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Sample records for abundant biological entities

  1. Biological entity recognition with conditional random fields.

    PubMed

    He, Ying; Kayaalp, Mehmet

    2008-11-06

    Due to the rapid evolution of molecular biology and the lack of naming standards, biological entity recognition (BER) remains a challenging task for information extraction and natural language understanding. In this study, we presented a statistical machine learning approach for extracting features, modeling, and predicting biological named entities. Our approach utilizes UMLS semantic types together with MetaMap, SemRep, and ABGene, as well as the conditional random fields (CRF) framework, and learns both the structure and parameters of a statistical model. Results of this study are competitive with the results of the state of the art tools in this field. Unlike competing similar approaches, the presented method is fully automatic, hence more generalizable and directly transferable to other named entity recognition (NER) problems in medical informatics.

  2. "New drug" designations for new therapeutic entities: new active substance, new chemical entity, new biological entity, new molecular entity.

    PubMed

    Branch, Sarah K; Agranat, Israel

    2014-11-13

    This Perspective addresses ambiguities in designations of "new drugs" intended as new therapeutic entities (NTEs). Designation of an NTE as a new drug is significant, as it may confer regulatory exclusivity, an important incentive for development of novel compounds. Such designations differ between jurisdictions according to their drug laws and drug regulations. Chemical, biological, and innovative drugs are addressed in turn. The terms new chemical entity (NCE), new molecular entity (NME), new active substance (NAS), and new biological entity (NBE) as applied in worldwide jurisdictions are clarified. Differences between them are explored through case studies showing why new drugs have different periods of exclusivity in different jurisdictions or none at all. Finally, this Perspective recommends that in future, for the purpose of new drug compilations, NME is used for a new chemical drug, NBE for a new biological drug, and the combined designation NTE should refer to either an NME or an NBE.

  3. Abundance estimation and conservation biology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; MacKenzie, D.I.

    2004-01-01

    Abundance is the state variable of interest in most population–level ecological research and in most programs involving management and conservation of animal populations. Abundance is the single parameter of interest in capture–recapture models for closed populations (e.g., Darroch, 1958; Otis et al., 1978; Chao, 2001). The initial capture–recapture models developed for partially (Darroch, 1959) and completely (Jolly, 1965; Seber, 1965) open populations represented efforts to relax the restrictive assumption of population closure for the purpose of estimating abundance. Subsequent emphases in capture–recapture work were on survival rate estimation in the 1970’s and 1980’s (e.g., Burnham et al., 1987; Lebreton et al.,1992), and on movement estimation in the 1990’s (Brownie et al., 1993; Schwarz et al., 1993). However, from the mid–1990’s until the present time, capture–recapture investigators have expressed a renewed interest in abundance and related parameters (Pradel, 1996; Schwarz & Arnason, 1996; Schwarz, 2001). The focus of this session was abundance, and presentations covered topics ranging from estimation of abundance and rate of change in abundance, to inferences about the demographic processes underlying changes in abundance, to occupancy as a surrogate of abundance. The plenary paper by Link & Barker (2004) is provocative and very interesting, and it contains a number of important messages and suggestions. Link & Barker (2004) emphasize that the increasing complexity of capture–recapture models has resulted in large numbers of parameters and that a challenge to ecologists is to extract ecological signals from this complexity. They offer hierarchical models as a natural approach to inference in which traditional parameters are viewed as realizations of stochastic processes. These processes are governed by hyperparameters, and the inferential approach focuses on these hyperparameters. Link & Barker (2004) also suggest that our attention

  4. Functionalization of polydopamine coated magnetic nanoparticles with biological entities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mǎgeruşan, Lidia; Mrówczyński, Radosław; Turcu, Rodica

    2015-12-01

    New hybrid materials, obtained through introduction of cysteine, lysine and folic acid as biological entities into polydopamine-coated magnetite nanoparticles, are reported. The syntheses are straight forward and various methods were applied for structural and morphological characterization of the resulting nanoparticles. XPS proved a very powerful tool for surface chemical analysis and it evidences the functionalization of polydopamine coated magnetite nanoparticles. The superparamagnetic behavior and the high values of saturation magnetization recommend all products for further application where magnetism is important for targeting, separation, or heating by alternative magnetic fields.

  5. The environment ontology: contextualising biological and biomedical entities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    As biological and biomedical research increasingly reference the environmental context of the biological entities under study, the need for formalisation and standardisation of environment descriptors is growing. The Environment Ontology (ENVO; http://www.environmentontology.org) is a community-led, open project which seeks to provide an ontology for specifying a wide range of environments relevant to multiple life science disciplines and, through an open participation model, to accommodate the terminological requirements of all those needing to annotate data using ontology classes. This paper summarises ENVO’s motivation, content, structure, adoption, and governance approach. The ontology is available from http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/envo.owl - an OBO format version is also available by switching the file suffix to “obo”. PMID:24330602

  6. Physical properties of biological entities: an introduction to the ontology of physics for biology.

    PubMed

    Cook, Daniel L; Bookstein, Fred L; Gennari, John H

    2011-01-01

    As biomedical investigators strive to integrate data and analyses across spatiotemporal scales and biomedical domains, they have recognized the benefits of formalizing languages and terminologies via computational ontologies. Although ontologies for biological entities-molecules, cells, organs-are well-established, there are no principled ontologies of physical properties-energies, volumes, flow rates-of those entities. In this paper, we introduce the Ontology of Physics for Biology (OPB), a reference ontology of classical physics designed for annotating biophysical content of growing repositories of biomedical datasets and analytical models. The OPB's semantic framework, traceable to James Clerk Maxwell, encompasses modern theories of system dynamics and thermodynamics, and is implemented as a computational ontology that references available upper ontologies. In this paper we focus on the OPB classes that are designed for annotating physical properties encoded in biomedical datasets and computational models, and we discuss how the OPB framework will facilitate biomedical knowledge integration.

  7. Biological entities isolated from the stratosphere (22-27km): case for their space origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainwright, Milton; Rose, Christopher E.; Baker, Alexander J.; Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra

    2013-09-01

    Biological entities were isolated at a height of between 22-27 km in the stratosphere. Sampling of this region was carried out in the UK in July 2013 using a relatively simple low-cost balloon-borne sampler carrying aseptically clean scanning electron microscope stubs onto which aerosols were directly captured. The entities varied from a presumptive colony of ultra-small bacteria to two unusual individual organisms - part of a diatom frustule and a 200 micron-sized particle mass interlaced with biological filaments. Biological entities of this nature have not previously been reported occurring in the stratosphere; their likely origin is discussed and we provide arguments to support our view that such biological entities may have arrived from space. The new data gives strong confirmation of the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe theory of cometary panspermia.

  8. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Entity Relationship language Level 1 Version 2.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Anatoly; Le Novère, Nicolas; Luna, Augustin; Czauderna, Tobias; Demir, Emek; Haw, Robin; Mi, Huaiyu; Moodie, Stuart; Schreiber, Falk; Villéger, Alice

    2015-09-04

    The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD), Entity Relationship (ER) and Activity Flow (AF), allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail. The SBGN Entity Relationship language (ER) represents biological entities and their interactions and relationships within a network. SBGN ER focuses on all potential relationships between entities without considering temporal aspects. The nodes (elements) describe biological entities, such as proteins and complexes. The edges (connections) provide descriptions of interactions and relationships (or influences), e.g., complex formation, stimulation and inhibition. Among all three languages of SBGN, ER is the closest to protein interaction networks in biological literature and textbooks, but its well-defined semantics offer a superior precision in expressing biological knowledge.

  9. Physical Properties of Biological Entities: An Introduction to the Ontology of Physics for Biology

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Daniel L.; Bookstein, Fred L.; Gennari, John H.

    2011-01-01

    As biomedical investigators strive to integrate data and analyses across spatiotemporal scales and biomedical domains, they have recognized the benefits of formalizing languages and terminologies via computational ontologies. Although ontologies for biological entities—molecules, cells, organs—are well-established, there are no principled ontologies of physical properties—energies, volumes, flow rates—of those entities. In this paper, we introduce the Ontology of Physics for Biology (OPB), a reference ontology of classical physics designed for annotating biophysical content of growing repositories of biomedical datasets and analytical models. The OPB's semantic framework, traceable to James Clerk Maxwell, encompasses modern theories of system dynamics and thermodynamics, and is implemented as a computational ontology that references available upper ontologies. In this paper we focus on the OPB classes that are designed for annotating physical properties encoded in biomedical datasets and computational models, and we discuss how the OPB framework will facilitate biomedical knowledge integration. PMID:22216106

  10. Unsupervised biomedical named entity recognition: experiments with clinical and biological texts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaodian; Elhadad, Noémie

    2013-12-01

    Named entity recognition is a crucial component of biomedical natural language processing, enabling information extraction and ultimately reasoning over and knowledge discovery from text. Much progress has been made in the design of rule-based and supervised tools, but they are often genre and task dependent. As such, adapting them to different genres of text or identifying new types of entities requires major effort in re-annotation or rule development. In this paper, we propose an unsupervised approach to extracting named entities from biomedical text. We describe a stepwise solution to tackle the challenges of entity boundary detection and entity type classification without relying on any handcrafted rules, heuristics, or annotated data. A noun phrase chunker followed by a filter based on inverse document frequency extracts candidate entities from free text. Classification of candidate entities into categories of interest is carried out by leveraging principles from distributional semantics. Experiments show that our system, especially the entity classification step, yields competitive results on two popular biomedical datasets of clinical notes and biological literature, and outperforms a baseline dictionary match approach. Detailed error analysis provides a road map for future work.

  11. Mapping biological entities using the longest approximately common prefix method

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The significant growth in the volume of electronic biomedical data in recent decades has pointed to the need for approximate string matching algorithms that can expedite tasks such as named entity recognition, duplicate detection, terminology integration, and spelling correction. The task of source integration in the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) requires considerable expert effort despite the presence of various computational tools. This problem warrants the search for a new method for approximate string matching and its UMLS-based evaluation. Results This paper introduces the Longest Approximately Common Prefix (LACP) method as an algorithm for approximate string matching that runs in linear time. We compare the LACP method for performance, precision and speed to nine other well-known string matching algorithms. As test data, we use two multiple-source samples from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) and two SNOMED Clinical Terms-based samples. In addition, we present a spell checker based on the LACP method. Conclusions The Longest Approximately Common Prefix method completes its string similarity evaluations in less time than all nine string similarity methods used for comparison. The Longest Approximately Common Prefix outperforms these nine approximate string matching methods in its Maximum F1 measure when evaluated on three out of the four datasets, and in its average precision on two of the four datasets. PMID:24928653

  12. Creating Abundance, Biological Innovation and American Agricultural Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a book review of Creating Abundance (Olmtread and Rhode, 2009), which examines the history of US agriculture. The central theme of the book is that prior to the 1930s, American agriculture developed much more through biological innovations than through labor-saving mechanical innovations suc...

  13. Integrated Bio-Entity Network: A System for Biological Knowledge Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Lindsey; Chowdhary, Rajesh; Liu, Jun S.; Niu, Xufeng; Zhang, Jinfeng

    2011-01-01

    A significant part of our biological knowledge is centered on relationships between biological entities (bio-entities) such as proteins, genes, small molecules, pathways, gene ontology (GO) terms and diseases. Accumulated at an increasing speed, the information on bio-entity relationships is archived in different forms at scattered places. Most of such information is buried in scientific literature as unstructured text. Organizing heterogeneous information in a structured form not only facilitates study of biological systems using integrative approaches, but also allows discovery of new knowledge in an automatic and systematic way. In this study, we performed a large scale integration of bio-entity relationship information from both databases containing manually annotated, structured information and automatic information extraction of unstructured text in scientific literature. The relationship information we integrated in this study includes protein–protein interactions, protein/gene regulations, protein–small molecule interactions, protein–GO relationships, protein–pathway relationships, and pathway–disease relationships. The relationship information is organized in a graph data structure, named integrated bio-entity network (IBN), where the vertices are the bio-entities and edges represent their relationships. Under this framework, graph theoretic algorithms can be designed to perform various knowledge discovery tasks. We designed breadth-first search with pruning (BFSP) and most probable path (MPP) algorithms to automatically generate hypotheses—the indirect relationships with high probabilities in the network. We show that IBN can be used to generate plausible hypotheses, which not only help to better understand the complex interactions in biological systems, but also provide guidance for experimental designs. PMID:21738677

  14. 78 FR 38782 - Lifting of Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Proliferation Sanctions Against Chinese Entities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Lifting of Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Proliferation Sanctions Against Chinese Entities AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: A determination has been made, pursuant to Section 81(e) of...

  15. Are Biological Entities Isolated from the Lower Stratosphere (22-27 km) Outgoing from Earth or Incoming from Space?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainwright, Milton; Rose, Christopher E.; Baker, Alexander J.; Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra

    Biological entities were isolated, at a height of between 22-27 km in the stratosphere. Sampling of this region was carried out in the UK in July 2013 using a relatively simple low-cost balloon-borne sampler carrying aseptically clean scanning electron microscope stubs onto which aerosols were directly captured. The entities varied from a presumptive colony of ultra small bacteria to two unusual individual organisms and part of a diatom frustule. Biological entities of this nature have not previously been reported occurring in the stratosphere; their likely origin is discussed and we provide arguments to support our view that such biological entities may have arrived from space.

  16. More Biological Entities from the Stratosphere Including a Diatom Fragment-Further Evidence for a Space Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainwright, Milton; Rose, Christopher E.; Baker, Alexander J.; Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra

    2013-03-01

    Details of stratosphere-isolated biomorphs are given, including a fragment of a diatom frustule and an inorganic particle-rich mass containing biological filaments. We argue that this mass which is around 300 micron in size is, like the other biological entities shown, too large to have been carried from Earth to the stratosphere. As a result, we conclude that the biological entities arrived from space, probably from comets, and their existence in the stratosphere provides prima facie evidence in support of the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe theory of cometary panspermia.

  17. Combined SVM-CRFs for biological named entity recognition with maximal bidirectional squeezing.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fei; Shen, Bairong

    2012-01-01

    Biological named entity recognition, the identification of biological terms in text, is essential for biomedical information extraction. Machine learning-based approaches have been widely applied in this area. However, the recognition performance of current approaches could still be improved. Our novel approach is to combine support vector machines (SVMs) and conditional random fields (CRFs), which can complement and facilitate each other. During the hybrid process, we use SVM to separate biological terms from non-biological terms, before we use CRFs to determine the types of biological terms, which makes full use of the power of SVM as a binary-class classifier and the data-labeling capacity of CRFs. We then merge the results of SVM and CRFs. To remove any inconsistencies that might result from the merging, we develop a useful algorithm and apply two rules. To ensure biological terms with a maximum length are identified, we propose a maximal bidirectional squeezing approach that finds the longest term. We also add a positive gain to rare events to reinforce their probability and avoid bias. Our approach will also gradually extend the context so more contextual information can be included. We examined the performance of four approaches with GENIA corpus and JNLPBA04 data. The combination of SVM and CRFs improved performance. The macro-precision, macro-recall, and macro-F(1) of the SVM-CRFs hybrid approach surpassed conventional SVM and CRFs. After applying the new algorithms, the macro-F1 reached 91.67% with the GENIA corpus and 84.04% with the JNLPBA04 data.

  18. Chemical and Biological Defense: Designated Entity Needed to Identify, Align, and Manage DOD’s Infrastructure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    biosurveillance capability—the ability to provide early detection and situational awareness of potentially catastrophic biological events—were...D.C.: Sept. 21, 2009). 34See GAO, Biosurveillance : Efforts to Develop a National Biosurveillance Capability Need a National Strategy and...Biological Defense Regarding biosurveillance , in June 2010, we found that the federal government could benefit from a focal point that provides leadership to

  19. Depletion of cells and abundant proteins from biological samples by enhanced dielectrophoresis✩

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, C.; Provine, J.; Davis, R.W.; Howe, R.T.

    2016-01-01

    Platforms that are sensitive and specific enough to assay low-abundance protein biomarkers, in a high throughput multiplex format, within a complex biological fluid specimen, are necessary to enable protein biomarker based diagnostics for diseases such as cancer. The signal from an assay for a low-abundance protein biomarker in a biological fluid sample like blood is typically buried in a background that arises from the presence of blood cells and from high-abundance proteins that make up 90% of the assayed protein mass. We present an automated on-chip platform for the depletion of cells and highly abundant serum proteins in blood. Our platform consists of two components, the first of which is a microfluidic mixer that mixes beads containing antibodies against the highly abundant proteins in the whole blood. This complex mixture (consisting of beads, cells, and serum proteins) is then injected into the second component of our microfluidic platform, which comprises a filter trench to capture all the cells and the beads. The size-based trapping of the cells and beads into the filter trench is significantly enhanced by leveraging additional negative dielectrophoretic forces to push the micron sized particles (cells and beads which have captured the highly abundant proteins) down into the trench, allowing the serum proteins of lower abundance to flow through. In general, dielectrophoresis using bare electrodes is incapable of producing forces beyond the low piconewton range that tend to be insufficient for separation applications. However, by using electrodes passivated with atomic layer deposition, we demonstrate the application of enhanced negative DEP electrodes together with size-based flltration induced by the filter trench, to deplete 100% of the micron sized particles in the mixture. PMID:26924893

  20. Towards instantaneous cellular level bio diagnosis: laser extraction and imaging of biological entities with conserved integrity and activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, L.; Robertson, W. D.; Reimer, R.; Heinze, C.; Schneider, C.; Eggert, D.; Truschow, P.; Hansen, N.-O.; Kroetz, P.; Zou, J.; Miller, R. J. D.

    2015-07-01

    The prospect for spatial imaging with mass spectroscopy at the level of the cell requires new means of cell extraction to conserve molecular structure. To this aim, we demonstrate a new laser extraction process capable of extracting intact biological entities with conserved biological function. The method is based on the recently developed picosecond infrared laser (PIRL), designed specifically to provide matrix-free extraction by selectively exciting the water vibrational modes under the condition of ultrafast desorption by impulsive vibrational excitation (DIVE). The basic concept is to extract the constituent protein structures on the fastest impulsive limit for ablation to avoid excessive thermal heating of the proteins and to use strongly resonant 1-photon conditions to avoid multiphoton ionization and degradation of the sample integrity. With various microscope imaging and biochemical analysis methods, nanoscale single protein molecules, viruses, and cells in the ablation plume are found to be morphologically and functionally identical with their corresponding controls. This method provides a new means to resolve chemical activity within cells and is amenable to subcellular imaging with near-field approaches. The most important finding is the conserved nature of the extracted biological material within the laser ablation plume, which is fully consistent with in vivo structures and characteristics.

  1. Alginate-polyester comacromer based hydrogels as physiochemically and biologically favorable entities for cardiac tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Thankam, Finosh G; Muthu, Jayabalan

    2015-11-01

    The physiochemical and biological responses of tissue engineering hydrogels are crucial in determining their desired performance. A hybrid comacromer was synthesized by copolymerizing alginate and poly(mannitol fumarate-co-sebacate) (pFMSA). Three bimodal hydrogels pFMSA-AA, pFMSA-MA and pFMSA-NMBA were synthesized by crosslinking with Ca(2+) and vinyl monomers acrylic acid (AA), methacrylic acid (MA) and N,N'-methylene bisacrylamide (NMBA), respectively. Though all the hydrogels were cytocompatible and exhibited a normal cell cycle profile, pFMSA-AA exhibited superior physiochemical properties viz non-freezable water content (58.34%) and water absorption per unit mass (0.97 g water/g gel) and pore length (19.92±3.91 μm) in comparing with other two hydrogels. The increased non-freezable water content and water absorption of pFMSA-AA hydrogels greatly influenced its biological performance, which was evident from long-term viability assay and cell cycle proliferation. The physiochemical and biological favorability of pFMSA-AA hydrogels signifies its suitability for cardiac tissue engineering.

  2. Extracting the structure and conformations of biological entities from large datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dashti, Ali

    In biology, structure determines function, which often proceeds via changes in conformation. Efficient means for determining structure exist, but mapping conformations continue to present a serious challenge. Single-particles approaches, such as cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and emerging "diffract & destroy" X-ray techniques are, in principle, ideally positioned to overcome these challenges. But the algorithmic ability to extract information from large heterogeneous datasets consisting of "unsorted" snapshots - each emanating from an unknown orientation of an object in an unknown conformation - remains elusive. It is the objective of this thesis to describe and validate a powerful suite of manifold-based algorithms able to extract structural and conformational information from large datasets. These computationally efficient algorithms offer a new approach to determining the structure and conformations of viruses and macromolecules. After an introduction, we demonstrate a distributed, exact k -Nearest Neighbor Graph (k-NNG) construction method, in order to establish a firm algorithmic basis for manifold-based analysis. The proposed algorithm uses Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) and exploits multiple levels of parallelism in distributed computational environment and it is scalable for different cluster sizes, with each compute node in the cluster containing multiple GPUs. Next, we present applications of manifold-based analysis in determining structure and conformational variability. Using the Diffusion Map algorithm, a new approach is presented, which is capable of determining structure of symmetric objects, such as viruses, to 1/100th of the object diameter, using low-signal diffraction snapshots. This is demonstrated by means of a successful 3D reconstruction of the Satellite Tobacco Necrosis Virus (STNV) to atomic resolution from simulated diffraction snapshots with and without noise. We next present a new approach for determining discrete

  3. Sampling designs matching species biology produce accurate and affordable abundance indices

    PubMed Central

    Farley, Sean; Russell, Gareth J.; Butler, Matthew J.; Selinger, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife biologists often use grid-based designs to sample animals and generate abundance estimates. Although sampling in grids is theoretically sound, in application, the method can be logistically difficult and expensive when sampling elusive species inhabiting extensive areas. These factors make it challenging to sample animals and meet the statistical assumption of all individuals having an equal probability of capture. Violating this assumption biases results. Does an alternative exist? Perhaps by sampling only where resources attract animals (i.e., targeted sampling), it would provide accurate abundance estimates more efficiently and affordably. However, biases from this approach would also arise if individuals have an unequal probability of capture, especially if some failed to visit the sampling area. Since most biological programs are resource limited, and acquiring abundance data drives many conservation and management applications, it becomes imperative to identify economical and informative sampling designs. Therefore, we evaluated abundance estimates generated from grid and targeted sampling designs using simulations based on geographic positioning system (GPS) data from 42 Alaskan brown bears (Ursus arctos). Migratory salmon drew brown bears from the wider landscape, concentrating them at anadromous streams. This provided a scenario for testing the targeted approach. Grid and targeted sampling varied by trap amount, location (traps placed randomly, systematically or by expert opinion), and traps stationary or moved between capture sessions. We began by identifying when to sample, and if bears had equal probability of capture. We compared abundance estimates against seven criteria: bias, precision, accuracy, effort, plus encounter rates, and probabilities of capture and recapture. One grid (49 km2 cells) and one targeted configuration provided the most accurate results. Both placed traps by expert opinion and moved traps between capture sessions, which

  4. Combined Fenton oxidation and aerobic biological processes for treating a surfactant wastewater containing abundant sulfate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Jun; Song, Yang; Mai, Jun-Sheng

    2008-12-30

    The present study is to investigate the treatment of a surfactant wastewater containing abundant sulfate by Fenton oxidation and aerobic biological processes. The operating conditions have been optimized. Working at an initial pH value of 8, a Fe2+ dosage of 600mgL(-1) and a H2O2 dosage of 120mgL(-1), the chemical oxidation demand (COD) and linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) were decreased from 1500 and 490mgL(-1) to 230 and 23mgL(-1) after 40min of Fenton oxidation, respectively. Advanced oxidation pretreatment using Fenton reagent was very effective at enhancing the biodegradability of this kind of wastewater. The wastewater was further treated by a bio-chemical treatment process based on an immobilized biomass reactor with a hydraulic detention time (HRT) of 20h after Fenton oxidation pretreatment under the optimal operating conditions. It was found that the COD and LAS of the final effluent were less than 100 and 5mgL(-1), corresponding to a removal efficiencies of over 94% and 99%, respectively.

  5. Testing surrogacy assumptions: can threatened and endangered plants be grouped by biological similarity and abundances?

    PubMed

    Che-Castaldo, Judy P; Neel, Maile C

    2012-01-01

    There is renewed interest in implementing surrogate species approaches in conservation planning due to the large number of species in need of management but limited resources and data. One type of surrogate approach involves selection of one or a few species to represent a larger group of species requiring similar management actions, so that protection and persistence of the selected species would result in conservation of the group of species. However, among the criticisms of surrogate approaches is the need to test underlying assumptions, which remain rarely examined. In this study, we tested one of the fundamental assumptions underlying use of surrogate species in recovery planning: that there exist groups of threatened and endangered species that are sufficiently similar to warrant similar management or recovery criteria. Using a comprehensive database of all plant species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and tree-based random forest analysis, we found no evidence of species groups based on a set of distributional and biological traits or by abundances and patterns of decline. Our results suggested that application of surrogate approaches for endangered species recovery would be unjustified. Thus, conservation planning focused on individual species and their patterns of decline will likely be required to recover listed species.

  6. Predicting the abundance of ice nucleating particles of biological origin in precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stopelli, Emiliano; Conen, Franz; Morris, Cindy; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    at 40 ° C. This indicates that the INPs-8 we measured are of biological origin and can be readily denatured. Still, each sample presents a specific distribution of the sizes of INPs-8, suggesting that INPs-8in environmental samples are a mix of molecules and cells either freely floating in the atmosphere or clumped or attached to mineral and soil particles. The abundance of bacterial cells and the presence of culturable Pseudomonas syringae were studied as well. Just a minor fraction of the INPs-8 is potentially due to bacterial cells or living P. syringae, indicating that the majority of INPs-8 measured in environmental samples may be therefore made of molecules released or detached from organisms.

  7. The Human Release Hypothesis for biological invasions: human activity as a determinant of the abundance of invasive plant species.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Heike; Brandt, Patric; Fischer, Joern; Welk, Erik; von Wehrden, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Research on biological invasions has increased rapidly over the past 30 years, generating numerous explanations of how species become invasive. While the mechanisms of invasive species establishment are well studied, the mechanisms driving abundance patterns (i.e. patterns of population density and population size) remain poorly understood. It is assumed that invasive species typically have higher abundances in their new environments than in their native ranges, and patterns of invasive species abundance differ between invaded regions. To explain differences in invasive species abundance, we propose the Human Release Hypothesis. In parallel to the established Enemy Release Hypothesis, this hypothesis states that the differences in abundance of invasive species are found between regions because population expansion is reduced in some regions through continuous land management and associated cutting of the invasive species. The Human Release Hypothesis does not negate other important drivers of species invasions, but rather should be considered as a potentially important complementary mechanism. We illustrate the hypothesis via a case study on an invasive rose species, and hypothesize which locations globally may be most likely to support high abundances of invasive species. We propose that more extensive empirical work on the Human Release Hypothesis could be useful to test its general applicability.

  8. Dragon Plant Biology Explorer. A Text-Mining Tool for Integrating Associations between Genetic and Biochemical Entities with Genome Annotation and Biochemical Terms Lists[w

    PubMed Central

    Bajic, Vladimir B.; Veronika, Merlin; Veladandi, Pardha Sarathi; Meka, Archana; Heng, Mok-Wei; Rajaraman, Kanagasabai; Pan, Hong; Swarup, Sanjay

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a tool for text mining, Dragon Plant Biology Explorer (DPBE) that integrates information on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genes with their functions, based on gene ontologies and biochemical entity vocabularies, and presents the associations as interactive networks. The associations are based on (1) user-provided PubMed abstracts; (2) a list of Arabidopsis genes compiled by The Arabidopsis Information Resource; (3) user-defined combinations of four vocabulary lists based on the ones developed by the general, plant, and Arabidopsis GO consortia; and (4) three lists developed here based on metabolic pathways, enzymes, and metabolites derived from AraCyc, BRENDA, and other metabolism databases. We demonstrate how various combinations can be applied to fields of (1) gene function and gene interaction analyses, (2) plant development, (3) biochemistry and metabolism, and (4) pharmacology of bioactive compounds. Furthermore, we show the suitability of DPBE for systems approaches by integration with “omics” platform outputs. Using a list of abiotic stress-related genes identified by microarray experiments, we show how this tool can be used to rapidly build an information base on the previously reported relationships. This tool complements the existing biological resources for systems biology by identifying potentially novel associations using text analysis between cellular entities based on genome annotation terms. Thus, it allows researchers to efficiently summarize existing information for a group of genes or pathways, so as to make better informed choices for designing validation experiments. Last, DPBE can be helpful for beginning researchers and graduate students to summarize vast information in an unfamiliar area. DPBE is freely available for academic and nonprofit users at http://research.i2r.a-star.edu.sg/DRAGON/ME2/. PMID:16172098

  9. Demographics of clinical trials participants in pivotal clinical trials for new molecular entity drugs and biologics approved by FDA From 2010 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Eshera, Noha; Itana, Hawi; Zhang, Lei; Soon, Greg; Fadiran, Emmanuel O

    2015-01-01

    To fully assess the safety and efficacy of therapeutics before approval, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has encouraged adequate representation and assessment of demographic subgroups in clinical trials through guidance documents and regulations. This study aimed to survey the demographics of participants in pivotal clinical trials, as well as the presence of analyses by sex on efficacy and safety for FDA-approved new drug applications (NDAs) and biologics license applications (BLAs) from 2010 to 2012. Medical and statistical reviews for new molecular entity drugs and biological products approved during this period were obtained from Drugs@FDA. All pivotal clinical trials referenced in the FDA reviews were evaluated for the participation of different demographic subgroups (such as sex, race/ethnicity, and age). Pivotal trials were defined as those phase 2 and/or phase 3 trials described in the labeling or the FDA medical reviews in support of the drug/biological approval. Eighty-three new molecular entities (66 NDAs and 17 BLAs) were approved by the FDA from 2010 to 2012. Overall, women constituted 45% of trial participants for NDAs and 65% for BLAs. Sex analysis related to safety and efficacy was reported in 92% of the surveyed FDA medical and statistical reviews. Most NDAs and BLAs (82%) had a study population that was representative of the sex distribution for the intended patient population; however, most study participants were whites (77%), and minority racial/ethnic groups had lower participation rates in the study population than would be representative of the US racial group populations.

  10. Predicting recovery criteria for threatened and endangered plant species on the basis of past abundances and biological traits.

    PubMed

    Neel, Maile C; Che-Castaldo, Judy P

    2013-04-01

    Recovery plans for species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act are required to specify measurable criteria that can be used to determine when the species can be delisted. For the 642 listed endangered and threatened plant species that have recovery plans, we applied recursive partitioning methods to test whether the number of individuals or populations required for delisting can be predicted on the basis of distributional and biological traits, previous abundance at multiple time steps, or a combination of traits and previous abundances. We also tested listing status (threatened or endangered) and the year the recovery plan was written as predictors of recovery criteria. We analyzed separately recovery criteria that were stated as number of populations and as number of individuals (population-based and individual-based criteria, respectively). Previous abundances alone were relatively good predictors of population-based recovery criteria. Fewer populations, but a greater proportion of historically known populations, were required to delist species that had few populations at listing compared with species that had more populations at listing. Previous abundances were also good predictors of individual-based delisting criteria when models included both abundances and traits. The physiographic division in which the species occur was also a good predictor of individual-based criteria. Our results suggest managers are relying on previous abundances and patterns of decline as guidelines for setting recovery criteria. This may be justifiable in that previous abundances inform managers of the effects of both intrinsic traits and extrinsic threats that interact and determine extinction risk.

  11. Distribution, abundance, and biology of the alewife in U.S. waters of Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bronte, Charles R.; Selgeby, James H.; Curtis, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    Alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus) were first reported in Lake Superior in 1954 and gradually increased in abundance in the late 1950s. In the 1960s and early 1970s, the fish were widespread in the lake but scarce. We determined the more recent abundance and distribution of alewives by cross-contour trawling in the spring in 1978–1988. Alewives were scarce lake-wide; the mean catch rate was only 23 fish per 100 h of trawling and represented a density of 0.003 kg per hectare in the area swept by the trawls. Fish of six age groups were caught in trawls in spring and gill nets in fall in 1983–1987. Total annual mortality was 64%, a high natural rate in the absence of fishing. Alewives in Lake Superior were small at the end of their first growing season but later grew faster than those in the other Great Lakes. Fecundity, estimated to be 64,000 eggs (mean total length = 187 mm) was higher than in other freshwater stocks. Zooplankton was the major food of alewives < 100 mm long and Mysis was the main food of larger fish. Exposure to water temperatures below lethal minimums for overwintering fish and for developing eggs limits the success of this species in Lake Superior.

  12. The diversity and abundance of bacteria and oxygenic phototrophs in saline biological desert crusts in Xinjiang, northwest China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Liu, Ruyin; Zhang, Hongxun; Yun, Juanli

    2013-07-01

    Although microorganisms, particularly oxygenic phototrophs, are known as the major players in the biogeochemical cycles of elements in desert soil ecosystems and have received extensive attention, still little is known about the effects of salinity on the composition and abundances of microbial community in desert soils. In this study, the diversity and abundance of bacteria and oxygenic phototrophs in biological desert crusts from Xinjiang province, which were under different salinity conditions, were investigated by using clone library and quantitative PCR (qPCR). The 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis showed that cyanobacteria, mainly Microcoleus vagnitus of the order Oscillatoriales, were predominant in the low saline crusts, while other phototrophs, such as diatom, were the main microorganism group responsible for the oxygenic photosynthesis in the high saline crusts. Furthermore, the higher salt content in crusts may stimulate the growth of other bacteria, including Deinococcus-Thermus, Bacteroidetes, and some subdivisions of Proteobacteria (β-, γ-, and δ-Proteobacteria). The cpcBA-IGS gene analysis revealed the existence of novel M. vagnitus strains in this area. The qPCR results showed that the abundance of oxygenic phototrophs was significantly higher under lower saline condition than that in the higher saline crusts, suggesting that the higher salinity in desert crusts could suppress the numbers of total bacteria and phototrophic bacteria but did highly improve the diversity of salt-tolerant bacteria.

  13. Participation of Women and Sex Analyses in Late-Phase Clinical Trials of New Molecular Entity Drugs and Biologics Approved by the FDA in 2007–2009

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Rita; Khanijow, Keshav; Umarjee, Sphoorti; Yu, Monica; Zhang, Lei; Parekh, Ameeta

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Biological sex differences may contribute to differential treatment outcomes for therapeutic products. This study tracks women's participation in late-phase clinical trials (LPCTs), where efficacy and safety of drugs and biologics are evaluated, of new molecular entity (NME) drugs and biologics approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2007–2009. Furthermore, presentations of sex-based analyses were assessed from the FDA reviews. Methods New drug applications (NDAs) and biologics license applications (BLAs) were accessed from the U.S. FDA database and evaluated for women's participation in LPCTs. Sex-based analyses for efficacy and safety contained in FDA reviews were surveyed. Ratios for women's LPCT participation (PROPORTION OF STUDY SUBJECTS) to their proportion in the disease population were calculated for each approved therapeutic product and grouped into therapeutic categories. Results Sex-specific (n=5) and pediatric (n=3) drug applications were excluded. Women's participation in LPCTs was 39%, 48%, and 42% in NDAs (n=50) and 49%, 62%, and 58% in BLAs (n=11) for 2007, 2008, and 2009, respectively. Sixty-four percent of NDAs and 91% of BLAs had participation to proportion ratios of ≥0.80. Seventy-four percent of NDA reviews and 64% of BLA reviews included safety and efficacy sex analysis. Ninety-six percent of NDA reviews and 100% of BLA reviews included efficacy sex analysis. Conclusion Women's participation in LPCTs averaged 43% for NDAs and 57% for BLAs in 2007–2009 and varied widely by indication. As a comparison, the 2001 U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) reported 52% of women's participation for drug clinical trials in1998–2000 and an FDA study reported 45% for BLAs approved from 1995 to 1999. This study showed that sex-analysis of both safety and efficacy in NDA has increased to 74% since the GAO report of 72%, while those for BLAs increased to 64% from 37% reported for therapeutic biologics

  14. Insects and low temperatures: from molecular biology to distributions and abundance.

    PubMed Central

    Bale, J S

    2002-01-01

    Insects are the most diverse fauna on earth, with different species occupying a range of terrestrial and aquatic habitats from the tropics to the poles. Species inhabiting extreme low-temperature environments must either tolerate or avoid freezing to survive. While much is now known about the synthesis, biochemistry and function of the main groups of cryoprotectants involved in the seasonal processes of acclimatization and winter cold hardiness (ice-nucleating agents, polyols and antifreeze proteins), studies on the structural biology of these compounds have been more limited. The recent discovery of rapid cold-hardening, ice-interface desiccation and the daily resetting of critical thermal thresholds affecting mortality and mobility have emphasized the role of temperature as the most important abiotic factor, acting through physiological processes to determine ecological outcomes. These relationships are seen in key areas such as species responses to climate warming, forecasting systems for pest outbreaks and the establishment potential of alien species in new environments. PMID:12171648

  15. Filamentous Chloroflexi (green non-sulfur bacteria) are abundant in wastewater treatment processes with biological nutrient removal.

    PubMed

    Björnsson, Lovisa; Hugenholtz, Philip; Tyson, Gene W; Blackall, Linda L

    2002-08-01

    Most filamentous bacteria in biological nutrient removal (BNR) processes have not been identified beyond their morphotype and simple staining reactions. Furthermore, the majority of sludge filaments observed under the microscope do not hybridize to commonly used phylogenetic probes for well characterized bacterial phyla such as the Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and BACTEROIDETES: Specific 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes were designed for the phylum Chloroflexi (green non-sulfur bacteria) and optimized for use in fluorescence in situ hybridization. Chloroflexi have been implicated in BNR systems by phylogenetic identification of filamentous bacteria isolated by micromanipulation from sludge and culture-independent molecular phylogenetic surveys. The predominant morphotype responding to the probes was filamentous and these filaments were generally abundant in 10 Australian full-scale and two laboratory-scale BNR samples examined. Filamentous bacteria responding to a subdivision 1 Chloroflexi probe were rare in the samples, whereas subdivision 3 Chloroflexi filaments were very common in some sludges. This is in direct contrast to results obtained from molecular phylogenetic surveys of BNR systems where most sludge 16S rDNA clones belong to subdivision 1 and only a few to subdivision 3. It is suggested that filamentous bacteria belonging to the Chloroflexi phylum account for a large fraction of phylogenetically uncharacterized filaments in BNR systems and are likely to be abundant in such systems on a global scale.

  16. Dryland biological soil crust cyanobacteria show unexpected decreases in abundance under long-term elevated CO2.

    PubMed

    Steven, Blaire; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Yeager, Chris M; Belnap, Jayne; Evans, R David; Kuske, Cheryl R

    2012-12-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) cover soil surfaces in many drylands globally. The impacts of 10 years of elevated atmospheric CO2 on the cyanobacteria in biocrusts of an arid shrubland were examined at a large manipulated experiment in Nevada, USA. Cyanobacteria-specific quantitative PCR surveys of cyanobacteria small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes suggested a reduction in biocrust cyanobacterial biomass in the elevated CO2 treatment relative to the ambient controls. Additionally, SSU rRNA gene libraries and shotgun metagenomes showed reduced representation of cyanobacteria in the total microbial community. Taxonomic composition of the cyanobacteria was similar under ambient and elevated CO2 conditions, indicating the decline was manifest across multiple cyanobacterial lineages. Recruitment of cyanobacteria sequences from replicate shotgun metagenomes to cyanobacterial genomes representing major biocrust orders also suggested decreased abundance of cyanobacteria sequences across the majority of genomes tested. Functional assignment of cyanobacteria-related shotgun metagenome sequences indicated that four subsystem categories, three related to oxidative stress, were differentially abundant in relation to the elevated CO2 treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that elevated CO2 affected a generalized decrease in cyanobacteria in the biocrusts and may have favoured cyanobacteria with altered gene inventories for coping with oxidative stress.

  17. Dryland biological soil crust cyanobacteria show unexpected decreases in abundance under long-term elevated CO2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steven, Blaire; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Yeager, Chris M.; Belnap, Jayne; Evans, R. David; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2012-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) cover soil surfaces in many drylands globally. The impacts of 10 years of elevated atmospheric CO2 on the cyanobacteria in biocrusts of an arid shrubland were examined at a large manipulated experiment in Nevada, USA. Cyanobacteria-specific quantitative PCR surveys of cyanobacteria small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes suggested a reduction in biocrust cyanobacterial biomass in the elevated CO2 treatment relative to the ambient controls. Additionally, SSU rRNA gene libraries and shotgun metagenomes showed reduced representation of cyanobacteria in the total microbial community. Taxonomic composition of the cyanobacteria was similar under ambient and elevated CO2 conditions, indicating the decline was manifest across multiple cyanobacterial lineages. Recruitment of cyanobacteria sequences from replicate shotgun metagenomes to cyanobacterial genomes representing major biocrust orders also suggested decreased abundance of cyanobacteria sequences across the majority of genomes tested. Functional assignment of cyanobacteria-related shotgun metagenome sequences indicated that four subsystem categories, three related to oxidative stress, were differentially abundant in relation to the elevated CO2 treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that elevated CO2 affected a generalized decrease in cyanobacteria in the biocrusts and may have favoured cyanobacteria with altered gene inventories for coping with oxidative stress.

  18. Parametric scaling from species relative abundances to absolute abundances in the computation of biological diversity: a first proposal using Shannon's entropy.

    PubMed

    Ricotta, Carlo

    2003-01-01

    Traditional diversity measures such as the Shannon entropy are generally computed from the species' relative abundance vector of a given community to the exclusion of species' absolute abundances. In this paper, I first mention some examples where the total information content associated with a given community may be more adequate than Shannon's average information content for a better understanding of ecosystem functioning. Next, I propose a parametric measure of statistical information that contains both Shannon's entropy and total information content as special cases of this more general function.

  19. Through a glass less darkly—New approaches for studying the distribution, abundance and biology of Euphausiids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicol, Stephen; Brierley, Andrew S.

    2010-04-01

    Euphausiids are vital components of many oceanic foodwebs. Due to their large size, they are key prey species for many vertebrates, and several species are subject to commercial fisheries. The best studied euphausiid species is Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba), and a considerable literature exists documenting its ecology. The abundance of Antarctic krill varies enormously over multiple time and space scales in the Southern Ocean. This variability is driven partly by physical processes, but also by the behaviour of the animals as individuals and as groups. It is likely that such variability also affects the populations of other large euphausiid species. In order to understand this variability, particularly in the context of rapid environmental change and expanding fisheries interests, we need to shift emphasis from conventional point- and transect-sampling conducted from brief research cruises—usually in summer—to basin-scale observations over extended time periods. Future studies of the large-scale biology of krill of all species will also need to consider how their growth, reproduction and behaviour might alter in response to predicted environmental changes such as decline in sea ice cover, rising temperature and acidification of the ocean. Paradoxically, to answer many outstanding questions in krill biology, there also needs to be a shift towards examining the three-dimensional dynamics of krill aggregations on very small space and timescales. This paper outlines some of the approaches that might enable us to make progress in understanding these key organisms at multiple spatial and temporal scales, approaches that in turn may leave us better able to manage krill populations into the future. Whilst the paper's focus is primarily on Antarctic krill, the findings are applicable generally to other large, schooling euphausiid species.

  20. Estimation of biological nitrogen fixation by black locust in short-rotation forests using natural 15N abundance method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veste, M.; Böhm, C.; Quinckenstein, A.; Freese, D.

    2012-04-01

    The importance of short rotation forests and agroforestry systems for woody biomass production for bioenergy will increase in Central Europe within the next decades. In this context, black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) has a high growth potential especially at marginal, drought-susceptible sites such as occur in Brandenburg State (Eastern Germany). As a pioneer tree species black locust grows under a wide range of site conditions. The native range of black locust in Northern America is classified by a humid to sub-humid climate with a mean annual precipitation of 1020 to 1830 mm. In Central and Eastern Europe, this species is cultivated in a more continental climate with an annual precipitation often below 600 mm. Therefore, black locust is known to be relatively drought tolerant compared to other temperate, deciduous tree species. Because of its N2-fixation ability black locust plays generally an important role for the improvement of soil fertility. This effect is of particular interest at marginal sites in the post-mining landscapes. In order to estimate the N2-fixation potential of black locust at marginal sites leaf samples were taken from black locust trees in short rotation plantations planted between 1995 and 2007 in post-mining sites south of Cottbus (Brandenburg, NE Germany). The variation of the natural 15N abundance was measured to evaluate the biological nitrogen fixation. The nitrogen derived from the atmosphere can be calculated using a two-pool model from the quotient of the natural 15N abundances of the N2-fixing plant and the plant available soil N. Because representatively determining the plant available soil N is difficult, a non-N2-fixing reference plant growing at the same site with a similar root system and temporal N uptake pattern to the N2-fixing plant is often used. In our case we used red oak (Quercus rubra) as a reference. The average nitrogen content in the leaves of black locust ranged from 3.1% (C/N 14.8) in 15 years old trees to 3

  1. "Candidatus Propionivibrio aalborgensis": A Novel Glycogen Accumulating Organism Abundant in Full-Scale Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Plants.

    PubMed

    Albertsen, Mads; McIlroy, Simon J; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel; Karst, Søren M; Nielsen, Per H

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is widely used to remove phosphorus from wastewater. The process relies on polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) that are able to take up phosphorus in excess of what is needed for growth, whereby phosphorus can be removed from the wastewater by wasting the biomass. However, glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) may reduce the EBPR efficiency as they compete for substrates with PAOs, but do not store excessive amounts of polyphosphate. PAOs and GAOs are thought to be phylogenetically unrelated, with the model PAO being the betaproteobacterial "Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis" (Accumulibacter) and the model GAO being the gammaproteobacterial "Candidatus Competibacter phosphatis". Here, we report the discovery of a GAO from the genus Propionivibrio, which is closely related to Accumulibacter. Propionivibrio sp. are targeted by the canonical fluorescence in situ hybridization probes used to target Accumulibacter (PAOmix), but do not store excessive amounts of polyphosphate in situ. A laboratory scale reactor, operated to enrich for PAOs, surprisingly contained co-dominant populations of Propionivibrio and Accumulibacter. Metagenomic sequencing of multiple time-points enabled recovery of near complete population genomes from both genera. Annotation of the Propionivibrio genome confirmed their potential for the GAO phenotype and a basic metabolic model is proposed for their metabolism in the EBPR environment. Using newly designed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes, analyses of full-scale EBPR plants revealed that Propionivibrio is a common member of the community, constituting up to 3% of the biovolume. To avoid overestimation of Accumulibacter abundance in situ, we recommend the use of the FISH probe PAO651 instead of the commonly applied PAOmix probe set.

  2. “Candidatus Propionivibrio aalborgensis”: A Novel Glycogen Accumulating Organism Abundant in Full-Scale Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Albertsen, Mads; McIlroy, Simon J.; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel; Karst, Søren M.; Nielsen, Per H.

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is widely used to remove phosphorus from wastewater. The process relies on polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) that are able to take up phosphorus in excess of what is needed for growth, whereby phosphorus can be removed from the wastewater by wasting the biomass. However, glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) may reduce the EBPR efficiency as they compete for substrates with PAOs, but do not store excessive amounts of polyphosphate. PAOs and GAOs are thought to be phylogenetically unrelated, with the model PAO being the betaproteobacterial “Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis” (Accumulibacter) and the model GAO being the gammaproteobacterial “Candidatus Competibacter phosphatis”. Here, we report the discovery of a GAO from the genus Propionivibrio, which is closely related to Accumulibacter. Propionivibrio sp. are targeted by the canonical fluorescence in situ hybridization probes used to target Accumulibacter (PAOmix), but do not store excessive amounts of polyphosphate in situ. A laboratory scale reactor, operated to enrich for PAOs, surprisingly contained co-dominant populations of Propionivibrio and Accumulibacter. Metagenomic sequencing of multiple time-points enabled recovery of near complete population genomes from both genera. Annotation of the Propionivibrio genome confirmed their potential for the GAO phenotype and a basic metabolic model is proposed for their metabolism in the EBPR environment. Using newly designed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes, analyses of full-scale EBPR plants revealed that Propionivibrio is a common member of the community, constituting up to 3% of the biovolume. To avoid overestimation of Accumulibacter abundance in situ, we recommend the use of the FISH probe PAO651 instead of the commonly applied PAOmix probe set. PMID:27458436

  3. High abundances of oxalic, azelaic, and glyoxylic acids and methylglyoxal in the open ocean with high biological activity: Implication for secondary OA formation from isoprene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bikkina, Srinivas; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Miyazaki, Yuzo; Fu, Pingqing

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric dicarboxylic acids (DCA) are a ubiquitous water-soluble component of secondary organic aerosols (SOA), which can act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), affecting the Earth's climate. Despite the high abundances of oxalic acid and related compounds in the marine aerosols, there is no consensus on what controls their distributions over the open ocean. Marine biological productivity could play a role in the production of DCA, but there is no substantial evidence to support this hypothesis. Here we present latitudinal distributions of DCA, oxoacids and α-dicarbonyls in the marine aerosols from the remote Pacific. Their concentrations were found several times higher in more biologically influenced aerosols (MBA) than less biologically influenced aerosols. We propose isoprene and unsaturated fatty acids as sources of DCA as inferred from significantly higher abundances of isoprene-SOA tracers and azelaic acid in MBA. These results have implications toward the reassessment of climate forcing feedbacks of marine-derived SOA.

  4. Variation in Biological Soil Crust Bacterial Abundance and Diversity as a Function of Climate in Cold Steppe Ecosystems in the Intermountain West, USA.

    PubMed

    Blay, Erika S; Schwabedissen, Stacy G; Magnuson, Timothy S; Aho, Ken A; Sheridan, Peter P; Lohse, Kathleen A

    2017-04-13

    Biological soil crust (biocrust) is a composite of mosses, lichens, and bacteria that performs many important soil system functions, including increasing soil stability, protecting against wind erosion, reducing nutrient loss, and mediating carbon and nitrogen fixation cycles. These cold desert and steppe ecosystems are expected to experience directional changes in both climate and disturbance. These include increased temperatures, precipitation phase changes, and increased disturbance from anthropogenic land use. In this study, we assessed how climate and grazing disturbance may affect the abundance and diversity of bacteria in biocrusts in cold steppe ecosystems located in southwestern Idaho, USA. To our knowledge, our study is the first to document how biocrust bacterial composition and diversity change along a cold steppe climatic gradient. Analyses based on 16S small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences identified the phylum Actinobacteria as the major bacterial component within study site biocrusts (relative abundance = 36-51%). The abundance of the phyla Actinobacteria and Firmicutes was higher at elevations experiencing cooler, wetter climates, while the abundance of Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Chloroflexi decreased. The abundance of the phyla Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria showed no significant evidence of decline in grazed areas. Taken together, results from this study indicate that bacterial communities from rolling biocrusts found in cold steppe ecosystems are affected by climate regime and differ substantially from other cold desert ecosystems, resulting in potential differences in nutrient cycling and ecosystem dynamics.

  5. Biologically effective ultraviolet radiation, total ozone abundance, and cloud optical depth at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, September 15 1988 through April 15 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Stamnes, K.; Slusser, J.; Bowen, M. ); Booth, C.; Lucas, T.

    1990-11-01

    Spectral measurements of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation taken at McMurdo Station, Antarctica are used to determine biologically effective UV dose, ozone column content, and effective cloud optical depth. The seasonal variation in these parameters from September 15, 1988 through April 15, 1989 is presented and discussed. Although no days from September 15 through October experienced UV dose exceeding that occurring at summer solstice, the temporal variation in the level of UV radiation is markedly asymmetric with respect to summer solstice. A general enhancement by about 20% in biologically effective UV dose in October, 1988 compared to March, 1989 is clearly evident. The main cause of this asymmetry appears to be the coincident deficiency in ozone abundance appears to be the coincident deficiency in ozone abundance by about 8% in spring compared to fall. The percent increase in UV dose per percent decrease in ozone abundance is about 2.5 in agreement with theoretical predictions. The total ozone amount is generally depleted (to about 250 DU) during October 1988, but there are large day-to-day fluctuations. Presumably these fluctuations are caused primarily by the motion of the polar vortex. After summer solstice UV radiation levels and ozone amounts exhibit much less pronounced day-to-day fluctuations. No spring/fall asymmetry in cloudiness, as it affects the surface ultraviolet radiation budget, is discernible from the measurements if the surface albedo is assumed to vary symmetrically around solstice.

  6. Fabrication of diverse pH-sensitive functional mesoporous silica for selective removal or depletion of highly abundant proteins from biological samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaojiao; Lan, Jingfeng; Li, Huihui; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Haixia

    2017-01-01

    In proteomic studies, poor detection of low abundant proteins is a major problem due to the presence of highly abundant proteins. Therefore, the specific removal or depletion of highly abundant proteins prior to analysis is necessary. In response to this problem, a series of pH-sensitive functional mesoporous silica materials composed of 2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate and methacrylic acid units were designed and synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization. These functional mesoporous silica materials were characterized and their ability for adsorption and separation of proteins was evaluated. Possessing a pH-sensitive feature, the synthesized functional materials showed selective adsorption of some proteins in aqueous or buffer solutions at certain pH values. The specific removal of a particular protein from a mixed protein solution was subsequently studied. The analytical results confirmed that all the target proteins (bovine serum albumin, ovalbumin, and lysozyme) can be removed by the proposed materials from a five-protein mixture in a single operation. Finally, the practical application of this approach was also evaluated by the selective removal of certain proteins from real biological samples. The results revealed that the maximum removal efficiencies of ovalbumin and lysozyme from egg white sample were obtained as 99% and 92%, respectively, while the maximum removal efficiency of human serum albumin from human serum sample was about 80% by the proposed method. It suggested that this treatment process reduced the complexity of real biological samples and facilitated the identification of hidden proteins in chromatograms.

  7. Regulatory forum opinion piece: differences between protein-based biologic products (biotherapeutics) and chemical entities (small molecules) of relevance to the toxicologic pathologist.

    PubMed

    Leach, Michael W

    2013-01-01

    With the advances in cell culture methodologies and molecular biology that have occurred over the past several decades, biologics have become as common as small molecules within the portfolios of the pharmaceutical industry. Toxicologic pathologists should be aware of some of the fundamental differences between small molecules and biologics. Effects are not always observed in studies following administration of biologics. When findings are observed, the toxicologic pathologist should initially determine whether the effect(s) are mediated (directly or indirectly) via the intended pharmacology, exaggerated pharmacology, an immune response, and/or off target effects. Following this determination, the toxicologic pathologist should provide an assessment regarding the relevance of the findings to the intended clinical population, usually humans. The toxicologic pathologist may also be asked to assess unusual species and models. Given their broad background in physiology and immunology, toxicologic pathologists are uniquely positioned to provide this input to drug development teams.

  8. Moving Hands, Moving Entities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setti, Annalisa; Borghi, Anna M.; Tessari, Alessia

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated with a priming paradigm whether uni and bimanual actions presented as primes differently affected language processing. Animals' (self-moving entities) and plants' (not self-moving entities) names were used as targets. As prime we used grasping hands, presented both as static images and videos. The results showed an…

  9. The relationship between physical and biological habitat conditions and hermatypic coral recruits abundance within insular reefs (Colombian Caribbean).

    PubMed

    Bernal-Sotelo, Katherine; Acosta, Alberto

    2012-09-01

    Little evidence exists on the dependence between the presence and abundance of juvenile hermatypic corals and the conditions of their habitats, despite that juveniles contribute with the understanding of the community structure and its reproductive success. To assess this, the abundance of nine species of juvenile corals was correlated with eight macro-habitat (location of the reef on shelf, depth) and micro-habitat (type and inclination of the substrate, exposure to light, texture and amount of sediment accumulated on bottom, potential growth area for juveniles) conditions. Sampling was conducted in four insular coral reefs in the Colombian Caribbean: two oceanic and two continental reefs (influenced by large rivers), covering a total of 600m2 and the distribution of corals on a vertical gradient. Contingency tables and coefficients (magnitude) and multiple correspondence analyses were used to evaluate the dependency ratios for each species. The results showed that Agaricia tenuifolia displayed the most robust pattern of dependence (two high and two moderate), significant for juveniles present at a high frequency in continental reefs, devoid of potential area for juvenile growth (surrounded by macroalgae), and covering horizontal substrates exposed to light. The juveniles were associated with a habitat of moderate to high bottom accumulation of extremely fine sediment. Porites astreoides presented four moderate dependencies; ocean reefs between 2-16m depths, a high frequency of juveniles on horizontal substrates, exposed to light, non-sedimented and occupied by competitors. Siderastrea siderea displayed three moderate dependences for juveniles in cryptic zones, inclined substrate and devoid of competitors. A. lamarcki, Leptoseris cucullata and A. agaricites presented two moderate dependences; these species share high abundance of juveniles in habitats with no sediment, exposed to light and occupied by competitors (except A. agaricites). The P. porites, Favia

  10. Increasing the Biological Stability Profile of a New Chemical Entity, UPEI-104, and Potential Use as a Neuroprotectant Against Reperfusion-Injury

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Tarek M.; Connell, Barry J.; Kucukkaya, Inan; Abd-El-Aziz, Alaa S.

    2015-01-01

    Previous work in our laboratory demonstrated the utility of synthetic combinations of two naturally occurring, biologically active compounds. In particular, we combined two known anti-oxidant compounds, lipoic acid and apocynin, covalently linked via an ester bond (named UPEI-100). In an animal model of ischemia-reperfusion injury (tMCAO), UPEI-100 was shown to produce equivalent neuroprotection compared to each parent compound, but at a 100-fold lower dose. However, it was determined that UPEI-100 was undetectable in any tissue samples almost immediately following intravenous injection. Therefore, the present investigation was done to determine if biological stability of UPEI-100 could be improved by replacing the ester bond with a more bio cleavage-resistant bond, an ether bond (named UPEI-104). We then compared the stability of UPEI-104 to the original parent compound UPEI-100 in human plasma as well as liver microsomes. Our results demonstrated that both UPEI-100 and UPEI-104 could be detected in human plasma for over 120 min; however, only UPEI-104 was detectable for an average of 7 min following incubation with human liver microsomes. This increased stability did not affect the biological activity of UPEI-104 as measured using our tMCAO model. Our results suggest that combining compounds using an ether bond can improve stability while maintaining biological activity. PMID:25906324

  11. Abundance of fluorescent biological aerosol particles at temperatures conducive to the formation of mixed-phase and cirrus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twohy, Cynthia H.; McMeeking, Gavin R.; DeMott, Paul J.; McCluskey, Christina S.; Hill, Thomas C. J.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Tanarhte, Meryem; Kafle, Durga N.; Toohey, Darin W.

    2016-07-01

    Some types of biological particles are known to nucleate ice at warmer temperatures than mineral dust, with the potential to influence cloud microphysical properties and climate. However, the prevalence of these particle types above the atmospheric boundary layer is not well known. Many types of biological particles fluoresce when exposed to ultraviolet light, and the Wideband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor takes advantage of this characteristic to perform real-time measurements of fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAPs). This instrument was flown on the National Center for Atmospheric Research Gulfstream V aircraft to measure concentrations of fluorescent biological particles from different potential sources and at various altitudes over the US western plains in early autumn. Clear-air number concentrations of FBAPs between 0.8 and 12 µm diameter usually decreased with height and generally were about 10-100 L-1 in the continental boundary layer but always much lower at temperatures colder than 255 K in the free troposphere. At intermediate temperatures where biological ice-nucleating particles may influence mixed-phase cloud formation (255 K ≤ T ≤ 270 K), concentrations of fluorescent particles were the most variable and were occasionally near boundary-layer concentrations. Predicted vertical distributions of ice-nucleating particle concentrations based on FBAP measurements in this temperature regime sometimes reached typical concentrations of primary ice in clouds but were often much lower. If convection was assumed to lift boundary-layer FBAPs without losses to the free troposphere, better agreement between predicted ice-nucleating particle concentrations and typical ice crystal concentrations was achieved. Ice-nucleating particle concentrations were also measured during one flight and showed a decrease with height, and concentrations were consistent with a relationship to FBAPs established previously at the forested surface site below. The vertical

  12. Temporal Diversity and Abundance Patterns of Parasitoids of Fruit-Infesting Tephritidae (Diptera) in the Argentinean Yungas: Implications for Biological Control.

    PubMed

    Schliserman, Pablo; Aluja, Martin; Rull, Juan; Ovruski, Sergio M

    2016-10-01

    A 4-yr study was done to analyze seasonal patterns underlying host plant-fruit fly-parasitoid interactions in a secondary forest in the Argentinean Yunga and its importance for the implementation of conservation and augmentative biological control. Larval-pupal hymenopteran parasitoids associated with all host plants and fruit fly species were identified and the seasonal occurrence of fruit, infestation levels, parasitism percentage, and relative parasitoid abundance were determined. Three fruit fly species in two genera were found in association with surveyed plants, two of which (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann)) are of major economic importance. Infestation levels were strongly influenced by environmental factors and peak fruit availability. Five fruit fly parasitoid species were recovered from fly pupae, four braconid species, and one figitid. Time windows for fruit fly population growth were pinpointed. Based on results, the present analysis proposes an effective fruit fly biological control strategy tailored for the northwestern Argentinean citrus-producing area.

  13. HLA-DR and ß2 microglobulin expression in medullary and atypical medullary carcinoma of the breast: histopathologically similar but biologically distinct entities

    PubMed Central

    Feinmesser, M.; Sulkes, A.; Morgenstern, S.; Sulkes, J.; Stern, S.; Okon, E.

    2000-01-01

    Aims—To examine the expression of HLA-DR and ß2 microglobulin in medullary carcinoma and atypical medullary carcinoma of the breast to determine if the effective presentation of tumour antigens to the immune system can differentiate between these two histopathologically similar entities. Methods—Expression of HLA-DR and ß2 microglobulin was examined by immunohistochemical methods in five samples of medullary carcinoma of the breast, which has a relatively favourable prognosis, six samples of atypical medullary carcinoma of the breast, which has a prognosis closer to that of regular invasive duct carcinoma, and 20 samples of invasive duct carcinomas, 10 with an accompanying lymphocytic infiltrate. Results—A positive and significant correlation was found between tumour type and both HLA-DR and ß2 microglobulin expression. Expression was most prominent in medullary carcinoma, followed by atypical medullary carcinoma and invasive duct carcinoma with and without lymphocytic infiltrates. The mean intensity and percentage of HLA-DR tumour immunostaining were significantly higher in medullary carcinoma than in the other three tumour groups, as was the mean intensity of ß2 microglobulin immunostaining. Mean percentage of ß2 microglobulin immunostaining was significantly higher in medullary carcinoma than in invasive duct carcinoma without lymphocytic infiltrates, and showed a trend to increase from invasive duct carcinoma with lymphocytic infiltrates to atypical medullary carcinoma and medullary carcinoma. Conclusions—Medullary carcinoma and atypical medullary carcinoma of the breast differ in their expression of HLA-DR and ß2 microglobulin. The relatively favourable prognosis of medullary carcinoma of the breast may be related to effective tumour antigen presentation to the immune system through MHC-I and MHC-II expression. Immunotherapy aimed at MHC-I and MHC-II induction might have a beneficial effect in breast cancer. Key Words: medullary carcinoma of the

  14. Abundance of fluorescent biological aerosol particles at temperatures conducive to the formation of mixed-phase and cirrus clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Twohy, Cynthia H.; McMeeking, Gavin R.; DeMott, Paul J.; McCluskey, Christina S.; Hill, Thomas C. J.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Tanarhte, Meryem; Kafle, Durga N.; Toohey, Darin W.

    2016-01-01

    Some types of biological particles are known to nucleate ice at warmer temperatures than mineral dust, with the potential to influence cloud microphysical properties and climate. However, the prevalence of these particle types above the atmospheric boundary layer is not well known. Many types of biological particles fluoresce when exposed to ultraviolet light, and the Wideband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor takes advantage of this characteristic to perform real-time measurements of fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAPs). This instrument was flown on the National Center for Atmospheric Research Gulfstream V aircraft to measure concentrations of fluorescent biological particles from different potential sources and at various altitudes over the US western plains in early autumn. Clear-air number concentrations of FBAPs between 0.8 and 12 µm diameter usually decreased with height and generally were about 10–100 L-1 in the continental boundary layer but always much lower at temperatures colder than 255 K in the free troposphere. At intermediate temperatures where biological ice-nucleating particles may influence mixed-phase cloud formation (255 K ≤ T ≤ 270 K), concentrations of fluorescent particles were the most variable and were occasionally near boundary-layer concentrations. Predicted vertical distributions of ice-nucleating particle concentrations based on FBAP measurements in this temperature regime sometimes reached typical concentrations of primary ice in clouds but were often much lower. If convection was assumed to lift boundary-layer FBAPs without losses to the free troposphere, better agreement between predicted ice-nucleating particle concentrations and typical ice crystal concentrations was achieved. Ice-nucleating particle concentrations were also measured during one flight and showed a decrease with height, and concentrations were consistent with a relationship to FBAPs established previously at the forested surface

  15. Correlates of biological soil crust abundance across a continuum of spatial scales: Support for a hierarchical conceptual model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowker, M.A.; Belnap, J.; Davidson, D.W.; Goldstein, H.

    2006-01-01

    1. Desertification negatively impacts a large proportion of the global human population and > 30% of the terrestrial land surface. Better methods are needed to detect areas that are at risk of desertification and to ameliorate desertified areas. Biological soil crusts are an important soil lichen-moss-microbial community that can be used toward these goals, as (i) bioindicators of desertification damage and (ii) promoters of soil stability and fertility. 2. We identified environmental factors that correlate with soil crust occurrence on the landscape and might be manipulated to assist recovery of soil crusts in degraded areas. We conducted three studies on the Colorado Plateau, USA, to investigate the hypotheses that soil fertility [particularly phosphorus (P), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn)] and/or moisture limit soil crust lichens and mosses at four spatial scales. 3. In support of the soil fertility hypothesis, we found that lichen-moss crusts were positively correlated with several nutrients [Mn, Zn, potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) were most consistent] at three of four spatial scales ranging from 3.5 cm2 in area to c. 800 km2. In contrast, P was negatively correlated with lichen-moss crusts at three scales. 4. Community composition varied with micro-aspect on ridges in the soil crust. Three micro-aspects [north-north-west (NNW), east-north-east (ENE) and TOP] supported greater lichen and moss cover than the warmer, windward and more xeric micro-aspects [west-south-west (WSW) and south-south-east (SSE)]. This pattern was poorly related to soil fertility; rather, it was consistent with the moisture limitation hypothesis. 5. Synthesis and application. Use of crusts as desertification bioindicators requires knowledge of a site's potential for crust cover in the absence of desertification. We present a multi-scale model of crust potential as a function of site properties. Future quantitative studies can use this model to guide sampling efforts. Also, our results

  16. On the correlation between continuum mechanics entities and cell activity in biological soft tissues: assessment of three possible criteria for cell-controlled fibre reorientation in collagen gels and collagenous tissues.

    PubMed

    Kroon, Martin

    2010-05-07

    The biomechanical behaviour of biological cells is of great importance in many physiological processes. One such process is the maintenance of fibrous networks, such as collagenous tissues. The activity of the fibre-producing cells in this type of tissue is very important, and a comprehensive material description needs to incorporate the activity of the cells. In biomechanics, continuum mechanics is often employed to describe deforming solids, and modelling can be much simplified if continuum mechanics entities, such as stress and strain, can be correlated with cell activity. To investigate this, a continuum mechanics framework is employed in which remodelling of a collagen gel is modelled. The remodelling is accomplished by fibroblasts, and the activity of the fibroblasts is linked to the continuum mechanics theory. The constitutive model for the collagen fabric is formulated in terms of a strain energy function, which includes a density function describing the distribution of the collagen fibre orientation. This density function evolves according to an evolution law, where fibroblasts reorient fibres towards the direction of increasing Cauchy stress, elastic deformation, or stiffness. The theoretical framework is applied to experimental results from collagen gels, where gels have undergone remodelling under both biaxial and uniaxial constraint. The analyses indicated that criteria 1 and 2 (Cauchy stress and elastic deformations) are able to predict the collagen fibre distribution after remodelling, whereas criterion 3 (current stiffness) is not. This conclusion is, however, tentative and pertains, strictly speaking, only to fibre remodelling processes, and may not be valid for other types of cell activities.

  17. Web entity extraction based on entity attribute classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuan-Xi; Chen, Peng; Wang, Ru-Jing; Su, Ya-Ru

    2011-12-01

    The large amount of entity data are continuously published on web pages. Extracting these entities automatically for further application is very significant. Rule-based entity extraction method yields promising result, however, it is labor-intensive and hard to be scalable. The paper proposes a web entity extraction method based on entity attribute classification, which can avoid manual annotation of samples. First, web pages are segmented into different blocks by algorithm Vision-based Page Segmentation (VIPS), and a binary classifier LibSVM is trained to retrieve the candidate blocks which contain the entity contents. Second, the candidate blocks are partitioned into candidate items, and the classifiers using LibSVM are performed for the attributes annotation of the items and then the annotation results are aggregated into an entity. Results show that the proposed method performs well to extract agricultural supply and demand entities from web pages.

  18. Study of biological communities subject to imperfect detection: Bias and precision of community N-mixture abundance models in small-sample situations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yamaura, Yuichi; Kery, Marc; Royle, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Community N-mixture abundance models for replicated counts provide a powerful and novel framework for drawing inferences related to species abundance within communities subject to imperfect detection. To assess the performance of these models, and to compare them to related community occupancy models in situations with marginal information, we used simulation to examine the effects of mean abundance (λ¯: 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5), detection probability (p¯: 0.1, 0.2, 0.5), and number of sampling sites (n site : 10, 20, 40) and visits (n visit : 2, 3, 4) on the bias and precision of species-level parameters (mean abundance and covariate effect) and a community-level parameter (species richness). Bias and imprecision of estimates decreased when any of the four variables (λ¯, p¯, n site , n visit ) increased. Detection probability p¯ was most important for the estimates of mean abundance, while λ¯ was most influential for covariate effect and species richness estimates. For all parameters, increasing n site was more beneficial than increasing n visit . Minimal conditions for obtaining adequate performance of community abundance models were n site  ≥ 20, p¯ ≥ 0.2, and λ¯ ≥ 0.5. At lower abundance, the performance of community abundance and community occupancy models as species richness estimators were comparable. We then used additive partitioning analysis to reveal that raw species counts can overestimate β diversity both of species richness and the Shannon index, while community abundance models yielded better estimates. Community N-mixture abundance models thus have great potential for use with community ecology or conservation applications provided that replicated counts are available.

  19. Named entity recognition for bacterial Type IV secretion systems.

    PubMed

    Ananiadou, Sophia; Sullivan, Dan; Black, William; Levow, Gina-Anne; Gillespie, Joseph J; Mao, Chunhong; Pyysalo, Sampo; Kolluru, Balakrishna; Tsujii, Junichi; Sobral, Bruno

    2011-03-29

    Research on specialized biological systems is often hampered by a lack of consistent terminology, especially across species. In bacterial Type IV secretion systems genes within one set of orthologs may have over a dozen different names. Classifying research publications based on biological processes, cellular components, molecular functions, and microorganism species should improve the precision and recall of literature searches allowing researchers to keep up with the exponentially growing literature, through resources such as the Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC, patricbrc.org). We developed named entity recognition (NER) tools for four entities related to Type IV secretion systems: 1) bacteria names, 2) biological processes, 3) molecular functions, and 4) cellular components. These four entities are important to pathogenesis and virulence research but have received less attention than other entities, e.g., genes and proteins. Based on an annotated corpus, large domain terminological resources, and machine learning techniques, we developed recognizers for these entities. High accuracy rates (>80%) are achieved for bacteria, biological processes, and molecular function. Contrastive experiments highlighted the effectiveness of alternate recognition strategies; results of term extraction on contrasting document sets demonstrated the utility of these classes for identifying T4SS-related documents.

  20. Named Entity Recognition for Bacterial Type IV Secretion Systems

    PubMed Central

    Black, William; Levow, Gina-Anne; Gillespie, Joseph J.; Mao, Chunhong; Pyysalo, Sampo; Kolluru, BalaKrishna; Tsujii, Junichi; Sobral, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Research on specialized biological systems is often hampered by a lack of consistent terminology, especially across species. In bacterial Type IV secretion systems genes within one set of orthologs may have over a dozen different names. Classifying research publications based on biological processes, cellular components, molecular functions, and microorganism species should improve the precision and recall of literature searches allowing researchers to keep up with the exponentially growing literature, through resources such as the Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC, patricbrc.org). We developed named entity recognition (NER) tools for four entities related to Type IV secretion systems: 1) bacteria names, 2) biological processes, 3) molecular functions, and 4) cellular components. These four entities are important to pathogenesis and virulence research but have received less attention than other entities, e.g., genes and proteins. Based on an annotated corpus, large domain terminological resources, and machine learning techniques, we developed recognizers for these entities. High accuracy rates (>80%) are achieved for bacteria, biological processes, and molecular function. Contrastive experiments highlighted the effectiveness of alternate recognition strategies; results of term extraction on contrasting document sets demonstrated the utility of these classes for identifying T4SS-related documents. PMID:21468321

  1. Physical and biological control of protistan community composition, distribution and abundance in the seasonal ice zone of the Southern Ocean between 30 and 80°E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Andrew T.; Scott, Fiona J.; Nash, Geraldine V.; Wright, Simon W.; Raymond, Ben

    2010-05-01

    Protists are critical components of the Antarctic marine ecosystem as they comprise most of the living carbon and are the base of the Antarctic food web. They are also key determinants of vertical carbon flux and mediate draw-down of atmospheric CO 2 by the ocean. The community composition, abundance and distribution of marine protists (phytoplankton and protozoa) was studied during the Baseline Research on Oceanography, Krill and the Environment-West (BROKE-West) survey, in the seasonal ice zone during the 2005-2006 austral summer between 30°E and 80°E. Light and electron microscopy were used to determine the protistan composition and abundance in samples obtained at 30 sites from surface waters and at 26 sites from the depth of the maximum in situ chlorophyll fluorescence (Chl max). Cluster analysis was used to identify 5 groups of sample sites at the surface and 5 at the Chl max that were of similar protist composition and abundance. The physical characteristics, taxonomic composition, indicator taxa, and taxonomic diversity were determined for each group. In the southwest, a bloom of colonial Phaeocystis antarctica dominated the protistan community composition and biomass amongst the receding ice, but this was replaced by the flagellate life stage/s of this haptophyte in waters to the north. In the southeast, a diatom bloom had the highest diversity of protist taxa observed during the survey and centric diatoms dominated the biomass. Outside these blooms, grazing by krill probably reduced the composition and abundance of large diatoms and autotrophic dinoflagellates in coastal to mid-inshore waters. Only in offshore waters did large diatoms and dinoflagellates increase in abundance and diversity, despite low concentrations of iron and silicate at many of these sites. This increase was probably due to reduced top-down control by krill and other large zooplankton. Large diatoms dominated in offshore waters, despite other coincident studies showing that the

  2. 22 CFR 96.5 - Requirement that accrediting entity be a nonprofit or public entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... nonprofit or public entity. An accrediting entity must qualify as either: (a) An organization described in... administering standards for entities providing child welfare services; or (b) A public entity (other than a... child welfare services....

  3. Knowledge environments representing molecular entities for the virtual physiological human.

    PubMed

    Hofmann-Apitius, Martin; Fluck, Juliane; Furlong, Laura; Fornes, Oriol; Kolárik, Corinna; Hanser, Susanne; Boeker, Martin; Schulz, Stefan; Sanz, Ferran; Klinger, Roman; Mevissen, Theo; Gattermayer, Tobias; Oliva, Baldo; Friedrich, Christoph M

    2008-09-13

    In essence, the virtual physiological human (VPH) is a multiscale representation of human physiology spanning from the molecular level via cellular processes and multicellular organization of tissues to complex organ function. The different scales of the VPH deal with different entities, relationships and processes, and in consequence the models used to describe and simulate biological functions vary significantly. Here, we describe methods and strategies to generate knowledge environments representing molecular entities that can be used for modelling the molecular scale of the VPH. Our strategy to generate knowledge environments representing molecular entities is based on the combination of information extraction from scientific text and the integration of information from biomolecular databases. We introduce @neuLink, a first prototype of an automatically generated, disease-specific knowledge environment combining biomolecular, chemical, genetic and medical information. Finally, we provide a perspective for the future implementation and use of knowledge environments representing molecular entities for the VPH.

  4. Origins of life II: Cosmic evolution, abundance, and distribution of biologically important elements; Proceedings of the Second Conference, Princeton, N.J., May 5-8, 1968.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margulis, L.

    1971-01-01

    Attention is given to important astronomical observations, the source of atmospheric hydrogen, and the primordial abundance of the elements. The evolution of the earth's atmosphere is discussed together with some physical facts about Venus and Mars. The likelihood that Mars produced an atmosphere in the past is investigated, taking into account present equilibria between the surface and the atmosphere, and the evidence regarding a past atmosphere.

  5. Abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria on biological activated carbon in a pilot-scale drinking water treatment plant with different treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Kasuga, Ikuro; Nakagaki, Hirotaka; Kurisu, Futoshi; Furumai, Hiroaki

    2010-01-01

    The effects of different placements of rapid sand filtration on nitrification performance of BAC treatment in a pilot-scale plant were evaluated. In this plant, rapid sand filtration was placed after ozonation-BAC treatment in Process (A), while it preceded ozonation-BAC treatment in Process (B). Analysis of amoA genes of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) combined with nitrification potential test was conducted. BAC from Process (A) demonstrated slightly higher nitrification potential at every sampling occasion. This might be due to higher abundances of AOB on BAC from Process (A) than those on BAC from Process (B). However, AOA rather than AOB could be predominant ammonia-oxidizers in BAC treatment regardless of the position of rapid sand filtration. The highest nitrification potential was observed for BAC from both processes in February when the highest abundances of AOA-amoA and AOB-amoA genes were detected. Since rapid sand filtration was placed after BAC treatment in Process (A), residual aluminum concentration in BAC influent was higher in Process (A). However, adverse effects of aluminum on nitrification activity were not observed. These results suggest that factors other than aluminum concentration in different treatment processes could possibly have some influence on abundances of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms on BAC.

  6. Releases, distribution and abundance of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum, Solanaceae), in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A biological control program against tropical soda apple (TSA) (Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae)) released 176,643 Gratiana boliviana Spaeth (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Florida from 2003 to 2008. The spatial distribution of releases was clustered with more beetles released in south/central Flor...

  7. Biological and Physical Inventory of the Streams within the Nez Perce Reservation; Juvenile Steelhead Survey and Factors that Affect Abundance in Selected Streams in the Lower Clearwater River Basin, Idaho, 1983-1984 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kucera, Paul A.; Johnson, David B.

    1986-08-01

    A biological and physical inventory of selected tributaries in the lower Clearwater River basin was conducted to collect information for the development of alternatives and recommendations for the enhancement of the anadromous fish resources in streams on the Nez Perce Reservation. Five streams within the Reservation were selected for study: Bedrock and Cottonwood Creeks were investigated over a two year period (1983 to 1984) and Big Canyon, Jacks and Mission Creeks were studied for one year (1983). Biological information was collected and analyzed on the density, biomass, production and outmigration of juvenile summer steelhead trout. Physical habitat information was collected on available instream cover, stream discharge, stream velocity, water temperature, bottom substrate, embeddedness and stream width and depth. The report focuses on the relationships between physical stream habitat and juvenile steelhead trout abundance.

  8. Sterile pyuria: a forgotten entity

    PubMed Central

    Persad, Raj

    2015-01-01

    Sterile pyuria is a common entity. Yet there are no guidelines to address this issue. We have conducted a systematic review over 20 years and reviewed the results. Guidelines for assessment, diagnosis and management are developed based on these results. PMID:26425144

  9. Minimum information about a bioactive entity (MIABE).

    PubMed

    Orchard, Sandra; Al-Lazikani, Bissan; Bryant, Steve; Clark, Dominic; Calder, Elizabeth; Dix, Ian; Engkvist, Ola; Forster, Mark; Gaulton, Anna; Gilson, Michael; Glen, Robert; Grigorov, Martin; Hammond-Kosack, Kim; Harland, Lee; Hopkins, Andrew; Larminie, Christopher; Lynch, Nick; Mann, Romeena K; Murray-Rust, Peter; Lo Piparo, Elena; Southan, Christopher; Steinbeck, Christoph; Wishart, David; Hermjakob, Henning; Overington, John; Thornton, Janet

    2011-08-31

    Bioactive molecules such as drugs, pesticides and food additives are produced in large numbers by many commercial and academic groups around the world. Enormous quantities of data are generated on the biological properties and quality of these molecules. Access to such data - both on licensed and commercially available compounds, and also on those that fail during development - is crucial for understanding how improved molecules could be developed. For example, computational analysis of aggregated data on molecules that are investigated in drug discovery programmes has led to a greater understanding of the properties of successful drugs. However, the information required to perform these analyses is rarely published, and when it is made available it is often missing crucial data or is in a format that is inappropriate for efficient data-mining. Here, we propose a solution: the definition of reporting guidelines for bioactive entities - the Minimum Information About a Bioactive Entity (MIABE) - which has been developed by representatives of pharmaceutical companies, data resource providers and academic groups.

  10. Entity- Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Brian; Oppel, Fred; Rigdon, Brian; Whitfor, Gregg; Summers, Kenneth; Jungels, John

    2012-09-13

    This package contains classes that capture high-level aspects of characters and vehicles. Vehicles manage seats and riders. Vehicles and characters now can be configured to compose different behaviors and have certain capabilities, by adding them through xml data. These behaviors and capabilities are not included in this package, but instead are part of other packages such as mobility behavior, path planning, sight, sound. Entity is not dependent on these other packages. This package also contains the icons used for Umbra applications Dante Scenario Editor, Dante Tabletop and OpShed. This assertion includes a managed C++ wrapper code (EntityWrapper) to enable C# applications, such as Dante Scenario Editor, Dante Tabletop, and OpShed, to incorporate this library.

  11. Compulsive buying: an overlooked entity.

    PubMed

    Basu, Bishnupriya; Basu, Saikat; Basu, Jharna

    2011-08-01

    Compulsive buying is an under-recognised entity among Indian psychiatrists. A Medline search, hand searching of journals and direct communications with lead investigators in compulsive buying have generated numerous studies. Overseas data indicate a community prevalence between 1% and 8% . The phenomenon can be an independent entity or appears as a comorbidity with another axis I or axis II disorder. A degree of suspicion on part of clinician regarding its possible presence is the key to its detection. A few rating instruments are available to quantify the morbidity and screening for compulsive buying. Management involves pharmacotherapy with SSRIs, psychotherapy, self-help groups and self-help books. Epidemiological and clinical studies on compulsive buying should be undertaken by Indian psychiatrists to provide better services for people suffering from compulsive buying.

  12. Collagenous colitis: an unrecognised entity.

    PubMed Central

    Bogomoletz, W V; Adnet, J J; Birembaut, P; Feydy, P; Dupont, P

    1980-01-01

    A patient is reported with chronic abdominal pain, diarrhoea, and associated radiological and endoscopic abnormalities of the sigmoid colon. Light and electron microscopic study of colorectal mucosa showed abnormal collagenous thickening of the subepithelial basement membrane. The authors felt that the clinical and morphological features justified a diagnosis of collagenous colitis. Review of the literature suggested that collagenous colitis was still an unrecognised entity. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7380341

  13. 2 CFR 170.310 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Entity. 170.310 Section 170.310 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET... INFORMATION Definitions § 170.310 Entity. Entity has the meaning given in 2 CFR part 25....

  14. 2 CFR 170.310 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Entity. 170.310 Section 170.310 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET... COMPENSATION INFORMATION Definitions § 170.310 Entity. Entity has the meaning given in 2 CFR part 25....

  15. 2 CFR 170.310 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Entity. 170.310 Section 170.310 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET... COMPENSATION INFORMATION Definitions § 170.310 Entity. Entity has the meaning given in 2 CFR part 25....

  16. 14 CFR 1-6 - Accounting entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accounting entities. Sec. 1-6 Section Sec... General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-6 Accounting entities. (a) Separate accounting records shall be... forth above. (c) The records for each required accounting entity shall be maintained with...

  17. 2 CFR 170.310 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Entity. 170.310 Section 170.310 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET... Definitions § 170.310 Entity. Entity has the meaning given in 2 CFR part 25....

  18. 77 FR 56571 - Unincorporated Business Entities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ..., 621, 622, 623, and 630 RIN 3052-AC65 Unincorporated Business Entities AGENCY: Farm Credit... business entities (UBEs) organized under State law for certain business activities. For purposes of this... business entities, such as unincorporated business trusts, organized under State law. This rule does...

  19. Rasmussen's Aneurysm: A Forgotten Entity?

    SciTech Connect

    Keeling, A. N.; Costello, R.; Lee, M. J.

    2008-01-15

    We present the case of a rare entity which is a complication of a disease process that had almost disappeared from the Western World. With the recent resurgence in reported cases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) in Western communities, it is important to recognize complications and sequelae. A young alcoholic male with confirmed active TB suffered a cardiac arrest following massive haemoptysis. Multidetector computed tomography angiography diagnosed a Rasmussen's aneurysm, confirmed by digital subtraction angiography and then successfully embolized with glue. We outline this rare case and the embolization technique and review previously documented reports.

  20. Entity Network Prediction Using Multitype Topic Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiozaki, Hitohiro; Eguchi, Koji; Ohkawa, Takenao

    Conveying information about who, what, when and where is a primary purpose of some genres of documents, typically news articles. Statistical models that capture dependencies between named entities and topics can play an important role. Although some relationships between who and where should be mentioned in such a document, no statistical topic models explicitly address in handling such information the textual interactions between a who-entity and a where-entity. This paper presents a statistical model that directly captures the dependencies between an arbitrary number of word types, such as who-entities, where-entities and topics, mentioned in each document. We show that this multitype topic model performs better at making predictions on entity networks, in which each vertex represents an entity and each edge weight represents how a pair of entities at the incident vertices is closely related, through our experiments on predictions of who-entities and links between them. We also demonstrate the scale-free property in the weighted networks of entities extracted from written mentions.

  1. Dementia: Continuum or Distinct Entity?

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Glenn D.

    2009-01-01

    The latent structure of dementia was examined in a group of 10,775 older adults with indicators derived from a neuropsychological test battery. Subjecting these data to taxometric analysis using mean above minus below a cut (MAMBAC), maximum covariance (MAXCOV), and latent mode factor analysis (L-Mode) produced results more consistent with dementia as a dimensional (lying along a continuum) than categorical (representing a distinct entity) construct. A second study conducted on a group of 2375 21-to-64-year olds produced similar results. These findings denote that dementia, as measured by deficits in episodic memory, attention/concentration, executive function, and language, differs quantitatively rather than qualitatively from the cognitive status of non-demented adults. The implications of these results for classification, assessment, etiology, and prevention are discussed. PMID:20677881

  2. Multidimensional metrics for estimating phage abundance, distribution, gene density, and sequence coverage in metagenomes

    SciTech Connect

    Aziz, Ramy K.; Dwivedi, Bhakti; Akhter, Sajia; Breitbart, Mya; Edwards, Robert A.

    2015-05-08

    Phages are the most abundant biological entities on Earth and play major ecological roles, yet the current sequenced phage genomes do not adequately represent their diversity, and little is known about the abundance and distribution of these sequenced genomes in nature. Although the study of phage ecology has benefited tremendously from the emergence of metagenomic sequencing, a systematic survey of phage genes and genomes in various ecosystems is still lacking, and fundamental questions about phage biology, lifestyle, and ecology remain unanswered. To address these questions and improve comparative analysis of phages in different metagenomes, we screened a core set of publicly available metagenomic samples for sequences related to completely sequenced phages using the web tool, Phage Eco-Locator. We then adopted and deployed an array of mathematical and statistical metrics for a multidimensional estimation of the abundance and distribution of phage genes and genomes in various ecosystems. Experiments using those metrics individually showed their usefulness in emphasizing the pervasive, yet uneven, distribution of known phage sequences in environmental metagenomes. Using these metrics in combination allowed us to resolve phage genomes into clusters that correlated with their genotypes and taxonomic classes as well as their ecological properties. By adding this set of metrics to current metaviromic analysis pipelines, where they can provide insight regarding phage mosaicism, habitat specificity, and evolution.

  3. Multidimensional metrics for estimating phage abundance, distribution, gene density, and sequence coverage in metagenomes

    DOE PAGES

    Aziz, Ramy K.; Dwivedi, Bhakti; Akhter, Sajia; ...

    2015-05-08

    Phages are the most abundant biological entities on Earth and play major ecological roles, yet the current sequenced phage genomes do not adequately represent their diversity, and little is known about the abundance and distribution of these sequenced genomes in nature. Although the study of phage ecology has benefited tremendously from the emergence of metagenomic sequencing, a systematic survey of phage genes and genomes in various ecosystems is still lacking, and fundamental questions about phage biology, lifestyle, and ecology remain unanswered. To address these questions and improve comparative analysis of phages in different metagenomes, we screened a core set ofmore » publicly available metagenomic samples for sequences related to completely sequenced phages using the web tool, Phage Eco-Locator. We then adopted and deployed an array of mathematical and statistical metrics for a multidimensional estimation of the abundance and distribution of phage genes and genomes in various ecosystems. Experiments using those metrics individually showed their usefulness in emphasizing the pervasive, yet uneven, distribution of known phage sequences in environmental metagenomes. Using these metrics in combination allowed us to resolve phage genomes into clusters that correlated with their genotypes and taxonomic classes as well as their ecological properties. By adding this set of metrics to current metaviromic analysis pipelines, where they can provide insight regarding phage mosaicism, habitat specificity, and evolution.« less

  4. Multidimensional metrics for estimating phage abundance, distribution, gene density, and sequence coverage in metagenomes.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Ramy K; Dwivedi, Bhakti; Akhter, Sajia; Breitbart, Mya; Edwards, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Phages are the most abundant biological entities on Earth and play major ecological roles, yet the current sequenced phage genomes do not adequately represent their diversity, and little is known about the abundance and distribution of these sequenced genomes in nature. Although the study of phage ecology has benefited tremendously from the emergence of metagenomic sequencing, a systematic survey of phage genes and genomes in various ecosystems is still lacking, and fundamental questions about phage biology, lifestyle, and ecology remain unanswered. To address these questions and improve comparative analysis of phages in different metagenomes, we screened a core set of publicly available metagenomic samples for sequences related to completely sequenced phages using the web tool, Phage Eco-Locator. We then adopted and deployed an array of mathematical and statistical metrics for a multidimensional estimation of the abundance and distribution of phage genes and genomes in various ecosystems. Experiments using those metrics individually showed their usefulness in emphasizing the pervasive, yet uneven, distribution of known phage sequences in environmental metagenomes. Using these metrics in combination allowed us to resolve phage genomes into clusters that correlated with their genotypes and taxonomic classes as well as their ecological properties. We propose adding this set of metrics to current metaviromic analysis pipelines, where they can provide insight regarding phage mosaicism, habitat specificity, and evolution.

  5. Multidimensional metrics for estimating phage abundance, distribution, gene density, and sequence coverage in metagenomes

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Ramy K.; Dwivedi, Bhakti; Akhter, Sajia; Breitbart, Mya; Edwards, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Phages are the most abundant biological entities on Earth and play major ecological roles, yet the current sequenced phage genomes do not adequately represent their diversity, and little is known about the abundance and distribution of these sequenced genomes in nature. Although the study of phage ecology has benefited tremendously from the emergence of metagenomic sequencing, a systematic survey of phage genes and genomes in various ecosystems is still lacking, and fundamental questions about phage biology, lifestyle, and ecology remain unanswered. To address these questions and improve comparative analysis of phages in different metagenomes, we screened a core set of publicly available metagenomic samples for sequences related to completely sequenced phages using the web tool, Phage Eco-Locator. We then adopted and deployed an array of mathematical and statistical metrics for a multidimensional estimation of the abundance and distribution of phage genes and genomes in various ecosystems. Experiments using those metrics individually showed their usefulness in emphasizing the pervasive, yet uneven, distribution of known phage sequences in environmental metagenomes. Using these metrics in combination allowed us to resolve phage genomes into clusters that correlated with their genotypes and taxonomic classes as well as their ecological properties. We propose adding this set of metrics to current metaviromic analysis pipelines, where they can provide insight regarding phage mosaicism, habitat specificity, and evolution. PMID:26005436

  6. PRIS at TREC 2010: Related Entity Finding Task of Entity Track

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    constructing retrieval model and allocating homepages for entities. We also used some external resources, such as Stanford NER Tool, Indri1 & Lemur ...obtained less than 1,000 documents. This information was stored for the latter needs. In order to indexing by Indri or Lemur , we parsed the...priority to entities extracted manually PRIS3 Entity-Centered Model by Indri PRIS4 Entity-Centered Model by Lemur (BM25) Because the evaluation

  7. 31 CFR 800.211 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 800.211 Section 800.211 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT... separate legal entity) operated by any one of the foregoing as a business undertaking in a...

  8. 47 CFR 27.502 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Competitive Bidding Procedures for the 698-806 MHz Band § 27.502 Designated entities. Eligibility for small business provisions: (a)(1) A small business is an entity that, together with...

  9. 47 CFR 24.321 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS... for small business provisions. (1) A small business is an entity that, together with its controlling... years. (2) A very small business is an entity that, together with its controlling interests...

  10. 46 CFR 403.110 - Accounting entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accounting entities. 403.110 Section 403.110 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE UNIFORM ACCOUNTING SYSTEM General § 403.110 Accounting entities. Each Association shall be a separate...

  11. 46 CFR 403.110 - Accounting entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accounting entities. 403.110 Section 403.110 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE UNIFORM ACCOUNTING SYSTEM General § 403.110 Accounting entities. Each Association shall be a separate...

  12. 46 CFR 403.110 - Accounting entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accounting entities. 403.110 Section 403.110 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE UNIFORM ACCOUNTING SYSTEM General § 403.110 Accounting entities. Each Association shall be a separate...

  13. 46 CFR 403.110 - Accounting entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accounting entities. 403.110 Section 403.110 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE UNIFORM ACCOUNTING SYSTEM General § 403.110 Accounting entities. Each Association shall be a separate...

  14. 31 CFR 546.304 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 546.304 Section 546.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DARFUR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 546.304 Entity....

  15. 31 CFR 546.304 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 546.304 Section 546.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DARFUR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 546.304 Entity....

  16. 31 CFR 575.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 575.303 Section 575.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRAQI SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 575.303 Entity....

  17. 31 CFR 546.304 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 546.304 Section 546.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DARFUR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 546.304 Entity....

  18. 47 CFR 27.807 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.807 Section 27.807 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1.4 GHz Band § 27.807 Designated entities. (a) Eligibility for small business...

  19. 47 CFR 27.702 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.702 Section 27.702 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Competitive Bidding Procedures for the 698-746 MHz Band § 27.702 Designated entities....

  20. 47 CFR 27.807 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.807 Section 27.807 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1.4 GHz Band § 27.807 Designated entities. (a) Eligibility for small business...

  1. 47 CFR 27.906 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.906 Section 27.906 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1670-1675 MHz Band § 27.906 Designated entities. (a) Eligibility for small...

  2. 47 CFR 27.807 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.807 Section 27.807 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1.4 GHz Band § 27.807 Designated entities. (a) Eligibility for small business...

  3. 47 CFR 27.702 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.702 Section 27.702 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Competitive Bidding Procedures for the 698-746 MHz Band § 27.702 Designated entities....

  4. 47 CFR 27.906 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.906 Section 27.906 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1670-1675 MHz Band § 27.906 Designated entities. (a) Eligibility for small...

  5. 47 CFR 27.807 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.807 Section 27.807 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1.4 GHz Band § 27.807 Designated entities. (a) Eligibility for small business...

  6. 47 CFR 27.906 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.906 Section 27.906 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1670-1675 MHz Band § 27.906 Designated entities. (a) Eligibility for small...

  7. 47 CFR 27.702 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.702 Section 27.702 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Competitive Bidding Procedures for the 698-746 MHz Band § 27.702 Designated entities....

  8. 47 CFR 27.807 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.807 Section 27.807 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1.4 GHz Band § 27.807 Designated entities. (a) Eligibility for small business...

  9. 47 CFR 27.906 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.906 Section 27.906 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1670-1675 MHz Band § 27.906 Designated entities. (a) Eligibility for small...

  10. 47 CFR 27.906 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.906 Section 27.906 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1670-1675 MHz Band § 27.906 Designated entities. (a) Eligibility for small...

  11. 47 CFR 101.538 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designated entities. 101.538 Section 101.538 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.538 Designated entities....

  12. 31 CFR 552.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 552.303 Section 552.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY YEMEN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 552.303 Entity....

  13. 31 CFR 552.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 552.303 Section 552.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY YEMEN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 552.303 Entity....

  14. 46 CFR 403.110 - Accounting entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accounting entities. 403.110 Section 403.110 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE UNIFORM ACCOUNTING SYSTEM General § 403.110 Accounting entities. Each Association shall be a separate...

  15. 31 CFR 542.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entity. 542.303 Section 542.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 542.303 Entity....

  16. 31 CFR 542.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 542.303 Section 542.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 542.303 Entity....

  17. 31 CFR 542.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 542.303 Section 542.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 542.303 Entity....

  18. 31 CFR 542.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 542.303 Section 542.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 542.303 Entity....

  19. 31 CFR 542.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entity. 542.303 Section 542.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 542.303 Entity....

  20. 47 CFR 1.2110 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... small businesses, businesses owned by members of minority groups and/or women, and rural telephone... management committee; (B) The entity has authority to appoint, promote, demote, and fire senior executives that control the day-to-day activities of the licensee; and (C) The entity plays an integral role...

  1. 47 CFR 1.2110 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., and the entities with which it has an attributable material relationship shall be attributed to the... attributable material relationship. (ii) If applicable, pursuant to § 24.709 of this chapter, the total assets... controlling interests, and the entities with which it has an attributable material relationship shall...

  2. 47 CFR 101.538 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Designated entities. 101.538 Section 101.538 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.538 Designated entities....

  3. 47 CFR 101.538 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Designated entities. 101.538 Section 101.538 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.538 Designated entities....

  4. 47 CFR 101.538 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Designated entities. 101.538 Section 101.538 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.538 Designated entities....

  5. 47 CFR 101.538 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Designated entities. 101.538 Section 101.538 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.538 Designated entities....

  6. Semantic Entity Pairing for Improved Data Validation and Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Adam; Chandler, Cyndy; Arko, Robert; Chen, Yanning; Krisnadhi, Adila; Hitzler, Pascal; Narock, Tom; Groman, Robert; Rauch, Shannon

    2014-05-01

    One of the central incentives for linked data implementations is the opportunity to leverage the rich logic inherent in structured data. The logic embedded in semantic models can strengthen capabilities for data discovery and data validation when pairing entities from distinct, contextually-related datasets. The creation of links between the two datasets broadens data discovery by using the semantic logic to help machines compare similar entities and properties that exist on different levels of granularity. This semantic capability enables appropriate entity pairing without making inaccurate assertions as to the nature of the relationship. Entity pairing also provides a context to accurately validate the correctness of an entity's property values - an exercise highly valued by data management practices who seek to ensure the quality and correctness of their data. The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) semantically models metadata surrounding oceanographic researchcruises, but other sources outside of BCO-DMO exist that also model metadata about these same cruises. For BCO-DMO, the process of successfully pairing its entities to these sources begins by selecting sources that are decidedly trustworthy and authoritative for the modeled concepts. In this case, the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program has a well-respected reputation among the oceanographic research community, presents a data context that is uniquely different and valuable, and semantically models its cruise metadata. Where BCO-DMO exposes the processed, analyzed data products generated by researchers, R2R exposes the raw shipboard data that was collected on the same research cruises. Interlinking these cruise entities expands data discovery capabilities but also allows for validating the contextual correctness of both BCO-DMO's and R2R's cruise metadata. Assessing the potential for a link between two datasets for a similar entity consists of aligning like

  7. [In vivo imaging for biodistribution and metabolism evaluations of new chemical entities].

    PubMed

    Corot, C; Idée, J-M; Raynaud, J-S; Salazar, J-F; Catoen, S

    2012-01-01

    Due to numerous technical developments, in vivo imaging is suitable for pharmacokinetic and metabolism studies of new chemical entities as well as for evaluating their pharmacological or biological effects. MRI, nuclear medicine, X-Ray, ultrasound and optical imaging are available for both clinical and experimental imaging with even higher performance. For all these imaging modalities, diagnostic agents are useful to improve contrast and specificity. Specific targeting of biological events is addressed by molecular imaging. From a pharmacodynamic perspective, radiolabeling of a new chemical entity allows in vivo visualization quantitative measure of its biodistribution, its elimination and its specific molecular binding. Non-invasive imaging methods are useful for longitudinal investigations of biological changes. Based on nanotechnologies, specificity of drug delivery can be monitored by imaging. New developments in hybrid imaging technologies as well as multimodal contrast agents reinforce in vivo experimental and clinical proof of mechanism of new chemical entities.

  8. Vascularized mandibular anterior ameloblastoma - an entity still unresolved.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, P; Chandrashekhar, C; Radhakrishnan, R

    2013-05-01

    Vascularized ameloblastoma is a bewildering entity whose existence is questionable from its origin to nosology and its very characterization as a distinct variant of ameloblastoma. This uncertainty is largely because of a fewer number of documented cases and loss of long-term follow-up. The current paper describes two cases of ameloblastoma in the mandibular anterior region, which had features of so-called "hemangiomatous ameloblastoma" as it was originally described. Understanding its pathophysiology based on various views and clinical implications in terms of its biologic behavior are brought to light in this paper.

  9. The general entity of life: a cybernetic approach.

    PubMed

    Bielecki, Andrzej

    2015-06-01

    Life, not only in the well-known context of biochemical metabolism but also in the context of hypothetical life synthesized laboratorially or possibly found on other planets, is considered in this paper. The three-component information-energetic-structural irreducible processing in autonomous systems is the core of the proposed approach. The cybernetic organization of a general entity of life--the alivon--is postulated. The crucial properties of life and evolution are derived from the proposed approach. Information encoded in biological structures is also studied.

  10. 47 CFR 22.229 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... entrepreneur is an entity that, together with its controlling interests and affiliates, has average annual... entrepreneur, as defined in this section, or a consortium of entrepreneurs may use the bidding credit...

  11. 18 CFR 46.5 - Covered entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., or a savings and loan association; (b) Any entity which is authorized by law to underwrite or... electrical equipment or coal, natural gas, oil, nuclear fuel, or other fuel, for the use of any...

  12. Evolutionary entropy predicts the outcome of selection: Competition for resources that vary in abundance and diversity.

    PubMed

    Demetrius, Lloyd; Legendre, Stéphane

    2013-02-01

    Competition between individuals for resources which are limited and diverse in composition is the ultimate driving force of evolution. Classical studies of this event contend that the outcome is a deterministic process predicted by the growth rate of the competing types-a tenet called the Malthusian selection principle. Recent studies of competition indicate that the dynamics of selection is a stochastic process, regulated by the population size, the abundance and diversity of the resource, and predicted by evolutionary entropy-a statistical parameter which characterizes the rate at which the population returns to the steady state condition after a random endogenous or exogenous perturbation. This tenet, which we will call the entropic selection principle entails the following relations: This article delineates the analytic, computational and empirical support for this tenet. We show moreover that the Malthusian selection principle, a cornerstone of classical evolutionary genetics, is the limit, as population size and resource abundance tends to infinity of the entropic selection principle. The Malthusian tenet is an approximation to the entropic selection principle-an approximation whose validity increases with increasing population size and increasing resource abundance. Evolutionary entropy is a generic concept that characterizes the interaction dynamics of metabolic entities at several levels of biological organization: cellular, organismic and ecological. Accordingly, the entropic selection principle represents a general rule for explaining the processes of adaptation and evolution at each of these levels.

  13. 76 FR 68809 - Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation; Termination of Chemical and Biological...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... Nonproliferation; Termination of Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Proliferation Sanctions Against a Foreign... government, project, or entity in its efforts to acquire chemical or biological weapons capability:...

  14. 42 CFR 410.145 - Requirements for entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.145 Requirements for entities. (a) Deemed entities. (1) Except...

  15. 42 CFR 410.145 - Requirements for entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.145 Requirements for entities. (a) Deemed entities. (1) Except...

  16. 42 CFR 410.145 - Requirements for entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.145 Requirements for entities. (a) Deemed entities. (1) Except...

  17. 42 CFR 410.145 - Requirements for entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.145 Requirements for entities. (a) Deemed entities. (1) Except...

  18. 42 CFR 410.145 - Requirements for entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.145 Requirements for entities. (a) Deemed entities. (1) Except...

  19. Abundances in Przybylski's star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowley, C. R.; Ryabchikova, T.; Kupka, F.; Bord, D. J.; Mathys, G.; Bidelman, W. P.

    2000-09-01

    We have derived abundances for 54 elements in the extreme roAp star HD101065. ESO spectra with a resolution of about 80000, and S/N of 200 or more were employed. The adopted model has Teff=6600K, and log(g)=4.2. Because of the increased line opacity and consequent low gas pressure, convection plays no significant role in the temperature structure. Lighter elemental abundances through the iron group scatter about standard abundance distribution (SAD) (solar) values. Iron and nickel are about one order of magnitude deficient while cobalt is enhanced by 1.5dex. Heavier elements, including the lanthanides, generally follow the solar pattern but enhanced by 3 to 4dex. Odd-Z elements are generally less abundant than their even-Z neighbours. With a few exceptions (e.g. Yb), the abundance pattern among the heavy elements is remarkably coherent, and resembles a displaced solar distribution.

  20. Anatomical entity mention recognition at literature scale

    PubMed Central

    Pyysalo, Sampo; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Anatomical entities ranging from subcellular structures to organ systems are central to biomedical science, and mentions of these entities are essential to understanding the scientific literature. Despite extensive efforts to automatically analyze various aspects of biomedical text, there have been only few studies focusing on anatomical entities, and no dedicated methods for learning to automatically recognize anatomical entity mentions in free-form text have been introduced. Results: We present AnatomyTagger, a machine learning-based system for anatomical entity mention recognition. The system incorporates a broad array of approaches proposed to benefit tagging, including the use of Unified Medical Language System (UMLS)- and Open Biomedical Ontologies (OBO)-based lexical resources, word representations induced from unlabeled text, statistical truecasing and non-local features. We train and evaluate the system on a newly introduced corpus that substantially extends on previously available resources, and apply the resulting tagger to automatically annotate the entire open access scientific domain literature. The resulting analyses have been applied to extend services provided by the Europe PubMed Central literature database. Availability and implementation: All tools and resources introduced in this work are available from http://nactem.ac.uk/anatomytagger. Contact: sophia.ananiadou@manchester.ac.uk Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24162468

  1. Entity Came to Rescue - Leveraging Entities to Minimize Risks in Web Search

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    toolkit to perform entity extraction on extreme short text like queries with satisfying precision. Figure 1 demonstrates some example entity annotations...NOTES presented in the proceedings of the Twenty-Third Text REtrieval Conference (TREC 2014) held in Gaithersburg, Maryland, November 19-21, 2014

  2. S4MPLE--sampler for multiple protein-ligand entities: simultaneous docking of several entities.

    PubMed

    Hoffer, Laurent; Horvath, Dragos

    2013-01-28

    S4MPLE is a conformational sampling tool, based on a hybrid genetic algorithm, simulating one (conformer enumeration) or more molecules (docking). Energy calculations are based on the AMBER force field [Cornell et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1995, 117, 5179.] for biological macromolecules and its generalized version GAFF [Wang et al. J. Comput. Chem. 2004 , 25, 1157.] for ligands. This paper describes more advanced, specific applications of S4MPLE to problems more complex than classical redocking of drug-like compounds [Hoffer et al. J. Mol. Graphics Modell. 2012, submitted for publication.]. Here, simultaneous docking of multiple entities is addressed in two different important contexts. First, simultaneous docking of two fragment-like ligands was attempted, as such ternary complexes are the basis of fragment-based drug design by linkage of the independent binders. As a preliminary, the capacity of S4MPLE to dock fragment-like compounds has been assessed, since this class of small probes used in fragment-based drug design covers a different chemical space than drug-like molecules. Herein reported success rates from fragments redocking are as good as classical benchmarking results on drug-like compounds (Astex Diverse Set [Hartshorn et al. J. Med. Chem. 2007, 50, 726.]). Then, S4MPLE is successfully challenged to predict locations of fragments involved in ternary complexes by means of multientity docking. Second, the key problem of predicting water-mediated interaction is addressed by considering explicit water molecules as additional entities to be docked in the presence of the "main" ligand. Blind prediction of solvent molecule positions, reproducing relevant ligand-water-site mediated interactions, is achieved in 76% cases over saved poses. S4MPLE was also successful to predict crystallographic water displacement by a therefore tailored functional group in the optimized ligand. However, water localization is an extremely delicate issue in terms of weighing of

  3. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary gland: A new tumor entity

    PubMed Central

    Damjanov, Ivan; Skenderi, Faruk; Vranic, Semir

    2016-01-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described low-grade malignant tumor of the salivary glands, biologically and morphologically equivalent to secretory breast carcinoma. We give a brief overview of this new entity, including morphological, immunohistochemical, molecular-genetic, clinical, epidemiologic features, differential diagnosis, and outcome results. PMID:27131022

  4. Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary gland: A new tumor entity.

    PubMed

    Damjanov, Ivan; Skenderi, Faruk; Vranic, Semir

    2016-08-02

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described low-grade malignant tumor of the salivary glands, biologically and morphologically equivalent to secretory breast carcinoma. We give a brief overview of this new entity, including morphological, immunohistochemical, molecular-genetic, clinical, epidemiologic features, differential diagnosis, and outcome results.

  5. 12 CFR 1237.10 - Limited-life regulated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limited-life regulated entities. 1237.10... RECEIVERSHIP Limited-Life Regulated Entities § 1237.10 Limited-life regulated entities. (a) Status. The United... liquidity portfolio of a limited-life regulated entity. (c) Policies and procedures. The Agency may...

  6. 12 CFR 1237.10 - Limited-life regulated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Limited-life regulated entities. 1237.10... RECEIVERSHIP Limited-Life Regulated Entities § 1237.10 Limited-life regulated entities. (a) Status. The United... liquidity portfolio of a limited-life regulated entity. (c) Policies and procedures. The Agency may...

  7. 12 CFR 1237.10 - Limited-life regulated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Limited-life regulated entities. 1237.10... RECEIVERSHIP Limited-Life Regulated Entities § 1237.10 Limited-life regulated entities. (a) Status. The United... liquidity portfolio of a limited-life regulated entity. (c) Policies and procedures. The Agency may...

  8. 17 CFR 45.6 - Legal entity identifiers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... entity or entities in the record. (c) Governance principles for the legal entity identifier. The legal... conform to the governance principles set forth in paragraphs (c)(1) through (4) of this section. (1) International governance. The issuance of the legal entity identifier used pursuant to this section, and...

  9. 17 CFR 45.6 - Legal entity identifiers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... entity or entities in the record. (c) Governance principles for the legal entity identifier. The legal... conform to the governance principles set forth in paragraphs (c)(1) through (4) of this section. (1) International governance. The issuance of the legal entity identifier used pursuant to this section, and...

  10. 17 CFR 45.6 - Legal entity identifiers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... entity or entities in the record. (c) Governance principles for the legal entity identifier. The legal... conform to the governance principles set forth in paragraphs (c)(1) through (4) of this section. (1) International governance. The issuance of the legal entity identifier used pursuant to this section, and...

  11. 37 CFR 1.29 - Micro entity status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Micro entity status. 1.29... Micro entity status. (a) To establish micro entity status under this paragraph, the applicant must... establish micro entity status under this paragraph, the applicant must certify that: (1) The...

  12. 37 CFR 1.29 - Micro entity status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Micro entity status. 1.29... Micro entity status. (a) To establish micro entity status under this paragraph, the applicant must... establish micro entity status under this paragraph, the applicant must certify that: (1) The...

  13. 26 CFR 301.7701-2 - Business entities; definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Business entities; definitions. 301.7701-2...) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701-2 Business entities; definitions. (a) Business entities. For purposes of this section and § 301.7701-3, a business entity is...

  14. 26 CFR 301.7701-2 - Business entities; definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Business entities; definitions. 301.7701-2...) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701-2 Business entities; definitions. (a) Business entities. For purposes of this section and § 301.7701-3, a business entity is...

  15. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 420 - Separate Reporting Entity

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Separate Reporting Entity A... Part 420—Separate Reporting Entity Subject to the following conditions, one or more aggregating entity(ies) (e.g., parent, subsidiary, or organizational component) in a reporting entity, either...

  16. 42 CFR 438.808 - Exclusion of entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Exclusion of entities. (a) General rule. FFP is available in payments under MCO contracts only if the State excludes from the contracts any entities described in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) Entities that must... certain crimes as described in section 1128(b)(8)(B) of the Act. (3) An entity that employs or...

  17. OXYGEN ABUNDANCES IN CEPHEIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Luck, R. E.; Andrievsky, S. M.; Korotin, S. N.; Kovtyukh, V. V. E-mail: serkor@skyline.od.ua E-mail: scan@deneb1.odessa.ua

    2013-07-01

    Oxygen abundances in later-type stars, and intermediate-mass stars in particular, are usually determined from the [O I] line at 630.0 nm, and to a lesser extent, from the O I triplet at 615.7 nm. The near-IR triplets at 777.4 nm and 844.6 nm are strong in these stars and generally do not suffer from severe blending with other species. However, these latter two triplets suffer from strong non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects and thus see limited use in abundance analyses. In this paper, we derive oxygen abundances in a large sample of Cepheids using the near-IR triplets from an NLTE analysis, and compare those abundances to values derived from a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of the [O I] 630.0 nm line and the O I 615.7 nm triplet as well as LTE abundances for the 777.4 nm triplet. All of these lines suffer from line strength problems making them sensitive to either measurement complications (weak lines) or to line saturation difficulties (strong lines). Upon this realization, the LTE results for the [O I] lines and the O I 615.7 nm triplet are in adequate agreement with the abundance from the NLTE analysis of the near-IR triplets.

  18. Xanthogranulomatous Prostatitis, a Rare Prostatic Entity.

    PubMed

    Noyola, Alejandro; Gil, José Fernando; Lujano, Heriberto; Piñon, Omar; Muñoz, Gabriel; Michel, José Manuel; Garcia, Jorge; Valdez, Jorge; Morales, Omar

    2017-01-01

    There are several benign prostatic pathologies that can clinically mimic a prostate adenocarcinoma. Xanthogranulomatous prostatitis is a benign inflammatory condition of the prostate and a rare entity. A 47-year old male, with 3 years of lower urinary tract symptoms, with a palpable hypogastric tumor, digital rectal examination: solid prostate, of approximately 60 g. Initial PSA was 0.90 ng/mL. He underwent surgical excision of the lower abdominal nodule and prostatectomy. Histopathology showed xanthogranulomatous prostatitis, without malignancy. Xanthogranulomatous prostatitis is an extremely rare entity that can simulate prostate adenocarcinoma, therefore having a correct histopathological diagnosis is essential.

  19. Cross domains Arabic named entity recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ahmari, S. Saad; Abdullatif Al-Johar, B.

    2016-07-01

    Named Entity Recognition (NER) plays an important role in many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications such as; Information Extraction (IE), Question Answering (QA), Text Clustering, Text Summarization and Word Sense Disambiguation. This paper presents the development and implementation of domain independent system to recognize three types of Arabic named entities. The system works based on a set of domain independent grammar-rules along with Arabic part of speech tagger in addition to gazetteers and lists of trigger words. The experimental results shown, that the system performed as good as other systems with better results in some cases of cross-domains corpora.

  20. Annular lichenoid syphilis: A rare entity.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Ananta; Singal, Archana; Gupta, Seema

    2014-01-01

    Syphilis is a disease known for centuries, but still continues to be a diagnostic challenge as the myriad manifestations of secondary syphilis can mimic a lot many dermatological disorders. Lichenoid syphilis is an uncommon entity, reported only occasionally in the penicillin era. We present the case of a 32-year-old woman presenting with localized annular lichenoid lesions on the neck.

  1. 2 CFR 25.320 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Entity. 25.320 Section 25.320 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS PRE-AWARD RESPONSIBILITIES UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER AND...

  2. 2 CFR 25.320 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Entity. 25.320 Section 25.320 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Reserved UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER AND CENTRAL...

  3. 2 CFR 25.320 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Entity. 25.320 Section 25.320 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS PRE-AWARD RESPONSIBILITIES UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER AND...

  4. 31 CFR 536.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entity. 536.303 Section 536.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  5. 31 CFR 536.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 536.303 Section 536.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  6. 31 CFR 536.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entity. 536.303 Section 536.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  7. 31 CFR 536.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 536.303 Section 536.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  8. 31 CFR 536.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 536.303 Section 536.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  9. 31 CFR 800.212 - Foreign entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign entity. 800.212 Section 800.212 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS,...

  10. 31 CFR 510.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entity. 510.303 Section 510.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 510.303...

  11. 31 CFR 510.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 510.303 Section 510.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 510.303...

  12. 31 CFR 510.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 510.303 Section 510.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 510.303...

  13. 31 CFR 510.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entity. 510.303 Section 510.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NORTH KOREA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 510.303...

  14. 31 CFR 587.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 587.303 Section 587.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO)...

  15. 47 CFR 22.882 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air...) Eligibility for small business provisions in the commercial Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service. (1) A small business is an entity that, together with its affiliates, its controlling interests and the affiliates...

  16. 2 CFR 25.320 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Entity. 25.320 Section 25.320 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Pre-award responsibilities UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER AND...

  17. 31 CFR 558.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 558.303 Section 558.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOUTH SUDAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 558.303...

  18. 31 CFR 551.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 551.303 Section 551.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 551.303...

  19. 31 CFR 538.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 538.303 Section 538.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SUDANESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 538.303...

  20. 31 CFR 588.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 588.303 Section 588.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WESTERN BALKANS STABILIZATION REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  1. 31 CFR 541.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 541.303 Section 541.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ZIMBABWE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 541.303...

  2. 31 CFR 594.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 594.303 Section 594.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  3. 31 CFR 537.304 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 537.304 Section 537.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 537.304...

  4. 31 CFR 549.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 549.303 Section 549.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LEBANON SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 549.303...

  5. 31 CFR 545.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 545.303 Section 545.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TALIBAN (AFGHANISTAN) SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  6. 31 CFR 541.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 541.303 Section 541.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ZIMBABWE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 541.303...

  7. 31 CFR 551.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 551.303 Section 551.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 551.303...

  8. 31 CFR 537.304 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 537.304 Section 537.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 537.304...

  9. 31 CFR 595.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 595.303 Section 595.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 595.303...

  10. 31 CFR 538.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 538.303 Section 538.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SUDANESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 538.303...

  11. 31 CFR 597.306 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 597.306 Section 597.306 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  12. 31 CFR 541.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 541.303 Section 541.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ZIMBABWE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 541.303...

  13. 31 CFR 538.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 538.303 Section 538.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SUDANESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 538.303...

  14. 31 CFR 551.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 551.303 Section 551.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 551.303...

  15. 31 CFR 537.304 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 537.304 Section 537.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 537.304...

  16. 31 CFR 549.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 549.303 Section 549.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LEBANON SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 549.303...

  17. 47 CFR 27.1218 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... entrepreneur is an entity that, together with all attributed parties, has average gross revenues that are not... winning bid on any of the licenses in this subpart. (3) A winning bidder that qualifies as an entrepreneur, as defined in this section, or a consortium of entrepreneurs, may use a bidding credit of 15...

  18. 47 CFR 101.1429 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for the preceding three years. (3) An entrepreneur is an entity that, together with its controlling... this chapter. A winning bidder that qualifies as an entrepreneur, as defined in this section, or a consortium of entrepreneurs may use the bidding credit specified in § 1.2110(f)(2)(iii) of this chapter....

  19. 47 CFR 27.702 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Eligibility for small business provisions. (1) An entrepreneur is an entity that, together with its... credits. A winning bidder that qualifies as an entrepreneur, as defined in this section, or a consortium of entrepreneurs may use the bidding credit specified in § 1.2110(f)(2)(i) of this chapter. A...

  20. 42 CFR 425.104 - Legal entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Legal entity. 425.104 Section 425.104 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE... law, and authorized to conduct business in each State in which it operates for purposes of...

  1. 47 CFR 27.502 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.502 Section 27.502 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Competitive Bidding Procedures for the 698-806 MHz Band § 27.502 Designated...

  2. 47 CFR 27.1218 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.1218 Section 27.1218 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband Radio Service and Educational Broadband Service § 27.1218 Designated...

  3. 47 CFR 27.502 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.502 Section 27.502 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Competitive Bidding Procedures for the 698-806 MHz Band § 27.502 Designated...

  4. 47 CFR 27.1218 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.1218 Section 27.1218 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband Radio Service and Educational Broadband Service § 27.1218 Designated...

  5. 47 CFR 27.502 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.502 Section 27.502 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Competitive Bidding Procedures for the 698-806 MHz Band § 27.502 Designated...

  6. 47 CFR 27.1218 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.1218 Section 27.1218 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband Radio Service and Educational Broadband Service § 27.1218 Designated...

  7. 47 CFR 27.1218 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Designated entities. 27.1218 Section 27.1218 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband Radio Service and Educational Broadband Service § 27.1218 Designated...

  8. 78 FR 31822 - Unincorporated Business Entities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... (System) institutions' use of unincorporated business entities (UBEs) organized under State law for certain business activities. A UBE includes limited partnerships (LPs), limited liability partnerships... 12 CFR Parts 604, 611, 612, 619, 620, 621, 622, 623, and 630 RIN 3052-AC65 Unincorporated...

  9. Leiomyosarcoma of the Penis, an Exceptional Entity

    PubMed Central

    Romero Gonzalez, Edwin Javier; Marenco Jiménez, José L.; Mayorga Pineda, Maria P.; Martínez Morán, Alfonso; Castiñeiras Fernández, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    In tumors of the penis, mesenchymal tumors are extremely rare and within them, sarcomas are exceptional. We report a patient with a sarcomatous lesion treated with conservative surgery with good surgical outcome and the review of the literature, to present the latest advances in the treatment of this unusual entity. PMID:26793502

  10. 31 CFR 596.308 - Person; entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Person; entity. 596.308 Section 596.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS...

  11. 13 CFR 130.200 - Eligible entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... or university; (3) A college or school of business, engineering, commerce or agriculture; (4) A... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible entities. 130.200 Section 130.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS...

  12. 47 CFR 1.2110 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... small businesses, businesses owned by members of minority groups and/or women, and rural telephone... management committee; (B) The entity has authority to appoint, promote, demote, and fire senior executives... members of minority groups and/or women. Unless otherwise provided in rules governing specific services,...

  13. 47 CFR 1.2110 - Designated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... small businesses, businesses owned by members of minority groups and/or women, and rural telephone... management committee; (B) The entity has authority to appoint, promote, demote, and fire senior executives... members of minority groups and/or women. Unless otherwise provided in rules governing specific services,...

  14. 31 CFR 543.304 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 543.304 Section 543.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CôTE D'IVOIRE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  15. 31 CFR 592.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entity. 592.303 Section 592.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  16. 31 CFR 592.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 592.303 Section 592.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  17. 31 CFR 592.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 592.303 Section 592.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  18. 31 CFR 592.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 592.303 Section 592.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  19. 31 CFR 592.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entity. 592.303 Section 592.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ROUGH DIAMONDS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions §...

  20. Annular lichenoid syphilis: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Ananta; Singal, Archana; Gupta, Seema

    2014-01-01

    Syphilis is a disease known for centuries, but still continues to be a diagnostic challenge as the myriad manifestations of secondary syphilis can mimic a lot many dermatological disorders. Lichenoid syphilis is an uncommon entity, reported only occasionally in the penicillin era. We present the case of a 32-year-old woman presenting with localized annular lichenoid lesions on the neck. PMID:26396452

  1. 31 CFR 586.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 586.303 Section 586.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA & MONTENEGRO) KOSOVO...

  2. 31 CFR 548.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entity. 548.303 Section 548.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 548.303...

  3. 31 CFR 548.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 548.303 Section 548.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 548.303...

  4. 31 CFR 548.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 548.303 Section 548.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 548.303...

  5. 31 CFR 548.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 548.303 Section 548.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 548.303...

  6. 31 CFR 548.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entity. 548.303 Section 548.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BELARUS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 548.303...

  7. 31 CFR 593.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entity. 593.303 Section 593.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FORMER LIBERIAN REGIME OF CHARLES TAYLOR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  8. 31 CFR 562.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entity. 562.303 Section 562.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  9. 31 CFR 562.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entity. 562.303 Section 562.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  10. 31 CFR 562.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entity. 562.303 Section 562.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  11. 31 CFR 562.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entity. 562.303 Section 562.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General...

  12. 31 CFR 551.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entity. 551.303 Section 551.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 551.303...

  13. 31 CFR 551.303 - Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entity. 551.303 Section 551.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOMALIA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 551.303...

  14. Novel "omics" approach for study of low-abundance, low-molecular-weight components of a complex biological tissue: regional differences between chorionic and basal plates of the human placenta.

    PubMed

    Kedia, Komal; Nichols, Caitlin A; Thulin, Craig D; Graves, Steven W

    2015-11-01

    Tissue proteomics has relied heavily on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, for protein separation and quantification, then single protein isolation, trypsin digestion, and mass spectrometric protein identification. Such methods are predominantly used for study of high-abundance, full-length proteins. Tissue peptidomics has recently been developed but is still used to study the most highly abundant species, often resulting in observation and identification of dozens of peptides only. Tissue lipidomics is likewise new, and reported studies are limited. We have developed an "omics" approach that enables over 7,000 low-molecular-weight, low-abundance species to be surveyed and have applied this to human placental tissue. Because the placenta is believed to be involved in complications of pregnancy, its proteomic evaluation is of substantial interest. In previous research on the placental proteome, abundant, high-molecular-weight proteins have been studied. Application of large-scale, global proteomics or peptidomics to the placenta have been limited, and would be challenging owing to the anatomic complexity and broad concentration range of proteins in this tissue. In our approach, involving protein depletion, capillary liquid chromatography, and tandem mass spectrometry, we attempted to identify molecular differences between two regions of the same placenta with only slightly different cellular composition. Our analysis revealed 16 species with statistically significant differences between the two regions. Tandem mass spectrometry enabled successful sequencing, or otherwise enabled chemical characterization, of twelve of these. The successful discovery and identification of regional differences between the expression of low-abundance, low-molecular weight biomolecules reveals the potential of our approach.

  15. 22 CFR 96.5 - Requirement that accrediting entity be a nonprofit or public entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, that has expertise in developing and... agencies in a State and that has expertise in developing and administering standards for entities...

  16. Learning plan applicability through active mental entities

    SciTech Connect

    Baroni, Pietro; Fogli, Daniela; Guida, Giovanni

    1999-03-22

    This paper aims at laying down the foundations of a new approach to learning in autonomous mobile robots. It is based on the assumption that robots can be provided with built-in action plans and with mechanisms to modify and improve such plans. This requires that robots are equipped with some form of high-level reasoning capabilities. Therefore, the proposed learning technique is embedded in a novel distributed control architecture featuring an explicit model of robot's cognitive activity. In particular, cognitive activity is obtained by the interaction of active mental entities, such as intentions, persuasions and expectations. Learning capabilities are implemented starting from the interaction of such mental entities. The proposal is illustrated through an example concerning a robot in charge of reaching a target in an unknown environment cluttered with obstacles.

  17. On Carcinomas and Other Pathological Entities

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anand; Ceusters, Werner; Rosse, Cornelius

    2005-01-01

    Tumours, abscesses, cysts, scars and fractures are familiar types of what we shall call pathological continuant entities. The instances of such types exist always in or on anatomical structures, which thereby become transformed into pathological anatomical structures of corresponding types: a fractured tibia, a blistered thumb, a carcinomatous colon. In previous work on biomedical ontologies we showed how the provision of formal definitions for relations such as is_a, part_of and transformation_of can facilitate the integration of such ontologies in ways which have the potential to support new kinds of automated reasoning. We here extend this approach to the treatment of pathologies, focusing especially on those pathological continuant entities which arise when organs become affected by carcinomas. PMID:18629199

  18. Entity Modeling and Immersive Decision Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    XCITE lifeform entities to detect and track moving or stationary objects is research and development work that should continue. The WRSTP team has... target identification scenario. A system dynamics model was developed to predict those results. Research limitations/Implications – While decision delays... target identification scenario. Many other decision models lack this time component and are therefore of limited use in time-critical situations. Take

  19. 14 CFR 252.19 - Single-entity charters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.19 Single-entity charters. On single-entity charters... flights is given notice of the smoking procedures for the flight at the time he or she first...

  20. 14 CFR 252.19 - Single-entity charters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.19 Single-entity charters. On single-entity charters... flights is given notice of the smoking procedures for the flight at the time he or she first...

  1. 14 CFR 252.19 - Single-entity charters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.19 Single-entity charters. On single-entity charters... flights is given notice of the smoking procedures for the flight at the time he or she first...

  2. 14 CFR 252.19 - Single-entity charters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.19 Single-entity charters. On single-entity charters... flights is given notice of the smoking procedures for the flight at the time he or she first...

  3. 14 CFR 252.19 - Single-entity charters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.19 Single-entity charters. On single-entity charters... flights is given notice of the smoking procedures for the flight at the time he or she first...

  4. 26 CFR 301.7701-2 - Business entities; definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... El Salvador, Sociedad Anonima Estonia, Aktsiaselts European Economic Area/European Union, Societas... interest in the entity. The reference to the European Economic Area/European Union entity in paragraph...

  5. 26 CFR 301.7701-2 - Business entities; definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... El Salvador, Sociedad Anonima Estonia, Aktsiaselts European Economic Area/European Union, Societas... interest in the entity. The reference to the European Economic Area/European Union entity in paragraph...

  6. Ammonia abundances in comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyckoff, S.; Tegler, S.; Engel, L.

    The emission band strengths of the NH2 bands of Comets Halley, Hartley-Good, Thiele, and Borrelly were measured to determine the NH2 column densities for the comets. Production rates obtained using the Haser and vectorial models are in agreement within the observational errors, suggesting that a simple two-step decay model may be used to approximate the NH2 distribution in a comet's coma. Ammonia-to-water abundance ratios from 0.01 to 0.4 percent were found for the four comets. The ratio in Comet Halley is found to be Q(NH3)/Q(H2O) = 0.002 + or - 0.001. No significant difference in the ammonia abundance was found before or after perihelion in Comet Halley.

  7. A meta-analysis of HLA peptidome composition in different hematological entities: Entity-specific dividing lines and "pan-leukemia" antigens.

    PubMed

    Backert, Linus; Kowalewski, Daniel Johannes; Walz, Simon; Schuster, Heiko; Berlin, Claudia; Neidert, Marian Christoph; Schemionek, Mirle; Brümmendorf, Tim H; Vucinic, Vladan; Niederwieser, Dietger; Kanz, Lothar; Salih, Helmut Rainer; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Weisel, Katja; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; StevanoviÄ, Stefan; Walz, Juliane Sarah

    2017-01-31

    Hematological malignancies (HM) are highly amenable targets for immunotherapeutic intervention and may be effectively treated by antigen-specific T-cell based treatment. Recent studies demonstrate that physiologically occurring anti-cancer T-cell responses in certain HM entities target broadly presented non-mutated epitopes. HLA ligands are thus implied as prime targets for broadly applicable and antigen-specific off-the-shelf compounds. With the aim of assessing the presence of common targets shared among different HM which may enable addressing a larger patient collective we conducted a meta-analysis of 83 mass spectrometry-based HLA peptidome datasets (comprising 40,361 unique peptide identifications) across four major HM (19 AML, 16 CML, 35 CLL, and 13 MM/MCL samples) and investigated similarities and differences within the HLA presented antigenic landscape. We found the cancer HLA peptidome datasets to cluster specifically along entity and lineage lines, suggesting that the immunopeptidome directly reflects the differences in the underlying (tumor-)biology. In line with these findings, we only detected a small set of entity-spanning antigens, which were predominantly characterized by low presentation frequencies within the different patient cohorts. These findings suggest that design of T-cell immunotherapies for the treatment of HM should ideally be conducted in an entity-specific fashion.

  8. 45 CFR 160.310 - Responsibilities of covered entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibilities of covered entities. 160.310... Responsibilities of covered entities. (a) Provide records and compliance reports. A covered entity must keep such... information, including protected health information, that are pertinent to ascertaining compliance with...

  9. 45 CFR 160.310 - Responsibilities of covered entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Responsibilities of covered entities. 160.310... Responsibilities of covered entities. (a) Provide records and compliance reports. A covered entity must keep such... information, including protected health information, that are pertinent to ascertaining compliance with...

  10. 17 CFR 202.8 - Small entity compliance guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Small entity compliance guides... OTHER PROCEDURES § 202.8 Small entity compliance guides. The following small entity compliance guides...: Small Business and the SEC. 1 1 These items are also available on the Securities and Exchange...

  11. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any...

  12. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any...

  13. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any...

  14. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any...

  15. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any...

  16. 37 CFR 253.2 - Definition of public broadcasting entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... broadcasting entity. 253.2 Section 253.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF... CONNECTION WITH NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 253.2 Definition of public broadcasting entity. As used in this part, the term public broadcasting entity means a noncommercial educational...

  17. 37 CFR 381.2 - Definition of public broadcasting entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... broadcasting entity. 381.2 Section 381.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY... WITH NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 381.2 Definition of public broadcasting entity. As used in this part, the term public broadcasting entity means a noncommercial educational broadcast...

  18. 7 CFR 795.6 - Multiple individuals or other entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Multiple individuals or other entities. 795.6 Section... Multiple individuals or other entities. The rules in §§ 795.5 through 795.16 shall be used to determine whether certain multiple individuals or legal entities are to be treated as one person or as...

  19. 78 FR 22270 - Special Fraud Alert: Physician-Owned Entities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of Inspector General Special Fraud Alert: Physician-Owned Entities AGENCY: Office... issued Special Fraud Alert on Physician-Owned Entities. Specifically, the Special Fraud Alert addressed... INFORMATION: In our publication of the Special Fraud Alert on Physician-Owned Entities, an inadvertent...

  20. 10 CFR 300.5 - Submission of an entity statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES... entity-wide emissions under the Climate Leaders or Climate VISION program. An entity that has made such a... start year, as long as the operations and boundaries of the entity have not changed significantly...

  1. 10 CFR 300.5 - Submission of an entity statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES... entity-wide emissions under the Climate Leaders or Climate VISION program. An entity that has made such a... start year, as long as the operations and boundaries of the entity have not changed significantly...

  2. 10 CFR 300.5 - Submission of an entity statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES... entity-wide emissions under the Climate Leaders or Climate VISION program. An entity that has made such a... start year, as long as the operations and boundaries of the entity have not changed significantly...

  3. 10 CFR 300.5 - Submission of an entity statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES... entity-wide emissions under the Climate Leaders or Climate VISION program. An entity that has made such a... start year, as long as the operations and boundaries of the entity have not changed significantly...

  4. 10 CFR 300.5 - Submission of an entity statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES... entity-wide emissions under the Climate Leaders or Climate VISION program. An entity that has made such a... start year, as long as the operations and boundaries of the entity have not changed significantly...

  5. 7 CFR 25.401 - Responsibility of lead managing entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility of lead managing entity. 25.401 Section... COMMUNITIES Post-Designation Requirements § 25.401 Responsibility of lead managing entity. (a) Financial. The lead managing entity will be responsible for strategic plan program activities and monitoring...

  6. 76 FR 28503 - Identification of Three Entities as Government of Libya Entities Pursuant to Executive Order 13566

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Identification of Three Entities as Government of Libya Entities... Transactions Related to Libya.'' DATES: The identification by the Director of OFAC of the three entities... issued Executive Order 13566, ``Blocking Property and Prohibiting Certain Transactions Related to...

  7. 77 FR 24587 - Addition of Certain Persons to the Entity List; and Implementation of Entity List Annual Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ..., Egypt, Germany, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Kuwait, Lebanon, Norway, Russia, South Korea, Syria, the United..., Iran, Lebanon, Syria, and the U.A.E. sections of the Entity List. The Entity List provides notice to... review for entities listed under Armenia, Germany, Iran, Lebanon, South Korea, Syria, and the U.A.E....

  8. Flare Plasma Iron Abundance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Dan, Chau; Jain, Rajmal; Schwartz, Richard A.; Tolbert, Anne K.

    2008-01-01

    The equivalent width of the iron-line complex at 6.7 keV seen in flare X-ray spectra suggests that the iron abundance of the hottest plasma at temperatures >approx.10 MK may sometimes be significantly lower than the nominal coronal abundance of four times the photospheric value that is commonly assumed. This conclusion is based on X-ray spectral observations of several flares seen in common with the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) and the Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) on the second Indian geostationary satellite, GSAT-2. The implications of this will be discussed as it relates to the origin of the hot flare plasma - either plasma already in the corona that is directly heated during the flare energy release process or chromospheric plasma that is heated by flare-accelerated particles and driven up into the corona. Other possible explanations of lower-than-expected equivalent widths of the iron-line complex will also be discussed.

  9. Unstable solar lentigo: A defined separate entity.

    PubMed

    Byrom, Lisa; Barksdale, Sarah; Weedon, David; Muir, Jim

    2016-08-01

    An unstable solar lentigo is a solar lentigo with areas of melanocytic hyperplasia not extending past the margin of the lesion. They are discrete, macular, pigmented lesions arising on sun-damaged skin and a subset of typical solar lentigos. Clinically they differ from usual solar lentigines in often being solitary or larger and darker than adjacent solar lentigines. These lesions are of clinical importance as they can arise in close proximity to lentigo maligna and in a single lesion there can be demonstrated changes of solar lentigo, unstable solar lentigo and lentigo maligna. These observations led us to conjecture that unstable solar lentigos could be a precursor lesion to lentigo maligna. In this article we examine the possibility that lentigo maligna can arise within a solar lentigo through an intermediate lesion, the unstable solar lentigo. We propose that the histopathological recognition of this entity will allow for future research into its behaviour and thus management. We review difficulties in the diagnosis of single cell predominant melanocytic proliferations and the concept of unstable lentigo in view of the literature and clinical experience supporting the proposal of its recognition as a separate entity.

  10. Male urethral diverticulum uncommon entity: Our experience

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Naveen; Sabale, Vilas Pandurang; Mane, Deepak; Mullay, Abhirudra

    2016-01-01

    Out pouching of the urethral wall could be congenital or acquired. Male urethral diverticulum (UD) is a rare entity. We present 2 cases of acquired and 1 case of congenital male UD. Case 1A: 40 year male presented with SPC and dribbling urine. Clinically he had hard perineal swelling. RGU revealed large diverticulum in proximal bulbar, irregular narrow distal urethra and stricture just beyond diverticulum. Managed with perineal exploration, stone removal, diverticulum repair and urethroplasty using excess diverticular wall. Case 2A: 30 year male with obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Retrograde urethrogram (RGU) revealed bulbar urethral diverticulum akin to anterior urethral valve, managed endoscopically. 1 year follow up urine stream satisfactory. Case 3A: 27 year male previously operated large proximal bulbar urethral stone with incontinence. RGU large proximal bulbar UD with wide open sphincter. Treated with excision of excess diverticular wall and penile clamp with pelvic exercises for incontinence. Congenital UD develops due to imperfect closure of urethral fold, Acquired UDs occurs secondary to stricture, infection, trauma, long standing impacted urethral stones or scrotal / skin flap urethroplasties. RGU and MCU are the best diagnostic technique to confirm and characterize the UD. Urethral diverticulectomy with urethral reconstruction is the recommended treatment for UD. UD is a rare entity. Especially in males, congenital are even more rare. Management should be individualized. Surgery can involve innovation and/or surgical modifications. We used excess diverticular flap for stricture urethroplasty in one case. PMID:28057997

  11. Giant thoracic osteophyte: a distinct clinical entity.

    PubMed

    Coumans, Jean-Valery C E; Neal, Jonathan B; Grottkau, Brian E; Nahed, Brian V; Shin, John H; Walcott, Brian P

    2014-09-01

    Calcified lesions described within the neural axis are classified as either an ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, or ossification of the ligamentum flavum. We aim to describe a unique pathologic entity: the giant thoracic osteophyte. We identified four patients who were surgically treated at the Massachusetts General Hospital from 2006 to 2012 with unusual calcified lesions in the ventral aspect of the spinal canal. In order to differentiate giant thoracic osteophytes from calcified extruded disc material, disc volumetrics were performed on actual and simulated disc spaces. All patients underwent operative resection of the calcific lesion as they had signs and/or symptoms of spinal cord compression. The lesions were found to be isolated, large calcific masses that originated from the posterior aspect of adjacent thoracic vertebral bodies. Pathological examination was negative for tumor. Adjacent disc volumes were not significantly different from the index disc (p=0.91). A simulated calculation hypothesizing that the calcific mass was extruded disc material demonstrated a significant difference (p=0.01), making this scenario unlikely. In conclusion, giant thoracic osteophyte is a unique and rare entity that can be found in the thoracic spine. The central tenant of surgical treatment is resection to relieve spinal cord compression.

  12. If I am free, you can't own me: Autonomy makes entities less ownable.

    PubMed

    Starmans, Christina; Friedman, Ori

    2016-03-01

    Although people own myriad objects, land, and even ideas, it is currently illegal to own other humans. This reluctance to view people as property raises interesting questions about our conceptions of people and about our conceptions of ownership. We suggest that one factor contributing to this reluctance is that humans are normally considered to be autonomous, and autonomy is incompatible with being owned by someone else. To investigate whether autonomy impacts judgments of ownership, participants recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk read vignettes where a person paid for an entity (Experiments 1 and 3) or created it (Experiment 2). Participants were less likely to judge that the entity was owned when it was described as autonomous compared with when it was described as non-autonomous, and this pattern held regardless of whether the entity was a human or an alien (Experiments 1 and 3), a robot (Experiments 2 and 3), or a human-like biological creation (Experiment 2). The effect of autonomy was specific to judgments of whether entities were owned, and it did not influence judgments of the moral acceptability of paying for and keeping entities (Experiment 3). These experiments also found that judgments of ownership were separately impacted by ontological type, with participants less likely to judge that humans are owned compared with other kinds of entities. A fourth experiment tested a further prediction of the autonomy account, and showed that participants are more likely to view a person as owned if he willingly sells himself. Together these findings show that attributions of autonomy constrain judgments of what can be owned.

  13. Oxygen abundance and convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van't Veer, C.; Cayrel, R.

    The triplet IR lines of O I near 777 nm are computed with the Kurucz's code, modified to accept several convection models. The program has been run with the MLT algorithm, with l/H = 1.25 and 0.5, and with the Canuto-Mazzitelli and Canuto-Goldman-Mazzitelli approaches, on a metal-poor turnoff-star model atmosphere with Teff=6200 K, log g = 4.3, [Fe/H]= -1.5. The results show that the differences in equivalent widths for the 4 cases do not exceed 2 per cent (0.3 mA). The convection treatment is therefore not an issue for the oxygen abundance derived from the permitted lines.

  14. Mental representation of normal subjects about the sources of knowledge in different semantic categories and unique entities.

    PubMed

    Gainotti, Guido; Ciaraffa, Francesca; Silveri, Maria Caterina; Marra, Camillo

    2009-11-01

    According to the "sensory-motor model of semantic knowledge," different categories of knowledge differ for the weight that different "sources of knowledge" have in their representation. Our study aimed to evaluate this model, checking if subjective evaluations given by normal subjects confirm the different weight that various sources of knowledge have in the representation of different biological and artifact categories and of unique entities, such as famous people or monuments. Results showed that the visual properties are considered as the main source of knowledge for all the living and nonliving categories (as well as for unique entities), but that the clustering of these "sources of knowledge" is different for biological and artifacts categories. Visual data are, indeed, mainly associated with other perceptual (auditory, olfactory, gustatory, and tactual) attributes in the mental representation of living beings and unique entities, whereas they are associated with action-related properties and tactile information in the case of artifacts.

  15. Encoding of Fundamental Chemical Entities of Organic Reactivity Interest using chemical ontology and XML.

    PubMed

    Durairaj, Vijayasarathi; Punnaivanam, Sankar

    2015-09-01

    Fundamental chemical entities are identified in the context of organic reactivity and classified as appropriate concept classes namely ElectronEntity, AtomEntity, AtomGroupEntity, FunctionalGroupEntity and MolecularEntity. The entity classes and their subclasses are organized into a chemical ontology named "ChemEnt" for the purpose of assertion, restriction and modification of properties through entity relations. Individual instances of entity classes are defined and encoded as a library of chemical entities in XML. The instances of entity classes are distinguished with a unique notation and identification values in order to map them with the ontology definitions. A model GUI named Entity Table is created to view graphical representations of all the entity instances. The detection of chemical entities in chemical structures is achieved through suitable algorithms. The possibility of asserting properties to the entities at different levels and the mechanism of property flow within the hierarchical entity levels is outlined.

  16. Synthetic Biology - The Synthesis of Biology.

    PubMed

    Ausländer, Simon; Ausländer, David; Fussenegger, Martin

    2016-12-11

    Synthetic biology envisages the engineering of man-made living biomachines from standardized components that can perform pre-defined functions in a (self-)controlled manner. Different research strategies and interdisciplinary efforts are pursued to implement engineering principles to biology. The "top-down" strategy exploits nature's incredible diversity of existing, natural parts to construct synthetic compositions of genetic, metabolic or signalling networks with predictable and controllable properties. This mainly application-driven approach results in living factories that produce drugs, biofuels, biomaterials and fine chemicals and results in living pills that are based on engineered cells with the capacity to autonomously detect and treat disease states in vivo. In contrast, the "bottom-up" strategy seeks to be independent of existing living systems by designing biological systems from scratch and synthesizing artificial biological entities not found in nature. This more knowledge-driven approach investigates the reconstruction of minimal biological systems that are capable of performing basic biological phenomena, such as self-organization, self-replication and self-sustainability. Moreover, the syntheses of artificial biological units, such as synthetic nucleotides or amino acids, and their implementation into polymers inside living cells currently set the boundaries between natural and artificial biological systems. In particular, the in vitro design, synthesis and transfer of complete genomes into host cells and the application of efficient genome-wide intervention techniques point to the future of synthetic biology: the creation of living designer cells with tailored desirable properties for biomedicine and biotechnology.

  17. Cardiac Pseudoaneurysm- A Death Defying Entity

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Saryu

    2016-01-01

    A pseudoaneurysm refers to a contained rupture of the myocardium with a tenuous pericardium walling off the leak. It needs to be differentiated from a true aneurysm by the fact that there is lack of myocardial tissue in the wall of a pseudoaneurysm. The differentiation between the two is pertinent as true aneurysms can be treated medically while pseudoaneurysms require urgent surgical treatment. Untreated pseudoaneurysms carry a high risk of rupture and mortality. We report a case of cardiac pseudoaneurysm developing in a 46-year-old male who had suffered myocardial infarction four months back. The patient now presented with chest pain and dyspnoea. CECT chest revealed a partially thrombosed large pseudoaneurysm arising from the posterior wall of left ventricle. While the clinical diagnosis of this entity is difficult, CECT plays a pivotal role in the non-invasive detection of pseudoaneurysms. PMID:27504379

  18. Brachioradial pruritus--an enigmatic entity.

    PubMed

    Barry, R; Rogers, S

    2004-11-01

    Brachioradial pruritus (BRP) is an unusual clinical entity resulting in pruritus of the upper arms, classically affecting the skin overlying the proximal heads of the brachioradialis muscles. Seven patients with BRP are described. The upper limb was involved in six patients, being bilateral in four and restricted to the right arm in two. Radiological evidence of cervical vertebral osteoarthritis was seen in five. Three patients reported exacerbation with ultraviolet radiation (UVR), i.e., sunlight. All seven were treated with topical capsaicin and four got significant relief. Two of the remaining three patients found relief from amitryptiline. UVR may act as a trigger in some patients although underlying neurological cervical injury also seems to be an important aetiological factor.

  19. Capella: Structure and Abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickhouse, Nancy S.

    1999-01-01

    This grant covers the analysis of EUVE spectra of the cool star binary system Capella. This project has also required the analysis of simultaneous Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) data. The ASCA spectrum of Capella could not be fit with standard models; by imposing models based on strong lines observed with EUVE, a problem wavelength region was identified. Correcting the problem required calculations of atomic collision strengths of higher principal quantum number than had ever been calculated. With these new models applied to the ASCA spectrum, better fits were obtained. Findings are that: (1) ASCA and EUVE spectra are both dominated by a region at 6 x 10(exp 6) K. (2) The high energy cut-off of the ASCA spectrum is consistent with emission from the highest ionization stages of EUVE, namely Fe XXIV. (3) EUVE requires a continuous emission measure distribution with more than two temperatures. (4) The ASCA spectra are of such high statistical significance that systematic uncertainties dominate, including atomic physics issues and calibration issues. (5) While the ASCA spectral fits achieve lower Chi(exp 2 with two-temperature fits, the EUVE-derived emission measure distribution models are also consistent with the spectra. (6) The Fe/H ratio obtained from the ASCA fit is within 20 % of the Fe/H abundance obtained from the summed spectra of Capella over 5 EUVE pointings, as well as the 1996 EUVE data. This result confirms our claims that quasi-continua composed of weak emission lines in the short wavelength spectrometer of EUVE are not major contributors to the measured Capella continuum. Other abundance ratios are also determined from the ASCA data, using models derived with EUVE. Si, Si, and Mg appear to be close to solar photospheric values, while the ratio of Ne/Fe is three to four times lower than solar photospheric values. Whether there is a general First Ionization Potential (FIP) effect or a specific neon anomaly cannot be determined

  20. SimConcept: A Hybrid Approach for Simplifying Composite Named Entities in Biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chih-Hsuan; Leaman, Robert; Lu, Zhiyong

    Many text-mining studies have focused on the issue of named entity recognition and normalization, especially in the field of biomedical natural language processing. However, entity recognition is a complicated and difficult task in biomedical text. One particular challenge is to identify and resolve composite named entities, where a single span refers to more than one concept(e.g., BRCA1/2). Most bioconcept recognition and normalization studies have either ignored this issue, used simple ad-hoc rules, or only handled coordination ellipsis, which is only one of the many types of composite mentions studied in this work. No systematic methods for simplifying composite mentions have been previously reported, making a robust approach greatly needed. To this end, we propose a hybrid approach by integrating a machine learning model with a pattern identification strategy to identify the antecedent and conjuncts regions of a concept mention, and then reassemble the composite mention using those identified regions. Our method, which we have named SimConcept, is the first method to systematically handle most types of composite mentions. Our method achieves high performance in identifying and resolving composite mentions for three fundamental biological entities: genes (89.29% in F-measure), diseases (85.52% in F-measure) and chemicals (84.04% in F-measure). Furthermore, our results show that, using our SimConcept method can subsequently help improve the performance of gene and disease concept recognition and normalization.

  1. Actinide abundances in ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagee, B.; Bernatowicz, T. J.; Podosek, F. A.; Johnson, M. L.; Burnett, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of actinide and light REE (LREE) abundances and of phosphate abundances in equilibrated ordinary chondrites were obtained and were used to define the Pu abundance in the solar system and to determine the degree of variation of actinide and LREE abundances. The results were also used to compare directly the Pu/U ratio with the earlier obtained ratio determined indirectly, as (Pu/Nd)x(Nd/U), assuming that Pu behaves chemically as a LREE. The data, combined with high-accuracy isotope-dilution data from the literature, show that the degree of gram-scale variability of the Th, U, and LREE abundances for equilibrated ordinary chondrites is a factor of 2-3 for absolute abundances and up to 50 percent for relative abundances. The observed variations are interpreted as reflecting the differences in the compositions and/or proportions of solar nebula components accreted to ordinary chondrite parent bodies.

  2. [Gastric signet ring cell adenocarcinoma: A distinct entity].

    PubMed

    Tabouret, Tessa; Dhooge, Marion; Rouquette, Alexandre; Brezault, Catherine; Beuvon, Frédéric; Chaussade, Stanislas; Coriat, Romain

    2014-04-01

    Gastric signet ring cell carcinoma (GSRC) is a distinct entity. Their incidence is increasing. The pathologist plays a central role in the identification of this entity. Diagnosis is based on an adenocarcinoma containing a majority of signet ring cells (above 50 %). The prognosis of GSRC is the same as gastric adenocarcinoma while GSRC appeared more aggressive. Signet ring cells present a low sensitivity to chemotherapy. This review aimed to discuss the histological, the prognostic and the therapeutic aspect of this entity.

  3. Absolute Quantification of Endogenous Ras Isoform Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Mageean, Craig J.; Griffiths, John R.; Smith, Duncan L.; Clague, Michael J.; Prior, Ian A.

    2015-01-01

    Ras proteins are important signalling hubs situated near the top of networks controlling cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. Three almost identical isoforms, HRAS, KRAS and NRAS, are ubiquitously expressed yet have differing biological and oncogenic properties. In order to help understand the relative biological contributions of each isoform we have optimised a quantitative proteomics method for accurately measuring Ras isoform protein copy number per cell. The use of isotopic protein standards together with selected reaction monitoring for diagnostic peptides is sensitive, robust and suitable for application to sub-milligram quantities of lysates. We find that in a panel of isogenic SW48 colorectal cancer cells, endogenous Ras proteins are highly abundant with ≥260,000 total Ras protein copies per cell and the rank order of isoform abundance is KRAS>NRAS≥HRAS. A subset of oncogenic KRAS mutants exhibit increased total cellular Ras abundance and altered the ratio of mutant versus wild type KRAS protein. These data and methodology are significant because Ras protein copy number is required to parameterise models of signalling networks and informs interpretation of isoform-specific Ras functional data. PMID:26560143

  4. Capella: Structure and Abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickhouse, Nancy S.

    1999-01-01

    This grant covers the analysis of ASCA spectra of the cool star binary system Capella. This project has also required the analysis of simultaneous EUVE data. The ASCA spectrum of Capella could not be fit with standard models; by imposing models based on strong lines observed with EUVE, a problem wavelength region was identified. Correcting the problem required calculations of atomic collision strengths of higher principal quantum number than had ever been calculated, resulting in a paper in process by Liedahl and Brickhouse. With these new models applied to the ASCA spectrum, better fits were obtained. While solar abundance ratios are generally consistent with the ASCA data, the ratio of Ne/Fe is three to four times lower than solar photospheric values. Whether there is a general First Ionization Potential (FIP) effect or a specific neon anomaly cannot be determined from these data. Detailed discussion has been provided to NASA in the most recent annual report (1997). Two poster presentations have been made regarding modeling requirements. A substantial paper is in the final revision form, following review by six co-authors. The results of this work have wide implications, since the newly calculated emission lines almost certainly contribute to other problems in fitting not only other stellar spectra, but also composite supernova remnants, galaxies, and cooling flow clusters of galaxies. Furthermore, Liedahl and Brickhouse have identified other species for which lines of a similar nature (high principal quantum number) will contribute significant flux. For moderate resolution X-ray spectra, lines left out of the models in relatively isolated bands, will be attributed to continuum flux by spectral fitting engines, causing errors in line-to-continuum ratios. Thus addressing the general theoretical problem is of crucial importance.

  5. Delft University at the TREC 2009 Entity Track: Ranking Wikipedia Entities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    containing ClueWeb09 collection using Lemur Toolkit 4.10. We used no stemming and stop-word removal on the collection level. However, we applied a very...approach implemented in Lemur with Dirichlet smoothing (µ = 1500). In order to have some flexibility in development and also for the sake of better...consider them as the only entities allowed (actu- ally, using #scoreif directive of the Lemur query language). Since we still could not be sure that all

  6. CNS-PNETs with C19MC amplification and/or LIN28 expression comprise a distinct histogenetic diagnostic and therapeutic entity.

    PubMed

    Spence, Tara; Sin-Chan, Patrick; Picard, Daniel; Barszczyk, Mark; Hoss, Katharina; Lu, Mei; Kim, Seung-Ki; Ra, Young-Shin; Nakamura, Hideo; Fangusaro, Jason; Hwang, Eugene; Kiehna, Erin; Toledano, Helen; Wang, Yin; Shi, Qing; Johnston, Donna; Michaud, Jean; La Spina, Milena; Buccoliero, Anna Maria; Adamek, Dariusz; Camelo-Piragua, Sandra; Peter Collins, V; Jones, Chris; Kabbara, Nabil; Jurdi, Nawaf; Varlet, Pascale; Perry, Arie; Scharnhorst, David; Fan, Xing; Muraszko, Karin M; Eberhart, Charles G; Ng, Ho-Keung; Gururangan, Sridharan; Van Meter, Timothy; Remke, Marc; Lafay-Cousin, Lucie; Chan, Jennifer A; Sirachainan, Nongnuch; Pomeroy, Scott L; Clifford, Steven C; Gajjar, Amar; Shago, Mary; Halliday, William; Taylor, Michael D; Grundy, Richard; Lau, Ching C; Phillips, Joanna; Bouffet, Eric; Dirks, Peter B; Hawkins, Cynthia E; Huang, Annie

    2014-08-01

    Amplification of the C19MC oncogenic miRNA cluster and high LIN28 expression has been linked to a distinctly aggressive group of cerebral CNS-PNETs (group 1 CNS-PNETs) arising in young children. In this study, we sought to evaluate the diagnostic specificity of C19MC and LIN28, and the clinical and biological spectra of C19MC amplified and/or LIN28+ CNS-PNETs. We interrogated 450 pediatric brain tumors using FISH and IHC analyses and demonstrate that C19MC alteration is restricted to a sub-group of CNS-PNETs with high LIN28 expression; however, LIN28 immunopositivity was not exclusive to CNS-PNETs but was also detected in a proportion of other malignant pediatric brain tumors including rhabdoid brain tumors and malignant gliomas. C19MC amplified/LIN28+ group 1 CNS-PNETs arose predominantly in children <4 years old; a majority arose in the cerebrum but 24 % (13/54) of tumors had extra-cerebral origins. Notably, group 1 CNS-PNETs encompassed several histologic classes including embryonal tumor with abundant neuropil and true rosettes (ETANTR), medulloepithelioma, ependymoblastoma and CNS-PNETs with variable differentiation. Strikingly, gene expression and methylation profiling analyses revealed a common molecular signature enriched for primitive neural features, high LIN28/LIN28B and DNMT3B expression for all group 1 CNS-PNETs regardless of location or tumor histology. Our collective findings suggest that current known histologic categories of CNS-PNETs which include ETANTRs, medulloepitheliomas, ependymoblastomas in various CNS locations, comprise a common molecular and diagnostic entity and identify inhibitors of the LIN28/let7/PI3K/mTOR axis and DNMT3B as promising therapeutics for this distinct histogenetic entity.

  7. Measuring Solar Abundances with Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mussack, K.; Gough, D.

    2009-12-01

    The revision of the photospheric abundances proferred by Asplund et al. (2005) has rendered opacity theory inconsistent with the seismologically determined opacity through the Sun. This highlights the need for a direct seismological measurement of solar abundances. Here we describe the technique used to measure abundances with seismology, examine our ability to detect differences between solar models using this technique, and discuss its application in the Sun.

  8. Multimodal entity coreference for cervical dysplasia diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Song, Dezhao; Kim, Edward; Huang, Xiaolei; Patruno, Joseph; Munoz-Avila, Hector; Heflin, Jeff; Long, L Rodney; Antani, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common type of cancer for women. Existing screening programs for cervical cancer, such as Pap Smear, suffer from low sensitivity. Thus, many patients who are ill are not detected in the screening process. Using images of the cervix as an aid in cervical cancer screening has the potential to greatly improve sensitivity, and can be especially useful in resource-poor regions of the world. In this paper, we develop a data-driven computer algorithm for interpreting cervical images based on color and texture. We are able to obtain 74% sensitivity and 90% specificity when differentiating high-grade cervical lesions from low-grade lesions and normal tissue. On the same dataset, using Pap tests alone yields a sensitivity of 37% and specificity of 96%, and using HPV test alone gives a 57% sensitivity and 93% specificity. Furthermore, we develop a comprehensive algorithmic framework based on Multimodal Entity Coreference for combining various tests to perform disease classification and diagnosis. When integrating multiple tests, we adopt information gain and gradient-based approaches for learning the relative weights of different tests. In our evaluation, we present a novel algorithm that integrates cervical images, Pap, HPV, and patient age, which yields 83.21% sensitivity and 94.79% specificity, a statistically significant improvement over using any single source of information alone.

  9. 14 CFR Sec. 1-6 - Accounting entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accounting entities. Sec. 1-6 Section 1-6... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-6 Accounting entities. (a) Separate accounting records shall be maintained for each...

  10. 14 CFR Sec. 1-6 - Accounting entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accounting entities. Sec. 1-6 Section 1-6... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-6 Accounting entities. (a) Separate accounting records shall be maintained for each...

  11. 14 CFR Sec. 1-6 - Accounting entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accounting entities. Sec. 1-6 Section 1-6... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-6 Accounting entities. (a) Separate accounting records shall be maintained for each...

  12. 78 FR 45051 - Unincorporated Business Entities; Effective Date

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... institutions' use of unincorporated business entities organized under State law for certain business activities... business entities (UBEs) organized under State law for certain business activities. A UBE includes limited... business trusts, organized under State law. The final rule does not apply to UBEs that one or more...

  13. 45 CFR 162.923 - Requirements for covered entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... adopted under this part (or within the same covered entity), using electronic media, a transaction for... the format requirements of the standard. (c) Use of a business associate. A covered entity may use a business associate, including a health care clearinghouse, to conduct a transaction covered by this...

  14. 49 CFR 37.29 - Private entities providing taxi service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Private entities providing taxi service. 37.29 Section 37.29 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.29 Private entities providing taxi service....

  15. 49 CFR 37.29 - Private entities providing taxi service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Private entities providing taxi service. 37.29 Section 37.29 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.29 Private entities providing taxi service....

  16. 49 CFR 37.29 - Private entities providing taxi service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Private entities providing taxi service. 37.29 Section 37.29 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.29 Private entities providing taxi service....

  17. 49 CFR 37.29 - Private entities providing taxi service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Private entities providing taxi service. 37.29 Section 37.29 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.29 Private entities providing taxi service....

  18. 26 CFR 1.892-5 - Controlled commercial entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Controlled commercial entity. 1.892-5 Section 1.892-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Miscellaneous Provisions § 1.892-5 Controlled commercial entity....

  19. 26 CFR 1.892-5 - Controlled commercial entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Controlled commercial entity. 1.892-5 Section 1.892-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Miscellaneous Provisions § 1.892-5 Controlled commercial entity. (a)-(a)(2) ....

  20. 78 FR 19271 - Special Fraud Alert: Physician-Owned Entities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of Inspector General Special Fraud Alert: Physician-Owned Entities AGENCY: Office of Inspector General (OIG), HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Special Fraud Alert addresses.... Introduction This Special Fraud Alert addresses physician-owned entities that derive revenue from selling,...

  1. 7 CFR 25.401 - Responsibility of lead managing entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... lead managing entity will be responsible for strategic plan program activities and monitoring the fiscal management of the funds of the Empowerment Zone or Enterprise Community. (b) Reporting. The lead.... All entities with significant involvement in implementing the strategic plan shall cooperate with...

  2. 7 CFR 25.401 - Responsibility of lead managing entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... lead managing entity will be responsible for strategic plan program activities and monitoring the fiscal management of the funds of the Empowerment Zone or Enterprise Community. (b) Reporting. The lead.... All entities with significant involvement in implementing the strategic plan shall cooperate with...

  3. 7 CFR 25.401 - Responsibility of lead managing entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... lead managing entity will be responsible for strategic plan program activities and monitoring the fiscal management of the funds of the Empowerment Zone or Enterprise Community. (b) Reporting. The lead.... All entities with significant involvement in implementing the strategic plan shall cooperate with...

  4. 7 CFR 25.401 - Responsibility of lead managing entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... lead managing entity will be responsible for strategic plan program activities and monitoring the fiscal management of the funds of the Empowerment Zone or Enterprise Community. (b) Reporting. The lead.... All entities with significant involvement in implementing the strategic plan shall cooperate with...

  5. 43 CFR 426.8 - Nonresident aliens and foreign entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nonresident aliens and foreign entities..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.8 Nonresident aliens and foreign... reclamation law or these regulations, a nonresident alien or foreign entity that directly holds land in...

  6. 43 CFR 426.8 - Nonresident aliens and foreign entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nonresident aliens and foreign entities..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.8 Nonresident aliens and foreign... reclamation law or these regulations, a nonresident alien or foreign entity that directly holds land in...

  7. 43 CFR 426.8 - Nonresident aliens and foreign entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Nonresident aliens and foreign entities..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.8 Nonresident aliens and foreign... reclamation law or these regulations, a nonresident alien or foreign entity that directly holds land in...

  8. 43 CFR 426.8 - Nonresident aliens and foreign entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nonresident aliens and foreign entities..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.8 Nonresident aliens and foreign... reclamation law or these regulations, a nonresident alien or foreign entity that directly holds land in...

  9. 43 CFR 426.8 - Nonresident aliens and foreign entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonresident aliens and foreign entities..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.8 Nonresident aliens and foreign... reclamation law or these regulations, a nonresident alien or foreign entity that directly holds land in...

  10. 49 CFR 37.29 - Private entities providing taxi service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private entities providing taxi service. 37.29 Section 37.29 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.29 Private entities providing taxi service....

  11. When Depression Mediates the Relationship between Entity Beliefs and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da Fonseca, David; Cury, Francois; Santos, Andreia; Payen, Vincent; Bounoua, Lenda; Brisswalter, Jeannick; Rufo, Marcel; Poinso, Francois; Deruelle, Christine

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether depression can explain the negative relationship between academic performance and the belief that intelligence is a fixed trait, i.e., entity belief. A sample of 353 French volunteer adolescents (age 11-16) completed questionnaires assessing entity theory and depressive symptoms (Children Depression…

  12. 31 CFR 306.88 - Political entities and public corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... corporations. 306.88 Section 306.88 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... entities and public corporations. Securities registered in the name of, or assigned to, a State, county, city, town, village, school district or other political entity, public body or corporation, may...

  13. 14 CFR Sec. 1-6 - Accounting entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-6 Accounting entities. (a) Separate accounting records shall be maintained for each air... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting entities. Sec. 1-6 Section...

  14. 78 FR 50396 - Common Format for Federal Entity Transition Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... that federal relocation efforts be based on the suggested EA rankings. However, the report also... entity of the eligible frequencies to be auctioned; (2) the geographic location of the federal entity's... frequencies, including timelines for specific geographic locations in sufficient detail to indicate when...

  15. 24 CFR 578.69 - Cooperation among entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cooperation among entities. 578.69 Section 578.69 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Cooperation among entities. An HPC must cooperate with HUD in distributing information about its...

  16. 24 CFR 578.69 - Cooperation among entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Cooperation among entities. 578.69 Section 578.69 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Cooperation among entities. An HPC must cooperate with HUD in distributing information about its...

  17. Can occupancy-abundance models be used to monitor wolf abundance?

    PubMed

    Latham, M Cecilia; Latham, A David M; Webb, Nathan F; Mccutchen, Nicole A; Boutin, Stan

    2014-01-01

    Estimating the abundance of wild carnivores is of foremost importance for conservation and management. However, given their elusive habits, direct observations of these animals are difficult to obtain, so abundance is more commonly estimated from sign surveys or radio-marked individuals. These methods can be costly and difficult, particularly in large areas with heavy forest cover. As an alternative, recent research has suggested that wolf abundance can be estimated from occupancy-abundance curves derived from "virtual" surveys of simulated wolf track networks. Although potentially more cost-effective, the utility of this approach hinges on its robustness to violations of its assumptions. We assessed the sensitivity of the occupancy-abundance approach to four assumptions: variation in wolf movement rates, changes in pack cohesion, presence of lone wolves, and size of survey units. Our simulations showed that occupancy rates and wolf pack abundances were biased high if track surveys were conducted when wolves made long compared to short movements, wolf packs were moving as multiple hunting units as opposed to a cohesive pack, and lone wolves were moving throughout the surveyed landscape. We also found that larger survey units (400 and 576 km2) were more robust to changes in these factors than smaller survey units (36 and 144 km2). However, occupancy rates derived from large survey units rapidly reached an asymptote at 100% occupancy, suggesting that these large units are inappropriate for areas with moderate to high wolf densities (>15 wolves/1,000 km2). Virtually-derived occupancy-abundance relationships can be a useful method for monitoring wolves and other elusive wildlife if applied within certain constraints, in particular biological knowledge of the surveyed species needs to be incorporated into the design of the occupancy surveys. Further, we suggest that the applicability of this method could be extended by directly incorporating some of its assumptions into

  18. Manipulation of nano-entities in suspension by electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Donglei

    transport charged Au nanowires with length longer than 4 mum. The surface of Au nanowires has been chemical functionalized by either positive or negative charges. High frequency AC electric field has been applied to align and fix the orientation of the charged nanowires, though not to induce any motions, whereas a small DC voltage causes linear motion. The velocity of nanowires increases linearly with the DC electric field. The moving direction can be either parallel or perpendicular to the orientation of nanowires. Nanowires modified with different charges behave differently due to the electroosmosis flow induced by the DC electric field on the negatively charged quartz substrate. The zeta potential of quartz surface and the ratio of Stokes coefficients for longitudinal nano-entities suspended in a low Reynolds number regime (< 10-5) has been determined. Due to the small size of the nanowires, the nanowires suspended in liquids such as DI water are in extremely low Reynolds number regime (< 10-5). Manipulation due to DEP and EP forces are versatile and precise. Nanowires have been set into motion with prescribed tracks, such as squares and zigzags. The manipulation is also so precise that oppositely charged nanowires with radius of 150 nm have been moved to contact and connected end to end. A nanowire clipper have been assembled by this technique and set into oscillation. This method is not only applicable to nanowires, it has been successfully applied to multiwall carbon nanotubes as well. To demonstrate the complete control and flexibility of manipulating nanoparticles by E field, we have programmed nanowires to dance with music by Mozart with regard to clearly demonstrating the versatility of manipulating small entities of metallic, semiconductor, and biological materials. This work has been conducted under the guidance of the author's thesis advisors, Prof. Robert C. Cammarata, chair of the Department of Materials Science and Engineering of the Johns Hopkins University

  19. Inflammatory breast carcinoma: pathological or clinical entity?

    PubMed

    Amparo, R S; Angel, C D; Ana, L H; Antonio, L C; Vicente, M S; Carlos, F M; Vicente, G P

    2000-12-01

    Inflammatory breast carcinoma (IBC) diagnosis is usually based in the presence of typical clinical symptoms (redness and edema in more than 2/3 of the breast), which are not always associated with pathologic characteristics (subdermal lymphatics involvement). Whether exclusively pathologic findings without clinical symptoms are sufficient for IBC diagnosis remains controversial. A retrospective analysis of 163 clinically diagnosed IBC (CIC) either with dermal lymphatics invasion or not, was compared with another group of 99 patients with dermal lymphatics invasion without clinical symptoms (occult inflammatory carcinoma) (OIC). The following clinical and pathological characteristics have been analyzed and compared: age, menopausal status, clinical axillar node involvement, symptoms duration before diagnosis, grade, estrogen receptors, presence of metastases at diagnosis, local recurrence, metastasic dissemination, disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Median age was younger in CIC (52.3 vs. 63.8 years; p < 0.001). Symptom duration before diagnosis were significantly shorter in CIC (3.4 vs. 6.8 months: p < 0.0001). Visceral (36.2% vs. 17.2%; p = 0.001) and brain metastases (7.4% vs. 1%; p = 0.02) was significantly more frequent in CIC. Negative estrogen receptors were more frequent in CIC (34.9% vs. 65.1%: p < 0.004). Five-years DFS (25.6 vs. 51.6%; p < 0.0001) and OS (28.6 vs. 40%; p < 0.05) were shorter in CIC. CIC (regardless of subdermal lymphatics involvement) must be clearly differentiated from OIC. Prognosis of CIC patients is poorer, so this two entities should be clearly differentiated when therepeutic results are reported.

  20. Synthetic biology--putting engineering into biology.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, Matthias; Panke, Sven

    2006-11-15

    Synthetic biology is interpreted as the engineering-driven building of increasingly complex biological entities for novel applications. Encouraged by progress in the design of artificial gene networks, de novo DNA synthesis and protein engineering, we review the case for this emerging discipline. Key aspects of an engineering approach are purpose-orientation, deep insight into the underlying scientific principles, a hierarchy of abstraction including suitable interfaces between and within the levels of the hierarchy, standardization and the separation of design and fabrication. Synthetic biology investigates possibilities to implement these requirements into the process of engineering biological systems. This is illustrated on the DNA level by the implementation of engineering-inspired artificial operations such as toggle switching, oscillating or production of spatial patterns. On the protein level, the functionally self-contained domain structure of a number of proteins suggests possibilities for essentially Lego-like recombination which can be exploited for reprogramming DNA binding domain specificities or signaling pathways. Alternatively, computational design emerges to rationally reprogram enzyme function. Finally, the increasing facility of de novo DNA synthesis-synthetic biology's system fabrication process-supplies the possibility to implement novel designs for ever more complex systems. Some of these elements have merged to realize the first tangible synthetic biology applications in the area of manufacturing of pharmaceutical compounds.

  1. Angel lichen moth abundance and morphology data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metcalfe, Anya; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    Two unique datasets on the abundance and morphology of the angel lichen moth ( Cisthene angelus) in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA were compiled to describe the phenology and life history of this common, but poorly known, species. The abundance data were collected from 2012 to 2013 through a collaboration with river runners in Grand Canyon National Park. These citizen scientists deployed light traps from their campsites for one hour each night of their expedition. Insects were preserved in ethanol on site, and returned to the Southwest Biological Science Center in Flagstaff, Arizona for analysis in the laboratory. A total of 2,437 light trap samples were sorted through, 903 of which contained C. angelus. In total, 73,841 C. angelus were identified and enumerated to create the abundance data set. The morphology dataset is based on a subset of 28 light trap samples from sampling year 2012 (14 from spring and 14 from fall.) It includes gender and forewing lengths for 2,674 individual moths and dry weights for 1,102 of those individuals.

  2. 26 CFR 301.6233-1 - Extension to entities filing partnership returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Extension to entities filing partnership....6233-1 Extension to entities filing partnership returns. (a) Entities filing a partnership return... any taxable year of an entity for which such entity files a partnership return as well as to...

  3. 26 CFR 301.6233-1 - Extension to entities filing partnership returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Extension to entities filing partnership....6233-1 Extension to entities filing partnership returns. (a) Entities filing a partnership return... any taxable year of an entity for which such entity files a partnership return as well as to...

  4. 26 CFR 301.6233-1 - Extension to entities filing partnership returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Extension to entities filing partnership....6233-1 Extension to entities filing partnership returns. (a) Entities filing a partnership return... any taxable year of an entity for which such entity files a partnership return as well as to...

  5. 26 CFR 301.6233-1 - Extension to entities filing partnership returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Extension to entities filing partnership....6233-1 Extension to entities filing partnership returns. (a) Entities filing a partnership return... any taxable year of an entity for which such entity files a partnership return as well as to...

  6. 26 CFR 301.6233-1 - Extension to entities filing partnership returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Extension to entities filing partnership....6233-1 Extension to entities filing partnership returns. (a) Entities filing a partnership return... any taxable year of an entity for which such entity files a partnership return as well as to...

  7. 37 CFR 1.27 - Definition of small entities and establishing status as a small entity to permit payment of small...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of small entities... Provisions Fees and Payment of Money § 1.27 Definition of small entities and establishing status as a small...) Definition of small entities. A small entity as used in this chapter means any party (person, small...

  8. The boron abundance of Procyon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemke, Michael; Lambert, David L.; Edvardsson, Bengt

    1993-01-01

    The B I 2496.8 A resonance line and HST/GHRS echelle spectra are used with model atmospheres and synthetic spectra to derive the B abundance of the F dwarfs Procyon (Alpha Canis Minoris), Theta Ursae Majoris, and Iota Pegasi. The B abundance of Theta UMa and Iota Peg is similar to that derived by Boesgaard and Heacox (1978) from the B II resonance line in spectra of A- and B-type stars. These two dwarfs show normal abundances of Li, Be, and B. Procyon, which is highly depleted in Li and Be, is depleted in B by a factor of at least 3. Comparison of the spectra of Procyon and the halo dwarf HD 140283 shows that the B abundance assigned by Duncan et al. (1992) to three halo dwarfs is not greatly overestimated as a result of contamination of the B I line by an unidentified line.

  9. Ammonia abundances in four comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyckoff, S.; Tegler, S. C.; Engel, L.

    1991-02-01

    NH2 emission band strengths were measured in four comets and the NH2 column densities were determined in order to measure the ammonia content of the comets. The mean ammonia/water abundance ratio derived for the four comets is found to be 0.13 + or - 0.06 percent, with no significant variation among the comets. The uniformity of this abundance attests to a remarkable degree of chemical homogeneity over large scales in the comet-forming region of the primordial solar nebula, and contrasts with the CO abundance variations found previously in comets. The N2 and NH3 abundances indicate a condensation temperature in the range 20-160 K, consistent with virtually all comet formation hypotheses.

  10. The boron abundance of Procyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, Michael; Lambert, David L.; Edvardsson, Bengt

    1993-05-01

    The B I 2496.8 A resonance line and HST/GHRS echelle spectra are used with model atmospheres and synthetic spectra to derive the B abundance of the F dwarfs Procyon (Alpha Canis Minoris), Theta Ursae Majoris, and Iota Pegasi. The B abundance of Theta UMa and Iota Peg is similar to that derived by Boesgaard and Heacox (1978) from the B II resonance line in spectra of A- and B-type stars. These two dwarfs show normal abundances of Li, Be, and B. Procyon, which is highly depleted in Li and Be, is depleted in B by a factor of at least 3. Comparison of the spectra of Procyon and the halo dwarf HD 140283 shows that the B abundance assigned by Duncan et al. (1992) to three halo dwarfs is not greatly overestimated as a result of contamination of the B I line by an unidentified line.

  11. Stacked ensemble combined with fuzzy matching for biomedical named entity recognition of diseases.

    PubMed

    Bhasuran, Balu; Murugesan, Gurusamy; Abdulkadhar, Sabenabanu; Natarajan, Jeyakumar

    2016-12-01

    Biomedical Named Entity Recognition (Bio-NER) is the crucial initial step in the information extraction process and a majorly focused research area in biomedical text mining. In the past years, several models and methodologies have been proposed for the recognition of semantic types related to gene, protein, chemical, drug and other biological relevant named entities. In this paper, we implemented a stacked ensemble approach combined with fuzzy matching for biomedical named entity recognition of disease names. The underlying concept of stacked generalization is to combine the outputs of base-level classifiers using a second-level meta-classifier in an ensemble. We used Conditional Random Field (CRF) as the underlying classification method that makes use of a diverse set of features, mostly based on domain specific, and are orthographic and morphologically relevant. In addition, we used fuzzy string matching to tag rare disease names from our in-house disease dictionary. For fuzzy matching, we incorporated two best fuzzy search algorithms Rabin Karp and Tuned Boyer Moore. Our proposed approach shows promised result of 94.66%, 89.12%, 84.10%, and 76.71% of F-measure while on evaluating training and testing set of both NCBI disease and BioCreative V CDR Corpora.

  12. SimConcept: a hybrid approach for simplifying composite named entities in biomedical text.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chih-Hsuan; Leaman, Robert; Lu, Zhiyong

    2015-07-01

    One particular challenge in biomedical named entity recognition (NER) and normalization is the identification and resolution of composite named entities, where a single span refers to more than one concept (e.g., BRCA1/2). Previous NER and normalization studies have either ignored composite mentions, used simple ad hoc rules, or only handled coordination ellipsis, making a robust approach for handling multitype composite mentions greatly needed. To this end, we propose a hybrid method integrating a machine-learning model with a pattern identification strategy to identify the individual components of each composite mention. Our method, which we have named SimConcept, is the first to systematically handle many types of composite mentions. The technique achieves high performance in identifying and resolving composite mentions for three key biological entities: genes (90.42% in F-measure), diseases (86.47% in F-measure), and chemicals (86.05% in F-measure). Furthermore, our results show that using our SimConcept method can subsequently improve the performance of gene and disease concept recognition and normalization. SimConcept is available for download at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Lu/Demo/SimConcept/.

  13. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and early-onset bipolar disorder: two facets of one entity?

    PubMed

    Zepf, Florian D

    2009-01-01

    Early-onset bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have recently been the subject of highly controversial debate, due to theories regarding underlying pathophysiological processes and a clinical overlap of symptoms. Epidemiological data, clinical aspects neuroimaging, neurochemical, and genetic studies suggest that there may be a possible relationship between biological factors and clinical characteristics in the development of symptoms. However, longitudinal data supporting the hypothesis of a diagnostic shift from BD to ADHD symptoms and vice versa are currently not available. These would be essential to enable further investigations into whether these two disorders possibly represent two different aspects of an underlying common psychopathophysiological entity.

  14. Chlorine Abundances in Cool Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maas, Z. G.; Pilachowski, C. A.; Hinkle, K.

    2016-12-01

    Chlorine abundances are reported in 15 evolved giants and 1 M dwarf in the solar neighborhood. The Cl abundance was measured using the vibration-rotation 1-0 P8 line of H35Cl at 3.69851 μm. The high-resolution L-band spectra were observed using the Phoenix infrared spectrometer on the Kitt Peak Mayall 4 m telescope. The average [35Cl/Fe] abundance in stars with -0.72 < [Fe/H] < 0.20 is [35Cl/Fe] = (-0.10 ± 0.15) dex. The mean difference between the [35Cl/Fe] ratios measured in our stars and chemical evolution model values is (0.16 ± 0.15) dex. The [35Cl/Ca] ratio has an offset of ˜0.35 dex above model predictions, suggesting that chemical evolution models are underproducing Cl at the high metallicity range. Abundances of C, N, O, Si, and Ca were also measured in our spectral region and are consistent with F and G dwarfs. The Cl versus O abundances from our sample match Cl abundances measured in planetary nebula and H ii regions. In one star where both H35Cl and H37Cl could be measured, a 35Cl/37Cl isotope ratio of 2.2 ± 0.4 was found, consistent with values found in the Galactic ISM and predicted chemical evolution models.

  15. Data Base Design Using Entity-Relationship Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kathi Hogshead

    1983-01-01

    The entity-relationship (ER) approach to database design is defined, and a specific example of an ER model (personnel-payroll) is examined. The requirements for converting ER models into specific database management systems are discussed. (Author/MSE)

  16. Communication about absent entities in great apes and human infants.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Manuel; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-12-01

    There is currently debate about the extent to which non-linguistic beings such as human infants and great apes are capable of absent reference. In a series of experiments we investigated the flexibility and specificity of great apes' (N=36) and 12 month-old infants' (N=40) requests for absent entities. Subjects had the choice between requesting visible objects directly and using the former location of a depleted option to request more of these now-absent entities. Importantly, we systematically varied the quality of the present and absent options. We found that great apes as well as human infants flexibly adjusted their requests for absent entities to these contextual variations and only requested absent entities when the visible option was of lower quality than the absent option. These results suggest that the most basic cognitive capacities for absent reference do not depend on language and are shared by humans and their closest living relatives.

  17. 78 FR 21603 - Proposed Reporting Entity; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Proposed Reporting Entity; Request for Comments AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards..., notice is hereby given that the Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board is seeking input on...

  18. 7 CFR 760.908 - Deceased individuals or dissolved entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... dissolved entity must be provided. (c) If a participant is now a dissolved general partnership or joint venture, all members of the general partnership or joint venture at the time of dissolution or their...

  19. 7 CFR 760.115 - Deceased individuals or dissolved entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... or is a dissolved entity if a representative, who currently has authority to enter into a contract, on behalf of the participant, signs the application for payment. (b) Legal documents showing proof...

  20. 7 CFR 760.115 - Deceased individuals or dissolved entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or is a dissolved entity if a representative, who currently has authority to enter into a contract, on behalf of the participant, signs the application for payment. (b) Legal documents showing proof...

  1. 7 CFR 760.115 - Deceased individuals or dissolved entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or is a dissolved entity if a representative, who currently has authority to enter into a contract, on behalf of the participant, signs the application for payment. (b) Legal documents showing proof...

  2. 7 CFR 760.115 - Deceased individuals or dissolved entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... or is a dissolved entity if a representative, who currently has authority to enter into a contract, on behalf of the participant, signs the application for payment. (b) Legal documents showing proof...

  3. 7 CFR 760.115 - Deceased individuals or dissolved entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or is a dissolved entity if a representative, who currently has authority to enter into a contract, on behalf of the participant, signs the application for payment. (b) Legal documents showing proof...

  4. The nanosilica hazard: another variable entity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Silica nanoparticles (SNPs) are produced on an industrial scale and are an addition to a growing number of commercial products. SNPs also have great potential for a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic applications in medicine. Contrary to the well-studied crystalline micron-sized silica, relatively little information exists on the toxicity of its amorphous and nano-size forms. Because nanoparticles possess novel properties, kinetics and unusual bioactivity, their potential biological effects may differ greatly from those of micron-size bulk materials. In this review, we summarize the physico-chemical properties of the different nano-sized silica materials that can affect their interaction with biological systems, with a specific emphasis on inhalation exposure. We discuss recent in vitro and in vivo investigations into the toxicity of nanosilica, both crystalline and amorphous. Most of the in vitro studies of SNPs report results of cellular uptake, size- and dose-dependent cytotoxicity, increased reactive oxygen species levels and pro-inflammatory stimulation. Evidence from a limited number of in vivo studies demonstrates largely reversible lung inflammation, granuloma formation and focal emphysema, with no progressive lung fibrosis. Clearly, more research with standardized materials is needed to enable comparison of experimental data for the different forms of nanosilicas and to establish which physico-chemical properties are responsible for the observed toxicity of SNPs. PMID:21126379

  5. Entity Recognition Via Multimodal Sensor Fusion With Smart Phones

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    smart phone, it will include a chipset to access a communications network as well as the ability to connect to public and private local wireless...ENTITY RECOGNITION VIA MULTIMODAL SENSOR FUSION WITH SMART PHONES THESIS John E. Nagy, Capt, USAF AFIT-ENG-MS-15-M-023 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE...subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENG-MS-15-M-023 ENTITY RECOGNITION VIA MULTIMODAL SENSOR FUSION WITH SMART PHONES THESIS

  6. Confidence Links Between Name Entities in Disparate Documents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-03

    entity/subject. For example, the Wikipedia page title for the article referring to Benjamin Franklin (the Founding Father of the United States) is...differ- ent from the page title for the article referring to Benjamin Franklin (the 19’h century religious leader). Using this infor- 60 mation...c12) United States Patent Baronet al. (54) CONFIDENCE LINKS BETWEEN NAME ENTITIES IN DISPARATE DOCUMENTS (75) Inventors : Alex Baron, Canton, MA

  7. Extra-CNS metastasis from glioblastoma: a rare clinical entity.

    PubMed

    Awan, Musaddiq; Liu, Stanley; Sahgal, Arjun; Das, Sunit; Chao, Samuel T; Chang, Eric L; Knisely, Jonathan P S; Redmond, Kristin; Sohn, Jason W; Machtay, Mitchell; Sloan, Andrew E; Mansur, David B; Rogers, Lisa R; Lo, Simon S

    2015-05-01

    Extra-CNS metastasis from glioblastoma (ECMGBM) is an emerging but little known clinical entity. We review pre-clinical and translational publications assessing the ability of GBM to spread locally and outside the CNS. Reported cases demonstrating ECMGBM are reviewed providing a summary of presentations for the entity. Special attention is placed on transmission of GBM through organ transplantation. Finally, predictions are made as to the future significance of ECMGBM, especially in the context of better outcomes in CNS GBM.

  8. A Journey in Entity Related Retrieval for TREC 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    contains about 50 million English pages for the entity track, was used. For indexing, the Lemur tool kit in Red Hat Enterprise Linux platform and for...the entity related finding Base Run with Simple Query For indexing the Clueweb09 the Lemur Tool Kit version 10 was installed, since the...ClueWeb09 collection, which was indexed using the Lemur were also retrieved. In addition, the queries were defined according to the output required

  9. Considering the health care entity C corporation conversion to tax pass-through entity status.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    The double taxation of C corporation income from operations and from the ultimate sale of its assets makes the C corporation an inefficient tax status for many health care entities. At the time of this writing, the changes in the federal tax law that are scheduled to take effect in 2013 will increase this level of double-taxation inefficiency. The owners of a C corporation practice can avoid the C corporation status tax inefficiency by converting the practice to either (1) S corporation status or (2) LLC status. The conversion of the health care C corporation to an S corporation may be accomplished without a current tax cost. However, the conversion of a health care C corporation to an LLC status can result in a current tax at both the corporation level and the shareholder level. Nonetheless, the current conversion tax cost may be less than the future tax cost (1) of operating the practice as a C corporation and incurring double taxation at what may be higher tax rates or (2) of incurring the higher tax cost (or reduced price) on the ultimate disposition of the practice assets and the attendant double taxation of the appreciation in the value of the practice assets. Since individual income tax rates on qualifying dividends from C corporations and on capital gains are currently at very low rates, this may be a good time for C corporation practice owners to consider the costs and benefits of a conversion to either S corporation status or LLC status. The practice owners should consult with their accounting, legal, and valuation advisors in order to consider all of the costs and benefits of a possible corporate tax status conversion. An estimation of both the costs and benefits of the corporate tax status conversion depends on the concluded fair market values of the medical practice, dental practice, or other health care entity assets. And, that practice asset appraisal should encompass all of the practice assets, both tangible assets and intangible assets.

  10. Carbon and nitrogen biogeochemistry in the ocean: A study using stable isotope natural abundance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rau, G. H.; Desmarais, David J.

    1985-01-01

    Determining the biogeochemical pathways traveled by carbon and nitrogen in the ocean is fundamental to the understanding of how the ocean participates in the cycling of these elements within the biosphere. Because biological production, metabolism, and respiration can significantly alter the natural abundance of C-13 and N-15, these abundances can provide important information about the nature of these biological processes and their variability in the marine environment. The research initially seeks to characterize the spatial and temporal patterns of stable isotope abundances in organic matter, and to relate these abundances to C and N biogeochemical processes within selected areas of the northeastern Pacific Ocean.

  11. Antibiotic resistance shaping multi-level population biology of bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Baquero, Fernando; Tedim, Ana P.; Coque, Teresa M.

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotics have natural functions, mostly involving cell-to-cell signaling networks. The anthropogenic production of antibiotics, and its release in the microbiosphere results in a disturbance of these networks, antibiotic resistance tending to preserve its integrity. The cost of such adaptation is the emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes, and of all genetic and cellular vehicles in which these genes are located. Selection of the combinations of the different evolutionary units (genes, integrons, transposons, plasmids, cells, communities and microbiomes, hosts) is highly asymmetrical. Each unit of selection is a self-interested entity, exploiting the higher hierarchical unit for its own benefit, but in doing so the higher hierarchical unit might acquire critical traits for its spread because of the exploitation of the lower hierarchical unit. This interactive trade-off shapes the population biology of antibiotic resistance, a composed-complex array of the independent “population biologies.” Antibiotics modify the abundance and the interactive field of each of these units. Antibiotics increase the number and evolvability of “clinical” antibiotic resistance genes, but probably also many other genes with different primary functions but with a resistance phenotype present in the environmental resistome. Antibiotics influence the abundance, modularity, and spread of integrons, transposons, and plasmids, mostly acting on structures present before the antibiotic era. Antibiotics enrich particular bacterial lineages and clones and contribute to local clonalization processes. Antibiotics amplify particular genetic exchange communities sharing antibiotic resistance genes and platforms within microbiomes. In particular human or animal hosts, the microbiomic composition might facilitate the interactions between evolutionary units involved in antibiotic resistance. The understanding of antibiotic resistance implies expanding our knowledge on multi

  12. Antibiotic resistance shaping multi-level population biology of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Baquero, Fernando; Tedim, Ana P; Coque, Teresa M

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotics have natural functions, mostly involving cell-to-cell signaling networks. The anthropogenic production of antibiotics, and its release in the microbiosphere results in a disturbance of these networks, antibiotic resistance tending to preserve its integrity. The cost of such adaptation is the emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes, and of all genetic and cellular vehicles in which these genes are located. Selection of the combinations of the different evolutionary units (genes, integrons, transposons, plasmids, cells, communities and microbiomes, hosts) is highly asymmetrical. Each unit of selection is a self-interested entity, exploiting the higher hierarchical unit for its own benefit, but in doing so the higher hierarchical unit might acquire critical traits for its spread because of the exploitation of the lower hierarchical unit. This interactive trade-off shapes the population biology of antibiotic resistance, a composed-complex array of the independent "population biologies." Antibiotics modify the abundance and the interactive field of each of these units. Antibiotics increase the number and evolvability of "clinical" antibiotic resistance genes, but probably also many other genes with different primary functions but with a resistance phenotype present in the environmental resistome. Antibiotics influence the abundance, modularity, and spread of integrons, transposons, and plasmids, mostly acting on structures present before the antibiotic era. Antibiotics enrich particular bacterial lineages and clones and contribute to local clonalization processes. Antibiotics amplify particular genetic exchange communities sharing antibiotic resistance genes and platforms within microbiomes. In particular human or animal hosts, the microbiomic composition might facilitate the interactions between evolutionary units involved in antibiotic resistance. The understanding of antibiotic resistance implies expanding our knowledge on multi

  13. Solar and stellar photospheric abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allende Prieto, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    The determination of photospheric abundances in late-type stars from spectroscopic observations is a well-established field, built on solid theoretical foundations. Improving those foundations to refine the accuracy of the inferred abundances has proven challenging, but progress has been made. In parallel, developments on instrumentation, chiefly regarding multi-object spectroscopy, have been spectacular, and a number of projects are collecting large numbers of observations for stars across the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, promising important advances in our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. After providing a brief description of the basic physics and input data involved in the analysis of stellar spectra, a review is made of the analysis steps, and the available tools to cope with large observational efforts. The paper closes with a quick overview of relevant ongoing and planned spectroscopic surveys, and highlights of recent research on photospheric abundances.

  14. Robust Abundance Estimation in Animal Abundance Surveys with Imperfect Detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surveys of animal abundance are central to the conservation and management of living natural resources. However, detection uncertainty complicates the sampling process of many species. One sampling method employed to deal with this problem is depletion (or removal) surveys in whi...

  15. The solar abundance of beryllium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, J. E.; Aller, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    The solar abundance of beryllium is deduced from high-resolution Kitt Peak observations of the 3130.43- and 3131.08-A lines of Be II interpreted by the method of spectrum synthesis. The results are in good agreement with those previously obtained by Grevesse (1968) and by Hauge and Engvold (1968) and indicate that in the photospheric layers, beryllium is depleted below the chondritic value by a factor of about two. It is found that the beryllium abundance is equal to logN(Be)/N(H) + 12 = 1.08 plus or minus 0.05.

  16. Renal Medullary Carcinoma; A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Çalışkan, Selahattin; Gökçe, Ali Murat; Gümrükçü, Gülistan; Önenerk, Mine

    2017-01-01

    Renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) is an uncommon aggressive neoplasm of the kidney. RMC is biologically aggressive with a very poor prognosis, and metastasis is seen in up to 95% of the patients at diagnosis or shortly thereafter. The common sites of metastasis are respectively lymph nodes, lungs, livers, and adrenal glands in order of frequency. The presence of poorly differentiated eosinophilic cells in a characteristic fibro-inflammatory stroma is seen in histological examination. The origin and pathogenesis of RMC are unclear. The radiographical and pathological findings suggest that RMC probably originates in the calyceal epithelium in or near the renal papillae, which could be the result of chronic ischemic damage in the renal papillae epithelium by sickled erythrocytes. Positivity of VEGF and HIF-1α supports the chronic hypoxia that may be caused in the pathogenesis of RMC. Other factors such as genetic or environmental factors are important. Although hemoglobinopathy is very common, RMC is very rare. An understanding of the molecular and genetic factors of this rare disease is important for its prevention and treatment. We herein describe an adult Turkish patient, who presented with hematuria. The diagnosis was RMC after pathological examination. PMID:28360450

  17. The birthday of a new syndrome: IgG4-related diseases constitute a clinical entity.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Motohisa; Suzuki, Chisako; Naishiro, Yasuyoshi; Shinomura, Yasuhisa; Imai, Kohzoh

    2010-07-01

    IgG4-related disease is a distinct clinical entity, whose characteristic features are the following; Serum IgG4 is prominently elevated, IgG4-positive plasma cells infiltrate in involved tissues, various mass-forming lesions with fibrosis develop in a timely and spatial manner and the response to corticosteroids is prompt and good. IgG4-related diseases mainly target two organs. One is the pancreas (autoimmune pancreatitis; AIP), and the other comprises the lacrimal and salivary glands, the clinical phenotype is Mikulicz's disease (MD). MD has long been considered a manifestation of Sjögren's syndrome (SS). However, we noticed several clinical differences in case of MD from SS; no deflection of female sex differences, mild sicca syndrome, good response to corticosteroids, no positivity of anti-SS-A/SS-B antibodies. In addition, elevated level of serum IgG4 and abundant infiltration of plasma cells expressing IgG4 were reported in MD patients. Those are common features of IgG4-related diseases. MD often coexisted with IgG4-related diseases such as AIP, retroperitoneal fibrosis, and IgG4-associated nephropathy. Based on those findings, it has been considered to recognize IgG4-related diseases including MD as a new clinical entity. The etiology of IgG4-related systemic diseases remains to be elucidated. It is necessary to accumulate and analyze larger data from patients worldwide.

  18. Entity versus incremental theories predict older adults' memory performance.

    PubMed

    Plaks, Jason E; Chasteen, Alison L

    2013-12-01

    The authors examined whether older adults' implicit theories regarding the modifiability of memory in particular (Studies 1 and 3) and abilities in general (Study 2) would predict memory performance. In Study 1, individual differences in older adults' endorsement of the "entity theory" (a belief that one's ability is fixed) or "incremental theory" (a belief that one's ability is malleable) of memory were measured using a version of the Implicit Theories Measure (Dweck, 1999). Memory performance was assessed with a free-recall task. Results indicated that the higher the endorsement of the incremental theory, the better the free recall. In Study 2, older and younger adults' theories were measured using a more general version of the Implicit Theories Measure that focused on the modifiability of abilities in general. Again, for older adults, the higher the incremental endorsement, the better the free recall. Moreover, as predicted, implicit theories did not predict younger adults' memory performance. In Study 3, participants read mock news articles reporting evidence in favor of either the entity or incremental theory. Those in the incremental condition outperformed those in the entity condition on reading span and free-recall tasks. These effects were mediated by pretask worry such that, for those in the entity condition, higher worry was associated with lower performance. Taken together, these studies suggest that variation in entity versus incremental endorsement represents a key predictor of older adults' memory performance.

  19. THE SOLAR FLARE IRON ABUNDANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, K. J. H.; Dennis, B. R. E-mail: Brian.R.Dennis@nasa.gov

    2012-03-20

    The abundance of iron is measured from emission line complexes at 6.65 keV (Fe line) and 8 keV (Fe/Ni line) in RHESSI X-ray spectra during solar flares. Spectra during long-duration flares with steady declines were selected, with an isothermal assumption and improved data analysis methods over previous work. Two spectral fitting models give comparable results, viz., an iron abundance that is lower than previous coronal values but higher than photospheric values. In the preferred method, the estimated Fe abundance is A(Fe) = 7.91 {+-} 0.10 (on a logarithmic scale, with A(H) = 12) or 2.6 {+-} 0.6 times the photospheric Fe abundance. Our estimate is based on a detailed analysis of 1898 spectra taken during 20 flares. No variation from flare to flare is indicated. This argues for a fractionation mechanism similar to quiet-Sun plasma. The new value of A(Fe) has important implications for radiation loss curves, which are estimated.

  20. Abundance and Distribution of Geographically Isolated ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWS) are important landscape elements involved in hydrologic, biogeochemical, and biological functioning. Their influence, under certain circumstances, can significantly affect other waters of the Unites States. However, there have been no data-based estimates of the abundance of GIWs at national scales in the US, frustrating efforts to properly manage the resource. We applied a distance-based floodplain and riparian zone proxy to existing data layers from the National Hydrography Dataset (1:24,000k) and applied a geospatial buffering process to National Wetlands Inventory data to quantify the abundance of connected wetlands at significant and relevant scales. Our analyses suggest GIWs are prevalent throughout the conterminous United States, with exceptional densities in portions of the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains, the Prairie Pothole Region of the Upper Midwest, and significant densities elsewhere. Indeed, over 65,000 km2 of GIWs may exist. We provide further analyses of the types, distributions, and regional extent of these systems. Lastly, we also explore additional connectivity measures associated with adjacency and relative geographic isolation to floodplains and other elements of the hydrologic landscape. Presentation at INTECOL International Wetlands Conference (Changshu, China; Sept. 2016)

  1. Actinide abundances in ordinary chondrites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagee, B.; Bernatowicz, T.J.; Podosek, F.A.; Johnson, M.L.; Burnett, D.S.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of 244Pu fission Xe, U, Th, and light REE (LREE) abundances, along with modal petrographic determinations of phosphate abundances, were carried out on equilibrated ordinary chondrites in order to define better the solar system Pu abundance and to determine the degree of variation of actinide and LREE abundances. Our data permit comparison of the directly measured Pu/ U ratio with that determined indirectly as (Pu/Nd) ?? (Nd/U) assuming that Pu behaves chemically as a LREE. Except for Guaren??a, and perhaps H chondrites in general, Pu concentrations are similar to that determined previously for St. Se??verin, although less precise because of higher trapped Xe contents. Trapped 130Xe 136Xe ratios appear to vary from meteorite to meteorite, but, relative to AVCC, all are similar in the sense of having less of the interstellar heavy Xe found in carbonaceous chondrite acid residues. The Pu/U and Pu/Nd ratios are consistent with previous data for St. Se??verin, but both tend to be slightly higher than those inferred from previous data on Angra dos Reis. Although significant variations exist, the distribution of our Th/U ratios, along with other precise isotope dilution data for ordinary chondrites, is rather symmetric about the CI chondrite value; however, actinide/(LREE) ratios are systematically lower than the CI value. Variations in actinide or LREE absolute and relative abundances are interpreted as reflecting differences in the proportions and/or compositions of more primitive components (chondrules and CAI materials?) incorporated into different regions of the ordinary chondrite parent bodies. The observed variations of Th/U, Nd/U, or Ce/U suggest that measurements of Pu/U on any single equilibrated ordinary chondrite specimen, such as St. Se??verin, should statistically be within ??20-30% of the average solar system value, although it is also clear that anomalous samples exist. ?? 1990.

  2. Familial Kleine-Levin Syndrome: A Specific Entity?

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quang Tuan Remy; Groos, Elisabeth; Leclair-Visonneau, Laurène; Monaca-Charley, Christelle; Rico, Tom; Farber, Neal; Mignot, Emmanuel; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS) is a rare, mostly sporadic disorder, characterized by intermittent episodes of hypersomnia plus cognitive and behavior disorders. Although its cause is unknown, multiplex families have been described. We contrasted the clinical and biological features of familial versus sporadic KLS. Methods: Two samples of patients with KLS from the United States and France (n = 260) were studied using clinical interviews and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotyping. A multiplex family contained two or more first- or second-degree affected relatives (familial cases). Results: Twenty-one patients from 10 multiplex families (siblings: n = 12, including two pairs of monozygotic twins; parent-child: n = 4; cousins: n = 2; uncle-nephews: n = 3) and 239 patients with sporadic KLS were identified, yielding to 4% multiplex families and 8% familial cases. The simplex and multiplex families did not differ for autoimmune, neurological, and psychiatric disorders. Age, sex ratio, ethnicity, HLA typing, karyotyping, disease course, frequency, and duration of KLS episodes did not differ between groups. Episodes were less frequent in familial versus sporadic KLS (2.3 ± 1.8/y versus 3.8 ± 3.7/y, P = 0.004). Menses triggered more frequently KLS onset in the nine girls with familial KLS (relative risk, RR = 4.12, P = 0.03), but not subsequent episodes. Familial cases had less disinhibited speech (RR = 3.44, P = 0.049), less combined hypophagia/hyperphagia (RR = 4.38, P = 0.006), more abrupt termination of episodes (RR = 1.45, P = 0.04) and less postepisode insomnia (RR = 2.16, P = 0.008). There was similar HLA DQB1 distribution in familial versus sporadic cases and no abnormal karyotypes. Conclusion: Familial KLS is mostly present in the same generation, and is clinically similar to but slightly less severe than sporadic KLS. Citation: Nguyen QT, Groos E, Leclair-Visonneau L, Monaca-Charley C, Rico T, Farber N, Mignot E, Arnulf I. Familial Kleine

  3. A controlled vocabulary for pathway entities and events.

    PubMed

    Jupe, Steve; Jassal, Bijay; Williams, Mark; Wu, Guanming

    2014-01-01

    Entities involved in pathways and the events they participate in require descriptive and unambiguous names that are often not available in the literature or elsewhere. Reactome is a manually curated open-source resource of human pathways. It is accessible via a website, available as downloads in standard reusable formats and via Representational State Transfer (REST)-ful and Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) application programming interfaces (APIs). We have devised a controlled vocabulary (CV) that creates concise, unambiguous and unique names for reactions (pathway events) and all the molecular entities they involve. The CV could be reapplied in any situation where names are used for pathway entities and events. Adoption of this CV would significantly improve naming consistency and readability, with consequent benefits for searching and data mining within and between databases. Database URL: http://www.reactome.org.

  4. A controlled vocabulary for pathway entities and events

    PubMed Central

    Jupe, Steve; Jassal, Bijay; Williams, Mark; Wu, Guanming

    2014-01-01

    Entities involved in pathways and the events they participate in require descriptive and unambiguous names that are often not available in the literature or elsewhere. Reactome is a manually curated open-source resource of human pathways. It is accessible via a website, available as downloads in standard reusable formats and via Representational State Transfer (REST)-ful and Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) application programming interfaces (APIs). We have devised a controlled vocabulary (CV) that creates concise, unambiguous and unique names for reactions (pathway events) and all the molecular entities they involve. The CV could be reapplied in any situation where names are used for pathway entities and events. Adoption of this CV would significantly improve naming consistency and readability, with consequent benefits for searching and data mining within and between databases. Database URL: http://www.reactome.org PMID:24951798

  5. Enhanced Named Entity Extraction via Error-Driven Aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Lemmond, T D; Perry, N C; Guensche, J W; Nitao, J J; Glaser, R E; Kidwell, P; Hanley, W G

    2010-02-22

    Despite recent advances in named entity extraction technologies, state-of-the-art extraction tools achieve insufficient accuracy rates for practical use in many operational settings. However, they are not generally prone to the same types of error, suggesting that substantial improvements may be achieved via appropriate combinations of existing tools, provided their behavior can be accurately characterized and quantified. In this paper, we present an inference methodology for the aggregation of named entity extraction technologies that is founded upon a black-box analysis of their respective error processes. This method has been shown to produce statistically significant improvements in extraction relative to standard performance metrics and to mitigate the weak performance of entity extractors operating under suboptimal conditions. Moreover, this approach provides a framework for quantifying uncertainty and has demonstrated the ability to reconstruct the truth when majority voting fails.

  6. UMass at TREC WEB 2014: Entity Query Feature Expansion using Knowledge Base Links

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    task on the category A subset and demonstrate the benefit of entity-centric approaches even for non-entity queries like “dark chocolate health benefits...category A subset and demonstrate the benefit of entity-centric approaches even for non-entity queries like ???dark chocolate health benefits???. 15

  7. 22 CFR 96.7 - Authorities and responsibilities of an accrediting entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... accrediting entity. 96.7 Section 96.7 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES..., Designation, and Duties of Accrediting Entities § 96.7 Authorities and responsibilities of an accrediting entity. (a) An accrediting entity may be authorized by the Secretary to perform some or all of...

  8. Of substance: the nature of language effects on entity construal.

    PubMed

    Li, Peggy; Dunham, Yarrow; Carey, Susan

    2009-06-01

    Shown an entity (e.g., a plastic whisk) labeled by a novel noun in neutral syntax, speakers of Japanese, a classifier language, are more likely to assume the noun refers to the substance (plastic) than are speakers of English, a count/mass language, who are instead more likely to assume it refers to the object kind [whisk; Imai, M., & Gentner, D. (1997). A cross-linguistic study of early word meaning: Universal ontology and linguistic influence. Cognition, 62, 169-200]. Five experiments replicated this language type effect on entity construal, extended it to quite different stimuli from those studied before, and extended it to a comparison between Mandarin speakers and English speakers. A sixth experiment, which did not involve interpreting the meaning of a noun or a pronoun that stands for a noun, failed to find any effect of language type on entity construal. Thus, the overall pattern of findings supports a non-Whorfian, language on language account, according to which sensitivity to lexical statistics in a count/mass language leads adults to assign a novel noun in neutral syntax the status of a count noun, influencing construal of ambiguous entities. The experiments also document and explore cross-linguistically universal factors that influence entity construal, and favor Prasada's [Prasada, S. (1999). Names for things and stuff: An Aristotelian perspective. In R. Jackendoff, P. Bloom, & K. Wynn (Eds.), Language, logic, and concepts (pp. 119-146). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press] hypothesis that features indicating non-accidentalness of an entity's form lead participants to a construal of object kind rather than substance kind. Finally, the experiments document the age at which the language type effect emerges in lexical projection. The details of the developmental pattern are consistent with the lexical statistics hypothesis, along with a universal increase in sensitivity to material kind.

  9. Determining similarity of scientific entities in annotation datasets.

    PubMed

    Palma, Guillermo; Vidal, Maria-Esther; Haag, Eric; Raschid, Louiqa; Thor, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Linked Open Data initiatives have made available a diversity of scientific collections where scientists have annotated entities in the datasets with controlled vocabulary terms from ontologies. Annotations encode scientific knowledge, which is captured in annotation datasets. Determining relatedness between annotated entities becomes a building block for pattern mining, e.g. identifying drug-drug relationships may depend on the similarity of the targets that interact with each drug. A diversity of similarity measures has been proposed in the literature to compute relatedness between a pair of entities. Each measure exploits some knowledge including the name, function, relationships with other entities, taxonomic neighborhood and semantic knowledge. We propose a novel general-purpose annotation similarity measure called 'AnnSim' that measures the relatedness between two entities based on the similarity of their annotations. We model AnnSim as a 1-1 maximum weight bipartite match and exploit properties of existing solvers to provide an efficient solution. We empirically study the performance of AnnSim on real-world datasets of drugs and disease associations from clinical trials and relationships between drugs and (genomic) targets. Using baselines that include a variety of measures, we identify where AnnSim can provide a deeper understanding of the semantics underlying the relatedness of a pair of entities or where it could lead to predicting new links or identifying potential novel patterns. Although AnnSim does not exploit knowledge or properties of a particular domain, its performance compares well with a variety of state-of-the-art domain-specific measures. Database URL: http://www.yeastgenome.org/

  10. Determining similarity of scientific entities in annotation datasets

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Guillermo; Vidal, Maria-Esther; Haag, Eric; Raschid, Louiqa; Thor, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Linked Open Data initiatives have made available a diversity of scientific collections where scientists have annotated entities in the datasets with controlled vocabulary terms from ontologies. Annotations encode scientific knowledge, which is captured in annotation datasets. Determining relatedness between annotated entities becomes a building block for pattern mining, e.g. identifying drug–drug relationships may depend on the similarity of the targets that interact with each drug. A diversity of similarity measures has been proposed in the literature to compute relatedness between a pair of entities. Each measure exploits some knowledge including the name, function, relationships with other entities, taxonomic neighborhood and semantic knowledge. We propose a novel general-purpose annotation similarity measure called ‘AnnSim’ that measures the relatedness between two entities based on the similarity of their annotations. We model AnnSim as a 1–1 maximum weight bipartite match and exploit properties of existing solvers to provide an efficient solution. We empirically study the performance of AnnSim on real-world datasets of drugs and disease associations from clinical trials and relationships between drugs and (genomic) targets. Using baselines that include a variety of measures, we identify where AnnSim can provide a deeper understanding of the semantics underlying the relatedness of a pair of entities or where it could lead to predicting new links or identifying potential novel patterns. Although AnnSim does not exploit knowledge or properties of a particular domain, its performance compares well with a variety of state-of-the-art domain-specific measures. Database URL: http://www.yeastgenome.org/ PMID:25725057

  11. 15 CFR 744.11 - License requirements that apply to entities acting contrary to the national security or foreign...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... section by adding an entity to the Entity List (Supp. No. 4 to this part) with a reference to this section and by stating on the Entity List the license requirements and license application review policy that apply to that entity. BIS may remove an entity from the Entity List if it is no longer engaged in...

  12. Grand challenges for biological engineering.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jeong-Yeol; Riley, Mark R

    2009-09-22

    Biological engineering will play a significant role in solving many of the world's problems in medicine, agriculture, and the environment. Recently the U.S. National Academy of Engineering (NAE) released a document "Grand Challenges in Engineering," covering broad realms of human concern from sustainability, health, vulnerability and the joy of living. Biological engineers, having tools and techniques at the interface between living and non-living entities, will play a prominent role in forging a better future. The 2010 Institute of Biological Engineering (IBE) conference in Cambridge, MA, USA will address, in part, the roles of biological engineering in solving the challenges presented by the NAE. This letter presents a brief outline of how biological engineers are working to solve these large scale and integrated problems of our society.

  13. The sky entities as represented in African literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urama, Evelyn N.

    2011-06-01

    Astronomical observations used by the ancient people of Africa were developed out of the people's desire to have concrete manifestations of their gods and religious beliefs as well as for time-keeping - day, night and calendar for agricultural and festive seasons. The sky entities (the solar and stellar systems) observed become part of the lives and events here on Earth and so are also part of the context of African literature. This paper examines the ways in which different African peoples have reflected on the role of the sky entities in their literature.

  14. Biological effects of minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Guthrie, G.D. Jr.

    1991-09-01

    In general, clay materials exhibit a range of biological activities, from apparently inactive or slightly active, such as hematite, to highly fibrogenic and carcinogenic, such as fibrous brucite (nemalite). The zeolites also exhibit such as range, with some mordenite being slightly active and erionite being highly active; however, erionite is the only zeolite that has been studied extensively. The diversity of mineral species holds great potential for probing these mechanisms, especially when mineralogical data are integrated with biological data. Unfortunately, many of the studies reporting data on the biological effects of clays and zeolites fail to report detailed mineralogical information; hence, it is difficult at present to interpret the biological activities of minerals in terms of their physical and chemical properties. Important mineralogical data that are only rarely considered in biological research include exact mineralogy of the specimen (i.e., identification and abundance of contaminants), physical and chemical properties of minerals, and surface properties of minerals. 141 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  15. Element abundances at high redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, David M.; Welty, D. E.; York, D. G.

    1989-01-01

    Abundances of Si(+), S(+), Cr(+), Mn(+), Fe(_), and Zn(+) are considered for two absorption-line systems in the spectrum of the QSO PKS 0528 - 250. Zinc and sulfur are underabundant, relative to H, by a factor of 10 compared to their solar and Galactic interstellar abundances. The silicon-, chromium-, iron-, and nickel-to-hydrogen ratios are less than the solar values and comparable to the local interstellar ratios. A straightforward interpretation is that nucleosynthesis in these high-redshift systems has led to only about one-tenth as much heavy production as in the gas clouds around the sun, and that the amount of the observed underabundances attributable to grain depletion is small. The dust-to-gas ratio in these clouds is less than 8 percent of the Galactic value.

  16. Coronal abundances and their variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saba, Julia L. R.

    1994-01-01

    This contract supports the investigation of elemental abundances in the solar corona, principally through analysis of high-resolution software X-ray spectra from the Flat Crystal Spectrometer on NASA's Solar Maximum Mission. The goals of the study are a characterization of the mean values of relative abundances of elements accessible in the FCS data, and information on the extent and circumstances of their variability. This report is a summation of the data analysis and reporting activities which occurred since the last report, submitted two months early, in April 1994, to facilitate evaluation of the first year's progress for contract renewal. Hence this report covers the period 15 April 1994 - 15 December 1994. A list of publications resulting from this research is included.

  17. The CALIFA survey: Oxygen abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Aff001

    We present here the last results we obtained on the spatial resolved analysis of the ionized gas of disk-dominated galaxies based on CALIFA data. CALIFA is an ongoing IFS survey of galaxies in the Local Univese (0.005 < z < 0.03) that has already obtained spectroscopic information up to ~2.5r e with a spatial resolution better than ~1 kpc for a total number of an statiscal sample of galaxies of different morphological types, covering the CM-diagram up to Mr<-18 mag. With nearly 2000 spectra obtained for each galaxy, CALIFA offer one of the best IFU data to study the starformation histories and chemical enrichment of galaxies. In this article we focus on the main results based on the analysis of the oxygen abundances based on the study of ionized gas in H ii regions and individual spaxels, and their relations with the global properties of galaxies. In summary we have found that: (1) the -Z relation does not present a secondary relation with the star-formation rate, when the abundance is measured at the effective radius; (2) the oxygen abundance present a strong correlation with the stellar surface density (Σ-Z relation); (3) the oxygen abundance profiles present three well defined regimes, (a) an overall negative radial gradient, between 0.5-2 r e , with a characteristic slope of α O/H ~-0.1 dex/r e , (b) an universal flatenning beyond >2r e and (c) an inner drop at <0.5r e which presence depends on the mass. All these results indicates that disk-galaxies present an overall inside-out growth, although with clear deviations from this simple scenario.

  18. The solar abundance of thulium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, J. E.; Aller, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    Consideration of one relatively unblended line of the solar spectrum, namely, the 3131.258-A line of Tm II, which yields a thulium abundance of 0.80 plus or minus 0.10 with the Corliss and Bozman (1962) f-value. The uncertainty of this figure is discussed in conjunction with the contradictory findings of some other investigators. The need for further detailed study of the lanthanides by the method of spectrum synthesis is pointed out.

  19. 37 CFR 1.27 - Definition of small entities and establishing status as a small entity to permit payment of small...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... organization; and (ii) Is either: (A) A university or other institution of higher education located in any... entitlement to pay small entity fees. Prior to submitting an assertion of entitlement to small entity status... pay fees as a small entity, shall be considered as a fraud practiced or attempted on the Office....

  20. 37 CFR 1.27 - Definition of small entities and establishing status as a small entity to permit payment of small...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (26 U.S.C. 501(a)); (C) Any nonprofit scientific or educational organization qualified under a... as to prohibit claiming small entity status. (ii) For small business concerns and nonprofit... small entity status is needed when issue and maintenance fees are due. Once status as a small entity...

  1. Chlorine Abundances in Martian Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, D.D.; Garrison, D.H.; Park, J.

    2009-01-01

    Chlorine measurements made in martian surface rocks by robotic spacecraft typically give Chlorine (Cl) abundances of approximately 0.1-0.8%. In contrast, Cl abundances in martian meteorites appear lower, although data is limited, and martian nakhlites were also subjected to Cl contamination by Mars surface brines. Chlorine abundances reported by one lab for whole rock (WR) samples of Shergotty, ALH77005, and EET79001 range 108-14 ppm, whereas Cl in nakhlites range 73-1900 ppm. Measurements of Cl in various martian weathering phases of nakhlites varied 0.04-4.7% and reveal significant concentration of Cl by martian brines Martian meteorites contain much lower Chlorine than those measured in martian surface rocks and give further confirmation that Cl in these surface rocks was introduced by brines and weathering. It has been argued that Cl is twice as effective as water in lowering the melting point and promoting melting at shallower martian depths, and that significant Cl in the shergottite source region would negate any need for significant water. However, this conclusion was based on experiments that utilized Cl concentrations more analogous to martian surface rocks than to shergottite meteorites, and may not be applicable to shergottites.

  2. Columbia Basin Water Transactions Program (Water Entity); National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, Annual Report 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    National Fish and Wildlife Foundation

    2004-02-01

    Launched in 2002, the Columbia Basin Water Transactions Program (CBWTP) is anticipated to be a five-year effort to test new strategies for enhancing tributary flows. The premise of the CBWTP is that water can most readily be made available for instream flows not by attempting to regulate senior water users but, instead, by acquiring water rights from willing sellers and transferring those rights to instream flows within the prior appropriation framework ('first in time, first in right'). The primary goals for this water initiative included: (1) To implement Action 151 of the NOAA Fisheries 2000 Biological Opinion on the Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System. (2) To implement Provision A.8 of the Council's 2000 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program related to securing water for instream flows. (3) To integrate components of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's Program and Watershed Assessment process with the NOAA Fisheries 2000 Biological Opinion. (4) To ensure actions taken under the program would be effective, fiscally efficient, and biologically beneficial to fish and wildlife in the region. In the spring of 2002, BPA and a group of water experts selected ten local entities in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and western Montana with a demonstrated potential to innovate and implement tributary flow improvements. We also selected the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation (NFWF) to serve as the regional entity for this initiative. BPA then set up the funding agreement and scope of work to establish what is now known as the Columbia Basin Water Transactions Program. In FY 2003, BPA provided over $1.5 million in funding to the CBWTP and approved 33 water transactions. In FY 2004, BPA will provide up to $4 million to the project to enhance habitat. Thanks to the dedicated efforts of partners throughout the Basin, the CBWTP is off to a strong start in improving tributary flows in key areas across the region.

  3. Business Entity Selection: Why It Matters to Healthcare Practitioners. Part II--Corporations, Limited Liability Companies, and Professional Entities.

    PubMed

    Nithman, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    The Bureau of Labor statistics indicates only a 50% four-year survivability rate among businesses classified as "education and health services." Gaining knowledge of IRS business entities can result in cost savings, operational efficiency, reduced liability, and enhanced sustainability. Each entity has unique disadvantages, depending on size, diversity of ownership, desire to expand, and profitability. Business structures should be compatible with organizational mission or vision statements, services and products, and professional codes of ethics. Healthcare reform will require greater business acumen. We have an ethical duty to disseminate and acquire the knowledge to properly establish and manage healthcare practices to ensure sustainable services that protect and serve the community.

  4. Elemental Abundances from Very Low Abundance HII Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skillman, Evan D.; Terlevich, Roberto J.; Terlevich, Elena

    1992-12-01

    In 1987 we initiated a program to mitigate the deficiency of known low metallicity galaxies. Following our discoveries of very low abundance H II regions in nearby dwarf galaxies (Skillman et al. 1988, 1989a,b), we used the IDS on the INT to to collect spectra of dwarf galaxies in the Second Byurakan Survey (SBS) of UV excess galaxies. Our survey of over 40 SBS galaxies was completed in January 1990 and we have identified roughly one dozen very low metallicity H II galaxies. Now, with a significant sample of these galaxies, several observational programs are possible; foremost of these is the measurement of the primordial helium abundance (eg., Pagel et al. 1992). We report here on observations from March 1991 and 1992 using the ISIS spectrograph on the WHT to obtain very high quality spectra of 8 of these newly discovered metal-poor galaxies. The ISIS double spectrograph allows simultaneous observations of the blue (3600 - 5100 Angstroms) and red (6300 - 6800 Angstroms). Thus, He, N, O, Ne and S abundances can be derived with relatively small observational uncertainties. We compare our new observations with those in the literature. Our preliminary analysis indicates a slightly larger scatter in He/H at low O/H than had been seen previously. The small scatter may have been due simply to the paucity of observations at low metallicity. References: Pagel, B.E.J., Simonson, E.A., Terlevich, R.J., & Edmunds, M.G. 1992, MNRAS, 255, 325 Skillman, E.D., Kennicutt, R.C., & Hodge, P.W. 1989a, ApJ, 347, 875 Skillman, E.D., Melnick, J., Terlevich, R., & Moles, M. 1988, A&A, 196, 31 Skillman, E.D., Terlevich, R., & Melnick, J. 1989b, MNRAS, 240, 563

  5. The Abundance of Interstellar Fluorine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauroesch, James T.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this program was to obtain FUSE observations of the interstellar absorption lines of F I at 951 and 954 Angstroms to derive the abundance of fluorine toward the star HD 164816. The nucleosynthetic source(s) of fluorine are still a matter of debate - the present day abundance of fluorine can potentially constrain models for pulsationally driven dredge-up in asymptotic giant branch stars. An accurate measure for the depletion behavior of fluorine will determine whether it may be detectable in QSO absorption line systems - an unambiguous detection of fluorine at suitably high redshifts would provide the best evidence to date for the neutrino process in massive stars. Furthermore, due to its extreme reactivity, measurement of the gas-phase interstellar fluorine abundance is important for models of grain chemistry. Despite the importance of measuring the interstellar fluorine abundance, at the time of our proposal only one previous detection has been made due to the low relative abundance of fluorine, the lack of lines outside the far-UV, and the blending of the available F I transitions with lines of Hz. The star HD 164816 is associated with the Lagoon nebula (M8), and at a distance of approximately 1.5 kpc probes both distant and local gas. Beginning April 8th, 2004 FUSE FP-Split observations of the star HD 164816 were obtained for this program. This data became available in the FUSE data archive May 21, 2004, and these observations were then downloaded and we began our analysis. Our analysis procedure has involved (1) fitting stellar models to the FUSE spectra, (2) using the multiple lines of Hz and N I at other wavelengths in the FUSE bandpass to derive column densities for the lines of H2 and N I which are blended with the F I features at 951 and 954 angstroms (3) the measurement of the column densities of F I and the species O I and C1 I which are important species for the dis-entangling of dust and nucleosynthetic effects. As discussed in

  6. Entity Resolution Workflow Installation Process and User Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    dependencies (e.g., City University of New York’s [CUNY] Entity Extractor, Global Graph) on a Hadoop Cluster. Common installation issues are addressed and...9 5.2 Configure Hadoop Data Node(s...12 5.3 Test Hadoop Cluster, Hadoop File System (HDFS), and ERW Components via PIG Scripts

  7. 2 CFR 25.330 - Foreign public entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Foreign public entity. 25.330 Section 25.330 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Reserved UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER...

  8. 14 CFR 2-2 - Basis of allocation between entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... 2-2 Section Sec. 2-2 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-2 Basis of allocation between entities. (a) The... prescribed by this system of accounts and reports, and (2) with respect to separate ventures, in...

  9. 2 CFR 25.330 - Foreign public entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Foreign public entity. 25.330 Section 25.330 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS PRE-AWARD RESPONSIBILITIES...

  10. 2 CFR 25.330 - Foreign public entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Foreign public entity. 25.330 Section 25.330 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS PRE-AWARD RESPONSIBILITIES...

  11. 27 CFR 479.70 - Certain government entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certain government entities. 479.70 Section 479.70 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE...

  12. 27 CFR 479.90 - Certain government entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Certain government entities. 479.90 Section 479.90 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES,...

  13. 27 CFR 479.70 - Certain government entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain government entities. 479.70 Section 479.70 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE...

  14. 27 CFR 479.70 - Certain government entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Certain government entities. 479.70 Section 479.70 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES,...

  15. 27 CFR 479.70 - Certain government entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Certain government entities. 479.70 Section 479.70 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES,...

  16. 27 CFR 479.90 - Certain government entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certain government entities. 479.90 Section 479.90 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE...

  17. 27 CFR 479.90 - Certain government entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Certain government entities. 479.90 Section 479.90 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES,...

  18. 27 CFR 479.90 - Certain government entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certain government entities. 479.90 Section 479.90 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE...

  19. 27 CFR 479.70 - Certain government entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certain government entities. 479.70 Section 479.70 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE...

  20. 27 CFR 479.90 - Certain government entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain government entities. 479.90 Section 479.90 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE...

  1. 17 CFR 229.1107 - (Item 1107) Issuing entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Asset-Backed Securities (Regulation AB) § 229...(a)(2) of this Regulation AB, depositor, issuing entity, originator contemplated by Item 1110 of this Regulation AB, underwriter, or any affiliate of the foregoing, separately identify the type and amount...

  2. 17 CFR 229.1107 - (Item 1107) Issuing entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Asset-Backed Securities (Regulation AB) § 229...(a)(2) of this Regulation AB, depositor, issuing entity, originator contemplated by Item 1110 of this Regulation AB, underwriter, or any affiliate of the foregoing, separately identify the type and amount...

  3. 17 CFR 229.1107 - (Item 1107) Issuing entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Asset-Backed Securities (Regulation AB) § 229...(a)(2) of this Regulation AB, depositor, issuing entity, originator contemplated by Item 1110 of this Regulation AB, underwriter, or any affiliate of the foregoing, separately identify the type and amount...

  4. 17 CFR 229.1107 - (Item 1107) Issuing entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Asset-Backed Securities (Regulation AB) § 229...(a)(2) of this Regulation AB, depositor, issuing entity, originator contemplated by Item 1110 of this Regulation AB, underwriter, or any affiliate of the foregoing, separately identify the type and amount...

  5. 17 CFR 229.1107 - (Item 1107) Issuing entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Asset-Backed Securities (Regulation AB) § 229...(a)(2) of this Regulation AB, depositor, issuing entity, originator contemplated by Item 1110 of this Regulation AB, underwriter, or any affiliate of the foregoing, separately identify the type and amount...

  6. 16 CFR 801.50 - Formation of unincorporated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Formation of unincorporated entities. 801.50 Section 801.50 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES § 801.50...

  7. 16 CFR 801.50 - Formation of unincorporated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Formation of unincorporated entities. 801.50 Section 801.50 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES § 801.50...

  8. 16 CFR 801.50 - Formation of unincorporated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Formation of unincorporated entities. 801.50 Section 801.50 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES § 801.50...

  9. 16 CFR 801.50 - Formation of unincorporated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Formation of unincorporated entities. 801.50 Section 801.50 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES § 801.50...

  10. 16 CFR 801.50 - Formation of unincorporated entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Formation of unincorporated entities. 801.50 Section 801.50 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES § 801.50...

  11. 2 CFR 25.330 - Foreign public entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Foreign public entity. 25.330 Section 25.330 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Pre-award responsibilities...

  12. Detecting Underlying Stance Adopted When Human Construe Behavior of Entities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terada, Kazunori; Ono, Kouhei; Ito, Akira

    Whether or not humans can construe the behaviors of entities depends on their psychological stance. The philosopher Dennett proposed human cognitive strategies (three stances) in which humans construe the behavior of other animated objects, including other humans, artifacts, and physical phenomena:‘intentional’, ‘design’ and ‘physical’ stances. Detecting the psychological stance taken toward entities is difficult, because such mental state attribution is a subjective cognitive process and hard to measure. In the present study, we proposed a novel method for detecting underlying stance adopted when human construe behavior of entities. In our method the subject was asked to select the most suitable action sequence shown in three movies each of which representing Dennett’s three stances. To valid our method we have conducted an experiment in which the subjects were presented thirty short videos and asked to compare them to the three movies. The result indicated that the subjects did not focused on prior knowledge about the entity but could focused on motion characteristics per se, owing to simple and typical motion of an abstract shaped object.

  13. 7 CFR 1450.203 - Eligible persons and legal entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible persons and legal entities. 1450.203 Section 1450.203 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE...

  14. 7 CFR 1450.203 - Eligible persons and legal entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible persons and legal entities. 1450.203 Section 1450.203 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE...

  15. 7 CFR 1450.203 - Eligible persons and legal entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible persons and legal entities. 1450.203 Section 1450.203 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE...

  16. 7 CFR 1450.203 - Eligible persons and legal entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible persons and legal entities. 1450.203 Section 1450.203 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE...

  17. 18 CFR 39.8 - Delegation to a Regional Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Delegation to a Regional Entity. 39.8 Section 39.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT RULES CONCERNING CERTIFICATION...

  18. Vulvodynia: a case series of a poorly recognized entity.

    PubMed

    Patsatsi, A; Vavilis, D; Theodoridis, T D; Kellartzis, D; Sotiriadis, D; Tarlatzis, B C

    2012-01-01

    Vulvodynia remains a poorly recognized entity with unclear pathogenesis. In a case series of six patients with vulvodynia over a five-year period in a tertiary university hospital, we describe the clinical features, the diagnostic procedures, the impact on each patient's emotional status and discuss the necessity and efficacy of the chosen treatment options in accordance with the current therapeutic guidelines.

  19. 17 CFR 202.8 - Small entity compliance guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Small entity compliance guides. 202.8 Section 202.8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION INFORMAL AND...: Small Business and the SEC. 1 1 These items are also available on the Securities and Exchange...

  20. 17 CFR 202.8 - Small entity compliance guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Small entity compliance guides. 202.8 Section 202.8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION INFORMAL AND...: Small Business and the SEC. 1 1 These items are also available on the Securities and Exchange...

  1. 76 FR 66181 - Disregarded Entities; Excise Taxes and Employment Taxes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 301 RIN 1545-BH90 Disregarded Entities; Excise Taxes and Employment Taxes AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final regulations and removal of... and excise taxes. These regulations also make conforming changes to the tax liability rule...

  2. 22 CFR 140.6 - Foreign government entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... within the group of key individuals of an entity, the agency providing the assistance shall consult with... regarding who should be included within the group of key individuals, the agency may request that the... allegations that a key individual who is a senior government official of the host nation has been convicted...

  3. 22 CFR 140.6 - Foreign government entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... within the group of key individuals of an entity, the agency providing the assistance shall consult with... regarding who should be included within the group of key individuals, the agency may request that the... allegations that a key individual who is a senior government official of the host nation has been convicted...

  4. 47 CFR 73.5007 - Designated entity provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designated entity provisions. 73.5007 Section 73.5007 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Procedures for Competitive Bidding and for Applications for Noncommercial Educational Broadcast Stations on Non-Reserved...

  5. 78 FR 59219 - Stress Testing of Regulated Entities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1238 RIN 2590-AA47 Stress Testing of Regulated Entities AGENCY: Federal Housing... than $10 billion to conduct annual stress tests to determine whether the companies have the capital..., to conduct annual stress tests to determine whether the companies have the capital necessary...

  6. 22 CFR 140.6 - Foreign government entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... within the group of key individuals of an entity, the agency providing the assistance shall consult with... regarding who should be included within the group of key individuals, the agency may request that the... allegations that a key individual who is a senior government official of the host nation has been convicted...

  7. 22 CFR 140.6 - Foreign government entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... within the group of key individuals of an entity, the agency providing the assistance shall consult with... regarding who should be included within the group of key individuals, the agency may request that the... allegations that a key individual who is a senior government official of the host nation has been convicted...

  8. Instructional Transaction Theory: Knowledge Relationships among Processes, Entities, and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, M. David; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of instructional transaction theory focuses on knowledge representation in an automated instructional design expert system. A knowledge structure called PEA-Net (processes, entities, and activities) is explained; the refrigeration process is used as an example; text resources and graphic resources are described; and simulations are…

  9. 15 CFR Supplement No. 4 to Part 744 - Entity List

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Entity List No. Supplement No. 4 to Part 744 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY: END-USER AND END-USE BASED Pt. 744, Supp....

  10. 15 CFR Supplement No. 4 to Part 744 - Entity List

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Entity List No. Supplement No. 4 to Part 744 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY: END-USER AND END-USE BASED Pt. 744, Supp....

  11. 15 CFR Supplement No. 4 to Part 744 - Entity List

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Entity List No. Supplement No. 4 to Part 744 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY: END-USER AND END-USE BASED Pt. 744, Supp....

  12. 7 CFR 1486.202 - Are there any ineligible entities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Are there any ineligible entities? 1486.202 Section 1486.202 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS EMERGING MARKETS...

  13. 42 CFR 410.144 - Quality standards for deemed entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.144 Quality standards for deemed entities. An... policy that affirms education as an integral component of diabetes care. (iv) Includes in its...

  14. 42 CFR 410.144 - Quality standards for deemed entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.144 Quality standards for deemed entities. An... policy that affirms education as an integral component of diabetes care. (iv) Includes in its...

  15. 42 CFR 410.144 - Quality standards for deemed entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.144 Quality standards for deemed entities. An... policy that affirms education as an integral component of diabetes care. (iv) Includes in its...

  16. 42 CFR 410.144 - Quality standards for deemed entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.144 Quality standards for deemed entities. An... policy that affirms education as an integral component of diabetes care. (iv) Includes in its...

  17. 75 FR 67282 - Provisions Common to Registered Entities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 40 RIN 3038-AD07 Provisions Common to Registered Entities AGENCY: Commodity Futures... Commission (``Commission'' or ``CFTC'') is proposing rules to implement new statutory provisions enacted... currently is inconsistent with certain provisions of Section 745. In addition, since, as noted, the...

  18. 76 FR 44776 - Provisions Common to Registered Entities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... Provisions Common to Registered Entities AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission. ACTION: Final Rule... certain statutory provisions of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (``Dodd... certain statutory provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act and to amend existing regulations governing...

  19. GASB's New Standard on Reporting Entity for School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmer, W. Gary

    1991-01-01

    Explains the impact on school district financial reporting of the Governmental Accounting Standards Board Statement 14, "The Financial Reporting Entity." One of Statement 14's objectives is for financial report users to be able to distinguish between the primary government and its component units. (MLF)

  20. 42 CFR 410.144 - Quality standards for deemed entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training and Diabetes Outcome Measurements § 410.144 Quality standards for deemed entities. An... policy that affirms education as an integral component of diabetes care. (iv) Includes in its...

  1. Amelogenesis imperfecta and localised aggressive periodontitis: A rare clinical entity.

    PubMed

    Gundannavar, Gayatri; Rosh, Radhika M; Chandrasekaran, Shoba; Hussain, Ahad M

    2013-01-01

    This case report presents two female patients whose chief complaint was discoloration of teeth. On careful clinical examination it was found that the patients had features of amelogenesis imperfecta and localised aggressive periodontitis. This article will give an insight of clinical and radiographic features of amelogenesis imperfecta with localised aggressive periodontitis, which is a rare clinical entity.

  2. 15 CFR Supplement No. 4 to Part 744 - Entity List

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Beijing Institute of Structure and Environmental Engineering, a.k.a., Beijing Institute of Strength and.../00 66 FR 50090, 10/01/01 69 FR 56694, 09/22/04. The following Department of Atomic Energy entities:—Bhabha Atomic Research Center (BARC); —Indira Gandhi Atomic Research Center (IGCAR); —Indian Rare...

  3. 15 CFR Supplement No. 4 to Part 744 - Entity List

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Corp First Academy 12th Research Institute 51 Yong Ding Road, Beijing Beijing Institute of Structure.... The following Department of Atomic Energy entities:—Bhabha Atomic Research Center (BARC); —Indira Gandhi Atomic Research Center (IGCAR); —Indian Rare Earths; —Nuclear reactors (including power...

  4. 7 CFR 1413.113 - Deceased individuals or dissolved entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... be made for an eligible application on behalf of an eligible producer who is now a deceased individual or is a dissolved entity if a representative who currently has authority to enter into a contract on behalf of the producer signs the application for payment. (b) Legal documents showing proof...

  5. 7 CFR 1413.113 - Deceased individuals or dissolved entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... be made for an eligible application on behalf of an eligible producer who is now a deceased individual or is a dissolved entity if a representative who currently has authority to enter into a contract on behalf of the producer signs the application for payment. (b) Legal documents showing proof...

  6. 7 CFR 1413.113 - Deceased individuals or dissolved entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... be made for an eligible application on behalf of an eligible producer who is now a deceased individual or is a dissolved entity if a representative who currently has authority to enter into a contract on behalf of the producer signs the application for payment. (b) Legal documents showing proof...

  7. 7 CFR 1413.113 - Deceased individuals or dissolved entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... be made for an eligible application on behalf of an eligible producer who is now a deceased individual or is a dissolved entity if a representative who currently has authority to enter into a contract on behalf of the producer signs the application for payment. (b) Legal documents showing proof...

  8. Integrating Real World Entities into an Academic Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompkins, Terrance; Schlesinger, Marc

    2010-01-01

    This research will demonstrate how an experiential learning practicum can be successfully implemented into an academic curriculum, using Drexel University's (Philadelphia, PA) award-winning student-run record label, MAD Dragon Records, as a case study. It will describe the components necessary to implement and operate a real-world entity within…

  9. Intelligent Entity Behavior Within Synthetic Environments. Chapter 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruk, R. V.; Howells, P. B.; Siksik, D. N.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes some elements in the development of realistic performance and behavior in the synthetic entities (players) which support Modeling and Simulation (M&S) applications, particularly military training. Modern human-in-the-loop (virtual) training systems incorporate sophisticated synthetic environments, which provide: 1. The operational environment, including, for example, terrain databases; 2. Physical entity parameters which define performance in engineered systems, such as aircraft aerodynamics; 3. Platform/system characteristics such as acoustic, IR and radar signatures; 4. Behavioral entity parameters which define interactive performance, including knowledge/reasoning about terrain, tactics; and, 5. Doctrine, which combines knowledge and tactics into behavior rule sets. The resolution and fidelity of these model/database elements can vary substantially, but as synthetic environments are designed to be compose able, attributes may easily be added (e.g., adding a new radar to an aircraft) or enhanced (e.g. Amending or replacing missile seeker head/ Electronic Counter Measures (ECM) models to improve the realism of their interaction). To a human in the loop with synthetic entities, their observed veridicality is assessed via engagement responses (e.g. effect of countermeasures upon a closing missile), as seen on systems displays, and visual (image) behavior. The realism of visual models in a simulation (level of detail as well as motion fidelity) remains a challenge in realistic articulation of elements such as vehicle antennae and turrets, or, with human figures; posture, joint articulation, response to uneven ground. Currently the adequacy of visual representation is more dependant upon the quality and resolution of the physical models driving those entities than graphics processing power per Se. Synthetic entities in M&S applications traditionally have represented engineered systems (e.g. aircraft) with human-in-the-loop performance

  10. Abundance measurements in stellar environments

    SciTech Connect

    Leone, F.

    2014-05-09

    Most of what we know about stars, and systems of stars, is derived from the analysis of their electromagnetic radiation. This lesson is an attempt to describe to Physicists, without any Astrophysical background, the framework to understand the present status of abundance determination in stellar environments and its limit. These notes are dedicated to the recently passed, November 21, 2013, Prof. Dimitri Mihalas who spent his life confuting the 19th century positivist philosopher Auguste Comte who stated that we shall not at all be able to determine the chemical composition of stars.

  11. Abundance measurements in stellar environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, F.

    2014-05-01

    Most of what we know about stars, and systems of stars, is derived from the analysis of their electromagnetic radiation. This lesson is an attempt to describe to Physicists, without any Astrophysical background, the framework to understand the present status of abundance determination in stellar environments and its limit. These notes are dedicated to the recently passed, November 21, 2013, Prof. Dimitri Mihalas who spent his life confuting the 19th century positivist philosopher Auguste Comte who stated that we shall not at all be able to determine the chemical composition of stars.

  12. The solar abundance of Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grevesse, N.

    2009-07-01

    With Martin Asplund (Max Planck Institute of Astrophysics, Garching) and Jacques Sauval (Observatoire Royal de Belgique, Brussels) I recently published detailed reviews on the solar chemical composition ({Asplund et al. 2005}, {Grevesse et al. 2007}). A new one, with Pat Scott (Stockholm University) as additional co-author, will appear in Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics ({Asplund et al. 2009}). Here we briefly analyze recent works on the solar abundance of Oxygen and recommend a value of 8.70 in the usual astronomical scale.

  13. Primary glottic malignant melanoma of the larynx (PGMML): a very rare entity.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Sumeet; Kaushal, Vivek; Singla, Sujata; Sen, Rajeev

    2015-11-20

    Primary glottic malignant melanoma of the larynx (PGMML) is a very rare clinical entity with less than 20 cases reported in the literature so far. The most frequently reported subsite in primary malignant melanomas of the larynx is the supraglottic larynx. The vocal cord as a subsite for primary malignant melanoma is very rare. The present case is a primary glottic malignant melanoma involving both vocal cords. PGMML may present early due to associated hoarseness of voice, unlike other non-cutaneous melanomas in the head and neck. Non-cutaneous malignant melanomas in the head and neck are historically very aggressive in nature and known for poor outcomes and survival. Most non-cutaneous melanomas described in the literature have been superficial spreading or ulcerative in nature, unlike the present case, in which proliferative, polypoidal growth was seen. No associated risk factor was present in this case. Every reported case of this rare entity further adds to the better understanding of tumour biology and expression.

  14. Design and Construction of an Entity Resolution System that Supports Entity Identity Information Management and Asserted Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Eric Derrand

    2011-01-01

    This work describes the design and construction of an open source, entity resolution system that enables users to assign and maintain persistent identifiers for master data items. Two key features of this system that are not available in current ER systems and that make persistent identification possible are (1) The capture and management of…

  15. 78 FR 3317 - Removal of Persons From the Entity List Based on Removal Request; Implementation of Entity List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... remove two persons located in the U.A.E., as follows: United Arab Emirates (1) Abubakr Abuelazm, Dubai, U... Emirates FZ-LLC, Office 124 1st Floor, Building 3, Dell Building, Sheikh Zayed Road, Dubai Internet City, Dubai, U.A.E. The removal of the above-referenced two entities on the basis of annual review of...

  16. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Activity Flow language Level 1 Version 1.2.

    PubMed

    Mi, Huaiyu; Schreiber, Falk; Moodie, Stuart; Czauderna, Tobias; Demir, Emek; Haw, Robin; Luna, Augustin; Le Novère, Nicolas; Sorokin, Anatoly; Villéger, Alice

    2015-09-04

    The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD), Entity Relationship (ER) and Activity Flow (AF), allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail. The SBGN Activity Flow language represents the influences of activities among various entities within a network. Unlike SBGN PD and ER that focus on the entities and their relationships with others, SBGN AF puts the emphasis on the functions (or activities) performed by the entities, and their effects to the functions of the same or other entities. The nodes (elements) describe the biological activities of the entities, such as protein kinase activity, binding activity or receptor activity, which can be easily mapped to Gene Ontology molecular function terms. The edges (connections) provide descriptions of relationships (or influences) between the activities, e.g., positive influence and negative influence. Among all three languages of SBGN, AF is the closest to signaling pathways in biological literature and textbooks, but its well-defined semantics offer a superior precision in expressing biological knowledge.

  17. Influence of Coronal Abundance Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurman, Joseph (Technical Monitor); DeLuca, Edward

    2005-01-01

    During the final year of this program we concentrated on understanding the how to constrain the models with the best available observations. Work on developing accurate temperature and density diagnostics fkom TRACE and CDS together with constrained fits of non-potential force free fields will be extremely useful in the guiding the next generation of coronal models. The program has produced three fully operation numerical codes that model multi-species of ions in coronal loops: Static models and constant flow models. The time dependent numerical models have not been completed. We have extended the steady flow investigations to study the effect these flows have on coronal structure as observed with TRACE. Coronal observations derive from heavy-ion emission; thus, we focus on the extent to which flow may modify coronal abundances by examining the heavy-ion abundance stratification within long-lived loops. We discuss the magnitudes of the physical effects modeled and compare simulated results with TRACE observations. These results can have a profound effect on the interpretation of TRACE observations.

  18. Abundances in Hot Evolved Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Klaus; Rauch, Thomas; Kruk, Jeffrey W.

    2009-05-01

    The hydrogen-deficiency in extremely hot post-AGB stars of spectral class PG1159 is probably caused by a (very) late helium-shell flash or a AGB final thermal pulse that consumes the hydrogen envelope, exposing the usually-hidden intershell region. Thus, the photospheric element abundances of these stars allow us to draw conclusions about details of nuclear burning and mixing processes in the precursor AGB stars. We compare predicted element abundances to those determined by quantitative spectral analyses performed with advanced non-LTE model atmospheres. A good qualitative and quantitative agreement is found for many species (He, C, N, O, Ne, F, Si, Ar) but discrepancies for others (P, S, Fe) point at shortcomings in stellar evolution models for AGB stars. Almost all of the chemical trace elements in these hot stars can only be identified in the UV spectral range. The Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer and the Hubble Space Telescope played a crucial role for this research.

  19. Squamous cell carcinoma in a maxillary odontogenic keratocyst: A rare entity.

    PubMed

    Maria, Anisha; Sharma, Yogesh; Chhabria, Amit

    2011-07-01

    Odontogenic cysts in the maxilla are common but a malignant change in an odontogenic cyst is a comparatively a rare occurrence; however, these entities present with clinical and radiographic features similar to benign, expansible, central, odontogenic tumor, or cyst of the jaws. A patient reporting with squamous cell carcinoma arising from an odontogenic keratocyst of right maxilla has been worked up clinically, radiographically, and pathologically. The case was surgically managed and followed up. A 54-year-old male patient with a compressible, rapidly growing swelling of right maxilla was clinically diagnosed to be a case of odontogenic cyst. On radiologic examination it appeared similar to a cystic lesion. An incisional biopsy obtained from the cyst wall showed it to be odontogenic keratocyst with histologic evidence of malignant transformation. The pathogenesis of the tumor, the biologic progression, and prognosis and overall clinical and histopathogical features of this rare malignancy is reported and discussed.

  20. Urban warming drives insect pest abundance on street trees.

    PubMed

    Meineke, Emily K; Dunn, Robert R; Sexton, Joseph O; Frank, Steven D

    2013-01-01

    Cities profoundly alter biological communities, favoring some species over others, though the mechanisms that govern these changes are largely unknown. Herbivorous arthropod pests are often more abundant in urban than in rural areas, and urban outbreaks have been attributed to reduced control by predators and parasitoids and to increased susceptibility of stressed urban plants. These hypotheses, however, leave many outbreaks unexplained and fail to predict variation in pest abundance within cities. Here we show that the abundance of a common insect pest is positively related to temperature even when controlling for other habitat characteristics. The scale insect Parthenolecanium quercifex was 13 times more abundant on willow oak trees in the hottest parts of Raleigh, NC, in the southeastern United States, than in cooler areas, though parasitism rates were similar. We further separated the effects of heat from those of natural enemies and plant quality in a greenhouse reciprocal transplant experiment. P. quercifex collected from hot urban trees became more abundant in hot greenhouses than in cool greenhouses, whereas the abundance of P. quercifex collected from cooler urban trees remained low in hot and cool greenhouses. Parthenolecanium quercifex living in urban hot spots succeed with warming, and they do so because some demes have either acclimatized or adapted to high temperatures. Our results provide the first evidence that heat can be a key driver of insect pest outbreaks on urban trees. Since urban warming is similar in magnitude to global warming predicted in the next 50 years, pest abundance on city trees may foreshadow widespread outbreaks as natural forests also grow warmer.

  1. All biology is computational biology

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Here, I argue that computational thinking and techniques are so central to the quest of understanding life that today all biology is computational biology. Computational biology brings order into our understanding of life, it makes biological concepts rigorous and testable, and it provides a reference map that holds together individual insights. The next modern synthesis in biology will be driven by mathematical, statistical, and computational methods being absorbed into mainstream biological training, turning biology into a quantitative science. PMID:28278152

  2. All biology is computational biology.

    PubMed

    Markowetz, Florian

    2017-03-01

    Here, I argue that computational thinking and techniques are so central to the quest of understanding life that today all biology is computational biology. Computational biology brings order into our understanding of life, it makes biological concepts rigorous and testable, and it provides a reference map that holds together individual insights. The next modern synthesis in biology will be driven by mathematical, statistical, and computational methods being absorbed into mainstream biological training, turning biology into a quantitative science.

  3. "Disease entity" as the key theoretical concept of medicine.

    PubMed

    Hucklenbroich, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Philosophical debates about the concept of disease, particularly of mental disease, might benefit from reconsideration and a closer look at the established terminology and conceptual structure of contemporary medical pathology and clinical nosology. The concepts and principles of medicine differ, to a considerable extent, from the ideas and notions of philosophical theories of disease. In medical theory, the concepts of disease entity and pathologicity are, besides the concept of disease itself, of fundamental importance, and they are essentially connected to the concepts cause of disease or etiological factor, natural course or natural history of disease, and pathological disposition. It is the concept of disease entity that is of key importance for understanding medical pathology and theory of disease. Its central role is shown by a short reconstruction of its main features and its intrinsic connection to the concept of pathologicity. The meaning of pathologicity is elucidated by explicating the underlying criteria.

  4. Automatic Labeling for Entity Extraction in Cyber Security

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, Robert A; Jones, Corinne L; Iannacone, Michael D; Testa, Kelly M; Goodall, John R

    2014-01-01

    Timely analysis of cyber-security information necessitates automated information extraction from unstructured text. While state-of-the-art extraction methods produce extremely accurate results, they require ample training data, which is generally unavailable for specialized applications, such as detecting security related entities; moreover, manual annotation of corpora is very costly and often not a viable solution. In response, we develop a very precise method to automatically label text from several data sources by leveraging related, domain-specific, structured data and provide public access to a corpus annotated with cyber-security entities. Next, we implement a Maximum Entropy Model trained with the average perceptron on a portion of our corpus (~750,000 words) and achieve near perfect precision, recall, and accuracy, with training times under 17 seconds.

  5. Entity-Centric Abstraction and Modeling Framework for Transportation Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewe, Jung-Ho; DeLaurentis, Daniel A.; Mavris, Dimitri N.; Schrage, Daniel P.

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive framework for representing transpportation architectures is presented. After discussing a series of preceding perspectives and formulations, the intellectual underpinning of the novel framework using an entity-centric abstraction of transportation is described. The entities include endogenous and exogenous factors and functional expressions are offered that relate these and their evolution. The end result is a Transportation Architecture Field which permits analysis of future concepts under the holistic perspective. A simulation model which stems from the framework is presented and exercised producing results which quantify improvements in air transportation due to advanced aircraft technologies. Finally, a modeling hypothesis and its accompanying criteria are proposed to test further use of the framework for evaluating new transportation solutions.

  6. Mining entity-identification rules for database integration

    SciTech Connect

    Ganesh, M.; Srivastava, J.; Richardson, T.

    1996-12-31

    Entity identification (BI) is the identification and integration of all records which represent the same real-world entity, and is an important task in database integration process. When a common identification mechanism for similar records across heterogeneous databases is not readily available, EI is performed by examining the relationships between various attribute values among the records. We propose the use of distances between attribute values as a measure of similarity between the records they represent. Record-matching conditions for EI can then be expressed as constraints on the attribute distances. We show how knowledge discovery techniques can be used to automatically derive these conditions (expressed as decision trees) directly from the data, using a distance-based framework.

  7. Strategic bidding for load serving entity in electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlZahrani, Hashim A.

    The objective of this thesis is to study different options of load serving entities (LSEs) in electricity markets. Two models of pool-based electricity market have been studied. The difference between them is in the effect of transmission constraints. Transmission Constraints are neglected in the first model. Various bidding scenarios are presented in the first model to study the effect of retail, interruptible, and bidding prices on the profit of single LSE utilizing Monte Carlo simulation method. Genetic algorithm optimization tool is used to get the optimal bidding. In the second model, a new approach is presented to study the impact of transmission constraints (TCs) on the profit of LSE and its bidding strategy utilizing IEEE 30 bus system. Different pricing settlements then tested the effects of TCs to investigate the best pricing option. It has been shown that the first rejected bid settlement is the best selection for load serving entity.

  8. Scrotal Dermatitis - Can we Consider it as a Separate Entity?

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Ajay; Kar, Sumit

    2013-01-01

    Scrotal dermatitis is a very common condition that has been easily overlooked by most dermatologists and treating physicians. The condition is easily mistaken for the common skin disorders affecting the area, like fungal infections. Scrotal dermatitis is not considered a separate disease entity and is usually considered a condition similar to the contact dermatitis occurring elsewhere. This article attempts to classify the condition as a separate disease entity and explains the various etiological factors and the pathogenesis of the condition. The various stages of the condition are also explained in detail. Newer treatment modalities like the use of narrow band UVB for the management of scrotal dermatitis is also highlighted in this article. PMID:24044054

  9. Proton pump inhibitor responsive esophageal eosinophilia, a distinct disease entity?

    PubMed

    Munday, William; Zhang, Xuchen

    2014-08-14

    Recent studies have suggested the existence of a patient population with esophageal eosinophilia that responds to proton pump inhibitor therapy. These patients are being referred to as having proton pump inhibitor responsive esophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE), which is currently classified as a distinct and separate disease entity from both gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). The therapeutic effect of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) on PPI-REE is thought to act directly at the level of the esophageal mucosa with an anti-inflammatory capacity, and completely independent of gastric acid suppression. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the mechanistic data of the proposed immune modulation/anti-inflammatory role of the PPI at the esophageal mucosa, and the existence of PPI-REE as a distinct disease entity from GERD and EoE.

  10. Solar-system abundances of the elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, E.; Ebihara, M.

    1982-01-01

    Elemental analyses of the Ogueil Cl meteorite and all previous Cl chondrite analyses were employed to develop a new solar system abundance table, including the standard deviation and number of analyses for each element. The table also comprises the abundances of radioactive and radiogenic nuclides at the present and 4.55 AE ago, as well as abundances by weight in a typical Cl chondrite. The new abundances were within 20% of those determined by Cameron (1982), except for 14 cases in the range 20-50%, and 5 over 50%. The solar abundances were compared with the Cl abundances, showing a total of only 7 disagreements. No significant discrepancies were detected in the major cosmochemical groups, and a smooth trend was found in the abundances of odd-A nuclides. The new set is interpreted as accurate to 10%, with the Cl chondrites matching the primordial solar system abundances to at most 10% deviation.

  11. Hematite Abundance Map at Echo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image shows the hematite abundance map for a portion of the Meridiani Planum rock outcrop near where the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity landed. It was acquired by the rover's miniature thermal emission spectrometer instrument from a spot called 'Echo.' Portions of the inner crater wall in this region appear rich in hematite (red). The sharp boundary from hematite-rich to hematite-poor (yellow and green) surfaces corresponds to a change in the surface texture and color. The hematite-rich surfaces have ripple-like forms suggesting wind transported hematite to these surfaces. The bounce marks produced during landing at the base of the slope on the left are low in hematite (blue). The hematite grains that originally covered the surface were pushed below the surface by the lander, exposing a soil that has less hematite.

  12. Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Cervix: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    V, Pavithra; Shalini, C.N. Sai; Priya, Shanmuga; Rani, Usha; Rajendiran, S; Joseph, Leena Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the cervix is a rare and a very aggressive tumour. Once being considered to be a rare type of squamous cell carcinoma, evidence has proven that most of the tumours express one or more markers of neuroendocrine differentiation. The behaviour of this rare malignancy is different from that of squamous cell carcinomas, with a high propensity for nodal and distant metastases. Hence, there is a need to highlight this histopathological entity. PMID:24701511

  13. Magnetic studies of iron-entities in human tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ślawska-Waniewska, A.; Mosiniewicz-Szablewska, E.; Nedelko, N.; Gałązka-Friedman, J.; Friedman, A.

    2004-05-01

    Iron-entities in the human liver, brain and blood tissues have been investigated by means of EPR spectroscopy and magnetization measurements over the temperature range 4-300 K. The identification of the most typical forms of iron in the human body (i.e. isolated Fe-ions bonded in hemoglobin and transferrin as well as exchange coupled Fe-ions in nanosized ferritin cores) is presented.

  14. Adenosquamous carcinoma of vesicovaginal fistula: a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Tabali, Rudresh; Ramkumar, Aravind

    2014-01-01

    A 56-year-old lady presented with a vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) along with past history of abdominal hysterectomy. Biopsy of the fistulous tract showed squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Patient underwent radical cystourethrectomy, total vaginectomy, and bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection along with ileal conduit. The final histopathology report of the resected specimen showed adenosquamous carcinoma in VVF. As this is a rare entity, we are reporting this case.

  15. Primary tubercular abscess of the breast--an unusual entity.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R; Singal, R P; Gupta, A; Singal, S; Shahi, S R; Singal, R

    2012-02-22

    Primary breast tuberculosis manifested as abscess is a rare entity. We are reporting a case of primary breast tuberculosis, which presented as breast abscess. Abscess was drained and tissue sent for histopathology. To our surprise, diagnosis came as breast tuberculosis. Aspiration cytology was not done, as it is not a routine test for abscess cases. Patient was put on anti- tubercular drugs. In the follow-up of 6 months, she was asymptomatic and advised to continue medicine.

  16. Abundances of microRNAs in human cells can be estimated as a function of the abundances of YRHB and RHHK tetranucleotides in these microRNAs as an ill-posed inverse problem solution.

    PubMed

    Ponomarenko, Mikhail P; Suslov, Valentin V; Ponomarenko, Petr M; Gunbin, Konstantin V; Stepanenko, Irina L; Vishnevsky, Oleg V; Kolchanov, Nikolay A

    2013-01-01

    Mature microRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous non-coding RNAs 18-25 nt in length. They program the RNA Induced Silencing Complex (RISC) to make it inhibit either messenger RNAs or promoter DNAs. We have found that the mean abundance of miRNAs in Arabidopsis is correlated with the abundance of DRYD tetranucleotides near the 3'-end and the abundance of WRHB tetranucleotides in the center of the miRNA sequence. Based on this correlation, we have estimated miRNA abundances in seven organs of this plant, namely: inflorescences, stems, siliques, seedlings, roots, cauline, and rosette leaves. We have also found that the mean affinity of miRNAs for two proteins in the Argonaute family (Ago2 and Ago3) in man is correlated with the abundance of YRHB tetranucleotides near the 3'-end and that the preference of miRNAs for Ago2 is correlated with the abundance of RHHK tetranucleotides in the center of the miRNA sequence. This allowed us to obtain statistically significant estimates of miRNA abundances in human embryonic kidney cells, HEK293T. These findings in relation to two taxonomically distant entities (man and Arabidopsis) fit one another like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle, which allowed us to heuristically generalize them and state that the miRNA abundance in the human brain may be determined by the abundance of YRHB and RHHK tetranucleotides in these miRNAs.

  17. MYC-driven aggressive B-cell lymphomas: biology, entity, differential diagnosis and clinical management

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Qingqing; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey; Xu, Xiaolu; Young, Ken H.

    2015-01-01

    MYC, a potent oncogene located at chromosome locus 8q24.21, was identified initially by its involvement in Burkitt lymphoma with t(8;14)(q24;q32). MYC encodes a helix-loop-helix transcription factor that accentuates many cellular functions including proliferation, growth and apoptosis. MYC alterations also have been identified in other mature B-cell neoplasms and are associated with aggressive clinical behavior. There are several regulatory factors and dysregulated signaling that lead to MYC up-regulation in B-cell lymphomas. One typical example is the failure of physiological repressors such as Bcl6 or BLIMP1 to suppress MYC over-expression. In addition, MYC alterations are often developed concurrently with other genetic alterations that counteract the proapoptotic function of MYC. In this review, we discuss the physiologic function of MYC and the role that MYC likely plays in the pathogenesis of B-cell lymphomas. We also summarize the role MYC plays in the diagnosis, prognostication and various strategies to detect MYC rearrangement and expression. PMID:26416427

  18. Considering context: reliable entity networks through contextual relationship extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Peter; Hawes, Timothy; Hansen, Nichole; Nolan, James J.

    2016-05-01

    Existing information extraction techniques can only partially address the problem of exploiting unreadable-large amounts text. When discussion of events and relationships is limited to simple, past-tense, factual descriptions of events, current NLP-based systems can identify events and relationships and extract a limited amount of additional information. But the simple subset of available information that existing tools can extract from text is only useful to a small set of users and problems. Automated systems need to find and separate information based on what is threatened or planned to occur, has occurred in the past, or could potentially occur. We address the problem of advanced event and relationship extraction with our event and relationship attribute recognition system, which labels generic, planned, recurring, and potential events. The approach is based on a combination of new machine learning methods, novel linguistic features, and crowd-sourced labeling. The attribute labeler closes the gap between structured event and relationship models and the complicated and nuanced language that people use to describe them. Our operational-quality event and relationship attribute labeler enables Warfighters and analysts to more thoroughly exploit information in unstructured text. This is made possible through 1) More precise event and relationship interpretation, 2) More detailed information about extracted events and relationships, and 3) More reliable and informative entity networks that acknowledge the different attributes of entity-entity relationships.

  19. Chemical entity extraction using CRF and an ensemble of extractors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background As we are witnessing a great interest in identifying and extracting chemical entities in academic articles, many approaches have been proposed to solve this problem. In this work we describe a probabilistic framework that allows for the output of multiple information extraction systems to be combined in a systematic way. The identified entities are assigned a probability score that reflects the extractors' confidence, without the need for each individual extractor to generate a probability score. We quantitively compared the performance of multiple chemical tokenizers to measure the effect of tokenization on extraction accuracy. Later, a single Conditional Random Fields (CRF) extractor that utilizes the best performing tokenizer is built using a unique collection of features such as word embeddings and Soundex codes, which, to the best of our knowledge, has not been explored in this context before, Results The ensemble of multiple extractors outperforms each extractor's individual performance during the CHEMDNER challenge. When the runs were optimized to favor recall, the ensemble approach achieved the second highest recall on unseen entities. As for the single CRF model with novel features, the extractor achieves an F1 score of 83.3% on the test set, without any post processing or abbreviation matching. Conclusions Ensemble information extraction is effective when multiple stand alone extractors are to be used, and produces higher performance than individual off the shelf extractors. The novel features introduced in the single CRF model are sufficient to achieve very competitive F1 score using a simple standalone extractor. PMID:25810769

  20. Modeling discrete and continuous entities with fractions and decimals.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Monica; Bassok, Miriam; DeWolf, Melissa; Holyoak, Keith J

    2015-03-01

    When people use mathematics to model real-life situations, their use of mathematical expressions is often mediated by semantic alignment (Bassok, Chase, & Martin, 1998): The entities in a problem situation evoke semantic relations (e.g., tulips and vases evoke the functionally asymmetric "contain" relation), which people align with analogous mathematical relations (e.g., the noncommutative division operation, tulips/vases). Here we investigate the possibility that semantic alignment is also involved in the comprehension and use of rational numbers (fractions and decimals). A textbook analysis and results from two experiments revealed that both mathematic educators and college students tend to align the discreteness versus continuity of the entities in word problems (e.g., marbles vs. distance) with distinct symbolic representations of rational numbers--fractions versus decimals, respectively. In addition, fractions and decimals tend to be used with nonmetric units and metric units, respectively. We discuss the importance of the ontological distinction between continuous and discrete entities to mathematical cognition, the role of symbolic notations, and possible implications of our findings for the teaching of rational numbers.

  1. Control of entity interactions in a hierarchical variable resolution simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, D.R.

    1997-10-01

    There has long been interest in variable resolution modeling to support military analysis for a broad range of interest areas. Despite the ever-present desire for models of greater fidelity at the expense of analysis and computation resources, models of moderate to low fidelity are still required at many levels of decision-making. Problems can arise due to the issue of consistency among the family of models used for analysis. To address this and other problems, models of variable resolution have been suggested. However, such variable resolution architectures inherently carry their own set of issues which must be resolved in order to be useful. First, what are the structural requirements for a variable resolution model; and second, how are interactions between entities governed, especially when the entities have different resolutions? This paper addresses these issues and discusses key mechanisms needed to develop a variable resolution combat simulation that meets several core requirements for such models: seamless aggregation/disaggregation, appropriate interactions between entities of differing resolution, and control of the aggregation/disaggregation process.

  2. Control of entity interactions in a hierarchical variable resolution simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, D.R.

    1997-08-01

    There has long been interest in variable resolution modeling to support military analysis for a broad range of interest areas. Despite the ever-present desire for models of greater fidelity at the expense of analysis and computation resources, models of moderate to low fidelity are still required at many levels of decision-making. Problems can arise due to the issue of consistency among the family of models used for analysis. To address this and other problems, models of variable resolution have been suggested. However, such variable resolution architectures inherently carry their own set of issues which must be resolved in order to be useful. First, what are the structural requirements for a variable resolution model; and second, how are interactions between entities governed, especially when the entities have different resolutions? This paper addresses these issues and discusses key mechanisms needed to develop a variable resolution combat simulation that meets several core requirements for such models: seamless aggregation/disaggregation, appropriate interactions between entities of differing resolution, and control of the aggregation/disaggregation process.

  3. 49 CFR 37.43 - Alteration of transportation facilities by public entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... affects or could affect the usability of the facility or part of the facility, the entity shall make the... public entity undertakes an alteration that affects or could affect the usability of or access to an...

  4. 49 CFR 37.43 - Alteration of transportation facilities by public entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... affects or could affect the usability of the facility or part of the facility, the entity shall make the... public entity undertakes an alteration that affects or could affect the usability of or access to an...

  5. 49 CFR 37.43 - Alteration of transportation facilities by public entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... affects or could affect the usability of the facility or part of the facility, the entity shall make the... public entity undertakes an alteration that affects or could affect the usability of or access to an...

  6. 76 FR 66074 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Required Warnings for Cigarette Packages and Advertisements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... Cigarette Packages and Advertisements; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... industry entitled ``Required Warnings for Cigarette Packages and Advertisements--Small Entity Compliance... entitled ``Required Warnings for Cigarette Packages and Advertisements--Small Entity Compliance Guide''...

  7. 78 FR 41392 - Indicated Load-Serving Entities v. Midcontinent Independent System Operator, Inc. and PJM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Indicated Load-Serving Entities v. Midcontinent Independent System Operator... Indicated Load-Serving Entities, (Indicated LSEs or Complainants) within the Midcontinent Independent...

  8. 22 CFR 96.78 - Accrediting entity procedures to terminate adverse action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... accrediting entity that the deficiencies that led to the adverse action have been corrected. The accrediting... demonstrates to the satisfaction of the accrediting entity that the specific deficiencies that led to...

  9. 22 CFR 96.78 - Accrediting entity procedures to terminate adverse action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... accrediting entity that the deficiencies that led to the adverse action have been corrected. The accrediting... demonstrates to the satisfaction of the accrediting entity that the specific deficiencies that led to...

  10. The Effect of Realistic Contexts on Ontological Judgments of Novel Entities

    PubMed Central

    Van Reet, Jennifer; Pinkham, Ashley M.; Lillard, Angeline S.

    2014-01-01

    Although a great deal of research has focused on ontological judgments in preschoolers, very little has examined ontological judgments in older children. The present study asked 10-year-olds and adults (N = 94) to judge the reality status of known real, known imagined, and novel entities presented in simple and elaborate contexts and to explain their judgments. Although judgments were generally apt, participants were more likely to endorse imagined and novel entities when the entities were presented in elaborate contexts. When asked to explain their reasoning, participants at both ages cited firsthand experience for real entities and general knowledge for imagined entities. For novel entities, participants referred most to indirect experiences when entities were presented in simple contexts and to general knowledge when those entities were presented in elaborate contexts. These results suggest that rich contextual information continues to be an important influence on ontological judgments past the preschool years. PMID:25914442

  11. Using Animals to Teach Children Biology: Exploring the Use of Biological Explanations in Children's Anthropomorphic Storybooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geerdts, Megan; Van De Walle, Gretchen; LoBue, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Anthropomorphism--the attribution of human characteristics to nonhuman entities--has long been a staple of children's media. However, children's experiences with anthropomorphic media may interfere with biological reasoning instead encouraging an anthropocentric view of the natural world. To date, little research has addressed…

  12. Haunted Quantum Entanglement When the Entangled Entities Are Distant From Each Other And Where Only Photons Are The Entangled Entities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Douglas

    2011-04-01

    Haunted quantum entanglement involves entanglement between 2 entities where entanglement is based on 1 entity supplying which-way information regarding the other. This ww information is lost before it is released to the environment with the result that the entanglement is also lost. The result of losing entanglement is Young interference as if ww information never existed (not fringes and anti-fringes as in a quantum eraser). In an earlier hqe scenario, ww information is eliminated at a distance between an entangled atom and photon. In the hqe scenario here, the entangled entities are both photons and ww information provided by one photon regarding the other is lost with the accompanying loss of entanglement between the two photons. The entangled photon pairs are created in a similar process to that used by Kim et al. in their quantum eraser. The photon carrying the ww information (i.e., the idler photon) is effectively lost through the release of classical em radiation of a similar character to the idler photon into a box that is evacuated (except for the idler photon that traverses the box initially on one of its two possible paths to a detector) before the signal photon reaches its detection axis. ``Two slit'' interference for the signal photon shows no evidence that ww information ever existed regarding the signal photon.

  13. Surface abundances of ON stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, F.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Palacios, A.; Howarth, I.; Georgy, C.; Walborn, N. R.; Bouret, J.-C.; Barbá, R.

    2015-06-01

    Context. Massive stars burn hydrogen through the CNO cycle during most of their evolution. When mixing is efficient or when mass transfer in binary systems occurs, chemically processed material is observed at the surface of O and B stars. Aims: ON stars show stronger lines of nitrogen than morphologically normal counterparts. Whether this corresponds to the presence of material processed through the CNO cycle is not known. Our goal is to answer this question. Methods: We performed a spectroscopic analysis of a sample of ON stars with atmosphere models. We determined the fundamental parameters as well as the He, C, N, and O surface abundances. We also measured the projected rotational velocities. We compared the properties of the ON stars to those of normal O stars. Results: We show that ON stars are usually rich in helium. Their CNO surface abundances are fully consistent with predictions of nucleosynthesis. ON stars are more chemically evolved and rotate - on average - faster than normal O stars. Evolutionary models including rotation cannot account for the extreme enrichment observed among ON main sequence stars. Some ON stars are members of binary systems, but others are single stars as indicated by stable radial velocities. Mass transfer is therefore not a simple explanation for the observed chemical properties. Conclusions: We conclude that ON stars show extreme chemical enrichment at their surface, consistent with nucleosynthesis through the CNO cycle. Its origin is not clear at present. Based on observations obtained 1) at the Anglo-Australian Telescope; 2) at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Science de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii; 3) at the ESO/La Silla Observatory under programs 081.D-2008, 083.D-0589, 086.D-0997; 4) the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La

  14. 76 FR 47593 - Guidance for Small Business Entities on Current Good Manufacturing Practice for Positron Emission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Small Business Entities on Current Good... a guidance for small business entities entitled ``PET Drugs--Current Good Manufacturing Practice... entitled ``PET Drugs--Current Good Manufacturing Practice (CGMP); Small Entity Compliance Guide.''...

  15. 78 FR 46796 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-69; Small Entity Compliance Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... Administration (NASA). ACTION: Small Entity Compliance Guide. SUMMARY: This document is issued under the joint authority of DOD, GSA, and NASA. This Small Entity Compliance Guide has been prepared in accordance with... a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. As a result,...

  16. 31 CFR 50.35 - Entities that share profits and losses with private sector insurers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM State Residual Market Insurance Entities; Workers.... A State residual market insurance entity or a State workers' compensation fund that shares profits...) Premium and loss calculation. A State residual market insurance entity or a State workers'...

  17. 31 CFR 561.322 - Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Government of Iran. 561.322 Section 561.322 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 561.322 Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran. The phrase entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran means any entity, including...

  18. 31 CFR 561.322 - Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Government of Iran. 561.322 Section 561.322 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 561.322 Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran. The phrase entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran means any entity, including...

  19. 31 CFR 561.322 - Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Government of Iran. 561.322 Section 561.322 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 561.322 Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran. The phrase entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran means any entity, including...

  20. 26 CFR 301.7701-3 - Classification of certain business entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... classification or when an eligible entity chooses to change its classification. An entity whose classification is determined under the default classification retains that classification (regardless of any changes in the... defined in paragraph (d) of this section) until the entity makes an election to change that...