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Sample records for abundant blood supply

  1. Cholangiocytes and blood supply

    PubMed Central

    Gaudio, Eugenio; Franchitto, Antonio; Pannarale, Luigi; Carpino, Guido; Alpini, Gianfranco; Francis, Heather; Glaser, Shannon; Alvaro, Domenico; Onori, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    The microvascular supply of the biliary tree, the peribiliary plexus (PBP), stems from the hepatic artery branches and flows into the hepatic sinusoids. A detailed three-dimensional study of the PBP has been performed by using the Scanning Electron Microscopy vascular corrosion casts (SEMvcc) technique. Considering that the PBP plays a fundamental role in supporting the secretory and absorptive functions of the biliary epithelium, their organization in either normalcy and pathology is explored. The normal liver shows the PBP arranged around extra- and intrahepatic biliary tree. In the small portal tract PBP was characterized by a single layer of capillaries which progressively continued with the extrahepatic PBP where it showed a more complex vascular network. After common duct ligation (BDL), progressive modifications of bile duct and PBP proliferation are observed. The PBP presents a three-dimensional network arranged around many bile ducts and appears as bundles of vessels, composed by capillaries of homogeneous diameter with a typical round mesh structure. The PBP network is easily distinguishable from the sinusoidal network which appears normal. Considering the enormous extension of the PBP during BDL, the possible role played by the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is evaluated. VEGF-A, VEGF-C and their related receptors appeared highly immunopositive in proliferating cholangiocytes of BDL rats. The administration of anti-VEGF-A or anti-VEGF-C antibodies to BDL rats as well as hepatic artery ligation induced a reduced bile duct mass. The administration of rVEGF-A to BDL hepatic artery ligated rats prevented the decrease of cholangiocyte proliferation and VEGF-A expression as compared to BDL control rats. These data suggest the role of arterial blood supply of the biliary tree in conditions of cholangiocyte proliferation, such as it occurs during chronic cholestasis. On the other hand, the role played by VEGF as a tool of cross-talk between

  2. Conservation of Battlefield Blood Supply

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-12-01

    the anticipated blood loss is three to eight units (1500-4000 ml; e.g. extensive corrective spinal surgery, revision of artificial total hip prostheses...measurements (systemic and pulmonic arterial systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressures, central venous and pulmonary capillary "wedge" pressures, and

  3. 21 CFR 864.9050 - Blood bank supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... such as blood bank pipettes, blood grouping slides, blood typing tubes, blood typing racks, and cold... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood bank supplies. 864.9050 Section 864.9050...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture...

  4. 21 CFR 864.9050 - Blood bank supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... such as blood bank pipettes, blood grouping slides, blood typing tubes, blood typing racks, and cold... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood bank supplies. 864.9050 Section 864.9050...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture...

  5. 21 CFR 864.9050 - Blood bank supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... such as blood bank pipettes, blood grouping slides, blood typing tubes, blood typing racks, and cold... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood bank supplies. 864.9050 Section 864.9050...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture...

  6. 21 CFR 864.9050 - Blood bank supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... such as blood bank pipettes, blood grouping slides, blood typing tubes, blood typing racks, and cold... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood bank supplies. 864.9050 Section 864.9050...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture...

  7. [Blood supply readiness in case of war or disasters].

    PubMed

    Fagerhol, M K; Dobloug, I

    1999-09-10

    The supply and use of blood during war or disaster require efficient cooperation between national and regional civilian authorities and blood banks as well as the military chain of command and medical units. Tasks and responsibilities are regulated by a directive issued by the Norwegian Armed Forces Joint Medical Services, specifying that during crises, civilian blood banks will be ordered to provide blood to military units. Based upon information obtained by a questionnaire survey, blood banks have an adequate capacity even if the normal power supply or computerised systems fail temporarily. However, plans are presently lacking for the organisation and operation of the civilian blood supply during a crisis requiring cooperation with military units. Key roles and responsibilities for personnel on the civilian side must be defined. Normal and alternative routes of communication must be established and tested regularly.

  8. Effects of antiglaucoma drugs on blood supply to eye tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Chiou, G.C.Y.; Yan, H.Y.

    1986-03-01

    Although it is essential that intraocular pressure (IOP) be reduced in glaucoma treatment, it is also vitally important to provide sufficient blood flow to eye tissues so that healthy visual field is maintained. It is possible for an agent to reduce IOP and blood supply to the eye. In that case, glaucoma appears to be under control since IOP has been reduced to within normal range yet the disease is actually progressing, causing damage to the retina, optic nerve, and other tissues. /sup 85/Sr-Microsphere technique was used to study the effects of several antiglaucoma drugs on blood supply to various eye tissues. Clearly, L-timolol, D-timolol and pilocarpine are good drugs to use in treating glaucoma because they do not reduce blood flow. On the other hand, although moperone reduced IOP effectively, it also decreased blood supply markedly. Therefore, it should not be used for the treatment of glaucoma.

  9. [Blood transfusion and supply chain management safety].

    PubMed

    Quaranta, Jean-François; Caldani, Cyril; Cabaud, Jean-Jacques; Chavarin, Patricia; Rochette-Eribon, Sandrine

    2015-02-01

    The level of safety attained in blood transfusion now makes this a discipline better managed care activities. This was achieved both by scientific advances and policy decisions regulating and supervising the activity, as well as by the quality system, which we recall that affects the entire organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, processes and resources in place to achieve quality management. So, an effective quality system provides a framework within which activities are established, performed in a quality-focused way and continuously monitored to improve outcomes. This system quality has to irrigate all the actors of the transfusion, just as much the establishments of blood transfusion than the health establishments.

  10. Challenges in the management of the blood supply.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Lorna M; Devine, Dana V

    2013-05-25

    Although blood suppliers are seeing short-term reductions in blood demand as a result of initiatives in patient blood management, modelling suggests that during the next 5-10 years, blood availability in developed countries will need to increase again to meet the demands of ageing populations. Increasing of the blood supply raises many challenges; new approaches to recruitment and retainment of future generations of blood donors will be needed, and care will be necessary to avoid taking too much blood from these donors. Integrated approaches in blood stock management between transfusion services and hospitals will be important to minimise wastage--eg, by use of supply chain solutions from industry. Cross-disciplinary systems for patient blood management need to be developed to lessen the need for transfusion--eg, by early identification and reversal of anaemia with haematinics or by reversal of the underlying cause. Personalised medicine could be applied to match donors to patients, not only with extended blood typing, but also by using genetically determined storage characteristics of blood components. Growing of red cells or platelets in large quantities from stem cells is a possibility in the future, but challenges of cost, scaling up, and reproducibility remain to be solved.

  11. Blood supply during Japan's 1995 Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Fujimori, Yoshihiro; Bouike, Yoshihiro; Nollet, Kenneth; Miki, Hitoshi

    2016-10-01

    On January 17, 1995, a magnitude 7.3 earthquake occurred in southern Hyogo Prefecture, a substantially urban area of Japan's main island, Honshu. Now known as the Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake, this disaster damaged or destroyed 639 686 houses and took 6434 lives. Within the disaster area, the Japanese Red Cross (JRC) Hyogo Blood Center had regional responsibilities for collecting, testing, processing, storing, and distributing blood components, including red blood cells (RBCs), fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and platelet concentrates (PLTs). Platelet shakers collapsed, forcing the discard of 103 PLT bags (1125 units) that could not be temperature-controlled or agitated. RBCs and FFP in refrigerated and frozen storage, respectively, remained in temperature control with the help of dry ice imported from non-affected areas. Local blood collection was suspended and replaced by products from other blood centers. Local demand for blood components decreased to 66% of comparable pre-quake demand. Emergent supplies rather than reserved supplies of blood components were markedly increased after the earthquake. Communication infrastructure damage prompted JRC Hyogo Blood Center to send blood delivery vehicles loaded with RBCs and FFP on a circuit of main hospitals in the affected area. Local blood donation and processing resumed 20 days after the quake. In retrospect, a nationally coordinated system of production and distribution demonstrated JRC's ability to meet transfusion demand after the 1995 Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake, and prompted changes in anticipation of subsequent disasters.

  12. [Chewing gum influence upon blood supply of mastication muscles].

    PubMed

    Loginova, N K; Logatskaia, E V

    2006-01-01

    A total of 27 volunteers 16-26 years of age participated in the study of the influence of chewing gum use in different regimens upon velocity parameters of blood supply of mastication muscles at dopplerography (MM-D-K dopplerograph made in Russia). It was established that regular and continuous (30 min) chewing the gum and also of big volume (in two) but short-term chewing (5 min) equalizes blood supply of mastication muscles on both working and non-working sides.

  13. The role of carrion supply in the abundance of deep-water fish off California.

    PubMed

    Drazen, Jeffrey C; Bailey, David M; Ruhl, Henry A; Smith, Kenneth L

    2012-01-01

    Few time series of deep-sea systems exist from which the factors affecting abyssal fish populations can be evaluated. Previous analysis showed an increase in grenadier abundance, in the eastern North Pacific, which lagged epibenthic megafaunal abundance, mostly echinoderms, by 9-20 months. Subsequent diet studies suggested that carrion is the grenadier's most important food. Our goal was to evaluate if changes in carrion supply might drive the temporal changes in grenadier abundance. We analyzed a unique 17 year time series of abyssal grenadier abundance and size, collected at Station M (4100 m, 220 km offshore of Pt. Conception, California), and reaffirmed the increase in abundance and also showed an increase in mean size resulting in a ∼6 fold change in grenadier biomass. We compared this data with abundance estimates for surface living nekton (pacific hake and jack mackerel) eaten by the grenadiers as carrion. A significant positive correlation between Pacific hake (but not jack mackerel) and grenadiers was found. Hake seasonally migrate to the waters offshore of California to spawn. They are the most abundant nekton species in the region and the target of the largest commercial fishery off the west coast. The correlation to grenadier abundance was strongest when using hake abundance metrics from the area within 100 nmi of Station M. No significant correlation between grenadier abundance and hake biomass for the entire California current region was found. Given the results and grenadier longevity, migration is likely responsible for the results and the location of hake spawning probably is more important than the size of the spawning stock in understanding the dynamics of abyssal grenadier populations. Our results suggest that some abyssal fishes' population dynamics are controlled by the flux of large particles of carrion. Climate and fishing pressures affecting epipelagic fish stocks could readily modulate deep-sea fish dynamics.

  14. The Role of Carrion Supply in the Abundance of Deep-Water Fish off California

    PubMed Central

    Drazen, Jeffrey C.; Bailey, David M.; Ruhl, Henry A.; Smith, Kenneth L.

    2012-01-01

    Few time series of deep-sea systems exist from which the factors affecting abyssal fish populations can be evaluated. Previous analysis showed an increase in grenadier abundance, in the eastern North Pacific, which lagged epibenthic megafaunal abundance, mostly echinoderms, by 9–20 months. Subsequent diet studies suggested that carrion is the grenadier's most important food. Our goal was to evaluate if changes in carrion supply might drive the temporal changes in grenadier abundance. We analyzed a unique 17 year time series of abyssal grenadier abundance and size, collected at Station M (4100 m, 220 km offshore of Pt. Conception, California), and reaffirmed the increase in abundance and also showed an increase in mean size resulting in a ∼6 fold change in grenadier biomass. We compared this data with abundance estimates for surface living nekton (pacific hake and jack mackerel) eaten by the grenadiers as carrion. A significant positive correlation between Pacific hake (but not jack mackerel) and grenadiers was found. Hake seasonally migrate to the waters offshore of California to spawn. They are the most abundant nekton species in the region and the target of the largest commercial fishery off the west coast. The correlation to grenadier abundance was strongest when using hake abundance metrics from the area within 100 nmi of Station M. No significant correlation between grenadier abundance and hake biomass for the entire California current region was found. Given the results and grenadier longevity, migration is likely responsible for the results and the location of hake spawning probably is more important than the size of the spawning stock in understanding the dynamics of abyssal grenadier populations. Our results suggest that some abyssal fishes' population dynamics are controlled by the flux of large particles of carrion. Climate and fishing pressures affecting epipelagic fish stocks could readily modulate deep-sea fish dynamics. PMID:23133679

  15. [Blood supply during disasters: the experience of Chile in 2010].

    PubMed

    Vásquez, Marcela; Maldonado, Mónica; Tagle, Federico; León, Sergio; Soto, Alejandra; Mena, Aaron; Toro, Carla

    2011-05-01

    A review of the management of blood supply and its administration during disasters was conducted based on the experience of several events that occurred primarily from 2000-2010, particularly the earthquake that measured 8.8 on the Richter scale that struck central and southern Chile on 27 February 2010. The objective was to provide information that could be useful in improving response plans and strategies during potential future disasters. The descriptive information on response procedures was obtained from interviews, internal reports, and the computer database from the Maule regional blood production center. The results lead to the conclusion that to respond efficiently and effectively to the need for blood in the immediate wake of a disaster it is essential to have both a centralized management system that facilitates the supply and administration of blood and volunteers with competence in health that are willing to swiftly arrive during these events. A change in the profile of blood donors during such emergencies was also observed. In Chile, for example, during the two weeks after the earthquake, the ratio of male/female donors was reversed. There was 61.1% participation by women, whereas in the week before the event women accounted for only 37%.

  16. U.S. Blood Supply Safe from Zika Virus, Officials Say

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_164519.html U.S. Blood Supply Safe From Zika Virus, Officials Say They detail steps being taken ... to protect America's blood supply from possible new Zika virus outbreaks during the upcoming mosquito season. A ...

  17. Zika Virus and the Blood Supply: What Do We Know?

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Alexandra; Shaz, Beth H; Bloch, Evan M

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne Flavivirus and emerging infectious disease, is the focus of an international public health emergency after its rapid spread through the Americas and the Caribbean. Although most ZIKV infections are subclinical or characterized by mild febrile illness, ZIKV has been implicated in severe complications, most notably microcephaly in babies born to incident infected mothers during pregnancy. As yet, the extent to which ZIKV is transfusion transmissible remains undefined. Nonetheless, a high prevalence of asymptomatic infection during outbreaks, the demonstration of ZIKV in blood donors, and 4 possible cases of transfusion-transmitted ZIKV in Brazil have raised concern for risk to the blood supply. Consequently, a proactive response is underway by blood collection agencies, regulatory bodies, national funding agencies, and industry alike. Mitigation strategies differ between endemic and nonendemic areas. In the continental United States, the American Association of Blood Banks and Food and Drug Administration guidelines recommend travel-based deferral for those returning from affected areas, and nucleic acid testing is being initiated under an investigational new drug application in Puerto Rico and selected areas of the United States. Options are less clear for countries where autochthonous vector-borne transmission is active. The burden of Zika falls in low-resource countries where high cost and technical barriers associated with testing and pathogen reduction pose barriers to implementation. Additional strategies include maintaining selective inventory for high-risk recipients (eg, pregnant women). We review the available data as of July 2016 on ZIKV in relation to the blood supply including risk, mitigation strategies, and barriers to implementation in addition to the research that is needed to address current uncertainty.

  18. Operational effectiveness and quality assurance mechanisms with stochastic demand of blood supply: blood bank case study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alan D

    2011-01-01

    A general overview of various blood products operational effectiveness and related strategies that can be utilised by service providers (in particular, healthcare providers) is presented in the present study. In terms of the massive volumes of blood products, the North American blood centres collect more than eight million units of whole blood, which represents appropriately 50% of the US and Quebec, Canada?s volunteer donor blood supply. A case study of the quality inspection and inventory control concerns of the Central Blood Bank, located in the metropolitan area of Pittsburgh, PA, is presented. Initially, brief introduction to its general operating environment is followed by sections describing its general situation, quality-service initiatives, and followed by a fairly detailed discussion of the practical applications of lessons learned from the case study.

  19. Anatomic study of the collateral blood supply of the sternum.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, R A; Acland, R D

    1995-01-01

    A microdissection study was carried out on ten injected, cleared human sternal specimens. Three types of vessel were identified that have the potential to carry blood to the sternum after mobilization of the internal thoracic artery (ITA): (1) branches of the ITA that supply both the sternum and the pectoralis major ("sternal/perforating branches"), (2) branches of the ITA that supply both the sternum and an adjoining intercostal space ("sternal/intercostal branches"), and (3) posterior intercostal arteries that do not anastomose with an ITA branch but continue past the ITA to reach the sternum. All three types of vessel were found more frequently in the proximal than in the distal half of the sternum. For sternal/perforating and sternal/intercostal vessels to function as collaterals after ITA bypass grafting, their short common trunks of origin must remain intact. The data support the recommendation that the branches of the ITA be ligated as close as possible to the ITA itself to preserve collateral blood flow to the sternum.

  20. Meanings of blood, bleeding and blood donations in Pakistan: implications for national vs global safe blood supply policies.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, Zubia; Bowen, Sarah; Mumtaz, Rubina

    2012-03-01

    Contemporary public policy, supported by international arbitrators of blood policy such as the World Health Organization and the International Federation of the Red Cross, asserts that the safest blood is that donated by voluntary, non-remunerated donors from low-risk groups of the population. These policies promote anonymous donation and discourage kin-based or replacement donation. However, there is reason to question whether these policies, based largely on Western research and beliefs, are the most appropriate for ensuring an adequate safe blood supply in many other parts of the world. This research explored the various and complex meanings embedded in blood using empirical ethnographic data from Pakistan, with the intent of informing development of a national blood policy in that country. Using a focused ethnographic approach, data were collected in 26 in-depth interviews, 6 focus group discussions, 12 key informant interviews and 25 hours of observations in blood banks and maternity and surgical wards. The key finding was that notions of caste-based purity of blood, together with the belief that donors and recipients are symbolically knitted in a kin relationship, place a preference on kin-blood. The anonymity inherent in current systems of blood extraction, storage and use as embedded in contemporary policy discourse and practice was problematic as it blurred distinctions that were important within this society. The article highlights the importance-to ensuring a safe blood supply-of basing blood procurement policies on local, context-specific belief systems rather than relying on uniform, one-size-fits-all global policies. Drawing on our empirical findings and the literature, it is argued that the practice of kin-donated blood remains a feasible alternative to the global ideal of voluntary, anonymous donations. There is a need to focus on developing context-sensitive strategies for promoting blood safety, and critically revisit the assumptions underlying

  1. Anatomical Study of Variations in the Blood Supply of Kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Aristotle, Sharmila; Sundarapandian; Felicia, Christilda

    2013-01-01

    Background: Each kidney is supplied by a single renal artery and a single renal vein, which accounts for about 20% of the cardiac output. However, variations in the form of level of origin and arrangement of renal arteries are so frequent. Aim: The present study aimed to note the vascular anatomy of kidneys with respect to the variations in their origin, course and any aberrant vessels which were present. Materials and Methods: The study material comprised of 15 formalin fixed human cadavers. During routine abdominal dissection for undergraduate students, the kidneys were exposed and the blood supply, along with its variations, were noted. Results: The following anatomical findings are observed in this study: (i) Accessory renal arteries (ii) Presegmental arteries (iii) Upper polar arteries (iv) Lower polar arteries (v) Inferior suprarenal artery from accessory renal artery and (vi) Accessory renal vein. Conclusion: Awareness of the normal as well variational anatomy is mandatory for the surgeons, radiologists and urologists, for doing any uroradiological procedures or angiographic studies. Hence, this study will serve a useful guideline for the above mentioned procedures. PMID:24086837

  2. Noncoronary Collateral Myocardial Blood Flow: The Human Heart’s Forgotten Blood Supply

    PubMed Central

    Picichè, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The “noncoronary collateral circulation” (NCCC) or “noncoronary collateral myocardial blood flow” (NCCMBF), reaches the heart through a micro-vascular network arising from the bronchial, esophageal, pericardial, diaphragmatic, and aortic arteries. The left and right internal thoracic arteries (ITAs) along with their collateral branches also serve as a source of NCCMBF-a feature seen in other mammals. Under certain circumstances the ITAs have a high potential for developing collateral branches. In the case of severe Leriche syndrome or with chronic obstruction of the abdominal aorta, the ITAs can serve as the main or even sole source of blood supply to the lower limbs. It is also possible for the ITAs to develop angiographically visible branches that directly connect with the coronary arteries. In ischemic conditions there is a functional, ischemia-reducing extracardiac coronary artery supply via natural ipsilateral ITA anastomosis. To date we know little about NCCMBF and its potential benefits in clinical applications, which makes this a challenging and intriguing field of research. This paper reviews all available data on noncoronary collateral blood supply to the human heart. PMID:27006713

  3. Meanings of blood, bleeding and blood donations in Pakistan: implications for national vs global safe blood supply policies

    PubMed Central

    Mumtaz, Zubia; Bowen, Sarah; Mumtaz, Rubina

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary public policy, supported by international arbitrators of blood policy such as the World Health Organization and the International Federation of the Red Cross, asserts that the safest blood is that donated by voluntary, non-remunerated donors from low-risk groups of the population. These policies promote anonymous donation and discourage kin-based or replacement donation. However, there is reason to question whether these policies, based largely on Western research and beliefs, are the most appropriate for ensuring an adequate safe blood supply in many other parts of the world. This research explored the various and complex meanings embedded in blood using empirical ethnographic data from Pakistan, with the intent of informing development of a national blood policy in that country. Using a focused ethnographic approach, data were collected in 26 in-depth interviews, 6 focus group discussions, 12 key informant interviews and 25 hours of observations in blood banks and maternity and surgical wards. The key finding was that notions of caste-based purity of blood, together with the belief that donors and recipients are symbolically knitted in a kin relationship, place a preference on kin-blood. The anonymity inherent in current systems of blood extraction, storage and use as embedded in contemporary policy discourse and practice was problematic as it blurred distinctions that were important within this society. The article highlights the importance—to ensuring a safe blood supply—of basing blood procurement policies on local, context-specific belief systems rather than relying on uniform, one-size-fits-all global policies. Drawing on our empirical findings and the literature, it is argued that the practice of kin-donated blood remains a feasible alternative to the global ideal of voluntary, anonymous donations. There is a need to focus on developing context-sensitive strategies for promoting blood safety, and critically revisit the assumptions

  4. The risks of blood transfusions and the shortage of supply leads to the quest for blood substitutes.

    PubMed

    Nouwairi, Nicole-Soraya

    2004-10-01

    A number of factors have combined to drive the interest in developing blood substitutes. These include the time-dependent decrement in stored blood biochemistry, the general shortage of the blood supply, and public awareness of the risks associated with allogeneic transfusions. Current literature on different blood substitutes was reviewed. The aim of this article is to help the reader understand the necessity of blood substitutes and to briefly describe blood substitutes that are in clinical trials. The need for oxygen-carrying blood substitutes is the driving force in multiple clinical trials. More research is needed to develop alteratives to allogeneic blood transfusion that are free of complications.

  5. Modeling the potential impact on the US blood supply of transfusing critically ill patients with fresher stored red blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Ezzeldin, Hussein; Menis, Mikhail; McKean, Stephen; Izurieta, Hector; Anderson, Steven A.; Forshee, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Although some studies have suggested that transfusion recipients may have better medical outcomes if transfused with red blood cell units stored for a short time, the overall body of evidence shows mixed results. It is important to understand how using fresher stored red blood cell units for certain patient groups may affect blood availability. Methods Based on the Stock-and-Flow simulation model of the US blood supply developed by Simonetti et al. 2014, we evaluated a newly implemented allocation method of preferentially transfusing fresher stored red blood cell units to a subset of high-risk group of critically ill patients and its potential impact on supply. Results Simulation results showed that, depending on the scenario, the US blood total supply might be reduced between 2-42%, when compared to the standard of care in transfusion medicine practice. Among our simulated scenarios, we observed that the number of expired red blood cell units modulated the supply levels. The age threshold of the required red blood cell units was inversely correlated with both the supply levels and the number of transfused units that failed to meet that age threshold. Conclusion To our knowledge, this study represents the first attempt to develop a comprehensive framework to evaluate the impact of preferentially transfusing fresher stored red blood cells to the higher-risk critically ill patients on supply. Model results show the difficulties to identify an optimal scenario. PMID:28319164

  6. Paying donors and the ethics of blood supply.

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez del Pozo, P

    1994-01-01

    Countries may be erring in the current trend towards relying entirely on volunteers to fulfil blood and plasma needs. Complementing uncompensated blood with compensated blood is vitally necessary not only effectively to meet the blood and plasma needs of most countries, but it is also ethically sound. PMID:8035437

  7. Arterial blood supply of the infrapatellar fat pad. Anatomy and clinical consequences.

    PubMed

    Kohn, D; Deiler, S; Rudert, M

    1995-01-01

    The arterial blood supply to the infrapatellar fat pad (Hoffa's fat pad) was investigated in 12 knee joints of human cadavers. The infrapatellar fat pad is supplied by an anastomotic network which displays some striking topographic features. Its vascular blood supply protects it against necrosis, when either reconstructive operations are carried out or extensive surgical exposures of the knee are done. The blood supply to the center of the fat pad is limited. This is of practical importance for the choice of arthroscopic portals. In addition, arthroscopically verified sources of bleeding are described in 57 patients with hemarthrosis without clinically detectable instability. Rupture of the infrapatellar synovial fold can be a cause of posttraumatic hemarthrosis in rare cases. Arteries irregularly found within the fold contribute to the blood supply of the anterior aspect of the synovial membrane covering the cruciate ligaments.

  8. 21 CFR 864.9050 - Blood bank supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood... Biologics Evaluation and Research of the Food and Drug Administration. (b) Classification. Class I...

  9. [Arterial blood supply of the digestive tract in badgers].

    PubMed

    Rahm, S; Frewein, J

    1982-01-01

    In 5 dendrohyraxes, 6 heterohyraxes, and 7 procaviae the three main visceral arteries have been studied. In all hyracoidea the Arteria coeliaca divides into the Arteria lienalis, Arteria hepatica communis, and Arteria gastrica sinistra. Occasionally the latter two arteries run together for 7-15 mm before they separate. The Arteria mesenterica cranialis gives rise to the Arteriae pancreaticoduodenales caudales, Arteriae jejunales, Arteria colica media, and Arteria colica dextra and continues as Arteria ileocolica. Some animals had an Arteria colica media accessoria which supplied the first half of the colon descendens. In all other animals the entire colon descendens was supplied by the Arteria colica sinistra which originates in the Arteria mesenterica caudalis. Branches of the Arteria rectalis cranialis extend close to the anus.

  10. A stochastic simulator of a blood product donation environment with demand spikes and supply shocks.

    PubMed

    An, Ming-Wen; Reich, Nicholas G; Crawford, Stephen O; Brookmeyer, Ron; Louis, Thomas A; Nelson, Kenrad E

    2011-01-01

    The availability of an adequate blood supply is a critical public health need. An influenza epidemic or another crisis affecting population mobility could create a critical donor shortage, which could profoundly impact blood availability. We developed a simulation model for the blood supply environment in the United States to assess the likely impact on blood availability of factors such as an epidemic. We developed a simulator of a multi-state model with transitions among states. Weekly numbers of blood units donated and needed were generated by negative binomial stochastic processes. The simulator allows exploration of the blood system under certain conditions of supply and demand rates, and can be used for planning purposes to prepare for sudden changes in the public's health. The simulator incorporates three donor groups (first-time, sporadic, and regular), immigration and emigration, deferral period, and adjustment factors for recruitment. We illustrate possible uses of the simulator by specifying input values for an 8-week flu epidemic, resulting in a moderate supply shock and demand spike (for example, from postponed elective surgeries), and different recruitment strategies. The input values are based in part on data from a regional blood center of the American Red Cross during 1996-2005. Our results from these scenarios suggest that the key to alleviating deficit effects of a system shock may be appropriate timing and duration of recruitment efforts, in turn depending critically on anticipating shocks and rapidly implementing recruitment efforts.

  11. Traffic-Related Air Pollution, Blood Pressure, and Adaptive Response of Mitochondrial Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jia; Cayir, Akin; Trevisi, Letizia; Sanchez-Guerra, Marco; Lin, Xinyi; Peng, Cheng; Bind, Marie-Abèle; Prada, Diddier; Laue, Hannah; Brennan, Kasey J.M.; Dereix, Alexandra; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel; Baccarelli, Andrea A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to black carbon (BC), a tracer of vehicular-traffic-pollution, is associated with increased blood pressure (BP). Identifying biological factors that attenuate BC effects on BP can inform prevention. We evaluated the role of mitochondrial abundance, an adaptive mechanism compensating for cellular-redox-imbalance, in the BC-BP relationship. Methods and Results At one or more visits among 675 older men from the Normative Aging Study (observations=1,252), we assessed daily BP and ambient BC levels from a stationary monitor. To determine blood mitochondrial abundance, we used whole blood to analyze mitochondrial-to-nuclear DNA ratio (mtDNA/nDNA) using quantitative polymerase-chain-reaction. Every standard deviation (SD) increase in 28-day BC moving average (MA) was associated with 1.97 mm Hg (95%CI, 1.23–2.72; P<0.0001) and 3.46 mm Hg (95%CI, 2.06–4.87; P<0.0001) higher diastolic and systolic (SBP) BP, respectively. Positive BC-BP associations existed throughout all time windows. BC MAs (5-day to 28-day) were associated with increased mtDNA/nDNA; every SD increase in 28-day BC MA was associated with 0.12 SD (95%CI, 0.03–0.20; P=0.007) higher mtDNA/nDNA. High mtDNA/nDNA significantly attenuated the BC-SBP association throughout all time windows. The estimated effect of 28-day BC MA on SBP was 1.95-fold larger for individuals at the lowest mtDNA/nDNA quartile midpoint (4.68 mm Hg; 95%CI, 3.03–6.33; P<0.0001), compared to the top quartile midpoint (2.40 mm Hg; 95%CI, 0.81–3.99; P=0.003). Conclusions In older adults, short- to moderate-term ambient BC levels were associated with increased BP and blood mitochondrial abundance. Our findings indicate that increased blood mitochondrial abundance is a compensatory response and attenuates the cardiac effects of BC. PMID:26660284

  12. Bacterial abundance and diversity in pond water supplied with different feeds

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Ya; Hou, Jie; Deng, Ming; Liu, Quansheng; Wu, Chongwei; Ji, Yingjie; He, Xugang

    2016-01-01

    The abundance and diversity of bacteria in two types of ponds were investigated by quantitative PCR and Illumina MiSeq sequencing. The results revealed that the abundance of bacterial 16S rRNA genes in D ponds (with grass carp fed sudan grass) was significantly lower than that in E ponds (with grass carp fed commercial feed). The microbial communities were dominated by Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria in both E and D ponds, while the abundance of some genera was significantly different between the two types of ponds. Specifically, some potential pathogens such as Acinetobacter and Aeromonas were found to be significantly decreased, while some probiotics such as Comamonadaceae unclassified and Bacillales unclassified were significantly increased in D ponds. In addition, water quality of D ponds was better than that of E ponds. Temperature, dissolved oxygen and nutrients had significant influence on bacterial communities. The differences in bacterial community compositions between the two types of ponds could be partially explained by the different water conditions. PMID:27759010

  13. Bacterial abundance and diversity in pond water supplied with different feeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Ya; Hou, Jie; Deng, Ming; Liu, Quansheng; Wu, Chongwei; Ji, Yingjie; He, Xugang

    2016-10-01

    The abundance and diversity of bacteria in two types of ponds were investigated by quantitative PCR and Illumina MiSeq sequencing. The results revealed that the abundance of bacterial 16S rRNA genes in D ponds (with grass carp fed sudan grass) was significantly lower than that in E ponds (with grass carp fed commercial feed). The microbial communities were dominated by Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria in both E and D ponds, while the abundance of some genera was significantly different between the two types of ponds. Specifically, some potential pathogens such as Acinetobacter and Aeromonas were found to be significantly decreased, while some probiotics such as Comamonadaceae unclassified and Bacillales unclassified were significantly increased in D ponds. In addition, water quality of D ponds was better than that of E ponds. Temperature, dissolved oxygen and nutrients had significant influence on bacterial communities. The differences in bacterial community compositions between the two types of ponds could be partially explained by the different water conditions.

  14. Zika and the Blood Supply: A Work in Progress.

    PubMed

    Katz, Louis M; Rossmann, Susan N

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus can be transmitted by transfusion, but the harm caused to recipients is not clear in most cases. It is very likely that the virus could also be transmitted by transplanted organs. Sensitivity to the risk from transfusion is elevated by consideration of possible severe neurologic damage in fetuses. Strategies for dealing with transfusion risk vary with the presence of Zika in the region. In nonendemic areas, risks can be reduced by excluding donors who have exposure through travel or sexual contact with someone at risk. In both endemic and nonendemic areas, the risk can be further reduced by nucleic acid testing of donors, or pathogen reduction of platelet and plasma products. The real risk to the population depends on the frequency of infection as well as the efficacy of these interventions. The interventions chosen will depend on the risk assessment for any situation; in the United States at this time, a combination of travel deferrals, testing, and, to a lesser extent, pathogen reduction is being used, but universal testing of US blood donors under investigational use has been mandated by the US Food and Drug Administration, beginning with states most at risk of local transmission. Canada is largely using travel deferrals. A precautionary approach may be taken; however, a formal decision-making framework has been suggested. The situation globally is clearly very fluid, as the epidemic continues to spread and we continue to learn how to best protect recipients of blood and transplants.

  15. Red blood cells in sports: effects of exercise and training on oxygen supply by red blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Mairbäurl, Heimo

    2013-01-01

    During exercise the cardiovascular system has to warrant substrate supply to working muscle. The main function of red blood cells in exercise is the transport of O2 from the lungs to the tissues and the delivery of metabolically produced CO2 to the lungs for expiration. Hemoglobin also contributes to the blood's buffering capacity, and ATP and NO release from red blood cells contributes to vasodilation and improved blood flow to working muscle. These functions require adequate amounts of red blood cells in circulation. Trained athletes, particularly in endurance sports, have a decreased hematocrit, which is sometimes called “sports anemia.” This is not anemia in a clinical sense, because athletes have in fact an increased total mass of red blood cells and hemoglobin in circulation relative to sedentary individuals. The slight decrease in hematocrit by training is brought about by an increased plasma volume (PV). The mechanisms that increase total red blood cell mass by training are not understood fully. Despite stimulated erythropoiesis, exercise can decrease the red blood cell mass by intravascular hemolysis mainly of senescent red blood cells, which is caused by mechanical rupture when red blood cells pass through capillaries in contracting muscles, and by compression of red cells e.g., in foot soles during running or in hand palms in weightlifters. Together, these adjustments cause a decrease in the average age of the population of circulating red blood cells in trained athletes. These younger red cells are characterized by improved oxygen release and deformability, both of which also improve tissue oxygen supply during exercise. PMID:24273518

  16. Transport and storage of infusion supplies and blood products.

    PubMed

    2001-09-01

    Home care nurses face many challenges in transporting and storing medications and blood products in their vehicles and in patients' homes. Unlike climate-controlled institutions, products subject to the cold of winter and the heat of summer can easily be damaged, which can be harmful to the patient. Additionally, several regulations and protocols demand that products be cared for in a certain manner, stored in the proper container, and labeled appropriately. The following information presents the current practices in storing and transporting these products safely. It can be used as a guide for policy and procedure development and a review for clinicians in assuring safe handling of these products from office to home to lab.

  17. Simulation-optimization model for production planning in the blood supply chain.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Andres F; Brailsford, Sally C; Smith, Honora K; Forero-Matiz, Sonia P; Camacho-Rodríguez, Bernardo A

    2016-06-04

    Production planning in the blood supply chain is a challenging task. Many complex factors such as uncertain supply and demand, blood group proportions, shelf life constraints and different collection and production methods have to be taken into account, and thus advanced methodologies are required for decision making. This paper presents an integrated simulation-optimization model to support both strategic and operational decisions in production planning. Discrete-event simulation is used to represent the flows through the supply chain, incorporating collection, production, storing and distribution. On the other hand, an integer linear optimization model running over a rolling planning horizon is used to support daily decisions, such as the required number of donors, collection methods and production planning. This approach is evaluated using real data from a blood center in Colombia. The results show that, using the proposed model, key indicators such as shortages, outdated units, donors required and cost are improved.

  18. Inorganic nitrogen supply and dissolved organic nitrogen abundance across the US Great Plains.

    PubMed

    Mobley, Megan L; Cleary, Matthew J; Burke, Ingrid C

    2014-01-01

    Across US Great Plains grasslands, a gradient of increasing mean annual precipitation from west to east corresponds to increasing aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) and increasing N-limitation. Previous work has shown that there is no increase in net N mineralization rates across this gradient, leading to the question of where eastern prairie grasses obtain the nitrogen to support production. One as-yet unexamined source is soil organic N, despite abundant literature from other ecosystems showing that plants take up dissolved soil organic N. This study measured KCl-extractable dissolved organic N (DON) in surface soils across the grassland productivity gradient. We found that KCl-extractable DON pools increased from west to east. If available to and used by plants, this DON may help explain the high ANPP in the eastern Great Plains. These results suggest a need for future research to determine whether, in what quantities, and in what forms prairie grasses use organic N to support primary production.

  19. T cell abundance in blood predicts acute organ toxicity in chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Reichardt, Sybille D.; Rave-Fränk, Margret; Schirmer, Markus A.; Stadelmann, Christine; Canis, Martin; Wolff, Hendrik A.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) by chemoradiotherapy (CRT) often results in high-grade acute organ toxicity (HGAOT). As these adverse effects impair the patients' quality of life and the feasibility of the planned therapy, we sought to analyze immunological parameters in tumor material and blood samples obtained from 48 HNSCC patients in order to assess the potential to predict the individual acute organ toxicity. T cells in the tumor stroma were enriched in patients developing HGAOT whereas levels of soluble factors in the plasma and gene expression in whole blood did not coincide with the occurrence of acute organ toxicity. In contrast, the frequency and absolute numbers of selected leukocyte subpopulations measured in samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) directly before the beginning of CRT were significantly different in patients with HGAOT as compared to those without. When we validated several potential markers including the abundance of T cells in a small prospective study with 16 HNSCC patients, we were able to correctly predict acute organ toxicity in up to 81% of the patients. We conclude that analysis of PBMCs by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) might be a convenient strategy to identify patients at risk of developing HGAOT caused by CRT, which might allow to adapt the treatment regimen and possibly improve disease outcome. PMID:27589568

  20. Self-Deferral, HIV Infection, and the Blood Supply: Evaluating an AIDS Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Edward H.; Novick, Alvin

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effectiveness of self-deferral, a social screen implemented to protect the U.S. blood supply from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection prior to the advent of laboratory testing. Mathematical models are developed to estimate the number of infectious transfusions ultimately leading to AIDS prior to self-deferral.…

  1. The arterial blood supply for the synovial tendon sheaths of the hand.

    PubMed

    de la Garza, Oscar; Lierse, Werner; de los Angeles-García, Ma; Elizondo, Rodrigo; Guzmán, Santos

    2008-01-01

    The blood supply for the synovial tendon sheaths of the hand was carefully investigated. We show that the origin of those arteries, supplying the synovial tendon-sheaths of the Mm. flexor pollicis longus, flexor digitorum superficialis and profundus, lies in the Canalis carpi. We also describe that the branches of the Aa. digitales palmares propriae arise independently. We emphasize that the terminal branches of the A. interossea posterior and the Rete carpi dorsalis form an arterial network on the synovial tendon sheaths of the Dorsum manus. The synovial membranes of the proximal joints of the fingers receive an ample blood supply from the Rami ascendentes of the Aa. metacarpeae palmares and the Aa. digitales palmares propriae (Aa. recurrentes).

  2. Indocyanine green fluorescent dye during bowel surgery: are the blood supply "guessing days" over?

    PubMed

    Foppa, C; Denoya, P I; Tarta, C; Bergamaschi, R

    2014-08-01

    Assessing the blood supply of the bowel is a difficult task even for experienced surgeons. Laser-assisted indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescent dye angiography provides intraoperative visual assessment of blood flow to the bowel wall and surrounding tissues, allowing for modification to the surgical plan, which can reduce the risk of postoperative complications. ICG angiography was prospectively performed in a single center during a 1-year period for small bowel ischemia and left colorectal resections. ICG angiography played a major role in the intraoperative decision making in 4 of 160 patients, whose clinical and operative details are here reported. In case of acute small intestine ischemia, resection is not warranted unless absolute perfusion units are below 19 (relative 21%). When evaluating blood supply to the left colon prior to anastomosing, resection is recommended with absolute units lower than 18 (relative 31%) even if the bowel appears macroscopically perfused.

  3. A Functional Perspective on the Embryology and Anatomy of the Cerebral Blood Supply

    PubMed Central

    Menshawi, Khaled; Mohr, Jay P

    2015-01-01

    The anatomy of the arterial system supplying blood to the brain can influence the development of arterial disease such as aneurysms, dolichoectasia and atherosclerosis. As the arteries supplying blood to the brain develop during embryogenesis, variation in their anatomy may occur and this variation may influence the development of arterial disease. Angiogenesis, which occurs mainly by sprouting of parent arteries, is the first stage at which variations can occur. At day 24 of embryological life, the internal carotid artery is the first artery to form and it provides all the blood required by the primitive brain. As the occipital region, brain stem and cerebellum enlarge; the internal carotid supply becomes insufficient, triggering the development of the posterior circulation. At this stage, the posterior circulation consists of a primitive mesh of arterial networks that originate from projection of penetrators from the distal carotid artery and more proximally from carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses. These anastomoses regress when the basilar artery and the vertebral arteries become independent from the internal carotid artery, but their persistence is not uncommon in adults (e.g., persistent trigeminal artery). Other common remnants of embryological development include fenestration or duplication (most commonly of the basilar artery), hypoplasia (typically of the posterior communicating artery) or agenesis (typically of the anterior communicating artery). Learning more about the hemodynamic consequence that these variants may have on the brain territories they supply may help understand better the underlying physiopathology of cerebral arterial remodeling and stroke in patients with these variants. PMID:26060802

  4. Do expert assessments converge? An exploratory case study of evaluating and managing a blood supply risk

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Examining professional assessments of a blood product recall/withdrawal and its implications for risk and public health, the paper introduces ideas about perceptions of minimal risk and its management. It also describes the context of publicly funded blood transfusion in Canada and the withdrawal event that is the basis of this study. Methods Interviews with 45 experts from administration, medicine, blood supply, laboratory services and risk assessment took place using a multi-level sampling framework in the aftermath of the recall. These experts either directly dealt with the withdrawal or were involved in the management of the blood supply at the national level. Data from these interviews were coded in NVivo for analysis and interpretation. Analytically, data were interpreted to derive typifications to relate interview responses to risk management heuristics. Results While all those interviewed agreed on the importance of patient safety, differences in the ways in which the risk was contextualized and explicated were discerned. Risk was seen in terms of patient safety, liability or precaution. These different risk logics are illustrated by selected quotations. Conclusions Expert assessments did not fully converge and it is possible that these different risk logics and discourses may affect the risk management process more generally, although not necessarily in a negative way. Patient safety is not to be compromised but management of blood risk in publicly funded systems may vary. We suggest ways of managing blood risk using formal and safety case approaches. PMID:21864330

  5. Manufacturing blood ex vivo: a futuristic approach to deal with the supply and safety concerns

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vimal K.; Saini, Abhishek; Tsuji, Kohichiro; Sharma, P. B.; Chandra, Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Blood transfusions are routinely done in every medical regimen and a worldwide established collection, processing/storage centers provide their services for the same. There have been extreme global demands for both raising the current collections and supply of safe/adequate blood due to increasingly demanding population. With, various risks remain associated with the donor derived blood, and a number of post collection blood screening and processing methods put extreme constraints on supply system especially in the underdeveloped countries. A logistic approach to manufacture erythrocytes ex-vivo by using modern tissue culture techniques have surfaced in the past few years. There are several reports showing the possibilities of RBCs (and even platelets/neutrophils) expansion under tightly regulated conditions. In fact, ex vivo synthesis of the few units of clinical grade RBCs from a single dose of starting material such as umbilical cord blood (CB) has been well established. Similarly, many different sources are also being explored for the same purpose, such as embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells. However, the major concerns remain elusive before the manufacture and clinical use of different blood components may be used to successfully replace the present system of donor derived blood transfusion. The most important factor shall include the large scale of RBCs production from each donated unit within a limited time period and cost of their production, both of these issues need to be handled carefully since many of the recipients among developing countries are unable to pay even for the freely available donor derived blood. Anyways, keeping these issues in mind, present article shall be focused on the possibilities of blood production and their use in the near future. PMID:25364733

  6. Investigation into the practice of ensuring a steady blood supply for medical rescue during the Wenchuan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Yi, Mei

    2009-08-01

    In the rescue that follows a major natural disaster, blood donation is a unique, necessary method to assist the injured. To achieve effective assurance of the blood supply for medical rescue in an orderly fashion, the current procedure must be adjusted by using scientific prediction, analysis, and adaptation. After the process of ensuring the blood supply for medical rescue during the Wenchuan Earthquake, the Ministry of Health of China, with great efforts, continues to investigate and reflect upon the application of the above principals during actual practice. Objectively, these efforts will lead to better results and establish a standard supplying blood during a disaster rescue.

  7. Mass spectrometry in cancer biomarker research: a case for immunodepletion of abundant blood-derived proteins from clinical tissue specimens

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, DaRue A; Johann, Donald J; Wei, Bih-Rong; Ye, Xiaoying; Chan, King C; Nissley, Dwight V; Simpson, R Mark; Citrin, Deborah E; Mackall, Crystal L; Linehan, W Marston; Blonder, Josip

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of clinically relevant cancer biomarkers using mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics has proven difficult, primarily because of the enormous dynamic range of blood-derived protein concentrations and the fact that the 22 most abundant blood-derived proteins constitute approximately 99% of the total plasma protein mass. Immunodepletion of clinical body fluid specimens (e.g., serum/plasma) for the removal of highly abundant proteins is a reasonable and reproducible solution. Often overlooked, clinical tissue specimens also contain a formidable amount of highly abundant blood-derived proteins present in tissue-embedded networks of blood/lymph capillaries and interstitial fluid. Hence, the dynamic range impediment to biomarker discovery remains a formidable obstacle, regardless of clinical sample type (solid tissue and/or body fluid). Thus, we optimized and applied simultaneous immunodepletion of blood-derived proteins from solid tissue and peripheral blood, using clear cell renal cell carcinoma as a model disease. Integrative analysis of data from this approach and genomic data obtained from the same type of tumor revealed concordant key pathways and protein targets germane to clear cell renal cell carcinoma. This includes the activation of the lipogenic pathway characterized by increased expression of adipophilin (PLIN2) along with 'cadherin switching', a phenomenon indicative of transcriptional reprogramming linked to renal epithelial dedifferentiation. We also applied immunodepletion of abundant blood-derived proteins to various tissue types (e.g., adipose tissue and breast tissue) showing unambiguously that the removal of abundant blood-derived proteins represents a powerful tool for the reproducible profiling of tissue proteomes. Herein, we show that the removal of abundant blood-derived proteins from solid tissue specimens is of equal importance to depletion of body fluids and recommend its routine use in the context of biological discovery and

  8. The abundance and organization of polypeptides associated with antigens of the Rh blood group system.

    PubMed

    Gardner, B; Anstee, D J; Mawby, W J; Tanner, M J; von dem Borne, A E

    1991-06-01

    Twelve murine monoclonal antibodies, which react with human red cells of common Rh phenotype but give weak or negative reactions with Rh null erythrocytes, were used in quantitative binding assays and competitive binding assays to investigate the abundance and organization of polypeptides involved in the expression of antigens of the Rh blood group system. Antibodies of the R6A-type (R6A, BRIC-69, BRIC-207) and the 2D10-type (MB-2D10, LA18.18, LA23.40) recognize related structures and 100,000-200,000 molecules of each antibody bind maximally to erythrocytes of common Rh phenotype. Antibodies of the BRIC-125 type (BRICs 32, 122, 125, 126, 168, 211) recognize structures that are unrelated to those recognized by R6A-type and 2D10-type antibodies and between 10,000 and 50,000 antibody molecules bind maximally to erythrocytes of the common Rh phenotype. The binding of antibodies of the R6A-type and the 2D10-type, but not of antibodies of the BRIC-125-type could be partially inhibited by human anti-D antibodies (polyclonal and monoclonal) and a murine anti-e-like antibody. These results are consistent with evidence (Moore & Green 1987; Avent et al., 1988b) that the Rh blood group antigens are associated with a complex that comprises two groups of related polypeptides of M(r) 30,000 and M(r) 35,000-100,000, respectively, and suggest that there are 1-2 x 10(5) copies of this complex per erythrocyte. The polypeptide recognized by antibodies of the BRIC-125 type is likely to be associated with this complex.

  9. Increased abundance of ADAM9 transcripts in the blood is associated with tissue damage

    PubMed Central

    Rinchai, Darawan; Kewcharoenwong, Chidchamai; Kessler, Bianca; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana; Chaussabel, Damien

    2016-01-01

    Background: Members of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain) family have emerged as critical regulators of cell-cell signaling during development and homeostasis. ADAM9 is consistently overexpressed in various human cancers, and has been shown to play an important role in tumorigenesis. However, little is known about the involvement of ADAM9 during immune-mediated processes. Results: Mining of an extensive compendium of transcriptomic datasets identified important gaps in knowledge regarding the possible role of ADAM9 in immunological homeostasis and inflammation: 1) The abundance of ADAM9 transcripts in the blood was increased in patients with acute infection but, 2) changed very little after in vitro exposure to a wide range of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). 3) Furthermore it was found to increase significantly in subjects as a result of tissue injury or tissue remodeling, in absence of infectious processes. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that ADAM9 may constitute a valuable biomarker for the assessment of tissue damage, especially in clinical situations where other inflammatory markers are confounded by infectious processes. PMID:27990250

  10. Infundibula of equine maxillary cheek teeth. Part 1: Development, blood supply and infundibular cementogenesis.

    PubMed

    Suske, A; Pöschke, A; Schrock, P; Kirschner, S; Brockmann, M; Staszyk, C

    2016-03-01

    There is increasing interest in diseases of infundibula of equine maxillary cheek teeth. Imperfect infundibular cementogenesis has been recognized as an aetiopathological factor for the onset of infundibular necrosis. In this article, infundibular development was examined with particular attention to infundibular blood vessels and cementogenesis. Forty-one deciduous maxillary premolars prior to eruption were investigated using routine histological and immunohistological methods to visualize blood vessels and the enamel organ. Selected specimens were scanned by micro-computed tomography to analyze the three-dimensional configuration of the developing infundibulum. Before eruption, the infundibula are supplied by a central infundibular artery entering the infundibulum from an occlusal direction and by arteries entering the mesial infundibulum from the mesial aspect, and the distal infundibulum from the distal aspect. The central infundibular artery is destroyed shortly after tooth eruption but the lateral arteries remain vital for a time after eruption. As the arteries of the distal infundibulum are located in a more apical position, blood is received for a longer period compared with the mesial infundibulum. Cementogenesis starts first at distinct enamel in-foldings in the occlusal part of the infundibula, advancing in an apical direction. The results suggest a distinct asymmetry between the infundibula with the mesial infundibulum prone to incomplete cementogenesis due to early blood supply cessation.

  11. Variations of the sciatic nerve anatomy and blood supply in the gluteal region: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kanawati, Andrew James

    2014-11-01

    Variations of the sciatic nerve anatomy and blood supply are complex and largely not dealt with in common anatomy texts. Variations of the sciatic nerve anatomy can be divided into the height of division of its branches, relation of the branches to the piriformis muscle, and its blood supply. These variations should be well known to any surgeon operating in this anatomical region. It is unknown whether these variations increase the risk of surgical injury and consequent morbidity. This paper will review the current knowledge regarding anatomical variations of the sciatic nerve and its blood supply.

  12. Right hepatic artery crossing the common hepatic artery: an unusual blood supply to the liver.

    PubMed

    Felli, Emanuele; Vennarecci, Giovanni; Santoro, Roberto; Guglielmo, Nicola; Ettorre, Giuseppe Maria

    2016-04-01

    To perform hepatic surgery a precise preoperative and intraoperative study of liver vascular supply is mandatory. Detecting vascular variations may have great importance on surgical strategy and outcome, and details of anatomy do not concern only academical knowledge but become deeply involved in practice. We present a case of unusual blood supply to the liver, the common hepatic artery was directed to the right liver and a right hepatic artery originating from the superior mesenteric artery was directed to the left liver. The right hepatic artery crossed the common hepatic artery in the proximal part of the hepatic pedicle, anterior to the portal vein. To our knowledge this type of anatomical variation has not been described before and it represents a rare finding that has to be kept in mind, especially in case of major hepatectomies and more demanding splitting liver procedures such as A.L.P.P.S., in situ split, ex situ split and living donor liver transplantation.

  13. Effects of torbafylline, pentoxifylline and buflomedil on vascularisation and fibre type of rat skeletal muscles subjected to limited blood supply.

    PubMed Central

    Hudlická, O.; Price, S.

    1990-01-01

    1. Blood flow (measured by radio-labelled microspheres), fibre composition and capillary/fibre ratio were estimated in rat fast twitch skeletal muscles (tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus) five weeks after unilateral ligation of the common iliac artery in animals treated with either saline, torbafylline, pentoxifylline or buflomedil. 2. The resting blood flow was lower in muscles with limited blood supply than in their contralateral controls; this difference became statistically insignificant after treatment. Capillary/fibre ratio was similar in all muscles with either intact or limited blood supply and did not change after administration of any of the drugs. 3. The percentage of glycolytic fibres was not changed by ligation, but it decreased significantly in animals treated with torbafylline. This may improve performance in muscles with limited blood supply. PMID:2361174

  14. Sunitinib treatment does not improve blood supply but induces hypoxia in human melanoma xenografts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Antiangiogenic agents that disrupt the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway have been demonstrated to normalize tumor vasculature and improve tumor oxygenation in some studies and to induce hypoxia in others. The aim of this preclinical study was to investigate the effect of sunitinib treatment on the morphology and function of tumor vasculature and on tumor oxygenation. Methods A-07-GFP and R-18-GFP human melanoma xenografts grown in dorsal window chambers were used as preclinical tumor models. Morphologic parameters of tumor vascular networks were assessed from high-resolution transillumination images, and tumor blood supply time was assessed from first-pass imaging movies recorded after a bolus of 155 kDa tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate-labeled dextran had been administered intravenously. Tumor hypoxia was assessed from immunohistochemical preparations of the imaged tissue by use of pimonidazole as a hypoxia marker. Results Sunitinib treatment reduced vessel densities, increased vessel segment lengths, did not affect blood supply times, and increased hypoxic area fractions. Conclusion Sunitinib treatment did not improve vascular function but induced hypoxia in A-07-GFP and R-18-GFP tumors. PMID:22947392

  15. The anterolateral incision for pilon fracture surgery: an anatomic study of cutaneous blood supply.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Brent E; Nathan, Senthil T; Acland, Robert D; Roberts, Craig S

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the blood supply to the adjacent skin and its vulnerability to anterolateral tibial plating performed with fibular plating through a single surgical incision. Ten lightly embalmed cadaver legs without a history of lower extremity trauma or surgery with a mean age of 71 years (range, 57 to 87 years) were used for this investigation. Each specimen was injected with a commercially available silicone compound through the popliteal artery. The left leg was plated through a modified extensile Böhler approach and the right leg served as the control. Each leg was anatomically dissected. All measurements were taken using a digital caliper by a single investigator. A mean of 93 (range, 4 to 17) perforating arteries were present and in the proximity of the fibula plate. Our findings suggest the potential for iatrogenic soft tissue breakdown along the posterior border of the anterolateral surgical incision in this procedure as a result of compromised blood supply to the skin.

  16. Blood Product Supply in Germany: The Impact of Apheresis and Pooled Platelet Concentrates

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Karin; Schopohl, Dorothee; Wittmann, Georg; Schramm, Wolfgang; Ostermann, Helmut; Rieger, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Background In Germany, about 60% of all produced platelet concentrates (PCs) are apheresis PCs (APCs). Ongoing discussions on APC reimbursement and costs might lead to a potential shift in pooled PC (PPC)/APC production. Objective of this analysis was to build a comprehensive model from the societal perspective to evaluate consequences associated with shifts in platelet supply and demand. Methods Literature search, desktop researches on platelet supply and demand. Model calculations, time horizon one year: model input from the Paul-Ehrlich-Institute, data 2013. Base case: 19.2% of annual whole blood donations (WBDs) were used for production of 38.5% PPCs, decay of 46,218 PCs (8.0%). Scenarios calculated: variation in PPC proportion of 10-100%. Results Base case: during PPC production 41,957-83,913 red blood cell concentrates (RBCCs) are estimated to be lost, which corresponds to 1-2% of annual RBCCs in Germany. Scenarios were calculated for a production of 60-100% PPCs: loss is estimated to be 1.5-5.0% of annual RBCCs (65,430-218,099), decay 54,189-69,022 PCs (9.4-12.0%). Conclusion Production of different blood components is interlinked and sensitive to unidimensional decisions. Increasing PPC proportion has negative impact on the RBCC production and on the antigen-matched APC donor pool. Completion of the model calculations to predict the optimal PPC/APC proportion would require evidence on the number of refractory patients, donor pool sizes, and incidences of diseases requiring platelet transfusions. PMID:27994524

  17. Catabolism of exogenously supplied thymidine to thymine and dihydrothymine by platelets in human peripheral blood

    SciTech Connect

    Pero, R.W.; Johnson, D.; Olsson, A.

    1984-11-01

    The interference of platelets with the estimation of unscheduled DNA synthesis in human peripheral mononuclear leukocytes following genotoxic exposure was studied. A 96% reduction in the unscheduled DNA synthesis value was achieved by incubating (/sup 3/H)thymidine with platelet-rich plasma for 5 hr at 37 degrees. Using radioactive thymine-containing compounds, together with quantitative analyses based on thin-layer and ion-exchange chromatographies, we have shown that thymidine was converted to thymine which, in turn, was converted to dihydrothymine in platelet-rich plasma. The enzymes responsible were separated from platelet lysates by gel filtration and were identified as thymidine phosphorylase and dihydrothymine dehydrogenase. The phosphorylase reversibly catalyzed the formation of thymine from thymidine and converted bromodeoxyuridine to bromouracil. The dehydrogenase reversibly catalyzed the interconversion of thymine and dihydrothymine in a reaction dependent on NADP(H), and it was inhibited by diazouracil and by thymine. Nearly all the thymidine-catabolizing activity found in whole blood samples supplied exogenously with thymidine was accounted for by the platelets. Since most genetic toxicological tests that use blood samples do not involve removing platelets from the blood cell cultures, then it is concluded that precautions should be taken in the future to determine the influence of platelets on these test systems. This is particularly true for methods dependent on thymidine pulses such as unscheduled DNA synthesis, or those dependent on bromodeoxyuridine, such as sister chromatid exchanges, since this nucleoside is also a substrate for thymidine phosphorylase.

  18. Effect of the high femoral osteotomy upon the vascularity and blood supply of the hip joint

    SciTech Connect

    Day, B.; Shim, S.S.; Leung, G.

    1984-05-01

    This investigation was done to study the effects of high femoral osteotomy upon the vascularity and blood supply of the hip and to further our knowledge of its physiologic basis. We have used established methods of study, including bone scans, microangiography, isotope clearance and perosseous venography, and based upon the results of these studies, we have reached certain conclusions. First, high femoral osteotomy increases the blood flow and vascularity in the hip joint, the femoral head and neck and the great trochanter. Second, bone scanning techniques using /sup 99m/Tc labeled diphosphonate have shown increased uptake in the femoral head and neck after high femoral osteotomy. The localization was done using a Digital Gamma III computer, and the activity on the osteotomy side at two weeks was 3.5 times as great as on the control side. By 16 weeks postoperatively, there was still two times as much activity on the osteotomy side. Third, microangiography showed increased vascularity both at the osteotomy site and in the femoral head and neck and the greater trochanter on that side. Such an increase in vascularity first became evident two weeks after osteotomy and persisted during the four month period studied. Fourth, the results of the /sup 99m/Tc diphosphonate clearance study showed a 25 per cent increase in femoral head blood flow on the operative side. Fifth, perosseous venography of the femoral head and neck showed a marked increase in venous drainage through the osteotomy site in the immediate postosteotomy stage.

  19. Climate change could threaten blood supply by altering the distribution of vector-borne disease: an Australian case-study

    PubMed Central

    Bambrick, Hilary J.; Woodruff, Rosalie E.; Hanigan, Ivan C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Climate change is expected to promote more intense and prolonged outbreaks of vector-borne disease, and alter the geographic boundaries of transmission. This has implications for the safety and supply of fresh blood products around the world. In Australia, a recent outbreak of dengue fever caused a prolonged regional shortage in the supply of fresh blood products. Objective To highlight the potential for climate change to affect the safety and supply of blood globally through its impact on vector-borne disease, using the example of dengue in Australia as a case-study. Design We modelled geographic regions in Australia suitable for dengue transmission over the coming century under four climate change scenarios, estimated changes to the population at risk and effect on blood supply. Results Geographic regions with climates that are favourable to dengue transmission could expand to include large population centres in a number of currently dengue-free regions in Australia and reduce blood supply across several states. Conclusion Unless there is strong intergovernmental action on greenhouse gas reduction, there could be an eight-fold increase in the number of people living in dengue prone regions in Australia by the end of the century. Similar impacts will be experienced elsewhere and for other vector-borne diseases, with regions currently on the margins of transmission zones most affected. Globally, climate change is likely to compound existing problems of blood safety and supply in already endemic areas and cause future shortages in fresh blood products through its impact on transmission of vector-borne disease. PMID:20052315

  20. Multi-Objective Algorithm for Blood Supply via Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to the Wounded in an Emergency Situation.

    PubMed

    Wen, Tingxi; Zhang, Zhongnan; Wong, Kelvin K L

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) has been widely used in many industries. In the medical environment, especially in some emergency situations, UAVs play an important role such as the supply of medicines and blood with speed and efficiency. In this paper, we study the problem of multi-objective blood supply by UAVs in such emergency situations. This is a complex problem that includes maintenance of the supply blood's temperature model during transportation, the UAVs' scheduling and routes' planning in case of multiple sites requesting blood, and limited carrying capacity. Most importantly, we need to study the blood's temperature change due to the external environment, the heating agent (or refrigerant) and time factor during transportation, and propose an optimal method for calculating the mixing proportion of blood and appendage in different circumstances and delivery conditions. Then, by introducing the idea of transportation appendage into the traditional Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CVRP), this new problem is proposed according to the factors of distance and weight. Algorithmically, we use the combination of decomposition-based multi-objective evolutionary algorithm and local search method to perform a series of experiments on the CVRP public dataset. By comparing our technique with the traditional ones, our algorithm can obtain better optimization results and time performance.

  1. Surgical anatomy and blood supply of the fascial layers of the temporal region.

    PubMed

    Abul-Hassan, H S; von Drasek Ascher, G; Acland, R D

    1986-01-01

    In 15 fresh cadavers (30 sides), we studied the two layers of fascia in the temporal region, with particular regard to their blood supply and to their usefulness--together or separately--as microvascular free-tissue autografts. The superficial temporal fascia (temporoparietal fascia, epicranial aponeurosis) lies immediately deep to the hair follicles. It is part of the subcutaneous musculoaponeurotic system and is continuous in all directions with other structures belonging to that layer--including the galea above and the SMAS layer of the face below. The deep temporal fascia (temporalis fascia, investing fascia of temporalis) is separated from the superficial fascia by an avascular plane of loose areolar tissue. It completely invests the superficial aspect of the temporalis muscle down to (but not beyond) the zygomatic arch. It is firmly attached to periosteum all around the margin of the muscles. Below it is attached to the upper border of the zygomatic arch. We found the deep temporal fascia to be supplied solely by the middle temporal artery, a constant branch of the superficial temporal. The middle temporal artery arises 1 to 3 cm below the upper border of the zygomatic arch, runs always superficial to the arch, and enters the deep temporal fascia immediately above that layer's attachment to the zygomatic arch. If the middle temporal vessels are protected, the two layers of temporal fascia can be raised together as a fully vascularized tissue island. This island can be fashioned as a bilobed or a double-layered flap, depending on the manner of dissection. The potential surgical usefulness of these findings is discussed.

  2. [Neurovascular infrahyoidal myofascial flap. Anatomic and topographic study of the innervation and blood supply].

    PubMed

    Remmert, S; Meyer, S; Majocco, A

    1998-06-01

    The neurovascular infrahyoidal myofascial flap: An anatomical and topographical study of the innervation and blood supply. 15 cadavers had bilaterally been examined for the topography of the upper thyroid artery and vein and of the lower cervical ansa, as an axial bundle of vessels and nerves for the infrahyoidal myofascial flap. With the injection of methylene blue the vascular territories of the upper thyroid artery had been demonstrated. The upper thyroid artery and vein could be found in all cases. This artery was deriving in 47% from the external carotid artery, in 30% from the bifurcation and in 23% from the common carotid artery. The vein flowed in 43% into the facial vein and in 37% into the internal jugular vein. In the remaining 20% several segmental veins were found, which flowed into the jugular vein separately. In case of a far caudally situated vascular bundle the radius of rotation can be limited in cranial direction. The voluntary innervation of the muscles of this flap is derived from the lower cervical ansa. The upper radix of the ansa can be found 1 cm in latero-cranial direction of the greater horn of the hyoid bone, where it is separating from the hypoglossal nerve. The upper thyroid artery is supplying the infrahyoidal musculature in the whole extension from the hyoid bone to the sternum. Therefore it is possible to develop a myofascial flap of 3.5 cm x 11.5 cm in size, which is pedicled at an upper vascular and nerval bundle. Depending on the radius of rotation defects of the floor of mouth, of the tongue and of the oro- and hypopharynx can well be covered with this new neurovascular myofascial flap.

  3. Packed Red Blood Cells Are an Abundant and Proximate Potential Source of Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Zwemer, Charles F.; Davenport, Robertson D.; Gomez-Espina, Juan; Blanco-Gonzalez, Elisa; Whitesall, Steven E.; D'Alecy, Louis G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We determined, for packed red blood cells (PRBC) and fresh frozen plasma, the maximum content, and ability to release the endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and monomethylarginine (LNMMA). Background ADMA and LNMMA are near equipotent NOS inhibitors forming blood’s total NOS inhibitory content. The balance between removal from, and addition to plasma determines their free concentrations. Removal from plasma is by well-characterized specific hydrolases while formation is restricted to posttranslational protein methylation. When released into plasma they can readily enter endothelial cells and inhibit NOS. Fresh rat and human whole blood contain substantial protein incorporated ADMA however; the maximum content of ADMA and LNMMA in PRBC and fresh frozen plasma has not been determined. Methods We measured total (free and protein incorporated) ADMA and LNMMA content in PRBCs and fresh frozen plasma, as well as their incubation induced release, using HPLC with fluorescence detection. We tested the hypothesis that PRBC and fresh frozen plasma contain substantial inhibitory methylarginines that can be released chemically by complete in vitro acid hydrolysis or physiologically at 37°C by enzymatic blood proteolysis. Results In vitro strong-acid-hydrolysis revealed a large PRBC reservoir of ADMA (54.5 ± 9.7 µM) and LNMMA (58.9 ± 28.9 μM) that persisted over 42-d at 6° or -80°C. In vitro 5h incubation at 37°C nearly doubled free ADMA and LNMMNA concentration from PRBCs while no change was detected in fresh frozen plasma. Conclusion The compelling physiological ramifications are that regardless of storage age, 1) PRBCs can rapidly release pathologically relevant quantities of ADMA and LNMMA when incubated and 2) PRBCs have a protein-incorporated inhibitory methylarginines reservoir 100 times that of normal free inhibitory methylarginines in blood and thus could represent a clinically relevant and proximate

  4. RFID in the blood supply chain--increasing productivity, quality and patient safety.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Lynne; Davis, Rodeina; Gutierrez, Alfonso; Kopetsky, Matthew; Young, Kassandra; Veeramani, Raj

    2009-01-01

    As part of an overall design of a new, standardized RFID-enabled blood transfusion medicine supply chain, an assessment was conducted for two hospitals: the University of Iowa Hospital and Clinics (UIHC) and Mississippi Baptist Health System (MBHS). The main objectives of the study were to assess RFID technological and economic feasibility, along with possible impacts to productivity, quality and patient safety. A step-by-step process analysis focused on the factors contributing to process "pain points" (errors, inefficiency, product losses). A process re-engineering exercise produced blueprints of RFID-enabled processes to alleviate or eliminate those pain-points. In addition, an innovative model quantifying the potential reduction in adverse patient effects as a result of RFID implementation was created, allowing improvement initiatives to focus on process areas with the greatest potential impact to patient safety. The study concluded that it is feasible to implement RFID-enabled processes, with tangible improvements to productivity and safety expected. Based on a comprehensive cost/benefit model, it is estimated for a large hospital (UIHC) to recover investment from implementation within two to three years, while smaller hospitals may need longer to realize ROI. More importantly, the study estimated that RFID technology could reduce morbidity and mortality effects substantially among patients receiving transfusions.

  5. Glucose Transporters are Abundant in Cells with "Occluding" Junctions at the Blood-Eye Barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harik, Sami I.; Kalaria, Rajesh N.; Whitney, Paul M.; Andersson, Lars; Lundahl, Per; Ledbetter, Steven R.; Perry, George

    1990-06-01

    We studied the distribution of the "erythroid/brain" glucose transporter protein in the human and rat eye by immunocytochemistry with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to the C terminus of the human erythrocyte glucose transporter. We found intense immunocytochemical staining in the endothelium of microvessels of the retina, optic nerve, and iris but not in microvessels of the choroid, ciliary body, sclera, and other retro-orbital tissues. In addition, we found marked immunocytochemical staining of retinal pigment epithelium, ciliary body epithelium, and posterior epithelium of the iris. The common feature of all those endothelial and epithelial cells that stained intensely for the glucose transporter is the presence of "occluding" intercellular junctions, which constitute the anatomical bases of the blood-eye barriers. We propose that a high density of the glucose transporter is a biochemical concomitant of epithelial and endothelial cells with barrier characteristics, at least in tissues that have a high metabolic requirement for glucose.

  6. Multi-Objective Algorithm for Blood Supply via Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to the Wounded in an Emergency Situation

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Tingxi; Zhang, Zhongnan; Wong, Kelvin K. L.

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) has been widely used in many industries. In the medical environment, especially in some emergency situations, UAVs play an important role such as the supply of medicines and blood with speed and efficiency. In this paper, we study the problem of multi-objective blood supply by UAVs in such emergency situations. This is a complex problem that includes maintenance of the supply blood’s temperature model during transportation, the UAVs’ scheduling and routes’ planning in case of multiple sites requesting blood, and limited carrying capacity. Most importantly, we need to study the blood’s temperature change due to the external environment, the heating agent (or refrigerant) and time factor during transportation, and propose an optimal method for calculating the mixing proportion of blood and appendage in different circumstances and delivery conditions. Then, by introducing the idea of transportation appendage into the traditional Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CVRP), this new problem is proposed according to the factors of distance and weight. Algorithmically, we use the combination of decomposition-based multi-objective evolutionary algorithm and local search method to perform a series of experiments on the CVRP public dataset. By comparing our technique with the traditional ones, our algorithm can obtain better optimization results and time performance. PMID:27163361

  7. Differences in Abundances of Cell-Signalling Proteins in Blood Reveal Novel Biomarkers for Early Detection Of Clinical Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rocha de Paula, Mateus; Gómez Ravetti, Martín; Berretta, Regina; Moscato, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Background In November 2007 a study published in Nature Medicine proposed a simple test based on the abundance of 18 proteins in blood to predict the onset of clinical symptoms of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) two to six years before these symptoms manifest. Later, another study, published in PLoS ONE, showed that only five proteins (IL-1, IL-3, EGF, TNF- and G-CSF) have overall better prediction accuracy. These classifiers are based on the abundance of 120 proteins. Such values were standardised by a Z-score transformation, which means that their values are relative to the average of all others. Methodology The original datasets from the Nature Medicine paper are further studied using methods from combinatorial optimisation and Information Theory. We expand the original dataset by also including all pair-wise differences of z-score values of the original dataset (“metafeatures”). Using an exact algorithm to solve the resulting Feature Set problem, used to tackle the feature selection problem, we found signatures that contain either only features, metafeatures or both, and evaluated their predictive performance on the independent test set. Conclusions It was possible to show that a specific pattern of cell signalling imbalance in blood plasma has valuable information to distinguish between NDC and AD samples. The obtained signatures were able to predict AD in patients that already had a Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) with up to 84% of sensitivity, while maintaining also a strong prediction accuracy of 90% on a independent dataset with Non Demented Controls (NDC) and AD samples. The novel biomarkers uncovered with this method now confirms ANG-2, IL-11, PDGF-BB, CCL15/MIP-1; and supports the joint measurement of other signalling proteins not previously discussed: GM-CSF, NT-3, IGFBP-2 and VEGF-B. PMID:21479255

  8. Toward a more stable blood supply: charitable incentives, donation rates, and the experience of September 11.

    PubMed

    Sass, Reuben G

    2013-01-01

    Although excess blood collection has characterized U.S. national disasters, most dramatically in the case of September 11, periodic shortages of blood have recurred for decades. In response, I propose a new model of medical philanthropy, one that specifically uses charitable contributions to health care as blood donation incentives. I explain how the surge in blood donations following 9/11 was both transient and disaster-specific, failing to foster a greater continuing commitment to donate blood. This underscores the importance of considering blood donation incentives. I defend charitable incentives as an alternative to financial incentives, which I contend would further extend neoliberal market values into health care. I explain my model's potential appeal to private foundations or public-private partnerships as a means for expanding both the pool of blood donors and the prosocial benefit of each act of blood donation. Finally I link my analysis to the empirical literature on blood donation incentives.

  9. Current epidemiology and clinical practice in arboviral infections – implications on blood supply in South-East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Gan, V C H; Leo, Y-S

    2014-01-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are a growing threat to global health. Complex vector–virus–host interactions lead to unpredictable epidemiological patterns. Difficulties in accurate surveillance including imperfect diagnostic tools impair effective response to outbreaks. With arboviral infections causing a wide spectrum of disease severity, from asymptomatic infection to fatal neuroinvasive and haemorrhagic fevers, the potential impact on blood safety is significant. Asymptomatic or presymptomatic individuals may introduce virus into the blood supply by donation, while recipients can potentially suffer severe consequences. Dengue, West Nile and chikungunya outbreaks have led to responses by blood transfusion services which can inform future planning. Reports of transfusion-associated transmission demonstrate the potentially fatal consequences of lack of haemovigilance. South-East Asia remains vulnerable to arboviruses with permissive climate and high levels of endemic transmission as well as the potential for emerging and re-emerging arboviral diseases. Resource limitations constrain the use of expensive technologies for donor screening. Continued surveillance and research will be required to manage the arboviral threat to the blood supply. PMID:25210534

  10. [Change blood supply of a pancreas after a resection of a stomach in conditions of a chronic pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Gasanov, A B

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of stomach resection in the pathogenesis of a chronic pancreatitis. Experiments were carried on 14 outbred dogs. The animals were categorized into two groups according to problem put by. The first group was composed of (n=4) animals in intact state, and pancreas blood vessels were studied. The second group was composed of (n=10) animals. An experimental animal model of chronic pancreatitis was produced and the resection of stomach was performed. The investigation showed that after the surgical treatment there was a significant reductions in arterial diameter and in microcirculation channels. It was concluded, that stomach resection may be the cause of pancreatic ischemia and necrosis. Adequate treatment to improve blood supply in the pancreatic blood vessels after surgery is recommended.

  11. Blood banks meet the paradox of Gabriel's Horn: what are the options to maintain supply as demand decreases?

    PubMed

    Beckman, N; Yazer, M; Land, K; Chesneau, S; Caulfield, J

    2016-06-01

    Blood services worldwide have observed a decline in the demand for red blood cells (RBC). Despite this general decline, the demand profile has changed significantly with the demand for O D negative RBCs being maintained; whereas B D positive and AB D positive RBC demand has been reduced. In 2015, the blood type O D negative was seen in 6·3% of the combined first time donors among the five American Blood Centres involved in this study and 7·4% of first time Australian donors in 2014/2015, whereas O D negative distributions accounted for 10·5% of all red cell units issued by the American centres and 13·9% by the Australian centres. Inventory can therefore be of sufficient overall quantity but may not be adequate for the demand for units with specific blood types. Recruitment of new donors may need to become more targeted and/or financial or inventory control measures could also be required to ensure inventory matches demand. Blood Services will need to consider the available options in order to ensure that sufficiency of supply is secure and the donor panel is optimised to meet the new demand paradigm.

  12. Effects of bed net use, female size, and plant abundance on the first meal choice (blood vs sugar) of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine whether the sugar-or-blood meal choice of Anopheles gambiae females one day after emergence is influenced by blood-host presence and accessibility, nectariferous plant abundance, and female size. This tested the hypothesis that the initial meal of female An. gambiae is sugar, even when a blood host is available throughout the night, and, if not, whether the use of a bed net diverts mosquitoes to sugar sources. Methods Females and males <1-day post-emergence were released in a mesocosm. Overnight they had access to either one or six Senna didymobotrya plants. Simultaneously they had access to a human blood host, either for 8 h or for only 30 min at dusk and dawn (the remainder of the night being excluded by an untreated bed net). In a third situation, the blood host was not present. All mosquitoes were collected in the morning. Their wing lengths, an indicator of pre-meal energetic state, were measured, and their meal choice was determined by the presence of midgut blood and of fructose. Results Female sugar feeding after emergence was facultative. When a blood host was accessible for 8 h per night, 92% contained blood, and only 3.7% contained sugar. Even with the use of a bed net, 78% managed to obtain a blood meal during the 30 min of accessibility at dusk or dawn, but 14% of females were now fructose-positive. In the absence of a blood host, and when either one or six plants were available, a total of 21.7% and 23.6% of females and 30.8% and 43.5% of males contained fructose, respectively. Feeding on both sugar and blood was more likely with bed net use and with greater plant abundance. Further, mosquitoes that fed on both resources were more often small and had taken a sugar meal earlier than the blood meal. The abundance of sugar hosts also affected the probability of sugar feeding by males and the amount of fructose obtained by both males and females. Conclusion Even in an abundance of potential sugar

  13. Ethacrynic acid rapidly and selectively abolishes blood flow in vessels supplying the lateral wall of the cochlea.

    PubMed

    Ding, Dalian; McFadden, Sandra L; Woo, Jenifer M; Salvi, Richard J

    2002-11-01

    The mechanisms underlying the ototoxicity of ethacrynic acid (EA) are not fully understood. Previous studies have focused on morphologic and enzymatic changes in the stria vascularis. The current experiment shows that one of the earliest effects of EA is ischemia, resulting from impaired blood flow in vessels supplying the lateral wall of the cochlea. Inner ear microcirculation, endocochlear potentials, compound action potentials (CAP), cochlear microphonics (CM) and summating potentials (SP) were monitored over time in chinchillas following a single injection of EA (40 mg/kg i.v.). At all times after EA injection, blood vessels supplying the spiral lamina, modiolus, and vestibular end organs appeared normal. In contrast, lateral wall (spiral ligament and stria vascularis) vessels were poorly stained with eosin 2 min after EA injection, and devoid of red blood cells at 30 min post EA. Decline, but not recovery, of CAP, CM and SP followed the microcirculation changes in the lateral wall. Reperfusion was delayed in stria vascularis arterioles relative to other lateral wall vessels. The ischemia-reperfusion caused by EA would be expected to generate large quantities of free radicals, which may trigger or contribute to the cellular, enzymatic, and functional pathologies that have been described in detail previously.

  14. Exogenous sucrose supply changes sugar metabolism and reduces photosynthesis of sugarcane through the down-regulation of Rubisco abundance and activity.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Ana Karla Moreira; de Oliveira Martins, Marcio; Lima Neto, Milton Costa; Machado, Eduardo Caruso; Ribeiro, Rafael Vasconcelos; Silveira, Joaquim Albenisio Gomes

    2015-05-01

    Photosynthetic modulation by sugars has been known for many years, but the biochemical and molecular comprehension of this process is lacking. We studied how the exogenous sucrose supplied to leaves could affect sugar metabolism in leaf, sheath and stalk and inhibit photosynthesis in four-month old sugarcane plants. Exogenous sucrose 50mM sprayed on attached leaves strongly impaired the net CO2 assimilation (PN) and decreased the instantaneous carboxylation efficiency (PN/Ci), suggesting that the impairment in photosynthesis was caused by biochemical restrictions. The photosystem II activity was also affected by excess sucrose as indicated by the reduction in the apparent electron transport rate, effective quantum yield and increase in non-photochemical quenching. In leaf segments, sucrose accumulation was related to increases in the activities of soluble acid and neutral invertases, sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase, whereas the contents of fructose increased and glucose slightly decreased. Changes in the activities of sucrose hydrolyzing and synthesizing enzymes in leaf, sheath and stalk and sugar profile in intact plants were not enough to identify which sugar(s) or enzyme(s) were directly involved in photosynthesis modulation. However, exogenous sucrose was able to trigger down-regulation in the Rubisco abundance, activation state and enzymatic activity. Despite the fact that PN/Ci had been notably decreased by sucrose, in vitro activity and abundance of PEPCase did not change, suggesting an in vivo modulation of this enzyme. The data reveal that sucrose and/or other derivative sugars in leaves inhibited sugarcane photosynthesis by down-regulation of Rubisco synthesis and activity. Our data also suggest that sugar modulation was not exerted by a feedback mechanism induced by the accumulation of sugars in immature sugarcane stalk.

  15. Classification of hypervascular liver lesions based on hepatic artery and portal vein blood supply coefficients calculated from triphasic CT scans.

    PubMed

    Boas, F Edward; Kamaya, Aya; Do, Bao; Desser, Terry S; Beaulieu, Christopher F; Vasanawala, Shreyas S; Hwang, Gloria L; Sze, Daniel Y

    2015-04-01

    Perfusion CT of the liver typically involves scanning the liver at least 20 times, resulting in a large radiation dose. We developed and validated a simplified model of tumor blood supply that can be applied to standard triphasic scans and evaluated whether this can be used to distinguish benign and malignant liver lesions. Triphasic CTs of 46 malignant and 32 benign liver lesions were analyzed. For each phase, regions of interest were drawn in the arterially enhancing portion of each lesion, as well as the background liver, aorta, and portal vein. Hepatic artery and portal vein blood supply coefficients for each lesion were then calculated by expressing the enhancement curve of the lesion as a linear combination of the enhancement curves of the aorta and portal vein. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and hypervascular metastases, on average, both had increased hepatic artery coefficients compared to the background liver. Compared to HCC, benign lesions, on average, had either a greater hepatic artery coefficient (hemangioma) or a greater portal vein coefficient (focal nodular hyperplasia or transient hepatic attenuation difference). Hypervascularity with washout is a key diagnostic criterion for HCC, but it had a sensitivity of 72 % and specificity of 81 % for diagnosing malignancy in our diverse set of liver lesions. The sensitivity for malignancy was increased to 89 % by including enhancing lesions that were hypodense on all phases. The specificity for malignancy was increased to 97 % (p = 0.039) by also examining hepatic artery and portal vein blood supply coefficients, while maintaining a sensitivity of 76 %.

  16. Rapid multispectral endoscopic imaging system for near real-time mapping of the mucosa blood supply in the lung

    PubMed Central

    Fawzy, Yasser; Lam, Stephen; Zeng, Haishan

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a fast multispectral endoscopic imaging system that is capable of acquiring images in 18 optimized spectral bands spanning 400-760 nm by combining a customized light source with six triple-band filters and a standard color CCD camera. A method is developed to calibrate the spectral response of the CCD camera. Imaging speed of 15 spectral image cubes/second is achieved. A spectral analysis algorithm based on a linear matrix inversion approach is developed and implemented in a graphics processing unit (GPU) to map the mucosa blood supply in the lung in vivo. Clinical measurements on human lung patients are demonstrated. PMID:26309761

  17. Targeting growth factor supply in keratopathy treatment: comparison between maternal peripheral blood and cord blood as sources for the preparation of topical eye drops

    PubMed Central

    Versura, Piera; Buzzi, Marina; Giannaccare, Giuseppe; Terzi, Adriana; Fresina, Michela; Velati, Claudio; Campos, Emilio C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Epitheliotrophic growth factors (GF) can be supplied topically to patients with severe keratopathy through a variety of blood-derived products. We compared GF content in adult peripheral blood serum (PB-S) and cord blood serum (CB-S) as potential sources of GF. To limit inter-individual variability the assessment was performed in maternal-child pairs at the time of delivery. Material and methods The amounts of epidermal GF (EGF), insulin-like GF (IGF), transforming GF-beta (TGF-β), vascular endothelial GF (VEGF) in CB units collected from the umbilical vein and PB from mothers (each group n=30) were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Obstetric characteristics and haematological data were recorded from the archives of the Emilia Romagna Cord Blood Bank. Statistical evaluations were performed by Wilcoxon’s test and correlations between variables were determined using Spearman’s (ρ) coefficient; p-values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results EGF, TGF-β and VEGF levels were significantly higher in CB-S than in PB-S (median 1,254.4 vs 646.0 pg/mL, 51.3 vs 38.4 μg/mL and 686.8 vs 30 pg/mL, respectively; all p<0.0001) whereas IGF content was significantly higher in PB-S than in CB-S (159.9 vs 53.5 pg/mL, respectively; p<0.0001). In CB-S, the CD34+ cell concentration appeared to be related to EGF, IGF and TGF-β levels whereas white blood cell count appeared to be related to EGF and TGF-β levels. VEGF levels showed no relation to the haematological parameters considered. Platelet counts were not related to GF level in either CB or PB. Discussion The GF content in the two blood sources was different, with CB containing larger amounts. Each GF selectively regulates cellular processes involved in corneal healing, so the use of PB or CB should be targeted to supply specific GF on the basis of the type and severity of the keratopathy. PMID:26192781

  18. Screening for Babesia microti in the U.S. Blood Supply.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Erin D; Winton, Colleen S; Tonnetti, Laura; Townsend, Rebecca L; Berardi, Victor P; Hewins, Mary-Ellen; Weeks, Karen E; Dodd, Roger Y; Stramer, Susan L

    2016-12-08

    Background Babesia microti, a tickborne intraerythrocytic parasite that can be transmitted by means of blood transfusion, is responsible for the majority of cases of transfusion-transmitted babesiosis in the United States. However, no licensed test exists for screening for B. microti in donated blood. We assessed data from a large-scale, investigational product-release screening and donor follow-up program. Methods From June 2012 through September 2014, we performed arrayed fluorescence immunoassays (AFIAs) for B. microti antibodies and real-time polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) assays for B. microti DNA on blood-donation samples obtained in Connecticut, Massachusetts, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. We determined parasite loads with the use of quantitative PCR testing and assessed infectivity by means of the inoculation of hamsters and the subsequent examination for parasitemia. Donors with test-reactive samples were followed. Using data on cases of transfusion-transmitted babesiosis, we compared the proportions of screened versus unscreened donations that were infectious. Results Of 89,153 blood-donation samples tested, 335 (0.38%) were confirmed to be positive, of which 67 (20%) were PCR-positive; 9 samples were antibody-negative (i.e., 1 antibody-negative sample per 9906 screened samples), representing 13% of all PCR-positive samples. PCR-positive samples were identified all through the year; antibody-negative infections occurred from June through September. Approximately one third of the red-cell samples from PCR-positive or high-titer AFIA-positive donations infected hamsters. Follow-up showed DNA clearance in 86% of the donors but antibody seroreversion in 8% after 1 year. In Connecticut and Massachusetts, no reported cases of transfusion-transmitted babesiosis were associated with screened donations (i.e., 0 cases per 75,331 screened donations), as compared with 14 cases per 253,031 unscreened donations (i.e., 1 case per 18,074 unscreened donations) (odds ratio, 8

  19. Soft Polymers for Building up Small and Smallest Blood Supplying Systems by Stereolithography.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Wolfdietrich; Engelhardt, Sascha; Novosel, Esther; Elling, Burkhard; Wegener, Michael; Krüger, Hartmut

    2012-03-29

    Synthesis of a homologous series of photo-polymerizable α,w-polytetrahydrofuranether-diacrylate (PTHF-DA) resins is described with characterization by NMR, GPC, DSC, soaking and rheometrical measurements. The curing speeds of the resins are determined under UV light exposure. Young's modulus and tensile strength of fully cured resins show flexible to soft material attributes dependent on the molar mass of the used linear PTHF-diacrylates. Structuring the materials by stereo lithography (SL) and multiphoton polymerization (MPP) leads to tubes and bifurcated tube systems with a diameter smaller than 2 mm aimed at small to smallest supplying systems with capillary dimensions. WST-1 biocompatibility tests ofm polymer extracts show nontoxic characteristics of the adapted polymers after a washing process. Some polymers show shape memory effect (SME).

  20. The ageing of the blood supply and the lymphatic drainage of the skin.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Terence

    2004-01-01

    The anatomy and functions of the blood and lymph vessels of human skin are described. Variation in these due to site, ageing and events during life consequent to exposure to a threatening environment are emphasised. Gradual atrophy and greater heterogeneity are features of ageing. Responses to injury and repair are complex and the interaction of mechanical signals distorting skin cells with numerous chemical signals are referred to. The lymphatics are part of an immunosurveillance system to monitor skin barrier penetration. The review attempts to draw attention to key recent advances in our understanding of the cytokine and growth factor production of the skin in the context of previous mainly physiological reviews especially influenced by 50 years of clinical practice as a dermatologist with an eye on both the skin and the fields of microcirculation and lymphology.

  1. Effect of estrogen on the blood supply of pituitary autografts in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lombardero, Matilde; Quintanar-Stephano, Andres; Vidal, Sergio; Horvath, Eva; Kovacs, Kalman; Lloyd, Ricardo V; Scheithauer, Bernd W

    2009-01-01

    Estrogens are known to cause pituitary enlargement and lactotroph proliferation. They also modulate pituitary angiogenesis and induce tumor formation. Pituitary grafts, due to the loss of hypothalamic dopamine, also show lactotroph hyperplasia. We investigated the role of estrogen on rat pituitary autograft vascularization by light and transmission electron microscopy, and assessed prolactin (PRL) blood levels, microvessel density (MVD) and cell proliferation using the BrdU labeling index. All adenohypophysial cell types were identified by immunohistochemistry (streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method). The proangiogenic factors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), its receptor Flk-1, and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) were similarly demonstrated. The prevalence of lactotrophs, as well as more intense staining for VEGF, Flk-1 and HIF-1α, was noted in those grafts exposed to estrogen, mainly in the area surrounding the central necrotic core. Immunostaining showed Flk-1 expression increased in endothelial cells of the estrogen-exposed grafts as compared with those unexposed. In contrast to the grafts not exposed to estrogen, in the estrogen-exposed grafts, only fenestrated endothelium could be demonstrated, suggesting that estrogen induces fenestration of newly formed capillaries. There was an increase in blood PRL levels in the estrogen-treated groups as compared with controls. Both MVD and BrdU labeling indices were higher in grafts exposed to estrogen, especially after 4 weeks. Our results suggest that estrogen administration not only enhances the expression of proangiogenic factors in the pituitary grafts but also induces their expression at earlier stages, leading to rapid neoformation of purely fenestrated capillaries. PMID:19207985

  2. Countercurrent transfer of dopamine from venous blood in the cavernous sinus to the arterial blood supplying the brain - the perfused rabbit head as an experimental model.

    PubMed

    Muszak, J; Krzymowski, T; Gilun, P; Stefanczyk-Krzymowska, S

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the current study was to check whether countercurrent transfer of dopamine occurs in the cavernous sinus of the rabbit and whether the rabbit can be used as an animal model to study cavernous sinus function. After exsanguination of the animal, oxygenated and warmed (37°C) Hanseneleit-Krebs buffer with autologous or homologous blood (in a 3:1 or 1:1 ratio) was pumped through both common carotid arteries into the head (60 ml/min; 80-100 mm Hg) and radiolabeled dopamine (3(H)-DA, 10 μCi) was infused into the cavernous sinus through the angular oculi vein. Cerebral blood from the basilar artery was collected from the cannulated vertebral artery during 3(H)-DA infusion and for 10 minutes after completion of infusion. Selected brain tissue samples were collected after completion of the head perfusion. It was demonstrated that dopamine can penetrate from the rabbit's cavernous sinus to the internal carotid artery supplying the brain. Dopamine permeation was greater when the rabbit head was perfused with buffer and blood in a 3:1 ratio than with 1:1 (P<0.01). When the head was perfused with buffer and blood in a 3:1 ratio, significant radioactivity was found in samples collected from the brain basilar artery during and after 3(H)-DA infusion (P<0.001). The radioactivity was identified as 34.13 ± 2.7% unmetabolized 3(H)-DA and 65.9 ± 2.7% its metabolites. Significant radioactivity was also found in some brain tissue samples in both groups (P<0.05). The concentration of free radiolabeled dopamine particles in the dialysate of blood plasma and plasma diluted with buffer did not differ significantly. Because the structures of the cavernous sinus and cavernous fragment of the internal carotid artery of the rabbit are similar to those in humans, it suggests that rabbits can serve as a model for experimental physiological studies of cavernous sinus function and retrograde dopamine transfer in the cavernous sinus should be considered as an important link in

  3. 77 FR 31026 - Use of Computer Simulation of the United States Blood Supply in Support of Planning for Emergency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... preparedness and planning for potential disruptions in blood donations; (2) discuss with the blood community... needs and forecasting for future blood donations and demand; (3) discuss the capabilities...

  4. The effect of hepatic vascular exclusion on hepatic blood flow and oxygen supply--uptake ratio in the pig.

    PubMed

    López Santamaria, M; Gamez, M; Murcia, J; Paz Cruz, J A; Bueno, J; Canser, E; Qi, B; Lobato, R; Martinez, L; Jara, P; Tovar, J A

    1997-10-01

    The hemodynamic disturbances produced by total hepatic vascular exclusion (THVE) for 40 minutes were studied in 7 pigs (19-22 kg). THVE was produced by clamping the hepatic pedicle and inferior vena cava, above and below the liver, for a 40-minutes period, followed by unclamping. Compared to baseline values, 30 minutes after onset of THVE, there was a decrease in cardiac output (3.86 +/- 0.55 vs 1.23 +/- 0.23 L x min-1), systemic arterial pressure (97.54 +/- 13.58 vs 43.43 +/- 11.38 mm Hg), and pulmonary artery pressure (16.57 +/- 6.38 vs 12.57 +/- 3.58) and an increase in systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance (1772 +/- 198 vs 2351 +/- 462, and 182 +/- 66 vs 361 +/- 124 dyn x s x cm-5 respectively). As a result of diminished cardiac output, the systemic oxygen supply decreased (461 +/- 131 vs 101 +/- 46 ml x min-1), but the systemic oxygen extraction rate rose from 17.3% t0 31.2%. Thirty minutes after unclamping, the changes had reversed and all the parameters tended to normalize. Total hepatic blood flow 30 minutes after unclamping was higher than at baseline (5.08 +/- 1.2 vs 6.66 +/- 0.67 ml x min-1 x 100 g-1), because of the increase in portal blood flow (4.52 +/- 1.21 vs 6.07 +/- 0.70 ml x min-1 x 100 g-1). There were no significant differences in hepatic oxygen supply and uptake at baseline and after unclamping (152.6 +/- 23.0 vs 187.0 +/- 34.7 and 22.7 +/- 4.9 vs 28.7 +/- 8.4 ml O2 respectively). AST rose (29 +/- 7 vs 136 +/- 91 U/l), but there was no change in the remaining liver enzymes, glucose, creatinine and serum electrolytes, so we conclude that the hemodynamic disturbances produced by 40 minutes of THVE are manageable and spontaneously reversible. Liver metabolism was not greatly disturbed, so THVE was judged to be a viable technique to be added to the surgeon's range of options.

  5. Changes in transcript abundance for cuticular proteins and other genes three hours after a blood meal in Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Vannini, Laura; Augustine Dunn, W; Reed, Tyler W; Willis, Judith H

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have examined changes in transcript levels after Anopheles gambiae takes a blood meal. Marinotti et al. (2006) used microarrays and reported massive changes in transcript levels 3 h after feeding (BF3h) compared to non-blood fed (NBF). We were intrigued by the number of transcripts for structural cuticular proteins (CPs) that showed such major differences in levels and employed paired-end (50 bp) RNA-seq technology to compare whole body transcriptomes from 5-day-old females NBF and BF3h. We detected transcripts for the majority of CPs (164/243) but levels of only 12 were significantly altered by the blood meal. While relative transcript levels of NBF females were somewhat similar to the microarray data, there were major differences in BF3h animals, resulting in levels of many transcripts, both for CPs and other genes changing in the opposite direction. We compared our data also to other studies done with both microarrays and RNA-seq. Findings were consistent that a small number of CP genes have transcripts that persist even in 5-day-old adults. Some of these transcripts showed diurnal rhythms (Rund et al., 2013; Rinker et al., 2013). In situ hybridization revealed that transcripts for several of these CP genes were found exclusively or predominantly in the eye. Transcripts other than for CPs that changed in response to blood-feeding were predominantly expressed in midgut and Malpighian tubules. Even in these tissues, genes responsible for proteins with similar functions, such as immunity or digestion, responded differently, with transcript levels for some rising and others falling. These data demonstrate that genes coding for some CPs are dynamic in expression even in adults and that the response to a blood meal is rapid and precisely orchestrated.

  6. Supply with Platelet Concentrates from the Point of View of a Blood Donation Service of the Bavarian Red Cross.

    PubMed

    Weinauer, Franz

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY: BACKGROUND: It is known that pooled platelet concentrates derived from buffy coat (PCs) have several disadvantages compared to platelet concentrates produced by platelet apheresis (APCs). Therefore, all blood products issued by the Bavarian Red Cross blood banks (BSD/BRK) (18,000 products/year) were produced by single donor apheresis. The main reason not to produce PCs was the elevated viral and bacterial infection risk during the last decade. But also the four-fold increased exposition to HLA and PLA antigens and the poor quality (in the sense of white and red cell contamination) of PCs (especially the ones produced with the platelet-rich plasma method) played a role to abstain from these products. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a risk assessment to evaluate both products with regard to the actual testing and production methods, considering recently published data. However, a statistical calculation of the risks associated with the use of PCs or APCs with regard to different infectious agents with various prevalences was not done. RESULTS: The dramatically reduced risk for the transmission of HIV, HBV or HCV accompanying the implementation of improved antibody tests and of NAT minipool testing, the introduction of 100% leukocyte filtration, the conversion of PC production from the platelet-rich to the buffy coat method, and recent data on the risk of transmission of bacterial infections resulted in a equal assessment of APCs and PCs. CONCLUSION: As a consequence of this revised risk assessment, we supply our hospitals with both products APCs and buffy coat-derived PCs (pools of 4 donors). For clinical use we considered both products as equally effective, except for patients who have multiple antibodies and need HLA-typed platelets.

  7. Efficacy of Gastric Blood Supply Redistribution by Transarterial Embolization: Preoperative Procedure to Prevent Postoperative Anastomotic Leaks Following Esophagoplasty for Esophageal Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Isomura, Takayuki; Itoh, Shigeki; Endo, Tokiko; Akiyama, Seiji; Maruyama, Kunihiro; Ishiguchi, Tsuneo; Ishigaki, Takeo; Takagi, Hiroshi

    1999-03-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of preoperative redistribution of gastric blood supply on the prevention of anastomotic leakage following surgical reconstruction of the esophagus. Methods: In 37 patients with esophageal carcinoma, transarterial embolization (TAE) of the left gastric, right gastric, and splenic arteries was preoperatively performed with coils so that gastric blood supply was dependent only on the right gastroepiploic artery.Results: In 34 of 37 patients, preoperative redistribution was successfully performed. The gastric tissue blood flow (TBF) of a gastric tube was higher than in 12 nonredistributed patients. Reduction in the gastric TBF during preparation of a gastric tube was 27.5% in successful patients, in contrast to 68.9% in 12 nonredistributed patients (p < 0.005). Conclusion: Preoperative redistribution by TAE reduced the drop in gastric TBF during preparation of a gastric tube and helped prevent postoperative anastomotic leakage in esophageal reconstruction.

  8. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... The liquid part, called plasma, is made of water, salts, and protein. Over half of your blood is plasma. The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red ...

  9. Biogeography of avian blood parasites (Leucocytozoon spp.) in two resident hosts across Europe: phylogeographic structuring or the abundance-occupancy relationship?

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Tania; Owens, Ian P F

    2011-09-01

    Relationships between hosts and parasites represent complex co-evolving systems that can vary both temporally and spatially. This variation may result in different phylogeographic outcomes, ranging from highly geographically structured parasite populations comprised of specialist lineages that are locally abundant but have restricted global occupancy to geographically unstructured parasite populations consisting of widespread parasites. Here, we present results from a large biogeographic study of the Leucocytozoon blood parasites of two nonmigrant bird species, conducted at nine sites across Europe. The aim was to determine whether the parasite lineages of the two hosts were phylogeographically structured across Europe. Employing molecular methods, we found a large diversity of parasites, and although overall prevalence varied greatly, the parasites were not genetically structured. Several measures of local parasite abundance were associated with the number of sites that the lineage occurred in, which is consistent with the macroecological phenomenon of the abundance-occupancy relationship. Taken together, our results show that parasite dispersal is somewhat uncoupled to that of the host in this system: we suggest that broad host and/or vector preference may play an important role in determining the distribution of these parasites and in affecting host-parasite coevolution in this system.

  10. Changes in Natural Abundance Carbon Stable isotopes of Human Blood and Saliva After 24 Days of Controlled Carbohydrate Supplementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, R. A.; Jahren, A. H.; Baer, D. J.; Caballero, B.

    2008-12-01

    With the advent of corporate agriculture, large-scale economic decisions have given rise to unique global environmental effects. Emphasis on corn production results in dramatic changes in nitrogen and water cycling via the intensive cultivation practices necessary to support Zea mays (Tilman, 1998). In particular, consumption of corn derived food additive high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has increased more than 1000% since 1970 and may be associated with the epidemics of obesity and diabetes (Bray et al., 2004). Plausible mechanisms for an adverse effect of fructose load on glucose homeostasis have been proposed (Havel, 2005). The unusually heavy 13C signature of corn, as compared to other plants, offers the opportunity to develop a biomarker for sugar consumption. Among the many experiments that are needed to establish such a technique, the demonstration of change in 13C signature of human tissues with known change in carbohydrate consumption is foremost. Here we report on a controlled feeding study performed in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), to test the effect of supplementation of human diet with carbohydrate of known δ13C value. During this study, 13 individuals were fed a typical American diet (32% calories from fat, 15% calories from protein, 53% carbohydrate) for ~six months. Each participant was fed a random sequence of carbohydrate supplements (50 grams of supplement per day): 1. resistant maltodextrin (δ13C = -10.59‰); 2. maltodextrin (δ13C = -23.95‰); 3. a 50-50 mixture of the two (δ13C = -15.94‰). After 24 days of feeding, subjects showed enrichment in blood serum that was significantly correlated (p = 0.0038) with the δ13C value of the supplement. However, blood clot and saliva showed no such correlation, suggesting that the half-lives of these substrates may render them unsuitable for carbohydrate dietary reconstruction over day-to-month timescales. All subjects of the study showed a net enrichment in

  11. The relationship between total mass and blood supply of parathyroid glands and their secretion of parathyroid hormone in hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Farrokhlagha; Aghajanzadeh, Pegah; Yazdi, Hadi Rokni; Maziar, Sima; Gatmiri, Sayad Mansour

    2016-03-01

    Characteristics of parathyroid glands usually determined by ultrasonography such as its total weight or volume might be a good indicator for the induction or suppression of parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion from these glands. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the volume and blood supply grade of the parathyroid glands, and its PTH secretion. Study subjects included 52 consecutive patients with the secondary hyperparathyroidism undergoing maintenance hemodialysis therapy referred to dialysis wards of the Imam Khomeini and Amiralam University Hospitals in Tehran. Serum intact PTH (i-PTH) was measured by an ELISA assay. The parathyroid glands characteristics were identified by ultrasonography that was performed simultaneously with blood collection. Parathyroid blood flows were evaluated by power-Doppler color imaging. There was no significant correlation between the total mass of the glands and serum concentration of i-PTH. No significant correlations were also observed between both total central and peripheral parathyroid glands blood flow and serum i-PTH level. Dialysis duration and serum alkaline phosphatase were significantly correlated in a positive manner with i-PTH level. Furthermore, serum level of i-PTH was not correlated with the total signals of glands blood flow in a multivariable linear regression analysis. Serum secreted i-PTH level might not be predictable by a total mass of parathyroid glands as well as their blood supply.

  12. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... that die or are lost from the body. White Blood Cells White blood cells (WBCs, and also ... of severe pain. previous continue Diseases of the White Blood Cells Neutropenia (pronounced: new-truh-PEE-nee- ...

  13. [Peculiarities of blood supply of palatal tonsils and the potential risk of hemorrhage during tonsillectomy: the literature review and case report].

    PubMed

    Nosulia, E V

    2014-01-01

    The present review encompasses the publications concerning peculiarities of blood supply of palatal tonsils, the frequency and variants of the anomalous structure of internal carotid artery. Analysis of the literature data has shown that the anomalous vascular structure is one of the important risk factors of the development of intra- and postoperative hemorrhage, besides redundant blood supply of the oropharynx, inflammatory changes in the tissue of tonsils and peritonsillar region. Special attention is given to the peculiarities of diagnostics of such conditions. The emphasis is laid on the importance of timely diagnostics of the anomalous structural changes in the main vessels of the neck prior to the surgical intervention on the pharynx. The analysis of the anomalous structure of internal carotid artery is presented.

  14. Distribution and abundance of archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidizers in the sediments of the Dongjiang River, a drinking water supply for Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Xia, Chunyu; Xu, Meiying; Guo, Jun; Wang, Aijie; Sun, Guoping

    2013-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) play important roles in nitrification. However, limited information about the characteristics of AOA and AOB in the river ecosystem is available. The distribution and abundance of AOA and AOB in the sediments of the Dongjiang River, a drinking water source for Hong Kong, were investigated by clone library analysis and quantitative real-time PCR. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Group 1.1b- and Group 1.1b-associated sequences of AOA predominated in sediments with comparatively high carbon and nitrogen contents (e.g. total carbon (TC) >13 g kg(-1) sediment, NH4(+)-N >144 mg kg(-1) sediment), while Group 1.1a- and Group 1.1a-associated sequences were dominant in sediments with opposite conditions (e.g. TC <4 g kg(-1) sediment, NH4(+)-N <93 mg kg(-1) sediment). Although Nitrosomonas- and Nitrosospira-related sequences of AOB were detected in the sediments, nearly 70% of the sequences fell into the Nitrosomonas-like B cluster, suggesting similar sediment AOB communities along the river. Higher abundance of AOB than AOA was observed in almost all of the sediments in the Dongjiang River, while significant correlations were only detected between the distribution of AOA and the sediment pH and TC, which suggested that AOA responded more sensitively than AOB to variations of environmental factors. These results extend our knowledge about the environmental responses of ammonia oxidizers in the river ecosystem.

  15. Distribution and Abundance of Archaeal and Bacterial Ammonia Oxidizers in the Sediments of the Dongjiang River, a Drinking Water Supply for Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei; Xia, Chunyu; Xu, Meiying; Guo, Jun; Wang, Aijie; Sun, Guoping

    2013-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) play important roles in nitrification. However, limited information about the characteristics of AOA and AOB in the river ecosystem is available. The distribution and abundance of AOA and AOB in the sediments of the Dongjiang River, a drinking water source for Hong Kong, were investigated by clone library analysis and quantitative real-time PCR. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Group 1.1b-and Group 1.1b-associated sequences of AOA predominated in sediments with comparatively high carbon and nitrogen contents (e.g. total carbon (TC) >13 g kg−1 sediment, NH4+-N >144 mg kg−1 sediment), while Group 1.1a- and Group 1.1a-associated sequences were dominant in sediments with opposite conditions (e.g. TC <4 g kg−1 sediment, NH4+-N <93 mg kg−1 sediment). Although Nitrosomonas- and Nitrosospira-related sequences of AOB were detected in the sediments, nearly 70% of the sequences fell into the Nitrosomonas-like B cluster, suggesting similar sediment AOB communities along the river. Higher abundance of AOB than AOA was observed in almost all of the sediments in the Dongjiang River, while significant correlations were only detected between the distribution of AOA and the sediment pH and TC, which suggested that AOA responded more sensitively than AOB to variations of environmental factors. These results extend our knowledge about the environmental responses of ammonia oxidizers in the river ecosystem. PMID:24256973

  16. The March of Extrahepatic Collaterals: Analysis of Blood Supply to Hepatocellular Carcinoma Located in the Bare Area of the Liver After Chemoembolization

    SciTech Connect

    Miyayama, Shiro Yamashiro, Masashi; Okuda, Miho; Yoshie, Yuichi; Nakashima, Yoshiko; Ikeno, Hiroshi; Orito, Nobuaki; Matsui, Osamu

    2010-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in vascular supply to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) located in the bare area of the liver in patients who were mainly treated with chemoembolization. Twenty-six patients with HCC showing a mean diameter of 3.1 {+-} 1.4 cm (mean {+-} standard deviation) were mainly treated with chemoembolization. All patients underwent 2.7 {+-} 2.3 chemoembolization sessions over 40.1 {+-} 25.2 months. Tumor feeding branches demonstrated in each chemoembolization session were retrospectively evaluated. Initially, 18 tumors (59.2%) were supplied by the hepatic artery (H) and 8 (30.8%) by both the hepatic and the extrahepatic arteries (H + C). Fourteen tumors (53.8%) recurred at the posterior aspect of the tumor and were supplied by H (n = 4), H + C (n = 5), and extrahepatic collaterals (C) (n = 5). Several tumors recurred despite repeated chemoembolization, and these were supplied by H (n = 1), H + C (n = 7), and C (n = 2) at the second recurrence, by H (n = 1), H + C (n = 2), and C (n = 3) at the third, by H + C (n = 2) and C (n = 2) at the fourth, by H + C (n = 2) and C (n = 2) at the fifth, and by H (n = 1) and C (n = 1) at the sixth. One tumor was supplied by H at the seventh and by H + C at the eighth recurrence. As the number of local recurrences increased, the feeding vessel shifted from H to C. Especially, the right inferior phrenic artery (IPA) and renal capsular artery (RCA) supplied the tumor early, while the small right RCAs, adrenal arteries, and intercostal and lumbar artery supplied late recurrences in turns. In conclusion, HCCs located in the bare area are frequently supplied by extrahepatic vessels initially, while recurrence after chemoembolization is mainly due to extrahepatic blood supply. The right IPA and RCA are common feeding vessels demonstrated early, while other extrahepatic collateral supply from the retroperitoneal circulation occurs in turns during the later course.

  17. Multilayer-strategy to enhance optimal safety of the blood supply: The role of pathogen inactivation for optimizing recipient safety and helping health care cost containment: Moderator views.

    PubMed

    Seghatchian, Jerard

    2015-04-01

    This brief paper is based on the Coimbra 'conference presentation by the moderator', prior to the two main lectures on pathogen reduction treatment [PRT] of plasma. Being an educationist and teacher in core and having a great interest to simplify the message convey to conference' participants and readers I decided to maintain the slide format of the presentation. To highlight most effectively the role played by pathogen reduction to supplement the multilayer-strategy already in place, emphasizes were placed by going back to basic focusing on: where we were, where we are now and where we are going!. The unresolved problems of viral safety of blood components and criteria of universal acceptability of PRT are highlighted so is the need for further DDR strategies both in incremental and innovative ways. Finally the issue of who would benefit from implementation of PRT is described based on published data and also providing some visionary foresights for the long term benefits of PRT in both optimizing the safety of blood supply and helping at least in health care containment. I hope this new approach will be useful to readers, providing at least some conceptual and technical supports in understanding the role of PRT in optimizing the safety of blood supply.

  18. Augmentation of venous, arterial and microvascular blood supply in the leg by isometric neuromuscular stimulation via the peroneal nerve

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, AT; Maass, A; Bain, DS; Chen, L-H; Azzam, M; Dawson, H; Johnston, A

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is the formation of a blood clot within the deep veins. During periods of sitting, blood flow is decreased and this contributes to an increased risk of DVT. Trials have shown that 5% to 10% of passengers undertaking long-haul flights develop asymptomatic calf DVT. AIM: To investigate the safety and efficacy of a novel neuromuscular device that augments peripheral blood flow. METHODS: Thirty healthy volunteers were assessed while seated. Each subject had one leg connected to the stimulator and the other leg immobile acting as control. Fifteen sequential electrical stimulations were applied for 5 min each followed by a 10 min recovery phase. The following noninvasive measurements were performed before, during and after the stimulation programs: photoplethysmography, strain gauge plethysmography, laser Doppler fluxmetry, transcutaneous oxygen tension, pulse oximetry, superficial femoral vein blood flow and vessel diameter (ultrasound); discomfort questionnaires were also administered. RESULTS: During neuromuscular stimulation, significant increases in blood volume flow and velocity and skin capillary blood flow were found; transdermal skin oxygen levels were maintained. No changes were observed in heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation or femoral vein vessel diameter. CONCLUSIONS: Using a newly developed device, electrical nerve stimulation of the lower leg significantly increased blood flow; the device in the present study is, therefore, a promising tool for the development of a novel DVT prevention device. Because this method of electrical nerve stimulation is virtually pain free, the present study has significant implications for the prevention of DVT in hospitals, outpatient settings and community care settings, as well as in preventing travel-related thrombosis. PMID:22477572

  19. Positive Feedback Loops for Factor V and Factor VII Activation Supply Sensitivity to Local Surface Tissue Factor Density During Blood Coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Balandina, A.N.; Shibeko, A.M.; Kireev, D.A.; Novikova, A.A.; Shmirev, I.I.; Panteleev, M.A.; Ataullakhanov, F.I.

    2011-01-01

    Blood coagulation is triggered not only by surface tissue factor (TF) density but also by surface TF distribution. We investigated recognition of surface TF distribution patterns during blood coagulation and identified the underlying molecular mechanisms. For these investigations, we employed 1), an in vitro reaction-diffusion experimental model of coagulation; and 2), numerical simulations using a mathematical model of coagulation in a three-dimensional space. When TF was uniformly immobilized over the activating surface, the clotting initiation time in normal plasma increased from 4 min to >120 min, with a decrease in TF density from 100 to 0.7 pmol/m2. In contrast, surface-immobilized fibroblasts initiated clotting within 3–7 min, independently of fibroblast quantity and despite a change in average surface TF density from 0.5 to 130 pmol/m2. Experiments using factor V-, VII-, and VIII-deficient plasma and computer simulations demonstrated that different responses to these two TF distributions are caused by two positive feedback loops in the blood coagulation network: activation of the TF–VII complex by factor Xa, and activation of factor V by thrombin. This finding suggests a new role for these reactions: to supply sensitivity to local TF density during blood coagulation. PMID:22004734

  20. Anatomy and histophysiology of the periosteum: quantification of the periosteal blood supply to the adjacent bone with 85Sr and gamma spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chanavaz, M

    1995-01-01

    The periosteum or periosteal membrane is a continuous composite fibroelastic covering membrane of the bone to which it is intimately linked. Although the bone cortex is the main beneficiary of the principal anatomical and physiological functions of the periosteal membrane, the behavior of the entire bone remains closely influenced by periosteal activity. These principal functions are related to the cortical blood supply, osteogenesis, and muscle and ligament attachments. Through its elastic and contractile nature, it participates in the maintenance of bone shape, and plays an important role in metabolic ionic exchange and physiologic distribution of electro-chemical potential differences across its membranous structure. It has also been suggested that the periosteum may have its own specific proprioceptive property. This paper presents a study of the anatomy and histophysiology of the periosteum, and discusses in detail its main functions of cortical blood supply and osteogenesis. It also presents the third intermediary report on a current study of the quantification of cortical vascularization of femoral bone via the periosteum, using an isotonic salt solution containing 85 Strontium. The afferent-efferent (arterio-venous) flows of this solution in the thigh vascular system of guinea pigs were measured by gamma spectrometry after a series of selective macro- and micro-injections of radioactive salt into the femoral arterial system was carried out. Each vascular territory was meticulously selected and the injections were made according to size, starting with the larger vessels, with or without ligatures of neighboring vessels, going progressively to smaller and smaller vessels with diameters not exceeding 100 microns. The principal technical difficulty at this stage of experimentation was related to the identifying and acquiring of appropriate microcatheters. The study also includes a series of measurements after blockage of the transmuscular blood flow and the

  1. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... increased red blood cell destruction can affect teens: G6PD deficiency. G6PD is an enzyme that helps to protect ... can cause red cells to hemolyze, or burst. G6PD deficiency is a common hereditary disease among people of ...

  2. [Structure of nocturnal sleep if there is a violation of the blood supply in the territory of internal carotid artery].

    PubMed

    Berezina, I Iu; Sumskiĭ, L I; Kudriashova, N E

    2013-01-01

    The work examines the influence of degree ofstenosis or occlusion of the internal carotid artery (ICA) of noc- turnal sleep and discusses possible neurophysiological mechanisms of sleep disorders when blood flow in ca- rotid system. 24 patients (19 male and 5 female) were examined. The mean age of men was 49.75 ± 6.55; women--46.67 ± 5.86. Six patients with a single unilateral internal carotid stenosis (ICA) 50%; seven patients--stenosis of ICA 50-70%; eleven patients--occlusion of ICA completed the study. Polysomnography was recorded with "Neuro-Spectr-5/EP" ("NeuroSoft", Russia) and "Delta Flash" ("Deltamed", France) according to international recommendation. Stages of sleep were identified according to Re- chtschaffen A., Kales A. (1968) criteria. Patients were asked to fill in the questionnaire prior to clinical and polysomnographic evaluation. Regional cerebral blood flow (mL/100g/min) with 99mTechnetium (Gamma-camera, DST-Xli "General electric", USA) was study by single photon emission CT imaging. The result of this study showed that with stenosis of the ICA to 50% structure of nocturnal sleep is not changed: records all phases and stages of sleep, quantitative parameters that match the normative data; or decline in the representation of only the stage II sleep; at stenosis ICA of 50-70% is violation of mostly stage II sleep and slow-wave sleep, and with occlusion ICA violation slow-wave sleep and in 45% of cases--REM-sleep.

  3. The relationship between inert gas wash-out and radioactive tracer microspheres in measurement of bone blood flow: effect of decreased arterial supply and venous congestion on bone blood flow in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Kiaer, T; Dahl, B; Lausten, G S

    1993-01-01

    Several methods have been employed in the study of bone perfusion. We used a method of determining inert gas wash-out by mass spectrometry in the study of blood flow rates in pigs. The method was validated by comparison of the result obtained with inert gas wash-out to that with measurement by microspheres. Furthermore, the effect of decreased inlet flow and venous congestion on the bone perfusion data was tested. The undisturbed bone blood flow was not significantly different when measured with wash-out of inert gas (7 +/- 0.7 ml/min/100 g) or with microspheres (9 +/- 2.9 ml/min/100 g), and the methods were correlated. Perfusion was reduced significantly, to 20% of the original value, after arterial occlusion. The changes in wash-out curves and accumulation of radioactive tracer provided substantial evidence for impaired intraosseous circulation following venous obstruction also. In conclusion, the study showed that this method of determining inert gas wash-out is feasible for studies of local perfusion rates in bone. The flow rates obtained by wash-out correlated well with the results of microsphere studies. In this animal model, both methods detected a fivefold reduction in flow rate after clamping of the arterial inflow. Obstruction of the venous outflow also impaired blood flow and lowered the cellular supply.

  4. Effects of nicardipine and nisoldipine on myocardial metabolism, coronary blood flow and oxygen supply in angina pectoris.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, M F; Vincent, M F; Van Hoof, F; Van den Berghe, G; Charlier, A A; Pouleur, H

    1984-12-01

    The effects of the calcium antagonists nicardipine and nisoldipine on left ventricular (LV) metabolism were analyzed in 32 patients with angina pectoris. Measurements were made at a fixed heart rate under the basal state and during a cold pressor test (CPT). After administration of the drugs, coronary blood flow increased significantly and the mean aortic pressure decreased by 10% (p less than 0.01) in the basal state and by 11% (p less than 0.01) during CPT. Despite the reduction in pressure-rate product, myocardial oxygen consumption was unchanged in the basal state (18 +/- 4 vs 19 +/- 4 ml/min, difference not significant) and during CPT (21 +/- 5 vs 21 +/- 5 ml/min, difference not significant); this discrepancy between a reduced pressure-rate product and an unchanged oxygen consumption was also noted when nicardipine was given after propranolol (0.1 mg/kg; 12 patients). Both agents also increased LV lactate uptake, particularly during CPT (+13 mumol/min, p less than 0.05 vs control CPT) and reduced LV glutamine production. In 10 patients in whom 14C-lactate was infused, the chemical LV lactate extraction ratio increased more than the 14C-lactate extraction ratio after administration of the drugs, indicating a reduction in LV lactate production. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that nicardipine and nisoldipine improve perfusion and aerobic metabolism in chronically ischemic areas, resulting in an augmented oxygen consumption and in a reduced lactate production.

  5. In vivo spectral and fluorescence imaging microscopy of tumor microvessel blood supply and oxygenation changes following vascular targeting agent treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jennifer; Kozikowski, Raymond; Molnar, Nikolett; Siemann, Dietmar W.; Sorg, Brian S.

    2012-03-01

    The formation of new microvasculature is essential for a tumor mass to grow. Vascular targeting agents (VTAs), including anti-angiogenic drugs and vascular disrupting agents, aim to either inhibit new vasculature growth or destroy existing vasculature, respectively. Because the mechanisms for anti-angiogenic drugs and vascular disrupting agents are complementary, analysis of these drugs used together is under investigation for the enhanced treatment of tumors in comparison to each treatment alone. The preclinical evaluation of the effects of VTAs on tumor growth in small animal models is vital for the development of effective drugs for clinical use. In vivo hyperspectral imaging microscopy of hemoglobin saturation has been used previously to investigate the efficacy of VTAs through analysis of tumor microvessel oxygenation after drug administration. Combining this imaging modality with first-pass fluorescence angiographic imaging can give additional important information about the vessel morphology and blood flow changes that occur after VTA treatment, thus elucidating the relationship between microvessel structure changes and oxygenation. In this study, we report the combined use of hyperspectral and first pass fluorescence angiographic imaging to examine the relationship between vessel morphology and oxygenation of human prostate cancer tumors in mice following treatment with vascular disrupting agents, OXi4503, and anti-VEGF angiogenesis inhibitor, cediranib. Imaging of the tumors is completed before treatment as well as in the days following treatment.

  6. Evidence of Flicker-Induced Functional Hyperaemia in the Smallest Vessels of the Human Retinal Blood Supply

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Bang V.

    2016-01-01

    Regional changes in blood flow are initiated within neural tissue to help fuel local differences in neural activity. Classically, this response was thought to arise only in larger arterioles and venules. However, recently, it has been proposed that a) the smallest vessels of the circulation make a comparable contribution, and b) the response should be localised intermittently along such vessels, due to the known distribution of contractile mural cells. To assess these hypotheses in human neural tissue in vivo, we imaged the retinal microvasculature (diameters 3–28 μm) non-invasively, using adaptive optics, before and after delivery of focal (360 μm) patches of flickering visible light. Our results demonstrated a definite average response in 35% of all vessel segments analysed. In these responding vessels, the magnitude of proportional dilation (mean ± SEM for pre-capillary arterioles 13 ± 5%, capillaries 31 ± 8%, and post-capillary venules 10 ± 3%) is generally far greater than the magnitudes we and others have measured in the larger retinal vessels, supporting proposition a) above. The dilations observed in venules were unexpected based on previous animal work, and may be attributed either to differences in stimulus or species. Response heterogeneity across the network was high; responses were also heterogeneous along individual vessels (45% of vessel segments showed demonstrable locality in their response). These observations support proposition b) above. We also observed a definite average constriction across 7% of vessel segments (mean ± SEM constriction for capillaries -16 ± 3.2%, and post-capillary venules -18 ± 12%), which paints a picture of dynamic redistribution of flow throughout the smallest vessel networks in the retina in response to local, stimulus-driven metabolic demand. PMID:27617960

  7. Β-alanine and l-histidine transport across the inner blood-retinal barrier: potential involvement in L-carnosine supply.

    PubMed

    Usui, Takuya; Kubo, Yoshiyuki; Akanuma, Shin-Ichi; Hosoya, Ken-Ichi

    2013-08-01

    The supply of L-carnosine, a bioactive dipeptide of β-alanine and l-histidine, to the retina across the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) was studied. The in vivo and in vitro studies revealed low uptake activities for [(3)H]Gly-Sar, a representative dipeptide, suggesting that l-carnosine transport plays only a minor role at the BRB. The in vivo study using rats showed approximately 18- and 23-fold greater retinal uptake indexes (RUI) for [(3)H]β-alanine and [(3)H]l-histidine compared with that of a paracellular marker, respectively. The RUI of [(3)H]β-alanine was taurine- and γ-aminobutyric acid-sensitive, and the in vitro uptake by TR-iBRB2 cells showed time- concentration- and temperature-dependent [(3)H]β-alanine uptake, suggesting that a carrier-mediated process was involved in β-alanine transport across the inner BRB. [(3)H]β-Alanine uptake was inhibited by taurine and β-guanidinopropionic acid, suggesting that taurine transporter (TAUT/SLC6A6) is responsible for the influx transport of β-alanine across the inner BRB. Regarding l-histidine, the l-leucine-sensitive RUI of [(3)H]l-histidine was identified, and the in vitro [(3)H]l-histidine uptake by TR-iBRB2 cells suggested that a carrier-mediated process was involved in l-histidine transport across the inner BRB. The inhibition profile suggested that L-type amino acid transporter (LAT1/SLC7A5) is responsible for the influx transport of l-histidine across the inner BRB. These results show that the influx transports of β-alanine and l-histidine across the inner BRB is carried out by TAUT and LAT1, respectively, suggesting that the retinal l-carnosine is supplied by enzymatic synthesis from two kinds of amino acids transported across the inner BRB.

  8. Nifedipine improves blood flow and oxygen supply, but not steady-state oxygenation of tumours in perfusion pressure-controlled isolated limb perfusion.

    PubMed

    Thews, O; Hummel, M; Kelleher, D K; Lecher, B; Vaupel, P

    2002-12-02

    Isolated limb perfusion allows the direct application of therapeutic agents to a tumour-bearing extremity. The present study investigated whether the dihydropyridine-type Ca(2+)-channel blocker nifedipine could improve blood flow and oxygenation status of experimental tumours during isolated limb perfusion. Perfusion was performed by cannulation of the femoral artery and vein in rats bearing DS-sarcoma on the hind foot dorsum. Perfusion rate was adjusted to maintain a perfusion pressure of 100-140 mmHg throughout the experiment. Following equilibration, nifedipine was continuously infused for 30 min (8.3 microg min(-1) kg(-1) BW). During constant-pressure isolated limb perfusion, nifedipine can significantly increase perfusion rate (+100%) and RBC flux (+60%) through experimental leg tumours. "Steal phenomena" in favour of the surrounding normal tissue and oedema formation were not observed. Despite the increased oxygen availability (+63%) seen upon application of this calcium channel blocker, nifedipine does not result in a substantial reduction of tumour hypoxia, most probably due to an increase in O(2) uptake with rising O(2) supply to the tumour-bearing hind limb. Nifedipine application during isolated limb perfusion can enhance tumour microcirculation and may therefore promote the delivery (pharmacokinetics) of anti-cancer drugs to the tumour and by this improve the efficacy of pressure-controlled isolated limb perfusion.

  9. Consistency and proportionality in policy decision-making in blood safety: the case for an all-apheresis platelet supply in Germany.

    PubMed

    Vamvakas, E C; Hitzler, W E

    2013-01-01

    Recently, German investigators presented the first mathematical model finding a significant increase in the risk of HIV, HCV, and HBV transmission when pools of 4 whole-blood-derived buffy-coat platelets, rather than 1 single-donor (apheresis) component, are used to provide one platelet dose. Based, in both cases, on mathematical models employing the incidence/window-period method, the relative risk of transmission from pooled versus apheresis platelets (2.2 or 2.75 for HIV, 2.7 or 3.375 for HCV, and 3.2 or 4.0 for HBV, with pools of 4 or 5 concentrates, respectively) is similar to the difference in risk before (versus after) introduction of HIV-1 and HCV RNA screening. The absolute increase in the risk from pools (1 to 2 HIV-, HCV-, or HBV-infectious platelet doses annually) is much smaller than the yield from HIV-1 and HCV RNA screening projected in the 1990s, but it becomes similar to that yield (with up to 88 infectious platelet doses intercepted) when we consider the next transfusion-transmitted pathogen to emerge in the future. Although pathogen reduction (PR) of platelets would eliminate the difference in risk between pooled and apheresis platelets vis-a-vis viral transmission, PR is not ready for implementation because the safety of PR needs to be investigated further. German transfusion guidelines should be revised to indicate the difference in risk associated with pooled versus apheresis platelets, and transition toward an all-apheresis platelet supply should commence. These actions are consistent with and proportionate to the action taken in the 1990s when screening for HIV-1 and HCV RNA was implemented.

  10. Where to Donate Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disaster Response Global Services National Blood Exchange UnCommon Good Program APEC Blood Supply Chain Partnership Training Network ... HUB AABB Professional Engagement Program (PEP) Association Bulletins Governance and Policies Membership Directory Team Sites Blood FAQ ...

  11. Red blood cells of sickle cell disease patients exhibit abnormally high abundance of N-methyl D-aspartate receptors mediating excessive calcium uptake.

    PubMed

    Hänggi, Pascal; Makhro, Asya; Gassmann, Max; Schmugge, Markus; Goede, Jeroen S; Speer, Oliver; Bogdanova, Anna

    2014-10-01

    Recently we showed that N-methyl D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are expressed in erythroid precursors (EPCs) and present in the circulating red blood cells (RBCs) of healthy humans, regulating intracellular Ca(2+) in these cells. This study focuses on investigating the possible role of NMDARs in abnormally high Ca(2+) permeability in the RBCs of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Protein levels of the NMDAR subunits in the EPCs of SCD patients did not differ from those in EPCs of healthy humans. However, the number and activity of the NMDARs in circulating SCD-RBCs was substantially up-regulated, being particularly high during haemolytic crises. The number of active NMDARs correlated negatively with haematocrit and haemoglobin levels in the blood of SCD patients. Calcium uptake via these non-selective cation channels was induced by RBC treatment with glycine, glutamate and homocysteine and was facilitated by de-oxygenation of SCD-RBCs. Oxidative stress and RBC dehydration followed receptor stimulation and Ca(2+) uptake. Inhibition of the NMDARs with an antagonist memantine caused re-hydration and largely prevented hypoxia-induced sickling. The EPCs of SCD patients showed higher tolerance to memantine than those of healthy subjects. Consequently, NMDARs in the RBCs of SCD patients appear to be an attractive target for pharmacological intervention.

  12. An Analysis of and Recommendations for the Peruvian Blood Collection and Transfusion System

    PubMed Central

    George, Paul E; Vidal, Julio; Garcia, Patricia J

    2016-01-01

    Background Peru experienced a crisis in its blood collection and supply system in the mid-2000s, as contaminated blood led to several transfusion-transmitted infections (TTI), occurring in the backdrop of extremely low voluntary donation rates and a national blood supply shortage. Thus, the Peruvian Ministry of Health (MINSA) implemented a national investigation on the safety and quality of the Peruvian blood collection/transfusion network. Methods Every Peruvian blood bank was evaluated by MINSA from 2007–2008. These evaluations consisted of an update of the national registry of blood banks and visits to each blood bank from MINSA oversight teams. Information was collected on the condition of the blood bank personnel, equipment, supplies, and practices. Further, previously-collected blood at each blood bank was randomly selected and screened for TTI-causing pathogens. Results Uncovered in this investigation was a fragmented, under-equipped, and poorly-staffed blood collection and transfusion network, consisting of 241 independent blood banks and resulting in suboptimal allocation of resources. Further, blood with evidence of TTI-causing pathogens (including Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and syphilis) and set for transfusion was discovered at three separate blood banks as part of the random screening process. Conclusion Using the successful reorganizations of national blood supply systems in other Latin American countries as examples, Peru would be well-served to form large, high-volume, regional blood collection and transfusion centers, responsible for blood collection and screening for the entire country. The small, separate blood banks would then be transformed into a network of blood transfusion centers, not responsible for blood collection. This reorganization would allow Peru to better utilize its resources, standardize the blood collection and transfusion process, and increase voluntary donation, resulting in a safer, more abundant national blood product. PMID

  13. Strategic Supply

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    the potential to capitalize on more efficient and effective management of their respective supply chains . Supply Chain Management (SCM) is the...transformation efforts have the potential to create a more agile, flexible and resilient supply chain that is responsive to Commanders and sensitive to...optimizing their supply chain to remain viable and create competitive advantage. Supply Chain Management (SCM) is grounded in the field of logistics

  14. [The influence of the products prepared from young not ossified antlers marals of siberian red deer on the characteristics of the blood oxygen-supplying system in the athletes during the contest season].

    PubMed

    Zaĭtsev, A A; Barabash, L V; Smirnova, I N; Abdulkina, N G; Kremeno, S V; Naumov, A O; Vereshchagina, S V; Shteĭnerdt, S V

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the influence of the products prepared from young not ossified antlers marals of Siberian red deer on the characteristics of the blood oxygen-supplying system in the athletes undergoing heavy physical loads during the contest season. It was shown that the use of such preparations promotes correction of humoral characteristics reflecting the development of iron-deficient conditions.

  15. Strategic Supply

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    context of Supply Chain Management ( SCM ), it is quite apparent that Strategic Supply cannot be classified as a particular industry; but rather, as an...Management ( SCM ), it is quite apparent that Strategic Supply cannot be classified as a particular industry; but rather, as an enabler across all...advantage in the global marketplace. The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) has defined SCM as, “…encompassing the planning

  16. Blood Facts and Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cross blood program started in 1940, under the leadership of Dr. Charles Drew. The Red Cross supplies ... Media Center Careers Our Mission Diversity Our Regions Leadership Donating Blood First Time Donors Platelet Donation Student ...

  17. Click chemistry: a new facile and efficient strategy for the preparation of Fe3O4 nanoparticles covalently functionalized with IDA-Cu and their application in the depletion of abundant protein in blood samples.

    PubMed

    Jian, Guiqin; Liu, Yuxing; He, Xiwen; Chen, Langxing; Zhang, Yukui

    2012-10-21

    In this study, we report a novel method to synthesize core-shell structured Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles (NPs) covalently functionalized with iminodiacetic acid (IDA) via click chemistry between the azide and alkyne groups and charged with Cu(2+). Firstly, the Fe(3)O(4)@SiO(2) NPs were obtained using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) to form a silica shell on the surface of the Fe(3)O(4) core. The azide group-modified Fe(3)O(4)@SiO(2) NPs were obtained by a sol-gel process using 3-azidopropyltriethoxysilane (AzPTES) as the silane agent. Fe(3)O(4)@SiO(2)-N(3) was directly reacted with N-propargyl iminodiacetic via click chemistry, in the presence of a Cu(I) catalyst, to acquire the IDA-modified Fe(3)O(4) NPs. Finally, through the addition of Cu(2+), the Fe(3)O(4)@SiO(2)-IDA-Cu NP product was obtained. The morphology, structure and composition of the NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The resulting NPs showed a strong magnetic response to an externally applied magnetic field, a high adsorption capacity and excellent specificity towards hemoglobin (Hb). In addition, the Fe(3)O(4)@SiO(2)-IDA-Cu NPs can be used for the selective removal of abundant Hb protein in bovine and human blood samples.

  18. Nursing Supplies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Nursing Supplies Page Content Article Body Throughout most of ... budget. (Nursing equipment also makes wonderful baby gifts.) Nursing Bras A well-made nursing bra that comfortably ...

  19. Metabolic dynamics in skeletal muscle during acute reduction in blood flow and oxygen supply to mitochondria: in-silico studies using a multi-scale, top-down integrated model.

    PubMed

    Dash, Ranjan K; Li, Yanjun; Kim, Jaeyeon; Beard, Daniel A; Saidel, Gerald M; Cabrera, Marco E

    2008-09-09

    Control mechanisms of cellular metabolism and energetics in skeletal muscle that may become evident in response to physiological stresses such as reduction in blood flow and oxygen supply to mitochondria can be quantitatively understood using a multi-scale computational model. The analysis of dynamic responses from such a model can provide insights into mechanisms of metabolic regulation that may not be evident from experimental studies. For the purpose, a physiologically-based, multi-scale computational model of skeletal muscle cellular metabolism and energetics was developed to describe dynamic responses of key chemical species and reaction fluxes to muscle ischemia. The model, which incorporates key transport and metabolic processes and subcellular compartmentalization, is based on dynamic mass balances of 30 chemical species in both capillary blood and tissue cells (cytosol and mitochondria) domains. The reaction fluxes in cytosol and mitochondria are expressed in terms of a general phenomenological Michaelis-Menten equation involving the compartmentalized energy controller ratios ATP/ADP and NADH/NAD(+). The unknown transport and reaction parameters in the model are estimated simultaneously by minimizing the differences between available in vivo experimental data on muscle ischemia and corresponding model outputs in coupled with the resting linear flux balance constraints using a robust, nonlinear, constrained-based, reduced gradient optimization algorithm. With the optimal parameter values, the model is able to simulate dynamic responses to reduced blood flow and oxygen supply to mitochondria associated with muscle ischemia of several key metabolite concentrations and metabolic fluxes in the subcellular cytosolic and mitochondrial compartments, some that can be measured and others that can not be measured with the current experimental techniques. The model can be applied to test complex hypotheses involving dynamic regulation of cellular metabolism and

  20. The abundant class III chitinase homolog in young developing banana fruits behaves as a transient vegetative storage protein and most probably serves as an important supply of amino acids for the synthesis of ripening-associated proteins.

    PubMed

    Peumans, Willy J; Proost, Paul; Swennen, Rony L; Van Damme, Els J M

    2002-10-01

    Analyses of the protein content and composition revealed dramatic changes in gene expression during in situ banana (Musa spp.) fruit formation/ripening. The total banana protein content rapidly increases during the first 60 to 70 d, but remains constant for the rest of fruit formation/ripening. During the phase of rapid protein accumulation, an inactive homolog of class III chitinases accounts for up to 40% (w/v) of the total protein. Concomitant with the arrest of net protein accumulation, the chitinase-related protein (CRP) progressively decreases and several novel proteins appear in the electropherograms. Hence, CRP behaves as a fruit-specific vegetative storage protein that accumulates during early fruit formation and serves as a source of amino acids for the synthesis of ripening-associated proteins. Analyses of individual proteins revealed that a thaumatin-like protein, a beta-1,3-glucanase, a class I chitinase, and a mannose-binding lectin are the most abundant ripening-associated proteins. Because during the ripening of prematurely harvested bananas, similar changes take place as in the in situ ripening bananas, CRP present in immature fruits is a sufficient source of amino acids for a quasi-normal synthesis of ripening-associated proteins. However, it is evident that the conversion of CRP in ripening-associated proteins takes place at an accelerated rate, especially when climacteric ripening is induced by ethylene. The present report also includes a discussion of the accumulation of the major banana allergens and the identification of suitable promoters for the production of vaccines in transgenic bananas.

  1. The Abundant Class III Chitinase Homolog in Young Developing Banana Fruits Behaves as a Transient Vegetative Storage Protein and Most Probably Serves as an Important Supply of Amino Acids for the Synthesis of Ripening-Associated Proteins1

    PubMed Central

    Peumans, Willy J.; Proost, Paul; Swennen, Rony L.; Van Damme, Els J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Analyses of the protein content and composition revealed dramatic changes in gene expression during in situ banana (Musa spp.) fruit formation/ripening. The total banana protein content rapidly increases during the first 60 to 70 d, but remains constant for the rest of fruit formation/ripening. During the phase of rapid protein accumulation, an inactive homolog of class III chitinases accounts for up to 40% (w/v) of the total protein. Concomitant with the arrest of net protein accumulation, the chitinase-related protein (CRP) progressively decreases and several novel proteins appear in the electropherograms. Hence, CRP behaves as a fruit-specific vegetative storage protein that accumulates during early fruit formation and serves as a source of amino acids for the synthesis of ripening-associated proteins. Analyses of individual proteins revealed that a thaumatin-like protein, a β-1,3-glucanase, a class I chitinase, and a mannose-binding lectin are the most abundant ripening-associated proteins. Because during the ripening of prematurely harvested bananas, similar changes take place as in the in situ ripening bananas, CRP present in immature fruits is a sufficient source of amino acids for a quasi-normal synthesis of ripening-associated proteins. However, it is evident that the conversion of CRP in ripening-associated proteins takes place at an accelerated rate, especially when climacteric ripening is induced by ethylene. The present report also includes a discussion of the accumulation of the major banana allergens and the identification of suitable promoters for the production of vaccines in transgenic bananas. PMID:12376669

  2. [The state of the mitochondrial energy-supplying system of blood leukocytes in the dynamics of Guerin's carcinoma growth under the low-level irradiation conditions].

    PubMed

    Marchenko, M M; Voloshchuk, O N

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial NADH-dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase activities of peripheral blood leukocytes of rats with the grafted Guerin's carcinoma were studied in the dynamics of oncogenesis under the conditions of the preliminary low-level irradiation. Tumor growth was accompanied by a decrease in NADH-dehydrogenase activity, an increase of succinate dehydrogenase activity. Cytochrome oxidase activity of leucocytes remained at the control level up to the terminal stages of tumor growth. Preliminary low-level irradiation of the tumor bearing animals caused a tendency to the decrease of enzymatic activities studied. This tendency was observed from the initial stages of oncogenesis.

  3. Power supply

    DOEpatents

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Hamilton, Pamela Jane; Brubaker, Michael Allen

    2007-12-04

    A modular, low weight impedance dropping power supply with battery backup is disclosed that can be connected to a high voltage AC source and provide electrical power at a lower voltage. The design can be scaled over a wide range of input voltages and over a wide range of output voltages and delivered power.

  4. Power supply

    DOEpatents

    Hart, Edward J.; Leeman, James E.; MacDougall, Hugh R.; Marron, John J.; Smith, Calvin C.

    1976-01-01

    An electric power supply employs a striking means to initiate ferroelectric elements which provide electrical energy output which subsequently initiates an explosive charge which initiates a second ferroelectric current generator to deliver current to the coil of a magnetic field current generator, creating a magnetic field around the coil. Continued detonation effects compression of the magnetic field and subsequent generation and delivery of a large output current to appropriate output loads.

  5. Lead (Pb) contamination of self-supply groundwater systems in coastal Madagascar and predictions of blood lead levels in exposed children.

    PubMed

    Akers, D Brad; MacCarthy, Michael F; Cunningham, Jeffrey A; Annis, Jonathan; Mihelcic, James R

    2015-03-03

    Thousands of households in coastal Madagascar rely on locally manufactured pitcher-pump systems to provide water for drinking, cooking, and household use. These pumps typically include components made from lead (Pb). In this study, concentrations of Pb in water were monitored at 18 household pitcher pumps in the city of Tamatave over three sampling campaigns. Concentrations of Pb frequently exceeded the World Health Organization's provisional guideline for drinking water of 10 μg/L. Under first-draw conditions (i.e., after a pump had been inactive for 1 h), 67% of samples analyzed were in excess of 10 μg/L Pb, with a median concentration of 13 μg/L. However, flushing the pump systems before collecting water resulted in a statistically significant (p < 0.0001) decrease in Pb concentrations: 35% of samples collected after flushing exceeded 10 μg/L, with a median concentration of 9 μg/L. Based on measured Pb concentrations, a biokinetic model estimates that anywhere from 15% to 70% of children living in households with pitcher pumps may be at risk for elevated blood lead levels (>5 μg/dL). Measured Pb concentrations in water were not correlated at statistically significant levels with pump-system age, well depth, system manufacturer, or season of sample collection; only the contact time (i.e., flushed or first-draw condition) was observed to correlate significantly with Pb concentrations. In two of the 18 systems, Pb valve weights were replaced with iron, which decreased the observed Pb concentrations in the water by 57-89% in one pump and by 89-96% in the other. Both systems produced samples exclusively below 10 μg/L after substitution. Therefore, relatively straightforward operational changes on the part of the pump-system manufacturers and pump users might reduce Pb exposure, thereby helping to ensure the continued sustainability of pitcher pumps in Madagascar.

  6. Abundances in Przybylski's star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowley, C. R.; Ryabchikova, T.; Kupka, F.; Bord, D. J.; Mathys, G.; Bidelman, W. P.

    2000-09-01

    We have derived abundances for 54 elements in the extreme roAp star HD101065. ESO spectra with a resolution of about 80000, and S/N of 200 or more were employed. The adopted model has Teff=6600K, and log(g)=4.2. Because of the increased line opacity and consequent low gas pressure, convection plays no significant role in the temperature structure. Lighter elemental abundances through the iron group scatter about standard abundance distribution (SAD) (solar) values. Iron and nickel are about one order of magnitude deficient while cobalt is enhanced by 1.5dex. Heavier elements, including the lanthanides, generally follow the solar pattern but enhanced by 3 to 4dex. Odd-Z elements are generally less abundant than their even-Z neighbours. With a few exceptions (e.g. Yb), the abundance pattern among the heavy elements is remarkably coherent, and resembles a displaced solar distribution.

  7. Blood sugar test - blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... sugar; Blood sugar level; Fasting blood sugar; Glucose test; Diabetic screening - blood sugar test; Diabetes - blood sugar test ... The test may be done in the following ways: After you have not eaten anything for at least 8 ...

  8. OXYGEN ABUNDANCES IN CEPHEIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Luck, R. E.; Andrievsky, S. M.; Korotin, S. N.; Kovtyukh, V. V. E-mail: serkor@skyline.od.ua E-mail: scan@deneb1.odessa.ua

    2013-07-01

    Oxygen abundances in later-type stars, and intermediate-mass stars in particular, are usually determined from the [O I] line at 630.0 nm, and to a lesser extent, from the O I triplet at 615.7 nm. The near-IR triplets at 777.4 nm and 844.6 nm are strong in these stars and generally do not suffer from severe blending with other species. However, these latter two triplets suffer from strong non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects and thus see limited use in abundance analyses. In this paper, we derive oxygen abundances in a large sample of Cepheids using the near-IR triplets from an NLTE analysis, and compare those abundances to values derived from a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of the [O I] 630.0 nm line and the O I 615.7 nm triplet as well as LTE abundances for the 777.4 nm triplet. All of these lines suffer from line strength problems making them sensitive to either measurement complications (weak lines) or to line saturation difficulties (strong lines). Upon this realization, the LTE results for the [O I] lines and the O I 615.7 nm triplet are in adequate agreement with the abundance from the NLTE analysis of the near-IR triplets.

  9. Blood typing

    MedlinePlus

    ... ABO blood typing; Blood group; Anemia - immune hemolytic blood type; ABO blood type; A blood type; AB blood type; O blood type ... The 2 steps above can accurately determine your blood type. Rh typing uses a method similar to ABO ...

  10. Cleaning supplies and equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000443.htm Cleaning supplies and equipment To use the sharing features on this page, ... to clean supplies and equipment. Disinfecting Supplies and Equipment Start by wearing the right personal protective equipment ( ...

  11. 21 CFR 606.65 - Supplies and reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Supplies and reagents. 606.65 Section 606.65 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Equipment § 606.65 Supplies...

  12. 21 CFR 606.65 - Supplies and reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplies and reagents. 606.65 Section 606.65 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Equipment § 606.65 Supplies...

  13. 21 CFR 606.65 - Supplies and reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Supplies and reagents. 606.65 Section 606.65 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Equipment § 606.65 Supplies...

  14. 21 CFR 606.65 - Supplies and reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Supplies and reagents. 606.65 Section 606.65 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Equipment § 606.65 Supplies...

  15. Donating Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood transfusion. Blood donors — especially donors with certain blood types — are always in demand. Who Can Donate Blood? ... Natural Disasters: How to Help Blood Blood Transfusions Blood Types Contact Us Print Resources Send to a Friend ...

  16. Ammonia abundances in comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyckoff, S.; Tegler, S.; Engel, L.

    The emission band strengths of the NH2 bands of Comets Halley, Hartley-Good, Thiele, and Borrelly were measured to determine the NH2 column densities for the comets. Production rates obtained using the Haser and vectorial models are in agreement within the observational errors, suggesting that a simple two-step decay model may be used to approximate the NH2 distribution in a comet's coma. Ammonia-to-water abundance ratios from 0.01 to 0.4 percent were found for the four comets. The ratio in Comet Halley is found to be Q(NH3)/Q(H2O) = 0.002 + or - 0.001. No significant difference in the ammonia abundance was found before or after perihelion in Comet Halley.

  17. Health supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Rolf; Gallagher, Pat

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * The actual application of supply chain practice and disciplines required for service delivery improvement within the current health environment. * A rationale for the application of Supply Chain Management (SCM) approaches to the Health sector. * The tools and methods available for supply chain analysis and benchmarking. * Key supply chain success factors.

  18. Money for Blood and Markets for Blood.

    PubMed

    Derpmann, Simon; Quante, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Ontario's Bill 178 proposing a Voluntary Blood Donations Act declares the offer or acceptance of payment for the donation of blood a legal offence and makes it subject to penalty. The bill reinvigorates a fundamental debate about the ethical problems associated with the payment of money for blood. Scarcity of blood donors is a recurring problem in most health systems, and monetary remuneration of the willingness to donate blood is regularly discussed--and sometimes practiced--as a means to overcome scarcity in blood. However, making blood an object of economic exchange has long aroused ethical concerns that often refer to the specific meaning of blood. From the perspective of a modern understanding of money as a metric of economic value, the exchange of money for blood--shed or given--is seen as ethically troubling, because it appears to imply a commensurability of the value of human life and economic wealth. In this paper, we begin with a general taxonomy of the types of arguments that speak in favour or against compensating donors for giving blood. We then describe the context in which the discussion about payment for blood arises, and of the specific aims and concerns that are brought forward in this context. This is used to reconstruct the normative background that supports the rejection of payment for blood as it is envisaged in Bill 178 and the aims of the proposal. We then argue that while a payment indeed changes the nature of a blood donation in an ethically considerable way, we do not believe that decisive arguments against the monetary remuneration of blood donations can be substantiated, at least not independently of assuming specific societal circumstances. Thus it may be possible to establish a stable and safe blood supply through just gratification while at the same time taking strong provisions against social disconnection, injustice, exploitation or heteronomy.

  19. Flare Plasma Iron Abundance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Dan, Chau; Jain, Rajmal; Schwartz, Richard A.; Tolbert, Anne K.

    2008-01-01

    The equivalent width of the iron-line complex at 6.7 keV seen in flare X-ray spectra suggests that the iron abundance of the hottest plasma at temperatures >approx.10 MK may sometimes be significantly lower than the nominal coronal abundance of four times the photospheric value that is commonly assumed. This conclusion is based on X-ray spectral observations of several flares seen in common with the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) and the Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) on the second Indian geostationary satellite, GSAT-2. The implications of this will be discussed as it relates to the origin of the hot flare plasma - either plasma already in the corona that is directly heated during the flare energy release process or chromospheric plasma that is heated by flare-accelerated particles and driven up into the corona. Other possible explanations of lower-than-expected equivalent widths of the iron-line complex will also be discussed.

  20. Three energy variables predict ant abundance at a geographical scale.

    PubMed Central

    Kaspari, M; Alonso, L; O'Donnell, S

    2000-01-01

    Energy theory posits three processes that link local abundance of ectotherms to geographical gradients in temperature. A survey of 49 New World habitats found a two order of magnitude span in the abundance (nests m(-2)) of ground nesting ants (Formicidae). Abundance increased with net primary productivity (r2=0.55), a measure of the baseline supply of harvestable energy. Abundance further increased with mean temperature (r2=0.056), a constraint on foraging activity for this thermophilic taxon. Finally for a given mean temperature, ants were more abundant in seasonal sites with longer, colder winters (r2 = 0.082) that help ectotherm taxa sequester harvested energy in non-productive months. All three variables are currently changing on a global scale. All should be useful in predicting biotic responses to climate change. PMID:10737406

  1. Oxygen abundance and convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van't Veer, C.; Cayrel, R.

    The triplet IR lines of O I near 777 nm are computed with the Kurucz's code, modified to accept several convection models. The program has been run with the MLT algorithm, with l/H = 1.25 and 0.5, and with the Canuto-Mazzitelli and Canuto-Goldman-Mazzitelli approaches, on a metal-poor turnoff-star model atmosphere with Teff=6200 K, log g = 4.3, [Fe/H]= -1.5. The results show that the differences in equivalent widths for the 4 cases do not exceed 2 per cent (0.3 mA). The convection treatment is therefore not an issue for the oxygen abundance derived from the permitted lines.

  2. Feedstock Supply System Logistics

    SciTech Connect

    2006-06-01

    Feedstock supply is a significant cost component in the production of biobased fuels, products, and power. The uncertainty of the biomass feedstock supply chain and associated risks are major barriers to procuring capital funding for start-up biorefineries.

  3. Capella: Structure and Abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickhouse, Nancy S.

    1999-01-01

    This grant covers the analysis of EUVE spectra of the cool star binary system Capella. This project has also required the analysis of simultaneous Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) data. The ASCA spectrum of Capella could not be fit with standard models; by imposing models based on strong lines observed with EUVE, a problem wavelength region was identified. Correcting the problem required calculations of atomic collision strengths of higher principal quantum number than had ever been calculated. With these new models applied to the ASCA spectrum, better fits were obtained. Findings are that: (1) ASCA and EUVE spectra are both dominated by a region at 6 x 10(exp 6) K. (2) The high energy cut-off of the ASCA spectrum is consistent with emission from the highest ionization stages of EUVE, namely Fe XXIV. (3) EUVE requires a continuous emission measure distribution with more than two temperatures. (4) The ASCA spectra are of such high statistical significance that systematic uncertainties dominate, including atomic physics issues and calibration issues. (5) While the ASCA spectral fits achieve lower Chi(exp 2 with two-temperature fits, the EUVE-derived emission measure distribution models are also consistent with the spectra. (6) The Fe/H ratio obtained from the ASCA fit is within 20 % of the Fe/H abundance obtained from the summed spectra of Capella over 5 EUVE pointings, as well as the 1996 EUVE data. This result confirms our claims that quasi-continua composed of weak emission lines in the short wavelength spectrometer of EUVE are not major contributors to the measured Capella continuum. Other abundance ratios are also determined from the ASCA data, using models derived with EUVE. Si, Si, and Mg appear to be close to solar photospheric values, while the ratio of Ne/Fe is three to four times lower than solar photospheric values. Whether there is a general First Ionization Potential (FIP) effect or a specific neon anomaly cannot be determined

  4. The future of oil supply.

    PubMed

    Miller, Richard G; Sorrell, Steven R

    2014-01-13

    Abundant supplies of oil form the foundation of modern industrial economies, but the capacity to maintain and grow global supply is attracting increasing concern. Some commentators forecast a peak in the near future and a subsequent terminal decline in global oil production, while others highlight the recent growth in 'tight oil' production and the scope for developing unconventional resources. There are disagreements over the size, cost and recoverability of different resources, the technical and economic potential of different technologies, the contribution of different factors to market trends and the economic implications of reduced supply. Few debates are more important, more contentious, more wide-ranging or more confused. This paper summarizes the main concepts, terms, issues and evidence that are necessary to understand the 'peak oil' debate. These include: the origin, nature and classification of oil resources; the trends in oil production and discoveries; the typical production profiles of oil fields, basins and producing regions; the mechanisms underlying those profiles; the extent of depletion of conventional oil; the risk of an approaching peak in global production; and the potential of various mitigation options. The aim is to introduce the subject to non-specialist readers and provide a basis for the subsequent papers in this Theme Issue.

  5. The future of oil supply

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Richard G.; Sorrell, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Abundant supplies of oil form the foundation of modern industrial economies, but the capacity to maintain and grow global supply is attracting increasing concern. Some commentators forecast a peak in the near future and a subsequent terminal decline in global oil production, while others highlight the recent growth in ‘tight oil’ production and the scope for developing unconventional resources. There are disagreements over the size, cost and recoverability of different resources, the technical and economic potential of different technologies, the contribution of different factors to market trends and the economic implications of reduced supply. Few debates are more important, more contentious, more wide-ranging or more confused. This paper summarizes the main concepts, terms, issues and evidence that are necessary to understand the ‘peak oil’ debate. These include: the origin, nature and classification of oil resources; the trends in oil production and discoveries; the typical production profiles of oil fields, basins and producing regions; the mechanisms underlying those profiles; the extent of depletion of conventional oil; the risk of an approaching peak in global production; and the potential of various mitigation options. The aim is to introduce the subject to non-specialist readers and provide a basis for the subsequent papers in this Theme Issue. PMID:24298085

  6. Actinide abundances in ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagee, B.; Bernatowicz, T. J.; Podosek, F. A.; Johnson, M. L.; Burnett, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of actinide and light REE (LREE) abundances and of phosphate abundances in equilibrated ordinary chondrites were obtained and were used to define the Pu abundance in the solar system and to determine the degree of variation of actinide and LREE abundances. The results were also used to compare directly the Pu/U ratio with the earlier obtained ratio determined indirectly, as (Pu/Nd)x(Nd/U), assuming that Pu behaves chemically as a LREE. The data, combined with high-accuracy isotope-dilution data from the literature, show that the degree of gram-scale variability of the Th, U, and LREE abundances for equilibrated ordinary chondrites is a factor of 2-3 for absolute abundances and up to 50 percent for relative abundances. The observed variations are interpreted as reflecting the differences in the compositions and/or proportions of solar nebula components accreted to ordinary chondrite parent bodies.

  7. [Immunological blood transfusion safety and selection of red blood cells issued from hospital blood banks].

    PubMed

    Py, J-Y

    2010-12-01

    Allogeneic red blood cells transfusion is always an immunological challenge and the choice of the blood products is crucial for the patient safety. But this choice may be hampered by the quality or the quantity of the available supply. In the end, the lack of transfusion may be more harmful than transfusion. The balance between patients' needs and blood centres supplying is always delicate. The conditions are not the same for all blood groups. Things are easier for the KEL1 phenotype, where the supply must ensure only 92.5% of KEL: -1 red blood cells instead of the 91% expected. More complicated is the situation for group O red blood cells with 47 versus 43%. But the major problem concerns RH: -1 red blood cells, for which the needs reach 20.1 versus 15%. These challenges require a lot of efforts from blood centres staffs to influence blood donors' recruitment and appointments. A justified and carefully selected blood products issuing may be of great help, especially for group O RH: -1 red blood cells. Therefore, hospital blood banks must have ad hoc procedures and a trained staff to put them into practice.

  8. Pursuing supply chain gains.

    PubMed

    Long, Gene

    2005-09-01

    Five hallmarks of an effective supply chain are: A strong relationship is developed with a single GPO. Physicians are involved in supply standardization. Supply contracts are routinely reviewed at time of renewal. Freight costs are understood and negotiated effectively. Products are distributed through an in-house distribution center.

  9. Blood pressure

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body's organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

  10. Controlling supply expenses through capitated supply contracting.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, J C

    1997-07-01

    Some providers dealing with the financial challenges of managed care are attempting to control supply expenses through capitated supply contracting and similar risk/reward sharing arrangements. Under such arrangements, a supplier sells products and services to a provider for a fixed, prospective price in exchange for the provider's exclusive business. If expenses exceed the prospectively established amount, the supplier and provider share the loss. Conversely, if expenses are less than the fixed amount, they share the savings. For a capitated supply arrangement to be successful, providers must be able to identify and track supply expense drivers, such as clinical pathways, technology utilization, and product selection and utilization. Sophisticated information systems are needed to capture data, such as total and per-transaction product usage/volume; unit price per item; average and cost per item; average and total cost per transaction; and total cost per outcome. Providers also will need to establish mutually cooperative relationships with the suppliers with whom they contract.

  11. Capella: Structure and Abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickhouse, Nancy S.

    1999-01-01

    This grant covers the analysis of ASCA spectra of the cool star binary system Capella. This project has also required the analysis of simultaneous EUVE data. The ASCA spectrum of Capella could not be fit with standard models; by imposing models based on strong lines observed with EUVE, a problem wavelength region was identified. Correcting the problem required calculations of atomic collision strengths of higher principal quantum number than had ever been calculated, resulting in a paper in process by Liedahl and Brickhouse. With these new models applied to the ASCA spectrum, better fits were obtained. While solar abundance ratios are generally consistent with the ASCA data, the ratio of Ne/Fe is three to four times lower than solar photospheric values. Whether there is a general First Ionization Potential (FIP) effect or a specific neon anomaly cannot be determined from these data. Detailed discussion has been provided to NASA in the most recent annual report (1997). Two poster presentations have been made regarding modeling requirements. A substantial paper is in the final revision form, following review by six co-authors. The results of this work have wide implications, since the newly calculated emission lines almost certainly contribute to other problems in fitting not only other stellar spectra, but also composite supernova remnants, galaxies, and cooling flow clusters of galaxies. Furthermore, Liedahl and Brickhouse have identified other species for which lines of a similar nature (high principal quantum number) will contribute significant flux. For moderate resolution X-ray spectra, lines left out of the models in relatively isolated bands, will be attributed to continuum flux by spectral fitting engines, causing errors in line-to-continuum ratios. Thus addressing the general theoretical problem is of crucial importance.

  12. Measuring Solar Abundances with Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mussack, K.; Gough, D.

    2009-12-01

    The revision of the photospheric abundances proferred by Asplund et al. (2005) has rendered opacity theory inconsistent with the seismologically determined opacity through the Sun. This highlights the need for a direct seismological measurement of solar abundances. Here we describe the technique used to measure abundances with seismology, examine our ability to detect differences between solar models using this technique, and discuss its application in the Sun.

  13. Blood clotting

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... the external bleeding stops. Clotting factors in the blood cause strands of blood-borne material, called fibrin, to stick together and ... the inside of the wound. Eventually, the cut blood vessel heals, and the blood clot dissolves after ...

  14. Blood culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  15. New functionalities in abundant element oxides: ubiquitous element strategy.

    PubMed

    Hosono, Hideo; Hayashi, Katsuro; Kamiya, Toshio; Atou, Toshiyuki; Susaki, Tomofumi

    2011-06-01

    While most ceramics are composed of ubiquitous elements (the ten most abundant elements within the Earth's crust), many advanced materials are based on rare elements. A 'rare-element crisis' is approaching owing to the imbalance between the limited supply of rare elements and the increasing demand. Therefore, we propose a 'ubiquitous element strategy' for materials research, which aims to apply abundant elements in a variety of innovative applications. Creation of innovative oxide materials and devices based on conventional ceramics is one specific challenge. This review describes the concept of ubiquitous element strategy and gives some highlights of our recent research on the synthesis of electronic, thermionic and structural materials using ubiquitous elements.

  16. Competing for supply.

    PubMed

    Stolle, B

    2001-02-01

    The Internet was supposed to make it possible for anybody anywhere to get anything anytime. Instead, it's magnified suppliers' miscalculations into global shortages. But if the Net caused these supply chain woes, it's also the solution, says the CEO of a supply-chain software manufacturer.

  17. Power supply conditioning circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primas, L. E.; Loveland, R.

    1987-01-01

    A power supply conditioning circuit that can reduce Periodic and Random Deviations (PARD) on the output voltages of dc power supplies to -150 dBV from dc to several KHz with no measurable periodic deviations is described. The PARD for a typical commercial low noise power supply is -74 dBV for frequencies above 20 Hz and is often much worse at frequencies below 20 Hz. The power supply conditioning circuit described here relies on the large differences in the dynamic impedances of a constant current diode and a zener diode to establish a dc voltage with low PARD. Power supplies with low PARD are especially important in circuitry involving ultrastable frequencies for the Deep Space Network.

  18. Spatial Data Supply Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadharajulu, P.; Azeem Saqiq, M.; Yu, F.; McMeekin, D. A.; West, G.; Arnold, L.; Moncrieff, S.

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes current research into the supply of spatial data to the end user in as close to real time as possible via the World Wide Web. The Spatial Data Infrastructure paradigm has been discussed since the early 1990s. The concept has evolved significantly since then but has almost always examined data from the perspective of the supplier. It has been a supplier driven focus rather than a user driven focus. The current research being conducted is making a paradigm shift and looking at the supply of spatial data as a supply chain, similar to a manufacturing supply chain in which users play a significant part. A comprehensive consultation process took place within Australia and New Zealand incorporating a large number of stakeholders. Three research projects that have arisen from this consultation process are examining Spatial Data Supply Chains within Australia and New Zealand and are discussed within this paper.

  19. The boron abundance of Procyon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemke, Michael; Lambert, David L.; Edvardsson, Bengt

    1993-01-01

    The B I 2496.8 A resonance line and HST/GHRS echelle spectra are used with model atmospheres and synthetic spectra to derive the B abundance of the F dwarfs Procyon (Alpha Canis Minoris), Theta Ursae Majoris, and Iota Pegasi. The B abundance of Theta UMa and Iota Peg is similar to that derived by Boesgaard and Heacox (1978) from the B II resonance line in spectra of A- and B-type stars. These two dwarfs show normal abundances of Li, Be, and B. Procyon, which is highly depleted in Li and Be, is depleted in B by a factor of at least 3. Comparison of the spectra of Procyon and the halo dwarf HD 140283 shows that the B abundance assigned by Duncan et al. (1992) to three halo dwarfs is not greatly overestimated as a result of contamination of the B I line by an unidentified line.

  20. Ammonia abundances in four comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyckoff, S.; Tegler, S. C.; Engel, L.

    1991-02-01

    NH2 emission band strengths were measured in four comets and the NH2 column densities were determined in order to measure the ammonia content of the comets. The mean ammonia/water abundance ratio derived for the four comets is found to be 0.13 + or - 0.06 percent, with no significant variation among the comets. The uniformity of this abundance attests to a remarkable degree of chemical homogeneity over large scales in the comet-forming region of the primordial solar nebula, and contrasts with the CO abundance variations found previously in comets. The N2 and NH3 abundances indicate a condensation temperature in the range 20-160 K, consistent with virtually all comet formation hypotheses.

  1. The boron abundance of Procyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, Michael; Lambert, David L.; Edvardsson, Bengt

    1993-05-01

    The B I 2496.8 A resonance line and HST/GHRS echelle spectra are used with model atmospheres and synthetic spectra to derive the B abundance of the F dwarfs Procyon (Alpha Canis Minoris), Theta Ursae Majoris, and Iota Pegasi. The B abundance of Theta UMa and Iota Peg is similar to that derived by Boesgaard and Heacox (1978) from the B II resonance line in spectra of A- and B-type stars. These two dwarfs show normal abundances of Li, Be, and B. Procyon, which is highly depleted in Li and Be, is depleted in B by a factor of at least 3. Comparison of the spectra of Procyon and the halo dwarf HD 140283 shows that the B abundance assigned by Duncan et al. (1992) to three halo dwarfs is not greatly overestimated as a result of contamination of the B I line by an unidentified line.

  2. How Ants Drop Out: Ant Abundance on Tropical Mountains

    PubMed Central

    Longino, John T.; Branstetter, Michael G.; Colwell, Robert K.

    2014-01-01

    In tropical wet forests, ants are a large proportion of the animal biomass, but the factors determining abundance are not well understood. We characterized ant abundance in the litter layer of 41 mature wet forest sites spread throughout Central America (Chiapas, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica) and examined the impact of elevation (as a proxy for temperature) and community species richness. Sites were intentionally chosen to minimize variation in precipitation and seasonality. From sea level to 1500 m ant abundance very gradually declined, community richness declined more rapidly than abundance, and the local frequency of the locally most common species increased. These results suggest that within this elevational zone, density compensation is acting, maintaining high ant abundance as richness declines. In contrast, in sites above 1500 m, ant abundance dropped abruptly to much lower levels. Among these high montane sites, community richness explained much more of the variation in abundance than elevation, and there was no evidence of density compensation. The relative stability of abundance below 1500 m may be caused by opposing effects of temperature on productivity and metabolism. Lower temperatures may decrease productivity and thus the amount of food available for consumers, but slower metabolisms of consumers may allow maintenance of higher biomass at lower resource supply rates. Ant communities at these lower elevations may be highly interactive, the result of continuous habitat presence over geological time. High montane sites may be ephemeral in geological time, resulting in non-interactive communities dominated by historical and stochastic processes. Abundance in these sites may be determined by the number of species that manage to colonize and/or avoid extinction on mountaintops. PMID:25098722

  3. Hydrogen supply system

    SciTech Connect

    Teitel, R.J.

    1981-11-24

    A system for supplying hydrogen to an apparatus which utilizes hydrogen contains a metal hydride hydrogen supply component and a microcavity hydrogen storage hydrogen supply component which in tandem supply hydrogen for the apparatus. The metal hydride hydrogen supply component includes a first storage tank filled with a composition which is capable of forming a metal hydride of such a nature that the hydride will release hydrogen when heated but will absorb hydrogen when cooled. This first storage tank is equipped with a heat exchanger for both adding heat to and extracting heat from the composition to regulate the absorption/deabsorption of hydrogen from the composition. The microcavity hydrogen storage hydrogen supply component includes a second tank containing the microcavity hydrogen supply. The microcavity hydrogen storage contains hydrogen held under high pressure within individual microcavities. The hydrogen is released from the microcavities by heating the cavities. This heating is accomplished by including within the tank for the microcavity hydrogen storage a heating element.

  4. Automating power supply checkout

    SciTech Connect

    Laster, J.; Bruno, D.; D'Ottavio, T.; Drozd, J.; Marr, G.; Mi, C.

    2011-03-28

    Power Supply checkout is a necessary, pre-beam, time-critical function. At odds are the desire to decrease the amount of time to perform the checkout while at the same time maximizing the number and types of checks that can be performed and analyzing the results quickly (in case any problems exist that must be addressed). Controls and Power Supply Group personnel have worked together to develop tools to accomplish these goals. Power Supply checkouts are now accomplished in a time-frame of hours rather than days, reducing the number of person-hours needed to accomplish the checkout and making the system available more quickly for beam development. The goal of the Collider-Accelerator Department (CAD) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is to provide experimenters with collisions of heavy-ions and polarized protons. The Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) magnets are controlled by 100's of varying types of power supplies. There is a concentrated effort to perform routine maintenance on the supplies during shutdown periods. There is an effort at RHIC to streamline the time needed for system checkout in order to quickly arrive at a period of beam operations for RHIC. This time-critical period is when the checkout of the power supplies is performed as the RHIC ring becomes cold and the supplies are connected to their physical magnets. The checkout process is used to identify problems in voltage and current regulation by examining data signals related to each for problems in settling and regulation (ripple).

  5. Supply chain planning classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hvolby, Hans-Henrik; Trienekens, Jacques; Bonde, Hans

    2001-10-01

    Industry experience a need to shift in focus from internal production planning towards planning in the supply network. In this respect customer oriented thinking becomes almost a common good amongst companies in the supply network. An increase in the use of information technology is needed to enable companies to better tune their production planning with customers and suppliers. Information technology opportunities and supply chain planning systems facilitate companies to monitor and control their supplier network. In spite if these developments, most links in today's supply chains make individual plans, because the real demand information is not available throughout the chain. The current systems and processes of the supply chains are not designed to meet the requirements now placed upon them. For long term relationships with suppliers and customers, an integrated decision-making process is needed in order to obtain a satisfactory result for all parties. Especially when customized production and short lead-time is in focus. An effective value chain makes inventory available and visible among the value chain members, minimizes response time and optimizes total inventory value held throughout the chain. In this paper a supply chain planning classification grid is presented based current manufacturing classifications and supply chain planning initiatives.

  6. Chlorine Abundances in Cool Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maas, Z. G.; Pilachowski, C. A.; Hinkle, K.

    2016-12-01

    Chlorine abundances are reported in 15 evolved giants and 1 M dwarf in the solar neighborhood. The Cl abundance was measured using the vibration-rotation 1-0 P8 line of H35Cl at 3.69851 μm. The high-resolution L-band spectra were observed using the Phoenix infrared spectrometer on the Kitt Peak Mayall 4 m telescope. The average [35Cl/Fe] abundance in stars with -0.72 < [Fe/H] < 0.20 is [35Cl/Fe] = (-0.10 ± 0.15) dex. The mean difference between the [35Cl/Fe] ratios measured in our stars and chemical evolution model values is (0.16 ± 0.15) dex. The [35Cl/Ca] ratio has an offset of ˜0.35 dex above model predictions, suggesting that chemical evolution models are underproducing Cl at the high metallicity range. Abundances of C, N, O, Si, and Ca were also measured in our spectral region and are consistent with F and G dwarfs. The Cl versus O abundances from our sample match Cl abundances measured in planetary nebula and H ii regions. In one star where both H35Cl and H37Cl could be measured, a 35Cl/37Cl isotope ratio of 2.2 ± 0.4 was found, consistent with values found in the Galactic ISM and predicted chemical evolution models.

  7. Supply chain assessment methodology.

    PubMed

    Topor, E

    2000-08-01

    This article describes an assessment methodology based on the supply chain proficiency model that can be used to set realistic supply chain objectives. The assessment centers on a business model that identifies the logical stages of supply chain proficiency as measured against a comprehensive set of business characteristics. For each characteristic, an enterprise evolves from one stage to the next. The magnitude of change inherent in moving forward usually prohibits skipping stages. Although it is possible to be at different stages for each characteristic, it is usually desirable to maintain balance.

  8. Managing Supply Chain Disruptions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-09

    functions within and across organizations (CSCMP, 2005). Mentzer et al. (2001) characterize SCM as a philosophy that includes a systems approach with...150 vi LIST OF TABLES Table 2.1. Prominent Supply Chain Related System Theory...process. It is not a matter of a supply chain system encountering a problem, but rather a matter of when a problematic event will occur and how severe

  9. Blood Types

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Blood Types KidsHealth > For Teens > Blood Types Print A A ... or straight hair instead of curly. ...Make Eight Blood Types The different markers that can be found in ...

  10. Blood Sugar

    MedlinePlus

    Blood sugar, or glucose, is the main sugar found in your blood. It comes from the food you eat, and is your body's main source of energy. Your blood carries glucose to all of your body's cells to use ...

  11. Blood Transfusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... notice a decrease in red blood cell levels. Iron overload If you receive multiple blood transfusions, you may end up with too much iron in your blood. Iron overload (hemochromatosis) can damage ...

  12. Donating Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... can't get an infection or disease from giving blood. The needles and other equipment used are sterile ... part of blood (plasma) within 72 hours after giving blood. It generally takes about 4–8 weeks to ...

  13. Blood Types

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause exceptions to the above patterns. ABO blood typing is not sufficient to prove or disprove paternity or maternity. ... and Complications History of Blood Transfusion Iron and Blood Donation Iron ...

  14. Hematologic Disorders: Blood Transfusion Products.

    PubMed

    Baltierra, David; Harper, Tiffany; Jones, Matthew Page; Nau, Konrad C

    2015-06-01

    Until the 1980s, liberal blood transfusion criteria with limited evidence were used regardless of the patient's clinical condition. However, blood transfusion products are associated with several risks, such as infection, acute lung injury, circulatory overload, and hemolytic transfusion reactions. More restrictive transfusion criteria and patient monitoring can decrease the need for transfusions, as well as decrease morbidity and mortality rates and costs. The national supply of blood products continues to decline with more stringent blood donor criteria. Preoperative autologous blood donation has fallen out of favor in patients without antibodies to high-incidence antigens because of increased rates of transfusion, waste of predonated units, and significant costs. Instead, preoperative erythropoietin plus iron therapy in patients who are at high risk of postoperative anemia as well as intraoperative techniques, such as use of antifibrinolytics and cell salvage, can prevent the need for allogeneic blood transfusion. Artificial blood products remain problematic and are not used in the United States.

  15. Solar and stellar photospheric abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allende Prieto, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    The determination of photospheric abundances in late-type stars from spectroscopic observations is a well-established field, built on solid theoretical foundations. Improving those foundations to refine the accuracy of the inferred abundances has proven challenging, but progress has been made. In parallel, developments on instrumentation, chiefly regarding multi-object spectroscopy, have been spectacular, and a number of projects are collecting large numbers of observations for stars across the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, promising important advances in our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. After providing a brief description of the basic physics and input data involved in the analysis of stellar spectra, a review is made of the analysis steps, and the available tools to cope with large observational efforts. The paper closes with a quick overview of relevant ongoing and planned spectroscopic surveys, and highlights of recent research on photospheric abundances.

  16. Robust Abundance Estimation in Animal Abundance Surveys with Imperfect Detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surveys of animal abundance are central to the conservation and management of living natural resources. However, detection uncertainty complicates the sampling process of many species. One sampling method employed to deal with this problem is depletion (or removal) surveys in whi...

  17. The solar abundance of beryllium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, J. E.; Aller, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    The solar abundance of beryllium is deduced from high-resolution Kitt Peak observations of the 3130.43- and 3131.08-A lines of Be II interpreted by the method of spectrum synthesis. The results are in good agreement with those previously obtained by Grevesse (1968) and by Hauge and Engvold (1968) and indicate that in the photospheric layers, beryllium is depleted below the chondritic value by a factor of about two. It is found that the beryllium abundance is equal to logN(Be)/N(H) + 12 = 1.08 plus or minus 0.05.

  18. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  19. Petroleum supply monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  20. What's Blood?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Let's find out more about each ingredient. continue Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (also called erythrocytes, say: ih-RITH-ruh-sytes) ... Most of the cells in the blood are red blood cells. They carry around an important chemical called hemoglobin ( ...

  1. THE SOLAR FLARE IRON ABUNDANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, K. J. H.; Dennis, B. R. E-mail: Brian.R.Dennis@nasa.gov

    2012-03-20

    The abundance of iron is measured from emission line complexes at 6.65 keV (Fe line) and 8 keV (Fe/Ni line) in RHESSI X-ray spectra during solar flares. Spectra during long-duration flares with steady declines were selected, with an isothermal assumption and improved data analysis methods over previous work. Two spectral fitting models give comparable results, viz., an iron abundance that is lower than previous coronal values but higher than photospheric values. In the preferred method, the estimated Fe abundance is A(Fe) = 7.91 {+-} 0.10 (on a logarithmic scale, with A(H) = 12) or 2.6 {+-} 0.6 times the photospheric Fe abundance. Our estimate is based on a detailed analysis of 1898 spectra taken during 20 flares. No variation from flare to flare is indicated. This argues for a fractionation mechanism similar to quiet-Sun plasma. The new value of A(Fe) has important implications for radiation loss curves, which are estimated.

  2. Perioperative supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Feistritzer, N R; Keck, B R

    2000-09-01

    Faced with declining revenues and increasing operating expenses, hospitals are evaluating numerous mechanisms designed to reduce costs while simultaneously maintaining quality care. Many facilities have targeted initial cost reduction efforts in the reduction of labor expenses. Once labor expenses have been "right sized," facilities have continued to focus on service delivery improvements by the optimization of the "supply chain" process. This report presents a case study of the efforts of Vanderbilt University Medical Center in the redesign of its supply chain management process in the department of Perioperative Services. Utilizing a multidisciplinary project management structure, 3 work teams were established to complete the redesign process. To date, the project has reduced costs by $2.3 million and enhanced quality patient care by enhancing the delivery of appropriate clinical supplies during the perioperative experience.

  3. Abundance estimation and conservation biology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; MacKenzie, D.I.

    2004-01-01

    Abundance is the state variable of interest in most population–level ecological research and in most programs involving management and conservation of animal populations. Abundance is the single parameter of interest in capture–recapture models for closed populations (e.g., Darroch, 1958; Otis et al., 1978; Chao, 2001). The initial capture–recapture models developed for partially (Darroch, 1959) and completely (Jolly, 1965; Seber, 1965) open populations represented efforts to relax the restrictive assumption of population closure for the purpose of estimating abundance. Subsequent emphases in capture–recapture work were on survival rate estimation in the 1970’s and 1980’s (e.g., Burnham et al., 1987; Lebreton et al.,1992), and on movement estimation in the 1990’s (Brownie et al., 1993; Schwarz et al., 1993). However, from the mid–1990’s until the present time, capture–recapture investigators have expressed a renewed interest in abundance and related parameters (Pradel, 1996; Schwarz & Arnason, 1996; Schwarz, 2001). The focus of this session was abundance, and presentations covered topics ranging from estimation of abundance and rate of change in abundance, to inferences about the demographic processes underlying changes in abundance, to occupancy as a surrogate of abundance. The plenary paper by Link & Barker (2004) is provocative and very interesting, and it contains a number of important messages and suggestions. Link & Barker (2004) emphasize that the increasing complexity of capture–recapture models has resulted in large numbers of parameters and that a challenge to ecologists is to extract ecological signals from this complexity. They offer hierarchical models as a natural approach to inference in which traditional parameters are viewed as realizations of stochastic processes. These processes are governed by hyperparameters, and the inferential approach focuses on these hyperparameters. Link & Barker (2004) also suggest that our attention

  4. Actinide abundances in ordinary chondrites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagee, B.; Bernatowicz, T.J.; Podosek, F.A.; Johnson, M.L.; Burnett, D.S.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of 244Pu fission Xe, U, Th, and light REE (LREE) abundances, along with modal petrographic determinations of phosphate abundances, were carried out on equilibrated ordinary chondrites in order to define better the solar system Pu abundance and to determine the degree of variation of actinide and LREE abundances. Our data permit comparison of the directly measured Pu/ U ratio with that determined indirectly as (Pu/Nd) ?? (Nd/U) assuming that Pu behaves chemically as a LREE. Except for Guaren??a, and perhaps H chondrites in general, Pu concentrations are similar to that determined previously for St. Se??verin, although less precise because of higher trapped Xe contents. Trapped 130Xe 136Xe ratios appear to vary from meteorite to meteorite, but, relative to AVCC, all are similar in the sense of having less of the interstellar heavy Xe found in carbonaceous chondrite acid residues. The Pu/U and Pu/Nd ratios are consistent with previous data for St. Se??verin, but both tend to be slightly higher than those inferred from previous data on Angra dos Reis. Although significant variations exist, the distribution of our Th/U ratios, along with other precise isotope dilution data for ordinary chondrites, is rather symmetric about the CI chondrite value; however, actinide/(LREE) ratios are systematically lower than the CI value. Variations in actinide or LREE absolute and relative abundances are interpreted as reflecting differences in the proportions and/or compositions of more primitive components (chondrules and CAI materials?) incorporated into different regions of the ordinary chondrite parent bodies. The observed variations of Th/U, Nd/U, or Ce/U suggest that measurements of Pu/U on any single equilibrated ordinary chondrite specimen, such as St. Se??verin, should statistically be within ??20-30% of the average solar system value, although it is also clear that anomalous samples exist. ?? 1990.

  5. Coal supply for California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yancik, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    The potential sources and qualities of coals available for major utility and industrial consumers in California are examined and analyzed with respect to those factors that would affect the reliability of supplies. Other considerations, such as the requirements and assurances needed by the coal producers to enter into long-term contracts and dedicate large reserves of coal to these contracts are also discussed. Present and potential future mining contraints on coal mine operators are identified and analyzed with respect to their effect on availability of supply.

  6. Supply-Chain Optimization Template

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiett, William F.; Sealing, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Supply-Chain Optimization Template (SCOT) is an instructional guide for identifying, evaluating, and optimizing (including re-engineering) aerospace- oriented supply chains. The SCOT was derived from the Supply Chain Council s Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCC SCOR) Model, which is more generic and more oriented toward achieving a competitive advantage in business.

  7. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in conjunction with short-term extracorporeal circulation devices to hold a reserve supply of blood in the...

  8. Lightweight Regulated Power Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W.

    1985-01-01

    Power-supply circuit regulates output voltage by adjusting frequency of chopper circuit according to variations. Currently installed in battery charger for electric wheelchair, circuit is well suited to other uses in which light weight is important - for example, in portable computers, radios, and test instruments.

  9. Teleconnected food supply shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bren d'Amour, Christopher; Wenz, Leonie; Kalkuhl, Matthias; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Creutzig, Felix

    2016-03-01

    The 2008-2010 food crisis might have been a harbinger of fundamental climate-induced food crises with geopolitical implications. Heat-wave-induced yield losses in Russia and resulting export restrictions led to increases in market prices for wheat across the Middle East, likely contributing to the Arab Spring. With ongoing climate change, temperatures and temperature variability will rise, leading to higher uncertainty in yields for major nutritional crops. Here we investigate which countries are most vulnerable to teleconnected supply-shocks, i.e. where diets strongly rely on the import of wheat, maize, or rice, and where a large share of the population is living in poverty. We find that the Middle East is most sensitive to teleconnected supply shocks in wheat, Central America to supply shocks in maize, and Western Africa to supply shocks in rice. Weighing with poverty levels, Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected. Altogether, a simultaneous 10% reduction in exports of wheat, rice, and maize would reduce caloric intake of 55 million people living in poverty by about 5%. Export bans in major producing regions would put up to 200 million people below the poverty line at risk, 90% of which live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that a region-specific combination of national increases in agricultural productivity and diversification of trade partners and diets can effectively decrease future food security risks.

  10. Exploration Supply Chain Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Exploration Supply Chain Simulation project was chartered by the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate to develop a software tool, with proper data, to quantitatively analyze supply chains for future program planning. This tool is a discrete-event simulation that uses the basic supply chain concepts of planning, sourcing, making, delivering, and returning. This supply chain perspective is combined with other discrete or continuous simulation factors. Discrete resource events (such as launch or delivery reviews) are represented as organizational functional units. Continuous resources (such as civil service or contractor program functions) are defined as enabling functional units. Concepts of fixed and variable costs are included in the model to allow the discrete events to interact with cost calculations. The definition file is intrinsic to the model, but a blank start can be initiated at any time. The current definition file is an Orion Ares I crew launch vehicle. Parameters stretch from Kennedy Space Center across and into other program entities (Michaud Assembly Facility, Aliant Techsystems, Stennis Space Center, Johnson Space Center, etc.) though these will only gain detail as the file continues to evolve. The Orion Ares I file definition in the tool continues to evolve, and analysis from this tool is expected in 2008. This is the first application of such business-driven modeling to a NASA/government-- aerospace contractor endeavor.

  11. Supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Palevich, R F

    1999-02-01

    This article describes how Do It Best Corp. has used technology to improve its supply chain management. Among other topics it discusses the company's use of electronic data interchange, the Internet, electronic forecasting, and warehouse management systems to gain substantial savings and increase its competitiveness.

  12. Maintenance and supply options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The object of the Maintenance and Supply Option was to develop a high level operational philosophy related to maintenance and supply operations and incorporate these concepts into the Lunar Base Study. Specific products to be generated during this task were three trade studies and a conceptual design of the Logistic Supply Module. The crew size study was performed to evaluate crew sizes from the baseline size of four to a crew size of eight and determine the preferred crew size. The second trade study was to determine the impact of extending surface stay times and recommend a preferred duration of stay time as a function of crew, consumables, and equipment support capabilities. The third trade study was an evaluation of packaging and storage methods to determine the preferred logistics approach to support the lunar base. A modified scenario was developed and served as the basis of the individual trade studies. Assumptions and guidelines were also developed from experience with Apollo programs, Space Shuttle operations, and Space Station studies. With this information, the trade studies were performed and a conceptual design for the Logistic Supply Module was developed.

  13. Supply and Demand

    MedlinePlus

    ... breast to continue producing an adequate supply of milk. In fact, the protein contained in the residual milk remaining in the ... or fluid) content, and the composition of your milk will change. Over the next week or so, the protein content will decline and the fat and lactose ...

  14. Baby supplies you need

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newborn care - baby supplies References Carlo WA. The newborn infant. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St Geme JW, ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Infant and Newborn Care Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., ...

  15. Supply chain quality.

    PubMed

    Feary, Simon

    2009-01-01

    As the development of complex manufacturing models and virtual companies become more prevalent in today's growing global markets, it is increasingly important to support the relationships between manufacturer and supplier. Utilising these relationships will ensure that supply chains operate more effectively and reduce costs, risks and time-to-market time frames, whilst maintaining product quality.

  16. Microsystems for the Capture of Low-Abundance Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharmasiri, Udara; Witek, Małgorzata A.; Adams, Andre A.; Soper, Steven A.

    2010-07-01

    Efficient selection and enumeration of low-abundance biological cells are highly important in a variety of applications. For example, the clinical utility of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in peripheral blood is recognized as a viable biomarker for the management of various cancers, in which the clinically relevant number of CTCs per 7.5 ml of blood is two to five. Although there are several methods for isolating rare cells from a variety of heterogeneous samples, such as immunomagnetic-assisted cell sorting and fluorescence-activated cell sorting, they are fraught with challenges. Microsystem-based technologies are providing new opportunities for selecting and isolating rare cells from complex, heterogeneous samples. Such approaches involve reductions in target-cell loss, process automation, and minimization of contamination issues. In this review, we introduce different application areas requiring rare cell analysis, conventional techniques for their selection, and finally microsystem approaches for low-abundance-cell isolation and enumeration.

  17. Element abundances at high redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, David M.; Welty, D. E.; York, D. G.

    1989-01-01

    Abundances of Si(+), S(+), Cr(+), Mn(+), Fe(_), and Zn(+) are considered for two absorption-line systems in the spectrum of the QSO PKS 0528 - 250. Zinc and sulfur are underabundant, relative to H, by a factor of 10 compared to their solar and Galactic interstellar abundances. The silicon-, chromium-, iron-, and nickel-to-hydrogen ratios are less than the solar values and comparable to the local interstellar ratios. A straightforward interpretation is that nucleosynthesis in these high-redshift systems has led to only about one-tenth as much heavy production as in the gas clouds around the sun, and that the amount of the observed underabundances attributable to grain depletion is small. The dust-to-gas ratio in these clouds is less than 8 percent of the Galactic value.

  18. Coronal abundances and their variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saba, Julia L. R.

    1994-01-01

    This contract supports the investigation of elemental abundances in the solar corona, principally through analysis of high-resolution software X-ray spectra from the Flat Crystal Spectrometer on NASA's Solar Maximum Mission. The goals of the study are a characterization of the mean values of relative abundances of elements accessible in the FCS data, and information on the extent and circumstances of their variability. This report is a summation of the data analysis and reporting activities which occurred since the last report, submitted two months early, in April 1994, to facilitate evaluation of the first year's progress for contract renewal. Hence this report covers the period 15 April 1994 - 15 December 1994. A list of publications resulting from this research is included.

  19. The CALIFA survey: Oxygen abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Aff001

    We present here the last results we obtained on the spatial resolved analysis of the ionized gas of disk-dominated galaxies based on CALIFA data. CALIFA is an ongoing IFS survey of galaxies in the Local Univese (0.005 < z < 0.03) that has already obtained spectroscopic information up to ~2.5r e with a spatial resolution better than ~1 kpc for a total number of an statiscal sample of galaxies of different morphological types, covering the CM-diagram up to Mr<-18 mag. With nearly 2000 spectra obtained for each galaxy, CALIFA offer one of the best IFU data to study the starformation histories and chemical enrichment of galaxies. In this article we focus on the main results based on the analysis of the oxygen abundances based on the study of ionized gas in H ii regions and individual spaxels, and their relations with the global properties of galaxies. In summary we have found that: (1) the -Z relation does not present a secondary relation with the star-formation rate, when the abundance is measured at the effective radius; (2) the oxygen abundance present a strong correlation with the stellar surface density (Σ-Z relation); (3) the oxygen abundance profiles present three well defined regimes, (a) an overall negative radial gradient, between 0.5-2 r e , with a characteristic slope of α O/H ~-0.1 dex/r e , (b) an universal flatenning beyond >2r e and (c) an inner drop at <0.5r e which presence depends on the mass. All these results indicates that disk-galaxies present an overall inside-out growth, although with clear deviations from this simple scenario.

  20. The solar abundance of thulium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, J. E.; Aller, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    Consideration of one relatively unblended line of the solar spectrum, namely, the 3131.258-A line of Tm II, which yields a thulium abundance of 0.80 plus or minus 0.10 with the Corliss and Bozman (1962) f-value. The uncertainty of this figure is discussed in conjunction with the contradictory findings of some other investigators. The need for further detailed study of the lanthanides by the method of spectrum synthesis is pointed out.

  1. Chlorine Abundances in Martian Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, D.D.; Garrison, D.H.; Park, J.

    2009-01-01

    Chlorine measurements made in martian surface rocks by robotic spacecraft typically give Chlorine (Cl) abundances of approximately 0.1-0.8%. In contrast, Cl abundances in martian meteorites appear lower, although data is limited, and martian nakhlites were also subjected to Cl contamination by Mars surface brines. Chlorine abundances reported by one lab for whole rock (WR) samples of Shergotty, ALH77005, and EET79001 range 108-14 ppm, whereas Cl in nakhlites range 73-1900 ppm. Measurements of Cl in various martian weathering phases of nakhlites varied 0.04-4.7% and reveal significant concentration of Cl by martian brines Martian meteorites contain much lower Chlorine than those measured in martian surface rocks and give further confirmation that Cl in these surface rocks was introduced by brines and weathering. It has been argued that Cl is twice as effective as water in lowering the melting point and promoting melting at shallower martian depths, and that significant Cl in the shergottite source region would negate any need for significant water. However, this conclusion was based on experiments that utilized Cl concentrations more analogous to martian surface rocks than to shergottite meteorites, and may not be applicable to shergottites.

  2. Elemental Abundances from Very Low Abundance HII Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skillman, Evan D.; Terlevich, Roberto J.; Terlevich, Elena

    1992-12-01

    In 1987 we initiated a program to mitigate the deficiency of known low metallicity galaxies. Following our discoveries of very low abundance H II regions in nearby dwarf galaxies (Skillman et al. 1988, 1989a,b), we used the IDS on the INT to to collect spectra of dwarf galaxies in the Second Byurakan Survey (SBS) of UV excess galaxies. Our survey of over 40 SBS galaxies was completed in January 1990 and we have identified roughly one dozen very low metallicity H II galaxies. Now, with a significant sample of these galaxies, several observational programs are possible; foremost of these is the measurement of the primordial helium abundance (eg., Pagel et al. 1992). We report here on observations from March 1991 and 1992 using the ISIS spectrograph on the WHT to obtain very high quality spectra of 8 of these newly discovered metal-poor galaxies. The ISIS double spectrograph allows simultaneous observations of the blue (3600 - 5100 Angstroms) and red (6300 - 6800 Angstroms). Thus, He, N, O, Ne and S abundances can be derived with relatively small observational uncertainties. We compare our new observations with those in the literature. Our preliminary analysis indicates a slightly larger scatter in He/H at low O/H than had been seen previously. The small scatter may have been due simply to the paucity of observations at low metallicity. References: Pagel, B.E.J., Simonson, E.A., Terlevich, R.J., & Edmunds, M.G. 1992, MNRAS, 255, 325 Skillman, E.D., Kennicutt, R.C., & Hodge, P.W. 1989a, ApJ, 347, 875 Skillman, E.D., Melnick, J., Terlevich, R., & Moles, M. 1988, A&A, 196, 31 Skillman, E.D., Terlevich, R., & Melnick, J. 1989b, MNRAS, 240, 563

  3. The Abundance of Interstellar Fluorine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauroesch, James T.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this program was to obtain FUSE observations of the interstellar absorption lines of F I at 951 and 954 Angstroms to derive the abundance of fluorine toward the star HD 164816. The nucleosynthetic source(s) of fluorine are still a matter of debate - the present day abundance of fluorine can potentially constrain models for pulsationally driven dredge-up in asymptotic giant branch stars. An accurate measure for the depletion behavior of fluorine will determine whether it may be detectable in QSO absorption line systems - an unambiguous detection of fluorine at suitably high redshifts would provide the best evidence to date for the neutrino process in massive stars. Furthermore, due to its extreme reactivity, measurement of the gas-phase interstellar fluorine abundance is important for models of grain chemistry. Despite the importance of measuring the interstellar fluorine abundance, at the time of our proposal only one previous detection has been made due to the low relative abundance of fluorine, the lack of lines outside the far-UV, and the blending of the available F I transitions with lines of Hz. The star HD 164816 is associated with the Lagoon nebula (M8), and at a distance of approximately 1.5 kpc probes both distant and local gas. Beginning April 8th, 2004 FUSE FP-Split observations of the star HD 164816 were obtained for this program. This data became available in the FUSE data archive May 21, 2004, and these observations were then downloaded and we began our analysis. Our analysis procedure has involved (1) fitting stellar models to the FUSE spectra, (2) using the multiple lines of Hz and N I at other wavelengths in the FUSE bandpass to derive column densities for the lines of H2 and N I which are blended with the F I features at 951 and 954 angstroms (3) the measurement of the column densities of F I and the species O I and C1 I which are important species for the dis-entangling of dust and nucleosynthetic effects. As discussed in

  4. Blood Donation

    MedlinePlus

    ... as A, B, AB or O — and your Rh factor. The Rh factor refers to the presence or absence of a ... information is important because your blood type and Rh factor must be compatible with the blood type and ...

  5. Blood Clots

    MedlinePlus

    ... or prevent blood clots from dissolving properly. Risk factors for excessive blood clotting include Certain genetic disorders Atherosclerosis Diabetes Atrial fibrillation Overweight, obesity, and metabolic syndrome Some medicines Smoking deep vein ...

  6. Blood Thinners

    MedlinePlus

    ... it takes to form a blood clot. Antiplatelet drugs, such as aspirin, prevent blood cells called platelets ... that your healthcare provider knows all of the medicines and supplements you are using.

  7. Blood Types

    MedlinePlus

    ... the wrong blood type, the antibodies immediately set out to destroy the invading cells. This aggressive, whole-body response can give someone a fever, chills, and low blood pressure. It can even lead ...

  8. [The supply chain is everybody's business...].

    PubMed

    Coulondre, Antoine

    2007-05-01

    The management of the supply chain is a matter of delicate balance. This is certainly due to its position at the crossroads between suppliers and users requirements, as well as logistic, financial and technical regulations. For a public organisation like EFS, whose annual budget amounts to 697 million euros, there is a lot at stake: supplies represent the second most important item of its budget accounting for 38% of annual expenses. Three quarters of the purchases concern basic activities such as blood collection, testing procedures, transformation and distribution of blood products. The last quarter is spent on more general activities (computer systems, telecommunications...). Professionalisation of the purchasing function has grown since the creation of the government-owned organisation as a single national unit (EFS) in the year 2000. Its consequences can be felt especially in the field of the "core activities". The current stage consists in maintaining close links between all the skills necessary to a high-quality supply chain. The latter will undoubtedly be beneficial to the medical, technical and support departments of EFS, which are the in-house customers to satisfy.

  9. High voltage power supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruitberg, A. P.; Young, K. M. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A high voltage power supply is formed by three discrete circuits energized by a battery to provide a plurality of concurrent output signals floating at a high output voltage on the order of several tens of kilovolts. In the first two circuits, the regulator stages are pulse width modulated and include adjustable ressistances for varying the duty cycles of pulse trains provided to corresponding oscillator stages while the third regulator stage includes an adjustable resistance for varying the amplitude of a steady signal provided to a third oscillator stage. In the first circuit, the oscillator, formed by a constant current drive network and a tuned resonant network included a step up transformer, is coupled to a second step up transformer which, in turn, supplies an amplified sinusoidal signal to a parallel pair of complementary poled rectifying, voltage multiplier stages to generate the high output voltage.

  10. Discontinuous Mode Power Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagadinos, John; Poulos, Ethel

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses the changes made to a standard push-pull inverter circuit to avoid saturation effects in the main inverter power supply. Typically, in a standard push-pull arrangement, the unsymmetrical primary excitation causes variations in the volt second integral of each half of the excitation cycle that could lead to the establishment of DC flux density in the magnetic core, which could eventually cause saturation of the main inverter transformer. The relocation of the filter reactor normally placed across the output of the power supply solves this problem. The filter reactor was placed in series with the primary circuit of the main inverter transformer, and is presented as impedance against the sudden changes on the input current. The reactor averaged the input current in the primary circuit, avoiding saturation of the main inverter transformer. Since the implementation of the described change, the above problem has not reoccurred, and failures in the main power transistors have been avoided.

  11. Supply Chain Interoperability Measurement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-19

    Supply Chain Interoperability Measurement DISSERTATION June 2015 Christos E. Chalyvidis, Major, Hellenic Air ...Force AFIT-ENS-DS-15-J-001 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force...are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the United States Air Force, Department of Defense, or the United

  12. Streamlining the supply chain.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Lydon

    2003-07-01

    Effective management of the supply chain requires attention to: Product management--formulary development and maintenance, compliance, clinical involvement, standardization, and demand-matching. Sourcing and contracting--vendor consolidation, GPO portfolio management, price leveling, content management, and direct contracting Purchasing and payment-cycle--automatic placement, web enablement, centralization, evaluated receipts settlement, and invoice matching Inventory and distribution management--"unofficial" and "official" locations, vendor-managed inventory, automatic replenishment, and freight management.

  13. Thorium: Crustal abundance, joint production, and economic availability

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Brett W.; Eggert, Roderick G.; Dixon, Brent W.; Carlsen, Brett W.

    2015-03-02

    Recently, interest in thorium's potential use in a nuclear fuel cycle has been renewed. Thorium is more abundant, at least on average, than uranium in the earth's crust and, therefore, could theoretically extend the use of nuclear energy technology beyond the economic limits of uranium resources. This paper provides an economic assessment of thorium availability by creating cumulative-availability and potential mining-industry cost curves, based on known thorium resources. These tools provide two perspectives on the economic availability of thorium. In the long term, physical quantities of thorium likely will not be a constraint on the development of a thorium fuel cycle. In the medium term, however, thorium supply may be limited by constraints associated with its production as a by-product of rare earth elements and heavy mineral sands. As a result, environmental concerns, social issues, regulation, and technology also present issues for the medium and long term supply of thorium.

  14. Thorium: Crustal abundance, joint production, and economic availability

    DOE PAGES

    Jordan, Brett W.; Eggert, Roderick G.; Dixon, Brent W.; ...

    2015-03-02

    Recently, interest in thorium's potential use in a nuclear fuel cycle has been renewed. Thorium is more abundant, at least on average, than uranium in the earth's crust and, therefore, could theoretically extend the use of nuclear energy technology beyond the economic limits of uranium resources. This paper provides an economic assessment of thorium availability by creating cumulative-availability and potential mining-industry cost curves, based on known thorium resources. These tools provide two perspectives on the economic availability of thorium. In the long term, physical quantities of thorium likely will not be a constraint on the development of a thorium fuelmore » cycle. In the medium term, however, thorium supply may be limited by constraints associated with its production as a by-product of rare earth elements and heavy mineral sands. As a result, environmental concerns, social issues, regulation, and technology also present issues for the medium and long term supply of thorium.« less

  15. New functionalities in abundant element oxides: ubiquitous element strategy

    PubMed Central

    Hosono, Hideo; Hayashi, Katsuro; Kamiya, Toshio; Atou, Toshiyuki; Susaki, Tomofumi

    2011-01-01

    While most ceramics are composed of ubiquitous elements (the ten most abundant elements within the Earth's crust), many advanced materials are based on rare elements. A ‘rare-element crisis’ is approaching owing to the imbalance between the limited supply of rare elements and the increasing demand. Therefore, we propose a ‘ubiquitous element strategy’ for materials research, which aims to apply abundant elements in a variety of innovative applications. Creation of innovative oxide materials and devices based on conventional ceramics is one specific challenge. This review describes the concept of ubiquitous element strategy and gives some highlights of our recent research on the synthesis of electronic, thermionic and structural materials using ubiquitous elements. PMID:27877391

  16. Abundance measurements in stellar environments

    SciTech Connect

    Leone, F.

    2014-05-09

    Most of what we know about stars, and systems of stars, is derived from the analysis of their electromagnetic radiation. This lesson is an attempt to describe to Physicists, without any Astrophysical background, the framework to understand the present status of abundance determination in stellar environments and its limit. These notes are dedicated to the recently passed, November 21, 2013, Prof. Dimitri Mihalas who spent his life confuting the 19th century positivist philosopher Auguste Comte who stated that we shall not at all be able to determine the chemical composition of stars.

  17. Abundance measurements in stellar environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, F.

    2014-05-01

    Most of what we know about stars, and systems of stars, is derived from the analysis of their electromagnetic radiation. This lesson is an attempt to describe to Physicists, without any Astrophysical background, the framework to understand the present status of abundance determination in stellar environments and its limit. These notes are dedicated to the recently passed, November 21, 2013, Prof. Dimitri Mihalas who spent his life confuting the 19th century positivist philosopher Auguste Comte who stated that we shall not at all be able to determine the chemical composition of stars.

  18. The solar abundance of Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grevesse, N.

    2009-07-01

    With Martin Asplund (Max Planck Institute of Astrophysics, Garching) and Jacques Sauval (Observatoire Royal de Belgique, Brussels) I recently published detailed reviews on the solar chemical composition ({Asplund et al. 2005}, {Grevesse et al. 2007}). A new one, with Pat Scott (Stockholm University) as additional co-author, will appear in Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics ({Asplund et al. 2009}). Here we briefly analyze recent works on the solar abundance of Oxygen and recommend a value of 8.70 in the usual astronomical scale.

  19. Blood money.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S B

    2000-11-01

    Foetal blood contains cells that can regenerate all the cellular elements of blood and the immune system (stem cells). This blood can be obtained from the placenta without any harm to mother or baby and is currently used as a successful alternative to bone marrow for paediatric transplantation. Recently, it has been suggested that this blood can be put in storage and used (if needed) for the child that the blood originally came from. This has prompted a commercial interest, leading to both financial and ethical concerns.

  20. [Blood donation in urban areas].

    PubMed

    Charpentier, F

    2013-05-01

    Medical and technical developments increase the difficulty to provide sufficient safe blood for all patients in developed countries and their sociodemographic and societal changes. Sufficient national blood supply remains a reached, however still actual, challenge. Tomorrow is prepared today: the management of blood donation programs both in line with these developments and with social marketing strategies is one of the keys to success. If the main components of this organization are well known (mobile blood drives in various appropriate environments, and permanent blood donation centers) their proportions in the whole process must evolve and their contents require adaptations, especially for whole blood donation in urban areas. We have to focus on the people's way of life changes related to increasing urbanization of the society and prominent position taken by very large cities. This requires targeting several goals: to draw the attention of the potential blood-giving candidate, to get into position to collect him when he will decide it, to give meaning and recognition to his "sacrifice" (give time rather than donate blood) and to give him desire and opportunity to come back and donate one more time. In this strategy, permanent blood centers in urban areas have significant potential for whole blood collection, highlighted by the decrease of apheresis technology requirements. This potential requires profound changes in their location, conception and organization. The concept of Maison Du Don (MDD) reflects these changes.

  1. How much blood is needed?

    PubMed

    Seifried, E; Klueter, H; Weidmann, C; Staudenmaier, T; Schrezenmeier, H; Henschler, R; Greinacher, A; Mueller, M M

    2011-01-01

    Demographic changes in developed countries as their populations age lead to a steady increase in the consumption of standard blood components. Complex therapeutic procedures like haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, cardiovascular surgery and solid organ transplantation are options for an increasing proportion of older patients nowadays. This trend is likely to continue in coming years. On the other hand, novel aspects in transplant regimens, therapies for malignant diseases, surgical procedures and perioperative patient management have led to a moderate decrease in blood product consumption per individual procedure. The ageing of populations in developed countries, intra-society changes in the attitude towards blood donation as an important altruistic behaviour and the overall alterations in our societies will lead to a decline in regular blood donations over the next decades in many developed countries. Artificial blood substitutes or in vitro stem cell-derived blood components might also become alternatives in the future. However, such substitutes are still in early stages of development and will therefore probably not alleviate this problem within the next few years. Taken together, a declining donation rate and an increase in the consumption of blood components require novel approaches on both sides of the blood supply chain. Different blood donor groups require specific approaches and, for example, inactive or deferred donors must be re-activated. Optimal use of blood components requires even more attention.

  2. Globalisation and blood safety.

    PubMed

    Farrugia, Albert

    2009-05-01

    Globalisation may be viewed as the growing interdependence of countries worldwide through the increasing volume and variety of cross-border transactions in goods and services, and also through the more rapid and widespread diffusion of technology. Globalisation is not just an economic phenomenon, although it is frequently described as such, but includes commerce, disease and travel, and immigration, and as such it affects blood safety and supply in various ways. The relatively short travel times offered by modern aviation can result in the rapid spread of blood-borne pathogens before measures to counteract transmission can be put in place; this would have happened with SARS if the basic life cycle of the SARS virus included an asymptomatic viraemia. This risk can be amplified by ecological factors which effect the spread of these pathogens once they are transferred to a naïve ecosystem, as happened with West Nile Virus (WNV) in North America. The rationalization and contraction of the plasma products industry may be viewed as one aspect of globalisation imposed by the remorseless inevitability of the market; the effect of this development on the safety and supply of products has yet to be seen, but the oversight and assurance of a shrinking number of players will present particular challenges. Similarly, the monopolization of technology, through patent enforcement which puts access beyond the reach of developing countries, can have an effect on blood safety. The challenges presented to blood safety by globalisation are heightening the tensions between the traditional focus on the product safety - zero risk paradigm and the need to view the delivery of safe blood as an integrated process. As an illustration of this tension, donor deferral measures imposed by globalisation-induced risks such as vCJD and WNV have resulted in the loss of the safest and most committed portion of the blood donor population in many Western countries, leading to an increased risk to

  3. Influence of Coronal Abundance Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurman, Joseph (Technical Monitor); DeLuca, Edward

    2005-01-01

    During the final year of this program we concentrated on understanding the how to constrain the models with the best available observations. Work on developing accurate temperature and density diagnostics fkom TRACE and CDS together with constrained fits of non-potential force free fields will be extremely useful in the guiding the next generation of coronal models. The program has produced three fully operation numerical codes that model multi-species of ions in coronal loops: Static models and constant flow models. The time dependent numerical models have not been completed. We have extended the steady flow investigations to study the effect these flows have on coronal structure as observed with TRACE. Coronal observations derive from heavy-ion emission; thus, we focus on the extent to which flow may modify coronal abundances by examining the heavy-ion abundance stratification within long-lived loops. We discuss the magnitudes of the physical effects modeled and compare simulated results with TRACE observations. These results can have a profound effect on the interpretation of TRACE observations.

  4. Abundances in Hot Evolved Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Klaus; Rauch, Thomas; Kruk, Jeffrey W.

    2009-05-01

    The hydrogen-deficiency in extremely hot post-AGB stars of spectral class PG1159 is probably caused by a (very) late helium-shell flash or a AGB final thermal pulse that consumes the hydrogen envelope, exposing the usually-hidden intershell region. Thus, the photospheric element abundances of these stars allow us to draw conclusions about details of nuclear burning and mixing processes in the precursor AGB stars. We compare predicted element abundances to those determined by quantitative spectral analyses performed with advanced non-LTE model atmospheres. A good qualitative and quantitative agreement is found for many species (He, C, N, O, Ne, F, Si, Ar) but discrepancies for others (P, S, Fe) point at shortcomings in stellar evolution models for AGB stars. Almost all of the chemical trace elements in these hot stars can only be identified in the UV spectral range. The Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer and the Hubble Space Telescope played a crucial role for this research.

  5. US Army blood program: 2025 and beyond.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Richard; Taylor, Audra L; Atkinson, Andrew J; Malloy, Wilbur W; Macdonald, Victor W; Cap, Andrew P

    2016-03-01

    In preparing to support the Army in 2025 and beyond, the Army Blood Program remains actively engaged with the research and advanced development of blood products and medical technology to improve blood safety and efficacy in conjunction with the US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command. National and International Blood Bank authorities have noted that the US Army research and development efforts in providing new blood products and improving blood safety operate on the cutting edge of technology and are transformational for the global blood industry. Over the past 14 years, the Army has transformed how blood support is provided and improved the survival rate of casualties. Almost every product or process developed by or for the military has found an application in treating civilian patients. Conflicts have many unwanted consequences; however, in times of conflict, one positive aspect is the identification of novel solutions to improve the safety and efficacy of the blood supply.

  6. Power-Supply-Conditioning Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primas, L. E.; Loveland, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    Fluctuations of voltage suppressed in power supplies for precise radio-frequency circuits. Circuit suppresses both periodic and random deviations of dc supply voltage from desired steady level. Highly-stable feedback voltage regulator, conditioner intended in conjunction with conventional power-supply circuit to provide constant voltage to atomic frequency standard or other precise oscillator. Without conditioners, outputs of most commercial power supplies contain fluctuations causing unacceptably-large phase and amplitude modulation of precise oscillators.

  7. 2002 Industry Studies: Strategic Supply

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Strategic Supply is a unique industry study that focused not on a single industry, but rather on a process common to many industries known as Supply ... Chain Management (SCM). We found that the successful, global and innovative companies of today leverage their supply chains to achieve competitive and

  8. Food and water supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popov, I. G.

    1975-01-01

    Supplying astronauts with adequate food and water on short and long-term space flights is discussed based on experiences gained in space flight. Food consumption, energy requirements, and suitability of the foodstuffs for space flight are among the factors considered. Physicochemical and biological methods of food production and regeneration of water from astronaut metabolic wastes, as well as wastes produced in a closed ecological system, or as a result of technical processes taking place in various spacecraft systems are suggested for long-term space flights.

  9. Solar-system abundances of the elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, E.; Ebihara, M.

    1982-01-01

    Elemental analyses of the Ogueil Cl meteorite and all previous Cl chondrite analyses were employed to develop a new solar system abundance table, including the standard deviation and number of analyses for each element. The table also comprises the abundances of radioactive and radiogenic nuclides at the present and 4.55 AE ago, as well as abundances by weight in a typical Cl chondrite. The new abundances were within 20% of those determined by Cameron (1982), except for 14 cases in the range 20-50%, and 5 over 50%. The solar abundances were compared with the Cl abundances, showing a total of only 7 disagreements. No significant discrepancies were detected in the major cosmochemical groups, and a smooth trend was found in the abundances of odd-A nuclides. The new set is interpreted as accurate to 10%, with the Cl chondrites matching the primordial solar system abundances to at most 10% deviation.

  10. Hematite Abundance Map at Echo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image shows the hematite abundance map for a portion of the Meridiani Planum rock outcrop near where the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity landed. It was acquired by the rover's miniature thermal emission spectrometer instrument from a spot called 'Echo.' Portions of the inner crater wall in this region appear rich in hematite (red). The sharp boundary from hematite-rich to hematite-poor (yellow and green) surfaces corresponds to a change in the surface texture and color. The hematite-rich surfaces have ripple-like forms suggesting wind transported hematite to these surfaces. The bounce marks produced during landing at the base of the slope on the left are low in hematite (blue). The hematite grains that originally covered the surface were pushed below the surface by the lander, exposing a soil that has less hematite.

  11. Integrating the healthcare supply chain.

    PubMed

    Brennan, C D

    1998-01-01

    Today's integrated delivery systems (IDSs) require efficient supply chain processes to speed products to users at the lowest possible cost. Most excess costs within the supply chain are a result of inefficient and redundant processes involved in the transport and delivery of supplies from suppliers to healthcare providers. By integrating and assuming control of these supply chain processes, improving supply chain management practices, and organizing and implementing a disciplined redesign plan, IDSs can achieve substantial savings and better focus their organizations on their core patient care mission.

  12. Blood Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    In the 1970's, NASA provided funding for development of an automatic blood analyzer for Skylab at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL devised "dynamic loading," which employed a spinning rotor to load, transfer, and analyze blood samples by centrifugal processing. A refined, commercial version of the system was produced by ABAXIS and is marketed as portable ABAXIS MiniLab MCA. Used in a doctor's office, the equipment can perform 80 to 100 chemical blood tests on a single drop of blood and report results in five minutes. Further development is anticipated.

  13. Prevalence of blood donor iron deficiency and feasibility ferritin-based iron replacement: a blood collection agency-based study.

    PubMed

    Gorlin, J; Katz, L; Elsmore, D; Kirbach, K; Erickson, Y; Hove, A; Black, C; Walsh-Jahnke, R

    2016-08-01

    Iron depletion is high in frequent whole-blood donors. It is of interest to blood centres to develop ways to mitigate this risk while maintaining the current blood supply. Our feasibility study shows that blood collection agencies can measure iron stores and safely offer iron replacement in frequent blood donors with low ferritin to reduce the risk of iron depletion and future donor deferrals for low haemoglobin.

  14. Problems and Approaches for Blood Transfusion in the Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David J; Field, Stephen; Delaney, Meghan; Bates, Imelda

    2016-04-01

    A safe supply of blood and the knowledge, skill, and resources for the appropriate use of blood are essential for medical services. Many problems are faced in the development of transfusion services in low- or medium-income countries (LMICs). Unfortunately, in many countries, providing safe blood is made more difficult by a lack of blood donors and the high frequency of transfusion-transmissible infections. The problems are compounded by the frequent need for urgent life-saving transfusions. This article examines the problems in supply, safety, and use of blood and how they are being addressed in LMICs, predominantly focusing on sub-Saharan Africa.

  15. Blood flow

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... the same time, the veins carry oxygen-poor blood (shown in blue) from the tissues back toward the heart. From there, it passes to the lungs to receive more oxygen. This cycle repeats itself when oxygen-rich blood returns to the heart from the lungs, which ...

  16. Surface abundances of ON stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, F.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Palacios, A.; Howarth, I.; Georgy, C.; Walborn, N. R.; Bouret, J.-C.; Barbá, R.

    2015-06-01

    Context. Massive stars burn hydrogen through the CNO cycle during most of their evolution. When mixing is efficient or when mass transfer in binary systems occurs, chemically processed material is observed at the surface of O and B stars. Aims: ON stars show stronger lines of nitrogen than morphologically normal counterparts. Whether this corresponds to the presence of material processed through the CNO cycle is not known. Our goal is to answer this question. Methods: We performed a spectroscopic analysis of a sample of ON stars with atmosphere models. We determined the fundamental parameters as well as the He, C, N, and O surface abundances. We also measured the projected rotational velocities. We compared the properties of the ON stars to those of normal O stars. Results: We show that ON stars are usually rich in helium. Their CNO surface abundances are fully consistent with predictions of nucleosynthesis. ON stars are more chemically evolved and rotate - on average - faster than normal O stars. Evolutionary models including rotation cannot account for the extreme enrichment observed among ON main sequence stars. Some ON stars are members of binary systems, but others are single stars as indicated by stable radial velocities. Mass transfer is therefore not a simple explanation for the observed chemical properties. Conclusions: We conclude that ON stars show extreme chemical enrichment at their surface, consistent with nucleosynthesis through the CNO cycle. Its origin is not clear at present. Based on observations obtained 1) at the Anglo-Australian Telescope; 2) at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Science de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii; 3) at the ESO/La Silla Observatory under programs 081.D-2008, 083.D-0589, 086.D-0997; 4) the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La

  17. [Computerization of hospital blood banks in France].

    PubMed

    Daurat, G; Py, J-Y

    2012-11-01

    In France, most blood products are delivered by the établissement francais du sang, directly to the recipients, and hospital blood banks deliver a minor part, but are independent from it. However that may be, hospital blood banks are hazardous activities regarding to recipients, blood products, blood supply of the hospital and regional blood supply. Because of the high risk level, a computerized information system is compulsory for all hospital blood banks, except for those only devoted to vital emergency transfusion. On the field, the integration of computerization in the different processes is very heterogeneous. So, it has been decided to publish guidelines for computerizing hospital blood banks information systems and production management. They have been built according to risk assessment and are intended to minimize those risks. The principle is that all acquisition and processing of data about recipients or blood products and tracking, must be fully computerized and that the result of all manual processes must be checked by computer before proceeding to the next step. The guidelines list the different processes and, for each of them, the functions the software must play. All together, they form the basic level all hospital blood banks should reach. Optional functions are listed. Moreover, the guidelines are also aimed to be a common tool for regional health authorities who supervise hospital blood banks.

  18. [Computerization of hospital blood banks in France].

    PubMed

    Daurat, G; Py, J-Y

    2011-04-01

    In France, most blood products are delivered by the Établissement français du sang, directly to the recipients, and hospital blood banks deliver a minor part, but are independent from it. However that may be, hospital blood banks are hazardous activities regarding recipients, blood products, blood supply for the hospital and regional blood supply. Because of the high risk level, a computerized information system is compulsory for all hospital blood banks, except for those only devoted to vital emergency transfusion. On the field, integration of computerization in the different processes is very heterogeneous. So it has been decided to publish guidelines for computerizing hospital blood banks information systems and production management. They have been built according to risk assessment and are intended to minimize those risks. The principle is that all acquisition and processing of data about recipients or blood products and tracking, must be fully computerized and that the result of all manual processes must be checked by computer before proceeding to the next step. The guidelines list the different processes and, for each of them, the functions the software must play. All together, they form the basic level all hospital blood banks should reach. Optional functions are listed. Moreover, the guidelines are also aimed at being a common tool for regional health authorities who supervise hospital blood banks.

  19. NNSA TRITIUM SUPPLY CHAIN

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrick, Steven; Cordaro, Joseph; Founds, Nanette; Chambellan, Curtis

    2013-08-21

    Savannah River Site plays a critical role in the Tritium Production Supply Chain for the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The entire process includes: • Production of Tritium Producing Burnable Absorber Rods (TPBARs) at the Westinghouse WesDyne Nuclear Fuels Plant in Columbia, South Carolina • Production of unobligated Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) at the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) in Portsmouth, Ohio • Irradiation of TPBARs with the LEU at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Watts Bar Reactor • Extraction of tritium from the irradiated TPBARs at the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) at Savannah River Site • Processing the tritium at the Savannah River Site, which includes removal of nonhydrogen species and separation of the hydrogen isotopes of protium, deuterium and tritium.

  20. Power Supply Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Cuk DC to DC Switching Converter was developed by Caltech Professors, Slobodan Cuk and R. D. Middlebrook. The converter changes unsuitable dc voltage into one or more voltages suitable for powering electronic equipment; it can also be used in converting dc current to ac and vice versa. It was named one of the 100 most significant technical advances of 1979. The Cuk converter is more efficient than previous conversion devices, simpler, smaller, lighter, cheaper and highly reliable. The first application of the technology is in the Compucorp 685 word/data processor, manufactured by Compucorp. NASA waived title rights; Caltech granted exclusive license to the inventors, who in turn, transferred their rights to a company they founded called TESLA Company, which sublicenses the converter design and related technology to companies making power supplies for use in their own products.

  1. Stab water supply system

    SciTech Connect

    Hammett, D.S.

    1983-02-08

    Apparatus and method for fire suppression on offshore oil platforms including a stab receptacle on an outer surface of a platform connected to a fluid distribution system within the platform for distributing fire suppressing fluid to selected locations, a stab carrying a fluid conduit from a self-propelled service vessel, with the stab being in turn supported on a boom extending from the service vessel, a pumping system on the service vessel for supplying fire suppressing fluid through the conduit to the stab and thereby to the preselected locations. The service vessel is preferably a semi-submersible and includes a system for dynamic positioning of the vessel such as side thrusters in addition to a main propulsion unit.

  2. Switching power supply

    DOEpatents

    Mihalka, A.M.

    1984-06-05

    The invention is a repratable capacitor charging, switching power supply. A ferrite transformer steps up a dc input. The transformer primary is in a full bridge configuration utilizing power MOSFETs as the bridge switches. The transformer secondary is fed into a high voltage, full wave rectifier whose output is connected directly to the energy storage capacitor. The transformer is designed to provide adequate leakage inductance to limit capacitor current. The MOSFETs are switched to the variable frequency from 20 to 50 kHz to charge a capacitor from 0.6 kV. The peak current in a transformer primary and secondary is controlled by increasing the pulse width as the capacitor charges. A digital ripple counter counts pulses and after a preselected desired number is reached an up-counter is clocked.

  3. Sustainable Biomass Supply Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Erin Searcy; Dave Muth; Erin Wilkerson; Shahab Sokansanj; Bryan Jenkins; Peter Titman; Nathan Parker; Quinn Hart; Richard Nelson

    2009-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) aims to displace 30% of the 2004 gasoline use (60 billion gal/yr) with biofuels by 2030 as outlined in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, which will require 700 million tons of biomass to be sustainably delivered to biorefineries annually. Lignocellulosic biomass will make an important contribution towards meeting DOE’s ethanol production goals. For the biofuels industry to be an economically viable enterprise, the feedstock supply system (i.e., moving the biomass from the field to the refinery) cannot contribute more that 30% of the total cost of the biofuel production. The Idaho National Laboratory in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of California, Davis and Kansas State University are developing a set of tools for identifying economical, sustainable feedstocks on a regional basis based on biorefinery siting.

  4. World petroleum supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    A number of conclusions by political conservatives about the fate of world petroleum supplies have been emerging lately. Among the most recent of them arose from discussions, held at the 1983 spring meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), which focused on the environment and resource study entitled “The Global 2000 Report” (New Scientist, June 9, 1983). Fred Singer, representing the Heritage Foundation of Washington, D.C., criticized the report, which predicted shortages in the near future, saying that the current world-wide oil glut will continue beyond the year 2000. Alternatives to the use of petroleum are a part of the cause. Singer argued that conservation, nuclear energy, and other petroleum substitutes will continue to suppress the demand for petroleum. In addition, according to other evaluations, exploration for petroleum and natural gas has not really begun.

  5. Liquefied Natural Gas: A Potential for an Abundant Energy Supply or a Potential for Danger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Joseph

    This unit was designed to develop mathematical applications in relation to a community resource issue. It should both motivate mathematics learning and provide meaningful problems for reinforcing understanding of mathematics content and skills, including ratios and percentages, linear equations, exponential functions, graphing, and the reading and…

  6. Oxygen supplies in disaster management.

    PubMed

    Blakeman, Thomas C; Branson, Richard D

    2013-01-01

    Mass casualty events and disasters, both natural and human-generated, occur frequently around the world and can generate scores of injured or ill victims in need of resources. Of the available medical supplies, oxygen remains the critical consumable resource in disaster management. Strategic management of oxygen supplies in disaster scenarios remains a priority. Hospitals have large supplies of liquid oxygen and a supply of compressed gas oxygen cylinders that allow several days of reserve, but a large influx of patients from a disaster can strain these resources. Most backup liquid oxygen supplies are attached to the main liquid system and supply line. In the event of damage to the main system, the reserve supply is rendered useless. The Strategic National Stockpile supplies medications, medical supplies, and equipment to disaster areas, but it does not supply oxygen. Contracted vendors can deliver oxygen to alternate care facilities in disaster areas, in the form of concentrators, compressed gas cylinders, and liquid oxygen. Planning for oxygen needs following a disaster still presents a substantial challenge, but alternate care facilities have proven to be valuable in relieving pressure from the mass influx of patients into hospitals, especially for those on home oxygen who require only an electrical source to power their oxygen concentrator.

  7. 21 CFR 607.65 - Exemptions for blood product establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... classes of persons located in any State as defined in section 201(a)(1) of the act. (a) Pharmacies that... pharmacy including the business of dispensing and selling blood products at retail. The supplying by such pharmacies of blood products to a practitioner licensed to administer such blood products for his use in...

  8. Observing chemical abundances in comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delsemme, A. H.

    1981-01-01

    The atomic resonance lines of the major elements were observed in the atmospheres of a few comets, by using vacuum ultraviolet spectrographs on board rockets or orbiting observatories. Dust-to-gas ratios were also deduced for two comets through a Finson-Probstein's analysis of their dust-tail isophotes. The geometric albedo of the dust for the phase angle alpha of the observations is not accurately known but, the dust-to-gas ratio is not overly sensitive to the actual value of this albedo. Infrared observations of the dust head of some comets show that the bulk of cometary dust must be silicates, although a minor component (5-10 percent) of carbon compounds is rather likely, because of poor dielectric properties of the grains. This interpretation is confirmed by the fact that interplanetary dust probably of cometary origin, that was collected in the stratosphere by NASA-U2 Spacecraft, is chondritic in nature. Metal abundances in the head of a sungrazing comet support the chondritic hypothesis.

  9. [Haemovigilance and blood safety in overseas military].

    PubMed

    Sailliol, A; Plang, S; Martinaud, C; Pouget, T; Vedy, S; Clavier, B; Cellarier, V; Roche, C; Civadier, C; Ausset, S

    2014-11-01

    The French military blood institute (FMBI) is the only military blood supplier in France. FMBI operates independently and autonomously under the Ministry of Defense's supervision, and accordingly, to the French, European and NATO technical and safety guidelines. FMBI is in charge of the collection, preparation and distribution of blood products to supply transfusion support to armed forces, especially during overseas operations. In overseas military, a primary physician is responsible for haemovigilance in permanent relation with an expert in the FMBI to manage any adverse reaction. Additionally, traceability of delivered or collected blood products during overseas operation represents a priority, allowing an appropriate management of transfusion inquiries and assessment of practices aiming to improve and update procedures and training. Transfusion safety in overseas operation is based on regular and specific training of people concerned by blood supply chain in exceptional situation.

  10. Developing sustainable food supply chains.

    PubMed

    Smith, B Gail

    2008-02-27

    This paper reviews the opportunities available for food businesses to encourage consumers to eat healthier and more nutritious diets, to invest in more sustainable manufacturing and distribution systems and to develop procurement systems based on more sustainable forms of agriculture. The important factors in developing more sustainable supply chains are identified as the type of supply chain involved and the individual business attitude to extending responsibility for product quality into social and environmental performance within their own supply chains. Interpersonal trust and working to standards are both important to build more sustainable local and many conserved food supply chains, but inadequate to transform mainstream agriculture and raw material supplies to the manufactured and commodity food markets. Cooperation among food manufacturers, retailers, NGOs, governmental and farmers' organizations is vital in order to raise standards for some supply chains and to enable farmers to adopt more sustainable agricultural practices.

  11. Reliability Estimates for Power Supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Cadwallader; Peter I. Petersen

    2005-09-01

    Failure rates for large power supplies at a fusion facility are critical knowledge needed to estimate availability of the facility or to set priorties for repairs and spare components. A study of the "failure to operate on demand" and "failure to continue to operate" failure rates has been performed for the large power supplies at DIII-D, which provide power to the magnet coils, the neutral beam injectors, the electron cyclotron heating systems, and the fast wave systems. When one of the power supplies fails to operate, the research program has to be either temporarily changed or halted. If one of the power supplies for the toroidal or ohmic heating coils fails, the operations have to be suspended or the research is continued at de-rated parameters until a repair is completed. If one of the power supplies used in the auxiliary plasma heating systems fails the research is often temporarily changed until a repair is completed. The power supplies are operated remotely and repairs are only performed when the power supplies are off line, so that failure of a power supply does not cause any risk to personnel. The DIII-D Trouble Report database was used to determine the number of power supply faults (over 1,700 reports), and tokamak annual operations data supplied the number of shots, operating times, and power supply usage for the DIII-D operating campaigns between mid-1987 and 2004. Where possible, these power supply failure rates from DIII-D will be compared to similar work that has been performed for the Joint European Torus equipment. These independent data sets support validation of the fusion-specific failure rate values.

  12. Amylase - blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003464.htm Amylase - blood To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amylase is an enzyme that helps digest carbohydrates. It ...

  13. What's Blood?

    MedlinePlus

    ... catch the blood when you scrape your knee! Plasma Plasma (say: PLAZ-muh) is a yellowish liquid that ... bones and muscles to grow. Many proteins in plasma are really important to your body, like the ...

  14. Blood Clots

    MedlinePlus

    ... your condition differs depending on the location and type of your blood clot. Your doctor will usually begin by obtaining your medical history, as this may provide information about factors that ...

  15. What happened to blood substitutes?

    PubMed

    Stowell, C P

    2005-11-01

    Concerns about the safety and adequacy of the blood supply have fostered twenty years of research into the so-called "blood substitutes" among them the oxygen carriers based on modified hemoglobin. Although none of these materials has yet been licensed for use in North America or Europe, the results of research and clinical trials have increased our understanding of oxygen delivery and its regulation. In particular, the examination of the basis for the vasoactivity observed with some of the hemoglobin based oxygen carriers has led to the insight that several colligative properties of hemoglobin solutions, such as their diffusion coefficient for oxygen, viscosity and colloid oncotic pressure, are important determinants of efficacy.

  16. Moving blood.

    PubMed

    Pelis, K

    1997-01-01

    Our internationally acclaimed journalist Sanguinia has returned safely from her historic assignment. Travelling from Homeric Greece to British Romanticism, she was witness to blood drinking, letting, bathing, and transfusion. In this report, she explores connections between the symbolic and the sadistic; the mythic and the medical--all in an effort to appreciate the layered meanings our culture has given to the movement of blood between our bodies.

  17. Blood hero: An application for encouraging the blood donation by applying gamification.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Daniela C L; Lima, Luis F S G; Messias, Thiago F; Feijo, Jose V L; Diniz, Anthony A R; Soares, Heliana B

    2016-08-01

    There is a strong need for actions to supply the blood demand in the World. Based on this fact, it was designed an application, named `Blood Hero', by applying the `gamification' concept, which allows users to be rewarded by social acts related to the blood donation. It takes advantage of the application of mobile devices, implementing a specific social network, to attract and retain blood donators. This application makes possible an interaction between users and blood centers, and is being tested aiming at evaluating its acceptance and impact in bloodstocks.

  18. Primordial abundance of 40Ar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sripada, V. S. Murty

    Primordial abundance of the isotope (40) Ar is still not known accurately. Recent results from Genesis could also not provide (40) Ar/ (36) Ar value of solar wind, due mainly to the overwhelming (40) Ar blank. A major part of (40) Ar is contributed by the radioactive decay of (40) K (half life = 1.25 Ga), even in the nebula, as the nebula grew old. Any attempt to determine this quantity needs a sample that satisfies the following criteria: A primitive mineral/phase that formed very early in the nebula, that can trap a large amount of noble gas (Ar); and a phase that acquires minimum amount (or total absence) of in situ produced components (cosmogenic and radiogenic) of Ar. Carbon phases in the ureilite meteorites and Phase Q from chondrites best fit this criteria. The minimum (40) Ar/ (36) Ar value so far observed in Phase Q is 0.2. Also, the relatively lower value of 1.035±±0.002 for trapped (129) Xe/ (132) Xe in ureilites, as compared to 1.042±±0.002 in Phase Q suggests that trapping of gases in ureilites might have predated that of Phase Q. If this interpretation is valid, ureilites are a better host of most primitive nebular Ar. Earlier attempts on ureilite studies in 1970s have yielded the lowest (40) Ar/ (36) Ar ratio in the meteorite Dayalpur, the major uncertainty for this value mostly coming from blank correction for (40) Ar/ (36) Ar. Recent developments in low blank extraction systems and more sensitive multi-collector noble gas mass spectrometers, as compared to 1970s have prompted us to make a fresh attempt in measuring this important quantity. We have analysed a number of ureilite acid residues by stepwise temperature extraction, using both pyrolysis and combustion techniques, for Ar to ascertain the trapped (40) Ar/ (36) Ar ratio in the solar nebula. These acid residues are mostly made of C rich phases, with only trace amounts of K (radiogenic parent of (40) Ar) and target elements for the production of cosmogenic Ar component. They mostly contain

  19. Blood Transfusion and Donation

    MedlinePlus

    ... receiving the blood transfusion. To keep blood safe, blood banks carefully screen donated blood. The risk of catching ... one or more times before the surgery. A blood bank will store your blood for your use. NIH: ...

  20. Biology of Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... here for the Professional Version Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Resources In This ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  1. Blood pressure measurement

    MedlinePlus

    ... reading; Measuring blood pressure; Hypertension - blood pressure measurement; High blood pressure - blood pressure measurement ... High blood pressure has no symptoms so you may not know if you have this problem. High blood pressure ...

  2. Safety of blood and blood products in Scandinavia today.

    PubMed

    Lindholm, A

    1988-01-01

    The safety of blood and blood products in Scandinavia today is high. An absolutely safe blood supply is, however, an unattainable goal. The dominating risk is transmission of non-A, non-B virus (NANBV). The calculated per blood unit risk is 1:200. The incidence of cirrhosis due to post-transfusion hepatitis NANB is calculated to at most 0.1% among recipients of blood components from about 5 donors. Other risk factors are transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) and cytomegalovirus (CMV). The prevalence of HBsAg among first time donors is about 0.05% (Sweden). In Scandinavia, anti-HIV-1 has been found in 0.001% of donations from start of screening in 1985 to December 1987. The prevalence was higher in Denmark, lower in Finland (and perhaps Iceland). The prevalence has declined during the last years. As of June 1988, 117 patients in the Scandinavian countries have been infected by blood components, all but 2 before screening was introduced. Besides these, 226 haemophiliacs have been infected by, in almost all cases, imported clotting factor concentrates before heat treatment was introduced. Most of the infected patients are still asymptomatic. About 70% of blood donors have anti-CMV, a few percent of which will transmit CMV-infection, with severe symptoms, to immunosuppressed patients without anti-CMV.

  3. Abundance of introduced species at home predicts abundance away in herbaceous communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Firn, Jennifer; Moore, Joslin L.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Seabloom, Eric W.; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Harpole, W. Stanley; Cleland, Elsa E.; Brown, Cynthia S.; Knops, Johannes M.H.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Pyke, David A.; Farrell, Kelly A.; Bakker, John D.; O'Halloran, Lydia R.; Adler, Peter B.; Collins, Scott L.; D'Antonio, Carla M.; Crawley, Michael J.; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Hautier, Yann; Morgan, John W.; Leakey, Andrew D.B.; Kay, Adam; McCulley, Rebecca; Davies, Kendi F.; Stevens, Carly J.; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Holl, Karen D.; Klein, Julia A.; Fay, Phillip A.; Hagenah, Nicole; Kirkman, Kevin P.; Buckley, Yvonne M.

    2011-01-01

    Many ecosystems worldwide are dominated by introduced plant species, leading to loss of biodiversity and ecosystem function. A common but rarely tested assumption is that these plants are more abundant in introduced vs. native communities, because ecological or evolutionary-based shifts in populations underlie invasion success. Here, data for 26 herbaceous species at 39 sites, within eight countries, revealed that species abundances were similar at native (home) and introduced (away) sites - grass species were generally abundant home and away, while forbs were low in abundance, but more abundant at home. Sites with six or more of these species had similar community abundance hierarchies, suggesting that suites of introduced species are assembling similarly on different continents. Overall, we found that substantial changes to populations are not necessarily a pre-condition for invasion success and that increases in species abundance are unusual. Instead, abundance at home predicts abundance away, a potentially useful additional criterion for biosecurity programmes.

  4. Abundance of introduced species at home predicts abundance away in herbaceous communities.

    PubMed

    Firn, Jennifer; Moore, Joslin L; MacDougall, Andrew S; Borer, Elizabeth T; Seabloom, Eric W; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Harpole, W Stanley; Cleland, Elsa E; Brown, Cynthia S; Knops, Johannes M H; Prober, Suzanne M; Pyke, David A; Farrell, Kelly A; Bakker, John D; O'Halloran, Lydia R; Adler, Peter B; Collins, Scott L; D'Antonio, Carla M; Crawley, Michael J; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M; La Pierre, Kimberly J; Melbourne, Brett A; Hautier, Yann; Morgan, John W; Leakey, Andrew D B; Kay, Adam; McCulley, Rebecca; Davies, Kendi F; Stevens, Carly J; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Holl, Karen D; Klein, Julia A; Fay, Philip A; Hagenah, Nicole; Kirkman, Kevin P; Buckley, Yvonne M

    2011-03-01

    Many ecosystems worldwide are dominated by introduced plant species, leading to loss of biodiversity and ecosystem function. A common but rarely tested assumption is that these plants are more abundant in introduced vs. native communities, because ecological or evolutionary-based shifts in populations underlie invasion success. Here, data for 26 herbaceous species at 39 sites, within eight countries, revealed that species abundances were similar at native (home) and introduced (away) sites - grass species were generally abundant home and away, while forbs were low in abundance, but more abundant at home. Sites with six or more of these species had similar community abundance hierarchies, suggesting that suites of introduced species are assembling similarly on different continents. Overall, we found that substantial changes to populations are not necessarily a pre-condition for invasion success and that increases in species abundance are unusual. Instead, abundance at home predicts abundance away, a potentially useful additional criterion for biosecurity programmes.

  5. Building an efficient supply chain.

    PubMed

    Scalise, Dagmara

    2005-08-01

    Realizing at last that supply chain management can produce efficiencies and save costs, hospitals are beginning to adopt practices from other industries, such as the concept of extended supply chains, to improve product flow. They're also investing in enterprise planning resource software, radio frequency identification and other technologies, using quality data to drive standardization and streamlining processes.

  6. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This publication the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented are divided into Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  7. Managing your blood sugar

    MedlinePlus

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control; Blood glucose - managing ... problems. Know how to: Recognize and treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Recognize and treat high blood sugar ( ...

  8. Legal, financial, and public health consequences of HIV contamination of blood and blood products in the 1980s and 1990s.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Peter D; Hounshell, Jennie; Sherman, Laurence A; Godwin, John; Ali, Shirin; Tomori, Cecilia; Bennett, Charles L

    2002-02-19

    Ensuring the safety of the blood supply connects politics and science. The business and service sectors share responsibility for the collection and processing of blood donations, and government agencies perform regulatory and surveillance roles. The onset of the AIDS epidemic has challenged the interface among these systems, leading to widespread fears about compromised safety of the blood supply. Because of public concern about blood-supply decisions made in the 1980s, developed countries in the 1990s established reimbursement programs for persons with transfusion-acquired viral infections from blood or blood products, adopted diagnostic tests and procedures that improved the safety of the blood supply, and held criminal judicial investigations of government officials and industry leaders accused of delaying implementation of potential blood-safety measures. In contrast, developing countries continue to struggle with blood-supply safety issues. This paper summarizes the current status of these safety concerns in developed countries, where viral transmission from contaminated blood or blood products is extremely rare, and in developing countries, where up to 10% of HIV infections result from transfusion of blood or blood products.

  9. Depletion of cells and abundant proteins from biological samples by enhanced dielectrophoresis✩

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, C.; Provine, J.; Davis, R.W.; Howe, R.T.

    2016-01-01

    Platforms that are sensitive and specific enough to assay low-abundance protein biomarkers, in a high throughput multiplex format, within a complex biological fluid specimen, are necessary to enable protein biomarker based diagnostics for diseases such as cancer. The signal from an assay for a low-abundance protein biomarker in a biological fluid sample like blood is typically buried in a background that arises from the presence of blood cells and from high-abundance proteins that make up 90% of the assayed protein mass. We present an automated on-chip platform for the depletion of cells and highly abundant serum proteins in blood. Our platform consists of two components, the first of which is a microfluidic mixer that mixes beads containing antibodies against the highly abundant proteins in the whole blood. This complex mixture (consisting of beads, cells, and serum proteins) is then injected into the second component of our microfluidic platform, which comprises a filter trench to capture all the cells and the beads. The size-based trapping of the cells and beads into the filter trench is significantly enhanced by leveraging additional negative dielectrophoretic forces to push the micron sized particles (cells and beads which have captured the highly abundant proteins) down into the trench, allowing the serum proteins of lower abundance to flow through. In general, dielectrophoresis using bare electrodes is incapable of producing forces beyond the low piconewton range that tend to be insufficient for separation applications. However, by using electrodes passivated with atomic layer deposition, we demonstrate the application of enhanced negative DEP electrodes together with size-based flltration induced by the filter trench, to deplete 100% of the micron sized particles in the mixture. PMID:26924893

  10. Climate and local abundance in freshwater fishes

    PubMed Central

    Knouft, Jason H.; Anthony, Melissa M.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying factors regulating variation in numbers of individuals among populations across a species' distribution is a fundamental goal in ecology. A common prediction, often referred to as the abundant-centre hypothesis, suggests that abundance is highest near the centre of a species' range. However, because of the primary focus on the geographical position of a population, this framework provides little insight into the environmental factors regulating local abundance. While range-wide variation in population abundance associated with environmental conditions has been investigated in terrestrial species, the relationship between climate and local abundance in freshwater taxa across species' distributions is not well understood. We used GIS-based temperature and precipitation data to determine the relationships between climatic conditions and range-wide variation in local abundance for 19 species of North American freshwater fishes. Climate predicted a portion of the variation in local abundance among populations for 18 species. In addition, the relationship between climatic conditions and local abundance varied among species, which is expected as lineages partition the environment across geographical space. The influence of local habitat quality on species persistence is well documented; however, our results also indicate the importance of climate in regulating population sizes across a species geographical range, even in aquatic taxa. PMID:27429769

  11. Climate and local abundance in freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    Knouft, Jason H; Anthony, Melissa M

    2016-06-01

    Identifying factors regulating variation in numbers of individuals among populations across a species' distribution is a fundamental goal in ecology. A common prediction, often referred to as the abundant-centre hypothesis, suggests that abundance is highest near the centre of a species' range. However, because of the primary focus on the geographical position of a population, this framework provides little insight into the environmental factors regulating local abundance. While range-wide variation in population abundance associated with environmental conditions has been investigated in terrestrial species, the relationship between climate and local abundance in freshwater taxa across species' distributions is not well understood. We used GIS-based temperature and precipitation data to determine the relationships between climatic conditions and range-wide variation in local abundance for 19 species of North American freshwater fishes. Climate predicted a portion of the variation in local abundance among populations for 18 species. In addition, the relationship between climatic conditions and local abundance varied among species, which is expected as lineages partition the environment across geographical space. The influence of local habitat quality on species persistence is well documented; however, our results also indicate the importance of climate in regulating population sizes across a species geographical range, even in aquatic taxa.

  12. Blood Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The method that is used for the collection, storage and real-time analysis of blood and other bodily fluids has been licensed to DBCD, Inc. by NASA. The result of this patent licensing agreement has been the development of a commercial product that can provide serum or plasma from whole blood volumes of 20 microliters to 4 milliliters. The device has a fibrous filter with a pore size of less than about 3 microns, and is coated with a mixture of mannitol and plasma fraction protein. The coating causes the cellular fraction to be trapped by the small pores, leaving the cellular fraction intact on the fibrous filter while the acellular fraction passes through the filter for collection in unaltered form from the serum sample collection chamber. The method used by this product is useful to NASA for blood analysis on manned space missions.

  13. Abundances of the elements - Meteoritic and solar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, Edward; Grevesse, Nicolas

    1989-01-01

    New abundance tables have been compiled for C1 chondrites and the solar photosphere and corona, based on a critical review of the literature to mid-1988. The meteorite data are generally accurate to + or - 5-10 percent. Significant discrepancies between the sun and meteorites occur only for Fe, Mn, Ge, Pb, and W; other well-determined elements agree to + or - 9 percent on the average. There is no evidence for group fractionations in C1 chondrites of cosmochemically similar elements (refractories, siderophiles, volatiles, etc.), but a selective fractionation of Fe cannot be ruled out. Abundances of odd-A nuclides between A = 65 and 209 show a generally smooth trend, with elemental abundances conforming to the slope defined by isotopic abundances. Significant irregularities occur in the Nd-Sm-Eu region, however, suggesting that the abundance curve is dependably smooth only down to about 20 percent level.

  14. Influence of Coronal Abundance Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scargle, Jeffrey D. (Technical Monitor); Kashyap, Vinay

    2005-01-01

    The PI of this project was Jeff Scargle of NASA/Ames. Co-I's were Alma Connors of Eureka Scientific/Wellesley, and myself. Part of the work was subcontracted to Eureka Scientific via SAO, with Vinay Kashyap as PI. This project was originally assigned grant number NCC2-1206, and was later changed to NCC2-1350 for administrative reasons. The goal of the project was to obtain, derive, and develop statistical and data analysis tools that would be of use in the analyses of high-resolution, high-sensitivity data that are becoming available with new instruments. This is envisioned as a cross-disciplinary effort with a number of "collaborators" including some at SA0 (Aneta Siemiginowska, Peter Freeman) and at the Harvard Statistics department (David van Dyk, Rostislav Protassov, Xiao-li Meng, Epaminondas Sourlas, et al). We have developed a new tool to reliably measure the metallicities of thermal plasma. It is unfeasible to obtain high-resolution grating spectra for most stars, and one must make the best possible determination based on lower-resolution, CCD-type spectra. It has been noticed that most analyses of such spectra have resulted in measured metallicities that were significantly lower than when compared with analyses of high- resolution grating data where available (see, e.g., Brickhouse et al., 2000, ApJ 530,387). Such results have led to the proposal of the existence of so-called Metal Abundance Deficient, or "MAD" stars (e.g., Drake, J.J., 1996, Cool Stars 9, ASP Conf.Ser. 109, 203). We however find that much of these analyses may be systematically underestimating the metallicities, and using a newly developed method to correctly treat the low-counts regime at the high-energy tail of the stellar spectra (van Dyk et al. 2001, ApJ 548,224), have found that the metallicities of these stars are generally comparable to their photospheric values. The results were reported at the AAS (Sourlas, Yu, van Dyk, Kashyap, and Drake, 2000, BAAS 196, v32, #54.02), and at the

  15. The Anaesthesia Gas Supply System

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sabyasachi; Chattopadhyay, Subhrajyoti; Bose, Payel

    2013-01-01

    The anaesthesia gas supply system is designed to provide a safe, cost-effective and convenient system for the delivery of medical gases at the point of-use. The doctrine of the anaesthesia gas supply system is based on four essential principles: Identity, continuity, adequacy and quality. Knowledge about gas supply system is an integral component of safe anaesthetic practice. Mishaps involving the malfunction or misuse of medical gas supply to operating theatres have cost many lives. The medical gases used in anaesthesia and intensive care are oxygen, nitrous oxide, medical air, entonox, carbon dioxide and heliox. Oxygen is one of the most widely used gases for life-support and respiratory therapy besides anaesthetic procedures. In this article, an effort is made to describe the production, storage and delivery of anaesthetic gases. The design of anaesthesia equipment must take into account the local conditions such as climate, demand and power supply. The operational policy of the gas supply system should have a backup plan to cater to the emergency need of the hospital, in the event of the loss of the primary source of supply. PMID:24249882

  16. Wetland and water supply

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, John Augustus

    1960-01-01

    The Geological Survey has received numerous inquiries about the effects of proposed changes in the wetland environment. The nature of the inquiries suggests a general confusion in the public mind as to wetland values and an increasing concern by the public with the need for facts as a basis for sound decisions when public action is required. Perhaps the largest gap in our knowledge is in regard to the role played by the wetland in the natural water scheme. Specialists in such fields as agriculture and conservation have studied the wetland in relation to its special uses and values for farming and as a habitat for fish and wildlife. However, except as studied incidentally by these specialists, the role of the wetland with respect to water has been largely neglected. This facet of the wetland problem is of direct concern to the Geological Survey. We commonly speak of water in terms of its place in the hydrologic environment---as, for example, surface water or ground water. These terms imply that water can be neatly pigeonholed. With respect to the wetland environment nothing can be further from the truth. In fact, one objective of this discussion is to demonstrate that for the wetland environment surface water, ground water, and soil water cannot be separated realistically, but are closely interrelated and must be studied together. It should be noted that this statement holds true for the hydrologic environment in general, and that the wetland environment is by no means unique in this respect. Our second and principal objective is to identify some of the problems that must be studied in order to clarify the role of the wetland in relation to water supply. We have chosen to approach these objectives by briefly describing one area for which we have some information, and by using this example to point out some of the problems that need study. First, however, let us define what we, as geohydrologists, mean by wetland and briefly consider wetland classifications. For our

  17. High Blood Pressure Dangers: Hypertension's Effects on Your Body

    MedlinePlus

    ... supply to your brain. It's often caused by atherosclerosis or a blood clot — both of which can ... kidney (renal) artery aneurysm. One potential cause is atherosclerosis, which weakens and damages the artery wall. Over ...

  18. Water supply and demand in an energy supply model

    SciTech Connect

    Abbey, D; Loose, V

    1980-12-01

    This report describes a tool for water and energy-related policy analysis, the development of a water supply and demand sector in a linear programming model of energy supply in the United States. The model allows adjustments in the input mix and plant siting in response to water scarcity. Thus, on the demand side energy conversion facilities can substitute more costly dry cooling systems for conventional evaporative systems. On the supply side groundwater and water purchased from irrigators are available as more costly alternatives to unappropriated surface water. Water supply data is developed for 30 regions in 10 Western states. Preliminary results for a 1990 energy demand scenario suggest that, at this level of spatial analysis, water availability plays a minor role in plant siting. Future policy applications of the modeling system are discussed including the evaluation of alternative patterns of synthetic fuels development.

  19. Petroleum supply monthly, February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly presents data describing the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders; operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data are divided into two sections: Summary statistics and Detailed statistics.

  20. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographical regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US.

  1. Oil and Gas Supply Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gass, S. I.

    1982-05-01

    The theoretical and applied state of the art of oil and gas supply models was discussed. The following areas were addressed: the realities of oil and gas supply, prediction of oil and gas production, problems in oil and gas modeling, resource appraisal procedures, forecasting field size and production, investment and production strategies, estimating cost and production schedules for undiscovered fields, production regulations, resource data, sensitivity analysis of forecasts, econometric analysis of resource depletion, oil and gas finding rates, and various models of oil and gas supply.

  2. Blood Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... as the kidneys, liver, thyroid, and heart—are working Diagnose diseases and conditions such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, diabetes, anemia (uh-NEE-me-eh), and coronary heart disease Find out whether you have risk factors ... taking are working Assess how well your blood is clotting Overview ...

  3. Regulation of Coronary Blood Flow.

    PubMed

    Goodwill, Adam G; Dick, Gregory M; Kiel, Alexander M; Tune, Johnathan D

    2017-03-16

    The heart is uniquely responsible for providing its own blood supply through the coronary circulation. Regulation of coronary blood flow is quite complex and, after over 100 years of dedicated research, is understood to be dictated through multiple mechanisms that include extravascular compressive forces (tissue pressure), coronary perfusion pressure, myogenic, local metabolic, endothelial as well as neural and hormonal influences. While each of these determinants can have profound influence over myocardial perfusion, largely through effects on end-effector ion channels, these mechanisms collectively modulate coronary vascular resistance and act to ensure that the myocardial requirements for oxygen and substrates are adequately provided by the coronary circulation. The purpose of this series of Comprehensive Physiology is to highlight current knowledge regarding the physiologic regulation of coronary blood flow, with emphasis on functional anatomy and the interplay between the physical and biological determinants of myocardial oxygen delivery. © 2017 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 7:321-382, 2017.

  4. Modeling void abundance in modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voivodic, Rodrigo; Lima, Marcos; Llinares, Claudio; Mota, David F.

    2017-01-01

    We use a spherical model and an extended excursion set formalism with drifting diffusive barriers to predict the abundance of cosmic voids in the context of general relativity as well as f (R ) and symmetron models of modified gravity. We detect spherical voids from a suite of N-body simulations of these gravity theories and compare the measured void abundance to theory predictions. We find that our model correctly describes the abundance of both dark matter and galaxy voids, providing a better fit than previous proposals in the literature based on static barriers. We use the simulation abundance results to fit for the abundance model free parameters as a function of modified gravity parameters, and show that counts of dark matter voids can provide interesting constraints on modified gravity. For galaxy voids, more closely related to optical observations, we find that constraining modified gravity from void abundance alone may be significantly more challenging. In the context of current and upcoming galaxy surveys, the combination of void and halo statistics including their abundances, profiles and correlations should be effective in distinguishing modified gravity models that display different screening mechanisms.

  5. Oxygen abundance maps of CALIFA galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinchenko, I. A.; Pilyugin, L. S.; Grebel, E. K.; Sánchez, S. F.; Vílchez, J. M.

    2016-11-01

    We construct maps of the oxygen abundance distribution across the discs of 88 galaxies using Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey (CALIFA) Data Release 2 (DR2) spectra. The position of the centre of a galaxy (coordinates on the plate) was also taken from the CALIFA DR2. The galaxy inclination, the position angle of the major axis, and the optical radius were determined from the analysis of the surface brightnesses in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) g and r bands of the photometric maps of SDSS Data Release 9. We explore the global azimuthal abundance asymmetry in the discs of the CALIFA galaxies and the presence of a break in the radial oxygen abundance distribution. We found that there is no significant global azimuthal asymmetry for our sample of galaxies, i.e. the asymmetry is small, usually lower than 0.05 dex. The scatter in oxygen abundances around the abundance gradient has a comparable value, ≲0.05 dex. A significant (possibly dominant) fraction of the asymmetry can be attributed to the uncertainties in the geometrical parameters of these galaxies. There is evidence for a flattening of the radial abundance gradient in the central part of 18 galaxies. We also estimated the geometric parameters (coordinates of the centre, the galaxy inclination and the position angle of the major axis) of our galaxies from the analysis of the abundance map. The photometry-map-based and the abundance-map-based geometrical parameters are relatively close to each other for the majority of the galaxies but the discrepancy is large for a few galaxies with a flat radial abundance gradient.

  6. The 3He Supply Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.

    2009-05-01

    One of the main uses for 3He is in gas proportional counters for neutron detection. Radiation portal monitors deployed for homeland security and non-proliferation use such detectors. Other uses of 3He are for research detectors, commercial instruments, well logging detectors, dilution refrigerators, for targets or cooling in nuclear research, and for basic research in condensed matter physics. The US supply of 3He comes almost entirely from the decay of tritium used in nuclear weapons by the US and Russia. A few other countries contribute a small amount to the world’s 3He supply. Due to the large increase in use of 3He for homeland security, the supply has dwindled, and can no longer meet the demand. This white paper reviews the problems of supply, utilization, and alternatives.

  7. Seasonal Abundance and Host-Feeding Patterns of Anopheline Vectors in Malaria Endemic Area of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Basseri, Hamidreza; Raeisi, Ahmad; Ranjbar Khakha, Mansoor; Pakarai, Abaas; Abdolghafar, Hassanzehi

    2010-01-01

    Seasonal abundance and tendency to feed on humans are important parameters to measure for effective control of malaria vectors. The objective of this study was to describe relation between feeding pattern, abundance, and resting behavior of four malaria vectors in southern Iran. This study was conducted in ten indicator villages (based on malaria incidence and entomological indices) in mountainous/hilly and plain regions situated south and southeastern Iran. Mosquito vectors were collected from indoor as well as outdoor shelters and the blood meals were examined by ELISA test. Over all 7654 female Anopheles spp. were captured, the most common species were Anopheles stephensi, An. culicifacies, An. fluviatilis, and An. d'thali. The overall human blood index was 37.50%, 19.83%, 16.4%, and 30.1% for An. fluviatilis, An. stephensi, An. culicifacies, and An. d'thali, respectively. In addition, An. fluviatilis fed on human blood during the entire year but the feeding behavior of An. stephensi and An. culicifacies varied according to seasons. Overall, the abundance of the female mosquito positive to human blood was 4.25% per human shelter versus 17.5% per animal shelter. This result indicates that the vectors had tendency to rest in animal shelters after feeding on human. Therefore, vector control measure should be planned based on such as feeding pattern, abundance, and resting behavior of these vectors in the area. PMID:21559055

  8. Response of frugivorous primates to changes in fruit supply in a northern Amazonian forest.

    PubMed

    Mourthé, I

    2014-08-01

    Few attempts have been made to understand how spatiotemporal changes in fruit supply influence frugivores in tropical forests. The marked spatiotemporal variation in fruit supply can affect frugivore abundance and distribution, but studies addressing the effects of this variation on primates are scarce. The present study aimed to investigate how the spatiotemporal distribution of fruits influences the local distribution of three frugivorous primates in the eastern part of the Maracá Ecological Station, a highly seasonal Amazonian rainforest. Specifically, it was hypothesised that primate distribution will track changes in fruit supply, resulting that sites with high fruit availability should be heavily used by primates. During a 1-year study, fruit supply (ground fruit surveys) and primate density (line-transects) were monitored in twelve 2 km-long transects at monthly intervals. Fruit supply varied seasonally, being low during the dry season. The density of Ateles belzebuth was positively related to fruit supply during fruit shortage, but Cebus olivaceus and Alouatta macconnelli did not follow the same pattern. The supply of Sapotaceae fruit was an important component determining local distribution of A. belzebuth during the overall fruit shortage. Highly frugivorous primates such as A. belzebuth respond to seasonal decline in fruit supply by congregating at places with high fruit supply in this forest, particularly, those with many individuals of species of Sapotaceae. This study underscores the importance of small-scale spatiotemporal changes of fruit supply as a key component of frugivorous primate ecology in highly seasonal environments.

  9. Integration of automated systems in blood-banking services.

    PubMed

    Pálffy, S

    1981-03-01

    The objectives, place and advantages of automation in blood-banking services are outlined with reference to the perennial need of blood services to achieve the optimum balance between fluctuating requirements for and supplies of blood while allowing for the brevity of most blood products' useful life-span. Regional, national and international integration of automated systems in blood services is then shown to depend upon mutual agreement concerning data definitions, formats and representations and the development of an internationally accepted standard blood data communication record is proposed.

  10. Abundance fluctuations in the interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jura, M.

    1982-01-01

    The determination of abundances within the interstellar medium is reviewed. It appears that interstellar abundances within 1 kpc of the Sun are uniform to within a factor of two or three, but it is not yet possible to determine whether there are real fluctuations at this level except for deuterium for which the factor of two variations appear to be real. Establishing the level of local fluctuations in the abundances is of considerable importance for understanding the history of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood, the evolution of the interstellar medium and the formation of stars.

  11. Interstellar Abundances Toward X Per, Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valencic, Lynne A.; Smith, Randall K.

    2012-01-01

    The nearby X-ray binary X Per (HD 24534) provides a useful beacon with which to measure elemental abundances in the local ISM. We examine absorption features of O, Mg, and Si along this line of sight using spectra from the Chandra Observatory's LETG/ACIS-S and XMM-Newton's RGS instruments. In general, we find that the abundances and their ratios are similar to those of young F and G stars and the most recent solar values. We compare our results with abundances required by dust grain models.

  12. Interstellar Abundances Toward X Per, Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valencic, Lynne A.; Smith, Randall K.

    2014-01-01

    The nearby X-ray binary X Per (HD 24534) provides a useful beacon with which to measure elemental abundances in the local ISM. We examine absorption features of 0, Mg, and Si along this line of sight using spectra from the Chandra Observatory's LETG/ ACIS-S and XMM-Newton's RGS instruments. In general, we find that the abundances and their ratios are similar to those of young F and G stars and the most recent solar values. We compare our results with abundances required by dust grain models.

  13. TRANSISTOR HIGH VOLTAGE POWER SUPPLY

    DOEpatents

    Driver, G.E.

    1958-07-15

    High voltage, direct current power supplies are described for use with battery powered nuclear detection equipment. The particular advantages of the power supply described, are increased efficiency and reduced size and welght brought about by the use of transistors in the circuit. An important feature resides tn the employment of a pair of transistors in an alternatefiring oscillator circuit having a coupling transformer and other circuit components which are used for interconnecting the various electrodes of the transistors.

  14. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. Description of High Blood Pressure Español High blood pressure is a common disease ... arteries) at higher than normal pressures. Measuring Blood Pressure Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing ...

  15. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. High Blood Pressure What Is High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a common disease in ... at higher than normal pressures. What Is Blood Pressure? Click for more information Blood pressure is the ...

  16. Reinforcement learning in supply chains.

    PubMed

    Valluri, Annapurna; North, Michael J; Macal, Charles M

    2009-10-01

    Effective management of supply chains creates value and can strategically position companies. In practice, human beings have been found to be both surprisingly successful and disappointingly inept at managing supply chains. The related fields of cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence have postulated a variety of potential mechanisms to explain this behavior. One of the leading candidates is reinforcement learning. This paper applies agent-based modeling to investigate the comparative behavioral consequences of three simple reinforcement learning algorithms in a multi-stage supply chain. For the first time, our findings show that the specific algorithm that is employed can have dramatic effects on the results obtained. Reinforcement learning is found to be valuable in multi-stage supply chains with several learning agents, as independent agents can learn to coordinate their behavior. However, learning in multi-stage supply chains using these postulated approaches from cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence take extremely long time periods to achieve stability which raises questions about their ability to explain behavior in real supply chains. The fact that it takes thousands of periods for agents to learn in this simple multi-agent setting provides new evidence that real world decision makers are unlikely to be using strict reinforcement learning in practice.

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1990

    SciTech Connect

    1990-06-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly describe (PSM) the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply.'' Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  18. Energetic-particle abundances in impulsive solar flare events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reames, D. V.; Meyer, J. P.; Von Rosenvinge, T. T.

    1994-01-01

    We report on the abundances of energetic particles from impulsive solar flares, including those from a survey of 228 He-3 rich events, with He-3/He-4 is greater than 0.1, observed by the International Sun Earth Explorer (ISEE) 3 spacecraft from 1978 August through 1991 April. The rate of occurrence of these events corresponds to approximately 1000 events/yr on the solar disk at solar maximum. Thus the resonant plasma processes that enhance He-3 and heavy elements are a common occurrence in impulsive solar flares. To supply the observed fluence of He-3 in large events, the acceleration must be highly efficient and the source region must be relatively deep in the atmosphere at a density of more than 10(exp 10) atoms/cu cm. He-3/He-4 may decrease in very large impulsive events because of depletion of He-3 in the source region. The event-to-event variations in He-3/He-4, H/He-4, e/p, and Fe/C are uncorrelated in our event sample. Abundances of the elements show a pattern in which, relative to coronal composition, He-4, C, N, and O have normal abundance ratios, while Ne, Mg, and Si are enhanced by a factor approximately 2.5 and Fe by a factor approximately 7. This pattern suggests that elements are accelerated from a region of the corona with an electron temperature of approximately 3-5 MK, where elements in the first group are fully ionized (Q/A = 0.5), those in the second group have two orbital electrons (Q/A approximately 0.43), and Fe has Q/A approximately 0.28. Ions with the same gyrofrequency absorb waves of that frequency and are similarly accelerated and enhanced. Further stripping may occur after acceleration as the ions begin to interact with the streaming electrons that generated the plasma waves.

  19. Abundances of Elements in Stellar Coronae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Jeremy

    1998-01-01

    Interest in stellar coronal abundances was piqued several years ago by the launch of satellites that were able to study the compositions of coronae on stars other than the sun. Motivated by the possibility that other stellar coronae might share the First Ionization Potential (FIP) Effect solar abundance anomaly, we have in recent years been attempting to determine coronal element abundances in other stars. I will review these results, together with similar results reported in the literature, from a critical perspective of understanding the true uncertainties involved in the measurements. The importance of element abundances for coronal physics will be highlighted, and it will be shown that the differences in the chemical compositions of active stars allow us to draw new conclusions regarding the nature of stellar coronae and coronal heating.

  20. The lithium abundance in extreme halo stars

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, L.M.; Thorburn, J.A. )

    1991-07-01

    New observations are reported of atmospheric Li abundances for six extremely metal-poor dwarfs with Fe-H ratios not higher than {minus}2.59 and T(e) not lower than 5950 K. The spectra were obtained in 1990 at Kitt Peak National Observatory, using the echelle spectrograph with the UV Fast camera. The resulting Li abundances for these stars range between N(Li) values of 1.99 and 2.24, where N(Li) = 12 + log (Li/H). These results agree with the abundances reported previously for five other metal-poor dwarfs with the Fe/H ratios not above {minus}2.60. The invariance of Li abundance in these 11 stars indicates a primordial origin for most of the Li observed in these Galactic stars. 23 refs.

  1. Blood donor well-being: a primary responsibility of blood collection agencies.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Robert F

    2011-01-01

    Current FDA regulations and AABB standards do not adequately protect the well-being of blood donors. Several practices have adverse consequences for donors, including: elevated incidence of donation related reactions and injuries, iron deficiency anemia in premenopausal women, and inadequate counseling of donors to obtain medical follow-up for health risks identified during pre-donation health screening. These practices can be improved without impacting negatively on the national blood supply. In addition to revising current blood collection operations, blood centers should explore the feasibility of establishing expanded donor health screening programs and determining their effectiveness in improving donor health, donor recruitment, and donor retention.

  2. Asynchronicity of facial blood perfusion in migraine.

    PubMed

    Zaproudina, Nina; Teplov, Victor; Nippolainen, Ervin; Lipponen, Jukka A; Kamshilin, Alexei A; Närhi, Matti; Karjalainen, Pasi A; Giniatullin, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetrical changes in blood perfusion and asynchronous blood supply to head tissues likely contribute to migraine pathophysiology. Imaging was widely used in order to understand hemodynamic variations in migraine. However, mapping of blood pulsations in the face of migraineurs has not been performed so far. We used the Blood Pulsation Imaging (BPI) technique, which was recently developed in our group, to establish whether 2D-imaging of blood pulsations parameters can reveal new biomarkers of migraine. BPI characteristics were measured in migraineurs during the attack-free interval and compared to healthy subjects with and without a family history of migraine. We found a novel phenomenon of transverse waves of facial blood perfusion in migraineurs in contrast to healthy subjects who showed synchronous blood delivery to both sides of the face. Moreover, the amplitude of blood pulsations was symmetrically distributed over the face of healthy subjects, but asymmetrically in migraineurs and subjects with a family history of migraine. In the migraine patients we found a remarkable correlation between the side of unilateral headache and the direction of the blood perfusion wave. Our data suggest that migraine is associated with lateralization of blood perfusion and asynchronous blood pulsations in the facial area, which could be due to essential dysfunction of the autonomic vascular control in the face. These findings may further enhance our understanding of migraine pathophysiology and suggest new easily available biomarkers of this pathology.

  3. Asynchronicity of Facial Blood Perfusion in Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Zaproudina, Nina; Teplov, Victor; Nippolainen, Ervin; Lipponen, Jukka A.; Kamshilin, Alexei A.; Närhi, Matti; Karjalainen, Pasi A.; Giniatullin, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetrical changes in blood perfusion and asynchronous blood supply to head tissues likely contribute to migraine pathophysiology. Imaging was widely used in order to understand hemodynamic variations in migraine. However, mapping of blood pulsations in the face of migraineurs has not been performed so far. We used the Blood Pulsation Imaging (BPI) technique, which was recently developed in our group, to establish whether 2D-imaging of blood pulsations parameters can reveal new biomarkers of migraine. BPI characteristics were measured in migraineurs during the attack-free interval and compared to healthy subjects with and without a family history of migraine. We found a novel phenomenon of transverse waves of facial blood perfusion in migraineurs in contrast to healthy subjects who showed synchronous blood delivery to both sides of the face. Moreover, the amplitude of blood pulsations was symmetrically distributed over the face of healthy subjects, but asymmetrically in migraineurs and subjects with a family history of migraine. In the migraine patients we found a remarkable correlation between the side of unilateral headache and the direction of the blood perfusion wave. Our data suggest that migraine is associated with lateralization of blood perfusion and asynchronous blood pulsations in the facial area, which could be due to essential dysfunction of the autonomic vascular control in the face. These findings may further enhance our understanding of migraine pathophysiology and suggest new easily available biomarkers of this pathology. PMID:24324592

  4. Revisions to labeling requirements for blood and blood components, including source plasma. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-01-03

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is revising the labeling requirements for blood and blood components intended for use in transfusion or for further manufacture by combining, simplifying, and updating specific regulations applicable to labeling and circulars of information. These requirements will facilitate the use of a labeling system using machine-readable information that would be acceptable as a replacement for the ``ABC Codabar'' system for the labeling of blood and blood components. FDA is taking this action as a part of its efforts to comprehensively review and, as necessary, revise its regulations, policies, guidances, and procedures related to the regulation of blood and blood components. This final rule is intended to help ensure the continued safety of the blood supply and facilitate consistency in labeling.

  5. Coronae of Stars with Supersolar Elemental Abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peretz, Uria; Behar, Ehud; Drake, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Coronal elemental abundances are known to deviate from the photospheric values of their parent star, with the degree of deviation depending on the first ionization potential (FIP). This study focuses on the coronal composition of stars with supersolar photospheric abundances. We present the coronal abundances of six such stars: 11 LMi, iota Hor, HR 7291, tau Boo, and alpha Cen A and B. These stars all have high-statistics X-ray spectra, three of which are presented for the first time. The abundances we measured were obtained using the line-resolved spectra of the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) in conjunction with the higher throughput EPIC-pn camera spectra onboard the XMM-Newton observatory. A collisionally ionized plasma model with two or three temperature components is found to represent the spectra well. All elements are found to be consistently depleted in the coronae compared to their respective photospheres. For 11 LMi and tau Boo no FIP effect is present, while iota Hor, HR 7291, and alpha Cen A and B show a clear FIP trend. These conclusions hold whether the comparison is made with solar abundances or the individual stellar abundances. Unlike the solar corona, where low-FIP elements are enriched, in these stars the FIP effect is consistently due to a depletion of high-FIP elements with respect to actual photospheric abundances. A comparison with solar (instead of stellar) abundances yields the same fractionation trend as on the Sun. In both cases, a similar FIP bias is inferred, but different fractionation mechanisms need to be invoked.

  6. Modeling abundance effects in distance sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J. Andrew; Dawson, D.K.; Bates, S.

    2004-01-01

    Distance-sampling methods are commonly used in studies of animal populations to estimate population density. A common objective of such studies is to evaluate the relationship between abundance or density and covariates that describe animal habitat or other environmental influences. However, little attention has been focused on methods of modeling abundance covariate effects in conventional distance-sampling models. In this paper we propose a distance-sampling model that accommodates covariate effects on abundance. The model is based on specification of the distance-sampling likelihood at the level of the sample unit in terms of local abundance (for each sampling unit). This model is augmented with a Poisson regression model for local abundance that is parameterized in terms of available covariates. Maximum-likelihood estimation of detection and density parameters is based on the integrated likelihood, wherein local abundance is removed from the likelihood by integration. We provide an example using avian point-transect data of Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapillus) collected using a distance-sampling protocol and two measures of habitat structure (understory cover and basal area of overstory trees). The model yields a sensible description (positive effect of understory cover, negative effect on basal area) of the relationship between habitat and Ovenbird density that can be used to evaluate the effects of habitat management on Ovenbird populations.

  7. TEA: A Code Calculating Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver

    2016-07-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature-pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows & Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows & Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA.

  8. Report on carbon and nitrogen abundance studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm-Vitense, Erika

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the proposal was to determine the nitrogen to carbon abundance ratios from transition layer lines in stars with different T(sub eff) and luminosities. The equations which give the surface emission line fluxes and the measured ratio of the NV to CIV emission line fluxes are presented and explained. The abundance results are compared with those of photospheric abundance studies for stars in common with the photospheric investigations. The results show that the analyses are at least as accurate as the photospheric determinations. These studies can be extended to F and early G stars for which photospheric abundance determinations for giants are hard to do because molecular bands become too weak. The abundance determination in the context of stellar evolution is addressed. The N/C abundance ratio increases steeply at the point of evolution for which the convection zone reaches deepest. Looking at the evolution of the rotation velocities v sin i, a steep decrease in v sin i is related to the increasing depth of the convection zone. It is concluded that the decrease in v sin i for T(sub eff) less than or approximately = 5800 K is most probably due to the rearrangement of the angular momentum in the stars due to deep convective mixing. It appears that the convection zone is rotating with nearly depth independent angular momentum. Other research results and ongoing projects are discussed.

  9. Solar Models with New Low Metal Abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wuming

    2016-04-01

    In the past decade, the photospheric abundances of the Sun had been revised several times by many observers. The standard solar models constructed with the new low-metal abundances disagree with helioseismic results and detected neutrino fluxes. The solar model problem has puzzled some stellar physicists for more than 10 years. Rotation, enhanced diffusion, convection overshoot, and magnetic fields are used to reconcile the new abundances with helioseismology. The too low helium subsurface abundance in enhanced diffusion models can be improved by the mixing caused by rotation and magnetic fields. The problem of the depth of the convective zone in rotating models can be resolved by convection overshoot. Consequently, the Asplund-Grevesse-Sauval rotation model including overshooting (AGSR) reproduces the seismically inferred sound-speed and density profiles and the convection zone depth as well as the Grevesse & Sauval model computed before. But this model fails to reproduce the surface helium abundance, which is 0.2393 (2.6σ away from the seismic value), and neutrino fluxes. The magnetic model called AGSM keeps the agreement of the AGSR and improves the prediction of the surface helium abundance. The observed separation ratios r02 and r13 are reasonably reproduced by AGSM. Moreover, neutrino fluxes calculated by this model are not far from the detected neutrino fluxes and the predictions of previous works.

  10. Aligning incentives in supply chains.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, V G; Raman, Ananth

    2004-11-01

    Most companies don't worry about the behavior of their supply chain partners. Instead, they expect the supply chain to work efficiently without interference, as if guided by Adam Smith's famed invisible hand. In their study of more than 50 supply networks, V.G. Narayanan and Ananth Raman found that companies often looked out for their own interests and ignored those of their network partners. Consequently, supply chains performed poorly. Those results aren't shocking when you consider that supply chains extend across several functions and many companies, each with its own priorities and goals. Yet all those functions and firms must pull in the same direction for a chain to deliver goods and services to consumers quickly and cost-effectively. According to the authors, a supply chain works well only if the risks, costs, and rewards of doing business are distributed fairly across the network. In fact, misaligned incentives are often the cause of excess inventory, stock-outs, incorrect forecasts, inadequate sales efforts, and even poor customer service. The fates of all supply chain partners are interlinked: If the firms work together to serve consumers, they will all win. However, they can do that only if incentives are aligned. Companies must acknowledge that the problem of incentive misalignment exists and then determine its root cause and align or redesign incentives. They can improve alignment by, for instance, adopting revenue-sharing contracts, using technology to track previously hidden information, or working with intermediaries to build trust among network partners. It's also important to periodically reassess incentives, because even top-performing networks find that changes in technology or business conditions alter the alignment of incentives.

  11. Human Blood Identification: A Forensic Science Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Francis X.; Kobilinsky, Lawrence

    1984-01-01

    Presents a series of experiments (involving immunological and serological techniques) in which a stained fabric is analyzed to determine if blood is present, and if so, whether it is of human origin. The experiments can be performed without expensive or sophisticated equipment and require only a minimal expenditure on consumable supplies. (JN)

  12. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-27

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum supply annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  13. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-15

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  14. Petroleum supply monthly, September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administrations for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics. 65 tabs.

  15. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  16. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-28

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  17. Petroleum Supply Monthly, August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) district movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  18. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  19. The elemental abundances in interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, Peter; Bohsung, Jörg; Maetz, Mischa; Jessberger, Elmar K.

    1996-11-01

    We compiled a table of all major, minor, and trace-element abundances in 89 interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) that includes data obtained with proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE), synchroton x-ray fluorescence (SXRF), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). For the first time, the reliability of the trace-element abundances in IDPs is tested by various crosschecks. We also report on the results of cluster analyses that we performed on IDP compositions. Because of the incompleteness of the data set, we included only the elements Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, and Zn, normalized to Fe and CI chondrite abundances, that are determined in 73 IDPs. The data arrange themselves in four rather poorly defined groups that we discuss in relation to CI chondrites following the assumption that on the average CI abundances are most probable. The largest group (chondritic), with 44 members, has close to CI abundances for many refractory and moderately refractory elements (Na, Al, Si, P, K, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Co, Ge, Sr). It is slightly depleted in Fe and more in Ca and S, while the volatile elements (Cl, Cu, Zn, Ga, Se, Rb) are enriched by =1.7 × CI and Br by 21 × CI. The low-Zn group, with 12 members, is very similar to the chondritic group except for its Zn-depletion, stronger Ca-depletion and Fe-enrichment. The low-Ni group, with 11 members, has Ni/Fe = 0.03 × CI and almost CI-like Ca, but its extraterrestrial origin is not established. The last group (6 members) contains non-systematic particles of unknown origin. We found that Fe is inhomogeneously distributed on a micron scale. Furthermore, the abundances of elements that are measured near their limits of detection are easily overestimated. These biases involved, the incomplete data set and possible contaminating processes prevent us from obtaining information on the specific origin(s) of IDPs from elemental abundances.

  20. Clonal growth and plant species abundance

    PubMed Central

    Herben, Tomáš; Nováková, Zuzana; Klimešová, Jitka

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Both regional and local plant abundances are driven by species' dispersal capacities and their abilities to exploit new habitats and persist there. These processes are affected by clonal growth, which is difficult to evaluate and compare across large numbers of species. This study assessed the influence of clonal reproduction on local and regional abundances of a large set of species and compared the predictive power of morphologically defined traits of clonal growth with data on actual clonal growth from a botanical garden. The role of clonal growth was compared with the effects of seed reproduction, habitat requirements and growth, proxied both by LHS (leaf–height–seed) traits and by actual performance in the botanical garden. Methods Morphological parameters of clonal growth, actual clonal reproduction in the garden and LHS traits (leaf-specific area – height – seed mass) were used as predictors of species abundance, both regional (number of species records in the Czech Republic) and local (mean species cover in vegetation records) for 836 perennial herbaceous species. Species differences in habitat requirements were accounted for by classifying the dataset by habitat type and also by using Ellenberg indicator values as covariates. Key Results After habitat differences were accounted for, clonal growth parameters explained an important part of variation in species abundance, both at regional and at local levels. At both levels, both greater vegetative growth in cultivation and greater lateral expansion trait values were correlated with higher abundance. Seed reproduction had weaker effects, being positive at the regional level and negative at the local level. Conclusions Morphologically defined traits are predictive of species abundance, and it is concluded that simultaneous investigation of several such traits can help develop hypotheses on specific processes (e.g. avoidance of self-competition, support of offspring) potentially

  1. Modeling the status, trends, and impacts of wild bee abundance in the United States.

    PubMed

    Koh, Insu; Lonsdorf, Eric V; Williams, Neal M; Brittain, Claire; Isaacs, Rufus; Gibbs, Jason; Ricketts, Taylor H

    2016-01-05

    Wild bees are highly valuable pollinators. Along with managed honey bees, they provide a critical ecosystem service by ensuring stable pollination to agriculture and wild plant communities. Increasing concern about the welfare of both wild and managed pollinators, however, has prompted recent calls for national evaluation and action. Here, for the first time to our knowledge, we assess the status and trends of wild bees and their potential impacts on pollination services across the coterminous United States. We use a spatial habitat model, national land-cover data, and carefully quantified expert knowledge to estimate wild bee abundance and associated uncertainty. Between 2008 and 2013, modeled bee abundance declined across 23% of US land area. This decline was generally associated with conversion of natural habitats to row crops. We identify 139 counties where low bee abundances correspond to large areas of pollinator-dependent crops. These areas of mismatch between supply (wild bee abundance) and demand (cultivated area) for pollination comprise 39% of the pollinator-dependent crop area in the United States. Further, we find that the crops most highly dependent on pollinators tend to experience more severe mismatches between declining supply and increasing demand. These trends, should they continue, may increase costs for US farmers and may even destabilize crop production over time. National assessments such as this can help focus both scientific and political efforts to understand and sustain wild bees. As new information becomes available, repeated assessments can update findings, revise priorities, and track progress toward sustainable management of our nation's pollinators.

  2. Basal blood glucose concentration in free-living striped mice is influenced by food availability, ambient temperature and social tactic.

    PubMed

    Schradin, Carsten; Pillay, Neville; Kondratyeva, Anna; Yuen, Chi-Hang; Schoepf, Ivana; Krackow, Sven

    2015-05-01

    Vertebrates obtain most of their energy through food, which they store mainly as body fat or glycogen, with glucose being the main energy source circulating in the blood. Basal blood glucose concentration (bBGC) is expected to remain in a narrow homeostatic range. We studied the extent to which bBGC in free-living African striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio) is influenced by ecological factors with a bearing on energy regulation, i.e. food availability, abiotic environmental variation and social tactic. Striped mice typically form extended family groups that huddle together at night, reducing energetic costs of thermoregulation, but solitary individuals also occur in the population. We analysed 2827 blood samples from 1008 individuals of seven different social categories that experienced considerable variation in food supply and abiotic condition. Blood samples were taken from mice in the morning after the overnight fast and before foraging. bBGC increased significantly with food plant abundance and decreased significantly with minimum daily ambient temperature. Solitary striped mice had significantly higher bBGC than group-living striped mice. Our results suggest that adaptive responses of bBGC occur and we found large natural variation, indicating that bBGC spans a far greater homeostatic range than previously thought.

  3. Abundance and size distribution of sublittoral meiobenthos along estuarine salinity gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamuro, Masumi

    2000-10-01

    Abundance and size distribution of the sublittoral meiobenthos in the upper 3 cm of the sediment were surveyed in the eutrophic, estuarine lagoons, Lakes Nakaumi and Shinji, Japan. Samples were taken in late spring from 10 stations located along salinity gradients. The density of meiobenthos was at a minimum in the intermediate salinity zone. Nematodes in L. Shinji were significantly larger in size than in L. Nakaumi, due to the size reduction of marine species in the latter. The biomass of co-existing bivalves, which would contribute more food supply to the meiobenthic fauna, did not affect the abundance and size of meiobenthos. It was suggested that the salinity gradient was the most influential factor on the abundance and size structure of meiobenthos in estuarine lagoons where salinity is fairly constant.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-26

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  5. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  6. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  7. A single supply biopotential amplifier.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, E M; Martinez, N H; Mayosky, M A

    2001-04-01

    A biopotential amplifier for single supply operation is presented. It uses a Driven Right Leg Circuit (DRL) to drive the patient's body to a DC common mode voltage, centering biopotential signals with respect to the amplifier's input voltage range. This scheme ensures proper range operation when a single power supply is used. The circuit described is especially suited for low consumption, battery-powered applications, requiring a single battery and avoiding switching voltage inverters to achieve dual supplies. The generic circuit is described and, as an example, a biopotential amplifier with a gain of 60 dB and a DC input range of +/-200 mV was implemented using low power operational amplifiers. A Common Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR) of 126 dB at 50 Hz was achieved without trimming.

  8. The initial lunar supply base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, D.

    1979-01-01

    The first lunar supply base should have a mass less than 1000 tons, be deployed by 24 persons in 4 months, and be maintained by 10 persons. Output could be expanded 20 times in 5 years to 600,000 tons/yr by a factor of 10 expansion of the area of the solar array on the lunar surface, using low power soil beneficiation, increasing the fleet of mining vehicles, and illuminating the base continuously at night with lunar orbiting mirrors. The space manufacturing facility (SMF) will supply most of the mass (solar cells and orbiting mirrors) necessary for expansion. Several devices and procedures are suggested for development which could further reduce the total mass necessary to transport to the Moon to establish the initial lunar supply base.

  9. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-29

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: Petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  10. Supply curves of conserved energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, A. K.

    1982-05-01

    Supply curves of conserved energy provide an accounting framework that expresses the potential for energy conservation. The economic worthiness of a conservation measure is expressed in terms of the cost of conserved energy, and a measure is considered economical when the cost of conserved energy is less than the price of the energy it replaces. A supply curve of conserved energy is independent of energy prices; however, the economical reserves of conserved energy will depend on energy prices. Double-counting of energy savings and error propagation are common problems when estimating conservation potentials, but supply curves minimize these difficulties and make their consequences predictable. The sensitivity of the cost of conserved energy is examined, as are variations in the optimal investment strategy in response to changes in inputs. Guidelines are presented for predicting the consequences of such changes.

  11. PFP supply fan motor starters

    SciTech Connect

    Keck, R.D.

    1995-05-31

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) is currently stabilizing about 25 kg of Pu sludge; upon completion of this task, PFP will be maintained in a safe standby condition to await decision from the PFP NEPA review. It can take about 10 years to initiate and complete terminal cleanout after this; the facility will then be decommissioned and decontaminated. The 234-5Z ventilation system must continue to operate until terminal cleanout. Part of the ventilation system is the seismic fan shutdown system which shuts down the ventilation supply fans in case of strong earthquake. This document presents criteria for installing solid state, reduced voltage motor starters and isolation contactors for the 8 main ventilation supply fans. The isolation contactors will shutdown the supply fans in event of earthquake.

  12. Increasing homogeneity in global food supplies and the implications for food security

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Colin K.; Bjorkman, Anne D.; Dempewolf, Hannes; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian; Guarino, Luigi; Jarvis, Andy; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Struik, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    The narrowing of diversity in crop species contributing to the world’s food supplies has been considered a potential threat to food security. However, changes in this diversity have not been quantified globally. We assess trends over the past 50 y in the richness, abundance, and composition of crop species in national food supplies worldwide. Over this period, national per capita food supplies expanded in total quantities of food calories, protein, fat, and weight, with increased proportions of those quantities sourcing from energy-dense foods. At the same time the number of measured crop commodities contributing to national food supplies increased, the relative contribution of these commodities within these supplies became more even, and the dominance of the most significant commodities decreased. As a consequence, national food supplies worldwide became more similar in composition, correlated particularly with an increased supply of a number of globally important cereal and oil crops, and a decline of other cereal, oil, and starchy root species. The increase in homogeneity worldwide portends the establishment of a global standard food supply, which is relatively species-rich in regard to measured crops at the national level, but species-poor globally. These changes in food supplies heighten interdependence among countries in regard to availability and access to these food sources and the genetic resources supporting their production, and give further urgency to nutrition development priorities aimed at bolstering food security. PMID:24591623

  13. 21 CFR 607.65 - Exemptions for blood product establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Pharmacies that are operating under applicable local laws regulating dispensing of prescription drugs and... the profession of pharmacy including the business of dispensing and selling blood products at retail. The supplying by such pharmacies of blood products to a practitioner licensed to administer such...

  14. Leading a supply chain turnaround.

    PubMed

    Slone, Reuben E

    2004-10-01

    Just five years ago, salespeople at Whirlpool were in the habit of referring to their supply chain organization as the "sales disablers." Now the company excels at getting products to the right place at the right time--while managing to keep inventories low. How did that happen? In this first-person account, Reuben Slone, Whirlpool's vice president of Global Supply Chain, describes how he and his colleagues devised the right supply chain strategy, sold it internally, and implemented it. Slone insisted that the right focal point for the strategy was the satisfaction of consumers at the end of the supply chain. Most supply chain initiatives do the opposite: They start with the realities of a company's manufacturing base and proceed from there. Through a series of interviews with trade customers large and small, his team identified 27 different capabilities that drove industry perceptions of Whirlpool's performance. Knowing it was infeasible to aim for world-class performance across all of them, Slone weighed the costs of excelling at each and found the combination of initiatives that would provide overall competitive advantage. A highly disciplined project management office and broad training in project management were key to keeping work on budget and on benefit. Slone set an intense pace--three "releases" of new capabilities every month--that the group maintains to this day. Lest this seem like a technology story, however, Slone insists it is just as much a "talent renaissance." People are proud today to be part of Whirlpool's supply chain organization, and its new generation of talent will give the company a competitive advantage for years to come.

  15. Interacting effects of aromatic plants and female age on nest-dwelling ectoparasites and blood-sucking flies in avian nests.

    PubMed

    Tomás, G; Merino, S; Martínez-de la Puente, J; Moreno, J; Morales, J; Lobato, E; Rivero-de Aguilar, J; Del Cerro, S

    2012-06-01

    Some avian species incorporate aromatic plants to their nests. The "nest protection hypothesis", which posits that volatile secondary compounds contained in these plants may have antiparasite properties, has not received full support. All previous tests of this hypothesis have only considered effects on nest-dwelling ectoparasites, but not on blood-sucking flies. The "drug hypothesis" posits that aromatic plants may stimulate nestling immune system, development, or condition. We tested these hypotheses experimentally in wild blue tits, Cyanistes caeruleus, a species that adds aromatic plants to their nests. We supplemented aromatic plants to half of a sample of nests, while adding grass to the other half of nests. We quantified abundance of two groups of blood-sucking flies (blackflies and biting midges) at two different stages of the reproductive period, and abundance of three nest-dwelling ectoparasites (fleas, mites, and blowflies). Experimental supplementation of aromatic plants reduced abundance of fleas only in nests of yearling females and not in nests of older females. Blackflies and biting midges were both more numerous in nests of yearling females than in nests of older females. Mass of aromatic plants added by females was negatively related with abundance of fleas in control nests but not in experimental nests supplied with aromatic plants. Mass of plants added by females was also positively related with abundance of blackflies during the nestling stage. Finally, aromatic plants did not affect nestling growth or immune responses. We conclude that several factors such as female experience and their ability to add plants to the nest interact to explain effects of aromatic plants on different parasites.

  16. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  17. US energy consumption and supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanatta, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    Energy consumption and cost in 1978 and 1979 are discussed with emphasis on the effect of imported oil on the economy of the United States. Some of the international aspects of energy supply are described, and actions to meet the probability of a cutoff of oil imports from the Persian Gulf area are suggested. Short and long range strategies for ensuring energy self sufficiency are discussed. A rationale for major, long range dependence on fission and fusion power is given, and the possible advantages of a nearly all electric energy system are mentioned. Projection of energy consumption and supply to the year 2020 based upon economic and demographic models is discussed.

  18. Supply prices to increase slightly.

    PubMed

    Hard, R

    1991-03-05

    Expect hospital supply prices to increase by about 3 percent to 4 percent during 1991, says the new economic forecast from the Joint Purchasing Corp. (JPC), New York City. JPC's report may help reduce the uncertainty for those making supply price forecasts during the current recession. The Economic Forecast and Budget Impact Report presents economic information from industry analysts and publishes the data in a single volume. The JPC forecast can be used as a guide to help determine price changes; however, it's also important to consider changes in consumption, utilization, and quality when using the report, says JPC's president.

  19. Abundances in Eight M31 Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensley, Kerry G.; Kwitter, Karen B.; Corradi, Romano; Galera-Rosillo, R.; Balick, Bruce; Henry, Richard B. C.

    2014-06-01

    As part of a continuing project using planetary nebulae (PNe) to study the chemical evolution and formation history of M31 (see accompanying poster by Balick et al.), we obtained spectra of eight PNe in the fall of 2013 with the OSIRIS spectrograph on the GTC. All of these PNe are located outside M31’s inner disk and bulge. Spectral coverage extended from 3700-7800Å with a resolution of ~6 Å. Especially important in abundance determinations is the detection of the weak, temperature-sensitive auroral line of [O III], at 4363Å, which is often contaminated by Hg I 4358Å from streetlights; the remoteness of the GTC eliminated this difficulty. We reduced and measured the spectra using IRAF, and derived nebular diagnostics and abundances with ELSA, our in-house five-level-atom program. Here we report the chemical abundances determined from these spectra. The bottom line is that the oxygen abundances in these PNe are all within a factor of 2-3 of the solar value, (as are all the other M31 PNe our team has previously measured) despite the significant range of galactocentric distance. Future work will use these abundances to constrain models of the central star to estimate progenitor masses and ages. In particular we will use the results to investigate the hypothesis that these PNe might represent a population related to the encounter between M31 and M33 ~3 Gy ago. We gratefully acknowledge support from Williams College.

  20. Why is Trichodesmium abundant in the Kuroshio?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiozaki, T.; Takeda, S.; Itoh, S.; Kodama, T.; Liu, X.; Hashihama, F.; Furuya, K.

    2015-12-01

    The genus Trichodesmium is recognized as an abundant and major diazotroph in the Kuroshio, but the reason for this remains unclear. The present study investigated the abundance of Trichodesmium spp. and nitrogen fixation together with concentrations of dissolved iron and phosphate in the Kuroshio and its marginal seas. We performed the observations near the Miyako Islands, which form part of the Ryukyu Islands, situated along the Kuroshio, since our satellite analysis suggested that material transport could occur from the islands to the Kuroshio. Trichodesmium spp. bloomed (> 20 000 filaments L-1) near the Miyako Islands, abundance was high in the Kuroshio and the Kuroshio bifurcation region of the East China Sea, but was low in the Philippine Sea. The abundance of Trichodesmium spp. was significantly correlated with the total nitrogen fixation activity. The surface concentrations of dissolved iron (0.19-0.89 nM) and phosphate (< 3-36 nM) were similar for all of the study areas, indicating that the nutrient distribution could not explain the spatial differences in Trichodesmium spp. abundance and nitrogen fixation. Numerical particle-tracking experiments simulated the transportation of water around the Ryukyu Islands to the Kuroshio. Our results indicate that Trichodesmium growing around the Ryukyu Islands could be advected into the Kuroshio.

  1. REVIEW: Can habitat selection predict abundance?

    PubMed

    Boyce, Mark S; Johnson, Chris J; Merrill, Evelyn H; Nielsen, Scott E; Solberg, Erling J; van Moorter, Bram

    2016-01-01

    Habitats have substantial influence on the distribution and abundance of animals. Animals' selective movement yields their habitat use. Animals generally are more abundant in habitats that are selected most strongly. Models of habitat selection can be used to distribute animals on the landscape or their distribution can be modelled based on data of habitat use, occupancy, intensity of use or counts of animals. When the population is at carrying capacity or in an ideal-free distribution, habitat selection and related metrics of habitat use can be used to estimate abundance. If the population is not at equilibrium, models have the flexibility to incorporate density into models of habitat selection; but abundance might be influenced by factors influencing fitness that are not directly related to habitat thereby compromising the use of habitat-based models for predicting population size. Scale and domain of the sampling frame, both in time and space, are crucial considerations limiting application of these models. Ultimately, identifying reliable models for predicting abundance from habitat data requires an understanding of the mechanisms underlying population regulation and limitation.

  2. Hierarchical models of animal abundance and occurrence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J. Andrew; Dorazio, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    Much of animal ecology is devoted to studies of abundance and occurrence of species, based on surveys of spatially referenced sample units. These surveys frequently yield sparse counts that are contaminated by imperfect detection, making direct inference about abundance or occurrence based on observational data infeasible. This article describes a flexible hierarchical modeling framework for estimation and inference about animal abundance and occurrence from survey data that are subject to imperfect detection. Within this framework, we specify models of abundance and detectability of animals at the level of the local populations defined by the sample units. Information at the level of the local population is aggregated by specifying models that describe variation in abundance and detection among sites. We describe likelihood-based and Bayesian methods for estimation and inference under the resulting hierarchical model. We provide two examples of the application of hierarchical models to animal survey data, the first based on removal counts of stream fish and the second based on avian quadrat counts. For both examples, we provide a Bayesian analysis of the models using the software WinBUGS.

  3. Abundance of sea kraits correlates with precipitation.

    PubMed

    Lillywhite, Harvey B; Tu, Ming-Chung

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that sea kraits (Laticauda spp.)--amphibious sea snakes--dehydrate without a source of fresh water, drink only fresh water or very dilute brackish water, and have a spatial distribution of abundance that correlates with freshwater sites in Taiwan. The spatial distribution correlates with sites where there is a source of fresh water in addition to local precipitation. Here we report six years of longitudinal data on the abundance of sea kraits related to precipitation at sites where these snakes are normally abundant in the coastal waters of Lanyu (Orchid Island), Taiwan. The number of observed sea kraits varies from year-to-year and correlates positively with previous 6-mo cumulative rainfall, which serves as an inverse index of drought. Grouped data for snake counts indicate that mean abundance in wet years is nearly 3-fold greater than in dry years, and this difference is significant. These data corroborate previous findings and suggest that freshwater dependence influences the abundance or activity of sea kraits on both spatial and temporal scales. The increasing evidence for freshwater dependence in these and other marine species have important implications for the possible impact of climate change on sea snake distributions.

  4. RELATIVE ABUNDANCE MEASUREMENTS IN PLUMES AND INTERPLUMES

    SciTech Connect

    Guennou, C.; Hahn, M.; Savin, D. W.

    2015-07-10

    We present measurements of relative elemental abundances in plumes and interplumes. Plumes are bright, narrow structures in coronal holes that extend along open magnetic field lines far out into the corona. Previous work has found that in some coronal structures the abundances of elements with a low first ionization potential (FIP) <10 eV are enhanced relative to their photospheric abundances. This coronal-to-photospheric abundance ratio, commonly called the FIP bias, is typically 1 for elements with a high-FIP (>10 eV). We have used Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer observations made on 2007 March 13 and 14 over a ≈24 hr period to characterize abundance variations in plumes and interplumes. To assess their elemental composition, we used a differential emission measure analysis, which accounts for the thermal structure of the observed plasma. We used lines from ions of iron, silicon, and sulfur. From these we estimated the ratio of the iron and silicon FIP bias relative to that for sulfur. From the results, we have created FIP-bias-ratio maps. We find that the FIP-bias ratio is sometimes higher in plumes than in interplumes and that this enhancement can be time dependent. These results may help to identify whether plumes or interplumes contribute to the fast solar wind observed in situ and may also provide constraints on the formation and heating mechanisms of plumes.

  5. Supply of reactants for Redox bulk energy storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gahn, R. F.

    1978-01-01

    World resources, reserves, production, and costs of reactant materials, iron, chromium, titanium and bromine for proposed redox cell bulk energy storage systems are reviewed. Supplying required materials for multimegawatt hour systems appears to be feasible even at current production levels. Iron and chromium ores are the most abundant and lowest cost of four reactants. Chromium is not a domestic reserve, but redox system installations would represent a small fraction of U.S. imports. Vast quantities of bromine are available, but present production is low and therefore cost is high. Titanium is currently available at reasonable cost, with ample reserves available for the next fifty years.

  6. Art Supply Inventors. Children's Art Diary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, George

    2001-01-01

    Discusses types of art materials that children enjoy using in their artworks. Explores the art materials such as tasty art supplies, such as candy; peeled supplies, such as pencil shavings; sticky art supplies, such as Band-Aids; and fast-food supplies, such as forks and spoons. (CMK)

  7. 10 CFR 218.11 - Supply orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supply orders. 218.11 Section 218.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Supply Orders § 218.11 Supply orders. (a) A...) The DOE shall serve a copy of the supply order on the firm directed to act as stated therein. (c)...

  8. 10 CFR 218.11 - Supply orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supply orders. 218.11 Section 218.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Supply Orders § 218.11 Supply orders. (a) A...) The DOE shall serve a copy of the supply order on the firm directed to act as stated therein. (c)...

  9. 46 CFR 108.467 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Water supply. 108.467 Section 108.467 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.467 Water supply. The water supply of a foam extinguishing system must not be the water supply of the fire main system on the unit unless...

  10. 46 CFR 108.467 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Water supply. 108.467 Section 108.467 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.467 Water supply. The water supply of a foam extinguishing system must not be the water supply of the fire main system on the unit unless...

  11. 46 CFR 108.467 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Water supply. 108.467 Section 108.467 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.467 Water supply. The water supply of a foam extinguishing system must not be the water supply of the fire main system on the unit unless...

  12. 46 CFR 108.467 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water supply. 108.467 Section 108.467 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.467 Water supply. The water supply of a foam extinguishing system must not be the water supply of the fire main system on the unit unless...

  13. 46 CFR 108.467 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Water supply. 108.467 Section 108.467 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.467 Water supply. The water supply of a foam extinguishing system must not be the water supply of the fire main system on the unit unless...

  14. Measuring Abundance Ratios from Integrated Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthey, G.

    2010-06-01

    Age, overall abundance, and detailed, element-by-element abundances can be extracted from the integrated light of distant galaxies. The method, at its most basic, is merely the comparison of observed spectra with appropriate models. The relative ratios of elements C, N, O, Na, Mg, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Sr, and Ba can be determined to scientifically useful precision. Cases of interest that are borderline because they suffer internal degeneracies (although plenty of signal is present) are Al and the trio C, N, and O. The elements S, K, Cu, Eu, and the noble gases are too difficult to measure, and V is borderline. Changing the relative abundance ratios, even at fixed heavy-element content, changes the temperatures, luminosities, and number densities of the underlying stellar evolution, as well as more direct changes in the spectra of the stars present. The latter effects dominate the spectral shape, while the former effects render age estimation quite difficult.

  15. Chemical Abundances of Compact Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ting-Hui; Shaw, Richard A.; Stanghellini, letizia; Riley, Ben

    2015-08-01

    We present preliminary results from an optical spectroscopic survey of compact planetary nebulae (PNe) in the Galactic disk. This is an ongoing optical+infrared spectral survey of 150 compact PNe to build a deep sample of PN chemical abundances. We obtained optical spectra of PNe with the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope and Goodman High-Throughput Spectrograph between 2012 and 2015. These data were used to calculate the nebulae diagnostics such as electron temperature and density for each PN, and to derive the elemental abundances of He, N, O Ne, S and Ar. These abundances are vital to understanding the nature of the PNe, and their low- to intermediate-mass progenitor stars.

  16. Rare-earth abundances in chondritic meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evensen, N. M.; Hamilton, P. J.; Onions, R. K.

    1978-01-01

    Fifteen chondrites, including eight carbonaceous chondrites, were analyzed for rare earth element abundances by isotope dilution. Examination of REE for a large number of individual chondrites shows that only a small proportion of the analyses have flat unfractionated REE patterns within experimental error. While some of the remaining analyses are consistent with magmatic fractionation, many patterns, in particular those with positive Ce anomalies, can not be explained by known magmatic processes. Elemental abundance anomalies are found in all major chondrite classes. The persistence of anomalies in chondritic materials relatively removed from direct condensational processes implies that anomalous components are resistant to equilibrium or were introduced at a late stage of chondrite formation. Large-scale segregation of gas and condensate is implied, and bulk variations in REE abundances between planetary bodies is possible.

  17. On the abundance enigma in Ionized Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohigas, J.

    2009-04-01

    In ionized regions with temperature gradients and fluctuations, the ratio of the ion abundance obtained from a recombination line to that found from a collisionally excited line (CEL), or ADF, is smaller than observed (ADF ≥ 2). Larger ADFs are found when there is an additional component that is ≥ 30% colder. The temperature in the cold component must be ≈ 500, 200 and 100 K if the ADF found from an IR CEL is ≃2, 5 and 10. Most of the mass is in the hot region. The total H+ mass has been underestimated if it was found from the intensity of a Balmer line. [O IIII]5007/Hβ images can also render the relative distribution of cold and hot matter. The determination of accurate abundances is forestalled by the fact that observations cannot discriminate light from these components, the existence of distinct abundance sets and insufficient spectral information for the hot region.

  18. Abundance and chemistry of interstellar HOCO(+)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minh, Y. C.; Brewer, M. K.; Irvine, W. M.; Friberg, P.; Johansson, L. E. B.

    1991-01-01

    Column densities of 10 to the 15th/sq cm toward the Galactic center and not more than 10 to the 12th/sq cm for cold dark clouds are derived from observations using an LVG model, and the chemical implications are discussed. The HOCO(+) 4(04)-3(03) line toward Sgr A is mapped. The fractional abundance of HOCO(+) in the Galactic center region was found to be three orders of magnitude larger than predicted by quiescent ion-molecule chemistry and an order of magnitude larger than predicted by an MHD shock model. It is suggested that the possibly high CO2 abundance, and consequently the observed HOCO(+) abundance in the Galactic center, may result from UV photolysis of grain mantles.

  19. An Analysis of Class II Supplies Requisitions in the Korean Army’s Organizational Supply

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-26

    Retail Supply System SBMA Standard Book of Material Allowance SCM Supply Chain Management SCM Supply Chain Management SDI Supplies Daily...issues. The Standard Army Retail Supply System (SARSS) is currently used at Retail Level Supply. SARSS is the primary automation system used in the... system features provides SPBS-R and ULLS-S4 functionality. (4) SARSS is currently used at Retail Level Supply. The solutions to improve requisition

  20. INTERSTELLAR ABUNDANCES TOWARD X Per, REVISITED

    SciTech Connect

    Valencic, Lynne A.; Smith, Randall K.

    2013-06-10

    The nearby X-ray binary X Per (HD 24534) provides a useful beacon with which to examine dust grain types and measure elemental abundances in the local interstellar medium (ISM). The absorption features of O, Fe, Mg, and Si along this line of sight were measured using spectra from the Chandra X-Ray Observatory's LETG/ACIS-S and XMM-Newton's RGS instruments, and the Spex software package. The spectra were fit with dust analogs measured in the laboratory. The O, Mg, and Si abundances were compared to those from standard references, and the O abundance was compared to that along lines of sight toward other X-ray binaries. The results are as follows. First, it was found that a combination of MgSiO{sub 3} (enstatite) and Mg{sub 1.6}Fe{sub 0.4}SiO{sub 4} (olivine) provided the best fit to the O K edge, with N(MgSiO{sub 3})/N(Mg{sub 1.6}Fe{sub 0.4}SiO{sub 4}) = 3.4. Second, the Fe L edge could be fit with models that included metallic iron, but it was not well described by the laboratory spectra currently available. Third, the total abundances of O, Mg, and Si were in very good agreement with that of recently re-analyzed B stars, suggesting that they are good indicators of abundances in the local ISM, and the depletions were also in agreement with expected values for the diffuse ISM. Finally, the O abundances found from X-ray binary absorption spectra show a similar correlation with Galactocentric distances as seen in other objects.

  1. Cord blood testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... carbon dioxide, and pH levels) Blood sugar level Blood type and Rh Complete blood count ( CBC ) Platelet count ... and this is the only time when this type of blood sample can be collected. You can also decide ...

  2. Blood Type Game

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donor Community > Games > Blood Type Game Printable Version Blood Type Game This feature requires version 6 or later ... many points as possible by matching the appropriate blood type of a donor to the blood type of ...

  3. Types of Blood Donations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Double Red Cell Plasma Platelets Red Cells What blood donation type is best for me? **If you do not ... blood type, a whole blood donation is recommended** Blood Donation Types: Volunteer Donations The standard or most common type ...

  4. Protein C blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... a normal substance in the body that prevents blood clotting. A blood test can be done to see ... history of blood clots. Protein C helps control blood clotting. A lack of this protein or problem with ...

  5. Protein S blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... a normal substance in your body that prevents blood clotting. A blood test can be done to see ... family history of blood clots. Protein S helps control blood clotting. A lack of this protein or problem with ...

  6. White Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Count; Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , ...

  7. Blood donation before surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000367.htm Blood donation before surgery To use the sharing features ... vessels. Several sources of blood are described here. Blood From the Public (Volunteer Blood Donation) The most ...

  8. Low Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... a problem. Sometimes blood pressure that is too low can also cause problems. Blood pressure is the ... reading is 90/60 or lower, you have low blood pressure. Some people have low blood pressure ...

  9. High blood pressure medicines

    MedlinePlus

    Hypertension - medicines ... blood vessel diseases. You may need to take medicines to lower your blood pressure if lifestyle changes ... blood pressure to the target level. WHEN ARE MEDICINES FOR HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE USED Most of the ...

  10. OH vertical column abundance - Tropical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, Clyde R.; Minschwaner, Kenneth R.; Burnett, Elizabeth B.

    1990-09-01

    Measurements of the vertical column abundance of atmospheric hydroxyl (OH) have been made during the period 1987-1989 at the National Weather Service (NWS) station at Moen, Truk, Federated States of Micronesia (7 deg N, 152 deg E). A total of 384 independent data sets was obtained. Tropical OH abundance levels average about 22 percent above corresponding mid-latitude values, with OH levels during late winter and early spring up to 50 percent above those observed at 40 deg N. Stratospheric wind and temperature data obtained from the daily NWS radiosonde data are examined for correlations with the OH results.

  11. OH vertical column abundance - Tropical measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, Clyde R.; Minschwaner, Kenneth R.; Burnett, Elizabeth B.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of the vertical column abundance of atmospheric hydroxyl (OH) have been made during the period 1987-1989 at the National Weather Service (NWS) station at Moen, Truk, Federated States of Micronesia (7 deg N, 152 deg E). A total of 384 independent data sets was obtained. Tropical OH abundance levels average about 22 percent above corresponding mid-latitude values, with OH levels during late winter and early spring up to 50 percent above those observed at 40 deg N. Stratospheric wind and temperature data obtained from the daily NWS radiosonde data are examined for correlations with the OH results.

  12. Dispersion in DLA metallicities and deuterium abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorkin, Irina; Silk, Joseph; Vangioni, Elisabeth; Petitjean, Patrick; Olive, Keith A.

    2017-03-01

    Recent chemical abundance measurements of damped Lyman-alpha absorbers (DLAs) revealed a large intrinsic scatter in their metallicities. We discuss a semi-analytic model that was specifically designed to study this scatter by tracing the chemical evolution of the interstellar matter in small regions of the Universe with different mean density, from over- to underdense regions. It is shown that different histories of structure formation in these regions are reflected in the chemical properties of the proto-galaxies. We also address deuterium abundance measurements, which constitute a complementary probe of the star formation and infall histories.

  13. Water Supply Infrastructure System Surety

    SciTech Connect

    EKMAN,MARK E.; ISBELL,DARYL

    2000-01-06

    The executive branch of the United States government has acknowledged and identified threats to the water supply infrastructure of the United States. These threats include contamination of the water supply, aging infrastructure components, and malicious attack. Government recognition of the importance of providing safe, secure, and reliable water supplies has a historical precedence in the water works of the ancient Romans, who recognized the same basic threats to their water supply infrastructure the United States acknowledges today. System surety is the philosophy of ''designing for threats, planning for failure, and managing for success'' in system design and implementation. System surety is an alternative to traditional compliance-based approaches to safety, security, and reliability. Four types of surety are recognized: reactive surety; proactive surety, preventative surety; and fundamental, inherent surety. The five steps of the system surety approach can be used to establish the type of surety needed for the water infrastructure and the methods used to realize a sure water infrastructure. The benefit to the water industry of using the system surety approach to infrastructure design and assessment is a proactive approach to safety, security, and reliability for water transmission, treatment, distribution, and wastewater collection and treatment.

  14. Supply Curves of Conserved Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan Kevin

    1982-05-01

    Supply curves of conserved energy provide an accounting framework that expresses the potential for energy conservation. The economic worthiness of a conservation measure is expressed in terms of the cost of conserved energy, and a measure is considered economical when the cost of conserved energy is less than the price of the energy it replaces. A supply curve of conserved energy is independent of energy prices; however, the economical reserves of conserved energy will depend on energy prices. Double-counting of energy savings and error propagation are common problems when estimating conservation potentials, but supply curves minimize these difficulties and make their consequences predictable. The sensitivity of the cost of conserved energy is examined, as are variations in the optimal investment strategy in response to changes in inputs. Guidelines are presented for predicting the consequences of such changes. The conservation supply curve concept can be applied to peak power, water, pollution, and other markets where consumers demand a service rather than a particular good.

  15. Economic drivers of mineral supply

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Lorie A.; Sullivan, Daniel E.; Sznopek, John L.

    2003-01-01

    The debate over the adequacy of future supplies of mineral resources continues in light of the growing use of mineral-based materials in the United States. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, the quantity of new materials utilized each year has dramatically increased from 161 million tons2 in 1900 to 3.2 billion tons in 2000. Of all the materials used during the 20th century in the United States, more than half were used in the last 25 years. With the Earth?s endowment of natural resources remaining constant, and increased demand for resources, economic theory states that as depletion approaches, prices rise. This study shows that many economic drivers (conditions that create an economic incentive for producers to act in a particular way) such as the impact of globalization, technological improvements, productivity increases, and efficient materials usage are at work simultaneously to impact minerals markets and supply. As a result of these economic drivers, the historical price trend of mineral prices3 in constant dollars has declined as demand has risen. When price is measured by the cost in human effort, the price trend also has been almost steadily downward. Although the United States economy continues its increasing mineral consumption trend, the supply of minerals has been able to keep pace. This study shows that in general supply has grown faster than demand, causing a declining trend in mineral prices.

  16. Estimating Supplies Program: Evaluation Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    214 Ingrown Toenails Bilateral With Secondary Infections Unresolvable At Echelon 2 215 Ingrown Toenails Without Secondary Infection 216 Herpes...Select functional areas that provide treatment for the patient stream you input. For example, if you select the Surgical Company Operating Room...readiness. (U) The primary application of supply estimation is to determine logistical requirements for medical treatment . Traditionally, medical

  17. The Management of Groundwater Supplies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, P. L.

    1978-01-01

    The manager of a groundwater supply system must be involved in many different disciplines if he or she is to manage the system effectively. In areas in which specialized expertise is necessary, it can be obtained from consultants or government agencies. (BB)

  18. Reduction of blood serum cholesterol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winitz, M. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    By feeding a human subject as the sole source of sustenance a defined diet wherein the carbohydrate consists substantially entirely of glucose, maltose or a polysaccharide of glucose, the blood serum cholesterol level of the human subject is substantially reduced. If 25 percent of the carbohydrate is subsequently supplied in the form of sucrose, an immediate increase from the reduced level is observed. The remainder of the defined diet normally includes a source of amino acids, such as protein or a protein hydrolysate, vitamins, minerals and a source of essential fatty acid.

  19. Ambiguity of mapping the relative phase of blood pulsations

    PubMed Central

    Teplov, Victor; Nippolainen, Ervin; Makarenko, Alexander A.; Giniatullin, Rashid; Kamshilin, Alexei A.

    2014-01-01

    Blood pulsation imaging (BPI) is a non-invasive optical method based on photoplethysmography (PPG). It is used for the visualization of changes in the spatial distribution of blood in the microvascular bed. BPI specifically allows measurements of the relative phase of blood pulsations and using it we detected a novel type of PPG fast waveforms, which were observable in limited areas with asynchronous regional blood supply. In all subjects studied, these fast waveforms coexisted with traditional slow waveforms of PPG. We are therefore presenting a novel lock-in image processing technique of blood pulsation imaging, which can be used for detailed temporal characterization of peripheral microcirculation. PMID:25401026

  20. Measurement of arterial and capillary blood oxygen tension

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, J. H.

    1966-01-01

    An oxygen electrode system, supplied as an attachment to the Radiometer Astrup micro equipment for blood pH determination (AME I), has been investigated. Determination of blood oxygen tension using this electrode system has been compared with tension measurements using an established Bishop type oxygen electrode and satisfactory agreement was found. The storage of blood for routine estimation of oxygen tension has been investigated. Capillary blood oxygen tension has been measured and compared with that of simultaneously taken arterial blood samples. PMID:5929338

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-28

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures ih the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas - - the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided firom other sources.

  2. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-30

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas -- the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  3. Supply chain challenges. building relationships.

    PubMed

    Beth, Scott; Burt, David N; Copacino, William; Gopal, Chris; Lee, Hau L; Lynch, Robert Porter; Morris, Sandra

    2003-07-01

    Supply chain management is all about software and systems, right? Put in the best technology, sit back, and watch as your processes run smoothly and the savings roll in? Apparently not. When HBR convened a panel of leading thinkers in the field of supply chain management, technology was not top of mind. People and relationships were the dominant issues of the day. The opportunities and problems created by globalization, for example, are requiring companies to establish relationships with new types of suppliers. The ever-present pressure for speed and cost containment is making it even more important to break down stubbornly high internal barriers and establish more effective cross-functional relationships. The costs of failure have never been higher. The leading supply chain performers are applying new technology, new innovations, and process thinking to far greater advantage than the laggards, reaping tremendous gains in all the variables that affect shareholder value: cost, customer service, asset productivity, and revenue generation. And the gap between the leaders and the losers is growing in almost every industry. This roundtable gathered many of the leading thinkers and doers in the field of supply chain management, including practitioners Scott Beth of Intuit, Sandra Morris of Intel, and Chris Gopal of Unisys. David Burt of the University of San Diego and Stanford's Hau Lee bring the latest research from academia. Accenture's William Copacino and the Warren Company's Robert Porter Lynch offer the consultant's perspectives. Together, they take a wide-ranging view of such topics as developing talent, the role of the chief executive, and the latest technologies, exploring both the tactical and the strategic in the current state of supply chain management.

  4. ABUNDANT OR RARE? A HYBRID APPROACH FOR DETERMINING SPECIES RELATIVE ABUNDANCE AT AN ECOREGOIONAL SCALE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Everyone knows what abundant and rare species are, but quantifying the concept proves elusive. As part of an EPA/USGS project to assess near-coastal species vulnerability to climate change affects, we designed a hybrid approach to determine species relative abundance at an ecoreg...

  5. ABUNDANT OR RARE? A HYBRID APPROACH FOR DETERMINING SPECIES RELATIVE ABUNDANCE AT AN ECOREGOIONAL SCALE - 2014

    EPA Science Inventory

    Everyone knows what abundant and rare species are, but quantifying the concept proves elusive. As part of an EPA/USGS project to assess near-coastal species vulnerability to climate change affects, we designed a hybrid approach to determine species relative abundance at an ecoreg...

  6. Empirical oxygen abundances and physical conditions for relatively low abundance H II regions

    SciTech Connect

    Skillman, E.D. )

    1989-12-01

    The utility of the emission-line ratio (3727 + 4959 + 5007 A)/H-beta as an estimate of the total oxygen abundance in H II regions of low abundance (less than 10 percent of the solar value) is discussed. Using both observational data where the 4363A line is measured and model H II regions it is concluded that, for low abundance systems, total oxygen abundances can be determined with an accuracy of + or - 0.2 dex in the absence of a 4363A measurement. An attempt is made to study the average behavior of the stellar effective temperature (Teff) and ionization parameter (U) with changing abundance in low abundance systems. It is shown that some diagnostic methods which are viable for high abundance systems are not capable of uniquely determining Teff and U in low abundance systems. The most promising method of determining Teff and U requires measuring emission lines of forbidden O II, O III, S II, and S III. 53 refs.

  7. The Abundance of Large Arcs From CLASH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bingxiao; Postman, Marc; Meneghetti, Massimo; Coe, Dan A.; Clash Team

    2015-01-01

    We have developed an automated arc-finding algorithm to perform a rigorous comparison of the observed and simulated abundance of large lensed background galaxies (a.k.a arcs). We use images from the CLASH program to derive our observed arc abundance. Simulated CLASH images are created by performing ray tracing through mock clusters generated by the N-body simulation calibrated tool -- MOKA, and N-body/hydrodynamic simulations -- MUSIC, over the same mass and redshift range as the CLASH X-ray selected sample. We derive a lensing efficiency of 15 ± 3 arcs per cluster for the X-ray selected CLASH sample and 4 ± 2 arcs per cluster for the simulated sample. The marginally significant difference (3.0 σ) between the results for the observations and the simulations can be explained by the systematically smaller area with magnification larger than 3 (by a factor of ˜4) in both MOKA and MUSIC mass models relative to those derived from the CLASH data. Accounting for this difference brings the observed and simulated arc statistics into full agreement. We find that the source redshift distribution does not have big impact on the arc abundance but the arc abundance is very sensitive to the concentration of the dark matter halos. Our results suggest that the solution to the "arc statistics problem" lies primarily in matching the cluster dark matter distribution.

  8. In Abundance: Networked Participatory Practices as Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Bonnie E.

    2015-01-01

    In an era of knowledge abundance, scholars have the capacity to distribute and share ideas and artifacts via digital networks, yet networked scholarship often remains unrecognized within institutional spheres of influence. Using ethnographic methods including participant observation, interviews, and document analysis, this study investigates…

  9. Will Abundant Natural Gas Solve Climate Change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McJeon, H. C.; Edmonds, J.; Bauer, N.; Leon, C.; Fisher, B.; Flannery, B.; Hilaire, J.; Krey, V.; Marangoni, G.; Mi, R.; Riahi, K.; Rogner, H.; Tavoni, M.

    2015-12-01

    The rapid deployment of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling technologies enabled the production of previously uneconomic shale gas resources in North America. Global deployment of these advanced gas production technologies could bring large influx of economically competitive unconventional gas resources to the energy system. It has been hoped that abundant natural gas substituting for coal could reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, which in turn could reduce climate forcing. Other researchers countered that the non-CO2 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with shale gas production make its lifecycle emissions higher than those of coal. In this study, we employ five state-of-the-art integrated assessment models (IAMs) of energy-economy-climate systems to assess the full impact of abundant gas on climate change. The models show large additional natural gas consumption up to +170% by 2050. The impact on CO2 emissions, however, is found to be much smaller (from -2% to +11%), and a majority of the models reported a small increase in climate forcing (from -0.3% to +7%) associated with the increased use of abundant gas. Our results show that while globally abundant gas may substantially change the future energy market equilibrium, it will not significantly mitigate climate change on its own in the absence of climate policies.

  10. Heavy element abundances and massive star formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Boqi; Silk, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    The determination of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) remains a great challenge in astronomy. In the solar neighborhood, the IMF is reasonable well determined for stellar masses from about 0.1 to 60 solar mass. However, outside the solar neighborhood, the IMF is poorly known. Among those frequently discussed arguments favoring a different IMF outside the solar neighborhood are the estimated time to consume the remaining gas in spiral galaxies, and the high rate of forming massive stars in starburst galaxies. An interesting question then is whether there may be an independent way of testing possible variations in the IMF. Indeed, the heavy elements in the interstellar medium are mostly synthesized in massive stars, so increasing, or decreasing, the fraction of massive stars naturally leads to a variation in the heavy element yield, and thus, the metallicity. The observed abundance should severely constrain any deviations of the IMF from the locally determined IMF. We focus on element oxygen, which is the most abundant heavy element in the interstellar medium. Oxygen is ejected only by massive stars that can become Type 1 supernovae, and the oxygen abundance is, therefore, a sensitive function of the fraction of massive stars in the IMF. Adopting oxygen enables us to avoid uncertainties in Type 1 supernovae. We use the nucleosynthesis results to calculate the oxygen yield for given IMF. We then calculate the oxygen abundance in the interstellar medium assuming instantaneous recycling of oxygen.

  11. Considerations when quantitating protein abundance by immunoblot.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Alicia A; Veiras, Luciana C; Minas, Jacqueline N; Ralph, Donna Lee

    2015-03-15

    The development of the immunoblot to detect and characterize a protein with an antisera, even in a crude mixture, was a breakthrough with wide-ranging and unpredictable applications across physiology and medicine. Initially, this technique was viewed as a tool for qualitative, not quantitative, analyses of proteins because of the high number of variables between sample preparation and detection with antibodies. Nonetheless, as the immunoblot method was streamlined and improved, investigators pushed it to quantitate protein abundance in unpurified samples as a function of treatment, genotype, or pathology. This short review, geared at investigators, reviewers, and critical readers, presents a set of issues that are of critical importance for quantitative analysis of protein abundance: 1) Consider whether tissue samples are of equivalent integrity and assess how handling between collection and assay influences the apparent relative abundance. 2) Establish the specificity of the antiserum for the protein of interest by providing clear images, molecular weight markers, positive and negative controls, and vendor details. 3) Provide convincing evidence for linearity of the detection system by assessing signal density as a function of sample loaded. 4) Recognize that loading control proteins are rarely in the same linear range of detection as the protein of interest; consider protein staining of the gel or blot. In summary, with careful attention to sample integrity, antibody specificity, linearity of the detection system, and acceptable loading controls, investigators can implement quantitative immunoblots to convincingly assess protein abundance in their samples.

  12. Material & equipment, procurement & maintenance: Impact on blood safety.

    PubMed

    Emmanuel, Jean C

    2010-01-01

    Blood Transfusion Safety is dependent on effectively organised and managed blood services, which have adequate financial resources, skilled manpower, appropriate infrastructure and quality management systems in place. 80% of the world's population has access to 20% of the supply blood products, of which little is consistently safe. HIV highlighted the importance of blood safety. The lack of effective blood services in low human development index (LHDI), developing countries, has lead to international funding and capacity building for more than three decades. The initial strategies focused on providing HIV testing reagents to prevention transmission, however this only addresses one part of blood safety. Blood safety is not only dependent on preventing HIV transmission. In many populations there are other infectious agents, which have a higher prevalence. Ensuring the correct blood is provided to the patient depends on: well managed services with effective leadership and adequate budgets; capacity building and retention of skilled experienced staff; availability of laboratory equipment, correctly maintained; blood cold chain systems; procedures for tendering, purchasing and ensuring an unbroken supply of reagents and consumables; and quality management systems. Barriers for simplified effective tendering, procurement and contracting require urgent attention and coordination of all funding organisations to ensure an unbroken supply of reagents.

  13. From bloodless surgery to patient blood management.

    PubMed

    Shander, Aryeh; Javidroozi, Mazyar; Perelman, Seth; Puzio, Thomas; Lobel, Gregg

    2012-01-01

    Safety and efficacy concerns of allogeneic blood transfusions and their impact on patient outcomes and associated staggering costs and restricted supply have fueled the quest for other modalities and strategies to reduce use of blood components. Patient blood management focuses on multidisciplinary and multimodal preventive measures to reduce or obviate the need for transfusions and ultimately to improve the clinical outcomes of patients. Patient blood management strategies can be applied at every stage of care to surgical and nonsurgical patients, and they generally fall under one of these three categories (the so-called pillars of blood management): optimizing hematopoiesis and appropriate management of anemia, minimizing bleeding and blood loss, and harnessing and optimizing physiological tolerance of anemia through employing all available modalities while treatment is initiated. Several tools and modalities are available to address each of these pillars. Examples include hematinic agents, systemic and topical hemostatic agents, autotransfusion, and blood-sparing perfusion and surgical techniques. Additionally, changes in practice of clinicians (e.g., adherence to restrictive, evidence-based transfusion strategies with emphasis on physiologic indications for transfusion, minimization of iatrogenic blood loss, and adequate planning) play an important role in patient blood management. Emerging evidence supports that appropriate use of these strategies as part of a multimodal program is a safe and effective way of reducing allogeneic transfusions and improving patient outcomes.

  14. Toward Reliable Estimates of Abundance: Comparing Index Methods to Assess the Abundance of a Mammalian Predator

    PubMed Central

    Güthlin, Denise; Storch, Ilse; Küchenhoff, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Due to time and financial constraints indices are often used to obtain landscape-scale estimates of relative species abundance. Using two different field methods and comparing the results can help to detect possible bias or a non monotonic relationship between the index and the true abundance, providing more reliable results. We used data obtained from camera traps and feces counts to independently estimate relative abundance of red foxes in the Black Forest, a forested landscape in southern Germany. Applying negative binomial regression models, we identified landscape parameters that influence red fox abundance, which we then used to predict relative red fox abundance. We compared the estimated regression coefficients of the landscape parameters and the predicted abundance of the two methods. Further, we compared the costs and the precision of the two field methods. The predicted relative abundances were similar between the two methods, suggesting that the two indices were closely related to the true abundance of red foxes. For both methods, landscape diversity and edge density best described differences in the indices and had positive estimated effects on the relative fox abundance. In our study the costs of each method were of similar magnitude, but the sample size obtained from the feces counts (262 transects) was larger than the camera trap sample size (88 camera locations). The precision of the camera traps was lower than the precision of the feces counts. The approach we applied can be used as a framework to compare and combine the results of two or more different field methods to estimate abundance and by this enhance the reliability of the result. PMID:24743565

  15. Toward reliable estimates of abundance: comparing index methods to assess the abundance of a Mammalian predator.

    PubMed

    Güthlin, Denise; Storch, Ilse; Küchenhoff, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Due to time and financial constraints indices are often used to obtain landscape-scale estimates of relative species abundance. Using two different field methods and comparing the results can help to detect possible bias or a non monotonic relationship between the index and the true abundance, providing more reliable results. We used data obtained from camera traps and feces counts to independently estimate relative abundance of red foxes in the Black Forest, a forested landscape in southern Germany. Applying negative binomial regression models, we identified landscape parameters that influence red fox abundance, which we then used to predict relative red fox abundance. We compared the estimated regression coefficients of the landscape parameters and the predicted abundance of the two methods. Further, we compared the costs and the precision of the two field methods. The predicted relative abundances were similar between the two methods, suggesting that the two indices were closely related to the true abundance of red foxes. For both methods, landscape diversity and edge density best described differences in the indices and had positive estimated effects on the relative fox abundance. In our study the costs of each method were of similar magnitude, but the sample size obtained from the feces counts (262 transects) was larger than the camera trap sample size (88 camera locations). The precision of the camera traps was lower than the precision of the feces counts. The approach we applied can be used as a framework to compare and combine the results of two or more different field methods to estimate abundance and by this enhance the reliability of the result.

  16. Ant Abundance along a Productivity Gradient: Addressing Two Conflicting Hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    Segev, Udi; Kigel, Jaime; Lubin, Yael; Tielbörger, Katja

    2015-01-01

    The number of individuals within a population or community and their body size can be associated with changes in resource supply. While these relationships may provide a key to better understand the role of abiotic vs. biotic constraints in animal communities, little is known about the way size and abundance of organisms change along resource gradients. Here, we studied this interplay in ants, addressing two hypotheses with opposite predictions regarding variation in population densities along resource gradients- the ‘productivity hypothesis’ and the ‘productivity-based thinning hypothesis’. The hypotheses were tested in two functional groups of ground-dwelling ants that are directly primary consumers feeding on seeds: specialized seed-eaters and generalist species. We examined variations in colony density and foraging activity (a size measurement of the forager caste) in six ant assemblages along a steep productivity gradient in a semi-arid region, where precipitation and plant biomass vary 6-fold over a distance of 250km. An increase in the density or foraging activity of ant colonies along productivity gradients is also likely to affect competitive interactions among colonies, and consequently clinal changes in competition intensity were also examined. Ant foraging activity increased with productivity for both functional groups. However, colony density revealed opposing patterns: it increased with productivity for the specialized seed-eaters, but decreased for the generalist species. Competition intensity, evaluated by spatial partitioning of species at food baits and distribution of colonies, was uncorrelated with productivity in the specialized seed-eaters, but decreased with increasing productivity in the generalists. Our results provide support for two contrasting hypotheses regarding the effect of resource availability on the abundance of colonial organisms- the ‘productivity hypothesis’ for specialized seed-eaters and the

  17. Thermal relics: Do we know their abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamionkowski, Marc; Turner, Michael S.

    1990-01-01

    The relic abundance of a particle species that was once in thermal equilibrium in the expanding Universe depends upon a competition between the annihilation rate of the species and the expansion rate of the Universe. Assuming that the Universe is radiation dominated at early times the relic abundance is easy to compute and well known. At times earlier than about 1 sec after the bang there is little or no evidence that the Universe had to be radiation dominated, although that is the simplest and standard assumption. Because early-Universe relics are of such importance both to particle physics and to cosmology, three nonstandard possibilities are considered in detail for the Universe at the time a species' abundance froze in: energy density dominated by shear (i.e., anisotropic expansion), energy density dominated by some other nonrelativistic species, and energy density dominated by the kinetic energy of the scalar field that sets the gravitational constant in a Brans-Dicke-Jordan cosmological mode. In the second case the relic abundance is less than the standard value, while in the other two cases it can be enhanced by a significant factor. Two other more exotic possibilities for enhancing the relic abundance of a species are also mentioned--a larger value of Newton's constant at early times (e.g., as might occur in superstring or Kaluza-Klein theories) or a component of the energy density at early times with a very stiff equation of state (p greater than rho/3), e.g., a scalar field phi with potential V(phi) = Beta /phi/ (exp n) with n greater than 4. Results have implications for dark matter searches and searches for particle relics in general.

  18. Chemical abundances and kinematics of barium stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro, D. B.; Pereira, C. B.; Roig, F.; Jilinski, E.; Drake, N. A.; Chavero, C.; Sales Silva, J. V.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present an homogeneous analysis of photospheric abundances based on high-resolution spectroscopy of a sample of 182 barium stars and candidates. We determined atmospheric parameters, spectroscopic distances, stellar masses, ages, luminosities and scaleheight, radial velocities, abundances of the Na, Al, α-elements, iron-peak elements, and s-process elements Y, Zr, La, Ce, and Nd. We employed the local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmospheres of Kurucz and the spectral analysis code MOOG. We found that the metallicities, the temperatures and the surface gravities for barium stars cannot be represented by a single Gaussian distribution. The abundances of α-elements and iron peak elements are similar to those of field giants with the same metallicity. Sodium presents some degree of enrichment in more evolved stars that could be attributed to the NeNa cycle. As expected, the barium stars show overabundance of the elements created by the s-process. By measuring the mean heavy-element abundance pattern as given by the ratio [s/Fe], we found that the barium stars present several degrees of enrichment. We also obtained the [hs/ls] ratio by measuring the photospheric abundances of the Ba-peak and the Zr-peak elements. Our results indicated that the [s/Fe] and the [hs/ls] ratios are strongly anticorrelated with the metallicity. Our kinematical analysis showed that 90 per cent of the barium stars belong to the thin disc population. Based on their luminosities, none of the barium stars are luminous enough to be an asymptotic giant branch star, nor to become self-enriched in the s-process elements. Finally, we determined that the barium stars also follow an age-metallicity relation.

  19. An examination of blood center structure and hospital customer satisfaction: what can centralized and decentralized blood centers learn from each other?

    PubMed

    Carden, Robert; DelliFraine, Jami L

    2005-01-01

    The cost of blood and blood products has increased rapidly over the last several years while the supply of available blood donors has simultaneously decreased. Higher blood costs and donor shortages have put a strain on the relationship between blood suppliers and their hospital customers. This study examines the association between blood center centralization or decentralization and several aspects of hospital satisfaction. Centralized and decentralized blood centers have significant differences in various aspects of hospital customer satisfaction. Advantages and disadvantages of the two structures are discussed, as well as areas for future research.

  20. Putative Effect of Aquifer Recharge on the Abundance and Taxonomic Composition of Endemic Microbial Communities.

    PubMed

    Smith, Renee J; Paterson, James S; Sibley, Cally A; Hutson, John L; Mitchell, James G

    2015-01-01

    Drought events and the overexploitation of freshwater resources have led to the increased need to manage groundwater reserves. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR), whereby artificial water is injected into aquifers for storage, is one of the proposed methods by which freshwater supplies can be increased. Microbial clogging following injection, however, is a major issue. Here, during laboratory simulations of ASR, we used flow cytometry and bar-coded pyrosequencing to investigate changes in microbial abundance and community dynamics. Bacterial abundance ranged from 5.0 × 104 to 1.4 × 107 cells ml-1 before the addition of synthetic wastewater. Following wastewater addition, a 25-fold decrease in abundance was observed, coinciding with a 12-fold increase in viral abundance. Taxa shifted from an overrepresentation of Sphingomonadales, Sphingobacteriales, Rhodospirillales, Caulobacterales, Legionellales, Bacillales, Fusobacteriales and Verrucomicrobiales prior to the addition of synthetic wastewater to Burkholderiales, Actinomycetales, Pseudomonadales, Xanthomonadales, Rhodobacterales, Thizobiales and Thiotrichales following the addition of synthetic wastewater. Furthermore, a significant difference in overall taxonomic composition between the groundwater samples before and after the addition of synthetic wastewater was observed, with water samples exhibiting more similarity to sediment samples after wastewater was added. Collectively, these results suggest that ASR may alter the taxonomic composition of endemic microbial communities and that complete profiles of groundwater properties, including microbial community abundance and composition need to be taken into consideration when selecting aquifers for ASR practices.

  1. Putative Effect of Aquifer Recharge on the Abundance and Taxonomic Composition of Endemic Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, Cally A.; Hutson, John L.; Mitchell, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Drought events and the overexploitation of freshwater resources have led to the increased need to manage groundwater reserves. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR), whereby artificial water is injected into aquifers for storage, is one of the proposed methods by which freshwater supplies can be increased. Microbial clogging following injection, however, is a major issue. Here, during laboratory simulations of ASR, we used flow cytometry and bar-coded pyrosequencing to investigate changes in microbial abundance and community dynamics. Bacterial abundance ranged from 5.0 × 104 to 1.4 × 107 cells ml-1 before the addition of synthetic wastewater. Following wastewater addition, a 25-fold decrease in abundance was observed, coinciding with a 12-fold increase in viral abundance. Taxa shifted from an overrepresentation of Sphingomonadales, Sphingobacteriales, Rhodospirillales, Caulobacterales, Legionellales, Bacillales, Fusobacteriales and Verrucomicrobiales prior to the addition of synthetic wastewater to Burkholderiales, Actinomycetales, Pseudomonadales, Xanthomonadales, Rhodobacterales, Thizobiales and Thiotrichales following the addition of synthetic wastewater. Furthermore, a significant difference in overall taxonomic composition between the groundwater samples before and after the addition of synthetic wastewater was observed, with water samples exhibiting more similarity to sediment samples after wastewater was added. Collectively, these results suggest that ASR may alter the taxonomic composition of endemic microbial communities and that complete profiles of groundwater properties, including microbial community abundance and composition need to be taken into consideration when selecting aquifers for ASR practices. PMID:26083532

  2. Landscape surrounding human settlements and Anopheles albimanus (Diptera: Culicidae) abundance in Southern Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, A D; Rodriguez, M H; Hernandez, J E; Dister, S W; Beck, L R; Rejmankova, E; Roberts, D R

    1996-01-01

    Landscape characteristics that may influence important components of the Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann life cycle, including potential breeding sites, suitable diurnal resting sites, and possible sources of blood meals, were analyzed at 14 villages in a malarious area of southern Mexico. An. albimanus adults were collected weekly in each village using UV-light traps between July 1991 and August 1992. Based on rainfall, the study was divided into 6 seasonal periods. Villages were considered to have high mosquito abundance when >5 mosquitoes per trap per night were collected during any 1 of the 6 seasonal periods. The extension and frequency of 11 land cover types surrounding villages were determined using aerial photographs and subsequently verified through field surveys. Elevation was the main landscape feature that separated villages with low and high mosquito abundance. All villages with high mosquito abundance were below 25 m. Transitional and mangrove land cover types were found only in the high mosquito abundance group. Flooded areas as potential breeding sites and potential adult resting sites in unmanaged pastures were significantly more frequent in areas surrounding villages with high mosquito abundance. No significant differences in density of cattle and horses were found among village groups. Overall, surrounding breeding sites located at low elevations in flooded unmanaged pastures seemed to be the most important determinants of An. albimanus adult abundance in the villages.

  3. Isolation of Aeromonas spp. from an unchlorinated domestic water supply.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, V; Robinson, J; Gracey, M; Peterson, D; Meyer, N; Haley, V

    1984-01-01

    The recovery of Aeromonas spp. from the unchlorinated water supply for a Western Australian city of 21,000 people was monitored at several sampling points during a period of 1 year. Membrane filtration techniques were used to count colonies of Aeromonas spp., coliforms, and Escherichia coli in water sampled before entry to service reservoirs, during storage in service reservoirs, and in distribution systems. Aeromonas spp. were identified by subculture on blood agar with ampicillin, oxidase tests, and the use of Kaper medium and then were tested for production of enterotoxins and hemolysins. During the same period, two-thirds of all fecal specimens sent for microbiological examination were cultured on ampicillin-blood agar for Aeromonas spp. Recovery of Aeromonas spp. from water supplies at distribution points correlated with fecal isolations and continued during autumn and winter. Coliforms and E. coli were found most commonly in late summer to autumn. This pattern differs from the summer peak of Aeromonas isolations both from water and from patients with Aeromonas spp.-associated gastroenteritis in Perth, Western Australia, a city with a chlorinated domestic water supply. Of the Aeromonas strains from water, 61% were enterotoxigenic, and 64% produced hemolysins. PMID:6486783

  4. 1992 Conversion Resources Supply Document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    In recent years conservation of electric power has become an integral part of utility planning. The 1980 Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Northwest Power Act) requires that the region consider conservation potential in planning acquisitions of resources to meet load growth. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) developed its first estimates of conservation potential in 1982. Since that time BPA has updated its conservation supply analyses as a part of its Resource Program and other planning efforts. Major updates were published in 1985 and in January 1990. This 1992 document presents updated supply curves, which are estimates of the savings potential over time (cumulative savings) at different cost levels of energy conservation measures (ECMs). ECMs are devices, pieces of equipment, or actions that increase the efficiency of electricity use and reduce the amount of electricity used by end-use equipment.

  5. Spatially Characterizing Effective Timber Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, J. K.; Sailor, J.

    1982-01-01

    The structure of a computer-oriented cartographic model for assessing roundwood supply for generation of base load electricity is discussed. The model provides an analytical procedure for coupling spatial information of harvesting economics and owner willingness to sell stumpages. Supply is characterized in terms of standing timber; of accessibility considering various harvesting and hauling factors; and of availability as affected by ownership and residential patterns. Factors governing accessibility to timber include effective harvesting distance to haulic roads as modified by barriers and slopes. Haul distance is expressed in units that take into account the relative ease of travel along various road types to a central processing facility. Areas of accessible timber are grouped into spatial units, termed 'timbersheds', of common access to particular haul road segments that belong to unique 'transport zones'. Timber availability considerations include size of ownership parcels, housing density and excluded areas. The analysis techniques are demonstrated for a cartographic data base in western Massachusetts.

  6. Petroleum Supply Monthly, July 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-28

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  7. Petroluem Supply Monthly, May 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-04

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  8. High voltage DC power supply

    DOEpatents

    Droege, T.F.

    1989-12-19

    A high voltage DC power supply having a first series resistor at the output for limiting current in the event of a short-circuited output, a second series resistor for sensing the magnitude of output current, and a voltage divider circuit for providing a source of feedback voltage for use in voltage regulation is disclosed. The voltage divider circuit is coupled to the second series resistor so as to compensate the feedback voltage for a voltage drop across the first series resistor. The power supply also includes a pulse-width modulated control circuit, having dual clock signals, which is responsive to both the feedback voltage and a command voltage, and also includes voltage and current measuring circuits responsive to the feedback voltage and the voltage developed across the second series resistor respectively. 7 figs.

  9. High voltage DC power supply

    DOEpatents

    Droege, Thomas F.

    1989-01-01

    A high voltage DC power supply having a first series resistor at the output for limiting current in the event of a short-circuited output, a second series resistor for sensing the magnitude of output current, and a voltage divider circuit for providing a source of feedback voltage for use in voltage regulation is disclosed. The voltage divider circuit is coupled to the second series resistor so as to compensate the feedback voltage for a voltage drop across the first series resistor. The power supply also includes a pulse-width modulated control circuit, having dual clock signals, which is responsive to both the feedback voltage and a command voltage, and also includes voltage and current measuring circuits responsive to the feedback voltage and the voltage developed across the second series resistor respectively.

  10. Supply Current Diagnosis in VLSI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frenzel, J. F.; Marinos, P. N.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a technique based upon the power supply current signature (cd) which allows for the testing of mixed-signal systems, in situ. Through experiments with a microprocessor, the cd is shown to contain important information concerning the operational status of the system which may be easily extracted using approaches based on statistical signal detection theory. The fault-detection performance of these techniques is compared to that achieved through auto-regressive modeling of the cd.

  11. Replenishable food supply on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-11-01

    The design team's present objective is to design a facility which will provide an environment to grow plants on the surface of Mars for a continuous supply of food for a ten-man crew. The main focus of the project is the design of a greenhouse. Concentration of the current design effort is on the outer structure, internal layout, and construction methods. The project was conducted by undergraduate students at Prairie View A&M University during Fall 1989 and Spring 1990.

  12. Dietary mineral supplies in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Joy, Edward J M; Ander, E Louise; Young, Scott D; Black, Colin R; Watts, Michael J; Chilimba, Allan D C; Chilima, Benson; Siyame, Edwin W P; Kalimbira, Alexander A; Hurst, Rachel; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Stein, Alexander J; Gibson, Rosalind S; White, Philip J; Broadley, Martin R

    2014-01-01

    Dietary micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs) are widespread, yet their prevalence can be difficult to assess. Here, we estimate MND risks due to inadequate intakes for seven minerals in Africa using food supply and composition data, and consider the potential of food-based and agricultural interventions. Food Balance Sheets (FBSs) for 46 countries were integrated with food composition data to estimate per capita supply of calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), iodine (I), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn), and also phytate. Deficiency risks were quantified using an estimated average requirement (EAR) ‘cut-point’ approach. Deficiency risks are highest for Ca (54% of the population), followed by Zn (40%), Se (28%) and I (19%, after accounting for iodized salt consumption). The risk of Cu (1%) and Mg (<1%) deficiency are low. Deficiency risks are generally lower in the north and west of Africa. Multiple MND risks are high in many countries. The population-weighted mean phytate supply is 2770 mg capita−1 day−1. Deficiency risks for Fe are lower than expected (5%). However, ‘cut-point’ approaches for Fe are sensitive to assumptions regarding requirements; e.g. estimates of Fe deficiency risks are 43% under very low bioavailability scenarios consistent with high-phytate, low-animal protein diets. Fertilization and breeding strategies could greatly reduce certain MNDs. For example, meeting harvestplus breeding targets for Zn would reduce dietary Zn deficiency risk by 90% based on supply data. Dietary diversification or direct fortification is likely to be needed to address Ca deficiency risks. PMID:24524331

  13. Replenishable food supply on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The design team's present objective is to design a facility which will provide an environment to grow plants on the surface of Mars for a continuous supply of food for a ten-man crew. The main focus of the project is the design of a greenhouse. Concentration of the current design effort is on the outer structure, internal layout, and construction methods. The project was conducted by undergraduate students at Prairie View A&M University during Fall 1989 and Spring 1990.

  14. Chemical Cartography in the Milky Way with SDSS/APOGEE: Multi-element abundances and abundance ratio variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtzman, Jon A.; Hasselquist, Sten; Johnson, Jennifer; Bird, Jonathan C.; Majewski, Steven R.; SDSS/APOGEE Team

    2017-01-01

    The SDSS/APOGEE project is measuring abundances of multiple elements for several hundred thousand stars across the Milky Way. These allow the mapping of abundances and abundance ratio variations. Results will be presented for multiple abundance ratios across of the Galactic disk. The interpretation of mean abundance maps is complicated by variations in star formation history across the disk and by changing abundance ratios that result from an overall metallicity gradient. Variations in chemical abundance sequences, however, show the potential for using abundance ratios to track the movement of stars through the disk, and provide key information for constraining Galaxy formation and chemical evolution models.

  15. Time-based analysis of the apheresis platelet supply chain in England.

    PubMed

    Wilding, R; Cotton, S; Dobbin, J; Chapman, J; Yates, N

    2011-10-01

    During 2009/2010 loss of platelets within NHS Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) due to time expiry was 9.3%. Hospitals remain reluctant to hold stocks of platelets due to the poor shelf life at issue. The purpose of this study was to identify areas for time compression in the apheresis platelet supply chain to extend the shelf life available for hospitals and reduce wastage in NHSBT. This was done within the context of NHSBT reconfiguring their supply chain and moving towards a consolidated and centralised approach. Time based process mapping was applied to identify value and non-value adding time in two manufacturing models. A large amount of the non-value adding time in the apheresis platelet supply chain is due to transportation and waiting for the next process in the manufacturing process to take place. Time based process mapping provides an effective 'lens' for supply chain professionals to identify opportunities for improvement in the platelet supply chain.

  16. Radon in ground water supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, K.L.; Lee, R.G.

    1989-06-01

    In September 1986, the System Water Quality Department of the American Water Works Service Co. began conducting a radon survey that was designed to determine the levels of radon in American ground water supplies, and to assess the radon removal efficiency of existing treatment processes such as filtration through granular activated carbon (GAC) and various forms of aeration. The survey found that companies in the northeastern part of the country experienced the highest levels of radon in ground water supplies. The highest concentrations were in individual wells in New Hampshire, Maryland, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and California. The analytical results from the occurrence phase of the survey seemed to correlate well with the known geology of the aquifer materials from which samples of ground water were drawn. The highest levels were associated with formations of uranium-bearing granitic rocks. GAC can effectively reduce radon concentrations in drinking water supplies to very low levels. However, the amount of contact time within the carbon bed required to do so would be prohibitive to many water utilities from an operational and economic standpoint. Further, disposal of the spent GAC as a low-level radioactive waste may be required. Aeration is very effective in the removal of radon from drinking water. Packed tower aerators achieved > 95% reduction in radon concentrations and conventional cascading tray aerators achieved > 75% reduction in radon concentrations. 7 refs., 6 tabs.

  17. Deuterium Abundance in Consciousness and Current Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauscher, Elizabeth A.

    We utilize the deuterium-hydrogen abundances and their role in setting limits on the mass and other conditions of cosmogenesis and cosmological evolution. We calculate the dependence of a set of physical variables such as density, temperature, energy mass, entropy and other physical variable parameters through the evolution of the universe under the Schwarzschild conditions as a function from early to present time. Reconciliation with the 3°K and missing mass is made. We first examine the Schwarzschild condition; second, the geometrical constraints of a multidimensional Cartesian space on closed cosmologies, and third we will consider the cosmogenesis and evolution of the universe in a multidimensional Cartesian space, obeying the Schwarzschild condition. Implications of this model for matter creation are made. We also examine experimental evidence for closed versus open cosmologies; x-ray detection of the "missing mass" density. Also the interstellar deuterium abundance, along with the value of the Hubble constant set a general criterion on the value of the curvature constant, k. Once the value of the Hubble constant, H is determined, the deuterium abundance sets stringent restrictions on the value of the curvature constant k by an detailed discussion is presented. The experimental evidences for the determination of H and the primary set of coupled equations to determine D abundance is given. 'The value of k for an open, closed, or flat universe will be discussed in terms of the D abundance which will affect the interpretation of the Schwarzschild, black hole universe. We determine cosmology solutions to Einstein's field obeying the Schwarzschild solutions condition. With this model, we can form a reconciliation of the black hole, from galactic to cosmological scale. Continuous creation occurs at the dynamic blackhole plasma field. We term this new model the multiple big bang or "little whimper model". We utilize the deuteriumhydrogen abundances and their role in

  18. Chinese plasma-derived products supply under the lot release management system in 2007-2011.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuejun; Ye, Shengliang; Du, Xi; Yuan, Jing; Zhao, Chaoming; Li, Changqing

    2013-11-01

    In 2007, the Chinese State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA) implemented a management system for lot release of all plasma-derived products. Since then, there have been only a few systematic studies of the blood supply, which is a concern when considering the small amount of plasma collected per capita (approximately 3 L/1000 people). As a result, there may be a threat to the safety of the available blood supply. In this study, we examined the characteristics of the supply of Chinese plasma-derived products. We investigated the reports of lot-released biological products derived from all 8 national or regional regulatory authorities in China from 2007 to 2011. The market supply characteristics of Chinese plasma-derived products were analyzed by reviewing the changes in supply varieties, the batches of lot-released plasma-derived products and the actual supply. As a result, the national regulatory authorities can more accurately develop a specific understanding of the production and quality management information provided by Chinese plasma product manufacturers. The implementation of the lot release system further ensures the clinical validity of the plasma-derived products in China and improves the safety of using plasma-derived products. This work provides an assessment of the future Chinese market supply of plasma-derived products and can function as a theoretical basis for the establishment of hemovigilance.

  19. Coordinated supply chain dynamic production planning model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Charu; Grabis, Janis

    2001-10-01

    Coordination of different and often contradicting interests of individual supply chain members is one of the important issues in supply chain management because the individual members can not succeed without success of the supply chain and vice versa. This paper investigates a supply chain dynamic production planning problem with emphasis on coordination. A planning problem is formally described using a supply chain kernel, which defines supply chain configuration, management policies, available resources and objectives both at supply chain or macro and supply chain member or micro levels. The coordinated model is solved in order to balance decisions made at the macro and micro levels and members' profitability is used as the coordination criterion. The coordinated model is used to determine inventory levels and production capacity across the supply chain. Application of the coordinated model distributes costs burden uniformly among supply chain members and preserves overall efficiency of the supply chain. Influence of the demand series uncertainty is investigated. The production planning model is a part of the integrated supply chain decision modeling system, which is shared among the supply chain members across the Internet.

  20. Lithium Abundance in M3 Red Giant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Givens, Rashad; Pilachowski, Catherine A.

    2015-01-01

    We present the abundance of lithium in the red giant star vZ 1050 (SK 291) in the globular cluster M3. A previous survey of giants in the cluster showed that like IV-101, vZ 1050 displays a prominent Li I 6707 Å feature. vZ 1050 lies on the blue side of the red giant branch about 1.3 magnitudes above the level of the horizontal branch, and may be an asymptotic giant branch star. A high resolution spectrum of M3 vZ1050 was obtained with the ARC 3.5m telescope and the ARC Echelle Spectrograph (ARCES). Atmospheric parameters were determined using Fe I and Fe II lines from the spectrum using the MOOG spectral analysis program, and the lithium abundance was determined using spectrum synthesis.

  1. THE OXYGEN ABUNDANCE IN THE SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD

    SciTech Connect

    RodrIguez, Monica; Delgado-Inglada, Gloria E-mail: gloria@inaoep.mx

    2011-06-01

    We present a homogeneous analysis of the oxygen abundance in five H II regions and eight planetary nebulae (PNe) located at distances lower than 2 kpc and with available spectra of high quality. We find that both the collisionally excited lines (CELs) and recombination lines imply that the PNe are overabundant in oxygen by about 0.2 dex. An explanation that reconciles the oxygen abundances derived with CELs for H II regions and PNe with the values found for B stars, the Sun, and the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) requires the presence in H II regions of an organic refractory dust component that is not present in PNe. This dust component has already been invoked to explain the depletion of oxygen in molecular clouds and in the diffuse ISM.

  2. Top consumer abundance influences lake methane efflux.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Shawn P; Saarenheimo, Jatta; Syväranta, Jari; Jones, Roger I

    2015-11-04

    Lakes are important habitats for biogeochemical cycling of carbon. The organization and structure of aquatic communities influences the biogeochemical interactions between lakes and the atmosphere. Understanding how trophic structure regulates ecosystem functions and influences greenhouse gas efflux from lakes is critical to understanding global carbon cycling and climate change. With a whole-lake experiment in which a previously fishless lake was divided into two treatment basins where fish abundance was manipulated, we show how a trophic cascade from fish to microbes affects methane efflux to the atmosphere. Here, fish exert high grazing pressure and remove nearly all zooplankton. This reduction in zooplankton density increases the abundance of methanotrophic bacteria, which in turn reduce CH4 efflux rates by roughly 10 times. Given that globally there are millions of lakes emitting methane, an important greenhouse gas, our findings that aquatic trophic interactions significantly influence the biogeochemical cycle of methane has important implications.

  3. Abundance and diversity of microbial life in ocean crust.

    PubMed

    Santelli, Cara M; Orcutt, Beth N; Banning, Erin; Bach, Wolfgang; Moyer, Craig L; Sogin, Mitchell L; Staudigel, Hubert; Edwards, Katrina J

    2008-05-29

    Oceanic lithosphere exposed at the sea floor undergoes seawater-rock alteration reactions involving the oxidation and hydration of glassy basalt. Basalt alteration reactions are theoretically capable of supplying sufficient energy for chemolithoautotrophic growth. Such reactions have been shown to generate microbial biomass in the laboratory, but field-based support for the existence of microbes that are supported by basalt alteration is lacking. Here, using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, in situ hybridization and microscopy, we demonstrate that prokaryotic cell abundances on seafloor-exposed basalts are 3-4 orders of magnitude greater than in overlying deep sea water. Phylogenetic analyses of basaltic lavas from the East Pacific Rise (9 degrees N) and around Hawaii reveal that the basalt-hosted biosphere harbours high bacterial community richness and that community membership is shared between these sites. We hypothesize that alteration reactions fuel chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms, which constitute a trophic base of the basalt habitat, with important implications for deep-sea carbon cycling and chemical exchange between basalt and sea water.

  4. Chemical abundances in nearby spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richer, Michael Gerard

    2015-08-01

    The chemical abundances observed in planetary nebulae in the discs of spiral galaxies are revealing a rich variety of information about their progenitor stars as well as the structure and evolution of the galaxies they inhabit. As concerns galaxy structure and evolution, most of the attention has been on whether gradients in chemical abundances have changed with time, but there is also the issue of the formation and origin of the stellar progenitors of planetary nebulae. The gradients in oxygen abundances for planetary nebulae in M81 and NGC 300 are shallower than the corresponding gradients for H II regions in these galaxies. On the other hand, the gradients for H II regions and planetary nebulae are similar in M33. In the case of M31, there is mounting evidence whose simplest explanation may not be related to internal processes, but instead may lay in the gravitational interaction between it and its neighbours, past and present. As concerns the nucleosynthesis of the stellar progenitors of these planetary nebulae, some results for both nitrogen and oxygen may indicate the production of these elements during the previous evolutionary stages of their progenitor stars. Nominally, this may not be surprising for nitrogen, but the results do not agree quantitatively with canonical theory. At this point, though, there are still too few studies to draw very firm conclusions regrading any of these topics. Even so, the surprises among the results found so far make clear that interpreting the chemical abundances in the planetary nebulae in nearby spirals will require considering the processes affecting both stellar and galactic evolution.

  5. Globular Clusters: Chemical Abundance - Integrated Colour calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyano Loyola, G.; Faifer, F. R.; Forte, J. C.

    In this work, we improve the chemical abundance - integrated colour cali- bration presented in Forte, Faifer & Geisler, 2007 (FFG07 hereafter) using a new (g-i) vs. (C-T1) colours calibration obtained from M87. Using this calibration and better values of the reddening for the galactic globulars, we found that a quadratic calibration is still enough to represent the observa- tional data, as in FFG07.

  6. Helium isotopic abundance variation in nature

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    1993-08-01

    The isotopic abundance of helium in nature has been reviewed. This atomic weight value is based on the value of helium in the atmosphere, which is invariant around the world and up to a distance of 100,000 feet. Helium does vary in natural gas, volcanic rocks and gases, ocean floor sediments, waters of various types and in radioactive minerals and ores due to {alpha} particle decay of radioactive nuclides.

  7. The Abundance of Sulfur in Venus Magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, M. A.; Grinspoon, D. H.

    1999-09-01

    Outgassing of sulfur gases due to volcanism within the past 100 My on Venus is probably responsible for the planet's globally encircling H2SO4 cloud layers. Dramatic changes in volcanic output on Venus would have altered the atmospheric inventory of sulfur gases, and hence the structure of its clouds (Bullock and Grinspoon, Icarus, submitted 1999). Although Magellan radar images provide some constraints on the magnitude of volcanism in the geologically recent past, little is known of the sulfur content of Venus lavas. In order to assess the effects that Venus' volcanic history may have had on cloud and therefore climate change, it is desirable to place some constraints on the abundance of sulfur in Venus magmas. The sulfur content of terrestrial volcanic lavas varies widely, depending upon the local sedimentary environment and the source and history of upwelling magmas. We estimate the average abundance of sulfur in Venus lavas from an analysis of the production and loss of atmospheric SO2. The volumetric rate of resurfacing on Venus in the recent past is approximately 0.1 to 2 km3/yr (Bullock et al., JGR 20, 1993, Basilevsky and Head, GRL 23, 1996). Outgassed SO2 reacts quickly with crustal carbonate -- residence times in the atmosphere with respect to the reaction SO2 + CaCO3 <=> CaSO4 + CO are about 2-30 My (Fegley and Prinn, Nature 337, 1989, Bullock and Grinspoon, Icarus, submitted 1999). Assuming steady state conditions and an abundance of 25-180 ppm of atmospheric SO2 (Oyama et al., JGR 85, 1980, Bertaux et al., JGR 101, 1996), we will discuss constraints on the abundance of this important greenhouse and cloud-precursor gas in Venus lavas.

  8. Revised Thorium Abundances for Lunar Red Spots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagerty, J. J.; Lawrence, D. J.; Elphic, R. C.; Feldman, W. C.; Vaniman, D. T.; Hawke, B. R.

    2005-01-01

    Lunar red spots are features on the nearside of the Moon that are characterized by high albedo and by a strong absorption in the ultraviolet. These red spots include the Gruithuisen domes, the Mairan domes, Hansteen Alpha, the southern portion of Montes Riphaeus, Darney Chi and Tau, Helmet, and an area near the Lassell crater. It has been suggested that many of the red spots are extrusive, nonmare, volcanic features that could be composed of an evolved lithlogy enriched in thorium. In fact, Hawke et al. used morphological characteristics to show that Hansteen Alpha is a nonmare volcanic construct. However, because the apparent Th abundances (6 - 7 ppm) were lower than that expected for evolved rock types, Hawke et al. concluded that Hansteen Alpha was composed of an unknown rock type. Subsequent studies by Lawrence et al. used improved knowledge of the Th spatial distribution for small area features on the lunar surface to revisit the interpretation of Th abundances at the Hansteen Alpha red spot. As part of their study, Lawrence et al. used a forward modeling technique to show that the Th abundance at Hansteen Alpha is not 6 ppm, but is more likely closer to 25 ppm, a value consistent with evolved lithologies. This positive correlation between the morphology and composition of Hansteen Alpha provides support for the presence of evolved lithologies on the lunar surface. It is possible, however, that Hansteen Alpha represents an isolated occurrence of non-mare volcanism. That is why we have chosen to use the forward modeling technique of Lawrence et al. to investigate the Th abundances at other lunar red spots, starting with the Gruithuisen domes. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  9. Angel lichen moth abundance and morphology data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metcalfe, Anya; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    Two unique datasets on the abundance and morphology of the angel lichen moth ( Cisthene angelus) in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA were compiled to describe the phenology and life history of this common, but poorly known, species. The abundance data were collected from 2012 to 2013 through a collaboration with river runners in Grand Canyon National Park. These citizen scientists deployed light traps from their campsites for one hour each night of their expedition. Insects were preserved in ethanol on site, and returned to the Southwest Biological Science Center in Flagstaff, Arizona for analysis in the laboratory. A total of 2,437 light trap samples were sorted through, 903 of which contained C. angelus. In total, 73,841 C. angelus were identified and enumerated to create the abundance data set. The morphology dataset is based on a subset of 28 light trap samples from sampling year 2012 (14 from spring and 14 from fall.) It includes gender and forewing lengths for 2,674 individual moths and dry weights for 1,102 of those individuals.

  10. Absolute Quantification of Endogenous Ras Isoform Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Mageean, Craig J.; Griffiths, John R.; Smith, Duncan L.; Clague, Michael J.; Prior, Ian A.

    2015-01-01

    Ras proteins are important signalling hubs situated near the top of networks controlling cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. Three almost identical isoforms, HRAS, KRAS and NRAS, are ubiquitously expressed yet have differing biological and oncogenic properties. In order to help understand the relative biological contributions of each isoform we have optimised a quantitative proteomics method for accurately measuring Ras isoform protein copy number per cell. The use of isotopic protein standards together with selected reaction monitoring for diagnostic peptides is sensitive, robust and suitable for application to sub-milligram quantities of lysates. We find that in a panel of isogenic SW48 colorectal cancer cells, endogenous Ras proteins are highly abundant with ≥260,000 total Ras protein copies per cell and the rank order of isoform abundance is KRAS>NRAS≥HRAS. A subset of oncogenic KRAS mutants exhibit increased total cellular Ras abundance and altered the ratio of mutant versus wild type KRAS protein. These data and methodology are significant because Ras protein copy number is required to parameterise models of signalling networks and informs interpretation of isoform-specific Ras functional data. PMID:26560143

  11. The shape of terrestrial abundance distributions.

    PubMed

    Alroy, John

    2015-09-01

    Ecologists widely accept that the distribution of abundances in most communities is fairly flat but heavily dominated by a few species. The reason for this is that species abundances are thought to follow certain theoretical distributions that predict such a pattern. However, previous studies have focused on either a few theoretical distributions or a few empirical distributions. I illustrate abundance patterns in 1055 samples of trees, bats, small terrestrial mammals, birds, lizards, frogs, ants, dung beetles, butterflies, and odonates. Five existing theoretical distributions make inaccurate predictions about the frequencies of the most common species and of the average species, and most of them fit the overall patterns poorly, according to the maximum likelihood-related Kullback-Leibler divergence statistic. Instead, the data support a low-dominance distribution here called the "double geometric." Depending on the value of its two governing parameters, it may resemble either the geometric series distribution or the lognormal series distribution. However, unlike any other model, it assumes both that richness is finite and that species compete unequally for resources in a two-dimensional niche landscape, which implies that niche breadths are variable and that trait distributions are neither arrayed along a single dimension nor randomly associated. The hypothesis that niche space is multidimensional helps to explain how numerous species can coexist despite interacting strongly.

  12. A global database of ant species abundances

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibb, Heloise; Dunn, Rob R.; Sanders, Nathan J.; Grossman, Blair F.; Photakis, Manoli; Abril, Silvia; Agosti, Donat; Andersen, Alan N.; Angulo, Elena; Armbrecht, Ingre; Arnan, Xavier; Baccaro, Fabricio B.; Bishop, Tom R.; Boulay, Raphael; Bruhl, Carsten; Castracani, Cristina; Cerda, Xim; Del Toro, Israel; Delsinne, Thibaut; Diaz, Mireia; Donoso, David A.; Ellison, Aaron M.; Enriquez, Martha L.; Fayle, Tom M.; Feener Jr., Donald H.; Fisher, Brian L.; Fisher, Robert N.; Fitpatrick, Matthew C.; Gomez, Cristanto; Gotelli, Nicholas J.; Gove, Aaron; Grasso, Donato A.; Groc, Sarah; Guenard, Benoit; Gunawardene, Nihara; Heterick, Brian; Hoffmann, Benjamin; Janda, Milan; Jenkins, Clinton; Kaspari, Michael; Klimes, Petr; Lach, Lori; Laeger, Thomas; Lattke, John; Leponce, Maurice; Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Longino, John; Lucky, Andrea; Luke, Sarah H.; Majer, Jonathan; McGlynn, Terrence P.; Menke, Sean; Mezger, Dirk; Mori, Alessandra; Moses, Jimmy; Munyai, Thinandavha Caswell; Pacheco, Renata; Paknia, Omid; Pearce-Duvet, Jessica; Pfeiffer, Martin; Philpott, Stacy M.; Resasco, Julian; Retana, Javier; Silva, Rogerio R.; Sorger, Magdalena D.; Souza, Jorge; Suarez, Andrew V.; Tista, Melanie; Vasconcelos, Heraldo L.; Vonshak, Merav; Weiser, Michael D.; Yates, Michelle; Parr, Catherine L.

    2017-01-01

    What forces structure ecological assemblages? A key limitation to general insights about assemblage structure is the availability of data that are collected at a small spatial grain (local assemblages) and a large spatial extent (global coverage). Here, we present published and unpublished data from 51,388 ant abundance and occurrence records of more than 2693 species and 7953 morphospecies from local assemblages collected at 4212 locations around the world. Ants were selected because they are diverse and abundant globally, comprise a large fraction of animal biomass in most terrestrial communities, and are key contributors to a range of ecosystem functions. Data were collected between 1949 and 2014, and include, for each geo-referenced sampling site, both the identity of the ants collected and details of sampling design, habitat type and degree of disturbance. The aim of compiling this dataset was to provide comprehensive species abundance data in order to test relationships between assemblage structure and environmental and biogeographic factors. Data were collected using a variety of standardised methods, such as pitfall and Winkler traps, and will be valuable for studies investigating large-scale forces structuring local assemblages. Understanding such relationships is particularly critical under current rates of global change. We encourage authors holding additional data on systematically collected ant assemblages, especially those in dry and cold, and remote areas, to contact us and contribute their data to this growing dataset.

  13. Elemental abundances of solar sibling candidates

    SciTech Connect

    Ramírez, I.; Lambert, D. L.; Endl, M.; Cochran, W. D.; MacQueen, P. J.; Bajkova, A. T.; Bobylev, V. V.; Wittenmyer, R. A.

    2014-06-01

    Dynamical information along with survey data on metallicity and in some cases age have been used recently by some authors to search for candidates of stars that were born in the cluster where the Sun formed. We have acquired high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra for 30 of these objects to determine, using detailed elemental abundance analysis, if they could be true solar siblings. Only two of the candidates are found to have solar chemical composition. Updated modeling of the stars' past orbits in a realistic Galactic potential reveals that one of them, HD 162826, satisfies both chemical and dynamical conditions for being a sibling of the Sun. Measurements of rare-element abundances for this star further confirm its solar composition, with the only possible exception of Sm. Analysis of long-term high-precision radial velocity data rules out the presence of hot Jupiters and confirms that this star is not in a binary system. We find that chemical tagging does not necessarily benefit from studying as many elements as possible but instead from identifying and carefully measuring the abundances of those elements that show large star-to-star scatter at a given metallicity. Future searches employing data products from ongoing massive astrometric and spectroscopic surveys can be optimized by acknowledging this fact.

  14. Distribution and Abundance of Mars' Atmospheric Argon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprague, A. L.; Boynton, W. V.; Kerry, K. E.; Nelli, Steven; Murphy, Jim; Reedy, R. C.; Metzger, A. E.; Hunten, D. M.; Janes, K. D.; Crombie, M. K.

    2005-01-01

    One and one half Mars years (MY 26 and 27) of atmospheric Argon measurements are described and studied in the context of understanding how Argon, a minor constituent of Mars atmosphere that does not condense at Mars temperatures, can be used to study martian circulation and dynamics. Argon data are from the 2001 Mars Odyssey Gamma Subsystem (GS) of the suite of three instruments comprising the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS). A comprehensive data analysis including gamma-ray production and attenuation by the atmosphere is included. Of particular interest is the enhanced abundance of Ar over the observed Ar abundance at lower latitudes at south (up to a factor of 10) and north (up to a factor of 4) polar regions during winter. Calibration of the measurements to actual Ar abundance is possible because GS measurements cover the same latitude and season as measurements made by the gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS) on Viking Landers 1 and 2 (VL1 and VL2). [2].

  15. A global database of ant species abundances.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Heloise; Dunn, Rob R; Sanders, Nathan J; Grossman, Blair F; Photakis, Manoli; Abril, Silvia; Agosti, Donat; Andersen, Alan N; Angulo, Elena; Armbrecht, Inge; Arnan, Xavier; Baccaro, Fabricio B; Bishop, Tom R; Boulay, Raphaël; Brühl, Carsten; Castracani, Cristina; Cerda, Xim; Del Toro, Israel; Delsinne, Thibaut; Diaz, Mireia; Donoso, David A; Ellison, Aaron M; Enriquez, Martha L; Fayle, Tom M; Feener, Donald H; Fisher, Brian L; Fisher, Robert N; Fitzpatrick, Matthew C; Gómez, Crisanto; Gotelli, Nicholas J; Gove, Aaron; Grasso, Donato A; Groc, Sarah; Guenard, Benoit; Gunawardene, Nihara; Heterick, Brian; Hoffmann, Benjamin; Janda, Milan; Jenkins, Clinton; Kaspari, Michael; Klimes, Petr; Lach, Lori; Laeger, Thomas; Lattke, John; Leponce, Maurice; Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Longino, John; Lucky, Andrea; Luke, Sarah H; Majer, Jonathan; McGlynn, Terrence P; Menke, Sean; Mezger, Dirk; Mori, Alessandra; Moses, Jimmy; Munyai, Thinandavha Caswell; Pacheco, Renata; Paknia, Omid; Pearce-Duvet, Jessica; Pfeiffer, Martin; Philpott, Stacy M; Resasco, Julian; Retana, Javier; Silva, Rogerio R; Sorger, Magdalena D; Souza, Jorge; Suarez, Andrew; Tista, Melanie; Vasconcelos, Heraldo L; Vonshak, Merav; Weiser, Michael D; Yates, Michelle; Parr, Catherine L

    2017-03-01

    What forces structure ecological assemblages? A key limitation to general insights about assemblage structure is the availability of data that are collected at a small spatial grain (local assemblages) and a large spatial extent (global coverage). Here, we present published and unpublished data from 51 ,388 ant abundance and occurrence records of more than 2,693 species and 7,953 morphospecies from local assemblages collected at 4,212 locations around the world. Ants were selected because they are diverse and abundant globally, comprise a large fraction of animal biomass in most terrestrial communities, and are key contributors to a range of ecosystem functions. Data were collected between 1949 and 2014, and include, for each geo-referenced sampling site, both the identity of the ants collected and details of sampling design, habitat type, and degree of disturbance. The aim of compiling this data set was to provide comprehensive species abundance data in order to test relationships between assemblage structure and environmental and biogeographic factors. Data were collected using a variety of standardized methods, such as pitfall and Winkler traps, and will be valuable for studies investigating large-scale forces structuring local assemblages. Understanding such relationships is particularly critical under current rates of global change. We encourage authors holding additional data on systematically collected ant assemblages, especially those in dry and cold, and remote areas, to contact us and contribute their data to this growing data set.

  16. The shape of terrestrial abundance distributions

    PubMed Central

    Alroy, John

    2015-01-01

    Ecologists widely accept that the distribution of abundances in most communities is fairly flat but heavily dominated by a few species. The reason for this is that species abundances are thought to follow certain theoretical distributions that predict such a pattern. However, previous studies have focused on either a few theoretical distributions or a few empirical distributions. I illustrate abundance patterns in 1055 samples of trees, bats, small terrestrial mammals, birds, lizards, frogs, ants, dung beetles, butterflies, and odonates. Five existing theoretical distributions make inaccurate predictions about the frequencies of the most common species and of the average species, and most of them fit the overall patterns poorly, according to the maximum likelihood–related Kullback-Leibler divergence statistic. Instead, the data support a low-dominance distribution here called the “double geometric.” Depending on the value of its two governing parameters, it may resemble either the geometric series distribution or the lognormal series distribution. However, unlike any other model, it assumes both that richness is finite and that species compete unequally for resources in a two-dimensional niche landscape, which implies that niche breadths are variable and that trait distributions are neither arrayed along a single dimension nor randomly associated. The hypothesis that niche space is multidimensional helps to explain how numerous species can coexist despite interacting strongly. PMID:26601249

  17. The primordial helium abundance from updated emissivities

    SciTech Connect

    Aver, Erik; Olive, Keith A.; Skillman, Evan D.; Porter, R.L. E-mail: olive@umn.edu E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu

    2013-11-01

    Observations of metal-poor extragalactic H II regions allow the determination of the primordial helium abundance, Y{sub p}. The He I emissivities are the foundation of the model of the H II region's emission. Porter, Ferland, Storey, and Detisch (2012) have recently published updated He I emissivities based on improved photoionization cross-sections. We incorporate these new atomic data and update our recent Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis of the dataset published by Izotov, Thuan, and Stasi'nska (2007). As before, cuts are made to promote quality and reliability, and only solutions which fit the data within 95% confidence level are used to determine the primordial He abundance. The previously qualifying dataset is almost entirely retained and with strong concordance between the physical parameters. Overall, an upward bias from the new emissivities leads to a decrease in Y{sub p}. In addition, we find a general trend to larger uncertainties in individual objects (due to changes in the emissivities) and an increased variance (due to additional objects included). From a regression to zero metallicity, we determine Y{sub p} = 0.2465 ± 0.0097, in good agreement with the BBN result, Y{sub p} = 0.2485 ± 0.0002, based on the Planck determination of the baryon density. In the future, a better understanding of why a large fraction of spectra are not well fit by the model will be crucial to achieving an increase in the precision of the primordial helium abundance determination.

  18. Fluorine Abundances in the Milky Way Bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V.; Gibson, Brad K.

    2008-05-01

    Fluorine (19F) abundances are derived in a sample of six bulge red giants in Baade's window. These giants span a factor of 10 in metallicity, and this is the first study to define the behavior of 19F with metallicity in the bulge. The bulge results show an increase in F/O with increasing oxygen. This trend overlaps what is found in the disk at comparable metallicities, with the most oxygen-rich bulge target extending the disk trend. The increase in F/O in the disk arises from 19F synthesis in both asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and metal-rich Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars through stellar winds. The lack of an s-process enhancement in the most fluorine-rich bulge giant in this study suggests that WR stars represented a larger contribution than did AGB stars to 19F production in the bulge, when compared to the disk. If this result for fluorine is combined with the previously published overall decline in the O/Mg abundance ratios in metal-rich bulge stars, it suggests that WR winds played a role in shaping chemical evolution in the bulge. One star in this study exhibits a very low value of F/O while having a large O abundance; this chemical mixture can be understood if this star formed from gas that was enriched by metal-poor core-collapse supernovae, and it may indicate that chemical evolution in the bulge was inhomogeneous.

  19. Elemental Abundances of Solar Sibling Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, I.; Bajkova, A. T.; Bobylev, V. V.; Roederer, I. U.; Lambert, D. L.; Endl, M.; Cochran, W. D.; MacQueen, P. J.; Wittenmyer, R. A.

    2014-06-01

    Dynamical information along with survey data on metallicity and in some cases age have been used recently by some authors to search for candidates of stars that were born in the cluster where the Sun formed. We have acquired high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra for 30 of these objects to determine, using detailed elemental abundance analysis, if they could be true solar siblings. Only two of the candidates are found to have solar chemical composition. Updated modeling of the stars' past orbits in a realistic Galactic potential reveals that one of them, HD 162826, satisfies both chemical and dynamical conditions for being a sibling of the Sun. Measurements of rare-element abundances for this star further confirm its solar composition, with the only possible exception of Sm. Analysis of long-term high-precision radial velocity data rules out the presence of hot Jupiters and confirms that this star is not in a binary system. We find that chemical tagging does not necessarily benefit from studying as many elements as possible but instead from identifying and carefully measuring the abundances of those elements that show large star-to-star scatter at a given metallicity. Future searches employing data products from ongoing massive astrometric and spectroscopic surveys can be optimized by acknowledging this fact.

  20. Roadmap for Agriculture Biomass Feedstock Supply in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    J. Richard Hess; Thomas D. Foust; Reed Hoskinson; David Thompson

    2003-11-01

    accomplished in a sustainable manner • Feedstock Infrastructure – An integrated feedstock supply system must be developed and implemented that can serve the feedstock needs of the biorefinery at the cost, quality, and consistency of the set targets • System Profitability – Economic profitability and sustainability need to be ensured for all required participants in the feedstock supply system. For each step in the biomass supply process—production, harvesting and collection, storage, preprocessing, system integration, and transportation—this roadmap addresses the current technical situations, performance targets, technical barriers, R&D needs, and R&D priorities to overcome technical barriers and achieve performance targets. Crop residue biomass is an attractive starting feedstock, which shows the best near-term promise as a biorefinery feedstock. Because crop residue is a by-product of grain production, it is an abundant, underutilized, and low cost biomass resource. Corn stover and cereal straw are the two most abundant crop residues available in the United States. Therefore, this roadmap focuses primarily on the R&D needed for using these biomass sources as viable biorefinery feedstocks. However, achieving the goal of 1 billion dry tons of lignocellulosic feedstock will require the use of other biomass sources such as dedicated energy crops. In the long term, the R&D needs identified in this roadmap will need to accommodate these other sources of biomass as well.

  1. Abundances from solar-flare gamma-ray line spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, R. J.; Ramaty, R.; Forrest, D. J.; Kozlovsky, B.

    1985-01-01

    Elemental abundances of the ambient gas at the site of gamma ray line production inthe solar atmosphere are deduced using gamma ray line observations from a solar flare. The resultant abundances are different from local galactic abundances which are thought to be similar to photospheric abundances.

  2. Information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Nazila; Alibabaei, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Managing the supply chain plays an important role in creating competitive advantages for companies. Adequate information flow in supply chain is one of the most important issues in SCM. Therefore, using certain Information Systems can have a significant role in managing and integrating data and information within the supply chain. Pharmaceutical supply chain is more complex than many other supply chains, in the sense that it can affect social and political perspectives. On the other hand, managing the pharmaceutical supply chain is difficult because of its complexity and also government regulations in this field. Although, Iran has progressed a lot in pharmaceutical manufacturing, still there are many unsolved issues in managing the information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain. In this study, we reviewed the benefits of using different levels of an integrated information system in the supply chain and the possible challenges ahead.

  3. 40 CFR 35.6305 - Obtaining supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....6325 through 35.6340, and 35.6350. Supplies obtained with Core Program funds must be for non-site-specific purposes. All purchases of supplies under the Core Program must comply with the requirements...

  4. Climate Leadership Award for Supply Chain Leadership

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Apply to the Climate Leadership Award for Supply Chain Leadership, which publicly recognizes organizations that are are at the leading edge of managing greenhouse gas emissions in their organizational supply chains.

  5. Information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Nazila; Alibabaei, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Managing the supply chain plays an important role in creating competitive advantages for companies. Adequate information flow in supply chain is one of the most important issues in SCM. Therefore, using certain Information Systems can have a significant role in managing and integrating data and information within the supply chain. Pharmaceutical supply chain is more complex than many other supply chains, in the sense that it can affect social and political perspectives. On the other hand, managing the pharmaceutical supply chain is difficult because of its complexity and also government regulations in this field. Although, Iran has progressed a lot in pharmaceutical manufacturing, still there are many unsolved issues in managing the information flow in the pharmaceutical supply chain. In this study, we reviewed the benefits of using different levels of an integrated information system in the supply chain and the possible challenges ahead. PMID:26664401

  6. Blood Transfusion (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... two tests will be done before the transfusion: Blood typing. To confirm your child's blood type, a nurse ... blood bank lab, where technicians test it for blood type. Cross-matching. Once typing is complete, a compatible donor blood is chosen. ...

  7. Hypoxia inducible factor-2α regulates the development of retinal astrocytic network by maintaining adequate supply of astrocyte progenitors.

    PubMed

    Duan, Li-Juan; Takeda, Kotaro; Fong, Guo-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Here we investigate the role of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-2α in coordinating the development of retinal astrocytic and vascular networks. Three Cre mouse lines were used to disrupt floxed Hif-2α, including Rosa26(CreERT2), Tie2(Cre), and GFAP(Cre). Global Hif-2α disruption by Rosa26(CreERT2) led to reduced astrocytic and vascular development in neonatal retinas, whereas endothelial disruption by Tie2(Cre) had no apparent effects. Hif-2α deletion in astrocyte progenitors by GFAP(Cre) significantly interfered with the development of astrocytic networks, which failed to reach the retinal periphery and were incapable of supporting vascular development. Perplexingly, the abundance of strongly GFAP(+) mature astrocytes transiently increased at P0 before they began to lag behind the normal controls by P3. Pax2(+) and PDGFRα(+) astrocytic progenitors and immature astrocytes were dramatically diminished at all stages examined. Despite decreased number of astrocyte progenitors, their proliferation index or apoptosis was not altered. The above data can be reconciled by proposing that HIF-2α is required for maintaining the supply of astrocyte progenitors by slowing down their differentiation into non-proliferative mature astrocytes. HIF-2α deficiency in astrocyte progenitors may accelerate their differentiation into astrocytes, a change which greatly interferes with the replenishment of astrocyte progenitors due to insufficient time for proliferation. Rapidly declining progenitor supply may lead to premature cessation of astrocyte development. Given that HIF-2α protein undergoes oxygen dependent degradation, an interesting possibility is that retinal blood vessels may regulate astrocyte differentiation through their oxygen delivery function. While our findings support the consensus that retinal astrocytic template guides vascular development, they also raise the possibility that astrocytic and vascular networks may mutually regulate each other's development

  8. Abundant Solar Nebula Solids in Comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messenger, S.; Keller, L. P.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Nguyen, A. N.; Clemett, S.

    2016-01-01

    Comets have been proposed to consist of unprocessed interstellar materials together with a variable amount of thermally annealed interstellar grains. Recent studies of cometary solids in the laboratory have shown that comets instead consist of a wide range of materials from across the protoplanetary disk, in addition to a minor complement of interstellar materials. These advances were made possible by the return of direct samples of comet 81P/Wild 2 coma dust by the NASA Stardust mission and recent advances in microscale analytical techniques. Isotopic studies of 'cometary' chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP-IDPs) and comet 81P/Wild 2 Stardust samples show that preserved interstellar materials are more abundant in comets than in any class of meteorite. Identified interstellar materials include sub-micron-sized presolar silicates, oxides, and SiC dust grains and some fraction of the organic material that binds the samples together. Presolar grain abundances reach 1 weight percentage in the most stardust-rich CP-IDPs, 50 times greater than in meteorites. Yet, order of magnitude variations in presolar grain abundances among CP-IDPs suggest cometary solids experienced significant variations in the degree of processing in the solar nebula. Comets contain a surprisingly high abundance of nebular solids formed or altered at high temperatures. Comet 81P/Wild 2 samples include 10-40 micron-sized, refractory Ca- Al-rich inclusion (CAI)-, chondrule-, and ameboid olivine aggregate (AOA)-like materials. The O isotopic compositions of these refractory materials are remarkably similar to their meteoritic counterparts, ranging from 5 percent enrichments in (sup 16) O to near-terrestrial values. Comet 81P/Wild 2 and CP-IDPs also contain abundant Mg-Fe crystalline and amorphous silicates whose O isotopic compositions are also consistent with Solar System origins. Unlike meteorites, that are dominated by locally-produced materials, comets appear to be composed of

  9. Abundances in Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewolfe, O. M.; Salzer, J. J.

    1994-12-01

    The nebular abundances in dwarf galaxies provide valuable clues to their star-formation histories. We have been engaged in an extensive observational study of actively star-forming blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs). Our program combines optical and NIR imaging, optical spectroscopy, and HI and CO radio data in an attempt to understand the status of star-formation and chemical evolution in these systems. Luminosities of the BCDs in our sample lie in the range M_B = -13 -- -16. We have obtained high-quality optical spectra of 21 BCDs for the purpose of deriving nebular abundances. We present values for the abundances of He, N, O, S, Ne, and Ar for this sample. In addition, we have estimated O and N abundances for a sample of 7 non-dwarf starburst galaxies of higher luminosity. For the BCD sample, we find that the N/O ratio remains constant at a mean value of 0.032 +/- 0.004 with increasing O/H. This result, which extends over a factor of more than 10 in O/H, is indicative of the N being chiefly of primary origin in these systems. The value of N/O is observed to increase in the sample of larger starburst galaxies for log(O/H) above -3.5, consistent with previous studies. S/O and Ne/O are also both constant with increasing O/H, and have mean values of 0.032 +/- 0.007 and 0.135 +/- 0.013 respectively. The BCD and starburst O/H values were used to calibrate an abundance sequence for a number of key emission-line diagnostic ratios which allow us to estimate metallicities for a large sample of emission-line galaxies (ELGs) to an accuracy of 0.1 -- 0.2 dex. The calibrations were applied to spectral data from two large published samples of ELGs from the Michigan and Case surveys. We use these data, representing nearly 200 individual galaxies, to investigate the existence of a metallicity-luminosity relationship for actively star-forming galaxies. We find the ELGs exhibit a relationship very similar to that found for more quiescent dwarf and Magellanic irregular galaxies by

  10. Logistics: Supply Based or Distribution Based?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    supply chain management, the need to adapt systems as conditions and capabilities change may not be clear or the root causes of problems may not be...logistics-system and supply - chain design and management positions. They need to become adept at integrating the full range of options available to...distribution-based and supply-based designs, the Army, in conjunction with its joint supply - chain partners, should seek optimal, balanced logistics system designs that it can adapt quickly to changing conditions.

  11. Chemical abundances in early B-type stars. 5: Metal abundances and LTE/NLTE comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilian, J.

    1994-02-01

    Chemical abundances of neon, magnesium, aluminum, sulfur, and iron are derived for a sample of 21 unevolved B-stars in the local field and nearby associations. While aluminum, sulfur, and iron are underabundant in nearly all stars, near solar abundances are found for magnesium and neon. In agreement with earlier results for carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and silicon (Kilian 1992), the present results show no correlation with surface gravities or evolutionary states, which indicates that the metal abundances reflect the original composition of the interstellar medium. The results are supplemented by a comparison of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE (NLTE) abundances for C, N, O, Si, Mg, and Al. In most cases the differences amount to +/- (0.1-0.2) dex, which slightly exceeds the estimated accuracy of the NLTE abundance determination. However, a clear temperature gradient is evident for most elements, which indicates systematic LTE abundance errors with a maximum amplitude of 0.4 dex between 21 000 K and 31 000 K.

  12. Blood vessels, circulation and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series, describes the vessels of the body's blood and lymphatic circulatory systems. Blood pressure and its regulatory systems are examined. The causes and management of hypertension are also explored. It is important that nurses and other healthcare professionals understand the various mechanisms involved in the regulation of blood pressure to prevent high blood pressure or ameliorate its damaging consequences.

  13. 7 CFR 1000.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Supply plant. 1000.6 Section 1000.6 Agriculture... Definitions § 1000.6 Supply plant. Supply plant means a plant approved by a duly constituted regulatory agency... diverts fluid milk products to other plants or manufactures dairy products on its premises....

  14. 7 CFR 1000.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supply plant. 1000.6 Section 1000.6 Agriculture... Definitions § 1000.6 Supply plant. Supply plant means a plant approved by a duly constituted regulatory agency... diverts fluid milk products to other plants or manufactures dairy products on its premises....

  15. 47 CFR 80.1015 - Power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power supply. 80.1015 Section 80.1015... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installations Required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1015 Power supply. (a) There must be readily available for use under normal load conditions, a power supply...

  16. 24 CFR 3280.803 - Power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Power supply. 3280.803 Section 3280... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Electrical Systems § 3280.803 Power supply. (a) The power supply to the manufactured home shall be a feeder assembly consisting of not more than...

  17. 47 CFR 80.1015 - Power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Power supply. 80.1015 Section 80.1015... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installations Required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1015 Power supply. (a) There must be readily available for use under normal load conditions, a power supply...

  18. 47 CFR 80.1015 - Power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Power supply. 80.1015 Section 80.1015... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installations Required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1015 Power supply. (a) There must be readily available for use under normal load conditions, a power supply...

  19. 47 CFR 80.1015 - Power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Power supply. 80.1015 Section 80.1015... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installations Required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1015 Power supply. (a) There must be readily available for use under normal load conditions, a power supply...

  20. 47 CFR 80.1015 - Power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Power supply. 80.1015 Section 80.1015... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installations Required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1015 Power supply. (a) There must be readily available for use under normal load conditions, a power supply...

  1. 21 CFR 1403.33 - Supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Supplies. 1403.33 Section 1403.33 Food and Drugs... supplies exceeding $5,000 in total aggregate fair market value upon termination or completion of the award, and if the supplies are not needed for any other federally sponsored programs or projects, the...

  2. 48 CFR 11.701 - Supply contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Supply contracts. 11.701... DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Variation in Quantity 11.701 Supply contracts. (a) A fixed-price supply contract may... of both; however, contracts for subsistence items may use other applicable terms of variation...

  3. Supply Chain Management in Humanitarian Relief Logistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    Hundreds of millions of people are affected by disasters each year. This thesis explores the use of supply chain management techniques to overcome...academic, organizational, and contemporary literature. Possible solutions to these barriers were selected from available supply chain management...literature. This work is different from others in that it marries supply chain principles from different disciplines (including private, nonprofit, and

  4. 7 CFR 1000.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supply plant. 1000.6 Section 1000.6 Agriculture... Definitions § 1000.6 Supply plant. Supply plant means a plant approved by a duly constituted regulatory agency... diverts fluid milk products to other plants or manufactures dairy products on its premises....

  5. 7 CFR 1000.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Supply plant. 1000.6 Section 1000.6 Agriculture... Definitions § 1000.6 Supply plant. Supply plant means a plant approved by a duly constituted regulatory agency... diverts fluid milk products to other plants or manufactures dairy products on its premises....

  6. 7 CFR 1000.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supply plant. 1000.6 Section 1000.6 Agriculture... Definitions § 1000.6 Supply plant. Supply plant means a plant approved by a duly constituted regulatory agency... diverts fluid milk products to other plants or manufactures dairy products on its premises....

  7. Learning to Integrate: Supply Chains Reconceptualised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sense, Andrew J.; Clements, Michael D. J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces and explains a conception of supply chains from a situated learning perspective. This non-conventional supply chain perspective invites the reader to consider supply chain scenarios as "situated learning opportunities involving multiple communities of practice" interacting and participating together. It is argued that by…

  8. Visualisation for System Learning in Supply Chains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindskog, Magnus; Abrahamsson, Mats; Aronsson, Hakan

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary supply chains are vastly complex, and decisions made by actors have system-wide consequences that these might not be able to foresee. There are gaps between "best practice"-founded theory and actual practice in supply chains. To remedy this, we argue, the supply chain actors need to enhance systems knowledge. There is a need to…

  9. 25 CFR 137.1 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Water supply. 137.1 Section 137.1 Indians BUREAU OF... CARLOS INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.1 Water supply. The engineering report dealt with in... capacity of the San Carlos reservoir created by the Coolidge Dam and the water supply therefor over...

  10. 25 CFR 137.1 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Water supply. 137.1 Section 137.1 Indians BUREAU OF... CARLOS INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.1 Water supply. The engineering report dealt with in... capacity of the San Carlos reservoir created by the Coolidge Dam and the water supply therefor over...

  11. 20 CFR 654.405 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Water supply. 654.405 Section 654.405... THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.405 Water supply. (a) An adequate and convenient supply of water that meets the standards of the State...

  12. 25 CFR 137.1 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Water supply. 137.1 Section 137.1 Indians BUREAU OF... CARLOS INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.1 Water supply. The engineering report dealt with in... capacity of the San Carlos reservoir created by the Coolidge Dam and the water supply therefor over...

  13. 20 CFR 654.405 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Water supply. 654.405 Section 654.405... THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.405 Water supply. (a) An adequate and convenient supply of water that meets the standards of the State...

  14. 9 CFR 354.224 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Water supply. 354.224 Section 354.224....224 Water supply. The water supply shall be ample, clean, and potable with adequate facilities for its distribution in the plant and its protection against contamination and pollution. (a) Hot water at...

  15. 24 CFR 3285.603 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply. 3285.603 Section 3285... § 3285.603 Water supply. (a) Crossover. Multi-section homes with plumbing in both sections require water... pressure and reduction. When the local water supply pressure exceeds 80 psi to the manufactured home,...

  16. 9 CFR 354.224 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water supply. 354.224 Section 354.224....224 Water supply. The water supply shall be ample, clean, and potable with adequate facilities for its distribution in the plant and its protection against contamination and pollution. (a) Hot water at...

  17. 25 CFR 137.1 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply. 137.1 Section 137.1 Indians BUREAU OF... CARLOS INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.1 Water supply. The engineering report dealt with in... capacity of the San Carlos reservoir created by the Coolidge Dam and the water supply therefor over...

  18. 20 CFR 654.405 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Water supply. 654.405 Section 654.405... THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.405 Water supply. (a) An adequate and convenient supply of water that meets the standards of the State...

  19. 24 CFR 3285.603 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Water supply. 3285.603 Section 3285... § 3285.603 Water supply. (a) Crossover. Multi-section homes with plumbing in both sections require water... pressure and reduction. When the local water supply pressure exceeds 80 psi to the manufactured home,...

  20. 20 CFR 654.405 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply. 654.405 Section 654.405... THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.405 Water supply. (a) An adequate and convenient supply of water that meets the standards of the State...

  1. 24 CFR 3285.603 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Water supply. 3285.603 Section 3285... § 3285.603 Water supply. (a) Crossover. Multi-section homes with plumbing in both sections require water... pressure and reduction. When the local water supply pressure exceeds 80 psi to the manufactured home,...

  2. 9 CFR 354.224 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water supply. 354.224 Section 354.224....224 Water supply. The water supply shall be ample, clean, and potable with adequate facilities for its distribution in the plant and its protection against contamination and pollution. (a) Hot water at...

  3. 25 CFR 137.1 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Water supply. 137.1 Section 137.1 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.1 Water supply. The engineering report dealt with in section 1... of the San Carlos reservoir created by the Coolidge Dam and the water supply therefor over a...

  4. 24 CFR 3285.603 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Water supply. 3285.603 Section 3285... § 3285.603 Water supply. (a) Crossover. Multi-section homes with plumbing in both sections require water... pressure and reduction. When the local water supply pressure exceeds 80 psi to the manufactured home,...

  5. 9 CFR 354.224 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Water supply. 354.224 Section 354.224....224 Water supply. The water supply shall be ample, clean, and potable with adequate facilities for its distribution in the plant and its protection against contamination and pollution. (a) Hot water at...

  6. 20 CFR 654.405 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Water supply. 654.405 Section 654.405... THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.405 Water supply. (a) An adequate and convenient supply of water that meets the standards of the State...

  7. 24 CFR 3285.603 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Water supply. 3285.603 Section 3285... § 3285.603 Water supply. (a) Crossover. Multi-section homes with plumbing in both sections require water... pressure and reduction. When the local water supply pressure exceeds 80 psi to the manufactured home,...

  8. 9 CFR 354.224 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water supply. 354.224 Section 354.224....224 Water supply. The water supply shall be ample, clean, and potable with adequate facilities for its distribution in the plant and its protection against contamination and pollution. (a) Hot water at...

  9. 32 CFR 34.24 - Supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Supplies. 34.24 Section 34.24 National Defense... § 34.24 Supplies. (a) Title shall vest in the recipient upon acquisition for supplies acquired with... shall retain the items for use on non-Federal sponsored activities or sell them, but shall, in...

  10. 32 CFR 34.24 - Supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplies. 34.24 Section 34.24 National Defense... § 34.24 Supplies. (a) Title shall vest in the recipient upon acquisition for supplies acquired with... shall retain the items for use on non-Federal sponsored activities or sell them, but shall, in...

  11. Beryllium and Boron abundances in population II stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The scientific focus of this program was to undertake UV spectroscopic abundance analyses of extremely metal poor stars with attention to determining abundances of light elements such as beryllium and boron. The abundances are likely to reflect primordial abundances within the early galaxy and help to constrain models for early galactic nucleosynthesis. The general metal abundances of these stars are also important for understanding stellar evolution.

  12. Strategic materials availability and supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Joseph R.

    1989-01-01

    An evaluation is made of the supply sources and current availability of elements involved in superalloy compositions, as well as of development trends in the substitution of strategic materials for superalloys, giving attention to the results thus far achieved by NASA's Conservation of Strategic Aerospace Materials program, which formally operated only from 1980 to 1984 but whose various research initiatives have been continued under other NASA programs. Peacetime and wartime economies' need and probable availability analyses are presented for bauxite/aluminum, the Pt-group metals, and the alloying elements Mn, Nb, Ta, Co, Cr, Ni, W, Fe, Cu, Ti, Mo, and Mg.

  13. Petroleum supply monthly: December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    Data are presented which describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. Data are presented in two sections: Summary Statistics, presenting a time series of selected petroleum data on a U.S. level, and Detailed Statistics, presenting statistics for the most current month available as well as year to date.

  14. Blood-Borne Pathogens: A Canadian Blood Services Centre for Innovation Symposium.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Geraldine M; Shih, Andrew W; Solh, Ziad; Golder, Mia; Schubert, Peter; Fearon, Margaret; Sheffield, William P

    2016-04-01

    Testing donations for pathogens and deferring selected blood donors have reduced the risk of transmission of known pathogens by transfusion to extremely low levels in most developed countries. Protecting the blood supply from emerging infectious threats remains a serious concern in the transfusion medicine community. Transfusion services can employ indirect measures such as surveillance, hemovigilance, and donor questioning (defense), protein-, or nucleic acid based direct testing (detection), or pathogen inactivation of blood products (destruction) as strategies to mitigate the risk of transmission-transmitted infection. In the North American context, emerging threats currently include dengue, chikungunya, and hepatitis E viruses, and Babesia protozoan parasites. The 2003 SARS and 2014 Ebola outbreaks illustrate the potential of epidemics unlikely to be transmitted by blood transfusion but disruptive to blood systems. Donor-free blood products such as ex vivo generated red blood cells offer a theoretical way to avoid transmission-transmitted infection risk, although biological, engineering, and manufacturing challenges must be overcome before this approach becomes practical. Similarly, next generation sequencing of all nucleic acid in a blood sample is currently possible but impractical for generalized screening. Pathogen inactivation systems are in use in different jurisdictions around the world, and are starting to gain regulatory approval in North America. Cost concerns make it likely that pathogen inactivation will be contemplated by blood operators through the lens of health economics and risk-based decision making, rather than in zero-risk paradigms previously embraced for transfusable products. Defense of the blood supply from infectious disease risk will continue to require innovative combinations of surveillance, detection, and pathogen avoidance or inactivation.

  15. Blood and Diversity

    MedlinePlus

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  16. Blood Type Puzzle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Presents a blood type puzzle that provides a visual, hands-on mechanism by which students can examine blood group reactions. Offers students an opportunity to construct their own knowledge about blood types. (JRH)

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    ... that die or are lost from the body. White Blood Cells White blood cells (WBCs, also called ... of severe pain. previous continue Diseases of the White Blood Cells Neutropenia happens when there aren't ...