Science.gov

Sample records for abundant carbon-neutral renewable

  1. Renewable Hydrogen Carrier Carbohydrate: Constructing the Carbon-Neutral Carbohydrate Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.-H. Percival; Mielenz, Jonathan R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The hydrogen economy presents an appealing energy future but its implementation must solve numerous problems ranging from low-cost sustainable production, high-density storage, costly infrastructure, to eliminating safety concern. The use of renewable carbohydrate as a high-density hydrogen carrier and energy source for hydrogen production is possible due to emerging cell-free synthetic biology technology called cell-free synthetic pathway biotransformation (SyPaB). Assembly of numerous enzymes and co-enzymes in vitro can create complicated set of biological reactions or pathways that microorganisms cannot complete, for example, C6H10O5 (aq) + 7 H2O (l) 12 H2 (g) + 6 CO2 (g) (PLoS One 2007, 2:e456). Thanks to 100% selectivity of enzymes, modest reaction conditions, and high-purity of generated hydrogen, carbohydrate is a promising hydrogen carrier for end users. Gravimetric density of carbohydrate is 14.8 H2 mass% if water can be recycled from PEM fuel cells or 8.33% H2 mass% without water recycling. Renewable carbohydrate can be isolated from plant biomass or would be produced from a combination of solar electricity/hydrogen and carbon dioxide fixation mediated by high-efficiency artificial photosynthesis mediated by SyPaB. The construction of this carbon-neutral carbohydrate economy would address numerous sustainability challenges, such as electricity and hydrogen storage, CO2 fixation and long-term storage, water conservation, transportation fuel production, plus feed and food production.

  2. Chemical recycling of carbon dioxide to methanol and dimethyl ether: from greenhouse gas to renewable, environmentally carbon neutral fuels and synthetic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Olah, George A; Goeppert, Alain; Prakash, G K Surya

    2009-01-16

    Nature's photosynthesis uses the sun's energy with chlorophyll in plants as a catalyst to recycle carbon dioxide and water into new plant life. Only given sufficient geological time can new fossil fuels be formed naturally. In contrast, chemical recycling of carbon dioxide from natural and industrial sources as well as varied human activities or even from the air itself to methanol or dimethyl ether (DME) and their varied products can be achieved via its capture and subsequent reductive hydrogenative conversion. The present Perspective reviews this new approach and our research in the field over the last 15 years. Carbon recycling represents a significant aspect of our proposed Methanol Economy. Any available energy source (alternative energies such as solar, wind, geothermal, and atomic energy) can be used for the production of needed hydrogen and chemical conversion of CO(2). Improved new methods for the efficient reductive conversion of CO(2) to methanol and/or DME that we have developed include bireforming with methane and ways of catalytic or electrochemical conversions. Liquid methanol is preferable to highly volatile and potentially explosive hydrogen for energy storage and transportation. Together with the derived DME, they are excellent transportation fuels for internal combustion engines (ICE) and fuel cells as well as convenient starting materials for synthetic hydrocarbons and their varied products. Carbon dioxide thus can be chemically transformed from a detrimental greenhouse gas causing global warming into a valuable, renewable and inexhaustible carbon source of the future allowing environmentally neutral use of carbon fuels and derived hydrocarbon products. PMID:19063591

  3. Chemical recycling of carbon dioxide to methanol and dimethyl ether: from greenhouse gas to renewable, environmentally carbon neutral fuels and synthetic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Olah, George A; Goeppert, Alain; Prakash, G K Surya

    2009-01-16

    Nature's photosynthesis uses the sun's energy with chlorophyll in plants as a catalyst to recycle carbon dioxide and water into new plant life. Only given sufficient geological time can new fossil fuels be formed naturally. In contrast, chemical recycling of carbon dioxide from natural and industrial sources as well as varied human activities or even from the air itself to methanol or dimethyl ether (DME) and their varied products can be achieved via its capture and subsequent reductive hydrogenative conversion. The present Perspective reviews this new approach and our research in the field over the last 15 years. Carbon recycling represents a significant aspect of our proposed Methanol Economy. Any available energy source (alternative energies such as solar, wind, geothermal, and atomic energy) can be used for the production of needed hydrogen and chemical conversion of CO(2). Improved new methods for the efficient reductive conversion of CO(2) to methanol and/or DME that we have developed include bireforming with methane and ways of catalytic or electrochemical conversions. Liquid methanol is preferable to highly volatile and potentially explosive hydrogen for energy storage and transportation. Together with the derived DME, they are excellent transportation fuels for internal combustion engines (ICE) and fuel cells as well as convenient starting materials for synthetic hydrocarbons and their varied products. Carbon dioxide thus can be chemically transformed from a detrimental greenhouse gas causing global warming into a valuable, renewable and inexhaustible carbon source of the future allowing environmentally neutral use of carbon fuels and derived hydrocarbon products.

  4. Achieving Carbon Neutrality in the Global Aluminum Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Subodh

    2012-02-01

    In the 21st century, sustainability is widely regarded as the new corporate culture, and leading manufacturing companies (Toyota, GE, and Alcoa) and service companies (Google and Federal Express) are striving towards carbon neutrality. The current carbon footprint of the global aluminum industry is estimated at 500 million metric tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2eq), representing about 1.7% of global emissions from all sources. For the global aluminum industry, carbon neutrality is defined as a state where the total "in-use" CO2eq saved from all products in current use, including incremental process efficiency improvements, recycling, and urban mining activities, equals the CO2eq expended to produce the global output of aluminum. This paper outlines an integrated and quantifiable plan for achieving "carbon neutrality" in the global aluminum industry by advocating five actionable steps: (1) increase use of "green" electrical energy grid by 8%, (2) reduce process energy needs by 16%, (3) deploy 35% of products in "in-use" energy saving applications, (4) divert 6.1 million metric tonnes/year from landfills, and (5) mine 4.5 million metric tonnes/year from aluminum-rich "urban mines." Since it takes 20 times more energy to make aluminum from bauxite ore than to recycle it from scrap, the global aluminum industry could set a reasonable, self-imposed energy/carbon neutrality goal to incrementally increase the supply of recycled aluminum by at least 1.05 metric tonnes for every tonne of incremental production via primary aluminum smelter capacity. Furthermore, the aluminum industry can and should take a global leadership position by actively developing internationally accepted and approved carbon footprint credit protocols.

  5. Can municipal wastewater treatment systems be carbon neutral?

    PubMed

    Mo, Weiwei; Zhang, Qiong

    2012-12-15

    Municipal wastewater treatment has emerged as one of the largest resource consumers in the US. As a result, the goal of municipal wastewater systems has extended from protecting receiving water and human health to improving the system sustainability. This study used the embodied energy and the associated carbon footprint to measure the resource consumption and recovery in wastewater systems. Three resource recovery methods were specifically investigated: onsite energy generation through combined heat and power systems, nutrient recycling through biosolids land application, and water reuse for residential irrigation. The embodied energy and the associated carbon footprint were estimated through an input-output based hybrid energy analysis method and carbon emission factors. A wastewater treatment plant in Tampa, Florida was studied to investigate the possibility of carbon neutrality of wastewater treatment systems. It was shown that the integrated resource (energy, nutrient and water) recovery has the potential to offset all the direct operational energy; however, it is not able to offset the total embodied energy of the treatment plant to achieve carbon neutrality. Among the three resource recovery methods, water reuse has the highest potential of offsetting carbon footprint, while nutrient recycling has the lowest. PMID:22964043

  6. Goodbye to carbon neutral: Getting biomass footprints right

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Eric

    2009-04-15

    Most guidance for carbon footprinting, and most published carbon footprints or LCAs, presume that biomass heating fuels are carbon neutral. However, it is recognised increasingly that this is incorrect: biomass fuels are not always carbon neutral. Indeed, they can in some cases be far more carbon positive than fossil fuels. This flaw in carbon footprinting guidance and practice can be remedied. In carbon footprints (not just of biomass or heating fuels, but all carbon footprints), rather than applying sequestration credits and combustion debits, a 'carbon-stock change' line item could be applied instead. Not only would this make carbon footprints more accurate, it would make them consistent with UNFCCC reporting requirements and national reporting practice. There is a strong precedent for this change. This same flaw has already been recognised and partly remedied in standards for and studies of liquid biofuels (e.g. biodiesel and bioethanol), which now account for land-use change, i.e. deforestation. But it is partially or completely missing from other studies and from standards for footprinting and LCA of solid fuels. Carbon-stock changes can be estimated from currently available data. Accuracy of estimates will increase as Kyoto compliant countries report more land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF) data.

  7. Towards Carbon-Neutral CO2 Conversion to Hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Mattia, Davide; Jones, Matthew D; O'Byrne, Justin P; Griffiths, Owen G; Owen, Rhodri E; Sackville, Emma; McManus, Marcelle; Plucinski, Pawel

    2015-12-01

    With fossil fuels still predicted to contribute close to 80 % of the primary energy consumption by 2040, methods to limit further CO2 emissions in the atmosphere are urgently needed to avoid the catastrophic scenarios associated with global warming. In parallel with improvements in energy efficiency and CO2 storage, the conversion of CO2 has emerged as a complementary route with significant potential. In this work we present the direct thermo-catalytic conversion of CO2 to hydrocarbons using a novel iron nanoparticle-carbon nanotube (Fe@CNT) catalyst. We adopted a holistic and systematic approach to CO2 conversion by integrating process optimization-identifying reaction conditions to maximize conversion and selectivity towards long chain hydrocarbons and/or short olefins-with catalyst optimization through the addition of promoters. The result is the production of valuable hydrocarbons in a manner that can approach carbon neutrality under realistic industrial process conditions.

  8. Microbially mediated carbon mineralization: Geoengineering a carbon-neutral mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, I. M.; McCutcheon, J.; Harrison, A. L.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2013-12-01

    Ultramafic and mafic mine tailings are a potentially valuable feedstock for carbon mineralization, affording the mining industry an opportunity to completely offset their carbon emissions. Passive carbon mineralization has previously been documented at the abandoned Clinton Creek asbestos mine, and the active Diavik diamond mine and Mount Keith nickel mine, yet the majority of tailings remain unreacted. Examples of microbe-carbonate interactions at each mine suggest that biological pathways could be harnessed to promote carbon mineralization. In suitable environmental conditions, microbes can mediate geochemical processes to accelerate mineral dissolution, increase the supply of carbon dioxide (CO2), and induce carbonate precipitation, all of which may accelerate carbon mineralization. Tailings mineralogy and the availability of a CO2 point source are key considerations in designing tailings storage facilities (TSF) for optimizing carbon mineralization. We evaluate the efficacy of acceleration strategies including bioleaching, biologically induced carbonate precipitation, and heterotrophic oxidation of waste organics, as well as abiotic strategies including enhancing passive carbonation through modifying tailings management practices and use of CO2 point sources (Fig. 1). With the aim of developing carbon-neutral mines, implementation of carbon mineralization strategies into TSF design will be driven by economic incentives and public pressure for environmental sustainability in the mining industry. Figure 1. Schematic illustrating geoengineered scenarios for carbon mineralization of ultramafic mine tailings. Scenarios A and B are based on non-point and point sources of CO2, respectively.

  9. Evaluation of the potential for operating carbon neutral WWTPs in China.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiaodi; Liu, Ranbin; Huang, Xin

    2015-12-15

    Carbon neutrality is starting to become a hot topic for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) all over the world, and carbon neutral operations have emerged in some WWTPs. Although China is still struggling to control its water pollution, carbon neutrality will definitely become a top priority for WWTPs in the near future. In this review, the potential for operating carbon neutral WWTPs in China is technically evaluated. Based on the A(2)/O process of a typical municipal WWTP, an evaluation model is first configured, which couples the COD/nutrient removals (mass balance) with the energy consumption/recovery (energy balance). This model is then applied to evaluate the potential of the organic (COD) energy with regards to carbon neutrality. The model's calculations reveal that anaerobic digestion of excess sludge can only provide some 50% of the total amount of energy consumption. Water source heat pumps (WSHP) can effectively convert the thermal energy contained in wastewater to heat WWTPs and neighbourhood buildings, which can supply a net electrical equivalency of 0.26 kWh when 1 m(3) of the effluent is cooled down by 1 °C. Photovoltaic (PV) technology can generate a limited amount of electricity, barely 10% of the total energy consumption. Moreover, the complexity of installing solar panels on top of tanks makes PV technology almost not worth the effort. Overall, therefore, organic and thermal energy sources can effectively supply enough electrical equivalency for China to approach to its target with regards to carbon neutral operations.

  10. Evaluation of the potential for operating carbon neutral WWTPs in China.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiaodi; Liu, Ranbin; Huang, Xin

    2015-12-15

    Carbon neutrality is starting to become a hot topic for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) all over the world, and carbon neutral operations have emerged in some WWTPs. Although China is still struggling to control its water pollution, carbon neutrality will definitely become a top priority for WWTPs in the near future. In this review, the potential for operating carbon neutral WWTPs in China is technically evaluated. Based on the A(2)/O process of a typical municipal WWTP, an evaluation model is first configured, which couples the COD/nutrient removals (mass balance) with the energy consumption/recovery (energy balance). This model is then applied to evaluate the potential of the organic (COD) energy with regards to carbon neutrality. The model's calculations reveal that anaerobic digestion of excess sludge can only provide some 50% of the total amount of energy consumption. Water source heat pumps (WSHP) can effectively convert the thermal energy contained in wastewater to heat WWTPs and neighbourhood buildings, which can supply a net electrical equivalency of 0.26 kWh when 1 m(3) of the effluent is cooled down by 1 °C. Photovoltaic (PV) technology can generate a limited amount of electricity, barely 10% of the total energy consumption. Moreover, the complexity of installing solar panels on top of tanks makes PV technology almost not worth the effort. Overall, therefore, organic and thermal energy sources can effectively supply enough electrical equivalency for China to approach to its target with regards to carbon neutral operations. PMID:26072280

  11. Tandem synthesis of alternating polyesters from renewable resources

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Carine; de Montigny, Frédéric; Thomas, Christophe M.

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of commodity materials are obtained from petrochemical feedstocks. These resources will plausibly be depleted within the next 100 years, and the peak in global oil production is estimated to occur within the next few decades. In this regard, biomass represents an abundant carbon-neutral renewable resource for the production of polymers. Here we report a new strategy, based on tandem catalysis, to obtain renewable materials. Commercially available complexes are found to be efficient catalysts for alternating polyesters from the cyclization of dicarboxylic acids followed by alternating copolymerization of the resulting anhydrides with epoxides. This operationally simple method is an attractive strategy for the production of new biodegradable polyesters. PMID:22158441

  12. Complexes of earth-abundant metals for catalytic electrochemical hydrogen generation under aqueous conditions.

    PubMed

    Thoi, V Sara; Sun, Yujie; Long, Jeffrey R; Chang, Christopher J

    2013-03-21

    Growing global energy demands and climate change motivate the development of new renewable energy technologies. In this context, water splitting using sustainable energy sources has emerged as an attractive process for carbon-neutral fuel cycles. A key scientific challenge to achieving this overall goal is the invention of new catalysts for the reductive and oxidative conversions of water to hydrogen and oxygen, respectively. This review article will highlight progress in molecular electrochemical approaches for catalytic reduction of protons to hydrogen, focusing on complexes of earth-abundant metals that can function in pure aqueous or mixed aqueous-organic media. The use of water as a reaction medium has dual benefits of maintaining high substrate concentration as well as minimizing the environmental impact from organic additives and by-products.

  13. Transition-metal catalyzed valorization of lignin: the key to a sustainable carbon-neutral future.

    PubMed

    Kärkäs, Markus D; Matsuura, Bryan S; Monos, Timothy M; Magallanes, Gabriel; Stephenson, Corey R J

    2016-02-14

    The development of a sustainable, carbon-neutral biorefinery has emerged as a prominent scientific and engineering goal of the 21st century. As petroleum has become less accessible, biomass-based carbon sources have been investigated for utility in fuel production and commodity chemical manufacturing. One underutilized biomaterial is lignin; however, its highly crosslinked and randomly polymerized composition have rendered this biopolymer recalcitrant to existing chemical processing. More recently, insight into lignin's molecular structure has reinvigorated chemists to develop catalytic methods for lignin depolymerization. This review examines the development of transition-metal catalyzed reactions and the insights shared between the homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic systems towards the ultimate goal of valorizing lignin to produce value-added products.

  14. The role of metal–organic frameworks in a carbon-neutral energy cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoedel, Alexander; Ji, Zhe; Yaghi, Omar M.

    2016-04-01

    Reducing society's reliance on fossil fuels presents one of the most pressing energy and environmental challenges facing our planet. Hydrogen, methane and carbon dioxide, which are some of the smallest and simplest molecules known, may lie at the centre of solving this problem through realization of a carbon-neutral energy cycle. Potentially, this could be achieved through the deployment of hydrogen as the fuel of the long term, methane as a transitional fuel, and carbon dioxide capture and sequestration as the urgent response to ongoing climate change. Here we detail strategies and technologies developed to overcome the difficulties encountered in the capture, storage, delivery and conversion of these gas molecules. In particular, we focus on metal–organic frameworks in which metal oxide ‘hubs’ are linked with organic ‘struts’ to make materials of ultrahigh porosity, which provide a basis for addressing this challenge through materials design on the molecular level.

  15. The role of metal-organic frameworks in a carbon-neutral energy cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoedel, Alexander; Ji, Zhe; Yaghi, Omar M.

    2016-04-01

    Reducing society's reliance on fossil fuels presents one of the most pressing energy and environmental challenges facing our planet. Hydrogen, methane and carbon dioxide, which are some of the smallest and simplest molecules known, may lie at the centre of solving this problem through realization of a carbon-neutral energy cycle. Potentially, this could be achieved through the deployment of hydrogen as the fuel of the long term, methane as a transitional fuel, and carbon dioxide capture and sequestration as the urgent response to ongoing climate change. Here we detail strategies and technologies developed to overcome the difficulties encountered in the capture, storage, delivery and conversion of these gas molecules. In particular, we focus on metal-organic frameworks in which metal oxide ‘hubs’ are linked with organic ‘struts’ to make materials of ultrahigh porosity, which provide a basis for addressing this challenge through materials design on the molecular level.

  16. Renewable Energy: Solar Fuels GRC and GRS

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan Lewis Nancy Ryan Gray

    2010-02-26

    from a carbon-neutral source. Sunlight is by far the most abundant global carbon-neutral energy resource. More solar energy strikes the surface of the earth in one hour than is obtained from all of the fossil fuels consumed globally in a year. Sunlight may be used to power the planet. However, it is intermittent, and therefore it must be converted to electricity or stored chemical fuel to be used on a large scale. The 'grand challenge' of using the sun as a future energy source faces daunting challenges - large expanses of fundamental science and technology await discovery. A viable solar energy conversion scheme must result in a 10-50 fold decrease in the cost-to-efficiency ratio for the production of stored fuels, and must be stable and robust for a 20-30 year period. To reduce the cost of installed solar energy conversion systems to $0.20/peak watt of solar radiation, a cost level that would make them economically attractive in today's energy market, will require revolutionary technologies. This GRC seeks to present a forum for the underlying science needed to permit future generations to use the sun as a renewable and sustainable primary energy source. Speakers will discuss recent advances in homoogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis of multi-electron transfer processes of importance to solar fuel production, such as water oxidation and reduction, and carbon dioxide reduction. Speakers will also discuss advances in scaleably manufacturable systems for the capture and conversion of sunlight into electrical charges that can be readily coupled into, and utilized for, fuel production in an integrated system.

  17. Integrated Renewable Energy and Campus Sustainability Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Uthoff, Jay; Jensen, Jon; Bailey, Andrew

    2013-09-25

    Renewable energy, energy conservation, and other sustainability initiatives have long been a central focus of Luther College. The DOE funded Integrated Renewable Energy and Campus Sustainability Initiative project has helped accelerate the College’s progress toward carbon neutrality. DOE funds, in conjunction with institutional matching funds, were used to fund energy conservation projects, a renewable energy project, and an energy and waste education program aimed at all campus constituents. The energy and waste education program provides Luther students with ideas about sustainability and conservation guidelines that they carry with them into their future communities.

  18. GeoEthics from the Ground Up: A Carbon-Neutral Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, A.; Derry, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Discussion with students about the science of global warming and the consequences of greenhouse gas emissions - while emitting greenhouse gasses in the process - is a focal point for geoethics in the Cornell University Earth and Environmental Systems (EES) Field Program. If we seek to educate students in the fundamentals of environmental stewardship we must also put stewardship into practice as part of that education. The EES program is a semester length earth systems field program held on Hawai`i Island. In Hawai`i students gain first-hand experience with the interconnected solid earth, living earth, ocean and atmosphere. They also gain first-hand experience with the consequences of unsustainable resource use: marine resource depletion, deforestation and species loss, development v. conservation, fossil fuel v. alternative energy options. Yet as a travel-based field program the pursuit of these goals carries a clear environmental cost. Thus a core element of EES education is to run a carbon-neutral program. To achieve this, students quantify every aspect of the program's carbon footprint. They decide which actions they must include as part of that footprint and learn how to monitor and calculate the resulting CO2 emissions. Students learn how to reduce emissions where possible, and offset emissions that cannot be eliminated. Working in partnership with island-based conservation organizations students engage in reforestation of degraded native forest landscapes. They model the carbon sequestration capacity of restored forest biomass and soil reservoirs. The outcome of this process has triple-bottom-line benefits: (1) native forest and endangered species habitat is restored, (2) carbon dioxide is removed from the atmosphere and sequestered, and (3) students gain hands-on, minds-on experience with carbon-cycle science, ecosystem science, and with the ethical imperative of putting one's knowledge into action.

  19. Palladium on Nitrogen-Doped Mesoporous Carbon: A Bifunctional Catalyst for Formate-Based, Carbon-Neutral Hydrogen Storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fanan; Xu, Jinming; Shao, Xianzhao; Su, Xiong; Huang, Yanqiang; Zhang, Tao

    2016-02-01

    The lack of safe, efficient, and economical hydrogen storage technologies is a hindrance to the realization of the hydrogen economy. Reported herein is a reversible formate-based carbon-neutral hydrogen storage system that is established over a novel catalyst comprising palladium nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon. The support was fabricated by a hard template method and nitridated under a flow of ammonia. Detailed analyses demonstrate that this bicarbonate/formate redox equilibrium is promoted by the cooperative role of the doped nitrogen functionalities and the well-dispersed, electron-enriched palladium nanoparticles.

  20. Literacy in Action: A Carbon-Neutral Field Program at Cornell University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, A.; Derry, L.

    2010-12-01

    The Cornell Earth and Environmental Systems (EES) Field Program is a semester-length undergraduate field program located on the island of Hawai`i. The Hawaiian Islands are the world’s most dynamic natural laboratory and the premier location for Earth systems research and education. While there are compelling reasons for students and faculty to travel from the US mainland to Hawai`i, the air and ground travel that comprises the program carries a large carbon footprint. This liability is also an extraordinary educational opportunity. For the past two years EES students have been challenged to make the program carbon-neutral. They are asked to devise a set of criteria for a credible and defensible zero-CO2 footprint and then to put their plan into action. The C-neutral project consists of three elements: (1) quantifying CO2 emissions, (2) reducing emissions wherever possible, and (3) offsetting emissions that cannot be eliminated. In quantifying emissions six areas are identified: air travel, ground travel, domestic electricity, natural gas, food, and waste. Emissions reductions include all of the standard “carpool--turn it down--turn it off “ conservation behaviors, with special emphasis on food and waste; eating local and organic, shopping at re-use centers, and compost and recycling of garbage. Our program facility utilizes solar hot water and is equipped with neither heat nor air conditioning, thus domestic energy use is low. Students tabulate all of our energy use and calculate the resulting CO2 emissions for all program participants for a period of four months. The CO2 offsetting strategy is conducted in collaboration with a native ecosystem restoration project. Students participate in all aspects of forest restoration, including seed collection, germination and outplanting of native plant species and removal of invasive pest species. The initial goal of this locally-supported project was to restore degraded pasture to native forest. The EES students have

  1. Factors Influencing Renewable Energy Production & Supply - A Global Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Anika; Saqlawi, Juman Al

    2016-04-01

    Renewable energy is one of the key technologies through which the energy needs of the future can be met in a sustainable and carbon-neutral manner. Increasing the share of renewable energy in the total energy mix of each country is therefore a critical need. While different countries have approached this in different ways, there are some common aspects which influence the pace and effectiveness of renewable energy incorporation. This presentation looks at data and information from 34 selected countries, analyses the patterns, compares the different parameters and identifies the common factors which positively influence renewable energy incorporation. The most successful countries are analysed for their renewable energy performance against their GDP, policy/regulatory initiatives in the field of renewables, landmass, climatic conditions and population to identify the most influencing factors to bring about positive change in renewable energy share.

  2. 2007 Renewable Energy: Solar Fuels Gordon Research Conference - January 21-26

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel G. Nocera

    2008-02-01

    from a carbon-neutral source. Sunlight is by far the most abundant global carbon-neutral energy resource. More solar energy strikes the surface of the earth in one hour than is obtained from all of the fossil fuels consumed globally in a year. Sunlight may be used to power the planet. However, it is intermittent, and therefore it must be converted to electricity or stored chemical fuel to be used on a large scale. The ''grand challenge'' of using the sun as a future energy source faces daunting challenges - large expanses of fundamental science and technology await discovery. A viable solar energy conversion scheme must result in a 10-50 fold decrease in the cost-to-efficiency ratio for the production of stored fuels, and must be stable and robust for a 20-30 year period. To reduce the cost of installed solar energy conversion systems to $0.20/peak watt of solar radiation, a cost level that would make them economically attractive in today's energy market, will require revolutionary technologies. This GRC seeks to present a forum for the underlying science needed to permit future generations to use the sun as a renewable and sustainable primary energy source.

  3. Carbon-Neutral Energy Supply and Energy Demand-Reduction Technology Needed for Continued Economic Growth Without Dangerous Interference in the Climate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffert, M. I.; Caldeira, K.

    2007-12-01

    Stabilization of atmospheric CO2 at levels likely to avoid unacceptable climate risk will require a major transformation in the ways we produce and use energy. Most of our energy will need to come from sources that do not emit carbon dioxide to the atmosphere and that energy will need to be used efficiently. The required reduction of carbon dioxide emissions as global energy consumption and GDP grow imposes quantitative requirements on some combination of carbon-neutral primary power and energy demand reduction. (Emission reductions are expressed relative to an implicit or explicit baseline; explicit being better for policy-making. Energy demand reduction involves both efficiency improvements and lifestyle changes.) These requirements can be expressed as CO2 emission reductions needed, or as carbon-neutral primary power production needed combined with power not used by virtue of increased energy end use efficiency or lifestyle changes ("negawatts"), always subject to some reasonably well-characterized uncertainty limits. Climatic changes thus far have been closer to the more extreme zone of the climatic uncertainty envelope of global warming indicating the potential for disastrous impacts by mid-century and beyond for business-as-usual. Emission reductions needed to avoid "dangerous interference in the climate system" imply a revolutionary change in the global energy system beginning now; particularly ominous are massive conventional coal-fired electric power energy infrastructures under construction by the US, China & India. Strong arguments, based on physical science considerations, exist for prompt measures such as (1) an immediate moratorium on coal-fired plants that don't sequester CO2, (2) a gradually increasing price on carbon emissions and (3) regulatory standards, for example, that would encourage utilities and car manufacturers to improve efficiency, and (4) Apollo-scale R & D projects beginning now to develop sustainable carbon-neutral power that can be

  4. [Institutional Renewal].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Peggy, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    The theme of this journal issue is "Institutional Renewal." Projects designed to address the issues of the 1980s at 18 colleges are described, and 15 definitions of institutional renewal are presented. Participating colleges were provided expert advice through the Association of American College's (AAC) Project Lodestar (renamed Consultation and…

  5. Synergetic sustainability enhancement via utilization of carbon dioxide as carbon neutral chemical feedstock in the thermo-chemical processing of biomass.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Eilhann E; Cho, Seong-Heon; Kim, Sungpyo

    2015-04-21

    This study investigated the utilization of CO2 as carbon neutral chemical feedstock in the thermo-chemical processing (i.e., pyrolysis and gasification) of biomass to enhance sustainability via modification of the composition of end products. To justify the universal function of CO2 in the thermo-chemical process, the biomass experimented on in this work was not limited to ligno-cellulosic biomass; seaweed (i.e., red macroalgae) was used to expand biofuel feedstock beyond terrestrial biomass. Our experimental results validated the achieved enhanced generation of ∼200% for H2 and ∼1000% for CO by means of adopting CO2 in the thermo-chemical process, as compared to the case in N2. This can be explained by the enhanced thermal cracking of volatile organic carbons (VOCs) evolved from the thermal degradation of biomass and the reaction between CO2 and VOCs. Considering mass balance under our experimental conditions, we confirmed reaction between CO2 and VOCs, which was universally observed in pyrolysis of all biomass samples used in this work. Thus, the identified influence of CO2 in the thermo-chemical process can be directly applied in a variety of research and industrial fields, which would be environmentally desirable. PMID:25799374

  6. Renewable energy.

    PubMed

    Destouni, Georgia; Frank, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The Energy Committee of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has in a series of projects gathered information and knowledge on renewable energy from various sources, both within and outside the academic world. In this article, we synthesize and summarize some of the main points on renewable energy from the various Energy Committee projects and the Committee's Energy 2050 symposium, regarding energy from water and wind, bioenergy, and solar energy. We further summarize the Energy Committee's scenario estimates of future renewable energy contributions to the global energy system, and other presentations given at the Energy 2050 symposium. In general, international coordination and investment in energy research and development is crucial to enable future reliance on renewable energy sources with minimal fossil fuel use.

  7. Underground coal gasification with extended CO2 utilization as economic and carbon neutral approach to address energy and fertilizer supply shortages in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaten, Natalie; Islam, Rafiqul; Kempka, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The application of underground coal gasification (UCG) with proven carbon mitigation techniques may provide a carbon neutral approach to tackle electricity and fertilizer supply shortages in Bangladesh. UCG facilitates the utilization of deep-seated coal seams, not economically exploitable by conventional coal mining. The high-calorific synthesis gas produced by UCG can be used for e.g. electricity generation or as chemical raw material for hydrogen, methanol and fertilizer production. Kempka et al. (2010) carried out an integrated assessment of UCG operation, demonstrating that about 19 % of the CO2 produced during UCG may be mitigated by CO2 utilization in fertilizer production. In the present study, we investigated an extension of the UCG system by introducing excess CO2 storage in the gas deposit of the Bahkrabad gas field (40 km east of Dhaka, Bangladesh). This gas field still holds natural gas resources of 12.8 million tons of LNG equivalent, but is close to abandonment due to a low reservoir pressure. Consequently, applying enhanced gas recovery (EGR) by injection of excess carbon dioxide from the coupled UCG-urea process may mitigate carbon emissions and support natural gas production from the Bahkrabad gas field. To carry out an integrated techno-economic assessment of the coupled system, we adapted the techno-economic UCG-CCS model developed by Nakaten et al. (2014) to consider the urea and EGR processes. Reservoir simulations addressing EGR in the Bakhrabad gas field by utilization of excess carbon dioxide from the UCG process were carried out to account for the induced pressure increase in the reservoir, and thus additional gas recovery potentials. The Jamalganj coal field in Northwest Bangladesh provides favorable geological and infrastructural conditions for a UCG operation at coal seam depths of 640 m to 1,158 m. Excess CO2 can be transported via existing pipeline networks to the Bahkrabad gas field (about 300 km distance from the coal deposit) to be

  8. Renewable Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, Godfrey

    2004-05-01

    Stimulated by recent technological developments and increasing concern over the sustainability and environmental impact of conventional fuel usage, the prospect of producing clean, sustainable power in substantial quantities from renewable energy sources arouses interest around the world. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the principal types of renewable energy--including solar, thermal, photovoltaics, bioenergy, hydro, tidal, wind, wave, and geothermal. In addition, it explains the underlying physical and technological principles of renewable energy and examines the environmental impact and prospects of different energy sources. With more than 350 detailed illustrations, more than 50 tables of data, and a wide range of case studies, Renewable Energy, 2/e is an ideal choice for undergraduate courses in energy, sustainable development, and environmental science. New to the Second Edition ·Full-color design ·Updated to reflect developments in technology, policy, attitides ·Complemented by Energy Systems and Sustainability edited by Godfrey Boyle, Bob Everett and Janet Ramage, all of the Open University, U.K.

  9. Renewing Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McChesney, Jim

    1997-01-01

    This publication reviews works on educational reform that represent attempts to do more than merely respond in knee-jerk fashion to political pressure for reform. Bruce Joyce and Emily Calhoun, in "Learning Experiences in School Renewal: An Exploration of Five Successful Programs" (Eugene, Oregon: ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management,…

  10. Renewable energy: Renewing the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Noun, R.J.

    1996-12-31

    During the past 20 years, the United States has enacted some of the world`s most comprehensive legislation to protect and preserve its environmental heritage. These regulations have spawned a $115-billion-per-year industry for {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} products and services, with more than 35,000 companies providing jobs for American workers. On the other hand, environmental regulations have placed heavy cost burdens on many U.S. businesses as they struggle to remain competitive in both domestic and foreign markets. How, then, can one reconcile the growing need for environmental protection with the desire for a stronger, healthier economy? Even as Congress debates the value of existing environmental legislation, new threats are appearing on the horizon. For example, extensive storm damage from Hurricane Andrew and other natural disasters has prompted members of the $650-billion insurance industry to begin studying the effects that global warming may have on future property damage claims. More and more people are realizing that the most efficient and economical way to control pollution is to avoid creating it in the first place. And that`s where renewable energy comes in. Technologies based on nonpolluting renewable energy sources such as sunlight and wind can help preserve our environmental heritage without a tangled web of regulations to burden industry. Renewable energy technologies can also help the United States become a world leader in a potential $400-billion-a-year global market for environmentally friendly products.

  11. Coronal abundances and their variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saba, Julia L. R.

    1994-01-01

    This contract supports the investigation of elemental abundances in the solar corona, principally through analysis of high-resolution software X-ray spectra from the Flat Crystal Spectrometer on NASA's Solar Maximum Mission. The goals of the study are a characterization of the mean values of relative abundances of elements accessible in the FCS data, and information on the extent and circumstances of their variability. This report is a summation of the data analysis and reporting activities which occurred since the last report, submitted two months early, in April 1994, to facilitate evaluation of the first year's progress for contract renewal. Hence this report covers the period 15 April 1994 - 15 December 1994. A list of publications resulting from this research is included.

  12. Renewing governance.

    PubMed

    Loos, Gregory P

    2003-01-01

    Globalization's profound influence on social and political institutions need not be negative. Critics of globalization have often referred to the "Impossible Trinity" because decision-making must 1. respect national sovereignty, 2. develop and implement firm regulation, and 3. allow capital markets to be as free as possible. To many, such goals are mutually exclusive because history conditions us to view policy-making and governance in traditional molds. Thus, transnational governance merely appears impossible because current forms of governance were not designed to provide it. The world needs new tools for governing, and its citizens must seize the opportunity to help develop them. The rise of a global society requires a greater level of generality and inclusion than is found in most policy bodies today. Politicians need to re-examine key assumptions about government. States must develop ways to discharge their regulatory responsibilities across borders and collaborate with neighboring jurisdictions, multilateral bodies, and business. Concepts such as multilateralism and tripartism show great promise. Governments must engage civil society in the spirit of shared responsibility and democratic decision-making. Such changes will result in a renewal of the state's purpose and better use of international resources and expertise in governance. PMID:17208717

  13. Algae Oil: A Sustainable Renewable Fuel of Future

    PubMed Central

    Paul Abishek, Monford; Prem Rajan, Anand

    2014-01-01

    A nonrenewable fuel like petroleum has been used from centuries and its usage has kept on increasing day by day. This also contributes to increased production of greenhouse gases contributing towards global issues like global warming. In order to meet environmental and economic sustainability, renewable, carbon neutral transport fuels are necessary. To meet these demands microalgae are the key source for production of biodiesel. These microalgae do produce oil from sunlight like plants but in a much more efficient manner. Biodiesel provides more environmental benefits, and being a renewable resource it has gained lot of attraction. However, the main obstacle to commercialization of biodiesel is its cost and feasibility. Biodiesel is usually used by blending with petro diesel, but it can also be used in pure form. Biodiesel is a sustainable fuel, as it is available throughout the year and can run any engine. It will satisfy the needs of the future generation to come. It will meet the demands of the future generation to come. PMID:24883211

  14. Algae oil: a sustainable renewable fuel of future.

    PubMed

    Paul Abishek, Monford; Patel, Jay; Prem Rajan, Anand

    2014-01-01

    A nonrenewable fuel like petroleum has been used from centuries and its usage has kept on increasing day by day. This also contributes to increased production of greenhouse gases contributing towards global issues like global warming. In order to meet environmental and economic sustainability, renewable, carbon neutral transport fuels are necessary. To meet these demands microalgae are the key source for production of biodiesel. These microalgae do produce oil from sunlight like plants but in a much more efficient manner. Biodiesel provides more environmental benefits, and being a renewable resource it has gained lot of attraction. However, the main obstacle to commercialization of biodiesel is its cost and feasibility. Biodiesel is usually used by blending with petro diesel, but it can also be used in pure form. Biodiesel is a sustainable fuel, as it is available throughout the year and can run any engine. It will satisfy the needs of the future generation to come. It will meet the demands of the future generation to come. PMID:24883211

  15. Algae oil: a sustainable renewable fuel of future.

    PubMed

    Paul Abishek, Monford; Patel, Jay; Prem Rajan, Anand

    2014-01-01

    A nonrenewable fuel like petroleum has been used from centuries and its usage has kept on increasing day by day. This also contributes to increased production of greenhouse gases contributing towards global issues like global warming. In order to meet environmental and economic sustainability, renewable, carbon neutral transport fuels are necessary. To meet these demands microalgae are the key source for production of biodiesel. These microalgae do produce oil from sunlight like plants but in a much more efficient manner. Biodiesel provides more environmental benefits, and being a renewable resource it has gained lot of attraction. However, the main obstacle to commercialization of biodiesel is its cost and feasibility. Biodiesel is usually used by blending with petro diesel, but it can also be used in pure form. Biodiesel is a sustainable fuel, as it is available throughout the year and can run any engine. It will satisfy the needs of the future generation to come. It will meet the demands of the future generation to come.

  16. Renewable Energy in Fitness Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Chvala, William D.

    2009-09-30

    All military installations have goals for implementing renewable energy projects, but not all have abundant solar energy or have massive feedstock for a large biomass plant. They must build up their renewable portfolio one project at it a time where they make the most sense – most of the time through small projects on specific buildings. During the last few years, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) provided project support to Army Installation Management Command Southeast Region (IMCOM-Southeast) installations. One of the building types visited, the physical fitness center (PFC), almost always yield project ideas. The building lends itself to a number of different technologies, and the high traffic nature is the perfect place to craft an educational message for users and demonstrate an installation’s commitment to sustainable energy development.

  17. Alaska's renewable energy potential.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-02-01

    This paper delivers a brief survey of renewable energy technologies applicable to Alaska's climate, latitude, geography, and geology. We first identify Alaska's natural renewable energy resources and which renewable energy technologies would be most productive. e survey the current state of renewable energy technologies and research efforts within the U.S. and, where appropriate, internationally. We also present information on the current state of Alaska's renewable energy assets, incentives, and commercial enterprises. Finally, we escribe places where research efforts at Sandia National Laboratories could assist the state of Alaska with its renewable energy technology investment efforts.

  18. Renewable energy annual 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary.

  19. Solar abundance of osmium

    PubMed Central

    Jacoby, George; Aller, Lawrence H.

    1976-01-01

    The abundance parameter, log gfA, where g is the statistical weight of the lower level, f is the oscillator strength, and A is the abundance (by numbers of atoms with respect to hydrogen), has been derived for three lines of osmium by a method of spectrum synthesis. An apparent discordance of the derived abundance with that found from the carbonaceous chondrites is probably to be attributed primarily to errors in the f-values, and blending with unknown contributors. PMID:16592314

  20. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-10-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  1. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2013-04-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  2. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-11-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  3. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M. M.

    2012-09-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  4. Abundance estimation and conservation biology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; MacKenzie, D.I.

    2004-01-01

    Abundance is the state variable of interest in most population–level ecological research and in most programs involving management and conservation of animal populations. Abundance is the single parameter of interest in capture–recapture models for closed populations (e.g., Darroch, 1958; Otis et al., 1978; Chao, 2001). The initial capture–recapture models developed for partially (Darroch, 1959) and completely (Jolly, 1965; Seber, 1965) open populations represented efforts to relax the restrictive assumption of population closure for the purpose of estimating abundance. Subsequent emphases in capture–recapture work were on survival rate estimation in the 1970’s and 1980’s (e.g., Burnham et al., 1987; Lebreton et al.,1992), and on movement estimation in the 1990’s (Brownie et al., 1993; Schwarz et al., 1993). However, from the mid–1990’s until the present time, capture–recapture investigators have expressed a renewed interest in abundance and related parameters (Pradel, 1996; Schwarz & Arnason, 1996; Schwarz, 2001). The focus of this session was abundance, and presentations covered topics ranging from estimation of abundance and rate of change in abundance, to inferences about the demographic processes underlying changes in abundance, to occupancy as a surrogate of abundance. The plenary paper by Link & Barker (2004) is provocative and very interesting, and it contains a number of important messages and suggestions. Link & Barker (2004) emphasize that the increasing complexity of capture–recapture models has resulted in large numbers of parameters and that a challenge to ecologists is to extract ecological signals from this complexity. They offer hierarchical models as a natural approach to inference in which traditional parameters are viewed as realizations of stochastic processes. These processes are governed by hyperparameters, and the inferential approach focuses on these hyperparameters. Link & Barker (2004) also suggest that our attention

  5. Molecular electrocatalysts for oxidation of hydrogen using earth-abundant metals: shoving protons around with proton relays.

    PubMed

    Bullock, R Morris; Helm, Monte L

    2015-07-21

    Sustainable, carbon-neutral energy is needed to supplant the worldwide reliance on fossil fuels in order to address the persistent problem of increasing emissions of CO2. Solar and wind energy are intermittent, highlighting the need to develop energy storage on a huge scale. Electrocatalysts provide a way to convert between electrical energy generated by renewable energy sources and chemical energy in the form of chemical bonds. Oxidation of hydrogen to give two electrons and two protons is carried out in fuel cells, but the typical catalyst is platinum, a precious metal of low earth abundance and high cost. In nature, hydrogenases based on iron or iron/nickel reversibly oxidize hydrogen with remarkable efficiencies and rates. Functional models of these enzymes have been synthesized with the goal of achieving electrocatalytic H2 oxidation using inexpensive, earth-abundant metals along with a key feature identified in the [FeFe]-hydrogenase: an amine base positioned near the metal. The diphosphine ligands P(R)2N(R')2 (1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane with alkyl or aryl groups on the P and N atoms) are used as ligands in Ni, Fe, and Mn complexes. The pendant amines facilitate binding and heterolytic cleavage of H2, placing the hydride on the metal and the proton on the amine. The pendant amines also serve as proton relays, accelerating intramolecular and intermolecular proton transfers. Electrochemical oxidations and deprotonations by an exogeneous amine base lead to catalytic cycles for oxidation of H2 (1 atm) at room temperature for catalysts derived from [Ni(P(Cy)2N(R')2)2](2+), Cp(C6F5)Fe(P(tBu)2N(Bn)2)H, and MnH(P(Ph)2N(Bn)2)(bppm)(CO) [bppm = (PAr(F)2)2CH2]. In the oxidation of H2 catalyzed by [Ni(P(Cy)2N(R')2)2](2+), the initial product observed experimentally is a Ni(0) complex in which two of the pendant amines are protonated. Two different pathways can occur from this intermediate; deprotonation followed by oxidation occurs with a lower overpotential than

  6. Molecular electrocatalysts for oxidation of hydrogen using earth-abundant metals: shoving protons around with proton relays.

    PubMed

    Bullock, R Morris; Helm, Monte L

    2015-07-21

    Sustainable, carbon-neutral energy is needed to supplant the worldwide reliance on fossil fuels in order to address the persistent problem of increasing emissions of CO2. Solar and wind energy are intermittent, highlighting the need to develop energy storage on a huge scale. Electrocatalysts provide a way to convert between electrical energy generated by renewable energy sources and chemical energy in the form of chemical bonds. Oxidation of hydrogen to give two electrons and two protons is carried out in fuel cells, but the typical catalyst is platinum, a precious metal of low earth abundance and high cost. In nature, hydrogenases based on iron or iron/nickel reversibly oxidize hydrogen with remarkable efficiencies and rates. Functional models of these enzymes have been synthesized with the goal of achieving electrocatalytic H2 oxidation using inexpensive, earth-abundant metals along with a key feature identified in the [FeFe]-hydrogenase: an amine base positioned near the metal. The diphosphine ligands P(R)2N(R')2 (1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane with alkyl or aryl groups on the P and N atoms) are used as ligands in Ni, Fe, and Mn complexes. The pendant amines facilitate binding and heterolytic cleavage of H2, placing the hydride on the metal and the proton on the amine. The pendant amines also serve as proton relays, accelerating intramolecular and intermolecular proton transfers. Electrochemical oxidations and deprotonations by an exogeneous amine base lead to catalytic cycles for oxidation of H2 (1 atm) at room temperature for catalysts derived from [Ni(P(Cy)2N(R')2)2](2+), Cp(C6F5)Fe(P(tBu)2N(Bn)2)H, and MnH(P(Ph)2N(Bn)2)(bppm)(CO) [bppm = (PAr(F)2)2CH2]. In the oxidation of H2 catalyzed by [Ni(P(Cy)2N(R')2)2](2+), the initial product observed experimentally is a Ni(0) complex in which two of the pendant amines are protonated. Two different pathways can occur from this intermediate; deprotonation followed by oxidation occurs with a lower overpotential than

  7. Renewable energy annual 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic.

  8. OXYGEN ABUNDANCES IN CEPHEIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Luck, R. E.; Andrievsky, S. M.; Korotin, S. N.; Kovtyukh, V. V. E-mail: serkor@skyline.od.ua E-mail: scan@deneb1.odessa.ua

    2013-07-01

    Oxygen abundances in later-type stars, and intermediate-mass stars in particular, are usually determined from the [O I] line at 630.0 nm, and to a lesser extent, from the O I triplet at 615.7 nm. The near-IR triplets at 777.4 nm and 844.6 nm are strong in these stars and generally do not suffer from severe blending with other species. However, these latter two triplets suffer from strong non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects and thus see limited use in abundance analyses. In this paper, we derive oxygen abundances in a large sample of Cepheids using the near-IR triplets from an NLTE analysis, and compare those abundances to values derived from a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of the [O I] 630.0 nm line and the O I 615.7 nm triplet as well as LTE abundances for the 777.4 nm triplet. All of these lines suffer from line strength problems making them sensitive to either measurement complications (weak lines) or to line saturation difficulties (strong lines). Upon this realization, the LTE results for the [O I] lines and the O I 615.7 nm triplet are in adequate agreement with the abundance from the NLTE analysis of the near-IR triplets.

  9. Interstellar Abundance Standards Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofia, Ulysses J.; Meyer, David M.

    2001-06-01

    We evaluate the stellar abundances often used to represent the total (gas plus dust) composition of the interstellar medium. Published abundances for B stars, young later type (F and G) stars, and the Sun are compared to the modeled dust-phase and measured gas-phase compositions of the interstellar medium. This study uses abundances for the five most populous elements in dust grains-C, O, Mg, Si, and Fe-and the cosmically abundant element, N. We find that B stars have metal abundances that are too low to be considered valid representations of the interstellar medium. The commonly invoked interstellar standard that is two-thirds of the solar composition is also rejected by recent observations. Young (<=2 Gyr) F and G disk stars and the Sun, however, cannot be ruled out as reliable proxies for the total interstellar composition. If their abundances are valid representations of the interstellar medium, then the apparent underabundance of carbon with respect to that required by dust models, i.e., the carbon crisis, is substantially eased.

  10. Renewable smart materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun Chan; Mun, Seongcheol; Ko, Hyun-U.; Zhai, Lindong; Kafy, Abdullahil; Kim, Jaehwan

    2016-07-01

    The use of renewable materials is essential in future technologies to harmonize with our living environment. Renewable materials can maintain our resources from the environment so as to overcome degradation of natural environmental services and diminished productivity. This paper reviews recent advancement of renewable materials for smart material applications, including wood, cellulose, chitin, lignin, and their sensors, actuators and energy storage applications. To further improve functionality of renewable materials, hybrid composites of inorganic functional materials are introduced by incorporating carbon nanotubes, titanium dioxide and tin oxide conducting polymers and ionic liquids. Since renewable materials have many advantages of biocompatible, sustainable, biodegradable, high mechanical strength and versatile modification behaviors, more research efforts need to be focused on the development of renewable smart materials.

  11. Solar abundance of platinum

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Harry; Aller, Lawrence H.

    1975-01-01

    Three lines of neutral platinum, located at λ 2997.98 Å, λ 3064.71 Å, and λ 3301.86 Å have been used to determine the solar platinum abundance by the method of spectral synthesis. On the scale, log A(H) = 12.00, the thus-derived solar platinum abundance is 1.75 ± 0.10, in fair accord with Cameron's value of log A(Pt) = 1.69 derived by Mason from carbonaceous chondrites and calculated on the assumption that log A(Si) = 7.55 in the sun. PMID:16592278

  12. Carbon Neutrality and the Use of Offsets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ney, Richard A.; Purman, Judith R.

    2009-01-01

    Many organizations, including colleges and universities, are moving to address the threat of climate change by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from their operations. For example, the rapid growth of participation in the Presidents Climate Commitment (PCC) now means that more than 600 colleges and universities have pledged to develop plans…

  13. Abundances of light elements.

    PubMed Central

    Pagel, B E

    1993-01-01

    Recent developments in the study of abundances of light elements and their relevance to cosmological nucleosynthesis are briefly reviewed. The simplest model, based on standard cosmology and particle physics and assuming homogeneous baryon density at the relevant times, continues to stand up well. PMID:11607388

  14. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in a Power Systems Engineering Research Center webinar on September 4, 2012.

  15. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. This presentation was presented in a Wind Powering America webinar on August 15, 2012 and is now available through the Wind Powering America website.

  16. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M.; Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in an Union of Concerned Scientists webinar on June 12, 2012.

  17. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M. M.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in a webinar given by the California Energy Commission.

  18. Renewable Energy Annual

    EIA Publications

    2012-01-01

    Presents five chapters covering various aspects of the renewable energy marketplace, along with detailed data tables and graphics. Particular focus is given to renewable energy trends in consumption and electricity; manufacturing activities of solar thermal collectors, solar photovoltaic cells/modules, and geothermal heat pumps; and green pricing and net metering programs. The Department of Energy provides detailed offshore

  19. Renewable Energy in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-03-01

    This report examines the opportunities, challenges, and costs associated with renewable energy implementation in Alaska and provides strategies that position Alaska's accumulating knowledge in renewable energy development for export to the rapidly growing energy/electric markets of the developing world.

  20. Renewing Urban Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield, John

    This paper describes an approach to urban renewal, called the Multi-Function Polis (MFP), which emphasizes education as a key factor in a renewal process that includes development of 21st century industries such as information technology, telecommunications, and environmental management. Focusing on Adelaide, Australia, as an example, the paper…

  1. Renewable Energy Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Michael K.; Carter, Vinson R.

    2010-01-01

    In many ways the field of renewable energy technology is being introduced to a society that has little knowledge or background with anything beyond traditional exhaustible forms of energy and power. Dotson (2009) noted that the real challenge is to inform and educate the citizenry of the renewable energy potential through the development of…

  2. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M.

    2012-10-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It is being presented at the Utility Variable-Generation Integration Group Fall Technical Workshop on October 24, 2012.

  3. Colorado's Prospects for Interstate Commerce in Renewable Power

    SciTech Connect

    Hurlbut, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    Colorado has more renewable energy potential than it is ever likely to need for its own in-state electricity consumption. Such abundance may suggest an opportunity for the state to sell renewable power elsewhere, but Colorado faces considerable competition from other western states that may have better resources and easier access to key markets on the West Coast. This report examines factors that will be important to the development of interstate commerce for electricity generated from renewable resources. It examines market fundamentals in a regional context, and then looks at the implications for Colorado.

  4. Solar abundance of iridium

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Stephen; Aller, Lawrence H.

    1976-01-01

    By a method of spectrum synthesis, which yields log gfA, where g is the statistical weight of the lower level, f is the oscillator strength, and A is the abundance, an attempt is made to deduce the solar iridium abundance from one relatively unblended, but fairly weak IrI line, λ 3220.78 Å. If the Corliss-Bozman f-value for this line is adopted, we find log A(Ir) = 0.82 on the scale log A(H) = 12.00. The discordance with the value found from carbonaceous chondrites may arise from faulty f-values or from difficulties arising from line blending in this far ultraviolet domain of the solar spectrum. PMID:16578735

  5. Programs in Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Our nation faces significant challenges as we enter the 1990s: securing a reliable supply of competitively priced energy, improving the quality of our environment, and increasing our share of foreign markets for goods and services. The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Programs in Renewable Energy are working toward meeting these challenges by developing the technologies that make use of our nation's largest energy resource: renewable energy. The sunlight, wind biomass, flowing water, ocean energy, and geothermal energy that make up the renewable energy resource can be found throughout our nation. These resources can provide all the forms of energy our nation needs: liquid fuels, electricity, and heating and cooling. Renewable energy meets about 10% of our need for these forms of energy today, yet the potential contribution is many times greater. DOE's Programs in Renewable Energy are working side-by-side with American industry to develop the technologies that convert renewable energy resources into practical, cost-competitive energy. After a decade of progress in research, several of these technologies are poised to make large contributions during the 1990s and beyond. This booklet provides an overview of the renewable energy programs and their plans for FY 1990. Sources of additional information are listed at the back of the booklet. 48 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Renewable transportation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bull, S.R.

    1995-12-31

    The need for alternative and renewable transportation fuels continues to be high on the nation`s agenda. Substituting these fuels for petroleum can reduce dependence on foreign oil imports, improve air quality, and mitigate greenhouse gases. Renewable fuels offer the same advantages as nonrenewable alternative fuels, and, in addition, provide an inexhaustible supply. The largest potential for significant quantities of liquid renewable fuels is from the production of biofuels from cellulosic biomass such as wastes and energy crops. Advanced vehicles will provide dramatic fuel efficiency improvements and will likely have electric drive systems. An evolution of vehicles is expected to occur, beginning with an electric vehicle that fills niche markets in the near term, to hybrid vehicles by the year 2000, to fuel cell vehicles after the year 2005. With the combination of renewable fuels and high efficiency, advanced vehicles can move the nation toward a sustainable transportation system.

  7. Renewable Substitutability Index: Maximizing Renewable Resource Use in Buildings

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to achieve a material and energy balance in buildings that is sustainable in the long run, there is an urgent need to assess the renewable and non-renewable resources used in the manufacturing process and to progressively replace non-renewable resources with renewables. ...

  8. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M. M.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented to the 2012 Western Conference of Public Service Commissioners, during their June, 2012, meeting. The Western Conference of Public Service Commissioners is a regional association within the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC).

  9. Abundance of field galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klypin, Anatoly; Karachentsev, Igor; Makarov, Dmitry; Nasonova, Olga

    2015-12-01

    We present new measurements of the abundance of galaxies with a given circular velocity in the Local Volume: a region centred on the Milky Way Galaxy and extending to distance ˜10 Mpc. The sample of ˜750 mostly dwarf galaxies provides a unique opportunity to study the abundance and properties of galaxies down to absolute magnitudes MB ≈ -10 and virial masses M_vir= 109{ M_{⊙}}. We find that the standard Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model gives remarkably accurate estimates for the velocity function of galaxies with circular velocities V ≳ 70 kms-1 and corresponding virial masses M_vir≳ 5× 10^{10}{ M_{⊙}}, but it badly fails by overpredicting ˜5 times the abundance of large dwarfs with velocities V = 30-40 kms-1. The warm dark matter (WDM) models cannot explain the data either, regardless of mass of WDM particle. Just as in previous observational studies, we find a shallow asymptotic slope dN/dlog V ∝ Vα, α ≈ -1 of the velocity function, which is inconsistent with the standard ΛCDM model that predicts the slope α = -3. Though reminiscent to the known overabundance of satellite problem, the overabundance of field galaxies is a much more difficult problem. For the standard ΛCDM model to survive, in the 10 Mpc radius of the Milky Way there should be 1000 not yet detected galaxies with virial mass M_vir≈ 10^{10}{ M_{⊙}}, extremely low surface brightness and no detectable H I gas. So far none of this type of galaxies have been discovered.

  10. Late embryogenesis abundant proteins

    PubMed Central

    Olvera-Carrillo, Yadira; Reyes, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins accumulate at the onset of seed desiccation and in response to water deficit in vegetative plant tissues. The typical LEA proteins are highly hydrophilic and intrinsically unstructured. They have been classified in different families, each one showing distinctive conserved motifs. In this manuscript we present and discuss some of the recent findings regarding their role in plant adaptation to water deficit, as well as those concerning to their possible function, and how it can be related to their intrinsic structural flexibility. PMID:21447997

  11. An optimal renewable energy mix for Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leduc, Sylvain; Patrizio, Piera; Yowargana, Ping; Kraxner, Florian

    2016-04-01

    Indonesia has experienced a constant increase of the use of petroleum and coal in the power sector, while the share of renewable sources has remained stable at 6% of the total energy production during the last decade. As its domestic energy demand undeniably continues to grow, Indonesia is committed to increase the production of renewable energy. Mainly to decrease its dependency on fossil fuel-based resources, and to decrease the anthropogenic emissions, the government of Indonesia has established a 23 percent target for renewable energy by 2025, along with a 100 percent electrification target by 2020 (the current rate is 80.4 percent). In that respect, Indonesia has abundant resources to meet these targets, but there is - inter alia - a lack of proper integrated planning, regulatory support, investment, distribution in remote areas of the Archipelago, and missing data to back the planning. To support the government of Indonesia in its sustainable energy system planning, a geographic explicit energy modeling approach is applied. This approach is based on the energy systems optimization model BeWhere, which identifies the optimal location of energy conversion sites based on the minimization of the costs of the supply chain. The model will incorporate the existing fossil fuel-based infrastructures, and evaluate the optimal costs, potentials and locations for the development of renewable energy technologies (i.e., wind, solar, hydro, biomass and geothermal based technologies), as well as the development of biomass co-firing in existing coal plants. With the help of the model, an optimally adapted renewable energy mix - vis-à-vis the competing fossil fuel based resources and applicable policies in order to promote the development of those renewable energy technologies - will be identified. The development of the optimal renewable energy technologies is carried out with special focus on nature protection and cultural heritage areas, where feedstock (e.g., biomass

  12. Financing renewable energy for Village Power application

    SciTech Connect

    Santibanez-Yeneza, G.

    1997-12-01

    When one talks of rural development, no doubt, the issue of rural energy is not far behind. As a significant component of any development strategy, rural energy is seen as the engine for growth that can bring about economic upliftment in the countryside. Many approaches to rural energy development have been tried. These approaches differ from country to country. But regardless of structure and approach, the goal remain essentially the same: to provide rural communities access to reliable energy services at affordable prices. In recent years, as global concern for the environment has increased, many governments have turned to renewable energy as a more environment friendly alternative to rural electrification. Technological advances in renewable energy application has helped to encourage this use. System reliability has improved, development costs have, to some extent been brought down and varied application approaches have been tried and tested in many areas. Indeed, there is huge potential for the development of renewable energy in the rural areas of most developing countries. At the rural level, renewable energy resources are almost always abundantly available: woodwaste, agricultural residues, animal waste, small-scale hydro, wind, solar and even sometimes geothermal resources. Since smaller scale systems are usually expected in these areas, renewable energy technologies can very well serve as decentralized energy systems for rural application. And not only for rural applications, new expansion planning paradigms have likewise led to the emergence of decentralized energy systems not only as supply options but also as corrective measures for maintaining end of line voltage levels. On the other hand, where renewable energy resource can provide significant blocks of power, they can be relied upon to provide indigenous power to the grids.

  13. Chemical abundance of comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyckoff, Susan; Wehinger, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Observations of NH2, (OI) and molecular ion spectra in comets represent virtually all of the volatile fraction of a comet nucleus. Their study leads to the N2, NH3, H2O, CO2, CO content of the nucleus, and thus to important constraints on models of comet formation and chemical processing in the primitive solar nebula. The observations of Comet Halley provide the opportunity for the first comprehensive determination of the abundances in a comet nucleus. The carbon isotope abundance ratio 12 C/13 C = 65 plus or minus 8 has been determined for Comet Halley from resolved rotational line structure in the CN B-X (0,0) band. The ratio is approximately 30 pct lower than the solar system value, 89, indicating either an enhancement of 13CN or a depletion of 12CN in the comet. Scenarios consistent with the observed carbon isotope ratio are: (1) formation of the comet at the periphery of the solar nebula in a fractionation-enriched 13CN region, or hidden from 12CN enrichment sources, and (2) capture of an interestellar comet. Long-slit charge coupled device (CCD) spectra obtained at the time of the spacecraft encounter of Comet Halley have also been analyzed. Scale lengths, production rates and column densities of CH, CN, C2 and NH2 were determined.

  14. Flare Plasma Iron Abundance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Dan, Chau; Jain, Rajmal; Schwartz, Richard A.; Tolbert, Anne K.

    2008-01-01

    The equivalent width of the iron-line complex at 6.7 keV seen in flare X-ray spectra suggests that the iron abundance of the hottest plasma at temperatures >approx.10 MK may sometimes be significantly lower than the nominal coronal abundance of four times the photospheric value that is commonly assumed. This conclusion is based on X-ray spectral observations of several flares seen in common with the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) and the Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) on the second Indian geostationary satellite, GSAT-2. The implications of this will be discussed as it relates to the origin of the hot flare plasma - either plasma already in the corona that is directly heated during the flare energy release process or chromospheric plasma that is heated by flare-accelerated particles and driven up into the corona. Other possible explanations of lower-than-expected equivalent widths of the iron-line complex will also be discussed.

  15. 2008 Renewable Energy Data Book

    SciTech Connect

    Gelman, Rachel

    2009-07-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2008 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced waterpower, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  16. 2008 Renewable Energy Data Book

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-07-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2008 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  17. 2011 Renewable Energy Data Book

    SciTech Connect

    R. Gelman

    2013-02-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2011 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  18. 2010 Renewable Energy Data Book

    SciTech Connect

    Gelman, Rachel

    2011-10-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2010 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced waterpower, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  19. 2009 Renewable Energy Data Book

    SciTech Connect

    Gelman, Rachel

    2010-08-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2009 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced waterpower, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  20. 2014 Renewable Energy Data Book

    SciTech Connect

    Beiter, Philipp

    2015-11-01

    The Renewable Energy Data Book for 2014 provides facts and figures on energy and electricity use, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, marine and hydrokinetic power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  1. 2014 Renewable Energy Data Book

    SciTech Connect

    Beiter, Philipp

    2015-11-15

    The Renewable Energy Data Book for 2014 provides facts and figures on energy and electricity use, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, marine and hydrokinetic power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  2. Geological subsurface will contribute significantly to the implementation of the energy policy towards renewables in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, Sonja; Kühn, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The demands to exploit the geological subsurface are increasing. In addition to the traditional production of raw materials such as natural gas and petroleum, or potable groundwater extraction the underground will most likely also be used to implement the climate and energy policy objectives in the context of the energy transition to renewables. These include the storage of energy from renewable sources (e.g. hydrogen and methane), the use of geothermal energy and possibly the long-term storage of carbon dioxide to reduce the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. The presentation addresses the question which realistic contribution can be expected from the geo-resource subsurface for the energy revolution, the detachment of fossil and nuclear fuels as well as the reduction of CO2 emissions. The study of Henning and Palzer [1] that models the energy balance of the electricity and heat sector including all renewable energy converters, storage components and loads for a future German energy system shows that provision with 100% renewables is economically feasible by 2050. Based on their work, our estimates underline that already in 2015 more than 100% of the required methane storage capacities therein are available and more than 100% of the heat pump demands might be covered by shallow and deep geothermal energy production in the future. In addition we show that a newly developed energy storage system [2-3] could be applied to store 20-60% of the surplus energy from renewables expected for 2050 with integrated gas storage of methane and CO2. [1] Henning H-M, Palzer A (2014) A comprehensive model for the German electricity and heat sector in a future energy system with a dominant contribution from renewable energy technologies -- Part I: Methodology. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 30, 1003-1018. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2013.09.012 [2] Kühn M, Nakaten N, Streibel M, Kempka T (2014) CO2 geological storage and utilization for a carbon neutral "power

  3. Abundances in Sagittarius Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifacio, P.; Zaggia, S.; Sbordone, L.; Santin, P.; Monaco, L.; Monai, S.; Molaro, P.; Marconi, G.; Girardi, L.; Ferraro, F.; di Marcantonio, P.; Caffau, E.; Bellazzini, M.

    The Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal is a very complex galaxy, which has undergone prolonged star formation. From the very first high resolution chemical analysis of Sgr stars, conducted using spectra obtained during the commissioning of UVES at VLT, it was clear that the star had undergone a high level of chemical processing, at variance with most of the other Local Group dwarf spheroidals. Thanks to FLAMES at VLT we now have accurate metallicities and abundances of alpha-chain elements for about 150 stars, which provide the first reliable metallicity distribution for this galaxy. Besides the already known high metallicity tail the existence of a metal-poor population has also been highlighted, although an assessment of the fraction of Sgr stars which belong to this population requires a larger sample. From our data it is also obvious that Sagittarius is a nucleated galaxy and that the centre of the nucleus coincides with M54, as already shown by Monaco et al.

  4. Renewable Chemicals: Dehydroxylation of Glycerol and Polyols

    PubMed Central

    ten Dam, Jeroen; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    The production of renewable chemicals is gaining attention over the past few years. The natural resources from which they can be derived in a sustainable way are most abundant in sugars, cellulose and hemicellulose. These highly functionalized molecules need to be de-functionalized in order to be feedstocks for the chemical industry. A fundamentally different approach to chemistry thus becomes necessary, since the traditionally employed oil-based chemicals normally lack functionality. This new chemical toolbox needs to be designed to guarantee the demands of future generations at a reasonable price. The surplus of functionality in sugars and glycerol consists of alcohol groups. To yield suitable renewable chemicals these natural products need to be defunctionalized by means of dehydroxylation. Here we review the possible approaches and evaluate them from a fundamental chemical aspect. PMID:21887771

  5. Renewable chemicals: dehydroxylation of glycerol and polyols.

    PubMed

    ten Dam, Jeroen; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2011-08-22

    The production of renewable chemicals is gaining attention over the past few years. The natural resources from which they can be derived in a sustainable way are most abundant in sugars, cellulose and hemicellulose. These highly functionalized molecules need to be de-functionalized in order to be feedstocks for the chemical industry. A fundamentally different approach to chemistry thus becomes necessary, since the traditionally employed oil-based chemicals normally lack functionality. This new chemical toolbox needs to be designed to guarantee the demands of future generations at a reasonable price. The surplus of functionality in sugars and glycerol consists of alcohol groups. To yield suitable renewable chemicals these natural products need to be defunctionalized by means of dehydroxylation. Here we review the possible approaches and evaluate them from a fundamental chemical aspect. PMID:21887771

  6. Integrated renewable energy networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansouri Kouhestani, F.; Byrne, J. M.; Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Spencer, L.

    2015-12-01

    This multidisciplinary research is focused on studying implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Our modern economy now depends heavily on large-scale, energy-intensive technologies. A transition to low carbon, renewable sources of energy is needed. We will develop a procedure for designing and analyzing renewable energy systems based on the magnitude, distribution, temporal characteristics, reliability and costs of the various renewable resources (including biomass waste streams) in combination with various measures to control the magnitude and timing of energy demand. The southern Canadian prairies are an ideal location for developing renewable energy networks. The region is blessed with steady, westerly winds and bright sunshine for more hours annually than Houston Texas. Extensive irrigation agriculture provides huge waste streams that can be processed biologically and chemically to create a range of biofuels. The first stage involves mapping existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation, such as ridges, rooftops and valley walls, will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids.

  7. Renewable energy and utility regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-10

    This report summarizes the results of a joint project on renewable energy of the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and the US DOE. NARUC'S Task Force on Renewable Energy conducted a review of the current state of renewable energy technologies to evaluate their potential and extract key policy lessons from experience already gained in deployment of these technologies in numerous states. The main focus of this effort has been to clarify how utility regulators affect the development of renewable energy resources. The goal of the project was twofold: (1) identify the factors that have led to success or failure or renewable energy technologies in various energy markets, and (2) to develop an agenda on renewable energy and utility regulation for NARUC and the DOE. This report consists of three sections: renewable energy contributions, costs and potential; factors affecting development of renewable energy resources; and a renewable energy agenda for NARUC.

  8. Renewable energy and utility regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-10

    This report summarizes the results of a joint project on renewable energy of the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and the US DOE. NARUC`S Task Force on Renewable Energy conducted a review of the current state of renewable energy technologies to evaluate their potential and extract key policy lessons from experience already gained in deployment of these technologies in numerous states. The main focus of this effort has been to clarify how utility regulators affect the development of renewable energy resources. The goal of the project was twofold: (1) identify the factors that have led to success or failure or renewable energy technologies in various energy markets, and (2) to develop an agenda on renewable energy and utility regulation for NARUC and the DOE. This report consists of three sections: renewable energy contributions, costs and potential; factors affecting development of renewable energy resources; and a renewable energy agenda for NARUC.

  9. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented at the 2012 RE AMP Annual Meeting. RE-AMP is an active network of 144 nonprofits and foundations across eight Midwestern states working on climate change and energy policy with the goal of reducing global warming pollution economy-wide 80% by 2050.

  10. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    DeMeo, E.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented at Wind Powering America States Summit. The Summit, which follows the American Wind Energy Association's (AWEA's) annual WINDPOWER Conference and Exhibition, provides state Wind Working Groups, state energy officials, U.S. Energy Department and national laboratory representatives, and professional and institutional partners an opportunity to review successes, opportunities, and challenges for wind energy and plan future collaboration.

  11. Progress in renewables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San Martin, R. L.

    This is a status report on progress made in the conduct of eleven Federally-supported renewable energy programs. Considerable progress has been made in the establishment and development of an infrastructure to support sustained growth. Unique technical problems led to the research and development of materials and designs which have achieved energy conversion efficiencies of up to 25% for electricity and 92% for heat in solar thermal systems. Overall, enough real progress has been made to provide a sound technology base upon which renewable energy systems industries can reasonably continue development.

  12. Actinide abundances in ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagee, B.; Bernatowicz, T. J.; Podosek, F. A.; Johnson, M. L.; Burnett, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of actinide and light REE (LREE) abundances and of phosphate abundances in equilibrated ordinary chondrites were obtained and were used to define the Pu abundance in the solar system and to determine the degree of variation of actinide and LREE abundances. The results were also used to compare directly the Pu/U ratio with the earlier obtained ratio determined indirectly, as (Pu/Nd)x(Nd/U), assuming that Pu behaves chemically as a LREE. The data, combined with high-accuracy isotope-dilution data from the literature, show that the degree of gram-scale variability of the Th, U, and LREE abundances for equilibrated ordinary chondrites is a factor of 2-3 for absolute abundances and up to 50 percent for relative abundances. The observed variations are interpreted as reflecting the differences in the compositions and/or proportions of solar nebula components accreted to ordinary chondrite parent bodies.

  13. Renewable Energy Policy in China: Overview; Renewable Energy in China

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-04-01

    China has rich potential for renewable energy development including wind energy, solar, biomass, hydropower, and geothermal. Fact sheet describes Chinas policy for developing renewable energy, policy objectives, subsidies, tax incentives, custom duties, and contact information.

  14. Renewable Energy Business Partnerships in China: Renewable Energy in China

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-04-01

    China has rich potential for renewable energy development including wind energy, solar, biomass, hydropower, and geothermal. Fact sheet describes Chinas policy for attracting foreign investment, Chinas tax policy, import duties, currency exchange, and renewable joint ventures in China.

  15. Renew, Reflect, and Refresh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    2005-01-01

    Is that the sound of the last bus leaving the schoolyard? Or the staff's collective sigh of relief? School's out. Now it's time to nurture the lifelong learner deep inside with a summer reading list that will allow teachers to renew, reflect, and refresh. The National Science Education Standards reminds us, "Becoming an effective science teacher…

  16. Mid-Career Renewal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leider, Richard J.

    1976-01-01

    Since "life/career renewal issues will be among the most discussed of society's problems in the next five years and one of the hottest problems business and industry will be faced with," the author reviews work ethic history and recommends approaches individuals may take in view of the probable future. (Author/BP)

  17. Learning about Renewable Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    This booklet provides an introduction to renewable energy, discussing: (1) the production of electricity from sunlight; (2) wind power; (3) hydroelectric power; (4) geothermal energy; and (5) biomass. Also provided are nine questions to answer (based on the readings), four additional questions to answer (which require additional information), and…

  18. Renewable liquid reflection grating

    DOEpatents

    Ryutov, Dmitri D.; Toor, Arthur

    2003-10-07

    A renewable liquid reflection grating. Electrodes are operatively connected to a conducting liquid in an arrangement that produces a reflection grating and driven by a current with a resonance frequency. In another embodiment, the electrodes create the grating by a resonant electrostatic force acting on a dielectric liquid.

  19. Renewable energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Kristoferson, L.A.; Bokalders, V.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides a valuable overview of the prospects for new and renewable energy technologies and their possible role in energy planning in developing countries. Contents include: biomass energy; production; conversion; utilisation; biomass engines and biomass fuels; solar energy systems; wind energy systems; and hydro energy systems.

  20. Renewable Systems Interconnection: Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kroposki, B.; Margolis, R.; Kuswa, G.; Torres, J.; Bower, W.; Key, T.; Ton, D.

    2008-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy launched the Renewable Systems Interconnection (RSI) study in 2007 to address the challenges to high penetrations of distributed renewable energy technologies. The RSI study consists of 14 additional reports.

  1. A realizable renewable energy future

    PubMed

    Turner

    1999-07-30

    The ability of renewable resources to provide all of society's energy needs is shown by using the United States as an example. Various renewable systems are presented, and the issues of energy payback, carbon dioxide abatement, and energy storage are addressed. Pathways for renewable hydrogen generation are shown, and the implementation of hydrogen technologies into the energy infrastructure is presented. The question is asked, Should money and energy be spent on carbon dioxide sequestration, or should renewable resources be implemented instead.

  2. Renewable energy and wildlife conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Khalil, Mona

    2016-09-09

    The renewable energy sector is rapidly expanding and diversifying the power supply of the country. Yet, as our Nation works to advance renewable energy and to conserve wildlife, some conflicts arise. To address these challenges, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting innovative research and developing workable solutions to reduce impacts of renewable energy production on wildlife.

  3. Renewable energy and wildlife conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Khalil, Mona

    2016-01-01

    The renewable energy sector is rapidly expanding and diversifying the power supply of the country. Yet, as our Nation works to advance renewable energy and to conserve wildlife, some conflicts arise. To address these challenges, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting innovative research and developing workable solutions to reduce impacts of renewable energy production on wildlife.

  4. Abundance coefficients, a new method for measuring microorganism relative abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forester, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    A new method of measuring the relative abundance of microorganisms by using a set of interrelated coefficients, termed 'abundance coefficients' or 'AC', is proposed. These coefficients provide a means of recording abundance for geometric density categories, and each density measurement represents an approximation of the Poisson parameter ??t. The AC is the natural logarithm of a 'characteristic value,' which is a particular number for each geometric density category. The 'characteristic values' are based upon a probabilistic error statement derived from the Poisson formula, and they present evidence for separation of the geometric category boundaries by e = 2.71828. The proposed AC provide a means for recording species abundance in a manner suitable for arithmetic manipulation, for population structure studies, and for the determination of practical limits for defining the presence or absence of a species. Further, these coefficients provide for both intrasample and intersample abundance comparisons. ?? 1977 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

  5. Bolivia renewable energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.

    1997-12-01

    The author summarizes changes which have occurred in Bolivia in the past year which have had an impact on renewable energy source development. Political changes have included the privatization of power generation and power distribution, and resulted in a new role for state level government and participation by the individual. A National Rural Electrification Plan was adopted in 1996, which stresses the use of GIS analysis and emphasizes factors such as off grid, economic index, population density, maintenance risk, and local organizational structure. The USAID program has chosen to stress economic development, environmental programs, and health over village power programs. The national renewables program has adopted a new development direction, with state projects, geothermal projects, and private sector involvement stressed.

  6. Polymers from renewable materials.

    PubMed

    Rus, Anika Zafiah M

    2010-01-01

    With the world facing depletion of its oil reserves, attention is being focused on how the plastics industry will address shortages and price increases in its crucial raw materials. One renewable resource is that of vegetable oils and fats and about a dozen crop plants make up the main vegetable oil-seed market. The main constituents of these oils are saturated and unsaturated fatty acids that are unique to the plant in which they have been developed. Moreover, technological processes can produce more well-defined and pure oils, and the fatty acid contents in the vegetable oils can be altered with modern crop development techniques. This article describes recent advances in utilising such vegetable oils in sourcing new polymeric materials. It also gives the context for the development of polymers based on renewable materials in general.

  7. Renewable energy project development

    SciTech Connect

    Ohi, J.

    1996-12-31

    The author presents this paper with three main thrusts. The first is to discuss the implementation of renewable energy options in China, the second is to identify the key project development steps necessary to implement such programs, and finally is to develop recommendations in the form of key issues which must be addressed in developing such a program, and key technical assistance needs which must be addressed to make such a program practical.

  8. Erratum: Interstellar Abundance Standards Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofia, U. J.; Meyer, D. M.

    2001-09-01

    In the Letter ``Interstellar Abundance Standards Revisited'' by U. J. Sofia and D. M. Meyer (ApJ, 554, L221 [2001]), Table 2 and its footnotes contain several typographical errors. The corrected table is shown below. We note that the solar reference standard now implies a positive abundance of nitrogen in halo dust.

  9. Regional Renewable Energy Cooperatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Byrne, J. M.; Harrison, T.; Mueller, R.; Peacock, K.; Usher, J.; Yalamova, R.; Kroebel, R.; Larsen, J.; McNaughton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We are building a multidisciplinary research program linking researchers in agriculture, business, earth science, engineering, humanities and social science. Our goal is to match renewable energy supply and reformed energy demands. The program will be focused on (i) understanding and modifying energy demand, (ii) design and implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Geomatics technology will be used to map existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation (ridges, rooftops, valley walls) will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids and transportation. Design of networks for utilization of waste streams of heat, water, animal and human waste for energy production will be investigated. Agriculture, cities and industry produce many waste streams that are not well utilized. Therefore, establishing a renewable energy resource mapping and planning program for electrical generation, waste heat and energy recovery, biomass collection, and biochar, biodiesel and syngas production is critical to regional energy optimization. Electrical storage and demand management are two priorities that will be investigated. Regional scale cooperatives may use electric vehicle batteries and innovations such as pump storage and concentrated solar molten salt heat storage for steam turbine electrical generation. Energy demand management is poorly explored in Canada and elsewhere - our homes and businesses operate on an unrestricted demand. Simple monitoring and energy demand-ranking software can easily reduce peaks demands and move lower ranked uses to non-peak periods, thereby reducing the grid size needed to meet peak demands. Peak demand strains the current energy grid capacity and often requires demand balancing projects and

  10. Renewable Energy Opportunity Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, E.; Mas, C.

    1998-11-13

    Presently, the US EPA is constructing a new complex at Research Triangle Park, North Carolina to consolidate its research operations in the Raleigh-Durham area. The National Computer Center (NCC) is currently in the design process and is planned for construction as partof this complex. Implementation of the new technologies can be planned as part of the normal construction process, and full credit for elimination of the conventional technologies can be taken. Several renewable technologies are specified in the current plans for the buildings. The objective of this study is to identify measures that are likely to be both technically and economically feasible.

  11. Mineral Abundance Near Aristarchus Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, Alison; Storrs, A.

    2007-12-01

    Mineral Abundance Near Aristarchus Crater Alison Bradford and Alex Storrs Towson University We analyze Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images to determine the abundance of minerals near Aristarchus crater. Following the calibration of Robinson et al. (2007) we present ratio maps of images obtained in August of 2005 showing the abundance of TiO2 and other minerals in this interesting area in the middle of Oceanus Procellarum. A prominent cleft (Schroter's Valley, presumably a collapsed lava tube) makes this region of special interest for analyzing the formation of mare basalts. Reference: Robinson, M.S., et al. (2007): "High resolution mapping of TiO2 abundances on the Moon using the Hubble Space Telescope", GRL 34, L13203

  12. The boron abundance of Procyon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemke, Michael; Lambert, David L.; Edvardsson, Bengt

    1993-01-01

    The B I 2496.8 A resonance line and HST/GHRS echelle spectra are used with model atmospheres and synthetic spectra to derive the B abundance of the F dwarfs Procyon (Alpha Canis Minoris), Theta Ursae Majoris, and Iota Pegasi. The B abundance of Theta UMa and Iota Peg is similar to that derived by Boesgaard and Heacox (1978) from the B II resonance line in spectra of A- and B-type stars. These two dwarfs show normal abundances of Li, Be, and B. Procyon, which is highly depleted in Li and Be, is depleted in B by a factor of at least 3. Comparison of the spectra of Procyon and the halo dwarf HD 140283 shows that the B abundance assigned by Duncan et al. (1992) to three halo dwarfs is not greatly overestimated as a result of contamination of the B I line by an unidentified line.

  13. ALS renewal moves forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcone, R. W.; Feinberg, B.; Hussain, Z.; Kirz, J.; Krebs, G. F.; Padmore, H. A.; Robin, D. S.; Robinson, A. L.

    2007-11-01

    As the result of an extensive long-term planning process involving all its stakeholders—management, staff, and users—the ALS has seen its future and is aggressively moving ahead to implement its vision for keeping the facility at the cutting edge for the next 2-3 decades. The evolving strategic plan now in place aims to renew the ALS so it can address a new generation of fundamental questions about size dependent and dimensional-confinement phenomena at the nanoscale; correlation and complexity in physical, biological, and environmental systems; and temporal evolution, assembly, dynamics and ultrafast phenomena. The renewal spans three areas: (1) increased staffing at beamlines to support the growing user community and safety professionals to keep an increasingly complex facility hazard free; (2) implementing advances in accelerator, insertion device, beamline, and detector technology that will make it possible for ALS users to address emerging grand scientific and technological challenges with incisive world-class tools; and (3) construction of a user support building and guest housing that will increase the safety and user friendliness of the ALS by providing users office, meeting, experiment staging, and laboratory space for their work and on-site accommodations at reasonable rates.

  14. Recombinant renewable polyclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Fortunato; D'Angelo, Sara; Gaiotto, Tiziano; Naranjo, Leslie; Tian, Hongzhao; Gräslund, Susanne; Dobrovetsky, Elena; Hraber, Peter; Lund-Johansen, Fridtjof; Saragozza, Silvia; Sblattero, Daniele; Kiss, Csaba; Bradbury, Andrew R M

    2015-01-01

    Only a small fraction of the antibodies in a traditional polyclonal antibody mixture recognize the target of interest, frequently resulting in undesirable polyreactivity. Here, we show that high-quality recombinant polyclonals, in which hundreds of different antibodies are all directed toward a target of interest, can be easily generated in vitro by combining phage and yeast display. We show that, unlike traditional polyclonals, which are limited resources, recombinant polyclonal antibodies can be amplified over one hundred million-fold without losing representation or functionality. Our protocol was tested on 9 different targets to demonstrate how the strategy allows the selective amplification of antibodies directed toward desirable target specific epitopes, such as those found in one protein but not a closely related one, and the elimination of antibodies recognizing common epitopes, without significant loss of diversity. These recombinant renewable polyclonal antibodies are usable in different assays, and can be generated in high throughput. This approach could potentially be used to develop highly specific recombinant renewable antibodies against all human gene products.

  15. Federal Renewable Energy Screening Assistant

    SciTech Connect

    Shelpuk, B; Walker, A

    1994-10-01

    The Federal Renewable Energy Screening Assistant is a software tool to be used by energy auditors to prioritize future studies of potentially cost-effective renewable energy applications at federal facilities. This paper describes the structure and function of the tool, gives an inventory of renewable energy technologies represented in the tool, and briefly describes the algorithms used to rank opportunities by the savings-to-investment ratio.

  16. Renewable energy development in China

    SciTech Connect

    Junfeng, Li

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the resources availability, technologies development and their costs of renewable energies in China and introduces the programs of renewable energies technologies development and their adaptation for rural economic development in China. As the conclusion of this paper, renewable energies technologies are suitable for some rural areas, especially in the remote areas for both household energy and business activities energy demand. The paper looks at issues involving hydropower, wind energy, biomass combustion, geothermal energy, and solar energy.

  17. Energy Management Challenges and Opportunities with Increased Intermittent Renewable Generation on the California Electrical Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichman, Joshua David

    Renewable resources including wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, hydroelectric, wave and tidal, represent an opportunity for environmentally preferred generation of electricity that also increases energy security and independence. California is very proactive in encouraging the implementation of renewable energy in part through legislation like Assembly Bill 32 and the development and execution of Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS); however renewable technologies are not without challenges. All renewable resources have some resource limitations, be that from location, capacity, cost or availability. Technologies like wind and solar are intermittent in nature but represent one of the most abundant resources for generating renewable electricity. If RPS goals are to be achieved high levels of intermittent renewables must be considered. This work explores the effects of high penetration of renewables on a grid system, with respect to resource availability and identifies the key challenges from the perspective of the grid to introducing these resources. The HiGRID tool was developed for this analysis because no other tool could explore grid operation, while maintaining system reliability, with a diverse set of renewable resources and a wide array of complementary technologies including: energy efficiency, demand response, energy storage technologies and electric transportation. This tool resolves the hourly operation of conventional generation resources (nuclear, coal, geothermal, natural gas and hydro). The resulting behavior from introducing additional renewable resources and the lifetime costs for each technology is analyzed.

  18. NREL Explores Earth-Abundant Materials for Future Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-10-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are using a theory-driven technique - sequential cation mutation - to understand the nature and limitations of promising solar cell materials that can replace today's technologies. Finding new materials that use Earth-abundant elements and are easily manufactured is important for large-scale solar electricity deployment.

  19. EDITORIAL: Renewing energy technology Renewing energy technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2011-06-01

    Renewable energy is now a mainstream concern among businesses and governments across the world, and could be considered a characteristic preoccupation of our time. It is interesting to note that many of the energy technologies currently being developed date back to very different eras, and even predate the industrial revolution. The fuel cell was first invented as long ago as 1838 by the Swiss--German chemist Christian Friedrich Schönbein [1], and the idea of harnessing solar power dates back to ancient Greece [2]. The enduring fascination with new means of harnessing energy is no doubt linked to man's innate delight in expending it, whether it be to satisfy the drive of curiosity, or from a hunger for entertainment, or to power automated labour-saving devices. But this must be galvanized by the sustained ability to improve device performance, unearthing original science, and asking new questions, for example regarding the durability of photovoltaic devices [3]. As in so many fields, advances in hydrogen storage technology for fuel cells have benefited significantly from nanotechnology. The idea is that the kinetics of hydrogen uptake and release may be reduced by decreasing the particle size. An understanding of how effective this may be has been hampered by limited knowledge of the way the thermodynamics are affected by atom or molecule cluster size. Detailed calculations of individual atoms in clusters are limited by computational resources as to the number of atoms that can studied, and other innovative approaches that deal with force fields derived by extrapolating the difference between the properties of clusters and bulk matter require labour-intensive modifications when extending such studies to new materials. In [4], researchers in the US use an alternative approach, considering the nanoparticle as having the same crystal structure as the bulk but relaxing the few layers of atoms near the surface. The favourable features of nanostructures for catalysis

  20. Renewable jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Kallio, Pauli; Pásztor, András; Akhtar, M Kalim; Jones, Patrik R

    2014-04-01

    Novel strategies for sustainable replacement of finite fossil fuels are intensely pursued in fundamental research, applied science and industry. In the case of jet fuels used in gas-turbine engine aircrafts, the production and use of synthetic bio-derived kerosenes are advancing rapidly. Microbial biotechnology could potentially also be used to complement the renewable production of jet fuel, as demonstrated by the production of bioethanol and biodiesel for piston engine vehicles. Engineered microbial biosynthesis of medium chain length alkanes, which constitute the major fraction of petroleum-based jet fuels, was recently demonstrated. Although efficiencies currently are far from that needed for commercial application, this discovery has spurred research towards future production platforms using both fermentative and direct photobiological routes. PMID:24679258

  1. Rewards of renewables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamee, Gregory

    2008-09-01

    In 1987 an American-style fridge freezer would use about 950 kWh of electricity and cost about 150 (£80) a year to run. Two decades on, a comparable appliance uses half the electricity and costs less than half as much to run. In 1975 there were about 3780 000 cars on the streets of Los Angeles, whereas today there are more than 5200 000 - yet air-pollution levels have fallen by half and an increasing number of those vehicles are hybrids or rely on renewable fuels like bio-diesel. Last year, half a million homes in Southern California were receiving direct solar power, either from solar electricity plants or from rooftop photovoltaic panels.

  2. Renewable jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Kallio, Pauli; Pásztor, András; Akhtar, M Kalim; Jones, Patrik R

    2014-04-01

    Novel strategies for sustainable replacement of finite fossil fuels are intensely pursued in fundamental research, applied science and industry. In the case of jet fuels used in gas-turbine engine aircrafts, the production and use of synthetic bio-derived kerosenes are advancing rapidly. Microbial biotechnology could potentially also be used to complement the renewable production of jet fuel, as demonstrated by the production of bioethanol and biodiesel for piston engine vehicles. Engineered microbial biosynthesis of medium chain length alkanes, which constitute the major fraction of petroleum-based jet fuels, was recently demonstrated. Although efficiencies currently are far from that needed for commercial application, this discovery has spurred research towards future production platforms using both fermentative and direct photobiological routes.

  3. Renewable Energy Certificate Program

    SciTech Connect

    Gwendolyn S. Andersen

    2012-07-17

    This project was primarily to develop and implement a curriculum which will train undergraduate and graduate students at the University seeking a degree as well as training for enrollees in a special certification program to prepare individuals to be employed in a broad range of occupations in the field of renewable energy and energy conservation. Curriculum development was by teams of Saint Francis University Faculty in the Business Administration and Science Departments and industry experts. Students seeking undergraduate and graduate degrees are able to enroll in courses offered within these departments which will combine theory and hands-on training in the various elements of wind power development. For example, the business department curriculum areas include economic modeling, finance, contracting, etc. The science areas include meteorology, energy conversion and projection, species identification, habitat protection, field data collection and analysis, etc.

  4. Renewable technologies program summaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-11-01

    The renewable energy research and development program supports development of a mix of technologies that can contribute to both energy supply and improved end-use efficiency. In allocating resources, this office is concentrating on applying federal funds only where they are most effective: in sponsoring research and development (R and D) where the potential payoff is high, but which private industry cannot be expected to pursue because the results are difficult to predict or a return on investment would require an exceptionally long time to be realized. Research efforts in the following areas are summarized: active solar heating and cooling; passive and hybrid solar; photovoltaics; solar thermal; biofuels; wind; ocean energy technology; geothermal; and small-scale hydropower.

  5. Renewal of radiological equipment.

    PubMed

    2014-10-01

    In this century, medical imaging is at the heart of medical practice. Besides providing fast and accurate diagnosis, advances in radiology equipment offer new and previously non-existing options for treatment guidance with quite low morbidity, resulting in the improvement of health outcomes and quality of life for the patients. Although rapid technological development created new medical imaging modalities and methods, the same progress speed resulted in accelerated technical and functional obsolescence of the same medical imaging equipment, consequently creating a need for renewal. Older equipment has a high risk of failures and breakdowns, which might cause delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient, and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff. The European Society of Radiology is promoting the use of up-to-date equipment, especially in the context of the EuroSafe Imaging Campaign, as the use of up-to-date equipment will improve quality and safety in medical imaging. Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or renewal. This plan should look forward a minimum of 5 years, with annual updates. Teaching points • Radiological equipment has a definite life cycle span, resulting in unavoidable breakdown and decrease or loss of image quality which renders equipment useless after a certain time period.• Equipment older than 10 years is no longer state-of-the art equipment and replacement is essential. Operating costs of older equipment will be high when compared with new equipment, and sometimes maintenance will be impossible if no spare parts are available.• Older equipment has a high risk of failure and breakdown, causing delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff.• Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or replacement. This plan should look forward a

  6. Renewal of radiological equipment.

    PubMed

    2014-10-01

    In this century, medical imaging is at the heart of medical practice. Besides providing fast and accurate diagnosis, advances in radiology equipment offer new and previously non-existing options for treatment guidance with quite low morbidity, resulting in the improvement of health outcomes and quality of life for the patients. Although rapid technological development created new medical imaging modalities and methods, the same progress speed resulted in accelerated technical and functional obsolescence of the same medical imaging equipment, consequently creating a need for renewal. Older equipment has a high risk of failures and breakdowns, which might cause delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient, and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff. The European Society of Radiology is promoting the use of up-to-date equipment, especially in the context of the EuroSafe Imaging Campaign, as the use of up-to-date equipment will improve quality and safety in medical imaging. Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or renewal. This plan should look forward a minimum of 5 years, with annual updates. Teaching points • Radiological equipment has a definite life cycle span, resulting in unavoidable breakdown and decrease or loss of image quality which renders equipment useless after a certain time period.• Equipment older than 10 years is no longer state-of-the art equipment and replacement is essential. Operating costs of older equipment will be high when compared with new equipment, and sometimes maintenance will be impossible if no spare parts are available.• Older equipment has a high risk of failure and breakdown, causing delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff.• Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or replacement. This plan should look forward a

  7. Renewable Energy for the Paranal Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weilenmann, U.

    2012-06-01

    The operation of observatories at remote sites presents significant demands for electrical energy. The use of renewable energy may become the solution to cope with the ever-rising prices for electrical energy produced from fossil fuels. There is not only a purely commercial aspect, but also the carbon footprint of observatory activities has to be considered. As a first step on the way to a "greener" Paranal Observatory, we propose the installation of a solar cooling system for the cooling of the telescope enclosures, using the abundant insolation that is freely available in the north of Chile. Further into the future, feasible options for photovoltaic and wind energy could supply the needs of the Paranal Observatory in a sustainable manner.

  8. Nitrogen abundance in Comet Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyckoff, Susan; Tegler, Stephen C.; Engel, Lisa

    1991-01-01

    Data on the nitrogen-containing compounds that observed spectroscopically in the coma of Comet Halley are summarized, and the elemental abundance of nitrogen in the Comet Halley nucleus is derived. It is found that 90 percent of elemental nitrogen is in the dust fraction of the coma, while in the gas fraction, most of the nitrogen is contained in NH3 and CN. The elemental nitrogen abundance in the ice component of the nucleus was found to be deficient by a factor of about 75, relative to the solar photosphere, indicating that the chemical partitioning of N2 into NH3 and other nitrogen compounds during the evolution of the solar nebula cannot account completely for the low abundance ratio N2/NH3 = 0.1, observed in the comet. It is suggested that the low N2/NH3 ratio in Comet Halley may be explained simply by physical fractionation and/or thermal diffusion.

  9. Solar and stellar photospheric abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allende Prieto, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    The determination of photospheric abundances in late-type stars from spectroscopic observations is a well-established field, built on solid theoretical foundations. Improving those foundations to refine the accuracy of the inferred abundances has proven challenging, but progress has been made. In parallel, developments on instrumentation, chiefly regarding multi-object spectroscopy, have been spectacular, and a number of projects are collecting large numbers of observations for stars across the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, promising important advances in our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. After providing a brief description of the basic physics and input data involved in the analysis of stellar spectra, a review is made of the analysis steps, and the available tools to cope with large observational efforts. The paper closes with a quick overview of relevant ongoing and planned spectroscopic surveys, and highlights of recent research on photospheric abundances.

  10. PYRAMID LAKE RENEWEABLE ENERGY PLAN

    SciTech Connect

    HIGH DESERT GEOCULTURE, LLC

    2009-06-06

    The Pyramid Lake Renewable Energy Plan covers these areas: energy potential (primarily focusing on geothermal resource potential, but also more generally addressing wind energy potential); renewable energy market potential; transmission system development; geothermal direct use potential; and business structures to accomplish the development objectives of the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe.

  11. Renewable Energy Alternatives in Maryland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Greg E.; McClellan, Deborah A. S.

    This handbook discusses the renewable energy resources suitable for use in Maryland. It follows a question and answer format with sections about the following alternative renewable energy sources; solar, wind, wood, water, bio-gas/methane, and geothermal. Each section includes a list of recommended readings, appropriate agencies or organizations,…

  12. Robust Abundance Estimation in Animal Abundance Surveys with Imperfect Detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surveys of animal abundance are central to the conservation and management of living natural resources. However, detection uncertainty complicates the sampling process of many species. One sampling method employed to deal with this problem is depletion (or removal) surveys in whi...

  13. DSM renewable opportunities in Boston

    SciTech Connect

    Tennis, M.W.; Nogee, A.J.; Coakley, S.; Schoengold, D.

    1995-11-01

    The Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), in conjunction with MSB Energy Associates, conducted a study for the Boston Edison Demand-Side Management (DSM) Settlement Board on the potential for DSM renewables in the Boston area. DSM renewables are resources that can be used in a distributed utility approach to avoid transmission and distribution (T and D) costs, as well as costs associated with operating and building power plants. The results show that avoided costs in areas with deferrable T and D investments can be nearly twice as high as system-wide average avoided costs. As a result, renewable technologies that might not be considered cost effective as DSM under system-wide average criteria, can produce large shavings for the utility and its customers. Adopting a deliberate program designed to provide sustained orderly development of these renewables is essential in order for renewable technologies to achieve the maximum level of cost-effectiveness and net savings.

  14. Coronal Abundances and Their Variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saba, Julia L. R.

    1996-01-01

    This contract supported the investigation of elemental abundances in the solar corona, principally through analysis of high-resolution soft X-ray spectra from the Flat Crystal Spectrometer on NASA's Solar Maximum Mission. The goals of the study were a characterization of the mean values of relative abundances of elements accessible in the FCS data, and information on the extent and circumstances of their variability. This is the Final Report, summarizing the data analysis and reporting activities which occurred during the period of performance, June 1993 - December 1996.

  15. Chemical Abundances of Symbiotic Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gałan, C.; Mikołajewska, J.; Hinkle, K. H.; Joyce, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    High resolution (R ˜ 50000), near-IR spectra were used to measure photospheric abundances of CNO and elements around the iron peak for 24 symbiotic giants. Spectrum synthesis was employed using local thermal equilibrium and hydrostatic model atmospheres. The metallicities are distributed in a wide range with maximum around [Fe/H] ˜-0.4 - - 0.3 dex. Enrichment in 14N indicates that all the sample giants have experienced the first dredge-up. The relative abundance of [Ti/Fe] is generally large in red symbiotic systems.

  16. Coronal abundances and their variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saba, Julia L. R.

    1994-01-01

    This contract supports the investigation of elemental abundances in the solar corona, principally through analysis of high-resolution soft x-ray spectra from the Flat Crystal Spectrometer (FCS) on the Solar Maximum Mission. The goals of the study are a characterization of the mean values of relative abundances of elements accessible in the FCS data, and information on the extent and circumstances of their variability. This report is a summation of the data analysis and reporting activities which occurred during the first ten months of the contract, 15 Jun. 1993 to 15 Apr. 1994.

  17. The solar abundance of beryllium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, J. E.; Aller, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    The solar abundance of beryllium is deduced from high-resolution Kitt Peak observations of the 3130.43- and 3131.08-A lines of Be II interpreted by the method of spectrum synthesis. The results are in good agreement with those previously obtained by Grevesse (1968) and by Hauge and Engvold (1968) and indicate that in the photospheric layers, beryllium is depleted below the chondritic value by a factor of about two. It is found that the beryllium abundance is equal to logN(Be)/N(H) + 12 = 1.08 plus or minus 0.05.

  18. SOLAR MODELS WITH REVISED ABUNDANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, S. L.; Li, T. D.; Yang, W. M.; Li, L. H.

    2011-04-20

    We present new solar models in which we use the latest low abundances and further include the effects of rotation, magnetic fields, and extra-mixing processes. We assume that the extra-element mixing can be treated as a diffusion process, with the diffusion coefficient depending mainly on the solar internal configuration of rotation and magnetic fields. We find that such models can well reproduce the observed solar rotation profile in the radiative region. Furthermore, the proposed models can match the seismic constraints better than the standard solar models, also when these include the latest abundances, but neglect the effects of rotation and magnetic fields.

  19. Solid biopolymer electrolytes came from renewable biopolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ning; Zhang, Xingxiang; Qiao, Zhijun; Liu, Haihui

    2009-07-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) have attracted many attentions as solid state ionic conductors, because of their advantages such as high energy density, electrochemical stability, and easy processing. SPEs obtained from starch have attracted many attentions in recent years because of its abundant, renewable, low price, biodegradable and biocompatible. In addition, the efficient utilization of biodegradable polymers came from renewable sources is becoming increasingly important due to diminishing resources of fossil fuels as well as white pollution caused by undegradable plastics based on petroleum. So N, N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) with certain concentration ranges of lithium chloride (LiCl) is used as plasticizers of cornstarch. Li+ can complexes with the carbonyl atoms of DMAc molecules to produce a macro-cation and leave the Cl- free to hydrogen bond with the hydroxyl or carbonyl of starch. This competitive hydrogen bond formation serves to disrupt the intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonding existed in starch. Therefore, melt extrusion process conditions are used to prepare conductive thermoplastic starch (TPS). The improvements of LiCl concentration increase the water absorption and conductance of TPS. The conductance of TPS containing 0.14 mol LiCl achieve to 10-0.5 S cm-1 with 18 wt% water content.

  20. Renewable energy scenario in India: Opportunities and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Souvik; Ganguly, Sourav; Das, Ayanangshu; Sen, Joyjeet; Dey, Sourav

    2016-10-01

    Majority of the power generation in India is carried out by conventional energy sources, coal and fossil fuels being the primary ones, which contribute heavily to greenhouse gas emission and global warming. The Indian power sector is witnessing a revolution as excitement grips the nation about harnessing electricity from various renewable energy sources. Electricity generation from renewable sources is increasingly recognized to play an important role for the achievement of a variety of primary and secondary energy policy goals, such as improved diversity and security of energy supply, reduction of local pollutant and global greenhouse gas emissions, regional and rural development, and exploitation of opportunities for fostering social cohesion, value addition and employment generation at the local and regional level. This focuses the solution of the energy crisis on judicious utilization of abundant the renewable energy resources, such as biomass, solar, wind, geothermal and ocean tidal energy. This paper reviews the renewable energy scenario of India as well as extrapolates the future developments keeping in view the consumption, production and supply of power. Research, development, production and demonstration have been carried out enthusiastically in India to find a feasible solution to the perennial problem of power shortage for the past three decades. India has obtained application of a variety of renewable energy technologies for use in different sectors too. There are ample opportunities with favorable geology and geography with huge customer base and widening gap between demand and supply. Technological advancement, suitable regulatory policies, tax rebates, efficiency improvement in consequence to R&D efforts are the few pathways to energy and environment conservation and it will ensure that these large, clean resource bases are exploited as quickly and cost effectively as possible. This paper gives an overview of the potential renewable energy resources

  1. Opportunities for renewable energy sources in Central Asia countries

    SciTech Connect

    Obozov, A.J.; Loscutoff, W.V.

    1998-07-01

    This report presents an overview of the state of conventional energy sources and the potential for development of renewable energy sources in the Central Asia countries of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan. The region has a population of about 50 million in an area of more than four million square kilometers. The per capita gross internal product is more than $2,500, although the economy has been declining the past five years. The area has substantial coal, oil, uranium, and natural gas reserves, although they are not distributed equally among the five countries. Energy production is such that the countries do not have to rely heavily on imports. One of the problems in Central Asia is that the energy prices are substantially below the world prices. This is a factor in development of renewable energy sources. The primary renewable energy resources available are wind in Kazakhstan, solar in the entire region, biomass in Kyrgyzstan, and micro-hydropower stations in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. All of these have the potential to provide a significant amount of the required energy for the region. However, all of the countries have an abundance of various renewable energy resources. To effectively use these resources, however, a number of barriers to their development and commercialization must be overcome. These include low prices of conventional energy sources, absence of legislative support, lack of financing for new technologies, and lack of awareness of renewable energy sources by the population. A number of specific actions are proposed to overcome these barriers. These include establishment of a Central Asia coordinating council for renewable energy, development of a regional renewable energy program, and setting up a number of large demonstration projects. 16 figs.

  2. 48 CFR 570.401 - Renewal options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Requirements 570.401 Renewal options. (a) Exercise of options. Before exercising an option to renew, follow the... information review. Before exercising an option to renew a lease, review current market information...

  3. 48 CFR 570.401 - Renewal options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Requirements 570.401 Renewal options. (a) Exercise of options. Before exercising an option to renew, follow the... survey. Before exercising an option to renew a lease, review current market information to ensure...

  4. Battery storage for supplementing renewable energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The battery storage for renewable energy systems section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes structures and models to support the technical and economic status of emerging renewable energy options for electricity supply.

  5. THE SOLAR FLARE IRON ABUNDANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, K. J. H.; Dennis, B. R. E-mail: Brian.R.Dennis@nasa.gov

    2012-03-20

    The abundance of iron is measured from emission line complexes at 6.65 keV (Fe line) and 8 keV (Fe/Ni line) in RHESSI X-ray spectra during solar flares. Spectra during long-duration flares with steady declines were selected, with an isothermal assumption and improved data analysis methods over previous work. Two spectral fitting models give comparable results, viz., an iron abundance that is lower than previous coronal values but higher than photospheric values. In the preferred method, the estimated Fe abundance is A(Fe) = 7.91 {+-} 0.10 (on a logarithmic scale, with A(H) = 12) or 2.6 {+-} 0.6 times the photospheric Fe abundance. Our estimate is based on a detailed analysis of 1898 spectra taken during 20 flares. No variation from flare to flare is indicated. This argues for a fractionation mechanism similar to quiet-Sun plasma. The new value of A(Fe) has important implications for radiation loss curves, which are estimated.

  6. Actinide abundances in ordinary chondrites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagee, B.; Bernatowicz, T.J.; Podosek, F.A.; Johnson, M.L.; Burnett, D.S.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of 244Pu fission Xe, U, Th, and light REE (LREE) abundances, along with modal petrographic determinations of phosphate abundances, were carried out on equilibrated ordinary chondrites in order to define better the solar system Pu abundance and to determine the degree of variation of actinide and LREE abundances. Our data permit comparison of the directly measured Pu/ U ratio with that determined indirectly as (Pu/Nd) ?? (Nd/U) assuming that Pu behaves chemically as a LREE. Except for Guaren??a, and perhaps H chondrites in general, Pu concentrations are similar to that determined previously for St. Se??verin, although less precise because of higher trapped Xe contents. Trapped 130Xe 136Xe ratios appear to vary from meteorite to meteorite, but, relative to AVCC, all are similar in the sense of having less of the interstellar heavy Xe found in carbonaceous chondrite acid residues. The Pu/U and Pu/Nd ratios are consistent with previous data for St. Se??verin, but both tend to be slightly higher than those inferred from previous data on Angra dos Reis. Although significant variations exist, the distribution of our Th/U ratios, along with other precise isotope dilution data for ordinary chondrites, is rather symmetric about the CI chondrite value; however, actinide/(LREE) ratios are systematically lower than the CI value. Variations in actinide or LREE absolute and relative abundances are interpreted as reflecting differences in the proportions and/or compositions of more primitive components (chondrules and CAI materials?) incorporated into different regions of the ordinary chondrite parent bodies. The observed variations of Th/U, Nd/U, or Ce/U suggest that measurements of Pu/U on any single equilibrated ordinary chondrite specimen, such as St. Se??verin, should statistically be within ??20-30% of the average solar system value, although it is also clear that anomalous samples exist. ?? 1990.

  7. Building a sustainable market for renewables

    SciTech Connect

    Rader, N.

    1996-12-31

    Opinions regarding marketing approaches for electricity generation from renewable resources are presented in the paper. The Renewables Portfolio Standard of the California Public Utilities Commission is described. This system is based on renewable energy credits. Other marketing approaches, including surcharges, auctioned renewables credit, green pricing, and green marketing are also assessed. It is concluded that the Renewables Portfolio Standard creates a stable economic environment for the renewable energy industries.

  8. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power transmission systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.R.; Dykas, W.P.; Kirby, B.J.; Purucker, S.L.; Lawler, J.S.

    1995-07-01

    Renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, and wind turbines are nonconventional, environmentally attractive sources of energy that can be considered for electric power generation. Many of the areas with abundant renewable energy resources (very sunny or windy areas) are far removed from major load centers. Although electrical power can be transmitted over long distances of many hundreds of miles through high-voltage transmission lines, power transmission systems often operate near their limits with little excess capacity for new generation sources. This study assesses the available capacity of transmission systems in designated abundant renewable energy resource regions and identifies the requirements for high-capacity plant integration in selected cases. In general, about 50 MW of power from renewable sources can be integrated into existing transmission systems to supply local loads without transmission upgrades beyond the construction of a substation to connect to the grid. Except in the Southwest, significant investment to strengthen transmission systems will be required to support the development of high-capacity renewable sources of 1000 MW or greater in areas remote from major load centers. Cost estimates for new transmission facilities to integrate and dispatch some of these high-capacity renewable sources ranged from several million dollars to approximately one billion dollars, with the latter figure an increase in total investment of 35%, assuming that the renewable source is the only user of the transmission facility.

  9. Jobs and Renewable Energy Project

    SciTech Connect

    Sterzinger, George

    2006-12-19

    Early in 2002, REPP developed the Jobs Calculator, a tool that calculates the number of direct jobs resulting from renewable energy development under RPS (Renewable Portfolio Standard) legislation or other programs to accelerate renewable energy development. The calculator is based on a survey of current industry practices to assess the number and type of jobs that will result from the enactment of a RPS. This project built upon and significantly enhanced the initial Jobs Calculator model by (1) expanding the survey to include other renewable technologies (the original model was limited to wind, solar PV and biomass co-firing technologies); (2) more precisely calculating the economic development benefits related to renewable energy development; (3) completing and regularly updating the survey of the commercially active renewable energy firms to determine kinds and number of jobs directly created; and (4) developing and implementing a technology to locate where the economic activity related to each type of renewable technology is likely to occur. REPP worked directly with groups in the State of Nevada to interpret the results and develop policies to capture as much of the economic benefits as possible for the state through technology selection, training program options, and outreach to manufacturing groups.

  10. Developing Government Renewable Energy Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Kurt S. Myers; Thomas L. Baldwin; Jason W. Bush; Jake P. Gentle

    2012-07-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers has retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a study of past INL experiences and complete a report that identifies the processes that are needed for the development of renewable energy projects on government properties. The INL has always maintained expertise in power systems and applied engineering and INL’s renewable energy experiences date back to the 1980’s when our engineers began performing US Air Force wind energy feasibility studies and development projects. Over the last 20+ years of working with Department of Defense and other government agencies to study, design, and build government renewable projects, INL has experienced the do’s and don’ts for being successful with a project. These compiled guidelines for government renewable energy projects could include wind, hydro, geothermal, solar, biomass, or a variety of hybrid systems; however, for the purpose of narrowing the focus of this report, wind projects are the main topic discussed throughout this report. It is our thought that a lot of what is discussed could be applied, possibly with some modifications, to other areas of renewable energy. It is also important to note that individual projects (regardless the type) vary to some degree depending on location, size, and need but in general these concepts and directions can be carried over to the majority of government renewable energy projects. This report focuses on the initial development that needs to occur for any project to be a successful government renewable energy project.

  11. Marine Renewable Energy Center

    SciTech Connect

    Vigeant, Paul; Miller, John; Howes, Brian; McGowan, Jon G.; Baldwin, Kenneth; Grilli, Annette; Terray, Eugene

    2013-10-08

    Project Goals: The funding provided by this contract supported the following activities: A) Test Site Development; B) Seed Grant Funded Technology Development; C) Stakeholder Activities The first year of funding was dedicated to the formation of the NE MREC University Consortium which was comprised of University of Massachusetts Dartmouth (UMD) and Amherst (UMA), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), University of New Hampshire (UNH), and the University of Rhode Island (URI). The consortium worked together to encourage research and promote benefits of obtaining energy from ocean wind, waves, tides and currents. In addition, NE MREC’s goal was to fund projects aimed at potential test sites with the first year funding going to studies of the potential for tidal device testing in Muskeget Channel, at the General Sullivan Bridge in New Hampshire, and for wave device testing at the proposed National Offshore Renewable Energy Innovation Zone (NOREIZ) located off the Massachusetts coast. The project spanned 4.5 years and addressed three specific tasks that are interrelated but also served as independent investigations.

  12. Renewable energy potential in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa Guzman, Jose Luis

    2008-12-01

    Renewable energy flows are very large in comparison with humankind's use of energy. In principle, all our energy needs, both now and into the future, can be met by energy from renewable sources. After many years trying to develop the alternative energy potential of Colombia, a major effort is principally being made since 2000 to explore and assess the renewable resources of the entire country. Until 2000, the availability of conventional energy sources in Colombia prevented renewable energy exploration from reaching a higher level. However, the extreme energy crisis of 1992 - 1993 alerted the authorities and the community to the necessity for exploring alternative energy sources. This energy study is a general approach to the current and future renewable energy scenario of Colombia. It was prepared in response to the increased interest around the world and in particular in Colombia to develop its non-fossil energy prospective. It, therefore, represents a working document giving an initial impression of the possible scale of the main renewables sources as a response to the concern about energy security and fossil fuel dependence problems. The assumptions made and calculations reported may therefore be subject to revision as more information becomes available. The aim of this dissertation is not only to improve the public understanding and discussion of renewable energy matters in Colombia but also to stimulate the development and application of renewable energy, wherever they have prospects of economic viability and environmental acceptability. To achieve such goal this paper reviews several renewable technologies, their availability, contribution and feasibility in Colombia.

  13. 2012 Renewable Energy Data Book

    DOE Data Explorer

    The 2012 Renewable Energy Data Book is 128 pages of data in tables, figures and charts, and text. It provides a look at resources and usage for wind, solar, geothermal, hydro, hydrogen, and biopower. Developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), it was produced by Rachel Gelman, edited by Mike Meshek, and designed by Stacy Buchanan and Erica Augustine and released in October, 2013. Report number for this data book is DOE/GO-102013-4291.

  14. Nanostructured Materials for Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect

    2009-11-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose overall objective is to advance the fundamental understanding of novel photoelectronic organic device structures integrated with inorganic nanostructures, while also expanding the general field of nanomaterials for renewable energy devices and systems.

  15. FEMP Renewable Energy Program Overview

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-14

    Fact sheet describing how the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides Federal agencies with information, guidance, and assistance in using renewable energy.

  16. The potential of renewable energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-03-01

    On June 27 and 28, 1989, the U.S. DOE national labs were convened to discuss plans for the development of a National Energy Strategy (NES) and, in particular, the analytic needs in support of NES that could be addressed by the labs. As a result of that meeting, interlabor teams were formed to produce analytic white papers on key topics, and a lead lab was designated for each core lab team. The broad-ranging renewables assignment is summarized by the following issue statement from the Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis: to what extent can renewable energy technologies contribute to diversifying sources of energy supply; What are the major barriers to greater renewable energy use and what is the potential timing of widespread commercialization for various categories of applications. The results are presented of the intensive activity initiated by the June 1989 meeting to produce a white paper on renewable energy.

  17. Renewable energy opportunities in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, William L.; Simon Tsuo, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Rapid growth in economic development coupled with the absence of an electric grid in large areas of rural China have created a need for new energy sources both in urban centers and the rural countryside. Electric capacity expansion plans call for increased use of coal-fired steam turbines for electricity production that will contribute to increased concerns over environmental pollution. China is rich in renewable energy resources, strategically located in areas of greatest need and economic viability. China is also already one of the world's largest users of renewables, especially hydro, wind, biomass, and solar thermal, and has significant experience with photovoltaics, geothermal and other technologies. The use of renewable energy is being encouraged in expanded programs at the central and provincial government levels, with growing private sector involvement. These conditions create opportunities for U.S. business participation in renewable energy markets in China.

  18. Renewable Fuels Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it relates to the production of the Annual Energy Outlook forecasts.

  19. The solar abundance of thulium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, J. E.; Aller, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    Consideration of one relatively unblended line of the solar spectrum, namely, the 3131.258-A line of Tm II, which yields a thulium abundance of 0.80 plus or minus 0.10 with the Corliss and Bozman (1962) f-value. The uncertainty of this figure is discussed in conjunction with the contradictory findings of some other investigators. The need for further detailed study of the lanthanides by the method of spectrum synthesis is pointed out.

  20. Chlorine Abundances in Martian Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, D.D.; Garrison, D.H.; Park, J.

    2009-01-01

    Chlorine measurements made in martian surface rocks by robotic spacecraft typically give Chlorine (Cl) abundances of approximately 0.1-0.8%. In contrast, Cl abundances in martian meteorites appear lower, although data is limited, and martian nakhlites were also subjected to Cl contamination by Mars surface brines. Chlorine abundances reported by one lab for whole rock (WR) samples of Shergotty, ALH77005, and EET79001 range 108-14 ppm, whereas Cl in nakhlites range 73-1900 ppm. Measurements of Cl in various martian weathering phases of nakhlites varied 0.04-4.7% and reveal significant concentration of Cl by martian brines Martian meteorites contain much lower Chlorine than those measured in martian surface rocks and give further confirmation that Cl in these surface rocks was introduced by brines and weathering. It has been argued that Cl is twice as effective as water in lowering the melting point and promoting melting at shallower martian depths, and that significant Cl in the shergottite source region would negate any need for significant water. However, this conclusion was based on experiments that utilized Cl concentrations more analogous to martian surface rocks than to shergottite meteorites, and may not be applicable to shergottites.

  1. The Bliss of Motor Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Latash, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Motor control is an area of natural science exploring how the nervous system interacts with other body parts and the environment to produce purposeful, coordinated actions. A central problem of motor control – the problem of motor redundancy – was formulated by Nikolai Bernstein as the problem of elimination of redundant degrees-of-freedom. Traditionally, this problem has been addressed using optimization methods based on a variety of cost functions. This review draws attention to a body of recent findings suggesting that the problem has been formulated incorrectly. An alternative view has been suggested as the principle of abundance, which considers the apparently redundant degrees-of-freedom as useful and even vital for many aspects of motor behavior. Over the past ten years, dozens of publications have provided support for this view based on the ideas of synergic control, computational apparatus of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis, and the equilibrium-point (referent configuration) hypothesis. In particular, large amounts of “good variance” – variance in the space of elements that has no effect on the overall performance – have been documented across a variety of natural actions. “Good variance” helps an abundant system to deal with secondary tasks and unexpected perturbations; its amount shows adaptive modulation across a variety of conditions. These data support the view that there is no problem of motor redundancy; there is bliss of motor abundance. PMID:22246105

  2. The path forward for biofuels and biomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Ragauskas, A J; Davison, Brian H; Liotta, Charles L; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Templer, Richard H; Tschaplinski, Timothy J

    2006-01-01

    Biomass represents an abundant carbon-neutral renewable resource for the production of bioenergy and biomaterials, and its enhanced use would address several societal needs. Advances in genetics, biotechnology, process chemistry, and engineering are leading to a new manufacturing concept for converting renewable biomass to valuable fuels and products, generally referred to as the biorefinery. The integration of agroenergy crops and biorefinery manufacturing technologies offers the potential for the development of sustainable biopower and biomaterials that will lead to a new manufacturing paradigm.

  3. The Abundance of Interstellar Fluorine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauroesch, James T.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this program was to obtain FUSE observations of the interstellar absorption lines of F I at 951 and 954 Angstroms to derive the abundance of fluorine toward the star HD 164816. The nucleosynthetic source(s) of fluorine are still a matter of debate - the present day abundance of fluorine can potentially constrain models for pulsationally driven dredge-up in asymptotic giant branch stars. An accurate measure for the depletion behavior of fluorine will determine whether it may be detectable in QSO absorption line systems - an unambiguous detection of fluorine at suitably high redshifts would provide the best evidence to date for the neutrino process in massive stars. Furthermore, due to its extreme reactivity, measurement of the gas-phase interstellar fluorine abundance is important for models of grain chemistry. Despite the importance of measuring the interstellar fluorine abundance, at the time of our proposal only one previous detection has been made due to the low relative abundance of fluorine, the lack of lines outside the far-UV, and the blending of the available F I transitions with lines of Hz. The star HD 164816 is associated with the Lagoon nebula (M8), and at a distance of approximately 1.5 kpc probes both distant and local gas. Beginning April 8th, 2004 FUSE FP-Split observations of the star HD 164816 were obtained for this program. This data became available in the FUSE data archive May 21, 2004, and these observations were then downloaded and we began our analysis. Our analysis procedure has involved (1) fitting stellar models to the FUSE spectra, (2) using the multiple lines of Hz and N I at other wavelengths in the FUSE bandpass to derive column densities for the lines of H2 and N I which are blended with the F I features at 951 and 954 angstroms (3) the measurement of the column densities of F I and the species O I and C1 I which are important species for the dis-entangling of dust and nucleosynthetic effects. As discussed in

  4. License renewal for commercial nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Pugh, C.E. )

    1992-01-01

    The regulatory requirements for license renewal fall into two categories - technical and environmental. Plants seeking license renewal most satisfy review requirements both at the time of renewal and during the renewal period. The NRC requirements and some of ORNL's contributions are discussed.

  5. 2010 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Gelman, R.

    2011-10-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2010 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  6. 2009 Renewable Energy Data Book, August 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-08-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2009 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  7. 2011 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Gelman, R.

    2012-10-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2011 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  8. 2012 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Gelman, R.

    2013-10-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2012 provides facts and figures in a graphical format on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  9. 2013 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Esterly, S.

    2014-12-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2013 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  10. The solar abundance of Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grevesse, N.

    2009-07-01

    With Martin Asplund (Max Planck Institute of Astrophysics, Garching) and Jacques Sauval (Observatoire Royal de Belgique, Brussels) I recently published detailed reviews on the solar chemical composition ({Asplund et al. 2005}, {Grevesse et al. 2007}). A new one, with Pat Scott (Stockholm University) as additional co-author, will appear in Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics ({Asplund et al. 2009}). Here we briefly analyze recent works on the solar abundance of Oxygen and recommend a value of 8.70 in the usual astronomical scale.

  11. Abundance measurements in stellar environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, F.

    2014-05-01

    Most of what we know about stars, and systems of stars, is derived from the analysis of their electromagnetic radiation. This lesson is an attempt to describe to Physicists, without any Astrophysical background, the framework to understand the present status of abundance determination in stellar environments and its limit. These notes are dedicated to the recently passed, November 21, 2013, Prof. Dimitri Mihalas who spent his life confuting the 19th century positivist philosopher Auguste Comte who stated that we shall not at all be able to determine the chemical composition of stars.

  12. Abundance measurements in stellar environments

    SciTech Connect

    Leone, F.

    2014-05-09

    Most of what we know about stars, and systems of stars, is derived from the analysis of their electromagnetic radiation. This lesson is an attempt to describe to Physicists, without any Astrophysical background, the framework to understand the present status of abundance determination in stellar environments and its limit. These notes are dedicated to the recently passed, November 21, 2013, Prof. Dimitri Mihalas who spent his life confuting the 19th century positivist philosopher Auguste Comte who stated that we shall not at all be able to determine the chemical composition of stars.

  13. Superstatistics and renewal critical events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradisi, Paolo; Cesari, Rita; Grigolini, Paolo

    2009-09-01

    An approach to intermittent systems based on renewal processes is reviewed. The Waiting Times (WTs) between events are the main variables of interest in intermittent systems. A crucial role is played by the class of critical events, characterized by Non-Poisson statistics and non-exponential WT distribution. A particular important case is given by WT distributions with power tail. Critical events play a crucial role in the behavior of a property known as Renewal Aging. Focusing on the role of critical events, the relation between superstatistics and non-homogeneous Poisson processes is discussed, and the role of Renewal Aging is illustrated by comparing a Non-Poisson model with a Poisson one, both of them modulated by a periodic forcing. It is shown that the analysis of Renewal Aging is sensitive to the presence of critical events and that this property can be exploited to detect Non-Poisson statistics in a time series. As a consequence, it is claimed that, apart from the characterization of superstatistical features such as the distribution of the intensive parameter or the separation of the time scales, the Renewal Aging property can give some effort to better determine the role of Non-Poisson critical events in intermittent systems.

  14. Renewable Energy and Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Chum, H. L.

    2012-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change issued the Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) at http://srren.ipcc-wg3.de/ (May 2011 electronic version; printed form ISBN 978-1-107-60710-1, 2012). More than 130 scientists contributed to the report.* The SRREN assessed existing literature on the future potential of renewable energy for the mitigation of climate change within a portfolio of mitigation options including energy conservation and efficiency, fossil fuel switching, RE, nuclear and carbon capture and storage (CCS). It covers the six most important renewable energy technologies - bioenergy, direct solar, geothermal, hydropower, ocean and wind, as well as their integration into present and future energy systems. It also takes into consideration the environmental and social consequences associated with these technologies, the cost and strategies to overcome technical as well as non-technical obstacles to their application and diffusion.

  15. Who Owns Renewable Energy Certificates?

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, Edward; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2006-06-01

    Renewable energy certificates (RECs) are tradable instruments that convey the attributes of a renewable energy generator and the right to make certain claims about energy purchases. RECs first appeared in US markets in the late 1990s and are particularly important in states that accept or require them as evidence of compliance with renewables portfolio standards (RPS). The emergence of RECs as a tradable commodity has made utilities, generators, and regulators increasingly aware of the need to specify who owns the RECs in energy transactions. In voluntary transactions, most agree that the question of REC ownership can and should be negotiated privately between the buyer and the seller, and should be clearly established by contract. Claims about purchasing or using renewable energy should only be made if REC ownership can be documented. In many other cases, however, renewable energy transactions are either mandated or encouraged through state or federal policy. Because of the recent appearance of RECs, legislation and regulation mandating the purchase of renewable energy has sometimes been silent on the disposition of the RECs associated with that generation. Furthermore, some renewable energy contracts pre-date the existence of RECs, and therefore do not address REC ownership. In both of these instances, the issue of REC ownership must often be answered by legislative or regulatory authorities. The resulting uncertainty in REC ownership has hindered the development of robust REC markets and has, in some cases, led to contention between buyers and sellers of renewable generation. This article, which is based on a longer Berkeley Lab report, reviews federal and state efforts to clarify the ownership of RECs from Qualifying Facilities (QFs) that sell their generation under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1978. The full report also addresses state efforts to clarify REC ownership in two other situations, customer-owned generation that benefits

  16. Thorium: Crustal abundance, joint production, and economic availability

    DOE PAGES

    Jordan, Brett W.; Eggert, Roderick G.; Dixon, Brent W.; Carlsen, Brett W.

    2015-03-02

    Recently, interest in thorium's potential use in a nuclear fuel cycle has been renewed. Thorium is more abundant, at least on average, than uranium in the earth's crust and, therefore, could theoretically extend the use of nuclear energy technology beyond the economic limits of uranium resources. This paper provides an economic assessment of thorium availability by creating cumulative-availability and potential mining-industry cost curves, based on known thorium resources. These tools provide two perspectives on the economic availability of thorium. In the long term, physical quantities of thorium likely will not be a constraint on the development of a thorium fuelmore » cycle. In the medium term, however, thorium supply may be limited by constraints associated with its production as a by-product of rare earth elements and heavy mineral sands. As a result, environmental concerns, social issues, regulation, and technology also present issues for the medium and long term supply of thorium.« less

  17. Thorium: Crustal abundance, joint production, and economic availability

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Brett W.; Eggert, Roderick G.; Dixon, Brent W.; Carlsen, Brett W.

    2015-03-02

    Recently, interest in thorium's potential use in a nuclear fuel cycle has been renewed. Thorium is more abundant, at least on average, than uranium in the earth's crust and, therefore, could theoretically extend the use of nuclear energy technology beyond the economic limits of uranium resources. This paper provides an economic assessment of thorium availability by creating cumulative-availability and potential mining-industry cost curves, based on known thorium resources. These tools provide two perspectives on the economic availability of thorium. In the long term, physical quantities of thorium likely will not be a constraint on the development of a thorium fuel cycle. In the medium term, however, thorium supply may be limited by constraints associated with its production as a by-product of rare earth elements and heavy mineral sands. As a result, environmental concerns, social issues, regulation, and technology also present issues for the medium and long term supply of thorium.

  18. 75 FR 26919 - Charter Renewals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... Committee on Commercial Remote Sensing Charter. SUMMARY: In accordance with the provisions of the Federal... Commerce has determined that the renewal of the Advisory Committee on Commercial Remote Sensing (ACCRES) is... relating to the U.S. commercial remote-sensing industry and NOAA's activities to carry out...

  19. Sprayed Coating Renews Butyl Rubber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. B.

    1982-01-01

    Damaged butyl rubber products are renewed by spray technique originally developed for protective suits worn by NASA workers. A commercial two-part adhesive is mixed with Freon-113 (or equivalent) trichlorotrifluoroethane to obtain optimum viscosity for spraying. Mix is applied with an external-air-mix spray gun.

  20. The potential of renewable energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    On June 27 and 28, 1989, the US Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories were convened to discuss plans for the development of a National Energy Strategy (NES) and, in particular, the analytic needs in support of NES that could be addressed by the laboratories. As a result of that meeting, interlaboratory teams were formed to produce analytic white papers on key topics, and a lead laboratory was designated for each core laboratory team. The broad-ranging renewables assignment is summarized by the following issue statement from the Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis: to what extent can renewable energy technologies contribute to diversifying sources of energy supply What are the major barriers to greater renewable energy use and what is the potential timing of widespread commercialization for various categories of applications This report presents the results of the intensive activity initiated by the June 1989 meeting to produce a white paper on renewable energy. Scores of scientists, analysts, and engineers in the five core laboratories gave generously of their time over the past eight months to produce this document. Their generous, constructive efforts are hereby gratefully acknowledged. 126 refs., 44 figs., 32 tabs.

  1. Analysis of renewable portfolio standards

    SciTech Connect

    Bernow, S.; Dougherty, W.; Duckworth, M.

    1997-12-31

    A national RPS would increase the fraction of U.S. electricity generation from renewable technologies at least cost. It would help ensure that the cost and performance of these technologies would improve with manufacturing experience, scale economies, and learning-by-doing from their integration into electric systems. Thus, their economic, environmental, energy security, and sustainability benefits would be realized.

  2. PEV Integration with Renewables (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Markel, T.

    2014-06-18

    This presentation discusses current research at NREL on integrating plug-in electric vehicles with the grid and using renewable energy to charge the grid. The Electric Vehicle Grid Integration (EVGI) and Integrated Network Testbed for Energy Grid Research and Technology Experimentation (INTEGRATE) are addressing the opportunities and technical requirements for vehicle grid integration that will increase marketability and lead to greater petroleum reduction.

  3. Issues in Renewable Energy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Chacko; Jennings, Philip; Lloyd, Bob

    2008-01-01

    Renewable energy education is evolving rapidly in response to drivers such as oil depletion and global warming. There is a rapidly increasing level of student interest in these topics and a growing demand from industry and government for skilled personnel to develop sustainable energy systems and greenhouse solutions. Several Australian and New…

  4. Solar Renewable Energy. Teaching Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Marion; And Others

    This unit develops the concept of solar energy as a renewable resource. It includes: (1) an introductory section (developing understandings of photosynthesis and impact of solar energy); (2) information on solar energy use (including applications and geographic limitations of solar energy use); and (3) future considerations of solar energy…

  5. Renewable Energy Cost Optimization Spreadsheet

    2007-12-31

    The Software allow users to determine the optimum combination of renewable energy technologies to minimize life cycle cost for a facility by employing various algorithms which calculate initial and operating cost, energy delivery, and other attributes associated with each technology as a function of size.

  6. Renewable Energy for Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Antonio C.; Lawand, Tom

    Although education in rural communities is an important priority, in many cases, electricity is not available to support rural educational activities. Renewable energy systems present a reasonable solution to support activities such as lighting, computers, telecommunications, and distance learning. There are certain factors and criteria that need…

  7. Renewed Push on ESEA Likely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson

    2011-01-01

    A prominent and sustained White House push for renewal of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) is viewed as crucial to prospects for the 9-year-old law's reauthorization by a now-divided Congress. The law's current version, the No Child Left Behind Act, was President George W. Bush's signature domestic achievement when it was passed…

  8. Shapes of a Renewable Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deudney, Daniel; Flavin, Christopher

    1983-01-01

    To rely on coal and nuclear power as sources of energy is to narrow society's future options and to present numerous problems. Renewable solar energy, on the other hand, can preserve rather than reduce options. More jobs, rising self-reliance, and new equalities between nations will be the result. (RM)

  9. Earth-Abundant Materials for Solar Hydrogen Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKone, James Robert

    A critical challenge for the 21st century is shifting from the predominant use of fossil fuels to renewables for energy. Among many options, sunlight is the only single renewable resource with sufficient abundance to replace most or all of our current fossil energy use. However, existing photovoltaic and solar thermal technologies cannot be scaled infinitely due to the temporal and geographic intermittency of sunlight. Therefore efficient and inexpensive methods for storage of solar energy in a dense medium are needed in order to greatly increase utilization of the sun as a primary resource. For this purpose we have proposed an artificial photosynthetic system consisting of semiconductors, electrocatalysts, and polymer membranes to carry out photoelectrochemical water splitting as a method for solar fuel generation. This dissertation describes efforts over the last five years to develop critical semiconductor and catalyst components for efficient and scalable photoelectrochemical hydrogen evolution, one of the half reactions for water splitting. We identified and developed Ni--Mo alloy and Ni2P nanoparticles as promising earth-abundant electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution. We thoroughly characterized Ni-Mo alloys alongside Ni and Pt catalysts deposited onto planar and structured Si light absorbers for solar hydrogen generation. We sought to address several key challenges that emerged in the use of non-noble catalysts for solar fuels generation, resulting in the synthesis and characterization of Ni--Mo nanopowder for use in a new photocathode device architecture. To address the mismatch in stability between non-noble metal alloys and Si absorbers, we also synthesized and characterized p-type WSe2 as a candidate light absorber alternative to Si that is stable under acidic and alkaline conditions.

  10. Renewables for sustainable village power

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, L

    1997-03-01

    It is estimated that two billion people live without electricity and its services. In addition, there is a sizeable number of rural villages that have limited electrical service, with either part-day operation by diesel gen-sets or partial electrification (local school or community center and several nearby houses). For many villages connected to the grid, power is often sporadically available and of poor quality. The U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, has initiated a program to address these potential electricity opportunities in rural villages through the application of renewable energy (RE) technologies. The objective of this program is to develop and implement applications that demonstrate the technical performance, economic competitiveness, operational viability, and environmental benefits of renewable rural electric solutions, compared to the conventional options of line extension and isolated diesel mini-grids. These four attributes foster sustainability; therefore, the program is entitled Renewables for Sustainable Village Power (RSVP). The RSVP program is a multi-technology, multi-application program composed of six activities, including village applications development, computer model development, systems analysis, pilot project development, technical assistance, and Internet-based village power project data base. While the current program emphasizes wind, photovoltaics (PV), and their hybrids with diesel gen-sets, micro-hydro and micro-biomass technologies may be integrated in the future. NREL`s RSVP team is currently involved in rural electricity projects in thirteen countries, with U.S., foreign, and internationally based agencies and institutions. The integration of the technology developments, institutional experiences, and the financial solutions for the implementation of renewables in the main line rural electrification processes in both the developing world and remote regions of the developed world is the goal.

  11. Renewable energy in Indian country

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    On June 25--27, 1995, at Mesa Verde National Park in southwestern Colorado, the Center for Resource Management (CRM), organized and sponsored a conference in conjunction with the Navajo Nation, EPA, and Bechtel Group, Inc., to deal with issues associated with developing renewable energy resources on Indian lands. Due to the remoteness of many reservation homes and the cost of traditional power line extensions, a large percentage of the Indian population is today without electricity or other energy services. In addition, while they continue to develop energy resources for export, seeing only minimal gain in their own economies, Indian people are also subject to the health and environmental consequences associated with proximity to traditional energy resource development. Renewable energy technologies, on the other hand, are often ideally suited to decentralized, low-density demand. These technologies--especially solar and wind power--have no adverse health impacts associated with generation, are relatively low cost, and can be used in applications as small as a single home, meeting power needs right at a site. Their minimal impact on the environment make them particularly compatible with American Indian philosophies and lifestyles. Unfortunately, the match between renewable energy and Indian tribes has been hampered by the lack of a comprehensive, coordinated effort to identify renewable energy resources located on Indian lands, to develop practical links between Indian people`s needs and energy producers, and to provide the necessary training for tribal leaders and members to plan, implement, and maintain renewable energy systems. Summaries of the presentations are presented.

  12. Lithium Abundance in Planet Search Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myles, Justin; Yale Exoplanets

    2016-01-01

    Since most lithium in the universe is primordial and is destroyed in stars, lithium abundance can be used as a stellar age indicator. Some research seems to show that planet formation may also affect lithium abundance in exoplanet host stars (EHS). However, small and heterogenous samples have made both of these phenomena unclear. Further study of lithium abundance in EHS is needed to better understand possible physical roles of lithium in planet formation theory. We use a large homogenous sample with accurate stellar parameters on which we will use equivalent width analysis to determine precise lithium abundances. From these abundance values we determine an age vs. abundance relation. Additionally, we aim to explore correlation between lithium abundance and planet formation.

  13. Impacts of a 15% Renewable Portfolio Standard

    EIA Publications

    2007-01-01

    This analysis responds to a request from Senator Jeff Bingaman that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requiring that 15% of U.S. electricity sales be derived from qualifying renewable energy resources.

  14. Renewable Energy Park - Preliminary Feasibility & Engineering Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ariwite, Roderick

    2015-07-31

    This "Renewable Energy Park - Preliminary Feasibility & Engineering Report" seeks to provide an overall assessment and review of renewable energy development opportunities on the Fallon Indian Reservation and Colony Lands.

  15. Renewable Energy: Ready to Meet Its Promise?

    SciTech Connect

    Bull, S. R.; Billman, L. L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper will briefly review the technical status, cost, and applications of major renewable energy technologies in 1998, and also discuss some of the socioeconomic impacts of wide-scale adoption of renewables.

  16. Renewable Energy Resources in the United Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Michael J.; Thomas, M. Pugh

    1990-01-01

    This paper defines renewable energy and outlines possible sources of this energy. Supplies, and ethics are considered. The position of renewable energy sources in the energy policy of Great Britain are discussed. (CW)

  17. Observing chemical abundances in comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delsemme, A. H.

    1981-01-01

    The atomic resonance lines of the major elements were observed in the atmospheres of a few comets, by using vacuum ultraviolet spectrographs on board rockets or orbiting observatories. Dust-to-gas ratios were also deduced for two comets through a Finson-Probstein's analysis of their dust-tail isophotes. The geometric albedo of the dust for the phase angle alpha of the observations is not accurately known but, the dust-to-gas ratio is not overly sensitive to the actual value of this albedo. Infrared observations of the dust head of some comets show that the bulk of cometary dust must be silicates, although a minor component (5-10 percent) of carbon compounds is rather likely, because of poor dielectric properties of the grains. This interpretation is confirmed by the fact that interplanetary dust probably of cometary origin, that was collected in the stratosphere by NASA-U2 Spacecraft, is chondritic in nature. Metal abundances in the head of a sungrazing comet support the chondritic hypothesis.

  18. Molecular Abundances in CRL 618

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardo, Juan R.; Cernicharo, José

    2007-01-01

    In previous works we have modeled the different gas regions of the proto-planetary nebula CRL 618 by studying the large number of lines from the cyanopolyynes detected in a millimeter-wave line survey of this object. In this work we retrieve the rotational temperatures (Tr) and abundance ratios R with respect to HC3N (used as reference) for all molecular species detected in the survey by running grids of models in the (R,Tr) space to find the minimum of a weighted χ2 defined for this analysis. This provides the best knowledge to date of the (polar) molecular composition of CRL 618 thanks to the uniform calibration of the whole survey and the large number of lines available from each species, allowing comparisons with predictions made by chemical models of C-rich post-AGB objects. A significantly lower value of the 12C/13C ratio has been revealed in the gas closest to central star with respect to the colder and outer envelope. It can be due to 13C-rich material, produced in a late CNO cycling occurred in the central star, being currently injected into this inner gas envelope.

  19. Turning Renewable Resources into Recyclable Polymer: Development of Lignin-Based Thermoplastic

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Tomonori; Brown, Rebecca H; Hunt, Marcus A; Pickel, Deanna L; Pickel, Joseph M; Messman, Jamie M; Baker, Frederick S; Keller, Martin; Naskar, Amit K

    2012-01-01

    Productive uses of lignin, the third most abundant natural polymer, have been sought for decades. One especially attractive possibility is that of developing value-added products including thermoplastics based on lignin. This possibility warrants special attention due to growth of the modern biofuel industries. However, the polydisperse molecular weight and hyper-branched structure of lignin has hindered the creation of high-performance biopolymers. Here, we report the preparation and characterization of novel lignin-based, partially carbon-neutral thermoplastics. We first altered the molecular weight of lignin, either by fractionation with methanol, or by formaldehyde crosslinking. A crosslinking of lignin increases the molecular weight, exhibiting Mn = 31000 g/mol, whereas that of native lignin is 1840 g/mol. Tuning the molecular weight of lignin enabled successful preparation of novel lignin-derived thermoplastics, when coupled with telechelic polybutadiene soft-segments at proper feed ratios. Characteristic to thermoplastic rubbers, free-standing films of the resulting copolymers exhibit two-phase morphology and associated relaxations in the dynamic mechanical loss spectrum. To our knowledge this article is the first report to demonstrate phase immiscibility, melt-processibility, and biphasic morphology of soft and hard segments in a lignin-based copolymer for all feed ratios of two macromolecular components. The use of higher molecular weight lignin enhanced the resulting shear modulus due to efficient network formation of telechelic polybutadiene bridges. The storage modulus in the rubbery plateau region increased with increasing lignin content. The successful synthesis of novel lignin-based thermoplastics will open a new pathway to biomass utilization and will help conserve petrochemicals.

  20. Towards Carbon Neutrality and Environmental Sustainability at CCSU

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Button, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide information about past and present efforts undertaken at Central Connecticut State University (CCSU) to reduce its carbon footprint and to institute a campus culture centered on the principles of environmental sustainability. Provide some recommendations to other institutions of higher education…

  1. 10 CFR 76.36 - Renewals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Renewals. 76.36 Section 76.36 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Application § 76.36 Renewals. (a) The Corporation shall file periodic applications for renewal, as required by § 76.31. (b) Information contained...

  2. 10 CFR 76.36 - Renewals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Renewals. 76.36 Section 76.36 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Application § 76.36 Renewals. (a) The Corporation shall file periodic applications for renewal, as required by § 76.31. (b) Information contained...

  3. 10 CFR 76.36 - Renewals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Renewals. 76.36 Section 76.36 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Application § 76.36 Renewals. (a) The Corporation shall file periodic applications for renewal, as required by § 76.31. (b) Information contained...

  4. 10 CFR 76.36 - Renewals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Renewals. 76.36 Section 76.36 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Application § 76.36 Renewals. (a) The Corporation shall file periodic applications for renewal, as required by § 76.31. (b) Information contained...

  5. 10 CFR 76.36 - Renewals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Renewals. 76.36 Section 76.36 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Application § 76.36 Renewals. (a) The Corporation shall file periodic applications for renewal, as required by § 76.31. (b) Information contained...

  6. A College-School Connection to Renewal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Bonnie

    The National Network for Educational Renewal (NNER) consists of higher education institutions and partner K-12 schools promoting simultaneous renewal of teacher education and K-12 schools. The network helps renew teacher education by preparing educators who will: (1) provide all students with equitable opportunities for becoming educated,…

  7. Photon Science for Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Zahid; Tamura, Lori; Padmore, Howard; Schoenlein, Bob; Bailey, Sue

    2010-03-31

    Our current fossil-fuel-based system is causing potentially catastrophic changes to our planet. The quest for renewable, nonpolluting sources of energy requires us to understand, predict, and ultimately control matter and energy at the electronic, atomic, and molecular levels. Light-source facilities - the synchrotrons of today and the next-generation light sources of tomorrow - are the scientific tools of choice for exploring the electronic and atomic structure of matter. As such, these photon-science facilities are uniquely positioned to jump-start a global revolution in renewable and carbonneutral energy technologies. In these pages, we outline and illustrate through examples from our nation's light sources possible scientific directions for addressing these profound yet urgent challenges.

  8. Stardust Abundance Variations among Interplanetary Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messenger, S.; Keller, L. P.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Nguyen, A. N.; Walker, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    Presolar grain abundances reflect the degree of processing primitive materials have experienced. This is evidenced by the wide range of silicate stardust abundances among primitive meteorites (10 to 300 ppm) [1], attributable to parent body hydrothermal processing. Stardust abundance variations are also pronounced in anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (CPIDPs), that have not experienced parent body processing (300 to > 10,000 ppm) [2-4]. The large range in stardust abundances among CP IDPs thus reflect nebular processing. Here we present results of a systematic search for stardust among cluster CP IDPs. Our goals are to establish mineralogical trends among IDPs with different stardust abundances. This may shed light into the nature of isotopically normal presolar grains (GEMS grains?; 5) if their abundances vary similarly to that of isotopically exotic stardust grains.

  9. RP-5 RENEWABLE ENERGY PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Neil Clifton, P.E.; Eliza Jane Whitman; Jamal A. Zughbi, P.E.

    2002-10-30

    This report is the first quarterly technical report for the RP-5 Renewable Energy Project. The report summarizes the work progress, effort and activities that took place during the period of July 12, 2002 (project inception) to September 30, 2002. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines. This technical report covers all meetings and discussions that were conducted to identify and analyze potential renewable energy technologies and verify its feasibility and suitability for the project. The report covers the two-day Energy Charrette that was held at the Inland Empire Utilities Agency (IEUA) Headquarters Building on May 8-9, 2002 to brainstorm, evaluate and present all available renewable energy options along with their implementations. Although the Energy Charrette was held prior to awarding of the DOE Grant, the outcome of the Charrette forms the basis of the activities that took place after July 12, 2002. Therefore, the Energy Charrette is frequently referenced and discussed in this report. The report also discusses the Energy Meeting that took place on September 24, 2002 between IEUA and CH2M Hill to follow up on the various presentations and recommendations resulting from the Energy Charrette. It should be noted that no final equipment data or capacities have been presented in the report, as the Conceptual Design has not started yet. This report covers continuing effort and work to complete the Request for Proposal (RFP) for this project. The Executive Summary Section covers more details on the scope of work, which consists of the conceptual, preliminary and final design, and what has been accomplished during the report period. Tools and methods utilized in this project to identify renewable energy technologies are included in the ''Experimental'' Section. Finally, Project achievements, implications and importance in improving this kind of technology are summarized in the ''Conclusion'' Section.

  10. Customer choice and renewable energy

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, D.

    1996-12-31

    Opinions on political and social factors affecting the U.S. market for wind power are presented in this paper. The position of and activities taken by U.S. Congressman Dan Schaefer as Chairman of the House Energy and Power Subcommittee are outlined. Background information used as input to subcommittee hearings is summarized. The formation and activities of the House Renewable Energy Caucus are very briefly described.

  11. Objective criteria ranking framework for renewable energy policy decisions in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K, Nwofor O.; N, Dike V.

    2016-08-01

    We present a framework that seeks to improve the objectivity of renewable energy policy decisions in Nigeria. It consists of expert ranking of resource abundance, resource efficiency and resource environmental comfort in the choice of renewable energy options for large scale power generation. The rankings are converted to a more objective function called Resource Appraisal Function (RAF) using dependence operators derived from logical relationships amongst the various criteria. The preferred option is that with the highest average RAF coupled with the least RAF variance. The method can be extended to more options, more criteria, and more opinions and can be adapted for similar decisions in education, environment and health sectors.

  12. Renewable energy delivery systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Howard Andrew

    2013-12-10

    A system, method and/or apparatus for the delivery of energy at a site, at least a portion of the energy being delivered by at least one or more of a plurality of renewable energy technologies, the system and method including calculating the load required by the site for the period; calculating the amount of renewable energy for the period, including obtaining a capacity and a percentage of the period for the renewable energy to be delivered; comparing the total load to the renewable energy available; and, implementing one or both of additional and alternative renewable energy sources for delivery of energy to the site.

  13. Renewable energy annual 1997. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    This report presents information on renewable energy consumption, capacity, and electricity generation data, as well as data on US solar thermal and photovoltaic collector manufacturing activities. The renewable energy resources included in the report are: biomass (wood, ethanol, and biodiesel); municipal solid waste; geothermal; wind; and solar (solar thermal and photovoltaic). The first chapter of the report provides an overview of renewable energy use and capability from 1992 through 1996. It contains renewable energy consumption, capacity, and electricity generation data, as well as descriptive text. Chapter 2 presents current (through 1996) information on the US solar energy industry. A glossary of renewable energy terms is also included. 15 figs., 42 tabs.

  14. Ammonia and nitrogen abundances in comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyckoff, Susan

    1990-01-01

    Comets consist of pristine material preserved from an earlier galactic epoch. Determination of the molecular, elemental, and isotopic abundances in the dust and volatile components of comet nuclei produce vital clues to the chemical evolution of both interstellar and solar nebula matter. Here the abundances of nitrogen-containing molecules in comets are considered. The molecular abundances of NH3 in four comets are summarized (Tegler 1990, Wyckoff, Tegler, and Engel, 1990). From an inventory of nitrogen-containing compounds (Wyckoff, Engel, and Tegler 1990, Wyckoff, Engel, Womack, Ferro, Tegler and Peterson, 1990), an estimate of the elemental N abundance is also presented.

  15. Abundance of introduced species at home predicts abundance away in herbaceous communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Firn, Jennifer; Moore, Joslin L.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Seabloom, Eric W.; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Harpole, W. Stanley; Cleland, Elsa E.; Brown, Cynthia S.; Knops, Johannes M.H.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Pyke, David A.; Farrell, Kelly A.; Bakker, John D.; O'Halloran, Lydia R.; Adler, Peter B.; Collins, Scott L.; D'Antonio, Carla M.; Crawley, Michael J.; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Hautier, Yann; Morgan, John W.; Leakey, Andrew D.B.; Kay, Adam; McCulley, Rebecca; Davies, Kendi F.; Stevens, Carly J.; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Holl, Karen D.; Klein, Julia A.; Fay, Phillip A.; Hagenah, Nicole; Kirkman, Kevin P.; Buckley, Yvonne M.

    2011-01-01

    Many ecosystems worldwide are dominated by introduced plant species, leading to loss of biodiversity and ecosystem function. A common but rarely tested assumption is that these plants are more abundant in introduced vs. native communities, because ecological or evolutionary-based shifts in populations underlie invasion success. Here, data for 26 herbaceous species at 39 sites, within eight countries, revealed that species abundances were similar at native (home) and introduced (away) sites - grass species were generally abundant home and away, while forbs were low in abundance, but more abundant at home. Sites with six or more of these species had similar community abundance hierarchies, suggesting that suites of introduced species are assembling similarly on different continents. Overall, we found that substantial changes to populations are not necessarily a pre-condition for invasion success and that increases in species abundance are unusual. Instead, abundance at home predicts abundance away, a potentially useful additional criterion for biosecurity programmes.

  16. US Renewable Futures in the GCAM

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Mizrahi, Andrew H.; Karas, Joseph F.; Nathan, Mayda

    2011-10-06

    This project examines renewable energy deployment in the United States using a version of the GCAM integrated assessment model with detailed a representation of renewables, the GCAM-RE. Electricity generation was modeled in four generation segments and 12-subregions. This level of regional and sectoral detail allows a more explicit representation of renewable energy generation. Wind, solar thermal power, and central solar PV plants are implemented in explicit resource classes with new intermittency parameterizations appropriate for each technology. A scenario analysis examines a range of assumptions for technology characteristics, climate policy, and long-distance transmission. We find that renewable generation levels grow over the century in all scenarios. As expected, renewable generation increases with lower renewable technology costs, more stringent climate policy, and if alternative low-carbon technology are not available. The availability of long distance transmission lowers policy costs and changes the renewable generation mix.

  17. Acceleration of Rural Industrialization Using Renewable Energy Technolgoy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Kamaruddin

    2007-10-01

    Solar, wind, biomass and micro-hydro can be found in abundant in almost all rural area throughout the world. Despite of the fact that there are already so many research results showing the potential application of these renewable resources to substitute fossil fuel and to increase added value of local products, however, up to now very view if any result that has been realized in significant way. A concept of Small Provessing Unit using renewable energy sources have been introduced in Indonesia since 1999, in which domestically developed conversion technology, such as the greenhouse effect (GHE) solar drying system has been applied to process agricultural products such as coffee, cocoa, soices, various types of fishes and sea weeds. In addition, hybrid nocturnal cooling method has also beeing developed and used to help the farmer in extending shelf life of tropical fruits and vegetables and therefore, contributed in reducing post harvest losses. The Small Processing Unit concept as well as the developed renewable energy technology are now gradually being appreciated by both the central and local authorities, the private sectors including the NGO. The demand of such system is also gradually increasing each year and the area of applications have been extended not only within the heavtily inhavited Java Island but also to the other island of Indonesia. Our experiences in dealing with the system have also been transferred to fellow ASEAN engineers as well as those coming from the African continent through training and workshops activities. The future direction of the development will be to enhace the role of the Small Processing Unit (SPU) by providing more value added facilities driven by renewable energy technology.

  18. Climate and local abundance in freshwater fishes

    PubMed Central

    Knouft, Jason H.; Anthony, Melissa M.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying factors regulating variation in numbers of individuals among populations across a species' distribution is a fundamental goal in ecology. A common prediction, often referred to as the abundant-centre hypothesis, suggests that abundance is highest near the centre of a species' range. However, because of the primary focus on the geographical position of a population, this framework provides little insight into the environmental factors regulating local abundance. While range-wide variation in population abundance associated with environmental conditions has been investigated in terrestrial species, the relationship between climate and local abundance in freshwater taxa across species' distributions is not well understood. We used GIS-based temperature and precipitation data to determine the relationships between climatic conditions and range-wide variation in local abundance for 19 species of North American freshwater fishes. Climate predicted a portion of the variation in local abundance among populations for 18 species. In addition, the relationship between climatic conditions and local abundance varied among species, which is expected as lineages partition the environment across geographical space. The influence of local habitat quality on species persistence is well documented; however, our results also indicate the importance of climate in regulating population sizes across a species geographical range, even in aquatic taxa. PMID:27429769

  19. Climate and local abundance in freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    Knouft, Jason H; Anthony, Melissa M

    2016-06-01

    Identifying factors regulating variation in numbers of individuals among populations across a species' distribution is a fundamental goal in ecology. A common prediction, often referred to as the abundant-centre hypothesis, suggests that abundance is highest near the centre of a species' range. However, because of the primary focus on the geographical position of a population, this framework provides little insight into the environmental factors regulating local abundance. While range-wide variation in population abundance associated with environmental conditions has been investigated in terrestrial species, the relationship between climate and local abundance in freshwater taxa across species' distributions is not well understood. We used GIS-based temperature and precipitation data to determine the relationships between climatic conditions and range-wide variation in local abundance for 19 species of North American freshwater fishes. Climate predicted a portion of the variation in local abundance among populations for 18 species. In addition, the relationship between climatic conditions and local abundance varied among species, which is expected as lineages partition the environment across geographical space. The influence of local habitat quality on species persistence is well documented; however, our results also indicate the importance of climate in regulating population sizes across a species geographical range, even in aquatic taxa. PMID:27429769

  20. The Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, P.

    1996-10-01

    The present paper describes, for purposes of the Department of Energy (DoE) Hydrogen Program Review, Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) progress on the Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System Project for the period January through June 1996. This period represents the first six months of the three year project. The estimated cost over three years is $3.9M, $1.859M of which is funded by the DoE ($600 k for fiscal year 1996). The goal of the Palm Desert Project is to develop a clean and sustainable transportation system for a community. The project will demonstrate the practical utility of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells as vehicle power plants. This transportation system will be developed in the City of Palm Desert in southern California and will include a fleet of 8 fuel cell powered vehicles, solar and wind powered hydrogen generating facilities, a consumer-ready refueling station, and a service infrastructure. The system holds the promise of a clean environment and an energy supply that is predictable, domestic, safe, and abundant. During, the first part of 1996 SERC has nearly completed building a fuel cell powered personal utility vehicle, which features an upgraded safety and computer system; they have designed and built a test bench that is able to mimic golf cart loads and test fuel cell system auxiliary components; they have begun the design of the solar hydrogen generating station; they have worked with Sandia National Laboratory on an advanced metal hydride storage system; they have increased the power density of the SERC fuel cell by as much as 50%; and they have reached out to the rest of the world with a new fact sheet, world wide web pages, a press release, video footage for a television program. and instruction within the community.

  1. A Renewed Search for Elusive Lunar Granophyres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, R. D.; Ross, D. K.; Simon, J. I.; Irving, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent remote sensing studies [e.g., 1-3] indicate that several un-sampled regions of the Moon have significantly higher concentrations of silicic material (also high in [K], [U], and [Th]) than sampled regions. Within these areas are morphological features that are best explained by the existence of chemically evolved volcanic rocks. Observations of silicic domes [e.g., 1-5] suggest that sizable networks of silicic melt were present during crust-formation. Because of these recent findings there is a renewed interest in the petrogenesis of lunar, felsic igneous rocks. Specific questions are: (1) when were these magmas generated?, and (2) what was the source material? The two main hypotheses for generating silicic melts on Earth are fractional crystallization or partial melting of preexisting crust. On the Moon silicic melts are thought to have been generated during extreme fractional crystallization involving end-stage silicate liquid immiscibility (SLI) [e.g. 6, 7]. However, SLI cannot account for the production of significant volumes of silicic melt and its wide distribution, as reported by the remote global surveys [1, 2, 3]. In addition, experimental and natural products of SLI show that U and Th, which are abundant in the lunar granites and seen in the remote sensing data of the domes, are preferentially partitioned into the depolymerized ferrobasaltic magma and not the silicic portion [8, 9]. If SLI is not the mechanism that generated silicic magmas on the Moon then alternative processes such as fractional crystallization (only crystal-liquid separation) or partial melting should be considered as viable possibilities to be tested.

  2. Influence of Coronal Abundance Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scargle, Jeffrey D. (Technical Monitor); Kashyap, Vinay

    2005-01-01

    The PI of this project was Jeff Scargle of NASA/Ames. Co-I's were Alma Connors of Eureka Scientific/Wellesley, and myself. Part of the work was subcontracted to Eureka Scientific via SAO, with Vinay Kashyap as PI. This project was originally assigned grant number NCC2-1206, and was later changed to NCC2-1350 for administrative reasons. The goal of the project was to obtain, derive, and develop statistical and data analysis tools that would be of use in the analyses of high-resolution, high-sensitivity data that are becoming available with new instruments. This is envisioned as a cross-disciplinary effort with a number of "collaborators" including some at SA0 (Aneta Siemiginowska, Peter Freeman) and at the Harvard Statistics department (David van Dyk, Rostislav Protassov, Xiao-li Meng, Epaminondas Sourlas, et al). We have developed a new tool to reliably measure the metallicities of thermal plasma. It is unfeasible to obtain high-resolution grating spectra for most stars, and one must make the best possible determination based on lower-resolution, CCD-type spectra. It has been noticed that most analyses of such spectra have resulted in measured metallicities that were significantly lower than when compared with analyses of high- resolution grating data where available (see, e.g., Brickhouse et al., 2000, ApJ 530,387). Such results have led to the proposal of the existence of so-called Metal Abundance Deficient, or "MAD" stars (e.g., Drake, J.J., 1996, Cool Stars 9, ASP Conf.Ser. 109, 203). We however find that much of these analyses may be systematically underestimating the metallicities, and using a newly developed method to correctly treat the low-counts regime at the high-energy tail of the stellar spectra (van Dyk et al. 2001, ApJ 548,224), have found that the metallicities of these stars are generally comparable to their photospheric values. The results were reported at the AAS (Sourlas, Yu, van Dyk, Kashyap, and Drake, 2000, BAAS 196, v32, #54.02), and at the

  3. Renewable-reagent electrochemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Wang, J.; Olsen, K.B.

    1999-08-24

    A new electrochemical probe(s) design allowing for continuous (renewable) reagent delivery is described. The probe comprises an integrated membrane sampling/electrochemical sensor that prevents interferences from surface-active materials and greatly extends the linear range. The probe(s) is useful for remote or laboratory-based monitoring in connection with microdialysis sampling and electrochemical measurements of metals and organic compounds that are not readily detected in the absence of reacting with the compound. Also disclosed is a method of using the probe(s). 19 figs.

  4. Renewable-reagent electrochemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Joseph; Olsen, Khris B.

    1999-01-01

    A new electrochemical probe(s) design allowing for continuous (renewable) reagent delivery. The probe comprises an integrated membrane-sampling/electrochemical sensor that prevents interferences from surface-active materials and greatly extends the linear range. The probe(s) is useful for remote or laboratory-based monitoring in connection with microdialysis sampling and electrochemical measurements of metals and organic compounds that are not readily detected in the absence of reacting with the compound. Also disclosed is a method of using the probe(s).

  5. Renewable Energy Resources in Lebanon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdy, R.

    2010-12-01

    The energy sector in Lebanon plays an important role in the overall development of the country, especially that it suffers from many serious problems. The fact that Lebanon is among the few countries that are not endowed with fossil fuels in the Middle East made this sector cause one third of the national debt in Lebanon. Despite the large government investments in the power sector, demand still exceeds supply and Lebanon frequently goes through black out in peak demand times or has to resort to importing electricity from Syria. The Energy production sector has dramatic environmental and economical impacts in the form of emitted gasses and environment sabotage, accordingly, it is imperative that renewable energy (RE) be looked at as an alternative energy source. Officials at the Ministry of Energy and Water (MEW) and Lebanese Electricity (EDL) have repeatedly expressed their support to renewable energy utilization. So far, only very few renewable energy applications can be observed over the country. Major efforts are still needed to overcome this situation and promote the use of renewable energy. These efforts are the shared responsibility of the government, EDL, NGO's and educational and research centers. Additionally, some efforts are being made by some international organizations such as UNDP, ESCWA, EC and other donor agencies operating in Lebanon. This work reviews the status of Energy in Lebanon, the installed RE projects, and the potential projects. It also reviews the stakeholders in the field of RE in Lebanon Conclusion In considering the best R.E. alternative, it is important to consider all potential R.E. sources, their costs, market availability, suitability for the selected location, significance of the energy produced and return on investment. Several RE resources in Lebanon have been investigated; Tides and waves energy is limited and not suitable two tentative sites for geothermal energy are available but not used. Biomass resources badly affect the

  6. Universality classes of foraging with resource renewal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chupeau, M.; Bénichou, O.; Redner, S.

    2016-03-01

    We determine the impact of resource renewal on the lifetime of a forager that depletes its environment and starves if it wanders too long without eating. In the framework of a minimal starving random-walk model with resource renewal, there are three universal classes of behavior as a function of the renewal time. For sufficiently rapid renewal, foragers are immortal, while foragers have a finite lifetime otherwise. In the specific case of one dimension, there is a third regime, for sufficiently slow renewal, in which the lifetime of the forager is independent of the renewal time. We outline an enumeration method to determine the mean lifetime of the forager in the mortal regime.

  7. On protein abundance distributions in complex mixtures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry, an analytical technique that measures the mass-to-charge ratio of ionized atoms or molecules, dates back more than 100 years, and has both qualitative and quantitative uses for determining chemical and structural information. Quantitative proteomic mass spectrometry on biological samples focuses on identifying the proteins present in the samples, and establishing the relative abundances of those proteins. Such protein inventories create the opportunity to discover novel biomarkers and disease targets. We have previously introduced a normalized, label-free method for quantification of protein abundances under a shotgun proteomics platform (Griffin et al., 2010). The introduction of this method for quantifying and comparing protein levels leads naturally to the issue of modeling protein abundances in individual samples. We here report that protein abundance levels from two recent proteomics experiments conducted by the authors can be adequately represented by Sichel distributions. Mathematically, Sichel distributions are mixtures of Poisson distributions with a rather complex mixing distribution, and have been previously and successfully applied to linguistics and species abundance data. The Sichel model can provide a direct measure of the heterogeneity of protein abundances, and can reveal protein abundance differences that simpler models fail to show. PMID:23360617

  8. Monitoring Butterfly Abundance: Beyond Pollard Walks

    PubMed Central

    Pellet, Jérôme; Bried, Jason T.; Parietti, David; Gander, Antoine; Heer, Patrick O.; Cherix, Daniel; Arlettaz, Raphaël

    2012-01-01

    Most butterfly monitoring protocols rely on counts along transects (Pollard walks) to generate species abundance indices and track population trends. It is still too often ignored that a population count results from two processes: the biological process (true abundance) and the statistical process (our ability to properly quantify abundance). Because individual detectability tends to vary in space (e.g., among sites) and time (e.g., among years), it remains unclear whether index counts truly reflect population sizes and trends. This study compares capture-mark-recapture (absolute abundance) and count-index (relative abundance) monitoring methods in three species (Maculinea nausithous and Iolana iolas: Lycaenidae; Minois dryas: Satyridae) in contrasted habitat types. We demonstrate that intraspecific variability in individual detectability under standard monitoring conditions is probably the rule rather than the exception, which questions the reliability of count-based indices to estimate and compare specific population abundance. Our results suggest that the accuracy of count-based methods depends heavily on the ecology and behavior of the target species, as well as on the type of habitat in which surveys take place. Monitoring programs designed to assess the abundance and trends in butterfly populations should incorporate a measure of detectability. We discuss the relative advantages and inconveniences of current monitoring methods and analytical approaches with respect to the characteristics of the species under scrutiny and resources availability. PMID:22859980

  9. Experimental renewal in human participants.

    PubMed

    Nelson, James Byron; Sanjuan, María del Carmen; Vadillo-Ruiz, Sandra; Pérez, Joana; León, Samuel P

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments with human participants are presented that differentiate renewal from other behavioral effects that can produce a response after extinction. Participants played a video game and learned to suppress their behavior when sensor stimuli predicted an attack. Contexts (A, B, & C) were provided by fictitious galaxies where the game play took place. In Experiment 1, participants who received conditioning in A, extinction in B, and testing in A showed some context specificity of conditioning during extinction and a recovery of suppression on test. Experiment 2 demonstrated recovery of extinguished responding when participants were conditioned in A, extinguished in B, and tested in C, a third, neutral context. The experiment also demonstrated that the context of extinction did not control performance by becoming inhibitory. Results are discussed in terms of mechanisms that can produce a response recovery after extinction. The experiments demonstrated a renewal effect: a response recovery that was not attributable to the contexts acting as simple conditioned stimuli and is the first work with human participants to conclusively do so.

  10. RP-5 RENEWABLE ENERGY PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Neil Clifton; Eliza Jane Whitman; Jamal A. Zughbi

    2003-01-30

    This is the second quarterly technical report for the RP-5 Renewable Energy Project. The report summarizes the work progress, effort and activities that took place during the period of October 1, 2002 to December 31, 2002. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines. This technical report covers all meetings and discussions that were conducted in order to follow up on potential renewable energy technologies that were identified in the previous report; the technologies were analyzed for their feasibility, suitability and cost effectiveness for this project. This report covers the one-day conceptual design kickoff meeting that took place on November 4, 2002. The meeting was held to discuss the practicality and implementation of potential innovative technologies. Following the kickoff meeting, Inland Empire Utilities Agency (IEUA) and CH2M Hill, the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Consultant, held a meeting on December 2, 2002 to discuss the Conceptual Design Report outline and contents in order to clearly present each selected technology along with its evaluation, cost effectiveness and justification. A conference call also took place between the PIER Consultant and IEUA on December 13, 2002, to discuss the overall scope of work for this project. Major project activities in this period include expanded discussions on previous Energy Charrette decisions and recommendations, conceptual design kickoff meeting, conceptual design report, and deciding on the overall project scope of work.

  11. Adrenocortical Zonation, Renewal, and Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Pihlajoki, Marjut; Dörner, Julia; Cochran, Rebecca S.; Heikinheimo, Markku; Wilson, David B.

    2015-01-01

    The adrenal cortex is divided into concentric zones. In humans the major cortical zones are the zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata, and zona reticularis. The adrenal cortex is a dynamic organ in which senescent cells are replaced by newly differentiated ones. This constant renewal facilitates organ remodeling in response to physiological demand for steroids. Cortical zones can reversibly expand, contract, or alter their biochemical profiles to accommodate needs. Pools of stem/progenitor cells in the adrenal capsule, subcapsular region, and juxtamedullary region can differentiate to repopulate or expand zones. Some of these pools appear to be activated only during specific developmental windows or in response to extreme physiological demand. Senescent cells can also be replenished through direct lineage conversion; for example, cells in the zona glomerulosa can transform into cells of the zona fasciculata. Adrenocortical cell differentiation, renewal, and function are regulated by a variety of endocrine/paracrine factors including adrenocorticotropin, angiotensin II, insulin-related growth hormones, luteinizing hormone, activin, and inhibin. Additionally, zonation and regeneration of the adrenal cortex are controlled by developmental signaling pathways, such as the sonic hedgehog, delta-like homolog 1, fibroblast growth factor, and WNT/β-catenin pathways. The mechanisms involved in adrenocortical remodeling are complex and redundant so as to fulfill the offsetting goals of organ homeostasis and stress adaptation. PMID:25798129

  12. Scaling up of renewable chemicals.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Karl; Chotani, Gopal; Danielson, Nathan; Zahn, James A

    2016-04-01

    The transition of promising technologies for production of renewable chemicals from a laboratory scale to commercial scale is often difficult and expensive. As a result the timeframe estimated for commercialization is typically underestimated resulting in much slower penetration of these promising new methods and products into the chemical industries. The theme of 'sugar is the next oil' connects biological, chemical, and thermochemical conversions of renewable feedstocks to products that are drop-in replacements for petroleum derived chemicals or are new to market chemicals/materials. The latter typically offer a functionality advantage and can command higher prices that result in less severe scale-up challenges. However, for drop-in replacements, price is of paramount importance and competitive capital and operating expenditures are a prerequisite for success. Hence, scale-up of relevant technologies must be interfaced with effective and efficient management of both cell and steel factories. Details involved in all aspects of manufacturing, such as utilities, sterility, product recovery and purification, regulatory requirements, and emissions must be managed successfully. PMID:26874264

  13. Scaling up of renewable chemicals.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Karl; Chotani, Gopal; Danielson, Nathan; Zahn, James A

    2016-04-01

    The transition of promising technologies for production of renewable chemicals from a laboratory scale to commercial scale is often difficult and expensive. As a result the timeframe estimated for commercialization is typically underestimated resulting in much slower penetration of these promising new methods and products into the chemical industries. The theme of 'sugar is the next oil' connects biological, chemical, and thermochemical conversions of renewable feedstocks to products that are drop-in replacements for petroleum derived chemicals or are new to market chemicals/materials. The latter typically offer a functionality advantage and can command higher prices that result in less severe scale-up challenges. However, for drop-in replacements, price is of paramount importance and competitive capital and operating expenditures are a prerequisite for success. Hence, scale-up of relevant technologies must be interfaced with effective and efficient management of both cell and steel factories. Details involved in all aspects of manufacturing, such as utilities, sterility, product recovery and purification, regulatory requirements, and emissions must be managed successfully.

  14. Oxygen abundance maps of CALIFA galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinchenko, I. A.; Pilyugin, L. S.; Grebel, E. K.; Sánchez, S. F.; Vílchez, J. M.

    2016-11-01

    We construct maps of the oxygen abundance distribution across the discs of 88 galaxies using Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey (CALIFA) Data Release 2 (DR2) spectra. The position of the centre of a galaxy (coordinates on the plate) was also taken from the CALIFA DR2. The galaxy inclination, the position angle of the major axis, and the optical radius were determined from the analysis of the surface brightnesses in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) g and r bands of the photometric maps of SDSS Data Release 9. We explore the global azimuthal abundance asymmetry in the discs of the CALIFA galaxies and the presence of a break in the radial oxygen abundance distribution. We found that there is no significant global azimuthal asymmetry for our sample of galaxies, i.e. the asymmetry is small, usually lower than 0.05 dex. The scatter in oxygen abundances around the abundance gradient has a comparable value, ≲0.05 dex. A significant (possibly dominant) fraction of the asymmetry can be attributed to the uncertainties in the geometrical parameters of these galaxies. There is evidence for a flattening of the radial abundance gradient in the central part of 18 galaxies. We also estimated the geometric parameters (coordinates of the centre, the galaxy inclination and the position angle of the major axis) of our galaxies from the analysis of the abundance map. The photometry-map-based and the abundance-map-based geometrical parameters are relatively close to each other for the majority of the galaxies but the discrepancy is large for a few galaxies with a flat radial abundance gradient.

  15. Predicting the Dynamics of Protein Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Mehdi, Ahmed M.; Patrick, Ralph; Bailey, Timothy L.; Bodén, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Protein synthesis is finely regulated across all organisms, from bacteria to humans, and its integrity underpins many important processes. Emerging evidence suggests that the dynamic range of protein abundance is greater than that observed at the transcript level. Technological breakthroughs now mean that sequencing-based measurement of mRNA levels is routine, but protocols for measuring protein abundance remain both complex and expensive. This paper introduces a Bayesian network that integrates transcriptomic and proteomic data to predict protein abundance and to model the effects of its determinants. We aim to use this model to follow a molecular response over time, from condition-specific data, in order to understand adaptation during processes such as the cell cycle. With microarray data now available for many conditions, the general utility of a protein abundance predictor is broad. Whereas most quantitative proteomics studies have focused on higher organisms, we developed a predictive model of protein abundance for both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe to explore the latitude at the protein level. Our predictor primarily relies on mRNA level, mRNA–protein interaction, mRNA folding energy and half-life, and tRNA adaptation. The combination of key features, allowing for the low certainty and uneven coverage of experimental observations, gives comparatively minor but robust prediction accuracy. The model substantially improved the analysis of protein regulation during the cell cycle: predicted protein abundance identified twice as many cell-cycle-associated proteins as experimental mRNA levels. Predicted protein abundance was more dynamic than observed mRNA expression, agreeing with experimental protein abundance from a human cell line. We illustrate how the same model can be used to predict the folding energy of mRNA when protein abundance is available, lending credence to the emerging view that mRNA folding affects translation

  16. Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Hood, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Chvala, William D.; Warwick, William M.; Dixon, Douglas R.; Solana, Amy E.; Weimar, Mark R.; States, Jennifer C.; Reilly, Raymond W.

    2008-06-30

    The document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Fort Hood based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 DoD Renewables Assessment. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings, as directed by IMCOM.

  17. Red Supergiants as Cosmic Abundance Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, B.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Bergemann, M.; Evans, C.; Gazak, Z.; Lardo, C.; Patrick, L.; Plez, B.; Bastian, N.

    2015-09-01

    By studying a galaxy's present-day chemical abundances, we are effectively looking at its star-forming history. Cosmological simulations of galaxy evolution make predictions about the relative metal contents of galaxies as a function of their stellar mass, a trend known as the mass-metallicity relation. These predictions can be tested with observations of nearby galaxies. However, providing reliable, accurate abundance measurements at extragalactic distances is extremely challenging. In this project, we have developed a technique to extract abundance information from individual red supergiant stars at megaparsec distances. We are currently exploiting this technique using the unique capabilities of KMOS on the VLT.

  18. Interstellar Abundances Toward X Per, Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valencic, Lynne A.; Smith, Randall K.

    2012-01-01

    The nearby X-ray binary X Per (HD 24534) provides a useful beacon with which to measure elemental abundances in the local ISM. We examine absorption features of O, Mg, and Si along this line of sight using spectra from the Chandra Observatory's LETG/ACIS-S and XMM-Newton's RGS instruments. In general, we find that the abundances and their ratios are similar to those of young F and G stars and the most recent solar values. We compare our results with abundances required by dust grain models.

  19. Interstellar Abundances Toward X Per, Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valencic, Lynne A.; Smith, Randall K.

    2014-01-01

    The nearby X-ray binary X Per (HD 24534) provides a useful beacon with which to measure elemental abundances in the local ISM. We examine absorption features of 0, Mg, and Si along this line of sight using spectra from the Chandra Observatory's LETG/ ACIS-S and XMM-Newton's RGS instruments. In general, we find that the abundances and their ratios are similar to those of young F and G stars and the most recent solar values. We compare our results with abundances required by dust grain models.

  20. Industrial fermentation of renewable diesel fuels.

    PubMed

    Westfall, Patrick J; Gardner, Timothy S

    2011-06-01

    In commodity chemicals, cost drives everything. A working class family of four drives up to the gas pumps and faces a choice of a renewable diesel or petroleum diesel. Renewable diesel costs $0.50 more per gallon. Which fuel do they pick? Petroleum diesel will be the winner every time, unless the renewable fuel can achieve cost and performance parity with petrol. Nascent producers of advanced biofuels, including Amyris, LS9, Neste and Solazyme, aim to deliver renewable diesel fuels that not only meet the cost challenge, but also exceed the storage, transport, engine performance and emissions properties of petroleum diesel.

  1. Renewables and restructuring in North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, C.; Shirley, L.

    1999-07-01

    North Carolina is one of 33 states that are evaluating whether and how to restructure their electric utility industries. In most states where restructuring has either already been passed or is being considered, there has been considerable effort on the part of advocacy organizations to implement new policies to support renewable energy growth. It remains unclear, however, when the North Carolina electric industry will be restructured and whether the state will move ahead on its own or wait for a federal mandate. This paper presents the experience and lessons learned to date from efforts to incorporate renewable energy into the proposed restructured electric market structure in North Carolina. This paper focuses on the work of the North Carolina Solar Energy Association, the state's leading renewable energy advocacy organization. Discussion includes the history and status of renewable energy in the state. The paper outlines and discusses NCSEA's proposed policies for a restructured market. These are: (1) opening the market to retail competition so that customers will have a choice of renewable energy providers, (2) mandating fuel mix and emissions disclosure, (3) creating a renewable portfolio standard of 20% renewables by 2010, and (4) establishing a public benefits fund of 2.5 mills/kWh to support both renewable energy and energy efficiency investments. These policy recommendations are based on the long standing recommendation of NCSEA and the NC Energy Policy Council that the state should receive 20% of its energy from renewables by 2010.

  2. Water renewals in the Saguenay Fjord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belzile, Mélany; Galbraith, Peter S.; Bourgault, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Water renewals and renewal times of the Saguenay Fjord are investigated and classified according to their intrusion depth. Renewal dynamics are controlled by a shallow sill (˜20 m) at the fjord mouth, by large tides that are a distinguishing feature of the Saguenay Fjord and by large vertical mixing inside the inner basin (). A mooring was deployed in the inner basin of the fjord to provide a clearer quantitative understanding of the complexity and seasonality of water renewals in this seasonally ice-covered fjord. The mooring provided information on currents over nearly the entire water column, along with temperature-salinity at a few discrete depths. Hydrographic temperature and salinity transects spanning multiple seasons and years as well as turbulence profiles were also collected. The observations show that the fjord dynamics are more complex than previously hypothesized, with large changes in renewal event depths leading to three different renewal regimes. Part of this renewal depth variability may be explained by the seasonality of the St. Lawrence estuarine circulation. Because of the large turbulence within the inner basin bottom layer, the density decreases over time such that new deep renewals can occur every year. The mechanisms behind the large vertical mixing cannot yet be clearly identified but a statistically significant correlation () suggests that internal wave breaking may be a significant contributor to deep turbulence mixing in the inner basin. The renewal time of the inner basin waters is estimated to be between 1 and 6 months.

  3. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.; Sandor, D.; Wiser, R.; Schneider, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  4. Current Renewable Energy Technologies and Future Projections

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, Stephen W; Lapsa, Melissa Voss; Ward, Christina D; Smith, Barton; Grubb, Kimberly R; Lee, Russell

    2007-05-01

    The generally acknowledged sources of renewable energy are wind, geothermal, biomass, solar, hydropower, and hydrogen. Renewable energy technologies are crucial to the production and utilization of energy from these regenerative and virtually inexhaustible sources. Furthermore, renewable energy technologies provide benefits beyond the establishment of sustainable energy resources. For example, these technologies produce negligible amounts of greenhouse gases and other pollutants in providing energy, and they exploit domestically available energy sources, thereby reducing our dependence on both the importation of fossil fuels and the use of nuclear fuels. The market price of renewable energy technologies does not reflect the economic value of these added benefits.

  5. The Effect of Natural Gas Supply on US Renewable Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, C.; Bistline, J.; Inman, M.; Davis, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Increased use of natural gas has been promoted as a means of decarbonizing the US power sector, because of superior generator efficiency and lower CO2 emissions per unit of electricity than coal. We model the effect of different gas supplies on the US power sector and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Across a range of climate policies, we find that more abundant natural gas decreases use of both coal and renewable energy technologies in the future. Without a climate policy, overall energy use also increases as the gas supply increases. With reduced deployment of lower-carbon renewable energies and increased electricity consumption, the effect of higher gas supplies on GHG emissions is small: cumulative emissions 2013-2055 in our high gas supply scenario are 2% less than in our low gas supply scenario, when there are no new climate policies and a methane leakage rate of 1.5% is assumed. Assuming leakage rates of 0 or 3% does not substantially alter this finding. In our results, only climate policies bring about a significant reduction in future CO2 emissions within the US electricity sector. Our results suggest that without strong limits on GHG emissions or policies that explicitly encourage renewable energy, more abundant natural gas may actually slow the process of decarbonization, primarily by delaying deployment of renewable energy technologies.

  6. The effect of natural gas supply on US renewable energy and CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, Christine; Bistline, John; Inman, Mason; Davis, Steven J.

    2014-09-01

    Increased use of natural gas has been promoted as a means of decarbonizing the US power sector, because of superior generator efficiency and lower CO2 emissions per unit of electricity than coal. We model the effect of different gas supplies on the US power sector and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Across a range of climate policies, we find that abundant natural gas decreases use of both coal and renewable energy technologies in the future. Without a climate policy, overall electricity use also increases as the gas supply increases. With reduced deployment of lower-carbon renewable energies and increased electricity consumption, the effect of higher gas supplies on GHG emissions is small: cumulative emissions 2013-55 in our high gas supply scenario are 2% less than in our low gas supply scenario, when there are no new climate policies and a methane leakage rate of 1.5% is assumed. Assuming leakage rates of 0 or 3% does not substantially alter this finding. In our results, only climate policies bring about a significant reduction in future CO2 emissions within the US electricity sector. Our results suggest that without strong limits on GHG emissions or policies that explicitly encourage renewable electricity, abundant natural gas may actually slow the process of decarbonization, primarily by delaying deployment of renewable energy technologies.

  7. Renewable Electricity Futures: Exploration of Up to 80% Renewable Electricity Penetration in the United States (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M.; DeMeo, E.; Hostick, D.; Mai, T.; Schlosser, C. A.

    2013-04-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  8. Renewable Electricity: How Do You Know You Have It?; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    When electricity is generated - either from a renewable or non-renewable power plant - the electrons added to the grid are indistinguishable. So, on what basis can a consumer of electricity claim to be using renewables? In the United States, renewable energy certificates (RECs) were developed as states passed renewable portfolio standards (RPSs) and were requiring fuel mix disclosure labels. RECs are also used in the voluntary market, where customers are buying renewables to meet sustainability goals. The concept of RECs is used most widely in the United States, but international markets also have tradable renewable electricity certificates. This fact sheet reviews how to ensure that RECs are not double-counted, roles of electricity regulators, renewable generators and purchasers. It concludes with a discussion of the international use of RECs.

  9. Coronal abundances determined from energetic particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reames, D. V.

    1995-01-01

    Solar energetic particles (SEPs) provide a measurement of coronal element abundances that is highly independent of the ionization states and temperature of the ions in the source plasma. The most complete measurements come from large 'gradual' events where ambient coronal plasma is swept up by the expanding shock wave from a coronal mass ejection. Particles from 'impulsive' flares have a pattern of acceleration-induced enhancements superimposed on the coronal abundances. Particles accelerated from high-speed solar wind streams at corotating shocks show a different abundance pattern corresponding to material from coronal holes. Large variations in He/O in coronal material are seen for both gradual and impulsive-flare events but other abundance ratios, such as Mg/Ne, are remarkably constant. SEP measurements now include hundreds of events spanning 15 years of high-quality measurement.

  10. Chemical abundances in Hg-Mn stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heacox, W. D.

    1979-01-01

    An abundance analysis has been conducted of 21 elements in 21 Hg-Mn, two Si-Cr, and six normal stars using model atmospheres and high-dispersion spectroscopy in the visible and UV. Manganese line strengths imply abundances that correlate well with stellar effective temperature. Within the studied sample of Hg-Mn stars there appears to be no correlation of abundances of any element with projected rotational velocity. Abundances in several Hg-Mn stars show patterns that are probably consistent with diffusion but difficult to reconcile with equilibrium nucleosynthesis. In general, no combination of gross stellar physical parameters is sufficient to characterize the patterns of line strengths observed in Hg-Mb Hg-Mn stars.

  11. The abundant elements in interstellar dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sofia, Ulysses J.; Cardelli, Jason A.; Savage, Blair D.

    1994-01-01

    We explore the incorporation of the cosmically abundant species O, C, N, Mg, Si, Fe, and S into interstellar dust. Column densities based on Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph 3.5 km/s resolution measurements from the literature for eight individual absorbing regions toward five lines of sight are used. Corrections are applied as needed in order to account for recent improvements in oscillator strengths. In order to acquire the most accurate column densities, and check on the accuracy of the oscillator strengths, we compare column densities based on the very strong Lorentzian damped lines of C II, O I, N I, and Mg II with results for the weak lines of these species, and confirm the previously determined f-values for O I lambda 1335, C II lambda 2325, and N I lambda lambda 1159, 1160. New empirical f-values of 1.25 x 10(exp -3) and 6.25 x 10(exp -4), respectively, are derived for the Mg II weak doublet at 1239 and 1240 A. Assuming a cosmic reference abundance based on solar and B star values, we derive depletions and dust-phase abundances which suggest that more than 70% of the available Mg and Fe is incorporated into dust-grain cores, whereas only 35% of the silicon is. This implies that oxides are important constituents of the grain core population. Mg and Fe atoms are mantled onto grain cores in a ratio of 1.8 to 1, whereas approximately 4.0 Si atoms are in the mantle per Fe atom. Since Si is not expected to accrete onto silicate or graphite grains, other grain cores, perhaps oxides and/or metallic Fe, may provide mantling sites for this species. The abundances of Fe and Mg in mantles would imply that graphite grains must have a substantial coating unless oxides provide significant mantling sites for these species. The abundance of O and N in the dust phase as implied by the solar reference abundance values are difficult to reconcile with the fact that these elements are not expected to participate in mantle formation, and the 3.1 micrometer H2O ice feature is

  12. Species Abundance Patterns in Complex Evolutionary Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokita, Kei

    2004-10-01

    An analytic theory of species abundance patterns (SAPs) in biological networks is presented. The theory is based on multispecies replicator dynamics equivalent to the Lotka-Volterra equation, with diverse interspecies interactions. Various SAPs observed in nature are derived from a single parameter. The abundance distribution is formed like a widely observed left-skewed lognormal distribution. As the model has a general form, the result can be applied to similar patterns in other complex biological networks, e.g., gene expression.

  13. Elemental abundance determinations for meteors by spectroscopy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, G. A.

    1973-01-01

    Relative elemental abundance determinations for meteors by spectroscopy are discussed. Relative abundances of spectroscopically accessible elements of four major shower meteors and one sporadic meteor are presented. A sporadic meteor with dominant sodium radiation and an iron-deficient sporadic meteor are analyzed. Empirical and theoretical tests for self-absorption in optical meteor plasmas have been conducted. Both ionization and incomplete dissociation are found to severely deplete certain neutral atoms from meteor plasmas.

  14. Coronae of Stars with Supersolar Elemental Abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peretz, Uria; Behar, Ehud; Drake, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Coronal elemental abundances are known to deviate from the photospheric values of their parent star, with the degree of deviation depending on the first ionization potential (FIP). This study focuses on the coronal composition of stars with supersolar photospheric abundances. We present the coronal abundances of six such stars: 11 LMi, iota Hor, HR 7291, tau Boo, and alpha Cen A and B. These stars all have high-statistics X-ray spectra, three of which are presented for the first time. The abundances we measured were obtained using the line-resolved spectra of the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) in conjunction with the higher throughput EPIC-pn camera spectra onboard the XMM-Newton observatory. A collisionally ionized plasma model with two or three temperature components is found to represent the spectra well. All elements are found to be consistently depleted in the coronae compared to their respective photospheres. For 11 LMi and tau Boo no FIP effect is present, while iota Hor, HR 7291, and alpha Cen A and B show a clear FIP trend. These conclusions hold whether the comparison is made with solar abundances or the individual stellar abundances. Unlike the solar corona, where low-FIP elements are enriched, in these stars the FIP effect is consistently due to a depletion of high-FIP elements with respect to actual photospheric abundances. A comparison with solar (instead of stellar) abundances yields the same fractionation trend as on the Sun. In both cases, a similar FIP bias is inferred, but different fractionation mechanisms need to be invoked.

  15. Report on carbon and nitrogen abundance studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm-Vitense, Erika

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the proposal was to determine the nitrogen to carbon abundance ratios from transition layer lines in stars with different T(sub eff) and luminosities. The equations which give the surface emission line fluxes and the measured ratio of the NV to CIV emission line fluxes are presented and explained. The abundance results are compared with those of photospheric abundance studies for stars in common with the photospheric investigations. The results show that the analyses are at least as accurate as the photospheric determinations. These studies can be extended to F and early G stars for which photospheric abundance determinations for giants are hard to do because molecular bands become too weak. The abundance determination in the context of stellar evolution is addressed. The N/C abundance ratio increases steeply at the point of evolution for which the convection zone reaches deepest. Looking at the evolution of the rotation velocities v sin i, a steep decrease in v sin i is related to the increasing depth of the convection zone. It is concluded that the decrease in v sin i for T(sub eff) less than or approximately = 5800 K is most probably due to the rearrangement of the angular momentum in the stars due to deep convective mixing. It appears that the convection zone is rotating with nearly depth independent angular momentum. Other research results and ongoing projects are discussed.

  16. TEA: A Code Calculating Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver

    2016-07-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature-pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows & Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows & Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA.

  17. TEA: A Code Calculating Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver

    2016-07-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature–pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows & Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows & Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA.

  18. Zinc Abundances in Galactic Bulge Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, C. R.; Barbuy, B.

    2014-10-01

    Zinc is overabundant in metal-poor stars (Cayrel et al. 2004), being partially produced by neutron addition. It decreases with increasing metallicity, similarly to alpha-elements. In order to trace its abundance, the derivation of Zn abundance in different stellar populations, and varying metallicities, helps understanding its nucleosynthesis processes. Zn is also the main element of reference to derive the metallicity from absorption lines in quasars (QSOs), which allows to compare their evolution as a function of redshift and metallicity in metal-poor stars. In the present work, we derive Zn abundances for a sample of 56 bulge field stars, observed at high resolution with the FLAMES-UVES spectrograph. The mean wavelength coverage is 4800-6800 Å, at a resolution R ˜ 45000. The atmospheric parameters effective temperature, gravity and metallicity were derived in Zoccali et al. (2008) and Hill et al. (2011). Recently we have analysed the manganese abundances of this sample (Barbuy et al. 2013). To compute the Zn abundances we use spectrum synthesis, for the lines ZnI 4810.53 and 6362.34 Å. The analysis of our data shows that the abundance of [Zn/Fe] decreases with increasing metallicity, in agreement with the data obtained from the literature. The details of Zn behaviour for the metal-rich bulge stars of the present work are under analysis.

  19. Hydrogen from renewable resources research

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, P.K.; McKinley, K.R.

    1990-07-01

    In 1986 the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were contracted by the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) to conduct an assessment of hydrogen production technologies and economic feasibilities of the production and use of hydrogen from renewable resources. In the 1989/90 period all monies were directed toward research and development with an emphasis on integration of tasks, focusing on two important issues, production and storage. The current year's efforts consisted of four tasks, one task containing three subtasks: Hydrogen Production by Gasification of Glucose and Wet Biomass in Supercritical Water; Photoelectrochemical Production of Hydrogen; Photoemission and Photoluminescence Studies of Catalyzed Photoelectrode Surfaces for Hydrogen Production; Solar Energy Chemical Conversion by Means of Photoelectrochemical (PEC) Methods Using Coated Silicon Electrodes; Assessment of Impedance Spectroscopy Methods for Evaluation of Semiconductor-Electrolyte Interfaces; Solar Energy Conversion with Cyanobacteria; Nonclassical Polyhydride Metal Complexes as Hydrogen Storage Materials. 61 refs., 22 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. Renewable power sparks financial interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, C.

    1981-06-01

    A legal and economic assessment is given of section 210 of the Public Utility Regulatory Practices Act (PURPA) of 1978, which guarantees a market for small electrical power producers by requiring utilities to buy from them at premium rates and, in addition, exempts them from regulatory restrictions imposed on utilities. To qualify, small power producers are limited to a capacity of 80 MW at any one site, and they must use such renewable energy sources as wind, hydroelectric, biomass, solar, and waste products. There is no size limit for industrial cogeneration facilities, but those that burn oil or natural gas must meet efficiency standards to qualify. Section 210 has, however, been seriously challenged in the courts by utility companies viewing it as a Federal infringement of the right of States to regulate their utilities; a court ruling favorable to the utilities has already been given in Mississippi, and similar rulings are being sought in New York.

  1. Biodegradable polyesters from renewable resources.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Amy; Wright, Zachary C; Frank, Curtis W

    2013-01-01

    Environmental concerns have led to the development of biorenewable polymers with the ambition to utilize them at an industrial scale. Poly(lactic acid) and poly(hydroxyalkanoates) are semicrystalline, biorenewable polymers that have been identified as the most promising alternatives to conventional plastics. However, both are inherently susceptible to brittleness and degradation during thermal processing; we discuss several approaches to overcome these problems to create a balance between durability and biodegradability. For example, copolymers and blends can increase ductility and the thermal-processing window. Furthermore, chain modifications (e.g., branching/crosslinking), processing techniques (fiber drawing/annealing), or additives (plasticizers/nucleating agents) can improve mechanical properties and prevent thermal degradation during processing. Finally, we examine the impacts of morphology on end-of-life degradation to complete the picture for the most common renewable polymers.

  2. Polymeric materials from renewable resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frollini, Elisabete; Rodrigues, Bruno V. M.; da Silva, Cristina G.; Castro, Daniele O.; Ramires, Elaine C.; de Oliveira, Fernando; Santos, Rachel P. O.

    2016-05-01

    The goals of our studies have been the use of renewable raw materials in the preparation of polymeric materials with diversified properties. In this context, lignosulfonate, which is produced in large scale around the world, but not widely used in the production of polymeric materials, was used to replace phenol and polyols in the preparation of phenolic- (Ligno-PH) and polyurethane-type (Ligno-PU) polymers, respectively. These polymers were used to prepare composites reinforced with sisal lignocellulosic fibers. The use of lignosulfonate in the formulation of both types of polymers was beneficial, because in general composites with improved properties, specially impact strength, were obtained. Composites were also prepared from the so called "biopolyethylene" (HDPE), curaua lignocellulosic fiber, and castor oil (CO). All composites HDBPE/CO/Fiber exhibited higher impact strength, when compared to those of the corresponding HDBPE/Fiber. These results, combined with others (eg SEM images of the fractured surfaces) indicated that, in addition to acting as a plasticizer, this oil may have acted as a compatibilizer of the hydrophilic fiber with the hydrophobic polymer. The set of results indicated that (i) mats with nano (diameter ≤ 100nm) and/or ultrafine (submicron scale) fibers were produced, (ii) hybrid fibers were produced (bio-based mats composites), (iii) cellulosic pulp (CP) and/or lignin (Lig) can be combined with PET matrices to control properties such as stiffness and hydrophilicity of the respective mats. Materials with diversified properties were prepared from high content of renewable raw materials, thus fulfilling the proposed targets.

  3. 30 CFR 585.427 - How long is a renewal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How long is a renewal? 585.427 Section 585.427... Administration Lease Or Grant Renewal § 585.427 How long is a renewal? BOEM will set the term of a renewal at the... renewal will continue for as long as the associated activities are conducted and facilities...

  4. 10 CFR 76.55 - Timely renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Timely renewal. 76.55 Section 76.55 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.55 Timely renewal. In any case in which the Corporation has timely filed a sufficient application for a...

  5. 10 CFR 76.55 - Timely renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Timely renewal. 76.55 Section 76.55 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.55 Timely renewal. In any case in which the Corporation has timely filed a sufficient application for a...

  6. 10 CFR 76.55 - Timely renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Timely renewal. 76.55 Section 76.55 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.55 Timely renewal. In any case in which the Corporation has timely filed a sufficient application for a...

  7. 10 CFR 76.55 - Timely renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Timely renewal. 76.55 Section 76.55 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.55 Timely renewal. In any case in which the Corporation has timely filed a sufficient application for a...

  8. 10 CFR 76.55 - Timely renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Timely renewal. 76.55 Section 76.55 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Certification § 76.55 Timely renewal. In any case in which the Corporation has timely filed a sufficient application for a...

  9. 75 FR 82416 - Proposed Information Collection Renewals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... Information Collection Renewals ACTION: Submission for Office of Management and Budget (OMB) review; comment request. SUMMARY: The Peace Corps has submitted the following three (3) information collections to the... of 1995. This notice invites the public to comment on the renewal of three information...

  10. Stimulus generalization and operant context renewal.

    PubMed

    Podlesnik, Christopher A; Miranda-Dukoski, Ludmila

    2015-10-01

    Context renewal is the relapse of an extinguished response due to changing the stimulus context following extinction. Reinforcing operant responding in Context A and extinguishing in Context B results in relapse when either returning to Context A (ABA renewal) or introducing a novel Context C (ABC renewal). ABA renewal typically is greater than ABC renewal. The present study assessed whether renewal might be conceptualized through excitatory and inhibitory generalization gradients inferred from studies of stimulus generalization. We arranged one keylight-color alternation frequency for pigeons to signal reinforcement in Phase 1 and a different alternation frequency to signal extinction in Phase 2. During a subsequent test in extinction, we presented a range of keylight-alternation frequencies and found renewal to be a function of keylight-alternation frequency. Specifically, Phase-3 responding increased as keylight-alternation frequency differed from that arranged during extinction in Phase 2. Moreover, we observed a shift in the function beyond the originally reinforced keylight-alternation frequency arranged in training (i.e., peak shift). We discuss the relevance of these findings for conceptualizing stimulus-control processes governing generalization gradients for understanding the processes underlying context renewal. PMID:26241660

  11. Impacts of a 10% Renewable Portfolio Standard

    EIA Publications

    2002-01-01

    This service report addresses the renewable portfolio standard provision of S. 1766. At Senator Murkowski's request it also includes an analysis of the impacts of a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) patterned after the one called for in S. 1766, but where the required share is based on a 20% RPS by 2020 rather than the 10% RPS called for in S. 1766.

  12. Thermoset epoxy polymers from renewable resources

    DOEpatents

    East, Anthony; Jaffe, Michael; Zhang, Yi; Catalani, Luiz H

    2009-11-17

    Novel thermoset epoxy polymers using the bisglycidyl ethers of anhydrosugars, such as isosorbide, isomannide, and isoidide, are disclosed. The bisglycidyl ethers are useful as substitutes for bisphenol A in the manufacture of thermoset epoxy ethers. The anhydrosugars are derived from renewable sources and the bisglycidyl ethers are not xenoestrogenic and the thermoset curing agents are likewise derived form renewable resources.

  13. Renewable Energy. The Power to Choose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deudney, Daniel; Flavin, Christopher

    This book, consisting of 13 chapters, charts the progress made in renewable energy in recent years and outlines renewable energy's prospects. Areas addressed include: energy at the crossroads (discussing oil, gas, coal, nuclear power, and the conservation revolution); solar building design; solar collection; sunlight to electricity; wood; energy…

  14. Renewable Electricity Futures Study - Volume One

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hand, Maureen; Mai, Treui; Baldwin, Sam; Brinkman, Greg; Sandor, Debbie; Denholm, Paul; Heath, Garvin; Wiser, Ryan

    2016-06-01

    Renewable Electricity Futures Study - Volume One. This is part of a series of four volumes describing exploring a high-penetration renewable electricity future for the United States of America. This data set is provides data for the entire volume one document and includes all data for the charts and graphs included in the document.

  15. 36 CFR 251.64 - Renewals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....64 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Special Uses § 251.64 Renewals. (a) When a special use authorization provides for renewal, the authorized... and State land use plans, laws, regulations or other management decisions. Special uses may...

  16. 36 CFR 251.64 - Renewals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....64 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Special Uses § 251.64 Renewals. (a) When a special use authorization provides for renewal, the authorized... and State land use plans, laws, regulations or other management decisions. Special uses may...

  17. 36 CFR 251.64 - Renewals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....64 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Special Uses § 251.64 Renewals. (a) When a special use authorization provides for renewal, the authorized... and State land use plans, laws, regulations or other management decisions. Special uses may...

  18. 36 CFR 251.64 - Renewals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....64 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Special Uses § 251.64 Renewals. (a) When a special use authorization provides for renewal, the authorized... and State land use plans, laws, regulations or other management decisions. Special uses may...

  19. 36 CFR 251.64 - Renewals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....64 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Special Uses § 251.64 Renewals. (a) When a special use authorization provides for renewal, the authorized... and State land use plans, laws, regulations or other management decisions. Special uses may...

  20. Renewable energy 1998: Issues and trends

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    This report presents the following five papers: Renewable electricity purchases: History and recent developments; Transmission pricing issues for electricity generation from renewable resources; Analysis of geothermal heat pump manufacturers survey data; A view of the forest products industry from a wood energy perspective; and Wind energy developments: Incentives in selected countries. A glossary is included. 19 figs., 27 tabs.

  1. Charter School Contract Renewal. Policy Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Paul T.

    2009-01-01

    The authority to operate a charter school is granted through a limited-term, renewable contract. Contract renewal is not automatic--it must be earned through strong academic results and operational effectiveness. Good schools should be cultivated and poor ones shut down. This is one of the definitive functions of a charter school authorizer. This…

  2. 76 FR 12998 - Proposed Information Collection Renewals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... Information Collection Renewals AGENCY: Peace Corps. ACTION: Submission for Office of Management and Budget (OMB) review; comment request. SUMMARY: The Peace Corps has submitted the following two (2) information... Reduction Act of 1995. This notice invites the public to comment on the renewal of three...

  3. 13 CFR 130.420 - Renewal applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Renewal applications. 130.420 Section 130.420 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT CENTERS § 130.420 Renewal applications. (a) SBDCs shall comply with the requirements in the annual...

  4. 13 CFR 130.420 - Renewal applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Renewal applications. 130.420 Section 130.420 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT CENTERS § 130.420 Renewal applications. (a) SBDCs shall comply with the requirements in the annual...

  5. Renewable resources in the US electricity supply

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-05

    Renewable resources (solar, wind, geothermal, hydroelectric, biomass, and waste) currently provide nearly 12 percent of the Nation`s electricity supply. Almost 10 of this 12 percent is provided by hydroelectric resources alone. Biomass and municipal solid waste (MSW) together contribute more than 1 percent. All other renewable resources, including geothermal, wind, and solar, together provide less than 1 percent of the total. Many renewable resources are relative newcomers to the electric power market. In particular, electricity generation using geothermal, wind, solar, and MSW resources have had their greatest expansion in the 1980`s. This was a result of significant technological improvements, the implementation of favorable Federal and State policies, and the reaction to the increasing costs of using fossil and nuclear fuels. The use of renewable resources for electricity generation has also been encouraged as less environmentally damaging than fossil fuels. Because renewable energy is available domestically, renewable resources are viewed as more secure than imported fossil fuels. This report, Renewable Resources in the US Electricity Supply, presents descriptions of the history, current use, and forecasted future applications of renewable resources for electricity generation and of the factors that influence those applications.

  6. Stimulus generalization and operant context renewal.

    PubMed

    Podlesnik, Christopher A; Miranda-Dukoski, Ludmila

    2015-10-01

    Context renewal is the relapse of an extinguished response due to changing the stimulus context following extinction. Reinforcing operant responding in Context A and extinguishing in Context B results in relapse when either returning to Context A (ABA renewal) or introducing a novel Context C (ABC renewal). ABA renewal typically is greater than ABC renewal. The present study assessed whether renewal might be conceptualized through excitatory and inhibitory generalization gradients inferred from studies of stimulus generalization. We arranged one keylight-color alternation frequency for pigeons to signal reinforcement in Phase 1 and a different alternation frequency to signal extinction in Phase 2. During a subsequent test in extinction, we presented a range of keylight-alternation frequencies and found renewal to be a function of keylight-alternation frequency. Specifically, Phase-3 responding increased as keylight-alternation frequency differed from that arranged during extinction in Phase 2. Moreover, we observed a shift in the function beyond the originally reinforced keylight-alternation frequency arranged in training (i.e., peak shift). We discuss the relevance of these findings for conceptualizing stimulus-control processes governing generalization gradients for understanding the processes underlying context renewal.

  7. 30 CFR 774.15 - Permit renewals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permit renewals. 774.15 Section 774.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL...; RENEWAL; TRANSFER, ASSIGNMENT, OR SALE OF PERMIT RIGHTS; POST-PERMIT ISSUANCE REQUIREMENTS; AND...

  8. Renewable Electricity Futures for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, Trieu; Hand, Maureen; Baldwin, Sam F.; Wiser , Ryan; Brinkman, G.; Denholm, Paul; Arent, Doug; Porro, Gian; Sandor, Debra; Hostick, Donna J.; Milligan, Michael; DeMeo, Ed; Bazilian, Morgan

    2014-04-14

    This paper highlights the key results from the Renewable Electricity (RE) Futures Study. It is a detailed consideration of renewable electricity in the United States. The paper focuses on technical issues related to the operability of the U. S. electricity grid and provides initial answers to important questions about the integration of high penetrations of renewable electricity technologies from a national perspective. The results indicate that the future U. S. electricity system that is largely powered by renewable sources is possible and the further work is warranted to investigate this clean generation pathway. The central conclusion of the analysis is that renewable electricity generation from technologies that are commercially available today, in combination with a more flexible electric system, is more than adequate to supply 80% of the total U. S. electricity generation in 2050 while meeting electricity demand on an hourly basis in every region of the United States.

  9. Nuclear plant license renewal; Structural issues

    SciTech Connect

    Gazda, P.A.; Bhatt, P.C. )

    1991-01-01

    During the next 10 years, nuclear plant license renewal is expected to become a significant issue. Recent Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studies have shown license renewal to be technically and economically feasible. Filing an application for license renewal with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) entails verifying that the systems, structures, and components essential for safety will continue to perform their safety functions throughout the license renewal period. This paper discusses the current proposed requirements for this verification and the current industry knowledge regarding age-related degradation of structures. Elements of a license renewal program incorporating NRC requirements and industry knowledge including a schedule are presented. Degradation mechanisms for structural components, their significance to nuclear plant structures, and industry-suggested age-related degradation management options are also reviewed.

  10. Quinault Indian Nation Renewable Energy Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Don Hopps, Institute for Washington's Future; Jesse Nelson, Institute for Washington's Future

    2006-11-28

    The Quinault Indian Nation (Nation) initiated this study on conservation and production of renewable energy because this approach created the opportunity: • To become self-sufficient and gain greater control over the energy the Nation uses; • To generate jobs and businesses for its members; • To better manage, sustain, and protect its resources; • To express the cultural values of the Nation in an important new arena. The Nation has relatively small energy needs. These needs are concentrated at two separate points: the Quinault Beach Resort and Casino (QBRC) and Taholah on the Quinault Indian Reservation (QIR). Except for the town of Queets, energy needs are small and scattered. The needs vary greatly over the season. The small scale, widely dispersed, and variable nature of these needs presents a unique challenge to the Nation. Meeting these needs requires a resource and technology that is flexible, effective, and portable. Conservation is the most cost-effective way to meet any need. It is especially effective in a situation like this where production would leave a high per unit cost. This plan is based on first gaining energy savings through conservation. Major savings are possible through: 1. Upgrading home appliances on the QIR. 2. Weatherizing homes and facilities. 3. Changes in lighting/ventilation in the QBRC pool room. These elements of the plan are already being implemented and promise to save the Nation around a quarter of its present costs. Wood biomass is the best resource available to the QIN for energy production either on-site or for commercial development. It is abundant, flexible and portable. Its harvesting has high job potential and these jobs are a good fit for the present “skill set” of the QIN. This plan focuses on using wood biomass to produce energy and other value-added products. Our study considered various technologies and approaches to using wood for energy. We considered production for both on-site and commercial production

  11. Clonal growth and plant species abundance

    PubMed Central

    Herben, Tomáš; Nováková, Zuzana; Klimešová, Jitka

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Both regional and local plant abundances are driven by species' dispersal capacities and their abilities to exploit new habitats and persist there. These processes are affected by clonal growth, which is difficult to evaluate and compare across large numbers of species. This study assessed the influence of clonal reproduction on local and regional abundances of a large set of species and compared the predictive power of morphologically defined traits of clonal growth with data on actual clonal growth from a botanical garden. The role of clonal growth was compared with the effects of seed reproduction, habitat requirements and growth, proxied both by LHS (leaf–height–seed) traits and by actual performance in the botanical garden. Methods Morphological parameters of clonal growth, actual clonal reproduction in the garden and LHS traits (leaf-specific area – height – seed mass) were used as predictors of species abundance, both regional (number of species records in the Czech Republic) and local (mean species cover in vegetation records) for 836 perennial herbaceous species. Species differences in habitat requirements were accounted for by classifying the dataset by habitat type and also by using Ellenberg indicator values as covariates. Key Results After habitat differences were accounted for, clonal growth parameters explained an important part of variation in species abundance, both at regional and at local levels. At both levels, both greater vegetative growth in cultivation and greater lateral expansion trait values were correlated with higher abundance. Seed reproduction had weaker effects, being positive at the regional level and negative at the local level. Conclusions Morphologically defined traits are predictive of species abundance, and it is concluded that simultaneous investigation of several such traits can help develop hypotheses on specific processes (e.g. avoidance of self-competition, support of offspring) potentially

  12. Oils and fats as renewable raw materials in chemistry.

    PubMed

    Biermann, Ursula; Bornscheuer, Uwe; Meier, Michael A R; Metzger, Jürgen O; Schäfer, Hans J

    2011-04-18

    Oils and fats of vegetable and animal origin have been the most important renewable feedstock of the chemical industry in the past and in the present. A tremendous geographical and feedstock shift of oleochemical production has taken place from North America and Europe to southeast Asia and from tallow to palm oil. It will be important to introduce and to cultivate more and new oil plants containing fatty acids with interesting and desired properties for chemical utilization while simultaneously increasing the agricultural biodiversity. The problem of the industrial utilization of food plant oils has become more urgent with the development of the global biodiesel production. The remarkable advances made during the last decade in organic synthesis, catalysis, and biotechnology using plant oils and the basic oleochemicals derived from them will be reported, including, for example, ω-functionalization of fatty acids containing internal double bonds, application of the olefin metathesis reaction, and de novo synthesis of fatty acids from abundantly available renewable carbon sources.

  13. Diterpenoid Biopolymers: New Directions for Renewable Materials Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Hillwig, Matthew L.; Mann, Francis M.; Peters, Reuben J.

    2010-01-01

    Most types of ambers are naturally occurring, relatively hard, durable resinite polymers derived from the exudates of trees. This resource has been coveted for thousands of years due to its numerous useful properties in industrial processes, beauty, and purported medicinal properties. Labdane diterpenoid based ambers represent the most abundant and important resinites on earth. These resinites are a dwindling, non-renewable natural resource, so a new source of such materials needs to be established. Recent advances in sequencing technologies and biochemical engineering are rapidly accelerating the rate of identifying and assigning function to genes involved in terpenoid biosynthesis, as well as producing industrial-scale quantities of desired small-molecules in bacteria and yeast. This has provided new tools for engineering metabolic pathways capable of producing diterpenoid monomers that will enable the production of custom-tailored resinite-like polymers. Furthermore, this biosynthetic toolbox is continuously expanding, providing new possibilities for renewing dwindling stocks of naturally occurring resinite materials and engineering new materials for future applications. PMID:20857504

  14. Financing renewable energy: Obstacles and solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.H.

    1994-06-01

    The majority of renewable energy technology projects now being developed use long term project financing to raise capital. The financial community scrutinizes renewables more closely than some conventionally fueled electric generation facilities because it perceives renewables as risky and expensive. Renewables pay for this perceived risk through higher interest charges and other more restrictive loan covenants. Risks that are not eliminated in the power sales agreement or through some other means generally result in higher project costs during financing. In part, this situation is a product of the private placement market and project finance process in which renewable energy facilities must function. The project finance process attracts banks and institutional lenders as well as equity investors (often pension funds) who do not want to place their capital at great risk. Energy project finance exists on the basis of a secure revenue stream and a thorough understanding of electric generation technology. Renewables, like all energy projects, operating in uncertain regulatory environments are often difficult to finance. In the uncertain regulatory environment in which renewables now operate, investors and lenders are nervous about challenges to existing contracts between independent power producers and utilities. Challenges to existing contracts could foretell challenges to contracts in the future. Investors and lenders now look to state regulatory environments as an indicator of project risk. Renewable energy technology evolves quickly. Yet, often the information about technological evolution is not available to those who invest in the energy projects. Or, those who have invested in new renewable energy technology in the past have lost money and are nervous about doing so in the future - even though technology may have improved. Inadequate or unfavorable information is a barrier to the development of renewables.

  15. Why is Trichodesmium abundant in the Kuroshio?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiozaki, T.; Takeda, S.; Itoh, S.; Kodama, T.; Liu, X.; Hashihama, F.; Furuya, K.

    2015-12-01

    The genus Trichodesmium is recognized as an abundant and major diazotroph in the Kuroshio, but the reason for this remains unclear. The present study investigated the abundance of Trichodesmium spp. and nitrogen fixation together with concentrations of dissolved iron and phosphate in the Kuroshio and its marginal seas. We performed the observations near the Miyako Islands, which form part of the Ryukyu Islands, situated along the Kuroshio, since our satellite analysis suggested that material transport could occur from the islands to the Kuroshio. Trichodesmium spp. bloomed (> 20 000 filaments L-1) near the Miyako Islands, abundance was high in the Kuroshio and the Kuroshio bifurcation region of the East China Sea, but was low in the Philippine Sea. The abundance of Trichodesmium spp. was significantly correlated with the total nitrogen fixation activity. The surface concentrations of dissolved iron (0.19-0.89 nM) and phosphate (< 3-36 nM) were similar for all of the study areas, indicating that the nutrient distribution could not explain the spatial differences in Trichodesmium spp. abundance and nitrogen fixation. Numerical particle-tracking experiments simulated the transportation of water around the Ryukyu Islands to the Kuroshio. Our results indicate that Trichodesmium growing around the Ryukyu Islands could be advected into the Kuroshio.

  16. Abundances in Eight M31 Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensley, Kerry G.; Kwitter, Karen B.; Corradi, Romano; Galera-Rosillo, R.; Balick, Bruce; Henry, Richard B. C.

    2014-06-01

    As part of a continuing project using planetary nebulae (PNe) to study the chemical evolution and formation history of M31 (see accompanying poster by Balick et al.), we obtained spectra of eight PNe in the fall of 2013 with the OSIRIS spectrograph on the GTC. All of these PNe are located outside M31’s inner disk and bulge. Spectral coverage extended from 3700-7800Å with a resolution of ~6 Å. Especially important in abundance determinations is the detection of the weak, temperature-sensitive auroral line of [O III], at 4363Å, which is often contaminated by Hg I 4358Å from streetlights; the remoteness of the GTC eliminated this difficulty. We reduced and measured the spectra using IRAF, and derived nebular diagnostics and abundances with ELSA, our in-house five-level-atom program. Here we report the chemical abundances determined from these spectra. The bottom line is that the oxygen abundances in these PNe are all within a factor of 2-3 of the solar value, (as are all the other M31 PNe our team has previously measured) despite the significant range of galactocentric distance. Future work will use these abundances to constrain models of the central star to estimate progenitor masses and ages. In particular we will use the results to investigate the hypothesis that these PNe might represent a population related to the encounter between M31 and M33 ~3 Gy ago. We gratefully acknowledge support from Williams College.

  17. RELATIVE ABUNDANCE MEASUREMENTS IN PLUMES AND INTERPLUMES

    SciTech Connect

    Guennou, C.; Hahn, M.; Savin, D. W.

    2015-07-10

    We present measurements of relative elemental abundances in plumes and interplumes. Plumes are bright, narrow structures in coronal holes that extend along open magnetic field lines far out into the corona. Previous work has found that in some coronal structures the abundances of elements with a low first ionization potential (FIP) <10 eV are enhanced relative to their photospheric abundances. This coronal-to-photospheric abundance ratio, commonly called the FIP bias, is typically 1 for elements with a high-FIP (>10 eV). We have used Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer observations made on 2007 March 13 and 14 over a ≈24 hr period to characterize abundance variations in plumes and interplumes. To assess their elemental composition, we used a differential emission measure analysis, which accounts for the thermal structure of the observed plasma. We used lines from ions of iron, silicon, and sulfur. From these we estimated the ratio of the iron and silicon FIP bias relative to that for sulfur. From the results, we have created FIP-bias-ratio maps. We find that the FIP-bias ratio is sometimes higher in plumes than in interplumes and that this enhancement can be time dependent. These results may help to identify whether plumes or interplumes contribute to the fast solar wind observed in situ and may also provide constraints on the formation and heating mechanisms of plumes.

  18. Abundance Analysis of 10 Kepler Planetary Hosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Zachary A.; Schuler, Simon C.; Williams, Drake; Cunha, Katia M. L.; Smith, Verne V.; Ghezzi, Luan; Teske, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to identify possible connections between the detailed chemical abundances of stars and the existence of small planets discovered by NASA's Kepler spacecraft. We have analyzed high quality Keck/HIRES spectra of the planetary hosts Kepler-65, Kepler-93, Kepler-97, Kepler-98, Kepler-102, Kepler 128, Kepler-406, Kepler-408, Kepler-409, and Kepler-411 and derived the abundances of up to 17 elements for these stars. Results from previous studies have suggested that stellar abundance patterns or "signatures" may indicate the presence of planets, possibly terrestrial planets in particular. Should such patterns exist, they could be used to identify stars with small planets. Here we present the results of our abundance analysis of 10 stars with a variety of exoplanet systems discovered by Kepler and address the hypothesis that chemical abundance signatures can indicate the presence of small planets.This work is generously supported by NASA through a Kepler Participating Scientist grant to SCS (Grant #NNX13AH78G).

  19. 9 CFR 161.3 - Renewal of accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... accreditation. (a) Accredited veterinarians who wish to continue participating in the National Veterinary... years of the previous renewal. (b) Accredited veterinarians who wish to renew their accreditation under... as an accredited veterinarian. Accredited veterinarians who wish to renew their accreditation...

  20. Electricity for Millions: Developing Renewable Energy in China (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-04-01

    This two page fact sheet describes NREL's work developing renewable energy in China. Renewable focus areas include rural energy development, wind energy development, geothermal energy development, renewable energy business development and policy and planning.

  1. 78 FR 58383 - Renewal of Rail Energy Transportation Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Renewal of Rail Energy Transportation Advisory Committee AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Notice of intent to renew charter. SUMMARY: In accordance with... the Surface Transportation Board (Board) intends to renew the charter of the Rail...

  2. 77 FR 56909 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC); Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC); Renewal AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Renewal. SUMMARY: The FAA announces the charter renewal of the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC), a Federal Advisory Committee that works...

  3. Chemical Abundances of Compact Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ting-Hui; Shaw, Richard A.; Stanghellini, letizia; Riley, Ben

    2015-08-01

    We present preliminary results from an optical spectroscopic survey of compact planetary nebulae (PNe) in the Galactic disk. This is an ongoing optical+infrared spectral survey of 150 compact PNe to build a deep sample of PN chemical abundances. We obtained optical spectra of PNe with the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope and Goodman High-Throughput Spectrograph between 2012 and 2015. These data were used to calculate the nebulae diagnostics such as electron temperature and density for each PN, and to derive the elemental abundances of He, N, O Ne, S and Ar. These abundances are vital to understanding the nature of the PNe, and their low- to intermediate-mass progenitor stars.

  4. Abundance and chemistry of interstellar HOCO(+)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minh, Y. C.; Brewer, M. K.; Irvine, W. M.; Friberg, P.; Johansson, L. E. B.

    1991-01-01

    Column densities of 10 to the 15th/sq cm toward the Galactic center and not more than 10 to the 12th/sq cm for cold dark clouds are derived from observations using an LVG model, and the chemical implications are discussed. The HOCO(+) 4(04)-3(03) line toward Sgr A is mapped. The fractional abundance of HOCO(+) in the Galactic center region was found to be three orders of magnitude larger than predicted by quiescent ion-molecule chemistry and an order of magnitude larger than predicted by an MHD shock model. It is suggested that the possibly high CO2 abundance, and consequently the observed HOCO(+) abundance in the Galactic center, may result from UV photolysis of grain mantles.

  5. Earth-Abundant Nanomaterials for Oxygen Reduction.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wei; Mahmood, Asif; Liang, Zibin; Zou, Ruqiang; Guo, Shaojun

    2016-02-18

    Replacing the rare and precious platinum (Pt) electrocatalysts with earth-abundant materials for promoting the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode of fuel cells is of great interest in developing high-performance sustainable energy devices. However, the challenging issues associated with non-Pt materials are still their low intrinsic catalytic activity, limited active sites, and the poor mass transport properties. Recent advances in material sciences and nanotechnology enable rational design of new earth-abundant materials with optimized composition and fine nanostructure, providing new opportunities for enhancing ORR performance at the molecular level. This Review highlights recent breakthroughs in engineering nanocatalysts based on the earth-abundant materials for boosting ORR.

  6. Rare-earth abundances in chondritic meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evensen, N. M.; Hamilton, P. J.; Onions, R. K.

    1978-01-01

    Fifteen chondrites, including eight carbonaceous chondrites, were analyzed for rare earth element abundances by isotope dilution. Examination of REE for a large number of individual chondrites shows that only a small proportion of the analyses have flat unfractionated REE patterns within experimental error. While some of the remaining analyses are consistent with magmatic fractionation, many patterns, in particular those with positive Ce anomalies, can not be explained by known magmatic processes. Elemental abundance anomalies are found in all major chondrite classes. The persistence of anomalies in chondritic materials relatively removed from direct condensational processes implies that anomalous components are resistant to equilibrium or were introduced at a late stage of chondrite formation. Large-scale segregation of gas and condensate is implied, and bulk variations in REE abundances between planetary bodies is possible.

  7. Age-abundance relationships for neutral communities.

    PubMed

    Danino, Matan; Shnerb, Nadav M

    2015-10-01

    Neutral models for the dynamics of a system of competing species are often used to describe a wide variety of empirical communities. These models are used in many situations, ranging from population genetics and ecological biodiversity to macroevolution and cancer tumors. One of the main issues discussed within this framework is the relationships between the abundance of a species and its age. Here we provide a comprehensive analysis of the age-abundance relationships for fixed-size and growing communities. Explicit formulas for the average and the most likely age of a species with abundance n are given, together with the full probability distribution function. We further discuss the universality of these results and their applicability to the tropical forest community. PMID:26565271

  8. Age-abundance relationships for neutral communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danino, Matan; Shnerb, Nadav M.

    2015-10-01

    Neutral models for the dynamics of a system of competing species are often used to describe a wide variety of empirical communities. These models are used in many situations, ranging from population genetics and ecological biodiversity to macroevolution and cancer tumors. One of the main issues discussed within this framework is the relationships between the abundance of a species and its age. Here we provide a comprehensive analysis of the age-abundance relationships for fixed-size and growing communities. Explicit formulas for the average and the most likely age of a species with abundance n are given, together with the full probability distribution function. We further discuss the universality of these results and their applicability to the tropical forest community.

  9. INTERSTELLAR ABUNDANCES TOWARD X Per, REVISITED

    SciTech Connect

    Valencic, Lynne A.; Smith, Randall K.

    2013-06-10

    The nearby X-ray binary X Per (HD 24534) provides a useful beacon with which to examine dust grain types and measure elemental abundances in the local interstellar medium (ISM). The absorption features of O, Fe, Mg, and Si along this line of sight were measured using spectra from the Chandra X-Ray Observatory's LETG/ACIS-S and XMM-Newton's RGS instruments, and the Spex software package. The spectra were fit with dust analogs measured in the laboratory. The O, Mg, and Si abundances were compared to those from standard references, and the O abundance was compared to that along lines of sight toward other X-ray binaries. The results are as follows. First, it was found that a combination of MgSiO{sub 3} (enstatite) and Mg{sub 1.6}Fe{sub 0.4}SiO{sub 4} (olivine) provided the best fit to the O K edge, with N(MgSiO{sub 3})/N(Mg{sub 1.6}Fe{sub 0.4}SiO{sub 4}) = 3.4. Second, the Fe L edge could be fit with models that included metallic iron, but it was not well described by the laboratory spectra currently available. Third, the total abundances of O, Mg, and Si were in very good agreement with that of recently re-analyzed B stars, suggesting that they are good indicators of abundances in the local ISM, and the depletions were also in agreement with expected values for the diffuse ISM. Finally, the O abundances found from X-ray binary absorption spectra show a similar correlation with Galactocentric distances as seen in other objects.

  10. Reliability of indicators of decline in abundance.

    PubMed

    Porszt, Erin J; Peterman, Randall M; Dulvy, Nicholas K; Cooper, Andrew B; Irvine, James R

    2012-10-01

    Although there are many indicators of endangerment (i.e., whether populations or species meet criteria that justify conservation action), their reliability has rarely been tested. Such indicators may fail to identify that a population or species meets criteria for conservation action (false negative) or may incorrectly show that such criteria have been met (false positive). To quantify the rate of both types of error for 20 commonly used indicators of declining abundance (threat indicators), we used receiver operating characteristic curves derived from historical (1938-2007) data for 18 sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations in the Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada. We retrospectively determined each population's yearly status (reflected by change in abundance over time) on the basis of each indicator. We then compared that population's status in a given year with the status in subsequent years (determined by the magnitude of decline in abundance across those years). For each sockeye population, we calculated how often each indicator of past status matched subsequent status. No single threat indicator provided error-free estimates of status, but indicators that reflected the extent (i.e., magnitude) of past decline in abundance (through comparison of current abundance with some historical baseline abundance) tended to better reflect status in subsequent years than the rate of decline over the previous 3 generations (a widely used indicator). We recommend that when possible, the reliability of various threat indicators be evaluated with empirical analyses before such indicators are used to determine the need for conservation action. These indicators should include estimates from the entire data set to take into account a historical baseline. PMID:22741815

  11. Renewable Energy Education for Future Generations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, R.

    2015-12-01

    Considering the constantly growing use of technology, modern society requires increasing amounts of electrical power. Acknowledging the global efforts to increase the use of renewable energy sources, the Independent Schools Foundation Academy, a school in Hong Kong, plans to provide the opportunity for students to explore the applications of various forms of renewable energy through a Renewable Energy Education Centre (REEC). Two students are involved in the designing and construction of the Renewable Energy Education Centre to understand the technologies, processes, and provide insight from the students' perspective. The REEC will incorporate various uses of renewable energy, including a solar photovoltaic system, hybrid photovoltaic/thermal system, vertical windmill, hot water heater, and heat pump. As a means to enrich students' learning experiences, the REEC will be open to access by science students for a wide range of investigations, such as science experiments related to renewable energy and energy efficiency, providing opportunities for student led research projects, Personal Projects and IB Extended Essays. In short, the Independent Schools Foundation Academy aims to allow students to familiarize themselves with various forms of renewable energy from a young age, and develop a deeper understanding of technologies that will become primary sources of electrical power in the near future.

  12. State Clean Energy Practices: Renewable Fuel Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Mosey, G.; Kreycik, C.

    2008-07-01

    The State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA) project is supported by the Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program within the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. This project seeks to quantify the impacts of existing state policies, and to identify crucial policy attributes and their potential applicability to other states. The goal is to assist states in determining which clean energy policies or policy portfolios will best accomplish their environmental, economic, and security goals. For example, renewable fuel standards (RFS) policies are a mechanism for developing a market for renewable fuels in the transportation sector. This flexible market-based policy, when properly executed, can correct for market failures and promote growth of the renewable fuels industry better than a more command-oriented approach. The policy attempts to correct market failures such as embedded fossil fuel infrastructure and culture, risk associated with developing renewable fuels, consumer information gaps, and lack of quantification of the non-economic costs and benefits of both renewable and fossil-based fuels. This report focuses on renewable fuel standards policies, which are being analyzed as part of this project.

  13. Renewable resources in the US electricity supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-03-01

    Renewable resources (solar, wind, geothermal, hydroelectric, biomass, and waste) currently provide nearly 12 percent of the Nation's electricity supply. Almost 10 of this 12 percent is provided by hydroelectric resources alone. Biomass and municipal solid waste (MSW) together contribute more than 1 percent. All other renewable resources, including geothermal, wind, and solar, together provide less than 1 percent of the total. Many renewable resources are relative newcomers to the electric power market. In particular, electricity generation using geothermal, wind, solar, and MSW resources have had their greatest expansion in the 1980's. This was a result of significant technological improvements, the implementation of favorable Federal and State policies, and the reaction to the increasing costs of using fossil and nuclear fuels. The use of renewable resources for electricity generation has also been encouraged as less environmentally damaging than fossil fuels. Because renewable energy is available domestically, renewable resources are viewed as more secure than imported fossil fuels. Descriptions of the history, current use, and forecasted future applications of renewable resources for electricity generation and of the factors that influence those applications are presented.

  14. OH vertical column abundance - Tropical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, Clyde R.; Minschwaner, Kenneth R.; Burnett, Elizabeth B.

    1990-09-01

    Measurements of the vertical column abundance of atmospheric hydroxyl (OH) have been made during the period 1987-1989 at the National Weather Service (NWS) station at Moen, Truk, Federated States of Micronesia (7 deg N, 152 deg E). A total of 384 independent data sets was obtained. Tropical OH abundance levels average about 22 percent above corresponding mid-latitude values, with OH levels during late winter and early spring up to 50 percent above those observed at 40 deg N. Stratospheric wind and temperature data obtained from the daily NWS radiosonde data are examined for correlations with the OH results.

  15. OH vertical column abundance - Tropical measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, Clyde R.; Minschwaner, Kenneth R.; Burnett, Elizabeth B.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of the vertical column abundance of atmospheric hydroxyl (OH) have been made during the period 1987-1989 at the National Weather Service (NWS) station at Moen, Truk, Federated States of Micronesia (7 deg N, 152 deg E). A total of 384 independent data sets was obtained. Tropical OH abundance levels average about 22 percent above corresponding mid-latitude values, with OH levels during late winter and early spring up to 50 percent above those observed at 40 deg N. Stratospheric wind and temperature data obtained from the daily NWS radiosonde data are examined for correlations with the OH results.

  16. Abundance and chemistry of interstellar HOCO+.

    PubMed

    Minh, Y C; Brewer, M K; Irvine, W M; Friberg, P; Johansson, L E

    1991-01-01

    We derive HOCO+ column densities approximately 10(15) cm-2 toward the Galactic center and < or = 10(12) cm-2 for cold dark clouds from observations and an LVG model. We mapped the HOCO+ 4(04)-3(03) line toward Sgr A. The fractional abundance of HOCO+ in the Galactic center region is three orders of magnitude larger than predicted by quiescent ion-molecule chemistry and an order of magnitude larger than predicted by a MHD shock model. If HOCO+ traces interstellar CO2, the implied high abundance ([CO2] approximately [CO]) in the Galactic center may result from UV photolysis of grain mantles.

  17. The evolution of abundances in the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audouze, J.

    This very brief review of the evolution of the abundances in the Galaxy first recalls the main observational facts regarding such abundances. After having defined what are the crucial parameters which define such model, emphasis is given to two approaches: the first analyzed by Vangioni-Flam and Audouze (1988), and Andreani et al. (1988), in which the rate of star formation is allowed to vary with time; the second approach was favored by Matteucci and Francois (1989), who invoke a multizone galactic model with infall (inflow) of external gas into the galactic disk.

  18. New Mexico renewable development study

    SciTech Connect

    Toole, Gasper; Bent, Russell; Ewers, Mary

    2010-09-17

    Since the early 1990s, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has applied electric grid models and simulation software to problems of national significance. This effort continues with a variety of other projects funded by the Department of Energy (DOE), other federal and state agencies and private companies. Critical to the success of these programs is the ability to integrate regional-scale models of the electric grid, to assess the propagation of grid impacts, and to present interactively the effect of potential mitigating actions required to stabilize the grid. All of these capabilities are applied in this study, to accomplish the following goals and objectives: (1) Develop an AC power flow model representing future conditions within New Mexico's electric grid, using commercial tools accepted by the utility industry; (2) Conduct a 'screening' analysis of options for accelerating potential renewable energy development through the addition of a statewide transmission collector system; (3) Estimate total revenue needed, jobs created (temporary and permanent) plus indirect and direct impacts to the state's economy; (4) Evaluate potential cost allocation methodology; and (5) Issue a project report that will provide information for policy direction by state regulators, project developers, and legislators.

  19. Strategic renewal for business units.

    PubMed

    Whitney, J O

    1996-01-01

    Over the past decade, business units have increasingly taken the role of strategy formulation away from corporate headquarters. The change makes sense: business units are closer to customers, competitors, and costs. Nevertheless, business units can fail, just as headquarters once did, by losing their focus on the organization's priorities and capabilities. John Whitney--turnaround expert and professor of management at Columbia University--offers a method for refocusing companies that he calls the strategic-renewal process. The principles behind the process are straightforward, but its execution demands extensive data, rigorous analysis, and the judgment of key decision makers. However, when applied with diligence, it can produce a strategy that yields both growth and profit. To carry out the process, managers must analyze, one by one or in logical groupings, the company's customers, the products it sells, and the services it offers in light of three criteria: strategic importance, significance, and profitability. Does a given customer, product, or service mesh with the organization's goals? Is it significant in terms of current and future revenues? And is it truly profitable when all costs are care fully considered? Customers, products, and services that do not measure up, says the author, must be weeded out relentlessly. Although the process is a painstaking one, the article offers clear thinking on why-and how-to go about it. A series of exhibits takes managers through the questions they need to raise, and two matrices offer Whitney's concentrated wisdom on when to cultivate--and when to prune.

  20. Biodiesel and Other Renewable Diesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-11-01

    Present federal tax incentives apply to certain types of biomass-derived diesel fuels, which in energy policy and tax laws are described either as renewable diesel or biodiesel. To understand the distinctions between these diesel types it is necessary to understand the technologies used to produce them and the properties of the resulting products. This fact sheet contains definitions of renewable and biodiesel and discusses the processes used to convert biomass to diesel fuel and the properties of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels.

  1. US Renewable Futures in the GCAM

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S. J.; Mizrahi, A. H.; Karas, J. F.; Nathan, M.

    2011-10-01

    This report examines renewable energy deployment in the United States using a version of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) with a detailed representation of renewables; the GCAM-RE. Electricity generation was modeled in four generation segments and 12-subregions. This level of regional and sector detail allows a more explicit representation of renewable energy generation. Wind, solar thermal power, and central solar PV plants are implemented in explicit resource classes with new intermittency parameterizations appropriate for each technology. A scenario analysis examines a range of assumptions for technology characteristics, climate policy, and long distance transmission.

  2. Renewable energy and characteristics of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léger, Valérie

    2016-04-01

    During studying sustainable development, my sixth-form pupils have to devise and carry out experiments to show connection between some characteristics of the Earth and renewable energy. Thus, helping by a list of equipment, they can show, using simples' experiments, causal link. For example, they show that the layout in latitude of solar energy received on the ground, creates ocean and atmospheric currents. These currents are useful to product renewable energy. These researches allow me to show them new jobs link with renewable energy and sustainable development on the Earth. They can have more information thanks to other teachers working on the professional training centre including my secondary school.

  3. Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Sill, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Brian K.; Hand, James R.; Horner, Jacob A.; Orrell, Alice C.; Russo, Bryan J.; Weimar, Mark R.; Nesse, Ronald J.

    2011-03-31

    This document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Fort Sill, based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and on ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 Department of Defense (DoD) Renewables Assessment. The site visit to Fort Sill took place on June 10, 2010.

  4. Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Polk, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Solana, Amy E.; Boyd, Brian K.; Horner, Jacob A.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Orrell, Alice C.; Weimar, Mark R.; Hand, James R.; Russo, Bryan J.; Williamson, Jennifer L.

    2010-11-17

    This document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Fort Polk, based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also on ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 Department of Defense (DoD) Renewables Assessment. The site visit to Fort Polk took place on February 16, 2010.

  5. Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalov, V.; Pogharnitskaya, O.; Rostovshchikova, A.; Matveenko, I.

    2015-11-01

    The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative and renewable energy sources, among which the most promising development perspective is implementation of gasification stations to save fuel consumed by diesel power stations as well as building wind-power plants.

  6. International Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, J.

    2012-06-01

    This presentation provides an overview of international voluntary renewable energy markets, with a focus on the United States and Europe. The voluntary renewable energy market is the market in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. In 2010, the U.S. voluntary market was estimated at 35 terawatt-hours (TWh) compared to 300 TWh in the European market, though key differences exist. On a customer basis, Australia has historically had the largest number of customers, pricing for voluntary certificates remains low, at less than $1 megawatt-hour, though prices depend on technology.

  7. Empirical oxygen abundances and physical conditions for relatively low abundance H II regions

    SciTech Connect

    Skillman, E.D. )

    1989-12-01

    The utility of the emission-line ratio (3727 + 4959 + 5007 A)/H-beta as an estimate of the total oxygen abundance in H II regions of low abundance (less than 10 percent of the solar value) is discussed. Using both observational data where the 4363A line is measured and model H II regions it is concluded that, for low abundance systems, total oxygen abundances can be determined with an accuracy of + or - 0.2 dex in the absence of a 4363A measurement. An attempt is made to study the average behavior of the stellar effective temperature (Teff) and ionization parameter (U) with changing abundance in low abundance systems. It is shown that some diagnostic methods which are viable for high abundance systems are not capable of uniquely determining Teff and U in low abundance systems. The most promising method of determining Teff and U requires measuring emission lines of forbidden O II, O III, S II, and S III. 53 refs.

  8. ABUNDANT OR RARE? A HYBRID APPROACH FOR DETERMINING SPECIES RELATIVE ABUNDANCE AT AN ECOREGOIONAL SCALE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Everyone knows what abundant and rare species are, but quantifying the concept proves elusive. As part of an EPA/USGS project to assess near-coastal species vulnerability to climate change affects, we designed a hybrid approach to determine species relative abundance at an ecoreg...

  9. ABUNDANT OR RARE? A HYBRID APPROACH FOR DETERMINING SPECIES RELATIVE ABUNDANCE AT AN ECOREGOIONAL SCALE - 2014

    EPA Science Inventory

    Everyone knows what abundant and rare species are, but quantifying the concept proves elusive. As part of an EPA/USGS project to assess near-coastal species vulnerability to climate change affects, we designed a hybrid approach to determine species relative abundance at an ecoreg...

  10. Elemental abundances in meteoritic and terrestrial matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    Major and trace element analyses of over 180 individual chondrules from 12 carbonaceous chondrites are reported, including individual analyses of 60 chondrules from Pueblito de Allende. Siderophile elements in most chondrules are depleted, compared to the whole chondrite. Correlations of Al-Ir and Ir-Sc among chondrules high in Ca and Al were observed. A Cu-Mn correlation was also found for chondrules from some meteorites. No correlation was observed between Au and other siderophile elements (Fe, Ni, Co and Ir). It is suggested that these elemental associations were present in the material from which the chondrules formed. Compositionally, chondrules appear to be a multicomponent mixture of remelted dust. One component displaying an Al-Ir correlation is identified as Allende-type white aggregates. The other components are a material chemically similar to the present matrix and sulfides-plus-metal material. Abundances of the REE (rare earth elements) were measured in ordinary Allende chondrules and were 50% higher than REE abundances in Mokoia chondrules; REE abundances in Ca-Al rich chondrules were similar to REE abundances in Ca-rich white aggregates.

  11. Neon and Oxygen Abundances in M33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockett, N. R.; Garnett, D. R.; Massey, P.; Jacoby, G.

    2004-05-01

    We present new spectroscopic observations of 13 H II regions in the Local Group spiral galaxy M33. The regions observed range in distance between 1 and 7 kpc from the nucleus. Of the 13 H II regions observed, we were able to detect the [O III] 4363 Å line in six regions, and so were able to determine electron temperatures directly from the spectra using the 5007/4363 line ratio. Based on these temperature measurements we computed abundances for O and Ne for the six regions, and derived radial abundance gradients for both elements. We find that our new measurements lead to a shallower oxygen abundance gradient , --0.03±0.02 dex/kpc, than was derived by earlier studies. We attribute the difference partly to the use of uncertain extrapolations of O/H vs. ([O II] + [O III])/Hβ used in earlier studies to derive abundances for nebulae without measured electron temperatures. The shallower O/H gradient is in much better agreement with the Ne/H gradient derived from ISO spectra by Willner and Nelson-Patel, as expected from predictions of stellar nucleosynthesis. We also identify two new He II-emitting H II regions, the first to be discovered in M33.

  12. In Abundance: Networked Participatory Practices as Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Bonnie E.

    2015-01-01

    In an era of knowledge abundance, scholars have the capacity to distribute and share ideas and artifacts via digital networks, yet networked scholarship often remains unrecognized within institutional spheres of influence. Using ethnographic methods including participant observation, interviews, and document analysis, this study investigates…

  13. Heavy element abundances and massive star formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Boqi; Silk, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    The determination of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) remains a great challenge in astronomy. In the solar neighborhood, the IMF is reasonable well determined for stellar masses from about 0.1 to 60 solar mass. However, outside the solar neighborhood, the IMF is poorly known. Among those frequently discussed arguments favoring a different IMF outside the solar neighborhood are the estimated time to consume the remaining gas in spiral galaxies, and the high rate of forming massive stars in starburst galaxies. An interesting question then is whether there may be an independent way of testing possible variations in the IMF. Indeed, the heavy elements in the interstellar medium are mostly synthesized in massive stars, so increasing, or decreasing, the fraction of massive stars naturally leads to a variation in the heavy element yield, and thus, the metallicity. The observed abundance should severely constrain any deviations of the IMF from the locally determined IMF. We focus on element oxygen, which is the most abundant heavy element in the interstellar medium. Oxygen is ejected only by massive stars that can become Type 1 supernovae, and the oxygen abundance is, therefore, a sensitive function of the fraction of massive stars in the IMF. Adopting oxygen enables us to avoid uncertainties in Type 1 supernovae. We use the nucleosynthesis results to calculate the oxygen yield for given IMF. We then calculate the oxygen abundance in the interstellar medium assuming instantaneous recycling of oxygen.

  14. The Abundance of Large Arcs From CLASH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bingxiao; Postman, Marc; Meneghetti, Massimo; Coe, Dan A.; Clash Team

    2015-01-01

    We have developed an automated arc-finding algorithm to perform a rigorous comparison of the observed and simulated abundance of large lensed background galaxies (a.k.a arcs). We use images from the CLASH program to derive our observed arc abundance. Simulated CLASH images are created by performing ray tracing through mock clusters generated by the N-body simulation calibrated tool -- MOKA, and N-body/hydrodynamic simulations -- MUSIC, over the same mass and redshift range as the CLASH X-ray selected sample. We derive a lensing efficiency of 15 ± 3 arcs per cluster for the X-ray selected CLASH sample and 4 ± 2 arcs per cluster for the simulated sample. The marginally significant difference (3.0 σ) between the results for the observations and the simulations can be explained by the systematically smaller area with magnification larger than 3 (by a factor of ˜4) in both MOKA and MUSIC mass models relative to those derived from the CLASH data. Accounting for this difference brings the observed and simulated arc statistics into full agreement. We find that the source redshift distribution does not have big impact on the arc abundance but the arc abundance is very sensitive to the concentration of the dark matter halos. Our results suggest that the solution to the "arc statistics problem" lies primarily in matching the cluster dark matter distribution.

  15. Will Abundant Natural Gas Solve Climate Change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McJeon, H. C.; Edmonds, J.; Bauer, N.; Leon, C.; Fisher, B.; Flannery, B.; Hilaire, J.; Krey, V.; Marangoni, G.; Mi, R.; Riahi, K.; Rogner, H.; Tavoni, M.

    2015-12-01

    The rapid deployment of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling technologies enabled the production of previously uneconomic shale gas resources in North America. Global deployment of these advanced gas production technologies could bring large influx of economically competitive unconventional gas resources to the energy system. It has been hoped that abundant natural gas substituting for coal could reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, which in turn could reduce climate forcing. Other researchers countered that the non-CO2 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with shale gas production make its lifecycle emissions higher than those of coal. In this study, we employ five state-of-the-art integrated assessment models (IAMs) of energy-economy-climate systems to assess the full impact of abundant gas on climate change. The models show large additional natural gas consumption up to +170% by 2050. The impact on CO2 emissions, however, is found to be much smaller (from -2% to +11%), and a majority of the models reported a small increase in climate forcing (from -0.3% to +7%) associated with the increased use of abundant gas. Our results show that while globally abundant gas may substantially change the future energy market equilibrium, it will not significantly mitigate climate change on its own in the absence of climate policies.

  16. Toward Reliable Estimates of Abundance: Comparing Index Methods to Assess the Abundance of a Mammalian Predator

    PubMed Central

    Güthlin, Denise; Storch, Ilse; Küchenhoff, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Due to time and financial constraints indices are often used to obtain landscape-scale estimates of relative species abundance. Using two different field methods and comparing the results can help to detect possible bias or a non monotonic relationship between the index and the true abundance, providing more reliable results. We used data obtained from camera traps and feces counts to independently estimate relative abundance of red foxes in the Black Forest, a forested landscape in southern Germany. Applying negative binomial regression models, we identified landscape parameters that influence red fox abundance, which we then used to predict relative red fox abundance. We compared the estimated regression coefficients of the landscape parameters and the predicted abundance of the two methods. Further, we compared the costs and the precision of the two field methods. The predicted relative abundances were similar between the two methods, suggesting that the two indices were closely related to the true abundance of red foxes. For both methods, landscape diversity and edge density best described differences in the indices and had positive estimated effects on the relative fox abundance. In our study the costs of each method were of similar magnitude, but the sample size obtained from the feces counts (262 transects) was larger than the camera trap sample size (88 camera locations). The precision of the camera traps was lower than the precision of the feces counts. The approach we applied can be used as a framework to compare and combine the results of two or more different field methods to estimate abundance and by this enhance the reliability of the result. PMID:24743565

  17. Toward reliable estimates of abundance: comparing index methods to assess the abundance of a Mammalian predator.

    PubMed

    Güthlin, Denise; Storch, Ilse; Küchenhoff, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Due to time and financial constraints indices are often used to obtain landscape-scale estimates of relative species abundance. Using two different field methods and comparing the results can help to detect possible bias or a non monotonic relationship between the index and the true abundance, providing more reliable results. We used data obtained from camera traps and feces counts to independently estimate relative abundance of red foxes in the Black Forest, a forested landscape in southern Germany. Applying negative binomial regression models, we identified landscape parameters that influence red fox abundance, which we then used to predict relative red fox abundance. We compared the estimated regression coefficients of the landscape parameters and the predicted abundance of the two methods. Further, we compared the costs and the precision of the two field methods. The predicted relative abundances were similar between the two methods, suggesting that the two indices were closely related to the true abundance of red foxes. For both methods, landscape diversity and edge density best described differences in the indices and had positive estimated effects on the relative fox abundance. In our study the costs of each method were of similar magnitude, but the sample size obtained from the feces counts (262 transects) was larger than the camera trap sample size (88 camera locations). The precision of the camera traps was lower than the precision of the feces counts. The approach we applied can be used as a framework to compare and combine the results of two or more different field methods to estimate abundance and by this enhance the reliability of the result. PMID:24743565

  18. Thermal relics: Do we know their abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamionkowski, Marc; Turner, Michael S.

    1990-01-01

    The relic abundance of a particle species that was once in thermal equilibrium in the expanding Universe depends upon a competition between the annihilation rate of the species and the expansion rate of the Universe. Assuming that the Universe is radiation dominated at early times the relic abundance is easy to compute and well known. At times earlier than about 1 sec after the bang there is little or no evidence that the Universe had to be radiation dominated, although that is the simplest and standard assumption. Because early-Universe relics are of such importance both to particle physics and to cosmology, three nonstandard possibilities are considered in detail for the Universe at the time a species' abundance froze in: energy density dominated by shear (i.e., anisotropic expansion), energy density dominated by some other nonrelativistic species, and energy density dominated by the kinetic energy of the scalar field that sets the gravitational constant in a Brans-Dicke-Jordan cosmological mode. In the second case the relic abundance is less than the standard value, while in the other two cases it can be enhanced by a significant factor. Two other more exotic possibilities for enhancing the relic abundance of a species are also mentioned--a larger value of Newton's constant at early times (e.g., as might occur in superstring or Kaluza-Klein theories) or a component of the energy density at early times with a very stiff equation of state (p greater than rho/3), e.g., a scalar field phi with potential V(phi) = Beta /phi/ (exp n) with n greater than 4. Results have implications for dark matter searches and searches for particle relics in general.

  19. Chemical abundances and kinematics of barium stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro, D. B.; Pereira, C. B.; Roig, F.; Jilinski, E.; Drake, N. A.; Chavero, C.; Sales Silva, J. V.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present an homogeneous analysis of photospheric abundances based on high-resolution spectroscopy of a sample of 182 barium stars and candidates. We determined atmospheric parameters, spectroscopic distances, stellar masses, ages, luminosities and scaleheight, radial velocities, abundances of the Na, Al, α-elements, iron-peak elements, and s-process elements Y, Zr, La, Ce, and Nd. We employed the local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmospheres of Kurucz and the spectral analysis code MOOG. We found that the metallicities, the temperatures and the surface gravities for barium stars cannot be represented by a single Gaussian distribution. The abundances of α-elements and iron peak elements are similar to those of field giants with the same metallicity. Sodium presents some degree of enrichment in more evolved stars that could be attributed to the NeNa cycle. As expected, the barium stars show overabundance of the elements created by the s-process. By measuring the mean heavy-element abundance pattern as given by the ratio [s/Fe], we found that the barium stars present several degrees of enrichment. We also obtained the [hs/ls] ratio by measuring the photospheric abundances of the Ba-peak and the Zr-peak elements. Our results indicated that the [s/Fe] and the [hs/ls] ratios are strongly anticorrelated with the metallicity. Our kinematical analysis showed that 90 per cent of the barium stars belong to the thin disc population. Based on their luminosities, none of the barium stars are luminous enough to be an asymptotic giant branch star, nor to become self-enriched in the s-process elements. Finally, we determined that the barium stars also follow an age-metallicity relation.

  20. 1115 Medicaid Waiver Up for Renewal.

    PubMed

    Sorrel, Amy Lynn

    2015-10-01

    Without federal approval, the 1115 Medicaid waiver expires in September 2016. The Texas Medical Association supports renewal but says the waiver design must change and calls for greater physician involvement. PMID:26457844

  1. Thinking through participation in renewable energy decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidwell, David

    2016-05-01

    Scholars and practitioners have advocated for greater public participation in decisions about renewable energy technologies. Nonetheless, many questions remain regarding the role of the public and the scope, purpose and openness of these decision processes.

  2. WEB-BASED DATABASE ON RENEWAL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    As U.S. utilities continue to shore up their aging infrastructure, renewal needs now represent over 43% of annual expenditures compared to new construction for drinking water distribution and wastewater collection systems (Underground Construction [UC], 2016). An increased unders...

  3. Renewable Surface Biosensors With Optical Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J.; Ackerman, Eric J.; Dockendorff, Brian P.; Holman, David A.; Grate, Jay W.

    2001-12-01

    One major challenge in the development of biosensors is the limited lifetime of a chemically selective surface that includes biomolecules. Renewable surface biosensors address this issue by using fresh aliquots of derivatized microbeads for each analysis. The analyte detection can then occur on the microbeads, or downstream from the microbeads. In this paper, we will describe two types of renewable surface biosensors. The first renewable biosensor system includes on-column optical detection for monitoring the binding of biomolecules onto protein or DNA-derivatized Sepharose beads. The second renewable biosensor system includes detection downstream from the microparticles and is based on the use of derivatized magnetic particles for selective binding. The magnetic particles are fluidically captured and released in a sequential injection system to allow the automation of an Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay.

  4. Renewable Surface Biosensors with Optical Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.; Ackerman, Eric J.; Dockendorff, Brian P.; Holman, David A.; Grate, Jay W.

    2001-04-30

    One major challenge in the development of biosensors is the limited lifetime of a chemically selective surface that includes biomolecules. Renewable surface biosensors address this issue by using fresh aliquots of derivatized microbeads for each analysis. The analyte detection can then occur on the microbeads, or downstream from the microbeads. In this paper, we will describe two types of renewable surface biosensors. The first renewable biosensor system includes on-column optical detection for monitoring the binding of biomolecules onto protein or DNA-derivatized Sepharose beads. The second renewable biosensor system includes detection downstream from the microparticles and is based on the use of derivatized magnetic particles for selective binding. The magnetic particles are fluidically captured and released in a sequential injection system to allow the automation of an Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay.

  5. Renewable Energy Program Overview (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-07-01

    Fact sheet describing how the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides Federal agencies with information, guidance, and assistance in using renewable energy.

  6. 1115 Medicaid Waiver Up for Renewal.

    PubMed

    Sorrel, Amy Lynn

    2015-10-01

    Without federal approval, the 1115 Medicaid waiver expires in September 2016. The Texas Medical Association supports renewal but says the waiver design must change and calls for greater physician involvement.

  7. Three Affliated Tribes Renewable Energy Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Belvin Pete; Kent Good; Krista Gordon; Ed McCarthy,

    2006-05-26

    The Three Affliated Tribes on the Fort Berthold Reservation studied the feasibility of a commercial wind facility on land selected and owned by the Tribes and examined the potential for the development of renewable energy resources on Tribal Lands.

  8. Procurement Options for New Renewable Electricity Supply

    SciTech Connect

    Kreycik, C. E.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

    2011-12-01

    State renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies require utilities and load-serving entities (LSEs) to procure renewable energy generation. Utility procurement options may be a function of state policy and regulatory preferences, and in some cases, may be dictated by legislative authority. Utilities and LSEs commonly use competitive solicitations or bilateral contracting to procure renewable energy supply to meet RPS mandates. However, policymakers and regulators in several states are beginning to explore the use of alternatives, namely feed-in tariffs (FITs) and auctions to procure renewable energy supply. This report evaluates four procurement strategies (competitive solicitations, bilateral contracting, FITs, and auctions) against four main criteria: (1) pricing; (2) complexity and efficiency of the procurement process; (3) impacts on developers access to markets; and (4) ability to complement utility decision-making processes. These criteria were chosen because they take into account the perspective of each group of stakeholders: ratepayers, regulators, utilities, investors, and developers.

  9. 76 FR 37380 - Committee Management Renewals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... Committee Management Renewals The National Science Foundation (NSF) management officials having... follows consultation with the Committee Management Secretariat, General Services Administration..., Committee Management Officer. BILLING CODE 7555-01-P...

  10. 78 FR 38736 - Committee Management; Renewals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... Committee Management; Renewals The National Science Foundation (NSF) management officials having... follows consultation with the Committee Management Secretariat, General Services Administration... Susanne Bolton, NSF, at (703) 292-7488. Dated: June 24, 2013. Susanne Bolton, Committee Management...

  11. 76 FR 44963 - Committee Management; Renewals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... Committee Management; Renewals The NSF management officials having responsibility for the Proposal Review... determination follows consultation with the Committee Management Secretariat, General Services Administration... (703) 292-7488. Dated: July 22, 2011. Susanne Bolton, Committee Management Officer. BILLING CODE...

  12. 75 FR 9616 - Committee Management Renewals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... Committee Management Renewals The NSF management officials having responsibility for three advisory... Committee Management Secretariat, General Services Administration. Committees: Advisory Committee for...-7488. Susanne Bolton, Committee Management Officer. BILLING CODE 7555-01-P...

  13. 77 FR 12086 - Committee Management Renewals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... Committee Management Renewals The NSF management officials having responsibility for three advisory... Committee Management Secretariat, General Services Administration. Committees: Advisory Committee for.... Dated: February 22, 2012. Susanne Bolton, Committee Management Officer. BILLING CODE 7555-01-P...

  14. Renewable Energy Can Help Reduce Oil Dependency

    ScienceCinema

    Arvizu, Dan

    2016-07-12

    In a speech to the Economic Club of Kansas City on June 23, 2010, NREL Director Dan Arvizu takes a realistic look at how renewable energy can help reduce America's dependence on oil, pointing out that the country gets as much energy from renewable sources now as it does from offshore oil production. For a transcript, visit http://www.nrel.gov/director/pdfs/energy_overview_06_10.pdf

  15. Possibilities of utilizing renewable energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benko, I.

    Attention is given to the quantitative and structural changes that have occurred in man's consumption of energy. It is pointed out that today 90% of the energy used comes from nonrenewable sources. In considering renewable energy sources, such as the sun, winds, tides, river currents, and earth's heat, attention is given to their geographical distribution. It is noted that supplying energy to isolated settlements that do not possess sources of renewable energy will pose a challenge.

  16. Economics of renewable and nonrenewable energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1991-05-01

    Nonrenewable sources are subject to intertemporal optimization. Electrical and renewable sources, which are exogenous, can be integrated and treated on nonrenewable sources. For typical conditions, the model predicts that prices will increase and flows will fall more abruptly than is generally expected. These trends are exacerbated by limits on renewable sources. Predicted price trajectories should permit the introduction of alternative fuels if available, but their late introduction could be costly. Greater imports do not appear likely or appropriate. 17 refs., 24 figs.

  17. Essays in renewable energy and emissions trading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneifel, Joshua D.

    Environmental issues have become a key political issue over the past forty years and has resulted in the enactment of many different environmental policies. The three essays in this dissertation add to the literature of renewable energy policies and sulfur dioxide emissions trading. The first essay ascertains which state policies are accelerating deployment of non-hydropower renewable electricity generation capacity into a states electric power industry. As would be expected, policies that lead to significant increases in actual renewable capacity in that state either set a Renewables Portfolio Standard with a certain level of required renewable capacity or use Clean Energy Funds to directly fund utility-scale renewable capacity construction. A surprising result is that Required Green Power Options, a policy that merely requires all utilities in a state to offer the option for consumers to purchase renewable energy at a premium rate, has a sizable impact on non-hydro renewable capacity in that state. The second essay studies the theoretical impacts fuel contract constraints have on an electricity generating unit's compliance costs of meeting the emissions compliance restrictions set by Phase I of the Title IV SO2 Emissions Trading Program. Fuel contract constraints restrict a utility's degrees of freedom in coal purchasing options, which can lead to the use of a more expensive compliance option and higher compliance costs. The third essay analytically and empirically shows how fuel contract constraints impact the emissions allowance market and total electric power industry compliance costs. This paper uses generating unit-level simulations to replicate results from previous studies and show that fuel contracts appear to explain a large portion (65%) of the previously unexplained compliance cost simulations. Also, my study considers a more appropriate plant-level decisions for compliance choices by analytically analyzing the plant level decision-making process to

  18. China rationalizes its renewable energy policy

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Jack H.; Hui, Simone S.; Tsen, Kevin H.

    2010-04-15

    China's over-reliance on thermal power generation, especially coal-fired power stations, is well-documented. While nuclear power continues as an option to coal, China's strides in renewable energy are unprecedented. Recent amendments to the Renewable Energy Law, first promulgated in 2006, attempt to rationalize the regulatory regime governing wind, solar, hydropower and biomass projects in China, currently fraught with inadequate interconnection and tariff shock issues. (author)

  19. Creative renewable energy purchasing options for businesses

    SciTech Connect

    Lokey, Elizabeth

    2007-01-15

    Green energy providers are creating novel ways for large commercial clients to get involved in the long-term development of renewable energy generation. Some plans are designed to allow the purchase of energy to provide long-term off-take stability and other financial benefits to companies developing renewable energy projects. Two new insurance products could help absorb some of the financial risk taken on by the clients. (author)

  20. Renewable Energy Can Help Reduce Oil Dependency

    SciTech Connect

    Arvizu, Dan

    2010-01-01

    In a speech to the Economic Club of Kansas City on June 23, 2010, NREL Director Dan Arvizu takes a realistic look at how renewable energy can help reduce America's dependence on oil, pointing out that the country gets as much energy from renewable sources now as it does from offshore oil production. For a transcript, visit http://www.nrel.gov/director/pdfs/energy_overview_06_10.pdf

  1. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 1: Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.; Wiser, R.; Sandor, D.; Brinkman, G.; Heath, G.; Denholm, P.; Hostick, D.J.; Darghouth, N.; Schlosser, A.; Strzepek, K.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  2. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 2: Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, C.; Bain, R.; Chapman, J.; Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Hall, D.G.; Lantz, E.; Margolis, R.; Thresher, R.; Sandor, D.; Bishop, N.A.; Brown, S.R.; Cada, G.F.; Felker, F.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  3. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 2. Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, Chad; Bain, Richard; Chapman, Jamie; Denholm, Paul; Drury, Easan; Hall, Douglas G.; Lantz, Eric; Margolis, Robert; Thresher, Robert; Sandor, Debra; Bishop, Norman A.; Brown, Stephen R.; Felker, Fort; Fernandez, Steven J.; Goodrich, Alan C.; Hagerman, George; Heath, Garvin; O'Neil, Sean; Paquette, Joshua; Tegen, Suzanne; Young, Katherine

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  4. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 1. Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M. M.; Baldwin, S.; DeMeo, E.; Reilly, J. M.; Mai, T.; Arent, D.; Porro, G.; Meshek, M.; Sandor, D.

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  5. The RenewElec Project: Variable Renewable Energy and the Power System

    SciTech Connect

    Apt, Jay

    2014-02-14

    Variable energy resources, such as wind power, now produce about 4% of U.S. electricity. They can play a significantly expanded role if the U.S. adopts a systems approach that considers affordability, security and reliability. Reaching a 20-30% renewable portfolio standard goal is possible, but not without changes in the management and regulation of the power system, including accurately assessing and preparing for the operational effects of renewable generation. The RenewElec project will help the nation make the transition to the use of significant amounts of electric generation from variable and intermittent sources of renewable power.

  6. Chemical abundance analysis of 19 barium stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guo-Chao; Liang, Yan-Chun; Spite, Monique; Chen, Yu-Qin; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Guo-Qing; Liu, Yu-Juan; Liu, Nian; Deng, Li-Cai; Spite, Francois; Hill, Vanessa; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2016-01-01

    We aim at deriving accurate atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances of 19 barium (Ba) stars, including both strong and mild Ba stars, based on the high signal-to-noise ratio and high resolution Echelle spectra obtained from the 2.16 m telescope at Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The chemical abundances of the sample stars were obtained from an LTE, plane-parallel and line-blanketed atmospheric model by inputting the atmospheric parameters (effective temperatures Teff, surface gravities log g, metallicity [Fe/H] and microturbulence velocity ξt) and equivalent widths of stellar absorption lines. These samples of Ba stars are giants as indicated by atmospheric parameters, metallicities and kinematic analysis about UVW velocity. Chemical abundances of 17 elements were obtained for these Ba stars. Their Na, Al, α- and iron-peak elements (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Ni) are similar to the solar abundances. Our samples of Ba stars show obvious overabundances of neutron-capture (n-capture) process elements relative to the Sun. Their median abundances of [Ba/Fe], [La/Fe] and [Eu/Fe] are 0.54, 0.65 and 0.40, respectively. The Y I and Zr I abundances are lower than Ba, La and Eu, but higher than the α- and iron-peak elements for the strong Ba stars and similar to the iron-peak elements for the mild stars. There exists a positive correlation between Ba intensity and [Ba/Fe]. For the n-capture elements (Y, Zr, Ba, La), there is an anti-correlation between their [X/Fe] and [Fe/H]. We identify nine of our sample stars as strong Ba stars with [Ba/Fe] >0.6 where seven of them have Ba intensity Ba=2-5, one has Ba=1.5 and another one has Ba=1.0. The remaining ten stars are classified as mild Ba stars with 0.17<[Ba/Fe] <0.54.

  7. Deuterium Abundance in Consciousness and Current Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauscher, Elizabeth A.

    We utilize the deuterium-hydrogen abundances and their role in setting limits on the mass and other conditions of cosmogenesis and cosmological evolution. We calculate the dependence of a set of physical variables such as density, temperature, energy mass, entropy and other physical variable parameters through the evolution of the universe under the Schwarzschild conditions as a function from early to present time. Reconciliation with the 3°K and missing mass is made. We first examine the Schwarzschild condition; second, the geometrical constraints of a multidimensional Cartesian space on closed cosmologies, and third we will consider the cosmogenesis and evolution of the universe in a multidimensional Cartesian space, obeying the Schwarzschild condition. Implications of this model for matter creation are made. We also examine experimental evidence for closed versus open cosmologies; x-ray detection of the "missing mass" density. Also the interstellar deuterium abundance, along with the value of the Hubble constant set a general criterion on the value of the curvature constant, k. Once the value of the Hubble constant, H is determined, the deuterium abundance sets stringent restrictions on the value of the curvature constant k by an detailed discussion is presented. The experimental evidences for the determination of H and the primary set of coupled equations to determine D abundance is given. 'The value of k for an open, closed, or flat universe will be discussed in terms of the D abundance which will affect the interpretation of the Schwarzschild, black hole universe. We determine cosmology solutions to Einstein's field obeying the Schwarzschild solutions condition. With this model, we can form a reconciliation of the black hole, from galactic to cosmological scale. Continuous creation occurs at the dynamic blackhole plasma field. We term this new model the multiple big bang or "little whimper model". We utilize the deuteriumhydrogen abundances and their role in

  8. 10 CFR 30.37 - Application for renewal of licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application for renewal of licenses. 30.37 Section 30.37... MATERIAL Licenses § 30.37 Application for renewal of licenses. (a) Application for renewal of a specific... extension described in 10 CFR 30.36(a)(2) has a currently pending renewal application for the...

  9. 31 CFR 8.25 - Renewal of enrollment card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Renewal of enrollment card. 8.25... BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO AND FIREARMS Enrollment Procedures § 8.25 Renewal of enrollment card. (a) Period of renewal. An enrolled practitioner may apply for renewal of his or her enrollment card during...

  10. 31 CFR 8.25 - Renewal of enrollment card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Renewal of enrollment card. 8.25... BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO AND FIREARMS Enrollment Procedures § 8.25 Renewal of enrollment card. (a) Period of renewal. An enrolled practitioner may apply for renewal of his or her enrollment card during...

  11. 31 CFR 8.25 - Renewal of enrollment card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Renewal of enrollment card. 8.25... BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO AND FIREARMS Enrollment Procedures § 8.25 Renewal of enrollment card. (a) Period of renewal. An enrolled practitioner may apply for renewal of his or her enrollment card during...

  12. 31 CFR 8.25 - Renewal of enrollment card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Renewal of enrollment card. 8.25... BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO AND FIREARMS Enrollment Procedures § 8.25 Renewal of enrollment card. (a) Period of renewal. An enrolled practitioner may apply for renewal of his or her enrollment card during...

  13. 31 CFR 8.25 - Renewal of enrollment card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Renewal of enrollment card. 8.25... BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO AND FIREARMS Enrollment Procedures § 8.25 Renewal of enrollment card. (a) Period of renewal. An enrolled practitioner may apply for renewal of his or her enrollment card during...

  14. 24 CFR 570.800 - Urban renewal regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Urban renewal regulations. 570.800... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS Urban Renewal Provisions § 570.800 Urban renewal regulations. The regulations governing urban renewal projects and...

  15. 24 CFR 570.800 - Urban renewal regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urban renewal regulations. 570.800... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS Urban Renewal Provisions § 570.800 Urban renewal regulations. The regulations governing urban renewal projects and...

  16. 24 CFR 570.800 - Urban renewal regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urban renewal regulations. 570.800... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS Urban Renewal Provisions § 570.800 Urban renewal regulations. The regulations governing urban renewal projects and...

  17. 24 CFR 570.800 - Urban renewal regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Urban renewal regulations. 570.800... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS Urban Renewal Provisions § 570.800 Urban renewal regulations. The regulations governing urban renewal projects and...

  18. 24 CFR 570.800 - Urban renewal regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urban renewal regulations. 570.800... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS Urban Renewal Provisions § 570.800 Urban renewal regulations. The regulations governing urban renewal projects and...

  19. 30 CFR 285.427 - How long is a renewal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How long is a renewal? 285.427 Section 285.427... Grant Renewal § 285.427 How long is a renewal? The MMS will set the term of a renewal at the time of... continue for as long as the associated activities are conducted and facilities properly maintained and...

  20. Top consumer abundance influences lake methane efflux

    PubMed Central

    Devlin, Shawn P.; Saarenheimo, Jatta; Syväranta, Jari; Jones, Roger I.

    2015-01-01

    Lakes are important habitats for biogeochemical cycling of carbon. The organization and structure of aquatic communities influences the biogeochemical interactions between lakes and the atmosphere. Understanding how trophic structure regulates ecosystem functions and influences greenhouse gas efflux from lakes is critical to understanding global carbon cycling and climate change. With a whole-lake experiment in which a previously fishless lake was divided into two treatment basins where fish abundance was manipulated, we show how a trophic cascade from fish to microbes affects methane efflux to the atmosphere. Here, fish exert high grazing pressure and remove nearly all zooplankton. This reduction in zooplankton density increases the abundance of methanotrophic bacteria, which in turn reduce CH4 efflux rates by roughly 10 times. Given that globally there are millions of lakes emitting methane, an important greenhouse gas, our findings that aquatic trophic interactions significantly influence the biogeochemical cycle of methane has important implications. PMID:26531291

  1. Attenuation of species abundance distributions by sampling.

    PubMed

    Shimadzu, Hideyasu; Darnell, Ross

    2015-04-01

    Quantifying biodiversity aspects such as species presence/ absence, richness and abundance is an important challenge to answer scientific and resource management questions. In practice, biodiversity can only be assessed from biological material taken by surveys, a difficult task given limited time and resources. A type of random sampling, or often called sub-sampling, is a commonly used technique to reduce the amount of time and effort for investigating large quantities of biological samples. However, it is not immediately clear how (sub-)sampling affects the estimate of biodiversity aspects from a quantitative perspective. This paper specifies the effect of (sub-)sampling as attenuation of the species abundance distribution (SAD), and articulates how the sampling bias is induced to the SAD by random sampling. The framework presented also reveals some confusion in previous theoretical studies. PMID:26064626

  2. Attenuation of species abundance distributions by sampling

    PubMed Central

    Shimadzu, Hideyasu; Darnell, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying biodiversity aspects such as species presence/ absence, richness and abundance is an important challenge to answer scientific and resource management questions. In practice, biodiversity can only be assessed from biological material taken by surveys, a difficult task given limited time and resources. A type of random sampling, or often called sub-sampling, is a commonly used technique to reduce the amount of time and effort for investigating large quantities of biological samples. However, it is not immediately clear how (sub-)sampling affects the estimate of biodiversity aspects from a quantitative perspective. This paper specifies the effect of (sub-)sampling as attenuation of the species abundance distribution (SAD), and articulates how the sampling bias is induced to the SAD by random sampling. The framework presented also reveals some confusion in previous theoretical studies. PMID:26064626

  3. Element by Element Abundances in Spheroidal Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthey, Guy; Serven, Jedidiah

    2006-02-01

    Element-by-element abundances will be derived from high quality long slit KPNO 4m spectra of nearby elliptical galaxies that span the range of velocity dispersion. Analysis of these spectra will give the abundances of 18 individual elements to bring to extragalactic astronomy the same luxurious situation now enjoyed only by stellar spectroscopists. These spectra will reveal the basic element ratio behavior as a function of galaxy velocity dispersion. For example, [Mg/Fe] is seen to be enhanced in large galaxies, but not small ones. We propose to expand our purview from 2 elements (Mg and Fe) to 18 elements. This, in turn, will tie directly to chemical evolution and chemical enrichment mechanisms. As a byproduct, we also decrease the stellar population age uncertainty by about a factor of ten from today's Balmer-metal index diagram techniques.

  4. THE OXYGEN ABUNDANCE IN THE SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD

    SciTech Connect

    RodrIguez, Monica; Delgado-Inglada, Gloria E-mail: gloria@inaoep.mx

    2011-06-01

    We present a homogeneous analysis of the oxygen abundance in five H II regions and eight planetary nebulae (PNe) located at distances lower than 2 kpc and with available spectra of high quality. We find that both the collisionally excited lines (CELs) and recombination lines imply that the PNe are overabundant in oxygen by about 0.2 dex. An explanation that reconciles the oxygen abundances derived with CELs for H II regions and PNe with the values found for B stars, the Sun, and the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) requires the presence in H II regions of an organic refractory dust component that is not present in PNe. This dust component has already been invoked to explain the depletion of oxygen in molecular clouds and in the diffuse ISM.

  5. Top consumer abundance influences lake methane efflux.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Shawn P; Saarenheimo, Jatta; Syväranta, Jari; Jones, Roger I

    2015-01-01

    Lakes are important habitats for biogeochemical cycling of carbon. The organization and structure of aquatic communities influences the biogeochemical interactions between lakes and the atmosphere. Understanding how trophic structure regulates ecosystem functions and influences greenhouse gas efflux from lakes is critical to understanding global carbon cycling and climate change. With a whole-lake experiment in which a previously fishless lake was divided into two treatment basins where fish abundance was manipulated, we show how a trophic cascade from fish to microbes affects methane efflux to the atmosphere. Here, fish exert high grazing pressure and remove nearly all zooplankton. This reduction in zooplankton density increases the abundance of methanotrophic bacteria, which in turn reduce CH4 efflux rates by roughly 10 times. Given that globally there are millions of lakes emitting methane, an important greenhouse gas, our findings that aquatic trophic interactions significantly influence the biogeochemical cycle of methane has important implications. PMID:26531291

  6. Deuterium Abundance in the Local Interstellar Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferlet, R.; Gry, C.; Vidal-Madjar, A.

    1984-01-01

    The present situation of deuterium abundance evaluation in interstellar space is discussed, and it is shown that it should be or = .00001 by studying in more detail lambda the Sco line of sight and by observing two NaI interstellar components toward that star, it can be shown that the D/H evaluation made toward lambda Sco is in fact related to the local interstellar medium (less than 10 pc from the Sun). Because this evaluation is also or = .00001 it is in striking contrast with the one made toward alpha Aur (D/H or = .000018 confirming the fact that the deuterium abundance in the local interstellar medium varies by at least a factor of two over few parsecs.

  7. WIMP abundance and lepton (flavour) asymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Stuke, Maik; Schwarz, Dominik J.; Starkman, Glenn E-mail: dschwarz@physik.uni-bielefeld.de

    2012-03-01

    We investigate how large lepton asymmetries affect the evolution of the early universe at times before big bang nucleosynthesis and in particular how they influence the relic density of WIMP dark matter. In comparison to the standard calculation of the relic WIMP abundance we find a decrease, depending on the lepton flavour asymmetry. We find an effect of up to 20 per cent for lepton flavour asymmetries l{sub f} = O(0.1)

  8. Revised Thorium Abundances for Lunar Red Spots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagerty, J. J.; Lawrence, D. J.; Elphic, R. C.; Feldman, W. C.; Vaniman, D. T.; Hawke, B. R.

    2005-01-01

    Lunar red spots are features on the nearside of the Moon that are characterized by high albedo and by a strong absorption in the ultraviolet. These red spots include the Gruithuisen domes, the Mairan domes, Hansteen Alpha, the southern portion of Montes Riphaeus, Darney Chi and Tau, Helmet, and an area near the Lassell crater. It has been suggested that many of the red spots are extrusive, nonmare, volcanic features that could be composed of an evolved lithlogy enriched in thorium. In fact, Hawke et al. used morphological characteristics to show that Hansteen Alpha is a nonmare volcanic construct. However, because the apparent Th abundances (6 - 7 ppm) were lower than that expected for evolved rock types, Hawke et al. concluded that Hansteen Alpha was composed of an unknown rock type. Subsequent studies by Lawrence et al. used improved knowledge of the Th spatial distribution for small area features on the lunar surface to revisit the interpretation of Th abundances at the Hansteen Alpha red spot. As part of their study, Lawrence et al. used a forward modeling technique to show that the Th abundance at Hansteen Alpha is not 6 ppm, but is more likely closer to 25 ppm, a value consistent with evolved lithologies. This positive correlation between the morphology and composition of Hansteen Alpha provides support for the presence of evolved lithologies on the lunar surface. It is possible, however, that Hansteen Alpha represents an isolated occurrence of non-mare volcanism. That is why we have chosen to use the forward modeling technique of Lawrence et al. to investigate the Th abundances at other lunar red spots, starting with the Gruithuisen domes. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  9. Another look at abundance correlations among comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, Anita L.

    1987-01-01

    Abundance correlations among comets are examined using three different data sets. The C2 and C3 production rates prove to be well correlated with CN production rates, but large scatter exists. It is concluded that a 'normal' comet is one for which Q(C3)/Q(CN) = 0.19 + or - 0.13 and Q(C2)/Q(CN) = 1.46 + or 0.68.

  10. Peculair Abundances in the Crab Nebula's Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesen, Robert A.

    Investigations into the elemental abundances of supernova remnants can provide invaluable information concerning the properties of the progenitor star as well as details of stellar nucleosynthesis. In this regard, the Crab Nebula is especially useful, it being the youngest supernova remnant observable with IUE. Despite being fairly heavily reddened, UV emission-lines from its filaments have been successfully obtained many times early in the history of IUE. These UV spectra provided important and unique data for determining elemental composition of the filamentary ejecta, especially for C, N, and O. Analysis of these data by Davidson et al (1982) indicated nearly solar C/O and N/O ratios despite the large general enrichment of helium in the remnant. Although not realized at the time, there is considerable recent evidence which indicates that significant abundance variations do exist among the filaments. The strongest anomalies in composition are puzzlingly confined to a few relatively bright northern filaments which exhibit nearly solar He abundance yet show possibly large Ni enrichment. If we hope to understand the elemental composition of remnants in general and the Crab Nebula in particular, we then need to determine the composition of these peculiar filaments and to what extent they differ from the rest of the remnant. Towards that goal, we therefore propose to obtain IUE low dispersion SWP spectra on the brightest of these peculiar filaments where we have already obtained matching optical data. Analysis will follow that of Davidson el al but with much more detailed photoionization models for the Crab already developed by us. These data should help determine the true range of abundances present in the Crab's filamentary ejecta.

  11. Abundances of 23 field RR Lyrae stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shu; Zhao, Gang; Chen, Yu-Qin; Takeda, Yoichi; Honda, Satoshi

    2013-11-01

    We present stellar parameters and abundances of 15 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Y and Ba) for 23 field RR Lyrae variables based on high-resolution (R ~ 60 000) and high signal-to-noise (S/N~ 200) spectra obtained using the High Dispersion Spectrograph on the Subaru Telescope. Six stars in the sample have more than one spectrum observed at different pulsation phases. The derived abundance ratios of [X/Fe] for 14 elements (except for Ba) do not vary during the pulsation cycle. An interesting curve of [Ba/Fe] versus phase is detected for the first time and it shows decreasing [Ba/Fe] with increasing temperature at a given metallicity. Combining with data in the literature, abundances of most RR Lyrae stars as a function of [Fe/H] follow the same trends as those of dwarf stars, but [Sc/Fe] and [Y/Fe] ratios of RR Lyrae stars at solar metallicity are lower than those of dwarf stars. The kinematics of RR Lyrae stars indicate that three comparatively metal-rich RR Lyrae stars might originate from the thick disk and they show higher [α/Fe] ratios than RR Lyrae stars with thin disk kinematics. Among 23 RR Lyrae stars, two special objects are found with abnormal abundances; TV Lib has high [α/Fe], [Sc/Fe], [Y/Fe] and [Ba/Fe] ratios while TW Her has solar [α/Fe] but significantly lower [Sc/Fe], [Y/Fe] and [Ba/Fe] ratios as compared with other RR Lyrae stars.

  12. Helium isotopic abundance variation in nature

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    1993-08-01

    The isotopic abundance of helium in nature has been reviewed. This atomic weight value is based on the value of helium in the atmosphere, which is invariant around the world and up to a distance of 100,000 feet. Helium does vary in natural gas, volcanic rocks and gases, ocean floor sediments, waters of various types and in radioactive minerals and ores due to {alpha} particle decay of radioactive nuclides.

  13. Energy minimization strategies and renewable energy utilization for desalination: a review.

    PubMed

    Subramani, Arun; Badruzzaman, Mohammad; Oppenheimer, Joan; Jacangelo, Joseph G

    2011-02-01

    Energy is a significant cost in the economics of desalinating waters, but water scarcity is driving the rapid expansion in global installed capacity of desalination facilities. Conventional fossil fuels have been utilized as their main energy source, but recent concerns over greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have promoted global development and implementation of energy minimization strategies and cleaner energy supplies. In this paper, a comprehensive review of energy minimization strategies for membrane-based desalination processes and utilization of lower GHG emission renewable energy resources is presented. The review covers the utilization of energy efficient design, high efficiency pumping, energy recovery devices, advanced membrane materials (nanocomposite, nanotube, and biomimetic), innovative technologies (forward osmosis, ion concentration polarization, and capacitive deionization), and renewable energy resources (solar, wind, and geothermal). Utilization of energy efficient design combined with high efficiency pumping and energy recovery devices have proven effective in full-scale applications. Integration of advanced membrane materials and innovative technologies for desalination show promise but lack long-term operational data. Implementation of renewable energy resources depends upon geography-specific abundance, a feasible means of handling renewable energy power intermittency, and solving technological and economic scale-up and permitting issues.

  14. Energy minimization strategies and renewable energy utilization for desalination: a review.

    PubMed

    Subramani, Arun; Badruzzaman, Mohammad; Oppenheimer, Joan; Jacangelo, Joseph G

    2011-02-01

    Energy is a significant cost in the economics of desalinating waters, but water scarcity is driving the rapid expansion in global installed capacity of desalination facilities. Conventional fossil fuels have been utilized as their main energy source, but recent concerns over greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have promoted global development and implementation of energy minimization strategies and cleaner energy supplies. In this paper, a comprehensive review of energy minimization strategies for membrane-based desalination processes and utilization of lower GHG emission renewable energy resources is presented. The review covers the utilization of energy efficient design, high efficiency pumping, energy recovery devices, advanced membrane materials (nanocomposite, nanotube, and biomimetic), innovative technologies (forward osmosis, ion concentration polarization, and capacitive deionization), and renewable energy resources (solar, wind, and geothermal). Utilization of energy efficient design combined with high efficiency pumping and energy recovery devices have proven effective in full-scale applications. Integration of advanced membrane materials and innovative technologies for desalination show promise but lack long-term operational data. Implementation of renewable energy resources depends upon geography-specific abundance, a feasible means of handling renewable energy power intermittency, and solving technological and economic scale-up and permitting issues. PMID:21262520

  15. Environmental factors shaping ungulate abundances in Poland.

    PubMed

    Borowik, Tomasz; Cornulier, Thomas; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2013-01-01

    Population densities of large herbivores are determined by the diverse effects of density-dependent and independent environmental factors. In this study, we used the official 1998-2003 inventory data on ungulate numbers from 462 forest districts and 23 national parks across Poland to determine the roles of various environmental factors in shaping country-wide spatial patterns of ungulate abundances. Spatially explicit generalized additive mixed models showed that different sets of environmental variables explained 39 to 50 % of the variation in red deer Cervus elaphus, wild boar Sus scrofa, and roe deer Capreolus capreolus abundances. For all of the studied species, low forest cover and the mean January temperature were the most important factors limiting their numbers. Woodland cover above 40-50 % held the highest densities for these species. Wild boar and roe deer were more numerous in deciduous or mixed woodlands within a matrix of arable land. Furthermore, we found significant positive effects of marshes and water bodies on wild boar abundances. A juxtaposition of obtained results with ongoing environmental changes (global warming, increase in forest cover) may indicate future growth in ungulate distributions and numbers.

  16. How selection structures species abundance distributions

    PubMed Central

    Magurran, Anne E.; Henderson, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    How do species divide resources to produce the characteristic species abundance distributions seen in nature? One way to resolve this problem is to examine how the biomass (or capacity) of the spatial guilds that combine to produce an abundance distribution is allocated among species. Here we argue that selection on body size varies across guilds occupying spatially distinct habitats. Using an exceptionally well-characterized estuarine fish community, we show that biomass is concentrated in large bodied species in guilds where habitat structure provides protection from predators, but not in those guilds associated with open habitats and where safety in numbers is a mechanism for reducing predation risk. We further demonstrate that while there is temporal turnover in the abundances and identities of species that comprise these guilds, guild rank order is conserved across our 30-year time series. These results demonstrate that ecological communities are not randomly assembled but can be decomposed into guilds where capacity is predictably allocated among species. PMID:22787020

  17. Elemental abundances of solar sibling candidates

    SciTech Connect

    Ramírez, I.; Lambert, D. L.; Endl, M.; Cochran, W. D.; MacQueen, P. J.; Bajkova, A. T.; Bobylev, V. V.; Wittenmyer, R. A.

    2014-06-01

    Dynamical information along with survey data on metallicity and in some cases age have been used recently by some authors to search for candidates of stars that were born in the cluster where the Sun formed. We have acquired high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra for 30 of these objects to determine, using detailed elemental abundance analysis, if they could be true solar siblings. Only two of the candidates are found to have solar chemical composition. Updated modeling of the stars' past orbits in a realistic Galactic potential reveals that one of them, HD 162826, satisfies both chemical and dynamical conditions for being a sibling of the Sun. Measurements of rare-element abundances for this star further confirm its solar composition, with the only possible exception of Sm. Analysis of long-term high-precision radial velocity data rules out the presence of hot Jupiters and confirms that this star is not in a binary system. We find that chemical tagging does not necessarily benefit from studying as many elements as possible but instead from identifying and carefully measuring the abundances of those elements that show large star-to-star scatter at a given metallicity. Future searches employing data products from ongoing massive astrometric and spectroscopic surveys can be optimized by acknowledging this fact.

  18. Distribution and Abundance of Mars' Atmospheric Argon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprague, A. L.; Boynton, W. V.; Kerry, K. E.; Nelli, Steven; Murphy, Jim; Reedy, R. C.; Metzger, A. E.; Hunten, D. M.; Janes, K. D.; Crombie, M. K.

    2005-01-01

    One and one half Mars years (MY 26 and 27) of atmospheric Argon measurements are described and studied in the context of understanding how Argon, a minor constituent of Mars atmosphere that does not condense at Mars temperatures, can be used to study martian circulation and dynamics. Argon data are from the 2001 Mars Odyssey Gamma Subsystem (GS) of the suite of three instruments comprising the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS). A comprehensive data analysis including gamma-ray production and attenuation by the atmosphere is included. Of particular interest is the enhanced abundance of Ar over the observed Ar abundance at lower latitudes at south (up to a factor of 10) and north (up to a factor of 4) polar regions during winter. Calibration of the measurements to actual Ar abundance is possible because GS measurements cover the same latitude and season as measurements made by the gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS) on Viking Landers 1 and 2 (VL1 and VL2). [2].

  19. The Abundance Ratio Pattern in Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthey, Guy

    1995-12-01

    Non-solar abundance ratios in elliptical galaxies are readily detectable in a qualitative sense. The elements Mg, Na, and N appear overabundant compared to Ca and Fe. There is a probable variation of (Sc + V)/Ti. Abundance ratio effects are the single most serious barrier to the estimation of mean stellar ages: even more serious than the 35% model-to-model uncertainty. Isochrone grids allowing for the variation of many individual elements (He, O, C, and N at least, in addition to overall Z and alpha elements) are needed to quantitatively estimate the overabundances and mean ages of ellipticals. The tolerances for relative shifts in isochrone temperatures are tight: about 7 K if we hope for 5% accurate ages. The abundance pattern in elliptical galaxies matches neither the disk, nor the halo, nor the bulge our own Galaxy, although the bulge appears to provide the best match. This research was funded by NASA through grant HF-1066.01-94A from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  20. Aerial survey estimates of fallow deer abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gogan, Peter J.; Gates, Natalie B.; Lubow, Bruce C.; Pettit, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Reliable estimates of the distribution and abundance of an ungulate species is essential prior to establishing and implementing a management program. We used ground surveys to determine distribution and ground and aerial surveys and individually marked deer to estimate the abundance of fallow deer (Dama dama) in north-coastal California. Fallow deer had limited distribution and heterogeneous densities. Estimated post-rut densities across 4 annual surveys ranged from a low of 1.4 (SE=0.2) deer/km2 to a high of 3.3 (se=0.5) deer/km2 in a low density stratum and from 49.0 (SE=8.3) deer/km2 to 111.6 deer/km2 in a high density stratum. Sightability was positively influenced by the presence of white color-phase deer in a group and group size, and varied between airial and ground-based observers and by density strata. Our findings underscore the utility of double-observer surveys and aerial surveys with individually marked deer, both incorporating covariates to model sightability, to estimate deer abundance.

  1. The primordial helium abundance from updated emissivities

    SciTech Connect

    Aver, Erik; Olive, Keith A.; Skillman, Evan D.; Porter, R.L. E-mail: olive@umn.edu E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu

    2013-11-01

    Observations of metal-poor extragalactic H II regions allow the determination of the primordial helium abundance, Y{sub p}. The He I emissivities are the foundation of the model of the H II region's emission. Porter, Ferland, Storey, and Detisch (2012) have recently published updated He I emissivities based on improved photoionization cross-sections. We incorporate these new atomic data and update our recent Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis of the dataset published by Izotov, Thuan, and Stasi'nska (2007). As before, cuts are made to promote quality and reliability, and only solutions which fit the data within 95% confidence level are used to determine the primordial He abundance. The previously qualifying dataset is almost entirely retained and with strong concordance between the physical parameters. Overall, an upward bias from the new emissivities leads to a decrease in Y{sub p}. In addition, we find a general trend to larger uncertainties in individual objects (due to changes in the emissivities) and an increased variance (due to additional objects included). From a regression to zero metallicity, we determine Y{sub p} = 0.2465 ± 0.0097, in good agreement with the BBN result, Y{sub p} = 0.2485 ± 0.0002, based on the Planck determination of the baryon density. In the future, a better understanding of why a large fraction of spectra are not well fit by the model will be crucial to achieving an increase in the precision of the primordial helium abundance determination.

  2. Absolute Quantification of Endogenous Ras Isoform Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Mageean, Craig J.; Griffiths, John R.; Smith, Duncan L.; Clague, Michael J.; Prior, Ian A.

    2015-01-01

    Ras proteins are important signalling hubs situated near the top of networks controlling cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. Three almost identical isoforms, HRAS, KRAS and NRAS, are ubiquitously expressed yet have differing biological and oncogenic properties. In order to help understand the relative biological contributions of each isoform we have optimised a quantitative proteomics method for accurately measuring Ras isoform protein copy number per cell. The use of isotopic protein standards together with selected reaction monitoring for diagnostic peptides is sensitive, robust and suitable for application to sub-milligram quantities of lysates. We find that in a panel of isogenic SW48 colorectal cancer cells, endogenous Ras proteins are highly abundant with ≥260,000 total Ras protein copies per cell and the rank order of isoform abundance is KRAS>NRAS≥HRAS. A subset of oncogenic KRAS mutants exhibit increased total cellular Ras abundance and altered the ratio of mutant versus wild type KRAS protein. These data and methodology are significant because Ras protein copy number is required to parameterise models of signalling networks and informs interpretation of isoform-specific Ras functional data. PMID:26560143

  3. Abundant Solar Nebula Solids in Comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messenger, S.; Keller, L. P.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Nguyen, A. N.; Clemett, S.

    2016-01-01

    Comets have been proposed to consist of unprocessed interstellar materials together with a variable amount of thermally annealed interstellar grains. Recent studies of cometary solids in the laboratory have shown that comets instead consist of a wide range of materials from across the protoplanetary disk, in addition to a minor complement of interstellar materials. These advances were made possible by the return of direct samples of comet 81P/Wild 2 coma dust by the NASA Stardust mission and recent advances in microscale analytical techniques. Isotopic studies of 'cometary' chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP-IDPs) and comet 81P/Wild 2 Stardust samples show that preserved interstellar materials are more abundant in comets than in any class of meteorite. Identified interstellar materials include sub-micron-sized presolar silicates, oxides, and SiC dust grains and some fraction of the organic material that binds the samples together. Presolar grain abundances reach 1 weight percentage in the most stardust-rich CP-IDPs, 50 times greater than in meteorites. Yet, order of magnitude variations in presolar grain abundances among CP-IDPs suggest cometary solids experienced significant variations in the degree of processing in the solar nebula. Comets contain a surprisingly high abundance of nebular solids formed or altered at high temperatures. Comet 81P/Wild 2 samples include 10-40 micron-sized, refractory Ca- Al-rich inclusion (CAI)-, chondrule-, and ameboid olivine aggregate (AOA)-like materials. The O isotopic compositions of these refractory materials are remarkably similar to their meteoritic counterparts, ranging from 5 percent enrichments in (sup 16) O to near-terrestrial values. Comet 81P/Wild 2 and CP-IDPs also contain abundant Mg-Fe crystalline and amorphous silicates whose O isotopic compositions are also consistent with Solar System origins. Unlike meteorites, that are dominated by locally-produced materials, comets appear to be composed of

  4. Renewable Electricity Futures: Exploration of a U.S. Grid with 80% Renewable Electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Trieu

    2013-04-01

    Renewable Electricity Futures is an initial investigation of the extent to which renewable energy supply can meet the electricity demands of the contiguous United States over the next several decades. This study explores the implications and challenges of very high renewable electricity generation levels: from 30% up to 90% (focusing on 80%) of all U.S. electricity generation from renewable technologies in 2050. At such high levels of renewable electricity penetration, the unique characteristics of some renewable resources, specifically geographical distribution and variability and un-certainty in output, pose challenges to the operability of the nation's electric system. The study focuses on key technical implications of this environment from a national perspective, exploring whether the U.S. power system can supply electricity to meet customer demand on an hourly basis with high levels of renewable electricity, including variable wind and solar generation. The study also identifies some of the potential economic, environmental, and social implications of deploying and integrating high levels of renewable electricity in the U.S. The full report and associated supporting information is available at: http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/refutures/.

  5. Learning and Skills for Neighbourhood Renewal: Final Report to the Neighbourhood Renewal Unit. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sue; Doyle, Lisa

    A study of adult learning and neighborhood renewal examined how further education (FE) colleges and Local Education Authority (LEA) adult education services contribute to neighborhood renewal in deprived areas and considered how their strategic role might develop in this field. The study indicates that the policy framework for post-16 learning and…

  6. Beryllium and Boron abundances in population II stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The scientific focus of this program was to undertake UV spectroscopic abundance analyses of extremely metal poor stars with attention to determining abundances of light elements such as beryllium and boron. The abundances are likely to reflect primordial abundances within the early galaxy and help to constrain models for early galactic nucleosynthesis. The general metal abundances of these stars are also important for understanding stellar evolution.

  7. Exploring the Potential Business Case for Synergies Between Natural Gas and Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, J.; Zinaman, O.; Logan, J.; Arent, D.

    2014-02-01

    Natural gas and renewable energy each contribute to economic growth, energy independence, and carbon mitigation, sometimes independently and sometimes collectively. Often, natural gas and renewables are considered competitors in markets, such as those for bulk electricity. This paper attempts to address the question, 'Given near- and long-term needs for abundant, cleaner energy sources and decarbonization, how can more compelling business models be created so that these two domestic forms of energy work in greater concert?' This paper explores revenue opportunities that emerge from systems-level perspectives in 'bulk energy' (large-scale electricity and natural gas production, transmission, and trade) and four 'distribution edge' subsectors: industrial, residential, commercial, and transportation end uses.

  8. Implications of the Regional Haze Rule on Renewable and Wind Energy Development on Native American Lands in the West

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acker, Thomas L.; Auberle, William M.; Duque, Earl P. N.; Jeffery, William D.; Laroche, David R.; Masayesva, Virgil; Smith, Dean H.

    2003-10-01

    A study conducted at Northern Arizona University investigated the barriers and opportunities facing Native American tribes in the West when considering development of their renewable energy resources in order to reduce regional haze. This article summarizes some of the findings of that work with special attention to wind energy. Background information is presented concerning the Regional Haze Rule and the Western Regional Air Partnership, and some of the circumstances surrounding development of tribal energy resources. An assessment of tribal energy issues revealed that many Native American tribes are interested in developing their renewable resources. However, this development should occur within the context of maintaining and strengthening their cultural, social, economic and political integrity. Furthermore, it is shown that Native American lands possess an abundant wind resource. A list of potential actions in which tribes may participate prior to or during development of their wind or renewable resources is provided.

  9. Environmental impacts of renewable energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Abbasi, S.A.; Abbasi, N.

    1997-09-01

    The global attention has always been focused on the adverse environmental impacts of conventional energy sources. In contrast nonconventional energy sources, particularly the renewable ones, have enjoyed a clean image vis a vis environmental impacts. The only major exception to this general trend has been large hydropower projects; experience has taught that they can be disastrous for the environment. The belief now is that mini hydro and microhydro projects are harmless alternatives. But are renewable energy sources really as benign as is widely believed? The present essay addresses this question in the background of Lovin`s classical paradigm which had postulated the hard (malignant) and soft (benign) energy concepts in the first place. It then critically evaluates the environmental impacts of major renewable energy sources. It then comes up with the broad conclusion that renewable energy sources are not the panacea they are popularly perceived to be; indeed in some cases their adverse environmental impacts can be as strongly negative as the impacts of conventional energy sources. The paper also dwells on the steps needed to utilize renewable energy sources without facing environmental backlashes of the type experienced from hydropower projects.

  10. Renewal, resurgence, and alternative reinforcement context.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Mary M; Shahan, Timothy A

    2015-07-01

    Resurgence, relapse induced by the removal of alternative reinforcement, and renewal, relapse induced by a change in contextual stimuli, are typically studied separately in operant conditioning paradigms. In analogous treatments of operant problem behavior, aspects of both relapse phenomena can operate simultaneously. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine a novel method for studying resurgence and renewal in the same experimental preparation. An alternative source of reinforcement was available during extinction for one group of rats (a typical resurgence preparation). Another group experienced an operant renewal preparation in which the extinction context was distinguished via olfactory and visual stimuli. A third group experienced alternative reinforcement delivery in the new context, a novel combination of typical resurgence and renewal preparations. Removal of alternative reinforcement and/or a change in context induced relapse relative to an extinction-only control group. When alternative reinforcement was delivered in a novel context, the alternative response was less persistent relative to when extinction of the alternative response took place in the context in which it was trained. This methodology might be used to illustrate shared (or distinct) mechanisms of resurgence and renewal, and to determine how delivering alternative reinforcement in another context may affect persistence and relapse.

  11. International cooperation for renewable energy transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, M.H.

    1992-06-01

    This paper reports that in considering the potential of major renewable energy resources in relation to their remoteness from demand centers, it is necessary to take a global view of the implications of their utilization. The present concerns regarding global warming and environmental degradation from fossil fuel combustion could be given active direction if the positive benefits of renewable energy could be realized on a meaningful scale. The dire prospect of global warming looms large in the scientific consciousness, but strategies to counter the effects of increased release of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases are just beginning to emerge along with remedial measures to address other environmental threats. One of the ways to achieve this is to place more reliance on renewable energy. As the impact of small-scale dispersed sources of renewable energy is minimal in comparison with fossil fuel usage, a meaningful impact could only be made by drawing upon major sources of renewable energy, mainly hydropower, tidal, and solar, in large capacity installations concentrated at sites relatively far from demand centers. There are sites that warrant serious consideration in the face of the growing environmental impact of fossil fuel usage. However, to realize this objective, an environmental imperative should be adopted that would place the importance of global environmental security on a par with present concerns for national security.

  12. Can Occupancy–Abundance Models Be Used to Monitor Wolf Abundance?

    PubMed Central

    Latham, M. Cecilia; Latham, A. David M.; Webb, Nathan F.; Mccutchen, Nicole A.; Boutin, Stan

    2014-01-01

    Estimating the abundance of wild carnivores is of foremost importance for conservation and management. However, given their elusive habits, direct observations of these animals are difficult to obtain, so abundance is more commonly estimated from sign surveys or radio-marked individuals. These methods can be costly and difficult, particularly in large areas with heavy forest cover. As an alternative, recent research has suggested that wolf abundance can be estimated from occupancy–abundance curves derived from “virtual” surveys of simulated wolf track networks. Although potentially more cost-effective, the utility of this approach hinges on its robustness to violations of its assumptions. We assessed the sensitivity of the occupancy–abundance approach to four assumptions: variation in wolf movement rates, changes in pack cohesion, presence of lone wolves, and size of survey units. Our simulations showed that occupancy rates and wolf pack abundances were biased high if track surveys were conducted when wolves made long compared to short movements, wolf packs were moving as multiple hunting units as opposed to a cohesive pack, and lone wolves were moving throughout the surveyed landscape. We also found that larger survey units (400 and 576 km2) were more robust to changes in these factors than smaller survey units (36 and 144 km2). However, occupancy rates derived from large survey units rapidly reached an asymptote at 100% occupancy, suggesting that these large units are inappropriate for areas with moderate to high wolf densities (>15 wolves/1,000 km2). Virtually-derived occupancy–abundance relationships can be a useful method for monitoring wolves and other elusive wildlife if applied within certain constraints, in particular biological knowledge of the surveyed species needs to be incorporated into the design of the occupancy surveys. Further, we suggest that the applicability of this method could be extended by directly incorporating some of its

  13. Carbon and oxygen abundances in stellar populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissen, P. E.; Chen, Y. Q.; Carigi, L.; Schuster, W. J.; Zhao, G.

    2014-08-01

    Context. Carbon and oxygen abundances in stars are important in many fields of astrophysics including nucleosynthesis, stellar structure, evolution of galaxies, and formation of planetary systems. Still, our knowledge of the abundances of these elements in different stellar populations is uncertain because of difficulties in observing and analyzing atomic and molecular lines of C and O. Aims: Abundances of C, O, and Fe are determined for F and G main-sequence stars in the solar neighborhood with metallicities in the range -1.6 < [Fe/H] < +0.4 in order to study trends and possible systematic differences in the C/Fe, O/Fe, and C/O ratios for thin- and thick-disk stars as well as high- and low-alpha halo stars. In addition, we investigate if there is any connection between C and O abundances in stellar atmospheres and the occurrence of planets. Methods: Carbon abundances are determined from the λλ 5052,5380 C i lines and oxygen abundances from the λ7774 O i triplet and the forbidden [O i] line at 6300 Å. MARCS model atmospheres are applied and non-LTE corrections for the O i triplet are included. Results: Systematic differences between high- and low-alpha halo stars and between thin- and thick-disk stars are seen in the trends of [C/Fe] and [O/Fe]. The two halo populations and thick-disk stars show the same trend of [C/O] versus [O/H], whereas the thin-disk stars are shifted to higher [C/O] values. Furthermore, we find some evidence of higher C/O and C/Fe ratios in stars hosting planets than in stars for which no planets have been detected. Conclusions: The results suggest that C and O in both high- and low-alpha halo stars and in thick-disk stars are made mainly in massive (M> 8 M⊙) stars, whereas thin-disk stars have an additional carbon contribution from low-mass AGB and massive stars of high metallicity causing a rising trend of the C/O ratio with increasing metallicity. However, at the highest metallicities investigated ([Fe/H] ≃ + 0.4), C/O does not

  14. Renewable Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-08-01

    This fact sheet describes the Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory at the U.S. Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a state-of-the-art research and testing facility for advanced fuels and vehicles. Research and development aims to improve vehicle efficiency and overcome barriers to the increased use of renewable diesel and other nonpetroleum-based fuels, such as biodiesel and synthetic diesel derived from biomass. The ReFUEL Laboratory features a chassis dynamometer for vehicle performance and emissions research, two engine dynamometer test cells for advanced fuels research, and precise emissions analysis equipment. As a complement to these capabilities, detailed studies of fuel properties, with a focus on ignition quality, are performed at NREL's Fuel Chemistry Laboratory.

  15. New and renewable sources of energy

    SciTech Connect

    El-Hinnawi, E.; Biswas, M.R.; Biswas, A.K.

    1985-01-01

    After an introduction by Morris Miller, Deputy Secretary-General of this conference, the book examines the technological and economic prospects and the problems involved in application of new and renewable energy technologies for development. Next a summary of national developments in both industrialized and Third World countries is followed by the full text of the Nairobi Plan of Action and an examination of the potentials and constraints on applying new and renewable energy sources in the development process. Contents: Preface. The Challenge of the Energy Transition: The UN Response; Synthesis of Technical Reports Prepared for the Conference. National Activities and Trends; The Nairobi Programme of Action. The United Nations Conference on New and Renewable Sources of Energy: A Review.

  16. Integrating Renewable Electricity on the Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabtree, George; Misewich, Jim; Ambrosio, Ron; Clay, Kathryn; DeMartini, Paul; James, Revis; Lauby, Mark; Mohta, Vivek; Moura, John; Sauer, Peter; Slakey, Francis; Lieberman, Jodi; Tai, Humayun

    2011-11-01

    The demand for carbon-free electricity is driving a growing movement of adding renewable energy to the grid. Renewable Portfolio Standards mandated by states and under consideration by the federal government envision a penetration of 20-30% renewable energy in the grid by 2020 or 2030. The renewable energy potential of wind and solar far exceeds these targets, suggesting that renewable energy ultimately could grow well beyond these initial goals. The grid faces two new and fundamental technological challenges in accommodating renewables: location and variability. Renewable resources are concentrated at mid-continent far from population centers, requiring additional long distance, high-capacity transmission to match supply with demand. The variability of renewables due to the characteristics of weather is high, up to 70% for daytime solar due to passing clouds and 100% for wind on calm days, much larger than the relatively predictable uncertainty in load that the grid now accommodates by dispatching conventional resources in response to demand. Solutions to the challenges of remote location and variability of generation are needed. The options for DC transmission lines, favored over AC lines for transmission of more than a few hundred miles, need to be examined. Conventional high voltage DC transmission lines are a mature technology that can solve regional transmission needs covering one- or two-state areas. Conventional high voltage DC has drawbacks, however, of high loss, technically challenging and expensive conversion between AC and DC, and the requirement of a single point of origin and termination. Superconducting DC transmission lines lose little or no energy, produce no heat, and carry higher power density than conventional lines. They operate at moderate voltage, allowing many "on-ramps" and "off-ramps" in a single network and reduce the technical and cost challenges of AC to DC conversion. A network of superconducting DC cables overlaying the existing

  17. Renewable Energy Atlas of the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Kuiper, J.; Hlava, K.; Greenwood, H.; Carr, A.

    2013-12-13

    The Renewable Energy Atlas (Atlas) of the United States is a compilation of geospatial data focused on renewable energy resources, federal land ownership, and base map reference information. This report explains how to add the Atlas to your computer and install the associated software. The report also includes: A description of each of the components of the Atlas; Lists of the Geographic Information System (GIS) database content and sources; and A brief introduction to the major renewable energy technologies. The Atlas includes the following: A GIS database organized as a set of Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) ArcGIS Personal GeoDatabases, and ESRI ArcReader and ArcGIS project files providing an interactive map visualization and analysis interface.

  18. Public opinion and communicative action around renewable energy projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fast, Stewart

    This thesis investigates how rural communities negotiate the development of renewable energy projects. Public and local community acceptance of these new technologies in rural areas around the world is uncertain and spatially uneven and represents an area of emerging public policy interest and one where scholarly theory is rapidly developing. This thesis uses Habermasian concepts of public sphere, communicative action and deliberative democracy, as well as the concept of "wicked problems" from the planning studies literature combined with geographical concepts of place and scale to advance theoretical and empirical understanding of how public opinion on renewable energy technologies is formed in place. It documents energy use patterns, attitudes and socio-political relations at a time when considerable state and business efforts are directed at the construction of solar, wind, biomass and small-hydro technologies in rural regions. These concepts and theories are applied in a case study of rural communities in the Eastern Ontario Highlands, an impoverished area undergoing rapid restructuring driven by centralization of services and amenity migration but with abundant natural resources in form of forests, numerous waterways and open space which have attracted a broad range of new energy developments. Overall high levels of support for alternative energy development particularly for solar power were found, albeit for reasons of local energy security and not for reasons of preventing climate change. There was some evidence that seasonal residents are less supportive of hydro and biomass projects than permanent residents possibly reflecting broader trends in rural economies away from productive uses of land to consumptive appreciation of rural landscapes. The thesis suggests that collective action to advance energy projects in the case study area require agreement along three world-claims (truth, rightness and truthfulness) and that communication leading to discourse

  19. Abundance anomalies in tidal disruption events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochanek, C. S.

    2016-05-01

    The ˜10 per cent of tidal disruption events (TDEs) due to stars more massive than M* ≳ M⊙ should show abundance anomalies due to stellar evolution in helium, carbon and nitrogen, but not oxygen. Helium is always enhanced, but only by up to ˜25 per cent on average because it becomes inaccessible once it is sequestered in the high-density core as the star leaves the main sequence. However, portions of the debris associated with the disrupted core of a main-sequence star can be enhanced in helium by factors of 2-3 for debris at a common orbital period. These helium abundance variations may be a contributor to the observed diversity of hydrogen and helium line strengths in TDEs. A still more striking anomaly is the rapid enhancement of nitrogen and the depletion of carbon due to the CNO cycle - stars with M* ≳ M⊙ quickly show an increase in their average N/C ratio by factors of 3-10. Because low-mass stars evolve slowly and high-mass stars are rare, TDEs showing high N/C will almost all be due to ˜1-2 M⊙ stars disrupted on the main sequence. Like helium, portions of the debris will show still larger changes in C and N, and the anomalies decline as the star leaves the main sequence. The enhanced [N/C] abundance ratio of these TDEs provides the first natural explanation for the rare, nitrogen-rich quasars and may also explain the strong nitrogen emission seen in ultraviolet spectra of ASASSN-14li.

  20. Abundance variations in the solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Steiger, R.; Schweingruber, R. F. Wimmer; Geiss, J.; Gloeckler, G.

    1995-07-01

    The solar wind (SW) allows us to probe the solar material in situ, particularly its composition, without the need to fly a spacecraft to inhospitably small heliocentric distances. However, it turns out that this plasma source is biased with respect to the photosphere. Elements with a low first ionization potential (FIP) are overabundant by a factor of 3-5 relative to high-FIP elements in the slow SW, but only by a factor of 1.5-2 in the fast streams emanating from coronal holes. It is thus important to have a good understanding of this FIP fractionation effect, which operates between the photosphere and the corona. Such a theory may improve on our understanding of the solar atmosphere and SW acceleration. We present SW measurements, concentrating on results of the SWICS mass spectrometer on Ulysses, which is currently sampling the SW on a highly inclined orbit. IN 1992/93, Ulysses was traversing a recurrent high-speed stream once per solar rotation, alternating with slow SW, providing a unique opportunity to compare these two SW types. We find a strongly positive correlation for low- to high-FIP element ratios (such as Mg/O) with coronal temperature, which in turn is anticorrelated with the SW speed. The correlation of these three parameters -- one chromospheric, one coronal, and one from the SW -- points at a common cause for their variations, and provides a challenge to theorists to model these three domains in an unified approach. Further, abundance variations found in the SW from coronal streamers and in coronal mass ejections are presented and discussed. Finally, we address the question of abundance variations within the fast streams, looking for abundance gradients with heliographic latitude.

  1. DRI Renewable Energy Center (REC) (NV)

    SciTech Connect

    Hoekman, S. Kent; Broch, Broch; Robbins, Curtis; Jacobson, Roger; Turner, Robert

    2012-12-31

    The primary objective of this project was to utilize a flexible, energy-efficient facility, called the DRI Renewable Energy Experimental Facility (REEF) to support various renewable energy research and development (R&D) efforts, along with education and outreach activities. The REEF itself consists of two separate buildings: (1) a 1200-ft2 off-grid capable house and (2) a 600-ft2 workshop/garage to support larger-scale experimental work. Numerous enhancements were made to DRI's existing renewable power generation systems, and several additional components were incorporated to support operation of the REEF House. The power demands of this house are satisfied by integrating and controlling PV arrays, solar thermal systems, wind turbines, an electrolyzer for renewable hydrogen production, a gaseous-fuel internal combustion engine/generator set, and other components. Cooling needs of the REEF House are satisfied by an absorption chiller, driven by solar thermal collectors. The REEF Workshop includes a unique, solar air collector system that is integrated into the roof structure. This system provides space heating inside the Workshop, as well as a hot water supply. The Workshop houses a custom-designed process development unit (PDU) that is used to convert woody biomass into a friable, hydrophobic char that has physical and chemical properties similar to low grade coal. Besides providing sufficient space for operation of this PDU, the REEF Workshop supplies hot water that is used in the biomass treatment process. The DRI-REEF serves as a working laboratory for evaluating and optimizing the performance of renewable energy components within an integrated, residential-like setting. The modular nature of the system allows for exploring alternative configurations and control strategies. This experimental test bed is also highly valuable as an education and outreach tool both in providing an infrastructure for student research projects, and in highlighting renewable energy

  2. Renewal of the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J. M.

    2008-12-31

    To ensure that state-of-the-art hard x-ray tools are available for US scientists and engineers who are solving key problems in energy, environment, technology development and human health, the nation's unique high-energy x-ray source needs a major renewal of its capabilities. The Advanced Photon Source renewal program responds to key scientific needs driven by our user community. The renewal encompasses many innovations in beamlines and accelerator capabilities, each of which will transform our tools and allow new problems to be solved. In particular the APS renewal dramatically expands two compelling avenues for research. Through x-ray imaging, we can illuminate complex hierarchical structures from the molecular level to the macroscopic level, and study how they change in time and in response to stimuli. Images will facilitate understanding how proteins fit together to make living organisms, contribute to development of lighter, higher-strength alloys for fuel-efficient transportation and advance the use of biomass for alternative fuels. Hard x-rays are also especially suited to the study of real materials, under realistic conditions and in real-time. The advances proposed in this area would help develop more efficient catalysts, enhance green manufacturing, point the way to artificial light-harvesting inspired by biology and help us develop more efficient lighting. The scope of the renewal of our {approx}$1.5B facility is estimated to be {approx}$350M over five years. It is vital that the investment begin as soon as possible. The renewed APS would complement other national investments such as the National Synchrotron Light Source-II and would keep the U.S. internationally competitive.

  3. Chemical abundances in cold, dark interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, William M.; Kaifu, Norio; Ohishi, Masatoshi

    1991-01-01

    Current tabulations are presented of the entire range of known interstellar molecules, giving attention to that subset which has been identified in the cold, dark interstellar clouds out of which the sun has been suggested to have formed. The molecular abundances of two such clouds, Taurus Molecular Cloud 1 and Lynd's 134N, exhibit prepossessing chemical differences despite considerable physical similarities. This discrepancy may be accounted for by the two clouds' differing evolutionary stages. Two novel classes of interstellar molecules are noted: sulfur-terminated carbon chains and silicon-terminated ones.

  4. Abundances of Planetary Nebula NGC 5315

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pottasch, S. R.; Beintema, D. A.; Koorneef, J.; Salas, J. Bernard; Feibelman, W. A.; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The ISO and IUE spectra of the elliptical nebula NGC 5315 is presented. These spectra axe combined with the spectra in the visual wavelength region to obtain a complete, extinction corrected, spectrum. The chemical composition of the nebulae is then calculated and compared to previous determinations. The HST Nicmos observations of the nebula in 3 emission lines are also presented. These observations are used to determine the helium abundance as a function of position in the nebula. A discussion is given of possible evolutionary effects.

  5. Chemical abundances in cold, dark interstellar clouds.

    PubMed

    Irvine, W M; Ohishi, M; Kaifu, N

    1991-05-01

    The Sun may well have formed in the type of interstellar cloud currently referred to as a cold, dark cloud. We present current tabulations of the totality of known interstellar molecules and of the subset which have been identified in cold clouds. Molecular abundances are given for two such clouds which show interesting chemical differences in spite of strong physical similarities, Taurus Molecular Cloud 1 (TMC-1) and Lynd's 134N (L134N, also referred to as L183). These regions may be at different evolutionary stages.

  6. Primordial Li abundance and massive particles

    SciTech Connect

    Latin-Capital-Letter-Eth apo, H.

    2012-10-20

    The problem of the observed lithium abundance coming from the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis is as of yet unsolved. One of the proposed solutions is including relic massive particles into the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. We investigated the effects of such particles on {sup 4}HeX{sup -}+{sup 2}H{yields}{sup 6}Li+X{sup -}, where the X{sup -} is the negatively charged massive particle. We demonstrate the dominance of long-range part of the potential on the cross-section.

  7. Neon and Oxygen Abundances and Abundance Ratio in the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landi, E.; Testa, P.

    2015-02-01

    In this work we determine the Ne/O abundance ratio from Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)/Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) off-disk observations of quiescent streamers over the 1996-2008 period. We find that the Ne/O ratio is approximately constant over solar cycle 23 from 1996 to 2005, at a value of 0.099 ± 0.017 this value is lower than the transition region determinations from the quiet Sun used to infer the neon photospheric abundance from the oxygen photospheric abundance. Also, the Ne/O ratio we determined from SUMER is in excellent agreement with in situ determinations from ACE/SWICS. In 2005-2008, the Ne/O abundance ratio increased with time and reached 0.25 ± 0.05, following the same trend found in the slowest wind analyzed by ACE/SWICS. Further, we measure the absolute abundance in the corona for both oxygen and neon from the data set of 1996 November 22, obtaining A o = 8.99 ± 0.04 and A Ne = 7.92 ± 0.03, and we find that both elements are affected by the first ionization potential (FIP) effect, with oxygen being enhanced by a factor of 1.4-2.1 over its photospheric abundance, and neon being changed by a factor of 0.75-1.20. We conclude that the Ne/O ratio is not constant in the solar atmosphere, both in time and at different heights, and that it cannot be reliably used to infer the neon abundance in the photosphere. Also, we argue that the FIP effect was less effective during the minimum of solar cycle 24, and that the Ne/O = 0.25 ± 0.05 value measured at that time is closer to the true photospheric value, leading to a neon photospheric abundance larger than assumed by ≈40%. We discuss the implications of these results for the solar abundance problem, for the FIP effect, and for the identification of the source regions of the solar wind.

  8. Philippines: Small-scale renewable energy update

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This paper gives an overview of the application of small scale renewable energy sources in the Philippines. Sources looked at include solar, biomass, micro-hydroelectric, mini-hydroelectric, wind, mini-geothermal, and hybrid. A small power utilities group is being spun off the major utility, to provide a structure for developing rural electrification programs. In some instances, private companies have stepped forward, avoiding what is perceived as overwhelming beaurocracy, and installed systems with private financing. The paper provides information on survey work which has been done on resources, and the status of cooperative programs to develop renewable systems in the nation.

  9. Cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources

    SciTech Connect

    Crivello, J.V.

    1992-10-01

    The objectives of this project are to design and synthesize novel monomers which orginate from renewable biological sources and to carry out their rapid, efficient, pollution-free and energy efficient cationic polymerization to useful products under the influence of ultraviolet light or heat. A summary of the results of the past year's research on cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources is presented. Three major areas of investigation corresponding to the different classes of naturally occurring starting materials were investigated; epoxidized terpenes and natural rubber and vinyl ethers from alcohols and carbohydrates.

  10. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy: Challenges and Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Milligan, M.; Lew, D.

    2013-09-01

    In the U.S., a number of utilities are adopting higher penetrations of renewables, driven in part by state policies. While power systems have been designed to handle the variable nature of loads, the additional supply-side variability and uncertainty can pose new challenges for utilities and system operators. However, a variety of operational and technical solutions exist to help integrate higher penetrations of wind and solar generation. This paper explores renewable energy integration challenges and mitigation strategies that have been implemented in the U.S. and internationally, including forecasting, demand response, flexible generation, larger balancing areas or balancing area cooperation, and operational practices such as fast scheduling and dispatch.

  11. Renewable energy projects in the Dominican Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Viani, B.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a US/Dominican Republic program to develop renewable energy projects in the country. The objective is to demonstrate the commercial viability of renewable energy generation projects, primarily small-scale wind and hydropower. Preliminary studies are completed for three micro-hydro projects with a total capacity of 262 kWe, and two small wind power projects for water pumping. In addition wind resource assessment is ongoing, and professional training and technical assistance to potential investors is ongoing. Projects goals include not less than ten small firms actively involved in installation of such systems by September 1998.

  12. Tunisia Renewable Energy Project systems description report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scudder, L. R.; Martz, J. E.; Ratajczak, A. F.

    1986-01-01

    In 1979, the Agency for International Development (AID) initiated a renewable energy project with the Government of Tunisia to develop an institutional capability to plan and institute renewable energy technologies in a rural area. The specific objective of the district energy applications subproject was to demonstrate solar and wind energy systems in a rural village setting. The NASA Lewis Research Center was asked by the AID Near East Bureau to manage and implement this subproject. This report describes the project and gives detailed desciptions of the various systems.

  13. Valorization of Renewable Carbon Resources for Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Yunzhu; Yan, Ning

    2015-01-01

    The overuse of fossil fuels has caused an energy crisis and associated environment issues. It is desirable to utilize renewable resources for the production of chemicals. This review mainly introduces our recent work on the transformation of renewable carbon resources including the conversion of cellulose, lignin, and chitin into sustainable chemicals. Various transformation routes have been established to form value-added chemicals, and accordingly a variety of effective catalytic systems have been developed, either based on metal catalysis and/or acid-base catalysis, to enable the desired transformation.

  14. Preface to Special Topic: Marine Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Pinto, F. T.; Iglesias, G.; Santos, P. R.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2015-12-30

    Marine renewable energy (MRE) is generates from waves, currents, tides, and thermal resources in the ocean. MRE has been identified as a potential commercial-scale source of renewable energy. This special topic presents a compilation of works selected from the 3rd IAHR Europe Congress, held in Porto, Portugal, in 2014. It covers different subjects relevant to MRE, including resource assessment, marine energy sector policies, energy source comparisons based on levelized cost, proof-of-concept and new-technology development for wave and tidal energy exploitation, and assessment of possible inference between wave energy converters (WEC).

  15. Status report on renewable energy in the States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swezey, B.; Sinclair, K.

    1992-12-01

    As the concept of integrated resource planning has spread among states and utilities, a reexamination of the role of renewable energy sources in the utility resource mix is taking place. This report documents the findings of a study of state regulatory commissions undertaken to: (1) help assess the state of knowledge and awareness about renewable energy resources and technologies; (2) assess the impacts of state policies on renewable energy development; and (3) identify important information needs. The key findings from this effort are: Renewable energy development has occurred only slowly over the last decade, and a small number of states account for the bulk of development. The development that has occurred has been limited to non-utility entities. Directed state policies have been a key driver in renewable energy development. Those states not currently addressing renewables may need more data and information before they proceed with directed policies. Other important observations are: The cost of renewables is an overriding concern. Regulators distinguish between 'emerging' and 'established' renewable energy technologies. Specific data are lacking on state-level renewable energy development. Detailed renewable resource assessments have yet to be performed in many states. This report identifies renewable energy information needs of state regulators. However, a number of concerns are also identified that must be addressed before renewables will receive serious attention in many of those states with limited renewables experience. Finally, the report catalogs a wide variety of policies that have been utilized in the states to promote greater development of renewable energy.

  16. Status report on renewable energy in the States

    SciTech Connect

    Swezey, B.; Sinclair, K.

    1992-12-01

    As the concept of integrated resource planning has spread among states and utilities, a reexamination of the role of renewable energy sources in the utility resource mix is taking place. This report documents the findings of a study of state regulatory commissions undertaken to: (1) help assess the state of knowledge and awareness about renewable energy resources and technologies; (2) assess the impacts of state policies on renewable energy development; and (3) identify important information needs. The key findings from this effort are: Renewable energy development has occurred only slowly over the last decade, and a small number of states account for the bulk of development. The development that has occurred has been limited to non-utility entities. Directed state policies have been a key driver in renewable energy development. Those states not currently addressing renewables may need more data and information before they proceed with directed policies. Other important observations are: The cost of renewables is an overriding concern. Regulators distinguish between emerging'' and established'' renewable energy technologies. Specific data are lacking on state-level renewable energy development. Detailed renewable resource assessments have yet to be performed in many states. This report identifies renewable energy information needs of state regulators. However, a number of concerns are also identified that must be addressed before renewables will receive serious attention in many of those states with limited renewables experience. Finally, the report catalogs a wide variety of policies that have been utilized in the states to promote greater development of renewable energy.

  17. Status report on renewable energy in the States

    SciTech Connect

    Swezey, B; Sinclair, K

    1992-12-01

    As the concept of integrated resource planning has spread among states and utilities, a reexamination of the role of renewable energy sources in the utility resource mix is taking place. This report documents the findings of a study of state regulatory commissions undertaken to: (1) help assess the state of knowledge and awareness about renewable energy resources and technologies; (2) assess the impacts of state policies on renewable energy development; and (3) identify important information needs. The key findings from this effort are: Renewable energy development has occurred only slowly over the last decade, and a small number of states account for the bulk of development. The development that has occurred has been limited to non-utility entities. Directed state policies have been a key driver in renewable energy development. Those states not currently addressing renewables may need more data and information before they proceed with directed policies. Other important observations are: The cost of renewables is an overriding concern. Regulators distinguish between ``emerging`` and ``established`` renewable energy technologies. Specific data are lacking on state-level renewable energy development. Detailed renewable resource assessments have yet to be performed in many states. This report identifies renewable energy information needs of state regulators. However, a number of concerns are also identified that must be addressed before renewables will receive serious attention in many of those states with limited renewables experience. Finally, the report catalogs a wide variety of policies that have been utilized in the states to promote greater development of renewable energy.

  18. Non-Additive Effects of Genotypic Diversity Increase Floral Abundance and Abundance of Floral Visitors

    PubMed Central

    Genung, Mark A.; Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Brown, Claire B.; Bunn, Windy A.; Cregger, Melissa A.; Reynolds, Wm. Nicholas; Felker-Quinn, Emmi; Stevenson, Mary L.; Hartley, Amanda S.; Crutsinger, Gregory M.; Schweitzer, Jennifer A.; Bailey, Joseph K.

    2010-01-01

    Background In the emerging field of community and ecosystem genetics, genetic variation and diversity in dominant plant species have been shown to play fundamental roles in maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function. However, the importance of intraspecific genetic variation and diversity to floral abundance and pollinator visitation has received little attention. Methodology/Principal Findings Using an experimental common garden that manipulated genotypic diversity (the number of distinct genotypes per plot) of Solidago altissima, we document that genotypic diversity of a dominant plant can indirectly influence flower visitor abundance. Across two years, we found that 1) plant genotype explained 45% and 92% of the variation in flower visitor abundance in 2007 and 2008, respectively; and 2) plant genotypic diversity had a positive and non-additive effect on floral abundance and the abundance of flower visitors, as plots established with multiple genotypes produced 25% more flowers and received 45% more flower visits than would be expected under an additive model. Conclusions/Significance These results provide evidence that declines in genotypic diversity may be an important but little considered factor for understanding plant-pollinator dynamics, with implications for the global decline in pollinators due to reduced plant diversity in both agricultural and natural ecosystems. PMID:20090850

  19. Parameters and abundances in luminous stars

    SciTech Connect

    Earle Luck, R.

    2014-06-01

    Parameters and abundances for 451 stars of spectral types F, G, and K of luminosity classes I and II have been derived. Absolute magnitudes and E(B – V) have been derived for the warmer stars in order to investigate the galactic abundance gradient. The value found here: d[Fe/H]/dR ∼ –0.06 dex kpc{sup –1}, agrees well with previous determinations. Stellar evolution indicators have also been investigated with the derived C/O ratios indicating that standard CN processing has been operating. Perhaps the most surprising result found in these supposedly relatively young intermediate-mass stars is that both [O/Fe] and [C/Fe] show a correlation with [Fe/H] much the same as found in older populations. While the stars were selected based on luminosity class, there does exist a significant [Fe/H] range in the sample. The likely explanation of this is that there is a significant range in age in the sample; that is, some of the sample are low-mass red-giant stars with types that place them within the selection criteria.

  20. Occupancy as a surrogate for abundance estimation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacKenzie, D.I.; Nichols, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    In many monitoring programmes it may be prohibitively expensive to estimate the actual abundance of a bird species in a defined area, particularly at large spatial scales, or where birds occur at very low densities. Often it may be appropriate to consider the proportion of area occupied by the species as an alternative state variable. However, as with abundance estimation, issues of detectability must be taken into account in order to make accurate inferences: the non?detection of the species does not imply the species is genuinely absent. Here we review some recent modelling developments that permit unbiased estimation of the proportion of area occupied, colonization and local extinction probabilities. These methods allow for unequal sampling effort and enable covariate information on sampling locations to be incorporated. We also describe how these models could be extended to incorporate information from marked individuals, which would enable finer questions of population dynamics (such as turnover rate of nest sites by specific breeding pairs) to be addressed. We believe these models may be applicable to a wide range of bird species and may be useful for investigating various questions of ecological interest. For example, with respect to habitat quality, we might predict that a species is more likely to have higher local extinction probabilities, or higher turnover rates of specific breeding pairs, in poor quality habitats.

  1. Fish abundance, distribution, and habitat use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffnagle, Timothy L.; Valdez, Richard A.; Speas, David W.

    The 1996 controlled flood in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, was designed, in part, to improve conditions for juvenile native fishes by reshaping habitat and displacing non-native fishes. We examined changes in abundance and distributions of native and non-native fishes immediately before and after the controlled flood and recovery of affected species 2.5 and 6 months after. Catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) of humpback chub and flannelmouth sucker did not differ in pre- versus post-flood periods. CPUE of plains killifish, bluehead sucker and fathead minnow decreased following the flood, and CPUE of speckled dace and rainbow trout increased. Juvenile humpback chub remained primarily along talus shorelines at all discharges, while at higher discharges, speckled dace shifted from mid-channel riffles to debris fans and talus and fathead minnows used primarily vegetated shorelines. There was evidence of some downstream displacement of plains killifish, fathead minnows and rainbow trout. Catch rates of all species showed seasonal variation following the flood, with summer recruitment of young-of-the-year, particularly fathead minnows and plains killifish. Although short-term reductions in catch rates of fathead minnows and plains killifish occurred, these populations returned to pre-flood densities by 6 months after the flood. Catch rates of all species before and after the flood were similar to those recorded in previous years. We determined that the controlled flood did not significantly alter native fish distributions or abundances through Grand Canyon.

  2. Genomic Repeat Abundances Contain Phylogenetic Signal

    PubMed Central

    Dodsworth, Steven; Chase, Mark W.; Kelly, Laura J.; Leitch, Ilia J.; Macas, Jiří; Novák, Petr; Piednoël, Mathieu; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna; Leitch, Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    A large proportion of genomic information, particularly repetitive elements, is usually ignored when researchers are using next-generation sequencing. Here we demonstrate the usefulness of this repetitive fraction in phylogenetic analyses, utilizing comparative graph-based clustering of next-generation sequence reads, which results in abundance estimates of different classes of genomic repeats. Phylogenetic trees are then inferred based on the genome-wide abundance of different repeat types treated as continuously varying characters; such repeats are scattered across chromosomes and in angiosperms can constitute a majority of nuclear genomic DNA. In six diverse examples, five angiosperms and one insect, this method provides generally well-supported relationships at interspecific and intergeneric levels that agree with results from more standard phylogenetic analyses of commonly used markers. We propose that this methodology may prove especially useful in groups where there is little genetic differentiation in standard phylogenetic markers. At the same time as providing data for phylogenetic inference, this method additionally yields a wealth of data for comparative studies of genome evolution. PMID:25261464

  3. Genomic repeat abundances contain phylogenetic signal.

    PubMed

    Dodsworth, Steven; Chase, Mark W; Kelly, Laura J; Leitch, Ilia J; Macas, Jiří; Novák, Petr; Piednoël, Mathieu; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna; Leitch, Andrew R

    2015-01-01

    A large proportion of genomic information, particularly repetitive elements, is usually ignored when researchers are using next-generation sequencing. Here we demonstrate the usefulness of this repetitive fraction in phylogenetic analyses, utilizing comparative graph-based clustering of next-generation sequence reads, which results in abundance estimates of different classes of genomic repeats. Phylogenetic trees are then inferred based on the genome-wide abundance of different repeat types treated as continuously varying characters; such repeats are scattered across chromosomes and in angiosperms can constitute a majority of nuclear genomic DNA. In six diverse examples, five angiosperms and one insect, this method provides generally well-supported relationships at interspecific and intergeneric levels that agree with results from more standard phylogenetic analyses of commonly used markers. We propose that this methodology may prove especially useful in groups where there is little genetic differentiation in standard phylogenetic markers. At the same time as providing data for phylogenetic inference, this method additionally yields a wealth of data for comparative studies of genome evolution.

  4. Elemental Abundances of Mercury-Manganese Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman, Saul J.

    We propose to obtain a carefully planned set of multiple high dispersion exposures of three MercuryManganese stars in both the SWP and LWP cameras. These observations will be coadded to increase the S/N ratio so that accurate elemental abundances can be derived for these examples of HgMn stars, each of which represents some extreme class aspect. This will increase of sample of HgMn stars from four to seven. Of particular interest are the abundances of N and Co in which some HgMn stars have shown remarkable underabundances. Comparison of the UV and optical spectra features due to light elements such as N (and C and 0) provide an observational framework to test NLTE models such as those of Takada (1993). This work has already shed some light on some of earlier findings for normal stars. The ability to accurately determine the surface chemical composition of the late B stars through such studies will lead to better tests for theories purporting to explain the origin of the chemical peculiarities seen in this temperature domain.

  5. MEASUREMENTS OF ABSOLUTE ABUNDANCES IN SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Harry P.

    2014-05-01

    We present measurements of elemental abundances in solar flares with the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. EVE observes both high temperature Fe emission lines (Fe XV-Fe XXIV) and continuum emission from thermal bremsstrahlung that is proportional to the abundance of H. By comparing the relative intensities of line and continuum emission it is possible to determine the enrichment of the flare plasma relative to the composition of the photosphere. This is the first ionization potential or FIP bias (f). Since thermal bremsstrahlung at EUV wavelengths is relatively insensitive to the electron temperature, it is important to account for the distribution of electron temperatures in the emitting plasma. We accomplish this by using the observed spectra to infer the differential emission measure distribution and FIP bias simultaneously. In each of the 21 flares that we analyze we find that the observed composition is close to photospheric. The mean FIP bias in our sample is f = 1.17 ± 0.22. This analysis suggests that the bulk of the plasma evaporated during a flare comes from deep in the chromosphere, below the region where elemental fractionation occurs.

  6. The Future of Using Earth-Abundant Elements in Counter Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Joe; Dunn, Steve

    2016-05-01

    With limited global resources for many of the elements that are found in some of the most common renewable energy technologies, there is a growing need to use "Earth-abundant" elements as a long-term solution to growing energy demands. The dye-sensitized solar cell has the potential to produce low-cost renewable energy, with inexpensive production and most components using Earth-abundant elements. However, the most commonly used material for the cell counter electrode (CE) is platinum, an extremely expensive and rare element. A selection of the materials investigated as alternative CEs are discussed, including metal sulfides, oxides, carbides, and nitrides and carbon-based materials such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, and conductive polymers. As well as having the potential for lower cost, these materials can also produce more-efficient devices due to their high surface area and catalytic activity. Therefore, once issues such as stability have been studied in more detail and scale-up of production methods are considered, there is a very promising future for the replacement of Pt in DSSCs with lower-cost, Earth-abundant alternatives.

  7. The Future of Using Earth-Abundant Elements in Counter Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Joe; Dunn, Steve

    2016-05-01

    With limited global resources for many of the elements that are found in some of the most common renewable energy technologies, there is a growing need to use "Earth-abundant" elements as a long-term solution to growing energy demands. The dye-sensitized solar cell has the potential to produce low-cost renewable energy, with inexpensive production and most components using Earth-abundant elements. However, the most commonly used material for the cell counter electrode (CE) is platinum, an extremely expensive and rare element. A selection of the materials investigated as alternative CEs are discussed, including metal sulfides, oxides, carbides, and nitrides and carbon-based materials such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, and conductive polymers. As well as having the potential for lower cost, these materials can also produce more-efficient devices due to their high surface area and catalytic activity. Therefore, once issues such as stability have been studied in more detail and scale-up of production methods are considered, there is a very promising future for the replacement of Pt in DSSCs with lower-cost, Earth-abundant alternatives. PMID:26727984

  8. ABUNDANCES OF GALACTIC ANTICENTER PLANETARY NEBULAE AND THE OXYGEN ABUNDANCE GRADIENT IN THE GALACTIC DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, R. B. C.; Morrison, Michael A.; Kwitter, Karen B.; Jaskot, Anne E.; Balick, Bruce; Milingo, Jacquelynne B. E-mail: morrison@nhn.ou.ed E-mail: ajaskot@umich.ed E-mail: jmilingo@gettysburg.ed

    2010-11-20

    We have obtained spectrophotometric observations of 41 anticenter planetary nebulae (PNe) located in the disk of the Milky Way. Electron temperatures and densities, as well as chemical abundances for He, N, O, Ne, S, Cl, and Ar were determined. Incorporating these results into our existing database of PN abundances yielded a sample of 124 well-observed objects with homogeneously determined abundances extending from 0.9 to 21 kpc in galactocentric distance. We performed a detailed regression analysis which accounted for uncertainties in both oxygen abundances and radial distances in order to establish the metallicity gradient across the disk to be 12 + log(O/H) = (9.09 {+-} 0.05) - (0.058 {+-} 0.006) x R{sub g} , with R{sub g} in kpc. While we see some evidence that the gradient steepens at large galactocentric distances, more objects toward the anticenter need to be observed in order to confidently establish the true form of the metallicity gradient. We find no compelling evidence that the gradient differs between Peimbert Types I and II, nor is oxygen abundance related to the vertical distance from the galactic plane. Our gradient agrees well with analogous results for H II regions but is steeper than the one recently published by Stanghellini and Haywood over a similar range in galactocentric distance. A second analysis using PN distances from a different source implied a flatter gradient, and we suggest that we have reached a confusion limit which can only be resolved with greatly improved distance measurements and an understanding of the natural scatter in oxygen abundances.

  9. John Paul College: The Professional Renewal Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundie, Pauline; Marr, Robert

    2014-01-01

    John Paul College, a K-12 School in Queensland, Australia, recognises the centrality of classroom teachers to the ongoing improvement of student outcomes. The College has implemented a multi-tiered "professional renewal and assessment process." These changes of emphasis are the result of significant research and subsequent/associated…

  10. 75 FR 36721 - Proposed Collection Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... submitting the following three information collection requests to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB... comment on the renewal of three information collections: World Wise Schools ] Conference Online.... ADDRESSES: Comments should be addressed to Marjorie Anctil, Director of World Wise Schools, Peace...

  11. Successful Funding Strategies for Facility Renewal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Matthew C.

    The discussion of college and university capital renewal and deferred maintenance (CRDM) explores issues facing campus managers, presents the successful facilities maintenance strategies of eight institutions, and gives an overview of the efforts of several Canadian institutions. An introductory chapter gives background information on CRDM in U.S.…

  12. 75 FR 51503 - Proposed Collection Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PEACE CORPS Proposed... renewal, with change to Crisis Corps Volunteer Application Form (OMB Control No. 0420-0533). This process... Control Number: 0420-0533. Old Title: Peace Corps Crisis Corps Application Form. New Title: Peace...

  13. 75 FR 70044 - Proposed Information Collection Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... Information Collection Renewal ACTION: 30-day notice of submission of information collection for approval from... information collection request to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests an extension,...

  14. Private Urban Renewal: A Neglected Urban Phenomenon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitz, Eileen

    This is a report on the process of private urban renewal of three areas in Washington, D.C. The areas are Georgetown, Capitol Hill and Adams-Morgan. The paper presents an analysis of general population trends and of the change in composition of the population in these three areas. Two general questions are raised: To what extent does the process…

  15. SMUD Community Renewable Energy Deployment Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sison-Lebrilla, Elaine; Tiangco, Valentino; Lemes, Marco; Ave, Kathleen

    2015-06-08

    This report summarizes the completion of four renewable energy installations supported by California Energy Commission (CEC) grant number CEC Grant PIR-11-005, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Assistance Agreement, DE-EE0003070, and the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) Community Renewable Energy Deployment (CRED) program. The funding from the DOE, combined with funding from the CEC, supported the construction of a solar power system, biogas generation from waste systems, and anaerobic digestion systems at dairy facilities, all for electricity generation and delivery to SMUD’s distribution system. The deployment of CRED projects shows that solar projects and anaerobic digesters can be successfully implemented under favorable economic conditions and business models and through collaborative partnerships. This work helps other communities learn how to assess, overcome barriers, utilize, and benefit from renewable resources for electricity generation in their region. In addition to reducing GHG emissions, the projects also demonstrate that solar projects and anaerobic digesters can be readily implemented through collaborative partnerships. This work helps other communities learn how to assess, overcome barriers, utilize, and benefit from renewable resources for electricity generation in their region.

  16. Renewable Energy for the Next Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Leslie

    2005-01-01

    Renewable energy is harnessed from natural and sustainable sources, like wind, sun and water. They offer a pollution-free, endless source of electricity that is crucial in the fight against climate change. Every unit of this "green" electricity directly replaces electricity normally generated from conventional polluting sources such as coal or…

  17. Revitalize Electrical Program with Renewable Energy Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karns, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Starting a renewable energy technology (RET) program can be as simple as shifting the teaching and learning focus of a traditional electricity program toward energy production and energy control systems. Redirecting curriculum content and delivery to address photovoltaic solar (PV solar) technology and small wind generation systems is a natural…

  18. Career Directions--Renewable Energy Systems Integrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleeman, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Renewable energy systems are beginning to appear everywhere. Solar modules are creating "blue roofs" that convert the energy from the sun into household electricity. Solar thermal systems on roofs can generate hot water. Wind turbines catch breezes to provide even more electricity. Recommendations for saving energy, specifying systems for…

  19. Denoising surface renewal flux density measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapland, T.; Paw U, K.; Snyder, R. L.; McElrone, A.; Calderon Orellana, A.; Williams, L.

    2012-12-01

    When combined with net radiation and ground heat flux density measurements, surface renewal sensible heat flux density measurements can be used to obtain latent heat flux density, and therefore evapotranspiration, via the energy balance residual. Surface renewal is based on analyzing the energy and mass budget of air parcels that interact with plant canopies. The air parcels are manifested as ramp-like shapes in turbulent scalar time series data, and the amplitude and period of the ramps are used to calculate the flux densities. The root mean square error between calibrated surface renewal and eddy covariance is generally twice the root mean square error between two eddy covariance systems. In this presentation, we evaluate the efficacy of various methods for reducing the random error in surface renewal sensible heat flux density measurements. These methods include signal de-spiking, conventional low-pass filtering, wavelet-based filtering, ramp signal to noise thresholds, ramp period scaling, novel rearrangements of the Van Atta procedure (Arch Mech 29:161-171, 1977) for resolving the ramp amplitude and ramp period, sensor replication, and optimization of sensor placement.

  20. Flow, Eros, and Ethos in Educational Renewal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodlad, John I.

    1999-01-01

    As Arthur Schlesinger predicted, private interests are subverting public purpose. The narrative of economic utility dominates school reform. Reform language is not uplifting and embodies the traditional connotations of things gone wrong that need correcting. The language of renewal celebrates the self and reflects a supportive, caring ethos. (25…

  1. 37 CFR 202.17 - Renewals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... any applicable renewal term. (4) Automatic restoration of copyright in certain foreign works that were..., encyclopedia, or other composite work upon which the copyright was originally secured by the proprietor; (ii..., including a contribution by an individual author to a periodical or to a cyclopedic or other composite...

  2. Renewal in the Age of Paradox.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Andy

    1995-01-01

    Explains five modern cultural paradoxes involving parental and school responsibility, the job/education connection, the globalism/tribalism relationship, the diversity/specialization issue, and the future orientation/nostalgia dichotomy. Proposes six school renewal principles concerning borrowed missions, policy realization, "reculturing"…

  3. School Renewal: An Inquiry, Not a Formula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Bruce; Calhoun, Emily

    1995-01-01

    School renewal means moving away from innovations intended to solve specific problems toward a fluid inquiry into everyday improvement possibilities. Faculty can begin by exploring promising hypotheses concerning restructured job assignments, democratic reorganization possibilities, learning environment study data, the professional knowledge base,…

  4. Renewable Microgrid STEM Education & Colonias Outreach Program

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2015-04-01

    To provide Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) outreach and education to secondary students to encourage them to select science and engineering as a career by providing an engineering-based problem-solving experience involving renewable energy systems such as photovoltaic (PV) panels or wind turbines. All public and private schools, community colleges, and vocational training programs would be eligible for participation. The Power Microgrids High School Engineering Experience used renewable energy systems (PV and wind) to provide a design capstone experience to secondary students. The objective for each student team was to design a microgrid for the student’s school using renewable energy sources under cost, schedule, performance, and risk constraints. The students then implemented their designs in a laboratory environment to evaluate the completeness of the proposed design, which is a unique experience even for undergraduate college students. This application-based program was marketed to secondary schools in the 28th Congressional District through the Texas Education Agency’s (TEA) Regional Service Centers. Upon application, TEES identified regionally available engineers to act as mentors and supervisors for the projects. Existing curriculum was modified to include microgrid and additional renewable technologies and was made available to the schools.

  5. Teacher Renewal in a Changing World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Ernest L.

    The United States Commissioner of Education discusses a broad view of educational needs and ways in which society must begin to respond to them. The need for quality educators and the renewal of our present corps of teachers through teacher controlled and developed inservice education is stressed. Life-long education with equal opportunity for all…

  6. United States Atlas of Renewable Resources

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Atlas is an interactive application of the renewable energy resources in the contiguous United States, Alaska and Hawaii. It illustrates the geographic distribution of wind, solar, geothermal, and biomass resources, as well as other pertinent information such as transportation network and administrative boundaries.[Copied from http://www.nrel.gov/gis/maps.html

  7. Chemical modifications of renewable cellulosic materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In agriculture, there is a fair amount of byproducts and waste materials. These materials typically contain significant portions of cellulose and hemicellulose. A good opportunity is to take advantage of these relatively cheap renewable materials, carry out chemical reactions, and increase their v...

  8. LRBOI Tribal Renewable Energy-Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hawley, David A.

    2013-12-17

    In 2011, a DOE Tribal energy Program first Steps Human Capacity was awarded to the Little River Band of Ottawa Indians (LRBOI). The main purpose of the grant was to increase human capacity of LRBOI, to understand the components of renewable energy and the importance of energy efficiency. This report summarizes the activities, the outcomes, and the lessons learned during this grant.

  9. Renewable energy atlas of the United States.

    SciTech Connect

    Kuiper, J.A.; Hlava, K.Greenwood, H.; Carr, A.

    2012-05-01

    The Renewable Energy Atlas (Atlas) of the United States is a compilation of geospatial data focused on renewable energy resources, federal land ownership, and base map reference information. It is designed for the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USFS) and other federal land management agencies to evaluate existing and proposed renewable energy projects. Much of the content of the Atlas was compiled at Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to support recent and current energy-related Environmental Impact Statements and studies, including the following projects: (1) West-wide Energy Corridor Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) (BLM 2008); (2) Draft PEIS for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (DOE/BLM 2010); (3) Supplement to the Draft PEIS for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (DOE/BLM 2011); (4) Upper Great Plains Wind Energy PEIS (WAPA/USFWS 2012, in progress); and (5) Energy Transport Corridors: The Potential Role of Federal Lands in States Identified by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Section 368(b) (in progress). This report explains how to add the Atlas to your computer and install the associated software; describes each of the components of the Atlas; lists the Geographic Information System (GIS) database content and sources; and provides a brief introduction to the major renewable energy technologies.

  10. 37 CFR 202.17 - Renewals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... regulations found at 37 CFR 201.2. (g) Application for renewal registration for a work registered in its... forth in 37 CFR 201.3. The application shall contain the information required by the form and its... 37 CFR 201.3. (5) Deposit requirement. One copy or phonorecord or identifying material of the work...

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF URBAN RENEWAL ON EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SLAYTON, WILLIAM L.

    PROBLEMS OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS IN THE SLUM SCHOOLS AND PROBLEMS OF URBAN RENEWAL IN THE REBUILDING OF OUR CITIES WILL NOT BE SOLVED UNLESS AND UNTIL WE CAN DEAL SUCCESSFULLY WITH THE "LACK OF CONVICTION" CHARACTERISTIC OF THE NEGRO COMMUNITY. THE MATTER IS NOT ONE OF BETTER EDUCATION AND BETTER HOUSING--IT IS ONE OF OPPORTUNITY FOR JOBS, FOR…

  12. An Urban Renewal School Project in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponti, Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    The restoration of an historic school building in Battipaglia, Italy, will provide new public facilities and is hoped to boost urban renewal. The municipality of Battipaglia, in the province of Salerno, held an architectural competition for renovating the E. De Amicis Primary School and the surrounding area. The winning project, submitted by a…

  13. NMR studies of polymers from renewable materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There has been a lot of recent interest in using agricultural products as raw materials to produce functional polymers. The motivation is to add value to agricultural products and to decrease the global dependence on petroleum-based feedstock. Moreover, agricultural materials are renewable, biodeg...

  14. Organizing for Renewal Through Participative Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfred, Richard L.

    1985-01-01

    Faculty will participate in renewal when there is clear evidence that opportunity exists for change in the structure and functioning of academic programs and services and that status quo management may damage the institution's integrity. Faculty must also understand the scope and application of financial information shaping the resource flow. (MSE)

  15. Renewing the Spirit of the Liberal Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noddings, Nel

    2013-01-01

    The spirit of the liberal arts has been undermined by overspecialization, and it has been further damaged by the increase in emphasis on the economic purpose of education. The spirit might be renewed by using the aims of the liberal arts to develop every course we teach.

  16. 50 CFR 222.202 - Certificate renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS GENERAL ENDANGERED AND THREATENED MARINE SPECIES Certificates of Exemption for Pre-Act Endangered Species Parts § 222.202 Certificate renewal. (a) Any person to... complete and detailed updated inventory of all pre-Act endangered species parts for which the...

  17. 50 CFR 222.202 - Certificate renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS GENERAL ENDANGERED AND THREATENED MARINE SPECIES Certificates of Exemption for Pre-Act Endangered Species Parts § 222.202 Certificate renewal. (a) Any person to... complete and detailed updated inventory of all pre-Act endangered species parts for which the...

  18. 50 CFR 222.202 - Certificate renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS GENERAL ENDANGERED AND THREATENED MARINE SPECIES Certificates of Exemption for Pre-Act Endangered Species Parts § 222.202 Certificate renewal. (a) Any person to... complete and detailed updated inventory of all pre-Act endangered species parts for which the...

  19. 50 CFR 222.202 - Certificate renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS GENERAL ENDANGERED AND THREATENED MARINE SPECIES Certificates of Exemption for Pre-Act Endangered Species Parts § 222.202 Certificate renewal. (a) Any person to... complete and detailed updated inventory of all pre-Act endangered species parts for which the...

  20. 50 CFR 222.202 - Certificate renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS GENERAL ENDANGERED AND THREATENED MARINE SPECIES Certificates of Exemption for Pre-Act Endangered Species Parts § 222.202 Certificate renewal. (a) Any person to... complete and detailed updated inventory of all pre-Act endangered species parts for which the...

  1. 24 CFR 583.235 - Renewal grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Renewal grants. 583.235 Section 583.235 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  2. 24 CFR 578.33 - Renewals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... administered in accordance with 24 CFR 582.330, if the project received funding under the Shelter Plus Care program, or 24 CFR 583.325, if the project received funding under the Supportive Housing Program. (2... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Renewals. 578.33 Section...

  3. 24 CFR 578.33 - Renewals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... administered in accordance with 24 CFR 582.330, if the project received funding under the Shelter Plus Care program, or 24 CFR 583.325, if the project received funding under the Supportive Housing Program. (2... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Renewals. 578.33 Section...

  4. Renewing Our Commitment to Kids: Collaborative Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickler, Amy; Pfeifer, Doug; Cameron, Alex; Robinson, Anna; Price, Camile; David, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Children with serious emotional and behavioral problems often present challenges that far exceed what seems to be manageable. Despite the best intentions and efforts, youth move through multiple failed services because of the lack of progress, the "failure to adjust," and a presumed need for a higher level of care. Renewing Our…

  5. Renew! Take a Break in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlesworth, Rosalind

    2005-01-01

    A university child development/early childhood education professor renews her relationship with young children and with current public school teaching by spending 5 weeks in kindergarten. This article describes some highlights of her experience: the children's daily journal writing, an in-class and take-home math activity, and teaching the…

  6. Books on Renewable Energy for Elementary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    Presented is a list of 20 books on renewable energy resources. These books are suitable for children in the elementary grades. Each entry includes the title, author(s) or editor(s), number of pages, price, publication date, recommended grade level(s), and source. (JN)

  7. Renewable Energy Reading List for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    Presented is a list of 17 publications dealing with various aspects of renewable energy resources. These publications are suitable for students in grades 6 through 12. Each publication includes title, publication date, source, number of pages, cost, and when applicable, recommended grade level(s). (JN)

  8. Renewal--A Program for School Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Tom

    1985-01-01

    Inadequate internal communication resulting from two successive, divisive strikes led the Jefferson Union High School District in Daly City, California, to develop a district-wide system of renewal committees at all administrative levels to encourage collaborative efforts to improve education. The development and characteristics of the renewal…

  9. 76 FR 20720 - Committee Management; Renewals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... Committee Management; Renewals The NSF management officials having responsibility for the Advisory Committee... follows consultation with the Committee Management Secretariat, General Services Administration. Effective...) 292-7488. Dated: April 8, 2011. Susanne Bolton, Committee Management Officer. BILLING CODE 7555-01-P...

  10. 78 FR 21979 - Committee Management; Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... Committee Management; Renewal The NSF management officials having responsibility for the Advisory Committee... follows consultation with the Committee Management Secretariat, General Services Administration. Effective...) 292-7488. Dated: April 8, 2013. Susanne Bolton, Committee Management Officer. BILLING CODE 7555-01-P...

  11. 7 CFR 1470.26 - Contract renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION STEWARDSHIP PROGRAM Contracts and Payments § 1470.26 Contract renewal. (a) At the end of an initial conservation stewardship contract, NRCS will... operation and meets minimum treatment criteria as established and determined by NRCS; (3) Meet...

  12. 24 CFR 583.235 - Renewal grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES SUPPORTIVE HOUSING PROGRAM Application and Grant Award Process § 583.235... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Renewal grants. 583.235 Section 583.235 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  13. 24 CFR 583.235 - Renewal grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Renewal grants. 583.235 Section 583.235 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES...

  14. 24 CFR 583.235 - Renewal grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... leasing, operations, and supportive services for additional years beyond the initial funding period. To be considered for renewal funding for leasing, operating costs, or supportive services, recipients must submit a... and ten years from the date of initial occupancy or the date of initial service provision,...

  15. Self-Renewal for Self-Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sistrunk, Walter E.

    This speech explores the concept of professional self-renewal. The presenter seeks to understand why some professionals always seem fresh, energetic, and ready for new challenges, whereas others are perpetually tired, bored, and irritated with the demands of their work. Referring to McGregor's management theories, the paper infers that Theory X…

  16. 37 CFR 202.17 - Renewals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... regulations found at 37 CFR 201.2. (g) Application for renewal registration for a work registered in its... forms are available free of charge via the Internet by accessing the Copyright Office homepage at http... registration shall be accompanied by the required fee as set forth in 37 CFR 201.3. The application...

  17. 37 CFR 202.17 - Renewals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... regulations found at 37 CFR 201.2. (g) Application for renewal registration for a work registered in its... forms are available free of charge via the Internet by accessing the Copyright Office homepage at http... registration shall be accompanied by the required fee as set forth in 37 CFR 201.3. The application...

  18. 37 CFR 202.17 - Renewals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... regulations found at 37 CFR 201.2. (g) Application for renewal registration for a work registered in its... forms are available free of charge via the Internet by accessing the Copyright Office homepage at http... registration shall be accompanied by the required fee as set forth in 37 CFR 201.3. The application...

  19. Music Education and Medicine: A Renewed Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Rosalie Rebollo

    1991-01-01

    Reviews the renewed alliance between music educators and medical researchers in researching the learning process. Focuses on how music is used as therapy for disabled children and the research that enables teachers to provide effective instruction to special education students. Emphasizes the interdisciplinary courses that relate music and…

  20. Reform and Renewal in College Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesburgh, Theodore; Albino, Judith

    1995-01-01

    A university president and cochair of the Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics looks at recent efforts to reform and renew college sports, the effects of those efforts, and directions for the future. Another president and chair of the National Collegiate Athletic Association's presidents' commission offers their perspective on…