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Sample records for abundant amino groups

  1. Comparing Amino Acid Abundances and Distributions Across Carbonaceous Chondrite Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Callahan, Michael P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2012-01-01

    Meteorites are grouped according to bulk properties such as chemical composition and mineralogy. These parameters can vary significantly among the different carbonaceous chondrite groups (CI, CM, CO, CR, CH, CB, CV and CK). We have determined the amino acid abundances of more than 30 primary amino acids in meteorites from each of the eight groups, revealing several interesting trends. There are noticeable differences in the structural diversity and overall abundances of amino acids between meteorites from the different chondrite groups. Because meteorites may have been an important source of amino acids to the prebiotic Earth and these organic compounds are essential for life as we know it, the observed variations of these molecules may have been important for the origins of life.

  2. Nature's starships. I. Observed abundances and relative frequencies of amino acids in meteorites

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, Alyssa K.; Pudritz, Ralph E. E-mail: pudritz@physics.mcmaster.ca

    2014-03-10

    The class of meteorites called carbonaceous chondrites are examples of material from the solar system which have been relatively unchanged from the time of their initial formation. These meteorites have been classified according to the temperatures and physical conditions of their parent planetesimals. We collate available data on amino acid abundance in these meteorites and plot the concentrations of different amino acids for each meteorite within various meteorite subclasses. We plot average concentrations for various amino acids across meteorites separated by subclass and petrologic type. We see a predominance in the abundance and variety of amino acids in CM2 and CR2 meteorites. The range in temperature corresponding to these subclasses indicates high degrees of aqueous alteration, suggesting aqueous synthesis of amino acids. Within the CM2 and CR2 subclasses, we identify trends in relative frequencies of amino acids to investigate how common amino acids are as a function of their chemical complexity. These two trends (total abundance and relative frequencies) can be used to constrain formation parameters of amino acids within planetesimals. Our organization of the data supports an onion shell model for the temperature structure of planetesimals. The least altered meteorites (type 3) and their amino acids originated near cooler surface regions. The most active amino acid synthesis likely took place at intermediate depths (type 2). The most altered materials (type 1) originated furthest toward parent body cores. This region is likely too hot to either favor amino acid synthesis or for amino acids to be retained after synthesis.

  3. Amino acids from the late Precambrian Thule group, Greenland.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, M; Shimoyama, A; Ponnamperuma, C

    1982-06-01

    Amino acids were recovered at concentration level of 10-9 M/g from the interior of chert and dolomite of the Late Precambrian Thule Group. Examination of the stability of amino acids in chert under dry-heating conditions suggests that these amino acids have been preserved with a predominance of L-enantiomers in the precambrian chert. Enantiomer analysis of amino acids in dolomite showed a thermal effect resulting from a late precambrian igneous intrusion. This evidence indicates that the amino acids isolated from the Thule samples were chemical fossils and not recent contaminants.

  4. Chemical abundances of massive stars in Local Group galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venn, Kim A.; Kaufer, Andreas; Tolstoy, Eline; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Przybilla, Norbert; Smartt, Stephen J.; Lennon, Daniel J.

    The relative abundances of elements in galaxies can provide valuable information on the stellar and chemical evolution of a galaxy. While nebulae can provide abundances for a variety of light elements, stars are the only way to directly determine the abundances of iron-group and s-process and r-process elements in a galaxy. The new 8m and 10m class telescopes and high-efficiency spectrographs now make high-quality spectral observations of bright supergiants possible in dwarf galaxies in the Local Group. We have been concentrating on elemental abundances in the metal-poor dwarf irregular galaxies, NGC 6822, WLM, Sextants A, and GR 8. Comparing abundance ratios to those predicted from their star formation histories, determined from color-magnitude diagrams, and comparing those ratios between these galaxies can give us new insights into the evolution of these dwarf irregular galaxies. Iron-group abundances also allow us to examine the metallicities of the stars in these galaxies directly, which affects their inferred mass loss rates and predicted stellar evolution properties.

  5. Lead and uranium group abundances in cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yadav, J. S.; Perelygin, V. P.

    1985-01-01

    The importance of Lead and Uranium group abundances in cosmic rays is discussed in understanding their evolution and propagation. The electronic detectors can provide good charge resolution but poor data statistics. The plastic detectors can provide somewhat better statistics but charge resolution deteriorates. The extraterrestrial crystals can provide good statistics but with poor charge resolution. Recent studies of extraterrestrial crystals regarding their calibration to accelerated uranium ion beam and track etch kinetics are discussed. It is hoped that a charge resolution of two charge units can be achieved provided an additional parameter is taken into account. The prospects to study abundances of Lead group, Uranium group and superheavy element in extraterrestrial crystals are discussed, and usefulness of these studies in the light of studies with electronic and plastic detectors is assessed.

  6. SPECTROSCOPIC ABUNDANCES AND MEMBERSHIP IN THE WOLF 630 MOVING GROUP

    SciTech Connect

    Bubar, Eric J.; King, Jeremy R. E-mail: jking2@ces.clemson.ed

    2010-08-15

    The concept of kinematic assemblages evolving from dispersed stellar clusters has remained contentious since Eggen's initial formulation of moving groups in the 1960s. With high-quality parallaxes from the Hipparcos space astrometry mission, distance measurements for thousands of nearby, seemingly isolated stars are currently available. With these distances, a high-resolution spectroscopic abundance analysis can be brought to bear on the alleged members of these moving groups. If a structure is a relic of an open cluster, the members can be expected to be monolithic in age and abundance in as much as homogeneity is observed in young open clusters. In this work, we have examined 34 putative members of the proposed Wolf 630 moving group using high-resolution stellar spectroscopy. The stars of the sample have been chemically tagged to determine abundance homogeneity and confirm the existence of a homogeneous subsample of 19 stars. Fitting the homogeneous subsample with Yale-Yonsei isochrones yields a single evolutionary sequence of {approx}2.7 {+-} 0.5 Gyr. It is concluded that this 19 star subsample of the Wolf 630 moving group sample of 34 stars could represent a dispersed cluster with an ([Fe/H]) = -0.01 {+-} 0.02 and an age of 2.7 {+-} 0.5 Gyr. In addition, chemical abundances of Na and Al in giants are examined for indications of enhancements as observed in field giants of old open clusters; overexcitation/ionization effects are explored in the cooler dwarfs of the sample; and oxygen is derived from the infrared triplet and the forbidden line at {lambda}6300.

  7. Amino acid abundances and stereochemistry in hydrothermally altered sediments from the Juan de Fuca Ridge, northeastern Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Andersson, E; Simoneit, B R; Holm, N G

    2000-09-01

    The Juan de Fuca Ridge is a hydrothermally active, sediment covered, spreading ridge situated a few hundred kilometres off the west coast of North America in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. Sediments from seven sites drilled during the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Legs 139 and 168 were analyzed for total hydrolyzable amino acids (THAA), individual amino acid distributions, total organic C (TOC) and total N (TN) contents. The aim was to evaluate the effects of hydrothermal stress on the decomposition and transformation of sedimentary amino acids. Hydrolyzable amino acids account for up to 3.3% of the total organic C content and up to 12% of the total N content of the upper sediments. The total amounts of amino acids decrease significantly with depth in all drilled holes. This trend is particularly pronounced in holes with a thermal gradient of around 0.6 degrees C/m or higher. The most abundant amino acids in shallow sediments are glycine, alanine, lysine, glutamic acid, valine and histidine. The changes in amino acid distributions in low temperature holes are characterized by increased relative abundances of non-protein beta-alanine and gamma-aminobutyric acid. In high temperature holes the amino acid compositions are characterized by high abundances of glycine, alanine, serine, ornithine and histidine at depth. D/L ratios of samples with amino acid distributions similar to those found in acid hydrolysates of kerogen, indicate that racemization rates of amino acids bound by condensation reactions may be diminished.

  8. Amino and Acetamide Functional Group Effects on the Ionization and Fragmentation of Sugar Chains in Positive-Ion Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagaki, Tohru; Sugahara, Kohtaro; Watanabe, Takehiro

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate the influence of amino (-NH2) and acetamide (-NHCOCH3, -NAc) groups in sugar chains on their ionization and fragmentation, cycloamyloses (cyclodextrins, CyDs) and lacto-oligosaccharide are analyzed by MALDI TOF/TOF and ESI Q-TOF mass spectrometry. CyD derivatives substituted by amino or acetamide groups are ideal analytes to extract the function group effects, which are amino-CyD with one hexosamine (HexNH2) and acetamide-CyD with one N-acetyl hexosamine (HexNAc). Interestingly, the relative ion intensities and isotope-like patterns in their product ion spectra depend on the functional groups and ion forms of sugar chains. Consequently, the results indicate that a proton (H+) localizes on the amino group of the amino sugar, and that the proton (H+) induces their fragmentation. Sodium cation (Na+) attachment is independent from amino group and exerts no influence on their fragmentation patterns in amino group except for mono- and disaccharide fragment ions because there is the possibility of the reducing end effect. In contrast, a sodium cation localizes much more frequently on the acetamide group in acetamide-CyDs because the chemical species with HexNAc are stable. Thus, their ions with HexNAc are abundant. These results are consistent with the fragmentation of lacto-neo- N-tetraose and maltotetraose, suggesting that a sodium cation generally localizes much more frequently on the acetamide group in sugar chains.

  9. Search of Amino Group in the Universe: 2-Aminopyridine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, M. K.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, A. K.; Chandra, S.

    2015-12-01

    In the Search for life in the Universe, scientists are interested in identification of molecules, having amino (-NH{_2}) group in the interstellar space. The aminoacetonitrile (NH{_2}CH{_2}CN), which is precursor of the simplest amino acid glycine (NH{_2}CH{_2}COOH), is identified near the galactic center. The 2-Aminopyridine (H{_2}NC{_5}H{_4}N) is of interest for scientists as it has close association with life on the earth. Based on spectroscopic studies, we have calculated the intensities of 2-Aminopyridine lines due to transitions between the rotational levels up to 47 cm{^{-1}} and have found a number of lines which may help in its identification in the interstellar medium. Frequencies of some of these transitions are found close to those detected in the envelope of IRC+10216 that are not assigned to any of the known species.

  10. Linking of Sensor Molecules with Amino Groups to Amino-Functionalized AFM Tips

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The measuring tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM) can be upgraded to a specific biosensor by attaching one or a few biomolecules to the apex of the tip. The biofunctionalized tip is then used to map cognate target molecules on a sample surface or to study biophysical parameters of interaction with the target molecules. The functionality of tip-bound sensor molecules is greatly enhanced if they are linked via a thin, flexible polymer chain. In a typical scheme of tip functionalization, reactive groups are first generated on the tip surface, a bifunctional cross-linker is then attached with one of its two reactive ends, and finally the probe molecule of interest is coupled to the free end of the cross-linker. Unfortunately, the most popular functional group generated on the tip surface is the amino group, while at the same time, the only useful coupling functions of many biomolecules (such as antibodies) are also NH2 groups. In the past, various tricks or detours were applied to minimize the undesired bivalent reaction of bifunctional linkers with adjacent NH2 groups on the tip surface. In the present study, an uncompromising solution to this problem was found with the help of a new cross-linker (“acetal-PEG-NHS”) which possesses one activated carboxyl group and one acetal-protected benzaldehyde function. The activated carboxyl ensures rapid unilateral attachment to the amino-functionalized tip, and only then is the terminal acetal group converted into the amino-reactive benzaldehyde function by mild treatment (1% citric acid, 1–10 min) which does not harm the AFM tip. As an exception, AFM tips with magnetic coating become demagnetized in 1% citric acid. This problem was solved by deprotecting the acetal group before coupling the PEG linker to the AFM tip. Bivalent binding of the corresponding linker (“aldehyde-PEG-NHS”) to adjacent NH2 groups on the tip was largely suppressed by high linker concentrations. In this way, magnetic AFM tips could be

  11. Silver-mediated trifluoromethylation of aryldiazonium salts: conversion of amino group into trifluoromethyl group.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Xu, Yan; Mo, Fanyang; Ji, Guojing; Qiu, Di; Feng, Jiajie; Ye, Yuxuan; Zhang, Songnan; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jianbo

    2013-07-17

    A novel strategy for aromatic trifluoromethylation by converting aromatic amino group into CF3 group is reported herein. This method, which can be considered as trifluoromethylation variation of the classic Sandmeyer reaction, uses readily available aromatic amines as starting materials and is performed under mild conditions.

  12. Environmental distribution, abundance and activity of the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, K. G.; Biddle, J.; Teske, A.

    2011-12-01

    Many marine sedimentary microbes have only been identified by 16S rRNA sequences. Consequently, little is known about the types of metabolism, activity levels, or relative abundance of these groups in marine sediments. We found that one of these uncultured groups, called the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group (MCG), dominated clone libraries made from reverse transcribed 16S rRNA, and 454 pyrosequenced 16S rRNA genes, in the White Oak River estuary. Primers suitable for quantitative PCR were developed for MCG and used to show that 16S rRNA DNA copy numbers from MCG account for nearly all the archaeal 16S rRNA genes present. RT-qPCR shows much less MCG rRNA than total archaeal rRNA, but comparisons of different primers for each group suggest bias in the RNA-based work relative to the DNA-based work. There is no evidence of a population shift with depth below the sulfate-methane transition zone, suggesting that the metabolism of MCG may not be tied to sulfur or methane cycles. We classified 2,771 new sequences within the SSU Silva 106 database that, along with the classified sequences in the Silva database was used to make an MCG database of 4,646 sequences that allowed us to increase the named subgroups of MCG from 7 to 19. Percent terrestrial sequences in each subgroup is positively correlated with percent of the marine sequences that are nearshore, suggesting that membership in the different subgroups is not random, but dictated by environmental selective pressures. Given their high phylogenetic diversity, ubiquitous distribution in anoxic environments, and high DNA copy number relative to total archaea, members of MCG are most likely anaerobic heterotrophs who are integral to the post-depositional marine carbon cycle.

  13. Functional-group specific aptamers indirectly recognizing compounds with alkyl amino group.

    PubMed

    Mei, Hongcheng; Bing, Tao; Yang, Xiaojuan; Qi, Cui; Chang, Tianjun; Liu, Xiangjun; Cao, Zehui; Shangguan, Dihua

    2012-09-01

    Aptamers are usually generated against a specific molecule. Their high selectivity makes them only suitable for studying specific targets. Since it is nearly impossible to generate aptamers for every molecule, it can be of great interest to select aptamers recognizing a common feature of a group of molecules in many applications. In this paper, we describe the selection of aptamers for indirect recognition of alkyl amino groups. Because amino groups are small and positive charged, we introduced a protection group, p-nitrobenzene sulfonyl (p-nosyl) to convert them into a form suitable for aptamer selection. Taking N(ε)-p-nosyl-L-lysine (PSL) as a target, we obtained a group of aptamers using the SELEX technique. Two optimized aptamers, M6b-M14 and M13a exhibit strong affinity to PSL with the K(d) values in the range of 2-5 μM. They also show strong affinity to other compounds containing p-nosyl-protected amino groups except those also possessing an α-carboxyl group. Both aptamers adopt an antiparallel G-quadruplex structure when binding to targets. An aptamer beacon based on M6b-M14 showed good selectivity toward the reaction mixture of p-nosyl-Cl and alkyl amino compounds, and could recognize lysine from amino acid mixtures indirectly, suggesting that aptamers against a common moiety of a certain type of molecules can potentially lead to many new applications. Through this study, we have demonstrated the ability to select aptamers for a specific part of an organic compound, and the chemical conversion approach may prove to be valuable for aptamer selection against molecules that are generally difficult for SELEX.

  14. Ontogenetic change in the abundance of mycosporine-like amino acids in non-zooxanthellate coral larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakovleva, Irina M.; Baird, Andrew H.

    2005-11-01

    Although mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) have been extensively investigated in reef-building corals, the sources of these MAAs and the process of their interconversion remain a topic of interest. Here we examined ontogenetic change in the abundance of MAAs in planula larvae of the spawning scleractinian coral Goniastrea retiformis in the absence of zooxanthellae and other dietary input. In order to examine the potential contribution of prokaryotes in the synthesis of MAAs in animal tissue, one group of larvae were treated with the antibiotic rifampicin. High concentrations of MAAs (mycosporine-glycine, shinorine, palythinol, asterina-330), were present in the asymbiotic eggs and adults; however, no MAAs were present in the endosymbiotic zooxanthellae. We documented a steady decline in the total MAA concentrations through time in larvae treated with rifampicin; however, in the absence of antibiotic there was a significant increase in the concentration of MAAs, driven by a sharp increase in the abundance of shinorine and palythinol between day 3 and 7. Our results suggest that MAA synthesis and conversion in G. retiformis larvae occurred in the absence of symbiotic zooxanthellae, and indicate a possible contribution of prokaryotes associated with the animal tissue to these processes.

  15. Nonaqueous titration of amino groups in polymeric matrix of plant cell walls.

    PubMed

    Meychik, N R; Nikolaeva, Yu I; Ermakov, I P

    2009-08-01

    Nonaqueous titration was used for detection of free amino groups in the polymeric matrix of plant cell walls. The content of amino groups varied in the range 0.54-0.91 and total nitrogen in the range 1.0-4.2 mmol per gram dry mass of cell walls depending on the plant species. However, these data on the high content of free amino groups do not correlate with the present day concept that the nitrogen fraction in charged amino groups in plant cell wall proteins, which are assumed to be mainly amino groups of lysine and arginine residues, is about 10%. It is supposed that most detected free amino groups belong to the hydroxy-amino acids hydroxyproline and tyrosine that can be bound at the hydroxyl group with the carbohydrate part of glycoprotein or another structural cell wall polymer.

  16. The synthesis of oligonucleotides containing a primary amino group at the 5'-terminus.

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, B A

    1987-01-01

    Oligonucleotides containing a primary amino group at their 5'-termini have been prepared and further derivatised with amino specific probes. The sequence required is prepared using standard solid phase phosphoramidite techniques and an extra round of synthesis is then performed with N-monomethoxytrityl-0-methoxydiisopropylaminophosphinyl 3-aminopropan(1)ol. After cleavage from the resin, removal of the phosphate and base protecting groups and purification gives a monomethoxytrityl-NH(CH2)3PO4-oligomer. The monomethoxytrityl group can be removed with acetic acid to give the desired amino containing oligomer. The amino group can be further derivatised with amino specific probes yielding fluorescent or biotinylated oligonucleotide products. PMID:3562247

  17. Electron capture dissociation product ion abundances at the X amino acid in RAAAA-X-AAAAK peptides correlate with amino acid polarity and radical stability.

    PubMed

    Vorobyev, Aleksey; Ben Hamidane, Hisham; Tsybin, Yury O

    2009-12-01

    We present mechanistic studies aimed at improving the understanding of the product ion formation rules in electron capture dissociation (ECD) of peptides and proteins in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. In particular, we attempted to quantify the recently reported general correlation of ECD product ion abundance (PIA) with amino acid hydrophobicity. The results obtained on a series of model H-RAAAAXAAAAK-OH peptides confirm a direct correlation of ECD PIA with X amino acid hydrophobicity and polarity. The correlation factor (R) exceeds 0.9 for 12 amino acids (Ile, Val, His, Asn, Asp, Glu, Gln, Ser, Thr, Gly, Cys, and Ala). The deviation of ECD PIA for seven outliers (Pro is not taken into consideration) is explained by their specific radical stabilization properties (Phe, Trp, Tyr, Met, and Leu) and amino acid basicity (Lys, Arg). Phosphorylation of Ser, Thr, and Tyr decreases the efficiency of ECD around phosphorylated residues, as expected. The systematic arrangement of amino acids reported here indicates a possible route toward development of a predictive model for quantitative electron capture/transfer dissociation tandem mass spectrometry, with possible applications in proteomics.

  18. Mammalian target of rapamycin signalling modulates amino acid uptake by regulating transporter cell surface abundance in primary human trophoblast cells.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Fredrick J; Kanai, Yoshikatsu; Powell, Theresa L; Jansson, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    Abnormal fetal growth increases the risk for perinatal complications and predisposes for the development of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease later in life. Emerging evidence suggests that changes in placental amino acid transport directly contribute to altered fetal growth. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating placental amino acid transport are largely unknown. Here we combined small interfering (si) RNA-mediated silencing approaches with protein expression/localization and functional studies in cultured primary human trophoblast cells to test the hypothesis that mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and 2 (mTORC2) regulate amino acid transporters by post-translational mechanisms. Silencing raptor (inhibits mTORC1) or rictor (inhibits mTORC2) markedly decreased basal System A and System L amino acid transport activity but had no effect on growth factor-stimulated amino acid uptake. Simultaneous inhibition of mTORC1 and 2 completely inhibited both basal and growth factor-stimulated amino acid transport activity. In contrast, mTOR inhibition had no effect on serotonin transport. mTORC1 or mTORC2 silencing markedly decreased the plasma membrane expression of specific System A (SNAT2, SLC38A2) and System L (LAT1, SLC7A5) transporter isoforms without affecting global protein expression. In conclusion, mTORC1 and mTORC2 regulate human trophoblast amino acid transporters by modulating the cell surface abundance of specific transporter isoforms. This is the first report showing regulation of amino acid transport by mTORC2. Because placental mTOR activity and amino acid transport are decreased in human intrauterine growth restriction our data are consistent with the possibility that dysregulation of placental mTOR plays an important role in the development of abnormal fetal growth.

  19. Endospore abundance and D:L-amino acid modeling of bacterial turnover in holocene marine sediment (Aarhus Bay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langerhuus, Alice T.; Røy, Hans; Lever, Mark A.; Morono, Yuki; Inagaki, Fumio; Jørgensen, Bo B.; Lomstein, Bente Aa.

    2012-12-01

    In order to study bacterial activity, and turnover times of bacterial necromass and biomass in marine sediment, two stations from the Aarhus Bay, Denmark were analyzed. Sediment cores were up to 11 m deep and covered a timescale from the present to ˜11,000 years ago. Sediment was analyzed for total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA), total hydrolysable amino sugars, the bacterial endospore marker dipicolinic acid (DPA), and amino acid enantiomers (L- and D-form) of aspartic acid. Turnover times of bacterial necromass and vegetative cells, as well as carbon oxidation rates were estimated by use of the D:L-amino acid racemization model. Diagenetic indicators were applied to evaluate the diagenetic state of the sedimentary organic matter. The contribution of amino acids to total organic carbon, and the ratio between the amino acids aspartic acid and glutamic acid, and their respective non protein degradation products, β-alanine and γ-amino butyric acid, all indicated increasing degradation state of the organic matter with sediment depth and age. Quantification of DPA showed that endospores were abundant, and increased with depth relative to vegetative cells. Most of the amino acids (97%) could be ascribed to microbial necromass, i.e. the remains of dead bacterial cells. Model estimates showed that the turnover times of microbial necromass were in the range of 0.5-1 × 105 years, while turnover times of vegetative cells were in the range of tens to hundreds of years. The turnover time of the TOC pool increased with depth in the sediment, indicating that the TOC pool became progressively more refractory and unavailable to microorganisms with depth and age of the organic matter.

  20. Optimization of Amino Group Introduction onto Polyurethane Surface Using Ammonia and Argon Surface-Wave Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogino, Akihisa; Noguchi, Suguru; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2011-08-01

    Effects of hydrogen and NHx species produced by a surface-wave excited Ar/NH3 plasma on amino group introduction onto a polyurethane surface were studied by comparing the results of optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and primary amino group concentration. For increasing the introduced primary amino group concentration on the surface, the monitoring and control of the concentration of NHx species as a precursor and that of atomic hydrogen as an etchant are important. From the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and OES analysis, the primary amino group concentration and the emission intensity of Hβ reached a minimum and a maximum, respectively, at around 25% NH3 gas mixture ratio. An excess of atomic hydrogen over nitrogen grafting species might reduce the amino group selectivity and N/C surface density. To increase the concentration of NHx species produced in a plasma, the enhancement of NHx generation by the Penning effect was examined by adding Ar gas. As a result, the primary amino group concentration increased with the increase in the emission intensity of NH. However, the amino group selectivity became lower than that in the case of pure NH3 plasma treatment since not only the primary amino group concentration but also the secondary and tertiary amino group concentrations increased with the enhanced decomposition of NH3 by Ar metastables.

  1. Group 1 and 2 cyclic (alkyl)(amino)carbene complexes.

    PubMed

    Turner, Zoë R; Buffet, Jean-Charles

    2015-08-01

    The first examples of cyclic (alkyl)(amino)carbene (CAAC) ligands bound to electropositive metal centres (K, Mg, Sr and Ba) have been isolated and characterised. Preliminary studies demonstrate that all complexes are active for polar monomer polymerisation under ambient conditions affording desirable hydroxyl-terminated telechelic polymers.

  2. Quantitative determination of chitosan and the percentage of free amino groups.

    PubMed

    Curotto, E; Aros, F

    1993-06-01

    Chitosans were quantified with ninhydrin, a reagent normally used for recognizing and quantifying amino groups. The reaction was time dependent and there was no effect when different acids were added to the mixture. This method was used to determine the percentage of free amino groups in chitosans of different origins. PMID:8317699

  3. Quantitative determination of chitosan and the percentage of free amino groups.

    PubMed

    Curotto, E; Aros, F

    1993-06-01

    Chitosans were quantified with ninhydrin, a reagent normally used for recognizing and quantifying amino groups. The reaction was time dependent and there was no effect when different acids were added to the mixture. This method was used to determine the percentage of free amino groups in chitosans of different origins.

  4. THE ABUNDANCE OF BULLET GROUPS IN ΛCDM

    SciTech Connect

    Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Forero-Romero, J. E.; Foex, G.; Motta, V.; Verdugo, T. E-mail: je.forero@uniandes.edu.co

    2014-06-01

    We estimate the expected distribution of displacements between the two dominant dark matter (DM) peaks (DM-DM displacements) and between the DM and gaseous baryon peak (DM-gas displacements) in DM halos with masses larger than 10{sup 13} h {sup –1} M {sub ☉}. As a benchmark, we use the observation of SL2S J08544–0121, which is the lowest mass system (1.0 × 10{sup 14} h {sup –1} M {sub ☉}) observed so far, featuring a bi-modal DM distribution with a dislocated gas component. We find that (50 ± 10)% of the DM halos with circular velocities in the range 300-700 km s{sup –1} (groups) show DM-DM displacements equal to or larger than 186 ± 30 h {sup –1} kpc as observed in SL2S J08544–0121. For DM halos with circular velocities larger than 700 km s{sup –1} (clusters) this fraction rises to (70 ± 10)%. Using the same simulation, we estimate the DM-gas displacements and find that 0.1%-1.0% of the groups should present separations equal to or larger than 87 ± 14 h {sup –1} kpc, corresponding to our observational benchmark; for clusters, this fraction rises to (7 ± 3)%, consistent with previous studies of DM to baryon separations. Considering both constraints on the DM-DM and DM-gas displacements, we find that the number density of groups similar to SL2S J08544–0121 is ∼6.0 × 10{sup –7} Mpc{sup –3}, three times larger than the estimated value for clusters. These results open up the possibility for a new statistical test of ΛCDM by looking for DM-gas displacements in low mass clusters and groups.

  5. Occurrence and abundance of carbohydrates and amino compounds in sequentially extracted labile soil organic matter fractions.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study aimed to investigate the content of carbohydrates and amino compounds in three labile fraction of soil organic matter (SOM). Soil samples were collected from two agricultural fields in southern Italy and the light fraction (LF), the 500–53-µm particulate organic matter (POM) and the mobil...

  6. Metabolism of Vertebrate Amino Sugars with N-Glycolyl Groups

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Leela R. L.; Pearce, Oliver M. T.; Tessier, Matthew B.; Assar, Siavash; Smutova, Victoria; Pajunen, Maria; Sumida, Mizuki; Sato, Chihiro; Kitajima, Ken; Finne, Jukka; Gagneux, Pascal; Pshezhetsky, Alexey; Woods, Robert; Varki, Ajit

    2012-01-01

    The sialic acid (Sia) N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) and its hydroxylated derivative N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) differ by one oxygen atom. CMP-Neu5Gc is synthesized from CMP-Neu5Ac, with Neu5Gc representing a highly variable fraction of total Sias in various tissues and among different species. The exception may be the brain, where Neu5Ac is abundant and Neu5Gc is reported to be rare. Here, we confirm this unusual pattern and its evolutionary conservation in additional samples from various species, concluding that brain Neu5Gc expression has been maintained at extremely low levels over hundreds of millions of years of vertebrate evolution. Most explanations for this pattern do not require maintaining neural Neu5Gc at such low levels. We hypothesized that resistance of α2–8-linked Neu5Gc to vertebrate sialidases is the detrimental effect requiring the relative absence of Neu5Gc from brain. This linkage is prominent in polysialic acid (polySia), a molecule with critical roles in vertebrate neural development. We show that Neu5Gc is incorporated into neural polySia and does not cause in vitro toxicity. Synthetic polymers of Neu5Ac and Neu5Gc showed that mammalian and bacterial sialidases are much less able to hydrolyze α2–8-linked Neu5Gc at the nonreducing terminus. Notably, this difference was not seen with acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of polySias. Molecular dynamics modeling indicates that differences in the three-dimensional conformation of terminal saccharides may partly explain reduced enzymatic activity. In keeping with this, polymers of N-propionylneuraminic acid are sensitive to sialidases. Resistance of Neu5Gc-containing polySia to sialidases provides a potential explanation for the rarity of Neu5Gc in the vertebrate brain. PMID:22692207

  7. Iron-group Abundances in the Metal-poor Main-Sequence Turnoff Star HD~84937

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneden, Christopher; Cowan, John J.; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Pignatari, Marco; Lawler, James E.; Den Hartog, Elizabeth A.; Wood, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    We have derived new, very accurate abundances of the Fe-group elements Sc through Zn (Z = 21-30) in the bright main-sequence turnoff star HD 84937 based on high-resolution spectra covering the visible and ultraviolet spectral regions. New or recent laboratory transition data for 14 species of seven elements have been used. Abundances from more than 600 lines of non-Fe species have been combined with about 550 Fe lines in HD 84937 to yield abundance ratios of high precision. The abundances have been determined from both neutral and ionized transitions, which generally are in agreement with each other. We find no substantial departures from the standard LTE Saha ionization balance in this [Fe/H] = -2.32 star. Noteworthy among the abundances are [Co/Fe] = +0.14 and [Cu/Fe] = -0.83, in agreement with past studies of abundance trends in this and other low-metallicity stars, and < [{{Sc,Ti,V/Fe}}]> = +0.31, which has not been noted previously. A detailed examination of scandium, titanium, and vanadium abundances in large-sample spectroscopic surveys reveals that they are positively correlated in stars with [Fe/H] < -2 HD 84937 lies at the high end of this correlation. These trends constrain the synthesis mechanisms of Fe-group elements. We also examine the Galactic chemical evolution abundance trends of the Fe-group elements, including a new nucleosynthesis model with jet-like explosion effects.

  8. Immune response to a potyvirus with exposed amino groups available for chemical conjugation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The amino terminus of the tobacco etch virus (TEV) capsid protein is located on the external surface of infectious TEV particles, as proposed by previous studies and an in silico model. The epsilon amino groups on the exposed lysine residues are available for chemical conjugation to any given protein, and can thus act as antigen carriers. The availability of amino groups on the surfaces of TEV particles was determined and the immune response to TEV evaluated. Results Using a biotin-tagged molecule that reacts specifically with amino groups, we found that the TEV capsid protein has amino groups on its surface available for coupling to other molecules via crosslinkers. Intraperitoneal TEV was administered to female BALB/c mice, and both their humoral and cellular responses measured. Different IgG isotypes, particularly IgG2a, directed against TEV were induced. In a cell proliferation assay, only spleen cells from vaccinated mice that were stimulated in vitro with TEV showed significant proliferation of CD3+/CD4+ and CD3+/CD8+ subpopulations and secreted significant amounts of interferon γ. Conclusions TEV has surface amino groups that are available for chemical coupling. TEV induces both humoral and cellular responses when administered alone intraperitoneally to mice. Therefore, TEV should be evaluated as a vaccine adjuvant when chemically coupled to antigens of choice. PMID:22452850

  9. Measurements of the Fe-group abundance in energetic solar particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertsch, D. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Pellerin, C. J.; Reames, D. V.

    1972-01-01

    The abundance of Fe-group nuclei in the energetic solar particles was measured twice in the 24 January 1971 event and once in the 2 September 1971 event. Including earlier results from the 2 September 1966 event, the Fe-group abundance was found to be in the range from 3% to 6% of the oxygen nuclei in the energy interval from 21 to 50 MeV/nucleon, in those events where the Fe-group abundance could be measured. Fe-nuclei have a different charge-to-mass ratio from that of the C, N, O nuclei, so small variations in the Fe abundance in solar particles are expected. In the three exposures where the statistics were adequate to construct an energy spectrum, the Fe-group nuclei were seen to have an energy/nucleon spectrum similar to that of the C, N, O nuclei; however, the energy/nucleon range was limited. The abundance for the Fe-group nuclei is consistent with the present solar spectroscopic abundance estimates.

  10. Metabolism of Vertebrate Amino Sugars with N-Glycolyl Groups

    PubMed Central

    Banda, Kalyan; Gregg, Christopher J.; Chow, Renee; Varki, Nissi M.; Varki, Ajit

    2012-01-01

    Although N-acetyl groups are common in nature, N-glycolyl groups are rare. Mammals express two major sialic acids, N-acetylneuraminic acid and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). Although humans cannot produce Neu5Gc, it is detected in the epithelial lining of hollow organs, endothelial lining of the vasculature, fetal tissues, and carcinomas. This unexpected expression is hypothesized to result via metabolic incorporation of Neu5Gc from mammalian foods. This accumulation has relevance for diseases associated with such nutrients, via interaction with Neu5Gc-specific antibodies. Little is known about how ingested sialic acids in general and Neu5Gc in particular are metabolized in the gastrointestinal tract. We studied the gastrointestinal and systemic fate of Neu5Gc-containing glycoproteins (Neu5Gc-glycoproteins) or free Neu5Gc in the Neu5Gc-free Cmah−/− mouse model. Ingested free Neu5Gc showed rapid absorption into the circulation and urinary excretion. In contrast, ingestion of Neu5Gc-glycoproteins led to Neu5Gc incorporation into the small intestinal wall, appearance in circulation at a steady-state level for several hours, and metabolic incorporation into multiple peripheral tissue glycoproteins and glycolipids, thus conclusively proving that Neu5Gc can be metabolically incorporated from food. Feeding Neu5Gc-glycoproteins but not free Neu5Gc mimics the human condition, causing tissue incorporation into human-like sites in Cmah−/− fetal and adult tissues, as well as developing tumors. Thus, glycoproteins containing glycosidically linked Neu5Gc are the likely dietary source for human tissue accumulation, and not the free monosaccharide. This human-like model can be used to elucidate specific mechanisms of Neu5Gc delivery from the gut to tissues, as well as general mechanisms of metabolism of ingested sialic acids. PMID:22692204

  11. Comparison of amino acids physico-chemical properties and usage of late embryogenesis abundant proteins, hydrophilins and WHy domain.

    PubMed

    Jaspard, Emmanuel; Hunault, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Late Embryogenesis Abundant proteins (LEAPs) comprise several diverse protein families and are mostly involved in stress tolerance. Most of LEAPs are intrinsically disordered and thus poorly functionally characterized. LEAPs have been classified and a large number of their physico-chemical properties have been statistically analyzed. LEAPs were previously proposed to be a subset of a very wide family of proteins called hydrophilins, while a domain called WHy (Water stress and Hypersensitive response) was found in LEAP class 8 (according to our previous classification). Since little is known about hydrophilins and WHy domain, the cross-analysis of their amino acids physico-chemical properties and amino acids usage together with those of LEAPs helps to describe some of their structural features and to make hypothesis about their function. Physico-chemical properties of hydrophilins and WHy domain strongly suggest their role in dehydration tolerance, probably by interacting with water and small polar molecules. The computational analysis reveals that LEAP class 8 and hydrophilins are distinct protein families and that not all LEAPs are a protein subset of hydrophilins family as proposed earlier. Hydrophilins seem related to LEAP class 2 (also called dehydrins) and to Heat Shock Proteins 12 (HSP12). Hydrophilins are likely unstructured proteins while WHy domain is structured. LEAP class 2, hydrophilins and WHy domain are thus proposed to share a common physiological role by interacting with water or other polar/charged small molecules, hence contributing to dehydration tolerance. PMID:25296175

  12. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES OF SEVEN IRREGULAR AND THREE TIDAL DWARF GALAXIES IN THE M81 GROUP

    SciTech Connect

    Croxall, Kevin V.; Van Zee, Liese; Lee, Henry; Miller, Bryan W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Lee, Janice C.; Cote, Stephanie; Kennicutt, Robert C. E-mail: vanzee@astro.indiana.ed E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.ed E-mail: stephanie.cote@nrc-cnrc.gc.c E-mail: bmiller@gemini.ed

    2009-11-01

    We have derived nebular abundances for 10 dwarf galaxies belonging to the M81 Group, including several galaxies which do not have abundances previously reported in the literature. For each galaxy, multiple H II regions were observed with GMOS-N at the Gemini Observatory in order to determine abundances of several elements (oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, neon, and argon). For seven galaxies, at least one H II region had a detection of the temperature sensitive [O III] lambda4363 line, allowing a 'direct' determination of the oxygen abundance. No abundance gradients were detected in the targeted galaxies, and the observed oxygen abundances are typically in agreement with the well-known metallicity-luminosity relation. However, three candidate 'tidal dwarf' galaxies lie well off this relation: UGC 5336, Garland, and KDG 61. The nature of these systems suggests that UGC 5336 and Garland are indeed recently formed systems, whereas KDG 61 is most likely a dwarf spheroidal galaxy which lies along the same line of sight as the M81 tidal debris field. We propose that these H II regions formed from previously enriched gas which was stripped from nearby massive galaxies (e.g., NGC 3077 and M81) during a recent tidal interaction.

  13. Fe-Group Elements in the Metal-Poor Star HD 84937: Abundances and their Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneden, Chris; Cowan, John J.; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Pignatari, Marco; Lawler, James E.; Den Hartog, Elizabeth; Wood, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    We have derived accurate relative abundances of the Fe-group elements Sc through Zn in the very metal-poor main-sequence turnoff star HD 84937. For this study we analyzed high resolution, high signal-to-noise HST/STIS and VLT/UVES spectra over a total wavelength range 2300-7000 Å. We employed only recent or newly-applied reliable laboratory transition data for all species. Abundances from more than 600 lines of non-Fe species were combined with about 550 Fe lines in HD 84937 to yield abundance ratios of high precision. From parallel analyses of solar photospheric spectra we also derived new solar abundances of these elements. This in turn yielded internally-consistent relative HD 84937 abundances with respect to the Sun. For seven of the ten Fe-group elements the HD 84937 abundances were from both neutral and ionized transitions. In all of these cases the neutral and ionized species yield the same abundances within the measurement uncertainties. Therefore standard Saha ionization balance appears to hold in the HD 84937 atmosphere. We derived metallicity [Fe/H] = -2.32 with sample standard deviation of 0.06. Solid evidence is seen for departures from the solar abundance mix in HD 84937, for example [Co/Fe] = +0.14, [Cu/Fe] = -0.83, and <[Sc,Ti,V/Fe]> = +0.31. Combining our Sc, Ti, and V abundances for this star with those from large-sample spectroscopic surveys suggests that these elements are positively correlated in stars with [Fe/H] < -2. HD 84937 is unusually enriched in Sc, Ti, and V. Our analysis strongly suggests that different types of supernovae with a large scatter of explosion energies and asymmetries contributed to the creation of the Fe-group elements early in the Galaxy's history.This work has been supported in part by NASA grant NNX10AN93G (J.E.L.), by NSF grants AST-1211055 (J.E.L.), AST-1211585 (C.S.), PHY-1430152 (through JINA, J.J.C. and M.P.), EU MIRGCT-2006-046520 (M.P.), and by the ``Lendlet-2014'' Programme of the Hungarian Academy of

  14. Alkyne Ligation Handles: Propargylation of Hydroxyl, Sulfhydryl, Amino, and Carboxyl Groups via the Nicholas Reaction.

    PubMed

    Wells, Sarah M; Widen, John C; Harki, Daniel A; Brummond, Kay M

    2016-09-16

    The Nicholas reaction has been applied to the installation of alkyne ligation handles. Acid-promoted propargylation of hydroxyl, sulfhydryl, amino, and carboxyl groups using dicobalt hexacarbonyl-stabilized propargylium ions is reported. This method is useful for introduction of propargyl groups into base-sensitive molecules, thereby expanding the toolbox of methods for the incorporation of alkynes for bio-orthogonal reactions. High-value molecules are used as the limiting reagent, and various propargylium ion precursors are compared. PMID:27570975

  15. Synthesis, characterization, and antioxidant properties of novel inulin derivatives with amino-pyridine group.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yunxia; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Chunwei; Li, Qing; Dong, Fang; Wang, Gang; Guo, Zhanyong

    2014-09-01

    A series of novel inulin derivatives were synthesized via reaction of chloracetyl inulin (CAIL) with amino-pyridines, including 2-(2-amino-pyridyl)acetyl inulin chloride (2APAIL), 2-(3-amino-pyridyl)acetyl inulin chloride (3APAIL), 2-(4-amino-pyridyl)acetyl inulin chloride (4APAIL), 2-(2,3-diamino-pyridyl)acetyl inulin chloride (2,3DAPAIL), and 2-(3,4-diamino-pyridyl)acetyl inulin (3,4DAPAIL). The antioxidant property of the products and 2-pyridylacetyl inulin chloride (PAIL) against hydroxyl radicals (·OH), superoxide radicals (O2·), and DPPH radicals (DPPH·) were evaluated in vitro, respectively. Results showed that 4APAIL and 3,4DAPAIL exhibited remarkable improvement on scavenging ·OH and DPPH·, which can scavenge the radical of OH completely at 0.4 mg/mL. Besides, the scavenging activity of 2,3DAPAIL to O2· was excellent among all of the tested samples, reaching 85% at 1.6 mg/mL. These data indicate that all of the inulin derivatives have better antioxidant activities than inulin, and the scavenging effect indices are affected by the number and position of the amino group on pyridine grafted to the inulin derivatives.

  16. Population Signatures in Planetary Nebulae from Abundances of Fe-group and Neutron-Capture Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinerstein, Harriet L.; Geballe, Thomas R.; Sterling, N. C.

    2015-08-01

    There are two categories of elements for which abundances are measured in planetary nebulae (PNe). The first are species whose abundances may be modified by nuclear reactions in the star prior to PN formation, such as He, C, N, and nuclei made by slow neutron captures (Karakas & Lattanzio 2014, PASA, 31, 30). In contrast, elements unaffected by evolution should indicate the star’s initial composition. These include S, Ar, Cl, and (with certain exceptions) O and Ne, most of which are alpha species. A long-missing piece of the puzzle has been the abundances of the Fe-group elements. We cannot determine a meaningful elemental abundance from the gas-phase Fe lines seen in PNe, since Fe is heavily depleted into dust. Another approach is to use a different element as a proxy for Fe. Dinerstein & Geballe (2001, ApJ, 562, 515) identified a line at 3.625 μm as due to Zn, the least refractory Fe-group element. Observations of this line in Milky Way PNe yield -1 ≤ [Zn/H] ≤ 0 (Smith, Zijlstra, & Dinerstein 2014, MNRAS, 441, 3161; Dinerstein et al. 2015, in preparation). Substituting Zn for Fe, PNe can be placed in the [alpha/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] diagram used to characterize stellar populations. Dividing our sample into probable thin and thick disk members using the kinematic criterion of Peimbert’s Type II and III classes (1978, IAU Symp. 76, 215), we find that they occupy similar regions in [alpha/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] phase space as the stars of those populations. Elevated [alpha/Fe] values at subsolar [Fe/H], which tend to be higher for thick than thin disk PNe, cause degeneracies that make alpha species ambiguous metallicity indicators. This is important for self-enrichment studies, since if the initial abundance of an element is lower than projected from an alpha species, internal synthesis may be required to produce even a solar final abundance. Low observed abundances of the n-capture element Se suggest that many Type III PNe may have subsolar initial abundances of n

  17. Hydration of hydroxyl and amino groups examined by molecular dynamics and neutron scattering.

    PubMed

    Hladílková, Jana; Fischer, Henry E; Jungwirth, Pavel; Mason, Philip E

    2015-05-28

    Neutron diffraction with isotopic substitution was performed on aqueous solutions of isopropyl alcohol and isopropylamine. The difference between these two measurements primarily contains information about the different hydration of the alcohol and amino group. This data is used as a test of the accuracy of molecular dynamic simulations of the same systems. Having established the level of accuracy of the modeling, it is employed as an interpretive tool for the experimental data. Even though the alcohol and the amine possess comparable hydrogen bonding capabilities, consisting respectively of either two hydrogen bond acceptors and one donor, or two hydrogen bond donors and one acceptor, we find significant differences in the hydration of the hydroxyl and amino groups.

  18. Administration of Exogenous Growth Hormone Is Associated with Changes in Plasma and Intracellular Mammary Amino Acid Profiles and Abundance of the Mammary Gland Amino Acid Transporter SLC3A2 in Mid-Lactation Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Sciascia, Quentin L.; Pacheco, David; McCoard, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) identify changes in plasma and mammary intracellular amino acid (AA) profiles in dairy cows treated with growth hormone (GH), and (2) evaluate the expression of mammary gland genes involved in the transport of AA identified in (1). Eight non-pregnant (n = 4 per group) lactating dairy cows were treated with a single subcutaneous injection of either a slow-release formulation of commercially available GH (Lactotropin 500 mg) or physiological saline solution. Six days after treatment, cows were milked and blood collected from the jugular vein for the analysis of free AA in the plasma. Cows were euthanized and mammary tissue harvested. Treatment with GH increased milk, protein, fat and lactose yields, with no effect on dry matter intake. Plasma concentrations of lysine and group I AA decreased significantly, and arginine, methionine, tyrosine and arginine-family AA tended to decrease in GH-treated cows. Concentrations of intracellular glycine, serine and glutamate increased significantly, with a trend for decreased arginine observed in the mammary gland of GH-treated cows. A trend for increased concentrations of intracellular total AA, NEAA and arginine-family AA were observed in the mammary gland of GH-treated cows. Variance in the concentration of plasma methionine, tyrosine, valine, alanine, ornithine, BCAA, EAA was significantly different between treatments. Variance in the concentration of intracellular lysine, valine, glutamine, EAA and group II was significantly different between treatments. AA changes were associated with increased mRNA abundance of the mammary gland AA transporter SLC3A2. We propose that these changes occur to support increased milk protein and fatty acid production in the mammary gland of GH-treated cows via potential mTOR pathway signaling. PMID:26226162

  19. Archaea of the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group are abundant, diverse and widespread in marine sediments

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Kyoko; Lloyd, Karen G; F Biddle, Jennifer; Amann, Rudolf; Teske, Andreas; Knittel, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    Members of the highly diverse Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group (MCG) are globally distributed in various marine and continental habitats. In this study, we applied a polyphasic approach (rRNA slot blot hybridization, quantitative PCR (qPCR) and catalyzed reporter deposition FISH) using newly developed probes and primers for the in situ detection and quantification of MCG crenarchaeota in diverse types of marine sediments and microbial mats. In general, abundance of MCG (cocci, 0.4 μm) relative to other archaea was highest (12–100%) in anoxic, low-energy environments characterized by deeper sulfate depletion and lower microbial respiration rates (P=0.06 for slot blot and P=0.05 for qPCR). When studied in high depth resolution in the White Oak River estuary and Hydrate Ridge methane seeps, changes in MCG abundance relative to total archaea and MCG phylogenetic composition did not correlate with changes in sulfate reduction or methane oxidation with depth. In addition, MCG abundance did not vary significantly (P>0.1) between seep sites (with high rates of methanotrophy) and non-seep sites (with low rates of methanotrophy). This suggests that MCG are likely not methanotrophs. MCG crenarchaeota are highly diverse and contain 17 subgroups, with a range of intragroup similarity of 82 to 94%. This high diversity and widespread distribution in subsurface sediments indicates that this group is globally important in sedimentary processes. PMID:22551871

  20. The Measurement of Iron-Group Isotopic Abundances in the Cosmic Rays Using the Magpie Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanasak, Nathan Eugene

    This thesis details the analysis of data from the MAGPIE detector, a balloon-borne detector designed to measure cosmic ray isotope abundances between 300 and 900 MeV/a μ in the Fe group. MAGPIE consists of a magnetic spectrometer for measuring particle rigidity, and nine stacks of CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors for measuring charge and velocity. After an Antarctic flight in December of 1991 during which ~2000 Fe nuclei were collected, damage occurred to the spectrometer during the landing of the balloon payload, limiting the analysis to cosmic ray particles that stop in the plastic stack. This limited the energy range of data to between 100 MeV/a μ and 400 MeV/a μ for Fe group elements. The measurement of Fe group isotopes is an important one. Because nuclei from this group have the highest binding energy of all the elements, they represent the primary products during late stellar nucleosynthesis. This characteristic makes Fe group isotopes unique in their ability to probe the interior environment during the final stages of stellar evolution. In addition, the primary decay channel by e- capture for some of the Ni and Co isotopes makes these isotopes ideal for probing the time delay between production of cosmic rays and their acceleration. Finally, the radioactive isotope 54Mn has a mean lifetime that is comparable to residence time of lighter elements in the galaxy, which has been measured using the 10Be isotopic abundance. Both of these abundances are produced primarily through spallation during propagation, and Mn can measure the average density of the propagation medium and residence time for Fe group elements with isotopic abundance measurements of stable spallation products. After etching, the MAGPIE CR-39 plastic was scanned for tracks using an automated microscope and image processing system. This system offers a data acquisition method that is as efficient and much quicker than techniques using a microscope and reticle. Cosmic ray data were

  1. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of acid-base bifunctional materials through protection of amino groups

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Yanqiu; Liu, Heng; Yu, Xiaofang; Guan, Jingqi; Kan, Qiubin

    2012-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Acid-base bifunctional mesoporous material SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} was successfully synthesized under low acidic medium through protection of amino groups. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The acid-base bifunctional material SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} was successfully synthesized through protection of amino groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The obtained bifunctional material was tested for aldol condensation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} catalyst containing amine and sulfonic acid groups exhibited excellent acid-basic properties. -- Abstract: Acid-base bifunctional mesoporous material SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} was successfully synthesized under low acidic medium through protection of amino groups. X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, transmission electron micrographs (TEM), back titration, {sup 13}C magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR and {sup 29}Si magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR were employed to characterize the synthesized materials. The obtained bifunctional material was tested for aldol condensation reaction between acetone and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde. Compared with monofunctional catalysts of SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15 and SBA-15-NH{sub 2}, the bifunctional sample of SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} containing amine and sulfonic acid groups exhibited excellent acid-basic properties, which make it possess high activity for the aldol condensation.

  2. Study of model systems to test the potential function of Artemia group 1 late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins.

    PubMed

    Warner, Alden H; Guo, Zhi-hao; Moshi, Sandra; Hudson, John W; Kozarova, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Embryos of the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, are genetically programmed to develop either ovoviparously or oviparously depending on environmental conditions. Shortly upon their release from the female, oviparous embryos enter diapause during which time they undergo major metabolic rate depression while simultaneously synthesize proteins that permit them to tolerate a wide range of stressful environmental events including prolonged periods of desiccation, freezing, and anoxia. Among the known stress-related proteins that accumulate in embryos entering diapause are the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins. This large group of intrinsically disordered proteins has been proposed to act as molecular shields or chaperones of macromolecules which are otherwise intolerant to harsh conditions associated with diapause. In this research, we used two model systems to study the potential function of the group 1 LEA proteins from Artemia. Expression of the Artemia group 1 gene (AfrLEA-1) in Escherichia coli inhibited growth in proportion to the number of 20-mer amino acid motifs expressed. As well, clones of E. coli, transformed with the AfrLEA-1 gene, expressed multiple bands of LEA proteins, either intrinsically or upon induction with isopropyl-β-thiogalactoside (IPTG), in a vector-specific manner. Expression of AfrLEA-1 in E. coli did not overcome the inhibitory effects of high concentrations of NaCl and KCl but modulated growth inhibition resulting from high concentrations of sorbitol in the growth medium. In contrast, expression of the AfrLEA-1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae did not alter the growth kinetics or permit yeast to tolerate high concentrations of NaCl, KCl, or sorbitol. However, expression of AfrLEA-1 in yeast improved its tolerance to drying (desiccation) and freezing. Under our experimental conditions, both E. coli and S. cerevisiae appear to be potentially suitable hosts to study the function of Artemia group 1 LEA proteins under environmentally

  3. NMR contour maps as a new parameter of carboxyl's OH groups in amino acids recognition: A reason of tRNA-amino acid conjugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monajjemi, Majid; Wayne, Robert; Boggs, James E.

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we have applied a statistical method by computing statistical nucleus-independent chemical shifts (SNICS) in point of probes motions within a spatial shielding and de-shielding spaces around the OH groups of some amino acids. NMR contour maps as a new parameter have been created for amino-acyl-tRNA conjugation, by using a computational method to identify this model theoretically, it is critical to understand the reasons for tRNA-amino acid conjugation. DFT, NMR, 3D Gaussian distribution and Monte Carlo methods have been applied for Methionine, Serine, Histidine, Glycine and Glutamine to investigate the structural stability in the active parts of the amino acid-tRNA linkage by chemical shielding effects.

  4. Bacterial Growth, Necromass Turnover, And Endospore Abundance In The Deep Subseafloor Sediments Of The Greenland Shelf Using D:L Amino Acid Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mhatre, S. S.; Braun, S.; Jaussi, M.; Røy, H.; Jørgensen, B. B.; Lomstein, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    The subsurface realm is colonized by a large number of microorganisms- about 3 × 1029. Microbial cells in these very stable and oligotrophic settings catabolize at a much slower rate than model organisms in nutrient rich cultures. The aim of this work was to use recently developed D:L-amino acid racemization model for studying the turnover times of microbial biomass and microbial necromass in a ~12,000 years old Greenland shelf marine sediment samples. Sediments were analyzed for total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA), the bacterial endospore marker dipicolinic acid (DPA), and amino acid enantiomers of aspartic acid. The percentage amino acid carbon content (%TAAC) and the percentage amino acid nitrogen content (%TAAN) were used for determining the degradation state of the organic matter. Endospores quantified using DPA quantification method were found to be as abundant as vegetative cells. The microbial necromass turnover times were thousand years, and biomass turnover times were in the range of tens to hundred years. Studies with deeper sediment cores will further improve our understanding of the energetic limits of life in the deep biosphere.

  5. Life strategies of a ubiquitous and abundant subsurface archaeal group Bathyarchaeota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Y.; Li, M.; Perumal, V.; Feng, X.; Sievert, S. M.; Wang, F.

    2015-12-01

    Archaea belonging to the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeota Group (MCG, "Candidatus Bathyarchaeota") are widespread and abundant in the deep biosphere, yet their life strategies and ecological roles remain elusive. Metagenomic sequencing of a sample enriched in Bathyarchaeota (up to 74%) that originated from Guaymas Basin deep-sea vent sediments revealed 6 partial to nearly completed Bathyarchaeota genomic bins. ranging ~900kb-3.3Mb. The Bathyarchaeota bin size ranged from approximately 0.9 to 3.3 Mb, with coverage ranging from approximately 10× to 28×. The phylogeny based on 110 concatenated conserved archaeal single copy genes confirmed the placement of Bathyarchaeota into a novel archaeal phylum. Genes encoding for enzymes involved in the degradation of organic polymers such as protein, cellulose, chitin, and aromatic compounds, were identified. In addition, genes encoding glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, beta-oxidation pathways and the tricarboxylic acid cycle (except citrate synthase) were present in all genomic bins highlighting the heterotrophic life style of Bathyarchaeota. The presence of a wide variety of transporters of organic compounds further supports the versatile heterotrophic metabolism of Bathyarchaeota. This study highlights the life strategies of a ubiquitous and abundant subsurface archaeal group that thrives under energy-limited conditions, and expands the metabolic potentials of Archaea that play important roles in carbon cycling in marine sediments.

  6. Density and abundance of badger social groups in England and Wales in 2011-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judge, Johanna; Wilson, Gavin J.; MacArthur, Roy; Delahay, Richard J.; McDonald, Robbie A.

    2014-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, European badgers Meles meles are a protected species and an important wildlife reservoir of bovine tuberculosis. We conducted a survey of badger dens (main setts) in 1614 1 km squares across England and Wales, between November 2011 and March 2013. Using main setts as a proxy for badger social groups, the estimated mean density of badger social groups in England and Wales was 0.485 km-2 (95% confidence interval 0.449-0.521) and the estimated abundance of social groups was 71,600 (66,400-76,900). In the 25 years since the first survey in 1985-88, the annual rate of increase in the estimated number of badger social groups was 2.6% (2.2-2.9%), equating to an 88% (70-105%) increase across England and Wales. In England, we estimate there has been an increase of 103% (83-123%) in badger social groups, while in Wales there has been little change (-25 to +49%).

  7. Trapping of excess electrons at the microhydrated protonated amino groups in proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenchao; Zhang, Zhenwei; Yang, Hongfang; Wu, Xiuxiu; Liu, Jinxiang; Bu, Yuxiang

    2012-03-01

    We present a combined first-principles calculation and molecular dynamics simulation study of an excess electron (EE) in condensed phase of a microhydrated protonated amino group in proteins in this work. The protonated amino group, -NH3+, is modeled by a CH3NH3+ and an amount of water molecules are included to form various microhydrated CH3NH3+ clusters, and the states and the dynamics of the trapped EE are analyzed. In addition to the localized and delocalized states observed, the N-H/O-H bond cleavage phenomena followed by escape of a H atom are also observed for some hydrated clusters in which the -NH3+ group exposes on the surface of the cluster and directly participates in binding an EE. The state-to-state conversion is controlled by thermal motion of molecules in the clusters, and the cleavage of the N-H or the O-H bond and the H escape are determined by the binding modes of the EE. The H-escape nature could be attributed to the dissociation of the N-H or O-H bond induced by the trapped EE which transfers to their antibonding orbitals. This work provides a microscopical picture of the EE trapping at a microhydrated hydrophilic group in proteins, long-range electron migration, and the H-evolving mechanisms relevant for the lesions or damages of proteins or DNA. This is the first step in considering increasingly larger peptide fragments for further investigation of the detailed lesion/damage or charge migration mechanisms. Further work about this topic is underway.

  8. Differential Abundance of Microbial Functional Groups along the Elevation Gradient from the Coast to the Luquillo Mountains

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial communities respond to multiple abiotic and biotic factors that change along elevation gradients. We compare changes in microbial community composition in soil and review previous research on differential abundance of microbial functional groups along an elevation gradi...

  9. Partial amino acid sequences around sulfhydryl groups of soybean beta-amylase.

    PubMed

    Nomura, K; Mikami, B; Morita, Y

    1987-08-01

    Sulfhydryl (SH) groups of soybean beta-amylase were modified with 5-(iodoaceto-amidoethyl)aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonate (IAEDANS) and the SH-containing peptides exhibiting fluorescence were purified after chymotryptic digestion of the modified enzyme. The sequence analysis of the peptides derived from the modification of all SH groups in the denatured enzyme revealed the existence of six SH groups, in contrast to five reported previously. One of them was found to have extremely low reactivity toward SH-reagents without reduction. In the native state, IAEDANS reacted with 2 mol of SH groups per mol of the enzyme (SH1 and SH2) accompanied with inactivation of the enzyme owing to the modification of SH2 located near the active site of this enzyme. The selective modification of SH2 with IAEDANS was attained after the blocking of SH1 with 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid). The amino acid sequences of the peptides containing SH1 and SH2 were determined to be Cys-Ala-Asn-Pro-Gln and His-Gln-Cys-Gly-Gly-Asn-Val-Gly-Asp-Ile-Val-Asn-Ile-Pro-Ile-Pro-Gln-Trp, respectively.

  10. Lanthanide(III) complexes of aminoethyl-DO3A as PARACEST contrast agents based on decoordination of the weakly bound amino group.

    PubMed

    Krchová, Tereza; Kotek, Jan; Jirák, Daniel; Havlíčková, Jana; Císařová, Ivana; Hermann, Petr

    2013-11-28

    2-Aminoethyl DOTA analogues with unsubstituted (H3L1), monomethylated (H3L2) and dimethylated (H3L3) amino groups were prepared by improved synthetic procedures. Their solid-state structures exhibit an extensive system of intramolecular hydrogen bonds, which is probably present in solution and leads to the rather high value of the last dissociation constant. The protonation sequence of H3L1 in solution corresponds to that found in the solid state. The stability constants of the H3L1 complexes with La(3+) and Gd(3+) (20.02 and 22.23, respectively) are similar to those of DO3A and the reduction of the pK(A) value of the pendant amino group from 10.51 in the free ligand to 6.06 and 5.83 in the La(3+) and Gd(3+) complexes, respectively, points to coordination of the amino group. It was confirmed in the solid state structure of the [Yb(L1)] complex, where disorder between the SA' and TSA' isomers was found. A similar situation is expected in solution, where a fast equilibration among the isomers hampers the unambiguous determination of the isomer ratio in solution. The PARACEST effect was observed in Eu(III)-H3L1/H3L2 and Yb(III)-H3L1/H3L2 complexes, being dependent on pH in the region of 4.5-7.5 and pH-independent in more alkaline solutions. The decrease of the PARACEST effect parallels with the increasing abundance of the complex protonated species, where the pendant amino group is not coordinating. Surprisingly, a small PARACEST effect was also observed in solutions of Eu(III)/Yb(III)-H3L3 complexes, where the pendant amino group is dimethylated. The effect is detectable in a narrow pH region, where both protonated and deprotonated complex species are present in equilibrium. The data points to the new mechanism of the PARACEST effect, where the slow coordination-decoordination of the pendant amine is coupled with the fast proton exchange between the free amino group and bulk water mediates the magnetization transfer. The pH-dependence of the effect was proved to be

  11. The abundance and organization of polypeptides associated with antigens of the Rh blood group system.

    PubMed

    Gardner, B; Anstee, D J; Mawby, W J; Tanner, M J; von dem Borne, A E

    1991-06-01

    Twelve murine monoclonal antibodies, which react with human red cells of common Rh phenotype but give weak or negative reactions with Rh null erythrocytes, were used in quantitative binding assays and competitive binding assays to investigate the abundance and organization of polypeptides involved in the expression of antigens of the Rh blood group system. Antibodies of the R6A-type (R6A, BRIC-69, BRIC-207) and the 2D10-type (MB-2D10, LA18.18, LA23.40) recognize related structures and 100,000-200,000 molecules of each antibody bind maximally to erythrocytes of common Rh phenotype. Antibodies of the BRIC-125 type (BRICs 32, 122, 125, 126, 168, 211) recognize structures that are unrelated to those recognized by R6A-type and 2D10-type antibodies and between 10,000 and 50,000 antibody molecules bind maximally to erythrocytes of the common Rh phenotype. The binding of antibodies of the R6A-type and the 2D10-type, but not of antibodies of the BRIC-125-type could be partially inhibited by human anti-D antibodies (polyclonal and monoclonal) and a murine anti-e-like antibody. These results are consistent with evidence (Moore & Green 1987; Avent et al., 1988b) that the Rh blood group antigens are associated with a complex that comprises two groups of related polypeptides of M(r) 30,000 and M(r) 35,000-100,000, respectively, and suggest that there are 1-2 x 10(5) copies of this complex per erythrocyte. The polypeptide recognized by antibodies of the BRIC-125 type is likely to be associated with this complex. PMID:9259831

  12. The abundance and organization of polypeptides associated with antigens of the Rh blood group system.

    PubMed

    Gardner, B; Anstee, D J; Mawby, W J; Tanner, M J; von dem Borne, A E

    1991-06-01

    Twelve murine monoclonal antibodies, which react with human red cells of common Rh phenotype but give weak or negative reactions with Rh null erythrocytes, were used in quantitative binding assays and competitive binding assays to investigate the abundance and organization of polypeptides involved in the expression of antigens of the Rh blood group system. Antibodies of the R6A-type (R6A, BRIC-69, BRIC-207) and the 2D10-type (MB-2D10, LA18.18, LA23.40) recognize related structures and 100,000-200,000 molecules of each antibody bind maximally to erythrocytes of common Rh phenotype. Antibodies of the BRIC-125 type (BRICs 32, 122, 125, 126, 168, 211) recognize structures that are unrelated to those recognized by R6A-type and 2D10-type antibodies and between 10,000 and 50,000 antibody molecules bind maximally to erythrocytes of the common Rh phenotype. The binding of antibodies of the R6A-type and the 2D10-type, but not of antibodies of the BRIC-125-type could be partially inhibited by human anti-D antibodies (polyclonal and monoclonal) and a murine anti-e-like antibody. These results are consistent with evidence (Moore & Green 1987; Avent et al., 1988b) that the Rh blood group antigens are associated with a complex that comprises two groups of related polypeptides of M(r) 30,000 and M(r) 35,000-100,000, respectively, and suggest that there are 1-2 x 10(5) copies of this complex per erythrocyte. The polypeptide recognized by antibodies of the BRIC-125 type is likely to be associated with this complex.

  13. Monitoring change in the abundance and distribution of insects using butterflies and other indicator groups

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, J.A

    2005-01-01

    Conservative estimates suggest that 50–90% of the existing insect species on Earth have still to be discovered, yet the named insects alone comprise more than half of all known species of organism. With such poor baseline knowledge, monitoring change in insect diversity poses a formidable challenge to scientists and most attempts to generalize involve large extrapolations from a few well-studied taxa. Butterflies are often the only group for which accurate measures of change can be obtained. Four schemes, used successfully to assess change in British butterflies, that are increasingly being applied across the world are described: Red Data Books (RDB) list the best judgements of experts of the conservation status of species in their field of expertise; mapping schemes plot the changing distributions of species at scales of 1–100 km2; transect monitoring schemes generate time series of changes in abundance in sample populations of species on fixed sites across the UK; and occasional surveys measure the number, boundaries and size of all populations of a (usually RDB) species at intervals of 10–30 years. All schemes describe consistent patterns of change, but if they are to be more generally useful, it is important to understand how well butterflies are representative of other taxa. Comparisons with similarly measured changes in native bird and plant species suggest that butterflies have declined more rapidly that these other groups in Britain; it should soon be possible to test whether this pattern exists elsewhere. It is also demonstrated that extinction rates in British butterflies are similar to those in a range of other insect groups over 100 years once recording bias is accounted for, although probably lower than in aquatic or parasitic taxa. It is concluded that butterflies represent adequate indicators of change for many terrestrial insect groups, but recommended that similar schemes be extended to other popular groups, especially dragonflies

  14. DISTINCTIVE LOCALIZATION OF GROUP 3 LATE EMBRYOGENESIS ABUNDANT SYNTHESIZING CELLS DURING BRINE SHRIMP DEVELOPMENT.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo Yong; Song, Hwa Young; Kim, Mi Young; Lee, Bong Hee; Kim, Kyung Joo; Jo, Kyung Jin; Kim, Suhng Wook; Lee, Seung Gwan; Lee, Boo Hyung

    2015-07-01

    Despite numerous studies on late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, their functions, roles, and localizations during developmental stages in arthropods remain unknown. LEA proteins protect crucial proteins against osmotic stress during the development and growth of various organisms. Thus, in this study, fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to determine the crucial regions protected against osmotic stress as well as the distinctive localization of group 3 (G3) LEA(+) cells during brine shrimp development. Several cell types were found to synthesize G3 LEA RNA, including neurons, muscular cells, APH-1(+) cells, and renal cells. The G3 LEA(+) neuronal cell bodies outside of the mushroom body projected their axonal bundles to the central body, but those inside the mushroom body projected their axonal bundles toward the deutocerebrum without innervating the central body. The cell bodies inside the mushroom body received axons of the G3 LEA(+) sensory cells at the medial ventral cup of the nauplius eye. Several glands were found to synthesize G3 LEA RNA during the nauplius stages of brine shrimp, including the sinus, antennal I and II, salt, and three ectodermal glands. This study provides the first demonstration of the formation of G3 LEA(+) sinus glands at the emergence stages of brine shrimp. These results suggest that G3 LEA protein is synthesized in several cell types. In particular, specific glands play crucial roles during the emergence and nauplius stages of brine shrimp. PMID:25781424

  15. The use of maleic anhydride for the reversible blocking of amino groups on polypeptide chains

    PubMed Central

    Butler, P. J. G.; Harris, J. I.; Hartley, B. S.; Leberman, R.

    1969-01-01

    1. Maleic anhydride was shown to react rapidly and specifically with amino groups of proteins and peptides. Complete substitution of chymotrypsinogen was achieved under mild conditions and the extent of reaction could be readily determined from the spectrum of the maleyl-protein. 2. Maleyl-proteins are generally soluble and disaggregated at neutral pH. Trypsin splits the blocked proteins only at arginine residues and there is frequently selectivity in this cleavage, e.g. in yeast alcohol dehydrogenase and pig glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. 3. The group is removed by intramolecular catalysis at acid pH. The half-time was 11–12hr. at 37° at pH3·5 in ∈-maleyl-lysine or in maleyl-chymotrypsinogen. 4. The unblocking reaction can be used as the basis for a `diagonal'-electrophoretic separation of lysine peptides and N-terminal peptides, as shown by studies with β-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. PMID:5821728

  16. Inhibition of tau fibrillization by oleocanthal via reaction with the amino groups of tau.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenkai; Sperry, Jeffrey B; Crowe, Alex; Trojanowski, John Q; Smith, Amos B; Lee, Virginia M-Y

    2009-08-01

    Tau is a microtubule-associated protein that promotes microtubule assembly and stability. In Alzheimer's disease and related tauopathies, tau fibrillizes and aggregates into neurofibrillary tangles. Recently, oleocanthal isolated from extra virgin olive oil was found to display non-steroidal anti-inflammatory activity similar to ibuprofen. As our unpublished data indicates an inhibitory effect of oleocanthal on amyloid beta peptide fibrillization, we reasoned that it might inhibit tau fibrillization as well. Herein, we demonstrate that oleocanthal abrogates fibrillization of tau by locking tau into the naturally unfolded state. Using PHF6 consisting of the amino acid residues VQIVYK, a hexapeptide within the third repeat of tau that is essential for fibrillization, we show that oleocanthal forms an adduct with the lysine via initial Schiff base formation. Structure and function studies demonstrate that the two aldehyde groups of oleocanthal are required for the inhibitory activity. These two aldehyde groups show certain specificity when titrated with free lysine and oleocanthal does not significantly affect the normal function of tau. These findings provide a potential scheme for the development of novel therapies for neurodegenerative tauopathies. PMID:19549281

  17. Effect of molecular chirality on racemate stability: alpha-amino acids with nonpolar R groups.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Yu, Lian

    2006-02-15

    A racemate of two opposite and resolvable enantiomers is generally assumed to be more stable than the corresponding conglomerate. Demonstrating this structure-stability relation, however, has proved difficult owing to a sampling bias (data available only for systems whose racemates are stable enough to exist) and a possible kinetic bias (racemates may be easier to crystallize than conglomerates from racemic media). As a new approach to studying the relation, we determined how the relative stability of the conglomerate and the racemate changes with the molecule's degree of chirality in a series of alpha-amino acids with nonpolar R groups. We found that the excess energy of the conglomerate over the racemate, (E(C) - E(R)), increases with the size of the R group, a measure of the molecule's chirality. If valid in general, this relation demonstrates a tendency for chiral molecules to form racemates rather than conglomerates. Because of the entropy effect on crystal stability, however, the excess free energy of the conglomerate over the racemate, (G(C) - G(R)), shows no simple relation with the degree of chirality at the temperatures of study (-3 to 180 degrees C).

  18. Inhibition of tau fibrillization by oleocanthal via reaction with the amino groups of tau

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenkai; Sperry, Jeffrey B.; Crowe, Alex; Trojanowski, John Q.; Smith, Amos B.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    Tau is a microtubule-associated protein that promotes microtubule assembly and stability. In Alzheimer's disease and related tauopathies, tau fibrillizes and aggregates into neurofibrillary tangles. Recently, oleocanthal isolated from extra virgin olive oil was found to display non-steroidal anti-inflammatory activity similar to ibuprofen. Since our unpublished data indicates an inhibitory effect of oleocanthal on Aβ fibrillization, we reasoned that it might inhibit tau fibrillization as well. Herein we demonstrate that oleocanthal abrogates fibrillization of tau by locking tau into the naturally unfolded state. Using PHF6 consisting of the amino acid residues VQIVYK, a hexapeptide within the third repeat of tau that is essential for fibrillization, we show that oleocanthal forms an adduct with the lysine via initial Schiff base formation. Structure and function studies demonstrate that the two aldehyde groups of oleocanthal are required for the inhibitory activity. These two aldehyde groups show certain specificity when titrated with free lysine and oleocanthal does not significantly affect the normal function of tau. These findings provide a potential scheme for the development of novel therapies for neurodegenerative tauopathies. PMID:19549281

  19. The Abundances of the Fe Group Elements in Early B Stars in the Magellanic Clouds and Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Geraldine J.; Adelman, Saul J.

    2016-01-01

    The abundances of three Fe Group elements (V, Cr, and Fe) in 9 early main-sequence band B stars in the LMC, 7 in the SMC , and two in the Magellanic Bridge have been determined from archival FUSE observations and the Hubeny/Lanz NLTE programs TLUSTY/SYNSPEC. Lines from the Fe group elements, except for a few weak multiplets of Fe III, are not observable in the optical spectral region. The best set of lines in the FUSE spectral region are Fe III (UV1), V III 1150 Å, and Cr III 1137 Å. The abundances of these elements in early B stars are a marker for recent SNe Ia activity, as a single exploding white dwarf can deliver 0.5 solar masses of Ni-56 that decays into Fe to the ISM. The Fe group abundances in an older population of stars primarily reflect SNe II activity, in which a single explosion delivers only 0.07 solar masses of Ni-56 to the ISM (the rest remains trapped in the neutron star). The abundances of the Fe group elements in early B stars not only track SNe Ia activity but are also important for computing evolutionary tracks for massive stars. In general, the Fe abundance relative to the sun's value is comparable to the mean abundances for the lighter elements in the Clouds/Bridge but the values of [V,Cr/Fe]sun are smaller. This presentation will discuss the spatial distribution of the Fe Group elements in the Magellanic Clouds, and compare it with our galaxy in which the abundance of Fe declines with radial distance from the center. Support from NASA grants NAG5-13212, NNX10AD66G, STScI HST-GO-13346.22, and USC's Women in Science and Engineering (WiSE) program is greatly appreciated.

  20. The Abundances of the Fe Group Elements in Early B Stars in the Magellanic Clouds and Our Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Geraldine Joan; Adelman, Saul Joseph

    2015-08-01

    The abundances of the Fe-peak elements (Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni) are of interest as they are important for assessing opacities for stellar evolution calculations, confirming theoretical calculations of explosive nucleosynthesis, and inferring the past history of supernova activity in a galaxy. FUSE FUV spectra of early B stars in the LMC and SMC and HST/STIS FUV/NUV spectra of nearby B stars in our galaxy are analyzed with the Hubeny/Lanz programs TLUSTY/SYNSPEC to determine abundance for the Fe group elements and produce a map of these abundances in the Magellanic Clouds (MC) and Magellanic Bridge (MB). Except for four weak multiplets of Fe III there are no measurable lines from the Fe group in the optical region. The Fe group species found in the FUV spectra of early B stars are primarily in the second stage of ionization. The best set of lines in the FUSE spectral region are Fe III (UV1), V III 1150 Å, and Cr III 1137 Å. Analysis of the galactic B stars provides a good assessment of the reliability of the atomic parameters that are used for the MC calculations. Twenty-two early B stars in the MC and MB and five in our galaxy were analyzed. In general the Fe group abundances range from solar to slightly below solar in our region of the galaxy. But in the MCs the abundances of V, Cr, and Fe tend to be significantly lower than the mean metal abundances for the galaxy. Maps of the Fe group abundances and their variations in the LMC and SMC, tracers of recent enrichment of the ISM from supernova activity, are shown. Support from NASA grants NAG5-13212, NNX10AD66G, STScI HST-GO-13346.22, and USC’s Women in Science and Engineering (WiSE) program is greatly appreciated.

  1. Enhancing Energetic Properties and Sensitivity by Incorporating Amino and Nitramino Groups into a 1,2,4-Oxadiazole Building Block.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yongxing; Gao, Haixiang; Mitchell, Lauren A; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2016-01-18

    A single nitrogen-rich heterocyclic ring with many energetic groups is expected to exhibit excellent detonation performance. We report an effective approach for the synthesis of 3-amino-5-nitramino-1,2,4-oxadiazole, which has nitramino and amino groups in the same building block. The single-crystal X-ray structure shows layered hydrogen-bonding pairs as well as the presence of a water molecule which ensure insensitivity. Through incorporation of a cation, the hydrazinium or hydroxylammonium salts exhibit good energetic performance and acceptable sensitivities. PMID:26617389

  2. Enhancing Energetic Properties and Sensitivity by Incorporating Amino and Nitramino Groups into a 1,2,4-Oxadiazole Building Block.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yongxing; Gao, Haixiang; Mitchell, Lauren A; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2016-01-18

    A single nitrogen-rich heterocyclic ring with many energetic groups is expected to exhibit excellent detonation performance. We report an effective approach for the synthesis of 3-amino-5-nitramino-1,2,4-oxadiazole, which has nitramino and amino groups in the same building block. The single-crystal X-ray structure shows layered hydrogen-bonding pairs as well as the presence of a water molecule which ensure insensitivity. Through incorporation of a cation, the hydrazinium or hydroxylammonium salts exhibit good energetic performance and acceptable sensitivities.

  3. Abundances of Local Group Globular Clusters Using High Resolution Integrated Light Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakari, Charli; McWilliam, A.; Venn, K.; Shetrone, M. D.; Dotter, A. L.; Mackey, D.

    2014-01-01

    Abundances and kinematics of extragalactic globular clusters provide valuable clues about galaxy and globular cluster formation in a wide variety of environments. In order to obtain such information about distant, unresolved systems, specific observational techniques are required. An Integrated Light Spectrum (ILS) provides a single spectrum from an entire stellar population, and can therefore be used to determine integrated cluster abundances. This dissertation investigates the accuracy of high resolution ILS analysis methods, using ILS (taken with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope) of globular clusters associated with the Milky Way (47 Tuc, M3, M13, NGC 7006, and M15) and then applies the method to globular clusters in the outer halo of M31 (from the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey, or PAndAS). Results show that: a) as expected, the high resolution method reproduces individual stellar abundances for elements that do not vary within a cluster; b) the presence of multiple populations does affect the abundances of elements that vary within the cluster; c) certain abundance ratios are very sensitive to systematic effects, while others are not; and d) certain abundance ratios (e.g. [Ca/Fe]) can be accurately obtained from unresolved systems. Applications of ILABUNDS to the PAndAS clusters reveal that accretion may have played an important role in the formation of M31's outer halo.

  4. Light and heavy dansyl reporter groups in food chemistry: amino acid assay in beverages.

    PubMed

    Mazzotti, Fabio; Benabdelkamel, Hicham; Di Donna, Leonardo; Athanassopoulos, Constantinos M; Napoli, Anna; Sindona, Giovanni

    2012-07-01

    5-Dimethylamino-1-sulfonyl naphthalene (DNS, commonly referred as dansyl) is a functionality, bearing well-established properties in directing the fragmentation, by mass spectrometry (MS), of the corresponding ionized sulfonylated derivatives. This property is shared also by its labeled analogs. The use of d(0)/d(6) DNS derivatives is now exploited in the application of the well-established isotope dilution mass spectrometric approach in the assay of complex mixtures. A new method for the quantitation of amino acids (AAs) in beverages is therefore presented, which relies on liquid chromatographic separation of their N-dansylated derivatives followed by comparative electrospray tandem MS/MS of the d(0)/d(6) isobaric mixtures. Labeled and unlabeled DNS derivatives of the selected AAs are readily available by microwave-assisted synthetic protocols. The novelty of the method is represented by the use of heavy and light DNS-isotopologue providing suitable reporter groups. Multiple-reaction monitoring has been applied in the assay of AAs in wine, pineapple juice and bergamot juice with good-to-excellent results as proved by both relative standard deviation, lower than 15%, and by the accuracy values in the range 90-110%.

  5. Coordinative Properties of Highly Fluorinated Solvents with Amino and Ether Groups

    PubMed Central

    Boswell, Paul G.; Lugert, Elizabeth C.; Rábai, József; Amin, Elizabeth A.; Bühlmann, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    In spite of the widespread use of perfluorinated solvents with amino and ether groups in a variety of application fields, the coordinative properties of these compounds are poorly known. It is generally assumed that the electron withdrawing perfluorinated moieties render these functional groups rather inert, but little is known quantitatively about the extent of their inertness. This paper reports on the interactions between inorganic monocations and perfluorotripentylamine and 2H-perfluoro-5,8,11-trimethyl-3,6,9,12-tetraoxapentadecane, as determined with fluorous liquid-membrane cation-selective electrodes doped with tetrakis[3,5-bis(perfluorohexyl)phenyl]borate salts. The amine does not undergo measurable association with any ion tested, and its formal pKa is shown to be smaller than -0.5. This is consistent with the nearly planar structure of the amine at its nitrogen center, as obtained with density functional theory calculations. The tetraether interacts very weakly with Na+ and Li+. Assuming 1:1 stoichiometry, formal association constants were determined to be 2.3 and 1.5 M-1, respectively. This disproves an earlier proposition that the Lewis base character in such compounds may be non-existent. Due to the extremely low polarity of fluorous solvents and the resulting high extent of ion pair formation, a fluorophilic electrolyte salt with perfluoroalkyl substituents on both the cation and the anion had to be developed for these experiments. In its pure form, this first fluorophilic electrolyte salt is an ionic liquid with a glass transition temperature, Tg, of -18.5 °C. Interestingly, the molar conductivity of solutions of this salt increases very steeply in the high concentration range, making it a particularly effective electrolyte salt. PMID:16316244

  6. A simple method for N-15 labelling of exocyclic amino groups in synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Acedo, Montse; Fàbrega, Carme; Aviño, Anna; Goodman, Myron; Fagan, Patricia; Wemmer, David; Eritja, Ramon

    1994-01-01

    The use of the ammonia deprotection step to introduce 15N labels at specific exocyclic amino positions of adenine, cytosine, guanine or 2-aminopurine of oligodeoxynucleotides is described. PMID:8065910

  7. Synthesis of amino acyl adenylates using the tert-butoxycarbonyl protecting group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, D. W.; Seguin, R.; Saburi, M.; Fendler, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    The synthesis of amino acyl adenylates using N-tert-butoxycarbonyl-protected amino acids is reported. Anhydrous solutions containing N-tert-butoxycarbonyl alanine, phenylalanine, and methionine were combined with the anhydrous mono (tri-n-octylammonium) salt of adenosine 5'-phosphate and the resultant amino acyl adenylates were characterized by means of elemental analysis, and infrared and proton NMR spectroscopy. Amino acyl adenylate yields of up to 60% were obtained with high purity at room temperatures. The reported synthesis is considered to represent a large improvement over previous methods due to the purity of the products, normal temperature requirements, and the stability of the starting compounds, which suggests its use in investigations of prebiotic oligo- and polypeptide synthesis.

  8. New Chiral Reagent for Installation of Pharmacophoric (S)- or (R)-2-(Alkoxyphosphono)-1-amino-2,2-difluoroethyl Groups.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chen; Zhang, Lijun; Mei, Haibo; Pajkert, Romana; Ponomarenko, Maksym; Pan, Yi; Röschenthaler, Gerd-Volker; Soloshonok, Vadim A; Han, Jianlin

    2016-05-17

    A new chiral reagent has been developed for generalized installation of pharmacophoric (S)- or (R)-2-(alkoxyphosphono)-1-amino-2,2-difluoroethyl group into organic compounds. The original synthetic application of this new reagent is exemplified by Friedel-Crafts reactions with indoles, which proceed efficiently with excellent diastereoselectivity to give enantiomerically pure products. PMID:26952046

  9. The Abundances of the Fe Group Elements in Three Early B Stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, G. J.; Adelman, S. J.

    2005-12-01

    The photospheric abundances of V, Cr, and Fe have been determined for three sharp-lined early B stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud using FUV spectra obtained from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) and the Kurucz LTE model atmosphere/spectrum synthesis codes ATLAS9/SYNTHE. The program stars include NGC1818/D1, NGC2004/B15, and NGC2004/B30 (star designations are from Robertson 1974, A&AS, 15, 261). The calculations were carried through with model parameters close to those adopted by Korn et al. (2000, A&A, 353, 655). Values of Teff, log g, ξ T, and v sin I are 25000/4.0/0/30, 20000/3.1/6/25, and 23500/3.3/14/30 for NGC1818/D1, NGC2004/B15, and NGC2004/B30, respectively. The abundances quoted below are in sequence for the latter stars. The vanadium abundances, [V/H], determined from V III λ λ 1150,1152 (UV 2), are -0.6, -0.9, and -0.9 dex. Cr was determined from Cr III λ λ 1118,1136. Values of -0.5, -0.8, and -0.7 dex were found. Uncertainties in the V and Cr abundances are ˜0.3 dex. The Fe abundance is primarily from 7 lines of Fe III (UV 1) in the region λ λ 1122-32. Values are -0.8±0.3, ˜-1.1, and -0.4±0.3. Since there is no evidence for N enhancement in the program stars ([N/H] ˜ -0.9, -1.0, and -0.6 from the N III doublet at 1183,1184 Å) the photospheric abundances have probably not been altered by mixing of processed material from the star's interior and the derived abundances represent pristine values for the two young clusters in the LMC. It should be noted that the N and Fe abundances derived for NGC1818/D1 are about 0.5 dex lower than those determined by Korn et al. from much weaker optical lines. We will discuss possible reasons for the discrepancy. The generally low abundances for the Fe group elements in these young cluster B stars imply that supernova activity has been minimal in the regions of the LMC in which the stars were formed. GJP appreciates support from NASA grant NAG5-13212.

  10. Quantification of glycated N-terminal peptide of hemoglobin using derivatization for multiple functional groups of amino acids followed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Yohei; Kinumi, Tomoya; Yamazaki, Taichi; Takatsu, Akiko

    2016-02-01

    A novel method of amino acid analysis using derivatization of multiple functional groups (amino, carboxyl, and phenolic hydroxyl groups) was applied to measure glycated amino acids in order to quantify glycated peptides and evaluate the degree of glycation of peptide. Amino and carboxyl groups of amino acids were derivatized with 1-bromobutane so that the hydrophobicities and basicities of the amino acids, including glycated amino acids, were improved. These derivatized amino acids could be detected with high sensitivity using LC-MS/MS. In this study, 1-deoxyfructosyl-VHLTPE and VHLTPE, which are N-terminal peptides of the β-chains of hemoglobin, were selected as target compounds. After reducing the peptide sample solution with sodium borohydride, the obtained peptides were hydrolyzed with hydrochloric acid. The released amino acids were then derivatized with 1-bromobutane and analyzed with LC-MS/MS. The derivatized amino acids, including glycated amino acids, could be separated using an octadecyl silylated silica column and good sharp peaks were detected. We show a confirmatory experiment that the proposed method can be applied to evaluate the degree of glycation of peptides, using mixtures of glycated and non-glycated peptide.

  11. Abundance and Relative Distribution of Frankia Host Infection Groups Under Actinorhizal Alnus glutinosa and Non-actinorhizal Betula nigra Trees.

    PubMed

    Samant, Suvidha; Huo, Tian; Dawson, Jeffrey O; Hahn, Dittmar

    2016-02-01

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to assess the abundance and relative distribution of host infection groups of the root-nodule forming, nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia in four soils with similar physicochemical characteristics, two of which were vegetated with a host plant, Alnus glutinosa, and two with a non-host plant, Betula nigra. Analyses of DAPI-stained cells at three locations, i.e., at a distance of less than 1 m (near stem), 2.5 m (middle crown), and 3-5 m (crown edge) from the stems of both tree species revealed no statistically significant differences in abundance. Frankiae generally accounted for 0.01 to 0.04 % of these cells, with values between 4 and 36 × 10(5) cells (g soil)(-1). In three out of four soils, abundance of frankiae was significantly higher at locations "near stem" and/or "middle crown" compared to "crown edge," while numbers at these locations were not different in the fourth soil. Frankiae of the Alnus host infection group were dominant in all samples accounting for about 75 % and more of the cells, with no obvious differences with distance to stem. In three of the soils, all of these cells were represented by strain Ag45/Mut15. In the fourth soil that was vegetated with older A. glutinosa trees, about half of these cells belonged to a different subgroup represented by strain ArI3. In all soils, the remaining cells belonged to the Elaeagnus host infection group represented by strain EAN1pec. Casuarina-infective frankiae were not found. Abundance and relative distribution of Frankia host infection groups were similar in soils under the host plant A. glutinosa and the non-host plant B. nigra. Results did thus not reveal any specific effects of plant species on soil Frankia populations. PMID:26143359

  12. Abundance and Relative Distribution of Frankia Host Infection Groups Under Actinorhizal Alnus glutinosa and Non-actinorhizal Betula nigra Trees.

    PubMed

    Samant, Suvidha; Huo, Tian; Dawson, Jeffrey O; Hahn, Dittmar

    2016-02-01

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to assess the abundance and relative distribution of host infection groups of the root-nodule forming, nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia in four soils with similar physicochemical characteristics, two of which were vegetated with a host plant, Alnus glutinosa, and two with a non-host plant, Betula nigra. Analyses of DAPI-stained cells at three locations, i.e., at a distance of less than 1 m (near stem), 2.5 m (middle crown), and 3-5 m (crown edge) from the stems of both tree species revealed no statistically significant differences in abundance. Frankiae generally accounted for 0.01 to 0.04 % of these cells, with values between 4 and 36 × 10(5) cells (g soil)(-1). In three out of four soils, abundance of frankiae was significantly higher at locations "near stem" and/or "middle crown" compared to "crown edge," while numbers at these locations were not different in the fourth soil. Frankiae of the Alnus host infection group were dominant in all samples accounting for about 75 % and more of the cells, with no obvious differences with distance to stem. In three of the soils, all of these cells were represented by strain Ag45/Mut15. In the fourth soil that was vegetated with older A. glutinosa trees, about half of these cells belonged to a different subgroup represented by strain ArI3. In all soils, the remaining cells belonged to the Elaeagnus host infection group represented by strain EAN1pec. Casuarina-infective frankiae were not found. Abundance and relative distribution of Frankia host infection groups were similar in soils under the host plant A. glutinosa and the non-host plant B. nigra. Results did thus not reveal any specific effects of plant species on soil Frankia populations.

  13. Heliothine caterpillars differ in abundance of a gut lumen aminoacylase (L-ACY-1)-Suggesting a relationship between host preference and fatty acid amino acid conjugate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kuhns, Emily H; Seidl-Adams, Irmgard; Tumlinson, James H

    2012-03-01

    Fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs) in the oral secretions of Lepidopteran larvae are responsible for eliciting plant defense responses. FACs are present despite fitness costs which suggests that they are important for larval survival. In previous work, an aminoacylase (L-ACY-1) was identified as the enzyme responsible for hydrolysis of FACs within the larvae gut. This gene is present in three related Heliothine species: Heliothis virescens, Helicoverpa zea, and Heliothis subflexa. Transcript levels in gut tissues are predictive of protein abundance and enzyme activity in the frass. H. zea has the least amount of L-ACY-1 present in gut tissue and frass, while H. virescens has intermediate protein levels and H. subflexa has the highest amount of L-ACY-1 in gut tissue as well as in frass samples. These species differ in their host range and protein intake targets, and recently, it has been shown that FACs, the substrates of L-ACY-1, are involved in nitrogen metabolism. The correlation between protein intake and degree of host range specialization suggests that this aminoacylase may allow specialized larvae to obtain nitrogen requirements despite limitations in diet heterogeneity.

  14. Natural (15)N Abundance in Key Amino Acids from Lamb Muscle: Exploring a New Horizon in Diet Authentication and Assessment of Feed Efficiency in Ruminants.

    PubMed

    Cantalapiedra-Hijar, Gonzalo; Ortigues-Marty, Isabelle; Schiphorst, Anne-Marie; Robins, Richard J; Tea, Illa; Prache, Sophie

    2016-05-25

    Natural (15)N abundance (δ(15)N) varies between individual amino acids (AAs). We hypothesized that δ(15)N of nontransaminating and essential AAs ("source" AAs, such as phenylalanine) present in animal tissues could be used as a marker of dietary origin, whereas δ(15)N of transaminating AAs ("trophic" AAs, such as glutamic acid) could give more detailed insights into animal feed efficiency. Two diets based on dehydrated Lucerne pellets were tested in growing lambs, which promoted different feed efficiencies. No dietary effects were noted on δ(15)N of any AAs analyzed in lamb muscle. In addition, δ(15)N of phenylalanine was unexpectedly similar to that of glutamic acid, suggesting that δ(15)N of AAs is significantly derived from the metabolism of the rumen microbiota and, thus, are not suited for diet authentication in ruminants. In contrast, the δ(15)N of transaminating AAs facilitates an improved prediction of animal feed efficiency compared to the classical isotopic bulk N analysis. PMID:27148901

  15. A Remarkable Oxidative Cascade That Replaces the Riboflavin C8 Methyl with an Amino Group during Roseoflavin Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Jhulki, Isita; Chanani, Prem K; Abdelwahed, Sameh H; Begley, Tadhg P

    2016-07-13

    Roseoflavin is a naturally occurring riboflavin analogue with antibiotic properties. It is biosynthesized from riboflavin in a reaction involving replacement of the C8 methyl with a dimethylamino group. Herein we report the identification of a flavin-dependent enzyme that converts flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and glutamate to 8-amino-FMN via the intermediacy of 8-formyl-FMN. A mechanistic proposal for this remarkable transformation is proposed. PMID:27331868

  16. The computational study of amino group impregnation on the zeolite surface toward the behaviors of adsorption and diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kiwoong; Lee, Sooho; Lee, Kwang Soon; Lee, Won Bo

    2014-03-01

    The molecular dynamic and Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulation study were conducted to investigate the adsorption and diffusion behaviors of mixture of CO2 and N2. Pure silicalite structures of zeolites TON, AFI, and LTL were selected as the host materials to be evaluated in this study. The effect of surface modification of TON, realized by impregnating the amino functional group on TON surface, on the adsorption and the diffusion were analyzed and compared with the normal TON structure. The results show that, in the adsorption behaviors, the modified TON adsorbs more CO2 than the normal TON structure, however, at high pressure regions, CO2 uptake is lower than the normal TON due to reductions of pore volume. This effect was quantitatively analyzed for the various amino functional group; methyl-, ethylamine, and ammonia. In the diffusion behaviors, the mixture in the modified TON has a lower diffusivity than the mixture in the normal TON due to additional attractive interaction between the amino group and mixture. In addition, the single file mobilities as well as the self-diffusion coefficients were employed to describe the observed diffusion behaviors.

  17. Time-resolved FT EPR and optical spectroscopy study on photooxidation of aliphatic alpha-amino acids in aqueous solutions; electron transfer from amino vs carboxylate functional group.

    PubMed

    Tarabek, Peter; Bonifacić, Marija; Beckert, Dieter

    2006-06-01

    Using time-resolved Fourier transform electron paramagnetic resonance, FT EPR, and optical spectroscopy, the photooxidation of glycine, alpha-alanine, alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, and model compounds beta-alanine, methylamine and sodium acetate, by excited triplets of anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate dianion was studied in aqueous solutions in the pH range 5-13. Anthraquinone radical trianions showing strong emissive spin-polarization (CIDEP) were formed, indicating fast electron transfer from the quenchers to the spin-polarized quinone triplet as the primary reaction. None of the primary radicals formed upon one-electron oxidation of quenchers could be detected at the nanosecond time scale of FT EPR measurements because of their very fast transformation into secondary products. The latter were identified to be decarboxylated alpha-aminoalkyl radicals for alpha-amino acids anions and zwitterions, beta-aminoalkyl radicals for beta-alanine zwitterions, and methyl radicals for acetate anions; corresponding aminyl radicals were the first EPR detectable products from beta-alanine anions and methylamine. Thus, anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate triplet can take an electron from both NH(2)- and -CO(2)(-) functional groups forming aminium ((+*)NH(2)-) and acyloxyl (-CO(2)(*)) radicals, respectively. Aminium radicals derived from beta-alanine anions and CH(3)-NH(2) stabilize by deprotonation into aminyl radicals, whereas these derived from alpha-amino acids anions are known to suffer ultrafast decarboxylation (tau approximately 10 ps). Analysis of the polarization patterns revealed that decarboxylation from acyloxyl radicals are considerably slower (ns < tau < 0.1 micros). Therefore, in the case of alpha-amino acids, the isoelectronic structures NH(2)-CR(2)-CO(2)(*) and (+*)NH(2)-CR(2)-CO(2)(-) probably do not constitute resonance mesomeric forms of one and the same species and the decarboxylation of aminium radicals is not preceded by the intramolecular carboxylate to amino group

  18. Benzylidene Acetal Protecting Group as Carboxylic Acid Surrogate: Synthesis of Functionalized Uronic Acids and Sugar Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Amit; Senthilkumar, Soundararasu; Baskaran, Sundarababu

    2016-01-18

    Direct oxidation of the 4,6-O-benzylidene acetal protecting group to C-6 carboxylic acid has been developed that provides an easy access to a wide range of biologically important and synthetically challenging uronic acid and sugar amino acid derivatives in good yields. The RuCl3 -NaIO4 -mediated oxidative cleavage method eliminates protection and deprotection steps and the reaction takes place under mild conditions. The dual role of the benzylidene acetal, as a protecting group and source of carboxylic acid, was exploited in the efficient synthesis of six-carbon sialic acid analogues and disaccharides bearing uronic acids, including glycosaminoglycan analogues.

  19. NMR chemical shifts in amino acids: Effects of environments, electric field, and amine group rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Young-Gui; Pfrommer, Bernd G.; Louie, Steven G.; Canning, Andrew

    2002-03-03

    The authors present calculations of NMR chemical shifts in crystalline phases of some representative amino acids such as glycine, alanine, and alanyl-alanine. To get an insight on how different environments affect the chemical shifts, they study the transition from the crystalline phase to completely isolated molecules of glycine. In the crystalline limit, the shifts are dominated by intermolecular hydrogen-bonds. In the molecular limit, however, dipole electric field effects dominate the behavior of the chemical shifts. They show that it is necessary to average the chemical shifts in glycine over geometries. Tensor components are analyzed to get the angle dependent proton chemical shifts, which is a more refined characterization method.

  20. Group 11 complexes with amino acid derivatives: Synthesis and antitumoral studies.

    PubMed

    Ortego, Lourdes; Meireles, Margarida; Kasper, Cornelia; Laguna, Antonio; Villacampa, M Dolores; Gimeno, M Concepción

    2016-03-01

    Gold(I), gold(III), silver(I) and copper(I) complexes with modified amino acid esters and phosphine ligands have been prepared in order to test their cytotoxic activity. Two different phosphine fragments, PPh3 and PPh2py (py=pyridine), have been used. The amino acid esters have been modified by introducing an aromatic amine as pyridine that coordinates metal fragments through the nitrogen atom, giving complexes of the type [M(L)(PR3)](+) or [AuCl3(L)] (L=l-valine-N-(4-pyridylcarbonyl) methyl ester (L1), l-alanine-N-(4-pyridylcarbonyl) methyl ester (L2), l-phenylalanine-N-(4-pyridylcarbonyl) methyl-ester) (L3); M=Au(I), Ag(I), Cu(I), PR3=PPh3, PPh2py). The in vitro cytotoxic activity of metal complexes was tested against four tumor human cell lines and one tumor mouse cell line. A metabolic activity test (3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide, MTT) was used and IC50 values were compared with those obtained for cisplatin. Several complexes displayed significant cytotoxic activities. In order to determine whether antiproliferation and cell death are associated with apoptosis, NIH-3T3 cells were exposed to five selected complexes (Annexin V+ FITC, PI) and analyzed by flow cytometry. These experiments showed that the mechanism by which the complexes inhibit cell proliferation inducing cell death in NIH-3T3 cells is mainly apoptotic.

  1. Relative abundance of water-group ions in Saturn's inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Mark E.; Cravens, Thomas; Tokar, Robert; Smith, Howard T.; Perryman, Rebecca; Waite, J. Hunter; McNutt, Ralph L.

    2016-10-01

    At nineteen different times over seven years, the Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measured the relative fractions of water-group ions in the inner magnetosphere of Saturn near the equatorial plane between 3.8 and 6.5 Saturn radii (RS). INMS samples only a small portion of velocity space in any one measurement, but the measurements span a broad range of velocity space. The data show that H2O+ comprises the bulk of the ions near 4.0 RS, and that its fraction decreases with increasing distance from 4.0 RS, the source of neutral water at Enceladus. At 4.0 RS, the fraction of H2O+ ranges from 60% to 100%, with an average of 80%. At 6.5 RS, the three main water-group constituents, H2O+, OH+, and O+, are nearly equal. H3O+, which dominates the water-group ion fractions in the Enceladus plume, is 10% or less in Saturn's magnetosphere outside the plume. The relative ion fractions show other variations that are not clearly linked to any of the studied parameters including velocity, density, and the orbit-phase-dependent activity of Enceladus.

  2. Kinetic and thermodynamic study of a chemically modified highly active xylanase from Scopulariopsis sp: existence of an essential amino group.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Ahmed Jawaard; Bokhari, Saleem Ahmed; Siddiqui, Khawar Sohail

    2007-01-01

    The amino groups of purified least acidic xylanase (LAX) isomer and carboxyl groups of purified highly acidic xylanase (HAX) isomer from Scopulariopsis sp. were chemically modified, resulting in charge neutralization and reversal. Modification of the second amino group was accompanied by the complete loss of enzyme activity in both the absence and presence of xylose. Multiple alignments of family 10 and 11 xylanases revealed that there is a pair of fully conserved Lys residues only in family 10 members. Xylanase structures from family 10 members showed that one of the conserved Lys residues is found near the active-site cleft that makes an H-bond with the substrate. The LAX and HAX isoenzymes in which one amino and three to four carboxyl groups were modified were subjected to kinetic and thermodynamic characterization. There were no differences in pH optima between the native and modified HAX, but there was a broadening of pH optimum toward the alkaline range for charge-neutralized LAX and a double pH optimum for charge-reversed LAX. TheV max/K m of both modified LAX and HAX decreased relative to the native species. The thermodynamics of xylan hydrolysis showed that the decrease in the catalytic activity of modified LAX enzymes was entropically driven. When compared with native enzyme, the thermostabilities of modified LAX enzymes increased in the presence and decreased in the absence of substrate. The thermodynamics of kinetic stability for modified LAX enzymes revealed that this increase in thermolability was owing to the decrease in DeltaH# with a concomitant increase in DeltaS# compared with native LAX. The thermostabilities of all the modified HAX species decreased except that of charge-neutralized HAX, whose half-life significantly increased in 50% (v/v) aqueous dioxan. These results suggest that the altered properties of the modified enzymes were a result of the conformational changes brought about by chemical modification. PMID:18025557

  3. A Group 6 Late Embryogenesis Abundant Protein from Common Bean Is a Disordered Protein with Extended Helical Structure and Oligomer-forming Properties*

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Najera, Lucero Y.; Saab-Rincón, Gloria; Battaglia, Marina; Amero, Carlos; Pulido, Nancy O.; García-Hernández, Enrique; Solórzano, Rosa M.; Reyes, José L.; Covarrubias, Alejandra A.

    2014-01-01

    Late embryogenesis-abundant proteins accumulate to high levels in dry seeds. Some of them also accumulate in response to water deficit in vegetative tissues, which leads to a remarkable association between their presence and low water availability conditions. A major sub-group of these proteins, also known as typical LEA proteins, shows high hydrophilicity and a high percentage of glycine and other small amino acid residues, distinctive physicochemical properties that predict a high content of structural disorder. Although all typical LEA proteins share these characteristics, seven groups can be distinguished by sequence similarity, indicating structural and functional diversity among them. Some of these groups have been extensively studied; however, others require a more detailed analysis to advance in their functional understanding. In this work, we report the structural characterization of a group 6 LEA protein from a common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (PvLEA6) by circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance showing that it is a disordered protein in aqueous solution. Using the same techniques, we show that despite its unstructured nature, the addition of trifluoroethanol exhibited an intrinsic potential in this protein to gain helicity. This property was also promoted by high osmotic potentials or molecular crowding. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PvLEA6 protein is able to form soluble homo-oligomeric complexes that also show high levels of structural disorder. The association between PvLEA6 monomers to form dimers was shown to occur in plant cells by bimolecular fluorescence complementation, pointing to the in vivo functional relevance of this association. PMID:25271167

  4. A group 6 late embryogenesis abundant protein from common bean is a disordered protein with extended helical structure and oligomer-forming properties.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Najera, Lucero Y; Saab-Rincón, Gloria; Battaglia, Marina; Amero, Carlos; Pulido, Nancy O; García-Hernández, Enrique; Solórzano, Rosa M; Reyes, José L; Covarrubias, Alejandra A

    2014-11-14

    Late embryogenesis-abundant proteins accumulate to high levels in dry seeds. Some of them also accumulate in response to water deficit in vegetative tissues, which leads to a remarkable association between their presence and low water availability conditions. A major sub-group of these proteins, also known as typical LEA proteins, shows high hydrophilicity and a high percentage of glycine and other small amino acid residues, distinctive physicochemical properties that predict a high content of structural disorder. Although all typical LEA proteins share these characteristics, seven groups can be distinguished by sequence similarity, indicating structural and functional diversity among them. Some of these groups have been extensively studied; however, others require a more detailed analysis to advance in their functional understanding. In this work, we report the structural characterization of a group 6 LEA protein from a common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (PvLEA6) by circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance showing that it is a disordered protein in aqueous solution. Using the same techniques, we show that despite its unstructured nature, the addition of trifluoroethanol exhibited an intrinsic potential in this protein to gain helicity. This property was also promoted by high osmotic potentials or molecular crowding. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PvLEA6 protein is able to form soluble homo-oligomeric complexes that also show high levels of structural disorder. The association between PvLEA6 monomers to form dimers was shown to occur in plant cells by bimolecular fluorescence complementation, pointing to the in vivo functional relevance of this association. PMID:25271167

  5. Optimization of amino group density on surfaces of titanium dioxide nanoparticles covalently bonded to a silicone substrate for antibacterial and cell adhesion activities.

    PubMed

    Okada, Masahiro; Yasuda, Shoji; Kimura, Tsuyoshi; Iwasaki, Mitsunobu; Ito, Seishiro; Kishida, Akio; Furuzono, Tsutomu

    2006-01-01

    A composite consisting of titanium dioxide (TiO2) particle, the surface of which was modified with amino groups, and a silicone substrate through covalent bonding at their interface was developed, and antibacterial and cell adhesion activities of the composite were evaluated. The density of the amino groups on the TiO2 particle surface was controlled by the reaction time of the modification reaction. The degradation rate of CH3CHO in the presence of the TiO2 particles under UV irradiation decreased with an increase in the amino group density on the TiO2 surface. On the other hand, the number of L929 cells adhering on the TiO2/silicone composite increased with an increase in the amino group density. From the above two results, the optimum density of amino groups for both photoreactivity and cell adhesiveness was estimated to be 2.0-4.0 molecules/nm2. The optimum amino group-modified TiO2/silicone composite sheet (amino group density, 3.0 molecules/nm2) showed an effective antibacterial activity for Escherichia coli bacteria under UV irradiation.

  6. Analysis of the Contribution of Chromophores in Side Groups of Amino Acids to the Absorption Spectrum of Hemoglobin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrinenko, I. A.; Vashanov, G. A.; Ruban, M. K.

    2014-01-01

    Based on spectral analysis of solutions of aromatic, heterocyclic, and sulfur-containing amino acids, we propose an additive model and assess the roles of the studied types of amino acid residues in formation of the overall absorption spectrum of hemoglobin. We have established that the identified absorption maxima (transitions) at 243.4, 248.4, 253.2, 258.8, 261.6, 264.8, and 268.4 nm belong to phenylalanine amino acid residues. Probably the latter also form the unassigned transition at 241.0 nm. The transitions at 272.8, 274.6, 280.0, and 284.4 nm are a superposition of the absorption by the side groups of tyrosine and tryptophan; the transition at 278.2 nm is associated with tyrosine, masked by adjacent transitions of tryptophan, and the transition at 291.2 nm belongs to tryptophan. We consider the possibility of estimating the changes in the spectral properties of proteins under the influence of various physical and chemical factors using data from additive spectra.

  7. Lanthanide-Catalyzed Reversible Alkynyl Exchange by Carbon-Carbon Single-Bond Cleavage Assisted by a Secondary Amino Group.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yinlin; Zhang, Fangjun; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Xigeng

    2016-09-12

    Lanthanide-catalyzed alkynyl exchange through C-C single-bond cleavage assisted by a secondary amino group is reported. A lanthanide amido complex is proposed as a key intermediate, which undergoes unprecedented reversible β-alkynyl elimination followed by alkynyl exchange and imine reinsertion. The in situ homo- and cross-dimerization of the liberated alkyne can serve as an additional driving force to shift the metathesis equilibrium to completion. This reaction is formally complementary to conventional alkyne metathesis and allows the selective transformation of internal propargylamines into those bearing different substituents on the alkyne terminus in moderate to excellent yields under operationally simple reaction conditions. PMID:27510403

  8. Dipolar Dyes with a Pyrrolo[2,3-b]quinoxaline Skeleton Containing a Cyano Group and a Bridged Tertiary Amino Group: Synthesis, Solvatofluorochromism, and Bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Łukasiewicz, Łukasz G; Deperasińska, Irena; Poronik, Yevgen M; Jun, Yong Woong; Banasiewicz, Marzena; Kozankiewicz, Bolesław; Ahn, Kyo Han; Gryko, Daniel T

    2016-06-01

    Two strongly polarized dipolar chromophores possessing a cyclic tertiary amino group at one terminus of the molecule and a CN group at the opposite terminus were designed and synthesized. Their rigid skeleton contains the rarely studied pyrrolo[2,3-b]quinoxaline ring system. The photophysical properties of these regioisomeric dyes were different owing to differing π conjugation between the CN group and the electron-donor moiety. These dipolar molecules showed very intense emission, strong solvatofluorochromism, and sufficient two-photon brightness for bioimaging. One of these regioisomeric dyes, namely, 11-carbonitrile-2,3,4,5,6,7-hexahydro-1H-3a,8,13,13b-tetraazabenzo[b]cyclohepta[1,2,3-jk]fluorene, was successfully utilized in two-photon imaging of mouse organ tissues and showed distinct tissue morphology with high resolution.

  9. Role of the alpha-amino group of protein in ubiquitin-mediated protein breakdown.

    PubMed Central

    Hershko, A; Heller, H; Eytan, E; Kaklij, G; Rose, I A

    1984-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that the conjugation of ubiquitin to NH2 groups of proteins is required for protein breakdown. We now show that the selective modification of NH2-terminal alpha-NH2 groups of globin and lysozyme prevents their degradation by the ubiquitin proteolytic system from reticulocytes. The conjugation by ubiquitin of epsilon-NH2 groups of lysine residues, usually seen in multiples, was also inhibited in alpha-NH2-blocked proteins. Naturally occurring N alpha-acetylated proteins are not degraded by the ubiquitin system at a significant rate, while their nonacetylated counterparts from other species are good substrates. This suggests that one function of N alpha-acetylation of cellular proteins is to prevent their degradation by the ubiquitin system. alpha-NH2-blocked proteins can have their activity as substrates for degradation increased by incorporation of alpha-NH2 groups through the introduction of polyalanine side chains. Proteins in which most epsilon-NH2 groups are blocked but the alpha-NH2 group is free are degraded by the ubiquitin system, but at a reduced rate. It is therefore suggested that the exposure of a free NH2 terminus of proteins is required for degradation and probably initiates the formation of ubiquitin conjugates committed for degradation. Images PMID:6095265

  10. Critical effect of the N2 amino group on structure, dynamics, and elasticity of DNA polypurine tracts.

    PubMed Central

    Lankas, Filip; Cheatham, Thomas E; Spacková, Nad'a; Hobza, Pavel; Langowski, Jörg; Sponer, Jirí

    2002-01-01

    Unrestrained 5-20-ns explicit-solvent molecular dynamics simulations using the Cornell et al. force field have been carried out for d[GCG(N)11GCG]2 (N, purine base) considering guanine*cytosine (G*C), adenine*thymine (A*T), inosine*5-methyl-cytosine (I*mC), and 2-amino-adenine*thymine (D*T) basepairs. The simulations unambiguously show that the structure and elasticity of N-tracts is primarily determined by the presence of the amino group in the minor groove. Simulated A-, I-, and AI-tracts show almost identical structures, with high propeller twist and minor groove narrowing. G- and D-tracts have small propeller twisting and are partly shifted toward the A-form. The elastic properties also differ between the two groups. The sequence-dependent electrostatic component of base stacking seems to play a minor role. Our conclusions are entirely consistent with available experimental data. Nevertheless, the propeller twist and helical twist in the simulated A-tract appear to be underestimated compared to crystallographic studies. To obtain further insight into the possible force field deficiencies, additional multiple simulations have been made for d(A)10, systematically comparing four major force fields currently used in DNA simulations and utilizing B and A-DNA forms as the starting structure. This comparison shows that the conclusions of the present work are not influenced by the force field choice. PMID:11964246

  11. The Group Abundance Fraction: A statistically robust measure of particle composition and of spatial structure in images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelof, Edmond C.

    2015-01-01

    When two processes (A and B) are measured by counting instruments, we wish to present the results as an "abundance" along with an associated uncertainty. When the number of individual counts of either component is low, the usual ratio (A/B) is statistically ill-defined because there is a finite probability of zero counts in the denominator. However, the "Group Abundance Fraction" (F), e.g., A/(A+B), is a statistically robust parameter (under the condition that there must be at least one total count between A and B in order to constitute a measurement). We rigorously derive expectation values (over a conditional Poisson statistical ensemble) for and its standard deviation σF that are valid for all values of total counts greater than one. We then derive useful estimators for these ensemble expectation values in terms of simple algebraic functions of the actual observed accumulated counts. We also incorporate the practical effects of instrument response functions and background rates. The results are not restricted to particle species composition (or spectra), but are also applicable when A and B represent counts in adjacent "pixels" of spatial images formed by the particles.

  12. Solenicola setigera is the first characterized member of the abundant and cosmopolitan uncultured marine stramenopile group MAST-3.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Fernando; Moreira, David; Benzerara, Karim; López-García, Purificación

    2011-01-01

    Culture-independent molecular methods based on the amplification, cloning and sequencing of small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes are a powerful tool to study the diversity of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms for which morphological features are not conspicuous. In recent years, molecular data from environmental surveys have revealed several clades of protists lacking cultured and/or described members. Among them are various clades of marine stramenopiles (heterokonts), which are thought to play an essential ecological role as grazers, being abundant and distributed in oceans worldwide. In this work, we show that Solenicola setigera, a distinctive widespread colonial marine protist, is a member of the environmental clade MArine STramenopile 3 (MAST-3). Solenicola is generally considered as a parasite or an epiphyte of the diatom Leptocylindrus mediterraneus. So far, the ultrastructural, morphological and ecological data available were insufficient to elucidate its phylogenetic position, even at the division or class level. We determined SSU rRNA gene sequences of S. setigera specimens sampled from different locations and seasons in the type locality, the Gulf of Lions, France. They were closely related, though not identical, which, together with morphological differences under electron microscopy, suggest the occurrence of several species. Solenicola sequences were well nested within the MAST-3 clade in phylogenetic trees. Since Solenicola is the first identified member of this abundant marine clade, we propose the name Solenicolida for the MAST-3 phylogenetic group.

  13. On the Formation of Amide Polymers via Carbonyl-Amino Group Linkages in Energetically Processed Ices of Astrophysical Relevance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förstel, Marko; Maksyutenko, Pavlo; Jones, Brant M.; Sun, Bing J.; Lee, Huan C.; Chang, Agnes H. H.; Kaiser, Ralf I.

    2016-04-01

    We report on the formation of organic amide polymers via carbonyl-amino group linkages in carbon monoxide and ammonia bearing energetically processed ices of astrophysical relevance. The first group comprises molecules with one carboxyl group and an increasing number of amine moieties starting with formamide (45 u), urea (60 u), and hydrazine carboxamide (75 u). The second group consists of species with two carboxyl (58 u) and up to three amine groups (73 u, 88 u, and 103 u). The formation and polymerization of these linkages from simple inorganic molecules via formamide und urea toward amide polymers is discussed in an astrophysical and astrobiological context. Our results show that long chain molecules, which are closely related to polypeptides, easily form by energetically processing simple, inorganic ices at very low temperatures and can be released into the gas phase by sublimation of the ices in star-forming regions. Our experimental results were obtained by employing reflectron time-of-flight mass spectroscopy, coupled with soft, single photon vacuum ultraviolet photoionization; they are complemented by theoretical calculations.

  14. Modulation of excitatory amino acid receptors by group IIB metal cations in cultured mouse hippocampal neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, M L; Vyklicky, L; Westbrook, G L

    1989-01-01

    1. Responses to the excitatory amino acids kainate, quisqualate, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), L-glutamate and L-aspartate were recorded in mouse hippocampal neurones in cell culture, using the whole-cell configuration of the patch clamp technique. Agonists were applied rapidly from an array of flow pipes each of 250 microns diameter, positioned within 100 microns of the nerve cell body. 2. Responses to NMDA, L-aspartate and to low concentrations of L-glutamate, recorded with glycine in the extracellular fluid, were strongly antagonized by 50 microM-zinc. Responses to kainate, quisqualate, and in glycine-free solution, responses to L-glutamate, were potentiated by 50 microM-zinc, but partially antagonized by 1 mM-zinc. On average, with 50 microM-zinc, responses to NMDA were reduced to 0.19 times control, while responses to kainate and quisqualate were increased to 1.09 and 1.14 times control. With 1 mM-zinc responses to kainate and quisqualate were reduced to 0.54 and 0.42 times control. 3. Cadmium had a similar, though less potent action, and at 50 microM antagonized responses to NMDA but potentiated responses to kainate and quisqualate. On average, with 50 microM-cadmium, responses to NMDA were reduced to 0.39 times control, while responses to kainate and quisqualate were increased to 1.08 and 1.15 times control. With 1 mM-cadmium responses to NMDA were reduced to 0.04 times control while responses to kainate and quisqualate were reduced to 0.79 and 0.60 times control. Mercury was neurotoxic and increased the leakage current; however, no reduction of the response to NMDA was produced by 5 microM-mercury. 4. The equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) for zinc antagonism of responses to NMDA, estimated from fit of a single binding site adsorption isotherm, was 13 microM; cadmium was about 4 times less potent than zinc. These effects of zinc and cadmium were nearly voltage independent. In contrast the antagonism of responses to NMDA by 150 microM-magnesium was highly

  15. Annual trend patterns of phytoplankton species abundance belie homogeneous taxonomical group responses to climate in the NE Atlantic upwelling.

    PubMed

    Bode, Antonio; Estévez, M Graciela; Varela, Manuel; Vilar, José A

    2015-09-01

    Phytoplankton is a sentinel of marine ecosystem change. Composed by many species with different life-history strategies, it rapidly responds to environment changes. An analysis of the abundance of 54 phytoplankton species in Galicia (NW Spain) between 1989 and 2008 to determine the main components of temporal variability in relation to climate and upwelling showed that most of this variability was stochastic, as seasonality and long term trends contributed to relatively small fractions of the series. In general, trends appeared as non linear, and species clustered in 4 groups according to the trend pattern but there was no defined pattern for diatoms, dinoflagellates or other groups. While, in general, total abundance increased, no clear trend was found for 23 species, 14 species decreased, 4 species increased during the early 1990s, and only 13 species showed a general increase through the series. In contrast, series of local environmental conditions (temperature, stratification, nutrients) and climate-related variables (atmospheric pressure indices, upwelling winds) showed a high fraction of their variability in deterministic seasonality and trends. As a result, each species responded independently to environmental and climate variability, measured by generalized additive models. Most species showed a positive relationship with nutrient concentrations but only a few showed a direct relationship with stratification and upwelling. Climate variables had only measurable effects on some species but no common response emerged. Because its adaptation to frequent disturbances, phytoplankton communities in upwelling ecosystems appear less sensitive to changes in regional climate than other communities characterized by short and well defined productive periods.

  16. Annual trend patterns of phytoplankton species abundance belie homogeneous taxonomical group responses to climate in the NE Atlantic upwelling.

    PubMed

    Bode, Antonio; Estévez, M Graciela; Varela, Manuel; Vilar, José A

    2015-09-01

    Phytoplankton is a sentinel of marine ecosystem change. Composed by many species with different life-history strategies, it rapidly responds to environment changes. An analysis of the abundance of 54 phytoplankton species in Galicia (NW Spain) between 1989 and 2008 to determine the main components of temporal variability in relation to climate and upwelling showed that most of this variability was stochastic, as seasonality and long term trends contributed to relatively small fractions of the series. In general, trends appeared as non linear, and species clustered in 4 groups according to the trend pattern but there was no defined pattern for diatoms, dinoflagellates or other groups. While, in general, total abundance increased, no clear trend was found for 23 species, 14 species decreased, 4 species increased during the early 1990s, and only 13 species showed a general increase through the series. In contrast, series of local environmental conditions (temperature, stratification, nutrients) and climate-related variables (atmospheric pressure indices, upwelling winds) showed a high fraction of their variability in deterministic seasonality and trends. As a result, each species responded independently to environmental and climate variability, measured by generalized additive models. Most species showed a positive relationship with nutrient concentrations but only a few showed a direct relationship with stratification and upwelling. Climate variables had only measurable effects on some species but no common response emerged. Because its adaptation to frequent disturbances, phytoplankton communities in upwelling ecosystems appear less sensitive to changes in regional climate than other communities characterized by short and well defined productive periods. PMID:26283032

  17. Sniffing for Clues to the Dinosaurs Demise: Measurement of Osmium Isotope Compositions and Platinum Group Element Abundances in Volcanic Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, K. W.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Mather, T.; Pyle, D.; Martin, R.; Gauthier, P.; Aiuppa, A.

    2005-12-01

    Platinum Group Elements (PGE: Os, Ir, Rh, Ru, Pt, Pd) and osmium isotopes measured in marine and terrestrial sediment, snow and ice records are important paleo-tracers of riverine, hydrothermal, extraterrestrial, volcanic and anthropogenic inputs into the global surficial environment. For instance, the marine Os isotope record across the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary (KTB) indicates that the onset of the main phase of Deccan volcanism and the transient late Maastrichtian warming preceded the large extraterrestrial impact and the related KTB mass extinction by several hundred thousand years [Ravizza and Peucker-Ehrenbrink, 2003]. Distinguishing extraterrestrial from volcanic PGE sources has been difficult due to the similarity in Os isotopic compositions, complex PGE fractionations, and our lack of knowledge of the Os isotopic composition and PGE abundances in volcanic aerosols. These difficulties have fueled vigorous debate about extraterrestrial vs. volcanic triggers of mass extinctions in the geologic record. To assess the volcanic contribution to the global Re-Os-PGE cycle we have initiated a study of Os isotopic compositions and PGE abundances in volcanic emissions from volcanoes around the globe. Here we report preliminary data on PGE abundances and Os isotopes measured in gas and aerosol filter samples from Vulcan Masaya, Nicaragua and Mt Etna, Italy. Samples were analyzed by ID-ICPMS (ThermoFinnigan ELEMENT 2 and NEPTUNE) at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Osmium isotope compositions of the filters are unradiogenic (0.1272 to 0.187). Osmium concentrations range from 28 to 97 pg/cubic meter and are 3-4 orders of magnitude lower than those measured by Krahenbuhl et al. [1992] during the spring 1984 eruption of Mauna Loa just after the lava fountaining phase. Normalized PGE abundance patterns are fractionated relative to carbonaceous chondrites and two important features distinguish the pattern from other important PGE sources: 1) Os/Ir is much higher

  18. The abundance and activation of mTORC1 regulators in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs are modulated by insulin, amino acids, and age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously we demonstrated that the insulin (INS) and amino acid (AA) -induced activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is developmentally regulated in neonatal pigs. This study aimed to determine the effects of the post-prandial rise in INS and AA on the activation and abu...

  19. Abundance of amino acid transporters involved in mTORC1 activation in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs is developmentally regulated

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously we demonstrated that the insulinand amino acid-induced activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is developmentally regulated in neonatal pigs. Recent studies have indicated that members of the System A transporter (SNAT2), the System N transporter (SNAT3), the Sy...

  20. Human baby hair amino acid natural abundance 15N-isotope values are not related to the 15N-isotope values of amino acids in mother's breast milk protein.

    PubMed

    Romek, Katarzyna M; Julien, Maxime; Frasquet-Darrieux, Marine; Tea, Illa; Antheaume, Ingrid; Hankard, Régis; Robins, Richard J

    2013-12-01

    Since exclusively breast-suckled infants obtain their nutrient only from their mother's milk, it might be anticipated that a correlation will exist between the (15)N/(14)N isotope ratios of amino acids of protein of young infants and those supplied by their mother. The work presented here aimed to determine whether amino nitrogen transfer from human milk to infant hair protein synthesized within the first month of life conserves the maternal isotopic signature or whether post-ingestion fractionation dominates the nitrogen isotope spectrum. The study was conducted at 1 month post-birth on 100 mother-infant pairs. Isotope ratios (15)N/(14)N and (13)C/(12)C were measured using isotope ratio measurement by Mass Spectrometry (irm-MS) for whole maternal milk, and infant hair and (15)N/(14)N ratios were also measured by GC-irm-MS for the N-pivaloyl-O-isopropyl esters of amino acids obtained from the hydrolysis of milk and hair proteins. The δ(15)N and δ(13)C (‰) were found to be significantly higher in infant hair than in breast milk (δ(15)N, P < 0.001; δ(13)C, P < 0.001). Furthermore, the δ(15)N (‰) of individual amino acids in infant hair was also significantly higher than that in maternal milk (P < 0.001). By calculation, the observed shift in isotope ratio was shown not to be accounted for by the amino acid composition of hair and milk proteins, indicating that it is not simply due to differences in the composition in the proteins present. Rather, it would appear that each pool-mother and infant-turns over independently, and that fractionation in infant N-metabolism even in the first month of life dominates over the nutrient N-content.

  1. Perturbations of Amino Acid Metabolism Associated with Glyphosate-Dependent Inhibition of Shikimic Acid Metabolism Affect Cellular Redox Homeostasis and Alter the Abundance of Proteins Involved in Photosynthesis and Photorespiration1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Vivancos, Pedro Diaz; Driscoll, Simon P.; Bulman, Christopher A.; Ying, Liu; Emami, Kaveh; Treumann, Achim; Mauve, Caroline; Noctor, Graham; Foyer, Christine H.

    2011-01-01

    The herbicide glyphosate inhibits the shikimate pathway of the synthesis of amino acids such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan. However, much uncertainty remains concerning precisely how glyphosate kills plants or affects cellular redox homeostasis and related processes in glyphosate-sensitive and glyphosate-resistant crop plants. To address this issue, we performed an integrated study of photosynthesis, leaf proteomes, amino acid profiles, and redox profiles in the glyphosate-sensitive soybean (Glycine max) genotype PAN809 and glyphosate-resistant Roundup Ready Soybean (RRS). RRS leaves accumulated much more glyphosate than the sensitive line but showed relatively few changes in amino acid metabolism. Photosynthesis was unaffected by glyphosate in RRS leaves, but decreased abundance of photosynthesis/photorespiratory pathway proteins was observed together with oxidation of major redox pools. While treatment of a sensitive genotype with glyphosate rapidly inhibited photosynthesis and triggered the appearance of a nitrogen-rich amino acid profile, there was no evidence of oxidation of the redox pools. There was, however, an increase in starvation-associated and defense proteins. We conclude that glyphosate-dependent inhibition of soybean leaf metabolism leads to the induction of defense proteins without sustained oxidation. Conversely, the accumulation of high levels of glyphosate in RRS enhances cellular oxidation, possibly through mechanisms involving stimulation of the photorespiratory pathway. PMID:21757634

  2. Interaction of bovine serum albumin with N-acyl amino acid based anionic surfactants: Effect of head-group hydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Subhajit; Dey, Joykrishna

    2015-11-15

    The function of a protein depends upon its structure and surfactant molecules are known to alter protein structure. For this reason protein-surfactant interaction is important in biological, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. In the present work, interactions of a series of anionic surfactants having the same hydrocarbon chain length, but different amino acid head group, such as l-alanine, l-valine, l-leucine, and l-phenylalanine with the transport protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), were studied at low surfactant concentrations using fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The results of fluorescence measurements suggest that the surfactant molecules bind simultaneously to the drug binding site I and II of the protein subdomain IIA and IIIA, respectively. The fluorescence as well as CD spectra suggest that the conformation of BSA goes to a more structured state upon surfactant binding at low concentrations. The binding constants of the surfactants were determined by the use of fluorescence as well as ITC measurements and were compared with that of the corresponding glycine-derived surfactant. The binding constant values clearly indicate a significant head-group effect on the BSA-surfactant interaction and the interaction is mainly hydrophobic in nature.

  3. Insulin increases mRNA abundance of the amino acid transporter SLC7A5/LAT1 via an mTORC1‐dependent mechanism in skeletal muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Dillon K.; Drummond, Micah J.; Dickinson, Jared M.; Borack, Michael S.; Jennings, Kristofer; Volpi, Elena; Rasmussen, Blake B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Amino acid transporters (AATs) provide a link between amino acid availability and mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation although the direct relationship remains unclear. Previous studies in various cell types have used high insulin concentrations to determine the role of insulin on mTORC1 signaling and AAT mRNA abundance. However, this approach may limit applicability to human physiology. Therefore, we sought to determine the effect of insulin on mTORC1 signaling and whether lower insulin concentrations stimulate AAT mRNA abundance in muscle cells. We hypothesized that lower insulin concentrations would increase mRNA abundance of select AAT via an mTORC1‐dependent mechanism in C2C12 myotubes. Insulin (0.5 nmol/L) significantly increased phosphorylation of the mTORC1 downstream effectors p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and ribosomal protein S6 (S6). A low rapamycin dose (2.5 nmol/L) significantly reduced the insulin‐(0.5 nmol/L) stimulated S6K1 and S6 phosphorylation. A high rapamycin dose (50 nmol/L) further reduced the insulin‐(0.5 nmol/L) stimulated phosphorylation of S6K1 and S6. Insulin (0.5 nmol/L) increased mRNA abundance of SLC38A2/SNAT2 (P ≤ 0.043) and SLC7A5/LAT1 (P ≤ 0.021) at 240 min and SLC36A1/PAT1 (P = 0.039) at 30 min. High rapamycin prevented an increase in SLC38A2/SNAT2 (P = 0.075) and SLC36A1/PAT1 (P ≥ 0.06) mRNA abundance whereas both rapamycin doses prevented an increase in SLC7A5/LAT1 (P ≥ 0.902) mRNA abundance. We conclude that a low insulin concentration increases SLC7A5/LAT1 mRNA abundance in an mTORC1‐dependent manner in skeletal muscle cells. PMID:24760501

  4. The Synthesis of a Dipeptide from its Component Amino Acids: Protecting Groups in the Elementary Organic Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Paul E.; Campbell, Andrew

    1982-01-01

    A simple, three-step procedure for synthesizing a dipeptide from its component amino acids is described. The dipeptide synthesized uses inexpensive amino acids having hydrocarbon side-chains and can be observed in E/Z forms by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Each step in the synthesis produces white crystalline products using standard…

  5. Transcript abundance of amino acid transporters, β-casein, and α-lactalbumin in mammary tissue of periparturient, lactating, and postweaned sows.

    PubMed

    Manjarin, R; Steibel, J P; Zamora, V; Am-In, N; Kirkwood, R N; Ernst, C W; Weber, P S; Taylor, N P; Trottier, N L

    2011-07-01

    The objective of these experiments was to test the hypothesis that transcript abundance of cationic AA transporter- and milk protein-encoding genes increase in the porcine mammary gland in response to higher lactation demand. Genes of interest included those encoding for the milk proteins α-lactalbumin (α-LA) and β-casein (β-CN; LALBA and CSN2, respectively), and AA transporter b(0,+)AT, y(+)LAT1, y(+)LAT2, ATB(0,+), CAT-1, and CAT-2b (SLC7A9, SLC7A7, SLC7A6, SLC6A14, SLC7A1, and SLC7A2, respectively). Mammary tissue was biopsied from 4 sows on d 110 of gestation (prepartum), on d 2 (early postpartum), on d 5 (early), and d 17 (peak) of lactation, and on d 5 after weaning (postweaning), and mRNA of target genes quantified by reverse transcription quantitative PCR. Compared with prepartum, CAT-1, ATB(0,+), y(+)LAT2, β-CN, and α-LA mRNA abundance was higher at early lactation, whereas compared with early lactation, only CAT-1 and α-LA mRNA abundance was higher at peak lactation. The CAT-2b, y(+)LAT1, and b(0,+)AT mRNA abundance did not differ when comparing either prepartum or peak lactation to early lactation. Compared with peak lactation, postweaning mRNA abundance of CAT-1, ATB(0,+), α-LA, and β-CN decreased, y(+)LAT2, CAT-2b, and b(0,+)AT remained unchanged, and y(+)LAT1 increased. The mRNA abundance of y(+)LAT2 increased from early postpartum to early lactation, and remained unchanged for CAT-1, ATB(0,+), α-LA, and β-CN. From prepartum to peak lactation, the mRNA abundance of CAT-1, y(+)LAT2, and ATB(0,+) was positively correlated with that of β-CN and α-LA. In conclusion, the expression of genes encoding for y(+)LAT1, CAT-2b, and b(0,+)AT remained unchanged in porcine mammary glands over prepartum to peak lactation period, whereas expression of genes encoding for CAT-1, ATB(0,+), and y(+)LAT2 was upregulated and positively correlated to expression of genes encoding for the mammary synthesized milk proteins β-CN and α-LA.

  6. Group 3 late embryogenesis abundant proteins from embryos of Artemia franciscana: structural properties and protective abilities during desiccation.

    PubMed

    Boswell, Leaf C; Menze, Michael A; Hand, Steven C

    2014-01-01

    Group 3 late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are highly hydrophilic, and their expression is associated with desiccation tolerance in both plants and animals. Here we show that two LEA proteins from embryos of Artemia franciscana, AfrLEA2 and AfrLEA3m, are intrinsically disordered in solution but upon desiccation gain secondary structure, as measured by circular dichroism. Trifluoroethanol and sodium dodecyl sulfate are both shown to induce α-helical structure in AfrLEA2 and AfrLEA3m. Bioinformatic predictions of secondary-structure content for both proteins correspond most closely to conformations measured in the dry state. Because some LEA proteins afford protection to desiccation-sensitive proteins during drying and subsequent rehydration, we tested for this capacity in AfrLEA2 and AfrLEA3m. The protective capacities vary, depending on the target enzyme. For the cytoplasmic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase, neither AfrLEA2 nor AfrLEA3m, with or without trehalose present, was able to afford protection better than that provided by bovine serum albumin (BSA) under the same conditions. However, for another cytoplasmic enzyme, phosphofructokinase, both AfrLEA2 and AfrLEA3m in the presence of trehalose were able to afford protection far greater than that provided by BSA with trehalose. Finally, for the mitochondrial enzyme citrate synthase, 400-μg/mL AfrLEA3m without trehalose provided significantly more protection than the same concentration of either AfrLEA2 or BSA. PMID:25244376

  7. Functionalisation of mesoporous silica gel with 2-[(phosphonomethyl)-amino]acetic acid functional groups. Characterisation and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldarola, Dario; Mitev, Dimitar P.; Marlin, Lucile; Nesterenko, Ekaterina P.; Paull, Brett; Onida, Barbara; Bruzzoniti, Maria Concetta; Carlo, Rosa Maria De; Sarzanini, Corrado; Nesterenko, Pavel N.

    2014-01-01

    A new complexing adsorbent was prepared by chemical modification of mesoporous silica Kieselgel 60 (dp = 37-63 μm, average pore size 6 nm, specific surface area 425 m2 g-1) with 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane and 2-[(phosphonomethyl)amino]acetic acid (PMA), commonly known as glyphosate. The prepared adsorbent was fully characterised using elemental analysis, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), acid-base potentiometric titration, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77 K (BET), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The concentration of bonded PMA groups calculated from the nitrogen content was 0.38 mmol per gram. The adsorption of transition metal ions on PMA functionalised silica (HEPMAS) was studied from aqueous solutions having different pH and the following selectivity was established, Zn(II) < Co(II) < Cd(II) < Mn(II) < Ni(II) < Cu(II). The calculated values of distribution coefficients D for the adsorption of ecotoxic metal ions on HEPMAS are 5.0 × 104, 4.9 × 105 and 2.6 × 104 for Zn(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II), respectively.

  8. A new fluorescence reaction in protein cytochemistry: formation of naphthalimide fluorophores from primary amino groups and 1,8-naphthalic anhydride derivatives.

    PubMed

    Stockert, J C; Trigoso, C I; Braña, M F

    1994-01-01

    In this work we describe the formation of fluorescent naphthalimide derivatives as a new cytochemical method for revealing protein amino groups. The reaction is based on the condensation of 1,8-naphthalic anhydrides in organic solvents with primary aliphatic amines. Under optimal violet-blue (436 nm) excitation, a strong yellow-green emission is observed in specific cell components from blood smears treated with 3-amino-1,8-naphthalic anhydride in N,N-dimethylformamide, which were the most suitable reagent and solvent for microscopic studies. Cytoplasmic granules of mammalian eosinophils and avian heterophils showed the highest fluorescence reaction, which was abolished by blocking procedures for amino groups. Spectrofluorometric analysis confirmed the emission characteristics of the naphthalimides produced from n-butylamine and gelatin. Taking into account the chemical reactivity of 1,8-naphthalic anhydrides and present results, the reaction can be considered selective for lysine and arginine residues of proteins.

  9. Optimized synthesis of phosphorothioate oligodeoxyribonucleotides substituted with a 5′-protected thiol function and a 3′-amino group

    PubMed Central

    Aubert, Yves; Bourgerie, Sylvain; Meunier, Laurent; Mayer, Roger; Roche, Annie-Claude; Monsigny, Michel; Thuong, Nguyen T.; Asseline, Ulysse

    2000-01-01

    A new deprotection procedure enables a medium scale preparation of phosphodiester and phosphorothioate oligonucleotides substituted with a protected thiol function at their 5′-ends and an amino group at their 3′-ends in good yield (up to 72 OD units/µmol for a 19mer phosphorothioate). Syntheses of 3′-amino-substituted oligonucleotides were carried out on a modified support. A linker containing the thioacetyl moiety was manually coupled in two steps by first adding its phosphoramidite derivative in the presence of tetrazole followed by either oxidation or sulfurization to afford the bis-derivatized oligonucleotide bound to the support. Deprotection was achieved by treating the fully protected oligonucleotide with a mixture of 2,2′-dithiodipyridine and concentrated aqueous ammonia in the presence of phenol and methanol. This procedure enables (i) cleavage of the oligonucleotide from the support, releasing the oligonucleotide with a free amino group at its 3′-end, (ii) deprotection of the phosphate groups and the amino functions of the nucleic bases, as well as (iii) transformation of the 5′-terminal S-acetyl function into a dithiopyridyl group. The bis-derivatized phosphorothioate oligomer was further substituted through a two-step procedure: first, the 3′-amino group was reacted with fluorescein isothiocyanate to yield a fluoresceinylated oligonucleotide; the 5′-dithiopyridyl group was then quantitatively reduced to give a free thiol group which was then substituted by reaction with an Nα-bromoacetyl derivative of a signal peptide containing a KDEL sequence to afford a fluoresceinylated peptide–oligonucleotide conjugate. PMID:10637335

  10. Use of phthaloyl protecting group for the automated synthesis of 3'-[(hydroxypropyl)amino] and 3'-[(hydroxypropyl)triglycyl] oligonucleotide conjugates.

    PubMed

    Vu, H; Joyce, N; Rieger, M; Walker, D; Goldknopf, I; Hill, T S; Jayaraman, K; Mulvey, D

    1995-01-01

    The chemical stability of oligonucleotides (ODNs) containing 3'-propanolamine was investigated. Invariably, all the ODNs synthesized from Fmoc-protected 3-aminopropane-1,2-diol-CPG support gave a mixture of three compounds at the end of automated synthesis as analyzed by denaturing PAGE and HPLC. On the basis of analytical procedures, these compounds were identified to be 3'-[N-acetyl-N-(hydroxypropyl)amino],3'-[(hydroxypropyl)amino], and 3'-hydroxyl ODNs. The instability of the amino protecting group under the synthesis conditions was responsible for this observed heterogeneity. In order to evaluate the stability, a comparative study on the chemical stability of the ODN containing amino-protecting groups such as [(9-fluorenylmethyl)oxy]carbonyl (Fmoc), trifluoroacetyl (TFA), and phthaloyl was undertaken. The results indicate that the phthaloyl group provided the best stability for the synthesis of 3' amine-modified ODNs, and the protecting group is cleaved and deprotected in concentrated ammonium hydroxide:40% aqueous methylamine, 1:1, for 5-10 min, at 56 degrees C. The 3'-hydroxypropyl)triglycyl] ODN conjugates were also synthesized from Fmoc- and phthaloyl-protected (hydroxypropyl)triglycine-CPG supports. PMID:8974460

  11. Correlating Mineralogy and Amino Acid Contents of Milligram-Scale Murchison Carbonaceous Chondrite Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, Aaron, S.; Berger, Eve L.; Locke, Darren R.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2015-01-01

    Amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, have been found to be indigenous in most of the carbonaceous chondrite groups. The abundances of amino acids, as well as their structural, enantiomeric and isotopic compositions differ significantly among meteorites of different groups and petrologic types. This suggests that there is a link between parent-body conditions, mineralogy and the synthesis and preservation of amino acids (and likely other organic molecules). However, elucidating specific causes for the observed differences in amino acid composition has proven extremely challenging because samples analyzed for amino acids are typically much larger ((is) approximately 100 mg powders) than the scale at which meteorite heterogeneity is observed (sub mm-scale differences, (is) approximately 1-mg or smaller samples). Thus, the effects of differences in mineralogy on amino acid abundances could not be easily discerned. Recent advances in the sensitivity of instrumentation have made possible the analysis of smaller samples for amino acids, enabling a new approach to investigate the link between mineralogical con-text and amino acid compositions/abundances in meteorites. Through coordinated mineral separation, mineral characterization and highly sensitive amino acid analyses, we have performed preliminary investigations into the relationship between meteorite mineralogy and amino acid composition. By linking amino acid data to mineralogy, we have started to identify amino acid-bearing mineral phases in different carbonaceous meteorites. The methodology and results of analyses performed on the Murchison meteorite are presented here.

  12. Platinum-group element abundance and distribution in chromite deposits of the Acoje Block, Zambales Ophiolite Complex, Philippines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacuta, G.C.; Kay, R.W.; Gibbs, A.K.; Lipin, B.R.

    1990-01-01

    Platinum-group elements (PGE) occur in ore-grade concentration in some of the chromite deposits related to the ultramafic section of the Acoje Block of the Zambales Ophiolite Complex. The deposits are of three types: Type 1 - associated with cumulate peridotites at the base of the crust; Type 2 - in dunite pods from the top 1 km of mantle harzburgite; and Type 3 - like Type 2, but in deeper levels of the harzburgite. Most of the deposites have chromite compositions that are high in Cr with Cr/(Cr + Al) (expressed as chromium index, Cr#) > 0.6; high-Al (Cr# Pd, thought to be characteristic of PGE-barren deposits) and positive slope (Ir < Pd, characteristic of PGE-rich deposits). Iridium, Ru and Os commonly occur as micron-size laurite (sulfide) inclusions in unfractured chromite. Laurite and native Os are also found as inclusions in interstitial sulfides. Platinum and Pd occur as alloy inclusions (and possibly as solid solution) in interstitial Ni-Cu sulfides and as tellurobismuthides in serpentine and altered sulfides. Variability of PGE distribution may be explained by alteration, crystal fractionation or partial melting processes. Alteration and metamorphism were ruled out, because PGE contents do not correlate with degree of serpentinization or the abundance and type (hydroxyl versus non-hydroxyl) of silicate inclusions in chromite. Preliminary Os isotopic data do not support crustal contamination as a source of the PGEs in the Acoje deposits. The anomalous PGE concentrations in Type 1 high-Cr chromite deposits are attributed to two stages of enrichment: an early enrichment of their mantle source from previous melting events and a later stage of sulfide segregation accompanying chromite crystallization. High-Al chromite deposits which crystallized from basalts derived from relatively low degrees of melting owe their low PGE content to partitioning of PGEs in sulfides and alloys that remain in the mantle. High-Cr deposits crystallized from melts that were

  13. Synthesis of oligodeoxyribonucleotide with aliphatic amino or phosphate group at the 5' end by the phosphotriester method on a polystyrene support.

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, T; Sakata, T; Fujimoto, K; Ikehara, M

    1987-01-01

    Lipophilic protecting groups mTrNH(CH2)n X (mTr:monomethoxytrityl, X = NH,O,S, n = 2,3,4,6) were attached to the 5'-phosphoryl group of 3'-O-protected thymidine. When the diamine derivatives (X = NH2) were used, the time course of the stability of mTr groups on the amino group and the phosphoramidate linkage with 80% aq. AcOH was measured. It was found that the mTr group was removed from the amino group rapidly and that the phosphoramidate linkage was more stable. It's stability depended upon the length of the CH2 linker. Oligonucleotides with an aliphatic amino group at their 5'-ends were synthesized by the phosphotriester method on a polystyrene support using protected nucleotides with P-O or P-S linkages. In the case of product with a P-S linkage, 5'-O-phosphorylated nonadecanucleotide was also prepared by I2-H2O treatment. PMID:3627986

  14. Polythiophene-g-poly(ethylene glycol) with Lateral Amino Groups as a Novel Matrix for Biosensor Construction.

    PubMed

    Akbulut, Huseyin; Bozokalfa, Guliz; Asker, Duygu N; Demir, Bilal; Guler, Emine; Odaci Demirkol, Dilek; Timur, Suna; Yagci, Yusuf

    2015-09-23

    In the ever-expanding field of conducting polymer research, functionalized graft hybrid copolymers have gained considerable interest in the biomedical engineering and biosensing applications, particularly. In the present work, a new biosensor based on conducting graft copolymer for the detection of phenolic compounds was developed. Thereby, a robust and novel material, namely "polythiophene-g-poly(ethylene glycol) with lateral amino groups" (PT-NH2-g-PEG) hybrid conducting polymer was synthesized via Suzuki condensation polymerization and characterized with (1)H NMR analysis, UV-vis spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and fluorescence spectroscopy. PT-NH2-g-PEG architecture was then applied as an immobilization matrix to accomplish extended biosensing function. In a typical process, Laccase was utilized as a model enzyme for the detection of phenolic compounds. Detailed surface characterization of PT-NH2-g-PEG/Lac was performed by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy measurements. Optimum pH and polymer amount were found to be pH 6.5 and 0.5 mg polymer, respectively, with the linear range of 0.0025-0.05 mM and 132.45 μA/mM sensitivity. The kinetic parameters of PT-NH2-g-PEG/Lac are 0.026 mM for Km(app) and 7.38 μA for Imax, respectively. Furthermore, the PT-NH2-g-PEG/Lac biofilm was retained 82% of its activity for 12 days indicating excellent recovery as tested with artificial wastewater. PMID:26323569

  15. The Pattern of Change in the Abundances of Specific Bacterioplankton Groups Is Consistent across Different Nutrient-Enriched Habitats in Crete

    PubMed Central

    Fodelianakis, Stilianos; Papageorgiou, Nafsika; Pitta, Paraskevi; Kasapidis, Panagiotis; Karakassis, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    A common source of disturbance for coastal aquatic habitats is nutrient enrichment through anthropogenic activities. Although the water column bacterioplankton communities in these environments have been characterized in some cases, changes in α-diversity and/or the abundances of specific taxonomic groups across enriched habitats remain unclear. Here, we investigated the bacterial community changes at three different nutrient-enriched and adjacent undisturbed habitats along the north coast of Crete, Greece: a fish farm, a closed bay within a town with low water renewal rates, and a city port where the level of nutrient enrichment and the trophic status of the habitat were different. Even though changes in α-diversity were different at each site, we observed across the sites a common change pattern accounting for most of the community variation for five of the most abundant bacterial groups: a decrease in the abundance of the Pelagibacteraceae and SAR86 and an increase in the abundance of the Alteromonadaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, and Cryomorphaceae in the impacted sites. The abundances of the groups that increased and decreased in the impacted sites were significantly correlated (positively and negatively, respectively) with the total heterotrophic bacterial counts and the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and/or dissolved nitrogen and chlorophyll α, indicating that the common change pattern was associated with nutrient enrichment. Our results provide an in situ indication concerning the association of specific bacterioplankton groups with nutrient enrichment. These groups could potentially be used as indicators for nutrient enrichment if the pattern is confirmed over a broader spatial and temporal scale by future studies. PMID:24747897

  16. Purification and properties of M protein extracted from group A streptococci with pepsin: covalent structure of the amino terminal region of type 24 M antigen

    PubMed Central

    Beachey, EH; Stollerman, GH; Chiang, EY; Chiang, TM; Seyer, JM; Kang, AH

    1977-01-01

    M protein was extracted from type 24, group A streptococci with pepsin at pH 5.8 and was further purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, ribonuclease digestion, ion-exchange chromatography, and isoelectric focusing. The purified pepsin extract of M (pep M) protein was shown to be free of nontype-specific immunoreactivity in (a) complement fixation tests with heterologous M antiserum, (b) skin tests in normal adult guinea pigs, and (c) passive hemagglutination tests for the presence of lipoteichoic acid sensitizing or antigenic activity. The pep M24 was highly immunogenic; two of three rabbits developed opsonic antibody titers of 1:256 and the third a titer of 1:32 6 wk after a single injection of 100-pg doses of pep M24 emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant. The antisera lacked nontype-specific antibodies and produced single precipitin lines in agar gel diffusion tests against crude HC1 extracts of the homologous M protein. Thus, the type-specific antigenic determinant(s) of type 24 M protein appears to be separable from immunotoxic, cross-reactive antigens without loss of immunogenicity in rabbits. The mobility of pep M24 upon electrophoresis in 10 percent sodium dodecyl sulfate pelyacrylamide gel was consistent with an average mol wt of 33,500 daltons. Amino acid analysis demonstrated a predominance of alanine, followed by glutamic acid, lysine, leucine, and aspartic acid. Pep M24 contained an estimated six to seven methionine residues and approximately ten phenylalanine residues per molecule. No other aromatic amino acids were detected. Automatic Edman degradation of pep M24 yielded the sequence of the first 29 amino acids (the amino terminal amino acid being valine) of the amino terminal region of the molecule. The detection of only one new amino acid at each step of Edman degradation confirmed the homogeneity of the purified pep M24. PMID:325168

  17. Anomalous role change of tertiary amino and ester groups as hydrogen acceptors in eudragit E based solid dispersion depending on the concentration of naproxen.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Hiroshi; Wakabayashi, Shinobu; Kikuchi, Junko; Ida, Yasuo; Kadota, Kazunori; Tozuka, Yuichi

    2015-04-01

    Eudragit E (EGE) is a basic polymer incorporating tertiary amino and ester groups. The role of the functional groups of EGE in the formation of solid dispersion (SD) with Naproxen (NAP) was investigated. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of EGE decreased with the plasticizing effect of NAP up to 20% weight ratio. Addition of NAP at over 30% induced a rise in Tg, with the maximum value being reached at 60% NAP. Further addition of NAP led to a rapid drop of the Tg. A dramatic difference of physical stability between the SDs including 60 and 70% NAP was confirmed. The SD including 70% NAP rapidly crystallized at 40 °C with 75% relative humidity, while the amorphous state could be maintained over 6 months in the SD with 60% NAP. The infrared and (13)C solid state-NMR spectra of the SDs suggested a formation of ionic interaction between the carboxylic acid of NAP and the amino group of EGE. The SD with 20% NAP raised the (13)C spin-lattice relaxation (T1) of the amino group, but it decreased with over 30% NAP. The change in the (13)C-T1 disappeared with 70% NAP. The (13)C-T1 of the ester group rose depending on the amount of NAP. From these findings, we concluded that the role as hydrogen acceptor shifted from the amine to the ester group with an increase in amount of NAP. Furthermore, the amino group of EGE did not contribute to the interaction at over 70% NAP. These phenomena could be strongly correlated with Tg and stability.

  18. Impact of primary amine group from aminophospholipids and amino acids on marine phospholipids stability: non-enzymatic browning and lipid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Lu, F S H; Nielsen, N S; Baron, C P; Diehl, B W K; Jacobsen, C

    2013-11-15

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the oxidative stability and non-enzymatic browning reactions of marine PL in the presence or in the absence of primary amine group from aminophospholipids and amino acids. Marine phospholipids liposomal dispersions were prepared from two authentic standards (phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine) and two purified PL from marine sources with and without addition of amino acids (leucine, methionine and lysine). Samples were incubated at 60°C for 0, 2, 4 and 6days. Non-enzymatic browning reactions were investigated through measurement of (i) Strecker derived volatiles, (ii) yellowness index (YI), (iii) hydrophobic and (iv) hydrophilic pyrroles content. The oxidative stability of the samples was assessed through measurement of secondary lipid derived volatile oxidation products. The result showed that the presence of PE and amino acids caused the formation of pyrroles, generated Strecker derived volatiles, decreased the YI development and lowered lipid oxidation. The lower degree of lipid oxidation in liposomal dispersions containing amino acids might be attributed to antioxidative properties of pyrroles or amino acids. PMID:23790862

  19. Amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... amino acids are: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan , and valine. Nonessential amino acids "Nonessential" means that our bodies produce an amino ...

  20. A Helical Polyphenylacetylene Having Amino Alcohol Moieties Without Chiral Side Groups as a Chiral Ligand for the Asymmetric Addition of Diethylzinc to Benzaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lijia; Long, Qing; Aoki, Toshiki; Zhang, Geng; Kaneko, Takashi; Teraguchi, Masahiro; Zhang, Chunhong; Wang, Yudan

    2015-08-01

    One-handed helical polyphenylacetylenes having achiral amino alcohol moieties, but no chiral side groups, were synthesized by the helix-sense-selective copolymerization of an achiral phenylacetylene having an amino alcohol side group with a phenylacetylene having two hydroxyl groups. Since the resulting helical copolymers were successfully utilized as chiral ligands for the enantioselective alkylation of benzaldehyde with diethylzinc, we can conclude that the main-chain chirality based on the one-handed helical conformation is useful for the chiral catalysis of an asymmetric reaction for the first time. The enantioselectivities of the reaction were controlled by the optical purities of the helical polymer ligands. In addition, the polymer ligands could be easily recovered by precipitation after the reaction.

  1. Studies on the selectivity between nickel-catalyzed 1,2-cis-2-amino glycosylation of hydroxyl groups of thioglycoside acceptors with C2-substituted benzylidene N-phenyl trifluoroacetimidates and intermolecular aglycon transfer of the sulfide group.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei; Nguyen, Hien M

    2012-09-01

    The stereoselective synthesis of saccharide thioglycosides containing 1,2-cis-2-amino glycosidic linkages is challenging. In addition to the difficulties associated with achieving high α-selectivity in the formation of 1,2-cis-2-amino glycosidic bonds, the glycosylation reaction is hampered by undesired transfer of the anomeric sulfide group from the glycosyl acceptor to the glycosyl donor. Overcoming these obstacles will pave the way for the preparation of oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates bearing the 1,2-cis-2-amino glycosidic linkages because the saccharide thioglycosides obtained can serve as donors for another coupling iteration. This approach streamlines selective deprotection and anomeric derivatization steps prior to the subsequent coupling event. We have developed an efficient approach for the synthesis of highly yielding and α-selective saccharide thioglycosides containing 1,2-cis-2-amino glycosidic bonds, via cationic nickel-catalyzed glycosylation of thioglycoside acceptors bearing the 2-trifluoromethylphenyl aglycon with N-phenyl trifluoroacetimidate donors. The 2-trifluoromethylphenyl group effectively blocks transfer of the anomeric sulfide group from the glycosyl acceptor to the C(2)-benzylidene donor and can be easily installed and activated. The current method also highlights the efficacy of the nickel catalyst selectively activating the C(2)-benzylidene imidate group in the presence of the anomeric sulfide group on the glycosyl acceptors. PMID:22838405

  2. Protein covalent immobilization via its scarce thiol versus abundant amine groups: Effect on orientation, cell binding domain exposure and conformational lability.

    PubMed

    Ba, O M; Hindie, M; Marmey, P; Gallet, O; Anselme, K; Ponche, A; Duncan, A C

    2015-10-01

    Quantity, orientation, conformation and covalent linkage of naturally cell adhesive proteins adsorbed or covalently linked to a surface, are known to influence the preservation of their subsequent long term cell adhesion properties and bioactivity. In the present work, we explore two different strategies for the covalent linking of plasma fibronectin (pFN) - used as a cell adhesive model protein, onto a polystyrene (PS) surface. One is aimed at tethering the protein to the surface in a semi-oriented fashion (via one of the 4 free thiol reactive groups on the protein) with a heterofunctional coupling agent (SSMPB method). The other aims to immobilize the protein in a more random fashion by reaction between the abundant pendant primary amine bearing amino acids of the pFN and activated carboxylic surface functions obtained after glutaric anhydride surface treatment (GA method). The overall goal will be to verify the hypothesis of a correlation between covalent immobilization of a model cell adhesive protein to a PS surface in a semi-oriented configuration (versus randomly oriented) with promotion of enhanced exposure of the protein's cell binding domain. This in turn would lead to enhanced cell adhesion. Ideally the goal is to elaborate substrates exhibiting a long term stable protein monolayer with preserved cell adhesive properties and bioactivity for biomaterial and/or cell adhesion commercial plate applications. However, the initial restrictive objective of this paper is to first quantitatively and qualitatively investigate the reversibly (merely adsorbed) versus covalently irreversibly bound protein to the surface after the immobilization procedure. Although immobilized surface amounts were similar (close to the monolayer range) for all immobilization approaches, covalent grafting showed improved retention and stronger "tethering" of the pFN protein to the surface (roughly 40%) after SDS rinsing compared to that for mere adsorption (0%) suggesting an added value

  3. Helical hairpin structure of influenza hemagglutinin fusion peptide stabilized by charge-dipole interactions between the N-terminal amino group and the second helix.

    PubMed

    Lorieau, Justin L; Louis, John M; Bax, Ad

    2011-03-01

    The fusion domain of the influenza coat protein hemagglutinin HA2, bound to dodecyl phosphocholine micelles, was recently shown to adopt a structure consisting of two antiparallel α-helices, packed in an exceptionally tight hairpin configuration. Four interhelical H(α) to C═O aliphatic H-bonds were identified as factors stabilizing this fold. Here, we report evidence for an additional stabilizing force: a strong charge-dipole interaction between the N-terminal Gly(1) amino group and the dipole moment of helix 2. pH titration of the amino-terminal (15)N resonance, using a methylene-TROSY-based 3D NMR experiment, and observation of Gly(1 13)C' show a strongly elevated pK = 8.8, considerably higher than expected for an N-terminal amino group in a lipophilic environment. Chemical shifts of three C-terminal carbonyl carbons of helix 2 titrate with the protonation state of Gly(1)-N, indicative of a close proximity between the N-terminal amino group and the axis of helix 2, providing an optimal charge-dipole stabilization of the antiparallel hairpin fold. pK values of the side-chain carboxylate groups of Glu(11) and Asp(19) are higher by about 1 and 0.5 unit, respectively, than commonly seen for solvent-exposed side chains in water-soluble proteins, indicative of dielectric constants of ε = ∼30 (Glu(11)) and ∼60 (Asp(19)), placing these groups in the headgroup region of the phospholipid micelle.

  4. Meteoritic Amino Acids: Diversity in Compositions Reflects Parent Body Histories

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of amino acids in meteorites dates back over 50 years; however, it is only in recent years that research has expanded beyond investigations of a narrow set of meteorite groups (exemplified by the Murchison meteorite) into meteorites of other types and classes. These new studies have shown a wide diversity in the abundance and distribution of amino acids across carbonaceous chondrite groups, highlighting the role of parent body processes and composition in the creation, preservation, or alteration of amino acids. Although most chiral amino acids are racemic in meteorites, the enantiomeric distribution of some amino acids, particularly of the nonprotein amino acid isovaline, has also been shown to vary both within certain meteorites and across carbonaceous meteorite groups. Large l-enantiomeric excesses of some extraterrestrial protein amino acids (up to ∼60%) have also been observed in rare cases and point to nonbiological enantiomeric enrichment processes prior to the emergence of life. In this Outlook, we review these recent meteoritic analyses, focusing on variations in abundance, structural distributions, and enantiomeric distributions of amino acids and discussing possible explanations for these observations and the potential for future work. PMID:27413780

  5. Meteoritic Amino Acids: Diversity in Compositions Reflects Parent Body Histories.

    PubMed

    Elsila, Jamie E; Aponte, José C; Blackmond, Donna G; Burton, Aaron S; Dworkin, Jason P; Glavin, Daniel P

    2016-06-22

    The analysis of amino acids in meteorites dates back over 50 years; however, it is only in recent years that research has expanded beyond investigations of a narrow set of meteorite groups (exemplified by the Murchison meteorite) into meteorites of other types and classes. These new studies have shown a wide diversity in the abundance and distribution of amino acids across carbonaceous chondrite groups, highlighting the role of parent body processes and composition in the creation, preservation, or alteration of amino acids. Although most chiral amino acids are racemic in meteorites, the enantiomeric distribution of some amino acids, particularly of the nonprotein amino acid isovaline, has also been shown to vary both within certain meteorites and across carbonaceous meteorite groups. Large l-enantiomeric excesses of some extraterrestrial protein amino acids (up to ∼60%) have also been observed in rare cases and point to nonbiological enantiomeric enrichment processes prior to the emergence of life. In this Outlook, we review these recent meteoritic analyses, focusing on variations in abundance, structural distributions, and enantiomeric distributions of amino acids and discussing possible explanations for these observations and the potential for future work. PMID:27413780

  6. Meteoritic Amino Acids: Diversity in Compositions Reflects Parent Body Histories.

    PubMed

    Elsila, Jamie E; Aponte, José C; Blackmond, Donna G; Burton, Aaron S; Dworkin, Jason P; Glavin, Daniel P

    2016-06-22

    The analysis of amino acids in meteorites dates back over 50 years; however, it is only in recent years that research has expanded beyond investigations of a narrow set of meteorite groups (exemplified by the Murchison meteorite) into meteorites of other types and classes. These new studies have shown a wide diversity in the abundance and distribution of amino acids across carbonaceous chondrite groups, highlighting the role of parent body processes and composition in the creation, preservation, or alteration of amino acids. Although most chiral amino acids are racemic in meteorites, the enantiomeric distribution of some amino acids, particularly of the nonprotein amino acid isovaline, has also been shown to vary both within certain meteorites and across carbonaceous meteorite groups. Large l-enantiomeric excesses of some extraterrestrial protein amino acids (up to ∼60%) have also been observed in rare cases and point to nonbiological enantiomeric enrichment processes prior to the emergence of life. In this Outlook, we review these recent meteoritic analyses, focusing on variations in abundance, structural distributions, and enantiomeric distributions of amino acids and discussing possible explanations for these observations and the potential for future work.

  7. Dynamics of the separation of amino acid and mineral salt in the stationary dialysis of solutions with an MK-40 profiled sulfo group cation exchange membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasil'eva, V. I.; Vorob'eva, E. A.

    2012-11-01

    The conjugated diffusion transport of amino acid and mineral salt through a profiled sulfo group cation exchange membrane that simulates the extraction of amino acid from wash waters of microbiological production containing mineral components not used in synthesis is studied. The competitive nature of the conjugation of flows resulting in a decrease in the rate of the mass transfer of components and their separation factor is established from a comparative analysis of experimental data on the diffusion transfer of phenylalanine and sodium chloride in the form of hydrogen from individual and mixed solutions through a profiled sulfo group cation exchange membrane. The range of concentrations and the ratio of components in solution corresponding to the effective separation of phenylalanine and sodium chloride are determined.

  8. Ambient-Temperature Spin-State Switching Achieved by Protonation of the Amino Group in [Fe(H2Bpz2)2(bipy-NH2)].

    PubMed

    Luo, Yang-Hui; Nihei, Masayuki; Wen, Gao-Ju; Sun, Bai-Wang; Oshio, Hiroki

    2016-08-15

    Magnetism of a complex [Fe(H2Bpz2)2(bipy-NH2)] (H2Bpz2 = dihydrobis(1-pyrazolyl)borate, bipy-NH2 = 4,4'-diamino-2,2'-bipyridine) has been altered from paramagnetic to spin-crossover (SCO) behavior, through protonation of one amino group of bipy-NH2 with CF3SO3H. Complete SCO transition, both in solid state and in solution, occurs at ambient temperature. PMID:27472267

  9. The molecular structure of ``chromo proteinoids'' — Amino acid thermolysates containing abiogenetically produced flavins and deazaflavins as prosthetic groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, Bettina; Ried, Walter

    1984-12-01

    Attempts are made to define “chromo-proteinoids” in their complete molecular structure, in order to study their functional properties in relation to prebiotically evolving systems. KAG — a thermolysate produced by copolycondensation of the amino acid lysine, alanine, and glycine (180°C/5h) — serves as a model “archaic” compund of low enough molecular mass (2000D) that can be analysed in all its molecular dimensions.

  10. A natural protecting group strategy to carry an amino acid starter unit in the biosynthesis of macrolactam polyketide antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Yuji; Kudo, Fumitaka; Eguchi, Tadashi

    2011-11-16

    Macrolactam antibiotics are an important class of macrocyclic polyketides that contain a unique nitrogen-containing starter unit. In the present study, a set of starter biosynthetic enzymes in the macrolactam antibiotic vicenistatin was characterized. We found that the protection-deprotection strategy of the aminoacyl-ACP intermediate was critical in this system. On the basis of bioinformatics, the described pathway is also proposed as a common method for carrying amino acids in the biosynthesis of other macrolactam antibiotics. PMID:22010945

  11. Amino-functionalized (meth)acryl polymers by use of a solvent-polarity sensitive protecting group (Br-t-BOC)

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabai, Monir; Herrmann, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Summary We describe the synthesis of bromo-tert-butyloxycarbonyl (Br-t-BOC)-amino-protected monomers 2-((1-bromo-2-methylpropan-2-yl)oxycarbonylamino)ethyl (meth)acrylate 3a,b. For this purpose, 2-isocyanatoethyl (meth)acrylate 1a,b was reacted with 1-bromo-2-methylpropan-2-ol (2a). The free radical polymerization of (Br-t-BOC)-aminoethyl (meth)acrylates 3a,b yielded poly((Br-t-BOC)-aminoethyl (meth)acrylate) 6a,b bearing protected amino side groups. The subsequent solvolysis of the Br-t-BOC function led to the new polymers poly(2-aminoethyl (meth)acrylate) 8a,b with protonated free amino groups. The monomers and the resulting polymers were thoroughly characterized by 1H NMR, IR, GPC and DSC methods. The kinetics of the deprotection step was followed by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The solvent polarity and neighboring group effects on the kinetics of deprotection are discussed. PMID:26977183

  12. Amino-functionalized (meth)acryl polymers by use of a solvent-polarity sensitive protecting group (Br-t-BOC).

    PubMed

    Ritter, Helmut; Tabatabai, Monir; Herrmann, Markus

    2016-01-01

    We describe the synthesis of bromo-tert-butyloxycarbonyl (Br-t-BOC)-amino-protected monomers 2-((1-bromo-2-methylpropan-2-yl)oxycarbonylamino)ethyl (meth)acrylate 3a,b. For this purpose, 2-isocyanatoethyl (meth)acrylate 1a,b was reacted with 1-bromo-2-methylpropan-2-ol (2a). The free radical polymerization of (Br-t-BOC)-aminoethyl (meth)acrylates 3a,b yielded poly((Br-t-BOC)-aminoethyl (meth)acrylate) 6a,b bearing protected amino side groups. The subsequent solvolysis of the Br-t-BOC function led to the new polymers poly(2-aminoethyl (meth)acrylate) 8a,b with protonated free amino groups. The monomers and the resulting polymers were thoroughly characterized by (1)H NMR, IR, GPC and DSC methods. The kinetics of the deprotection step was followed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The solvent polarity and neighboring group effects on the kinetics of deprotection are discussed. PMID:26977183

  13. The Benzyl Ester Group of Amino Acid Monomers Enhances Substrate Affinity and Broadens the Substrate Specificity of the Enzyme Catalyst in Chemoenzymatic Copolymerization.

    PubMed

    Ageitos, Jose Manuel; Yazawa, Kenjiro; Tateishi, Ayaka; Tsuchiya, Kousuke; Numata, Keiji

    2016-01-11

    The chemoenzymatic polymerization of amino acid monomers by proteases involves a two-step reaction: the formation of a covalent acyl-intermediate complex between the protease and the carboxyl ester group of the monomer and the subsequent deacylation of the complex by aminolysis to form a peptide bond. Although the initiation with the ester group of the monomer is an important step, the influence of the ester group on the polymerization has not been studied in detail. Herein, we studied the effect of the ester groups (methyl, ethyl, benzyl, and tert-butyl esters) of alanine and glycine on the synthesis of peptides using papain as the catalyst. Alanine and glycine were selected as monomers because of their substantially different affinities toward papain. The efficiency of the polymerization of alanine and glycine benzyl esters was much greater than that of the other esters. The benzyl ester group therefore allowed papain to equally polymerize alanine and glycine, even though the affinity of alanine toward papain is substantially higher. The characterization of the copolymers of alanine and glycine in terms of the secondary structure and thermal properties revealed that the thermal stability of the peptides depends on the amino acid composition and resultant secondary structure. The current results indicate that the nature of the ester group drastically affects the polymerization efficiency and broadens the substrate specificity of the protease.

  14. Group V allergens in grass pollens: IV. Similarities in amino acid compositions and NH2-terminal sequences of the group V allergens from Lolium perenne, Poa pratensis and Dactylis glomerata.

    PubMed

    Klysner, S; Welinder, K G; Løwenstein, H; Matthiesen, F

    1992-04-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (PpV4) raised against Phleum pratense group V allergen were used for immuno-affinity chromatography of cross-reacting group V allergens from related grass species. Fractions enriched in group V allergen were obtained from Lolium perenne, Poa pratense and Dactylis glomerata extracts. The major components in these fractions were found in the Mwr range 25-28 kD. IgE binding to these components was shown using a pool of grass allergic sera, by SDS-PAGE immunoblotting. These fractions were electroblotted from tricine SDS-PAGE gels onto a polyvinylidene-difluoride membrane and selected group V bands were directly cut out and used for amino acid analysis and NH2-terminal sequencing. Both the amino acid compositions and the NH2-terminal sequences obtained for each group V allergen were almost similar to each other and to the sequence and composition of the previously described allergen Phl p V from Phleum pratense. A common trait of the investigated allergens, is the very high contents of alanine (25-32%) and the presence of the modified amino acid, hydroxyproline.

  15. THE ABUNDANCES OF HYDROCARBON FUNCTIONAL GROUPS IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM INFERRED FROM LABORATORY SPECTRA OF HYDROGENATED AND METHYLATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    SciTech Connect

    Steglich, M.; Jäger, C.; Huisken, F.; Friedrich, M.; Plass, W.; Räder, H.-J.; Müllen, K.; Henning, Th.

    2013-10-01

    Infrared (IR) absorption spectra of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) containing methyl (-CH{sub 3}), methylene (CH{sub 2}), or diamond-like CH groups and IR spectra of mixtures of methylated and hydrogenated PAHs prepared by gas-phase condensation were measured at room temperature (as grains in pellets) and at low temperature (isolated in Ne matrices). In addition, the PAH blends were subjected to an in-depth molecular structure analysis by means of high-performance liquid chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Supported by calculations at the density functional theory level, the laboratory results were applied to analyze in detail the aliphatic absorption complex of the diffuse interstellar medium at 3.4 μm and to determine the abundances of hydrocarbon functional groups. Assuming that the PAHs are mainly locked in grains, aliphatic CH {sub x} groups (x = 1, 2, 3) would contribute approximately in equal quantities to the 3.4 μm feature (N {sub CHx}/N {sub H} ≈ 10{sup –5}-2 × 10{sup –5}). The abundances, however, may be two to four times lower if a major contribution to the 3.4 μm feature comes from molecules in the gas phase. Aromatic ≅CH groups seem to be almost absent from some lines of sight, but can be nearly as abundant as each of the aliphatic components in other directions (N{sub ≅CH}/N {sub H} ∼< 2 × 10{sup –5}; upper value for grains). Due to comparatively low binding energies, astronomical IR emission sources do not display such heavy excess hydrogenation. At best, especially in protoplanetary nebulae, CH{sub 2} groups bound to aromatic molecules, i.e., excess hydrogens on the molecular periphery only, can survive the presence of a nearby star.

  16. Rhizobins, a Group of Peptides in the Free-Amino-Acid Pool of the Soybean-Rhizobium System †

    PubMed Central

    Garay, Andrew S.; Ahlgren, Joy A.; Gonzalez, Mark A.; Stasney, Mark A.; Madtes, Paul C.

    1986-01-01

    Free-living Rhizobium (according to Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, [1984, The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore], Bradyrhizobium) japonicum was found to release a peptide into the nutrient media. Soybean nodules contained this peptide and exuded it into the soil. The name “rhizobin A” is suggested for this peptide. Nodules also contained another peptide, rhizobin B, as well as an unidentified, ninhydrin-positive compound, rhizobin C. The three peptides were confined to the free-amino-acid pool of the soluble fraction and eluted consecutively from a cation-exchange column. Rhizobin A was isolated in a highly purified form; its molecular mass was approximately 1,600 daltons as determined by Sephadex gel filtration and mass spectrometry. The amino-acid composition could be determined only approximately, because a long time was necessary for acid hydrolysis, possibly due to unusual linkages. The rhizobin concentration in soybean nodules continually increased during 50 days of growth, from 2 to approximately 400 μg/g (fresh weight). When combined nitrogen was added to nodulated soybean and subsequently removed, nitrogenase activity, nodulation, and nodule growth first decreased and then recovered. The relative amount of rhizobin A followed a similar pattern. Rhizobins were not detected in the roots, stems, and leaves of nodulated soybean plants. They were present in Lupinus nodules, but absent in alder nodules. PMID:16347004

  17. A new strategy for integrating abundant oxygen functional groups into carbon felt electrode for vanadium redox flow batteries

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki Jae; Lee, Seung-Wook; Yim, Taeeun; Kim, Jae-Geun; Choi, Jang Wook; Kim, Jung Ho; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Young-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The effects of surface treatment combining corona discharge and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on the electrochemical performance of carbon felt electrodes for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) have been thoroughly investigated. A high concentration of oxygen functional groups has been successfully introduced onto the surface of the carbon felt electrodes by a specially designed surface treatment, which is mainly responsible for improving the energy efficiency of VRFBs. In addition, the wettability of the carbon felt electrodes also can be significantly improved. The energy efficiency of the VRFB cell employing the surface modified carbon felt electrodes is improved by 7% at high current density (148 mA cm−2). Such improvement is attributed to the faster charge transfer and better wettability allowed by surface-active oxygen functional groups. Moreover, this method is much more competitive than other surface treatments in terms of processing time, production costs, and electrochemical performance. PMID:25366060

  18. A new strategy for integrating abundant oxygen functional groups into carbon felt electrode for vanadium redox flow batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ki Jae; Lee, Seung-Wook; Yim, Taeeun; Kim, Jae-Geun; Choi, Jang Wook; Kim, Jung Ho; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Young-Jun

    2014-11-01

    The effects of surface treatment combining corona discharge and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on the electrochemical performance of carbon felt electrodes for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) have been thoroughly investigated. A high concentration of oxygen functional groups has been successfully introduced onto the surface of the carbon felt electrodes by a specially designed surface treatment, which is mainly responsible for improving the energy efficiency of VRFBs. In addition, the wettability of the carbon felt electrodes also can be significantly improved. The energy efficiency of the VRFB cell employing the surface modified carbon felt electrodes is improved by 7% at high current density (148 mA cm-2). Such improvement is attributed to the faster charge transfer and better wettability allowed by surface-active oxygen functional groups. Moreover, this method is much more competitive than other surface treatments in terms of processing time, production costs, and electrochemical performance.

  19. Structural insight into amino group-carrier protein-mediated lysine biosynthesis: crystal structure of the LysZ·LysW complex from Thermus thermophilus.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ayako; Tomita, Takeo; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Nishiyama, Chiharu; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Nishiyama, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    In the biosynthesis of lysine by Thermus thermophilus, the metabolite α-ketoglutarate is converted to the intermediate α-aminoadipate (AAA), which is protected by the 54-amino acid acidic protein LysW. In this study, we determined the crystal structure of LysZ from T. thermophilus (TtLysZ), an amino acid kinase that catalyzes the second step in the AAA to lysine conversion, which was in a complex with LysW at a resolution of 1.85 Å. A crystal analysis coupled with isothermal titration calorimetry of the TtLysZ mutants for TtLysW revealed tight interactions between LysZ and the globular and C-terminal extension domains of the LysW protein, which were mainly attributed to electrostatic forces. These results provided structural evidence for LysW acting as a protecting molecule for the α-amino group of AAA and also as a carrier protein to guarantee better recognition by biosynthetic enzymes for the efficient biosynthesis of lysine.

  20. The Araucaria Project: The Distance to the Sculptor Group Galaxy NGC 55 from a Newly Discovered Abundant Cepheid Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Gieren, Wolfgang; Soszyński, Igor; Udalski, Andrzej; Bresolin, Fabio; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Mennickent, Ronald; Walker, Alistair; Garcia, Alejandro; Szewczyk, Olaf; Szymański, MichaŁ; Kubiak, Marcin; Wyrzykowski, Łukasz

    2006-12-01

    We have detected, for the first time, Cepheid variables in the Sculptor Group SB(s)m galaxy NGC 55. From wide-field images obtained in the optical V and I bands during 77 nights in 2002-2003, we have found 143 Cepheids with periods ranging from 5.6 to 175.9 days; 133 of these objects have periods longer than 10 days, making NGC 55 to date the galaxy with the largest known number of long-period Cepheids in the Sculptor Group. We construct period-luminosity relations from our data and obtain distance moduli corrected for the small foreground reddening to NGC 55 of 26.79+/-0.04 mag (internal error) in V, 26.66+/-0.03 mag in I, and 26.40+/-0.05 mag in the reddening-independent V-I Wesenheit index. The trend of increasing distance moduli with shorter wavelength hints at the existence of significant reddening intrinsic to NGC 55, which affects the measured Cepheid magnitudes. From our data we determine the intrinsic mean reddening of the Cepheids in NGC 55 as E(B-V)=0.102 mag, which brings the distance determinations from the different bands into excellent agreement. Our best distance estimate for NGC 55 from the present optical Cepheid photometry is 26.40+/-0.05 (internal error) +/-0.09 mag (systematic error). This value is tied to an assumed LMC distance of 18.50 mag. Our quoted systematic error of the present NGC 55 Cepheid distance does not take into account the current uncertainty in the distance of the fiducial LMC galaxy itself. Within the small respective uncertainties, the Sculptor Group galaxies NGC 55 and NGC 300 are at the same distance of 1.9 Mpc, strengthening the case for a physical association of these galaxies. Based on observations obtained with the 1.3 m Warsaw telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  1. A spermine conjugated stearic acid-g-chitosan oligosaccharide polymer with different types of amino groups for efficient p53 gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Meng, Tingting; Wu, Jie; Yi, Hanxi; Liu, Jingwen; Lu, Binbin; Yuan, Ming; Huang, Xuan; Yuan, Hong; Hu, Fuqiang

    2016-09-01

    The effect of various amino groups on gene vector is different. In order to combine their effect in one vector and finally promote the transfection efficiency, a biogenic tetra-amine spermine was introduced to modify the stearic acid-grafted chitosan oligosaccharide (CSOSA) polymer to build a new gene delivery system. The spermine linked CSOSA (SP-CSOSA) polymer consists two types of amino groups with 73.3%, 19.3% of all nitrogen atoms for primary and secondary amine groups, respectively. The SP modified CSOSA showed strong DNA condensation capability and obviously enhanced proton binding ability especially at about pH 5.0, which significantly promoted the escape of SP-CSOSA/pDNA complexes from endo-lysosoms. Moreover, the transfection efficiency at the N/P ratio of 10 could compete with that of Lipofectamine 2000 and PEI 25K, but with lower cytotoxicities. The therapeutic wild type p53 gene transfected by the SP-CSOSA polymer restored the function of aberrant p53 gene and induced obvious cell apoptosis and G1 phase arrest. We concluded that the new vector SP-CSOSA polymer proved to be a potential delivery system for gene therapy.

  2. A spermine conjugated stearic acid-g-chitosan oligosaccharide polymer with different types of amino groups for efficient p53 gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Meng, Tingting; Wu, Jie; Yi, Hanxi; Liu, Jingwen; Lu, Binbin; Yuan, Ming; Huang, Xuan; Yuan, Hong; Hu, Fuqiang

    2016-09-01

    The effect of various amino groups on gene vector is different. In order to combine their effect in one vector and finally promote the transfection efficiency, a biogenic tetra-amine spermine was introduced to modify the stearic acid-grafted chitosan oligosaccharide (CSOSA) polymer to build a new gene delivery system. The spermine linked CSOSA (SP-CSOSA) polymer consists two types of amino groups with 73.3%, 19.3% of all nitrogen atoms for primary and secondary amine groups, respectively. The SP modified CSOSA showed strong DNA condensation capability and obviously enhanced proton binding ability especially at about pH 5.0, which significantly promoted the escape of SP-CSOSA/pDNA complexes from endo-lysosoms. Moreover, the transfection efficiency at the N/P ratio of 10 could compete with that of Lipofectamine 2000 and PEI 25K, but with lower cytotoxicities. The therapeutic wild type p53 gene transfected by the SP-CSOSA polymer restored the function of aberrant p53 gene and induced obvious cell apoptosis and G1 phase arrest. We concluded that the new vector SP-CSOSA polymer proved to be a potential delivery system for gene therapy. PMID:27289311

  3. The Abundances of Hydrocarbon Functional Groups in the Interstellar Medium Inferred from Laboratory Spectra of Hydrogenated and Methylated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steglich, M.; Jäger, C.; Huisken, F.; Friedrich, M.; Plass, W.; Räder, H.-J.; Müllen, K.; Henning, Th.

    2013-10-01

    Infrared (IR) absorption spectra of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) containing methyl (\\sbondCH3), methylene (\\protect{\\epsfbox{art/apjs484229un01.eps}}CH2), or diamond-like \\protect{\\epsfbox{art/apjs484229un02.eps}}CH groups and IR spectra of mixtures of methylated and hydrogenated PAHs prepared by gas-phase condensation were measured at room temperature (as grains in pellets) and at low temperature (isolated in Ne matrices). In addition, the PAH blends were subjected to an in-depth molecular structure analysis by means of high-performance liquid chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Supported by calculations at the density functional theory level, the laboratory results were applied to analyze in detail the aliphatic absorption complex of the diffuse interstellar medium at 3.4 μm and to determine the abundances of hydrocarbon functional groups. Assuming that the PAHs are mainly locked in grains, aliphatic CH x groups (x = 1, 2, 3) would contribute approximately in equal quantities to the 3.4 μm feature (N CHx /N H ≈ 10-5-2 × 10-5). The abundances, however, may be two to four times lower if a major contribution to the 3.4 μm feature comes from molecules in the gas phase. Aromatic \\epsfbox{art/apjs484229un03.eps} CH groups seem to be almost absent from some lines of sight, but can be nearly as abundant as each of the aliphatic components in other directions (N_{\\epsfbox{art/apjs484229un03.eps} CH}/N H lsim 2 × 10-5 upper value for grains). Due to comparatively low binding energies, astronomical IR emission sources do not display such heavy excess hydrogenation. At best, especially in protoplanetary nebulae, \\protect{\\epsfbox{art/apjs484229un01.eps}}CH2 groups bound to aromatic molecules, i.e., excess hydrogens on the molecular periphery only, can survive the presence of a nearby star.

  4. Model-measurement comparison of functional group abundance in α-pinene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene secondary organic aerosol formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggeri, Giulia; Bernhard, Fabian A.; Henderson, Barron H.; Takahama, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed by α-pinene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene photooxidation under different NOx regimes is simulated using the Master Chemical Mechanism v3.2 (MCM) coupled with an absorptive gas-particle partitioning module. Vapor pressures for individual compounds are estimated with the SIMPOL.1 group contribution model for determining apportionment of reaction products to each phase. We apply chemoinformatic tools to harvest functional group (FG) composition from the simulations and estimate their contributions to the overall oxygen to carbon ratio. Furthermore, we compare FG abundances in simulated SOA to measurements of FGs reported in previous chamber studies using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. These simulations qualitatively capture the dynamics of FG composition of SOA formed from both α-pinene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene in low-NOx conditions, especially in the first hours after start of photooxidation. Higher discrepancies are found after several hours of simulation; the nature of these discrepancies indicates sources of uncertainty or types of reactions in the condensed or gas phase missing from current model implementation. Higher discrepancies are found in the case of α-pinene photooxidation under different NOx concentration regimes, which are reasoned through the domination by a few polyfunctional compounds that disproportionately impact the simulated FG abundance in the aerosol phase. This manuscript illustrates the usefulness of FG analysis to complement existing methods for model-measurement evaluation.

  5. Crystal structure of the bacterial ribosomal decoding site complexed with amikacin containing the gamma-amino-alpha-hydroxybutyryl (haba) group.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Jiro; François, Boris; Russell, Rupert J M; Murray, James B; Westhof, Eric

    2006-08-01

    Amikacin is the 4,6-linked aminoglycoside modified at position N1 of the 2-deoxystreptamine ring (ring II) by the L-haba group. In the present study, the crystal structure of a complex between oligonucleotide containing the bacterial ribosomal A site and amikacin has been solved at 2.7 A resolution. Amikacin specifically binds to the A site in practically the same way as its parent compound kanamycin. In addition, the L-haba group interacts with the upper side of the A site through two direct contacts, O2*...H-N4(C1496) and N4*-H...O6(G1497). The present crystal structure shows how the introduction of the L-haba group on ring II of aminoglycoside is an effective mutation for obtaining a higher affinity to the bacterial A site.

  6. Isolation of L-3-phenyllactyl-Leu-Arg-Asn-NH sub 2 (Antho-RNamide), a sea anemone neuropeptide containing an unusual amino-terminal blocking group

    SciTech Connect

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C.J.P.; Jacob, E.; Graff, D.; Reinscheid, R.K.; Nothacker, H.P. ); Rinehart, K.L.; Staley, A.L. )

    1990-07-01

    Using a radioimmunoassay for the carboxyl-terminal sequence Arg-Asn-NH{sub 2}, the authors have purified a peptide from acetic acid extracts of the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima. By classical amino acid analyses, mass spectrometry, and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy, the structure of this peptide was determined as 3-phenyllactyl-Leu-Arg-Asn-NH{sub 2}. By using reversed-phase HPLC and a chiral mobile phase, it was shown that the 3-phenyllactyl group had the L configuration. Immunocytochemical staining with antiserum against Arg-Asn-NH{sub 2} showed that L-3-phenyllactyl-Leu-Arg-Asn-NH{sub 2} (Antho-RNamide) was localized in neutrons of sea anemones. The L-3-phenyllactyl group has not been found earlier in neuropeptides of vertebrates or higher invertebrates. They propose that this residue renders Antho-RNamide resistant to nonspecific aminopeptidases, thereby increasing the stability of the peptide after neuronal release.

  7. A naturally occurring single amino acid replacement in multiple gene regulator of group A Streptococcus significantly increases virulence.

    PubMed

    Sanson, Misu; O'Neill, Brian E; Kachroo, Priyanka; Anderson, Jeff R; Flores, Anthony R; Valson, Chandni; Cantu, Concepcion C; Makthal, Nishanth; Karmonik, Christof; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Kumaraswami, Muthiah; Musser, James M; Olsen, Randall J

    2015-02-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common source of genetic variation within a species; however, few investigations demonstrate how naturally occurring SNPs may increase strain virulence. We recently used group A Streptococcus as a model pathogen to study bacteria strain genotype-patient disease phenotype relationships. Whole-genome sequencing of approximately 800 serotype M59 group A Streptococcus strains, recovered during an outbreak of severe invasive infections across North America, identified a disproportionate number of SNPs in the gene encoding multiple gene regulator of group A Streptococcus (mga). Herein, we report results of studies designed to test the hypothesis that the most commonly occurring SNP, encoding a replacement of arginine for histidine at codon 201 of Mga (H201R), significantly increases virulence. Whole transcriptome analysis revealed that the H201R replacement significantly increased expression of mga and 54 other genes, including many proven virulence factors. Compared to the wild-type strain, a H201R isogenic mutant strain caused significantly larger skin lesions in mice. Serial quantitative bacterial culture and noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging also demonstrated that the isogenic H201R strain was significantly more virulent in a nonhuman primate model of joint infection. These findings show that the H201R replacement in Mga increases the virulence of M59 group A Streptococcus and provide new insight to how a naturally occurring SNP in bacteria contributes to human disease phenotypes.

  8. A naturally occurring single amino acid replacement in multiple gene regulator of group A Streptococcus significantly increases virulence.

    PubMed

    Sanson, Misu; O'Neill, Brian E; Kachroo, Priyanka; Anderson, Jeff R; Flores, Anthony R; Valson, Chandni; Cantu, Concepcion C; Makthal, Nishanth; Karmonik, Christof; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Kumaraswami, Muthiah; Musser, James M; Olsen, Randall J

    2015-02-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common source of genetic variation within a species; however, few investigations demonstrate how naturally occurring SNPs may increase strain virulence. We recently used group A Streptococcus as a model pathogen to study bacteria strain genotype-patient disease phenotype relationships. Whole-genome sequencing of approximately 800 serotype M59 group A Streptococcus strains, recovered during an outbreak of severe invasive infections across North America, identified a disproportionate number of SNPs in the gene encoding multiple gene regulator of group A Streptococcus (mga). Herein, we report results of studies designed to test the hypothesis that the most commonly occurring SNP, encoding a replacement of arginine for histidine at codon 201 of Mga (H201R), significantly increases virulence. Whole transcriptome analysis revealed that the H201R replacement significantly increased expression of mga and 54 other genes, including many proven virulence factors. Compared to the wild-type strain, a H201R isogenic mutant strain caused significantly larger skin lesions in mice. Serial quantitative bacterial culture and noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging also demonstrated that the isogenic H201R strain was significantly more virulent in a nonhuman primate model of joint infection. These findings show that the H201R replacement in Mga increases the virulence of M59 group A Streptococcus and provide new insight to how a naturally occurring SNP in bacteria contributes to human disease phenotypes. PMID:25476528

  9. Switch in codon bias and increased rates of amino acid substitution in the Drosophila saltans species group.

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Trelles, F; Tarrío, R; Ayala, F J

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the nucleotide composition of five genes, Xdh, Adh, Sod, Per, and 28SrRNA, in nine species of Drosophila (subgenus Sophophora) and one of Scaptodrosophila. The six species of the Drosophila saltans group markedly differ from the others in GC content and codon use bias. The GC content in the third codon position, and to a lesser extent in the first position and the introns, is higher in the D. melanogaster and D. obscura groups than in the D. saltans group (in Scaptodrosophila it is intermediate but closer to the melanogaster and obscura species). Differences are greater for Xdh than for Adh, Sod, Per, and 28SrRNA, which are functionally more constrained. We infer that rapid evolution of GC content in the saltans lineage is largely due to a shift in mutation pressure, which may have been associated with diminished natural selection due to smaller effective population numbers rather than reduced recombination rates. The rate of GC content evolution impacts the rate of protein evolution and may distort phylogenetic inferences. Previous observations suggesting that GC content evolution is very limited in Drosophila may have been distorted due to the restricted number of genes and species (mostly D. melanogaster) investigated. PMID:10471717

  10. Millimeter-scale variations of stable isotope abundances in carbonates from banded iron-formations in the Hamersley Group of Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Baur, M E; Hayes, J M; Studley, S A; Walter, M R

    1985-01-01

    Several diamond drill cores from formations within the Hamersley Group of Western Australia have been studied for evidence of short-range variations in the isotopic compositions of the carbonates. For a set of 32 adjacent microbands analyzed in a specimen from the Marra Mamba Iron Formation, carbon isotope compositions of individual microbands ranged from -2.8 to -19.8 per mil compared to PDB and oxygen isotope compositions ranged from 10.2 to 20.8 per mil compared to SMOW. A pattern of alternating abundances was present, with the average isotopic contrasts between adjacent microbands being 3.0 per mil for carbon and 3.1 per mil for oxygen. Similar results were obtained for a suite of 34 microbands (in four groups) from the Bruno's Band unit of the Mount Sylvia Formation. Difficulties were experienced in preparing samples of single microbands from the Dales Gorge Member of the Brockman Iron Formation, but overall isotopic compositions were in good agreement with values reported by previous authors. Chemical analyses showed that isotopically light carbon and oxygen were correlated with increased concentrations of iron. The preservation of these millimeter-scale variations in isotopic abundances is interpreted as inconsistent with a metamorphic origin for the isotopically light carbon in the BIF carbonates. A biological origin is favored for the correlated variations in 13C and Fe, and it is suggested that the 13C-depleted carbonates may derive either from fermentative metabolism or from anaerobic respiration. A model is presented in which these processes occur near the sediment-water interface and are coupled with an initial oxidative precipitation of the iron. PMID:11539027

  11. Millimeter-scale variations of stable isotope abundances in carbonates from banded iron-formations in the Hamersley Group of Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baur, M. E.; Hayes, J. M.; Studley, S. A.; Walter, M. R.

    1985-01-01

    Several diamond drill cores from formations within the Hamersley Group of Western Australia have been studied for evidence of short-range variations in the isotopic compositions of the carbonates. For a set of 32 adjacent microbands analyzed in a specimen from the Marra Mamba Iron Formation, carbon isotope compositions of individual microbands ranged from -2.8 to -19.8 per mil compared to PDB and oxygen isotope compositions ranged from 10.2 to 20.8 per mil compared to SMOW. A pattern of alternating abundances was present, with the average isotopic contrasts between adjacent microbands being 3.0 per mil for carbon and 3.1 per mil for oxygen. Similar results were obtained for a suite of 34 microbands (in four groups) from the Bruno's Band unit of the Mount Sylvia Formation. Difficulties were experienced in preparing samples of single microbands from the Dales Gorge Member of the Brockman Iron Formation, but overall isotopic compositions were in good agreement with values reported by previous authors. Chemical analyses showed that isotopically light carbon and oxygen were correlated with increased concentrations of iron. The preservation of these millimeter-scale variations in isotopic abundances is interpreted as inconsistent with a metamorphic origin for the isotopically light carbon in the BIF carbonates. A biological origin is favored for the correlated variations in 13C and Fe, and it is suggested that the 13C-depleted carbonates may derive either from fermentative metabolism or from anaerobic respiration. A model is presented in which these processes occur near the sediment-water interface and are coupled with an initial oxidative precipitation of the iron.

  12. The Unstructured N-terminal Region of Arabidopsis Group 4 Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) Proteins Is Required for Folding and for Chaperone-like Activity under Water Deficit.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Velazquez, Cesar L; Saab-Rincón, Gloria; Reyes, José Luis; Covarrubias, Alejandra A

    2016-05-13

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are a conserved group of proteins widely distributed in the plant kingdom that participate in the tolerance to water deficit of different plant species. In silico analyses indicate that most LEA proteins are structurally disordered. The structural plasticity of these proteins opens the question of whether water deficit modulates their conformation and whether these possible changes are related to their function. In this work, we characterized the secondary structure of Arabidopsis group 4 LEA proteins. We found that they are disordered in aqueous solution, with high intrinsic potential to fold into α-helix. We demonstrate that complete dehydration is not required for these proteins to sample ordered structures because milder water deficit and macromolecular crowding induce high α-helix levels in vitro, suggesting that prevalent conditions under water deficit modulate their conformation. We also show that the N-terminal region, conserved across all group 4 LEA proteins, is necessary and sufficient for conformational transitions and that their protective function is confined to this region, suggesting that folding into α-helix is required for chaperone-like activity under water limitation. We propose that these proteins can exist as different conformers, favoring functional diversity, a moonlighting property arising from their structural dynamics. PMID:27006402

  13. Effect of two methoxy groups bound to an amino-benzene donor unit for thienyl-di-vinylene bridged EO chromophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Toshiki; Miki, Hideki; Aoki, Isao; Otomo, Akira

    2013-10-01

    We report the molecular first hyperpolarizability (β) and absorption and 1H NMR spectra of electro-optic (EO) chromophores comprised of amino-benzene with two methoxy groups at meta-positions as the donor units, thienyl-di-vinylene as the π-electron bridges, and 2-(dicyanomethylene)-3-cyano-4,5,5-trimethyl-2,5-dihydrofuran (TCF), 2-(dicyanomethylene)-3-cyano-4,5-dimethyl-5-trifluoromethyl-2,5-dihydrofuran (CF3-TCF) or 2-(dicyanomethylene)-3-cyano-4-methyl-5-phenyl-5-trifluoromethyl-2,5-dihydrofuran (CF3-phenyl-TCF) as the acceptor units. Improvement in linear and nonlinear optical properties was found in EO chromophores with two methoxy groups compared with benchmark EO chromophores without these groups and EO chromophores with one methoxy group. The data obtained from measurements of hyperpolarizability (β) and absorption and 1H NMR spectra indicate a possible mechanism that can contribute to improvement - double intra-molecular hydrogen bonding.

  14. Amino Acids and Chirality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Jamie E.

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

  15. Amino acid metabolism of Lemna minor L

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, D.; Rich, P.J.; Brunk, D.G. )

    1989-04-01

    A serious limitation to the use of N(O,S)-heptafluorobutyryl isobutyl amino acid derivatives in the analysis of {sup 15}N-labeling kinetics of amino acids in plant tissues, is that the amides glutamine and asparagine undergo acid hydrolysis to glutamate and aspartate, respectively, during derivatization. This led us to consider an alternative procedure for derivatization of glutamine and asparagine with N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide in pyridine. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry yielded fragment ions (M-57) of mass 417 and 431 for the ({sup 14}N)asparagine and ({sup 14}N)glutamine derivatives, respectively, suitable for monitoring unlabeled, single-{sup 15}N- and double-{sup 15}N-labeled amide species from the ion clusters at mass to charge ratio (m/z) 415 to 423 for asparagine, and m/z 429 to 437 for glutamine. From separate analyses of the specific isotope abundance of the amino-N groups of asparagine and glutamine as their N-heptafluorobutyryl isobutyl derivatives, the specific amide-({sup 15}N) abundance of these amino acids was determined.

  16. Tuning the interactions of PEG-coated gold nanorods with BSA and model proteins through insertion of amino or carboxylate groups.

    PubMed

    Scaletti, Federica; Feis, Alessandro; Centi, Sonia; Pini, Roberto; Rotello, Vincent M; Messori, Luigi

    2015-09-01

    Gold nanorods (GNRs) are important platforms for biosensing and drug delivery. As for most nanomaterials, appropriate coatings such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) are needed to stabilize GNRs within biological fluids. We show here that the interactions of GNRs with proteins can be finely modulated through surface modification using PEG-containing chains bearing charged headgroups. Interestingly, introduction of amino or carboxylate groups produces relevant and differential changes in GNR interactions with three representative proteins: lysozyme, cytochrome c, and bovine serum albumin. These effects were explored through the direct monitoring of plasmonic bands of the GNRs and are supported by independent dynamic light scattering (DLS) and circular dichroism (CD) determinations. Notably, GNR-protein interactions observed for these charged GNRs can be almost completely reversed by salt addition. These observations demonstrate the importance of electrostatic effects in governing GNR-protein interactions, and provide a basis for new sensing and delivery platforms.

  17. Conformation of a Group 2 Late Embryogenesis Abundant Protein from Soybean. Evidence of Poly (l-Proline)-type II Structure1

    PubMed Central

    Soulages, Jose L.; Kim, Kangmin; Arrese, Estela L.; Walters, Christina; Cushman, John C.

    2003-01-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are members of a large group of hydrophilic, glycine-rich proteins found in plants, algae, fungi, and bacteria known collectively as hydrophilins that are preferentially expressed in response to dehydration or hyperosmotic stress. Group 2 LEA (dehydrins or responsive to abscisic acid) proteins are postulated to stabilize macromolecules against damage by freezing, dehydration, ionic, or osmotic stress. However, the structural and physicochemical properties of group 2 LEA proteins that account for such functions remain unknown. We have analyzed the structural properties of a recombinant form of a soybean (Glycine max) group 2 LEA (rGmDHN1). Differential scanning calorimetry of purified rGmDHN1 demonstrated that the protein does not display a cooperative unfolding transition upon heating. Ultraviolet absorption and circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed that the protein is in a largely hydrated and unstructured conformation in solution. However, ultraviolet absorption and circular dichroism measurements collected at different temperatures showed that the protein exists in equilibrium between two extended conformational states: unordered and left-handed extended helical or poly (l-proline)-type II structures. It is estimated that 27% of the residues of rGmDHN1 adopt or poly (l-proline)-type II-like helical conformation at 12°C. The content of extended helix gradually decreases to 15% as the temperature is increased to 80°C. Studies of the conformation of the protein in solution in the presence of liposomes, trifluoroethanol, and sodium dodecyl sulfate indicated that rGmDHN1 has a very low intrinsic ability to adopt α-helical structure and to interact with phospholipid bilayers through amphipathic α-helices. The ability of the protein to remain in a highly extended conformation at low temperatures could constitute the basis of the functional role of GmDHN1 in the prevention of freezing, desiccation, ionic, or osmotic

  18. Remote sensing data to classify functional groups of vegetation and their distribution and abundance in a semiarid mountain watershed, Idaho, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughridge, R. E.; Benner, S. G.; McNamara, J. P.; Flores, A. N.

    2012-12-01

    In water-limited montane ecosystems, topography is a significant driver of energy balance and soil moisture and therefore governs the distribution and abundance of terrestrial vegetation. Few studies have made a concerted effort to quantify spatial patterns in vegetation along physiographic gradients that control microclimate such as slope, elevation, and aspect. Furthermore, spectral mixing of different vegetation species within individual visible and near-infrared remote sensing pixels makes it difficult to constrain the temporal growth and senescence of individual plant functional types. We report on a study that seeks to understand the interacting roles of topography, soil moisture, and solar radiation on the distribution of different plant functional types within the Dry Creek Experimental Watershed (DCEW). Boise State University maintains the 27 km2 watershed which is located in the Boise Front Mountains of southwest Idaho. It is qualitatively observed in DCEW that low elevations are dominated by sage-steppe ecosystems and high elevations transition to conifer forests. It is also observed that aspect has a major control in which sage-steppe is evident at high elevations on south facing slopes conversely from north facing slopes. To quantify these trends we measured percent ground cover of functional groups (i.e. forbs, grass, shrubs, etc.) at 77 sites within DCEW spanning a large gradient in the controlling biophysiographic variables. In addition, vegetation water content (VWC) and spectral reflectance from the 325 to 1075 nm wavelengths was collected for specific vegetation types at eight permanent soil moisture monitoring sites contained in DCEW throughout the 2012 green-up/senescence transition. To develop a watershed-wide classification we built a supervised multilayer perceptron (MLP) backpropagating artificial neural network (ANN) using temporal Landsat 5 images to classify 4 major groups: sage-steppe, Douglas fir, ponderosa pine, and deciduous trees

  19. Variations of the relative abundances of He, (C,N,O) and Fe-group nuclei in solar cosmic rays and their relationship to solar particle acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertsch, D. L.; Biswas, S.; Fichtel, C. E.; Pellerin, C. J.; Reames, D. V.

    1973-01-01

    Measurements of the flux of helium nuclei in the 24 January 1971 event and of helium and (C,N,O) nuclei in the 1 September 1971 event are combined with previous measurements to obtain the relative abundances of helium, (C,N,O), and Fe-group nuclei in these events. These data are then summarized together with previously reported results to show that, even when the same detector system using a dE/dx plus range technique is used, differences in the He/(C,N,O) value in the same energy/nucleon interval are observed in solar cosmic ray events. Further, when the He/(C,N,O) value is lower the He/(Fe-group nuclei) value is also systematically lower in these large events. When solar particle acceleration theory is analyzed, it is seen that the results suggest that, for large events, Coulomb energy loss probably does not play a major role in determining solar particle composition at higher energies (10 MeV). The variations in multicharged nuclei composition are more likely due to partial ionization during the acceleration phase.

  20. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Metabolism is the process your body uses to make energy from the food you eat. Food is ... One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup ...

  1. Two groups of amino acids interact with GABA-A receptors coupled to t-[35S]butylbicyclophosphorothionate binding sites: possible involvement with seizures associated with hereditary amino acidemias.

    PubMed

    Squires, R F; Saederup, E; Lajtha, A

    1988-09-01

    Seven L-amino acids (Trp, Arg, Lys, Met, Ile, Val, and Phe) partially (28-81%) reversed the inhibitory action of 1 microM gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on t-[35S]butylbicyclophosphorothionate ([35S]TBPS) binding to rat brain membranes, with EC50 values ranging from 5 to 120 mM. D-Trp, D-Arg, D-Lys, D-Met, D-Val, and D-Phe were approximately equipotent with their L-isomers. Tyramine, phenethylamine, and tryptamine, the decarboxylation products of the aromatic amino acids (Tyr, Phe, and Trp, respectively), reversed the inhibitory action of 1 microM GABA on [35S]TBPS binding more potently than the parent amino acids (EC50 values = 1.5-3.0 mM). Human hereditary amino acidemias involving Arg, Lys, Ile, Val, and Phe are associated with seizures, and these amino acids and/or their metabolites may block GABA-A receptors. Five other L-amino acids (ornithine, His, Glu, Pro, and Ala) as well as Gly and beta-Ala inhibited [35S]TBPS binding with IC50 values ranging from 0.1 to 37 mM, and these inhibitions were reversed by the GABA-A receptor blocker R 5135 in all cases. The inhibitory effects of L-ornithine, L-Ala, L-Glu, and L-Pro were stereospecific, because the corresponding D-isomers were considerably less inhibitory. L-His, D-His, and L-Glu gave incomplete (plateau) inhibitions. Human hereditary amino acidemias involving L-ornithine, His, Pro, Gly, and beta-Ala are also associated with seizures, and we speculate that these GABA-mimetic amino acids may desensitize GABA-A receptors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Production of microspheres with surface amino groups from blends of Poly(Lactide-co-glycolide) and Poly(epsilon-CBZ-L-lysine) and use for encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, J; Hornsby, P J

    1999-01-01

    Microspheres were formed from blends of the biodegradable polymer poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) together with poly(epsilon-CBZ-L-lysine) (PCBZL) by a double-emulsification/solvent evaporation technique. The size of the microspheres formed by this method was dependent both on the total concentration of the polymers and on the ratio of PLGA to PCBZL. The use of the microspheres for encapsulation was demonstrated by the inclusion of a solution of Texas Red fluorescent dye. Lysine epsilon-amino groups on the surface of the microspheres were deprotected by acid hydrolysis or lithium/liquid ammonia reduction. Acid hydrolysis damaged the surface of the microspheres as assessed by scanning electron microscopy, whereas deprotection by lithium/ammonia produced less damage and allowed the retention of encapsulated dye solution. The surface lysine groups made available on the surface of the microspheres could be used to covalently link a variety of biologically active molecules to alter their in vivo properties and allow targeting to specific cell types.

  3. Extraterrestrial amino acids identified in metal-rich CH and CB carbonaceous chondrites from Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Hein, Jason E.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2013-03-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites contain numerous indigenous organic compounds and could have been an important source of prebiotic compounds required for the origin of life on Earth or elsewhere. Extraterrestrial amino acids have been reported in five of the eight groups of carbonaceous chondrites and are most abundant in CI, CM, and CR chondrites but are also present in the more thermally altered CV and CO chondrites. We report the abundance, distribution, and enantiomeric and isotopic compositions of simple primary amino acids in six metal-rich CH and CB carbonaceous chondrites that have not previously been investigated for amino acids: Allan Hills (ALH) 85085 (CH3), Pecora Escarpment (PCA) 91467 (CH3), Patuxent Range (PAT) 91546 (CH3), MacAlpine Hills (MAC) 02675 (CBb), Miller Range (MIL) 05082 (CB), and Miller Range (MIL) 07411 (CB). Amino acid abundances and carbon isotopic values were obtained by using both liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry and fluorescence, and gas chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The δ13C/12C ratios of multiple amino acids fall outside of the terrestrial range and support their extraterrestrial origin. Extracts of CH chondrites were found to be particularly rich in amino acids (13-16 parts per million, ppm) while CB chondrite extracts had much lower abundances (0.2-2 ppm). The amino acid distributions of the CH and CB chondrites were distinct from the distributions observed in type 2 and 3 CM and CR chondrites and contained elevated levels of β-, γ-, and δ-amino acids compared to the corresponding α-amino acids, providing evidence that multiple amino acid formation mechanisms were important in CH and CB chondrites.

  4. Extraterrestrial Amino Acids Identified in Metal-Rich CH and CB Carbonaceous Chondrites from Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Hein, Jason E.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2013-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites contain numerous indigenous organic compounds and could have been an important source of prebiotic compounds required for the origin of life on Earth or elsewhere. Extraterrestrial amino acids have been reported in five of the eight groups of carbonaceous chondrites and are most abundant in CI, CM, and CR chondritesbut are also present in the more thermally altered CV and CO chondrites. We report the abundance, distribution, and enantiomeric and isotopic compositions of simple primary amino acids in six metal-rich CH and CB carbonaceous chondrites that have not previously been investigated for amino acids: Allan Hills (ALH) 85085 (CH3), Pecora Escarpment(PCA) 91467 (CH3), Patuxent Range (PAT) 91546 (CH3), MacAlpine Hills (MAC) 02675(CBb), Miller Range (MIL) 05082 (CB), and Miller Range (MIL) 07411 (CB). Amino acid abundances and carbon isotopic values were obtained by using both liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry and fluorescence, and gas chromatography isotope ratiomass spectrometry. The (delta D, delta C-13, delta N-15) ratios of multiple amino acids fall outside of the terrestrial range and support their extraterrestrial origin. Extracts of CH chondrites were found to be particularly rich in amino acids (1316 parts per million, ppm) while CB chondrite extracts had much lower abundances (0.22 ppm). The amino acid distributions of the CH and CB chondrites were distinct from the distributions observed in type 2 and 3 CM and CR chondrites and contained elevated levels of beta-, gamma-, and delta-amino acids compared to the corresponding alpha-amino acids, providing evidence that multiple amino acid formation mechanisms were important in CH and CB chondrites.

  5. Modulation of Silica Nanoparticle Uptake into Human Osteoblast Cells by Variation of the Ratio of Amino and Sulfonate Surface Groups: Effects of Serum

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    To study the importance of the surface charge for cellular uptake of silica nanoparticles (NPs), we synthesized five different single- or multifunctionalized fluorescent silica NPs (FFSNPs) by introducing various ratios of amino and sulfonate groups into their surface. The zeta potential values of these FFSNPs were customized from highly positive to highly negative, while other physicochemical properties remained almost constant. Irrespective of the original surface charge, serum proteins adsorbed onto the surface, neutralized the zeta potential values, and prevented the aggregation of the tailor-made FFSNPs. Depending on the surface charge and on the absence or presence of serum, two opposite trends were found concerning the cellular uptake of FFSNPs. In the absence of serum, positively charged NPs were more strongly accumulated by human osteoblast (HOB) cells than negatively charged NPs. In contrast, in serum-containing medium, anionic FFSNPs were internalized by HOB cells more strongly, despite the similar size and surface charge of all types of protein-covered FFSNPs. Thus, at physiological condition, when the presence of proteins is inevitable, sulfonate-functionalized silica NPs are the favorite choice to achieve a desired high rate of NP internalization. PMID:26030456

  6. Modulation of Silica Nanoparticle Uptake into Human Osteoblast Cells by Variation of the Ratio of Amino and Sulfonate Surface Groups: Effects of Serum.

    PubMed

    Shahabi, Shakiba; Treccani, Laura; Dringen, Ralf; Rezwan, Kurosch

    2015-07-01

    To study the importance of the surface charge for cellular uptake of silica nanoparticles (NPs), we synthesized five different single- or multifunctionalized fluorescent silica NPs (FFSNPs) by introducing various ratios of amino and sulfonate groups into their surface. The zeta potential values of these FFSNPs were customized from highly positive to highly negative, while other physicochemical properties remained almost constant. Irrespective of the original surface charge, serum proteins adsorbed onto the surface, neutralized the zeta potential values, and prevented the aggregation of the tailor-made FFSNPs. Depending on the surface charge and on the absence or presence of serum, two opposite trends were found concerning the cellular uptake of FFSNPs. In the absence of serum, positively charged NPs were more strongly accumulated by human osteoblast (HOB) cells than negatively charged NPs. In contrast, in serum-containing medium, anionic FFSNPs were internalized by HOB cells more strongly, despite the similar size and surface charge of all types of protein-covered FFSNPs. Thus, at physiological condition, when the presence of proteins is inevitable, sulfonate-functionalized silica NPs are the favorite choice to achieve a desired high rate of NP internalization.

  7. Poly(p-phenylene) with Poly(ethylene glycol) Chains and Amino Groups as a Functional Platform for Controlled Drug Release and Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Guler, Bahar; Akbulut, Huseyin; Barlas, Firat Baris; Geyik, Caner; Demirkol, Dilek Odaci; Senisik, Ahmet Murat; Arican, Halil Armagan; Coskunol, Hakan; Timur, Suna; Yagci, Yusuf

    2016-05-01

    Conventional cancer treatments such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or combination of these two result in side effects, which lower the quality of life of the patients. To overcome problems with these methods, altering the drug properties by conjugating them to carrier polymers has emerged. Such polymeric carriers also hold the potential to make tumor cells more sensitive to radiation therapy. Herein, poly(p-phenylene) (PPP) polymer with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains and primary amino groups (PPP-NH2 -g-PEG) is synthesized and conjugated with anticancer drug Doxorubicin (DOX). pH dependent drug release experiments are performed at pH 5.3 and pH 7.4, respectively. Cell viability studies on human cervix adenocarcinoma cells show that lower doses of DOX inhibit cell proliferation when conjugated with nontoxic doses of PPP-NH2 -g-PEG polymer. Additionally, PPP-NH2 -g-PEG/Cys/DOX bioconjugate significantly increases radiosensitive properties of DOX. It is possible to use lower doses of DOX when conjugated to PPP-NH2 -g-PEG in combination with radiotherapy. PMID:26797717

  8. Deuterium Fractionation during Amino Acid Formation by Photolysis of Interstellar Ice Analogs Containing Deuterated Methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oba, Yasuhiro; Takano, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Naoki; Kouchi, Akira

    2016-08-01

    Deuterium (D) atoms in interstellar deuterated methanol might be distributed into complex organic molecules through molecular evolution by photochemical reactions in interstellar grains. In this study, we use a state-of-the-art high-resolution mass spectrometer coupled with a high-performance liquid chromatography system to quantitatively analyze amino acids and their deuterated isotopologues formed by the photolysis of interstellar ice analogs containing singly deuterated methanol CH2DOH at 10 K. Five amino acids (glycine, α-alanine, β-alanine, sarcosine, and serine) and their deuterated isotopologues whose D atoms are bound to carbon atoms are detected in organic residues formed by photolysis followed by warming up to room temperature. The abundances of singly deuterated amino acids are in the range of 0.3–1.1 relative to each nondeuterated counterpart, and the relative abundances of doubly and triply deuterated species decrease with an increasing number of D atoms in a molecule. The abundances of amino acids increase by a factor of more than five upon the hydrolysis of the organic residues, leading to decreases in the relative abundances of deuterated species for α-alanine and β-alanine. On the other hand, the relative abundances of the deuterated isotopologues of the other three amino acids did not decrease upon hydrolysis, indicating different formation mechanisms of these two groups upon hydrolysis. The present study facilitates both qualitative and quantitative evaluations of D fractionation during molecular evolution in the interstellar medium.

  9. Deuterium Fractionation during Amino Acid Formation by Photolysis of Interstellar Ice Analogs Containing Deuterated Methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oba, Yasuhiro; Takano, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Naoki; Kouchi, Akira

    2016-08-01

    Deuterium (D) atoms in interstellar deuterated methanol might be distributed into complex organic molecules through molecular evolution by photochemical reactions in interstellar grains. In this study, we use a state-of-the-art high-resolution mass spectrometer coupled with a high-performance liquid chromatography system to quantitatively analyze amino acids and their deuterated isotopologues formed by the photolysis of interstellar ice analogs containing singly deuterated methanol CH2DOH at 10 K. Five amino acids (glycine, α-alanine, β-alanine, sarcosine, and serine) and their deuterated isotopologues whose D atoms are bound to carbon atoms are detected in organic residues formed by photolysis followed by warming up to room temperature. The abundances of singly deuterated amino acids are in the range of 0.3-1.1 relative to each nondeuterated counterpart, and the relative abundances of doubly and triply deuterated species decrease with an increasing number of D atoms in a molecule. The abundances of amino acids increase by a factor of more than five upon the hydrolysis of the organic residues, leading to decreases in the relative abundances of deuterated species for α-alanine and β-alanine. On the other hand, the relative abundances of the deuterated isotopologues of the other three amino acids did not decrease upon hydrolysis, indicating different formation mechanisms of these two groups upon hydrolysis. The present study facilitates both qualitative and quantitative evaluations of D fractionation during molecular evolution in the interstellar medium.

  10. Preparation and evaluation of a chiral stationary phase covalently bound with a chiral pseudo-18-crown-6 ether having a phenolic hydroxy group for enantiomer separation of amino compounds.

    PubMed

    Yongzhu, Jin; Hirose, Keiji; Nakamura, Takashi; Nishioka, Ryota; Ueshige, Tetsuro; Tobe, Yoshito

    2006-10-01

    In order to develop a chiral stationary phase (CSP), which has even higher separation ability than the corresponding commercially available crown ether based CSP (OA-8000 having a pseudo-18-crown-6 ether with an OMe group as a selector), chemically bonded type CSP having a phenolic OH group on a crown ring was developed. Normal mobile phases with or without acid additive can be used with this OH type CSP in contrast to the conventional OMe type CSP which has a neutral chiral selector. Enantiomers of 25 out of 27 amino compounds, including 20 amino acids, 5 amino alcohols, and 2 lipophilic amines, were efficiently separated on a column with this CSP. Nine amino compounds out of 27 were separated with better separation factors than the corresponding OMe type CSP. It is noteworthy that the chromatography on this CSP exhibited excellent enantiomer-separations for amines and amino alcohols when triethyl amine was used as an additive in the mobile phase. Comparison of enantiomer separation ability on this OH type of CSP and on the OMe type of CSP and correlation between the enantioselectivity in chiral chromatography and that of the corresponding model compounds in solution imply that the chiral separation arose from chiral recognition in host guest interactions.

  11. Amino acids in the Yamato carbonaceous chrondrite from Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimoyama, A.; Ponnamperuma, C.; Yanai, K.

    1979-01-01

    Evidence for the presence of amino acids of extraterrestrial origin in the Antarctic Yamato carbonaceous chrondrite is presented. Hydrolyzed and nonhydrolyzed water-extracted amino acid samples from exterior, middle and interior portions of the meteorite were analyzed by an amino acid analyzer and by gas chromatography of N-TFA-isopropyl amino acid derivatives. Nine protein and six nonprotein amino acids were detected in the meteorite at abundances between 34 and less than one nmole/g, with equal amounts in interior and exterior portions. Nearly equal abundances of the D and L enantiomers of alanine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid were found, indicating the abiotic, therefore extraterrestrial, origin of the amino acids. The Antarctic environment and the uniformity of protein amino acid abundances are discussed as evidence against the racemization of terrestrially acquired amino acids, and similarities between Yamato amino acid compositions and the amino acid compositions of the Murchison and Murray type II carbonaceous chrondrites are indicated.

  12. Searching for Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in a Contaminated Meteorite: Amino Acid Analyses of the Canakkale L6 Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, A. S.; Elsila, J. E.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Ornek, C. Y.; Esenoglu, H. H.; Unsalan, O.; Ozturk, B.

    2016-01-01

    Amino acids can serve as important markers of cosmochemistry, as their abundances and isomeric and isotopic compositions have been found to vary predictably with changes in parent body chemistry and alteration processes. Amino acids are also of astrobiological interest because they are essential for life on Earth. Analyses of a range of meteorites, including all groups of carbonaceous chondrites, along with H, R, and LL chondrites, ureilites, and a martian shergottite, have revealed that amino acids of plausible extraterrestrial origin can be formed in and persist after a wide range of parent body conditions. However, amino acid analyses of L6 chondrites to date have not provided evidence for indigenous amino acids. In the present study, we performed amino acid analysis on larger samples of a different L6 chondite, Canakkale, to determine whether or not trace levels of indigenous amino acids could be found. The Canakkale meteor was an observed fall in late July, 1964, near Canakkale, Turkey. The meteorite samples (1.36 and 1.09 g) analyzed in this study were allocated by C. Y. Ornek, along with a soil sample (1.5 g) collected near the Canakkale recovery site.

  13. Abundances of platinum group elements in native sulfur condensates from the Niuatahi-Motutahi submarine volcano, Tonga rear arc: Implications for PGE mineralization in porphyry deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jung-Woo; Campbell, Ian H.; Kim, Jonguk

    2016-02-01

    Some porphyry Cu-Au deposits, which are enriched in Pd, are potentially an economic source of Pd. Magmatic volatile phases are thought to transport the platinum group elements (PGEs) from the porphyry source magma to the point of deposition. However, the compatibilities of the PGEs in magmatic volatile phases are poorly constrained. We report PGE and Re contents in native sulfur condensates and associated altered dacites from the Niuatahi-Motutahi submarine volcano, Tonga rear arc, in order to determine the compatibility of PGEs and Re in magmatic volatile phases, and their mobility during secondary hydrothermal alteration. The native sulfur we analyzed is the condensate of a magmatic volatile phase exsolved from the Niuatahi-Motutahi magma. The PGEs are moderately enriched in the sulfur condensates in comparison to the associated fresh dacite, with enrichment factors of 11-285, whereas Au, Cu and Re are strongly enriched with enrichment factors of ∼20,000, ∼5000 and ∼800 respectively. Although the PGEs are moderately compatible into magmatic volatile phases, their compatibility is significantly lower than that of Au, Cu and Re. Furthermore, the compatibility of PGEs decrease in the order: Ru > Pt > Ir > Pd. This trend is also observed in condensates and sublimates from other localities. PGE mineralization in porphyry Cu-Au deposits is characterized by substantially higher Pd/Pt (∼7-60) and Pd/Ir (∼100-10,500) than typical orthomagmatic sulfide deposits (e.g. Pd/Pt ∼0.6 and Pd/Ir ∼20 for the Bushveld). It has previously been suggested that the high mobility of Pd, relative to the other PGEs, may account for the preferential enrichment of Pd in porphyry Cu-Au deposits. However, the low compatibility of Pd in the volatile phase relative to the other PGEs, shown in this study, invalidates this explanation. We suggest that the PGE geochemistry of Pd-rich Cu-Au deposits is principally derived from the PGE characteristics of the magma from which the ore

  14. CNO abundances in H II regions of the Magellanic clouds and the galaxy with implications regarding the nucleosynthesis of the CNO element group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufour, R. J.; Shields, G. A.

    1982-01-01

    Final abundance results of IUE observations of the UV spectra of three H II regions in the Small Magellanic Cloud and four H II regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud are presented. Calculated yields of carbon and oxygen derived are y(C)=.00063 and y(O)=.0016. The nucleosynthetic origin of nitrogen was evaluated as being predominantly a secondary element produced from carbon as its seed. Plotting log N/C versus log C/H yielded the rather unexpected result that log N/C decreases with lo C/H over the SMC-LMC-Orion range. The cause of this relationship is discussed.

  15. Amino group combined P/Ge and P/Sn Lewis pairs: synthesis and dipolar addition reactions to alkyne and aldehyde molecules.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ying; Li, Jiancheng; Liu, Weiping; Ye, Qingsong; Zhu, Hongping

    2016-04-14

    Amino group combined P/Ge-based frustrated Lewis pairs (FLPs) Ph2PN(R)GeCl3 (R = 2,6-iPr2C6H3 (1), 2,4,6-Me3C6H2 (2), and C6H11 (3)) and Ph2PN(2,6-iPr2C6H3)GeMe3 (4) as well as P/Sn-based FLP Ph2PN(2,6-iPr2C6H3)SnMe3 (5) were prepared and utilized for reactions with alkyne and aldehyde molecules. Compounds 1-3 each reacted with MeO2CC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CCO2Me to give zwitterionic cyclic vinyls [Ph2PN(R)GeCl3](MeO2CC[double bond, length as m-dash]CCO2Me) (6-8) and compound 1 reacted with HC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CCO2Me to give the similar compound [Ph2PN(2,4,6-Me3C6H2)GeCl3](HC[double bond, length as m-dash]CCO2Me) (9). Compound 4 reacted with RC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CCO2Me to afford acyclic vinyls 2,6-iPr2C6H3N[double bond, length as m-dash]P(Ph2)C(R)[double bond, length as m-dash]C(CO2Me)GeMe3 (R = CO2Me (10), H (11)) and 5 reacted with MeO2CC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CCO2Me to give 2,6-iPr2C6H3N[double bond, length as m-dash]P(Ph2)C(CO2Me)[double bond, length as m-dash]C(CO2Me)SnMe3 (12). The reactions of 1 with CH3CH2CHO and 1,4-(CHO)2C6H4 were also investigated and yielded novel zwitterionic OCPNGe five-heteroatom cycles [Ph2PN(2,6-iPr2C6H3)GeCl3][CH(CH2CH3)O] (13) and [Ph2PN(2,6-iPr2C6H3)GeCl3][p-(OCH)C6H4CHO][Cl3GeN(2,6-iPr2C6H3)PPh2] (14). Compounds 1-14 were characterized by NMR ((1)H, (13)C, and (31)P) and CHN elemental analysis, of which 1, 7, and 10-14 were further studied by X-ray crystallography. The reactions of 4 (or 5) with RC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CCO2Me to produce 10-12 present a novel way of obtaining the germyl (or stannyl) and iminophosphoranyl co-substituted vinyls.

  16. Amino group combined P/Ge and P/Sn Lewis pairs: synthesis and dipolar addition reactions to alkyne and aldehyde molecules.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ying; Li, Jiancheng; Liu, Weiping; Ye, Qingsong; Zhu, Hongping

    2016-04-14

    Amino group combined P/Ge-based frustrated Lewis pairs (FLPs) Ph2PN(R)GeCl3 (R = 2,6-iPr2C6H3 (1), 2,4,6-Me3C6H2 (2), and C6H11 (3)) and Ph2PN(2,6-iPr2C6H3)GeMe3 (4) as well as P/Sn-based FLP Ph2PN(2,6-iPr2C6H3)SnMe3 (5) were prepared and utilized for reactions with alkyne and aldehyde molecules. Compounds 1-3 each reacted with MeO2CC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CCO2Me to give zwitterionic cyclic vinyls [Ph2PN(R)GeCl3](MeO2CC[double bond, length as m-dash]CCO2Me) (6-8) and compound 1 reacted with HC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CCO2Me to give the similar compound [Ph2PN(2,4,6-Me3C6H2)GeCl3](HC[double bond, length as m-dash]CCO2Me) (9). Compound 4 reacted with RC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CCO2Me to afford acyclic vinyls 2,6-iPr2C6H3N[double bond, length as m-dash]P(Ph2)C(R)[double bond, length as m-dash]C(CO2Me)GeMe3 (R = CO2Me (10), H (11)) and 5 reacted with MeO2CC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CCO2Me to give 2,6-iPr2C6H3N[double bond, length as m-dash]P(Ph2)C(CO2Me)[double bond, length as m-dash]C(CO2Me)SnMe3 (12). The reactions of 1 with CH3CH2CHO and 1,4-(CHO)2C6H4 were also investigated and yielded novel zwitterionic OCPNGe five-heteroatom cycles [Ph2PN(2,6-iPr2C6H3)GeCl3][CH(CH2CH3)O] (13) and [Ph2PN(2,6-iPr2C6H3)GeCl3][p-(OCH)C6H4CHO][Cl3GeN(2,6-iPr2C6H3)PPh2] (14). Compounds 1-14 were characterized by NMR ((1)H, (13)C, and (31)P) and CHN elemental analysis, of which 1, 7, and 10-14 were further studied by X-ray crystallography. The reactions of 4 (or 5) with RC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CCO2Me to produce 10-12 present a novel way of obtaining the germyl (or stannyl) and iminophosphoranyl co-substituted vinyls. PMID:26658532

  17. The effect of heavy metal concentration and soil pH on the abundance of selected microbial groups within ArcelorMittal Poland steelworks in Cracow.

    PubMed

    Lenart, Anna; Wolny-Koładka, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify the effect of heavy metal concentration and soil pH on the abundance of the selected soil microorganisms within ArcelorMittal Poland steelworks, Cracow. The analysis included 20 soil samples, where the concentration of Fe, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, Mn, Cr and soil pH were evaluated together with the number of mesophilic bacteria, fungi, Actinomycetes and Azotobacter spp. In the majority of samples soil pH was alkaline. The limits of heavy metals exceeded in eight samples and in one sample, the concentration of Zn exceeded 31-fold. Chromium was the element which most significantly limited the number of bacteria and Actinomycetes.

  18. Immunocapture of CD133-positive cells from human cancer cell lines by using monodisperse magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres containing amino groups.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Wei-Chih; Horák, Daniel; Plichta, Zdeněk; Lee, Wen-Chien

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-based macroporous microspheres with an average particle size of 4.2μm were prepared using a modified multi-step swelling polymerization method and by introducing amino functionality on their surfaces. Antibody molecules were oxidized on their carbohydrate moieties and bound to the amino-containing magnetic microspheres via a site-directed procedure. CD133-positive cells could be effectively captured from human cancer cell lines (HepG2, HCT116, MCF7, and IMR-32) by using magnetic microspheres conjugated to an anti-human CD133 antibody. After further culture, the immunocaptured CD133-expressing cells from IMR-32 proliferated and gradually detached from the magnetic microspheres. Flow-cytometric analysis confirmed the enrichment of CD133-expressing cells by using the antibody-bound magnetic microspheres. Such microspheres suitable for immunocapture are very promising for cancer diagnosis because the CD133-expressing cells in cancer cell lines have been suggested to be cancer stem cells.

  19. Amino acids in the Tagish Lake Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kminek, G.; Botta, O.; Glavin, D. P.; Bada, J. L.

    2002-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) based amino acid analysis of a Tagish Lake meteorite sample recovered 3 months after the meteorite fell to Earth have revealed that the amino acid composition of Tagish Lake is strikingly different from that of the CM and CI carbonaceous chondrites. We found that the Tagish Lake meteorite contains only trace levels of amino acids (total abundance = 880 ppb), which is much lower than the total abundance of amino acids in the CI Orgueil (4100 ppb) and the CM Murchison (16 900 ppb). Because most of the same amino acids found in the Tagish Lake meteorite are also present in the Tagish Lake ice melt water, we conclude that the amino acids detected in the meteorite are terrestrial contamination. We found that the exposure of a sample of Murchison to cold water lead to a substantial reduction over a period of several weeks in the amount of amino acids that are not strongly bound to the meteorite matrix. However, strongly bound amino acids that are extracted by direct HCl hydrolysis are not affected by the leaching process. Thus even if there had been leaching of amino acids from our Tagish Lake meteorite sample during its 3 month residence in Tagish Lake ice and melt water, a Murchison type abundance of endogenous amino acids in the meteorite would have still been readily detectable. The low amino acid content of Tagish Lake indicates that this meteorite originated fiom a different type of parent body than the CM and CI chondrites. The parent body was apparently devoid of the reagents such as aldehyldes/ketones, HCN and ammonia needed for the effective abiotic synthesis of amino acids. Based on reflectance spectral measurements, Tagish Lake has been associated with P- or D-type asteroids. If the Tagish Lake meteorite was indeed derived fiom these types of parent bodies, our understanding of these primitive asteroids needs to be reevaluated with respect to their potential inventory of biologically important organic compounds.

  20. Profiling Amino Acids of Jordanian Scalp Hair as a Tool for Diabetes Mellitus Diagnosis: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Rashaid, Ayat H B; Harrington, Peter de B; Jackson, Glen P

    2015-07-21

    Hair analysis is an area of increasing interest in the fields of medical and forensic sciences. Human scalp hair has attractive features in clinical studies because hair can be sampled easily and noninvasively from human subjects, and unlike blood and urine samples, it contains a chronological record of medication use. Keratin protein is the major component of scalp hair shaft material and it is composed of 21 amino acids. The method used herein for the amino acid determination in hair included keratin protein acid hydrolysis using 6 M hydrochloric acid (HCl), followed by amino acids derivatization using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA), and the determination of derivatized amino acids by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Amino acid profiles of scalp hair of 27 Jordanian subjects (15 diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 patients and 12 control subjects) were analyzed. A fuzzy rule-building expert system (FuRES) classified the amino acid profiles into diabetic and control groups based on multivariate analyses of the abundance of 14 amino acids. The sensitivity and specificity were 100% for diabetes detection using leave-one-individual-out cross-validation. The areas under the receiver operative characteristics (ROC) curves were 1.0, which represents a highly sensitive and specific diabetes test. The nonessential amino acids Gly and Glu, and the essential amino acid Ile were more abundant in the scalp hair of diabetic patients compared to the hair of control subjects. The associations between the abundance of amino acids of human hair and health status may have clinical applications in providing diagnostic indicator or predicting other chronic or acute diseases.

  1. Mechanisms of Innovation Diffusion under Information Abundance and Information Scarcity--On the Contribution of Social Networks in Group vs. Individual Extension Approaches in Semi-Arid Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darr, Dietrich; Pretzsch, Jurgen

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this paper is to assess the effectiveness of innovation diffusion under group-oriented and individual-oriented extension. Current theoretical notions of innovation diffusion in social networks shall be briefly reviewed, and the concepts of "search" and "innovation" vis-a-vis "transfer" and "imitation" mechanisms (Hansen,…

  2. Current topics in the biotechnological production of essential amino acids, functional amino acids, and dipeptides.

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, Satoshi

    2014-04-01

    Amino acids play important roles in both human and animal nutrition and in the maintenance of health. Here, amino acids are classified into three groups: first, essential amino acids, which are essential to nutrition; second, functional amino acids, recently found to be important in the promotion of physiological functions; and third, dipeptides, which are used to resolve problematic features of specific free amino acids, such as their instability or insolubility. This review focusses on recent researches concerning the microbial production of essential amino acids (lysine and methionine), functional amino acids (histidine and ornithine), and a dipeptide (L-alanyl-L-glutamine). PMID:24679256

  3. Abundance of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) affects group characteristics and use of space by golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas) in Cabruca agroforest.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Leonardo C; Neves, Leonardo G; Raboy, Becky E; Dietz, James M

    2011-08-01

    Cabruca is an agroforest of cacao trees shaded by native forest trees. It is the predominant vegetation type throughout eastern part of the range of the golden-headed lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, an endangered primate endemic to Atlantic Forest. Understanding how lion tamarins use this agroforest is a conservation priority. To address this question, we documented the diet, home range size, group sizes and composition, density, number of litters and body condition of lion tamarins living in cabruca, and other habitats. Jackfruit, Artocarpus heterophyllus, was the most used species used by lion tamarins in cabruca and was widely available and used throughout the year. In cabruca, home range size was the smallest (22-28 ha) and density of lion tamarins was the highest (1.7 ind/ha) reported for the species. Group size averaged 7.4 individuals and was not significantly different among the vegetation types. In cabruca, groups produced one or two litters a year, and all litters were twins. Adult males in cabruca were significantly heavier than males in primary forest. Our study is the first to demonstrate that breeding groups of golden-headed lion tamarins can survive and reproduce entirely within cabruca agroforest. Jackfruit proved to be a keystone resource for lion tamarins in cabruca, and bromeliads were important as an animal prey foraging microhabitat. In cases where cabruca contains concentrated resources, such as jackfruit and bromeliads, lion tamarins may not only survive and reproduce but may fare better than in other forest types, at least for body condition and reproduction.

  4. Abundance of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) affects group characteristics and use of space by golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas) in Cabruca agroforest.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Leonardo C; Neves, Leonardo G; Raboy, Becky E; Dietz, James M

    2011-08-01

    Cabruca is an agroforest of cacao trees shaded by native forest trees. It is the predominant vegetation type throughout eastern part of the range of the golden-headed lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, an endangered primate endemic to Atlantic Forest. Understanding how lion tamarins use this agroforest is a conservation priority. To address this question, we documented the diet, home range size, group sizes and composition, density, number of litters and body condition of lion tamarins living in cabruca, and other habitats. Jackfruit, Artocarpus heterophyllus, was the most used species used by lion tamarins in cabruca and was widely available and used throughout the year. In cabruca, home range size was the smallest (22-28 ha) and density of lion tamarins was the highest (1.7 ind/ha) reported for the species. Group size averaged 7.4 individuals and was not significantly different among the vegetation types. In cabruca, groups produced one or two litters a year, and all litters were twins. Adult males in cabruca were significantly heavier than males in primary forest. Our study is the first to demonstrate that breeding groups of golden-headed lion tamarins can survive and reproduce entirely within cabruca agroforest. Jackfruit proved to be a keystone resource for lion tamarins in cabruca, and bromeliads were important as an animal prey foraging microhabitat. In cases where cabruca contains concentrated resources, such as jackfruit and bromeliads, lion tamarins may not only survive and reproduce but may fare better than in other forest types, at least for body condition and reproduction. PMID:21079956

  5. Abundance of Jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus) Affects Group Characteristics and Use of Space by Golden-Headed Lion Tamarins ( Leontopithecus chrysomelas) in Cabruca Agroforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Leonardo C.; Neves, Leonardo G.; Raboy, Becky E.; Dietz, James M.

    2011-08-01

    Cabruca is an agroforest of cacao trees shaded by native forest trees. It is the predominant vegetation type throughout eastern part of the range of the golden-headed lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, an endangered primate endemic to Atlantic Forest. Understanding how lion tamarins use this agroforest is a conservation priority. To address this question, we documented the diet, home range size, group sizes and composition, density, number of litters and body condition of lion tamarins living in cabruca, and other habitats. Jackfruit, Artocarpus heterophyllus, was the most used species used by lion tamarins in cabruca and was widely available and used throughout the year. In cabruca, home range size was the smallest (22-28 ha) and density of lion tamarins was the highest (1.7 ind/ha) reported for the species. Group size averaged 7.4 individuals and was not significantly different among the vegetation types. In cabruca, groups produced one or two litters a year, and all litters were twins. Adult males in cabruca were significantly heavier than males in primary forest. Our study is the first to demonstrate that breeding groups of golden-headed lion tamarins can survive and reproduce entirely within cabruca agroforest. Jackfruit proved to be a keystone resource for lion tamarins in cabruca, and bromeliads were important as an animal prey foraging microhabitat. In cases where cabruca contains concentrated resources, such as jackfruit and bromeliads, lion tamarins may not only survive and reproduce but may fare better than in other forest types, at least for body condition and reproduction.

  6. Symmetry scheme for amino acid codons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, J.

    2002-02-01

    Group theoretical concepts are invoked in a specific model to explain how only twenty amino acids occur in nature out of a possible sixty four. The methods we use enable us to justify the occurrence of the recently discovered 21st amino acid selenocysteine, and also enables us to predict the possible existence of two more, as yet undiscovered amino acids.

  7. Influence of methoxy- and nitro-substitutions in the aromatic ring on proton donation ability in hydrogen bond and on the amino group parameters of free and H-bonded molecules of 2-aminopyrimidine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisenko, V. E.; Krekov, S. A.; Fomenko, M. Yu.; Koll, A.; Lipkovski, P.

    2008-06-01

    Amino- and imino- forms of pyrimidine are widely presented as part of antibiotics, corrective medications for heart failures and metabolic stimulators. Hydrogen bonding is one of the fundamental interactions between biologically active molecules. This type of interactions provides flexibility, speed and variety of the biochemical processes. Proton donation properties of aminopyrimidines significantly depend on the position, number and kind of the substituent in its aromatic ring. In present work we studied the influence of the methoxy- and nitro-substitutions in the phenyl radical of pyridine and pyrimidine cycles on the proton donation ability of the amino group in hydrogen bonds as well as on its geometrical, force, electro-optical and thermodynamical characteristics in free and H-bonded (1:1 and 1:2, with various proton acceptors) molecules of primary aromatic amines. Acetonitrile, dioxane, tetrahydrofourane, dimethylformamide, dimethylsulfoxide and hexamethylphosphoramide (whose proton accepting properties vary within a wide range) were used as proton acceptors in our research. In the region of the amino group stretching and deformation vibrations the IR spectra of free and H-bonded (1:1) molecules of 2-amino-4,6-dimethoxy- and 2-amino-5-nitropyrimidine were studied in complexes with proton acceptors in CCl 4 within the temperature range 288-328 K. The spectra of 1:2 complexes were studied in undiluted aprotic solvents. The following spectral characteristics of absorption bands in amino group stretching vibrations were determined: M(0) (zero spectral moment, integrated intensity B); M(1) (first spectral moment, band "centre of gravity"); effective half width, related to the second central moment (Δ ν1/2) eff = 2( M(2)) 1/2, frequencies of the deformation vibrations δ(HNH) of free and H-bonded molecules. It was shown that changes of the absorption band spectral characteristics of the amino group stretching and deformation vibrations in the analyzed

  8. Amino acid decarboxylations produced by lipid-derived reactive carbonyls in amino acid mixtures.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Francisco J; León, M Mercedes; Zamora, Rosario

    2016-10-15

    The formation of 2-phenylethylamine and phenylacetaldehyde in mixtures of phenylalanine, a lipid oxidation product, and a second amino acid was studied to determine the role of the second amino acid in the degradation of phenylalanine produced by lipid-derived reactive carbonyls. The presence of the second amino acid usually increased the formation of the amine and reduced the formation of the Strecker aldehyde. The reasons for this behaviour seem to be related to the α-amino group and the other functional groups (mainly amino or similar groups) present in the side-chain of the amino acid. These groups are suggested to modify the lipid-derived reactive carbonyl but not the reaction mechanism because the Ea of formation of both 2-phenylethylamine and phenylacetaldehyde remained unchanged in all studied systems. All these results suggest that the amine/aldehyde ratio obtained by amino acid degradation can be modified by adding free amino acids during food formulation.

  9. Human immunodeficiency virus contains an epitope immunoreactive with thymosin. cap alpha. /sub 1/ and the 30-amino acid synthetic p17 group-specific antigen peptide HGP-30

    SciTech Connect

    Naylor, P.H.; Naylor, C.W.; Badamchian, M.; Wada, S.; Goldstein, A.L.; Wang, S.S.; Sun, D.K.; Thornton, A.H.; Sarin, P.S.

    1987-05-01

    The authors have reported that an antiserum prepared against thymosin ..cap alpha../sub 1/ (which shares a region of homology with the p17 protein of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated human immunodeficiency virus) effectively neutralized the AIDs virus and prevented its replication in H9 cells. Using HPLC and immunoblot analysis, they have identified from a clone B, type III human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-IIIB) extracts a protein with a molecular weight of 17,000 that is immunoreactive with thymosin ..cap alpha../sub 1/. In contrast, no immunoreactivity was found in retroviral extracts from a number of nonhuman species including feline, bovine, simian, gibbon, and murine retroviruses. Heterologous antiserum prepared against a 30-amino acid synthetic peptide analogue (HGP-30) does not cross-react with thymosin ..cap alpha../sub 1/ but does react specifically with the p17 protein of the AIDS virus in a manner identical to that seen with an HTLV-IIIB p17-specific monoclonal antibody. The demonstration that this synthetic analogue is immunogenic and that antibodies to HGP-30 cross-react not only with synthetic peptide but also with the HTLV-IIIB p17 viral protein provides an additional, and potentially more specific, candidate for development of a synthetic peptide vaccine for AIDS. In addition, the p17 synthetic peptide (HGP-3) may prove to be useful in a diagnostic assay for the detection of AIDS virus infection in seronegative individuals.

  10. Platinum-group element abundances and Re-Os isotopic systematics of the upper continental crust through time: Evidence from glacial diamictites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kang; Walker, Richard J.; Rudnick, Roberta L.; Gao, Shan; Gaschnig, Richard M.; Puchtel, Igor S.; Tang, Ming; Hu, Zhao-Chu

    2016-10-01

    The fine-grained matrix of glacial diamictites, deposited periodically by continental ice sheets over much of Earth history, provides insights into the average composition and chemical evolution of the upper continental crust (UCC) (Gaschnig et al., 2016, and references therein). The concentrations of platinum-group elements (PGEs, including Os, Ir, Ru, Pt and Pd) and the geochemically related Re, as well as 187Re/188Os and 187Os/188Os ratios, are reported here for globally-distributed glacial diamictites that were deposited during the Mesoarchean, Paleoproterozoic, Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic eras. The medians and averages of PGE concentrations of these diamictite composites decrease from the Mesoarchean to the Neoproterozoic, mimicking decreases in the concentrations of first-row transition elements (Sc, V, Cr, Co and Ni). By contrast, Re concentrations are highly variable with no discernable trend, owing to its high solubility. Assuming these diamictites are representative of average UCC through time, the new data are fully consistent with the previous inference that the Archean UCC contained a greater proportion of mafic-ultramafic rocks relative to younger UCC. Linear regressions of PGEs versus Cr and Ni concentrations in all the diamictite composites from the four time periods are used to estimate the following concentrations of the PGEs in the present-day UCC: 0.059 ± 0.016 ng/g Os, 0.036 ± 0.008 ng/g Ir, 0.079 ± 0.026 ng/g Ru, 0.80 ± 0.22 ng/g Pt and 0.80 ± 0.26 ng/g Pd (2σ of 10,000 bootstrapping regression results). These PGE estimates are slightly higher than the estimates obtained from loess samples. We suggest this probably results from loess preferentially sampling younger UCC rocks that have lower PGE concentrations, or PGEs being fractionated during loess formation. A Re concentration of 0.25 ± 0.12 ng/g (2σ) is obtained from a regression of Re versus Mo. From this, time-integrated 187Re/188Os and 187Os/188Os ratios for the UCC are

  11. Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins in legumes.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, Marina; Covarrubias, Alejandra A

    2013-01-01

    Plants are exposed to different external conditions that affect growth, development, and productivity. Water deficit is one of these adverse conditions caused by drought, salinity, and extreme temperatures. Plants have developed different responses to prevent, ameliorate or repair the damage inflicted by these stressful environments. One of these responses is the activation of a set of genes encoding a group of hydrophilic proteins that typically accumulate to high levels during seed dehydration, at the last stage of embryogenesis, hence named Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins. LEA proteins also accumulate in response to water limitation in vegetative tissues, and have been classified in seven groups based on their amino acid sequence similarity and on the presence of distinctive conserved motifs. These proteins are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, from ferns to angiosperms, suggesting a relevant role in the plant response to this unfavorable environmental condition. In this review, we analyzed the LEA proteins from those legumes whose complete genomes have been sequenced such as Phaseolus vulgaris, Glycine max, Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus, Cajanus cajan, and Cicer arietinum. Considering their distinctive motifs, LEA proteins from the different groups were identified, and their sequence analysis allowed the recognition of novel legume specific motifs. Moreover, we compile their transcript accumulation patterns based on publicly available data. In spite of the limited information on these proteins in legumes, the analysis and data compiled here confirm the high correlation between their accumulation and water deficit, reinforcing their functional relevance under this detrimental conditions. PMID:23805145

  12. Metabolism of vertebrate amino sugars with N-glycolyl groups: resistance of α2-8-linked N-glycolylneuraminic acid to enzymatic cleavage.

    PubMed

    Davies, Leela R L; Pearce, Oliver M T; Tessier, Matthew B; Assar, Siavash; Smutova, Victoria; Pajunen, Maria; Sumida, Mizuki; Sato, Chihiro; Kitajima, Ken; Finne, Jukka; Gagneux, Pascal; Pshezhetsky, Alexey; Woods, Robert; Varki, Ajit

    2012-08-17

    The sialic acid (Sia) N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) and its hydroxylated derivative N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) differ by one oxygen atom. CMP-Neu5Gc is synthesized from CMP-Neu5Ac, with Neu5Gc representing a highly variable fraction of total Sias in various tissues and among different species. The exception may be the brain, where Neu5Ac is abundant and Neu5Gc is reported to be rare. Here, we confirm this unusual pattern and its evolutionary conservation in additional samples from various species, concluding that brain Neu5Gc expression has been maintained at extremely low levels over hundreds of millions of years of vertebrate evolution. Most explanations for this pattern do not require maintaining neural Neu5Gc at such low levels. We hypothesized that resistance of α2-8-linked Neu5Gc to vertebrate sialidases is the detrimental effect requiring the relative absence of Neu5Gc from brain. This linkage is prominent in polysialic acid (polySia), a molecule with critical roles in vertebrate neural development. We show that Neu5Gc is incorporated into neural polySia and does not cause in vitro toxicity. Synthetic polymers of Neu5Ac and Neu5Gc showed that mammalian and bacterial sialidases are much less able to hydrolyze α2-8-linked Neu5Gc at the nonreducing terminus. Notably, this difference was not seen with acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of polySias. Molecular dynamics modeling indicates that differences in the three-dimensional conformation of terminal saccharides may partly explain reduced enzymatic activity. In keeping with this, polymers of N-propionylneuraminic acid are sensitive to sialidases. Resistance of Neu5Gc-containing polySia to sialidases provides a potential explanation for the rarity of Neu5Gc in the vertebrate brain. PMID:22692207

  13. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... defects & other health conditions > Amino acid metabolism disorders Amino acid metabolism disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... baby’s newborn screening may include testing for certain amino acid metabolism disorders. These are rare health conditions that ...

  14. Plasma amino acid relationships during parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Wells, F E; Smits, B J

    1980-01-01

    The plasma amino acidfs of 17 patients were studied before and during total parenteral nutrition (TPN). The amino acid (AA) pattern changed similarly for all patients. The AA concentration changes relative to preinfusion (PAER) were the most informative index of change. Two groups of AA were defined, the "branched chain" group (five amino acids) and the "hepatic" group (four amino acids) based on the correlation of PAER values. Comparison of PAER values with the ratio of AA intake to requirement indicated that the requirements of the sick patients were more similar to those of children than those of healthy adults.

  15. D-amino acid peptide residualizing agents bearing N-hydroxysuccinimido-and maleimido- functional groups and their application for trastuzumab radioiodination

    PubMed Central

    Pruszynski, Marek; Koumarianou, Eftychia; Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; Chitneni, Satish; Zalutsky, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Proteins that undergo receptor-mediated endocytosis are subject to lysosomal degradation, requiring radioiodination methods that minimize loss of radioactivity from tumor cells after this process occurs. To accomplish this, we developed the residualizing radioiodination agent N∊-(3-[*I]iodobenzoyl)-Lys5-Nα-maleimido-Gly1-d-GEEEK (Mal-d-GEEEK-[*I]IB), which enhanced tumor uptake but also increased kidney activity and necessitates generation of sulfhydryl moieties on the protein. The purpose of the current study was to synthesize and evaluate a new d-amino acid based agent that might avoid these potential problems. Methods Nα-(3-iodobenzoyl)-(5-succinimidyloxycarbonyl)-d-EEEG (NHS-IB-d-EEEG), which contains 3 d-glutamates to provide negative charge and a N-hydroxysuccinimide function to permit conjugation to unmodified proteins, and the corresponding tin precursor were produced by solid phase peptide synthesis and subsequent conjugation with appropriate reagents. Radioiodination of the anti-HER2 antibody trastuzumab using NHS-IB-d-EEEG and Mal-d-GEEEK-IB were compared. Paired-label internalization assays on BT474 breast carcinoma cells and biodistribution studies in athymic mice bearing BT474M1 xenografts were performed to evaluate the two radioiodinated d-peptide trastuzumab conjugates. Results NHS-[131I]IB-d-EEEG was produced in 53.8 ± 13.4 % and conjugated to trastuzumab in 39.5 ± 7.6 % yield. Paired-label internalization assays with trastuzumab-NHS-[131I]IB-d-EEEG and trastuzumab-Mal-d-GEEEK-[125I]IB demonstrated similar intracellular trapping for both conjugates at 1 h (131I, 84.4 ± 6.1%; 125I, 88.6 ± 5.2%) through 24 h (131I, 60.7 ± 6.8%; 125I, 64.9 ± 6.9 %). In the biodistribution experiment, tumor uptake peaked at 48 h (trastuzumab-NHS-[131I]IB-d-EEEG, 29.8 ± 3.6 %ID/g; trastuzumab-Mal-d-GEEEK-[125I]IB, 45.3 ± 5.3 %ID/g) and was significantly higher for 125I at all time points. In general, normal tissue levels were lower for

  16. Amino acid analyses of R and CK chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Aaron S.; McLain, Hannah; Glavin, Daniel P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Davidson, Jemma; Miller, Kelly E.; Andronikov, Alexander V.; Lauretta, Dante; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2015-03-01

    Exogenous delivery of amino acids and other organic molecules to planetary surfaces may have played an important role in the origins of life on Earth and other solar system bodies. Previous studies have revealed the presence of indigenous amino acids in a wide range of carbon-rich meteorites, with the abundances and structural distributions differing significantly depending on parent body mineralogy and alteration conditions. Here we report on the amino acid abundances of seven type 3-6 CK chondrites and two Rumuruti (R) chondrites. Amino acid measurements were made on hot water extracts from these meteorites by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Of the nine meteorites analyzed, four were depleted in amino acids, and one had experienced significant amino acid contamination by terrestrial biology. The remaining four, comprised of two R and two CK chondrites, contained low levels of amino acids that were predominantly the straight chain, amino-terminal (n-ω-amino) acids β-alanine, and γ-amino-n-butyric acid. This amino acid distribution is similar to what we reported previously for thermally altered ureilites and CV and CO chondrites, and these n-ω-amino acids appear to be indigenous to the meteorites and not the result of terrestrial contamination. The amino acids may have been formed by Fischer-Tropsch-type reactions, although this hypothesis needs further testing.

  17. The ɛ-Amino Group of Protein Lysine Residues Is Highly Susceptible to Nonenzymatic Acylation by Several Physiological Acyl-CoA Thioesters.

    PubMed

    Simic, Zeljko; Weiwad, Matthias; Schierhorn, Angelika; Steegborn, Clemens; Schutkowski, Mike

    2015-11-01

    Mitochondrial enzymes implicated in the pathophysiology of diabetes, cancer, and metabolic syndrome are highly regulated by acetylation. However, mitochondrial acetyltransferases have not been identified. Here, we show that acetylation and also other acylations are spontaneous processes that depend on pH value, acyl-CoA concentration and the chemical nature of the acyl residue. In the case of a peptide derived from carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1, the rates of succinylation and glutarylation were up to 150 times than for acetylation. These results were confirmed by using the protein substrate cyclophilin A (CypA). Deacylation experiments revealed that SIRT3 exhibits deacetylase activity but is not able to remove any of the succinyl groups from CypA, whereas SIRT5 is an effective protein desuccinylase. Thus, the acylation landscape on lysine residues might largely depend on the enzymatic activity of specific sirtuins, and the availability and reactivity of acyl-CoA compounds. PMID:26382620

  18. Distribution of Amino Acids in Lunar Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Noble, S. K.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most eagerly studied questions upon initial return of lunar samples was whether significant amounts of organic compounds, including amino acids, were present. Analyses during the 1970s produced only tentative and inconclusive identifications of indigenous amino acids. Those analyses were hampered by analytical difficulties including relative insensitivity to certain compounds, the inability to separate chiral enantiomers, and the lack of compound-specific isotopic measurements, which made it impossible to determine whether the detected amino acids were indigenous to the lunar samples or the results of contamination. Numerous advances have been made in instrumentation and methodology for amino acid characterization in extraterrestrial samples in the intervening years, yet the origin of amino acids in lunar regolith samples has been revisited only once for a single lunar sample, (3) and remains unclear. Here, we present initial data from the analyses of amino acid abundances in 12 lunar regolith samples. We discuss these abundances in the context of four potential amino acid sources: (1) terrestrial biological contamination; (2) contamination from lunar module (LM) exhaust; (3) derivation from solar windimplanted precursors; and (4) exogenous delivery from meteorites.

  19. Development & automation of a novel [(18)F]F prosthetic group, 2-[(18)F]-fluoro-3-pyridinecarboxaldehyde, and its application to an amino(oxy)-functionalised Aβ peptide.

    PubMed

    Morris, Olivia; Gregory, J; Kadirvel, M; Henderson, Fiona; Blykers, A; McMahon, Adam; Taylor, Mark; Allsop, David; Allan, Stuart; Grigg, J; Boutin, Herve; Prenant, Christian

    2016-10-01

    2-[(18)F]-Fluoro-3-pyridinecarboxaldehyde ([(18)F]FPCA) is a novel, water-soluble prosthetic group. It's radiochemistry has been developed and fully-automated for application in chemoselective radiolabelling of amino(oxy)-derivatised RI-OR2-TAT peptide, (Aoa-k)-RI-OR2-TAT, using a GE TRACERlab FX-FN. RI-OR2-TAT is a brain-penetrant, retro-inverso peptide that binds to amyloid species associated with Alzheimer's Disease. Radiolabelled (Aoa-k)-RI-OR2-TAT was reproducibly synthesised and the product of the reaction with FPCA has been fully characterised. In-vivo biodistribution of [(18)F]RI-OR2-TAT has been measured in Wistar rats.

  20. Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in the Almahata Sitta Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Parker, Eric T.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2010-01-01

    Amino acid analysis of a meteorite fragment of asteroid 2008 TC3 called Almahata Sitta was carried out using reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled with UV fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-FD/ToF-MS) as part of a sample analysis consortium. LC-FD/ToF-MS analyses of hot-water extracts from the meteorite revealed a complex distribution of two- to seven-carbon aliphatic amino acids and one- to three-carbon amines with abundances ranging from 0.5 to 149 parts-per-billion (ppb). The enantiomeric ratios of the amino acids alanine, R-amino-n-butyric acid (beta-ABA), 2-amino-2-methylbutanoic acid (isovaline), and 2-aminopentanoic acid (norvaline) in the meteorite were racemic (D/L approximately 1), indicating that these amino acids are indigenous to the meteorite and not terrestrial contaminants. Several other non-protein amino acids were also identified in the meteorite above background levels including alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB), 4-amino-2- methylbutanoic acid, 4-amino-3-methylbutanoic acid, and 3-, 4-, and 5-aminopentanoic acid. The total abundances of isovaline and alpha-AIB in Almahata Sitta are 1000 times lower than the abundances of these amino acids found in the CM carbonaceous chondrite Murchison. The extremely low abundances and unusual distribution of five carbon amino acids in Almahata Sitta compared to Cl, CM, and CR carbonaceous chondrites may reflect extensive thermal alteration of amino acids on the parent asteroid by partial melting during formation or subsequent impact shock heating. It is also possible that amino acids were synthesized by catalytic reactions on the parent body after asteroid 2008 TC3 cooled to lower temperatures.

  1. Extraterrestrial amino acids in the Almahata Sitta meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Parker, Eric T.; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Jenniskens, Peter; Shaddad, Muawia H.

    2010-10-01

    Amino acid analysis of a meteorite fragment of asteroid 2008 TC3 called Almahata Sitta was carried out using reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled with UV fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-FD/ToF-MS) as part of a sample analysis consortium. LC-FD/ToF-MS analyses of hot-water extracts from the meteorite revealed a complex distribution of two- to seven-carbon aliphatic amino acids and one- to three-carbon amines with abundances ranging from 0.5 to 149 parts-per-billion (ppb). The enantiomeric ratios of the amino acids alanine, β-amino-n-butyric acid, 2-amino-2-methylbutanoic acid (isovaline), and 2-aminopentanoic acid (norvaline) in the meteorite were racemic (D/L ˜ 1), indicating that these amino acids are indigenous to the meteorite and not terrestrial contaminants. Several other nonprotein amino acids were also identified in the meteorite above background levels including α-aminoisobutyric acid (α-AIB), 4-amino-2-methylbutanoic acid, 4-amino-3-methylbutanoic acid, and 3-, 4-, and 5-aminopentanoic acid. The total abundances of isovaline and α-AIB in Almahata Sitta are approximately 1000 times lower than the abundances of these amino acids found in the CM carbonaceous chondrite Murchison. The extremely low abundances and unusual distribution of five-carbon amino acids in Almahata Sitta compared to CI, CM, and CR carbonaceous chondrites may reflect extensive thermal alteration of amino acids on the parent asteroid by partial melting during formation or subsequent impact shock heating. It is also possible that amino acids were synthesized by catalytic reactions on the parent body after asteroid 2008 TC3 cooled to lower temperatures, or introduced as a contaminant from unrelated meteorite clasts and chemically altered by α-decarboxylation.

  2. Abundances in Sagittarius Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifacio, P.; Zaggia, S.; Sbordone, L.; Santin, P.; Monaco, L.; Monai, S.; Molaro, P.; Marconi, G.; Girardi, L.; Ferraro, F.; di Marcantonio, P.; Caffau, E.; Bellazzini, M.

    The Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal is a very complex galaxy, which has undergone prolonged star formation. From the very first high resolution chemical analysis of Sgr stars, conducted using spectra obtained during the commissioning of UVES at VLT, it was clear that the star had undergone a high level of chemical processing, at variance with most of the other Local Group dwarf spheroidals. Thanks to FLAMES at VLT we now have accurate metallicities and abundances of alpha-chain elements for about 150 stars, which provide the first reliable metallicity distribution for this galaxy. Besides the already known high metallicity tail the existence of a metal-poor population has also been highlighted, although an assessment of the fraction of Sgr stars which belong to this population requires a larger sample. From our data it is also obvious that Sagittarius is a nucleated galaxy and that the centre of the nucleus coincides with M54, as already shown by Monaco et al.

  3. Distribution and Origin of Amino Acids in Lunar Regolith Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; McLain, H. L.; Noble, S. K.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    The existence of organic compounds on the lunar surface has been a question of interest from the Apollo era to the present. Investigations of amino acids immediately after collection of lunar samples yielded inconclusive identifications, in part due to analytical limitations including insensitivity to certain compounds, an inability to separate enantiomers, and lack of compound-specific isotopic measurements. It was not possible to determine if the detected amino acids were indigenous to the lunar samples or the result of terrestrial contamination. Recently, we presented initial data from the analysis of amino acid abundances in 12 lunar regolith samples and discussed those results in the context of four potential amino acid sources [5]. Here, we expand on our previous work, focusing on amino acid abundances and distributions in seven regolith samples and presenting the first compound-specific carbon isotopic ratios measured for amino acids in a lunar sample.

  4. The Apollo Program and Amino Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Sidney W.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the determination of hydrolyzable amino acid precursors and a group of six amino acids in the returned lunar samples of the Apollo programs. Indicates that molecular evolution is arrested at the precursor stage on the Moon because of lack of water. (CC)

  5. Analysis of amino acid constituents of gallstones

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Wang, Lian-Lian; Xiao, Yu-Xia; Ni, Jing-Hua; Yu, Yan

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To seek drugs that will efficaciously dissolve bilirubin, glycoprotein and black stones and that will represent improved lithotriptic agents to resolve cholesterol stones, and to study the amino acid constituents of gallstones. METHODS: According to characteristics determined by infrared spectroscopy and to the contents of bilirubin determined by semi-quantitative chemical analysis, 30 of 148 cases of gallstones were selected and divided into 5 groups. Amino acids of the 30 cases were detected by high-speed chromatography. RESULTS: The quantity of amino acids was highest in black stones (226.9 mg/g) and lowest in pure cholesterol stones (1.4 mg/g). In the 5 groups of gallstones, the quantity of amino acids followed the hierarchy of black stone > mixed bilirubin stone and glucoprotein stone > mixed cholesterol stone > pure cholesterol stone. The proportions were: 95.95:29.02 and 28.05:5.78:1. Aliphatic amino acids accounted for approximately 50% of the total amino acids in the gallstones, with glycine accounting for 15.3% of the total amount of the 17 kinds of amino acids. CONCLUSION: For mixed stones, the higher level of bilirubin, the higher content of amino acids. Acidic amino acids were relatively higher in bilirubin stones than in cholesterol stones. PMID:27053886

  6. Rapid detection of B2-ST131 clonal group of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry: discovery of a peculiar amino acid substitution in B2-ST131 clonal group.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Akihiro; Komatsu, Masaru; Kondo, Akira; Ohno, Yuki; Kohno, Hisashi; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Matsuo, Shuji; Ohnuma, Kenichiro; Hatano, Naoya; Kawano, Seiji

    2015-11-01

    One reason for the spread of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli worldwide is the global pandemic of the B2-ST131 clonal group. We searched for the specific biomarker peaks to distinguish between the B2-ST131 clonal group and other sequence type (ST) clonal groups isolated from clinical specimens obtained in our hospital. Biomarker peaks at m/z 7650 in the B2-ST131 group (sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 89.7%) and m/z 7707 in the other ST clonal groups showed the highest discrimination abilities. We further verified reproducibility against other Japanese clinical isolates obtained in another area of Japan. Differences between the molecular mass at the 7650m/z and 7707m/z peaks indicated an E34A amino acid substitution by proteomic and genomic analysis. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry rapidly and simply identified the B2-ST131 clonal group in routine examinations and will allow for adequate empirical therapy and the possibility to control both hospital infections and the global pandemic.

  7. Bioorganometallic Chemistry, Part 15. A novel molecular recognition process of host, trans-[Cp*Rh({eta}{sup 1}(N3)-1-methylcytosine)({mu}-OH)]{sub 2} (OTf){sub 2}, with l-aromatic amino acid guests: selective hydrogen bonding to the {mu}-OH groups and the 1-methylcytosine ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Elduque, Anabel; Carmona, Daniel; Oro, Luis; Eisenstein, Miriam; Fish, Richard H.

    2002-11-01

    The {sup 1}H-NMR and computer docking experiments have elucidated a novel molecular recognition process of host, trans-[Cp*Rh({eta}{sup 1}(Ne)-1-methylcytosine)({mu}-OH)]{sub 2}(OTf){sub 2} (1), with L-aromatic amino acids, which is predicated on a selective hydrogen bonding regime of the NH{sub 3}{sup +} of the amino acid to one of the Rh-{mu}-OH groups, as well as to a C{double_bond}O group of one of the other 1-methycytosine ligands, while the COO{sup -} H-bonds to an NH{sub 2} of the other 1-methycytosine ligand.

  8. A quantitative investigation of the chemical space surrounding amino acid alphabet formation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi; Freeland, Stephen J

    2008-01-21

    To date, explanations for the origin and emergence of the alphabet of amino acids encoded by the standard genetic code have been largely qualitative and speculative. Here, with the help of computational chemistry, we present the first quantitative exploration of nature's "choices" set against various models for plausible alternatives. Specifically, we consider the chemical space defined by three fundamental biophysical properties (size, charge, and hydrophobicity) to ask whether the amino acids that entered the genetic code exhibit a higher diversity than random samples of similar size drawn from several different definitions of amino acid possibility space. We found that in terms of the properties studied, the full, standard set of 20 biologically encoded amino acids is indeed significantly more diverse than an equivalently sized group drawn at random from the set of plausible, prebiotic alternatives (using the Murchison meteorite as a model for pre-biotic plausibility). However, when the set of possible amino acids is enlarged to include those that are produced by standard biosynthetic pathways (reflecting the widespread idea that many members of the standard alphabet were recruited in this way), then the genetically encoded amino acids can no longer be distinguished as more diverse than a random sample. Finally, if we turn to consider the overlap between biologically encoded amino acids and those that are prebiotically plausible, then we find that the biologically encoded subset are no more diverse as a group than would be expected from a random sample, unless the definition of "random sample" is adjusted to reflect possible prebiotic abundance (again, using the contents of the Murchison meteorite as our estimator). This final result is contingent on the accuracy of our computational estimates for amino acid properties, and prebiotic abundances, and an exploration of the likely effect of errors in our estimation reveals that our results should be treated with

  9. A quantitative investigation of the chemical space surrounding amino acid alphabet formation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi; Freeland, Stephen J

    2008-01-21

    To date, explanations for the origin and emergence of the alphabet of amino acids encoded by the standard genetic code have been largely qualitative and speculative. Here, with the help of computational chemistry, we present the first quantitative exploration of nature's "choices" set against various models for plausible alternatives. Specifically, we consider the chemical space defined by three fundamental biophysical properties (size, charge, and hydrophobicity) to ask whether the amino acids that entered the genetic code exhibit a higher diversity than random samples of similar size drawn from several different definitions of amino acid possibility space. We found that in terms of the properties studied, the full, standard set of 20 biologically encoded amino acids is indeed significantly more diverse than an equivalently sized group drawn at random from the set of plausible, prebiotic alternatives (using the Murchison meteorite as a model for pre-biotic plausibility). However, when the set of possible amino acids is enlarged to include those that are produced by standard biosynthetic pathways (reflecting the widespread idea that many members of the standard alphabet were recruited in this way), then the genetically encoded amino acids can no longer be distinguished as more diverse than a random sample. Finally, if we turn to consider the overlap between biologically encoded amino acids and those that are prebiotically plausible, then we find that the biologically encoded subset are no more diverse as a group than would be expected from a random sample, unless the definition of "random sample" is adjusted to reflect possible prebiotic abundance (again, using the contents of the Murchison meteorite as our estimator). This final result is contingent on the accuracy of our computational estimates for amino acid properties, and prebiotic abundances, and an exploration of the likely effect of errors in our estimation reveals that our results should be treated with

  10. Polymers from amino acids: development of dual ester-urethane melt condensation approach and mechanistic aspects.

    PubMed

    Anantharaj, S; Jayakannan, M

    2012-08-13

    A new dual ester-urethane melt condensation methodology for biological monomers-amino acids was developed to synthesize new classes of thermoplastic polymers under eco-friendly and solvent-free polymerization approach. Naturally abundant L-amino acids were converted into dual functional ester-urethane monomers by tailor-made synthetic approach. Direct polycondensation of these amino acid monomers with commercial diols under melt condition produced high molecular weight poly(ester-urethane)s. The occurrence of the dual ester-urethane process and the structure of the new poly(ester-urethane)s were confirmed by (1)H and (13)C NMR. The new dual ester-urethane condensation approach was demonstrated for variety of amino acids: glycine, β-alanine, L-alanine, L-leucine, L-valine, and L-phenylalanine. MALDI-TOF-MS end group analysis confirmed that the amino acid monomers were thermally stable under the melt polymerization condition. The mechanism of melt process and the kinetics of the polycondensation were studied by model reactions and it was found that the amino acid monomer was very special in the sense that their ester and urethane functionality could be selectively reacted by polymerization temperature or catalyst. The new polymers were self-organized as β-sheet in aqueous or organic solvents and their thermal properties such as glass transition temperature and crystallinity could be readily varied using different l-amino acid monomers or diols in the feed. Thus, the current investigation opens up new platform of research activates for making thermally stable and renewable engineering thermoplastics from natural resource amino acids. PMID:22713137

  11. Amino acids in the Martian meteorite Nakhla

    PubMed Central

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Brinton, Karen L. F.; McDonald, Gene D.

    1999-01-01

    A suite of protein and nonprotein amino acids were detected with high-performance liquid chromatography in the water- and acid-soluble components of an interior fragment of the Martian meteorite Nakhla, which fell in Egypt in 1911. Aspartic and glutamic acids, glycine, alanine, β-alanine, and γ-amino-n-butyric acid (γ-ABA) were the most abundant amino acids detected and were found primarily in the 6 M HCl-hydrolyzed, hot water extract. The concentrations ranged from 20 to 330 parts per billion of bulk meteorite. The amino acid distribution in Nakhla, including the d/l ratios (values range from <0.1 to 0.5), is similar to what is found in bacterially degraded organic matter. The amino acids in Nakhla appear to be derived from terrestrial organic matter that infiltrated the meteorite soon after its fall to Earth, although it is possible that some of the amino acids are endogenous to the meteorite. The rapid amino acid contamination of Martian meteorites after direct exposure to the terrestrial environment has important implications for Mars sample-return missions and the curation of the samples from the time of their delivery to Earth. PMID:10430856

  12. Amino Acid Stability in the Early Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, E. T.; Brinton, K. L.; Burton, A. S.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Bada, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    It is likely that a variety of amino acids existed in the early oceans of the Earth at the time of the origin and early evolution of life. "Primordial soup", hydrothermal vent, and meteorite based processes could have contributed to such an inventory. Several "protein" amino acids were likely present, however, based on prebiotic synthesis experiments and carbonaceous meteorite studies, non-protein amino acids, which are rare on Earth today, were likely the most abundant. An important uncertainty is the length of time these amino acids could have persisted before their destruction by abiotic and biotic processes. Prior to life, amino acid concentrations in the oceans were likely regulated by circulation through hydro-thermal vents. Today, the entire ocean circulates through vent systems every 10(exp 7) years. On the early Earth, this value was likely smaller due to higher heat flow and thus marine amino acid life-time would have been shorter. After life, amino acids in the oceans could have been assimilated by primitive organisms.

  13. Amino acids in the Martian meteorite Nakhla

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, D. P.; Bada, J. L.; Brinton, K. L.; McDonald, G. D.

    1999-01-01

    A suite of protein and nonprotein amino acids were detected with high-performance liquid chromatography in the water- and acid-soluble components of an interior fragment of the Martian meteorite Nakhla, which fell in Egypt in 1911. Aspartic and glutamic acids, glycine, alanine, beta-alanine, and gamma-amino-n-butyric acid (gamma-ABA) were the most abundant amino acids detected and were found primarily in the 6 M HCl-hydrolyzed, hot water extract. The concentrations ranged from 20 to 330 parts per billion of bulk meteorite. The amino acid distribution in Nakhla, including the D/L ratios (values range from <0.1 to 0.5), is similar to what is found in bacterially degraded organic matter. The amino acids in Nakhla appear to be derived from terrestrial organic matter that infiltrated the meteorite soon after its fall to Earth, although it is possible that some of the amino acids are endogenous to the meteorite. The rapid amino acid contamination of Martian meteorites after direct exposure to the terrestrial environment has important implications for Mars sample-return missions and the curation of the samples from the time of their delivery to Earth.

  14. Amino Acid Detection in Cometary Matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meierhenrich, U. J.; Munoz Caro, G. M.; Thiemann, W.; Goesmann, F.; Rosenbauer, H.

    2003-04-01

    The recent identification of amino acid structures in interstellar ice analogues [1, 2] strongly supports the assumption that amino acids are abundant in cometary matter too. Cometary matter is assumed to be built up of aggregates of interstellar dust particles. Amino acids are the molecular building blocks of proteins in living organisms. These results amplified the scientific interest in the ESA cometary mission Rosetta. The Rosetta Lander includes the Cosac experiment dedicated to the identification of chiral organic molecules in cometary matter itshape in situ \\upshape by multi column gas chromatography coupled with a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer. However, the envisaged itshape in situ \\upshape amino acid analysis on the cometary surface requires special technical emphasis of the COSAC instrumentation. The context in which the amino acid identification in cometary matter is of interest will be outlined and the analytical solutions that make amino acids accessible to the COSAC instrument will be presented. A succesful identification of amino acid structures in cometary matter would help to understand the beginnings of the biomolecular evolution and the origin of the biomolecular asymmetry. [1] G.M. Muñoz Caro, U.J. Meierhenrich, W.A. Schutte, B. Barbier, A. Arcones Sergovia, H. Rosenbauer, W.H.-P. Thiemann, A. Brack, J.M. Greenberg: itshape Nature \\upshape 416 (2002), 403-406. [2] M.P. Bernstein, J.P. Dworkin, S.A. Sandford, G.W. Cooper, L.J. Allamandola: itshape Nature \\upshape 416 (2002), 401-403.

  15. Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in the Almahata Sitta Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Parker, Eric T.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Amino acid analysis of a meteorite fragment of asteroid 2008 TC(sub 3) called Almahata Sitta was carried out using reverse-phase high-perfo rmance liquid chromatography coupled with UV fluorescence detection a nd time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-FD/ToF-MS) as part of a sam ple analysis consortium. HPLC analyses of hot-water extracts from the meteorite revealed a complex distribution of two- to six-carbon aliph atic amino acids and one- to three carbon amines with abundances rang ing from 0.5 to 149 parts-per-billion (ppb). The enantiomeric ratios of the amino acids alanine, Beta-amino-n-butyric acid (Beta-ABA), 2-amino-2- methylbutanoic acid (isovaline), and 2-aminopentanoic acid (no rvaline) in the meteorite were racemic (D/L approximately 1), indicat ing that these amino acids are indigenous to the meteorite and not te rrestrial contaminants. Several other non-protein amino acids were also identified in the meteorite above background levels including alpha -aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB), 4-amino-2- methybutanoic acid, 4-a mino-3-methylbutanoic acid, and 3-, 4-, and 5-aminopentanoic acid. Th e total abundances of isovaline and AlB in Almahata Sitta are approximately 1000 times lower than the abundances of these amino acids found in the CM carbonaceous meteorite Murchison. The extremely love abund ances and unusual distribution of five carbon amino acids in Almahata Sitta compared to Cl, CM, and CR carbonaceous meteorites and may be due to extensive thermal alteration of amino acids on the parent aster oid by partial melting during formation or impact shock heating.

  16. Solar abundance of osmium

    PubMed Central

    Jacoby, George; Aller, Lawrence H.

    1976-01-01

    The abundance parameter, log gfA, where g is the statistical weight of the lower level, f is the oscillator strength, and A is the abundance (by numbers of atoms with respect to hydrogen), has been derived for three lines of osmium by a method of spectrum synthesis. An apparent discordance of the derived abundance with that found from the carbonaceous chondrites is probably to be attributed primarily to errors in the f-values, and blending with unknown contributors. PMID:16592314

  17. Dietary amino acids and brain function.

    PubMed

    Fernstrom, J D

    1994-01-01

    Two groups of amino acids--the aromatic and the acidic amino acids--are reputed to influence brain function when their ingestion in food changes the levels of these amino acids in the brain. The aromatic amino acids (tryptophan, tyrosine, phenylalanine) are the biosynthetic precursors for the neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. Single meals, depending on their protein content, can rapidly influence uptake of aromatic amino acid into the brain and, as a result, directly modify their conversion to neurotransmitters. Such alterations in the production of transmitters can directly modify their release from neurons and, thus, influence brain function. The acidic amino acids glutamate and aspartate are themselves brain neurotransmitters. However, they do not have ready access to the brain from the circulation or the diet. As a result, the ingestion of proteins, which are naturally rich in aspartate and glutamate, has no effect on the level of acidic amino acid in the brain (or, thus, on brain function by this mechanism). Nevertheless, the food additives monosodium glutamate and aspartame (which contains aspartate) have been reputed to raise the level of acidic amino acid in the brain (when ingested in enormous amounts), to modify brain function, and even to cause neuronal damage. Despite such claims, a substantial body of published evidence clearly indicates that the brain is not affected by ingestion of aspartame and is affected by glutamate only when the amino acid is administered alone in extremely large doses. Therefore, when consumed in the diet neither compound presents a risk to normal brain function.

  18. Choice of dietary protein of vegetarians and omnivores is reflected in their hair protein 13C and 15N abundance.

    PubMed

    Petzke, Klaus J; Boeing, Heiner; Metges, Cornelia C

    2005-01-01

    Stable isotopic (15N, 13C) composition of tissues depends on isotopic pattern of food sources. We investigated whether the isotopic compositions of human hair protein and amino acids reflect the habitual dietary protein intake. Hair samples were analyzed from 100 omnivores (selected randomly out of the 1987-1988 German nutrition survey VERA), and from 15 ovo-lacto-vegetarians (OLV), and from 6 vegans recruited separately. Hair bulk and amino acid specific isotopic compositions were analyzed by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (EA/IRMS and GC/C/IRMS, respectively) and the results were correlated with data of the 7 day dietary records. Hair bulk 15N and 13C abundances clearly reflect the particular eating habits. Vegans can be distinguished from OLV and both are significantly distinct from omnivores in both 15N and 13C abundances. 15N and 13C abundances rose with a higher proportion of animal to total protein intake (PAPI). Individual proportions of animal protein consumption (IPAP) were calculated using isotopic abundances and a linear regression model using animal protein consumption data of vegans (PAPI = 0) and omnivores (mean PAPI = 0.639). IPAP values positively correlated with the intake of protein, meat, meat products, and animal protein. Distinct patterns for hair amino acid specific 15N and 13C abundances were measured but with lower resolution between food preference groups compared with bulk values. In conclusion, hair 13C and 15N values both reflected the extent of animal protein consumption. Bulk isotopic abundance of hair can be tested for future use in the validation of dietary assessment methods. PMID:15880664

  19. Choice of dietary protein of vegetarians and omnivores is reflected in their hair protein 13C and 15N abundance.

    PubMed

    Petzke, Klaus J; Boeing, Heiner; Metges, Cornelia C

    2005-01-01

    Stable isotopic (15N, 13C) composition of tissues depends on isotopic pattern of food sources. We investigated whether the isotopic compositions of human hair protein and amino acids reflect the habitual dietary protein intake. Hair samples were analyzed from 100 omnivores (selected randomly out of the 1987-1988 German nutrition survey VERA), and from 15 ovo-lacto-vegetarians (OLV), and from 6 vegans recruited separately. Hair bulk and amino acid specific isotopic compositions were analyzed by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (EA/IRMS and GC/C/IRMS, respectively) and the results were correlated with data of the 7 day dietary records. Hair bulk 15N and 13C abundances clearly reflect the particular eating habits. Vegans can be distinguished from OLV and both are significantly distinct from omnivores in both 15N and 13C abundances. 15N and 13C abundances rose with a higher proportion of animal to total protein intake (PAPI). Individual proportions of animal protein consumption (IPAP) were calculated using isotopic abundances and a linear regression model using animal protein consumption data of vegans (PAPI = 0) and omnivores (mean PAPI = 0.639). IPAP values positively correlated with the intake of protein, meat, meat products, and animal protein. Distinct patterns for hair amino acid specific 15N and 13C abundances were measured but with lower resolution between food preference groups compared with bulk values. In conclusion, hair 13C and 15N values both reflected the extent of animal protein consumption. Bulk isotopic abundance of hair can be tested for future use in the validation of dietary assessment methods.

  20. d-Amino Acid Catabolism Is Common Among Soil-Dwelling Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Radkov, Atanas D; McNeill, Katlyn; Uda, Koji; Moe, Luke A

    2016-01-01

    Soil and rhizosphere environments were examined in order to determine the identity and relative abundance of bacteria that catabolize d- and l-amino acids as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. All substrates were readily catabolized by bacteria from both environments, with most d-amino acids giving similar CFU counts to their l-amino acid counterparts. CFU count ratios between l- and d-amino acids typically ranged between 2 and 1. Isolates were phylogenetically typed in order to determine the identity of d-amino acid catabolizers. Actinobacteria, specifically the Arthrobacter genus, were abundant along with members of the α- and β-Proteobacteria classes. PMID:27169790

  1. Amino acids and proteins.

    PubMed

    van Goudoever, Johannes B; Vlaardingerbroek, Hester; van den Akker, Chris H; de Groof, Femke; van der Schoor, Sophie R D

    2014-01-01

    Amino acids and protein are key factors for growth. The neonatal period requires the highest intake in life to meet the demands. Those demands include amino acids for growth, but proteins and amino acids also function as signalling molecules and function as neurotransmitters. Often the nutritional requirements are not met, resulting in a postnatal growth restriction. However, current knowledge on adequate levels of both amino acid as well as protein intake can avoid under nutrition in the direct postnatal phase, avoid the need for subsequent catch-up growth and improve later outcome.

  2. Amino acid analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winitz, M.; Graff, J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The process and apparatus for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acid content of a biological sample are presented. The sample is deposited on a cation exchange resin and then is washed with suitable solvents. The amino acids and various cations and organic material with a basic function remain on the resin. The resin is eluted with an acid eluant, and the eluate containing the amino acids is transferred to a reaction vessel where the eluant is removed. Final analysis of the purified acylated amino acid esters is accomplished by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques.

  3. Proteomic analysis of an unculturable bacterial endosymbiont (Blochmannia) reveals high abundance of chaperonins and biosynthetic enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yongliang; Thompson, J. Will; Dubois, Laura G.; Moseley, M. Arthur; Wernegreen, Jennifer J.

    2013-01-01

    Many insect groups have coevolved with bacterial endosymbionts that live within specialized host cells. As a salient example, ants in the tribe Camponotini rely on Blochmannia, an intracellular bacterial mutualist that synthesizes amino acids and recycles nitrogen for the host. We performed a shotgun, label-free, LC/MS/MS quantitative proteomic analysis to investigate the proteome of Blochmannia associated with Camponotus chromaiodes. We identified more than 330 Blochmannia proteins, or 54% coverage of the predicted proteome, as well as 244 Camponotus proteins. Using the average intensity of the top 3 “best flier” peptides along with spiking of a surrogate standard at a known concentration, we estimated the concentration (fmol/μg) of those proteins with confident identification. The estimated dynamic range of Blochmannia protein abundance spanned three orders of magnitude and covered diverse functional categories, with particularly high representation of metabolism, information transfer, and chaperones. GroEL, the most abundant protein, totaled 6% of Blochmannia protein abundance. Biosynthesis of essential amino acids, fatty acids, and nucleotides, and sulfate assimilation had disproportionately high coverage in the proteome, further supporting a nutritional role of the symbiosis. This first quantitative proteomic analysis of an ant endosymbiont illustrates a promising approach to study the functional basis of intimate symbioses. PMID:23205679

  4. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  5. OXYGEN ABUNDANCES IN CEPHEIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Luck, R. E.; Andrievsky, S. M.; Korotin, S. N.; Kovtyukh, V. V. E-mail: serkor@skyline.od.ua E-mail: scan@deneb1.odessa.ua

    2013-07-01

    Oxygen abundances in later-type stars, and intermediate-mass stars in particular, are usually determined from the [O I] line at 630.0 nm, and to a lesser extent, from the O I triplet at 615.7 nm. The near-IR triplets at 777.4 nm and 844.6 nm are strong in these stars and generally do not suffer from severe blending with other species. However, these latter two triplets suffer from strong non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects and thus see limited use in abundance analyses. In this paper, we derive oxygen abundances in a large sample of Cepheids using the near-IR triplets from an NLTE analysis, and compare those abundances to values derived from a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of the [O I] 630.0 nm line and the O I 615.7 nm triplet as well as LTE abundances for the 777.4 nm triplet. All of these lines suffer from line strength problems making them sensitive to either measurement complications (weak lines) or to line saturation difficulties (strong lines). Upon this realization, the LTE results for the [O I] lines and the O I 615.7 nm triplet are in adequate agreement with the abundance from the NLTE analysis of the near-IR triplets.

  6. Interstellar Abundance Standards Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofia, Ulysses J.; Meyer, David M.

    2001-06-01

    We evaluate the stellar abundances often used to represent the total (gas plus dust) composition of the interstellar medium. Published abundances for B stars, young later type (F and G) stars, and the Sun are compared to the modeled dust-phase and measured gas-phase compositions of the interstellar medium. This study uses abundances for the five most populous elements in dust grains-C, O, Mg, Si, and Fe-and the cosmically abundant element, N. We find that B stars have metal abundances that are too low to be considered valid representations of the interstellar medium. The commonly invoked interstellar standard that is two-thirds of the solar composition is also rejected by recent observations. Young (<=2 Gyr) F and G disk stars and the Sun, however, cannot be ruled out as reliable proxies for the total interstellar composition. If their abundances are valid representations of the interstellar medium, then the apparent underabundance of carbon with respect to that required by dust models, i.e., the carbon crisis, is substantially eased.

  7. Single amino acid supplementation in aminoacidopathies: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aminoacidopathies are a group of rare and diverse disorders, caused by the deficiency of an enzyme or transporter involved in amino acid metabolism. For most aminoacidopathies, dietary management is the mainstay of treatment. Such treatment includes severe natural protein restriction, combined with protein substitution with all amino acids except the amino acids prior to the metabolic block and enriched with the amino acid that has become essential by the enzymatic defect. For some aminoacidopathies, supplementation of one or two amino acids, that have not become essential by the enzymatic defect, has been suggested. This so-called single amino acid supplementation can serve different treatment objectives, but evidence is limited. The aim of the present article is to provide a systematic review on the reasons for applications of single amino acid supplementation in aminoacidopathies treated with natural protein restriction and synthetic amino acid mixtures. PMID:24422943

  8. Amino Acid Synthesis in a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide - Water System

    PubMed Central

    Fujioka, Kouki; Futamura, Yasuhiro; Shiohara, Tomoo; Hoshino, Akiyoshi; Kanaya, Fumihide; Manome, Yoshinobu; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Mars is a CO2-abundant planet, whereas early Earth is thought to be also CO2-abundant. In addition, water was also discovered on Mars in 2008. From the facts and theory, we assumed that soda fountains were present on both planets, and this affected amino acid synthesis. Here, using a supercritical CO2/liquid H2O (10:1) system which mimicked crust soda fountains, we demonstrate production of amino acids from hydroxylamine (nitrogen source) and keto acids (oxylic acid sources). In this research, several amino acids were detected with an amino acid analyzer. Moreover, alanine polymers were detected with LC-MS. Our research lights up a new pathway in the study of life’s origin. PMID:19582225

  9. Chemosensory response of marine flagellate towards L- and D- dissolved free amino acids generated during heavy grazing on bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ayo, Begoña; Txakartegi, Aitziber; Baña, Zuriñe; Artolozaga, Itxaso; Iriberri, Juan

    2010-09-01

    This study investigated the generation of dissolved free amino acids (DFAA) by the bacterivorous flagellate Rhynchomonas nasuta when feeding on abundant prey. Specifically, it examined whether this flagellate protist exhibits a chemosensory response towards those amino acids. The concentrations of glycine and the L- and D-enantiomers of glutamate, serine, threonine, alanine, and leucine were determined in co-cultures of the flagellate and bacteria. Glycine, L- and D-alanine, and L-serine were found to accumulate under these conditions in amounts that correlated positively with flagellate abundance, suggesting that protists are involved in their generation. Investigations of the chemotactic response of young and old foraging protists to the same amino acids, offered in concentrations similar to those previously generated, showed that glycine elicited the strongest attraction in both age groups. Young protists were strongly attracted to all the assayed amino acids, whereas older protists maintained a high level of attraction only for glycine. These results suggest that glycine generated by protists actively grazing in bacterially enriched patches functions as an infochemical, signaling to foraging protists the presence of available prey in the aquatic environment.

  10. Amino acids derived from Titan Tholins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khare, Bishun N.; Sagan, Carl; Ogino, Hiroshi; Nagy, Bartholomew; Er, Cevat; Schram, Karl H.; Arakawa, Edward T.

    1986-10-01

    An organic heteropolymer(Titan tholin) was produced by continuous dc discharge through a 0.9 N 2/0.1 CH 4 gas mixture at 0.2 mbar pressure, roughly simulating the cloudtop atmosphere of Titan. Treatment of this tholin with 6 N HCI yielded 16 amino acids by gas chromatography after derivazation to N-trifluroacetyl isopropyl esters on two different capillary columns. Identifications were confirmed by GC/MS. Glycine, aspartic acid, and α- and β-alanine were produced in greatest abundance; the total yield of amino acids was ˜ 10 -2, approximately equal to the yield of urea. The presence of "nonbiological" amino acids, the absence of serine, and the fact that the amino acids are racemic within experimental error together indicate that these molecules are not due to microbial or other contamination, but are derived from the tholin. In addition to the HCN, HC 2CN, and (CN) 2 found by Voyager, nitriles and aminonitriles should be sought in the Titanian atmosphere and, eventually, amino acids on the surface. These results suggest that episodes of liquid water in the past or future of Titan might lead to major further steps in prebiological organic chemistry on that body.

  11. Amino acids derived from Titan tholins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khare, B. N.; Sagan, C.; Ogino, H.; Nagy, B.; Er, C.; Schram, K. H.; Arakawa, E. T.

    1986-01-01

    An organic heteropolymer (Titan tholin) was produced by continuous dc discharge through a 0.9 N2/0.1 CH4 gas mixture at 0.2 mbar pressure, roughly simulating the cloudtop atmosphere of Titan. Treatment of this tholin with 6N HCl yielded 16 amino acids by gas chromatography after derivatization of N-trifluroacetyl isopropyl esters on two different capillary columns. Identifications were confirmed by GC/MS. Glycine, aspartic acid, and alpha- and beta-alanine were produced in greatest abundance; the total yield of amino acids was approximately 10(-2), approximately equal to the yield of urea. The presence of "nonbiological" amino acids, the absence of serine, and the fact that the amino acids are racemic within experimental error together indicate that these molecules are not due to microbial or other contamination, but are derived from the tholin. In addition to the HCN, HC2CN, and (CN)2 found by Voyager, nitriles and aminonitriles should be sought in the Titanian atmosphere and, eventually, amino acids on the surface. These results suggest that episodes of liquid water in the past or future of Titan might lead to major further steps in prebiological organic chemistry on that body.

  12. Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aspiration Syndrome Additional Content Medical News Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism By Lee M. Sanders, MD, MPH NOTE: ... Metabolic Disorders Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders of Lipid Metabolism Amino acids are ...

  13. Molecular cloning and expression of hardening-induced genes in Chlorella vulgaris C-27: the most abundant clone encodes a late embryogenesis abundant protein.

    PubMed

    Joh, T; Honjoh, K; Yoshimoto, M; Funabashi, J; Miyamoto, T; Hatano, S

    1995-01-01

    To investigate the effects of hardening on gene expression in Chlorella vulgaris Beijerink IAM C-27 (formerly Chlorella ellipsoidea Gerneck IAM C-27), a frost-hardy strain, 17 cDNA clones corresponding to hardening-induced Chlorella (hiC) genes were isolated by differential screening of a cDNA library from 6-h hardened cells. Northern blot analysis of transcripts of hiC genes showed that these genes are specifically induced by hardening and that their patterns of induction vary. Southern blots of genomic DNAs from two strains (Chlorella ellipsoidea Gerneck IAM C-102, chilling-sensitive; and C. vulgaris C-27, frost-hardy) of Chlorella indicated that ten hiC clones out of 17 hybridized only with DNA of strain C-27 and the other seven clones hybridized with DNA of both strains. However, of these seven clones, transcripts corresponding to six clones did not accumulate in strain C-102 at low temperatures. The sequence of a deduced protein encoded by the most abundant clone, hiC6, exhibited homology to sequences of Group III LEA (late embryogenesis abundant) proteins and had an amino-terminal amino acid sequence that was similar to the sequences of chloroplast transit peptides. PMID:7719632

  14. Solar abundance of platinum

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Harry; Aller, Lawrence H.

    1975-01-01

    Three lines of neutral platinum, located at λ 2997.98 Å, λ 3064.71 Å, and λ 3301.86 Å have been used to determine the solar platinum abundance by the method of spectral synthesis. On the scale, log A(H) = 12.00, the thus-derived solar platinum abundance is 1.75 ± 0.10, in fair accord with Cameron's value of log A(Pt) = 1.69 derived by Mason from carbonaceous chondrites and calculated on the assumption that log A(Si) = 7.55 in the sun. PMID:16592278

  15. Chemical constituents: water-soluble vitamins, free amino acids and sugar profile from Ganoderma adspersum.

    PubMed

    Kıvrak, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    Ganoderma adspersum presents a rigid fruiting body owing to chitin content and having a small quantity of water or moisture. The utility of bioactive constituent of the mushroom can only be available by extraction for human usage. In this study, carbohydrate, water-soluble vitamin compositions and amino acid contents were determined in G. adspersum mushroom. The composition in individual sugars was determined by HPLC-RID, mannitol (13.04 g/100 g) and trehalose (10.27 g/100 g) being the most abundant sugars. The examination of water-soluble vitamins and free amino acid composition was determined by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Essential amino acid constituted 67.79% of total amino acid, which is well worth the attention with regard to researchers and consumers. In addition, G. adspersum, which is also significantly rich in B group vitamins and vitamin C, can provide a wide range of notable applications in the pharmaceutics, cosmetics, food and dietary supplement industries. G. adspersum revealed its value for pharmacy and nutrition fields.

  16. Abundances of light elements.

    PubMed Central

    Pagel, B E

    1993-01-01

    Recent developments in the study of abundances of light elements and their relevance to cosmological nucleosynthesis are briefly reviewed. The simplest model, based on standard cosmology and particle physics and assuming homogeneous baryon density at the relevant times, continues to stand up well. PMID:11607388

  17. The Amino Acid Composition of the Sutter's Mill Carbonaceous Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, D. P.; Burton, A. S.; Elsila, J. E.; Dworkin, J. P.; Yin, Q. Z.; Cooper, G.; Jenniskens, P.

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to the Murchison meteorite which had a complex distribution of amino acids with a total C2 to Cs amino acid abundance of approx.14,000 parts-per-billion (ppb) [2], the Sutters Mill meteorite was found to be highly depleted in amino acids. Much lower abundances (approx.30 to 180 ppb) of glycine, beta-alanine, L-alanine and L-serine were detected in SM2 above procedural blank levels indicating that this meteorite sample experienced only minimal terrestrial amino acid contamination after its fall to Earth. Carbon isotope measurements will be necessary to establish the origin of glycine and beta-alanine in SM2. Other non-protein amino acids that are rare on Earth, yet commonly found in other CM meteorites such as aaminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB) and isovaline, were not identified in SM2. However, traces of beta-AIB (approx.1 ppb) were detected in SM2 and could be" extraterrestrial in origin. The low abundances of amino acids in the Sutter's Mill meteorite is consistent with mineralogical evidence that at least some parts of the Sutter's Mill meteorite parent body experienced extensive aqueous and/or thermal alteration.

  18. Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in the Almahata Sitta Meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, Michael; Aubrey, A.; Bada, J. L.; Dworkin, J. P.; Elsila, J. E.; Glavin, D. P.; Parker, E.; Jenniskens, P.

    2009-09-01

    The recovery of meteorite fragments from the 2008 TC3 asteroid impact, collectively named Almahata Sitta, revealed a rare, anomalous polymict ureilite containing large carbonaceous grains (Jenniskens et al. 2009). Here we report the first amino acid analysis of a meteorite from an F-type asteroid as part of the Almahata Sitta meteorite sample analysis consortium. A single fragment (piece #4, 1.2 grams) was crushed to a powder, and separate 0.1 g aliquots of the same meteorite were carried through identical hot-water extraction, acid hydrolysis and desalting procedures at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. The o-phthaldialdehyde/N-acetyl-L-cysteine amino acid derivatives in the extracts were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with UV fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Analyses of the meteorite extracts revealed a complex distribution of two- to six-carbon aliphatic amino acids with abundances ranging from 0.5 to 69 parts-per-billion (ppb). Glycine was the most abundant amino acid detected, however, since this protein amino acid is a common terrestrial contaminant, we are currently unable to rule out at least a partial terrestrial source. However, the D/L ratio of alanine in the meteorite was racemic, suggesting that very little terrestrial amino acid contamination. Several non-protein amino acids that are rare in the biosphere were also identified in the meteorite above background levels including D,L-4-amino-2-methybutyric acid (65 ± 8 ppb), D-isovaline (1.3 ± 0.1 ppb), L-isovaline (1.4 ± 0.1 ppb), and α-aminoisobutryic acid (7.1 ± 5.8 ppb). The abundance of isovaline and AIB are 1000 times lower than the abundances found in the CM2 meteorite Murchison while D,L-4-amino-2-methybutyric acid is similar. The very low amino acid abundances and the presence of several amino acid decomposition products including methylamine, ethylamine, and isopropylamine are consistent with

  19. Amino acid analyses of type 3 chondrites Colony, Ornans, Chainpur, and Bishunpur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, H.-S.; Martins, Zita; Sephton, Mark A.

    2012-09-01

    The CO3s Colony and Ornans and LL3s Chainpur and Bishunpur were analyzed for the first time for amino acids using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Type 3 chondrites have relatively unaltered metamorphic and petrological histories. Chainpur was the most amino acid rich of the four type 3 chondrites with a total amino acid abundance of 3330 parts per billion (ppb). The other type 3 chondrites had total amino acid abundances that ranged from 660 to 1110 ppb. A D/L ratio of <0.7 for all proteic amino acids suggests at least some amino acid terrestrial contamination. However, a small fraction of indigenous extraterrestrial amino acids cannot be excluded because of the presence of the nonprotein amino acid α-aminoisobutyric acid (α-AIB), and unusually high relative abundances (to glycine) of β-alanine and γ-ABA. The comparisons between the free and total amino acid contents of the samples also indicate a low free/total amino acid ratio (ranging from about 1:4 in CO chondrites to about 1:50 in Chainpur), which indicate that amino acids are present mainly in the bound form and were made detectable after acid hydrolysis.

  20. Survival of Amino Acids in Micrometeorites During Atmospheric Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2003-01-01

    The delivery of amino acids by micrometeorites to the early Earth during the period of heavy bombardment could have been a significant source of the Earth's prebiotic amino acid inventory provided that these organic compounds survived atmospheric entry heating. To investigate the sublimation of amino acids from a micrometeorite analog at elevated temperature, grains from the CM-type carbonaceous chondrite Murchison were heated to 550 C inside a glass sublimation apparatus (SA) under reduced pressure. The sublimed residue that had collected on the cold finger of the SA after heating was analyzed for amino acids by HPLC. We found that when the temperature of the meteorite reached approx. 150 C, a large fraction of the amino acid glycine had vaporized from the meteorite, recondensed onto the end of the SA cold finger, and survived as the rest of the grains heated to 550 C. alpha-Aminoisobutryic acid and isovaline, which are two of the most abundant non-protein amino acids in Murchison, did not sublime from the meteorite and were completely destroyed during the heating experiment. Our experimental results suggest that sublimation of glycine present in micrometeorite grains may provide a way for this amino acid to survive atmospheric entry heating at temperatures less than 550 C; all other amino acids apparently are destroyed. Key Words: Amino acids-Exogenous delivery-Micrometeorites-Sublimation.

  1. Diversity of amino acids in a typical chernozem of Moldova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frunze, N. I.

    2014-12-01

    The content and composition of the amino acids in typical chernozems were studied. The objects of the study included a reference soil under an old fallow and three variants under fodder crop rotations: not fertilized, with mineral fertilizers, and with organic fertilizers. The contents of 18 amino acids were determined in these soils. The amino acids were extracted by the method of acid hydrolysis and identified by the method of ion-exchange chromatography. The total content of most of the amino acids was maximal in the reference soil; it was much lower in the cultivated soils and decreased in the following sequence: organic background > mineral background > no fertilization. The diversity of amino acids was evaluated quantitatively using different parameters applied in ecology for estimating various aspects of the species composition of communities (Simpson, Margalef, Menhinick, and Shannon's indices). The diversity and contribution of different amino acids to the total pool of amino acids also varied significantly in the studied variants. The maximum diversity of amino acids and maximum evenness of their relative abundance indices were typical of the reference chernozem; these parameters were lower in the cultivated soils. It was concluded that the changes in the structure of the amino acids under the impact of agricultural loads are similar to those that are usually observed under stress conditions.

  2. Adsorption of amino acids by fullerenes and fullerene nanowhiskers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashizume, Hideo; Hirata, Chika; Fujii, Kazuko; Miyazawa, Kun'ichi

    2015-12-01

    We have investigated the adsorption of some amino acids and an oligopeptide by fullerene (C60) and fullerene nanowhiskers (FNWs). C60 and FNWs hardly adsorbed amino acids. Most of the amino acids used have a hydrophobic side chain. Ala and Val, with an alkyl chain, were not adsorbed by the C60 or FNWs. Trp, Phe and Pro, with a cyclic structure, were not adsorbed by them either. The aromatic group of C60 did not interact with the side chain. The carboxyl or amino group, with the frame structure of an amino acid, has a positive or negative charge in solution. It is likely that the C60 and FNWs would not prefer the charged carboxyl or amino group. Tri-Ala was adsorbed slightly by the C60 and FNWs. The carboxyl or amino group is not close to the center of the methyl group of Tri-Ala. One of the methyl groups in Tri-Ala would interact with the aromatic structure of the C60 and FNWs. We compared our results with the theoretical interaction of 20 bio-amino acids with C60. The theoretical simulations showed the bonding distance between C60 and an amino acid and the dissociation energy. The dissociation energy was shown to increase in the order, Val < Phe < Pro < Asp < Ala < Trp < Tyr < Arg < Leu. However, the simulation was not consistent with our experimental results. The adsorption of albumin (a protein) by C60 showed the effect on the side chains of Try and Trp. The structure of albumin was changed a little by C60. In our study Try and Tyr were hardly adsorbed by C60 and FNWs. These amino acids did not show a different adsorption behavior compared with other amino acids. The adsorptive behavior of mono-amino acids might be different from that of polypeptides.

  3. Solar abundance of iridium

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Stephen; Aller, Lawrence H.

    1976-01-01

    By a method of spectrum synthesis, which yields log gfA, where g is the statistical weight of the lower level, f is the oscillator strength, and A is the abundance, an attempt is made to deduce the solar iridium abundance from one relatively unblended, but fairly weak IrI line, λ 3220.78 Å. If the Corliss-Bozman f-value for this line is adopted, we find log A(Ir) = 0.82 on the scale log A(H) = 12.00. The discordance with the value found from carbonaceous chondrites may arise from faulty f-values or from difficulties arising from line blending in this far ultraviolet domain of the solar spectrum. PMID:16578735

  4. Decarboxylative arylation of α-amino acids via photoredox catalysis: a one-step conversion of biomass to drug pharmacophore.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Zhiwei; MacMillan, David W C

    2014-04-01

    The direct decarboxylative arylation of α-amino acids has been achieved via visible light-mediated photoredox catalysis. This method offers rapid entry to prevalent benzylic amine architectures from an abundant biomass, specifically α-amino acid precursors. Significant substrate scope is observed with respect to both the amino acid and arene components. PMID:24712922

  5. Scalable synthesis of the unusual amino acid segment (ADMOA unit) of marine anti-inflammatory peptide: solomonamide A.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, Nerella; Chandrasekhar, Srivari

    2015-06-14

    The most abundantly available hexose sugar, d-glucose has been converted to protected 4-amino(2'amino-4'-hydroxy phenyl)-3,5-dihydroxy-2-methyl-6-oxo hexanoic acid (protected ADMOA, 3), the unusual amino acid present in marine natural product solomonamide A in gram quantities involving easy to operate chemical transformations. PMID:25960353

  6. Decarboxylative Arylation of α-Amino Acids via Photoredox Catalysis: A One-Step Conversion of Biomass to Drug Pharmacophore

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The direct decarboxylative arylation of α-amino acids has been achieved via visible light-mediated photoredox catalysis. This method offers rapid entry to prevalent benzylic amine architectures from an abundant biomass, specifically α-amino acid precursors. Significant substrate scope is observed with respect to both the amino acid and arene components. PMID:24712922

  7. General Synthesis of Amino Acid Salts from Amino Alcohols and Basic Water Liberating H2.

    PubMed

    Hu, Peng; Ben-David, Yehoshoa; Milstein, David

    2016-05-18

    An atom-economical and environmentally friendly method to transform amino alcohols to amino acid salts using just basic water, without the need of pre-protection or added oxidant, catalyzed by a ruthenium pincer complex, is developed. Water is the solvent, the source of the oxygen atom of the carboxylic acid group, and the actual oxidant, with liberation of dihydrogen. Many important and useful natural and unnatural amino acid salts can be produced in excellent yields by applying this new method. PMID:27139983

  8. An isotope (18O, 15N, and 2H) technique to investigate the metal ion interactions between the phosphoryl group and amino acid side chains by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Hu, Xiaomei; Zhu, Jun; Zeng, Zhiping; Han, Daxiong; Tang, Guo; Huang, Xiantong; Xu, Pengxiang; Zhao, Yufen

    2011-04-01

    Cationic metal ion-coordinated N-diisopropyloxyphosphoryl dipeptides (DIPP-dipeptides) were analyzed by electrospray ionization multistage tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)). Two novel rearrangement reactions with hydroxyl oxygen or carbonyl oxygen migrations were observed in ESI-MS/MS of the metallic adducts of DIPP-dipeptides, but not for the corresponding protonated DIPP-dipeptides. The possible oxygen migration mechanisms were elucidated through a combination of MS/MS experiments, isotope ((18)O, (15)N, and (2)H) labeling, accurate mass measurements, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/6-31 G(d) level. It was found that lithium and sodium cations catalyze the carbonyl oxygen migration more efficiently than does potassium and participation through a cyclic phosphoryl intermediate. In addition, dipeptides having a C-terminal hydroxyl or aromatic amino acid residue show a more favorable rearrangement through carbonyl oxygen migration, which may be due to metal cation stabilization by the donation of lone pair of the hydroxyl oxygen or aromatic π-electrons of the C-terminal amino acid residue, respectively. It was further shown that the metal ions, namely lithium, sodium, and potassium cations, could play a novel directing role for the migration of hydroxyl or carbonyl oxygen in the gas phase. This discovery suggests that interactions between phosphorylated biomolecules and proteins might involve the assistance of metal ions to coordinate the phosphoryl oxygen and protein side chains to achieve molecular recognition.

  9. Abundance of field galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klypin, Anatoly; Karachentsev, Igor; Makarov, Dmitry; Nasonova, Olga

    2015-12-01

    We present new measurements of the abundance of galaxies with a given circular velocity in the Local Volume: a region centred on the Milky Way Galaxy and extending to distance ˜10 Mpc. The sample of ˜750 mostly dwarf galaxies provides a unique opportunity to study the abundance and properties of galaxies down to absolute magnitudes MB ≈ -10 and virial masses M_vir= 109{ M_{⊙}}. We find that the standard Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model gives remarkably accurate estimates for the velocity function of galaxies with circular velocities V ≳ 70 kms-1 and corresponding virial masses M_vir≳ 5× 10^{10}{ M_{⊙}}, but it badly fails by overpredicting ˜5 times the abundance of large dwarfs with velocities V = 30-40 kms-1. The warm dark matter (WDM) models cannot explain the data either, regardless of mass of WDM particle. Just as in previous observational studies, we find a shallow asymptotic slope dN/dlog V ∝ Vα, α ≈ -1 of the velocity function, which is inconsistent with the standard ΛCDM model that predicts the slope α = -3. Though reminiscent to the known overabundance of satellite problem, the overabundance of field galaxies is a much more difficult problem. For the standard ΛCDM model to survive, in the 10 Mpc radius of the Milky Way there should be 1000 not yet detected galaxies with virial mass M_vir≈ 10^{10}{ M_{⊙}}, extremely low surface brightness and no detectable H I gas. So far none of this type of galaxies have been discovered.

  10. Late embryogenesis abundant proteins

    PubMed Central

    Olvera-Carrillo, Yadira; Reyes, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins accumulate at the onset of seed desiccation and in response to water deficit in vegetative plant tissues. The typical LEA proteins are highly hydrophilic and intrinsically unstructured. They have been classified in different families, each one showing distinctive conserved motifs. In this manuscript we present and discuss some of the recent findings regarding their role in plant adaptation to water deficit, as well as those concerning to their possible function, and how it can be related to their intrinsic structural flexibility. PMID:21447997

  11. Computational model of abiogenic amino acid condensation to obtain a polar amino acid profile.

    PubMed

    Polanco, Carlos; Buhse, Thomas; Samaniego, José Lino; Castañón González, Jorge Alberto; Arias Estrada, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    In accordance with the second law of thermodynamics, the Universe as a whole tends to higher entropy. However, the sequence of far-from-equilibrium events that led to the emergence of life on Earth could have imposed order and complexity during the course of chemical reactions in the so-called primordial soup of life. Hence, we may expect to find characteristic profiles or biases in the prebiotic product mixtures, as for instance among the first amino acids. Seeking to shed light on this hypothesis, we have designed a high performance computer program that simulates the spontaneous formation of the amino acid monomers in closed environments. The program was designed in reference to a prebiotic scenario proposed by Sydney W. Fox. The amino acid abundances and their polarities as the two principal biases were also taken into consideration. We regarded the computational model as exhaustive since 200,000 amino acid dimers were formed by simulation, subsequently expressed in a vector and compared with the corresponding amino acid dimers that were experimentally obtained by Fox. We found a very high similarity between the experimental results and our simulations.

  12. Survival of amino acids in micrometeorites during atmospheric entry.

    PubMed

    Glavin, D P; Bada, J L

    2001-01-01

    The delivery of amino acids by micrometeorites to the early Earth during the period of heavy bombardment could have been a significant source of the Earth's prebiotic amino acid inventory provided that these organic compounds survived atmospheric entry heating. To investigate the sublimation of amino acids from a micrometeorite analog at elevated temperature, grains from the CM-type carbonaceous chondrite Murchison were heated to 550 degrees C inside a glass sublimation apparatus (SA) under reduced pressure. The sublimed residue that had collected on the cold finger of the SA after heating was analyzed for amino acids by HPLC. We found that when the temperature of the meteorite reached approximately 150 degrees C, a large fraction of the amino acid glycine had vaporized from the meteorite, recondensed onto the end of the SA cold finger, and survived as the rest of the grains heated to 550 degrees C. alpha-Aminoisobutryic acid and isovaline, which are two of the most abundant non-protein amino acids in Murchison, did not sublime from the meteorite and were completely destroyed during the heating experiment. Our experimental results suggest that sublimation of glycine present in micrometeorite grains may provide a way for this amino acid to survive atmospheric entry heating at temperatures > 550 degrees C; all other amino acids apparently are destroyed. PMID:12448989

  13. Chemical abundance of comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyckoff, Susan; Wehinger, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Observations of NH2, (OI) and molecular ion spectra in comets represent virtually all of the volatile fraction of a comet nucleus. Their study leads to the N2, NH3, H2O, CO2, CO content of the nucleus, and thus to important constraints on models of comet formation and chemical processing in the primitive solar nebula. The observations of Comet Halley provide the opportunity for the first comprehensive determination of the abundances in a comet nucleus. The carbon isotope abundance ratio 12 C/13 C = 65 plus or minus 8 has been determined for Comet Halley from resolved rotational line structure in the CN B-X (0,0) band. The ratio is approximately 30 pct lower than the solar system value, 89, indicating either an enhancement of 13CN or a depletion of 12CN in the comet. Scenarios consistent with the observed carbon isotope ratio are: (1) formation of the comet at the periphery of the solar nebula in a fractionation-enriched 13CN region, or hidden from 12CN enrichment sources, and (2) capture of an interestellar comet. Long-slit charge coupled device (CCD) spectra obtained at the time of the spacecraft encounter of Comet Halley have also been analyzed. Scale lengths, production rates and column densities of CH, CN, C2 and NH2 were determined.

  14. Flare Plasma Iron Abundance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Dan, Chau; Jain, Rajmal; Schwartz, Richard A.; Tolbert, Anne K.

    2008-01-01

    The equivalent width of the iron-line complex at 6.7 keV seen in flare X-ray spectra suggests that the iron abundance of the hottest plasma at temperatures >approx.10 MK may sometimes be significantly lower than the nominal coronal abundance of four times the photospheric value that is commonly assumed. This conclusion is based on X-ray spectral observations of several flares seen in common with the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) and the Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) on the second Indian geostationary satellite, GSAT-2. The implications of this will be discussed as it relates to the origin of the hot flare plasma - either plasma already in the corona that is directly heated during the flare energy release process or chromospheric plasma that is heated by flare-accelerated particles and driven up into the corona. Other possible explanations of lower-than-expected equivalent widths of the iron-line complex will also be discussed.

  15. Aging differentially affects human skeletal muscle amino acid transporter expression when essential amino acids are ingested after exercise

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Jared M.; Drummond, Micah J.; Coben, Jennifer R.; Volpi, Elena; Rasmussen, Blake B.

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims Amino acid transporters have been proposed as regulators of protein synthesis. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether amino acid transporter expression is increased in human muscle following resistance exercise (RE) coupled with essential amino acid (EAA) ingestion, and whether a differential response occurs with aging. Secondly, we aimed to compare this response to a previous study examining RE alone. Methods Young (n=7, 30±2yr) and older men (n=6, 70±2yr) ingested EAA 1h after RE. Muscle biopsies were obtained at rest and 3 and 6h postexercise to examine amino acid transporter mRNA and protein expression. Results In both age groups, RE+EAA increased mRNA of L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1)/solute linked carrier (SLC)7A5, sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2)/SLC38A2, and cationic amino acid transporter 1/SLC7A1 (p<0.05). SNAT2 protein increased in young at 3 and 6h (p<0.05), whereas old maintained higher LAT1 protein (p<0.05). Compared to RE alone, RE+EAA enhanced amino acid transporter expression only in young (p<0.05). Conclusions RE increases muscle amino acid transporter expression in young and older adults, however, postexercise EAA ingestion enhances amino acid transporter expression only in young indicating that aging may influence the function of specific amino acid transporters. PMID:22889597

  16. Sources and fate of amino sugars in coastal Peruvian sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niggemann, Jutta; Schubert, Carsten J.

    2006-05-01

    Amino sugars are involved in the marine carbon and nitrogen cycles and comprise a geochemically significant fraction of marine organic material (OM). However, information on abundance and distribution of these compounds in marine sediments is scarce. Three sediment cores (<50 cm) from the coastal region off Peru were investigated for concentrations of glucosamine (GlcN), galactosamine (GalN), mannosamine (ManN), and muramic acid (Mur). The sum of the four amino sugars accounted for 1.0-2.4% of organic carbon and 1.9-3.8% of nitrogen in the sediments. At the shallowest (102 m) and the deepest site (1278 m), carbon-normalized concentrations decreased down-core, suggesting preferential degradation of amino sugars compared to bulk sedimentary OM. At the site from the center of the oxygen minimum zone (238 m), amino sugar concentrations were high throughout the core, pointing to enhanced preservation of amino sugars under anoxic conditions. GlcN (44-56 mol%) and GalN (33-42 mol%) were the dominant amino sugars in all investigated samples, while ManN (6-14 mol%) and Mur (1-4 mol%) were significantly less abundant. Mur was predominantly associated with cell wall remains rather than with living bacteria, since bacterial abundances estimated based on Mur concentrations were up to 500 times higher than cell counts reported for sediments from this area. GlcN/GalN-ratios (1.1-1.7) indicated that chitin, a polymer of GlcN, was not a major contributor to the amino sugar pool of the investigated sediments. Furthermore, GlcN/Mur-ratios (13-68) are inconsistent with a predominant contribution of intact peptidoglycan, which exhibits a 1:1-ratio. The present study includes a compilation of previously published information on distribution and abundance of amino sugars in the marine environment. Both concentrations and ratios observed in the Peruvian sediments fall in the range of values reported for OM in water column and sediments from different oceanic regions and water depths

  17. Polymers with complexing properties. Simple poly(amino acids)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roque, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    The free amino (0.3 equiv/residue) and carboxyl (0.5 equiv/residue) groups of thermal polylysine increased dramatically on treatment with distilled water. The total hydrolysis of such a polymer was abnormal in that only about 50% of the expected amino acids were recovered. Poly (lysine-co-alanine-co-glycine) under usual conditions hydrolyzed completely in 8 hours; whereas, when it was pretreated with diazomethane, a normal period of 24 hours was required to give (nearly) the same amounts of each free amino acid as compared with those obtained from the untreated polymer. The amino groups of the basic thermal poly(amino acids) were sterically hindered. The existence of nitrogen atoms linking two or three chains and reactive groups (anhydride, imine) were proposed.

  18. Amino Acid Flux from Metabolic Network Benefits Protein Translation: the Role of Resource Availability

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiao-Pan; Yang, Yi; Ma, Bin-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Protein translation is a central step in gene expression and affected by many factors such as codon usage bias, mRNA folding energy and tRNA abundance. Despite intensive previous studies, how metabolic amino acid supply correlates with protein translation efficiency remains unknown. In this work, we estimated the amino acid flux from metabolic network for each protein in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae by using Flux Balance Analysis. Integrated with the mRNA expression level, protein abundance and ribosome profiling data, we provided a detailed description of the role of amino acid supply in protein translation. Our results showed that amino acid supply positively correlates with translation efficiency and ribosome density. Moreover, with the rank-based regression model, we found that metabolic amino acid supply facilitates ribosome utilization. Based on the fact that the ribosome density change of well-amino-acid-supplied genes is smaller than poorly-amino-acid-supply genes under amino acid starvation, we reached the conclusion that amino acid supply may buffer ribosome density change against amino acid starvation and benefit maintaining a relatively stable translation environment. Our work provided new insights into the connection between metabolic amino acid supply and protein translation process by revealing a new regulation strategy that is dependent on resource availability. PMID:26056817

  19. Final report on the safety assessment of amino nitrophenols as used in hair dyes.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Christina L; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Klaassen, Curtis D; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Alan Andersen, F

    2009-01-01

    2-Amino-3-nitrophenol, 2-amino-4-nitrophenol, 2-amino-5-nitrophenol, 4-amino-3-nitrophenol, 4-amino-2-nitrophenol, 2-amino-4-nitrophenol sulfate, 3-nitro-p-hydroxyethylaminophenol, and 4-hydroxypropylamino-3-nitrophenol are substituted aromatic compounds used as semipermanent (nonoxidative) hair colorants and as toners in permanent (oxidative) hair dye products. All ingredients in this group except 2-amino-4-nitrophenol sulfate, 2-amino-5-nitrophenol, and 4-amino-2-nitrophenol have reported uses in cosmetics at use concentrations from 2% to 9%. The available toxicity studies for these amino nitrophenol hair dyes did not suggest safety concerns except for the potential carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of 4-amino-2-nitrophenol. 2-Amino-3-nitrophenol, 2-amino-4-nitrophenol, 2-amino-4-nitrophenol sulfate, 2-amino-5-nitrophenol, 4-amino-3-nitrophenol, 3-nitro-p-hydroxyethylaminophenol, and 4-hydroxypropylamino-3-nitrophenol are safe as hair dye ingredients in the practices of use and concentration as described in this safety assessment, but the data are insufficient to make a safety determination for 4-amino-2-nitrophenol. PMID:20086194

  20. Amyloid Aggregates Arise from Amino Acid Condensations under Prebiotic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Greenwald, Jason; Friedmann, Michael P; Riek, Roland

    2016-09-12

    Current theories on the origin of life reveal significant gaps in our understanding of the mechanisms that allowed simple chemical precursors to coalesce into the complex polymers that are needed to sustain life. The volcanic gas carbonyl sulfide (COS) is known to catalyze the condensation of amino acids under aqueous conditions, but the reported di-, tri-, and tetra-peptides are too short to support a regular tertiary structure. Here, we demonstrate that alanine and valine, two of the proteinogenic amino acids believed to have been among the most abundant on a prebiotic earth, can polymerize into peptides and subsequently assemble into ordered amyloid fibers comprising a cross-β-sheet quaternary structure following COS-activated continuous polymerization of as little as 1 mm amino acid. Furthermore, this spontaneous assembly is not limited to pure amino acids, since mixtures of glycine, alanine, aspartate, and valine yield similar structures. PMID:27511635

  1. Photoelectron Quantum Yields of the Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Dam, Rudy J.; Burke, Charles A.; Griffith, O. Hayes

    1974-01-01

    The photoelectron quantum yields of 21 common amino acids and 15 polyamino acids were measured in the 180-240 nm wavelength region. On the average, the quantum yields of these two groups exhibit quite similar wavelength dependence. For λ > 220 nm all amino acid and polyamino acid quantum yields are ≤10-7 electrons/(incident) photon. The mean yields increase to about 5 × 10-7 electrons/photon at 200 nm and 5 × 10-6 electrons/photon at 180 nm. L-tryptophan, L-tyrosine, and poly-L-tryptophan exhibit above average yields between 180 and 200 nm. Comparison with the dye phthalocyanine indicates that the quantum yield of the dye is two orders of magnitude greater than that of the amino acids from 200 to 240 nm, suggesting the feasibility of photoelectron labeling studies of biological surfaces. PMID:4836100

  2. Probing protein stability with unnatural amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, D.; Ellman, J.A.; Zhiyuh Chang; Veenstra, D.L.; Kollman, P.A.; Schultz, P.G. )

    1992-06-26

    Unnatural amino acid mutagenesis, in combination with molecular modeling and simulation techniques, was used to probe the effect of side chain structure on protein stability. Specific replacements at position 133 in T4 lysozyme included (1) leucine (wt), norvaline, ethylglycine, and alanine to measure the cost of stepwise removal of methyl groups from the hydrophobic core, (2) norvaline and O-methyl serine to evaluate the effects of side chain solvation, and (3) leucine, S,S-2-amino-4-methylhexanoic acid, and S-2-amino-3-cyclopentylpropanoic acid to measure the influence of packing density and side chain conformational entropy on protein stability. All of these factors (hydrophobicity, packing, conformational entropy, and cavity formation) significantly influence protein stability and must be considered when analyzing any structural change to proteins.

  3. Amino Acid Mean Excitation Energies and Directional Dependencies from Core and Bond Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Sabin, John R.; Oddershede, Jens; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2008-12-08

    We determine the mean excitation energies of several amino acids using a Bragg Rule developed for molecular fragments or functional groups. As the composition of the amino acids is very similar, we find that the amino acids have similar mean excitation energies (approximately 70 eV). Differences arise from variation of the side chains (-R); addition of-CH2-groups decreases the mean excitation energy. We also speculate concerning the directional dependence of the amino acid mean excitation energies.

  4. Actinide abundances in ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagee, B.; Bernatowicz, T. J.; Podosek, F. A.; Johnson, M. L.; Burnett, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of actinide and light REE (LREE) abundances and of phosphate abundances in equilibrated ordinary chondrites were obtained and were used to define the Pu abundance in the solar system and to determine the degree of variation of actinide and LREE abundances. The results were also used to compare directly the Pu/U ratio with the earlier obtained ratio determined indirectly, as (Pu/Nd)x(Nd/U), assuming that Pu behaves chemically as a LREE. The data, combined with high-accuracy isotope-dilution data from the literature, show that the degree of gram-scale variability of the Th, U, and LREE abundances for equilibrated ordinary chondrites is a factor of 2-3 for absolute abundances and up to 50 percent for relative abundances. The observed variations are interpreted as reflecting the differences in the compositions and/or proportions of solar nebula components accreted to ordinary chondrite parent bodies.

  5. Synthesis of amino acids

    DOEpatents

    Davis, J.W. Jr.

    1979-09-21

    A method is described for synthesizing amino acids preceding through novel intermediates of the formulas: R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C(OSOC1)CN, R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C(C1)CN and (R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C(CN)O)/sub 2/SO wherein R/sub 1/ and R/sub 2/ are each selected from hydrogen and monovalent hydrocarbon radicals of 1 to 10 carbon atoms. The use of these intermediates allows the synthesis steps to be exothermic and results in an overall synthesis method which is faster than the synthesis methods of the prior art.

  6. Telomerization of amino acids with butadiene, catalyzed by palladium complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Dzhemilev, U.M.; Fakhretdinov, R.N.; Telin, A.G.

    1987-01-10

    The telomerization of ..cap alpha..-, ..beta..-, ..gamma..-, and epsilon-amino acids having various structures with butadiene under the influence of the three-component palladium catalyst Pd(acac)/sub 2/-PPh/sub 3/-AlEt/sub 3/ was investigated in DMSO-toluene solution. The ..cap alpha..- and epsilon-aliphatic and also the ..cap alpha..-, ..beta..-, and ..gamma..-aromatic amino acids react with butadiene, giving the products from octadienylation at the amino group exclusively. Under the conditions of telomerization aliphatic ..beta..-amino acids are cleaved with the formation of unsaturated tertiary amines. In the case of aliphatic ..gamma..-amino acids it is possible to obtain telomers alkylated at the carbonyl group.

  7. Abundance coefficients, a new method for measuring microorganism relative abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forester, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    A new method of measuring the relative abundance of microorganisms by using a set of interrelated coefficients, termed 'abundance coefficients' or 'AC', is proposed. These coefficients provide a means of recording abundance for geometric density categories, and each density measurement represents an approximation of the Poisson parameter ??t. The AC is the natural logarithm of a 'characteristic value,' which is a particular number for each geometric density category. The 'characteristic values' are based upon a probabilistic error statement derived from the Poisson formula, and they present evidence for separation of the geometric category boundaries by e = 2.71828. The proposed AC provide a means for recording species abundance in a manner suitable for arithmetic manipulation, for population structure studies, and for the determination of practical limits for defining the presence or absence of a species. Further, these coefficients provide for both intrasample and intersample abundance comparisons. ?? 1977 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

  8. Codon usage, amino acid usage, transfer RNA and amino-acyl-tRNA synthetases in Mimiviruses.

    PubMed

    Colson, Philippe; Fournous, Ghislain; Diene, Seydina M; Raoult, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Mimiviruses are giant viruses that infect phagocytic protists, including Acanthamoebae spp., which were discovered during the past decade. They are the current record holder among viruses for their large particle and genome sizes. One group is composed of three lineages, referred to as A, B and C, which include the vast majority of the Mimiviridae members. Cafeteria roenbergensis virus represents a second group, though the Mimiviridae family is still expanding. We analyzed the codon and amino acid usages in mimiviruses, as well as both the transfer RNA (tRNA) and amino acyl-tRNA synthetases. We confirmed that the codon and amino acid usages of these giant viruses are highly dissimilar to those in their amoebal host Acanthamoeba castellanii and are instead correlated with the high adenine and thymine (AT) content of Mimivirus genomes. We further describe that the set of tRNAs and amino acyl-tRNA synthetases in mimiviruses is globally not adapted to the codon and amino acid usages of these viruses. Notwithstanding, Leu(TAA)tRNA, present in several Mimivirus genomes and in multiple copies in some viral genomes, may complement the amoebal tRNA pool and may contribute to accommodate the viral AT-rich codons. In addition, we found that the genes most highly expressed at the beginning of the Mimivirus replicative cycle have a nucleotide content more adapted to the codon usage in A.castellanii.

  9. Variability in the carbon isotope composition of individual amino acids in plant proteins from different sources: 1 Leaves.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Anthony H; Kruger, Nicholas J; Hedges, Robert E M; McCullagh, James S O

    2016-05-01

    The natural carbon isotope composition of individual amino acids from plant leaf proteins has been measured to establish potential sources of variability. The plant leaves studied, taken from a range of plant groups (forbs, trees, grasses, and freshwater aquatic plants), showed no significant influence of either season or environment (water and light availability) on their Δδ(13)C values. Plant groups did, however, differ in carbon isotope composition, although no consistent differences were identified at the species level. A discriminant analysis model was constructed which allowed leaves from (1) nettles, (2) Pooideae, (3) other Poales, (4) trees and (5) freshwater higher plants to be distinguished from each other on the basis of their natural abundance (13)C/(12)C ratios of individual amino acids. Differences in carbon isotope composition are known to be retained, to some extent, in the tissues of their consumers, and hence an understanding of compound-specific variation in (13)C/(12)C fractional abundance in plants has the potential to provide dietary insights of value in archaeological and ecological studies.

  10. Variability in the carbon isotope composition of individual amino acids in plant proteins from different sources: 1 Leaves.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Anthony H; Kruger, Nicholas J; Hedges, Robert E M; McCullagh, James S O

    2016-05-01

    The natural carbon isotope composition of individual amino acids from plant leaf proteins has been measured to establish potential sources of variability. The plant leaves studied, taken from a range of plant groups (forbs, trees, grasses, and freshwater aquatic plants), showed no significant influence of either season or environment (water and light availability) on their Δδ(13)C values. Plant groups did, however, differ in carbon isotope composition, although no consistent differences were identified at the species level. A discriminant analysis model was constructed which allowed leaves from (1) nettles, (2) Pooideae, (3) other Poales, (4) trees and (5) freshwater higher plants to be distinguished from each other on the basis of their natural abundance (13)C/(12)C ratios of individual amino acids. Differences in carbon isotope composition are known to be retained, to some extent, in the tissues of their consumers, and hence an understanding of compound-specific variation in (13)C/(12)C fractional abundance in plants has the potential to provide dietary insights of value in archaeological and ecological studies. PMID:26948983

  11. Erratum: Interstellar Abundance Standards Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofia, U. J.; Meyer, D. M.

    2001-09-01

    In the Letter ``Interstellar Abundance Standards Revisited'' by U. J. Sofia and D. M. Meyer (ApJ, 554, L221 [2001]), Table 2 and its footnotes contain several typographical errors. The corrected table is shown below. We note that the solar reference standard now implies a positive abundance of nitrogen in halo dust.

  12. Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in Ureilites Including Almahata Sitta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, A. S.; Glavin, D. P.; Callahan, M. P.; Dworkin, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    Ureilites are a class of meteorites that lack chondrules (achondrites) but have relatively high carbon abundances, averaging approx.3 wt %. Using highly sensitive liquid chromatography coupled with UV fluorescence and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-FD/ToF-MS), it was recently determined that there are amino acids in. fragment 94 of the Almahata Sitta ureilite[l]. Based on the presence of amino acids that are rare in the Earth's biosphere, as well as the near-racemic enantiomeric ratios of marry of the more common amino acids, it was concluded that most of the detected amino acids were indigenous to the meteorite. Although the composition of the Almahata Sitta ureilite appears to be unlike other recovered ureilites, the discovery of amino acids in this meteorite raises the question of whether other ureilites rnav also contain amino acids. Herein we present the results of LC-FDlTo.F-MS analyses of: a sand sample from the Almahata Sitta strewn held, Almahata Sitta fragments 425 (an ordinary H5 chondrite) and 427 (ureilite), as well as an Antarctic ureilite (Allan lulls, ALHA 77257).

  13. Amino acids in the rhizosphere: from plants to microbes.

    PubMed

    Moe, Luke A

    2013-09-01

    Often referred to as the "building blocks of proteins", the 20 canonical proteinogenic amino acids are ubiquitous in biological systems as the functional units in proteins. Sometimes overlooked are their varying additional roles that include serving as metabolic intermediaries, playing structural roles in bioactive natural products, acting as cosubstrates in enzymatic transformations, and as key regulators of cellular physiology. Amino acids can also serve as biological sources of both carbon and nitrogen and are found in the rhizosphere as a result of lysis or cellular efflux from plants and microbes and proteolysis of existing peptides. While both plants and microbes apparently prefer to take up nitrogen in its inorganic form, their ability to take up and use amino acids may confer a selective advantage in certain environments where organic nitrogen is abundant. Further, certain amino acids (e.g., glutamate and proline) and their betaines (e.g., glycine betaine) serve as compatible solutes necessary for osmoregulation in plants and microbes and can undergo rapid cellular flux. This ability is of particular importance in an ecological niche such as the rhizosphere, which is prone to significant variations in solute concentrations. Amino acids are also shown to alter key phenotypes related to plant root growth and microbial colonization, symbiotic interactions, and pathogenesis in the rhizosphere. This review will focus on the sources, transport mechanisms, and potential roles of the 20 canonical proteinogenic amino acids in the rhizosphere.

  14. Label-free amino acid detection based on nanocomposites of graphene oxide hybridized with gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Diming; Lu, Yanli; Xu, Gang; Yao, Yao; Li, Shuang; Liu, Qingjun

    2016-03-15

    Nanocomposites of graphene oxide and gold nanoparticles (GO/GNPs) were synthesized for label-free detections of amino acids. Interactions between the composites and amino acids were investigated by both naked-eye observation and optical absorption spectroscopy. The GO/GNPs composites displayed apparent color changes and absorption spectra changes in presences of amino acids including glutamate, aspartate, and cysteine. The interaction mechanisms of the composites and amino acids were discussed and explored with sulfhydryl groups and non-α-carboxylic groups on the amino acids. Sensing properties of the composites were tested, while pure gold particles were used as the control. The results suggested that the GO/GNPs composites had better linearity and stability in dose-dependent responses to the amino acids than those of the particles, especially in detections for acidic amino acids. Therefore, the nanocomposites platform can provide a convenient and efficient approach for label-free optical detections of important molecules such as amino acids.

  15. Identification of β-phenylalanine as a non-protein amino acid in cultivated rice, Oryza sativa.

    PubMed

    Yokoo, Takayuki; Takata, Ryo; Yan, Jian; Matsumoto, Fuka; Teraishi, Masayoshi; Okumoto, Yutaka; Jander, Georg; Mori, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Non-protein amino acids, often analogs of the standard 20 protein amino acids, have been discovered in many plant species. Recent research with cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) identified (3R)-β-tyrosine, as well as a tyrosine amino mutase that synthesizes (3R)-β-tyrosine from the protein amino acid (2S)-α-tyrosine. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) assays and comparison to an authentic standard showed that β-phenylalanine is also a relatively abundant non-protein amino acid in rice leaves and that its biosynthesis occurs independently from that of β-tyrosine.

  16. Identification of β-phenylalanine as a non-protein amino acid in cultivated rice, Oryza sativa

    PubMed Central

    Yokoo, Takayuki; Takata, Ryo; Yan, Jian; Matsumoto, Fuka; Teraishi, Masayoshi; Okumoto, Yutaka; Jander, Georg; Mori, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Non-protein amino acids, often analogs of the standard 20 protein amino acids, have been discovered in many plant species. Recent research with cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) identified (3R)-β-tyrosine, as well as a tyrosine amino mutase that synthesizes (3R)-β-tyrosine from the protein amino acid (2S)-α-tyrosine. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) assays and comparison to an authentic standard showed that β-phenylalanine is also a relatively abundant non-protein amino acid in rice leaves and that its biosynthesis occurs independently from that of β-tyrosine. PMID:27066169

  17. Two amino acid substitutions in apolipoprotein B are in complete allelic association with the antigen group (x/y) polymorphism: Evidence for little recombination in the 3 prime end of the human gene

    SciTech Connect

    Dunning, A.M.; Renges, H.H.; Xu, Chunfang; Peacock, R.; Humphries, S.E.; Talmud, P.; Laxer, G. ); Brasseur, R. ); Tikkanen, M.J. ); Buetler, R. ); Saha, N. ); Hamsten, A. ); Rosseneu, M. )

    1992-01-01

    The authors report the identification of an A-to-G base change, in exon 29 of the apolipoprotein B (apo B) gene, that results in the substitution of serine for asparagine at residue 4,311 of mature apo B100. In a recent publication, Huang et al. have reported a C-to-T base change in exon 26 that causes the substitution of leucine for proline at residue 2712 of apo B. The authors have found complete linkage disequilibrium between the alleles at both these sites and an immunochemical polymorphism of LDL designated antigen group (x/y) (Ag(x/y)) in a sample of 118 Finnish individuals. This implies that either one of these substitutions - or both of them combined - could be the molecular basis of the Ag(x/y) antigenic determinants, with the allele encoding serine{sub 4311} plus leucine{sub 2,712} representing the Ag(x) epitope, and that encoding asparagine{sub 4,311} plus proline{sub 2,712} the Ag(y) epitope. In a sample of 90 healthy Swedish individuals the Leu{sub 2,712}/Ser{sub 4,311} allele is associated both with reduced serum levels of LDL cholesterol and apo B and with raised levels of HDL. They have also genotyped 523 individuals from European, Asian, Chinese, and Afro-Caribbean populations and have found complete association between the sites encoding residues 2,712 and 4,311 in all of these samples, although there are large allele frequency differences between these populations. Taken together, these data suggest that, since the divergence of the major ethnic groups, there has been little or no recombination in the 3' end of the human apo B gene.

  18. Neon and Oxygen Abundances in M33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockett, N. R.; Garnett, D. R.; Massey, P.; Jacoby, G.

    2004-05-01

    We present new spectroscopic observations of 13 H II regions in the Local Group spiral galaxy M33. The regions observed range in distance between 1 and 7 kpc from the nucleus. Of the 13 H II regions observed, we were able to detect the [O III] 4363 Å line in six regions, and so were able to determine electron temperatures directly from the spectra using the 5007/4363 line ratio. Based on these temperature measurements we computed abundances for O and Ne for the six regions, and derived radial abundance gradients for both elements. We find that our new measurements lead to a shallower oxygen abundance gradient , --0.03±0.02 dex/kpc, than was derived by earlier studies. We attribute the difference partly to the use of uncertain extrapolations of O/H vs. ([O II] + [O III])/Hβ used in earlier studies to derive abundances for nebulae without measured electron temperatures. The shallower O/H gradient is in much better agreement with the Ne/H gradient derived from ISO spectra by Willner and Nelson-Patel, as expected from predictions of stellar nucleosynthesis. We also identify two new He II-emitting H II regions, the first to be discovered in M33.

  19. 2-Amino-5-bromo­pyridinium 3-amino­benzoate

    PubMed Central

    Hemamalini, Madhukar; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2010-01-01

    In the title salt, C5H6BrN2 +·C7H6NO2 −, the pyridine N atom of the 2-amino-5-bromo­pyridine mol­ecule is protonated. In the crystal, the protonated N atom and the 2-amino group are hydrogen-bonded to the carboxyl­ate O atoms via a pair of N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming an R 2 2(8) ring motif. Two inversion-related 3-amino­benzoate anions are linked through N—H⋯O hydrogen-bonds, forming an R 2 2(14) ring motif. The crystal structure is further stabilized by π⋯π inter­actions involving the benzene and pyridinium rings with a centroid–centroid distance of 3.7743 (15) Å. PMID:21580412

  20. Abiotic racemization kinetics of amino acids in marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Steen, Andrew D; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Lomstein, Bente Aa

    2013-01-01

    The ratios of d- versus l-amino acids can be used to infer the sources and composition of sedimentary organic matter. Such inferences, however, rely on knowing the rates at which amino acids in sedimentary organic matter racemize abiotically between the d- and the l-forms. Based on a heating experiment, we report kinetic parameters for racemization of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, and alanine in bulk sediment from Aarhus Bay, Denmark, taken from the surface, 30 cm, and 340 cm depth below seafloor. Extrapolation to a typical cold deep sea sediment temperature of 3°C suggests racemization rate constants of 0.50×10(-5)-11×10(-5) yr(-1). These results can be used in conjunction with measurements of sediment age to predict the ratio of d:l amino acids due solely to abiotic racemization of the source material, deviations from which can indicate the abundance and turnover of active microbial populations.

  1. Abundant type 10 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in the hippocampus of mouse Alzheimer's disease model.

    PubMed

    He, Xue Ying; Wen, Guang Yeong; Merz, George; Lin, Dawei; Yang, Ying Zi; Mehta, Penkaj; Schulz, Horst; Yang, Song Yu

    2002-02-28

    A full-length cDNA of mouse type 10 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17 beta-HSD10) was cloned from brain, representing the accurate nucleotide sequence information that rendered possible an accurate deduction of the amino acid sequence of the wild-type enzyme. A comparison of sequences and three-dimensional models of this enzyme revealed that structures previously reported by other groups carry either a truncated or mutated amino-terminal sequence. Fusion of the first 11 residues of the wild-type enzyme to the green fluorescent protein directed the reporter protein into mitochondria. Thus, the N-terminus was identified as a mitochondrial targeting signal that accounts for the intracellular localization of the mouse enzyme. This enzyme is normally associated with mitochondria, not with the endoplasmic reticulum as suggested by its trivial name 'endoplasmic reticulum-associated amyloid-beta biding protein (ERAB)'. After its C-terminal region was used to raise rabbit anti-17 betaHSD10 antibodies, immunogold electron microscopy showed that an abundance of this enzyme could be found in hippocampal synaptic mitochondria of betaAPP transgenic mice, but not in normal controls. High levels of this enzyme may disrupt steroid hormone homeostasis in synapses and contribute to synapse loss in the hippocampus of the mouse Alzheimer's disease model. PMID:11869808

  2. Nature’s Starships. II. Simulating the Synthesis of Amino Acids in Meteorite Parent Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobb, Alyssa K.; Pudritz, Ralph E.; Pearce, Ben K. D.

    2015-08-01

    Carbonaceous chondrite meteorites are known for having high water and organic material contents, including amino acids. Here we address the origin of amino acids in the warm interiors of their parent bodies (planetesimals) within a few million years of their formation, and we connect this with the astrochemistry of their natal protostellar disks. We compute both the total amino acid abundance pattern and the relative frequencies of amino acids within the CM2 (e.g., Murchison) and CR2 chondrite subclasses based on Strecker reactions within these bodies. We match the relative frequencies to well within an order of magnitude among both CM2 and CR2 meteorites for parent body temperatures <200°C. These temperatures agree with 3D models of young planetesimal interiors. We find theoretical abundances of approximately 7 × 105 parts per billion, which is in agreement with the average observed abundance in CR2 meteorites of (4 ± 7) × 105, but an order of magnitude higher than the average observed abundance in CM2 meteorites of (2 ± 2) × 104. We find that the production of hydroxy acids could be favored over the production of amino acids within certain meteorite parent bodies (e.g., CI1, CM2) but not others (e.g., CR2). This could be due to the relatively lower NH3 abundances within CI1 and CM2 meteorite parent bodies, which leads to less amino acid synthesis. We also find that the water content in planetesimals is likely to be the main cause of variance between carbonaceous chondrites of the same subclass. We propose that amino acid abundances are primarily dependent on the ammonia and water content of planetesimals that are formed in chemically distinct regions within their natal protostellar disks.

  3. Arginine of retinoic acid receptor beta which coordinates with the carboxyl group of retinoic acid functions independent of the amino acid residues responsible for retinoic acid receptor subtype ligand specificity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zeng Ping; Hutcheson, Juliet M; Poynton, Helen C; Gabriel, Jerome L; Soprano, Kenneth J; Soprano, Dianne Robert

    2003-01-15

    The biological actions of retinoic acid (RA) are mediated by retinoic acid receptors (RARalpha, RARbeta, and RARgamma) and retinoid X receptors (RXRalpha, RXRbeta, and RXRgamma). Consistent with the X-ray crystal structures of RARalpha and RARgamma, site-directed mutagenesis studies have demonstrated the importance of a conserved Arg residue (alphaArg(276), betaArg(269), and gammaArg(278)) for coordination with the carboxyl group of RA. However, mutation of Arg(269) to Ala in RARbeta causes only a 3- to 6-fold increase in the K(d) for RA and EC(50) in RA-dependent transcriptional transactivation assays while the homologous mutation in either RARalpha or RARgamma causes a 110-fold and a 45-fold increase in EC(50) value, respectively. To further investigate the nature of this difference, we prepared mutant RARs to determine the effect of conversion of betaR269A to a mutant which mimics either RARalpha ligand selectivity (betaA225S/R269A) or RARgamma ligand selectivity (betaI263M/R269A/V338A). Our results demonstrate that in RARbeta mutants that acquire either RARalpha or RARgamma ligand specificity the Arg(269) position responsible for coordination with the carboxyl group of retinoids continued to function like that of RARbeta. Furthermore, three mutant receptors (betaA225S/R269A, betaA225S/F279, and alphaF286A) were found to have a greater than wild-type affinity for the RARalpha-selective ligand Am580. Finally, a homology-based computer model of the ligand binding domain (LBD) of RARbeta and the X-ray crystal structures of the LBD of both RARalpha and RARgamma are used to describe potential mechanisms responsible for the increased affinity of some mutants for Am580 and for the difference in the effect of mutation of Arg(269) in RARbeta compared to its homologous Arg in RARalpha and RARgamma.

  4. Expression of heteromeric amino acid transporters along the murine intestine.

    PubMed

    Dave, Mital H; Schulz, Nicole; Zecevic, Marija; Wagner, Carsten A; Verrey, Francois

    2004-07-15

    Members of the new heterodimeric amino acid transporter family are composed of two subunits, a catalytic multitransmembrane spanning protein (light chain) and a type II glycoprotein (heavy chain). These transporters function as exchangers and thereby extend the transmembrane amino acid transport selectivity to specific amino acids. The heavy chain rBAT associates with the light chain b degrees (,+)AT to form a cystine and cationic amino acid transporter. The other heavy chain, 4F2hc, can interact with seven different light chains to form various transporters corresponding to systems L, y(+)L, asc or x(-)(c). The importance of some of these transporters in intestinal and renal (re)absorption of amino acids is highlighted by the fact that mutations in either the rBAT or b degrees (,+)AT subunit result in cystinuria whereas a defect in the y(+)-LAT1 light chain causes lysinuric protein intolerance. Here we investigated the localization of these transporters in intestine since both diseases are also characterized by altered intestinal amino acid absorption. Real time PCR showed organ-specific expression patterns for all transporter subunit mRNAs along the intestine and Western blotting confirmed these findings on the protein level. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated basolateral coexpression of 4F2hc, LAT2 and y(+)-LAT1 in stomach and small intestine, whereas rBAT and b degrees (,+)AT were found colocalizing on the apical side of small intestine epithelium. In stomach, 4F2hc and LAT2 were localized in H(+)/K(+)-ATPase-expressing parietal cells. The abundant expression of several members of the heterodimeric transporter family along the murine small intestine suggests their involvement in amino acids absorption. Furthermore, strong expression of rBAT, b degrees (,+)AT and y(+)-LAT1 in the small intestine explains the reduced intestinal absorption of some amino acid in patients with cystinuria or lysinuric protein intolerance.

  5. Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in Orgueil and Ivuna: Tracing the Parent Body of CI Type Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Michael (Technical Monitor); Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Glavin, Daniel P.; Bota, Oliver; Cooper, George; Bada, Jeffrey

    2001-01-01

    Amino acid analyses using HPLC of pristine interior pieces of the CI carbonaceous chondrites Orgueil and Ivuna have found that beta-alanine, glycine, and gamma-amino-n-butyric acid (ABA) are the most abundant amino acids in these two meteorites, with concentrations ranging from approx. 600 to 2,000 parts per billion (ppb). Other alpha-amino acids such as alanine, alpha-ABA, alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), and isovaline are present only in trace amounts (less than 200 ppb). Carbon isotopic measurements of beta-alanine and glycine and the presence of racemic (D/L 1) alanine and beta-ABA in Orgueil suggest that these amino acids are extraterrestrial in origin. In comparison to the CM carbonaceous chondrites Murchison and Murray, the amino acid composition of the CIs is strikingly distinct, suggesting that these meteorites came from a different type of parent body, possibly an extinct comet, than did the CM carbonaceous chondrites.

  6. Extraterrestrial amino acids in Orgueil and Ivuna: Tracing the parent body of CI type carbonaceous chondrites

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Glavin, Daniel P.; Botta, Oliver; Cooper, George; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2001-01-01

    Amino acid analyses using HPLC of pristine interior pieces of the CI carbonaceous chondrites Orgueil and Ivuna have found that β-alanine, glycine, and γ-amino-n-butyric acid (ABA) are the most abundant amino acids in these two meteorites, with concentrations ranging from ≈600 to 2,000 parts per billion (ppb). Other α-amino acids such as alanine, α-ABA, α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), and isovaline are present only in trace amounts (<200 ppb). Carbon isotopic measurements of β-alanine and glycine and the presence of racemic (D/L ≈ 1) alanine and β-ABA in Orgueil suggest that these amino acids are extraterrestrial in origin. In comparison to the CM carbonaceous chondrites Murchison and Murray, the amino acid composition of the CIs is strikingly distinct, suggesting that these meteorites came from a different type of parent body, possibly an extinct comet, than did the CM carbonaceous chondrites. PMID:11226205

  7. Amino acid management in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tsun, Zhi-Yang; Possemato, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Amino acids have a dual role in cellular metabolism, as they are both the building blocks for protein synthesis and intermediate metabolites which fuel other biosynthetic reactions. Recent work has demonstrated that deregulation of both arms of amino acid management are common alterations seen in cancer. Among the most highly consumed nutrients by cancer cells are the amino acids glutamine and serine, and the biosynthetic pathways that metabolize them are required in various cancer subtypes and the object of current efforts to target cancer metabolism. Also altered in cancer are components of the machinery which sense amino acid sufficiency, nucleated by the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), a key regulator of cell growth via modulation of key processes including protein synthesis and autophagy. The precise ways in which altered amino acid management supports cellular transformation remain mostly elusive, and a fuller mechanistic understanding of these processes will be important for efforts to exploit such alterations for cancer therapy. PMID:26277542

  8. Efficient syntheses of 17-β-amino steroids.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Scott D; Harris, Jesse

    2011-01-01

    17β-Amino steroids such as 17β-amino-1,3,5(10)-estratrien-3-ol (1), 17β-amino-5α-androstan-3β-ol (2) and, 17β-amino-3β-hydroxyandrost-5-ene (3) have been widely used as a key intermediates in the synthesis of a variety of biologically active steroid derivatives though concise, high yielding syntheses of these compounds has yet to be reported. 17β-Amino-1,3,5(10)-estratrien-3-ol (1) and 17β-amino-5α-androstan-3β-ol (2) were prepared in high yield by reductive amination of estrone and epiandrosterone using benzylamine and sodium triacetoxyborohydride followed by catalytic hydrogenolysis of the resulting 17β-benzylamino derivatives. Attempts to prepare 17β-amino-3β-hydroxyandrost-5-ene (3) from dehydroepiandosterone using a similar approach resulted in partial reduction of the double bond. 17β-Amino-3β-hydroxyandrost-5-ene (3) was ultimately obtained in high yield by reductive amination of dehydroepiandosterone using allylamine and sodium triacetoxyborohydride followed by removal of the allyl group from the resulting 17β-allylamino derivative with dimethylbarbituric acid and Pd(PPh(3))(4) as catalyst.

  9. Hydration of amino acids: FTIR spectra and molecular dynamics studies.

    PubMed

    Panuszko, Aneta; Adamczak, Beata; Czub, Jacek; Gojło, Emilia; Stangret, Janusz

    2015-11-01

    The hydration of selected amino acids, alanine, glycine, proline, valine, isoleucine and phenylalanine, has been studied in aqueous solutions by means of FTIR spectra of HDO isotopically diluted in H2O. The difference spectra procedure and the chemometric method have been applied to remove the contribution of bulk water and thus to separate the spectra of solute-affected HDO. To support interpretation of obtained spectral results, molecular dynamics simulations of amino acids were performed. The structural-energetic characteristic of these solute-affected water molecules shows that, on average, water affected by amino acids forms stronger and shorter H-bonds than those in pure water. Differences in the influence of amino acids on water structure have been noticed. The effect of the hydrophobic side chain of an amino acid on the solvent interactions seems to be enhanced because of the specific cooperative coupling of water strong H-bond chain, connecting the carboxyl and amino groups, with the clathrate-like H-bond network surrounding the hydrocarbon side chain. The parameter derived from the spectral data, which corresponds to the contributions of the population of weak hydrogen bonds of water molecules which have been substituted by the stronger ones in the hydration sphere of amino acids, correlated well with the amino acid hydrophobicity indexes.

  10. Glycinergic-Fipronil Uptake Is Mediated by an Amino Acid Carrier System and Induces the Expression of Amino Acid Transporter Genes in Ricinus communis Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yun; Zhao, Jun-Long; Wang, Chuan-Wei; Yu, Ai-Xin; Liu, Niu; Chen, Li; Lin, Fei; Xu, Han-Hong

    2016-05-18

    Phloem-mobile insecticides are efficient for piercing and sucking insect control. Introduction of sugar or amino acid groups to the parent compound can improve the phloem mobility of insecticides, so a glycinergic-fipronil conjugate (GlyF), 2-(3-(3-cyano-1-(2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-4-((trifluoromethyl)sulfinyl)-1H-pyrazole-5-yl)ureido) acetic acid, was designed and synthesized. Although the "Kleier model" predicted that this conjugate is not phloem mobile, GlyF can be continually detected during a 5 h collection of Ricinus communis phloem sap. Furthermore, an R. communis seedling cotyledon disk uptake experiment demonstrates that the uptake of GlyF is sensitive to pH, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), temperature, and p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid (pCMBS) and is likely mediated by amino acid carrier system. To explore the roles of amino acid transporters (AATs) in GlyF uptake, a total of 62 AAT genes were identified from the R. communis genome in silico. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that AATs in R. communis were organized into the ATF (amino acid transporter) and APC (amino acid, polyaminem and choline transporter) superfamilies, with five subfamilies in ATF and two in APC. Furthermore, the expression profiles of 20 abundantly expressed AATs (cycle threshold (Ct) values <27) were analyzed at 1, 3, and 6 h after GlyF treatment by RT-qPCR. The results demonstrated that expression levels of four AAT genes, RcLHT6, RcANT15, RcProT2, and RcCAT2, were induced by the GlyF treatment in R. communis seedlings. On the basis of the observation that the expression profile of the four candidate genes is similar to the time course observation for GlyF foliar disk uptake, it is suggested that those four genes are possible candidates involved in the uptake of GlyF. These results contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism of GlyF uptake as well as phloem loading from a molecular biology perspective and facilitate functional

  11. Amino acid runs in eukaryotic proteomes and disease associations

    PubMed Central

    Karlin, Samuel; Brocchieri, Luciano; Bergman, Aviv; Mrázek, Jan; Gentles, Andrew J.

    2002-01-01

    We present a comparative proteome analysis of the five complete eukaryotic genomes (human, Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana), focusing on individual and multiple amino acid runs, charge and hydrophobic runs. We found that human proteins with multiple long runs are often associated with diseases; these include long glutamine runs that induce neurological disorders, various cancers, categories of leukemias (mostly involving chromosomal translocations), and an abundance of Ca2 + and K+ channel proteins. Many human proteins with multiple runs function in development and/or transcription regulation and are Drosophila homeotic homologs. A large number of these proteins are expressed in the nervous system. More than 80% of Drosophila proteins with multiple runs seem to function in transcription regulation. The most frequent amino acid runs in Drosophila sequences occur for glutamine, alanine, and serine, whereas human sequences highlight glutamate, proline, and leucine. The most frequent runs in yeast are of serine, glutamine, and acidic residues. Compared with the other eukaryotic proteomes, amino acid runs are significantly more abundant in the fly. This finding might be interpreted in terms of innate differences in DNA-replication processes, repair mechanisms, DNA-modification systems, and mutational biases. There are striking differences in amino acid runs for glutamine, asparagine, and leucine among the five proteomes. PMID:11782551

  12. Understanding and identifying amino acid repeats.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hong; Nijveen, Harm

    2014-07-01

    Amino acid repeats (AARs) are abundant in protein sequences. They have particular roles in protein function and evolution. Simple repeat patterns generated by DNA slippage tend to introduce length variations and point mutations in repeat regions. Loss of normal and gain of abnormal function owing to their variable length are potential risks leading to diseases. Repeats with complex patterns mostly refer to the functional domain repeats, such as the well-known leucine-rich repeat and WD repeat, which are frequently involved in protein–protein interaction. They are mainly derived from internal gene duplication events and stabilized by ‘gate-keeper’ residues, which play crucial roles in preventing inter-domain aggregation. AARs are widely distributed in different proteomes across a variety of taxonomic ranges, and especially abundant in eukaryotic proteins. However, their specific evolutionary and functional scenarios are still poorly understood. Identifying AARs in protein sequences is the first step for the further investigation of their biological function and evolutionary mechanism. In principle, this is an NP-hard problem, as most of the repeat fragments are shaped by a series of sophisticated evolutionary events and become latent periodical patterns. It is not possible to define a uniform criterion for detecting and verifying various repeat patterns. Instead, different algorithms based on different strategies have been developed to cope with different repeat patterns. In this review, we attempt to describe the amino acid repeat-detection algorithms currently available and compare their strategies based on an in-depth analysis of the biological significance of protein repeats. PMID:23418055

  13. Mineral Abundance Near Aristarchus Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, Alison; Storrs, A.

    2007-12-01

    Mineral Abundance Near Aristarchus Crater Alison Bradford and Alex Storrs Towson University We analyze Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images to determine the abundance of minerals near Aristarchus crater. Following the calibration of Robinson et al. (2007) we present ratio maps of images obtained in August of 2005 showing the abundance of TiO2 and other minerals in this interesting area in the middle of Oceanus Procellarum. A prominent cleft (Schroter's Valley, presumably a collapsed lava tube) makes this region of special interest for analyzing the formation of mare basalts. Reference: Robinson, M.S., et al. (2007): "High resolution mapping of TiO2 abundances on the Moon using the Hubble Space Telescope", GRL 34, L13203

  14. The boron abundance of Procyon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemke, Michael; Lambert, David L.; Edvardsson, Bengt

    1993-01-01

    The B I 2496.8 A resonance line and HST/GHRS echelle spectra are used with model atmospheres and synthetic spectra to derive the B abundance of the F dwarfs Procyon (Alpha Canis Minoris), Theta Ursae Majoris, and Iota Pegasi. The B abundance of Theta UMa and Iota Peg is similar to that derived by Boesgaard and Heacox (1978) from the B II resonance line in spectra of A- and B-type stars. These two dwarfs show normal abundances of Li, Be, and B. Procyon, which is highly depleted in Li and Be, is depleted in B by a factor of at least 3. Comparison of the spectra of Procyon and the halo dwarf HD 140283 shows that the B abundance assigned by Duncan et al. (1992) to three halo dwarfs is not greatly overestimated as a result of contamination of the B I line by an unidentified line.

  15. Microbial contributions to C and N dynamics in decaying litter elucidated by amino acid and amino sugar analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobara, S.; Osono, T.; Noro, K.; Hirota, M.; Benner, R. H.

    2011-12-01

    There is still much to be revealed about carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics in terrestrial soil systems. The objectives of this study were to identify molecular changes in composition during plant litter decomposition and gain insights about microbial contributions to C and N dynamics in decaying litter. Litter bag experiments with three plant species, Miscanthus sinensis, Pinus densiflora and Quercus crispula, were conducted for three years, and the concentrations of C, N, amino acids and amino sugars were determined at various times during the experiments. Mass loss (AFDW) ranged from 66-90% for the plant tissues. The weight %C remained fairly constant, whereas the weight %N increased throughout the study indicating N immobilization was occurring. The percentages of C as amino acids and amino sugars also increased throughout the study suggesting these biomolecules were largely of microbial origin. The increasing yields of amino acids and amino sugars were inversely related to overall C loss from the litter material. As microorganisms degraded the plant litter they left behind molecular signatures that were useful predictors of the extent of overall degradation. The C/N ratio of litter decreased throughout the study and was inversely related to galactosamine yields. The glucosamine/galactosamine (GlcN/GalN) ratio gradually declined to values near 2 by the end of the study. Galactoasamine is more abundant in bacteria than fungi, and the declining GlcN/GalN ratio suggest the relative contributions of bacterial to litter C and N increased relative to contributions from fungi. A cluster analysis of 0- and 36-month litters based on amino acid and amino sugar composition showed that 0-month litters of three plant species were separated from 36-month litters, suggesting common diagenetic pathways during decomposition irrespective of plant species. The microbial decomposers contribute to N immobilization and their contributions to the C and N content of litter increases

  16. Influence of edge on predator prey distribution and abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Steven H.

    2004-03-01

    I investigated the effect of spatial configuration on distribution and abundance of invertebrate trophic groups by counting soil arthropods under boxes (21 × 9.5 cm) arranged in six different patterns that varied in the amount of edge (137-305 cm). I predicted fewer individuals from the consumer trophic group (Collembola) in box groups with greater amount of edge. This prediction was based on the assumption that predators (mites, ants, spiders, centipedes) select edge during foraging and thereby reduce abundance of the less mobile consumer group under box patterns with greater edge. Consumer abundance (Collembola) was not correlated with amount of edge. Among the predator groups, mite, ant and centipede abundance related to the amount of edge of box groups. However, in contrast to predictions, abundance of these predators was negatively correlated with amount of edge in box patterns. All Collembola predators, with the exception of ants, were less clumped in distribution than Collembola. The results are inconsistent with the view that predators used box edges to predate the less mobile consumer trophic group. Alternative explanations for the spatial patterns other than predator-prey relations include (1) a negative relationship between edge and moisture, (2) a positive relationship between edge and detritus decomposition (i.e. mycelium as food for the consumer group), and (3) a negative relationship between edge and the interstices between adjacent boxes. Landscape patterns likely affect microclimate, food, and predator-prey relations and, therefore, future experimental designs need to control these factors individually to distinguish among alternative hypotheses.

  17. Aerial survey estimates of fallow deer abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gogan, Peter J.; Gates, Natalie B.; Lubow, Bruce C.; Pettit, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Reliable estimates of the distribution and abundance of an ungulate species is essential prior to establishing and implementing a management program. We used ground surveys to determine distribution and ground and aerial surveys and individually marked deer to estimate the abundance of fallow deer (Dama dama) in north-coastal California. Fallow deer had limited distribution and heterogeneous densities. Estimated post-rut densities across 4 annual surveys ranged from a low of 1.4 (SE=0.2) deer/km2 to a high of 3.3 (se=0.5) deer/km2 in a low density stratum and from 49.0 (SE=8.3) deer/km2 to 111.6 deer/km2 in a high density stratum. Sightability was positively influenced by the presence of white color-phase deer in a group and group size, and varied between airial and ground-based observers and by density strata. Our findings underscore the utility of double-observer surveys and aerial surveys with individually marked deer, both incorporating covariates to model sightability, to estimate deer abundance.

  18. Beyond the Canonical 20 Amino Acids: Expanding the Genetic Lexicon*

    PubMed Central

    Young, Travis S.; Schultz, Peter G.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to genetically encode unnatural amino acids beyond the common 20 has allowed unprecedented control over the chemical structures of recombinantly expressed proteins. Orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNA pairs have been used together with nonsense, rare, or 4-bp codons to incorporate >50 unnatural amino acids into proteins in Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris, and mammalian cell lines. This has allowed the expression of proteins containing amino acids with novel side chains, including fluorophores, post-translational modifications, metal ion chelators, photocaged and photocross-linking moieties, uniquely reactive functional groups, and NMR, IR, and x-ray crystallographic probes. PMID:20147747

  19. Natural-abundance solid-state 2H NMR spectroscopy at high magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Aliev, Abil E; Mann, Sam E; Iuga, Dinu; Hughes, Colan E; Harris, Kenneth D M

    2011-06-01

    High-resolution solid-state (2)H NMR spectroscopy provides a method for measuring (1)H NMR chemical shifts in solids and is advantageous over the direct measurement of high-resolution solid-state (1)H NMR spectra, as it requires only the application of routine magic angle sample spinning (MAS) and routine (1)H decoupling methods, in contrast to the requirement for complex pulse sequences for homonuclear (1)H decoupling and ultrafast MAS in the case of high-resolution solid-state (1)H NMR. However, a significant obstacle to the routine application of high-resolution solid-state (2)H NMR is the very low natural abundance of (2)H, with the consequent problem of inherently low sensitivity. Here, we explore the feasibility of measuring (2)H MAS NMR spectra of various solids with natural isotopic abundances at high magnetic field (850 MHz), focusing on samples of amino acids, peptides, collagen, and various organic solids. The results show that high-resolution solid-state (2)H NMR can be used successfully to measure isotropic (1)H chemical shifts in favorable cases, particularly for mobile functional groups, such as methyl and -N(+)H(3) groups, and in some cases phenyl groups. Furthermore, we demonstrate that routine (2)H MAS NMR measurements can be exploited for assessing the relative dynamics of different functional groups in a molecule and for assessing whole-molecule motions in the solid state. The magnitude and field-dependence of second-order shifts due to the (2)H quadrupole interaction are also investigated, on the basis of analysis of simulated and experimental (1)H and (2)H MAS NMR spectra of fully deuterated and selectively deuterated samples of the α polymorph of glycine at two different magnetic field strengths.

  20. Amino Acids from a Comet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Jamie Elisla

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned samples from comet 81P/Wild 2 to Earth in January 2006. Examinations of the organic compounds in cometary samples can reveal information about the prebiotic organic inventory present on the early Earth and within the early Solar System, which may have contributed to the origin of life. Preliminary studies of Stardust material revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds (cometary- vs. terrestrial contamination) could not be identified. We have recently measured the carbon isotopic ratios of these amino acids to determine their origin, leading to the first detection of a coetary amino acid.

  1. Electrokinetic characterization of magnetite nanoparticles functionalized with amino acids.

    PubMed

    Viota, J L; Arroyo, F J; Delgado, A V; Horno, J

    2010-04-01

    The synthesis of nanoparticles consisting of a magnetite core coated with one or more layers of amino acid (L-arginine, L-lysine, glycine, and L-glutamine) is described in this paper. For all the amino acids it is found that adsorption increases with concentration in solution in the range 0.5-10 mg/mL. The adsorption, however, differs substantially from one amino acid to another, depending on the length of the hydrocarbon chain and the polarity and charge of the side group. Thus, for given concentration and pH, adsorption is found to increase in the order L-arginine < L-lysine < L-glutamine < glycine. This order corresponds roughly to amino acids with decreasing chain length; in addition, the presence of the less polarizable guanidine group in the arginine molecule may explain why this amino acid is slightly less adsorbed than lysine. The pH dependence of the adsorption of each amino acid is reasonably explained considering the surface charge of magnetite and the charge of the amino acid molecules for different pHs, indicating a significant role of electrostatics in adsorption. This is further checked by means of determinations of the electrophoretic mobility of amino acid-coated magnetite as a function of pH: the results indicate a shift of the isoelectric point of the raw magnetite toward more basic pHs, an indication of adsorption of positive species, as confirmed by the tendency of the mobility of amino acid-coated magnetite toward more positive values below neutral pH. The electrophoretic mobility of coated particles was also measured as a function of the concentration of amino acid, and it was found that for low concentrations the four amino acids provoke charge inversion and overcharging of the magnetite surface at pH 6. Finally, the dependence of the electrophoretic mobility on the ionic strength indicated that from an electrophoretic point of view, the functionalized magnetite-amino acid particles do not behave as soft particles, and that the amino acid

  2. A Propensity for n-omega-Amino Acids in Thermally-Altered Antarctic Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Martin, Mildred G.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Johnson, Natasha M.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2012-01-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites are known to contain a wealth of indigenous organic molecules, including amino acids, which suggests that these meteorites could have been an important source of prebiotic organic material during the origins of life on Earth and possibly elsewhere. We report the detection of extraterrestrial amino acids in thermally-altered type 3 CV and CO carbonaceous chondrites and ureilites recovered from Antarctica. The amino acid concentrations of the thirteen Antarctic meteorites were generally less abundant than in more amino acid-rich CI, CM, and CR carbonaceous chondrites that experienced much lower temperature aqueous alteration on their parent bodies. In contrast to low-temperature aqueously-altered meteorites that show complete structural diversity in amino acids formed predominantly by Strecker-cyanohydrin synthesis, the thermally-altered meteorites studied here are dominated by small, straight-chain, amine terminal (n-omega-amino) amino acids that are not consistent with Strecker formation. The carbon isotopic ratios of two extraterrestrial n-omega-amino acids measured in one of the CV chondrites are consistent with C-13-depletions observed previously in hydrocarbons produced by Fischer-Tropsch type reactions. The predominance of n-omega-amino acid isomers in thermally-altered meteorites hints at cosmochemical mechanisms for the preferential formation and preservation of a small subset of the possible amino acids.

  3. Evidence from Meteorites for Multiple Possible Amino Acid Alphabets for the Origins of Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, A. S.; Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    A key question for the origins of life is understanding which amino acids made up the first proteins synthesized during the origins of life. The canonical set of 20 - 22 amino acids used in proteins are all alpha-amino, alpha-hydrogen isomers that, nevertheless, show considerable variability in properties including size, hydrophobicity, and ionizability. Abiotic amino acid synthesis experiments such as Miller-Urey spark discharge reactions produce a set of up to 23 amino acids, depending on starting materials and reaction conditions, with significant abundances of both alpha- and non-alpha-amino acid isomers. These two sets of amino acids do not completely overlap; of the 23 spark discharge amino acids, only 11 are used in modern proteins. Furthermore, because our understanding of conditions on the early Earth are limited, it is unclear which set(s) of conditions employed in spark discharge or hydrothermal reactions are correct, leaving us with significant uncertainty about the amino acid alphabet available for the origins of life on Earth. Meteorites, the surviving remnants of asteroids and comets that fall to the Earth, offer the potential to study authentic samples of naturally-occurring abiotic chemistry, and thus can provide an alternative approach to constraining the amino acid library during the origins of life.

  4. Amino-Functionalized Ceramic Capillary Membranes for Controlled Virus Retention.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Julia; Souza, Marina N; Schaper, Amelie; Árki, Pál; Kroll, Stephen; Rezwan, Kurosch

    2016-02-16

    A straightforward chemical functionalization strategy using aminosilanes for high-flux yttria-stabilized zirconia capillary membranes is presented (macroporous, d50 = 144 nm, open porosity =49%, membrane flux ∼150 L/(m(2)hbar)). Three different aminosilanes with one, two or three amino groups per silane molecule, namely 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), N-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (AE-APTES) and N-(3-trimethoxysilylpropyl)diethylenetriamine (TPDA), are used to generate the amino-functionalized membranes. With a higher number of amino groups per silane molecule increased loading capacities between 0.44 and 1.01 accessible amino groups/nm(2) membrane are achieved. Streaming potential measurements confirm that the zeta-potential of the membrane surface is converted from negative (non-functionalized) to positive (amino-functionalized). By operation in dead-end filtration mode using the model virus MS2 (diameter = 25 nm, IEP = 3.9) the virus retention capacity of the amino-functionalized membranes is significantly increased and log reduction values (LRVs) of up to 9.6 ± 0.3 (TPDA) are obtained whereas a LRV < 0.3 is provided by the non-functionalized membranes. Long-term dead-end filtration experiments for 1 week reveal a high stability of immobilized aminosilanes (TPDA), being robust against leaching. By iterative backflushing with desorption buffer MS2-loaded membranes are successfully regenerated being reusable for a new filtration cycle. The presented functionalization platform is highly promising for controlled virus retention. PMID:26771147

  5. Amino-terminated diamond surfaces: Photoelectron emission and photocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Di; Bandy, Jason A.; Li, Shuo; Hamers, Robert J.

    2016-08-01

    We report a new approach to making stable negative electron-affinity diamond surfaces by terminating diamond with amino groups (also known as amine groups, -NH2). Previous studies have shown that negative electron affinity can be induced by terminating diamond surfaces with hydrogen, creating a surface dipole favorable toward electron emission. Here, we demonstrate that covalent tethering of positive charges in the form of protonated amino groups, -NH3+, also leads to negative electron affinity (NEA) and facile electron emission into vacuum and into water. Amino-terminated diamond was prepared using a very mild plasma discharge. Valence-band photoemission studies of the amino-terminated diamond samples show a characteristic "NEA" peak, demonstrating that the amino-terminated surface has NEA. Diamond's ability to emit electrons into water was evaluated using photochemical conversion of N2 to NH3. Time-resolved surface photovoltage studies were used to characterize charge separation at the diamond interface, and Mott-Schottky measurements were performed to characterize band-bending at the diamond-water interface. XPS studies show that the amino-terminated surfaces provide increased chemical resistance to oxidation compared with H-terminated diamond when illuminated with ultraviolet light.

  6. Analysis of amino acids in latent fingerprint residue by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Atherton, Tom; Croxton, Ruth; Baron, Mark; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Jose; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura; García-Campaña, Ana M

    2012-11-01

    The analysis of the chemical composition of fingerprints is important for the development and improvement of existing fingerprint enhancement techniques. This study demonstrates the first analysis of a latent fingerprint sample, using an optimized CE-MS method. In total 12 amino acids were detected in the fingerprint sample. MS/MS fragmentation was used to provide additional identity confirmation, for which eight of the twelve detected amino acids generated confirmatory product ions. Nine amino acids were quantified and their relative abundances were consistent with previous studies with serine and glycine being the most abundant. The successful detection of amino acids from latent fingerprints demonstrates that CE-MS is a potential future technique for further study of such compounds in fingerprint samples.

  7. Treatment of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment of amino acid metabolism disorders Treatment of amino acid metabolism disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Amino acid metabolism disorders are rare health conditions that affect ...

  8. Boron-containing amino carboxylic acid compounds and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Kabalka, George W.; Srivastava, Rajiv R.

    2000-03-14

    Novel compounds which are useful for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) are disclosed. The compounds comprise a stable boron-containing group and an aminocycloalkane carboxylic acid group or a boronated acyclic hydrocarbon-linked amino carboxylic acid. Methods for synthesis of the compounds and for use of the compounds in BNCT are disclosed.

  9. Synthesis, pharmacological characterization, and molecular modeling of heterobicyclic amino acids related to (+)-2-aminobicyclo[3.1.0] hexane-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (LY354740): identification of two new potent, selective, and systemically active agonists for group II metabotropic glutamate receptors.

    PubMed

    Monn, J A; Valli, M J; Massey, S M; Hansen, M M; Kress, T J; Wepsiec, J P; Harkness, A R; Grutsch, J L; Wright, R A; Johnson, B G; Andis, S L; Kingston, A; Tomlinson, R; Lewis, R; Griffey, K R; Tizzano, J P; Schoepp, D D

    1999-03-25

    As part of our ongoing research program aimed at the identification of highly potent, selective, and systemically active agonists for group II metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors, we have prepared novel heterobicyclic amino acids (-)-2-oxa-4-aminobicyclo[3.1. 0]hexane-4,6-dicarboxylate (LY379268, (-)-9) and (-)-2-thia-4-aminobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-4,6-dicarboxylate (LY389795, (-)-10). Compounds (-)-9 and (-)-10 are structurally related to our previously described nanomolar potency group II mGlu receptor agonist, (+)-2-aminobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2,6-dicarboxylate monohydrate (LY354740 monohydrate, 5), with the C4-methylene unit of 5 being replaced with either an oxygen atom (as in (-)-9) or a sulfur atom (as in (-)-10). Compounds (-)-9 and (-)-10 potently and stereospecifically displaced specific binding of the mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist ([3H]LY341495) in rat cerebral cortical homogenates, displaying IC50 values of 15 +/- 4 and 8.4 +/- 0.8 nM, respectively, while having no effect up to 100 000 nM on radioligand binding to the glutamate recognition site on NMDA, AMPA, or kainate receptors. Compounds (-)-9 and (-)-10 also potently displaced [3H]LY341495 binding from membranes expressing recombinant human group II mGlu receptor subtypes: (-)-9, Ki = 14.1 +/- 1.4 nM at mGlu2 and 5.8 +/- 0.64 nM at mGlu3; (-)-10, Ki = 40.6 +/- 3.7 nM at mGlu2 and 4.7 +/- 1.2 nM at mGlu3. Evaluation of the functional effects of (-)-9 and (-)-10 on second-messenger responses in nonneuronal cells expressing human mGlu receptor subtypes demonstrated each to be a highly potent agonist for group II mGlu receptors: (-)-9, EC50 = 2.69 +/- 0.26 nM at mGlu2 and 4.58 +/- 0.04 nM at mGlu3; (-)-10, EC50 = 3.91 +/- 0.81 nM at mGlu2 and 7.63 +/- 2. 08 nM at mGlu3. In contrast, neither compound (up to 10 000 nM) displayed either agonist or antagonist activity in cells expressing recombinant human mGlu1a, mGlu5a, mGlu4a, or mGlu7a receptors. The agonist effects of (-)-9 and (-)-10 at group II m

  10. Functional Group Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Walter T., Jr.; Patterson, John M.

    1984-01-01

    Literature on analytical methods related to the functional groups of 17 chemical compounds is reviewed. These compounds include acids, acid azides, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, amino acids, aromatic hydrocarbons, carbodiimides, carbohydrates, ethers, nitro compounds, nitrosamines, organometallic compounds, peroxides, phenols, silicon compounds,…

  11. Secondary organic aerosol-forming reactions of glyoxal with amino acids.

    PubMed

    De Haan, David O; Corrigan, Ashley L; Smith, Kyle W; Stroik, Daniel R; Turley, Jacob J; Lee, Frances E; Tolbert, Margaret A; Jimenez, Jose L; Cordova, Kyle E; Ferrell, Grant R

    2009-04-15

    Glyoxal, the simplest and most abundant alpha-dicarbonyl compound in the atmosphere, is scavenged by clouds and aerosol, where it reacts with nucleophiles to form low-volatility products. Here we examine the reactions of glyoxal with five amino acids common in clouds. When glyoxal and glycine, serine, aspartic acid or ornithine are present at concentrations as low as 30/microM in evaporating aqueous droplets or bulk solutions, 1,3-disubstituted imidazoles are formed in irreversible second-order reactions detected by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). In contrast, glyoxal reacts with arginine preferentially at side chain amino groups, forming nonaromatic five-membered rings. All reactions were accompanied by browning. The uptake of 45 ppb glyoxal by solid-phase glycine aerosol at 50% RH was also studied and found to cause particle growth and the production of imidazole measured by scanning mobility particle sizing and AMS, respectively, with a glyoxal uptake coefficient alpha = 0.0004. Comparison of reaction kinetics in bulk and in drying droplets shows that conversion of glyoxal dihydrate to monohydrate accelerates the reaction by over 3 orders of magnitude, allowing these reactions to occur at atmospheric conditions.

  12. Secondary organic aerosol-forming reactions of glyoxal with amino acids.

    PubMed

    De Haan, David O; Corrigan, Ashley L; Smith, Kyle W; Stroik, Daniel R; Turley, Jacob J; Lee, Frances E; Tolbert, Margaret A; Jimenez, Jose L; Cordova, Kyle E; Ferrell, Grant R

    2009-04-15

    Glyoxal, the simplest and most abundant alpha-dicarbonyl compound in the atmosphere, is scavenged by clouds and aerosol, where it reacts with nucleophiles to form low-volatility products. Here we examine the reactions of glyoxal with five amino acids common in clouds. When glyoxal and glycine, serine, aspartic acid or ornithine are present at concentrations as low as 30/microM in evaporating aqueous droplets or bulk solutions, 1,3-disubstituted imidazoles are formed in irreversible second-order reactions detected by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). In contrast, glyoxal reacts with arginine preferentially at side chain amino groups, forming nonaromatic five-membered rings. All reactions were accompanied by browning. The uptake of 45 ppb glyoxal by solid-phase glycine aerosol at 50% RH was also studied and found to cause particle growth and the production of imidazole measured by scanning mobility particle sizing and AMS, respectively, with a glyoxal uptake coefficient alpha = 0.0004. Comparison of reaction kinetics in bulk and in drying droplets shows that conversion of glyoxal dihydrate to monohydrate accelerates the reaction by over 3 orders of magnitude, allowing these reactions to occur at atmospheric conditions. PMID:19475956

  13. Nitrogen abundance in Comet Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyckoff, Susan; Tegler, Stephen C.; Engel, Lisa

    1991-01-01

    Data on the nitrogen-containing compounds that observed spectroscopically in the coma of Comet Halley are summarized, and the elemental abundance of nitrogen in the Comet Halley nucleus is derived. It is found that 90 percent of elemental nitrogen is in the dust fraction of the coma, while in the gas fraction, most of the nitrogen is contained in NH3 and CN. The elemental nitrogen abundance in the ice component of the nucleus was found to be deficient by a factor of about 75, relative to the solar photosphere, indicating that the chemical partitioning of N2 into NH3 and other nitrogen compounds during the evolution of the solar nebula cannot account completely for the low abundance ratio N2/NH3 = 0.1, observed in the comet. It is suggested that the low N2/NH3 ratio in Comet Halley may be explained simply by physical fractionation and/or thermal diffusion.

  14. Solar and stellar photospheric abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allende Prieto, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    The determination of photospheric abundances in late-type stars from spectroscopic observations is a well-established field, built on solid theoretical foundations. Improving those foundations to refine the accuracy of the inferred abundances has proven challenging, but progress has been made. In parallel, developments on instrumentation, chiefly regarding multi-object spectroscopy, have been spectacular, and a number of projects are collecting large numbers of observations for stars across the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, promising important advances in our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. After providing a brief description of the basic physics and input data involved in the analysis of stellar spectra, a review is made of the analysis steps, and the available tools to cope with large observational efforts. The paper closes with a quick overview of relevant ongoing and planned spectroscopic surveys, and highlights of recent research on photospheric abundances.

  15. Robust Abundance Estimation in Animal Abundance Surveys with Imperfect Detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surveys of animal abundance are central to the conservation and management of living natural resources. However, detection uncertainty complicates the sampling process of many species. One sampling method employed to deal with this problem is depletion (or removal) surveys in whi...

  16. 2-Amino-5-methyl­pyridinium 2-amino­benzoate

    PubMed Central

    Thanigaimani, Kaliyaperumal; Farhadikoutenaei, Abbas; Khalib, Nuridayanti Che; Arshad, Suhana; Razak, Ibrahim Abdul

    2012-01-01

    In the 2-amino­benzoate anion of the title salt, C6H9N2 +·C7H6NO2 −, an intra­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond is observed. The dihedral angle between the ring and the CO2 group is 8.41 (13)°. In the crystal, the protonated N atom and the 2-amino group of the cation are hydrogen bonded to the carboxyl­ate O atoms via a pair of N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming an R 2 2(8) ring motif. The ion pairs are further connected via N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, resulting in a donor–donor–acceptor–acceptor (DDAA) array of quadruple hydrogen bonds. The crystal structure also features a weak N—H⋯O hydrogen bond and a C—H⋯π inter­action, resulting in a three-dimensional network. PMID:23284507

  17. How amino acids and peptides shaped the RNA world.

    PubMed

    van der Gulik, Peter T S; Speijer, Dave

    2015-01-01

    The "RNA world" hypothesis is seen as one of the main contenders for a viable theory on the origin of life. Relatively small RNAs have catalytic power, RNA is everywhere in present-day life, the ribosome is seen as a ribozyme, and rRNA and tRNA are crucial for modern protein synthesis. However, this view is incomplete at best. The modern protein-RNA ribosome most probably is not a distorted form of a "pure RNA ribosome" evolution started out with. Though the oldest center of the ribosome seems "RNA only", we cannot conclude from this that it ever functioned in an environment without amino acids and/or peptides. Very small RNAs (versatile and stable due to basepairing) and amino acids, as well as dipeptides, coevolved. Remember, it is the amino group of aminoacylated tRNA that attacks peptidyl-tRNA, destroying the bond between peptide and tRNA. This activity of the amino acid part of aminoacyl-tRNA illustrates the centrality of amino acids in life. With the rise of the "RNA world" view of early life, the pendulum seems to have swung too much towards the ribozymatic part of early biochemistry. The necessary presence and activity of amino acids and peptides is in need of highlighting. In this article, we try to bring the role of the peptide component of early life back into focus. We argue that an RNA world completely independent of amino acids never existed. PMID:25607813

  18. Tubulin carbamoylation. Functional amino groups in microtubule assembly.

    PubMed Central

    Mellado, W; Slebe, J C; Maccioni, R B

    1982-01-01

    The characteristics of the carbamoylation of pig brain tubulin were examined by using the modification conditions with cyanate described previously [Mellado, Slebe + Maccioni (1980) Biochem. Int. I, 584--590]. The carbamoylation reaction resulted in an inhibition of microtubule assembly, which was dependent on the concentration of the modifying agent. This tubulin modification appears to inhibit the growth of microtubules. The presence of GTP did not protect tubulin against this inhibition. Electron microscopy showed a marked decrease in the number of tubules after carbamoylation, but no alterations were observed in the microtubule morphology. The incorporation of KN14CO into alpha- and beta-subunits with similar kinetics was also shown, and the carbamoylated residues were identified as epsilon-N-carbamoyl-lysine residues. Images PLATE 1 Fig. 4. PMID:7115308

  19. Metabolism of Vertebrate Amino Sugars with N-Glycolyl Groups

    PubMed Central

    Bergfeld, Anne K.; Pearce, Oliver M. T.; Diaz, Sandra L.; Pham, Tho; Varki, Ajit

    2012-01-01

    The two major mammalian sialic acids are N-acetylneuraminic acid and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). The only known biosynthetic pathway generating Neu5Gc is the conversion of CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid into CMP-Neu5Gc, which is catalyzed by the CMP-Neu5Ac hydroxylase enzyme. Given the irreversible nature of this reaction, there must be pathways for elimination or degradation of Neu5Gc, which would allow animal cells to adjust Neu5Gc levels to their needs. Although humans are incapable of synthesizing Neu5Gc due to an inactivated CMAH gene, exogenous Neu5Gc from dietary sources can be metabolically incorporated into tissues in the face of an anti-Neu5Gc antibody response. However, the metabolic turnover of Neu5Gc, which apparently prevents human cells from continued accumulation of this immunoreactive sialic acid, has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we show that pre-loaded Neu5Gc is eliminated from human cells over time, and we propose a conceivable Neu5Gc-degrading pathway based on the well studied metabolism of N-acetylhexosamines. We demonstrate that murine tissue cytosolic extracts harbor the enzymatic machinery to sequentially convert Neu5Gc into N-glycolylmannosamine, N-glycolylglucosamine, and N-glycolylglucosamine 6-phosphate, whereupon irreversible de-N-glycolylation of the latter results in the ubiquitous metabolites glycolate and glucosamine 6-phosphate. We substantiate this finding by demonstrating activity of recombinant human enzymes in vitro and by studying the fate of radiolabeled pathway intermediates in cultured human cells, suggesting that this pathway likely occurs in vivo. Finally, we demonstrate that the proposed degradative pathway is partially reversible, showing that N-glycolylmannosamine and N-glycolylglucosamine (but not glycolate) can serve as precursors for biosynthesis of endogenous Neu5Gc. PMID:22692205

  20. Coronal Abundances and Their Variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saba, Julia L. R.

    1996-01-01

    This contract supported the investigation of elemental abundances in the solar corona, principally through analysis of high-resolution soft X-ray spectra from the Flat Crystal Spectrometer on NASA's Solar Maximum Mission. The goals of the study were a characterization of the mean values of relative abundances of elements accessible in the FCS data, and information on the extent and circumstances of their variability. This is the Final Report, summarizing the data analysis and reporting activities which occurred during the period of performance, June 1993 - December 1996.

  1. Chemical Abundances of Symbiotic Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gałan, C.; Mikołajewska, J.; Hinkle, K. H.; Joyce, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    High resolution (R ˜ 50000), near-IR spectra were used to measure photospheric abundances of CNO and elements around the iron peak for 24 symbiotic giants. Spectrum synthesis was employed using local thermal equilibrium and hydrostatic model atmospheres. The metallicities are distributed in a wide range with maximum around [Fe/H] ˜-0.4 - - 0.3 dex. Enrichment in 14N indicates that all the sample giants have experienced the first dredge-up. The relative abundance of [Ti/Fe] is generally large in red symbiotic systems.

  2. Coronal abundances and their variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saba, Julia L. R.

    1994-01-01

    This contract supports the investigation of elemental abundances in the solar corona, principally through analysis of high-resolution soft x-ray spectra from the Flat Crystal Spectrometer (FCS) on the Solar Maximum Mission. The goals of the study are a characterization of the mean values of relative abundances of elements accessible in the FCS data, and information on the extent and circumstances of their variability. This report is a summation of the data analysis and reporting activities which occurred during the first ten months of the contract, 15 Jun. 1993 to 15 Apr. 1994.

  3. The solar abundance of beryllium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, J. E.; Aller, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    The solar abundance of beryllium is deduced from high-resolution Kitt Peak observations of the 3130.43- and 3131.08-A lines of Be II interpreted by the method of spectrum synthesis. The results are in good agreement with those previously obtained by Grevesse (1968) and by Hauge and Engvold (1968) and indicate that in the photospheric layers, beryllium is depleted below the chondritic value by a factor of about two. It is found that the beryllium abundance is equal to logN(Be)/N(H) + 12 = 1.08 plus or minus 0.05.

  4. SOLAR MODELS WITH REVISED ABUNDANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, S. L.; Li, T. D.; Yang, W. M.; Li, L. H.

    2011-04-20

    We present new solar models in which we use the latest low abundances and further include the effects of rotation, magnetic fields, and extra-mixing processes. We assume that the extra-element mixing can be treated as a diffusion process, with the diffusion coefficient depending mainly on the solar internal configuration of rotation and magnetic fields. We find that such models can well reproduce the observed solar rotation profile in the radiative region. Furthermore, the proposed models can match the seismic constraints better than the standard solar models, also when these include the latest abundances, but neglect the effects of rotation and magnetic fields.

  5. High Abundance of Ions in Cosmic Ices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gudipati, Murthy S.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Water-rich, mixed molecular ices and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common throughout interstellar molecular clouds and the Solar System. Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation and particle bombardment of these abiotic ices produces complex organic species, including important biogenic molecules such as amino acids and functionalized PAHs which may have played a role in the origin of life. This ability of such water-rich, oxygen dominated ices to promote production of complex organic species is surprising and points to an important, unusual, but previously overlooked mechanism at play within the ice. Here we report the nature of this mechanism using electronic spectroscopy. VUV-irradiation of PAH/H2O ices leads to an unprecedented and efficient (greater than 70 %) conversion of the neutral PAHs to their cation form (PAH+). Further, these H2O/PAH+ ices are stabile at temperatures below 50 K, a temperature domain common throughout interstellar clouds and the Solar System. Between 50 and 125 K they react to form the complex organics. In view of this, we conclude that charged PAHs and other molecular ions should be common and abundant in many cosmic ices. The chemical, spectroscopic and physical properties of these ion-rich ices can be of fundamental importance for objects as diverse as comets, planets, and molecular clouds and may account for several poorly understood phenomena associated with each of these object classes.

  6. The amino acid composition of the Sutter's Mill CM2 carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Jenniskens, Peter; Yin, Qing-Zhu

    2014-11-01

    We determined the abundances and enantiomeric compositions of amino acids in Sutter's Mill fragment #2 (designated SM2) recovered prior to heavy rains that fell April 25-26, 2012, and two other meteorite fragments, SM12 and SM51, that were recovered postrain. We also determined the abundance, enantiomeric, and isotopic compositions of amino acids in soil from the recovery site of fragment SM51. The three meteorite stones experienced terrestrial amino acid contamination, as evidenced by the low D/L ratios of several proteinogenic amino acids. The D/L ratios were higher in SM2 than in SM12 and SM51, consistent with rain introducing additional L-amino acid contaminants to SM12 and SM51. Higher percentages of glycine, β-alanine, and γ-amino-n-butyric acid were observed in free form in SM2 and SM51 compared with the soil, suggesting that these free amino acids may be indigenous. Trace levels of D+L-β-aminoisobutyric acid (β-AIB) observed in all three meteorites are not easily explained as terrestrial contamination, as β-AIB is rare on Earth and was not detected in the soil. Bulk carbon and nitrogen and isotopic ratios of the SM samples and the soil also indicate terrestrial contamination, as does compound-specific isotopic analysis of the amino acids in the soil. The amino acid abundances in SM2, the most pristine SM meteorite analyzed here, are approximately 20-fold lower than in the Murchison CM2 carbonaceous chondrite. This may be due to thermal metamorphism in the Sutter's Mill parent body at temperatures greater than observed for other aqueously altered CM2 meteorites.

  7. Decomposition of Amino Diazeniumdiolates (NONOates): Molecular Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Shaikh, Nizamuddin; Valiev, Marat; Lymar, Sergei V.

    2014-08-23

    Although diazeniumdiolates (X[N(O)NO]-) are extensively used in biochemical, physiological, and pharmacological studies due to their ability to slowly release NO and/or its congeneric nitroxyl, the mechanisms of these processes remain obscure. In this work, we used a combination of spectroscopic, kinetic, and computational techniques to arrive at a qualitatively consistent molecular mechanism for decomposition of amino diazeniumdiolates (amino NONOates: R2N[N(O)NO]-, where R = -N(C2H5)2 (1), -N(C3H4NH2)2 (2), or -N(C2H4NH2)2 (3)). Decomposition of these NONOates is triggered by protonation of their [NN(O)NO]- group with apparent pKa and decomposition rate constants of 4.6 and 1 s-1 for 1-H, 3.5 and 83 x 10-3 s-1 for 2-H, and 3.8 and 3.3 x 10-3 s-1 for 3-H. Although protonation occurs mainly on the O atoms of the functional group, only the minor R2N(H)N(O)NO tautomer (population ~0.01%, for 1) undergoes the N-N heterolytic bond cleavage (k ~102 s-1 for 1) leading to amine and NO. Decompositions of protonated amino NONOates are strongly temperature-dependent; activation enthalpies are 20.4 and 19.4 kcal/mol for 1 and 2, respectively, which includes contributions from both the tautomerization and bond cleavage. The bond cleavage rates exhibit exceptional sensitivity to the nature of R substituents which strongly modulate activation entropy. At pH < 2, decompositions of all these NONOates are subject to additional acid catalysis that occurs through di-protonation of the [NN(O)NO]- group.

  8. Decomposition of amino diazeniumdiolates (NONOates): Molecular mechanisms

    DOE PAGES

    Shaikh, Nizamuddin; Valiev, Marat; Lymar, Sergei V.

    2014-08-23

    Although diazeniumdiolates (X[N(O)NO]-) are extensively used in biochemical, physiological, and pharmacological studies due to their ability to release NO and/or its congeneric nitroxyl, the mechanisms of these processes remain obscure. In this work, we used a combination of spectroscopic, kinetic, and computational techniques to arrive at a quantitatively consistent molecular mechanism for decomposition of amino diazeniumdiolates (amino NONOates: R2N[N(O)NO]-, where R = —N(C2H5)2(1), —N(C3H4NH2)2(2), or —N(C2H4NH2)2(3)). Decomposition of these NONOates is triggered by protonation of their [NN(O)NO]- group with the apparent pKa and decomposition rate constants of 4.6 and 1 s-1 for 1; 3.5 and 0.083 s-1 for 2; andmore » 3.8 and 0.0033 s-1 for 3. Although protonation occurs mainly on the O atoms of the functional group, only the minor R2N(H)N(O)NO tautomer (population ~ 10-7, for 1) undergoes the N—N heterolytic bond cleavage (kd ~ 107 s-1 for 1) leading to amine and NO. Decompositions of protonated amino NONOates are strongly temperature-dependent; activation enthalpies are 20.4 and 19.4 kcal/mol for 1 and 2, respectively, which includes contributions from both the tautomerization and bond cleavage. Thus, the bond cleavage rates exhibit exceptional sensitivity to the nature of R substituents which strongly modulate activation entropy. At pH < 2, decompositions of all three NONOates that have been investigated are subject to additional acid catalysis that occurs through di-protonation of the [NN(O)NO]- group.« less

  9. Amino acid repletion does not decrease muscle protein catabolism during hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Raj, Dominic S C; Adeniyi, Oladipo; Dominic, Elizabeth A; Boivin, Michel A; McClelland, Sandra; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H; Morgan, Nancy; Gonzales, Lawrence; Wolfe, Robert; Ferrando, Arny

    2007-06-01

    Intradialytic protein catabolism is attributed to loss of amino acids in the dialysate. We investigated the effect of amino acid infusion during hemodialysis (HD) on muscle protein turnover and amino acid transport kinetics by using stable isotopes of phenylalanine, leucine, and lysine in eight patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Subjects were studied at baseline (pre-HD), 2 h of HD without amino acid infusion (HD-O), and 2 h of HD with amino acid infusion (HD+AA). Amino acid depletion during HD-O augmented the outward transport of amino acids from muscle into the vein. Increased delivery of amino acids to the leg during HD+AA facilitated the transport of amino acids from the artery into the intracellular compartment. Increase in muscle protein breakdown was more than the increase in synthesis during HD-O (46.7 vs. 22.3%, P < 0.001). Net balance (nmol.min(-1).100 ml (-1)) was more negative during HD-O compared with pre-HD (-33.7 +/- 1.5 vs. -6.0 +/- 2.3, P < 0.001). Despite an abundant supply of amino acids, the net balance (-16.9 +/- 1.8) did not switch from net release to net uptake. HD+AA induced a proportional increase in muscle protein synthesis and catabolism. Branched chain amino acid catabolism increased significantly from baseline during HD-O and did not decrease during HD+AA. Protein synthesis efficiency, the fraction of amino acid in the intracellular pool that is utilized for muscle protein synthesis decreased from 42.1% pre-HD to 33.7 and 32.6% during HD-O and HD+AA, respectively (P < 0.01). Thus amino acid repletion during HD increased muscle protein synthesis but did not decrease muscle protein breakdown. PMID:17264222

  10. 9-Amino­acridin-10-ium 4-amino­benzo­ate dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Dhanabalan, Nallathambi; Thanigaimani, Kaliyaperumal; Arshad, Suhana; Razak, Ibrahim Abdul; Santhanaraj, K. Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title hydrated salt, C13H11N2 +·C7H6NO2 −·2H2O, consists of two independent 9-amino­acridinium cations, two 4-amino­benzoate anions and four water mol­ecules. Both 9-amino­acridinium cations are essentially planar, with maximum deviations of 0.034 (1) and 0.025 (2) Å, and are protonated at the pyridine N atoms. The 4-amino­benzoate anions are approximately planar, with dihedral angles of 9.16 (19) and 5.4 (2)° between the benzene ring and the carboxyl­ate group. In the crystal, the two independent anions are connected by N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a layer parallel to (100). The layers are connected through the cations by N—H⋯N and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The water mol­ecules, which form O—H⋯O hydrogen-bonded chains along the b-axis direction, connect the anions and the cations by O—H⋯O, N—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The crystal structure also features π–π inter­actions [centroid–centroid distances = 3.6343 (9)–3.8366 (10) Å] and a C—H⋯π inter­action. PMID:24940241

  11. Community structure description in amino acid interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Gaci, Omar

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we represent proteins by amino acid interaction networks. This is a graph whose vertices are the protein's amino acids and whose edges are the interactions between them. We begin by identifying the main topological properties of these interaction networks using graph theory measures. We observe that the amino acids interact specifically, according to their structural role, and depending on whether they participate or not in the secondary structure. Thus, certain amino acids tend to group together to form local clouds. Then, we study the formation of node aggregations through community structure detections. We observe that the composition of organizations confirms a specific aggregation between loops around a core composed of secondary.

  12. Molecular Evolution Directs Protein Translation Using Unnatural Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Cox, Vanessa E; Gaucher, Eric A

    2015-12-02

    Unnatural amino acids have in recent years established their importance in a wide range of fields, from pharmaceuticals to polymer science. Unnatural amino acids can increase the number of chemical groups within proteins and thus expand or enhance biological function. Our ability to utilize these important building blocks, however, has been limited by the inherent difficulty in incorporating these molecules into proteins. To address this challenge, researchers have examined how the canonical twenty amino acids are incorporated, regulated, and modified in nature. This review focuses on achievements and techniques used to engineer the ribosomal protein-translation machinery, including the introduction of orthogonal translation components, how directed evolution enhances the incorporation of unnatural amino acids, and the potential utility of ancient biomolecules for this process.

  13. THE SOLAR FLARE IRON ABUNDANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, K. J. H.; Dennis, B. R. E-mail: Brian.R.Dennis@nasa.gov

    2012-03-20

    The abundance of iron is measured from emission line complexes at 6.65 keV (Fe line) and 8 keV (Fe/Ni line) in RHESSI X-ray spectra during solar flares. Spectra during long-duration flares with steady declines were selected, with an isothermal assumption and improved data analysis methods over previous work. Two spectral fitting models give comparable results, viz., an iron abundance that is lower than previous coronal values but higher than photospheric values. In the preferred method, the estimated Fe abundance is A(Fe) = 7.91 {+-} 0.10 (on a logarithmic scale, with A(H) = 12) or 2.6 {+-} 0.6 times the photospheric Fe abundance. Our estimate is based on a detailed analysis of 1898 spectra taken during 20 flares. No variation from flare to flare is indicated. This argues for a fractionation mechanism similar to quiet-Sun plasma. The new value of A(Fe) has important implications for radiation loss curves, which are estimated.

  14. Abundance estimation and conservation biology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; MacKenzie, D.I.

    2004-01-01

    Abundance is the state variable of interest in most population–level ecological research and in most programs involving management and conservation of animal populations. Abundance is the single parameter of interest in capture–recapture models for closed populations (e.g., Darroch, 1958; Otis et al., 1978; Chao, 2001). The initial capture–recapture models developed for partially (Darroch, 1959) and completely (Jolly, 1965; Seber, 1965) open populations represented efforts to relax the restrictive assumption of population closure for the purpose of estimating abundance. Subsequent emphases in capture–recapture work were on survival rate estimation in the 1970’s and 1980’s (e.g., Burnham et al., 1987; Lebreton et al.,1992), and on movement estimation in the 1990’s (Brownie et al., 1993; Schwarz et al., 1993). However, from the mid–1990’s until the present time, capture–recapture investigators have expressed a renewed interest in abundance and related parameters (Pradel, 1996; Schwarz & Arnason, 1996; Schwarz, 2001). The focus of this session was abundance, and presentations covered topics ranging from estimation of abundance and rate of change in abundance, to inferences about the demographic processes underlying changes in abundance, to occupancy as a surrogate of abundance. The plenary paper by Link & Barker (2004) is provocative and very interesting, and it contains a number of important messages and suggestions. Link & Barker (2004) emphasize that the increasing complexity of capture–recapture models has resulted in large numbers of parameters and that a challenge to ecologists is to extract ecological signals from this complexity. They offer hierarchical models as a natural approach to inference in which traditional parameters are viewed as realizations of stochastic processes. These processes are governed by hyperparameters, and the inferential approach focuses on these hyperparameters. Link & Barker (2004) also suggest that our attention

  15. Actinide abundances in ordinary chondrites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagee, B.; Bernatowicz, T.J.; Podosek, F.A.; Johnson, M.L.; Burnett, D.S.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of 244Pu fission Xe, U, Th, and light REE (LREE) abundances, along with modal petrographic determinations of phosphate abundances, were carried out on equilibrated ordinary chondrites in order to define better the solar system Pu abundance and to determine the degree of variation of actinide and LREE abundances. Our data permit comparison of the directly measured Pu/ U ratio with that determined indirectly as (Pu/Nd) ?? (Nd/U) assuming that Pu behaves chemically as a LREE. Except for Guaren??a, and perhaps H chondrites in general, Pu concentrations are similar to that determined previously for St. Se??verin, although less precise because of higher trapped Xe contents. Trapped 130Xe 136Xe ratios appear to vary from meteorite to meteorite, but, relative to AVCC, all are similar in the sense of having less of the interstellar heavy Xe found in carbonaceous chondrite acid residues. The Pu/U and Pu/Nd ratios are consistent with previous data for St. Se??verin, but both tend to be slightly higher than those inferred from previous data on Angra dos Reis. Although significant variations exist, the distribution of our Th/U ratios, along with other precise isotope dilution data for ordinary chondrites, is rather symmetric about the CI chondrite value; however, actinide/(LREE) ratios are systematically lower than the CI value. Variations in actinide or LREE absolute and relative abundances are interpreted as reflecting differences in the proportions and/or compositions of more primitive components (chondrules and CAI materials?) incorporated into different regions of the ordinary chondrite parent bodies. The observed variations of Th/U, Nd/U, or Ce/U suggest that measurements of Pu/U on any single equilibrated ordinary chondrite specimen, such as St. Se??verin, should statistically be within ??20-30% of the average solar system value, although it is also clear that anomalous samples exist. ?? 1990.

  16. Summary and implications of reported amino acid concentrations in the Murchison meteorite

    SciTech Connect

    Shock, E.L.; Schulte, M.D. )

    1990-11-01

    A study of literature reports of the concentrations of amino acids in extracts from the Murchison meteorite shows that many of the concentration ratios are constant. There are two possible interpretations of these ratios. One is that they are controlled by the pathways through which the amino acids formed, from which it follows that the amino acids are distributed in the same proportions throughout the meteorite. The other interpretation is that the ratios result from the analytical procedures used to extract the amino acids from the meteorite. These methods rely heavily on high-temperature (100{degree}C) aqueous extraction and subsequent high-temperature acid hydrolysis. A correlation was observed in the present study between the relative concentrations of several amino acids in the meteorite extracts and their relative aqueous solubilities at 100{degree}C. The extract solutions are dilute, and far from the saturation limits, but these correlations suggest that the sampling procedure affects directly the reported concentrations for these amino acids. If the extraction process does not bias the results, and all extractable amino acids are removed from meteorite samples, then the properties of amino acids which control both their solubilities and their concentrations in the meteorite need to be established. The possibility of sampling bias needs to be tested experimentally before concluding that extraction is complete, and that the constant relative abundances indicate that the relative concentrations of amino acids are homogeneous in the meteorite.

  17. Parent Body Influences on Amino Acids in the Tagish Lake Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, D. P.; Callahan, M. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Elsila, J. E.; Herd, C. D. K.

    2010-01-01

    The Tagish Lake meteorite is a primitive C2 carbonaceous chondrite with a mineralogy, oxygen isotope, and bulk chemical. However, in contrast to many CI and CM carbonaceous chondrites, the Tagish Lake meteorite was reported to have only trace levels of indigenous amino acids, with evidence for terrestrial L-amino acid contamination from the Tagish Lake meltwater. The lack of indigenous amino acids in Tagish Lake suggested that they were either destroyed during parent body alteration processes and/or the Tagish Lake meteorite originated on a chemically distinct parent body from CI and CM meteorites where formation of amino acids was less favorable. We recently measured the amino acid composition of three different lithologies (11h, 5b, and 11i) of pristine Tagish Lake meteorite fragments that represent a range of progressive aqueous alteration in order 11h < 5b < 11i as inferred from the mineralogy, petrology, bulk isotopes, and insoluble organic matter structure. The distribution and enantiomeric abundances of the one- to six-carbon aliphatic amino acids found in hot-water extracts of the Tagish Lake fragments were determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography fluorescence detection and time of flight mass spectrometry coupled with OPA/NAC derivatization. Stable carbon isotope analyses of the most abundant amino acids in 11h were measured with gas chromatography coupled with quadrupole mass spectrometry and isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

  18. Amino acid supplementation alters bone metabolism during simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwart, S. R.; Davis-Street, J. E.; Paddon-Jones, D.; Ferrando, A. A.; Wolfe, R. R.; Smith, S. M.

    2005-01-01

    High-protein and acidogenic diets induce hypercalciuria. Foods or supplements with excess sulfur-containing amino acids increase endogenous sulfuric acid production and therefore have the potential to increase calcium excretion and alter bone metabolism. In this study, effects of an amino acid/carbohydrate supplement on bone resorption were examined during bed rest. Thirteen subjects were divided at random into two groups: a control group (Con, n = 6) and an amino acid-supplemented group (AA, n = 7) who consumed an extra 49.5 g essential amino acids and 90 g carbohydrate per day for 28 days. Urine was collected for n-telopeptide (NTX), deoxypyridinoline (DPD), calcium, and pH determinations. Bone mineral content was determined and potential renal acid load was calculated. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase was measured in serum samples collected on day 1 (immediately before bed rest) and on day 28. Potential renal acid load was higher in the AA group than in the Con group during bed rest (P < 0.05). For all subjects, during bed rest urinary NTX and DPD concentrations were greater than pre-bed rest levels (P < 0.05). Urinary NTX and DPD tended to be higher in the AA group (P = 0.073 and P = 0.056, respectively). During bed rest, urinary calcium was greater than baseline levels (P < 0.05) in the AA group but not the Con group. Total bone mineral content was lower after bed rest than before bed rest in the AA group but not the Con group (P < 0.05). During bed rest, urinary pH decreased (P < 0.05), and it was lower in the AA group than the Con group. These data suggest that bone resorption increased, without changes in bone formation, in the AA group.

  19. Evidence supporting early nutritional support with parenteral amino acid infusion.

    PubMed

    Denne, Scott C; Poindexter, Brenda B

    2007-04-01

    Postnatal growth of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants remains poor and does not come close to approximating rates of in utero growth. There is good evidence that early deficiencies in protein may be an important contributor to the poor growth outcomes observed in this population. Protein losses are inversely related to gestational age, and ELBW infants lose 1% to 2% of their total endogenous body protein stores each day that they receive glucose alone. It is now abundantly clear from a variety of studies that providing intravenous amino acids to sick premature infants in early postnatal life can improve protein balance and can increase protein accretion, even at low caloric intakes. Provision of approximately 1 g/kg/day of amino acids will result in a net protein balance close to zero, whereas delivery of 3 g/kg/day will accomplish protein accretion. Although data from metabolic studies, observational studies, and even a few randomized clinical trials overwhelmingly support the short-term safety and efficacy of early amino acids in reversing protein loss, there is much less known about the effects of early amino acid administration on longer-term outcomes such as growth and neurodevelopment in extremely premature infants. Based on the sum of currently available evidence presented, providing ELBW infants with 2.5 to 3.5 g/kg/day of intravenous amino acids as soon as possible after birth is a reasonable recommendation. Future studies are required to determine whether provision of 3 to 3.5 g/kg/day of amino acids is "aggressive" enough for optimal growth and neurodevelopmental outcome of ELBW infants.

  20. Amino Acid Composition of Breast Milk from Urban Chinese Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Rodenas, Clara L.; Affolter, Michael; Vinyes-Pares, Gerard; De Castro, Carlos A.; Karagounis, Leonidas G.; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu; Thakkar, Sagar K.

    2016-01-01

    Human breast milk (BM) amino acid (AA) composition may be impacted by lactation stage or factors related to geographical location. The present cross-sectional study is aimed at assessing the temporal changes of BMAA over lactation stages in a large cohort of urban mothers in China. Four hundred fifty BM samples, collected in three Chinese cities covering eight months of lactation were analyzed for free (FAA) and total (TAA) AA by o-phthalaldehyde/ fluorenylmethylchloroformate (OPA/FMOC) derivatization. Concentrations and changes over lactation were aligned with previous reports. Both the sum and the individual TAA values significantly decreased during the first periods of lactation and then generally leveled off. Leucine and methionine were respectively the most and the least abundant indispensable amino acids across all the lactation stages, whereas glutamic acid + glutamine (Glx) was the most and cystine the least abundant dispensable AA. The contribution of FAA to TAA levels was less than 2%, except for free Glx, which was the most abundant FAA. In conclusion, the AA composition of the milk from our cohort of urban Chinese mothers was comparable to previous studies conducted in other parts of the world, suggesting that this is an evolutionary conserved trait largely independent of geographical, ethnic, or dietary factors. PMID:27690094

  1. Seeding the Pregenetic Earth: Meteoritic Abundances of Nucleobases and Potential Reaction Pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Ben K. D.; Pudritz, Ralph E.

    2015-07-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are a class of meteorite known for having high contents of water and organics. In this study, the abundances of the nucleobases, i.e., the building blocks of RNA and DNA, found in carbonaceous chondrites are collated from a variety of published data and compared across various meteorite classes. An extensive review of abiotic chemical reactions producing nucleobases is then performed. These reactions are then reduced to a list of 15 individual reaction pathways that could potentially occur within meteorite parent bodies. The nucleobases guanine, adenine, and uracil are found in carbonaceous chondrites in amounts of 1–500 ppb. It is currently unknown which reaction is responsible for their synthesis within the meteorite parent bodies. One class of carbonaceous meteorite dominates the abundances of both amino acids and nucleobases—the so-called CM2 (e.g., Murchison meteorite). CR2 meteorites (e.g., Graves Nunataks) also dominate the abundances of amino acids, but are the least abundant in nucleobases. The abundances of total nucleobases in these two classes are 330 ± 250 and 16 ± 13 ppb, respectively. Guanine most often has the greatest abundances in carbonaceous chondrites with respect to the other nucleobases, but is 1–2 orders of magnitude less abundant in CM2 meteorites than glycine (the most abundant amino acid). Our survey of the reaction mechanisms for nucleobase formation suggests that Fischer–Tropsch synthesis (i.e., CO, H2, and NH3 gases reacting in the presence of a catalyst such as alumina or silica) is the most likely candidate for conditions that characterize the early states of planetesimals.

  2. Seeding the Pregenetic Earth: Meteoritic Abundances of Nucleobases and Potential Reaction Pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Ben K. D.; Pudritz, Ralph E.

    2015-07-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are a class of meteorite known for having high contents of water and organics. In this study, the abundances of the nucleobases, i.e., the building blocks of RNA and DNA, found in carbonaceous chondrites are collated from a variety of published data and compared across various meteorite classes. An extensive review of abiotic chemical reactions producing nucleobases is then performed. These reactions are then reduced to a list of 15 individual reaction pathways that could potentially occur within meteorite parent bodies. The nucleobases guanine, adenine, and uracil are found in carbonaceous chondrites in amounts of 1-500 ppb. It is currently unknown which reaction is responsible for their synthesis within the meteorite parent bodies. One class of carbonaceous meteorite dominates the abundances of both amino acids and nucleobases—the so-called CM2 (e.g., Murchison meteorite). CR2 meteorites (e.g., Graves Nunataks) also dominate the abundances of amino acids, but are the least abundant in nucleobases. The abundances of total nucleobases in these two classes are 330 ± 250 and 16 ± 13 ppb, respectively. Guanine most often has the greatest abundances in carbonaceous chondrites with respect to the other nucleobases, but is 1-2 orders of magnitude less abundant in CM2 meteorites than glycine (the most abundant amino acid). Our survey of the reaction mechanisms for nucleobase formation suggests that Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (i.e., CO, H2, and NH3 gases reacting in the presence of a catalyst such as alumina or silica) is the most likely candidate for conditions that characterize the early states of planetesimals.

  3. Coronal abundances and their variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saba, Julia L. R.

    1994-01-01

    This contract supports the investigation of elemental abundances in the solar corona, principally through analysis of high-resolution software X-ray spectra from the Flat Crystal Spectrometer on NASA's Solar Maximum Mission. The goals of the study are a characterization of the mean values of relative abundances of elements accessible in the FCS data, and information on the extent and circumstances of their variability. This report is a summation of the data analysis and reporting activities which occurred since the last report, submitted two months early, in April 1994, to facilitate evaluation of the first year's progress for contract renewal. Hence this report covers the period 15 April 1994 - 15 December 1994. A list of publications resulting from this research is included.

  4. New aerial survey and hierarchical model to estimate manatee abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langimm, Cahterine A.; Dorazio, Robert M.; Stith, Bradley M.; Doyle, Terry J.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring the response of endangered and protected species to hydrological restoration is a major component of the adaptive management framework of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. The endangered Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) lives at the marine-freshwater interface in southwest Florida and is likely to be affected by hydrologic restoration. To provide managers with prerestoration information on distribution and abundance for postrestoration comparison, we developed and implemented a new aerial survey design and hierarchical statistical model to estimate and map abundance of manatees as a function of patch-specific habitat characteristics, indicative of manatee requirements for offshore forage (seagrass), inland fresh drinking water, and warm-water winter refuge. We estimated the number of groups of manatees from dual-observer counts and estimated the number of individuals within groups by removal sampling. Our model is unique in that we jointly analyzed group and individual counts using assumptions that allow probabilities of group detection to depend on group size. Ours is the first analysis of manatee aerial surveys to model spatial and temporal abundance of manatees in association with habitat type while accounting for imperfect detection. We conducted the study in the Ten Thousand Islands area of southwestern Florida, USA, which was expected to be affected by the Picayune Strand Restoration Project to restore hydrology altered for a failed real-estate development. We conducted 11 surveys in 2006, spanning the cold, dry season and warm, wet season. To examine short-term and seasonal changes in distribution we flew paired surveys 1–2 days apart within a given month during the year. Manatees were sparsely distributed across the landscape in small groups. Probability of detection of a group increased with group size; the magnitude of the relationship between group size and detection probability varied among surveys. Probability

  5. The solar abundance of thulium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, J. E.; Aller, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    Consideration of one relatively unblended line of the solar spectrum, namely, the 3131.258-A line of Tm II, which yields a thulium abundance of 0.80 plus or minus 0.10 with the Corliss and Bozman (1962) f-value. The uncertainty of this figure is discussed in conjunction with the contradictory findings of some other investigators. The need for further detailed study of the lanthanides by the method of spectrum synthesis is pointed out.

  6. Chlorine Abundances in Martian Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, D.D.; Garrison, D.H.; Park, J.

    2009-01-01

    Chlorine measurements made in martian surface rocks by robotic spacecraft typically give Chlorine (Cl) abundances of approximately 0.1-0.8%. In contrast, Cl abundances in martian meteorites appear lower, although data is limited, and martian nakhlites were also subjected to Cl contamination by Mars surface brines. Chlorine abundances reported by one lab for whole rock (WR) samples of Shergotty, ALH77005, and EET79001 range 108-14 ppm, whereas Cl in nakhlites range 73-1900 ppm. Measurements of Cl in various martian weathering phases of nakhlites varied 0.04-4.7% and reveal significant concentration of Cl by martian brines Martian meteorites contain much lower Chlorine than those measured in martian surface rocks and give further confirmation that Cl in these surface rocks was introduced by brines and weathering. It has been argued that Cl is twice as effective as water in lowering the melting point and promoting melting at shallower martian depths, and that significant Cl in the shergottite source region would negate any need for significant water. However, this conclusion was based on experiments that utilized Cl concentrations more analogous to martian surface rocks than to shergottite meteorites, and may not be applicable to shergottites.

  7. The Bliss of Motor Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Latash, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Motor control is an area of natural science exploring how the nervous system interacts with other body parts and the environment to produce purposeful, coordinated actions. A central problem of motor control – the problem of motor redundancy – was formulated by Nikolai Bernstein as the problem of elimination of redundant degrees-of-freedom. Traditionally, this problem has been addressed using optimization methods based on a variety of cost functions. This review draws attention to a body of recent findings suggesting that the problem has been formulated incorrectly. An alternative view has been suggested as the principle of abundance, which considers the apparently redundant degrees-of-freedom as useful and even vital for many aspects of motor behavior. Over the past ten years, dozens of publications have provided support for this view based on the ideas of synergic control, computational apparatus of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis, and the equilibrium-point (referent configuration) hypothesis. In particular, large amounts of “good variance” – variance in the space of elements that has no effect on the overall performance – have been documented across a variety of natural actions. “Good variance” helps an abundant system to deal with secondary tasks and unexpected perturbations; its amount shows adaptive modulation across a variety of conditions. These data support the view that there is no problem of motor redundancy; there is bliss of motor abundance. PMID:22246105

  8. SoyProLow: A protein database enriched in low abundant soybean proteins

    PubMed Central

    Tavakolan, Mona; Alkharouf, Nadim W; Matthews, Benjamin F; Natarajan, Savithiry S

    2014-01-01

    Soybeans are an important legume crop that contain 2 major storage proteins, β-conglycinin and glycinin, which account about 70- 80% of total seed proteins. These abundant proteins hinder the isolation and characterization of several low abundant proteins in soybean seeds. Several protein extraction methodologies were developed in our laboratory to decrease these abundant storage proteins in seed extracts and to also decrease the amount of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO), which is normally very abundant in leaf extracts. One of the extraction methodologies used 40% isopropanol and was more effective in depleting soybean storage proteins and enhancing low abundant seed proteins than similar methods using 10-80% isopropanol. Extractions performed with 40% isopropanol decreased the amount of storage proteins and revealed 107 low abundant proteins when using the combined approaches of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and Mass Spectrometry (MS). The separation of proteins was achieved by iso-electric focusing (IEF) and 2D-PAGE. The proteins were analyzed with MS techniques to provide amino acid sequence. The proteins were identified by comparing their amino acid sequences with those in different databases including NCBI-non redundant, UniprotKB and MSDB databases. In this investigation, previously published results on low abundant soybean seed proteins were used to create an online database (SoyProLow) to provide a data repository that can be used as a reference to identify and characterize low abundance proteins. This database is freely accessible to individuals using similar techniques and can be for the subsequent genetic manipulation to produce value added soybean traits. An intuitive user interface based on dynamic HTML enables users to browse the network and the profiles of the low abundant proteins. Availability http://bioinformatics.towson.edu/Soybean_low_abundance_proteins_2D_Gel_DB/Gel1.aspx PMID:25352730

  9. (-)-Hydroxycitric Acid Nourishes Protein Synthesis via Altering Metabolic Directions of Amino Acids in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Ningning; Li, Longlong; Peng, Mengling; Ma, Haitian

    2016-08-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a major active ingredient of Garcinia Cambogia extracts, had shown to suppress body weight gain and fat accumulation in animals and humans. While, the underlying mechanism of (-)-HCA has not fully understood. Thus, this study was aimed to investigate the effects of long-term supplement with (-)-HCA on body weight gain and variances of amino acid content in rats. Results showed that (-)-HCA treatment reduced body weight gain and increased feed conversion ratio in rats. The content of hepatic glycogen, muscle glycogen, and serum T4 , T3 , insulin, and Leptin were increased in (-)-HCA treatment groups. Protein content in liver and muscle were significantly increased in (-)-HCA treatment groups. Amino acid profile analysis indicated that most of amino acid contents in serum and liver, especially aromatic amino acid and branched amino acid, were higher in (-)-HCA treatment groups. However, most of the amino acid contents in muscle, especially aromatic amino acid and branched amino acid, were reduced in (-)-HCA treatment groups. These results indicated that (-)-HCA treatment could reduce body weight gain through promoting energy expenditure via regulation of thyroid hormone levels. In addition, (-)-HCA treatment could promote protein synthesis by altering the metabolic directions of amino acids. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27145492

  10. Expression pattern of peptide and amino acid genes in digestive tract of transporter juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dandan; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Zhou, Huihui; Xu, Wei; Song, Fei

    2016-04-01

    Turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L.), a carnivorous fish species with high dietary protein requirement, was chosen to examine the expression pattern of peptide and amino acid transporter genes along its digestive tract which was divided into six segments including stomach, pyloric caeca, rectum, and three equal parts of the remainder of the intestine. The results showed that the expression of two peptide and eleven amino acid transporters genes exhibited distinct patterns. Peptide transporter 1 (PepT1) was rich in proximal intestine while peptide transporter 2 (PepT2) was abundant in distal intestine. A number of neutral and cationic amino acid transporters expressed richly in whole intestine including B0-type amino acid transporter 1 (B0AT1), L-type amino acid transporter 2 (LAT2), T-type amino acid transporter 1 (TAT1), proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1), y+L-type amino acid transporter 1 (y+LAT1), and cationic amino acid transporter 2 (CAT2) while ASC amino acid transporter 2 (ASCT2), sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2), and y+L-type amino acid transporter 2 (y+LAT2) abundantly expressed in stomach. In addition, system b0,+ transporters (rBAT and b0,+AT) existed richly in distal intestine. These findings comprehensively characterized the distribution of solute carrier family proteins, which revealed the relative importance of peptide and amino acid absorption through luminal membrane. Our findings are helpful to understand the mechanism of the utilization of dietary protein in fish with a short digestive tract.

  11. Age-related changes of muscle and plasma amino acids in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Hammarqvist, Folke; Angsten, Gertrud; Meurling, Staffan; Andersson, Kerstin; Wernerman, Jan

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the study was to explore if changes in muscle and plasma amino acid concentrations developed during growth and differed from levels seen in adults. The gradient and concentrations of free amino acids in muscle and plasma were investigated in relation to age in metabolic healthy children. Plasma and specimens from the abdominal muscle were obtained during elective surgery. The children were grouped into three groups (group 1: < 1 year, n = 8; group 2: 1-4 years, n = 13 and group 3: 5-15 years, n = 15). A reference group of healthy adults (21-38 years, n = 22) was included in their comparisons and reflected specific differences between children and adults. In muscle the concentrations of 8 out of 19 amino acids analysed increased with age, namely taurine, aspartate, threonine, alanine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, histidine, as well as the total sums of branched chain amino acids (BCAA), basic amino acids (BAA) and total sum of amino acids (P < 0.05). In plasma the concentrations of threonine, glutamine, valine, cysteine, methionine, leucine, lysine, tryptophane, arginine, BCAA, BAA and the essential amino acids correlated with age (P < 0.05). These results indicate that there is an age dependency of the amino acid pattern in skeletal muscle and plasma during growth.

  12. Stellar abundances in the solar neighborhood: The Hypatia Catalog

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkel, Natalie R.; Timmes, F.X.; Young, Patrick A.; Pagano, Michael D.; Turnbull, Margaret C.

    2014-09-01

    We compile spectroscopic abundance data from 84 literature sources for 50 elements across 3058 stars in the solar neighborhood, within 150 pc of the Sun, to produce the Hypatia Catalog. We evaluate the variability of the spread in abundance measurements reported for the same star by different surveys. We also explore the likely association of the star within the Galactic disk, the corresponding observation and abundance determination methods for all catalogs in Hypatia, the influence of specific catalogs on the overall abundance trends, and the effect of normalizing all abundances to the same solar scale. The resulting stellar abundance determinations in the Hypatia Catalog are analyzed only for thin-disk stars with observations that are consistent between literature sources. As a result of our large data set, we find that the stars in the solar neighborhood may reveal an asymmetric abundance distribution, such that a [Fe/H]-rich group near the midplane is deficient in Mg, Si, S, Ca, Sc II, Cr II, and Ni as compared to stars farther from the plane. The Hypatia Catalog has a wide number of applications, including exoplanet hosts, thick- and thin-disk stars, and stars with different kinematic properties.

  13. Phosphate acceptor amino acid residues in structural proteins of rhabdoviruses.

    PubMed

    Sokol, F; Tan, K B; McFalls, M L; Madore, P

    1974-07-01

    Partial acid hydrolysates of the [(32)P]phosphate- or [(3)H]serine-labeled proteins of purified vesicular stomatitis, rabies, Lagos bat, Mokola, or spring viremia of carp virions and of purified intracellular nucleocapsids of these viruses have been analyzed by paper electrophoresis for the presence of phosphorylated amino acids. Both phosphoserine and phosphothreonine, with the former predominant, were present in virion and nucleocapsid preparations that contained phosphoproteins. An exception was the fish rhabdovirus, which contained only phosphoserine. When vesicular stomatitis or rabies virus proteins were phosphorylated in a cell-free system by the virion-associated protein kinase and analyzed for the presence of phosphorylated amino acid residues, phosphoserine was again found to be more abundant than phosphothreonine. After in vitro protein phosphorylation, another phospho-compound, possibly a third phosphoamino acid, was detected in the partial acid hydrolysates of these viruses. PMID:4365328

  14. The Abundance of Interstellar Fluorine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauroesch, James T.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this program was to obtain FUSE observations of the interstellar absorption lines of F I at 951 and 954 Angstroms to derive the abundance of fluorine toward the star HD 164816. The nucleosynthetic source(s) of fluorine are still a matter of debate - the present day abundance of fluorine can potentially constrain models for pulsationally driven dredge-up in asymptotic giant branch stars. An accurate measure for the depletion behavior of fluorine will determine whether it may be detectable in QSO absorption line systems - an unambiguous detection of fluorine at suitably high redshifts would provide the best evidence to date for the neutrino process in massive stars. Furthermore, due to its extreme reactivity, measurement of the gas-phase interstellar fluorine abundance is important for models of grain chemistry. Despite the importance of measuring the interstellar fluorine abundance, at the time of our proposal only one previous detection has been made due to the low relative abundance of fluorine, the lack of lines outside the far-UV, and the blending of the available F I transitions with lines of Hz. The star HD 164816 is associated with the Lagoon nebula (M8), and at a distance of approximately 1.5 kpc probes both distant and local gas. Beginning April 8th, 2004 FUSE FP-Split observations of the star HD 164816 were obtained for this program. This data became available in the FUSE data archive May 21, 2004, and these observations were then downloaded and we began our analysis. Our analysis procedure has involved (1) fitting stellar models to the FUSE spectra, (2) using the multiple lines of Hz and N I at other wavelengths in the FUSE bandpass to derive column densities for the lines of H2 and N I which are blended with the F I features at 951 and 954 angstroms (3) the measurement of the column densities of F I and the species O I and C1 I which are important species for the dis-entangling of dust and nucleosynthetic effects. As discussed in

  15. Combinatorics of aliphatic amino acids.

    PubMed

    Grützmann, Konrad; Böcker, Sebastian; Schuster, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    This study combines biology and mathematics, showing that a relatively simple question from molecular biology can lead to complicated mathematics. The question is how to calculate the number of theoretically possible aliphatic amino acids as a function of the number of carbon atoms in the side chain. The presented calculation is based on earlier results from theoretical chemistry concerning alkyl compounds. Mathematical properties of this number series are highlighted. We discuss which of the theoretically possible structures really occur in living organisms, such as leucine and isoleucine with a chain length of four. This is done both for a strict definition of aliphatic amino acids only involving carbon and hydrogen atoms in their side chain and for a less strict definition allowing sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. While the main focus is on proteinogenic amino acids, we also give several examples of non-proteinogenic aliphatic amino acids, playing a role, for instance, in signalling. The results are in agreement with a general phenomenon found in biology: Usually, only a small number of molecules are chosen as building blocks to assemble an inconceivable number of different macromolecules as proteins. Thus, natural biological complexity arises from the multifarious combination of building blocks.

  16. Type 2 diabetes is associated with postprandial amino acid measures.

    PubMed

    Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O; de Mutsert, Renée; Rensen, Patrick C N; Prehn, Cornelia; Adamski, Jerzy; den Heijer, Martin; le Cessie, Saskia; Suhre, Karsten; Rosendaal, Frits R; van Dijk, Ko Willems

    2016-01-01

    Most studies examining the association between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and amino acids have focused on fasting concentrations. We hypothesized that, besides fasting concentrations, amino acid responses to a standardized meal challenge are also associated with T2D. In a cross-sectional study of 525 participants (165 newly-diagnosed T2D, 186 newly-diagnosed impaired fasting glycaemia, and 174 normal fasting glucose), we examined postprandial amino acid concentrations and the responses (defined as the concentrations and responses 150 min after a standardized meal) of fourteen amino acids in relation to T2D. T2D was associated with lower postprandial concentration of seven amino acids compared to the normal fasting glucose group (lowest effect estimate for serine: -0.54 standard deviations (SD) (95% CI: -0.77, -0.32)), and higher concentrations of phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine and (iso-)leucine (highest effect estimate for (iso-)leucine: 0.44 SD (95% CI: 0.20, 0.67)). Regarding the meal responses, T2D was associated with lower responses of seven amino acids (ranging from -0.55 SD ((95% CI): -0.78, -0.33) for serine to -0.25 SD ((95% CI: -0.45, -0.02) for ornithine). We conclude that T2D is associated with postprandial concentrations of amino acids and a reduced amino acid meal response, indicating that these measures may also be potential markers of T2D.

  17. Molecular basis of essential amino acid transport from studies of insect nutrient amino acid transporters of the SLC6 family (NAT-SLC6)

    PubMed Central

    Boudko, Dmitri Y.

    2012-01-01

    Two protein families that represent major components of essential amino acid transport in insects have been identified. They are annotated as the SLC6 and SLC7 families of transporters according to phylogenetic proximity to characterized amino acid transporters (HUGO nomenclature). Members of these families have been identified as important apical and basolateral parts of transepithelial essential amino acid absorption in the metazoan alimentary canal. Synergistically, they play critical physiological roles as essential substrate providers to diverse metabolic processes, including generic protein synthesis. This review briefly clarifies the requirements for amino acid transport and a variety of amino acid transport mechanisms, including the aforementioned families. Further it focuses on the large group of Nutrient Amino acid Transporters (NATs), which comprise a recently identified subfamily of the Neurotransmitter Sodium Symporter family (NSS or SLC6). The first insect NAT, cloned from the caterpillar gut, has a broad substrate spectrum similar to mammalian B0 transporters. Several new NAT-SLC6 members have been characterized in an effort to explore mechanisms for the essential amino acid absorption in model dipteran insects. The identification and functional characterization of new B0-like and narrow specificity transporters of essential amino acids in fruit fly and mosquitoes leads to a fundamentally important insight: that NATs evolved and act together as the integrated active core of a transport network that mediates active alimentary absorption and systemic distribution of essential amino acids. This role of NATs is projected from the most primitive prokaryotes to the most complex metazoan organisms, and represents an interesting platform for unraveling the molecular evolution of amino acid transport and modeling amino acid transport disorders. The comparative study of NATs elucidates important adaptive differences between essential amino acid transportomes

  18. Characterization of N,N-dimethyl amino acids by electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Naresh Chary, V; Sudarshana Reddy, B; Kumar, Ch Dinesh; Srinivas, R; Prabhakar, S

    2015-05-01

    Methylation is an essential metabolic process for a number of critical reactions in the body. Methyl groups are involved in the healthy function of the body life processes, by conducting methylation process involving specific enzymes. In these processes, various amino acids are methylated, and the occurrence of methylated amino acids in nature is diverse. Nowadays, mass-spectrometric-based identification of small molecules as biomarkers for diseases is a growing research. Although all dimethyl amino acids are metabolically important molecules, mass spectral data are available only for a few of them in the literature. In this study, we report synthesis and characterization of all dimethyl amino acids, by electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) experiments on protonated molecules. The MS/MS spectra of all the studied dimethyl amino acids showed preliminary loss of H2O + CO to form corresponding immonium ions. The other product ions in the spectra are highly characteristic of the methyl groups on the nitrogen and side chain of the amino acids. The amino acids, which are isomeric and isobaric with the studied dimethyl amino acids, gave distinctive MS/MS spectra. The study also included MS/MS analysis of immonium ions of dimethyl amino acids that provide information on side chain structure, and it is further tested to determine the N-terminal amino acid of the peptides.

  19. Natural-abundance 15N NMR studies of Turkey ovomucoid third domain. Assignment of peptide 15N resonances to the residues at the reactive site region via proton-detected multiple-quantum coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Polo, Gilberto; Krishnamoorthi, R.; Markley, John L.; Live, David H.; Davis, Donald G.; Cowburn, David

    Heteronuclear two-dimensional 1H{ 15N} multiple-quantum (MQ) spectroscopy has been applied to a protein sample at natural abundance: ovomucoid third domain from turkey ( Meleagris gallopavo), a serine proteinase inhibitor of 56 amino acid residues. Peptide amide 1H NMR assignments obtained by two-dimensional 1H{ 1H} NMR methods (R. Krishnamoorthi and J. L. Markley, unpublished data) led to identification of the corresponding 1H{ 15N} MQ coherence cross peaks. From these, 15N NMR chemical shifts were determined for several specific backbone amide groups of amino acid residues located around the reactive site region of the inhibitor. The results suggest that amide 15N chemical shifts, which are readily obtained in this way, may serve as sensitive probes for conformational studies of proteins.

  20. Synthesis and structural studies of amino amide salts derived from 2-(aminomethyl)benzimidazole and α-amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila-Montiel, Concepción; Tapia-Benavides, Antonio R.; Falcón-León, Martha; Ariza-Castolo, Armando; Tlahuext, Hugo; Tlahuextl, Margarita

    2015-11-01

    2-{[(Ammoniumacetyl)amino]methyl}-1H-benzimidazol-3-ium dichloride 4, 2-{[(2-ammoniumpropanoyl)amino]methyl}-1H-benzimidazol-3-ium dichloride 5, and 2-{[(2-ammonium-3-phenylpropanoyl)amino]methyl}-1H-benzimidazol-3-ium dichloride 6 amino amides were synthesized via condensation of 2AMBZ dihydrochloride with the corresponding amino acid. Compounds 7-12 were obtained by replacing chloride ions (in salts 4-6) with nitrate or tetrachlorozincate ions. The results of X-ray diffraction crystallographic studies indicated that the geometries, charges and sizes of the anions are essential for the formation of the strong hydrogen bond interactions of compounds 4, 5, 9-12. Moreover, in most cases, the presence of water and solvent molecules stabilizes the supramolecular structures of these compounds. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy indicated that the presence of chloride or tetrachlorozincate anions increases the acidity of the benzimidazolic and amide groups more significantly than the presence of nitrate anions. However, Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) computations of the crystal structures demonstrate that amino amides interact more strongly with NO3- than with Cl- and ZnCl42- anions; this difference explains the spectroscopic results.

  1. Inspiration from the mirror: D-amino acid containing peptides in biomedical approaches.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhaoqianqi; Xu, Bing

    2016-06-01

    D-amino acids, the enantiomers of naturally abundant L-amino acids, bear unique stereochemistry properties that lead to the resistance towards most of the endogenous enzymes. Previous works have demonstrated applications of D-amino acids in therapeutic development with the aid of mirror-image phage display and retro-inverso peptide synthesis. In this review, we highlight the recent progress and challenges in the exploration of D-amino acids at the interface of chemistry and life science. First, we will introduce some progress made in traditional application of D-amino acids to enhance biostability of peptide therapeutics. Then, we discuss some works that explore the relatively underexplored interactions between the enzyme and D-amino acids and enzymatic reactions of D-amino acids. To highlight the enzymatic reactions of D-amino acids, we will describe several emerging works on the enzyme-instructed self-assembly (EISA) and their potential application in selective anti-inflammatory or anticancer therapies. At the end, we briefly mention the challenges and possible future directions. PMID:27159920

  2. LCMS analysis of fingerprints, the amino acid profile of 20 donors.

    PubMed

    de Puit, Marcel; Ismail, Mahado; Xu, Xiaoma

    2014-03-01

    The analysis of amino acids present in fingerprints has been studied several times. In this paper, we report a method for the analysis of amino acids using an fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl chloride-derivatization for LC separation and MS detection. We have obtained good results with regard to the calibration curves and the limit of detection and LOQ for the target compounds. The extraction of the amino acids from the substrates used proved to be very efficient. Analysis of the derivatized amino acids enabled us to obtain full amino acid profiles for 20 donors. The intervariability is as expected rather large, with serine as the most abundant constituent, and when examining the total profile of the amino acids per donor, a characteristic pattern can be observed. Some amino acids were not detected in some donors, or fell out of the range of the calibration curve, where others showed a surprisingly high amount of material in the deposition analyses. Further investigations will have to address the intravariability of the amino acid profiles of the fingerprints from donors. By the development of the analytical method and the application to the analysis of fingerprints, we were able to gain insight in the variability of the constituents of fingerprints between the donors.

  3. The interaction of amino acids, peptides, and proteins with DNA.

    PubMed

    Solovyev, Andrey Y; Tarnovskaya, Svetlana I; Chernova, Irina A; Shataeva, Larisa K; Skorik, Yury A

    2015-01-01

    Amino acids that carry charges on their side groups can bind to double stranded DNA (dsDNA) and change the strength of the double helix. Measurement of the DNA melting temperature (Tm) confirmed that acidic amino acids (Glu, Asp) weaken the H-bonds between DNA strands, whereas basic amino acids (Arg, Lys) strengthen the interaction between the strands. A rank correlation exists between the amino acid isoelectric points and the observed changes in Tm. A similar dependence of the hyperchromic effect on the isoelectric point of a protein (pepsin, insulin, cortexin, and protamine) was observed for DNA-protein complexes at room temperature. Short peptides (KE, AEDG, and KEDP) containing a mixture of acidic and basic amino acid residues also affect Tm and the stability of the double helix. A model for binding Glu and Lys to dsDNA was explored by a docking simulation. The model shows that Glu, in an untwisted shape, binds to dsDNA in its major groove and disrupts three H-bonds between the strands, thereby destabilizing the double helix. Lys, in an untwisted shape, binds to the external side of the dsDNA and forms two bonds with O atoms of neighboring phosphodiester groups, thereby strengthening the DNA helix.

  4. Reversible Oxygenation of α-Amino Acid–Cobalt(II) Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xincun; Yue, Fan; Li, Hui; Huang, Yan; Zhang, Yi; Wen, Hongmei; Wang, Jide

    2016-01-01

    We systematically investigated the reversibility, time lapse, and oxygenation-deoxygenation properties of 15 natural α-amino acid–Co(II) complexes through UV-vis spectrophotometer, polarographic oxygen electrode, and DFT calculations, respectively, to explore the relationship between the coordinating structure and reversible oxygenation of α-amino acid–Co(II) complexes. Results revealed that the α-amino acid structure plays a key role in the reversible oxygenation properties of these complexes. The specific configuration of the α-amino acid group affects the eg1 electron of Co(II) transfer to the π⁎ orbit of O2; this phenomenon also favors the reversible formation and dissociation of Co–O2 bond when O2 coordinates with Co(II) complexes. Therefore, the co-coordination of amino and carboxyl groups is a determinant of Co complexes to absorb O2 reversibly. The group adjacent to the α-amino acid unit evidently influences the dioxygen affinity and antioxidation ability of the complexes. The presence of amino (or imino) and hydroxy groups adjacent to the α-amino acid group increases the oxygenation-deoxygenation rate and the number of reversible cycles. Our findings demonstrate a new mechanism to develop reversible oxygenation complexes and to reveal the oxygenation of oxygen carriers. PMID:27022316

  5. The solar abundance of Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grevesse, N.

    2009-07-01

    With Martin Asplund (Max Planck Institute of Astrophysics, Garching) and Jacques Sauval (Observatoire Royal de Belgique, Brussels) I recently published detailed reviews on the solar chemical composition ({Asplund et al. 2005}, {Grevesse et al. 2007}). A new one, with Pat Scott (Stockholm University) as additional co-author, will appear in Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics ({Asplund et al. 2009}). Here we briefly analyze recent works on the solar abundance of Oxygen and recommend a value of 8.70 in the usual astronomical scale.

  6. Abundance measurements in stellar environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, F.

    2014-05-01

    Most of what we know about stars, and systems of stars, is derived from the analysis of their electromagnetic radiation. This lesson is an attempt to describe to Physicists, without any Astrophysical background, the framework to understand the present status of abundance determination in stellar environments and its limit. These notes are dedicated to the recently passed, November 21, 2013, Prof. Dimitri Mihalas who spent his life confuting the 19th century positivist philosopher Auguste Comte who stated that we shall not at all be able to determine the chemical composition of stars.

  7. Abundance measurements in stellar environments

    SciTech Connect

    Leone, F.

    2014-05-09

    Most of what we know about stars, and systems of stars, is derived from the analysis of their electromagnetic radiation. This lesson is an attempt to describe to Physicists, without any Astrophysical background, the framework to understand the present status of abundance determination in stellar environments and its limit. These notes are dedicated to the recently passed, November 21, 2013, Prof. Dimitri Mihalas who spent his life confuting the 19th century positivist philosopher Auguste Comte who stated that we shall not at all be able to determine the chemical composition of stars.

  8. Quinone-amino acid conjugates targeting Leishmania amino acid transporters.

    PubMed

    Prati, Federica; Goldman-Pinkovich, Adele; Lizzi, Federica; Belluti, Federica; Koren, Roni; Zilberstein, Dan; Bolognesi, Maria Laura

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of targeting Leishmania transporters via appropriately designed chemical probes. Leishmania donovani, the parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis, is auxotrophic for arginine and lysine and has specific transporters (LdAAP3 and LdAAP7) to import these nutrients. Probes 1-15 were originated by conjugating cytotoxic quinone fragments (II and III) with amino acids (i.e. arginine and lysine) by means of an amide linkage. The toxicity of the synthesized conjugates against Leishmania extracellular (promastigotes) and intracellular (amastigotes) forms was investigated, as well their inhibition of the relevant amino acid transporters. We observed that some conjugates indeed displayed toxicity against the parasites; in particular, 7 was identified as the most potent derivative (at concentrations of 1 µg/mL and 2.5 µg/mL residual cell viability was reduced to 15% and 48% in promastigotes and amastigotes, respectively). Notably, 6, while retaining the cytotoxic activity of quinone II, displayed no toxicity against mammalian THP1 cells. Transport assays indicated that the novel conjugates inhibited transport activity of lysine, arginine and proline transporters. Furthermore, our analyses suggested that the toxic conjugates might be translocated by the transporters into the cells. The non-toxic probes that inhibited transport competed with the natural substrates for binding to the transporters without being translocated. Thus, it is likely that 6, by exploiting amino acid transporters, can selectively deliver its toxic effects to Leishmania cells. This work provides the first evidence that amino acid transporters of the human pathogen Leishmania might be modulated by small molecules, and warrants their further investigation from drug discovery and chemical biology perspectives. PMID:25254495

  9. Why the aphid Aphis spiraecola is more abundant on clementine tree than Aphis gossypii?

    PubMed

    Mostefaoui, Houda; Allal-Benfekih, Leila; Djazouli, Zahr-Eddine; Petit, Daniel; Saladin, Gaëlle

    2014-02-01

    Aphis spiraecola and Aphis gossypii cause harmful damages on clementine tree orchards. Weekly surveys measured the abundance of aphids (larvae, winged and wingless adults) as well as of auxiliary insects and parameters of energy metabolism. Correlatively, soluble carbohydrates, total free amino acids, free proline and condensed tannins were quantified in control and infested leaves. Both aphid species showed parallel temporal variations, but A. spiraecola was consistently more abundant regardless of the stage. Amino acids had a positive effect on both aphid species abundance, but neither condensed tannins nor auxiliary insects seemed to modulate aphid populations. Interestingly, the leaf carbohydrate content was positively correlated with the abundance of A. spiraecola, but not with that of A. gossypii. Moreover, A. gossypii's abundance was significantly down-regulated by high proline concentrations. Thus, the higher abundance of A. spiraecola could be explained by a better tolerance to high proline contents and a better conversion of foliar energy metabolites.

  10. Enhancement of Cunninghamella elegans UCP/WFCC 0542 biomass and chitosan with amino acid supply.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Ednaldo Ramos; da Silva, Marta Cristina Freitas; de Souza, Patrícia Mendes; da Silva, Antonio Cardoso; de Paiva, Sergio Carvalho; Albuquerque, Clarissa D C; Nascimento, Aline E; Okada, Kaoru; Campos-Takaki, Galba M

    2013-08-22

    Studies were carried out with Cunninghamella elegans UCP/WFCC 0542 to evaluate the effects of an abundant supply of amino acids, asparagine and corn steep liquor associated with sucrose on the production of biomass and chitosan by submerged fermentation. The concentrations of the components of the culture medium which were determined by a 2³ full factorial design evaluated the interactions and effects of the independent variables of the sucrose, asparagine and corn steep liquor in relation to carbon and nitrogen sources, on the production of chitosan regarding biomass. The best results were observed at the central point [asparagine 0.025%, sucrose 0.15% and 0.45% of corn steep liquor, ratio C:N=2:6], and produced maximum yields of 16.95 g/L biomass and 2.14 g/L chitosan, after 96 h of submerged fermentation. However, the lowest level of sucrose, asparagine and corn steep liquor produced a low amount of biomass (10.83 g/L) and chitosan (0.60 g/L). The infrared spectrum absorption of the chitosan produced by C. elegans showed bands regarding OH-axial stretching between 3406 and 3432 cm⁻¹, superimposed on the NH stretching band with axial deformation of the amide C=O group at about 1639 cm⁻¹, NH angular deformation at approximately 1560 cm⁻¹; axial deformation of amide-CN at around 1421 cm⁻¹, symmetrical angular deformation in CH3 at 1379 cm⁻¹, -CN axial deformation of amino groups from 1125 to 1250 cm⁻¹ and polysaccharide structure bands in the range of between 890-1150 cm⁻¹. The crystallinity index of chitosan was 60.92%, and its degree of deacetylation was 75.25%. A low percentage of a supply of sucrose and asparagine with corn steep liquor offered higher yields of biomass and chitosan production at low cost.

  11. Mechanisms of volatile production from non-sulfur amino acids by irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Dong Uk; Lee, Eun Joo; Feng, Xi; Zhang, Wangang; Lee, Ji Hwan; Jo, Cheorun; Nam, Kichang

    2016-02-01

    Non-sulfur amino acid monomers were used to study the mechanisms of volatile production in meat by irradiation. Irradiation not only produced many volatiles but also increased the amounts of volatiles from non-sulfur amino acid monomers. The major reaction mechanisms involved in volatile production from each group of the amino acids by irradiation differ significantly. However, we speculate that the radiolysis of amino acid side chains were the major mechanism. In addition, Strecker degradation, especially the production of aldehydes from aliphatic group amino acids, and deamination, isomerization, decarboxylation, cyclic reaction and dehydrogenation of the initial radiolytic products were also contributed to the production of volatile compounds. Each amino acid monomers produced different odor characteristics, but the intensities of odor from all non-sulfur amino acid groups were very weak. This indicated that the contribution of volatiles produced from non-sulfur amino acids was minor. If the volatile compounds from non-sulfur amino acids, especially aldehydes, interact with other volatiles compounds such as sulfur compounds, however, they can contribute to the off-odor of irradiated meat significantly.

  12. Genomic Repeat Abundances Contain Phylogenetic Signal

    PubMed Central

    Dodsworth, Steven; Chase, Mark W.; Kelly, Laura J.; Leitch, Ilia J.; Macas, Jiří; Novák, Petr; Piednoël, Mathieu; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna; Leitch, Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    A large proportion of genomic information, particularly repetitive elements, is usually ignored when researchers are using next-generation sequencing. Here we demonstrate the usefulness of this repetitive fraction in phylogenetic analyses, utilizing comparative graph-based clustering of next-generation sequence reads, which results in abundance estimates of different classes of genomic repeats. Phylogenetic trees are then inferred based on the genome-wide abundance of different repeat types treated as continuously varying characters; such repeats are scattered across chromosomes and in angiosperms can constitute a majority of nuclear genomic DNA. In six diverse examples, five angiosperms and one insect, this method provides generally well-supported relationships at interspecific and intergeneric levels that agree with results from more standard phylogenetic analyses of commonly used markers. We propose that this methodology may prove especially useful in groups where there is little genetic differentiation in standard phylogenetic markers. At the same time as providing data for phylogenetic inference, this method additionally yields a wealth of data for comparative studies of genome evolution. PMID:25261464

  13. Genomic repeat abundances contain phylogenetic signal.

    PubMed

    Dodsworth, Steven; Chase, Mark W; Kelly, Laura J; Leitch, Ilia J; Macas, Jiří; Novák, Petr; Piednoël, Mathieu; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna; Leitch, Andrew R

    2015-01-01

    A large proportion of genomic information, particularly repetitive elements, is usually ignored when researchers are using next-generation sequencing. Here we demonstrate the usefulness of this repetitive fraction in phylogenetic analyses, utilizing comparative graph-based clustering of next-generation sequence reads, which results in abundance estimates of different classes of genomic repeats. Phylogenetic trees are then inferred based on the genome-wide abundance of different repeat types treated as continuously varying characters; such repeats are scattered across chromosomes and in angiosperms can constitute a majority of nuclear genomic DNA. In six diverse examples, five angiosperms and one insect, this method provides generally well-supported relationships at interspecific and intergeneric levels that agree with results from more standard phylogenetic analyses of commonly used markers. We propose that this methodology may prove especially useful in groups where there is little genetic differentiation in standard phylogenetic markers. At the same time as providing data for phylogenetic inference, this method additionally yields a wealth of data for comparative studies of genome evolution.

  14. Virulent Hessian fly larvae manipulate the free amino acid content of host wheat plants.

    PubMed

    Saltzmann, Kurt D; Giovanini, Marcelo P; Zheng, Cheng; Williams, Christie E

    2008-11-01

    Gall-forming insects induce host plants to form specialized structures (galls) that provide immature life stages of the insect access to host plant nutrients and protection from natural enemies. Feeding by larvae of the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor Say) causes susceptible host wheat plants to produce a gall-like nutritive tissue that supports larval growth and development. To determine if changes in host plant free amino acid levels are associated with virulent Biotype L Hessian fly larval feeding, we quantified free amino acid levels in crown tissues of susceptible Newton wheat plants 1, 4, and 7 days after Hessian fly egg hatch. Hessian fly-infested susceptible plants were more responsive than resistant plants or uninfested controls, showing higher concentrations of alanine, glutamic acid, glycine, phenylalanine, proline, and serine 4 days after egg hatch. This 4-day post-hatch time point corresponds to the maturation of nutritive tissue cells in susceptible plants and the onset of rapid larval growth. By 7 days after egg hatch, when virulent second instars are actively feeding on the contents of nutritive tissue cells, the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine were more abundant compared to uninfested controls, but the levels of other free amino acids were no longer elevated. Changes in free amino acid abundance described in this report were associated with increased levels of mRNA encoded by wheat genes involved in amino acid synthesis and transport.

  15. Probing the Sophisticated Synergistic Allosteric Regulation of Aromatic Amino Acid Biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Using ᴅ-Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Reichau, Sebastian; Blackmore, Nicola J.; Jiao, Wanting; Parker, Emily J.

    2016-01-01

    Chirality plays a major role in recognition and interaction of biologically important molecules. The enzyme 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DAH7PS) is the first enzyme of the shikimate pathway, which is responsible for the synthesis of aromatic amino acids in bacteria and plants, and a potential target for the development of antibiotics and herbicides. DAH7PS from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtuDAH7PS) displays an unprecedented complexity of allosteric regulation, with three interdependent allosteric binding sites and a ternary allosteric response to combinations of the aromatic amino acids l-Trp, l-Phe and l-Tyr. In order to further investigate the intricacies of this system and identify key residues in the allosteric network of MtuDAH7PS, we studied the interaction of MtuDAH7PS with aromatic amino acids that bear the non-natural d-configuration, and showed that the d-amino acids do not elicit an allosteric response. We investigated the binding mode of d-amino acids using X-ray crystallography, site directed mutagenesis and isothermal titration calorimetry. Key differences in the binding mode were identified: in the Phe site, a hydrogen bond between the amino group of the allosteric ligands to the side chain of Asn175 is not established due to the inverted configuration of the ligands. In the Trp site, d-Trp forms no interaction with the main chain carbonyl group of Thr240 and less favourable interactions with Asn237 when compared to the l-Trp binding mode. Investigation of the MtuDAH7PSN175A variant further supports the hypothesis that the lack of key interactions in the binding mode of the aromatic d-amino acids are responsible for the absence of an allosteric response, which gives further insight into which residues of MtuDAH7PS play a key role in the transduction of the allosteric signal. PMID:27128682

  16. Functional group analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.T. Jr.; Patterson, J.M.

    1986-04-01

    Analytical methods for functional group analysis are reviewed. Literature reviewed is from the period of December 1983 through November 1985 and presents methods for determining the following compounds: acids, acid halides, active hydrogen, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, amides, amines, amino acids, anhydrides, aromatic hydrocarbons, azo compounds, carbohydrates, chloramines, esters, ethers, halogen compounds, hydrazines, isothiocyanates, nitro compounds, nitroso compounds, organometallic compounds, oxiranes, peroxides, phenols, phosphorus compounds, quinones, silicon compounds, sulfates, sulfonyl chlorides, thioamides, thiols, and thiosemicarbazones. 150 references.

  17. The "AMINO" experiment on expose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbier, B.; Coll, P.; Cottin, H.; Leach, S.; Maurel, M.-C.; Raulin, F.; Tepfer, D.; Brack, A.

    2002-11-01

    The "AMINO" experiment will take place, end of 2004, in the "EXPOSE" ESA device on the Columbus module outside the International Space Station (ISS). The objective of the "AMINO" experiment is mainly to study space chemistry in the solar system in relationship to the origin of life. The main goal is to support the hypothesis that extraterrestrial life-related compounds, ranging from bioorganic precursors to biological macromolecules, might have been delivered to the primitive Earth when associated with comets, meteorites or micrometeorites. Another aspect of organic chemistry in the solar system that one associated to Titan's environment. This domain is of primary interest for exobiology, due to the rich organic chemistry that occurs on Titan. The last interesting chemistry domain in the solar system concerns comets. Some cometary analogues and related compounds will be also studied.

  18. AMINO ACIDS AND HEMOGLOBIN PRODUCTION IN ANEMIA

    PubMed Central

    Whipple, G. H.; Robscheit-Robbins, F. S.

    1940-01-01

    Certain individual amino acids when given to standard anemic dogs cause an increase in new hemoglobin production. Occasional negative experiments are recorded. Glycine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, cystine, histidine, phenylalanine, and proline when given in 1 gm. doses daily for 2 weeks, increase hemoglobin output on the average 23 to 25 gm. above the control level. This reaction amounts to 25 to 30 per cent of the new hemoglobin produced by the feeding of 300 gm. liver daily for 2 weeks—a standard liver test. Alanine, valine, isoleucine, and arginine in the same dosage increase the hemoglobin output on the average 13 to 17 gm. per 2 weeks over the control level. Leucine, methionine, lysine, tryptophane, and tyrosine fall in a middle group with hemoglobin output of about 20 gm. Isovaleric acid, β-hydroxybutyric acid, glutaric acid, and asparagine have shown positive effects and the butyrate is unusually potent for hemoglobin production (Table 2). The isomeric and dl-synthetic forms of the amino acids are as effectively utilized in this reaction as are the natural forms. PMID:19870982

  19. 2-Amino-5-bromo­pyridinium hydrogen succinate

    PubMed Central

    Hemamalini, Madhukar; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2010-01-01

    In the title compound, C5H6BrN2 +·C4H5O4 −, the pyridine N atom of the 2-amino-5-bromo­pyridine mol­ecule is protonated. The protonated N atom and the amino group are linked via N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds to the carboxyl­ate O atoms of the singly deprotonated succinate anion. The hydrogen succinate anions are linked via O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. A weak inter­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bond is also observed. PMID:21580432

  20. Amino Acid Chemistry as a Link Between Small Solar System Bodies and Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Botta, Oliver; Cooper, George; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2000-01-01

    Establishing chemical links between meteorites and small solar system bodies, such as comets and asteroids, provides a tool for investigating the processes that occurred during the formation of the solar system. Carbonaceous meteorites are of particular interest, since they may have seeded the early Earth with a variety of prebiotic organic compounds including amino acids, purines and pyrimidines, which are thought to be necessary for the origin of life. Here we report the results of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) based amino acid analyses of the acid-hydrolyzed hot water extracts from pristine interior pieces of the CI carbonaceous chondrites Orgueil and Ivuna and the CM meteorites Murchison and Murray. We found that the CI meteorites Orgueil and Ivuna contained high abundances of beta-alanine and glycine, while only traces of other amino acids like alanine, alpha-amino-n-butryic acid (ABA) and alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) were detected in these meteorites. Carbon isotopic measurements of beta-alanine and glycine in Orgueil by gas chromatography combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry clearly indicate an extraterrestrial origin of these amino acids. The amino acid composition of Orgueil and Ivuna was strikingly different from the CM chondrites Murchison and Murray. The most notable difference was the high relative abundance of B-alanine in Orgueil and Ivuna compared to Murchison and Murray. Furthermore, AIB, which is one of the most abundant amino acids found in Murchison and Murray, was present in only trace amounts in Orgueil and Ivuna. Our amino acid data strongly suggest that the CI meteorites Orgueil and Ivuna came from a different type of parent body than the CM meteorites Murchison and Murray, possibly from an extinct comet. It is generally thought that carbonaceous meteorites are fragments of larger asteroidal bodies delivered via near Earth objects (NEO). Orbital and dynamic studies suggest that both fragments of main belt asteroids

  1. Stronger warming effects on microbial abundances in colder regions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ji; Luo, Yiqi; Xia, Jianyang; Jiang, Lifen; Zhou, Xuhui; Lu, Meng; Liang, Junyi; Shi, Zheng; Shelton, Shelby; Cao, Junji

    2015-01-01

    Soil microbes play critical roles in regulating terrestrial carbon (C) cycle and its feedback to climate change. However, it is still unclear how the soil microbial community and abundance respond to future climate change scenarios. In this meta-analysis, we synthesized the responses of microbial community and abundance to experimental warming from 64 published field studies. Our results showed that warming significantly increased soil microbial abundance by 7.6% on average. When grouped by vegetation or soil types, tundras and histosols had the strongest microbial responses to warming with increased microbial, fungal, and bacterial abundances by 15.0%, 9.5% and 37.0% in tundra, and 16.5%, 13.2% and 13.3% in histosols, respectively. We found significant negative relationships of the response ratios of microbial, fungal and bacterial abundances with the mean annual temperature, indicating that warming had stronger effects in colder than warmer regions. Moreover, the response ratios of microbial abundance to warming were positively correlated with those of soil respiration. Our findings therefore indicate that the large quantities of C stored in colder regions are likely to be more vulnerable to climate warming than the soil C stored in other warmer regions. PMID:26658882

  2. Stronger warming effects on microbial abundances in colder regions

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ji; Luo, Yiqi; Xia, Jianyang; Jiang, Lifen; Zhou, Xuhui; Lu, Meng; Liang, Junyi; Shi, Zheng; Shelton, Shelby; Cao, Junji

    2015-12-10

    Soil microbes play critical roles in regulating terrestrial carbon (C) cycle and its feedback to climate change. However, it is still unclear how the soil microbial community and abundance respond to future climate change scenarios. In this meta-analysis, we synthesized the responses of microbial community and abundance to experimental warming from 64 published field studies. Our results showed that warming significantly increased soil microbial abundance by 7.6% on average. When grouped by vegetation or soil types, tundras and histosols had the strongest microbial responses to warming with increased microbial, fungal, and bacterial abundances by 15.0%, 9.5% and 37.0% in tundra, and 16.5%, 13.2% and 13.3% in histosols, respectively. We found significant negative relationships of the response ratios of microbial, fungal and bacterial abundances with the mean annual temperature, indicating that warming had stronger effects in colder than warmer regions. Moreover, the response ratios of microbial abundance to warming were positively correlated with those of soil respiration. Our results therefore indicate that the large quantities of C stored in colder regions are likely to be more vulnerable to climate warming than the soil C stored in other warmer regions.

  3. Stronger warming effects on microbial abundances in colder regions

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Ji; Luo, Yiqi; Xia, Jianyang; Jiang, Lifen; Zhou, Xuhui; Lu, Meng; Liang, Junyi; Shi, Zheng; Shelton, Shelby; Cao, Junji

    2015-12-10

    Soil microbes play critical roles in regulating terrestrial carbon (C) cycle and its feedback to climate change. However, it is still unclear how the soil microbial community and abundance respond to future climate change scenarios. In this meta-analysis, we synthesized the responses of microbial community and abundance to experimental warming from 64 published field studies. Our results showed that warming significantly increased soil microbial abundance by 7.6% on average. When grouped by vegetation or soil types, tundras and histosols had the strongest microbial responses to warming with increased microbial, fungal, and bacterial abundances by 15.0%, 9.5% and 37.0% in tundra,more » and 16.5%, 13.2% and 13.3% in histosols, respectively. We found significant negative relationships of the response ratios of microbial, fungal and bacterial abundances with the mean annual temperature, indicating that warming had stronger effects in colder than warmer regions. Moreover, the response ratios of microbial abundance to warming were positively correlated with those of soil respiration. Our results therefore indicate that the large quantities of C stored in colder regions are likely to be more vulnerable to climate warming than the soil C stored in other warmer regions.« less

  4. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of amino acids adsorbed on an electrochemically prepared silver surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, S.; Fredericks, P. M.

    1999-07-01

    An electrochemically roughened silver surface, in conjunction with a Raman microprobe spectrometer, was used to obtain SER spectra of a suite of 19 L-amino acids. The spectra obtained were very different from previously reported SER spectra obtained from silver hydrosols of amino acids. Analysis of the spectra showed that adsorption of all amino acids was via the ionised carboxylate group, and that the side chain of most of the molecules was also in close proximity to the surface. The spectra also indicated that, in contrast, the amine terminus was protonated and relatively far from the surface. Sulfur-containing amino acids also interacted with the silver surface through their sulfur atoms.

  5. Pseudoephedrine-Directed Asymmetric α-Arylation of α-Amino Acid Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Rachel C; Fernández-Nieto, Fernando; Mas Roselló, Josep; Clayden, Jonathan

    2015-07-27

    Available α-amino acids undergo arylation at their α position in an enantioselective manner on treatment with base of N'-aryl urea derivatives ligated to pseudoephedrine as a chiral auxiliary. In situ silylation and enolization induces diastereoselective migration of the N'-aryl group to the α position of the amino acid, followed by ring closure to a hydantoin with concomitant explulsion of the recyclable auxiliary. The hydrolysis of the hydantoin products provides derivatives of quaternary amino acids. The arylation avoids the use of heavy-metal additives, and is successful with a range of amino acids and with aryl rings of varying electronic character.

  6. Hydration of protonated aromatic amino acids: phenylalanine, tryptophan, and tyrosine.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bing; Wyttenbach, Thomas; Bowers, Michael T

    2009-04-01

    The first steps of hydration of the protonated aromatic amino acids phenylalanine, tryptophan, and tyrosine were studied experimentally employing a mass spectrometer equipped with a drift cell to examine the sequential addition of individual water molecules in equilibrium experiments and theoretically by a combination of molecular mechanics and electronic structure calculations (B3LYP/6-311++G**) on the three amino acid systems including up to five water molecules. It is found that both the ammonium and carboxyl groups offer good water binding sites with binding energies of the order of 13 kcal/mol for the first water molecule. Subsequent water molecules bind less strongly, in the range of 7-11 kcal/mol for the second through fifth water molecules. The ammonium group is able to host up to three water molecules and the carboxyl group one water molecule before additional water molecules bind either to the amino acid side chain as in tyrosine or to already-bound water in a second solvation shell around the ammonium group. Reasons for the surprisingly high water affinity of the neutral carboxyl group, comparable to that of the charge-carrying ammonium group, are found to be high intrinsic hydrophilicity, favorable charge-dipole alignment, and--for the case of multiply hydrated species--favorable dipole-dipole interaction among water molecules and the lack of alternative fully exposed hydration sites.

  7. How Amino Acids and Peptides Shaped the RNA World

    PubMed Central

    van der Gulik, Peter T.S.; Speijer, Dave

    2015-01-01

    The “RNA world” hypothesis is seen as one of the main contenders for a viable theory on the origin of life. Relatively small RNAs have catalytic power, RNA is everywhere in present-day life, the ribosome is seen as a ribozyme, and rRNA and tRNA are crucial for modern protein synthesis. However, this view is incomplete at best. The modern protein-RNA ribosome most probably is not a distorted form of a “pure RNA ribosome” evolution started out with. Though the oldest center of the ribosome seems “RNA only”, we cannot conclude from this that it ever functioned in an environment without amino acids and/or peptides. Very small RNAs (versatile and stable due to basepairing) and amino acids, as well as dipeptides, coevolved. Remember, it is the amino group of aminoacylated tRNA that attacks peptidyl-tRNA, destroying the bond between peptide and tRNA. This activity of the amino acid part of aminoacyl-tRNA illustrates the centrality of amino acids in life. With the rise of the “RNA world” view of early life, the pendulum seems to have swung too much towards the ribozymatic part of early biochemistry. The necessary presence and activity of amino acids and peptides is in need of highlighting. In this article, we try to bring the role of the peptide component of early life back into focus. We argue that an RNA world completely independent of amino acids never existed. PMID:25607813

  8. Amino acids as antioxidants for frying oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amino acids, proteins and hydrolysates of proteins have been known to protect edible oils from oxidation. While amino acids and related materials have high potential as antioxidants for frying oil, effectiveness of each amino acid and mechanisms of their activities are not well understood yet. Propo...

  9. Bovine Parathyroid Hormone: Amino Acid Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, H. Bryan; Ronan, Rosemary

    1970-01-01

    Bovine parathyroid hormone has been isolated in homogeneous form, and its complete amino acid sequence determined. The bovine hormone is a single chain, 84 amino acids long. It contains amino-terminal alanine, and carboxyl-terminal glutamine. The bovine parathyroid hormone is approximately three times the length of the newly discovered hormone, thyrocalcitonin, whose action is reciprocal to parathyroid hormone. Images PMID:5275384

  10. Amino acid analyses of Apollo 14 samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrke, C. W.; Zumwalt, R. W.; Kuo, K.; Aue, W. A.; Stalling, D. L.; Kvenvolden, K. A.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1972-01-01

    Detection limits were between 300 pg and 1 ng for different amino acids, in an analysis by gas-liquid chromatography of water extracts from Apollo 14 lunar fines in which amino acids were converted to their N-trifluoro-acetyl-n-butyl esters. Initial analyses of water and HCl extracts of sample 14240 and 14298 samples showed no amino acids above background levels.

  11. Methods for preparation of deuterated amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Pshenichnikova, A.B.; Karnaukhova, E.N.; Zvonkova, E.N.

    1995-03-01

    The current state and prospects for the use of amino acids labeled with stable isotopes are considered. Methods for the preparation of deuterated amino acids, including synthetic, chemicoenzymatic, and biosynthetic ones, and deuterium exchange reactions are summarized. Problems in the preparation of optically pure amino acids are discussed. 120 refs., 15 figs.

  12. Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions

    DOEpatents

    Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, Ashton T; Chin, Jason W; Anderson, Christopher J; Schultz, Peter G

    2013-05-21

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  13. Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions

    DOEpatents

    Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, T. Ashton; Chin, Jason W.; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2014-08-26

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  14. Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions

    SciTech Connect

    Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, T. Ashton; Chin, Jason W.; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2011-02-15

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  15. Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions

    SciTech Connect

    Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, T. Ashton; Chin, Jason W.; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2011-08-09

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNAsyn-thetases, pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  16. Factors affecting Culicoides species composition and abundance in avian nests.

    PubMed

    Martínez-de la Puente, J; Merino, S; Tomás, G; Moreno, J; Morales, J; Lobato, E; Talavera, S; Sarto I Monteys, V

    2009-08-01

    Mechanisms affecting patterns of vector distribution among host individuals may influence the population and evolutionary dynamics of vectors, hosts and the parasites transmitted. We studied the role of different factors affecting the species composition and abundance of Culicoides found in nests of the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). We identified 1531 females and 2 males of 7 different Culicoides species in nests, with C. simulator being the most abundant species, followed by C. kibunensis, C. festivipennis, C. segnis, C. truncorum, C. pictipennis and C. circumscriptus. We conducted a medicationxfumigation experiment randomly assigning bird's nests to different treatments, thereby generating groups of medicated and control pairs breeding in fumigated and control nests. Medicated pairs were injected with the anti-malarial drug Primaquine diluted in saline solution while control pairs were injected with saline solution. The fumigation treatment was carried out using insecticide solution or water for fumigated and control nests respectively. Brood size was the main factor associated with the abundance of biting midges probably because more nestlings may produce higher quantities of vector attractants. In addition, birds medicated against haemoparasites breeding in non-fumigated nests supported a higher abundance of C. festivipennis than the rest of the groups. Also, we found that the fumigation treatment reduced the abundance of engorged Culicoides in both medicated and control nests, thus indicating a reduction of feeding success produced by the insecticide. These results represent the first evidence for the role of different factors in affecting the Culicoides infracommunity in wild avian nests.

  17. Use of an Amino Acid Mixture in Treatment of Phenylketonuria

    PubMed Central

    Bentovim, A.; Clayton, Barbara E.; Francis, Dorothy E. M.; Shepherd, Jean; Wolff, O. H.

    1970-01-01

    Twelve children with phenylketonuria diagnosed and treated from the first few weeks of life were grouped into pairs. Before the trial all of them were receiving a commercial preparation containing a protein hydrolysate low in phenylalanine (Cymogran, Allen and Hanburys Ltd.) as a substitute for natural protein. One of each pair was given an amino acid mixture instead of Cymogran for about 6 months. Use of the mixture involved considerable modification of the diet, and in particular the inclusion of greater amounts of phenylalanine-free foods. All six accepted the new mixture without difficulty, food problems were greatly reduced, parents welcomed the new preparation, and the quality of family life improved. Normal growth was maintained and with a mixture of l amino acids the plasma and urinary amino acid levels were normal. Further studies are needed before the mixture can be recommended for children under 20 months of age. PMID:5477678

  18. Fungal Peptaibiotics: Assessing Potential Meteoritic Amino Acid Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Bruckner, H.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of non-protein alpha-dialkyl-amino acids such as alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-A1B) and isovaline (Iva), which are relatively rare in the terrestrial biosphere, has long been used as an indication of the indigeneity of meteoritic amino acids, however, the discovery of alpha-AIB in peptides producers by a widespread group of filamentous fungi indicates the possibility of a terrestrial biotic source for the alpha-AIB observed in some meteorites. The alpha-AIB-containing peptides produced by these fungi are dubbed peptaibiotics. We measured the molecular distribution and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios for amino acids found in the total hydrolysates of four biologically synthesized peptaibiotics. We compared these aneasurenetts with those from the CM2 carbonaceous chondrite Murchison and from three Antarctic CR2 carbonaceous chondrites in order to understand the peptaibiotics as a potential source of meteoritic contamination.

  19. Genome wide exploration of the origin and evolution of amino acids

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Even after years of exploration, the terrestrial origin of bio-molecules remains unsolved and controversial. Today, observation of amino acid composition in proteins has become an alternative way for a global understanding of the mystery encoded in whole genomes and seeking clues for the origin of amino acids. Results In this study, we statistically monitored the frequencies of 20 alpha-amino acids in 549 taxa from three kingdoms of life: archaebacteria, eubacteria, and eukaryotes. We found that the amino acids evolved independently in these three kingdoms; but, conserved linkages were observed in two groups of amino acids, (A, G, H, L, P, Q, R, and W) and (F, I, K, N, S, and Y). Moreover, the amino acids encoded by GC-poor codons (F, Y, N, K, I, and M) were found to "lose" their usage in the development from single cell eukaryotic organisms like S. cerevisiae to H. sapiens, while the amino acids encoded by GC-rich codons (P, A, G, and W) were found to gain usage. These findings further support the co-evolution hypothesis of amino acids and genetic codes. Conclusion We proposed a new chronological order of the appearance of amino acids (L, A, V/E/G, S, I, K, T, R/D, P, N, F, Q, Y, M, H, W, C). Two conserved evolutionary paths of amino acids were also suggested: A→G→R→P and K→Y. PMID:20230639

  20. Intracellular boron accumulation in CHO-K1 cells using amino acid transport control.

    PubMed

    Sato, Eisuke; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Shikano, Naoto; Ogura, Masato; Nakai, Kei; Yoshida, Fumiyo; Uemae, Yoji; Takada, Tomoya; Isobe, Tomonori; Matsumura, Akira

    2014-06-01

    BPA used in BNCT has a similar structure to some essential amino acids and is transported into tumor cells by amino acid transport systems. Previous study groups have tried various techniques of loading BPA to increase intracellular boron concentration. CHO-K1 cells demonstrate system L (LAT1) activity and are suitable for specifying the transport system of a neutral amino acid. In this study, we examined the intracellular accumulation of boron in CHO-K1 cells by amino acid transport control, which involves co-loading with L-type amino acid esters. Intracellular boron accumulation in CHO-K1 cells showed the greatest increased upon co-loading 1.0mM BPA, with 1.0mM l-Tyr-O-Et and incubating for 60min. This increase is caused by activation of a system L amino acid exchanger between BPA and l-Tyr. The amino acid esters are metabolized to amino acids by intracellular hydrolytic enzymes that increase the concentrations of intracellular amino acids and stimulate exchange transportation. We expect that this amino acid transport control will be useful for enhancing intracellular boron accumulation.

  1. Conformational Entropy of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins from Amino Acid Triads

    PubMed Central

    Baruah, Anupaul; Rani, Pooja; Biswas, Parbati

    2015-01-01

    This work quantitatively characterizes intrinsic disorder in proteins in terms of sequence composition and backbone conformational entropy. Analysis of the normalized relative composition of the amino acid triads highlights a distinct boundary between globular and disordered proteins. The conformational entropy is calculated from the dihedral angles of the middle amino acid in the amino acid triad for the conformational ensemble of the globular, partially and completely disordered proteins relative to the non-redundant database. Both Monte Carlo (MC) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations are used to characterize the conformational ensemble of the representative proteins of each group. The results show that the globular proteins span approximately half of the allowed conformational states in the Ramachandran space, while the amino acid triads in disordered proteins sample the entire range of the allowed dihedral angle space following Flory’s isolated-pair hypothesis. Therefore, only the sequence information in terms of the relative amino acid triad composition may be sufficient to predict protein disorder and the backbone conformational entropy, even in the absence of well-defined structure. The predicted entropies are found to agree with those calculated using mutual information expansion and the histogram method. PMID:26138206

  2. Conformational Entropy of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins from Amino Acid Triads.

    PubMed

    Baruah, Anupaul; Rani, Pooja; Biswas, Parbati

    2015-07-03

    This work quantitatively characterizes intrinsic disorder in proteins in terms of sequence composition and backbone conformational entropy. Analysis of the normalized relative composition of the amino acid triads highlights a distinct boundary between globular and disordered proteins. The conformational entropy is calculated from the dihedral angles of the middle amino acid in the amino acid triad for the conformational ensemble of the globular, partially and completely disordered proteins relative to the non-redundant database. Both Monte Carlo (MC) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations are used to characterize the conformational ensemble of the representative proteins of each group. The results show that the globular proteins span approximately half of the allowed conformational states in the Ramachandran space, while the amino acid triads in disordered proteins sample the entire range of the allowed dihedral angle space following Flory's isolated-pair hypothesis. Therefore, only the sequence information in terms of the relative amino acid triad composition may be sufficient to predict protein disorder and the backbone conformational entropy, even in the absence of well-defined structure. The predicted entropies are found to agree with those calculated using mutual information expansion and the histogram method.

  3. Molecular Evolution of Plant AAP and LHT Amino Acid Transporters.

    PubMed

    Tegeder, Mechthild; Ward, John M

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential mineral nutrient and it is often transported within living organisms in its reduced form, as amino acids. Transport of amino acids across cellular membranes requires proteins, and here we report the phylogenetic analysis across taxa of two amino acid transporter families, the amino acid permeases (AAPs) and the lysine-histidine-like transporters (LHTs). We found that the two transporter families form two distinct groups in plants supporting the concept that both are essential. AAP transporters seem to be restricted to land plants. They were found in Selaginella moellendorffii and Physcomitrella patens but not in Chlorophyte, Charophyte, or Rhodophyte algae. AAPs were strongly represented in vascular plants, consistent with their major function in phloem (vascular tissue) loading of amino acids for sink nitrogen supply. LHTs on the other hand appeared prior to land plants. LHTs were not found in chlorophyte algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carterii. However, the characean alga Klebsormidium flaccidum encodes KfLHT13 and phylogenetic analysis indicates that it is basal to land plant LHTs. This is consistent with the hypothesis that characean algae are ancestral to land plants. LHTs were also found in both S. moellendorffii and P. patens as well as in monocots and eudicots. To date, AAPs and LHTs have mainly been characterized in Arabidopsis (eudicots) and these studies provide clues to the functions of the newly identified homologs. PMID:22645574

  4. Molecular Evolution of Plant AAP and LHT Amino Acid Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Tegeder, Mechthild; Ward, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential mineral nutrient and it is often transported within living organisms in its reduced form, as amino acids. Transport of amino acids across cellular membranes requires proteins, and here we report the phylogenetic analysis across taxa of two amino acid transporter families, the amino acid permeases (AAPs) and the lysine–histidine-like transporters (LHTs). We found that the two transporter families form two distinct groups in plants supporting the concept that both are essential. AAP transporters seem to be restricted to land plants. They were found in Selaginella moellendorffii and Physcomitrella patens but not in Chlorophyte, Charophyte, or Rhodophyte algae. AAPs were strongly represented in vascular plants, consistent with their major function in phloem (vascular tissue) loading of amino acids for sink nitrogen supply. LHTs on the other hand appeared prior to land plants. LHTs were not found in chlorophyte algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carterii. However, the characean alga Klebsormidium flaccidum encodes KfLHT13 and phylogenetic analysis indicates that it is basal to land plant LHTs. This is consistent with the hypothesis that characean algae are ancestral to land plants. LHTs were also found in both S. moellendorffii and P. patens as well as in monocots and eudicots. To date, AAPs and LHTs have mainly been characterized in Arabidopsis (eudicots) and these studies provide clues to the functions of the newly identified homologs. PMID:22645574

  5. Amino acid transport in the intestine of the caiman.

    PubMed

    Coulson, R A; Hernandez, T

    1983-01-01

    Seventeen amino acids were fed singly to small caimans and the rates of their disappearance from the gut lumen, and of their appearance in intestinal mucosa, whole intestine, whole stomach, and plasma were determined. The results were compared with those in which massive amounts of protein were fed. When single amino acids were fed, only traces of arginine, ornithine, lysine, aspartate and asparagine were absorbed intact. Glycine, alanine and serine were absorbed rapidly reaching mucosal concentrations as high as 40 mM. The others were not concentrated as highly and most were absorbed by the mucosa more slowly than the glycine group. Protein feeding did not result in high amino acid concentrations in the mucosa. Whether amino acids were ingested as protein or in the free state, glycine, alanine and glutamine increased in the mucosa, suggesting these three incorporate nitrogen released from the others. It appeared that several transport systems operate if amino acids are given singly, and that a different more efficient transport system operates during protein digestion.

  6. Plant amino acid-derived vitamins: biosynthesis and function.

    PubMed

    Miret, Javier A; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2014-04-01

    Vitamins are essential organic compounds for humans, having lost the ability to de novo synthesize them. Hence, they represent dietary requirements, which are covered by plants as the main dietary source of most vitamins (through food or livestock's feed). Most vitamins synthesized by plants present amino acids as precursors (B1, B2, B3, B5, B7, B9 and E) and are therefore linked to plant nitrogen metabolism. Amino acids play different roles in their biosynthesis and metabolism, either incorporated into the backbone of the vitamin or as amino, sulfur or one-carbon group donors. There is a high natural variation in vitamin contents in crops and its exploitation through breeding, metabolic engineering and agronomic practices can enhance their nutritional quality. While the underlying biochemical roles of vitamins as cosubstrates or cofactors are usually common for most eukaryotes, the impact of vitamins B and E in metabolism and physiology can be quite different on plants and animals. Here, we first aim at giving an overview of the biosynthesis of amino acid-derived vitamins in plants, with a particular focus on how this knowledge can be exploited to increase vitamin contents in crops. Second, we will focus on the functions of these vitamins in both plants and animals (and humans in particular), to unravel common and specific roles for vitamins in evolutionary distant organisms, in which these amino acid-derived vitamins play, however, an essential role.

  7. Accumulation, selection and covariation of amino acids in sieve tube sap of tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) and castor bean (Ricinus communis): evidence for the function of a basic amino acid transporter and the absence of a γ-amino butyric acid transporter.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Susanne N; Nowak, Heike; Keller, Frank; Kallarackal, Jose; Hajirezaei, Mohamad-Reza; Komor, Ewald

    2014-09-01

    Sieve tube sap was obtained from Tanacetum by aphid stylectomy and from Ricinus after apical bud decapitation. The amino acids in sieve tube sap were analyzed and compared with those from leaves. Arginine and lysine accumulated in the sieve tube sap of Tanacetum more than 10-fold compared to the leaf extracts and they were, together with asparagine and serine, preferably selected into the sieve tube sap, whereas glycine, methionine/tryptophan and γ-amino butyric acid were partially or completely excluded. The two basic amino acids also showed a close covariation in sieve tube sap. The acidic amino acids also grouped together, but antagonistic to the other amino acids. The accumulation ratios between sieve tube sap and leaf extracts were smaller in Ricinus than in Tanacetum. Arginine, histidine, lysine and glutamine were enriched and preferentially loaded into the phloem, together with isoleucine and valine. In contrast, glycine and methionine/tryptophan were partially and γ-amino butyric acid almost completely excluded from sieve tube sap. The covariation analysis grouped arginine together with several neutral amino acids. The acidic amino acids were loaded under competition with neutral amino acids. It is concluded from comparison with the substrate specificities of already characterized plant amino acid transporters, that an AtCAT1-like transporter functions in phloem loading of basic amino acids, whereas a transporter like AtGAT1 is absent in phloem. Although Tanacetum and Ricinus have different minor vein architecture, their phloem loading specificities for amino acids are relatively similar.

  8. Intermolecular Vibrations of Hydrophobic Amino Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Michael Roy Casselman

    Hydrophobic amino acids interact with their chemical environment through a combination of electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, dipole, induced dipole, and dispersion forces. These interactions all have their own characteristic energy scale and distance dependence. The low-frequency (0.1-5 THz, 5-150 cm-1) vibrational modes of amino acids in the solid state are a direct indicator of the interactions between the molecules, which include interactions between an amino acid functional group and its surroundings. This information is central to understanding the dynamics and morphology of proteins. The alpha-carbon is a chiral center for all of the hydrophobic amino acids, meaning that they exist in two forms, traditionally referred to as L- and D-enantiomers. This nomenclature indicates which direction the molecule rotates plane-polarized visible light (levorotory and dextrorotory). Chiral a-amino acids in proteins are exclusively the L-variety In the solid state, the crystal lattice of the pure L-enantiomer is the mirror image of the D-enantiomer crystal lattice. These solids are energetically identical. Enantiomers also have identical spectroscopic properties except when the measurement is polarization sensitive. A mixture of equal amounts D- and L-amino acid enantiomers can crystallize into a racemic (DL-) structure that is different from that of the pure enantiomers. Whether a solution of both enantiomers will crystallize into a racemic form or spontaneously resolve into a mixture of separate D- and L-crystals largely depends on the interactions between molecules available in the various possible configurations. This is an active area of research. Low-frequency vibrations with intermolecular character are very sensitive to changes in lattice geometry, and consequently the vibrational spectra of racemic crystals are usually quite distinct from the spectra of the crystals of the corresponding pure enantiomers in the far-infrared (far-IR). THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz

  9. Sugar amino acids in designing new molecules.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Tushar Kanti; Srinivasu, Pothukanuri; Tapadar, Subhasish; Mohan, Bajjuri Krishna

    2005-03-01

    Emulating the basic principles followed by nature to build its vast repertoire of biomolecules, organic chemists are developing many novel multifunctional building blocks and using them to create 'nature-like' and yet unnatural organic molecules. Sugar amino acids constitute an important class of such polyfunctional scaffolds where the carboxyl, amino and hydroxyl termini provide an excellent opportunity to organic chemists to create structural diversities akin to Nature's molecular arsenal. This article describes some of our works on various sugar amino acids and many other related building blocks, like furan amino acids, pyrrole amino acids etc. used in wide-ranging peptidomimetic studies. PMID:16133829

  10. Nonprotein Amino Acids in the Murchison Meteorite

    PubMed Central

    Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Lawless, James G.; Ponnamperuma, Cyril

    1971-01-01

    Twelve nonprotein amino acids appear to be present in the Murchison meteorite. The identity of eight of them has been conclusively established as N-methylglycine, β-alanine, 2-methylalanine, α-amino-n-butyric acid, β-amino-n-butyric acid, γ-amino-n-butyric acid, isovaline, and pipecolic acid. Tentative evidence is presented for the presence of N-methylalanine, N-ethylglycine, β-aminoisobutyric acid, and norvaline. These amino acids appear to be extraterrestrial in origin and may provide new evidence for the hypothesis of chemical evolution. PMID:16591908

  11. Amino acids and hydrocarbons approximately 3,800-Myr old in the Isua rocks, southwestern Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagy, B.; Engel, M. H.; Zumberge, J. E.; Ogino, H.; Chang, S. Y.

    1981-01-01

    Results of an analysis of amino acids and hydrocarbons found in the Isua banded iron formation, which contains the oldest known rocks on earth, are discussed. Similarities are pointed out between the relative amino acid abundances of the Isua rocks and those of lichens found on their surfaces, and a lack of substantial racemization indicated by the low D/L ratios in the 3800-million year old rock samples is noted. Experimental results showing the possibility of amino acid diffusion from lichens into the rocks are presented. Comparisons of the Isua rock amino acid D/L ratios with those reported for samples from other regions indicates that none of the Isua amino acids are older than a few tens of thousands to a few hundred thousand years. Analyses of the saturated hydrocarbons of the Isua samples reveals no odd carbon number preference, which may indicate antiquity, however laboratory experiments have shown that amino acids and aromatic and saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons could not have survived the metamorphic history of the Isua rocks. The evidence presented thus suggests that the amino acids and hydrocarbons found are not of the age of the sediments.

  12. Lithium Abundance in Planet Search Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myles, Justin; Yale Exoplanets

    2016-01-01

    Since most lithium in the universe is primordial and is destroyed in stars, lithium abundance can be used as a stellar age indicator. Some research seems to show that planet formation may also affect lithium abundance in exoplanet host stars (EHS). However, small and heterogenous samples have made both of these phenomena unclear. Further study of lithium abundance in EHS is needed to better understand possible physical roles of lithium in planet formation theory. We use a large homogenous sample with accurate stellar parameters on which we will use equivalent width analysis to determine precise lithium abundances. From these abundance values we determine an age vs. abundance relation. Additionally, we aim to explore correlation between lithium abundance and planet formation.

  13. Purification, characterization and structural analysis of an abundant beta-1,3-glucanase from banana fruit.

    PubMed

    Peumans, W J; Barre, A; Derycke, V; Rougé, P; Zhang, W; May, G D; Delcour, J A; Van Leuven, F; Van Damme, E J

    2000-02-01

    An abundant, catalytically active beta-1,3-endoglucanase (EC 3.2.1. 39) has been isolated from the pulp of ripe bananas. Biochemical analysis of the purified protein, molecular modelling, and molecular cloning of the corresponding gene indicate that this banana enzyme closely resembles previously characterized plant beta-glucanases with respect to its amino-acid sequence, structure and biological activity. The results described in this paper demonstrate both the occurrence of an abundant active beta-1,3-endoglucanases in fruits and also readdress the question of the possible involvement of these enzymes in the ripening and/or softening process.

  14. Pairwise amino acid secondary structural propensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemmama, Ilan E.; Chapagain, Prem P.; Gerstman, Bernard S.

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the propensities for amino acids to form a specific secondary structure when they are paired with other amino acids. Our investigations use molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations, and we compare the results to those from the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Proper comparison requires weighting of the MD results in a manner consistent with the relative frequency of appearance in the PDB of each possible pair of amino acids. We find that the propensity for an amino acid to assume a secondary structure varies dramatically depending on the amino acid that is before or after it in the primary sequence. This cooperative effect means that when selecting amino acids to facilitate the formation of a secondary structure in peptide engineering experiments, the adjacent amino acids must be considered. We also examine the preference for a secondary structure in bacterial proteins and compare the results to those of human proteins.

  15. Observing chemical abundances in comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delsemme, A. H.

    1981-01-01

    The atomic resonance lines of the major elements were observed in the atmospheres of a few comets, by using vacuum ultraviolet spectrographs on board rockets or orbiting observatories. Dust-to-gas ratios were also deduced for two comets through a Finson-Probstein's analysis of their dust-tail isophotes. The geometric albedo of the dust for the phase angle alpha of the observations is not accurately known but, the dust-to-gas ratio is not overly sensitive to the actual value of this albedo. Infrared observations of the dust head of some comets show that the bulk of cometary dust must be silicates, although a minor component (5-10 percent) of carbon compounds is rather likely, because of poor dielectric properties of the grains. This interpretation is confirmed by the fact that interplanetary dust probably of cometary origin, that was collected in the stratosphere by NASA-U2 Spacecraft, is chondritic in nature. Metal abundances in the head of a sungrazing comet support the chondritic hypothesis.

  16. Molecular Abundances in CRL 618

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardo, Juan R.; Cernicharo, José

    2007-01-01

    In previous works we have modeled the different gas regions of the proto-planetary nebula CRL 618 by studying the large number of lines from the cyanopolyynes detected in a millimeter-wave line survey of this object. In this work we retrieve the rotational temperatures (Tr) and abundance ratios R with respect to HC3N (used as reference) for all molecular species detected in the survey by running grids of models in the (R,Tr) space to find the minimum of a weighted χ2 defined for this analysis. This provides the best knowledge to date of the (polar) molecular composition of CRL 618 thanks to the uniform calibration of the whole survey and the large number of lines available from each species, allowing comparisons with predictions made by chemical models of C-rich post-AGB objects. A significantly lower value of the 12C/13C ratio has been revealed in the gas closest to central star with respect to the colder and outer envelope. It can be due to 13C-rich material, produced in a late CNO cycling occurred in the central star, being currently injected into this inner gas envelope.

  17. Extraterrestrial material analysis: loss of amino acids during liquid-phase acid hydrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buch, Arnaud; Brault, Amaury; Szopa, Cyril; Freissinet, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Searching for building blocks of life in extraterrestrial material is a way to learn more about how life could have appeared on Earth. With this aim, liquid-phase acid hydrolysis has been used, since at least 1970 , in order to extract amino acids and other organic molecules from extraterrestrial materials (e.g. meteorites, lunar fines) or Earth analogues (e.g. Atacama desert soil). This procedure involves drastic conditions such as heating samples in 6N HCl for 24 h, either under inert atmosphere/vacuum, or air. Analysis of the hydrolyzed part of the sample should give its total (free plus bound) amino acid content. The present work deals with the influence of the 6N HCl hydrolysis on amino acid degradation. Our experiments have been performed on a standard solution of 17 amino acids. After liquid-phase acid hydrolysis (6N HCl) under argon atmosphere (24 h at 100°C), the liquid phase was evaporated and the dry residue was derivatized with N-Methyl-N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) and dimethylformamide (DMF), followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. After comparison with derivatized amino acids from the standard solution, a significant reduction of the chromatographic peak areas was observed for most of the amino acids after liquid-phase acid hydrolysis. Furthermore, the same loss pattern was observed when the amino acids were exposed to cold 6N HCl for a short amount of time. The least affected amino acid, i.e. glycine, was found to be 73,93% percent less abundant compared to the non-hydrolyzed standard, while the most affected, i.e. histidine, was not found in the chromatograms after hydrolysis. Our experiments thereby indicate that liquid-phase acid hydrolysis, even under inert atmosphere, leads to a partial or total loss of all of the 17 amino acids present in the standard solution, and that a quick cold contact with 6N HCl is sufficient to lead to a loss of amino acids. Therefore, in the literature, the reported increase

  18. Cytotoxicity of amino alcohols to rat hepatoma-derived Fa32 cells.

    PubMed

    Scheers, Ellen M; Forsby, Anna; Dierickx, Paul J

    2002-01-01

    Amino alcohols are used as emulsifying agents in dry-cleaning soaps, wax removers, cosmetics, paints and insecticides. The cytotoxicities of 12 amino alcohols, which differed in chain length, position of the amino and alcohol groups, and the presence of an additional phenyl group, were determined by the neutral red uptake inhibition assay with normally cultured, glutathione-depleted or antioxidant-enriched Fa32 rat hepatoma-derived cells. Glutathione depletion and antioxidant enrichment were achieved by including 50(M L-buthionine-S,R-sulphoximine (BSO) or 100(M (-tocopherol acetate (vitamin E) in the culture medium for 24 hours before and during the assay. The cytotoxicity of the amino alcohols observed after treatment for 24 hours was expressed as the concentration of compound needed to induce a 50% reduction in neutral red uptake (NI50). The observed NI50 values ranged from 3mM to 30mM. The individual stereoisomers and a racemic mixture of 1-amino-2-propanol exhibited similar cytotoxicities (with normally cultured Fa32 cells, and vitamin E- and BSO-treated cultures). Similar NI50 values for D-(+)-2-amino-1-propanol, 3-amino-1-propanol and the L-, D- or DL- forms of 1-amino-2-propanol, indicated that the position of the amino group had little influence on the cytotoxicities of the amino alcohols. In contrast, the position of the hydroxyl group appeared to play an important role for the toxicity of the compound, as indicated by the significantly different NI50 values for 4-amino-1-butanol and 4-amino-2-butanol. An additional phenyl group greatly increased the cytotoxicity of 2-amino-1,3-propanediol. For most of the compounds, cytotoxicity increased when GSH was depleted, and decreased when the cells were enriched with vitamin E. This indicated that most of the tested chemicals interact with GSH, either directly or indirectly, by processes which generate oxygen free-radicals. Decreased toxicity was found for most of the chemicals administered to vitamin E

  19. Dissolved organic monomer partitioning among bacterial groups in two oligotrophic lakes

    PubMed Central

    Rofner, Carina; Sommaruga, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Summary Understanding how resource partitioning works among taxa is crucial in explaining coexistence and competition within a community. Here, we assessed resource partitioning among freshwater bacterial groups from two oligotrophic lakes using four types of organic substrates as compound models. Substrate uptake patterns were examined by microautoradiography combined with catalysed reporter deposition fluorescent in situ hybridization. Four large taxonomic groups were found in the lakes, but A ctinobacteria (AcI lineage) and B etaproteobacteria (R‐BTcluster) dominated the bacterial assemblage. Monomers containing nitrogen and/or phosphorus were preferred over the ones containing only carbon. All groups were able to incorporate amino acids, adenosine triphosphate and glucose. However, acetate was only taken up by ∼ 10–12% of bacteria, and its uptake was not detected in C ytophaga‐F lavobacteria. Apart from acetate, the contribution of a particular bacterial group to the uptake of a substrate was proportional to its relative abundance. In both lakes, we detected substrate partitioning between AcI  Actinobacteria, which was overrepresented in glucose and acetate utilization, and R‐BT B etaproteobacteria, which dominated amino acid uptake. Our results strongly point to physiological niche separation of those bacterial groups in alpine lakes. PMID:25403482

  20. [Effects of sewage discharge on abundance and biomass of meiofauna].

    PubMed

    Huang, De-Ming; Liu, Xiao-Shou; Lin, Ming-Xian; Chen, Huai-Pu; Wei, Lian-Ming; Huang, Xin; Zhang, Zhi-Nan

    2014-10-01

    In order to elucidate the effects of sewage discharge on abundance and biomass of meio- fauna, a seasonal survey was carried out on meiofauna at stations with different distances to a sewage outlet in the middle intertidal zone of No. 1 bathing beach in Huiquan Bay, Qingdao in spring (April), summer (August), autumn (October) and winter (December), 2011. The results showed that the annual average meiofaunal abundance was (1859.9 ± 705.1) ind · 10 cm(-2), with higher values of (2444.9 ± 1220.5) ind · 10 cm(-2) at Station S2 (20 m to the sewage outlet) and (2492.2 ± 1839.9) ind · 10 cm(-2) at Station S3 (40 m to the sewage outlet), while the lowest value of (327.9 ± 183.2) ind · 10 cm(-2) was observed at Station S1 (0 m to the sewage outlet) in terms of horizontal distribution. The annual average biomass was (1513.4 ± 372.7) μg · 10 cm(-2). Meiofaunal abundance and biomass varied seasonally with the highest values in spring and the lowest values in summer. A total of 11 meiofaunal groups were identified, including nematodes, copepods, polychaetes, oligochaetes, tardigrades, halacaroideans, planarians, ostracods, isopods, crustacean nauplii and others. Free-living marine nematodes were the dominant group constituting 83. 1% of the total abundance, followed by benthic copepods, accounting for 12. 8% of the total abundance. In terms of vertical distribution, most of the meiofauna concentrated in the top 0-2 cm, and the meiofauna abundance decreased with increasing the sediment depth. Meiofauna was also noted to migrate deeper into the sediment in the winter. Pearson correlation analysis showed that meiofaunal abundance and biomass had highly significant negative correlations with sediment median particle diameter and organic matter content. In addition, tourism-induced activities affected meiofaunal abundance and distribution. A comparison with historical data from similar studies was carried out, and the applicability of the ratio of abundance of nematodes

  1. Diversity is maintained by seasonal variation in species abundance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Some of the most marked temporal fluctuations in species abundances are linked to seasons. In theory, multispecies assemblages can persist if species use shared resources at different times, thereby minimizing interspecific competition. However, there is scant empirical evidence supporting these predictions and, to the best of our knowledge, seasonal variation has never been explored in the context of fluctuation-mediated coexistence. Results Using an exceptionally well-documented estuarine fish assemblage, sampled monthly for over 30 years, we show that temporal shifts in species abundances underpin species coexistence. Species fall into distinct seasonal groups, within which spatial resource use is more heterogeneous than would be expected by chance at those times when competition for food is most intense. We also detect seasonal variation in the richness and evenness of the community, again linked to shifts in resource availability. Conclusions These results reveal that spatiotemporal shifts in community composition minimize competitive interactions and help stabilize total abundance. PMID:24007204

  2. A Comparison of Stellar Elemental Abundance Techniques and Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkel, Natalie R.; Young, Patrick A.; Pagano, Michael D.; Desch, Steven J.; Anbar, Ariel D.; Adibekyan, Vardan; Blanco-Cuaresma, Sergi; Carlberg, Joleen K.; Delgado Mena, Elisa; Liu, Fan; Nordlander, Thomas; Sousa, Sergio G.; Korn, Andreas; Gruyters, Pieter; Heiter, Ulrike; Jofré, Paula; Santos, Nuno C.; Soubiran, Caroline

    2016-09-01

    Stellar elemental abundances are important for understanding the fundamental properties of a star or stellar group, such as age and evolutionary history, as well as the composition of an orbiting planet. However, as abundance measurement techniques have progressed, there has been little standardization between individual methods and their comparisons. As a result, different stellar abundance procedures determine measurements that vary beyond the quoted error for the same elements within the same stars. The purpose of this paper is to better understand the systematic variations between methods and offer recommendations for producing more accurate results in the future. We invited a number of participants from around the world (Australia, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States) to calculate 10 element abundances (C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Fe, Ni, Ba, and Eu) using the same stellar spectra for four stars (HD 361, HD 10700, HD 121504, and HD 202206). Each group produced measurements for each star using (1) their own autonomous techniques, (2) standardized stellar parameters, (3) a standardized line list, and (4) both standardized parameters and a line list. We present the resulting stellar parameters, absolute abundances, and a metric of data similarity that quantifies the homogeneity of the data. We conclude that standardization of some kind, particularly stellar parameters, improves the consistency between methods. However, because results did not converge as more free parameters were standardized, it is clear there are inherent issues within the techniques that need to be reconciled. Therefore, we encourage more conversation and transparency within the community such that stellar abundance determinations can be reproducible as well as accurate and precise.

  3. LITERATURE SURVEY ON ISOTOPIC ABUNDANCE RATIO MEASUREMENTS - 2001-2005

    SciTech Connect

    HOLDEN, N.E.

    2005-08-13

    Along with my usual weekly review of the published literature for new nuclear data, I also search for new candidates for best measurements of isotopic abundances from a single source. Most of the published articles, that I previously had found in the Research Library at the Brookhaven Lab, have already been sent to the members of the Atomic Weights Commission, by either Michael Berglund or Thomas Walczyk. In the last few days, I checked the published literature for any other articles in the areas of natural variations in isotopic abundance ratios, measurements of isotopic abundance ratios on samples of extra-terrestrial material and isotopic abundance ratio measurements performed using ICPMS instruments. Hopefully this information will be of interest to members of the Commission, the sub-committee on isotopic abundance measurements (SIAM), members of the former sub-committee on natural isotopic fractionation (SNIF), the sub-committee on extra-terrestrial isotope ratios (SETIR), the RTCE Task Group and the Guidelines Task Group, who are dealing with ICPMS and TIMS comparisons. In the following report, I categorize the publications in one of four areas. Measurements performed using either positive or negative ions with Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer, TIMS, instruments; measurements performed on Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer, ICPMS, instruments; measurements of natural variations of the isotopic abundance ratios; and finally measurements on extra-terrestrial samples with instrumentation of either type. There is overlap in these areas. I selected out variations and ET results first and then categorized the rest of the papers by TIMS and ICPMS.

  4. Amino Acids Hydrolyzed from Animal Carcasses Are a Good Additive for the Production of Bio-organic Fertilizer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongjun; Chen, Dandan; Zhang, Ruifu; Hang, Xinnan; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    High-quality bio-organic fertilizers (BIOs) cannot be produced without the addition of some proteins. In this study, compound liquid amino acids (CLAA) from animal carcasses were utilized as additives into matured composts to create novel BIOs containing plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The results showed that adding CLAA and inoculating bacteria meanwhile resulted in failed solid-state fermentation (SSF) due to the higher H+ contents. While after pre-compost for 4 days before PGPR inoculation, treatments of matured chicken or pig manure added with 0.2 ml g-1 of CLAA resulted in a maximum biomass of functional strains. Illumine-MiSeq sequencing and Real-Time PCR results showed that the CLAA addition decreased the bacterial abundance and richness, altered the bacterial community structure and changed the relative abundance of some microbial groups. This study offers a high value-added utilization of waste protein resources for producing economical, high-quality BIO. PMID:27574521

  5. Amino Acids Hydrolyzed from Animal Carcasses Are a Good Additive for the Production of Bio-organic Fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongjun; Chen, Dandan; Zhang, Ruifu; Hang, Xinnan; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    High-quality bio-organic fertilizers (BIOs) cannot be produced without the addition of some proteins. In this study, compound liquid amino acids (CLAA) from animal carcasses were utilized as additives into matured composts to create novel BIOs containing plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The results showed that adding CLAA and inoculating bacteria meanwhile resulted in failed solid-state fermentation (SSF) due to the higher H(+) contents. While after pre-compost for 4 days before PGPR inoculation, treatments of matured chicken or pig manure added with 0.2 ml g(-1) of CLAA resulted in a maximum biomass of functional strains. Illumine-MiSeq sequencing and Real-Time PCR results showed that the CLAA addition decreased the bacterial abundance and richness, altered the bacterial community structure and changed the relative abundance of some microbial groups. This study offers a high value-added utilization of waste protein resources for producing economical, high-quality BIO. PMID:27574521

  6. Optimizing sample pretreatment for compound-specific stable carbon isotopic analysis of amino sugars in marine sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, R.; Lin, Y.-S.; Lipp, J. S.; Meador, T. B.; Hinrichs, K.-U.

    2014-09-01

    Amino sugars are quantitatively significant constituents of soil and marine sediment, but their sources and turnover in environmental samples remain poorly understood. The stable carbon isotopic composition of amino sugars can provide information on the lifestyles of their source organisms and can be monitored during incubations with labeled substrates to estimate the turnover rates of microbial populations. However, until now, such investigation has been carried out only with soil samples, partly because of the much lower abundance of amino sugars in marine environments. We therefore optimized a procedure for compound-specific isotopic analysis of amino sugars in marine sediment, employing gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The whole procedure consisted of hydrolysis, neutralization, enrichment, and derivatization of amino sugars. Except for the derivatization step, the protocol introduced negligible isotopic fractionation, and the minimum requirement of amino sugar for isotopic analysis was 20 ng, i.e., equivalent to ~8 ng of amino sugar carbon. Compound-specific stable carbon isotopic analysis of amino sugars obtained from marine sediment extracts indicated that glucosamine and galactosamine were mainly derived from organic detritus, whereas muramic acid showed isotopic imprints from indigenous bacterial activities. The δ13C analysis of amino sugars provides a valuable addition to the biomarker-based characterization of microbial metabolism in the deep marine biosphere, which so far has been lipid oriented and biased towards the detection of archaeal signals.

  7. Chromatographic determination of amino acids in foods.

    PubMed

    Peace, Robert W; Gilani, G Sarwar

    2005-01-01

    Amino acids in foods exist in a free form or bound in peptides, proteins, or nonpeptide bonded polymers. Naturally occurring L-amino acids are required for protein synthesis and are precursors for essential molecules, such as co-enzymes and nucleic acids. Nonprotein amino acids may also occur in animal tissues as metabolic intermediates or have other important functions. The development of bacterially derived food proteins, genetically modified foods, and new methods of food processing; the production of amino acids for food fortification; and the introduction of new plant food sources have meant that protein amino acids and amino acid enantiomers in foods can have both nutritional and safety implications for humans. There is, therefore, a need for the rapid and accurate determination of amino acids in foods. Determination of the total amino acid content of foods requires protein hydrolysis by various means that must take into account variations in stability of individual amino acids and resistance of different peptide bonds to the hydrolysis procedures. Modern methods for separation and quantitation of free amino acids either before or after protein hydrolysis include ion exchange chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography (LC), gas chromatography, and capillary electrophoresis. Chemical derivatization of amino acids may be required to change them into forms amenable to separation by the various chromatographic methods or to create derivatives with properties, such as fluorescence, that improve their detection. Official methods for hydrolysis and analysis of amino acids in foods for nutritional purposes have been established. LC is currently the most widely used analytical technique, although there is a need for collaborative testing of methods available. Newer developments in chromatographic methodology and detector technology have reduced sample and reagent requirements and improved identification, resolution, and sensitivity of amino acid analyses

  8. Generalized estimators of avian abundance from count survey data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J. Andrew

    2004-01-01

    I consider modeling avian abundance from spatially referenced bird count data collected according to common protocols such as capture?recapture, multiple observer, removal sampling and simple point counts. Small sample sizes and large numbers of parameters have motivated many analyses that disregard the spatial indexing of the data, and thus do not provide an adequate treatment of spatial structure. I describe a general framework for modeling spatially replicated data that regards local abundance as a random process, motivated by the view that the set of spatially referenced local populations (at the sample locations) constitute a metapopulation. Under this view, attention can be focused on developing a model for the variation in local abundance independent of the sampling protocol being considered. The metapopulation model structure, when combined with the data generating model, define a simple hierarchical model that can be analyzed using conventional methods. The proposed modeling framework is completely general in the sense that broad classes of metapopulation models may be considered, site level covariates on detection and abundance may be considered, and estimates of abundance and related quantities may be obtained for sample locations, groups of locations, unsampled locations. Two brief examples are given, the first involving simple point counts, and the second based on temporary removal counts. Extension of these models to open systems is briefly discussed.

  9. The Effects of Parent Body Processes on Amino Acids in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effect of parent body processes on the abundance, distribution, and enantiomeric composition of amino acids in carbonaceous chondrites, the water extracts from nine different powdered Cl, CM, and CR carbonaceous chondrites were analyzed for amino acids by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-FD/ToF-MS). Four aqueously altered type 1 carbonaceous chondrites including Orgueil (C11), Meteorite Hills (MET) 01070 (CM1), Scott Glacier (SCO) 06043 (CM1), and Grosvenor Mountains (GRO) 95577 (CR1) were analyzed using this technique for the first time. Analyses of these meteorites revealed low levels of two- to five-carbon acyclic amino alkanoic acids with concentrations ranging from -1 to 2,700 parts-per-billion (ppb). The type 1 carbonaceous chondrites have a distinct distribution of the five-carbon (C5) amino acids with much higher relative abundances of the gamma- and delta-amino acids compared to the type 2 and type 3 carbonaceous chondrites, which are dominated by a-amino acids. Much higher amino acid abundances were found in the CM2 chondrites Murchison, Lonewolf Nunataks (LON) 94102, and Lewis Cliffs (LEW) 90500, the CR2 Elephant Moraine (EET) 92042, and the CR3 Queen Alexandra Range (QUE) 99177. For example, a-aminoisobutyric acid ((alpha-AIB) and isovaline were approximately 100 to 1000 times more abundant in the type 2 and 3 chondrites compared to the more aqueously altered type 1 chondrites. Most of the chiral amino acids identified in these meteorites were racemic, indicating an extraterrestrial abiotic origin. However, non-racemic isovaline was observed in the aqueously altered carbonaceous chondrites Murchison, Orgueil, SCO 06043, and GRO 95577 with L-isovaline excesses ranging from approximately 11 to 19%, whereas the most pristine, unaltered carbonaceous chondrites analyzed in this study had no detectable L-isovaline excesses. These results are consistent with the

  10. Carbon Isotopic Measurements of Amino Acids in Stardust-Returned Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsila, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned to Earth samples from comet 81P/Wild 2 in January 2006. Preliminary examinations revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds could not be identified. Here, we present the carbon isotopic ratios of glycine and e-aminocaproic acid (EACA), the two most abundant amino acids, in Stardust-returned foil samples measured by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry coupled with quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-CAMS/IRMS).

  11. Carbon Isotopic Ratios of Amino Acids in Stardust-Returned Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsila, Jamie E.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned to Earth samples from comet 81P/Wild 2 in January 2006. Preliminary examinations revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds could not be identified. Here. we present the carbon isotopic ratios of glycine and E-aminocaproic acid (EACH), the two most abundant amino acids observed, in Stardust-returned foil samples measured by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio crass spectrometry coupled with quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QMS/IRMS).

  12. Amino Acids from Icy Amines: A Radiation-Chemical Approach to Extraterrestrial Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dworkin, J. P.; Moore, M. H.

    2010-01-01

    Detections of amino acids in meteorites go back several decades, with at least 100 such compounds being reported for the Murchison meteorite alone. The presence of these extraterrestrial molecules raises questions as to their formation, abundance, thermal stability, racemization, and possible subsequent reactions. Although all of these topics have been studied in laboratories, such work often involves many variables and unknowns. This has led us to seek out model systems with which to uncover reaction products, test chemical predictions, and sited light on underlying reaction mechanisms. This presentation will describe one such study, focusing on amino-acid formation in ices.

  13. The effects of parent body processes on amino acids in carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the effect of parent body processes on the abundance, distribution, and enantiomeric composition of amino acids in carbonaceous chondrites, the water extracts from nine different powdered CI, CM, and CR carbonaceous chondrites were analyzed for amino acids by ultra performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-FD/ToF-MS). Four aqueously altered type 1 carbonaceous chondrites including Orgueil (CI1), Meteorite Hills (MET) 01070 (CM1), Scott Glacier (SCO) 06043 (CM1), and Grosvenor Mountains (GRO) 95577 (CR1) were analyzed using this technique for the first time. Analyses of these meteorites revealed low levels of two- to five-carbon acyclic amino alkanoic acids with concentrations ranging from approximately 1 to 2,700 parts-per-billion (ppb). The type 1 carbonaceous chondrites have a distinct distribution of the five-carbon (C5) amino acids with much higher relative abundances of the γ- and δ-amino acids compared to the type 2 and type 3 carbonaceous chondrites, which are dominated by α-amino acids. Much higher amino acid abundances were found in the CM2 chondrites Murchison, Lonewolf Nunataks (LON) 94102, and Lewis Cliffs (LEW) 90500, the CR2 Elephant Moraine (EET) 92042, and the CR3 Queen Alexandra Range (QUE) 99177. For example, α-aminoisobutyric acid (α-AIB) and isovaline were approximately 100 to 1000 times more abundant in the type 2 and 3 chondrites compared to the more aqueously altered type 1 chondrites. Most of the chiral amino acids identified in these meteorites were racemic, indicating an extraterrestrial abiotic origin. However, nonracemic isovaline was observed in the aqueously altered carbonaceous chondrites Murchison, Orgueil, SCO 06043, and GRO 95577 with L-isovaline excesses ranging from approximately 11 to 19%, whereas the most pristine, unaltered carbonaceous chondrites analyzed in this study had no detectable L-isovaline excesses. These results are consistent with the

  14. Contrasting plasma free amino acid patterns in elite athletes: association with fatigue and infection

    PubMed Central

    Kingsbury, K. J.; Kay, L.; Hjelm, M.

    1998-01-01

    AIM: There is little information on the plasma free amino acid patterns of elite athletes against which fatigue and nutrition can be considered. Therefore the aim was to include analysis of this pattern in the medical screening of elite athletes during both especially intense and light training periods. METHODS: Plasma amino acid analysis was undertaken in three situations. (1) A medical screening service was offered to elite athletes during an intense training period before the 1992 Olympics. Screening included a blood haematological/biochemical profile and a microbial screen in athletes who presented with infection. The athletes were divided into three groups who differed in training fatigue and were considered separately. Group A (21 track and field athletes) had no lasting fatigue; group B (12 judo competitors) reported heavy fatigue at night but recovered overnight to continue training; group C (18 track and field athletes, one rower) had chronic fatigue and had been unable to train normally for at least several weeks. (2) Athletes from each group were further screened during a post- Olympic light training period. (3) Athletes who still had low amino acid levels during the light training period were reanalysed after three weeks of additional protein intake. RESULTS: (1) The pre-Olympics amino acid patterns were as follows. Group A had a normal amino acid pattern (glutamine 554 (25.2) micromol/l, histidine 79 (6.1) micromol/l, total amino acids 2839 (92.1) micromol/l); all results are means (SEM). By comparison, both groups B and C had decreased plasma glutamine (average 33%; p<0.001) with, especially in group B, decreased histidine, glucogenic, ketogenic, and branched chain amino acids (p<0.05 to p<0.001). None in group A, one in group B, but ten athletes in group C presented with infection: all 11 athletes had plasma glutamine levels of less than 450 micromol/l. No intergroup differences in haematological or other blood biochemical parameters, apart from a

  15. Stardust Abundance Variations among Interplanetary Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messenger, S.; Keller, L. P.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Nguyen, A. N.; Walker, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    Presolar grain abundances reflect the degree of processing primitive materials have experienced. This is evidenced by the wide range of silicate stardust abundances among primitive meteorites (10 to 300 ppm) [1], attributable to parent body hydrothermal processing. Stardust abundance variations are also pronounced in anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (CPIDPs), that have not experienced parent body processing (300 to > 10,000 ppm) [2-4]. The large range in stardust abundances among CP IDPs thus reflect nebular processing. Here we present results of a systematic search for stardust among cluster CP IDPs. Our goals are to establish mineralogical trends among IDPs with different stardust abundances. This may shed light into the nature of isotopically normal presolar grains (GEMS grains?; 5) if their abundances vary similarly to that of isotopically exotic stardust grains.

  16. Amino acid composition of lactating mothers' milk and confinement diet in rural North China.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ming; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Xiaoli; Zhao, Ai; Zhao, Xiaohui; Wang, Peiyu; Sheng, Qing Hai

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the amino acids composition of lactating mothers' milk and their confinement diet in a town in Northern China, as well as to assess the relation of amino acids content in human milk and diet. Forty lactating mothers age 19 to 35 years participated in the study. They were 4 to 180 days postpartum. A 24-hour dietary recall was done and amino acids content of maternal milk was analyzed. The main findings are as follows: (1) The protein content of human milk is 1.58 g/dL and the ratio of EAA to NEAA is about 1:2. The most abundant amino acids in human milk are GLU (16.0%), PRO (10.2%), LEU (8.67%) and the lowest two are MET (1.76%) and TRP (0.91%). (2)The diet contains enough energy and protein, but lacks vitamins A, B and C, indicating that it is a characteristic confinement diet. Grain and eggs are the main source of protein, and soy and fish were consumed less frequently. (3) Amino acids composition in diet and milk are similar; and the correlation of the amino acids patterns between diet and milk is 0.989, demonstrating that the amino acid composition of diet is the foundation of that in human milk. However, almost no relation is found between the amino acids concentration in maternal diet and milk, suggesting that the amino acids content of the diet does not have a direct relation with that of human milk.

  17. Library of Antifouling Surfaces Derived From Natural Amino Acids by Click Reaction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chen; Hu, Xin; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Ye-Min; Liu, Xiao-Jiu; Xie, Bin-Bin; Yao, Chen; Li, Yi; Li, Xin-Song

    2015-08-12

    Biofouling is of great concern in numerous applications ranging from ophthalmological implants to catheters, and from bioseparation to biosensors. In this report, a general and facile strategy to combat surface fouling is developed by grafting of amino acids onto polymer substrates to form zwitterionic structure through amino groups induced epoxy ring opening click reaction. First of all, a library of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate) hydrogels with zwitterionic surfaces were prepared, resulting in the formation of pairs of carboxyl anions and protonated secondary amino cations. The analysis of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the successful immobilization of amino acids on the hydrogel surfaces. After that, the contact angle and equilibrium water content of the modified hydrogels showed that the hydrogels exhibited improved hydrophilicity compared with the parent hydrogel. Furthermore, the protein deposition was evaluated by bicinchoninic acid assay using bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme as models. The results indicated that the performance of the hydrogels was determined by the nature of incorporated amino acid: the hydrogels incorporated with neutral amino acids had nonspecific antiadsorption capability to both BSA and lysozyme; the hydrogels incorporated with charged amino acids showed antiadsorption behaviors against protein with same charge and enhanced adsorption to the protein with opposite charge; the optimal antiadsorption performance was observed on the hydrogels incorporated with polar amino acids with a hydroxyl residual. The improvement of antiprotein fouling of the neutral amino acids grafted hydrogels can be ascribed to the formation of zwitterionic surfaces. Finally, a couple of soft contact lenses grafted with amino acids were fabricated having improved antifouling property and hydrophilicity. The result demonstrated the success of

  18. Synthesis and Anti-microbial Activity of Novel Phosphatidylethanolamine-N-amino Acid Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Vijeetha, Tadla; Balakrishna, Marrapu; Karuna, Mallampalli Sri Lakshmi; Surya Koppeswara Rao, Bhamidipati Venkata; Prasad, Rachapudi Badari Narayana; Kumar, Koochana Pranay; Surya Narayana Murthy, Upadyaula

    2015-01-01

    The study involved synthesis of five novel amino acid derivatives of phosphatidylethanolamine isolated from egg yolk lecithin employing a three step procedure i) N-protection of L-amino acids with BOC anhydride in alkaline medium ii) condensation of - CO2H group of N-protected amino acid with free -NH2 of PE by a peptide linkage and iii) deprotection of N-protected group of amino acids to obtain phosphatidylethanolamine-N-amino acid derivatives in 60-75% yield. The five L-amino acids used were L glycine, L-valine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine and L-phenylalanine. The amino acid derivatives were screened for anti-baterial activity against B. subtilis, S. aureus, P. aeroginosa and E. coli taking Streptomycin as reference compound and anti-fungal activity against C. albicans, S. cervisiae, A. niger taking AmphotericinB as reference compound. All the amino acid derivatives exhibited extraordinary anti-bacterial activities about 3 folds or comparable to Streptomycin and moderate or no anti-fungal activity against Amphotericin-B.

  19. New Insights into Amino Acid Preservation in the Early Oceans using Modern Analytical Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, E. T.; Brinton, K. L.; Burton, A. S.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Bada, J.

    2015-12-01

    Protein- and non-protein-amino acids likely occupied the oceans at the time of the origin and evolution of life. Primordial soup-, hydrothermal vent-, and meteoritic-processes likely contributed to this early chemical inventory. Prebiotic synthesis and carbonaceous meteorite studies suggest that non-protein amino acids were likely more abundant than their protein-counterparts. Amino acid preservation before abiotic and biotic destruction is key to biomarker availability in paleoenvironments and remains an important uncertainty. To constrain primitive amino acid lifetimes, a 1992 archived seawater/beach sand mixture was spiked with D,L-alanine, D,L-valine (Val), α-aminoisobutyric acid (α-AIB), D,L-isovaline (Iva), and glycine (Gly). Analysis by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) showed that only D-Val and non-protein amino acids were abundant after 2250 days. The mixture was re-analyzed in 2012 using HPLC-FD and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (QqQ-MS). The analytical results 20 years after the inception of the experiment were strikingly similar to those after 2250 days. To confirm that viable microorganisms were still present, the mixture was re-spiked with Gly in 2012. Aliquots were collected immediately after spiking, and at 5- and 9-month intervals thereafter. Final HPLC-FD/QqQ-MS analyses were performed in 2014. The 2014 analyses revealed that only α-AIB, D,L-Iva, and D-Val remained abundant. The disappearance of Gly indicated that microorganisms still lived in the mixture and were capable of consuming protein amino acids. These findings demonstrate that non-protein amino acids are minimally impacted by biological degradation and thus have very long lifetimes under these conditions. Primitive non-protein amino acids from terrestrial synthesis, or meteorite in-fall, likely experienced greater preservation than protein amino acids in paleo-oceanic environments. Such robust molecules may have reached a steady

  20. New Insights into Amino Acid Preservation in the Early Oceans Using Modern Analytical Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Eric T.; Brinton, Karen L.; Burton, Aaron S.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Protein- and non-protein-amino acids likely occupied the oceans at the time of the origin and evolution of life. Primordial soup-, hydrothermal vent-, and meteoritic-processes likely contributed to this early chemical inventory. Prebiotic synthesis and carbonaceous meteorite studies suggest that non-protein amino acids were likely more abundant than their protein-counterparts. Amino acid preservation before abiotic and biotic destruction is key to biomarker availability in paleoenvironments and remains an important uncertainty. To constrain primitive amino acid lifetimes, a 1992 archived seawater/beach sand mixture was spiked with D,L-alanine, D,L-valine (Val), alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB), D,L-isovaline (Iva), and glycine (Gly). Analysis by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) showed that only D-Val and non-protein amino acids were abundant after 2250 days. The mixture was re-analyzed in 2012 using HPLC-FD and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (QqQ-MS). The analytical results 20 years after the inception of the experiment were strikingly similar to those after 2250 days. To confirm that viable microorganisms were still present, the mixture was re-spiked with Gly in 2012. Aliquots were collected immediately after spiking, and at 5- and 9-month intervals thereafter. Final HPLC-FD/QqQ-MS analyses were performed in 2014. The 2014 analyses revealed that only alpha-AIB, D,L-Iva, and D-Val remained abundant. The disappearance of Gly indicated that microorganisms still lived in the mixture and were capable of consuming protein amino acids. These findings demonstrate that non-protein amino acids are minimally impacted by biological degradation and thus have very long lifetimes under these conditions. Primitive non-protein amino acids from terrestrial synthesis, or meteorite in-fall, likely experienced great-er preservation than protein amino acids in paleo-oceanic environments. Such robust molecules may have reached a

  1. Isolation and characterization of hardening-induced proteins in Chlorella vulgaris C-27: identification of late embryogenesis abundant proteins.

    PubMed

    Honjoh, K; Yoshimoto, M; Joh, T; Kajiwara, T; Miyamoto, T; Hatano, S

    1995-12-01

    Hardening-induced soluble proteins of Chlorella vulgaris Beijerink IAM C-27 (formerly Chlorella ellipsoidea Gerneck IAM C-27) were isolated and purified by two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography (2D-HPLC) on an anion-exchange column, with subsequent reversed-phase chromatography. Some of the proteins were resolved by SDS-PAGE, characterized by amino-terminal sequencing and identified by searching for homologies in databases. Separation of the soluble proteins during the hardening of Chlorella by a combination of 2D-HPLC and SDS-PAGE revealed that at least 31 proteins were induced or increased in abundance. Of particular interest was the induction after 12 h of a 10-kDa protein with the amino-terminal amino acid sequence AGNKPITEQISDAVGAAGQKVG and the induction after 6 h of a 14-kDa protein with the amino-terminal sequence ALGEESLGDKAKNAFEDAKDAVKDAAGNVKEAV. The amino-terminal sequences of these proteins indicated that they were homologous to late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins. Furthermore, the level of a 22-kDa protein also increased after 12 h. The amino-terminal sequence of this protein, AAPLVGGPAPDFTAAAVFD, indicated that it was homologous to thioredoxin peroxidase. PMID:8589927

  2. Amino Acid Free Energy Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Fairchild, Michael; Livesay, Dennis; Jacobs, Donald

    2009-03-01

    The Distance Constraint Model (DCM) describes protein thermodynamics at a coarse-grained level based on a Free Energy Decomposition (FED) that assigns energy and entropy contributions to specific molecular interactions. Application of constraint theory accounts for non-additivity in conformational entropy so that the total free energy of a system can be reconstituted from all its molecular parts. In prior work, a minimal DCM utilized a simple FED involving temperature-independent parameters indiscriminately applied to all residues. Here, we describe a residue-specific FED that depends on local conformational states. The FED of an amino acid is constructed by weighting the energy spectrums associated with local energy minimums in configuration space by absolute entropies estimated using a quasi-harmonic approximation. Interesting temperature-dependent behavior is found. Support is from NIH R01 GM073082 and a CRI postdoctoral Duke research fellowship for H. Wang.

  3. Ammonia and nitrogen abundances in comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyckoff, Susan

    1990-01-01

    Comets consist of pristine material preserved from an earlier galactic epoch. Determination of the molecular, elemental, and isotopic abundances in the dust and volatile components of comet nuclei produce vital clues to the chemical evolution of both interstellar and solar nebula matter. Here the abundances of nitrogen-containing molecules in comets are considered. The molecular abundances of NH3 in four comets are summarized (Tegler 1990, Wyckoff, Tegler, and Engel, 1990). From an inventory of nitrogen-containing compounds (Wyckoff, Engel, and Tegler 1990, Wyckoff, Engel, Womack, Ferro, Tegler and Peterson, 1990), an estimate of the elemental N abundance is also presented.

  4. A catalogue of helium abundance indicators from globular cluster photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandquist, Eric L.

    2000-04-01

    We present a survey of helium abundance indicators derived from a comprehensive study of globular cluster photometry in the literature. For each of the three indicators used, we conduct a thorough error analysis, and identify systematic errors in the computational procedures. For the population ratio RNHBNRGB, we find that there is no evidence of a trend with metallicity, although there appears to be real scatter in the values derived. Although this indicator is the one best able to provide useful absolute helium abundances, the mean value is Y~0.20, indicating the probable presence of additional systematic error. For the magnitude difference from the horizontal branch to the main sequence Δ and the RR Lyrae mass-luminosity exponent A, it is only possible to determine relative helium abundances reliably. This is due to continuing uncertainties in the absolute metallicity scale for Δ, and uncertainty in the RR Lyrae temperature scale for A. Both indicators imply that the helium abundance is approximately constant as a function of [Fe/H]. According to the A indicator, both Oosterhoff I and II group clusters have constant values independent of [Fe/H] and horizontal branch type. In addition, the two groups have slopes dlog/d[Fe/H] that are consistent with each other, but significantly smaller than the slope for the combined sample.

  5. Potential retention effect at fish farms boosts zooplankton abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Jover, D.; Toledo-Guedes, K.; Valero-Rodríguez, J. M.; Fernandez-Gonzalez, V.; Sanchez-Jerez, P.

    2016-11-01

    Coastal aquaculture activities influence wild macrofauna in natural environments due to the introduction of artificial structures, such as floating cages, that provide structural complexity in the pelagic system. This alters the abundance and distribution of the affected species and also their feeding behaviour and diet. Despite this, the effects of coastal aquaculture on zooplankton assemblages and the potential changes in their abundance and distribution remain largely unstudied. Traditional plankton sampling hauls between the farm mooring systems entail some practical difficulties. As an alternative, light traps were deployed at 2 farms in the SW Mediterranean during a whole warm season. Total zooplankton capture by traps at farms was higher than at control locations on every sampling night. It ranged from 3 to 10 times higher for the taxonomic groups: bivalvia, cladocera, cumacea, fish early-life-stages, gastropoda, polychaeta and tanaidacea; 10-20 times higher for amphipoda, chaetognatha, isopoda, mysidacea and ostracoda, and 22 times higher for copepoda and the crustacean juvenile stages zoea and megalopa. Permutational analysis showed significant differences for the most abundant zooplankton groups (copepoda, crustacean larvae, chaetognatha, cladocera, mysidacea and polychaeta). This marked incremental increase in zooplankton taxa at farms was consistent, irrespective of the changing environmental variables registered every night. Reasons for the greater abundance of zooplankton at farms are discussed, although results suggest a retention effect caused by cage structures rather than active attraction through physical or chemical cues.

  6. Oceanic heterotrophic dinoflagellates: distribution, abundance, and role as microzooplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Lessard, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    The primary objectives of this thesis were to determine the distribution and abundance of heterotrophic dinoflagellates across the Gulf Stream system off Cape Hatteras and to assess the potential grazing impact of these microheterotrophs in plankton communities. A list of species encountered in this study and their trophic status based on epifluorescence is presented, as well as observations on the presence of external or internal symbionts. The abundance of heterotrophic dinoflagellates across the Gulf Stream region off Cape Hatteras was determined from bimonthly net tow samples over a year and from whole water samples in March. Their average abundance was twice that of net ciliates in the net plankton and ten times that of ciliates in the nanoplankton. An isotope technique was developed to measure grazing rates of individual dinoflaggellates and other microzooplankton which cannot be separated in natural populations on the basis of size. /sup 3/H-thymidine and /sup 14/C-bicarbonate were used to label natural heterotrophic (bacteria and bacterivores) and autotrophic (phytoplankton and herbivores) food, respectively. Estimates of the grazing impact of heterotrophic kinoflagellates relative to other groups of heterotrophs on phytoplankton and bacteria were made by combining abundance data and clearance rates. Such calculations suggested that heterotrophic dinoflagellates may be an important group of grazers in oceanic waters.

  7. Enantiomeric excesses in meteoritic amino acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, J. R.; Pizzarello, S.

    1997-01-01

    Gas chromatographic-mass spectral analyses of the four stereoisomers of 2-amino-2,3-dimethylpentanoic acid (dl-alpha-methylisoleucine and dl-alpha-methylalloisoleucine) obtained from the Murchison meteorite show that the L enantiomer occurs in excess (7.0 and 9.1%, respectively) in both of the enantiomeric pairs. Similar results were obtained for two other alpha-methyl amino acids, isovaline and alpha-methylnorvaline, although the alpha hydrogen analogs of these amino acids, alpha-amino-n-butyric acid and norvaline, were found to be racemates. With the exception of alpha-amino-n-butyric acid, these amino acids are either unknown or of limited occurrence in the biosphere. Because carbonaceous chondrites formed 4.5 billion years ago, the results are indicative of an asymmetric influence on organic chemical evolution before the origin of life.

  8. Abundance of introduced species at home predicts abundance away in herbaceous communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Firn, Jennifer; Moore, Joslin L.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Seabloom, Eric W.; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Harpole, W. Stanley; Cleland, Elsa E.; Brown, Cynthia S.; Knops, Johannes M.H.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Pyke, David A.; Farrell, Kelly A.; Bakker, John D.; O'Halloran, Lydia R.; Adler, Peter B.; Collins, Scott L.; D'Antonio, Carla M.; Crawley, Michael J.; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Hautier, Yann; Morgan, John W.; Leakey, Andrew D.B.; Kay, Adam; McCulley, Rebecca; Davies, Kendi F.; Stevens, Carly J.; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Holl, Karen D.; Klein, Julia A.; Fay, Phillip A.; Hagenah, Nicole; Kirkman, Kevin P.; Buckley, Yvonne M.

    2011-01-01

    Many ecosystems worldwide are dominated by introduced plant species, leading to loss of biodiversity and ecosystem function. A common but rarely tested assumption is that these plants are more abundant in introduced vs. native communities, because ecological or evolutionary-based shifts in populations underlie invasion success. Here, data for 26 herbaceous species at 39 sites, within eight countries, revealed that species abundances were similar at native (home) and introduced (away) sites - grass species were generally abundant home and away, while forbs were low in abundance, but more abundant at home. Sites with six or more of these species had similar community abundance hierarchies, suggesting that suites of introduced species are assembling similarly on different continents. Overall, we found that substantial changes to populations are not necessarily a pre-condition for invasion success and that increases in species abundance are unusual. Instead, abundance at home predicts abundance away, a potentially useful additional criterion for biosecurity programmes.

  9. Supplementation with branched-chain amino acids to a low-protein diet regulates intestinal expression of amino acid and peptide transporters in weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shihai; Qiao, Shiyan; Ren, Man; Zeng, Xiangfang; Ma, Xi; Wu, Zhenlong; Thacker, Philip; Wu, Guoyao

    2013-11-01

    This study determined the effects of dietary branched-chain amino acids (AA) (BCAA) on growth performance, expression of jejunal AA and peptide transporters, and the colonic microflora of weanling piglets fed a low-protein (LP) diet. One hundred and eight Large White × Landrace × Duroc piglets (weaned at 28 days of age) were fed a normal protein diet (NP, 20.9 % crude protein), an LP diet (LP, 17.1 % crude protein), or an LP diet supplemented with BCAA (LP + BCAA, 17.9 % crude protein) for 14 days. Dietary protein restriction reduced piglet growth performance and small-intestinal villous height, which were restored by BCAA supplementation to the LP diet to values for the NP diet. Serum concentrations of BCAA were reduced in piglets fed the LP diet while those in piglets fed the LP + BCAA diet were similar to values for the NP group. mRNA levels for Na(+)-neutral AA exchanger-2, cationic AA transporter-1, b(0,+) AA transporter, and 4F2 heavy chain were more abundant in piglets fed the LP + BCAA diet than the LP diet. However, mRNA and protein levels for peptide transporter-1 were lower in piglets fed the LP + BCAA diet as compared to the LP diet. The colonic microflora did not differ among the three groups of pigs. In conclusion, growth performance, intestinal development, and intestinal expression of AA transporters in weanling piglets are enhanced by BCAA supplementation to LP diets. Our findings provide a new molecular basis for further understanding of BCAA as functional AA in animal nutrition.

  10. Amino and fatty acids in carbonaceous meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvenvolden, K. A.

    1974-01-01

    Analyses of two carbonaceous meteorites have provided much of the latest evidence which seems to support Oparin's theory on the origin of life. The meteorites involved are the Murray meteorite, which fell in 1950, and the Murchison meteorite, which fell in 1969. The amino acids in the two meteorites are similar in composition. Eight of the twenty amino acids found belong to amino acids present in proteins. A number of monocarboxylic and dicarboxylic fatty acids were also found in the meteorites.

  11. Amino acids precursors in lunar finds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, S. W.; Harada, K.; Hare, P. E.; Hinsch, G.; Mueller, G.

    1975-01-01

    The consistent pattern is discussed of amino acids found in lunar dust from Apollo missions. The evidence indicates that compounds yielding amino acids were implanted into the surface of the moon by the solar wind, and the kind and amounts of amino acids found on the moon are closely similar to those found in meteorites. It is concluded that there is a common cosmochemical pattern for the moom and meteorites, and this offers evidence of a common course of cosmochemical reactions for carbon.

  12. Probing the Specificity Determinants of Amino Acid Recognition by Arginase

    SciTech Connect

    Shishova, E.; Di Costanzo, L; Emig, F; Ash, D; Christianson, D

    2009-01-01

    Arginase is a binuclear manganese metalloenzyme that serves as a therapeutic target for the treatment of asthma, erectile dysfunction, and atherosclerosis. In order to better understand the molecular basis of inhibitor affinity, we have employed site-directed mutagenesis, enzyme kinetics, and X-ray crystallography to probe the molecular recognition of the amino acid moiety (i.e., the ?-amino and ?-carboxylate groups) of substrate l-arginine and inhibitors in the active site of arginase I. Specifically, we focus on (1) a water-mediated hydrogen bond between the substrate ?-carboxylate and T135, (2) a direct hydrogen bond between the substrate ?-carboxylate and N130, and (3) a direct charged hydrogen bond between the substrate ?-amino group and D183. Amino acid substitutions for T135, N130, and D183 generally compromise substrate affinity as reflected by increased KM values but have less pronounced effects on catalytic function as reflected by minimal variations of kcat. As with substrate KM values, inhibitor Kd values increase for binding to enzyme mutants and suggest that the relative contribution of intermolecular interactions to amino acid affinity in the arginase active site is water-mediated hydrogen bond < direct hydrogen bond < direct charged hydrogen bond. Structural comparisons of arginase with the related binuclear manganese metalloenzymes agmatinase and proclavaminic acid amidinohydrolase suggest that the evolution of substrate recognition in the arginase fold occurs by mutation of residues contained in specificity loops flanking the mouth of the active site (especially loops 4 and 5), thereby allowing diverse guanidinium substrates to be accommodated for catalysis.

  13. Rapid complexing of oxoacylglycerols with amino acids, peptides and aminophospholipids.

    PubMed

    Kurvinen, J P; Kuksis, A; Ravandi, A; Sjövall, O; Kallio, H

    1999-03-01

    We prepared model Schiff bases from 2-[9-oxo]nonanoyl glycerol (2-MAG-ALD) and various amino compounds. 2-MAG-ALD was obtained by pancreatic lipase hydrolysis of trioleoyl glycerol and reductive ozonolysis of the resulting 2-monooleoyl glycerol. The reaction products were purified by thin-layer chromatography. Schiff bases were synthesized in greater than 50% yield by reacting 2-MAG-ALD with twofold molar excess of valine, Nalpha-acetyl-L-lysine methyl ester and the tripeptides glycyl-glycyl-glycine, glycyl-glycyl-histidine, and glycyl-histidyl-lysine in aqueous methanol and with 1-palmitoyl-2-stearoyl glycerophosphoethanolamine (PE) in chloroform/methanol for 16 h at room temperature. Prior to analysis the bases were reduced with sodium cyanoborohydride in methanol for 30 min at 4 degrees C. Reaction products were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI/MS). Reduced Schiff bases of 2-MAG-ALD with PE and amino acids were analyzed by normal-phase HPLC/ESI/MS and those with peptides by reversed-phase HPLC/ESI/MS. Single adducts were obtained in all cases and both the alpha-amino group of valine and the epsilon-amino group of Nalpha-acetyl-L-lysine methyl ester were reactive. Molecular ions of reaction products were the only detected ions in the negative ionization mode, whereas in the positive ion mode sodiated molecular ions were also detected. The present study suggests that 2-MAG-ALD may form Schiff base adducts with amino compounds in other aqueous media, such as the intestinal lumen and in the hydrophobic environment of cell membranes. PMID:10230725

  14. Practical synthesis of enantiomerically pure beta2-amino acids via proline-catalyzed diastereoselective aminomethylation of aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Chi, Yonggui; English, Emily P; Pomerantz, William C; Horne, W Seth; Joyce, Leo A; Alexander, Lane R; Fleming, William S; Hopkins, Elizabeth A; Gellman, Samuel H

    2007-05-01

    Proline-catalyzed diastereoselective aminomethylation of aldehydes using a chiral iminium ion, generated from a readily prepared precursor, provides alpha-substituted-beta-amino aldehydes with 85:15 to 90:10 dr. The alpha-substituted-beta-amino aldehydes can be reduced to beta-substituted-gamma-amino alcohols, the major diastereomer of which can be isolated via crystallization or column chromatography. The amino alcohols are efficiently transformed to protected beta2-amino acids, which are valuable building blocks for beta-peptides, natural products, and other interesting molecules. Because conditions for the aminomethylation and subsequent reactions are mild, beta2-amino acid derivatives with protected functional groups in the side chain, such as beta2-homoglutamic acid, beta2-homotyrosine, and beta2-homolysine, can be prepared in this way. The synthetic route is short, and purifications are simple; therefore, this method enables the preparation of protected beta2-amino acids in useful quantities.

  15. Amino acid composition of some Mexican foods.

    PubMed

    Morales de León, Josefina; Camacho, M Elena; Bourges, Héctor

    2005-06-01

    Knowledge of the amino acid composition of foods is essential to calculate their chemical score, which is used to predict protein quality of foods and diets. Though amino acid composition of many foods is reasonably well established, better knowledge is needed on native foods consumed in different regions and countries. This paper presents the amino acid composition of different presentations of raw and processed foods produced and consumed in Mexico. The amino acid composition was determined using Beckman amino acid analyzers (models 116 and 6300). Tryptophan was determined using the Spies and Chambers method. Of the different foods analyzed, some comments are made on native or basic foods in Mexico: Spirulin, where lysine is the limiting amino acid, with a chemical score of 67%, is a good source of tryptophan (1.16g/16 gN); amaranth contains high levels of sulphur amino acids (4.09 to 5.34 g/16gN), with a protein content of 15 g/100g; and pulque, a Pre-Hispanic beverage that contains high levels of tryptophan (2.58 g/16 gN) and sulphur amino acids (2.72 g/16 gN). Finally, insects are good sources of sulphur amino acids and lysine.

  16. Modelling community dynamics based on species-level abundance models from detection/nondetection data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yamaura, Yuichi; Royle, J. Andrew; Kuboi, Kouji; Tada, Tsuneo; Ikeno, Susumu; Makino, Shun'ichi

    2011-01-01

    1. In large-scale field surveys, a binary recording of each species' detection or nondetection has been increasingly adopted for its simplicity and low cost. Because of the importance of abundance in many studies, it is desirable to obtain inferences about abundance at species-, functional group-, and community-levels from such binary data. 2. We developed a novel hierarchical multi-species abundance model based on species-level detection/nondetection data. The model accounts for the existence of undetected species, and variability in abundance and detectability among species. Species-level detection/nondetection is linked to species- level abundance via a detection model that accommodates the expectation that probability of detection (at least one individuals is detected) increases with local abundance of the species. We applied this model to a 9-year dataset composed of the detection/nondetection of forest birds, at a single post-fire site (from 7 to 15 years after fire) in a montane area of central Japan. The model allocated undetected species into one of the predefined functional groups by assuming a prior distribution on individual group membership. 3. The results suggest that 15–20 species were missed in each year, and that species richness of communities and functional groups did not change with post-fire forest succession. Overall abundance of birds and abundance of functional groups tended to increase over time, although only in the winter, while decreases in detectabilities were observed in several species. 4. Synthesis and applications. Understanding and prediction of large-scale biodiversity dynamics partly hinge on how we can use data effectively. Our hierarchical model for detection/nondetection data estimates abundance in space/time at species-, functional group-, and community-levels while accounting for undetected individuals and species. It also permits comparison of multiple communities by many types of abundance-based diversity and similarity

  17. Numerical resolution limits on subhalo abundance matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Qi; White, Simon

    2014-02-01

    Subhalo abundance matching (SHAM) inserts galaxies into dark matter only simulations of the growth of cosmic structure in a way that requires minimal assumptions about galaxy formation. A galaxy is placed at the potential minimum of each distinct self-bound subhalo with a luminosity which is a monotonically increasing function of the maximum mass (or circular velocity) attained over the subhalo's earlier history. Galaxy and subhalo properties are linked by matching model and observed luminosity functions. Simulated structures can then be compared in detail with observation, for example, through galaxy correlation statistics, group catalogues or galaxy-galaxy lensing. Robust astrophysical conclusions can be drawn from such a comparison only on scales which are unaffected by the numerical limitations of the simulation. Here, we compare results for the Millennium Simulation (MS) with subhaloes defined using the SUBFIND to those obtained applying identical analysis to the much higher resolution Millennium-II. Correlation statistics on scales between 200 and 2 Mpc converge to within 20 per cent only for subhaloes with masses at infall corresponding to at least 1000 simulation particles in the MS. Numerically converged results can be obtained to much lower infall particle number, if galaxies are followed even after their associated subhaloes have been tidally disrupted, as in most recent semi-analytic galaxy formation simulations. This allows robust comparison between simulation and observation over a wider dynamic range in mass than for a SHAM analysis which ignores such `orphan' galaxies.

  18. Changes in amino acids and lipids during embryogenesis of European lobster, Homarus gammarus (Crustacea: Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Rosa, R; Calado, R; Andrade, A M; Narciso, L; Nunes, M L

    2005-02-01

    We studied the amino acid and lipid dynamics during embryogenesis of Homarus gammarus. Major essential amino acids (EAA) in the last stage of embryonic development were arginine, lysine and leucine; major nonessential amino acids (NEAA) were glutamic acid, aspartic acid, valine and glycine. The highest percent of utilization occurred in respect to EAA (27.8%), mainly due to a significant decrease (p<0.05) of methionine (38.3%) and threonine (36.0%). NEAA also decreased significantly (p<0.05, 11.4%), namely serine (38.1%), tyrosine (26.4%) and glutamic acid (25.7%). In contrast, the free amino acid content increased significantly (p<0.05) during embryonic development, especially the free nonessential amino acids (FNEAA). In the last stage, the most abundant FNEAA were glycine, proline, alanine and taurine, and the major free essential amino acids (FEAA) were arginine, lysine and leucine. Lipid content decreased significantly (p<0.05) during embryonic development. A substantial decrease in all neutral lipid classes was observed (>80% of utilization). Major fatty acids were 16:0, 18:0, 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3. Unsaturated (UFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA) were used up at similar rates (76.5% and 76.3%, respectively). Within UFA, monounsaturates (MUFA) were consumed more than polyunsaturates (PUFA) (82.9% and 67.5%, respectively). PMID:15649771

  19. Heterogeneous Distributions of Amino Acids Provide Evidence of Multiple Sources Within the Almahata Sitta Parent Body, Asteroid 2008 TC(sub 3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Jenniskens, Peter; Shaddad, Muawia H.

    2011-01-01

    Two new fragments of the Almahata Sitta meteorite and a sample of sand from the related strewn field in the Nubian Desert, Sudan, were analyzed for two to six carbon aliphatic primary amino acids by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography with UV-fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-FT/ToF-MS). The distribution of amino acids in fragment #25, an H5 ordinary chondrite, and fragment #27, a polymict ureilite, were compared with results from the previously analyzed fragment #4, also a polymict ureilite. All three meteorite fragments contain 180-270 parts-per-billion (ppb) of amino acids, roughly 1000-fold lower than the total amino acid abundance of the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite. All of the Almahata Sitta fragments analyzed have amino acid distributions that differ from the Nubian Desert sand, which primarily contains L-alpha-amino acids. In addition, the meteorites contain several amino acids that were not detected in the sand, indicating that many of the amino acids are extraterrestrial in origin. Despite their petrological differences, meteorite fragments #25 and #27 contain similar amino acid compositions; however, the distribution of amino acids in fragment #27 was distinct from those in fragment #4, even though both arc polymict ureilites from the same parent body. Unlike in CM2 and CR2/3 meteorites, there are low relative abundances of alpha-amino acids in the Almahata Sitta meteorite fragments, which suggest that Strecker-type chemistry was not a significant amino acid formation mechanism. Given the high temperatures that asteroid 2008 TC3 appears to have experienced and lack of evidence for aqueous alteration on the asteroid, it is possible that the extraterrestrial amino acids detected in Almahata Sitta were formed by Fischer-Tropsch/Haber-Bosch type gas-grain reactions at elevated temperatures.

  20. Analysis of the biologic differences between porcine circovirus type 2 Group-1 and Group-2 viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phylogenetically, porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) isolates have been divided into two subgroups: Group-1 and Group-2. Although the genomic nucleotide sequences of Group-1 and Group-2 viruses differ by less than 5 percent, distinct amino acid residue motifs have been noted in the coding sequences o...

  1. Role of amino acid transporters in amino acid sensing1234

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Amino acid (AA) transporters may act as sensors, as well as carriers, of tissue nutrient supplies. This review considers recent advances in our understanding of the AA-sensing functions of AA transporters in both epithelial and nonepithelial cells. These transporters mediate AA exchanges between extracellular and intracellular fluid compartments, delivering substrates to intracellular AA sensors. AA transporters on endosomal (eg, lysosomal) membranes may themselves function as intracellular AA sensors. AA transporters at the cell surface, particularly those for large neutral AAs such as leucine, interact functionally with intracellular nutrient-signaling pathways that regulate metabolism: for example, the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway, which promotes cell growth, and the general control non-derepressible (GCN) pathway, which is activated by AA starvation. Under some circumstances, upregulation of AA transporter expression [notably a leucine transporter, solute carrier 7A5 (SLC7A5)] is required to initiate AA-dependent activation of the mTORC1 pathway. Certain AA transporters may have dual receptor-transporter functions, operating as “transceptors” to sense extracellular (or intracellular) AA availability upstream of intracellular signaling pathways. New opportunities for nutritional therapy may include targeting of AA transporters (or mechanisms that upregulate their expression) to promote protein-anabolic signals for retention or recovery of lean tissue mass. PMID:24284439

  2. Plasma Amino Acids Changes in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Guillermo M.; Reichenberger, Erin; Peterlin, B. Lee; Perreault, Marielle J.; Grothusen, John R.; Schwartzman, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a severe chronic pain condition that most often develops following trauma. Blood samples were collected from 220 individuals, 160 CRPS subjects, and 60 healthy pain-free controls. Plasma amino acid levels were compared and contrasted between groups. L-Aspartate, L-glutamate, and L-ornithine were significantly increased, whereas L-tryptophan and L-arginine were significantly decreased in CRPS subjects as compared to controls. In addition, the L-kynurenine to L-tryptophan ratio demonstrated a significant increase, whereas the global arginine bioavailability ratio (GABR) was significantly decreased in the CRPS subjects. The CRPS subjects demonstrated a significant correlation between overall pain and the plasma levels of L-glutamate and the L-kynurenine to L-tryptophan ratio. CRPS subjects also showed a correlation between the decrease in plasma L-tryptophan and disease duration. This study shows that CRPS subjects exhibit significant changes in plasma levels of amino acids involved in glutamate receptor activation and in amino acids associated with immune function as compared to healthy pain-free controls. A better understanding of the role plasma amino acids play in the pathophysiology of CRPS may lead to novel treatments for this crippling condition. PMID:24303215

  3. Optimization of cationic amino starch synthesis using biogenic amines.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Renil John; Sims, Ronald C

    2013-11-01

    Harvesting microalgae presents a challenge in selecting the most economical method for low cost algal bioproducts. Previous studies have shown coagulation-flocculation to be the most efficient method for large scale microalgae harvesting. This study focused on modifying native potato starch with biogenic amines and optimizing the reaction parameters. Such modification rendered the starch cationic, with an ability to destabilize microalgae suspensions or colloids. The effect of time, temperature, and reactant concentrations on the zeta potential of the cationic amino starch was studied. Biogenic amines including putrescine, histamine, cadaverine, and tyramine were selected for study based on the number of nitrogen groups in their structure. Zeta potential for histamine cationic amino starch was significantly higher (+9.0±2.0 mV) at lower reaction temperatures, regardless of the amine to starch ratio and reaction time intervals. Putrescine, cadaverine, and tyramine cationic amino starches exhibited significantly higher zeta potential values (13.76±3.60, 6.81±1.64, and 5.68±1.60 mV, respectively) with amine to starch ratio higher than reaction stoichiometry, irrespective of reaction temperature or time intervals. This optimization study has presented a basis for designing reaction conditions for the synthesis of cationic amino starch from an inhomogeneous mix of biogenic amines derived from waste sources.

  4. Climate and local abundance in freshwater fishes

    PubMed Central

    Knouft, Jason H.; Anthony, Melissa M.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying factors regulating variation in numbers of individuals among populations across a species' distribution is a fundamental goal in ecology. A common prediction, often referred to as the abundant-centre hypothesis, suggests that abundance is highest near the centre of a species' range. However, because of the primary focus on the geographical position of a population, this framework provides little insight into the environmental factors regulating local abundance. While range-wide variation in population abundance associated with environmental conditions has been investigated in terrestrial species, the relationship between climate and local abundance in freshwater taxa across species' distributions is not well understood. We used GIS-based temperature and precipitation data to determine the relationships between climatic conditions and range-wide variation in local abundance for 19 species of North American freshwater fishes. Climate predicted a portion of the variation in local abundance among populations for 18 species. In addition, the relationship between climatic conditions and local abundance varied among species, which is expected as lineages partition the environment across geographical space. The influence of local habitat quality on species persistence is well documented; however, our results also indicate the importance of climate in regulating population sizes across a species geographical range, even in aquatic taxa. PMID:27429769

  5. Climate and local abundance in freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    Knouft, Jason H; Anthony, Melissa M

    2016-06-01

    Identifying factors regulating variation in numbers of individuals among populations across a species' distribution is a fundamental goal in ecology. A common prediction, often referred to as the abundant-centre hypothesis, suggests that abundance is highest near the centre of a species' range. However, because of the primary focus on the geographical position of a population, this framework provides little insight into the environmental factors regulating local abundance. While range-wide variation in population abundance associated with environmental conditions has been investigated in terrestrial species, the relationship between climate and local abundance in freshwater taxa across species' distributions is not well understood. We used GIS-based temperature and precipitation data to determine the relationships between climatic conditions and range-wide variation in local abundance for 19 species of North American freshwater fishes. Climate predicted a portion of the variation in local abundance among populations for 18 species. In addition, the relationship between climatic conditions and local abundance varied among species, which is expected as lineages partition the environment across geographical space. The influence of local habitat quality on species persistence is well documented; however, our results also indicate the importance of climate in regulating population sizes across a species geographical range, even in aquatic taxa. PMID:27429769

  6. Embryonic Protein Undernutrition by Albumen Removal Programs the Hepatic Amino Acid and Glucose Metabolism during the Perinatal Period in an Avian Model

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Els; Hu, Tjing-Tjing; Soler Vasco, Laura; Buyse, Johan; Decuypere, Eddy; Arckens, Lutgarde; Everaert, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Different animal models have been used to study the effects of prenatal protein undernutrition and the mechanisms by which these occur. In mammals, the maternal diet is manipulated, exerting both direct nutritional and indirect hormonal effects. Chicken embryos develop independent from the hen in the egg. Therefore, in the chicken, the direct effects of protein deficiency by albumen removal early during incubation can be examined. Prenatal protein undernutrition was established in layer-type eggs by the partial replacement of albumen by saline at embryonic day 1 (albumen-deprived group), compared to a mock-treated sham and a non-treated control group. At hatch, survival of the albumen-deprived group was lower compared to the control and sham group due to increased early mortality by the manipulation. No treatment differences in yolk-free body weight or yolk weight could be detected. The water content of the yolk was reduced, whereas the water content of the carcass was increased in the albumen-deprived group, compared to the control group, indicating less uptake of nutrients from the yolk. At embryonic day 16, 20 and at hatch, plasma triiodothyronine (T3), corticosterone, lactate or glucose concentrations and hepatic glycogen content were not affected by treatment. At embryonic day 20, the plasma thyroxine (T4) concentrations of the albumen-deprived embryos was reduced compared to the control group, indicating a decreased metabolic rate. Screening for differential protein expression in the liver at hatch using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis revealed not only changed abundance of proteins important for amino acid metabolism, but also of enzymes related to energy and glucose metabolism. Interestingly, GLUT1, a glucose transporter, and PCK2 and FBP1, two out of three regulatory enzymes of the gluconeogenesis were dysregulated. No parallel differences in gene expressions causing the differences in protein abundance could be detected pointing to post

  7. Embryonic protein undernutrition by albumen removal programs the hepatic amino acid and glucose metabolism during the perinatal period in an avian model.

    PubMed

    Willems, Els; Hu, Tjing-Tjing; Soler Vasco, Laura; Buyse, Johan; Decuypere, Eddy; Arckens, Lutgarde; Everaert, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Different animal models have been used to study the effects of prenatal protein undernutrition and the mechanisms by which these occur. In mammals, the maternal diet is manipulated, exerting both direct nutritional and indirect hormonal effects. Chicken embryos develop independent from the hen in the egg. Therefore, in the chicken, the direct effects of protein deficiency by albumen removal early during incubation can be examined. Prenatal protein undernutrition was established in layer-type eggs by the partial replacement of albumen by saline at embryonic day 1 (albumen-deprived group), compared to a mock-treated sham and a non-treated control group. At hatch, survival of the albumen-deprived group was lower compared to the control and sham group due to increased early mortality by the manipulation. No treatment differences in yolk-free body weight or yolk weight could be detected. The water content of the yolk was reduced, whereas the water content of the carcass was increased in the albumen-deprived group, compared to the control group, indicating less uptake of nutrients from the yolk. At embryonic day 16, 20 and at hatch, plasma triiodothyronine (T3), corticosterone, lactate or glucose concentrations and hepatic glycogen content were not affected by treatment. At embryonic day 20, the plasma thyroxine (T4) concentrations of the albumen-deprived embryos was reduced compared to the control group, indicating a decreased metabolic rate. Screening for differential protein expression in the liver at hatch using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis revealed not only changed abundance of proteins important for amino acid metabolism, but also of enzymes related to energy and glucose metabolism. Interestingly, GLUT1, a glucose transporter, and PCK2 and FBP1, two out of three regulatory enzymes of the gluconeogenesis were dysregulated. No parallel differences in gene expressions causing the differences in protein abundance could be detected pointing to post

  8. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo substituted phenyl azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo substituted phenyl azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo substituted phenyl azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo substituted phenyl azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo substituted phenyl azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato...

  13. Training Groups, Encounter Groups, Sensitivity Groups and Group Psychotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Gottschalk, Louis A.; Pattison, E. Mansell; Schafer, Donald W.

    1971-01-01

    Descriptions and comparison of group therapies and the new group procedures (training groups and sensitivity groups—an outgrowth of the so-called Laboratory Movement methods of the mid-1930's) have been provided for the better understanding of non-psychiatric physicians. A group leader must have proper training and must help his group in its search for its avowed goals, whether he is a group therapist, a sensitivity trainer, or anyone else interested in utilizing group processes. Those goals are either the therapeutic benefit of the individual, as defined in group psychotherapy, or a better understanding of how one functions in groups, as in T-groups or the other group processes in the area of sensitive living. All group situations contain powerful tools which must be handled with proper respect. When so handled by experienced leaders, the individuals involved can achieve their goals in these group experiences. PMID:18730582

  14. Group Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahler, Clarence A.

    1971-01-01

    This article reviews the major concerns of group counseling and differentiates among group guidance, group counseling, and group therapy. It also evaluates the research status of group counseling and presents implications for the future of this approach. Comment by Carl E. Thoresen follows. (Author)

  15. The abundance threshold for plague as a critical percolation phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Davis, S; Trapman, P; Leirs, H; Begon, M; Heesterbeek, J A P

    2008-07-31

    Percolation theory is most commonly associated with the slow flow of liquid through a porous medium, with applications to the physical sciences. Epidemiological applications have been anticipated for disease systems where the host is a plant or volume of soil, and hence is fixed in space. However, no natural examples have been reported. The central question of interest in percolation theory, the possibility of an infinite connected cluster, corresponds in infectious disease to a positive probability of an epidemic. Archived records of plague (infection with Yersinia pestis) in populations of great gerbils (Rhombomys opimus) in Kazakhstan have been used to show that epizootics only occur when more than about 0.33 of the burrow systems built by the host are occupied by family groups. The underlying mechanism for this abundance threshold is unknown. Here we present evidence that it is a percolation threshold, which arises from the difference in scale between the movements that transport infectious fleas between family groups and the vast size of contiguous landscapes colonized by gerbils. Conventional theory predicts that abundance thresholds for the spread of infectious disease arise when transmission between hosts is density dependent such that the basic reproduction number (R(0)) increases with abundance, attaining 1 at the threshold. Percolation thresholds, however, are separate, spatially explicit thresholds that indicate long-range connectivity in a system and do not coincide with R(0) = 1. Abundance thresholds are the theoretical basis for attempts to manage infectious disease by reducing the abundance of susceptibles, including vaccination and the culling of wildlife. This first natural example of a percolation threshold in a disease system invites a re-appraisal of other invasion thresholds, such as those for epidemic viral infections in African lions (Panthera leo), and of other disease systems such as bovine tuberculosis (caused by Mycobacterium bovis) in

  16. Influence of Coronal Abundance Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scargle, Jeffrey D. (Technical Monitor); Kashyap, Vinay

    2005-01-01

    The PI of this project was Jeff Scargle of NASA/Ames. Co-I's were Alma Connors of Eureka Scientific/Wellesley, and myself. Part of the work was subcontracted to Eureka Scientific via SAO, with Vinay Kashyap as PI. This project was originally assigned grant number NCC2-1206, and was later changed to NCC2-1350 for administrative reasons. The goal of the project was to obtain, derive, and develop statistical and data analysis tools that would be of use in the analyses of high-resolution, high-sensitivity data that are becoming available with new instruments. This is envisioned as a cross-disciplinary effort with a number of "collaborators" including some at SA0 (Aneta Siemiginowska, Peter Freeman) and at the Harvard Statistics department (David van Dyk, Rostislav Protassov, Xiao-li Meng, Epaminondas Sourlas, et al). We have developed a new tool to reliably measure the metallicities of thermal plasma. It is unfeasible to obtain high-resolution grating spectra for most stars, and one must make the best possible determination based on lower-resolution, CCD-type spectra. It has been noticed that most analyses of such spectra have resulted in measured metallicities that were significantly lower than when compared with analyses of high- resolution grating data where available (see, e.g., Brickhouse et al., 2000, ApJ 530,387). Such results have led to the proposal of the existence of so-called Metal Abundance Deficient, or "MAD" stars (e.g., Drake, J.J., 1996, Cool Stars 9, ASP Conf.Ser. 109, 203). We however find that much of these analyses may be systematically underestimating the metallicities, and using a newly developed method to correctly treat the low-counts regime at the high-energy tail of the stellar spectra (van Dyk et al. 2001, ApJ 548,224), have found that the metallicities of these stars are generally comparable to their photospheric values. The results were reported at the AAS (Sourlas, Yu, van Dyk, Kashyap, and Drake, 2000, BAAS 196, v32, #54.02), and at the

  17. ΔpH-Dependent Amino Acid Transport into Plasma Membrane Vesicles Isolated from Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen-Chang; Bush, Daniel R.

    1991-01-01

    Proton-coupled aliphatic, neutral amino acid transport was investigated in plasma membrane vesicles isolated from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L., cv Great Western) leaves. Two neutral amino acid symport systems were resolved based on inter-amino acid transport competition and on large variations in the specific activity of each porter in different species. Competitive inhibition was observed for transport competition between alanine, methionine, glutamine, and leucine (the alanine group) and between isoleucine, valine, and threonine (the isoleucine group). The apparent Km and Ki values were similar for transport competition among amino acids within the alanine group. In contrast, the kinetics of transport competition between these two groups of amino acids did not fit a simple competitive model. Furthermore, members of the isoleucine group were weak transport antagonists of the alanine group. These results are consistent with two independent neutral amino acid porters. In support of that conclusion, the ratio of the specific activity of alanine transport versus isoleucine transport varied from two- to 13-fold in plasma membrane vesicles isolated from different plant species. This ratio would be expected to remain relatively stable if these amino acids were moving through a single transport system and, indeed, the ratio of alanine to glutamine transport varied less than twofold. Analysis of the predicted structure of the aliphatic, neutral amino acids in solution shows that isoleucine, valine, and threonine contain a branched methyl or hydroxyl group at the β-carbon position that places a dense electron cloud close to the α-amino group. This does not occur for the unbranched amino acids or those that branch further away, e.g. leucine. We hypothesize that this structural feature of isoleucine, valine, and threonine results in unfavorable steric interactions with the alanine transport system that limits their flux through this porter. Hydrophobicity and hydrated

  18. [Plasma amino acids profile of healthy pregnant adolescents in Maracaibo, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Ortega, Pablo; Castejón, Haydée V; Argotte, María G; Gómez, Gisela; Bohorquez, Lissette; Urrieta, Jesús R

    2003-06-01

    One hundred female adolescents (13-18 y) were clinical and anthropometrically studied to select only those with adequate nutrition. Most adolescents belonged to IV socio-economic stratum families (worker class). Height, weight, age, body mass index and medial arm circumference were used as anthropometric parameters. After screening, only 41 non pregnant girls (control) and 42 pregnant girls with adequate nutrition were selected to analyze plasma amino acids. Fasting peripheral venous blood was drawn, and plasma amino acids were analyzed by HPLC. Amino acid concentrations were expressed as umol/L +/- SE. SAS/STAT program was used for statistical analysis. Amino acid values of control adolescent group were found in ranges reported by other investigators, with slight variations, mostly in diminution, presumably due to nutritional, metabolic or genetic conditions of people living in tropical regions. In pregnant healthy adolescents, distributed according to gestational age: < 32 weeks (n = 30) and > 32 weeks (n = 12), a diminution of total molar plasma amino acids was found, by comparing with control values. Ten amino acids (Pro, Gly, Gln, Arg, Ser, Orn, Tau, Leu, Thr and Val) appeared significantively diminished throughout gestation, being Gly. Gln and Arg most affected since earlier weeks. During the 2nd period. Thr and Val increased their grade of affectation; whereas some amino acids values (Orn, Pro and Tau) tended to recuperate. Several of affected amino acids are gluconegoenic, thus, they could be utilized to supply the energy required by the pregnant adolescent against her double stress: the fetus development and her own development. The plasma amino acid values reported in both, healthy non pregnant and pregnant adolescents, could be taken as regional referential profile of plasma amino acids in this poblational group for further research on adolescent and fetal--maternal malnutrition.

  19. Amino acid concentrations in human embryological fluids.

    PubMed

    Jauniaux, E; Sherwood, R A; Jurkovic, D; Boa, F G; Campbell, S

    1994-06-01

    The concentrations of amino acids in samples of coelomic fluid (n = 15), amniotic fluid (n = 9) and maternal serum (n = 15) obtained from normal pregnancies between 7 and 12 weeks of gestation were measured using reversed-phase chromatography with pre-column derivatization. The total molar concentration of the 18 amino acids measured was 2.3 times higher in coelomic fluid than in maternal serum. All amino acids except serine and tryptophan were present in significantly higher concentrations in coelomic fluid than in maternal serum. Significant correlations between maternal serum and coelomic fluid were only found for proline, tyrosine, and tryptophan, suggesting that levels of the other amino acids are mainly influenced by placental synthesis and do not directly depend on maternal amino acid metabolism. Levels of all amino acids were significantly higher in coelomic fluid compared to amniotic fluid. Compared to maternal serum, the amniotic fluid contained significantly higher levels of arginine, lysine, alanine and tyrosine and lower levels of serine, glutamine and tryptophan. The total molar amino acid concentration decreased significantly with gestational age in both coelomic fluid and maternal serum. These results suggest that amino acids accumulate in coelomic fluid to support the metabolism of the secondary yolk sac, and that the exocoelomic cavity is the reservoir for most nutrients needed by the embryo and early fetus in the first trimester of human pregnancy.

  20. 6th Amino Acid Assessment Workshop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The focus of the 6th workshop is on lysine, arginine, and related amino acids. Functions, metabolic pathways, clinical uses, and upper tolerance intakes are emphasized in the articles that follow. Lysine is arguably the most deficient amino acid in the food supply of countries where poverty exists, ...

  1. Amino acid profile and oxidizable vitamin content of Synsepalum dulcificum berry (miracle fruit) pulp

    PubMed Central

    Njoku, Njideka E; Ubbaonu, Collins N; Alagbaoso, Serah O; Eluchie, Chioma N; Umelo, Munachiso C

    2015-01-01

    The amino acid profile of the Synsepalum dulcificum berry was studied. Among the essential amino acid observed, leucine (2.35 g/100 g protein) was the highest while methionine (0.31 g/100 g protein) was the lowest. The nonessential amino acids were also discovered, with glutamic acid (3.43 g/100 g protein) being the highest and glycine (0.38 g/100 g protein), the lowest. The study of the oxidizable vitamins revealed that vitamin C (1.33 mg/100 g) was more abundant than vitamin A (2.54 µg) and vitamin E (0.78 mg/100 g). This information will hopefully enhance the fruits acceptability by more people and thus, generally promote its utilization and appreciation in our diets. PMID:25988000

  2. Amino acid analysis in micrograms of meteorite sample by nanoliquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Michael P; Martin, Mildred G; Burton, Aaron S; Glavin, Daniel P; Dworkin, Jason P

    2014-03-01

    Amino acids and their enantiomers in a 360 microgram sample of Murchison meteorite were unambiguously identified and quantified using chemical derivatization and nanoliquid chromatography coupled to nanoelectrospray ionization high resolution orbitrap mass spectrometry techniques. The distribution and abundance of amino acids were similar to past studies of Murchison meteorite but the samples used here were three orders of magnitude lower. The analytical method was also highly sensitive, and some amino acid reference standards were successfully detected at a level of ∼200 attomoles (on column). These results may open up the possibility for investigating other less studied, sample-limited extraterrestrial samples (e.g., micrometeorites, interplanetary dust particles, and cometary particles) for biologically-relevant organic molecules. PMID:24529954

  3. Amino acid analysis in micrograms of meteorite sample by nanoliquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Michael P; Martin, Mildred G; Burton, Aaron S; Glavin, Daniel P; Dworkin, Jason P

    2014-03-01

    Amino acids and their enantiomers in a 360 microgram sample of Murchison meteorite were unambiguously identified and quantified using chemical derivatization and nanoliquid chromatography coupled to nanoelectrospray ionization high resolution orbitrap mass spectrometry techniques. The distribution and abundance of amino acids were similar to past studies of Murchison meteorite but the samples used here were three orders of magnitude lower. The analytical method was also highly sensitive, and some amino acid reference standards were successfully detected at a level of ∼200 attomoles (on column). These results may open up the possibility for investigating other less studied, sample-limited extraterrestrial samples (e.g., micrometeorites, interplanetary dust particles, and cometary particles) for biologically-relevant organic molecules.

  4. Abundance-occupancy relationships in metapopulations: examples of rock pool Daphnia.

    PubMed

    Östman, Örjan

    2011-03-01

    Intraspecific positive relationships between abundance and occupancy are observed for many species, suggesting that the same processes drive local and regional species dynamics. Two main groups of mechanisms explain this relationship: spatiotemporal variation in local population growth rates due to variation in habitat quality, or dispersal effects that increase occupancy of a species when locally abundant. Several studies show that spatiotemporal variation in population growth rates causes positive abundance-occupancy relationships, but few have shown dispersal effects. It is believed that such effects should be more evident for species whose dispersal is limited, e.g. metapopulations, but those studies are limited. This study investigates abundance-occupancy relationships in three Daphnia metapopulations in rock pools and the degree to which dispersal or habitat quality affect their local abundances and occurrence. Daphnia longispina and Daphnia magna showed positive abundance-occupancy relationships, but not Daphnia pulex. No single ecological factor could explain the abundance-occupancy relationships of any given species. Instead, dispersal processes and rock pool quality (mainly salinity and depth) seem to act together to shape the abundance-occupancy relationships. Such a conclusion is also supported by an immigration experiment in natural rock pools. This study suggests that although positive abundance-occupancy relationships may be commonly found for metapopulations, both dispersal processes and variation in habitat quality can be factors determining the abundance-occupancy relationship of metapopulations experiencing habitat heterogeneity. PMID:20740290

  5. Analysis of free amino acids in natural waters by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    How, Zuo Tong; Busetti, Francesco; Linge, Kathryn L; Kristiana, Ina; Joll, Cynthia A; Charrois, Jeffrey W A

    2014-11-28

    This paper reports a new analytical method for the analysis of 18 amino acids in natural waters using solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) operated in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Two different preconcentration methods, solid-phase extraction and concentration under reduced pressure, were tested in development of this method. Although concentration under reduced pressure provided better recoveries and method limits of detection for amino acids in ultrapure water, SPE was a more suitable extraction method for real samples due to the lower matrix effects for this method. Even though the strong cation exchange resin used in SPE method introduced exogenous matrix interferences into the sample extracts (inorganic salt originating from the acid-base reaction during the elution step), the SPE method still incorporates a broad sample clean-up and minimised endogenous matrix effects by reducing interferences originating from real water samples. The method limits of quantification (MLQ) for the SPE LC-MS/MS method in ultrapure water ranged from 0.1 to 100 μg L(-1) as N for the different amino acids. The MLQs of the early eluting amino acids were limited by the presence of matrix interfering species, such as inorganic salts in natural water samples. The SPE LC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to the analysis of amino acids in 3 different drinking water source waters: the average total free amino acid content in these waters was found to be 19 μg L(-1) as N, while among the 18 amino acids analysed, the most abundant amino acids were found to be tyrosine, leucine and isoleucine.

  6. The pinyon rhizosphere, plant stress, and herbivory affect the abundance of microbial decomposers in soils.

    PubMed

    Kuske, C R; Ticknor, L O; Busch, J D; Gehring, C A; Whitham, T G

    2003-05-01

    In terrestrial ecosystems, changes in environmental conditions that affect plant performance cause a cascade of effects through many trophic levels. In a 2-year field study, seasonal abundance measurements were conducted for fast-growing bacterial heterotrophs, humate-degrading actinomycetes, fungal heterotrophs, and fluorescent pseudomonads that represent the decomposers in soil. Links between plant health and soil microbiota abundance in pinyon rhizospheres were documented across two soil types: a dry, nutrient-poor volcanic cinder field and a sandy-loam soil. On the stressful cinder fields, we identified relationships between soil decomposer abundance, pinyon age, and stress due to insect herbivory. Across seasonal variation, consistent differences in microbial decomposer abundance were identified between the cinders and sandy-loam soil. Abundance of bacterial heterotrophs and humate-degrading actinomycetes was affected by both soil nutritional status and the pinyon rhizosphere. In contrast, abundance of the fungal heterotrophs and fluorescent pseudomonads was affected primarily by the pinyon rhizosphere. On the cinder field, the three bacterial groups were more abundant on 150-year-old trees than on 60-year-old trees, whereas fungal heterotrophs were unaffected by tree age. Fungal heterotrophs and actinomycetes were more abundant on insect-resistant trees than on susceptible trees, but the opposite was true for the fluorescent pseudomonads. Although all four groups were present in all the environments, the four microbial groups were affected differently by the pinyon rhizosphere, by tree age, and by tree stress caused by the cinder soil and insect herbivory.

  7. Research for amino acids in lunar samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrke, C. W.; Zumwalt, R. W.; Kuo, K.; Rash, J. J.; Aue , W. A.; Stalling, D. L.; Kvenvolden, K. A.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1972-01-01

    The study was primarily directed toward the examination of Apollo 14 lunar fines for indigenous amino acids or materials which could be converted to amino acids on hydrolysis with 6 N hydrochloric acid. Initial experiments were conducted to confirm the integrity of the derivatization reactions and reagents, and to optimize the gas-liquid chromatographic (GLC) instrumental and chromatographic system for the separation and flame ionization detection of the amino acid derivatives. In studies on the recovery of amino acids added to lunar fines, low recoveries were obtained when 10 ng of each amino acid were added to 50 mg of virgin fines, but the subsequent addition of 50 ng of each to the previously extracted sample resulted in much higher recoveries.

  8. Pyrolysis of amino acids - Mechanistic considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratcliff, M. A., Jr.; Medley, E. E.; Simmonds, P. G.

    1974-01-01

    Pyrolysis of several structurally different amino acids in a column at 500 C showed differences in the mechanisms and final products. The aliphatic protein amino acids decompose mainly by simple decarboxylation and condensation reactions, while the beta amino acids undergo deamination to unsaturated acids. Alpha amino acids with alpha alkyl substituents undergo an unusual intramolecular SN1 reaction with the formation of an intermediate alpha lactone which decomposes to yield a ketone. The alpha alkyl substituents appear to stabilize the developing negative charge formed by partial heterolytic cleavage of the alpha carbon - NH3 bond. The gamma and delta amino acids give 2-pyrrolidinone and 2-piperidone respectively, while the epsilon acids yield mixed products.

  9. Protein biosynthesis with conformationally restricted amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, D. Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA ); Ellman, J.; Schultz, P.G. )

    1993-05-19

    The incorporation of conformationally constrained amino acids into peptides is a powerful approach for generating structurally defined peptides as conformational probes and bioactive agents. The ability to site-specifically introduce constrained amino acids into large polypeptide chains would provide a similar opportunity to probe the flexibility, conformation, folding and stability of proteins. To this end, we have examined the competence of the Escherichia coli protein biosynthetic machinery to incorporate a number of these unnatural amino acids into the 164 residue protein T4 lysozyme (T4L). Results clearly demonstrate that the protein biosynthetic machinery can accommodate a wide variety of conformationally constrained amino acids. The expansion of structural motifs that can be biosynthetically incorporated into proteins to include a large number of conformationally constrained amino acids significantly increases the power of mutagenesis methods as probes of protein structure and function and provides additional insights into the steric requirements of the translational machinery. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Radical stability directs electron capture and transfer dissociation of β-amino acids in peptides.

    PubMed

    Ben Hamidane, Hisham; Vorobyev, Aleksey; Larregola, Maud; Lukaszuk, Aneta; Tourwé, Dirk; Lavielle, Solange; Karoyan, Philippe; Tsybin, Yury O

    2010-04-19

    We report on the characteristics of the radical-ion-driven dissociation of a diverse array of β-amino acids incorporated into α-peptides, as probed by tandem electron-capture and electron-transfer dissociation (ECD/ETD) mass spectrometry. The reported results demonstrate a stronger ECD/ETD dependence on the nature of the amino acid side chain for β-amino acids than for their α-form counterparts. In particular, only aromatic (e.g., β-Phe), and to a substantially lower extent, carbonyl-containing (e.g., β-Glu and β-Gln) amino acid side chains, lead to N-Cβ bond cleavage in the corresponding β-amino acids. We conclude that radical stabilization must be provided by the side chain to enable the radical-driven fragmentation from the nearby backbone carbonyl carbon to proceed. In contrast with the cleavage of backbones derived from α-amino acids, ECD of peptides composed mainly of β-amino acids reveals a shift in cleavage priority from the N-Cβ to the Cα-C bond. The incorporation of CH2 groups into the peptide backbone may thus drastically influence the backbone charge solvation preference. The characteristics of radical-driven β-amino acid dissociation described herein are of particular importance to methods development, applications in peptide sequencing, and peptide and protein modification (e.g., deamidation and isomerization) analysis in life science research.

  11. On the reported optical activity of amino acids in the Murchison meteorite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bada, J.L.; Cronin, J.R.; Ho, M.-S.; Kvenvolden, K.A.; Lawless, J.G.; Miller, S.L.; Oro, J.; Steinberg, S.

    1983-01-01

    In analyses of extracts from the Murchison meteorite (a carbonaceous chondrite), Engel and Nagy1 reported an excess of L-enantiomers for several protein amino acids but found that the non-protein amino acids were racemic. They suggested that the excess of L-isomers might have resulted from an asymmetric synthesis or decomposition. Their results disagree with those obtained previously2-4 and they claim this is due to improved methodology. In fact, their extraction method and analytical procedure (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, GC-MS) was similar to those used in the original report2 of amino acids in the Murchison meteorite except that they used specific ion monitoring in the GC-MS measurements. We found the results of Engel and Nagy odd in that likely contaminants (the protein amino acids ala, leu, glu, asp and pro) were nonracemic while unlikely contaminants (isovaline and ??-amino-n-butyric acid) were racemic. For example, Engel and Nagy report that the leucine is ???90% L-enantiomer in the water-extracted sample whereas isovaline (??-methyl-??-aminobutyric acid) is racemic. It would be most unusual for an abiotic stereoselective decomposition or synthesis of amino acids to occur with protein amino acids but not with non-protein amino acids. We now show here that the explanation of terrestrial contamination is consistent with their results and is much more probable. ?? 1983 Nature Publishing Group.

  12. Gustatory sensation of (L)- and (D)-amino acids in humans.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Misako; Sekine-Hayakawa, Yuki; Okiyama, Atsushi; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2012-12-01

    Amino acids are known to elicit complex taste, but most human psychophysical studies on the taste of amino acids have focused on a single basic taste, such as umami (savory) taste, sweetness, or bitterness. In this study, we addressed the potential relationship between the structure and the taste properties of amino acids by measuring the human gustatory intensity and quality in response to aqueous solutions of proteogenic amino acids in comparison to D-enantiomers. Trained subjects tasted aqueous solution of each amino acid and evaluated the intensities of total taste and each basic taste using a category-ratio scale. Each basic taste of amino acids showed the dependency on its hydrophobicity, size, charge, functional groups on the side chain, and chirality of the alpha carbon. In addition, the overall taste of amino acid was found to be the combination of basic tastes according to the partial structure. For example, hydrophilic non-charged middle-sized amino acids elicited sweetness, and L-enantiomeric hydrophilic middle-sized structure was necessary for umami taste. For example, L-serine had mainly sweet and minor umami taste, and D-serine was sweet. We further applied Stevens' psychophysical function to relate the total-taste intensity and the concentration, and found that the slope values depended on the major quality of taste (e.g., bitter large, sour small).

  13. Monitoring potential molecular interactions of adenine with other amino acids using Raman spectroscopy and DFT modeling.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shweta; Donfack, P; Srivastava, Sunil K; Singh, Dheeraj K; Materny, A; Asthana, B P; Mishra, P C

    2015-01-01

    We report on the modes of inter-molecular interaction between adenine (Ade) and the amino acids: glycine (Gly), lysine (Lys) and arginine (Arg) using Raman spectroscopy of binary mixtures of adenine and each of the three amino acids at varying molar ratios in the spectral region 1550-550 cm(-1). We focused our attention on certain specific changes in the Raman bands of adenine arising due to its interaction with the amino acids. While the changes are less apparent in the Ade/Gly system, in the Ade/Lys or Ade/Arg systems, significant changes are observed, particularly in the Ade Raman bands that involve the amino group moiety and the N7 and N1 atoms of the purine ring. The ν(N1-C6), ν(N1-C2), δ(C8-H) and δ(N7-C8-N9) vibrations at 1486, 1332, 1253 and 948 cm(-1) show spectral changes on varying the Ade to amino acid molar ratio, the extent of variation being different for the three amino acids. This observation suggests a specific interaction mode between Ade and Lys or Arg, which is due to the hydrogen bonding. The measured spectral changes provide a clear indication that the interaction of Ade depends strongly on the structures of the amino acids, especially their side chains. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were carried out to elucidate the most probable interaction modes of Ade with the different amino acids.

  14. High-effective approach from amino acid esters to chiral amino alcohols over Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst and its catalytic reaction mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuangshuang; Yu, Jun; Li, Huiying; Mao, Dongsen; Lu, Guanzhong

    2016-09-13

    Developing the high-efficient and green synthetic method for chiral amino alcohols is an intriguing target. We have developed the Mg(2+)-doped Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst for hydrogenation of L-phenylalanine methyl ester to chiral L-phenylalaninol without racemization. The effect of different L-phenylalanine esters on this title reaction was studied, verifying that Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 is an excellent catalyst for the hydrogenation of amino acid esters to chiral amino alcohols. DFT calculation was used to study the adsorption of substrate on the catalyst, and showed that the substrate adsorbs on the surface active sites mainly by amino group (-NH2) absorbed on Al2O3, and carbonyl (C=O) and alkoxy (RO-) group oxygen absorbed on the boundary of Cu and Al2O3. This catalytic hydrogenation undergoes the formation of a hemiacetal intermediate and the cleavage of the C-O bond (rate-determining step) by reacting with dissociated H to obtain amino aldehyde and methanol ad-species. The former is further hydrogenated to amino alcohols, and the latter desorbs from the catalyst surface.

  15. High-effective approach from amino acid esters to chiral amino alcohols over Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst and its catalytic reaction mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuangshuang; Yu, Jun; Li, Huiying; Mao, Dongsen; Lu, Guanzhong

    2016-01-01

    Developing the high-efficient and green synthetic method for chiral amino alcohols is an intriguing target. We have developed the Mg2+-doped Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst for hydrogenation of L-phenylalanine methyl ester to chiral L-phenylalaninol without racemization. The effect of different L-phenylalanine esters on this title reaction was studied, verifying that Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 is an excellent catalyst for the hydrogenation of amino acid esters to chiral amino alcohols. DFT calculation was used to study the adsorption of substrate on the catalyst, and showed that the substrate adsorbs on the surface active sites mainly by amino <