual reproduction and pathogenesis, in this study we assayed the expression, interactions, and mutant phenotypes of individual MAT locus genes. Whereas the expression of MAT1-1-1 and MAT12-1 rapidly increased after perithecial induction and began to decline after 1 day post-perithecial induction (dpi), the expression of MAT1-1-2 and MAT1-1-3 peaked at 4 dpi. MAT1-1-2 and MAT1-1-3 had a similar expression profile and likely are controlled by a bidirectional promoter. Although none of the MAT locus genes were essential for perithecium formation, all of them were required for ascosporogenesis in self-crosses. In outcrosses, the mat11-1-2 and mat11-1-3 mutants were fertile but the mat1-1-1 and mat1-2-1 mutants displayed male- and female-specific defects, respectively. The mat1-2-1 mutant was reduced in FgSO expression and hyphal fusion. Mat1-1-2 interacted with all other MAT locus transcription factors, suggesting that they may form a protein complex during sexual reproduction. Mat1-1-1 also interacted with FgMcm1, which may play a role in controlling cell identity and sexual development. Interestingly, the mat1-1-1 and mat1-2-1 mutants were reduced in virulence in corn stalk rot assays although none of the MAT locus genes was important for wheat infection. The MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 genes may play a host-specific role in colonization of corn stalks.

  3. Using Intact Iron Microbial Mats to Gain Insights Into Mat Ecology and Geochemical Niche at the Microbial Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazer, B. T.; Chan, C. S. Y.; Mcallister, S.; Leavitt, A.; Emerson, D.

    2015-12-01

    Microbial mats are formed by microorganisms working in coordinated symbiosis, often benefitting the community by controlling the local geochemical or physical environment. Thus, the ecology of the mat depends on the individual roles of microbes organized into niches within a larger architecture. Chemolithotrophic Fe-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) form distinctive Fe oxyhydroxide biominerals which constitute the building blocks of the mat. However, the majority of our progress has been in understanding the overall community structure. Understanding the physical mat structure on the microbial scale is important to unraveling FeOB evolution, the biogeochemistry and ecology of Fe-rich habitats, and ultimately interpreting FeOB biosignatures in the rock record. Mats in freshwater and marine environments contain strikingly similar biomineral morphologies, yet they are formed by phylogenetically distinct microorganisms. This suggests that the overall architecture and underlying genetics of freshwater and marine mats has evolved to serve particular roles specific to Fe oxidation. Thus, we conducted a comparative study of Fe seep freshwater mats and marine hydrothermal mats. We have developed a new approach to sampling Fe mats in order to preserve the delicate structure for analysis by confocal and scanning electron microscopy. Our analyses of these intact mats show that freshwater and marine mats are similarly initiated by a single type of structure-former. These ecosystem engineers form either a hollow sheath or a twisted stalk biomineral during mat formation, with a highly directional structure. These microbes appear to be the vanguard organisms that anchor the community within oxygen/Fe(II) gradients, further allowing for community succession in the mat interior as evidenced by other mineralized morphologies. Patterns in biomineral thickness and directionality were indicative of redox gradients and temporal changes in the geochemical environment. These observations show that

  4. Manganese Influences Carbonate Precipitation in a Laminated Microbial Mat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krusor, M.; Grim, S. L.; Wilmeth, D.; Johnson, H.; Berelson, W.; Stevenson, B. S.; Stamps, B. W.; Corsetti, F. A.; Spear, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Investigating mineralization within modern microbial mats informs our interpretation of ancient microbialites and the mineralization process. Microbial mats in Little Hot Creek (LHC), California contain 4 distinct layers with different microbiota. Each layer of the mat is supersaturated with regard to calcium carbonate (CaCO3), which increases with depth. Total organic carbon decreases with depth through the mat. We used 13C-labeled bicarbonate incubations of each mat layer to calculate growth rates of organic carbon and CaCO3 within the mat. Incubations were also amended with Mn or Mg to test their effect on rates of CaCO3 and organic carbon formation. The Mn-amended top layer increased CaCO3 precipitation and organic carbon growth. Mn increased organic carbon production in the lowest layer to a lesser extent, but not growth of CaCO3. Mn addition had no effect on growth rates in the two intervening layers. Mg amendment stimulated only organic carbon formation in the top layer, with little to no effect on the lower layers or overall CaCO3 formation. We attribute the elevated CaCO3 precipitation noted after Mn addition to increased oxygenic photosynthetic activity. Oxygenic photosynthesis requires Mn as an enzyme cofactor and promotes carbonate precipitation. We propose that the phototrophic community was responsible for most of the CaCO3 precipitation in the upper layer. Phototrophs gradually moved upwards for optimal access to sunlight, and as the mat grew, "tenant" microorganisms inhabited the lower carbonate layers while the "builders" remained on top. The relatively constant percentages of inorganic carbon below the top layer combined with observed minimal CaCO3 precipitation under laboratory conditions suggest that additional research into potential metabolisms that impact carbonate formation would be informative. These results improve our understanding of the linkages between microbial metabolisms, carbonate precipitation in microbial mats, and the potential

  5. Effects of territorial damselfish on an algal-dominated coastal coral reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccarelli, Daniela M.; Jones, Geoffrey P.; McCook, Laurence J.

    2005-12-01

    Territorial damselfish are important herbivores on coral reefs because they can occupy a large proportion of the substratum and modify the benthic community to promote the cover of food algae. However, on coastal coral reefs damselfish occupy habitats that are often dominated by unpalatable macroalgae. The aim of this study was to examine whether damselfish can maintain distinctive algal assemblages on a coastal reef that is seasonally dominated by Sargassum (Magnetic Island, Great Barrier Reef). Here, three abundant species ( Pomacentrus tripunctatus, P. wardi and Stegastes apicalis) occupied up to 60% of the reef substrata. All three species promoted the abundance of food algae in their territories. The magnitudes of the effects varied among reef zones, but patterns were relatively stable over time. Damselfish appear to readily co-exist with large unpalatable macroalgae as they can use it as a substratum for promoting the growth of palatable epiphytes. Damselfish territories represent patches of increased epiphyte load on macroalgae, decreased sediment cover, and enhanced cover of palatable algal turf.

  6. [Selective feeding of Calanus sinicus on harmful algal blooms species in East China Sea in spring].

    PubMed

    Sun, Jun; Wang, Xiao-dong; Song, Shu-qun

    2007-01-01

    From April 27th to June 5th 2005, the selective feeding of Calanus sinicus on harmful algal blooms (HABs) species was studied by in situ feeding experiments at six typical stations in a high frequency red tide occurring region of East China Sea. The results showed that the selective feeding behavior of C. sinicus was dependent on food density. It had an obvious food selectivity when the abundance of phytoplankton cell was low, but the selectivity changed from preference to discrimination at high phytoplankton cell abundance, with a threshold value of 329 cells ml. The selective feeding of C. sinicus was also dependent on food composition. It showed no selective feeding or discrimination on microzooplankton at most stations, but preferred to P. delicatissima and disliked Karenia mikimotoi at HABs occurring station, which induced the succession of phytoplankton community to K. mikimotoi blooming.

  7. Water flow and solute transport in floating fen root mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stofberg, Sija F.; EATM van der Zee, Sjoerd

    2015-04-01

    Floating fens are valuable wetlands, found in North-Western Europe, that are formed by floating root mats when old turf ponds are colonized by plants. These terrestrialization ecosystems are known for their biodiversity and the presence of rare plant species, and the root mats reveal different vegetation zones at a small scale. The vegetation zones are a result of strong gradients in abiotic conditions, including groundwater dynamics, nutrients and pH. To prevent irreversible drought effects such as land subsidence and mineralization of peat, water management involves import of water from elsewhere to maintain constant surface water levels. Imported water may have elevated levels of salinity during dry summers, and salt exposure may threaten the vegetation. To assess the risk of exposure of the rare plant species to salinity, the hydrology of such root mats must be understood. Physical properties of root mats have scarcely been investigated. We have measured soil characteristics, hydraulic conductivity, vertical root mat movement and groundwater dynamics in a floating root mat in the nature reserve Nieuwkoopse Plassen, in the Netherlands. The root mat mostly consists of roots and organic material, in which the soil has a high saturated water content, and strongly varies in its stage of decomposition. We have found a distinct negative correlation between degree of decomposition and hydraulic conductivity, similar to observations for bogs in the literature. Our results show that the relatively young, thin edge of the root mat that colonizes the surface water has a high hydraulic conductivity and floats in the surface water, resulting in very small groundwater fluctuations within the root mat. The older part of the root mat, that is connected to the deeper peat layers is hydrologically more isolated and the material has a lower conductivity. Here, the groundwater fluctuates strongly with atmospheric forcing. The zones of hydraulic properties and vegetation, appear to

  8. Electrospun graphene-ZnO nanofiber mats for photocatalysis applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Seongpil; Joshi, Bhavana N.; Lee, Min Wook; Kim, Na Young; Yoon, Sam S.

    2014-03-01

    Graphene-decorated zinc oxide (G-ZnO) nanofibers were fabricated, for the first time, by electrospinning. The effect of graphene concentration on the properties of G-ZnO mats were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and thermo gravimetric analysis. The G-ZnO mats decorated with 0.5 wt.% of graphene showed excellent photocatalytic activity through degradation of methylene blue under UV irradiation. The highest photocatalytic activity (80% degradation) was observed for 0.5 wt.% G-ZnO mats annealed at 400 °C after 4 h of UV irradiation.

  9. Harmful Algal Blooms and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Grattan, Lynn M.; Holobaugh, Sailor; Morris, J. Glenn

    2015-01-01

    The five most commonly recognized Harmful Algal Bloom related illnesses include Ciguatera poisoning, Paralytic Shellfish poisoning, Neurotoxin Shellfish poisoning, Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Amnesic Shellfish poisoning. Although they are each the product of different toxins, toxin assemblages or HAB precursors these clinical syndromes have much in common. Exposure occurs through the consumption of fish or shellfish; routine clinical tests are not available for diagnosis; there is no known antidote for exposure; and the risk of these illnesses can negatively impact local fishing and tourism industries. Thus, illness prevention is of paramount importance to minimize human and public health risks. To accomplish this, close communication and collaboration is needed among HAB scientists, public health researchers and local, state and tribal health departments at academic, community outreach, and policy levels. PMID:27616971

  10. Stability of alginate-immobilized algal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dainty, A.L.; Goulding, K.H.; Robinson, P.K.; Simpkins, I; Trevan, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    Investigations were carried out using immobilized Chlorella cells to determine the diameter, compressibility, tolerance to phosphate chelation, and ability to retain algal cells during incubation of various alginate beads. These physical bead-characteristics were affected by a variety of interactive factors, including multivalent cation type (hardening agent) and cell, cation, and alginate concentration, the latter exhibiting a predominant influence. The susceptibility of alginate beads to phosphate chelation involved a complex interaction of cation type, concentration, and pH of phosphate solution. A scale of response ranging from gel swelling to gel shrinking was observed for a range of conditions. However, stable Ca alginate beads were maintained in incubation media with a pH of 5.5 and a phosphate concentration of 5 micro M. A preliminary investigation into cell leakage from the beads illustrated the importance of maintaining a stable gel structure and limiting cell growth to reduce leakage.

  11. Harmful Algal Blooms and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Grattan, Lynn M.; Holobaugh, Sailor; Morris, J. Glenn

    2015-01-01

    The five most commonly recognized Harmful Algal Bloom related illnesses include Ciguatera poisoning, Paralytic Shellfish poisoning, Neurotoxin Shellfish poisoning, Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Amnesic Shellfish poisoning. Although they are each the product of different toxins, toxin assemblages or HAB precursors these clinical syndromes have much in common. Exposure occurs through the consumption of fish or shellfish; routine clinical tests are not available for diagnosis; there is no known antidote for exposure; and the risk of these illnesses can negatively impact local fishing and tourism industries. Thus, illness prevention is of paramount importance to minimize human and public health risks. To accomplish this, close communication and collaboration is needed among HAB scientists, public health researchers and local, state and tribal health departments at academic, community outreach, and policy levels.

  12. Algal productivity modeling: a step toward accurate assessments of full-scale algal cultivation.

    PubMed

    Béchet, Quentin; Chambonnière, Paul; Shilton, Andy; Guizard, Guillaume; Guieysse, Benoit

    2015-05-01

    A new biomass productivity model was parameterized for Chlorella vulgaris using short-term (<30 min) oxygen productivities from algal microcosms exposed to 6 light intensities (20-420 W/m(2)) and 6 temperatures (5-42 °C). The model was then validated against experimental biomass productivities recorded in bench-scale photobioreactors operated under 4 light intensities (30.6-74.3 W/m(2)) and 4 temperatures (10-30 °C), yielding an accuracy of ± 15% over 163 days of cultivation. This modeling approach addresses major challenges associated with the accurate prediction of algal productivity at full-scale. Firstly, while most prior modeling approaches have only considered the impact of light intensity on algal productivity, the model herein validated also accounts for the critical impact of temperature. Secondly, this study validates a theoretical approach to convert short-term oxygen productivities into long-term biomass productivities. Thirdly, the experimental methodology used has the practical advantage of only requiring one day of experimental work for complete model parameterization. The validation of this new modeling approach is therefore an important step for refining feasibility assessments of algae biotechnologies.

  13. Algal productivity modeling: a step toward accurate assessments of full-scale algal cultivation.

    PubMed

    Béchet, Quentin; Chambonnière, Paul; Shilton, Andy; Guizard, Guillaume; Guieysse, Benoit

    2015-05-01

    A new biomass productivity model was parameterized for Chlorella vulgaris using short-term (<30 min) oxygen productivities from algal microcosms exposed to 6 light intensities (20-420 W/m(2)) and 6 temperatures (5-42 °C). The model was then validated against experimental biomass productivities recorded in bench-scale photobioreactors operated under 4 light intensities (30.6-74.3 W/m(2)) and 4 temperatures (10-30 °C), yielding an accuracy of ± 15% over 163 days of cultivation. This modeling approach addresses major challenges associated with the accurate prediction of algal productivity at full-scale. Firstly, while most prior modeling approaches have only considered the impact of light intensity on algal productivity, the model herein validated also accounts for the critical impact of temperature. Secondly, this study validates a theoretical approach to convert short-term oxygen productivities into long-term biomass productivities. Thirdly, the experimental methodology used has the practical advantage of only requiring one day of experimental work for complete model parameterization. The validation of this new modeling approach is therefore an important step for refining feasibility assessments of algae biotechnologies. PMID:25502920

  14. Life cycle environmental impacts of wastewater-based algal biofuels.

    PubMed

    Mu, Dongyan; Min, Min; Krohn, Brian; Mullins, Kimberley A; Ruan, Roger; Hill, Jason

    2014-10-01

    Recent research has proposed integrating wastewater treatment with algae cultivation as a way of producing algal biofuels at a commercial scale more sustainably. This study evaluates the environmental performance of wastewater-based algal biofuels with a well-to-wheel life cycle assessment (LCA). Production pathways examined include different nutrient sources (municipal wastewater influent to the activated sludge process, centrate from the sludge drying process, swine manure, and freshwater with synthetic fertilizers) combined with emerging biomass conversion technologies (microwave pyrolysis, combustion, wet lipid extraction, and hydrothermal liquefaction). Results show that the environmental performance of wastewater-based algal biofuels is generally better than freshwater-based algal biofuels, but depends on the characteristics of the wastewater and the conversion technologies. Of 16 pathways compared, only the centrate cultivation with wet lipid extraction pathway and the centrate cultivation with combustion pathway have lower impacts than petroleum diesel in all environmental categories examined (fossil fuel use, greenhouse gas emissions, eutrophication potential, and consumptive water use). The potential for large-scale implementation of centrate-based algal biofuel, however, is limited by availability of centrate. Thus, it is unlikely that algal biofuels can provide a large-scale and environmentally preferable alternative to petroleum transportation fuels without considerable improvement in current production technologies. Additionally, the cobenefit of wastewater-based algal biofuel production as an alternate means of treating various wastewaters should be further explored.

  15. Life cycle environmental impacts of wastewater-based algal biofuels.

    PubMed

    Mu, Dongyan; Min, Min; Krohn, Brian; Mullins, Kimberley A; Ruan, Roger; Hill, Jason

    2014-10-01

    Recent research has proposed integrating wastewater treatment with algae cultivation as a way of producing algal biofuels at a commercial scale more sustainably. This study evaluates the environmental performance of wastewater-based algal biofuels with a well-to-wheel life cycle assessment (LCA). Production pathways examined include different nutrient sources (municipal wastewater influent to the activated sludge process, centrate from the sludge drying process, swine manure, and freshwater with synthetic fertilizers) combined with emerging biomass conversion technologies (microwave pyrolysis, combustion, wet lipid extraction, and hydrothermal liquefaction). Results show that the environmental performance of wastewater-based algal biofuels is generally better than freshwater-based algal biofuels, but depends on the characteristics of the wastewater and the conversion technologies. Of 16 pathways compared, only the centrate cultivation with wet lipid extraction pathway and the centrate cultivation with combustion pathway have lower impacts than petroleum diesel in all environmental categories examined (fossil fuel use, greenhouse gas emissions, eutrophication potential, and consumptive water use). The potential for large-scale implementation of centrate-based algal biofuel, however, is limited by availability of centrate. Thus, it is unlikely that algal biofuels can provide a large-scale and environmentally preferable alternative to petroleum transportation fuels without considerable improvement in current production technologies. Additionally, the cobenefit of wastewater-based algal biofuel production as an alternate means of treating various wastewaters should be further explored. PMID:25220843

  16. Solar abundance of osmium

    PubMed Central

    Jacoby, George; Aller, Lawrence H.

    1976-01-01

    The abundance parameter, log gfA, where g is the statistical weight of the lower level, f is the oscillator strength, and A is the abundance (by numbers of atoms with respect to hydrogen), has been derived for three lines of osmium by a method of spectrum synthesis. An apparent discordance of the derived abundance with that found from the carbonaceous chondrites is probably to be attributed primarily to errors in the f-values, and blending with unknown contributors. PMID:16592314

  17. Fungal farmers or algal escorts: lichen adaptation from the algal perspective.

    PubMed

    Piercey-Normore, Michele D; Deduke, Christopher

    2011-09-01

    Domestication of algae by lichen-forming fungi describes the symbiotic relationship between the photosynthetic (green alga or cyanobacterium; photobiont) and fungal (mycobiont) partnership in lichen associations (Goward 1992). The algal domestication implies that the mycobiont cultivates the alga as a monoculture within its thallus, analogous to a farmer cultivating a food crop. However, the initial photobiont 'selection' by the mycobiont may be predetermined by the habitat rather than by the farmer. When the mycobiont selects a photobiont from the available photobionts within a habitat, the mycobiont may influence photobiont growth and reproduction (Ahmadjian & Jacobs 1981) only after the interaction has been initiated. The theory of ecological guilds (Rikkinen et al. 2002) proposes that habitat limits the variety of photobionts available to the fungal partner. While some studies provide evidence to support the theory of ecological guilds in cyanobacterial lichens (Rikkinen et al. 2002), other studies propose models to explain variation in symbiont combinations in green algal lichens (Ohmura et al. 2006; Piercey-Normore 2006; Yahr et al. 2006) hypothesizing the existence of such guilds. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Peksa & Škaloud (2011) test the theory of ecological guilds and suggest a relationship between algal habitat requirements and lichen adaptation in green algal lichens of the genus Lepraria. The environmental parameters examined in this study, exposure to rainfall, altitude and substratum type, are integral to lichen biology. Lichens have a poikilohydric nature, relying on the availability of atmospheric moisture for metabolic processes. Having no known active mechanism to preserve metabolic thallus moisture in times of drought, one would expect a strong influence of the environment on symbiont adaptation to specific habitats. Adaptation to changes in substrata and its properties would be expected with the intimate contact between crustose

  18. Scribble tracker: a matting-based approach for robust tracking.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jialue; Shen, Xiaohui; Wu, Ying

    2012-08-01

    Model updating is a critical problem in tracking. Inaccurate extraction of the foreground and background information in model adaptation would cause the model to drift and degrade the tracking performance. The most direct yet difficult solution to the drift problem is to obtain accurate boundaries of the target. We approach such a solution by proposing a novel model adaptation framework based on the combination of matting and tracking. In our framework, coarse tracking results automatically provide sufficient and accurate scribbles for matting, which makes matting applicable in a tracking system. Meanwhile, accurate boundaries of the target can be obtained from matting results even when the target has large deformation. An effective model combining short-term features and long-term appearances is further constructed and successfully updated based on such accurate boundaries. The model can successfully handle occlusion by explicit inference. Extensive experiments show that our adaptation scheme largely avoids model drift and significantly outperforms other discriminative tracking models. PMID:22745003

  19. A Modular Sensorized Mat for Monitoring Infant Posture

    PubMed Central

    Donati, Marco; Cecchi, Francesca; Bonaccorso, Filippo; Branciforte, Marco; Dario, Paolo; Vitiello, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel sensorized mat for monitoring infant's posture through the measure of pressure maps. The pressure-sensitive mat is based on an optoelectronic technology developed in the last few years at Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna: a soft silicone skin cover, which constitutes the mat, participates in the transduction principle and provides the mat with compliance. The device has a modular structure (with a minimum of one and a maximum of six sub-modules, and a total surface area of about 1 m2) that enables dimensional adaptation of the pressure-sensitive area to different specific applications. The system consists of on-board electronics for data collection, pre-elaboration, and transmission to a remote computing unit for analysis and posture classification. In this work we present a complete description of the sensing apparatus along with its experimental characterization and validation with five healthy infants. PMID:24385029

  20. BIOGEOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC MICROBIAL MATS AND THEIR BIOTA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David; Discipulo, M.; Turk, K.; Londry, K. L.

    2005-01-01

    Photosynthetic microbial mats offer an opportunity to define holistic functionality at the millimeter scale. At the same time. their biogeochemistry contributes to environmental processes on a planetary scale. These mats are possibly direct descendents of the most ancient biological communities; communities in which oxygenic photosynthesis might have been invented. Mats provide one of the best natural systems to study how microbial populations associate to control dynamic biogeochemical gradients. These are self- sustaining, complete ecosystems in which light energy absorbed over a dial (24 hour) cycle drives the synthesis of spatially-organized, diverse biomass. Tightly-coupled microorganisms in the mat have specialized metabolisms that catalyze transformations of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and a host of other elements.

  1. Microbial mats and the early evolution of life.

    PubMed

    Des Marais, D J

    1990-05-01

    Microbial mats have descended from perhaps the oldest and most widespread biological communities known. Mats harbor microbes that are crucial for studies of bacterial phylogeny and physiology. They illustrate how several oxygen-sensitive biochemical processes have adapted to oxygen, and they show how life adapted to dry land long before the rise of plants. The search for the earliest grazing protists and metazoa in stromatolites is aided by observations of mats: in them, organic compounds characteristic of ancient photosynthetic protists can be identified. Recent mat studies suggest that the 13C/12C increase observed over geological time in stromatolitic organic matter was driven at least in part by a long-term decline in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels.

  2. Microbial mats and the early evolution of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Des Marais, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    Microbial mats have descended from perhaps the oldest and most widespread biological communities known. Mats harbor microbes that are crucial for studies of bacterial phylogeny and physiology. They illustrate how several oxygen-sensitive biochemical processes have adapted to oxygen, and they show how life adapted to dry land long before the rise of plants. The search for the earliest grazing protists and metazoa in stromatolites is aided by observations of mats: in them, organic compounds characteristic of ancient photosynthetic protists can be identified. Recent mat studies suggest that the 13C/12C increase observed over geological time in stromatolitic organic matter was driven at least in part by a long-term decline in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels.

  3. The MATS satellite mission - tomographic perspectives on the mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Ole Martin; Gumbel, Jörg; Megner, Linda; Murtagh, Donal P.; Ivchenko, Nickolay

    2016-04-01

    MATS (Mesospheric Airglow/Aerosol Tomography and Spectroscopy) is a Swedish satellite mission scheduled for launch in 2019. MATS science focuses on mesospheric wave activity and noctilucent clouds. Primary measurement targets are O2 Atmospheric band dayglow and nightglow in the near infrared (759-767 nm) and sunlight scattered from noctilucent clouds in the ultraviolet (270-300 nm). While tomography provides horizontally and vertically resolved data, spectroscopy allows analysis in terms of mesospheric composition, temperature and cloud properties. During 2015, the design of the MATS instrument was finalized, and the first complete instrument design will be shown in this presentation. As a part of this work, simulated measurements were performed and inverted using a 3 dimensional tomographic algorithm based on the optimal estimation method. As a result, the first quantitative estimation of the instruments capabilities and performance figures can now be presented, and hence give a more accurate picture of the scientific opportunities that the MATS mission provides.

  4. Fabrication of nanofiber mats from electrospinning of functionalized polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oktay, Burcu; Kayaman-Apohan, Nilhan; Erdem-Kuruca, Serap

    2014-08-01

    Electrospinning technique enabled us to prepare nanofibers from synthetic and natural polymers. In this study, it was aimed to fabricate electrospun poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) based nanofibers by reactive electrospinning process. To improve endurance of fiber toward to many solvents, PVA was functionalized with photo-crosslinkable groups before spinning. Afterward PVA was crosslinked by UV radiation during electrospinning process. The nanofiber mats were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that homogenous, uniform and crosslinked PVA nanofibers in diameters of about 200 nm were obtained. Thermal stability of the nanofiber mat was investigated with thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Also the potential use of this nanofiber mats for tissue engineering was examined. Osteosarcoma (Saos) cells were cultured on the nanofiber mats.

  5. Prickly business: abundance of sea urchins on breakwaters and coral reefs in Dubai.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Andrew G; Dunshea, Glenn; Feary, David A; Hoey, Andrew S

    2016-04-30

    Echinometra mathaei is a common echinoid on tropical reefs and where abundant plays an important role in the control of algal communities. Despite high prevalence of E. mathaei on southern Persian/Arabian Gulf reefs, their abundance and distribution is poorly known. Spatial and temporal patterns in population abundance were examined at 12 sites between breakwater and natural reef habitats in Dubai (UAE) every 3 months from 2008 to 2010. Within the breakwater habitat, densities were greatest at shallow wave-exposed sites, and reduced with both decreasing wave-exposure and increasing depth. Interestingly, E. mathaei were significantly more abundant on exposed breakwaters than natural reef sites, presumably due to differences in habitat structure and benthic cover. Population abundances differed seasonally, with peak abundances during summer (July-September) and lower abundances in winter (December-February). Seasonal fluctuations are likely the result of peak annual recruitment pulses coupled with increased fish predation from summer to winter. PMID:26563547

  6. Prickly business: abundance of sea urchins on breakwaters and coral reefs in Dubai.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Andrew G; Dunshea, Glenn; Feary, David A; Hoey, Andrew S

    2016-04-30

    Echinometra mathaei is a common echinoid on tropical reefs and where abundant plays an important role in the control of algal communities. Despite high prevalence of E. mathaei on southern Persian/Arabian Gulf reefs, their abundance and distribution is poorly known. Spatial and temporal patterns in population abundance were examined at 12 sites between breakwater and natural reef habitats in Dubai (UAE) every 3 months from 2008 to 2010. Within the breakwater habitat, densities were greatest at shallow wave-exposed sites, and reduced with both decreasing wave-exposure and increasing depth. Interestingly, E. mathaei were significantly more abundant on exposed breakwaters than natural reef sites, presumably due to differences in habitat structure and benthic cover. Population abundances differed seasonally, with peak abundances during summer (July-September) and lower abundances in winter (December-February). Seasonal fluctuations are likely the result of peak annual recruitment pulses coupled with increased fish predation from summer to winter.

  7. Production of biofuel using molluscan pseudofeces derived from algal cells

    DOEpatents

    Das, Keshav C.; Chinnasamy, Senthil; Shelton, James; Wilde, Susan B.; Haynie, Rebecca S.; Herrin, James A.

    2012-08-28

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for novel strategies to harvest algal lipids using mollusks which after feeding algae from the growth medium can convert algal lipids into their biomass or excrete lipids in their pseudofeces which makes algae harvesting energy efficient and cost effective. The bioconverter, filter-feeding mollusks and their pseudofeces can be harvested and converted to biocrude using an advanced thermochemical liquefaction technology. Methods, systems, and materials are disclosed for the harvest and isolation of algal lipids from the mollusks, molluscan feces and molluscan pseudofeces.

  8. Commander Mattingly tangles with NOSL experiment on aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Commander Mattingly uses Nighttime / Daytime Optical Survey of Lightning (NOSL) experiment on aft flight deck. Cables connecting the data recorder to 16mm data aquisition camera (DAC), electronic package, and optical sensor package become tangled as Mattingly points NOSL instrument out overhead aft flight deck window. His cap is also lost amidst the maze of wiring, tape recorder, and camera equipment onboard the Earth-orbiting Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102.

  9. The effects of UV radiation A and B on diurnal variation in photosynthesis in three taxonomically and ecologically diverse microbial mats.

    PubMed

    Cockell, C S; Rothschild, L J

    1999-02-01

    Photosynthetic primary production, the basis of most global food chains, is inhibited by UV radiation. Evaluating UV inhibition is therefore important for assessing the role of natural levels of UV radiation in regulating ecosystem behavior as well as the potential impact of stratospheric ozone depletion on global ecosystems. As both photosynthesis and UV fluxes are subject to diurnal variations, we examined the diurnal variability of the effect of UV radiation on photosynthesis in three diverse algal mats. In one of the mats (Cyanidium caldarium) a small mean decrease in primary productivity over the whole day occurred when both UVA and UVB were screened out. In two of the mats (Lyngbya aestuarii and Zygogonium sp.) we found a mean increase in the total primary productivity over the day when UVB alone was screened and a further increase when UVA and UVB were both screened out. Variations in the effects of UV radiation were found at different times of the day. This diurnal variability may be because even under the same solar radiation flux, there are different factors that may control photosynthetic rate, including nutritional status and other physiological processes in the cell. The results show the importance of assessing the complete diurnal productivity. For some of the time points the increase in the mean was still within the standard deviations in primary productivity, illustrating the difficulty in dissecting UV effects from other natural variations.

  10. The effects of UV radiation A and B on diurnal variation in photosynthesis in three taxonomically and ecologically diverse microbial mats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockell, C. S.; Rothschild, L. J.

    1999-01-01

    Photosynthetic primary production, the basis of most global food chains, is inhibited by UV radiation. Evaluating UV inhibition is therefore important for assessing the role of natural levels of UV radiation in regulating ecosystem behavior as well as the potential impact of stratospheric ozone depletion on global ecosystems. As both photosynthesis and UV fluxes are subject to diurnal variations, we examined the diurnal variability of the effect of UV radiation on photosynthesis in three diverse algal mats. In one of the mats (Cyanidium caldarium) a small mean decrease in primary productivity over the whole day occurred when both UVA and UVB were screened out. In two of the mats (Lyngbya aestuarii and Zygogonium sp.) we found a mean increase in the total primary productivity over the day when UVB alone was screened and a further increase when UVA and UVB were both screened out. Variations in the effects of UV radiation were found at different times of the day. This diurnal variability may be because even under the same solar radiation flux, there are different factors that may control photosynthetic rate, including nutritional status and other physiological processes in the cell. The results show the importance of assessing the complete diurnal productivity. For some of the time points the increase in the mean was still within the standard deviations in primary productivity, illustrating the difficulty in dissecting UV effects from other natural variations.

  11. Methane Production by Microbial Mats Under Low Sulfate Concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bebout, Brad M.; Hoehler, Tori M.; Thamdrup, Bo; Albert, Dan; Carpenter, Steven P.; Hogan, Mary; Turk, Kendra; DesMarais, David J.

    2003-01-01

    Cyanobacterial mats collected in hypersaline salterns were incubated in a greenhouse under low sulfate concentrations ([SO4]) and examined for their primary productivity and emissions of methane and other major carbon species. Atmospheric greenhouse warming by gases such as carbon dioxide and methane must have been greater during the Archean than today in order to account for a record of moderate to warm paleoclemates, despite a less luminous early sun. It has been suggested that decreased levels of oxygen and sulfate in Archean oceans could have significantly stimulated microbial methanogenesis relative to present marine rates, with a resultant increase in the relative importance of methane in maintaining the early greenhouse. We maintained modern microbial mats, models of ancient coastal marine communities, in artificial brine mixtures containing both modern [SO4=] (ca. 70 mM) and "Archean" [SO4] (less than 0.2 mM). At low [SO4], primary production in the mats was essentially unaffected, while rates of sulfate reduction decreased by a factor of three, and methane fluxes increased by up to ten-fold. However, remineralization by methanogenesis still amounted to less than 0.4 % of the total carbon released by the mats. The relatively low efficiency of conversion of photosynthate to methane is suggested to reflect the particular geometry and chemical microenvironment of hypersaline cyanobacterial mats. Therefore, such mats w-ere probably relatively weak net sources of methane throughout their 3.5 Ga history, even during periods of low- environmental levels oxygen and sulfate.

  12. Cyanobacterial reuse of extracellular organic carbon in microbial mats.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Rhona K; Mayali, Xavier; Lee, Jackson Z; Craig Everroad, R; Hwang, Mona; Bebout, Brad M; Weber, Peter K; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Thelen, Michael P

    2016-05-01

    Cyanobacterial organic matter excretion is crucial to carbon cycling in many microbial communities, but the nature and bioavailability of this C depend on unknown physiological functions. Cyanobacteria-dominated hypersaline laminated mats are a useful model ecosystem for the study of C flow in complex communities, as they use photosynthesis to sustain a more or less closed system. Although such mats have a large C reservoir in the extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs), the production and degradation of organic carbon is not well defined. To identify extracellular processes in cyanobacterial mats, we examined mats collected from Elkhorn Slough (ES) at Monterey Bay, California, for glycosyl and protein composition of the EPS. We found a prevalence of simple glucose polysaccharides containing either α or β (1,4) linkages, indicating distinct sources of glucose with differing enzymatic accessibility. Using proteomics, we identified cyanobacterial extracellular enzymes, and also detected activities that indicate a capacity for EPS degradation. In a less complex system, we characterized the EPS of a cyanobacterial isolate from ES, ESFC-1, and found the extracellular composition of biofilms produced by this unicyanobacterial culture were similar to that of natural mats. By tracing isotopically labeled EPS into single cells of ESFC-1, we demonstrated rapid incorporation of extracellular-derived carbon. Taken together, these results indicate cyanobacteria reuse excess organic carbon, constituting a dynamic pool of extracellular resources in these mats. PMID:26495994

  13. Cyanobacterial reuse of extracellular organic carbon in microbial mats

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Rhona K; Mayali, Xavier; Lee, Jackson Z; Craig Everroad, R; Hwang, Mona; Bebout, Brad M; Weber, Peter K; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Thelen, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Cyanobacterial organic matter excretion is crucial to carbon cycling in many microbial communities, but the nature and bioavailability of this C depend on unknown physiological functions. Cyanobacteria-dominated hypersaline laminated mats are a useful model ecosystem for the study of C flow in complex communities, as they use photosynthesis to sustain a more or less closed system. Although such mats have a large C reservoir in the extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs), the production and degradation of organic carbon is not well defined. To identify extracellular processes in cyanobacterial mats, we examined mats collected from Elkhorn Slough (ES) at Monterey Bay, California, for glycosyl and protein composition of the EPS. We found a prevalence of simple glucose polysaccharides containing either α or β (1,4) linkages, indicating distinct sources of glucose with differing enzymatic accessibility. Using proteomics, we identified cyanobacterial extracellular enzymes, and also detected activities that indicate a capacity for EPS degradation. In a less complex system, we characterized the EPS of a cyanobacterial isolate from ES, ESFC-1, and found the extracellular composition of biofilms produced by this unicyanobacterial culture were similar to that of natural mats. By tracing isotopically labeled EPS into single cells of ESFC-1, we demonstrated rapid incorporation of extracellular-derived carbon. Taken together, these results indicate cyanobacteria reuse excess organic carbon, constituting a dynamic pool of extracellular resources in these mats. PMID:26495994

  14. Seasonal variations of epipelic algal community in relation to environmental factors in the Istanbul Strait (the Bosphorus), Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aktan, Y; Balkıs, N; Balkıs, N

    2014-04-15

    This study was implemented to investigate the species composition, abundance, seasonal variations and diversity of epipelic algae, to determine environmental variables affecting them and to reveal the accumulation of total organic carbon in the sediment in the coastal zone of the Istanbul Strait, Turkey. Epipelic algal community consisted of 44 taxa with a low diversity. The sediment structure which is highly unstable due to the high hydrodynamism of the zone played a dominant role as the main factor in the epipelic algal flora along the coasts of Istanbul Strait. Low TOC and high carbonate values also support this result. The dominance of cyanobacteria in some periods and, as a result of this, the record of the lowest diversity index values indicated the effect of nutrient enrichment and the risk of coastal eutrophication. High dominance of cyanobacteria may also be explicated by climate changes considering its effect in the other areas. PMID:24467854

  15. Seasonal variations of epipelic algal community in relation to environmental factors in the Istanbul Strait (the Bosphorus), Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aktan, Y; Balkıs, N; Balkıs, N

    2014-04-15

    This study was implemented to investigate the species composition, abundance, seasonal variations and diversity of epipelic algae, to determine environmental variables affecting them and to reveal the accumulation of total organic carbon in the sediment in the coastal zone of the Istanbul Strait, Turkey. Epipelic algal community consisted of 44 taxa with a low diversity. The sediment structure which is highly unstable due to the high hydrodynamism of the zone played a dominant role as the main factor in the epipelic algal flora along the coasts of Istanbul Strait. Low TOC and high carbonate values also support this result. The dominance of cyanobacteria in some periods and, as a result of this, the record of the lowest diversity index values indicated the effect of nutrient enrichment and the risk of coastal eutrophication. High dominance of cyanobacteria may also be explicated by climate changes considering its effect in the other areas.

  16. Le matérialisme scientifique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meunier, Jean-François

    2004-03-01

    De nos jours, il arrive quotidiennement aux grands hommes d'avoir à fréquenter d'ignorants mortels épris d'une conviction maladive que la science est la grande responsable de tous les maux du monde. Évidemment sans physique atomique, il n'y aurait pas eu d'Hiroshima et sans révolution industrielle, pas de pollution et etc. Cependant, ces accusations envers le progrès technique sont tout à fait injustes, irréfléchies et, j'irai même jusqu'à dire, irresponsables, puisque le calcul, i.e. la planification, même la plus élémentaire, est ce qui caractérise le mieux, pragmatiquement, la société humaine. À mon avis, les problèmes sociaux tireraient plutôt leur origine de sciences sociales irréalistes, qui, concrètment, inspireraient ou serviraient d'alibis à ceux qui détiennent véritablement le pouvoir. Dans cet article, je tenterai donc de démontrer la meilleure véracité et efficacité du matérialisme scientifique. Cette doctrine, dont Mario Bunge est le plus illustre représentant, s'appuy sur les résultats théoriques et expérimentaux des sciences factuelles ainsi que sur l'exactitude logique des mathématiques, utilisées ici comme langage universel de l'expression des idées. Cette conception philosophique qui s'inspire principalement du modèle des théories physiques, stipule que les réalités sociales sont, comme tout autre réalité, matérielles, mathématisables et représentables comme des systèmes en interaction. En fait, le modèle des physiciens ayant historiquement fait ses preuves en matière de testabilité et de cohérence interne est proposé d'être appliquer aux sciences sociales, aujourd'hui scindées des sciences dites pures sous l'inspiration des pseudo penseurs néo-kantiens, phénoménologiques et post-moderne. Cette nouvelle approche permettrait ainsi d'évoluer plus exactement vers une compréhension des bases sociales et biologiques du comportement humain afin de développer une éthique sans cesse plus r

  17. Swi6, a Gene Required for Mating-Type Switching, Prohibits Meiotic Recombination in the Mat2-Mat3 ``cold Spot'' of Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Klar, AJS.; Bonaduce, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    Mitotic interconversion of the mating-type locus (mat1) of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is initiated by a double-strand break at mat1. The mat2 and mat3 loci act as nonrandom donors of genetic information for mat1 switching such that switches occur primarily (or only) to the opposite mat1 allele. Location of the mat1 ``hot spot'' for transposition should be contrasted with the ``cold spot'' of meiotic recombination located within the adjoining mat2-mat3 interval. That is, meiotic interchromosomal recombination in mat2, mat3 and the intervening 15-kilobase region does not occur at all. swi2 and swi6 switching-deficient mutants possess the normal level of double-strand break at mat1, yet they fail to switch efficiently. By testing for meiotic recombination in the cold spot, we found the usual lack of recombination in a swi2 mutant but a significant level of recombination in a swi6 mutant. Therefore, the swi6 gene function is required to keep the donor loci inert for interchromosomal recombination. This finding, combined with the additional result that switching primarily occurs intrachromosomally, suggests that the donor loci are made accessible for switching by folding them onto mat1, thus causing the cold spot of recombination. PMID:1783290

  18. ERB master archival tape specification no. T 134081 ERB MAT, revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The Earth radiation budget (ERB)MAT tapes are generated by the ERB MATGEN software using the IBM 3081 computer system operated by the Science and Applications Computer Center at Goddard Space Flight Center. All MAT's are 9-track and MAT data are in ascending time order. The gross tape format for NIMBUS year-1 and year-2 MAT's is different from the format of MAT's starting with year-3. The MATs from the first two years are to contain one day's worth of data while all other MATs are to contain multiple day's worth of data stacked onto the tapes.

  19. Linking Archaeal Molecular Diversity and Lipid Biomarker Composition in a Hypersaline Microbial Mat Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, Linda; Orphan, Victoria; Turk, Kendra; Embaye, Tsegereda; Kubo, Mike; Summons, Roger

    2005-01-01

    Lipid biomarkers for discrete microbial groups are a valuable tool for establishing links to ancient microbial ecosystems. Lipid biomarkers can establish organism source and function in contemporary microbial ecosystems (membrane lipids) and by analogy, potential relevance to the fossilized carbon skeletons (geolipids) extracted from ancient sedimentary rock. The Mars Exploration Rovers have provided clear evidence for an early wet Mars and the presence of hypersaline evaporitic basins. Ongoing work on an early Earth analog, the hypersaline benthic mats in Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, may provide clues to what may have evolved and flourished on an early wet Mars, if only for a short period. Cyanobacterial mats are a pertinent early Earth analog for consideration of evolutionary and microbial processes within the aerobic photosynthetic and adjacent anoxic layers. Fluctuations in physio-chemical parameters associated with spatial and temporal scales are expressed through vast microbial metabolic diversity. Our recent work hopes to establish the dynamic of archaeal diversity, particularly as it relates to methane production in this high sulfate environment, through the use of lipid biomarker and phylogenetic analyses. Archaeal 16s rRNA and mcrA gene assemblages, demonstrated distinct spatial separation over the 130 mm core of at least three distinct genera within the order Methanosarcinales, as well as an abundance of uncultured members of the Thermoplasmales and Crenarchaeota. Ether-bound lipid analysis identified abundant 0-alkyl and 0-isopranyl chains throughout the core, and the presence of sn-2 hydroxyarchaeol, a biomarker for methylotrophic methanogens. A unique ether isoprenoid chain, a C30:1 , possibly related to the geolipid squalane, a paleobiomarker associated with hypersaline environments, was most abundant within the oxic-anoxic transition zone.

  20. Polishing of secondary effluent by an algal biofilm process.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, G; Sekoulov, I

    2002-01-01

    The potential in polishing secondary effluent by an algal biofilm composed of different green and bluegreen algae was investigated. During the photosynthesis process of algal biofilm oxygen was produced while dissolved carbon dioxide was consumed. This led to an increasing pH due to the change of the carbon dioxide equilibrium in water. The high pH caused precipitation of dissolved phosphates. The attached algae took up nitrogen and phosphorus during the growth of biomass. In addition to nutrient removal, an extensive removal of faecal bacteria was observed probably caused by adsorption of the algal biofilm and by photooxidation involving dissolved oxygen. The experimental results suggest that a low-cost, close to nature process especially for small wastewater treatment plants for nutrient removal and bacteria reduction can be developed with the aid of an algal biofilm. PMID:12420969

  1. Algal Biofuels R&D at NREL (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    An overview of NREL's algal biofuels projects, including U.S. Department of Energy-funded work, projects with U.S. and international partners, and Laboratory Directed Research and Development projects.

  2. Efficient algal bioassay based on short-term photosynthetic response

    SciTech Connect

    Giddings, J.M.; Stewart, A.J.; O'Neill, R.V.; Gardner, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure is described for measuring effects of toxicants on algal photosynthesis (H/sup 14/CO/sub 3/ uptake) in 4-h experiments. Results for individual aromatic compounds and the waste-soluble fraction (WSF) of a synthetic oil are presented as examples of applications of the bioassay. The toxicity of the WSF varied among the seven algal species tested, and responses of some species were pH-dependent. Data presented here indicate that algal photosynthesis is inhibited at toxicant concentrations similar to those that cause acute effects in aquatic animals. A model of a pelagic ecosystem is used to demonstrate that even temporary (7-d) inhibition of algal photosynthesis can have a measurable impact on other trophic levels, particularly if the other trophic levels are also experiencing toxic effects.

  3. Airborne Monitoring of Harmful Algal Blooms over Lake Erie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokars, Roger; Lekki, John

    2013-01-01

    The Hyperspectral Imager mounted to an aircraft was used to develop a remote sensing capability to detect the pigment Phycocyanin, an indicator of Microcystis, in low concentration as an early indicator of harmful algal bloom prediction.

  4. The molecular dimension of microbial species: 1. Ecological distinctions among, and homogeneity within, putative ecotypes of Synechococcus inhabiting the cyanobacterial mat of Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Becraft, Eric D; Wood, Jason M; Rusch, Douglas B; Kühl, Michael; Jensen, Sheila I; Bryant, Donald A; Roberts, David W; Cohan, Frederick M; Ward, David M

    2015-01-01

    Based on the Stable Ecotype Model, evolution leads to the divergence of ecologically distinct populations (e.g., with different niches and/or behaviors) of ecologically interchangeable membership. In this study, pyrosequencing was used to provide deep sequence coverage of Synechococcus psaA genes and transcripts over a large number of habitat types in the Mushroom Spring microbial mat. Putative ecological species [putative ecotypes (PEs)], which were predicted by an evolutionary simulation based on the Stable Ecotype Model (Ecotype Simulation), exhibited distinct distributions relative to temperature-defined positions in the effluent channel and vertical position in the upper 1 mm-thick mat layer. Importantly, in most cases variants predicted to belong to the same PE formed unique clusters relative to temperature and depth in the mat in canonical correspondence analysis, supporting the hypothesis that while the PEs are ecologically distinct, the members of each ecotype are ecologically homogeneous. PEs responded differently to experimental perturbations of temperature and light, but the genetic variation within each PE was maintained as the relative abundances of PEs changed, further indicating that each population responded as a set of ecologically interchangeable individuals. Compared to PEs that predominate deeper within the mat photic zone, the timing of transcript abundances for selected genes differed for PEs that predominate in microenvironments closer to upper surface of the mat with spatiotemporal differences in light and O2 concentration. All of these findings are consistent with the hypotheses that Synechococcus species in hot spring mats are sets of ecologically interchangeable individuals that are differently adapted, that these adaptations control their distributions, and that the resulting distributions constrain the activities of the species in space and time.

  5. The molecular dimension of microbial species: 1. Ecological distinctions among, and homogeneity within, putative ecotypes of Synechococcus inhabiting the cyanobacterial mat of Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park

    PubMed Central

    Becraft, Eric D.; Wood, Jason M.; Rusch, Douglas B.; Kühl, Michael; Jensen, Sheila I.; Bryant, Donald A.; Roberts, David W.; Cohan, Frederick M.; Ward, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Based on the Stable Ecotype Model, evolution leads to the divergence of ecologically distinct populations (e.g., with different niches and/or behaviors) of ecologically interchangeable membership. In this study, pyrosequencing was used to provide deep sequence coverage of Synechococcus psaA genes and transcripts over a large number of habitat types in the Mushroom Spring microbial mat. Putative ecological species [putative ecotypes (PEs)], which were predicted by an evolutionary simulation based on the Stable Ecotype Model (Ecotype Simulation), exhibited distinct distributions relative to temperature-defined positions in the effluent channel and vertical position in the upper 1 mm-thick mat layer. Importantly, in most cases variants predicted to belong to the same PE formed unique clusters relative to temperature and depth in the mat in canonical correspondence analysis, supporting the hypothesis that while the PEs are ecologically distinct, the members of each ecotype are ecologically homogeneous. PEs responded differently to experimental perturbations of temperature and light, but the genetic variation within each PE was maintained as the relative abundances of PEs changed, further indicating that each population responded as a set of ecologically interchangeable individuals. Compared to PEs that predominate deeper within the mat photic zone, the timing of transcript abundances for selected genes differed for PEs that predominate in microenvironments closer to upper surface of the mat with spatiotemporal differences in light and O2 concentration. All of these findings are consistent with the hypotheses that Synechococcus species in hot spring mats are sets of ecologically interchangeable individuals that are differently adapted, that these adaptations control their distributions, and that the resulting distributions constrain the activities of the species in space and time. PMID:26157420

  6. Late Archean mineralised cyanobacterial mats and their modern analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazmierczak, J.; Altermann, W.; Kremer, B.; Kempe, S.; Eriksson, P. G.

    2008-09-01

    Abstract Reported are findings of Neoarchean benthic colonial coccoid cyanobacteria preserved as abundant remnants of mineralized capsules and sheaths visible in SEM images as characteristic patterns after etching highly polished carbonate rock platelets. The samples described herein were collected from the Nauga Formation at Prieska (Kaapvaal craton, South Africa). The stratigraphic position of the sampling horizon (Fig. 1) is bracketed by single zircon ages from intercalated tuffs, of 2588±6 Ma and 2549±7Ma [1]. The cyanobacteria-bearing samples are located within sedimentary sequence which begins with Peritidal Member displaying increasingly transgressive character, passing upward into the Chert Member and followed by the Proto-BIF Member and by the Naute Shale Member of the Nauga Formation successively. All three latter members were deposited below the fair weather wave base. As in our previous report [2], the samples are taken from lenses of massive micritic flat pebble conglomerate occurring in otherwise finely laminated siliceous shales intercalating with thin bedded platy limestone. This part of the Nauga Formation is about 30 m thick. The calcareous, cyanobacteria-bearing flat pebble conglomerate and thin intercalations of fine-grained detrital limestones embedded in the clayey sapropel-rich deposits are interpreted as carbonate sediments winnowed during stormy weather from the nearby located peritidal carbonate platform. The mass occurrence and exceptional preservation of mineralised cyanobacterial remains in the micritic carbonate (Mg-calcite) of the redeposited flat pebbles can be explained by their sudden burial in deeper, probably anoxic clay- and sapropel-rich sediments. When examined with standard petrographic optical microscopic technique, the micritic carbonates show rather obscure structure (Fig. 2a), whereas under the SEM, polished and slightly etched platelets of the same samples reveal surprisingly well preserved patterns (Fig. 2b

  7. A comparison of algal, macroinvertebrate, and fish assemblage indices for assessing low-level nutrient enrichment in wadeable Ozark streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Justus, B.G.; Petersen, J.C.; Femmer, S.R.; Davis, J.V.; Wallace, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    Biotic indices for algae, macroinvertebrates, and fish assemblages can be effective for monitoring stream enrichment, but little is known regarding the value of the three assemblages for detecting perturbance as a consequence of low-level nutrient enrichment. In the summer of 2006, we collected nutrient and biotic samples from 30 wadeable Ozark streams that spanned a nutrient-concentration gradient from reference to moderately enriched conditions. Seventy-three algal metrics, 62 macroinvertebrate metrics, and 60 fish metrics were evaluated for each of the three biotic indices. After a group of candidate metrics had been identified with multivariate analysis, correlation procedures and scatter plots were used to identify the four metrics having strongest relations to a nutrient index calculated from log transformed and normalized total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations. The four metrics selected for each of the three biotic indices were: algae-the relative abundance of most tolerant diatoms, the combined relative abundance of three species of Cymbella, mesosaprobic algae percent taxa richness, and the relative abundance of diatoms that are obligate nitrogen heterotrophs; macroinvertebrate-the relative abundance of intolerant organisms, Baetidae relative abundance, moderately tolerant taxa richness, and insect biomass; fish-herbivore and detritivore taxa richness, pool species relative abundance, fish catch per unit effort, and black bass (Micropterus spp.) relative abundance. All three biotic indices were negatively correlated to nutrient concentrations but the algal index had a higher correlation (rho = -0.89) than did the macroinvertebrate and fish indices (rho = -0.63 and -0.58, respectively). Biotic index scores were lowest and nutrient concentrations were highest for streams with basins having the highest poultry and cattle production. Because of the availability of litter for fertilizer and associated increases in grass and hay production, cattle

  8. Identification And Survival Of Bacteriohopanepolyol In A Hot Spring Microbial Mat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janke, Linda L.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The polar lipids of a hot spring microbial mat located in Yellowstone National Park were examined for the presence of bacteriohopanepolvols (BHP). BHP are a group of molecules consisting of a hopanoid (peotacyclic triterpene) linked via a n-alkyl polyhydroxylated chain to a variety of polar end groups. BHP have been isolated in varying amounts from phylogenetically diverse eubacterial groups including cyanobacteria, methanotrophs and the Rhodospirillaceae. The hopanoids are excellent biomarkers and have been detected in sedimentary rocks as old as 1.7 bya. In order to interpret the ancient organic record, it is important to understand the abundance, source and fate of such biomarker compounds in microbial mats. A 40 sq cm mat section was taken from a 52 to 55 C site in the effluent channel of Octopus Spring and was sampled vertically over approximately 16 mm. The first 5-6 mm was sectioned into a top green layer (310 mg dry weight) and several subjacent, deep orange layers (240 and 250 mg, respectively). The lower 10 mm of the mat was sectioned into two gelatinous orange layers containing a siliceous gritty material (260 and 440 mg) which increased with depth, and a bottom layer composed almost exclusively of siliceous sinter (4.1 g). The progressive decrease in total organic carbon from 45% in the top green layer to only 4% in the bottom layer reflects the observed increase in siliceous deposition. GC-MS analysis of the phospholipid and glycolipid fatty acids yielded predominantly saturated normal chain acids, n-15 to n-18, and iso-branched acids, i-15 to i-17. Small amounts of unsaturated fatty acids (16:1, two positional isomers of 18:1, and two cyclopropyl acids, C(sub 17) and C(sub 19)) were present mainly in the top layer. Esterified fatty acid which is a good index for intact cellular membrane, i.e. viable organisms, was highest in the top two layers (203 and 231 micro g/mg total lipid, respectively) and gradually decreased to 66 micro g/mg total lipid in

  9. Phosphatized algal-bacterial assemblages in Late Cretaceous phosphorites of the Voronezh Anteclise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleonkina, Svetlana Y.

    2003-01-01

    Late Cretaceous phosphogenesis of the Voronezh Anteclise has occurred during Cenomanian and Early Campanian. SEM studies show the presence of phosphatized algal-bacterial assemblages both in Cenomanian and Campanian phosphorites. In some Cenomanian nodular phosphorite samples revealed empty tubes 1 - 5 microns in diameter, which are most likely trichomes of cyanobacterial filaments. Other samples contained accumulations of spheres 0,5-3 microns, similar to coccoidal bacteria. Complicated tubular forms with variable diameter 2 - 5 microns occur on surface of some quartz grains in nodules. They are probably pseudomorphs after algae. We found similar formations in the Campanian phosphate grains. Frequently, grain represents a cyanobacterial mat, which is sometimes concentrically coated by phosphatic films. The films of some grains retain the primary structure, their concentric layers are formed by pseudomorphs after different bacterial types and obviously they represent oncolite. In other cases, the primary structure is unobservable because of recrystallization process erases them. Occasionally, the central part retains the coccoidal structure and the recrystallization affects only films. Besides the core of such oncolite can be represented not only by phosphatic grain, but also by grains of other minerals, such as quartz, glauconite and heavy minerals, which serve as a substrate for cyanobacterial colonies. Bacteria also could settle on cavity surfaces and interiors frames of sponge fragments, teeth and bones.

  10. Physical and Geochemical Controls on the Structure and Function of Microbial Mat Communities at El Tatio Geyser Field, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, K. D.; Omelon, C. R.; Bennett, P.

    2013-12-01

    Cyanobacteria are important primary producers that form the basis of most hot spring microbial mat communities in waters between 30-73°C. Primary producers shape microbial mat communities by fixing the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) pool to organic carbon and providing nutrients for diverse microorganisms that perform a broad range of biogeochemical transformations. This study compares the microbial community structure and net primary productivity of cyanobacterially-based and non-cyanobacterially based microbial mats collected from the El Tatio Geyser Field, a high elevation geyser complex in the Andes Mountains in Region II, Chile. In addition to extreme conditions imparted by high elevation and its location in the Atacama Desert, El Tatio has a suite of extreme geochemical stressors for life, including high arsenic as As(III) and As(V) (0.4-0.6 mM). El Tatio also has unusually low concentrations of DIC in some streams (0.1-0.3 mM), low enough to severely limit primary production in microbial mats. In contrast to other geothermal sites around the world where microbial diversity is controlled primarily by temperature, observations of unusual patterns in microbial mat composition in low-DIC streams at El Tatio suggest alternate controls their distribution. For instance, we observe less biomass in low-DIC streams compared to nearby high DIC streams, and less biomass in high temperature regions of low-DIC streams, compared to low-temperature locations that are dominated by cyanobacteria. To further investigate these patterns, a field assay was conducted to compare carbon assimilation, the relative importance of photo- and chemoautotrophy, and bacterial 16S rRNA sequence abundance at two distinct sites along a low-DIC stream. Water temperature at the upstream site measured 60°C, is dominated by high As(III), and is composed of sparse, red-colored mat material, whereas the downstream site measured a water temperature of 40°C, is dominated by high As(V), and is

  11. Short-term algal toxicity test based on phosphate uptake.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, H Hidehiro; Shimada, Akiko; Hirayama, Kimiaki

    2004-04-01

    In order to develop a short-term algal toxicity test, the growth of and the phosphate uptake by the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum during batch culture were observed. In the control medium, S. capricornutum took up phosphate earlier than it grew. It was also observed that the phosphate uptake was inhibited by the presence of a toxicant. From these results, phosphate uptake was considered as one of the useful effect parameters for a short-term algal toxicity test. As the removal rate of phosphate from the medium is a function of the amount of algal cell initially inoculated, the test period is variable. The relationship between the amount of inoculation and phosphate uptake was examined and the test conditions suitable for a 3-h toxicity test were established as one example. According to this test procedure, the inhibitory effect of some toxicants on the phosphate uptake was determined. For comparison, a conventional algal assay based on algal growth was also performed. The EC50s for both tests were close. This indicated that the algal toxicity test method proposed in this paper would be useful for the uses where rapidity is required. PMID:15087199

  12. The ins and outs of algal metal transport

    PubMed Central

    Blaby-Haas, Crysten E.; Merchant, Sabeeha S.

    2012-01-01

    Metal transporters are a central component in the interaction of algae with their environment. They represent the first line of defense to cellular perturbations in metal concentration, and by analyzing algal metal transporter repertoires, we gain insight into a fundamental aspect of algal biology. The ability of individual algae to thrive in environments with unique geochemistry, compared to non-algal species commonly used as reference organisms for metal homeostasis, provides an opportunity to broaden our understanding of biological metal requirements, preferences and trafficking. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is the best developed reference organism for the study of algal biology, especially with respect to metal metabolism; however, the diversity of algal niches necessitates a comparative genomic analysis of all sequenced algal genomes. A comparison between known and putative proteins in animals, plants, fungi and algae using protein similarity networks has revealed the presence of novel metal metabolism components in Chlamydomonas including new iron and copper transporters. This analysis also supports the concept that, in terms of metal metabolism, algae from similar niches are more related to one another than to algae from the same phylogenetic clade. PMID:22569643

  13. Photosynthetic Microbial Mats are Exemplary Sources of Diverse Biosignatures (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Des Marais, D. J.; Jahnke, L. L.

    2013-12-01

    Marine cyanobacterial microbial mats are widespread, compact, self-contained ecosystems that create diverse biosignatures and have an ancient fossil record. Within the mats, oxygenic photosynthesis provides organic substrates and O2 to the community. Both the absorption and scattering of light change the intensity and spectral composition of incident radiation as it penetrates a mat. Some phototrophs utilize infrared light near the base of the photic zone. A mat's upper layers can become highly reduced and sulfidic at night. Counteracting gradients of O2 and sulfide shape the chemical environment and provide daily-contrasting microenvironments separated on a scale of a few mm. Radiation hazards (UV, etc.), O2 and sulfide toxicity elicit motility and other physiological responses. This combination of benefits and hazards of light, O2 and sulfide promotes the allocation of various essential mat processes between light and dark periods and to various depths in the mat. Associated nonphotosynthetic communities, including anaerobes, strongly influence many of the ecosystem's overall characteristics, and their processes affect any biosignatures that enter the fossil record. A biosignature is an object, substance and/or pattern whose origin specifically requires a biological agent. The value of a biosignature depends not only on the probability of life creating it, but also on the improbability of nonbiological processes producing it. Microbial mats create biosignatures that identify particular groups of organisms and also reveal attributes of the mat ecosystem. For example, branched hydrocarbons and pigments can be diagnostic of cyanobacteria and other phototrophic bacteria, and isoprenoids can indicate particular groups of archea. Assemblages of lipid biosignatures change with depth due to changes in microbial populations and diagenetic transformations of organic matter. The 13C/12C values of organic matter and carbonates reflect isotopic discrimination by particular

  14. Titanospirillum velox: a huge, speedy, sulfur-storing spirillum from Ebro Delta microbial mats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guerrero, R.; Haselton, A.; Sole, M.; Wier, A.; Margulis, L.

    1999-01-01

    A long (20-30 micrometer), wide (3-5 micrometer) microbial-mat bacterium from the Ebro Delta (Tarragona, Spain) was grown in mixed culture and videographed live. Intracellular elemental sulfur globules and unique cell termini were observed in scanning-electron-microprobe and transmission-electron micrographs. A polar organelle underlies bundles of greater than 60 flagella at each indented terminus. These Gram-negative bacteria bend, flex, and swim in a spiral fashion; they translate at speeds greater than 10 body lengths per second. The large size of the spirillum permits direct observation of cell motility in single individual bacteria. After desiccation (i.e., absence of standing water for at least 24 h), large populations developed in mat samples remoistened with sea water. Ultrastructural observations reveal abundant large sulfur globules irregularly distributed in the cytoplasm. A multilayered cell wall, pliable and elastic yet rigid, distends around the sulfur globules. Details of the wall, multiflagellated termini, and large cytoplasmic sulfur globules indicate that these fast-moving spirilla are distinctive enough to warrant a genus and species designation: Titanospirillum velox genus nov., sp. nov. The same collection techniques at a similar habitat in the United States (Plum Island, northeast Essex County, Massachusetts) also yielded large populations of the bacterium among purple phototrophic and other inhabitants of sulfurous microbial-mat muds. The months-long survival of T. velox from Spain and from the United States in closed jars filled with mud taken from both localities leads us to infer that this large spirillum has a cosmopolitan distribution.

  15. Harmful algal blooms: causes, impacts and detection.

    PubMed

    Sellner, Kevin G; Doucette, Gregory J; Kirkpatrick, Gary J

    2003-07-01

    Blooms of autotrophic algae and some heterotrophic protists are increasingly frequent in coastal waters around the world and are collectively grouped as harmful algal blooms (HABs). Blooms of these organisms are attributed to two primary factors: natural processes such as circulation, upwelling relaxation, and river flow; and, anthropogenic loadings leading to eutrophication. Unfortunately, the latter is commonly assumed to be the primary cause of all blooms, which is not the case in many instances. Moreover, although it is generally acknowledged that occurrences of these phenomena are increasing throughout the world's oceans, the reasons for this apparent increase remain debated and include not only eutrophication but increased observation efforts in coastal zones of the world. There is a rapidly advancing monitoring effort resulting from the perception of increased impacts from these HABs, manifested as expanding routine coastal monitoring programs, rapid development and deployment of new detection methods for individual species, toxins, and toxicities, and expansion of coastal modeling activities towards observational forecasts of bloom landfall and eventually bloom prediction. Together, these many efforts will provide resource managers with the tools needed to develop effective strategies for the management and mitigation of HABs and their frequently devastating impacts on the coastal environment.

  16. Sixty years in algal physiology and photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Pirson, A

    1994-06-01

    This personal perspective records research experiences in chemistry and biology at four German universities, two before and two after World War II. The research themes came from cytophysiology of green unicellular algae, in particular their photosynthesis. The function of inorganic ions in photosynthesis and dark respiration was investigated at different degrees of specific mineral stress (deficiencies), and the kinetics of recovery followed after the addition of the missing element. Two types of recovery of photosynthesis were observed: indirect restitution via growth processes and immediate normalisation. From the latter case (K(+), phosphate, Mn(++)) the effect of manganese was emphasized as its role in photosynthetic O2 evolution became established during our research. Other themes of our group, with some bearing on photosynthesis were: synchronization of cell growth by light-dark change and effects of blue (vs. red) light on the composition of green cells. Some experiences in connection with algal mass cultures are included. Discussion of several editorial projects shows how photosynthesis, as an orginally separated field of plant biochemistry and biophysics, became included into general cell physiology and even ecophysiology of green plants. The paper contains an appreciation of the authors' main mentor Kurt Noack (1888-1963) and of Ernst Georg Pringsheim (1881-1970), founder of experimental phycology.

  17. Fast releasing oral electrospun PVP/CD nanofiber mats of taste-masked meloxicam.

    PubMed

    Samprasit, Wipada; Akkaramongkolporn, Prasert; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Kaomongkolgit, Ruchadaporn; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2015-06-20

    Fast release and taste masking of meloxicam (MX)-loaded polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/cyclodextrin (CD) nanofiber mats were developed using an electrospinning process. CDs were blended to improve the stability of the mats. The morphology and diameter of the mats were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM); physical and mechanical properties were also studied. The MX content, disintegration time, MX release and cytotoxicity of the mats were investigated. In vivo studies were also performed in healthy human volunteers. The results indicated that the mats were successfully prepared with fiber in the nanometer range. MX was well incorporated into the mats, with an amorphous form. The mats showed suitable tensile strength. CDs improved the physical stability by their cage-like supramolecular structure to protect from humidity and moisture, and create bead free nanofiber mats. The nanofiber mats with CDs were physically stable without any hygroscopicity and fusion. A fast disintegration and release of MX was achieved. Moreover, this mat released MX faster than the MX powder and commercial tablets. The cytotoxicity test revealed that mats were safe for a 5-min incubation. The disintegration studies indicated that in vivo disintegration agreed with the in vitro studies; the mat rapidly disintegrated in the mouth. The less bitter of MX was occurred in the mats that incorporated CD, menthol and aspartame. In addition, this mat was physical stable for 6 months. The results suggest that these mats may be a good candidate for fast dissolving drug delivery systems of bitter drugs to increase the palatability of dosage forms.

  18. Harmful algal bloom smart device application: using image analysis and machine learning techniques for early classification of harmful algal blooms

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ecological Stewardship Institute at Northern Kentucky University and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are collaborating to optimize a harmful algal bloom detection algorithm that estimates the presence and count of cyanobacteria in freshwater systems by image analysis...

  19. Diel Migrations of Microorganisms within a Benthic, Hypersaline Mat Community

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Pichel, Ferran; Mechling, Margaret; Castenholz, Richard W.

    1994-01-01

    We studied the diel migrations of several species of microorganisms in a hypersaline, layered microbial mat. The migrations were quantified by repeated coring of the mat with glass capillary tubes. The resulting minicores were microscopically analyzed by using bright-field and epifluorescence (visible and infrared) microscopy to determine depths of coherent layers and were later dissected to determine direct microscopic counts of microorganisms. Microelectrode measurements of oxygen concentration, fiber optic microprobe measurements of light penetration within the mat, and incident irradiance measurements accompanied the minicore sampling. In addition, pigment content, photosynthesis and irradiance responses, the capacity for anoxygenic photosynthesis, and gliding speeds were determined for the migrating cyanobacteria. Heavily pigmented Oscillatoria sp. and Spirulina cf. subsalsa migrated downward into the mat during the early morning and remained deep until dusk, when upward migration occurred. The mean depth of the migration (not more than 0.4 to 0.5 mm) was directly correlated with the incident irradiance over the mat surface. We estimated that light intensity at the upper boundary of the migrating cyanobacteria was attenuated to such an extent that photoinhibition was effectively avoided but that intensities which saturated photosynthesis were maintained through most of the daylight hours. Light was a cue of paramount importance in triggering and modulating the migration of the cyanobacteria, even though the migrating phenomenon could not be explained solely in terms of a light response. We failed to detect diel migration patterns for other cyanobacterial species and filamentous anoxyphotobacteria. The sulfide-oxidizing bacterium Beggiatoa sp. migrated as a band that followed low oxygen concentrations within the mat during daylight hours. During the nighttime, part of this population migrated toward the mat surface, but a significant proportion remained deep

  20. Specificity is rarely absolute in coral-algal symbiosis: implications for coral response to climate change.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Rachel N; Correa, Adrienne M S; Baker, Andrew C

    2012-07-01

    Some reef-building corals have been shown to respond to environmental change by shifting the composition of their algal symbiont (genus Symbiodinium) communities. These shifts have been proposed as a potential mechanism by which corals might survive climate stressors, such as increased temperatures. Conventional molecular methods suggest this adaptive capacity may not be widespread because few (∼25%) coral species have been found to associate with multiple Symbiodinium clades. However, these methods can fail to detect low abundance symbionts (typically less than 10-20% of the total algal symbiont community). To determine whether additional Symbiodinium clades are present, but are not detected using conventional techniques, we applied a high-resolution, real-time PCR assay to survey Symbiodinium (in clades A-D) from 39 species of phylogenetically and geographically diverse scleractinian corals. This survey included 26 coral species thought to be restricted to hosting a single Symbiodinium clade ('symbiotic specialists'). We detected at least two Symbiodinium clades (C and D) in at least one sample of all 39 coral species tested; all four Symbiodinium clades were detected in over half (54%) of the 26 symbiotic specialist coral species. Furthermore, on average, 68 per cent of all sampled colonies within a given coral species hosted two or more symbiont clades. We conclude that the ability to associate with multiple symbiont clades is common in scleractinian (stony) corals, and that, in coral-algal symbiosis, 'specificity' and 'flexibility' are relative terms: specificity is rarely absolute. The potential for reef corals to adapt or acclimatize to environmental change via symbiont community shifts may therefore be more phylogenetically widespread than has previously been assumed.

  1. Specificity is rarely absolute in coral–algal symbiosis: implications for coral response to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein, Rachel N.; Correa, Adrienne M. S.; Baker, Andrew C.

    2012-01-01

    Some reef-building corals have been shown to respond to environmental change by shifting the composition of their algal symbiont (genus Symbiodinium) communities. These shifts have been proposed as a potential mechanism by which corals might survive climate stressors, such as increased temperatures. Conventional molecular methods suggest this adaptive capacity may not be widespread because few (∼25%) coral species have been found to associate with multiple Symbiodinium clades. However, these methods can fail to detect low abundance symbionts (typically less than 10–20% of the total algal symbiont community). To determine whether additional Symbiodinium clades are present, but are not detected using conventional techniques, we applied a high-resolution, real-time PCR assay to survey Symbiodinium (in clades A–D) from 39 species of phylogenetically and geographically diverse scleractinian corals. This survey included 26 coral species thought to be restricted to hosting a single Symbiodinium clade (‘symbiotic specialists’). We detected at least two Symbiodinium clades (C and D) in at least one sample of all 39 coral species tested; all four Symbiodinium clades were detected in over half (54%) of the 26 symbiotic specialist coral species. Furthermore, on average, 68 per cent of all sampled colonies within a given coral species hosted two or more symbiont clades. We conclude that the ability to associate with multiple symbiont clades is common in scleractinian (stony) corals, and that, in coral–algal symbiosis, ‘specificity’ and ‘flexibility’ are relative terms: specificity is rarely absolute. The potential for reef corals to adapt or acclimatize to environmental change via symbiont community shifts may therefore be more phylogenetically widespread than has previously been assumed. PMID:22367985

  2. Distribution of cold adaptation proteins in microbial mats in Lake Joyce, Antarctica: Analysis of metagenomic data by using two bioinformatics tools.

    PubMed

    Koo, Hyunmin; Hakim, Joseph A; Fisher, Phillip R E; Grueneberg, Alexander; Andersen, Dale T; Bej, Asim K

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report the distribution and abundance of cold-adaptation proteins in microbial mat communities in the perennially ice-covered Lake Joyce, located in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. We have used MG-RAST and R code bioinformatics tools on Illumina HiSeq2000 shotgun metagenomic data and compared the filtering efficacy of these two methods on cold-adaptation proteins. Overall, the abundance of cold-shock DEAD-box protein A (CSDA), antifreeze proteins (AFPs), fatty acid desaturase (FAD), trehalose synthase (TS), and cold-shock family of proteins (CSPs) were present in all mat samples at high, moderate, or low levels, whereas the ice nucleation protein (INP) was present only in the ice and bulbous mat samples at insignificant levels. Considering the near homogeneous temperature profile of Lake Joyce (0.08-0.29 °C), the distribution and abundance of these proteins across various mat samples predictively correlated with known functional attributes necessary for microbial communities to thrive in this ecosystem. The comparison of the MG-RAST and the R code methods showed dissimilar occurrences of the cold-adaptation protein sequences, though with insignificant ANOSIM (R = 0.357; p-value = 0.012), ADONIS (R(2) = 0.274; p-value = 0.03) and STAMP (p-values = 0.521-0.984) statistical analyses. Furthermore, filtering targeted sequences using the R code accounted for taxonomic groups by avoiding sequence redundancies, whereas the MG-RAST provided total counts resulting in a higher sequence output. The results from this study revealed for the first time the distribution of cold-adaptation proteins in six different types of microbial mats in Lake Joyce, while suggesting a simpler and more manageable user-defined method of R code, as compared to a web-based MG-RAST pipeline. PMID:26578243

  3. Distribution of cold adaptation proteins in microbial mats in Lake Joyce, Antarctica: Analysis of metagenomic data by using two bioinformatics tools.

    PubMed

    Koo, Hyunmin; Hakim, Joseph A; Fisher, Phillip R E; Grueneberg, Alexander; Andersen, Dale T; Bej, Asim K

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report the distribution and abundance of cold-adaptation proteins in microbial mat communities in the perennially ice-covered Lake Joyce, located in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. We have used MG-RAST and R code bioinformatics tools on Illumina HiSeq2000 shotgun metagenomic data and compared the filtering efficacy of these two methods on cold-adaptation proteins. Overall, the abundance of cold-shock DEAD-box protein A (CSDA), antifreeze proteins (AFPs), fatty acid desaturase (FAD), trehalose synthase (TS), and cold-shock family of proteins (CSPs) were present in all mat samples at high, moderate, or low levels, whereas the ice nucleation protein (INP) was present only in the ice and bulbous mat samples at insignificant levels. Considering the near homogeneous temperature profile of Lake Joyce (0.08-0.29 °C), the distribution and abundance of these proteins across various mat samples predictively correlated with known functional attributes necessary for microbial communities to thrive in this ecosystem. The comparison of the MG-RAST and the R code methods showed dissimilar occurrences of the cold-adaptation protein sequences, though with insignificant ANOSIM (R = 0.357; p-value = 0.012), ADONIS (R(2) = 0.274; p-value = 0.03) and STAMP (p-values = 0.521-0.984) statistical analyses. Furthermore, filtering targeted sequences using the R code accounted for taxonomic groups by avoiding sequence redundancies, whereas the MG-RAST provided total counts resulting in a higher sequence output. The results from this study revealed for the first time the distribution of cold-adaptation proteins in six different types of microbial mats in Lake Joyce, while suggesting a simpler and more manageable user-defined method of R code, as compared to a web-based MG-RAST pipeline.

  4. Stress-strain dependence for soy-protein nanofiber mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khansari, S.; Sinha-Ray, S.; Yarin, A. L.; Pourdeyhimi, B.

    2012-02-01

    Soy protein/nylon 6 monolithic and core-shell nanofibers were solution-blown and collected on a rotating drum as fiber mats. Tensile tests of rectangular strips of these mats revealed their stress-strain dependences. These dependences were linear at low strains which correspond to their elastic behavior. Then, a plastic-like nonlinearity sets in, which is followed by catastrophic rupture. Parameters such as Young's modulus, yield stress, and specific strain energy were measured. The results were rationalized in the framework of the phenomenological elastic-plastic model, as well as a novel micromechanical model (the latter attributes plasticity to bond rapture between the individual overstressed fibers in the mat). Besides, the effects of stretching history, rate of stretching, and winding velocity of the collector drum on the strength-related parameters are studied. The results for soy protein/nylon 6 nanofiber mats are also compared to those for solution blown pure nylon 6 mats, which were produced and tested in the same way.

  5. Angiosperm phylogeny based on matK sequence information.

    PubMed

    Hilu, Khidir W; Borsch, Thomas; Müller, Kai; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S; Savolainen, Vincent; Chase, Mark W; Powell, Martyn P; Alice, Lawrence A; Evans, Rodger; Sauquet, Hervé; Neinhuis, Christoph; Slotta, Tracey A B; Rohwer, Jens G; Campbell, Christopher S; Chatrou, Lars W

    2003-12-01

    Plastid matK gene sequences for 374 genera representing all angiosperm orders and 12 genera of gymnosperms were analyzed using parsimony (MP) and Bayesian inference (BI) approaches. Traditionally, slowly evolving genomic regions have been preferred for deep-level phylogenetic inference in angiosperms. The matK gene evolves approximately three times faster than the widely used plastid genes rbcL and atpB. The MP and BI trees are highly congruent. The robustness of the strict consensus tree supercedes all individual gene analyses and is comparable only to multigene-based phylogenies. Of the 385 nodes resolved, 79% are supported by high jackknife values, averaging 88%. Amborella is sister to the remaining angiosperms, followed by a grade of Nymphaeaceae and Austrobaileyales. Bayesian inference resolves Amborella + Nymphaeaceae as sister to the rest, but with weak (0.42) posterior probability. The MP analysis shows a trichotomy sister to the Austrobaileyales representing eumagnoliids, monocots + Chloranthales, and Ceratophyllum + eudicots. The matK gene produces the highest internal support yet for basal eudicots and, within core eudicots, resolves a crown group comprising Berberidopsidaceae/Aextoxicaceae, Santalales, and Caryophyllales + asterids. Moreover, matK sequences provide good resolution within many angiosperm orders. Combined analyses of matK and other rapidly evolving DNA regions with available multigene data sets have strong potential to enhance resolution and internal support in deep level angiosperm phylogenetics and provide additional insights into angiosperm evolution.

  6. Electrospun chitosan/polyvinyl alcohol nanofibre mats for wound healing.

    PubMed

    Charernsriwilaiwat, Natthan; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2014-04-01

    Chitosan (CS) aqueous salt blended with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibre mats was prepared by electrospinning. CS was dissolved with hydroxybenzotriazole (HOBt), thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in distilled water without the use of toxic or hazardous solvents. The CS aqueous salts were blended with PVA at different weight ratios, and the effect of the solution ratios was investigated. The morphologies and mechanical and swelling properties of the generated fibres were analysed. Indirect cytotoxicity studies indicated that the CS/PVA nanofibre mats were non-toxic to normal human fibroblast cells. The CS-HOBt/PVA and CS-EDTA/PVA nanofibre mats demonstrated satisfactory antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, and an in vivo wound healing test showed that the CS-EDTA/PVA nanofibre mats performed better than gauze in decreasing acute wound size during the first week after tissue damage. In conclusion, the biodegradable, biocompatible and antibacterial CS-EDTA/PVA nanofibre mats have potential for use as wound dressing materials.

  7. Documentation generator application for MatLab source codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niton, B.; Pozniak, K. T.; Romaniuk, R. S.

    2011-06-01

    The UML, which is a complex system modeling and description technology, has recently been expanding its uses in the field of formalization and algorithmic approach to such systems like multiprocessor photonic, optoelectronic and advanced electronics carriers; distributed, multichannel measurement systems; optical networks, industrial electronics, novel R&D solutions. The paper describes a realization of an application for documenting MatLab source codes. There are presented own novel solution based on Doxygen program which is available on the free license, with accessible source code. The used supporting tools for parser building were Bison and Flex. There are presented the practical results of the documentation generator. The program was applied for exemplary MatLab codes. The documentation generator application is used for design of large optoelectronic and electronic measurement and control systems. The paper consists of three parts which describe the following components of the documentation generator for photonic and electronic systems: concept, MatLab application and VHDL application. This is part two which describes the MatLab application. MatLab is used for description of the measured phenomena.

  8. Mating-Type Genes and MAT Switching in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Haber, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Mating type in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is determined by two nonhomologous alleles, MATa and MATα. These sequences encode regulators of the two different haploid mating types and of the diploids formed by their conjugation. Analysis of the MATa1, MATα1, and MATα2 alleles provided one of the earliest models of cell-type specification by transcriptional activators and repressors. Remarkably, homothallic yeast cells can switch their mating type as often as every generation by a highly choreographed, site-specific homologous recombination event that replaces one MAT allele with different DNA sequences encoding the opposite MAT allele. This replacement process involves the participation of two intact but unexpressed copies of mating-type information at the heterochromatic loci, HMLα and HMRa, which are located at opposite ends of the same chromosome-encoding MAT. The study of MAT switching has yielded important insights into the control of cell lineage, the silencing of gene expression, the formation of heterochromatin, and the regulation of accessibility of the donor sequences. Real-time analysis of MAT switching has provided the most detailed description of the molecular events that occur during the homologous recombinational repair of a programmed double-strand chromosome break. PMID:22555442

  9. Microcosm experiments of oil degradation by microbial mats.

    PubMed

    de Oteyza, Tirso García; Grimalt, Joan O; Llirós, Marc; Esteve, Isabel

    2006-03-15

    Several microcosm experiments were run in parallel to evaluate the efficiency of microbial mats for crude oil degradation as compared with physico-chemical weathering. The oils used in the experiments constituted representative examples of those currently used for commercial purposes. One was aliphatic and of low viscosity (33.4 American Petroleum Institute degrees, degrees API) and the other was predominantly aromatic, with high sulphur content (ca. 2.7%) and viscosity (16.6 degrees API). After crude oil introduction, the microcosms were kept under cyclic changes in water level to mimic coastal tidal movements. The transformations observed showed that water weathering leads to more effective and rapid elimination of low molecular weight hydrocarbons than microbial mat metabolism, e.g. n-alkanes with chain length shorter than n-pentadecane or n-heptadecane, regular isoprenoid hydrocarbons with chain length lower than C16 or C18 or lower molecular weight naphthalenes. Microbial mats preserved these hydrocarbons from volatilization and water washing. However, hydrocarbons of lower volatility such as the C24-C30 n-alkanes or containing nitrogen atoms, e.g. carbazoles, were eliminated in higher proportion by microbial mats than by water weathering. The strong differences in composition between the two oils used for the experiments were also reflected in significant differences between water weathering and microbial mat biodegradation. Higher oil viscosity seemed to hinder the former but not the later. PMID:15935450

  10. Mating-type genes and MAT switching in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Haber, James E

    2012-05-01

    Mating type in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is determined by two nonhomologous alleles, MATa and MATα. These sequences encode regulators of the two different haploid mating types and of the diploids formed by their conjugation. Analysis of the MATa1, MATα1, and MATα2 alleles provided one of the earliest models of cell-type specification by transcriptional activators and repressors. Remarkably, homothallic yeast cells can switch their mating type as often as every generation by a highly choreographed, site-specific homologous recombination event that replaces one MAT allele with different DNA sequences encoding the opposite MAT allele. This replacement process involves the participation of two intact but unexpressed copies of mating-type information at the heterochromatic loci, HMLα and HMRa, which are located at opposite ends of the same chromosome-encoding MAT. The study of MAT switching has yielded important insights into the control of cell lineage, the silencing of gene expression, the formation of heterochromatin, and the regulation of accessibility of the donor sequences. Real-time analysis of MAT switching has provided the most detailed description of the molecular events that occur during the homologous recombinational repair of a programmed double-strand chromosome break.

  11. OXYGEN ABUNDANCES IN CEPHEIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Luck, R. E.; Andrievsky, S. M.; Korotin, S. N.; Kovtyukh, V. V. E-mail: serkor@skyline.od.ua E-mail: scan@deneb1.odessa.ua

    2013-07-01

    Oxygen abundances in later-type stars, and intermediate-mass stars in particular, are usually determined from the [O I] line at 630.0 nm, and to a lesser extent, from the O I triplet at 615.7 nm. The near-IR triplets at 777.4 nm and 844.6 nm are strong in these stars and generally do not suffer from severe blending with other species. However, these latter two triplets suffer from strong non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects and thus see limited use in abundance analyses. In this paper, we derive oxygen abundances in a large sample of Cepheids using the near-IR triplets from an NLTE analysis, and compare those abundances to values derived from a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of the [O I] 630.0 nm line and the O I 615.7 nm triplet as well as LTE abundances for the 777.4 nm triplet. All of these lines suffer from line strength problems making them sensitive to either measurement complications (weak lines) or to line saturation difficulties (strong lines). Upon this realization, the LTE results for the [O I] lines and the O I 615.7 nm triplet are in adequate agreement with the abundance from the NLTE analysis of the near-IR triplets.

  12. Interstellar Abundance Standards Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofia, Ulysses J.; Meyer, David M.

    2001-06-01

    We evaluate the stellar abundances often used to represent the total (gas plus dust) composition of the interstellar medium. Published abundances for B stars, young later type (F and G) stars, and the Sun are compared to the modeled dust-phase and measured gas-phase compositions of the interstellar medium. This study uses abundances for the five most populous elements in dust grains-C, O, Mg, Si, and Fe-and the cosmically abundant element, N. We find that B stars have metal abundances that are too low to be considered valid representations of the interstellar medium. The commonly invoked interstellar standard that is two-thirds of the solar composition is also rejected by recent observations. Young (<=2 Gyr) F and G disk stars and the Sun, however, cannot be ruled out as reliable proxies for the total interstellar composition. If their abundances are valid representations of the interstellar medium, then the apparent underabundance of carbon with respect to that required by dust models, i.e., the carbon crisis, is substantially eased.

  13. Antarctic mixotrophic protist abundances by microscopy and molecular methods.

    PubMed

    Gast, Rebecca J; McKie-Krisberg, Zaid M; Fay, Scott A; Rose, Julie M; Sanders, Robert W

    2014-08-01

    Protists are traditionally described as either phototrophic or heterotrophic, but studies have indicated that mixotrophic species, organisms that combine both strategies, can have significant impacts on prey populations in marine microbial food webs. While estimates of active mixotroph abundances in environmental samples are determined microscopically by fluorescent particle ingestion, species identification is difficult. We developed SYBR-based qPCR strategies for three Antarctic algal species that we identified as mixotrophic. This method and traditional ingestion experiments were applied to determine the total mixotroph abundance in Antarctic water samples, to ascertain the abundance of known mixotrophic species, and to identify environmental variables that impact the distribution and abundance of these species. Despite differences in sampling locations and years, mixotroph distribution was strongly influenced by season. Environmental variables that best explained variation in the individual mixotroph species abundances included temperature, oxygen, date, fluorescence, conductivity, and latitude. Phosphate was identified as an additional explanatory variable when nutrients were included in the analysis. Utilizing culture-based grazing rates and qPCR abundances, the estimated summed impact on bacterial populations by the three mixotrophs was usually < 2% of the overall mixotrophic grazing, but in one sample, Pyramimonas was estimated to contribute up to 80% of mixotrophic grazing.

  14. Late Archean mineralised cyanobacterial mats and their modern analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazmierczak, J.; Altermann, W.; Kremer, B.; Kempe, S.; Eriksson, P. G.

    2008-09-01

    Abstract Reported are findings of Neoarchean benthic colonial coccoid cyanobacteria preserved as abundant remnants of mineralized capsules and sheaths visible in SEM images as characteristic patterns after etching highly polished carbonate rock platelets. The samples described herein were collected from the Nauga Formation at Prieska (Kaapvaal craton, South Africa). The stratigraphic position of the sampling horizon (Fig. 1) is bracketed by single zircon ages from intercalated tuffs, of 2588±6 Ma and 2549±7Ma [1]. The cyanobacteria-bearing samples are located within sedimentary sequence which begins with Peritidal Member displaying increasingly transgressive character, passing upward into the Chert Member and followed by the Proto-BIF Member and by the Naute Shale Member of the Nauga Formation successively. All three latter members were deposited below the fair weather wave base. As in our previous report [2], the samples are taken from lenses of massive micritic flat pebble conglomerate occurring in otherwise finely laminated siliceous shales intercalating with thin bedded platy limestone. This part of the Nauga Formation is about 30 m thick. The calcareous, cyanobacteria-bearing flat pebble conglomerate and thin intercalations of fine-grained detrital limestones embedded in the clayey sapropel-rich deposits are interpreted as carbonate sediments winnowed during stormy weather from the nearby located peritidal carbonate platform. The mass occurrence and exceptional preservation of mineralised cyanobacterial remains in the micritic carbonate (Mg-calcite) of the redeposited flat pebbles can be explained by their sudden burial in deeper, probably anoxic clay- and sapropel-rich sediments. When examined with standard petrographic optical microscopic technique, the micritic carbonates show rather obscure structure (Fig. 2a), whereas under the SEM, polished and slightly etched platelets of the same samples reveal surprisingly well preserved patterns (Fig. 2b

  15. AFLP fingerprinting shows that a single Prymnesium parvum harmful algal bloom consists of multiple clones.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Felipe S; Tomas, Carmelo R; McCartney, Michael A

    2011-01-01

    Due to slow rates of molecular evolution, DNA sequences used to identify and build phylogenies of algal species involved in harmful algal blooms (HABs) are generally invariant at the intraspecific level. This means that it is unknown whether HAB events result from the growth of a single clone, a few dominant clones, or multiple clones. This is true despite the fact that several physiological and demographic traits, as well as toxicity, are known to vary across clones. We generated AFLP fingerprints from a set of 6 clonal isolates, taken from a bloom of Prymnesium parvum at a striped bass mariculture facility. This new haptophyte bloom was recently implicated in fish kills at several sites in the United States. The AFLP fragments were highly reproducible and showed that all isolates were distinguishable due to abundant AFLPs unique to single isolates. These results demonstrate that blooms can be genetically diverse outbreaks and indicate that AFLP can be a powerful molecular tool for characterizing and monitoring this diversity. PMID:21885572

  16. Pigment-Based Chemotaxonomy - A Quick Alternative to Determine Algal Assemblages in Large Shallow Eutrophic Lake?

    PubMed Central

    Tamm, Marju; Freiberg, René; Tõnno, Ilmar; Nõges, Peeter; Nõges, Tiina

    2015-01-01

    Pigment-based chemotaxonomy and CHEMTAX software have proven to be a valuable phytoplankton monitoring tool in marine environments, but are yet underdeveloped to determine algal assemblages in freshwater ecosystems. The main objectives of this study were (1) to compare the results of direct microscopy and CHEMTAX in describing phytoplankton community composition dynamics in a large, shallow and eutrophic lake; (2) to analyze the efficiency of the pigment-based method to detect changes in phytoplankton seasonal dynamics and during rapid bloom periods; (3) to assess the suitability of specific marker pigments and available marker pigment:chlorophyll a ratios to follow seasonal changes in eutrophic freshwater environment. A 5-year (2009-2013) parallel phytoplankton assessment by direct microscopy and by CHEMTAX was conducted using published marker pigment:chlorophyll a ratios. Despite displaying some differences from microscopy results, the pigment-based method successfully described the overall pattern of phytoplankton community dynamics during seasonal cycle in a eutrophic lake. Good agreement between the methods was achieved for most phytoplankton groups - cyanobacteria, chlorophytes, diatoms and cryptophytes. The agreement was poor in case of chrysophytes and dinoflagellates. Our study shows clearly that published marker pigment:chlorophyll a ratios can be used to describe algal class abundances, but they need to be calibrated for specific freshwater environment. Broader use of this method would enable to expand monitoring networks and increase measurement frequencies of freshwater ecosystems to meet the goals of the Water Framework Directive. PMID:25803038

  17. Resilience of epilithic algal assemblages in atmospherically and experimentally acidified boreal lakes.

    PubMed

    Vinebrooke, Rolf D; Graham, Mark D; Findlay, David L; Turner, Michael A

    2003-04-01

    Algal assemblages can be highly responsive to environmental changes in recovering acidified lakes. We compared epilithic algal assemblages in boreal lakes during chemical recovery from atmospheric (Killarney Park, Ontario) and experimental (Lake 302S, Experimental Lakes Area, Ontario) acidification to assess the impact of spatial and temporal scale of severe acidification on taxonomic resilience (i.e. recovery rate). Resilience was measured as the distance traveled by lakes in ordination space during pH recovery based on canonical correspondence analysis. Resilience was relatively negligible in the Killarney lakes, suggesting that eight years of experimental acidification in Lake 302S had less impact on biological recovery than did decades of regional acidification. Increases in dissolved organic carbon, dissolved inorganic carbon, and calcium best explained temporal variance of epilithic species abundances in the recovering acidified lakes. In Lake 302S, contrasting trajectories of taxonomic resilience and resistance, i.e. displacement from reference conditions following a perturbation, indicated that ecological factors affecting epilithon differed at corresponding pH levels during recovery and acidification. Our findings reveal that modeling of ecosystem recovery from severe acidification must account for the spatial and temporal scale of the perturbation, and biological delay responses that result in differences between recovery and acidification trajectories.

  18. Adaptive signals in algal Rubisco reveal a history of ancient atmospheric carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Young, J N; Rickaby, R E M; Kapralov, M V; Filatov, D A

    2012-02-19

    Rubisco, the most abundant enzyme on the Earth and responsible for all photosynthetic carbon fixation, is often thought of as a highly conserved and sluggish enzyme. Yet, different algal Rubiscos demonstrate a range of kinetic properties hinting at a history of evolution and adaptation. Here, we show that algal Rubisco has indeed evolved adaptively during ancient and distinct geological periods. Using DNA sequences of extant marine algae of the red and Chromista lineage, we define positive selection within the large subunit of Rubisco, encoded by rbcL, to occur basal to the radiation of modern marine groups. This signal of positive selection appears to be responding to changing intracellular concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) triggered by physiological adaptations to declining atmospheric CO(2). Within the ecologically important Haptophyta (including coccolithophores) and Bacillariophyta (diatoms), positive selection occurred consistently during periods of falling Phanerozoic CO(2) and suggests emergence of carbon-concentrating mechanisms. During the Proterozoic, a strong signal of positive selection after secondary endosymbiosis occurs at the origin of the Chromista lineage (approx. 1.1 Ga), with further positive selection events until 0.41 Ga, implying a significant and continuous decrease in atmospheric CO(2) encompassing the Cryogenian Snowball Earth events. We surmise that positive selection in Rubisco has been caused by declines in atmospheric CO(2) and hence acts as a proxy for ancient atmospheric CO(2).

  19. Carbon and light limitation in mass algal culture

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    The carbon limited kinetic responses of various fast growing algal species have been summarized. These results suggest that the growth responses of many algae used in mass culture may best be represented as a Monod fit of the specific growth rate (..mu..) to the free carbon dioxide concentration (CO/sub 2//sub f/). The environmental modifiers of primary importance appear to be light levels, temperature and the ionic strength of the growth media. The various mathematical models describing the algal biological response to limitng CO/sub 2//sub f/ concentration, the carbonate equilibrium chemistry and the physical configration of a flow-through microbial culture are combined to yield equations which predict the pH, total carbon concentration (C/sub T/) and algal cell concentration of a continuous alga culture, given a ..mu../sub max/ and K/sub SCO2/ for the alga of interest. This model is further used to illustrate the under-utilization of inorganic carbon in mass algal cultures in which the pH is uncontrolled. One method of pH control in such cultures involves the utilization of CO/sub 2/ supply from bacterial degradation of waste organics in the influent culture medium. In such a situation both the culture pH and algal cell production will often be governed by either carbon or light limitation depending primarily on the influent BOD loading, detention time and culture depth. In spite of the obvious over-simplification of considering only light and carbon limits in describing the behavior of mass algal culture, comparisons to actual field data suggest that these two parameters will be of paramount importance in controlling net algal cell production rates.

  20. Dissolved Oxygen and Sulfide Define the Boundaries of Thermophilic Microbial Iron Mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St Clair, B.; Shock, E.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial iron cycling can be found in hot springs throughout Yellowstone National Park, where the process is often visibly apparent as red iron oxyhydroxide staining. We measured rates of microbial and abiotic iron oxidation and reduction in systems ranging from pH 2 to 6 and 40° to 90°C. Measurements of numerous solutes, including oxygen, sulfide, and iron, were also made on outflow channels of springs containing apparent iron metabolism. In all cases, > 16 μM dissolved oxygen was required for visible iron oxidation products to occur. Oxygen concentrations below this level do not necessarily preclude microbial iron oxidation coupled to oxygen, only the accumulation of oxidation products. Kinetics experiments conducted at these iron mats suggest that the rate of microbial iron oxidation falls below the rate of microbial reduction when dissolved oxygen falls below this concentration. In outflow channels, this is often visibly apparent as a sharp boundary between the presence and lack of red iron oxidation products. Locations with changing temperature, pH, flow rate and other factors experience changing oxygen concentrations, which causes the boundary to shift from year to year. The boundaries of iron mats are also influenced in several locations by the concentration of total dissolved sulfide. Experiments with enrichment cultures and field observations show that sulfide is not toxic to iron oxidizers, but rather inhibits the accumulation of dissolved oxygen. Microbial and abiotic sulfide oxidation, leading to visible sulfur precipitation, together with degassing of hydrogen sulfide, contribute to keeping oxygen levels low. Typically, only where sulfide concentrations fall below 20 μM are iron mats able to form. Enrichment cultures of iron oxidizers, however, grow easily at levels exceeding 100 μM sulfide. Only a handful of field locations appear to have simultaneous sulfur and iron precipitation zones. Formation of iron oxidation mats occurs at highly

  1. Tough Stretchable Physically-Cross-linked Electrospun Hydrogel Fiber Mats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yiming; Wang, Chao; Wiener, Clinton G; Hao, Jinkun; Shatas, Sophia; Weiss, R A; Vogt, Bryan D

    2016-09-01

    Nature uses supramolecular interactions and hierarchical structures to produce water-rich materials with combinations of properties that are challenging to obtain in synthetic systems. Here, we demonstrate hierarchical supramolecular hydrogels from electrospun, self-associated copolymers with unprecedented elongation and toughness for high porosity hydrogels. Hydrophobic association of perfluoronated comonomers provides the physical cross-links for these hydrogels based on copolymers of dimethyl acrylamide and 2-(N-ethylperfluorooctane sulfonamido)ethyl methacrylate (FOSM). Intriguingly, the hydrogel fiber mats show an enhancement in toughness in comparison to compression molded bulk hydrogels. This difference is attributed to the size distribution of the hydrophobic aggregates where narrowing the distribution in the electrospun material enhances the toughness of the hydrogel. These hydrogel fiber mats exhibit extensibility more than double that of the bulk hydrogel and a comparable modulus despite the porosity of the fiber mat leading to >25 wt % increase in water content. PMID:27548013

  2. Pressure Mapping Mat for Tele-Home Care Applications

    PubMed Central

    Saenz-Cogollo, Jose Francisco; Pau, Massimiliano; Fraboni, Beatrice; Bonfiglio, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the development of a mat-like pressure mapping system based on a single layer textile sensor and intended to be used in home environments for monitoring the physical condition of persons with limited mobility. The sensor is fabricated by embroidering silver-coated yarns on a light cotton fabric and creating pressure-sensitive resistive elements by stamping the conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) at the crossing points of conductive stitches. A battery-operated mat prototype was developed and includes the scanning circuitry and a wireless communication module. A functional description of the system is presented together with a preliminary experimental evaluation of the mat prototype in the extraction of plantar pressure parameters. PMID:26978369

  3. The MATS Satellite Mission - Tomographic Perspectives on the Mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsson, B.; Gumbel, J.

    2015-12-01

    Tomography in combination with space-borne limb imaging opens exciting new ways of probing atmospheric structures. MATS (Mesospheric Airglow/Aerosol Tomography and Spectroscopy) is a new Swedish satellite mission that applies these ideas to the mesosphere. MATS science questions focus on mesospheric wave activity and noctilucent clouds. Primary measurement targets are O2 Atmospheric band dayglow and nightglow in the near infrared (759-767 nm) and sunlight scattered from noctilucent clouds in the ultraviolet (270-300 nm). While tomography provides horizontally and vertically resolved data, spectroscopy allows analysis in terms of mesospheric composition, temperature and cloud properties. This poster introduces instrument and analysis ideas, and discusses scientific perspectives and connections to other missions. MATS is being prepared for a launch in 2018.

  4. Microsensor measurements of hydrogen gas dynamics in cyanobacterial microbial mats.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Michael; Revsbech, Niels P; Kühl, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We used a novel amperometric microsensor for measuring hydrogen gas production and consumption at high spatio-temporal resolution in cyanobacterial biofilms and mats dominated by non-heterocystous filamentous cyanobacteria (Microcoleus chtonoplastes and Oscillatoria sp.). The new microsensor is based on the use of an organic electrolyte and a stable internal reference system and can be equipped with a chemical sulfide trap in the measuring tip; it exhibits very stable and sulfide-insensitive measuring signals and a high sensitivity (1.5-5 pA per μmol L(-1) H2). Hydrogen gas measurements were done in combination with microsensor measurements of scalar irradiance, O2, pH, and H2S and showed a pronounced H2 accumulation (of up to 8-10% H2 saturation) within the upper mm of cyanobacterial mats after onset of darkness and O2 depletion. The peak concentration of H2 increased with the irradiance level prior to darkening. After an initial build-up over the first 1-2 h in darkness, H2 was depleted over several hours due to efflux to the overlaying water, and due to biogeochemical processes in the uppermost oxic layers and the anoxic layers of the mats. Depletion could be prevented by addition of molybdate pointing to sulfate reduction as a major sink for H2. Immediately after onset of illumination, a short burst of presumably photo-produced H2 due to direct biophotolysis was observed in the illuminated but anoxic mat layers. As soon as O2 from photosynthesis started to accumulate, the H2 was consumed rapidly and production ceased. Our data give detailed insights into the microscale distribution and dynamics of H2 in cyanobacterial biofilms and mats, and further support that cyanobacterial H2 production can play a significant role in fueling anaerobic processes like e.g., sulfate reduction or anoxygenic photosynthesis in microbial mats.

  5. Microsensor measurements of hydrogen gas dynamics in cyanobacterial microbial mats

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Michael; Revsbech, Niels P.; Kühl, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We used a novel amperometric microsensor for measuring hydrogen gas production and consumption at high spatio-temporal resolution in cyanobacterial biofilms and mats dominated by non-heterocystous filamentous cyanobacteria (Microcoleus chtonoplastes and Oscillatoria sp.). The new microsensor is based on the use of an organic electrolyte and a stable internal reference system and can be equipped with a chemical sulfide trap in the measuring tip; it exhibits very stable and sulfide-insensitive measuring signals and a high sensitivity (1.5–5 pA per μmol L-1 H2). Hydrogen gas measurements were done in combination with microsensor measurements of scalar irradiance, O2, pH, and H2S and showed a pronounced H2 accumulation (of up to 8–10% H2 saturation) within the upper mm of cyanobacterial mats after onset of darkness and O2 depletion. The peak concentration of H2 increased with the irradiance level prior to darkening. After an initial build-up over the first 1–2 h in darkness, H2 was depleted over several hours due to efflux to the overlaying water, and due to biogeochemical processes in the uppermost oxic layers and the anoxic layers of the mats. Depletion could be prevented by addition of molybdate pointing to sulfate reduction as a major sink for H2. Immediately after onset of illumination, a short burst of presumably photo-produced H2 due to direct biophotolysis was observed in the illuminated but anoxic mat layers. As soon as O2 from photosynthesis started to accumulate, the H2 was consumed rapidly and production ceased. Our data give detailed insights into the microscale distribution and dynamics of H2 in cyanobacterial biofilms and mats, and further support that cyanobacterial H2 production can play a significant role in fueling anaerobic processes like e.g., sulfate reduction or anoxygenic photosynthesis in microbial mats. PMID:26257714

  6. [Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Environmental Factors and Phytoplankton During Algal Bloom Season in Pengxi River, Three Gorges Reservoir].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuan; Yu, Jian-jun; Fu, Li; Cui, Yu-jie; Liu, De-fu; Jiang, Wei; Haffner, Douglas; Zhang, Lei

    2016-03-15

    Planktonic algae and Related Environmental Factors were monitored during the period of algal blooms season in 2014 (Spring April 17 and summer 27 July) in Pengxi river, Three Gorges Reservoir. Mathematical statistical tools were used to analyze the community structure of planktonic algae in Pengxi River with its environmental factors. The results of sampling in spring showed that except the estuary site, S1 and the site close by, S2, the waters stratified, but without epilimnion, only had metalimnion and hypolimnion; the upstream sites had larger temperature difference between water layers than did the downstream ones; from all the 8 sampling sites from estuary to upstream, water depth, and the temperature, pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a, TN and TP of the surface layer (0-0.5 m deep) were significantly different (ANOVA, P < 0.05). 25 species (genus) of planktonic algae were identified. The abundance of species ranged from 2.76 x 10⁴ cell · L⁻¹ to 145.8 x 10⁴ cell · L⁻¹. Ceratium hirundinella was the main dominant species, and Anabaena sp. was the sub-dominant species. Algal bloom in upstream sampling sites S7 (63.4 x 10⁴cell · L⁻¹) and S8 (145.8 x 10⁴cell · L⁻¹)were relatively serious in spring. Temperature of water, pH , conductivity, dissolved oxygen and NO₃⁻ were the key regulatory factors for phytoplankton abundance based on redundancy analysis ( RDA). The results of sampling in summer showed similar stratification trends among sites; the depth of the same 8 sampling sites, and their surface layer's temperature of water, turbidity, redox potential, pH, water depth, conductivity, chlorophyll a, NH₄⁺, NO₃⁻, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were significantly different (ANOVA, P < 0.05). 46 species (genus) of phytoplanktonic algae were identified. The abundance ranged from 9.56 x 10⁴ cell · L⁻¹ to 278.88 x 10⁴ cell · L⁻¹. Phormidium sp. was the main dominant species, and Anabaena sp. was the sub

  7. Full-scale validation of a model of algal productivity.

    PubMed

    Béchet, Quentin; Shilton, Andy; Guieysse, Benoit

    2014-12-01

    While modeling algal productivity outdoors is crucial to assess the economic and environmental performance of full-scale cultivation, most of the models hitherto developed for this purpose have not been validated under fully relevant conditions, especially with regard to temperature variations. The objective of this study was to independently validate a model of algal biomass productivity accounting for both light and temperature and constructed using parameters experimentally derived using short-term indoor experiments. To do this, the accuracy of a model developed for Chlorella vulgaris was assessed against data collected from photobioreactors operated outdoor (New Zealand) over different seasons, years, and operating conditions (temperature-control/no temperature-control, batch, and fed-batch regimes). The model accurately predicted experimental productivities under all conditions tested, yielding an overall accuracy of ±8.4% over 148 days of cultivation. For the purpose of assessing the feasibility of full-scale algal cultivation, the use of the productivity model was therefore shown to markedly reduce uncertainty in cost of biofuel production while also eliminating uncertainties in water demand, a critical element of environmental impact assessments. Simulations at five climatic locations demonstrated that temperature-control in outdoor photobioreactors would require tremendous amounts of energy without considerable increase of algal biomass. Prior assessments neglecting the impact of temperature variations on algal productivity in photobioreactors may therefore be erroneous.

  8. Effects of acidification on algal assemblages in temporary ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Glackin, M.E.; Pratt, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    Atmospheric deposition monitoring in Pennsylvania has characterized a steep gradient of acidic ion depositions across the north-central portion of the state. This study evaluated acidification effects on the composition of algal assemblages in temporary ponds in two forested areas exposed to atmospheric deposition that varied in degree of acidity. Artificial substrates were used to sample and compare the algal assemblages in the two areas. Colonized communities were also transplanted to lower pH ponds to observe changes in species composition. A laboratory microcosm experiment manipulating pH was conducted to reduce the variables that differed between the two areas. Fewer algal taxa were present in lower pH ponds, on colonized substrates after transplant to lower pH ponds, and in lower pH laboratory treatments. Species composition was altered in the lower pH conditions. Most taxa that were excluded from the lower pH ponds naturally also did not survive when experimentally introduced to those conditions. These results suggest that acidification of temporary ponds can alter the structure of algal communities. There is interest in a possible link between acid deposition and reports of worldwide declines in amphibian populations. Algae are an important food source for larval amphibians, such as the wood frog, which require temporary ponds to breed. Changes in algal species composition could potentially impact the temporary pond and forest ecosystem.

  9. Biodegradation of bisphenol A by an algal-bacterial system.

    PubMed

    Eio, Er Jin; Kawai, Minako; Niwa, Chiaki; Ito, Masato; Yamamoto, Shuichi; Toda, Tatsuki

    2015-10-01

    The degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) by Chlorella sorokiniana and BPA-degrading bacteria was investigated. The results show that BPA was partially removed by a monoculture of C. sorokiniana, but the remaining BPA accounted for 50.2, 56.1, and 60.5 % of the initial BPA concentrations of 10, 20, and 50 mg L(-1), respectively. The total algal BPA adsorption and accumulation were less than 1 %. C. sorokiniana-bacterial system effectively removed BPA with photosynthetic oxygen provided by the algae irrespective of the initial BPA concentration. The growth of C. sorokiniana in the algal system was inhibited by BPA concentrations of 20 and 50 mg L(-1), but not in the algal-bacterial system. This observation indicates that bacterial growth in the algal-bacterial system reduced the BPA-inhibiting effect on algae. A total of ten BPA biodegradation intermediates were identified by GC-MS. The concentrations of the biodegradation intermediates decreased to a low level at the end of the experiment. The hypothetical carbon mass balance analysis showed that the amounts of oxygen demanded by the bacteria are insufficient for effective BPA degradation. However, adding an external carbon source could compensate for the oxygen shortage. This study demonstrates that the algal-bacterial system has the potential to remove BPA and its biodegradation intermediates. PMID:26013738

  10. Dissolved-oxygen and algal conditions in selected locations of the Willamette River basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rinella, F.A.; McKenzie, S.W.; Wille, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    During July and August 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oregon Department of Enviromental Quality, made three intensive river-quality dissolved-oxygen studies in the upper Willamette River basin. Two studies were made on the upper Willamette River and one was made on the Santiam River, a Willamette River tributary. Nitrification, occurring in both the upper Willamette and South Santiam Rivers, accounted for about 62% and 92% of the DO sag in the rivers, respectively. Rates of nitrification were found to be dependent on ammonia concentrations in the rivers. Periphyton and phytoplankton algal samples were collected on the main stem Willamette River and selected tributaries during August 1978. Diatoms were the dominant group in both the periphyton and phytoplankton samples. The most common diatom genera were Melosira, Stephanodiscus, Cymbella, Achnanthes, and Nitzschia. Comparisons with historical data indicate no significant difference from previous years in the total abundance or diversity of the algae. (USGS)

  11. Tropical harmful algal blooms: an emerging threat to coral reef communities?

    PubMed

    Bauman, Andrew G; Burt, John A; Feary, David A; Marquis, Elise; Usseglio, Paolo

    2010-11-01

    Tropical harmful algal blooms (HABs) are increasing in frequency and intensity and are substantially affecting marine communities. In October/November 2008 a large-scale HAB event (> 500 km(2), dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides) in the Gulf of Oman caused the complete loss of the branching corals, Pocillopora and Acropora spp., and substantial reductions in the abundance, richness and trophic diversity of the associated coral reef fish communities. Although the causative agents of this C. polykrikoides bloom are unknown, increased coastal enrichment, natural oceanographic mechanisms, and the recent expansion of this species within ballast water discharge are expected to be the main agents. With rapid changes in oceanic climate, enhanced coastal eutrophication and increased global distribution of HAB species within ballast water, large-scale HAB events are predicted to increase dramatically in both intensity and distribution and can be expected to have increasingly negative effects on coral reef communities globally.

  12. Free polyamine content during algal bloom succession in the East China Sea in spring 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Zhao, Weihong; Li, Caiyan; Miao, Hui

    2016-03-01

    We measured the concentrations and distribution of major polyamines (spermine, putrescine and spermidine) in seawater during successive spring algal blooms in an area of frequent harmful blooms in the East China Sea. Spermine, putrescine, and spermidine concentrations were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and ranged from 1-64, 7-81, and 0-19 nmol/L. Spermine was present at the highest concentrations, followed by putrescine and spermidine. In late April, when a diatom bloom dominated by Skeletonema costatum dispersed, polyamine concentrations increased, presumably as a result of diatom decomposition. In early May, when a dinoflagellate bloom dominated by Prorocentrum donghaiense occurred, the polyamine concentration decreased from the level seen in late April. The abundant polyamines that decomposed and were released during the diatom bloom in late April may have promoted the growth of P. donghaiense, resulting in its dominance.

  13. Changes in sea-ice phagotrophic microprotists (20 200 μm) during the spring algal bloom, Canadian Arctic Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime-Ngando, Télesphore; Gosselin, Michel; Juniper, S. Kim; Levasseur, Maurice

    1997-02-01

    Heterotrophic microflagellates and ciliates (i.e., 20-200 μm size fraction) were examined for evidence of their response to the spring accumulation of algal biomass in the bottom of the annual sea ice in Resolute Passage (Canadian High Arctic, ˜ 74°N, 95°W). The most abundant heterotrophic microflagellates were dinoflagellates in the water column and cryothe-comonad-type cells in the ice. Ciliates were exclusively represented by typical planktonic species in the water column while the ice community was characterized by the occurrence of benthic-type species. This contrasts with observations in the Antarctic and at the southern limit of sea ice in the northern hemisphere, where annual sea ice seems to serve as a temporary habitat for planktonic communities. Protist biomasses in Resolute Passage were one to two orders of magnitude higher in the ice than in the plankton. In the ice, a seasonal increase in the biomass of phagotrophic microprotists as well as in the number of micrometazoa (from our microprotist samples) followed the spring algal bloom. These observations (1) support previous suggestions of the existence of a functional microbial food web within sea-ice communities and (2) indicate that micrograzers may represent one of the basic levels of the ice food web that responds to the seasonal accumulation of algal biomass. Heterotrophic microprotists growing in the ice accumulated about 4 mg C m -2 d -1, a net production rate that is two to four times higher than those reported for sea-ice bacteria (both Arctic and Antarctic), and represented 1-9% of the net production of ice algea in the early season at resolute. A carbon budget exercise indicated that the required energy for microprotozoan growth in the later season, when algal biomass was declining, corresponded to 1-8% of the net biomass loss from the ice algal populations. The specific growth rates of microprotozoan populations within the ice (0.04-0.18 d -1) appeared to increase significantly with

  14. Solar abundance of platinum

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Harry; Aller, Lawrence H.

    1975-01-01

    Three lines of neutral platinum, located at λ 2997.98 Å, λ 3064.71 Å, and λ 3301.86 Å have been used to determine the solar platinum abundance by the method of spectral synthesis. On the scale, log A(H) = 12.00, the thus-derived solar platinum abundance is 1.75 ± 0.10, in fair accord with Cameron's value of log A(Pt) = 1.69 derived by Mason from carbonaceous chondrites and calculated on the assumption that log A(Si) = 7.55 in the sun. PMID:16592278

  15. [Temporal-spatial distribution of algal cells during drought period in Daning River of Three Gorges].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Sheng; Zheng, Bing-Hui; Wang, Kun; Jiang, Xia; Zheng, Hao

    2013-06-01

    In order to provide basic data for algal bloom warning system, the study on temporal-spatial distribution of algal cells was carried out in Daning River of Three Gorges form April to September, 2011. The results of temporal distribution were as follows: the dominant algal species were blue algal, green algal and diatom. During the test, the density proportion of blue algae increased continuously, the density proportion of diatom decreased, while the density proportion of green algae did not change significantly. The results of spatial distribution were as follows: algal density was extremely significantly correlated with water temperature and chlorophyll a (Chl a), the correlation coefficient were 0.97 and 0.95, respectively; algal density was significantly correlated with light intensity (LI), dissolved oxygen (DO), pH and dissoluble total phosphorus (DTP), the correlation coefficient were 0.87, 0.83, 082 and 0.82, respectively; the algal density in 0 m of Caziba was higher than those in other water depths, and in Baishuihe the highest algal density occurred at 2.0 m water depth in June and July, in Shuanglong most algal cells were found in 0 m and 2.0 m in July, August and September, in Dachang algal density in different water depth did not change significantly during the test; the proportion of different algal species in vertical direction was different in the test, probably because different algal species fitted different environments.

  16. Seasonal and altitudinal variations in snow algal communities on an Alaskan glacier (Gulkana glacier in the Alaska range)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Nozomu

    2013-09-01

    Snow and ice algae are cold tolerant algae growing on the surface of snow and ice, and they play an important role in the carbon cycles for glaciers and snowfields in the world. Seasonal and altitudinal variations in seven major taxa of algae (green algae and cyanobacteria) were investigated on the Gulkana glacier in Alaska at six different elevations from May to September in 2001. The snow algal communities and their biomasses changed over time and elevation. Snow algae were rarely observed on the glacier in May although air temperature had been above 0 ° C since the middle of the month and surface snow had melted. In June, algae appeared in the lower areas of the glacier, where the ablation ice surface was exposed. In August, the distribution of algae was extended to the upper parts of the glacier as the snow line was elevated. In September, the glacier surface was finally covered with new winter snow, which terminated algal growth in the season. Mean algal biomass of the study sites continuously increased and reached 6.3 × 10 μl m-2 in cell volume or 13 mg carbon m-2 in September. The algal community was dominated by Chlamydomonas nivalis on the snow surface, and by Ancylonema nordenskiöldii and Mesotaenium berggrenii on the ice surface throughout the melting season. Other algae were less abundant and appeared in only a limited area of the glacier. Results in this study suggest that algae on both snow and ice surfaces significantly contribute to the net production of organic carbon on the glacier and substantially affect surface albedo of the snow and ice during the melting season.

  17. Sierra Nevada, California, U.S.A., Snow Algae: Snow albedo changes, algal-bacterial interrelationships and ultraviolet radiation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, W.H.; Duval, B.

    1995-11-01

    In the Tioga Pass area (upper LeeVining Creek watershed) of the Sierra Nevada (California), snow algae were prevalent in the early summers of 1993 and 1994. Significant negative correlations were found between snow water content. However, red snow caused by algal blooms did not decrease mean albedos in representative snowfields. This was due to algal patchiness; mean albedos would not decrease over the whole water catchment basin; and water supplies would not be affected by the presence of algae. Albedo was also reduced by dirt on the snow, and wind-blown dirt may provide a source of allochthonous organic matter for snow bacteria. However, several observations emphasize the importance of an autochthonous source for bacterial nutrition. Bacterial abundances and production rates were higher in red snow containing algae than in noncolored snow. Bacterial production was about two orders-of-magnitude lower than photosynthetic algal production. Bacteria were also sometimes attached to algal cells. In experiments where snow algae were contained in UV-transmitting quartz tubes, ultraviolet radiation inhibited red snow (collected form open, sunlit areas) photosynthesis about 25%, while green snow (collected from forested, shady locations) photosynthesis was inhibited by 85%. Methanol extracts of red snow algae had greater absorbances in blue and UV spectral regions than did algae from green snow. These differences in UV responses and spectra may be due to habitat (sun vs shade) differences, or may be genetic, since different species were found in the two snow types. However, both habitat and genetic mechanisms may be operating together to cause these differences. 53 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Marine algal toxins: origins, health effects, and their increased occurrence.

    PubMed Central

    Van Dolah, F M

    2000-01-01

    Certain marine algae produce potent toxins that impact human health through the consumption of contaminated shellfish and finfish and through water or aerosol exposure. Over the past three decades, the frequency and global distribution of toxic algal incidents appear to have increased, and human intoxications from novel algal sources have occurred. This increase is of particular concern, since it parallels recent evidence of large-scale ecologic disturbances that coincide with trends in global warming. The extent to which human activities have contributed to their increase therefore comes into question. This review summarizes the origins and health effects of marine algal toxins, as well as changes in their current global distribution, and examines possible causes for the recent increase in their occurrence. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:10698729

  19. Consortium for Algal Biofuel Commercialization (CAB-COMM) Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mayfield, Stephen P.

    2015-12-04

    The Consortium for Algal Biofuel Commercialization (CAB-Comm) was established in 2010 to conduct research to enable commercial viability of alternative liquid fuels produced from algal biomass. The main objective of CAB-Comm was to dramatically improve the viability of algae as a source of liquid fuels to meet US energy needs, by addressing several significant barriers to economic viability. To achieve this goal, CAB-Comm took a diverse set of approaches on three key aspects of the algal biofuels value chain: crop protection; nutrient utilization and recycling; and the development of genetic tools. These projects have been undertaken as collaboration between six academic institutions and two industrial partners: University of California, San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography; University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Rutgers University; University of California, Davis; Johns Hopkins University; Sapphire Energy; and Life Technologies.

  20. Marine algal toxins: origins, health effects, and their increased occurrence.

    PubMed

    Van Dolah, F M

    2000-03-01

    Certain marine algae produce potent toxins that impact human health through the consumption of contaminated shellfish and finfish and through water or aerosol exposure. Over the past three decades, the frequency and global distribution of toxic algal incidents appear to have increased, and human intoxications from novel algal sources have occurred. This increase is of particular concern, since it parallels recent evidence of large-scale ecologic disturbances that coincide with trends in global warming. The extent to which human activities have contributed to their increase therefore comes into question. This review summarizes the origins and health effects of marine algal toxins, as well as changes in their current global distribution, and examines possible causes for the recent increase in their occurrence.

  1. Algal cell disruption using microbubbles to localize ultrasonic energy

    PubMed Central

    Krehbiel, Joel D.; Schideman, Lance C.; King, Daniel A.; Freund, Jonathan B.

    2015-01-01

    Microbubbles were added to an algal solution with the goal of improving cell disruption efficiency and the net energy balance for algal biofuel production. Experimental results showed that disruption increases with increasing peak rarefaction ultrasound pressure over the range studied: 1.90 to 3.07 MPa. Additionally, ultrasound cell disruption increased by up to 58% by adding microbubbles, with peak disruption occurring in the range of 108 microbubbles/ml. The localization of energy in space and time provided by the bubbles improve efficiency: energy requirements for such a process were estimated to be one-fourth of the available heat of combustion of algal biomass and one-fifth of currently used cell disruption methods. This increase in energy efficiency could make microbubble enhanced ultrasound viable for bioenergy applications and is expected to integrate well with current cell harvesting methods based upon dissolved air flotation. PMID:25311188

  2. Comparative study of hydrographic conditions for algal bloom formation in the coastal waters of east and west of Hong Kong during 1998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Hongda; Tang, Senming

    2009-02-01

    Phytoplankton abundance was found to be positively correlated with seasonal changes of seawater temperature in Port Shelter and Lamma Channel, Hong Kong in 1998. Rising water temperature from around 20°C to 25°C coincided with an increase in phytoplankton abundance at both locations. Heavy rains from June to September reduced salinity from 30 to 20, but the decrease in salinity was not correlated with a decline in phytoplankton abundance. In spring 1998, over 0.6×106 cells dm-3 and 0.1×106 cells dm-3 of the dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium mikimotoi Miyake et Kominami ex Oda occurred in the coastal waters of Port Shelter and Lamma Channel, respectively. High abundance of the dinoflagellate Ceratium furca (Ehr.) Claparede et Lachmann (>1×106 cells dm-3) produced long-lasting blooms in the waters of Port Shelter from September to October in 1998. The abundances of both diatoms and dinoflagellates were significantly lower in the waters of Lamma Channel than those in Port Shelter due to the less frequent blooms in 1998. Hydrographic conditions such as stable water masses and water column stratification were the main reasons for the differences in the algal abundance and bloom frequency found between the two locations since neither of the two areas appeared to be nutrient-limited. This type water condition for the formation of algal bloom in Port Shelter has not been reported previously and it is not a general case for many bays along China’s coast where algal bloom occurs as well.

  3. Physiological and Metagenomic Analyses of Microbial Mats Involved in Self-Purification of Mine Waters Contaminated with Heavy Metals

    PubMed Central

    Drewniak, Lukasz; Krawczyk, Pawel S.; Mielnicki, Sebastian; Adamska, Dorota; Sobczak, Adam; Lipinski, Leszek; Burec-Drewniak, Weronika; Sklodowska, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Two microbial mats found inside two old (gold and uranium) mines in Zloty Stok and Kowary located in SW Poland seem to form a natural barrier that traps heavy metals leaking from dewatering systems. We performed complex physiological and metagenomic analyses to determine which microorganisms are the main driving agents responsible for self-purification of the mine waters and identify metabolic processes responsible for the observed features. SEM and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis showed accumulation of heavy metals on the mat surface, whereas, sorption experiments showed that neither microbial mats were completely saturated with heavy metals present in the mine waters, indicating that they have a large potential to absorb significant quantities of metal. The metagenomic analysis revealed that Methylococcaceae and Methylophilaceae families were the most abundant in both communities, moreover, it strongly suggest that backbones of both mats were formed by filamentous bacteria, such as Leptothrix, Thiothrix, and Beggiatoa. The Kowary bacterial community was enriched with the Helicobacteraceae family, whereas the Zloty Stok community consist mainly of Sphingomonadaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, and Caulobacteraceae families. Functional (culture-based) and metagenome (sequence-based) analyses showed that bacteria involved in immobilization of heavy metals, rather than those engaged in mobilization, were the main driving force within the analyzed communities. In turn, a comparison of functional genes revealed that the biofilm formation and heavy metal resistance (HMR) functions are more desirable in microorganisms engaged in water purification than the ability to utilize heavy metals in the respiratory process (oxidation-reduction). These findings provide insight on the activity of bacteria leading, from biofilm formation to self-purification, of mine waters contaminated with heavy metals. PMID:27559332

  4. A silk derived carbon fiber mat modified with Au@Pt urchilike nanoparticles: A new platform as electrochemical microbial biosensor.

    PubMed

    Deng, Liu; Guo, Shaojun; Zhou, Ming; Liu, Ling; Liu, Chang; Dong, Shaojun

    2010-06-15

    We present here a facile and efficient route to prepare silk derived carbon mat modified with Au@Pt urchilike nanoparticles (Au@Pt NPs) and develop an Escherichia coli (E. coli)-based electrochemical sensor using this material. Silk is a natural protein fiber, and it is abundant with kinds of functionalities which are important in the development of the derived material. The S-derived carbon fiber mat have amino, pyridine and carbonyl functional groups, these natural existent functionalities allow the Au@Pt NPs to self-assemble on the carbon fiber surface and provide a biocompatible microenvironment for bacteria. The Au@Pt NPs modified S-derived carbon fiber is sensitive to detect the E. coli activities with a low detection limit, where glucose is used as a prelimiltary substrate to evaluate them. The performance of Au@Pt/carbon fiber mat based biosensor is much better than that of commercial carbon paper based biosensor. The high sensitivity of this biosensor stems from the unique electrocatalytic properties of Au@Pt urchilike NPs and quinone groups presented in S-derived carbon fiber. This biosensor is also tested for detection of organophosphate pesticides, fenamiphos. The relative inhibition of E. coli activity is linear with -log[fenamiphos] at the concentration range from 0.5mg/L to 36.6 mg/L with lowest observable effect concentration (LOEC) of 0.09 mg/L. The Au@Pt NPs modified S-derived carbon fiber mat possesses high conductivity, biocompatibility and high electrocatalytic activity and be can used as advanced electrode materials for microbial biosensor improvement. The microbial biosensor based on this material shows potential applications in environmental monitoring.

  5. Physiological and Metagenomic Analyses of Microbial Mats Involved in Self-Purification of Mine Waters Contaminated with Heavy Metals.

    PubMed

    Drewniak, Lukasz; Krawczyk, Pawel S; Mielnicki, Sebastian; Adamska, Dorota; Sobczak, Adam; Lipinski, Leszek; Burec-Drewniak, Weronika; Sklodowska, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Two microbial mats found inside two old (gold and uranium) mines in Zloty Stok and Kowary located in SW Poland seem to form a natural barrier that traps heavy metals leaking from dewatering systems. We performed complex physiological and metagenomic analyses to determine which microorganisms are the main driving agents responsible for self-purification of the mine waters and identify metabolic processes responsible for the observed features. SEM and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis showed accumulation of heavy metals on the mat surface, whereas, sorption experiments showed that neither microbial mats were completely saturated with heavy metals present in the mine waters, indicating that they have a large potential to absorb significant quantities of metal. The metagenomic analysis revealed that Methylococcaceae and Methylophilaceae families were the most abundant in both communities, moreover, it strongly suggest that backbones of both mats were formed by filamentous bacteria, such as Leptothrix, Thiothrix, and Beggiatoa. The Kowary bacterial community was enriched with the Helicobacteraceae family, whereas the Zloty Stok community consist mainly of Sphingomonadaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, and Caulobacteraceae families. Functional (culture-based) and metagenome (sequence-based) analyses showed that bacteria involved in immobilization of heavy metals, rather than those engaged in mobilization, were the main driving force within the analyzed communities. In turn, a comparison of functional genes revealed that the biofilm formation and heavy metal resistance (HMR) functions are more desirable in microorganisms engaged in water purification than the ability to utilize heavy metals in the respiratory process (oxidation-reduction). These findings provide insight on the activity of bacteria leading, from biofilm formation to self-purification, of mine waters contaminated with heavy metals. PMID:27559332

  6. Small herbivores suppress algal accumulation on Agatti atoll, Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cernohorsky, Nicole H.; McClanahan, Timothy R.; Babu, Idrees; Horsák, Michal

    2015-12-01

    Despite large herbivorous fish being generally accepted as the main group responsible for preventing algal accumulation on coral reefs, few studies have experimentally examined the relative importance of herbivore size on algal communities. This study used exclusion cages with two different mesh sizes (1 × 1 cm and 6 × 6 cm) to investigate the impact of different-sized herbivores on algal accumulation rates on the shallow (<2 m) back-reef of Agatti atoll, Lakshadweep. The fine-mesh cages excluded all visible herbivores, which had rapid and lasting effects on the benthic communities, and, after 127 d of deployment, there was a visible and significant increase in algae (mainly macroalgae) with algal volume being 13 times greater than in adjacent open areas. The coarse-mesh cages excluded larger fishes (>8 cm body depth) while allowing smaller fishes to access the plots. In contrast to the conclusions of most previous studies, the exclusion of large herbivores had no significant effect on the accumulation of benthic algae and the amount of algae present within the coarse-mesh cages was relatively consistent throughout the experimental period (around 50 % coverage and 1-2 mm height). The difference in algal accumulation between the fine-mesh and coarse-mesh cages appears to be related to the actions of small individuals from 12 herbivorous fish species (0.17 ind. m-2 and 7.7 g m-2) that were able to enter through the coarse mesh. Although restricted to a single habitat, these results suggest that when present in sufficient densities and diversity, small herbivorous fishes can prevent the accumulation of algal biomass on coral reefs.

  7. Abundances of light elements.

    PubMed Central

    Pagel, B E

    1993-01-01

    Recent developments in the study of abundances of light elements and their relevance to cosmological nucleosynthesis are briefly reviewed. The simplest model, based on standard cosmology and particle physics and assuming homogeneous baryon density at the relevant times, continues to stand up well. PMID:11607388

  8. Myocardial Cell Pattern on Piezoelectric Nanofiber Mats for Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Wang, X.; Zhao, H.; Du, Y.

    2014-11-01

    The paper presents in vitro contractile myocardial cell pattern on piezoelectric nanofiber mats with applications in energy harvesting. The cell-based energy harvester consists of myocardial cell sheet and a PDMS substrate with a PVDF nanofiber mat on. Experimentally, cultured on specifically distributed nanofiber mats, neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes are characterized with the related morphology and contraction. Previously, we have come up with the concept of energy harvesting from heart beating using piezoelectric material. A bio-hybrid energy harvester combined living cardiomyocytes, PDMS polymer substrate and piezoelectric PVDF film with the electrical output of peak current 87.5nA and peak voltage 92.3mV. However, the thickness of the cardiomyocyte cultured on a two-dimensional substrate is much less than that of the piezoelectric film. The Micro Contact Printing (μCP) method used in cell pattern on the PDMS thin film has tough requirement for the film surface. As such, in this paper we fabricated nanofiber-constructed PDMS thin film to realize cell pattern due to PVDF nanofibers with better piezoelectricity and microstructures of nanofiber mats guiding cell distribution. Living cardiomyocytes patterned on those distributed piezoelectric nanofibers with the result of the same distribution as the nanofiber pattern.

  9. Bioremediation of hexavalent chromium by a cyanobacterial mat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Dhara; Vankar, Padma S.; Srivastava, Sarvesh Kumar

    2012-12-01

    The study comprises the use of cyanobacterial mat (collected from tannery effluent site) to remove hexavalent chromium. This mat was consortium of cyanobacteria/blue-green algae such as Chlorella sp., Phormidium sp. and Oscillatoria sp. The adsorption experiments were carried out in batches using chromium concentrations 2-10, 15-30 and 300 ppm at pH 5.5-6.2. The adsorption started within 15 min; however, 96 % reduction in metal concentration was observed within 210 min. The adsorption phenomenon was confirmed by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. This biosorption fitted Freundlich adsorption isotherm very well. It was observed that the best adsorption was at 4 ppm, and at 25 ppm in the chosen concentration ranges. Scanning electron micrograph showed the physiology of mat, indicating sites for metal uptake. The main focus was collection of the cyanobacterial mat from local environments and its chromium removal potential at pH 5.5-6.2.

  10. Compositions and methods of use of constructed microbial mats

    DOEpatents

    Bender, Judith A.; Phillips, Peter C.

    2000-01-01

    Compositions, methods and devices for bioremediation that comprise components of constructed microbial mats with organic and inorganic materials are described. The compositions, methods and devices can be used for bioremediation of different individual contaminants and for mixed or multiple contaminants, and for production of beneficial compositions and molecules.

  11. HiMAT highly maneuverable aircraft technology, flight report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Flight verification of a primary flight control system, designed to control the unstable HiMAT aircraft is presented. The initial flight demonstration of a maneuver autopilot in the level cruise mode and the gathering of a limited amount of airspeed calibration data.

  12. Direct piezoelectric responses of soft composite fiber mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, M.; Morvan, J.; Diorio, N.; Buyuktanir, E.; Harden, J.; West, J. L.; Jákli, A.

    2013-04-01

    Recently soft fiber mats electrospun from solutions of Barium Titanate (BT) ferroelectric ceramics particles and polylactic acid (PLA) were found to have large (d33 ˜ 1 nm/V) converse piezoelectric signals offering a myriad of applications ranging from active implants to smart textiles. Here, we report direct piezoelectric measurements (electric signals due to mechanical stress) of the BT/PLA composite fiber mats at several BT concentrations. A homemade testing apparatus provided AC stresses in the 50 Hz-1.5 kHz-frequency range. The piezoelectric constant d33 ˜ 0.5 nC/N and the compression modulus Y ˜ 104-105 Pa found are in agreement with the prior converse piezoelectric and compressibility measurements. Importantly, the direct piezoelectric signal is large enough to power a small LCD by simple finger tapping of a 0.15 mm thick 2-cm2 area mat. We propose using these mats in active Braille cells and in liquid crystal writing tablets.

  13. Weighted color and texture sample selection for image matting.

    PubMed

    Varnousfaderani, Ehsan Shahrian; Rajan, Deepu

    2013-11-01

    Color sampling based matting methods find the best known samples for foreground and background colors of unknown pixels. Such methods do not perform well if there is an overlap in the color distribution of foreground and background regions because color cannot distinguish between these regions and hence, the selected samples cannot reliably estimate the matte. Furthermore, current sampling based matting methods choose samples that are located around the boundaries of foreground and background regions. In this paper, we overcome these two problems. First, we propose texture as a feature that can complement color to improve matting by discriminating between known regions with similar colors. The contribution of texture and color is automatically estimated by analyzing the content of the image. Second, we combine local sampling with a global sampling scheme that prevents true foreground or background samples to be missed during the sample collection stage. An objective function containing color and texture components is optimized to choose the best foreground and background pair among a set of candidate pairs. Experiments are carried out on a benchmark data set and an independent evaluation of the results shows that the proposed method is ranked first among all other image matting methods.

  14. Electrospinning of caseinates to create protective fibrous mats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electrospinning is a nonthermal process that produces fibers on the micron- or nano-scale from a polymer solution. If produced by electrospinning of biopolymer solutions, fibrous mats may be created for protecting foods and allowing for the preservation and controlled release of bioactives for healt...

  15. Electrospinning of caseinates to create protective fibrous mats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    JUSTIFICATION Electrospinning is a nonthermal process that produces fibers with diameters on the micron- or nano-scales from a polymer solution. If produced by electrospinning of biopolymer solutions, fibrous mats may be created for protecting foods, improving food quality and allowing for the prese...

  16. A stoichiometrically derived algal growth model and its global analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiong; Wang, Hao

    2010-10-01

    Organisms are composed of multiple chemical elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus. The scarcity of any of these elements can severely restrict organismal and population growth. However, many trophic interaction models only consider carbon limitation via energy flow. In this paper, we construct an algal growth model with the explicit incorporation of light and nutrient availability to characterize both carbon and phosphorus limitations. We provide a global analysis of this model to illustrate how light and nutrient availability regulate algal dynamics. PMID:21077710

  17. Mexico-U.S. Harmful Algal Bloom Monitoring Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chuanmin; Muller-Karger, Frank E.

    2008-06-01

    Workshop on Taxonomy of Harmful Algal Blooms; Veracruz, Mexico, 18-22 February 2008; A workshop on harmful algal bloom (HAB) taxonomy, sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Health of the state of Veracruz, Mexico, was held at the Aquarium of Veracruz and focused on standardizing methods to detect HABs that affect coastal waters in the Gulf of Mexico. This binational effort was established under the umbrella of the Gulf of Mexico Alliance (GOMA), initially formed in 2004 by the five U.S. Gulf states (Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas) with participation from U.S. federal agencies and other stakeholders.

  18. Bacterially induced precipitation of CaCO{sub 3}: An example from studies of cyanobacterial mats. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chafetz, H.S.

    1990-04-30

    Bacteria induce the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the laboratory and in nature by altering their chemical environment. Geologists are recognizing the possibility that bacterially induced precipitates may form significant mineral deposits, unfortunately, there are currently no sound criteria by which they can be recognized in recent sediments, or in the rock record. Cultures of aerobic and facultative bacteria from cyanobacterial mats on Andros Island, Bahamas, and Baffin Bay, Texas, induced the precipitation of calcium carbonate under controlled conditions. Crusts, the largest features formed, are composed of 5--200{mu}m diameter bundles which are, in turn, composed of numerous individual crystals. The smallest observed features are 0.1--0.4{mu}m spheres and rods which comprise some individual crystals and crystal bundles. Crystal bundles resembling rhombohedra, tetragonal disphenoids, tetragonal dipyramids, and calcite dumbbells appear to be uniquely bacterial in origin, and they have all been observed in recent sediments. Swollen rods, discs, curved dumbbells, and 50--200{mu}m optically continuous crystals resembling brushes may be uniquely bacterial in origin, however, they have not been reported by other laboratories nor observed in natural settings. Presence of any of these forms in recent sediments should be taken as strong evidence for bacterial influence. Spheres and aragonite dumbbells have also been observed in natural environments, however, they are not always bacterial in origin. Precipitation of calcium carbonate occurs preferentially on dead cyanobacteria in the presence of bacteria. Lithification of algal mats to form stromatolites may take place in the zone of decaying organic matter due to bacterial activity.

  19. Characterization of MAT gene functions in the life cycle of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum reveals a lineage-specific MAT gene functioning in apothecium morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Doughan, Benjamin; Rollins, Jeffrey A

    2016-09-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is a phytopathogenic fungus that relies on the completion of the sexual cycle to initiate aerial infections. The sexual cycle produces apothecia required for inoculum dispersal. In this study, insight into the regulation of apothecial multicellular development was pursued through functional characterization of mating-type genes. These genes are hypothesized to encode master regulatory proteins required for aspects of sexual development ranging from fertilization through fertile fruiting body development. Experimentally, loss-of-function mutants were created for the conserved core mating-type genes (MAT1-1-1, and MAT1-2-1), and the lineage-specific genes found only in S. sclerotiorum and closely related fungi (MAT1-1-5, and MAT1-2-4). The MAT1-1-1, MAT1-1-5, and MAT1-2-1 mutants are able to form ascogonia but are blocked in all aspects of apothecium development. These mutants also exhibit defects in secondary sexual characters including lower numbers of spermatia. The MAT1-2-4 mutants are delayed in carpogenic germination accompanied with altered disc morphogenesis and ascospore production. They too produce lower numbers of spermatia. All four MAT gene mutants showed alterations in the expression of putative pheromone precursor (Ppg-1) and pheromone receptor (PreA, PreB) genes. Our findings support the involvement of MAT genes in sexual fertility, gene regulation, meiosis, and morphogenesis in S. sclerotiorum. PMID:27567717

  20. Efficacy of algal metrics for assessing nutrient and organic enrichment in flowing waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porter, S.D.; Mueller, D.K.; Spahr, N.E.; Munn, M.D.; Dubrovsky, N.M.

    2008-01-01

    4. Although algal species tolerance to nutrient and organic enrichment is well documented, additional taxonomic and autecological research on sensitive, endemic algal species would further enhance water-quality assessments.

  1. [Harmful algal blooms in Italy and their health effects in the population].

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Margherita; Ledda, Caterina; Cunsolo, Maria A; Fiore, Maria; Fallico, Roberto; Sciacca, Salvatore; Oliveri Conti, Gea M

    2010-01-01

    The authors discuss harmful algal bloom, a seasonal phenomenon that in recent years has become increasingly frequent along Italian coasts. A classification of algal bloom is given and algal toxins and their effects on human health are discussed. The authors then describe the algal bloom phenomenon observed in Italy from the 1960s to the present time. Finally they briefly describe Italian legislation on the subject matter and highlight its shortcomings.

  2. Algal turf scrubber (ATS) floways on the Great Wicomico River, Chesapeake Bay: productivity, algal community structure, substrate and chemistry(1).

    PubMed

    Adey, Walter H; Laughinghouse, H Dail; Miller, John B; Hayek, Lee-Ann C; Thompson, Jesse G; Bertman, Steven; Hampel, Kristin; Puvanendran, Shanmugam

    2013-06-01

    Two Algal Turf Scrubber (ATS) units were deployed on the Great Wicomico River (GWR) for 22 months to examine the role of substrate in increasing algal productivity and nutrient removal. The yearly mean productivity of flat ATS screens was 15.4 g · m(-2)  · d(-1) . This was elevated to 39.6 g · m(-2)  · d(-1) with a three-dimensional (3-D) screen, and to 47.7 g · m(-2)  · d(-1) by avoiding high summer harvest temperatures. These methods enhanced nutrient removal (N, P) in algal biomass by 3.5 times. Eighty-six algal taxa (Ochrophyta [diatoms], Chlorophyta [green algae], and Cyan-obacteria [blue-green algae]) self-seeded from the GWR and demonstrated yearly cycling. Silica (SiO2 ) content of the algal biomass ranged from 30% to 50% of total biomass; phosphorus, nitrogen, and carbon content of the total algal biomass ranged from 0.15% to 0.21%, 2.13% to 2.89%, and 20.0% to 25.7%, respectively. Carbohydrate content (at 10%-25% of AFDM) was dominated by glucose. Lipids (fatty acid methyl ester; FAMEs) ranged widely from 0.5% to 9% AFDM, with Omega-3 fatty acids a consistent component. Mathematical modeling of algal produ-ctivity as a function of temperature, light, and substrate showed a proportionality of 4:3:3, resp-ectively. Under landscape ATS operation, substrate manipulation provides a considerable opportunity to increase ATS productivity, water quality amelioration, and biomass coproduction for fertilizers, fermentation energy, and omega-3 products. Based on the 3-D prod-uctivity and algal chemical composition demonstrated, ATS systems used for nonpoint source water treat-ment can produce ethanol (butanol) at 5.8× per unit area of corn, and biodiesel at 12.0× per unit area of soy beans (agricultural production US). PMID:27007038

  3. The Effects of Low Sulfate Concentrations on Modern Microbial Mat Communities: A Long Term Manipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bebout, Brad; Carpenter, Steve; DesMarais, David J.; Discipulo, Mykell; Hogan, Mary; Turk, Kendra

    2002-01-01

    Microbial mats were widespread during the first ca. 2 Ga. of our biosphere's history. To better understand microbial ecosystems and their biomarkers under the low sulfate levels present in early oceans, we attempted a long-term (ca. 1 year) manipulation of sulfate in modem mats. Mats collected from salt ponds at Guerrero Negro, Baja Calif. Sur were incubated in a Greenhouse "Collaboratory" at Ames. Mats were maintained in artificial seawater brine containing either: 1) sulfate levels normal for these mats (70 mM), or 2) brine in which sulfate was replaced by chloride. Sulfate concentrations in the "low sulfate" brine gradually approached their lowest (to date) value of 0. 1 mM as sulfate was consumed and/or diffused out of the mat over a period of ca. 4 months. During that period of time, a number of differences between the treatments emerged. Relative to the "low sulfate" mats, "normal sulfate" mats had: 1) lower consumption of oxygen in the lower levels of the mat, 2) higher efficiencies of oxygenic photosynthesis, and 3) higher rates of nitrogen fixation. Rates of methane production by the mats increased greatly as sulfate concentrations fell below ca. 0.2 mM. In contrast, "low" and "normal" sulfate mats had similar net rates of exchange of O2 and dissolved inorganic C between the mats and overlying water. Reduced sulfate levels have diverse impacts upon these ecosystems.

  4. Gelatin blending and sonication of chitosan nanofiber mats produce synergistic effects on hemostatic functions.

    PubMed

    Gu, Bon Kang; Park, Sang Jun; Kim, Min Sup; Lee, Yong Jin; Kim, Jong-Il; Kim, Chun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    To improve the hemostatic function of chitosan nanofiber mats, we studied the synergetic effects of gelatin blending and porosity control. Gelatin-blended-chitosan (Chi-Gel) nanofiber mats were evaluated with respect to surface morphology, mechanical properties and wettability, and functionally tested in a blood clotting study. The blood clotting efficiency of Chi-Gel nanofiber mats using rabbit whole blood in vitro was superior to that of chitosan nanofibers. Moreover, Chi-Gel nanofiber mats with enlarged porosity, produced by ultra-sonication, showed improved blood clotting efficiency, cell viability and cell infiltration compared with non-sonicated Chi-Gel nanofiber mats. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy revealed a richer density of platelets on sonicated nanofiber mats than on non-sonicated nanofiber mats after 3 min of blood clotting. The proliferation of human dermal fibroblast cells on sonicated Chi-Gel nanofiber mats using the DNA assay was higher than that on non-sonicated chitosan nanofiber mats after 7 days of culture. Confocal z-stack images showed that sonicated Chi-Gel nanofiber mats with high porosity supported active cell migration and infiltration into the 3-dimensional nanofiber mats. These results suggest that hydrophilic gelatin blending and sonication of chitosan nanofiber mats yields synergistic effects that not only improve hemostatic function but also promote wound repair.

  5. Users guide for ERB 7 MAT (including the first year quality control)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groveman, B.

    1984-01-01

    In the first section of this report background information for the use of the ERB-7 Master Archival Tapes (MAT) is provided. The second section gives details regarding the scientific validity and quality of the MAT. The MAT data analyzed covers the period from November 16, 1978 to October 31, 1979.

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of the Anti-Algal Marine Actinomycete Streptomyces sp. JS01

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huajun; Zhang, Su; Peng, Yun; Li, Yi; Chen, Zhangran; Zheng, Wei; Xu, Hong; Yu, Zhiming

    2014-01-01

    Streptomyces sp. JS01 is the producer of an anti-algal compound that shows inhibitory activity against a harmful algal species Phaeocystis globosa and can also produce a red pigment. Its genome sequence will allow for the characterization of the anti-algal compound and the molecular mechanisms underlying its beneficial properties. PMID:25477414

  7. Turbulence and nutrient interactions that control benthic algal production in an engineered cultivation raceway

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flow turbulence can be a controlling factor to the growth of benthic algae, but few studies have quantified this relationship in engineered cultivation systems. Experiments were performed to understand the limiting role of turbulence to algal productivity in an algal turf scrubber for benthic algal...

  8. Summative Mass Analysis of Algal Biomass - Integration of Analytical Procedures: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Laurens, L. M. L.

    2013-12-01

    This procedure guides the integration of laboratory analytical procedures to measure algal biomass constituents in an unambiguous manner and ultimately achieve mass balance closure for algal biomass samples. Many of these methods build on years of research in algal biomass analysis.

  9. Solar abundance of iridium

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Stephen; Aller, Lawrence H.

    1976-01-01

    By a method of spectrum synthesis, which yields log gfA, where g is the statistical weight of the lower level, f is the oscillator strength, and A is the abundance, an attempt is made to deduce the solar iridium abundance from one relatively unblended, but fairly weak IrI line, λ 3220.78 Å. If the Corliss-Bozman f-value for this line is adopted, we find log A(Ir) = 0.82 on the scale log A(H) = 12.00. The discordance with the value found from carbonaceous chondrites may arise from faulty f-values or from difficulties arising from line blending in this far ultraviolet domain of the solar spectrum. PMID:16578735

  10. Mechanism of Algal Aggregation by Bacillus sp. Strain RP1137

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Ryan J.

    2014-01-01

    Alga-derived biofuels are one of the best alternatives for economically replacing liquid fossil fuels with a fungible renewable energy source. Production of fuel from algae is technically feasible but not yet economically viable. Harvest of dilute algal biomass from the surrounding water remains one of the largest barriers to economic production of algal biofuel. We identified Bacillus sp. strain RP1137 in a previous study and showed that this strain can rapidly aggregate several biofuel-producing algae in a pH- and divalent-cation-dependent manner. In this study, we further characterized the mechanism of algal aggregation by RP1137. We show that aggregation of both algae and bacteria is optimal in the exponential phase of growth and that the density of ionizable residues on the RP1137 cell surface changes with growth stage. Aggregation likely occurs via charge neutralization with calcium ions at the cell surface of both algae and bacteria. We show that charge neutralization occurs at least in part through binding of calcium to negatively charged teichoic acid residues. The addition of calcium also renders both algae and bacteria more able to bind to hydrophobic beads, suggesting that aggregation may occur through hydrophobic interactions. Knowledge of the aggregation mechanism may enable engineering of RP1137 to obtain more efficient algal harvesting. PMID:24771029

  11. Biogenesis and biological function of marine algal oxylipins.

    PubMed

    Gerwick, W H; Roberts, M A; Vulpanovici, A; Ballantine, D L

    1999-01-01

    The biogenetic source of most marine algal oxylipins, which are many and of diverse structure, can logically be unified through a common lipoxygenase-derived hydroperoxide to epoxy allylic carbocation transformation. The biological role of oxylipins in algae remains an enigma, although numerous ideas have been put forth. Herein, we hypothesize and provide some evidence for an osmoregulatory role for these metabolites.

  12. Recent progress and future challenges in algal biofuel production

    PubMed Central

    Shurin, Jonathan B.; Burkart, Michael D.; Mayfield, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    Modern society is fueled by fossil energy produced millions of years ago by photosynthetic organisms. Cultivating contemporary photosynthetic producers to generate energy and capture carbon from the atmosphere is one potential approach to sustaining society without disrupting the climate. Algae, photosynthetic aquatic microorganisms, are the fastest growing primary producers in the world and can therefore produce more energy with less land, water, and nutrients than terrestrial plant crops. We review recent progress and challenges in developing bioenergy technology based on algae. A variety of high-value products in addition to biofuels can be harvested from algal biomass, and these may be key to developing algal biotechnology and realizing the commercial potential of these organisms. Aspects of algal biology that differentiate them from plants demand an integrative approach based on genetics, cell biology, ecology, and evolution. We call for a systems approach to research on algal biotechnology rooted in understanding their biology, from the level of genes to ecosystems, and integrating perspectives from physical, chemical, and social sciences to solve one of the most critical outstanding technological problems. PMID:27781084

  13. Development and optimization of biofilm based algal cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Martin Anthony

    This dissertation describes research done on biofilm based algal cultivation systems. The system that was developed in this work is the revolving algal biofilm cultivation system (RAB). A raceway-retrofit, and a trough-based pilot-scale RAB system were developed and investigated. Each of the systems significantly outperformed a control raceway pond in side-by-side tests. Furthermore the RAB system was found to require significantly less water than the raceway pond based cultivation system. Lastly a TEA/LCA analysis was conducted to evaluate the economic and life cycle of the RAB cultivation system in comparison to raceway pond. It was found that the RAB system was able to grow algae at a lower cost and was shown to be profitable at a smaller scale than the raceway pond style of algal cultivation. Additionally the RAB system was projected to have lower GHG emissions, and better energy and water use efficiencies in comparison to a raceway pond system. Furthermore, fundamental research was conducted to identify the optimal material for algae to attach on. A total of 28 materials with a smooth surface were tested for initial cell colonization and it was found that the tetradecane contact angle of the materials had a good correlation with cell attachment. The effects of surface texture were evaluated using mesh materials (nylon, polypropylene, high density polyethylene, polyester, aluminum, and stainless steel) with openings ranging from 0.05--6.40 mm. It was found that both surface texture and material composition influence algal attachment.

  14. Effects of solar ultraviolet radiation on tropical algal communities

    SciTech Connect

    Santas, R.

    1989-01-01

    This study assessed some of the effects of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation ion coral reef algal assemblages. The first part of the investigation was carried out under controlled laboratory conditions in the coral reef microcosm at the National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C., while a field counterpart was completed at the Smithsonian Institution's marine station on Grand Turk, Turks and Caicos Islands, in the eastern Caribbean. The study attempted to separate the effects of UV-A from those of UV-B. In the laboratory, algal turf assemblages exposed to simulated solar UV radiation produced 55.1% less biomass than assemblages that were not exposed to UV. Assemblages not exposed to UV were dominated by Ectocarpus rhodochondroides, whereas in the assemblage developing under high UV radiation, Enteromorpha prolifera and eventually Schizothrix calcicola dominated. Lower UV-B irradiances caused a proportional reduction in biomass production and had less pronounced effects on species composition. UV-A did not have any significant effects on either algal turf productivity or community structure. In the field, assemblages exposed to naturally occurring solar UV supported a biomass 40% lower than that of assemblages protected from UV-B exposure. Once again, UV-A did not inhibit algal turf productivity.

  15. Effects of marine algal toxins on thermoregulation in mice.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Christopher J; Ramsdell, John S

    2005-01-01

    Hypothermia is often seen in mice and rats exposed acutely to marine algal toxins, but the mechanism of action of these toxins on thermoregulation is not well understood. Our laboratory has assessed the thermoregulatory mechanisms of two marine algal toxins, maitotoxin and brevetoxin in the mouse. Radiotelemetry was used to measure core temperature in the unrestrained mouse while it was housed in a temperature gradient allowing the exhibition of thermoregulatory behavior. Both maitotoxin (338 ng/kg) and brevetoxin (180 microg/kg) were shown to elicit profound hypothermic responses accompanied by a preference for cooler ambient temperatures in the gradient. This behavioral response would suggest that the toxins alter the central neural control of body temperature, resulting in a regulated reduction in body temperature. Following recovery from the acute hypothermic effects of brevetoxin, mice developed an elevation in their daytime core temperature that persisted for several days after exposure. This fever-like response may represent a delayed toxicological effect of the marine algal toxins that is manifested through the thermoregulatory system. Overall, algal toxins have acute and delayed effects on temperature regulation in the mouse. A better understanding of the mechanisms of action of the toxins on thermoregulation should lead to improved methods for treating victims of ciguatera and other toxin exposures. PMID:16111859

  16. Biotransport of Algal Toxins to Riparian Food Webs.

    PubMed

    Moy, Nicholas J; Dodson, Jenna; Tassone, Spencer J; Bukaveckas, Paul A; Bulluck, Lesley P

    2016-09-20

    The occurrence of harmful algal blooms has resulted in growing worldwide concern about threats to aquatic life and human health. Microcystin (MC), a cyanotoxin, is the most widely reported algal toxin in freshwaters. Prior studies have documented its presence in aquatic food webs including commercially important fish and shellfish. In this paper we present the first evidence that algal toxins propagate into riparian food webs. We show that MC is present in emerging aquatic insects (Hexagenia mayflies) from the James River Estuary and their consumers (Tetragnathidae spiders and Prothonotary Warblers, Protonotaria citrea). MC levels in Prothonotary Warblers varied by age class, with nestlings having the highest levels. At the site where nestlings received a higher proportion of aquatic prey (i.e., mayflies) in their diet, we observed higher MC concentrations in liver tissue and fecal matter. Warbler body condition and growth rate were not related to liver MC levels, suggesting that aquatic prey may provide dietary benefits that offset potential deleterious effects of the toxin. This study provides evidence that threats posed by algal toxins extend beyond the aquatic environments in which blooms occur.

  17. Autonomous benthic algal cultivator under feedback control of ecosystem metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An autonomous and internally-controlled techno-ecological hybrid was developed that controls primary production of algae in a laboratory-scale cultivator. The technoecosystem is based on an algal turf scrubber (ATS) system that combines engineered feedback control programming with internal feedback...

  18. Studies of the effect of gibberellic acid on algal growth.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, W. K.; Sorokin, C.

    1971-01-01

    The effect of gibberellic acid on exponential growth rate of four strains of Chlorella was investigated under variety of experimental conditions. In concentrations from 10 ppm to 100 ppm, gibberellic acid was shown to have no effect on Chlorella growth. In concentration of 200 ppm, gibberellic acid exerted some unfavorable effect on algal growth.

  19. Harmful Algal Blooms and Drinking Water Treatment Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has been conducting algal bloom research at multiple facilities around Lake Erie over the past few years to help communities confront the challenge of keeping cyanobacterial toxins from reaching consumers’ taps, while minimizing the financial burden. The first goal of this re...

  20. Biotransport of Algal Toxins to Riparian Food Webs.

    PubMed

    Moy, Nicholas J; Dodson, Jenna; Tassone, Spencer J; Bukaveckas, Paul A; Bulluck, Lesley P

    2016-09-20

    The occurrence of harmful algal blooms has resulted in growing worldwide concern about threats to aquatic life and human health. Microcystin (MC), a cyanotoxin, is the most widely reported algal toxin in freshwaters. Prior studies have documented its presence in aquatic food webs including commercially important fish and shellfish. In this paper we present the first evidence that algal toxins propagate into riparian food webs. We show that MC is present in emerging aquatic insects (Hexagenia mayflies) from the James River Estuary and their consumers (Tetragnathidae spiders and Prothonotary Warblers, Protonotaria citrea). MC levels in Prothonotary Warblers varied by age class, with nestlings having the highest levels. At the site where nestlings received a higher proportion of aquatic prey (i.e., mayflies) in their diet, we observed higher MC concentrations in liver tissue and fecal matter. Warbler body condition and growth rate were not related to liver MC levels, suggesting that aquatic prey may provide dietary benefits that offset potential deleterious effects of the toxin. This study provides evidence that threats posed by algal toxins extend beyond the aquatic environments in which blooms occur. PMID:27552323

  1. Numerical simulation of an algal bloom in Dianshan Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yizhong; Lin, Weiqing; Zhu, Jianrong; Lu, Shiqiang

    2016-01-01

    A hydrodynamic model and an aquatic ecology model of Dianshan Lake, Shanghai, were built using a hydrodynamic simulation module and the water quality simulation module of Delft3D, which is an integrated modelling suite offered by Deltares. The simulated water elevation, current velocity, and direction were validated with observed data to ensure the reliability of hydrodynamic model. The seasonal growth of different algae was analyzed with consideration of observed and historical data, as well as simulated results. In 2008, the dominant algae in Dianshan Lake was Bacillariophyta from February to March, while it was Chlorophyta from April to May, and Cyanophyta from July to August. In summer, the biomass of Cyanophyta grew quickly, reaching levels much higher than the peaks of Bacillariophyta and Chlorophyta. Algae blooms primarily occurred in the stagnation regions. This phenomenon indicates that water residence time can influence algal growth significantly. A longer water residence time was associated with higher algal growth. Two conclusions were drawn from several simulations: reducing the nutrients inflow had little effect on algal blooms in Dianshan Lake; however, increasing the discharge into Dianshan Lake could change the flow field characteristic and narrow the range of stagnation regions, resulting in inhibition of algal aggregation and propagation and a subsequent reduction in areas of high concentration algae.

  2. Importance of Vascular Plant and Algal Production to Macro-invertebrate Consumers in a Southern California Salt Marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, H. M.

    1997-12-01

    The dietary importance of marsh vascular plants (primarilySalicornia virginica), algae and upland particulate inputs to macro-invertebrate consumers was studied in Carpinteria Salt Marsh, southern California, using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. This marsh is predominantly a marine or hypersaline system and succulents are the most common vascular plant species. Of invertebrates collected from the vegetated marsh, tidal flats and channels, only detritivores from the vegetated marsh (Traskorchestia traskiana,Melampus olivaceus) had isotope values (δ13C=-20‰) that suggested some use ofSalicornia-derived carbon.T. traskianacultured in the laboratory on decomposingS. virginicaor blue-green micro-algal mat had distinctive isotopic signatures, reflecting the capability of this consumer to assimilate carbon and nitrogen derived from these sources. The δ13C values (generally -16‰ to -15‰) of species from tidal flats and channels (e.g.Cerithidea californica,Protothaca staminea,Mytilus galloprovincialis,Neotrypaea californiensis) were most similar to values for benthic algae and phytoplankton. Specimens ofM. galloprovincialisalong a gradient of presumed increase in marine influence had similar isotope values, suggesting little contribution to diet from upland runoff. The present results differ most noticeably from published values in the13C enrichment of suspension-feeders, suggesting the use of resuspended13C-enriched benthic microalgae in tidal channels by these consumers, and in the13C depletion and15N enrichment of plants and consumers along a portion of the marsh boundary receiving inputs of nutrient-enriched perched groundwater. In general, the isotopic composition of macro-invertebrates indicated the incorporation of algal production rather than ofS. virginicaor upland sources into the marsh food web.

  3. Phototrophic biofilm assembly in microbial-mat-derived unicyanobacterial consortia: model systems for the study of autotroph-heterotroph interactions

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Jessica K.; Hutchison, Janine R.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Kim, Young-Mo; Chrisler, William B.; Engelmann, Heather E.; Dohnalkova, Alice C.; Hu, Dehong; Metz, Thomas O.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Lindemann, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial autotroph-heterotroph interactions influence biogeochemical cycles on a global scale, but the diversity and complexity of natural systems and their intractability to in situ manipulation make it challenging to elucidate the principles governing these interactions. The study of assembling phototrophic biofilm communities provides a robust means to identify such interactions and evaluate their contributions to the recruitment and maintenance of phylogenetic and functional diversity over time. To examine primary succession in phototrophic communities, we isolated two unicyanobacterial consortia from the microbial mat in Hot Lake, Washington, characterizing the membership and metabolic function of each consortium. We then analyzed the spatial structures and quantified the community compositions of their assembling biofilms. The consortia retained the same suite of heterotrophic species, identified as abundant members of the mat and assigned to Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. Autotroph growth rates dominated early in assembly, yielding to increasing heterotroph growth rates late in succession. The two consortia exhibited similar assembly patterns, with increasing relative abundances of members from Bacteroidetes and Alphaproteobacteria concurrent with decreasing relative abundances of those from Gammaproteobacteria. Despite these similarities at higher taxonomic levels, the relative abundances of individual heterotrophic species were substantially different in the developing consortial biofilms. This suggests that, although similar niches are created by the cyanobacterial metabolisms, the resulting webs of autotroph-heterotroph and heterotroph-heterotroph interactions are specific to each primary producer. The relative simplicity and tractability of the Hot Lake unicyanobacterial consortia make them useful model systems for deciphering interspecies interactions and assembly principles relevant to natural microbial communities. PMID

  4. Phototrophic biofilm assembly in microbial-mat-derived unicyanobacterial consortia: model systems for the study of autotroph-heterotroph interactions.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jessica K; Hutchison, Janine R; Renslow, Ryan S; Kim, Young-Mo; Chrisler, William B; Engelmann, Heather E; Dohnalkova, Alice C; Hu, Dehong; Metz, Thomas O; Fredrickson, Jim K; Lindemann, Stephen R

    2014-01-01

    Microbial autotroph-heterotroph interactions influence biogeochemical cycles on a global scale, but the diversity and complexity of natural systems and their intractability to in situ manipulation make it challenging to elucidate the principles governing these interactions. The study of assembling phototrophic biofilm communities provides a robust means to identify such interactions and evaluate their contributions to the recruitment and maintenance of phylogenetic and functional diversity over time. To examine primary succession in phototrophic communities, we isolated two unicyanobacterial consortia from the microbial mat in Hot Lake, Washington, characterizing the membership and metabolic function of each consortium. We then analyzed the spatial structures and quantified the community compositions of their assembling biofilms. The consortia retained the same suite of heterotrophic species, identified as abundant members of the mat and assigned to Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. Autotroph growth rates dominated early in assembly, yielding to increasing heterotroph growth rates late in succession. The two consortia exhibited similar assembly patterns, with increasing relative abundances of members from Bacteroidetes and Alphaproteobacteria concurrent with decreasing relative abundances of those from Gammaproteobacteria. Despite these similarities at higher taxonomic levels, the relative abundances of individual heterotrophic species were substantially different in the developing consortial biofilms. This suggests that, although similar niches are created by the cyanobacterial metabolisms, the resulting webs of autotroph-heterotroph and heterotroph-heterotroph interactions are specific to each primary producer. The relative simplicity and tractability of the Hot Lake unicyanobacterial consortia make them useful model systems for deciphering interspecies interactions and assembly principles relevant to natural microbial communities.

  5. Fast releasing oral electrospun PVP/CD nanofiber mats of taste-masked meloxicam.

    PubMed

    Samprasit, Wipada; Akkaramongkolporn, Prasert; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Kaomongkolgit, Ruchadaporn; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2015-06-20

    Fast release and taste masking of meloxicam (MX)-loaded polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/cyclodextrin (CD) nanofiber mats were developed using an electrospinning process. CDs were blended to improve the stability of the mats. The morphology and diameter of the mats were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM); physical and mechanical properties were also studied. The MX content, disintegration time, MX release and cytotoxicity of the mats were investigated. In vivo studies were also performed in healthy human volunteers. The results indicated that the mats were successfully prepared with fiber in the nanometer range. MX was well incorporated into the mats, with an amorphous form. The mats showed suitable tensile strength. CDs improved the physical stability by their cage-like supramolecular structure to protect from humidity and moisture, and create bead free nanofiber mats. The nanofiber mats with CDs were physically stable without any hygroscopicity and fusion. A fast disintegration and release of MX was achieved. Moreover, this mat released MX faster than the MX powder and commercial tablets. The cytotoxicity test revealed that mats were safe for a 5-min incubation. The disintegration studies indicated that in vivo disintegration agreed with the in vitro studies; the mat rapidly disintegrated in the mouth. The less bitter of MX was occurred in the mats that incorporated CD, menthol and aspartame. In addition, this mat was physical stable for 6 months. The results suggest that these mats may be a good candidate for fast dissolving drug delivery systems of bitter drugs to increase the palatability of dosage forms. PMID:25899284

  6. Temporal metatranscriptomic patterning in phototrophic Chloroflexi inhabiting a microbial mat in a geothermal spring.

    PubMed

    Klatt, Christian G; Liu, Zhenfeng; Ludwig, Marcus; Kühl, Michael; Jensen, Sheila I; Bryant, Donald A; Ward, David M

    2013-09-01

    Filamentous anoxygenic phototrophs (FAPs) are abundant members of microbial mat communities inhabiting neutral and alkaline geothermal springs. Natural populations of FAPs related to Chloroflexus spp. and Roseiflexus spp. have been well characterized in Mushroom Spring, where they occur with unicellular cyanobacteria related to Synechococcus spp. strains A and B'. Metatranscriptomic sequencing was applied to the microbial community to determine how FAPs regulate their gene expression in response to fluctuating environmental conditions and resource availability over a diel period. Transcripts for genes involved in the biosynthesis of bacteriochlorophylls (BChls) and photosynthetic reaction centers were much more abundant at night. Both Roseiflexus spp. and Chloroflexus spp. expressed key genes involved in the 3-hydroxypropionate (3-OHP) carbon dioxide fixation bi-cycle during the day, when these FAPs have been thought to perform primarily photoheterotrophic and/or aerobic chemoorganotrophic metabolism. The expression of genes for the synthesis and degradation of storage polymers, including glycogen, polyhydroxyalkanoates and wax esters, suggests that FAPs produce and utilize these compounds at different times during the diel cycle. We summarize these results in a proposed conceptual model for temporal changes in central carbon metabolism and energy production of FAPs living in a natural environment. The model proposes that, at night, Chloroflexus spp. and Roseiflexus spp. synthesize BChl, components of the photosynthetic apparatus, polyhydroxyalkanoates and wax esters in concert with fermentation of glycogen. It further proposes that, in daytime, polyhydroxyalkanoates and wax esters are degraded and used as carbon and electron reserves to support photomixotrophy via the 3-OHP bi-cycle.

  7. Symbiont physiology and population dynamics before and during symbiont shifts in a flexible algal-cnidarian symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Dimond, James L; Bingham, Brian L; le Muller-Parker, Gisè; Oakley, Clinton A

    2013-12-01

    For cnidarians that can undergo shifts in algal symbiont relative abundance, the underlying algal physiological changes that accompany these shifts are not well known. The sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima associates with the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium muscatinei and the chlorophyte Elliptochloris marina, symbionts with very different tolerances to light and temperature. We compared the performance of these symbionts in anemones maintained in an 8-11.5 month outdoor common garden experiment with simulated intertidal conditions and three levels of shading (2, 43, and 85% ambient irradiance). Symbiont densities, mitotic indices, photophysiology and pigments were assessed at three time points during the summer, a period of high irradiance and solar heating during aerial exposure. Whereas S. muscatinei was either neutrally or positively affected by higher irradiance treatments, E. marina responded mostly negatively to high irradiance. E. marina in the 85% irradiance treatment exhibited significantly reduced Pmax and chlorophyll early in the summer, but it was not until nearly 3 months later that a shift in symbiont relative abundance toward S. muscatinei occurred, coincident with bleaching. Symbiont densities and proportions remained largely stable in all other treatments over time, and displacement of S. muscatinei by E. marina was not observed in the 2% irradiance treatment despite the potentially better performance of E. marina. While our results support the view that rapid changes in symbiont relative abundance are typically associated with symbiont physiological dysfunction and bleaching, they also show that significant temporal lags may occur between the onset of symbiont stress and shifts in symbiont relative abundances. PMID:27007628

  8. Microbial-algal community changes during the latest Permian ecological crisis: Evidence from lipid biomarkers at Cili, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Genming; Wang, Yongbiao; Grice, Kliti; Kershaw, Steve; Algeo, Thomas J.; Ruan, Xiaoyan; Yang, Hao; Jia, Chengling; Xie, Shucheng

    2013-06-01

    Microbialites flourished globally immediately following the latest Permian mass extinction. In this study, lipid biomarker records were analyzed in the Cili section (Hunan Province, South China) in order to determine the types of microbes involved in microbialite formation and their response to contemporaneous environmental changes. Various biomarkers were identified in the aliphatic and aromatic fractions using gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Low abundance of steranes in the microbialite layer suggests that it did not contain large amounts of algae, in striking contrast to the abundant algal fossils and algal-derived steranes present in the underlying (pre-crisis) skeletal limestone. Although pristine/phytane (Pr/Ph) ratios increased in the microbialite layer, covariation of Pr/Ph with the ratio of low- to high-molecular-weight n-alkanes (C20 -/C20 +) suggests that the former proxy was controlled by microbial (particularly cyanobacterial) inputs rather than by redox conditions. The microbialite also yielded low ratios of hopanes to short-chain n-alkanes (HP/Lalk) and high abundances of C21n-alkylcyclohexane, indicating that, in addition to cyanobacteria, anaerobic bacteria, archaea, and possibly acritarchs flourished in the aftermath of the marine extinction event. The upper part of the thinly bedded micritic limestone overlying the microbialite exhibits a bimodal distribution of n-alkanes as well as increased abundances of extended tricyclic terpanes and steranes, suggesting a return of habitable shallow-marine conditions for eukaryotic algae several hundred thousand years after the latest Permian mass extinction. Increases in the dibenzofuran ratio (i.e., DBF/(DBF + DBT + F)) and in the coronene to phenanthrene ratio (Cor/P) in the skeletal limestone immediately below the microbialite are evidence of enhanced soil erosion rates and wildfire intensity, marking the collapse of terrestrial ecosystems. The terrestrial crisis thus slightly

  9. Nitrification-driven forms of nitrogen metabolism in microbial mat communities thriving along an ammonium-enriched subsurface geothermal stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, Manabu; Koba, Keisuke; Makabe, Akiko; Yoshida, Naohiro; Kaneko, Masanori; Hirao, Shingo; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Yamanaka, Toshiro; Shibuya, Takazo; Kikuchi, Tohru; Hirai, Miho; Miyazaki, Junichi; Nunoura, Takuro; Takai, Ken

    2013-07-01

    We report here the concurrence and interaction among forms of nitrogen metabolism in thermophilic microbial mat communities that developed in an ammonium-abundant subsurface geothermal stream. First, the physical and chemical conditions of the stream water at several representative microbial mat habitats (including upper, middle and downstream sites) were characterized. A thermodynamic calculation using these physical and chemical conditions predicted that nitrification consisting of ammonia and nitrite oxidations would provide one of the largest energy yields of chemolithotrophic metabolisms. Second, near-complete prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene clone analysis was conducted for representative microbial mat communities at the upper, middle and downstream sites. The results indicated a dynamic shift in the 16S rRNA gene phylotype composition through physical and chemical variations of the stream water. The predominant prokaryotic components varied from phylotypes related to hydrogeno (H2)- and thio (S)-trophic Aquificales, thermophilic methanotrophs and putative ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) located upstream (72 °C) to the phylotypes affiliated with putative AOA and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) located at the middle and downstream sites (65 and 57 °C, respectively). In addition, the potential in situ metabolic activities of different forms of nitrogen metabolism were estimated through laboratory experiments using bulk microbial mat communities. Finally, the compositional and isotopic variation in nitrogen compounds was investigated in the stream water flowing over the microbial mats and in the interstitial water inside the mats. Although the stream water was characterized by a gradual decrease in the total ammonia concentration (ΣNH3: the sum of ammonia and ammonium concentrations) and a gradual increase in the total concentration of nitrite and nitrate (NO2- + NO3-), the total inorganic nitrogen concentration (TIN: the sum of ΣNH3, NO2- and NO3- concentrations

  10. Changes in marine dinoflagellate and diatom abundance under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinder, Stephanie L.; Hays, Graeme C.; Edwards, Martin; Roberts, Emily C.; Walne, Anthony W.; Gravenor, Mike B.

    2012-04-01

    Marine diatoms and dinoflagellates play a variety of key ecosystem roles as important primary producers (diatoms and some dinoflagellates) and grazers (some dinoflagellates). Additionally some are harmful algal bloom (HAB) species and there is widespread concern that HAB species may be increasing accompanied by major negative socio-economic impacts, including threats to human health and marine harvesting. Using 92,263 samples from the Continuous Plankton Recorder survey, we generated a 50-year (1960-2009) time series of diatom and dinoflagellate occurrence in the northeast Atlantic and North Sea. Dinoflagellates, including both HAB taxa (for example, Prorocentrum spp.) and non-HAB taxa (for example, Ceratium furca), have declined in abundance, particularly since 2006. In contrast, diatom abundance has not shown this decline with some common diatoms, including both HAB (for example, Pseudo-nitzschia spp.) and non-HAB (for example, Thalassiosira spp.) taxa, increasing in abundance. Overall these changes have led to a marked increase in the relative abundance of diatoms versus dinoflagellates. Our analyses, including Granger tests to identify criteria of causality, indicate that this switch is driven by an interaction effect of both increasing sea surface temperatures combined with increasingly windy conditions in summer.

  11. DNA Analysis of Algal Endosymbionts of Ciliates Reveals the State of Algal Integration and the Surprising Specificity of the Symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Hoshina, Ryo; Kusuoka, Yasushi

    2016-04-01

    Many freshwater protists harbor unicellular green algae within their cells, but little is known of their degree of integration and specificity. Using algae-targeted PCR of whole ciliate cells collected at irregular intervals over 15 months from Lake Biwa, Japan, we explored the SSU-ITS rDNA of the endosymbiotic algae and its changes over time, obtaining sequences of algal rDNA fragments from four ciliate species. A high proportion of clonal algae was evident within the ciliate cells. The differences observed in those sequences from the SSU through to the ITS region were less than 1%. The name 'Chlorb' is proposed for these algae, with the implication that they represent a single 'species.' The sequences of the algal DNA fragments were identical for any given host species throughout the collection period, thus we conclude that these four ciliates stably retain their algae over long term. In contrast, algal DNA fragments obtained from Didinium sp. were variable within each sample, which indicates that this ciliate only temporarily holds its algal cells. The ITS1 sequences of Chlorb populations are close (at intraspecific level) to those of algae isolated from ciliates in Austria, which raises the possibility that Chlorb algae are universally shared as symbionts among various ciliates.

  12. An overview of the interagency, International Symposium on Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (ISOC-HAB): advancing the scientific understanding of freshwater harmful algal blooms.

    PubMed

    Hudnell, H Kenneth; Dortch, Quay; Zenick, Harold

    2008-01-01

    There is growing evidence that the spatial and temporal incidence of harmful algal blooms is increasing, posing potential risks to human health and ecosystem sustainability. Currently there are no US Federal guidelines, Water Quality Criteria and Standards, or regulations concerning the management of harmful algal blooms. Algal blooms in freshwater are predominantly cyanobacteria, some of which produce highly potent cyanotoxins. The US Congress mandated a Scientific Assessment of Freshwater Harmful Algal Blooms in the 2004 reauthorization of the Harmful Algal Blooms and Hypoxia Research and Control Act. To further the scientific understanding of freshwater harmful algal blooms, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established an interagency committee to organize the Interagency, International Symposium on Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (ISOC-HAB). A theoretical framework to define scientific issues and a systems approach to implement the assessment and management of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms were developed as organizing themes for the symposium. Seven major topic areas and 23 subtopics were addressed in Workgroups and platform sessions during the symposium. The primary charge given to platform presenters was to describe the state of the science in the subtopic areas, whereas the Workgroups were charged with identifying research that could be accomplished in the short- and long-term to reduce scientific uncertainties. The proceedings of the symposium, published in this monograph, are intended to inform policy determinations and the mandated Scientific Assessment by describing the scientific knowledge and areas of uncertainty concerning freshwater harmful algal blooms.

  13. Abundance of field galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klypin, Anatoly; Karachentsev, Igor; Makarov, Dmitry; Nasonova, Olga

    2015-12-01

    We present new measurements of the abundance of galaxies with a given circular velocity in the Local Volume: a region centred on the Milky Way Galaxy and extending to distance ˜10 Mpc. The sample of ˜750 mostly dwarf galaxies provides a unique opportunity to study the abundance and properties of galaxies down to absolute magnitudes MB ≈ -10 and virial masses M_vir= 109{ M_{⊙}}. We find that the standard Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model gives remarkably accurate estimates for the velocity function of galaxies with circular velocities V ≳ 70 kms-1 and corresponding virial masses M_vir≳ 5× 10^{10}{ M_{⊙}}, but it badly fails by overpredicting ˜5 times the abundance of large dwarfs with velocities V = 30-40 kms-1. The warm dark matter (WDM) models cannot explain the data either, regardless of mass of WDM particle. Just as in previous observational studies, we find a shallow asymptotic slope dN/dlog V ∝ Vα, α ≈ -1 of the velocity function, which is inconsistent with the standard ΛCDM model that predicts the slope α = -3. Though reminiscent to the known overabundance of satellite problem, the overabundance of field galaxies is a much more difficult problem. For the standard ΛCDM model to survive, in the 10 Mpc radius of the Milky Way there should be 1000 not yet detected galaxies with virial mass M_vir≈ 10^{10}{ M_{⊙}}, extremely low surface brightness and no detectable H I gas. So far none of this type of galaxies have been discovered.

  14. Significance of botryoidal aragonite in early diagenetic history of phylloid algal mounds in Bug and Papoose Canyon fields, southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Roylance, M.H.

    1984-04-01

    Abundant altered botryoidal aragonite cement is recognized both in core slabs and thin sections from phylloid algal-mound facies in the Desert Creek interval of the Paradox Formation in the Papoose Canyon-Bug field area. This subsequently dolomitized cement occurs as individual to coalescing botryoids, which appear in cross section as rounded feather-edge fans composed of radiating crystals. Botryoids locally comprise up to 90% of any given section of core. The botryoids are similar in appearance to Holocene botryoidal aragonite cement. However, it is deduced that, unlike modern counterparts, these botryoids grew both on the sea floor as well as within open cavities within the mound framework. The diagenetic history of the mounds in the Papoose Canyon-Bug field area was initiated with precipitation of botryoidal aragonite cement penecontemporaneously with deposition of phylloid algal plates, creating rigid anastomosing frameworks containing abundant primary porosity. When compacted, these mounds were brecciated, thus opening up more porosity. Some of the porosity was subsequently infilled by internal sediment and calcite and gypsum cements. Finally, these mounds were extensively dolomitized, and some secondary porosity was created by leaching. The fundamental significance of botryoidal aragonite at Papoose Canyon and Bug fields is that it helped to create and preserve very porous and permeable phylloid algal mounds by contributing to the formation of a rigid framework containing primary porosity, and by cementing the mounds early so that they became brecciated upon compaction. The preserved pores were ultimately filled with oil.

  15. Growth of a mat-forming photograph in the presence of UV radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Beverly K.; Ruff, A. L.

    1989-01-01

    Knowledge of the survival and growth of microorganisms in the presence of ultraviolet radiation is important for understanding the potential for life to exist in environments exposed to high fluxes of UV radiation. The growth of a mat-forming phototrophic prokaryote, Chloroflexus aurantiacus, was examined in the presence of continuous high UV irradiation under otherwise optimal growth conditions. Evidence was sought for an intrinsic ability to grow in the presence of UV radiation in a carefully chosen organism known to be unusually resistant to UV radiation, of ancient lineage among the phototrophs, to resemble ancient microfossils from the Precambrian, and to be a mat-former. It was assumed that even a high intrinsic UV resistance would be inadequate for survival and growth in the presence of very high UV fluxes, and iron (Fe3+) was selected as a common, abundant UV-absorbing substance that might protest microorganisms growing in or under iron-bearing sediments. The effectiveness of Fe(3+) was tested as a UV protective agent at low concentrations in thin layers. It was concluded that intrinsic UV resistance in some organisms may account for growth, not just survival, of these organisms when exposed to high UV fluxes under otherwise optimal growth conditions in an anoxic environment. It was also concluded that Fe(3+) bearing sediments of 1 mm or less in thickness may provide an adequate shield against high UV fluxes permitting the growth of microorganisms just below their surface. As long as growth conditions were met, then the evolution and development of microorganisms would not be hampered by high UV fluxes impinging upon the surface of iron-bearing sediments.

  16. Late embryogenesis abundant proteins

    PubMed Central

    Olvera-Carrillo, Yadira; Reyes, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins accumulate at the onset of seed desiccation and in response to water deficit in vegetative plant tissues. The typical LEA proteins are highly hydrophilic and intrinsically unstructured. They have been classified in different families, each one showing distinctive conserved motifs. In this manuscript we present and discuss some of the recent findings regarding their role in plant adaptation to water deficit, as well as those concerning to their possible function, and how it can be related to their intrinsic structural flexibility. PMID:21447997

  17. Application of materials database (MAT.DB.) to materials education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Ping; Waskom, Tommy L.

    1994-01-01

    Finding the right material for the job is an important aspect of engineering. Sometimes the choice is as fundamental as selecting between steel and aluminum. Other times, the choice may be between different compositions in an alloy. Discovering and compiling materials data is a demanding task, but it leads to accurate models for analysis and successful materials application. Mat. DB. is a database management system designed for maintaining information on the properties and processing of engineered materials, including metals, plastics, composites, and ceramics. It was developed by the Center for Materials Data of American Society for Metals (ASM) International. The ASM Center for Materials Data collects and reviews material property data for publication in books, reports, and electronic database. Mat. DB was developed to aid the data management and material applications.

  18. MatSeis developer's guide:version 1.0.

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, Lane Christopher; Young, Christopher John

    2007-05-01

    This guide is intended to enable researchers working with seismic data, but lacking backgrounds in computer science and programming, to develop seismic algorithms using the MATLAB-based MatSeis software. Specifically, it presents a series of step-by-step instructions to write four specific functions of increasing complexity, while simultaneously explaining the notation, syntax, and general program design of the functions being written. The ultimate goal is that that the user can use this guide as a jumping off point from which he or she can write new functions that are compatible with and expand the capabilities of the current MatSeis software that has been developed as part of the Ground-based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering (GNEMRE) program at Sandia National Laboratories.

  19. MatSeis: A Seismic toolbox for MATLAB

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.M.; Young, C.J.

    1996-08-01

    To support the signal processing and data visualization needs of CTBT related projects at SNL, a MATLAB based GUI was developed. This program is known as MatSeis. MatSeis was developed quickly using the available MATLAB functionality. It provides a time-distance profile plot integrating origin, waveform, travel-time, and arrival data. Graphical plot controls, data manipulation, and signal processing functions provide a user friendly seismic analysis package. In addition, the full power of MATLAB (the premier tool for general numeric processing and visualization) is available for prototyping new functions by end users. This package is being made available to the seismic community in the hope that it will aid CTBT research and will facilitate cooperative signal processing development. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of MAT1 gene in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Fu, M J; Zhao, C; Bao, W Y; Zhou, F L; Yang, Q B; Jiang, S G; Qiu, L H

    2016-01-01

    MAT1 (ménage à trois 1), an assembly factor and targeting subunit of the CDK-dependent kinase (CAK), can regulate the cell cycle, transcription, and DNA repair. This study was intended to investigate the role of MAT1 in the reproductive maturation of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). In this study, the P. monodon MAT1 (PmMAT1) gene was identified and characterized. The full-length cDNA of PmMAT1 was 1490 bp in length with an open-reading frame of 993 bp corresponding to 330 amino acids. The temporal expression of PmMAT1 in various tissues was measured by quantitative real-time PCR with the highest expression observed in ovaries. In the ovaries, the PmMAT1 gene was continuously but differentially expressed during the maturation stages. Comparative analyses of MAT1, CDK7, and cyclin H in the CAK complex of P. monodon indicated that the expression of CDK7 and cyclin H coincided with that of MAT1 during the ovary maturation stages. Serotonin (5-HT) injection promoted the expression level of PmMAT1 in the ovaries of shrimp at 6-48 h post-injection. These results indicate that PmMat1 plays a prominent role in the process of ovarian maturation. PMID:26909956

  1. Electrospun chitosan-based nanofiber mats loaded with Garcinia mangostana extracts.

    PubMed

    Charernsriwilaiwat, Natthan; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Sukma, Monrudee; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2013-08-16

    The aim of this study was to prepare electrospun chitosan-based nanofiber mats and to incorporate the fruit hull of Garcinia mangostana (GM) extracts into the mats. Chitosan-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid/polyvinyl alcohol (CS-EDTA/PVA) was selected as the polymers. The GM extracts with 1, 2 and 3 wt% α-mangostin were incorporated into the CS-EDTA/PVA solution and electrospun to obtain nanofibers. The morphology and diameters of the mats were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical and swelling properties were investigated. The amount of GM extracts was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The antioxidative activity, antibacterial activity, extract release and stability of the mats were evaluated. In vivo wound healing tests were also performed in Wistar rats. The results indicated that the diameters of the fibers were on the nanoscale and that no crystals of the extract were observed in the mats at any concentration. The mats provided suitable tensile strength and swelling properties. All of the mats exhibited antioxidant and antibacterial activity. During the wound healing test, the mats accelerated the rate of healing when compared to the control (gauze-covered). The mats maintained 90% of their content of α-mangostin for 3 months. In conclusion, the chitosan-based nanofiber mats loaded with GM extracts were successfully prepared using the electrospinning method. These nanofiber mats loaded with GM extracts may provide a good alternative for accelerating wound healing.

  2. Electrospun chitosan-based nanofiber mats loaded with Garcinia mangostana extracts.

    PubMed

    Charernsriwilaiwat, Natthan; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Sukma, Monrudee; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2013-08-16

    The aim of this study was to prepare electrospun chitosan-based nanofiber mats and to incorporate the fruit hull of Garcinia mangostana (GM) extracts into the mats. Chitosan-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid/polyvinyl alcohol (CS-EDTA/PVA) was selected as the polymers. The GM extracts with 1, 2 and 3 wt% α-mangostin were incorporated into the CS-EDTA/PVA solution and electrospun to obtain nanofibers. The morphology and diameters of the mats were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical and swelling properties were investigated. The amount of GM extracts was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The antioxidative activity, antibacterial activity, extract release and stability of the mats were evaluated. In vivo wound healing tests were also performed in Wistar rats. The results indicated that the diameters of the fibers were on the nanoscale and that no crystals of the extract were observed in the mats at any concentration. The mats provided suitable tensile strength and swelling properties. All of the mats exhibited antioxidant and antibacterial activity. During the wound healing test, the mats accelerated the rate of healing when compared to the control (gauze-covered). The mats maintained 90% of their content of α-mangostin for 3 months. In conclusion, the chitosan-based nanofiber mats loaded with GM extracts were successfully prepared using the electrospinning method. These nanofiber mats loaded with GM extracts may provide a good alternative for accelerating wound healing. PMID:23680732

  3. Biogeochemical cycles of carbon, sulfur, and free oxygen in a microbial mat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, Donald E.; Des Marais, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Complete budgets for carbon and oxygen have been constructed for cyanobacterial mats dominated by Microcoleus chthonoplastes from the evaporating ponds of a salt works. We infer from the data the various sinks for O2 as well as the sources of carbon for primary production. Although seasonal variability exists, a major percentage of the O2 produced during the day did not diffuse out of the mat but was used within the mat to oxidize both organic carbon and the sulfide produced by sulfate reduction. At night, most of the O2 that diffused into the mat was used to oxidize sulfide, with O2 respiration of minor importance. During the day, the internal mat processes of sulfate reduction and O2 respiration generated as much or more inorganic carbon (DIC) for primary production as diffusion into the mat. Oxygenic photosynthesis was the most important process of carbon fixation. At night, the DIC lost from the mat was mostly from sulfate reduction. Elemental fluxes across the mat/brine interface indicated that carbon with an oxidation state of greater than zero was taken up by the mat during the day and liberated from the mat at night. Overall, carbon with an average oxidation state of near zero accumulated in the mat. Both carbon fixation and carbon oxidation rates varied with temperature by a similar amount.

  4. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of MAT1 gene in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Fu, M J; Zhao, C; Bao, W Y; Zhou, F L; Yang, Q B; Jiang, S G; Qiu, L H

    2016-01-01

    MAT1 (ménage à trois 1), an assembly factor and targeting subunit of the CDK-dependent kinase (CAK), can regulate the cell cycle, transcription, and DNA repair. This study was intended to investigate the role of MAT1 in the reproductive maturation of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). In this study, the P. monodon MAT1 (PmMAT1) gene was identified and characterized. The full-length cDNA of PmMAT1 was 1490 bp in length with an open-reading frame of 993 bp corresponding to 330 amino acids. The temporal expression of PmMAT1 in various tissues was measured by quantitative real-time PCR with the highest expression observed in ovaries. In the ovaries, the PmMAT1 gene was continuously but differentially expressed during the maturation stages. Comparative analyses of MAT1, CDK7, and cyclin H in the CAK complex of P. monodon indicated that the expression of CDK7 and cyclin H coincided with that of MAT1 during the ovary maturation stages. Serotonin (5-HT) injection promoted the expression level of PmMAT1 in the ovaries of shrimp at 6-48 h post-injection. These results indicate that PmMat1 plays a prominent role in the process of ovarian maturation.

  5. Global warming and cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms.

    PubMed

    Paul, Valerie J

    2008-01-01

    The Earth and the oceans have warmed significantly over the past four decades, providing evidence that the Earth is undergoing long-term climate change. Increasing temperatures and changing rainfall patterns have been documented. Cyanobacteria have a long evolutionary history, with their first occurrence dating back at least 2.7 billion years ago. Cyanobacteria often dominated the oceans after past mass extinction events. They evolved under anoxic conditions and are well adapted to environmental stress including exposure to UV, high solar radiation and temperatures, scarce and abundant nutrients. These environmental conditions favor the dominance of cyanobacteria in many aquatic habitats, from freshwater to marine ecosystems. A few studies have examined the ecological consequences of global warming on cyanobacteria and other phytoplankton over the past decades in freshwater, estuarine, and marine environments, with varying results. The responses of cyanobacteria to changing environmental patterns associated with global climate change are important subjects for future research. Results of this research will have ecological and biogeochemical significance as well as management implications.

  6. Metatranscriptome profiling of a harmful algal bloom

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Endymion D.; Bentlage, Bastian; Gibbons, Theodore R.; Bachvaroff, Tsvetan R.; Delwiche, Charles F.

    2014-01-01

    Metagenomic methods provide a powerful means to investigate complex ecological phenomena. Developed originally for study of Bacteria and Archaea, the application of these methods to eukaryotic microorganisms is yet to be fully realized. Most prior environmental molecular studies of eukaryotes have relied heavily on PCR amplification with eukaryote-specific primers. Here we apply high throughput short-read sequencing of poly-A selected RNA to capture the metatranscriptome of an estuarine dinoflagellate bloom. To validate the metatranscriptome assembly process we simulated metatranscriptomic datasets using short-read sequencing data from clonal cultures of four algae of varying phylogenetic distance. We find that the proportion of chimeric transcripts reconstructed from community transcriptome sequencing is low, suggesting that metatranscriptomic sequencing can be used to accurately reconstruct the transcripts expressed by bloom-forming communities of eukaryotes. To further validate the bloom metatransciptome assembly we compared it to a transcriptomic assembly from a cultured, clonal isolate of the dominant bloom-causing alga and found that the two assemblies are highly similar. Eukaryote-wide phylogenetic analyses reveal the taxonomic composition of the bloom community, which is comprised of several dinoflagellates, ciliates, animals, and fungi. The assembled metatranscriptome reveals the functional genomic composition of a metabolically active community. Highlighting the potential power of these methods, we found that relative transcript abundance patterns suggest that the dominant dinoflagellate might be expressing toxin biosynthesis related genes at a higher level in the presence of competitors, predators and prey compared to it growing in monoculture. PMID:25484636

  7. Mucoadhesive electrospun chitosan-based nanofibre mats for dental caries prevention.

    PubMed

    Samprasit, Wipada; Kaomongkolgit, Ruchadaporn; Sukma, Monrudee; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2015-03-01

    The mucoadhesive electrospun nanofibre mats were developed using chitosan (CS) and thiolated chitosan (CS-SH) as mucoadhesive polymers. Garcinia mangostana (GM) extract was incorporated into nanofibre mats. The antibacterial activity in the single and combined agents was evaluated against dental caries pathogens. The morphology of mats was observed using SEM. The mats were evaluated for GM extract amount, mucoadhesion, in vitro release, antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity. The mucoadhesion and antibacterial activity were determined in healthy human volunteers. The prepared mats were in nanoscale with good physical and mucoadhesive properties. The CS-SH caused the higher mucoadhesion. All mats rapidly released active substances, which had the synergistic antibacterial activity. In addition, the reduction of bacteria and good mucoadhesion in the oral cavity occurred without cytotoxicity. The results suggest that mats have the potential to be mucoadhesive dosage forms to maintain oral hygiene by reducing the bacterial growth that causes the dental caries.

  8. Mineralogy of Iron Microbial Mats from Loihi Seamount

    PubMed Central

    Toner, Brandy M.; Berquó, Thelma S.; Michel, F. Marc; Sorensen, Jeffry V.; Templeton, Alexis S.; Edwards, Katrina J.

    2011-01-01

    Extensive mats of Fe oxyhydroxides and associated Fe-oxidizing microbial organisms form in diverse geochemical settings – freshwater seeps to deep-sea vents – where ever opposing Fe(II)-oxygen gradients prevail. The mineralogy, reactivity, and structural transformations of Fe oxyhydroxides precipitated from submarine hydrothermal fluids within microbial mats remains elusive in active and fossil systems. In response, a study of Fe microbial mat formation at the Loihi Seamount was conducted to describe the physical and chemical characteristics of Fe-phases using extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, synchrotron radiation X-ray total scattering, low-temperature magnetic measurements, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Particle sizes of 3.5–4.6 nm were estimated from magnetism data, and coherent scattering domain (CSD) sizes as small as 1.6 nm are indicated by pair distribution function (PDF) analysis. Disorder in the nanostructured Fe-bearing phases results in limited intermediate-range structural order: less than that of standard two-line ferrihydrite (Fh), except for the Pohaku site. The short-range ordered natural Fh (FhSRO) phases were stable at 4°C in the presence of oxygen for at least 1 year and during 400°C treatment. The observed stability of the FhSRO is consistent with magnetic observations that point to non-interacting nanoparticles. PDF analyses of total scattering data provide further evidence for FhSRO particles with a poorly ordered silica coating. The presence of coated particles explains the small CSD for the mat minerals, as well as the stability of the minerals over time and against heating. The mineral properties observed here provide a starting point from which progressively older and more extensively altered Fe deposits may be examined, with the ultimate goal of improved interpretation of past biogeochemical conditions and diagenetic processes. PMID:22485113

  9. Distribution, behavior, and condition of herbivorous fishes on coral reefs track algal resources.

    PubMed

    Tootell, Jesse S; Steele, Mark A

    2016-05-01

    Herbivore distribution can impact community structure and ecosystem function. On coral reefs, herbivores are thought to play an important role in promoting coral dominance, but how they are distributed relative to algae is not well known. Here, we evaluated whether the distribution, behavior, and condition of herbivorous fishes correlated with algal resource availability at six sites in the back reef environment of Moorea, French Polynesia. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that increased algal turf availability would coincide with (1) increased biomass, (2) altered foraging behavior, and (3) increased energy reserves of herbivorous fishes. Fish biomass and algal cover were visually estimated along underwater transects; behavior of herbivorous fishes was quantified by observations of focal individuals; fish were collected to assess their condition; and algal turf production rates were measured on standardized tiles. The best predictor of herbivorous fish biomass was algal turf production, with fish biomass increasing with algal production. Biomass of herbivorous fishes was also negatively related to sea urchin density, suggesting competition for limited resources. Regression models including both algal turf production and urchin density explained 94 % of the variation in herbivorous fish biomass among sites spread over ~20 km. Behavioral observations of the parrotfish Chlorurus sordidus revealed that foraging area increased as algal turf cover decreased. Additionally, energy reserves increased with algal turf production, but declined with herbivorous fish density, implying that algal turf is a limited resource for this species. Our findings support the hypothesis that herbivorous fishes can spatially track algal resources on coral reefs.

  10. Selective control of the Prorocentrum minimum harmful algal blooms by a novel algal-lytic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis AFMB-008041.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Dong; Kim, Ji-Young; Park, Jae-Kweon; Lee, Choul-Gyun

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we examined the algal-lytic activities and biological control mechanisms of Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis AFMB-08041, which was isolated from surface seawater obtained at Masan Bay in Korea. In addition, we assessed whether AFMB-08041 could be used as a biocontrol agent to regulate harmful dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum. From these experiments, we found that the inoculation of AFMB-08041 at a final density of 2.5 x 10(4) cfu ml(-1) caused P. minimum cells to degrade (>90%) within 5 days. The algal cells were lysed through an indirect attack by the AFMB-08041 bacterial strain. Our results also suggest that the algal-lytic compounds produced by AFMB-08041 may have beta-glucosidase activity. However, P. haloplanktis AFMB-08041 was not able to suppress the growth of other alga such as Alexandrium tamarense, Akashiwo sanguinea, Cochlodinium polykrikoides, Gymnodinium catenatum, and Heterosigma akashiwo. Moreover, we observed that the growth of Prorocentrum dentatum, which has a very similar morphological structure to P. minimum, was also effectively suppressed by P. haloplanktis AFMB-08041. Therefore, the effect of AFMB-08041 on P. minimum degradation appears to be species specific. When testing in an indoor mesocosms, P. haloplanktis AFMB-08041 reduced the amount of viable P. minimum cells by 94.5% within 5 days after inoculation. The combined results of this study clearly demonstrate that this bacterium is capable of regulating the harmful algal blooms of P. minimum. In addition, these results will enable us to develop a new strategy for the anthropogenic control of harmful algal bloom-forming species in nature.

  11. The trophic importance of algal turfs for coral reef fishes: the crustacean link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, M. J.; Bellwood, O.; Bellwood, D. R.

    2013-06-01

    On coral reefs, the epilithic algal matrix (EAM) is widely recognised as an important resource for herbivorous and detritivorous fishes. In comparison, little is known of the interaction between benthic carnivores and the EAM, despite the abundance of Crustacea within the EAM. The trophic importance of the EAM to fishes was investigated in Pioneer Bay, Orpheus Island, Great Barrier Reef. Fish densities were quantified using visual and clove oil censuses, and gut content analyses conducted on abundant fish species. Crustaceans were found to be an important dietary category, contributing between 49.5 and 100 % of the gut contents, with harpacticoid copepods being the dominant component. Of the benthic carnivores, the goby Eviota zebrina was found to consume the most harpacticoids with a mean of 249 copepods m-2 day-1. This represents approximately 0.1 % of the available harpacticoid population in the EAM. In a striking comparison, herbivorous parrotfishes were estimated to consume over 12,000 harpacticoids m-2 day-1, over 27 times more than all benthic carnivores surveyed, representing approximately 5.3 % of the available harpacticoid copepod population each day. The high consumption of harpacticoid copepods by benthic carnivores and parrotfishes indicates that harpacticoids form an important trophic link between the EAM and higher trophic levels on coral reefs.

  12. Interlocking mats support drilling rig on frozen swamp

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-15

    This paper discusses how a company employed a unique mat system to reduce environmental impact and to support the drilling rig on its Astosch No. 1 exploratory well at Granite Point in the Trading Bay Wildlife Refuge. The site is on the west side of Cook Inlet. During winter, the travel time from Anchorage to the base camp near the Tyonek Indian village was 5 hr by ice road or 45 min by fixed wing aircraft. Eighteen miles of existing gravel roads were used from this base camp to the edge of the frozen muskeg swamp, and from there, they constructed 7 miles of ice road to the well site. They constructed a snow and ice pad with two impermeable liners and then installed Uni-Mat International Inc.'s patented interlocking mats for the final foundation. After moving in the rig, a snow berm was built around the perimeter of the location and an impermeable liner was then draped and secured over the berm.

  13. Simulated Carbon Cycling in a Model Microbial Mat.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, K. L.; Potter, C. S.

    2006-12-01

    We present here the novel addition of detailed organic carbon cycling to our model of a hypersaline microbial mat ecosystem. This ecosystem model, MBGC (Microbial BioGeoChemistry), simulates carbon fixation through oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis, and the release of C and electrons for microbial heterotrophs via cyanobacterial exudates and also via a pool of dead cells. Previously in MBGC, the organic portion of the carbon cycle was simplified into a black-box rate of accumulation of simple and complex organic compounds based on photosynthesis and mortality rates. We will discuss the novel inclusion of fermentation as a source of carbon and electrons for use in methanogenesis and sulfate reduction, and the influence of photorespiration on labile carbon exudation rates in cyanobacteria. We will also discuss the modeling of decomposition of dead cells and the ultimate release of inorganic carbon. The detailed modeling of organic carbon cycling is important to the accurate representation of inorganic carbon flux through the mat, as well as to accurate representation of growth models of the heterotrophs under different environmental conditions. Because the model ecosystem is an analog of ancient microbial mats that had huge impacts on the atmosphere of early earth, this MBGC can be useful as a biological component to either early earth models or models of other planets that potentially harbor life.

  14. Halotaxis of cyanobacteria in an intertidal hypersaline microbial mat.

    PubMed

    Kohls, Katharina; Abed, Raeid M M; Polerecky, Lubos; Weber, Miriam; de Beer, Dirk

    2010-03-01

    An intertidal hypersaline cyanobacterial mat from Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates) exhibited a reversible change in its surface colour within several hours upon changes in salinity of the overlying water. The mat surface was orange-reddish at salinities above 15% and turned dark green at lower salinities. We investigated this phenomenon using a polyphasic approach that included denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, microscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography, hyperspectral imaging, absorption spectroscopy, oxygen microsensor measurements and modelling of salinity dynamics. Filaments of Microcoleus chthonoplastes, identified based on 16S rRNA sequencing and morphology, were found to migrate up and down when salinity was decreased below or increased above 15%, respectively, causing the colour change of the mat uppermost layer. Migration occurred in light and in the dark, and could be induced by different salts, not only NaCl. The influence of salinity-dependent and independent physico-chemical parameters, such as water activity, oxygen solubility, H2S, gravity and light, was excluded, indicating that the observed migration was due to a direct response to salt stress. We propose to term this salinity-driven cyanobacterial migration as 'halotaxis', a process that might play a vital role in the survival of cyanobacteria in environments exposed to continuous salinity fluctuations such as intertidal flats.

  15. Iron microbial mats in modern and phanerozoic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baele, Jean-Marc; Bouvain, Frédéric; De Jong, Jeroen; Matielli, Nadine; Papier, Séverine; Préat, Alain

    2008-08-01

    The recognition of iron microbial mats in terrestrial environments is of great relevance for the search for extraterrestrial life, especially on mars where significant iron minerals were identified in the subsurface. Most researches focused on very ancient microbial mats (e.g. BIFs) since they formed on Earth at a time where similar conditions are supposed to have prevailed on Mars too. However, environmental proxies are often difficult to use for these deposits on Earth which, in addition, may be heavily transformed due to diagenesis or even metamorphism. Here we present modern and phanerozoic iron microbial mats occurrences illustrating the wide variety of environments in which they form, including many marine settings, ponds, creeks, caves, volcanoes, etc. Contrarily to their Precambrian counterparts, Modern and Phanerozoic deposits are usually less affected by diagenesis and the environmental conditions likely to be better constrained. Therefore, their investigation may help for the search for morphological and geochemical biosignatures (e.g. iron isotopes) in ancient iron microbial occurrences on Earth but also on other Planets. In particular, many of the case studies presented here show that microstromatolithe-like morphologies may be valuable targets for screening potential biosignatures in various rock types.

  16. Hydroponic root mats for wastewater treatment-a review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhongbing; Cuervo, Diego Paredes; Müller, Jochen A; Wiessner, Arndt; Köser, Heinz; Vymazal, Jan; Kästner, Matthias; Kuschk, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Hydroponic root mats (HRMs) are ecotechnological wastewater treatment systems where aquatic vegetation forms buoyant filters by their dense interwoven roots and rhizomes, sometimes supported by rafts or other floating materials. A preferential hydraulic flow is created in the water zone between the plant root mat and the bottom of the treatment system. When the mat touches the bottom of the water body, such systems can also function as HRM filter; i.e. the hydraulic flow passes directly through the root zone. HRMs have been used for the treatment of various types of polluted water, including domestic wastewater; agricultural effluents; and polluted river, lake, stormwater and groundwater and even acid mine drainage. This article provides an overview on the concept of applying floating HRM and non-floating HRM filters for wastewater treatment. Exemplary performance data are presented, and the advantages and disadvantages of this technology are discussed in comparison to those of ponds, free-floating plant and soil-based constructed wetlands. Finally, suggestions are provided on the preferred scope of application of HRMs. PMID:27164889

  17. Hydroponic root mats for wastewater treatment-a review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhongbing; Cuervo, Diego Paredes; Müller, Jochen A; Wiessner, Arndt; Köser, Heinz; Vymazal, Jan; Kästner, Matthias; Kuschk, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Hydroponic root mats (HRMs) are ecotechnological wastewater treatment systems where aquatic vegetation forms buoyant filters by their dense interwoven roots and rhizomes, sometimes supported by rafts or other floating materials. A preferential hydraulic flow is created in the water zone between the plant root mat and the bottom of the treatment system. When the mat touches the bottom of the water body, such systems can also function as HRM filter; i.e. the hydraulic flow passes directly through the root zone. HRMs have been used for the treatment of various types of polluted water, including domestic wastewater; agricultural effluents; and polluted river, lake, stormwater and groundwater and even acid mine drainage. This article provides an overview on the concept of applying floating HRM and non-floating HRM filters for wastewater treatment. Exemplary performance data are presented, and the advantages and disadvantages of this technology are discussed in comparison to those of ponds, free-floating plant and soil-based constructed wetlands. Finally, suggestions are provided on the preferred scope of application of HRMs.

  18. Flow visualization study of the HiMAT RPRV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorincz, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    Water tunnel studies were performed to qualitatively define the flow field of the highly maneuverable aircraft technology remotely piloted research vehicle (HiMAT RPRV). Particular emphasis was placed on defining the vortex flows generated at high angles of attack. The flow visualization tests were conducted in the Northrop water tunnel using a 1/15 scale model of the HiMAT RPRV. Flow visualization photographs were obtained for angles of attack up to 40 deg and sideslip angles up to 5 deg. The HiMAT model was investigated in detail to determine the canard and wing vortex flow field development, vortex paths, and vortex breakdown characteristics as a function of angle of attack and sideslip. The presence of the canard caused the wing vortex to form further outboard and delayed the breakdown of the wing vortex to higher angles of attack. An increase in leading edge camber of the maneuver configuration delayed both the formation and the breakdown of the wing and canard vortices. Additional tests showed that the canard vortex was sensitive to variations in inlet mass flow ratio and canard flap deflection angle.

  19. Chemical abundance of comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyckoff, Susan; Wehinger, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Observations of NH2, (OI) and molecular ion spectra in comets represent virtually all of the volatile fraction of a comet nucleus. Their study leads to the N2, NH3, H2O, CO2, CO content of the nucleus, and thus to important constraints on models of comet formation and chemical processing in the primitive solar nebula. The observations of Comet Halley provide the opportunity for the first comprehensive determination of the abundances in a comet nucleus. The carbon isotope abundance ratio 12 C/13 C = 65 plus or minus 8 has been determined for Comet Halley from resolved rotational line structure in the CN B-X (0,0) band. The ratio is approximately 30 pct lower than the solar system value, 89, indicating either an enhancement of 13CN or a depletion of 12CN in the comet. Scenarios consistent with the observed carbon isotope ratio are: (1) formation of the comet at the periphery of the solar nebula in a fractionation-enriched 13CN region, or hidden from 12CN enrichment sources, and (2) capture of an interestellar comet. Long-slit charge coupled device (CCD) spectra obtained at the time of the spacecraft encounter of Comet Halley have also been analyzed. Scale lengths, production rates and column densities of CH, CN, C2 and NH2 were determined.

  20. Flare Plasma Iron Abundance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Dan, Chau; Jain, Rajmal; Schwartz, Richard A.; Tolbert, Anne K.

    2008-01-01

    The equivalent width of the iron-line complex at 6.7 keV seen in flare X-ray spectra suggests that the iron abundance of the hottest plasma at temperatures >approx.10 MK may sometimes be significantly lower than the nominal coronal abundance of four times the photospheric value that is commonly assumed. This conclusion is based on X-ray spectral observations of several flares seen in common with the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) and the Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) on the second Indian geostationary satellite, GSAT-2. The implications of this will be discussed as it relates to the origin of the hot flare plasma - either plasma already in the corona that is directly heated during the flare energy release process or chromospheric plasma that is heated by flare-accelerated particles and driven up into the corona. Other possible explanations of lower-than-expected equivalent widths of the iron-line complex will also be discussed.