Science.gov

Sample records for abundant cytoplasmic proteins

  1. Cytoplasmic FANCA-FANCC Complex Interacts and Stabilizes the Cytoplasm-dislocalized Leukemic Nucleophosmin Protein (NPMc)*

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wei; Li, Jie; Sipple, Jared; Chen, Jianjun; Pang, Qishen

    2010-01-01

    Eight of the Fanconi anemia (FA) proteins form a core complex that activates the FA pathway. Some core complex components also form subcomplexes for yet-to-be-elucidated functions. Here, we have analyzed the interaction between a cytoplasmic FA subcomplex and the leukemic nucleophosmin (NPMc). Exogenous NPMc was degraded rapidly in FA acute myeloid leukemia bone marrow cells. Knockdown of FANCA or FANCC in leukemic OCI/AML3 cells induced rapid degradation of endogenous NPMc. NPMc degradation was mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway involving the IBR-type RING-finger E3 ubiquitin ligase IBRDC2, and genetic correction of FA-A or FA-C lymphoblasts prevented NPMc ubiquitination. Moreover, cytoplasmic FANCA and FANCC formed a cytoplasmic complex and interacted with NPMc. Using a patient-derived FANCC mutant and a nuclearized FANCC, we demonstrated that the cytoplasmic FANCA-FANCC complex was essential for NPMc stability. Finally, depletion of FANCA and FANCC in NPMc-positive leukemic cells significantly increased inflammation and chemoresistance through NF-κB activation. Our findings not only reveal the molecular mechanism involving cytoplasmic retention of NPMc but also suggest cytoplasmic function of FANCA and FANCC in NPMc-related leukemogenesis. PMID:20864535

  2. Nuclear Proteins Hijacked by Mammalian Cytoplasmic Plus Strand RNA Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    Plus strand RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm face challenges in supporting the numerous biosynthetic functions required for replication and propagation. Most of these viruses are genetically simple and rely heavily on co-opting cellular proteins, particularly cellular RNA-binding proteins, into new roles for support of virus infection at the level of virus-specific translation, and building RNA replication complexes. In the course of infectious cycles many nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling proteins of mostly nuclear distribution are detained in the cytoplasm by viruses and re-purposed for their own gain. Many mammalian viruses hijack a common group of the same factors. This review summarizes recent gains in our knowledge of how cytoplasmic RNA viruses use these co-opted host nuclear factors in new functional roles supporting virus translation and virus RNA replication and common themes employed between different virus groups. PMID:25818028

  3. Nuclear proteins hijacked by mammalian cytoplasmic plus strand RNA viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, Richard E., E-mail: rlloyd@bcm.edu

    Plus strand RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm face challenges in supporting the numerous biosynthetic functions required for replication and propagation. Most of these viruses are genetically simple and rely heavily on co-opting cellular proteins, particularly cellular RNA-binding proteins, into new roles for support of virus infection at the level of virus-specific translation, and building RNA replication complexes. In the course of infectious cycles many nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling proteins of mostly nuclear distribution are detained in the cytoplasm by viruses and re-purposed for their own gain. Many mammalian viruses hijack a common group of the same factors. This review summarizesmore » recent gains in our knowledge of how cytoplasmic RNA viruses use these co-opted host nuclear factors in new functional roles supporting virus translation and virus RNA replication and common themes employed between different virus groups. - Highlights: • Nuclear shuttling host proteins are commonly hijacked by RNA viruses to support replication. • A limited group of ubiquitous RNA binding proteins are commonly hijacked by a broad range of viruses. • Key virus proteins alter roles of RNA binding proteins in different stages of virus replication.« less

  4. Proteins contribute insignificantly to the intrinsic buffering capacity of yeast cytoplasm

    SciTech Connect

    Poznanski, Jaroslaw; Szczesny, Pawel; Institute of Experimental Plant Biology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, Warsaw

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We predicted buffering capacity of yeast proteome from protein abundance data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We measured total buffering capacity of yeast cytoplasm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We showed that proteins contribute insignificantly to buffering capacity. -- Abstract: Intracellular pH is maintained by a combination of the passive buffering of cytoplasmic dissociable compounds and several active systems. Over the years, a large portion of and possibly most of the cell's intrinsic (i.e., passive non-bicarbonate) buffering effect was attributed to proteins, both in higher organisms and in yeast. This attribution was not surprising, given that the concentration of proteins with multiple protonable/deprotonable groups in themore » cell exceeds the concentration of free protons by a few orders of magnitude. Using data from both high-throughput experiments and in vitro laboratory experiments, we tested this concept. We assessed the buffering capacity of the yeast proteome using protein abundance data and compared it to our own titration of yeast cytoplasm. We showed that the protein contribution is less than 1% of the total intracellular buffering capacity. As confirmed with NMR measurements, inorganic phosphates play a crucial role in the process. These findings also shed a new light on the role of proteomes in maintaining intracellular pH. The contribution of proteins to the intrinsic buffering capacity is negligible, and proteins might act only as a recipient of signals for changes in pH.« less

  5. RNA-Seq profiling of single bovine oocyte transcript abundance and its modulation by cytoplasmic polyadenylation.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Juan M; Chitwood, James L; Ross, Pablo J

    2015-02-01

    Molecular changes occurring during mammalian oocyte maturation are partly regulated by cytoplasmic polyadenylation (CP) and affect oocyte quality, yet the extent of CP activity during oocyte maturation remains unknown. Single bovine oocyte RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed to examine changes in transcript abundance during in vitro oocyte maturation in cattle. Polyadenylated RNA from individual germinal-vesicle and metaphase-II oocytes was amplified and processed for Illumina sequencing, producing approximately 30 million reads per replicate for each sample type. A total of 10,494 genes were found to be expressed, of which 2,455 were differentially expressed (adjusted P < 0.05 and fold change >2) between stages, with 503 and 1,952 genes respectively increasing and decreasing in abundance. Differentially expressed genes with complete 3'-untranslated-region sequence (279 increasing and 918 decreasing in polyadenylated transcript abundance) were examined for the presence, position, and distribution of motifs mediating CP, revealing enrichment (85%) and lack thereof (18%) in up- and down-regulated genes, respectively. Examination of total and polyadenylated RNA abundance by quantitative PCR validated these RNA-Seq findings. The observed increases in polyadenylated transcript abundance within the RNA-Seq data are likely due to CP, providing novel insight into targeted transcripts and resultant differential gene expression profiles that contribute to oocyte maturation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Nuclear Cytoplasmic Trafficking of Proteins is a Major Response of Human Fibroblasts to Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Baqader, Noor O.; Radulovic, Marko; Crawford, Mark; Stoeber, Kai; Godovac-Zimmermann, Jasminka

    2014-01-01

    We have used a subcellular spatial razor approach based on LC–MS/MS-based proteomics with SILAC isotope labeling to determine changes in protein abundances in the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments of human IMR90 fibroblasts subjected to mild oxidative stress. We show that response to mild tert-butyl hydrogen peroxide treatment includes redistribution between the nucleus and cytoplasm of numerous proteins not previously associated with oxidative stress. The 121 proteins with the most significant changes encompass proteins with known functions in a wide variety of subcellular locations and of cellular functional processes (transcription, signal transduction, autophagy, iron metabolism, TCA cycle, ATP synthesis) and are consistent with functional networks that are spatially dispersed across the cell. Both nuclear respiratory factor 2 and the proline regulatory axis appear to contribute to the cellular metabolic response. Proteins involved in iron metabolism or with iron/heme as a cofactor as well as mitochondrial proteins are prominent in the response. Evidence suggesting that nuclear import/export and vesicle-mediated protein transport contribute to the cellular response was obtained. We suggest that measurements of global changes in total cellular protein abundances need to be complemented with measurements of the dynamic subcellular spatial redistribution of proteins to obtain comprehensive pictures of cellular function. PMID:25133973

  7. Predicting the Dynamics of Protein Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Mehdi, Ahmed M.; Patrick, Ralph; Bailey, Timothy L.; Bodén, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Protein synthesis is finely regulated across all organisms, from bacteria to humans, and its integrity underpins many important processes. Emerging evidence suggests that the dynamic range of protein abundance is greater than that observed at the transcript level. Technological breakthroughs now mean that sequencing-based measurement of mRNA levels is routine, but protocols for measuring protein abundance remain both complex and expensive. This paper introduces a Bayesian network that integrates transcriptomic and proteomic data to predict protein abundance and to model the effects of its determinants. We aim to use this model to follow a molecular response over time, from condition-specific data, in order to understand adaptation during processes such as the cell cycle. With microarray data now available for many conditions, the general utility of a protein abundance predictor is broad. Whereas most quantitative proteomics studies have focused on higher organisms, we developed a predictive model of protein abundance for both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe to explore the latitude at the protein level. Our predictor primarily relies on mRNA level, mRNA–protein interaction, mRNA folding energy and half-life, and tRNA adaptation. The combination of key features, allowing for the low certainty and uneven coverage of experimental observations, gives comparatively minor but robust prediction accuracy. The model substantially improved the analysis of protein regulation during the cell cycle: predicted protein abundance identified twice as many cell-cycle-associated proteins as experimental mRNA levels. Predicted protein abundance was more dynamic than observed mRNA expression, agreeing with experimental protein abundance from a human cell line. We illustrate how the same model can be used to predict the folding energy of mRNA when protein abundance is available, lending credence to the emerging view that mRNA folding affects translation

  8. Predicting the dynamics of protein abundance.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Ahmed M; Patrick, Ralph; Bailey, Timothy L; Bodén, Mikael

    2014-05-01

    Protein synthesis is finely regulated across all organisms, from bacteria to humans, and its integrity underpins many important processes. Emerging evidence suggests that the dynamic range of protein abundance is greater than that observed at the transcript level. Technological breakthroughs now mean that sequencing-based measurement of mRNA levels is routine, but protocols for measuring protein abundance remain both complex and expensive. This paper introduces a Bayesian network that integrates transcriptomic and proteomic data to predict protein abundance and to model the effects of its determinants. We aim to use this model to follow a molecular response over time, from condition-specific data, in order to understand adaptation during processes such as the cell cycle. With microarray data now available for many conditions, the general utility of a protein abundance predictor is broad. Whereas most quantitative proteomics studies have focused on higher organisms, we developed a predictive model of protein abundance for both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe to explore the latitude at the protein level. Our predictor primarily relies on mRNA level, mRNA-protein interaction, mRNA folding energy and half-life, and tRNA adaptation. The combination of key features, allowing for the low certainty and uneven coverage of experimental observations, gives comparatively minor but robust prediction accuracy. The model substantially improved the analysis of protein regulation during the cell cycle: predicted protein abundance identified twice as many cell-cycle-associated proteins as experimental mRNA levels. Predicted protein abundance was more dynamic than observed mRNA expression, agreeing with experimental protein abundance from a human cell line. We illustrate how the same model can be used to predict the folding energy of mRNA when protein abundance is available, lending credence to the emerging view that mRNA folding affects translation efficiency

  9. Protein synthesis in sperm: dialog between mitochondria and cytoplasm.

    PubMed

    Gur, Yael; Breitbart, Haim

    2008-01-30

    Ejaculated sperm are capable of using mRNAs transcripts for protein translation during the final maturation steps before fertilization. In a capacitation-dependent process, nuclear-encoded mRNAs are translated by mitochondrial-type ribosomes while the cytoplasmic translation machinery is not involved. Our findings suggest that new proteins are synthesized to replace degraded proteins while swimming and waiting in the female reproductive tract before fertilization, or produced due to the specific needs of the capacitating spermatozoa. In addition, a growing number of articles have reported evidence for the correlation of nuclear-encoded mRNA and protein synthesis in somatic mitochondria. It is known that all of the proteins necessary for the replication, transcription and translation of the genes encoded in mtDNA are now encoded in the nuclear genome. This genetic investment is far out of proportion to the number of proteins involved, as there have been multiple movements and duplications of genes. However, the evolutionary retention (or secondary uptake) of the mitochondrial machinery for translation of nuclear-encoded mRNAs may shed light on this paradox.

  10. Lessons from Animal Models of Cytoplasmic Intermediate Filament Proteins.

    PubMed

    Bouameur, Jamal-Eddine; Magin, Thomas M

    Cytoplasmic intermediate filaments (IFs) represent a major cytoskeletal network contributing to cell shape, adhesion and migration as well as to tissue resilience and renewal in numerous bilaterians, including mammals. The observation that IFs are dispensable in cultured mammalian cells, but cause tissue-specific, life-threatening disorders, has pushed the need to investigate their function in vivo. In keeping with human disease, the deletion or mutation of murine IF genes resulted in highly specific pathologies. Epidermal keratins, together with desmin, are essential to protect corresponding tissues against mechanical force but also participate in stabilizing cell adhesion and in inflammatory signalling. Surprisingly, other IF proteins contribute to tissue integrity to a much lesser extent than anticipated, pointing towards their role in stress situations. In support, the overexpression of small chaperones or the interference with inflammatory signalling in several settings has been shown to rescue severe tissue pathologies that resulted from the expression of mutant IF proteins. It stills remains an open issue whether the wide range of IF disorders share similar pathomechanisms. Moreover, we lack an understanding how IF proteins participate in signalling processes. Now, with a large number of mouse models in hand, the next challenge will be to develop organotypic cell culture models to dissect pathomechanisms at the molecular level, to employ Crispr/Cas-mediated genome engineering to optimize models and, finally, to combine available animal models with medicinal chemistry for the development of molecular therapies.

  11. Mechanical slowing-down of cytoplasmic diffusion allows in vivo counting of proteins in individual cells

    PubMed Central

    Okumus, Burak; Landgraf, Dirk; Lai, Ghee Chuan; Bakhsi, Somenath; Arias-Castro, Juan Carlos; Yildiz, Sadik; Huh, Dann; Fernandez-Lopez, Raul; Peterson, Celeste N.; Toprak, Erdal; El Karoui, Meriem; Paulsson, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Many key regulatory proteins in bacteria are present in too low numbers to be detected with conventional methods, which poses a particular challenge for single-cell analyses because such proteins can contribute greatly to phenotypic heterogeneity. Here we develop a microfluidics-based platform that enables single-molecule counting of low-abundance proteins by mechanically slowing-down their diffusion within the cytoplasm of live Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells. Our technique also allows for automated microscopy at high throughput with minimal perturbation to native physiology, as well as viable enrichment/retrieval. We illustrate the method by analysing the control of the master regulator of the E. coli stress response, RpoS, by its adapter protein, SprE (RssB). Quantification of SprE numbers shows that though SprE is necessary for RpoS degradation, it is expressed at levels as low as 3–4 molecules per average cell cycle, and fluctuations in SprE are approximately Poisson distributed during exponential phase with no sign of bursting. PMID:27189321

  12. Mechanical slowing-down of cytoplasmic diffusion allows in vivo counting of proteins in individual cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumus, Burak; Landgraf, Dirk; Lai, Ghee Chuan; Bakhsi, Somenath; Arias-Castro, Juan Carlos; Yildiz, Sadik; Huh, Dann; Fernandez-Lopez, Raul; Peterson, Celeste N.; Toprak, Erdal; El Karoui, Meriem; Paulsson, Johan

    2016-05-01

    Many key regulatory proteins in bacteria are present in too low numbers to be detected with conventional methods, which poses a particular challenge for single-cell analyses because such proteins can contribute greatly to phenotypic heterogeneity. Here we develop a microfluidics-based platform that enables single-molecule counting of low-abundance proteins by mechanically slowing-down their diffusion within the cytoplasm of live Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells. Our technique also allows for automated microscopy at high throughput with minimal perturbation to native physiology, as well as viable enrichment/retrieval. We illustrate the method by analysing the control of the master regulator of the E. coli stress response, RpoS, by its adapter protein, SprE (RssB). Quantification of SprE numbers shows that though SprE is necessary for RpoS degradation, it is expressed at levels as low as 3-4 molecules per average cell cycle, and fluctuations in SprE are approximately Poisson distributed during exponential phase with no sign of bursting.

  13. Mutant p53 protein localized in the cytoplasm inhibits autophagy.

    PubMed

    Morselli, Eugenia; Tasdemir, Ezgi; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kepp, Oliver; Criollo, Alfredo; Vicencio, José Miguel; Soussi, Thierry; Kroemer, Guido

    2008-10-01

    The knockout, knockdown or chemical inhibition of p53 stimulates autophagy. Moreover, autophagy-inducing stimuli such as nutrient depletion, rapamycin or lithium cause the depletion of cytoplasmic p53, which in turn is required for the induction of autophagy. Here, we show that retransfection of p53(-/-) HCT 116 colon carcinoma cells with wild type p53 decreases autophagy down to baseline levels. Surprisingly, one third among a panel of 22 cancer-associated p53 single amino acid mutants also inhibited autophagy when transfected into p53(-/-) cells. Those variants of p53 that preferentially localize to the cytoplasm effectively repressed autophagy, whereas p53 mutants that display a prominently nuclear distribution failed to inhibit autophagy. The investigation of a series of deletion mutants revealed that removal of the DNA-binding domain from p53 fails to interfere with its role in the regulation of autophagy. Altogether, these results identify the cytoplasmic localization of p53 as the most important feature for p53-mediated autophagy inhibition. Moreover, the structural requirements for the two biological activities of extranuclear p53, namely induction of apoptosis and inhibition of autophagy, are manifestly different.

  14. Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins in legumes

    PubMed Central

    Battaglia, Marina; Covarrubias, Alejandra A.

    2013-01-01

    Plants are exposed to different external conditions that affect growth, development, and productivity. Water deficit is one of these adverse conditions caused by drought, salinity, and extreme temperatures. Plants have developed different responses to prevent, ameliorate or repair the damage inflicted by these stressful environments. One of these responses is the activation of a set of genes encoding a group of hydrophilic proteins that typically accumulate to high levels during seed dehydration, at the last stage of embryogenesis, hence named Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins. LEA proteins also accumulate in response to water limitation in vegetative tissues, and have been classified in seven groups based on their amino acid sequence similarity and on the presence of distinctive conserved motifs. These proteins are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, from ferns to angiosperms, suggesting a relevant role in the plant response to this unfavorable environmental condition. In this review, we analyzed the LEA proteins from those legumes whose complete genomes have been sequenced such as Phaseolus vulgaris, Glycine max, Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus, Cajanus cajan, and Cicer arietinum. Considering their distinctive motifs, LEA proteins from the different groups were identified, and their sequence analysis allowed the recognition of novel legume specific motifs. Moreover, we compile their transcript accumulation patterns based on publicly available data. In spite of the limited information on these proteins in legumes, the analysis and data compiled here confirm the high correlation between their accumulation and water deficit, reinforcing their functional relevance under this detrimental conditions. PMID:23805145

  15. Protein phosphorylation in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Phosphorylation of endogenous plasma membrane and cytoplasmic proteins

    PubMed Central

    Chaplin, David D.; Wedner, H. James; Parker, Charles W.

    1979-01-01

    Phosphorylation of endogenous proteins in subcellular fractions of human peripheral-blood lymphocytes was studied by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Studies using extensively purified subcellular fractions indicated that the endogenous phosphorylating activity in the particulate fractions was derived primarily from the plasma membrane. Electrophoresis of 32P-labelled subcellular fractions in two dimensions [O'Farrell (1975) J. Biol. Chem. 250, 4007–4021] provided much greater resolution of the endogenous phosphoproteins than electrophoresis in one dimension, facilitating their excision from gels for quantification of 32P content. More than 100 cytoplasmic and 20 plasma-membrane phosphorylated species were observed. Phosphorylation of more than 10 cytoplasmic proteins was absolutely dependent on cyclic AMP. In the plasma membrane, cyclic AMP-dependent phosphoproteins were observed with mol.wts. of 42000, 42000, 80000 and 90000 and pI values of 6.1, 6.3, 6.25 and 6.5 respectively. Phosphorylation of endogenous cytoplasmic and plasma-membrane proteins was rapid with t½=5–12s at 25°C. Between 40 and 70% of the 32P was recovered as phosphoserine and phosphothreonine when acid hydrolysates of isolated plasma-membrane phosphoproteins were analysed by high-voltage paper electrophoresis. The presence of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and endogenous phosphate-acceptor proteins in the plasma membranes of lymphocytes provides a mechanism by which these cells might respond to plasma-membrane pools of cyclic AMP generated in response to stimulation by mitogens or physiological modulators of lymphocyte function. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4. PMID:228657

  16. FLIPing heterokaryons to analyze nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of yeast proteins.

    PubMed

    Belaya, Katsiaryna; Tollervey, David; Kos, Martin

    2006-05-01

    Nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling is an important feature of proteins involved in nuclear export/import of RNAs, proteins, and also large ribonucleoprotein complexes such as ribosomes. The vast amount of proteomic data available shows that many of these processes are highly dynamic. Therefore, methods are needed to reliably assess whether a protein shuttles between nucleus and cytoplasm, and the kinetics with which it exchanges. Here we describe a combination of the classical heterokaryon assay with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP) techniques, which allows an assessment of the kinetics of protein shuttling in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  17. Elucidating the role of select cytoplasmic proteins in altering diffusion of integrin receptors.

    PubMed

    Sander, Suzanne; Arora, Neha; Smith, Emily A

    2012-06-01

    Cytoplasmic proteins that affect integrin diffusion in the cell membrane are identified using a combination of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and RNA interference. Integrin receptors are essential for many cellular events, and alterations in lateral diffusion are one mechanism for modulating their function. In cells expressing native cytoplasmic protein concentrations and spread on a slide containing integrin extracellular ligand, 45 ± 2% of the integrin is mobile with a time-dependent 5.2 ± 0.9 × 10(-9) cm(2)/s diffusion coefficient at 1 s. The time exponent is 0.90 ± 0.07, indicating integrin diffusion moderately slows at longer times. The role of a specific cytoplasmic protein in altering integrin diffusion is revealed through changes in the FRAP curve after reducing the cytoplasmic protein's expression. Decreased expression of cytoplasmic proteins rhea, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), or steamer duck decreases the integrin mobile fraction. For rhea and FAK, there is a concomitant shift to Brownian (i.e., time-independent) diffusion at reduced concentrations of these proteins. In contrast, when the expression of actin 42A, dreadlocks, paxillin, integrin-linked kinase (ILK), or vinculin is reduced, integrin diffusion generally becomes more constrained with an increase in the integrin mobile fraction. This same change in integrin diffusion is measured in the absence of integrin extracellular ligand. The results indicate breaking the extracellular ligand-integrin-cytoskeletal linkage alters integrin diffusion properties, and, in most cases, there is no correlation between integrin and lipid diffusion properties.

  18. Control of cytoplasmic and nuclear protein kinase A by phosphodiesterases and phosphatases in cardiac myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Haj Slimane, Zeineb; Bedioune, Ibrahim; Lechêne, Patrick; Varin, Audrey; Lefebvre, Florence; Mateo, Philippe; Domergue-Dupont, Valérie; Dewenter, Matthias; Richter, Wito; Conti, Marco; El-Armouche, Ali; Zhang, Jin; Fischmeister, Rodolphe; Vandecasteele, Grégoire

    2014-01-01

    Aims The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) mediates β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) regulation of cardiac contraction and gene expression. Whereas PKA activity is well characterized in various subcellular compartments of adult cardiomyocytes, its regulation in the nucleus remains largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare the modalities of PKA regulation in the cytoplasm and nucleus of cardiomyocytes. Methods and results Cytoplasmic and nuclear cAMP and PKA activity were measured with targeted fluorescence resonance energy transfer probes in adult rat ventricular myocytes. β-AR stimulation with isoprenaline (Iso) led to fast cAMP elevation in both compartments, whereas PKA activity was fast in the cytoplasm but markedly slower in the nucleus. Iso was also more potent and efficient in activating cytoplasmic than nuclear PKA. Similar slow kinetics of nuclear PKA activation was observed upon adenylyl cyclase activation with L-858051 or phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibition with 3-isobutyl-1-methylxantine. Consistently, pulse stimulation with Iso (15 s) maximally induced PKA and myosin-binding protein C phosphorylation in the cytoplasm, but marginally activated PKA and cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation in the nucleus. Inhibition of PDE4 or ablation of the Pde4d gene in mice prolonged cytoplasmic PKA activation and enhanced nuclear PKA responses. In the cytoplasm, phosphatase 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A) contributed to the termination of PKA responses, whereas only PP1 played a role in the nucleus. Conclusion Our study reveals a differential integration of cytoplasmic and nuclear PKA responses to β-AR stimulation in cardiac myocytes. This may have important implications in the physiological and pathological hypertrophic response to β-AR stimulation. PMID:24550350

  19. Identification of Missing Proteins Defined by Chromosome-Centric Proteome Project in the Cytoplasmic Detergent-Insoluble Proteins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang; Li, Yaxing; Zhong, Jiayong; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Zhipeng; Yang, Lijuan; Cao, Xin; He, Qing-Yu; Zhang, Gong; Wang, Tong

    2015-09-04

    Finding protein evidence (PE) for protein coding genes is a primary task of the Phase I Chromosome-Centric Human Proteome Project (C-HPP). Currently, there are 2948 PE level 2-4 coding genes per neXtProt, which are deemed missing proteins in the human proteome. As most samples prepared and analyzed in the C-HPP framework were focusing on detergent soluble proteins, we posit that as a natural composition the cytoplasmic detergent-insoluble proteins (DIPs) represent a source of finding missing proteins. We optimized a workflow and separated cytoplasmic DIPs from three human lung and three human hepatoma cell lines via differential speed centrifugation. We verified that the detergent-soluble proteins (DSPs) could be sufficiently depleted and the cytoplasmic DIP isolation was partially reproducible with Spearman r > 0.70 according to two independent SILAC MS experiments. Through label-free MS, we identified 4524 and 4156 DIPs from lung and liver cells, respectively. Among them, a total of 23 missing proteins (22 PE2 and 1 PE4) were identified by MS, and 18 of them had translation evidence; in addition, six PE5 proteins were identified by MS, three with translation evidence. We showed that cytoplasmic DIPs were not an enrichment of transmembrane proteins and were chromosome-, cell type-, and tissue-specific. Furthermore, we demonstrated that DIPs were distinct from DSPs in terms of structural and physical-chemical features. In conclusion, we have found 23 missing proteins and 6 PE5 proteins from the cytoplasmic insoluble proteome that is biologically and physical-chemically different from the soluble proteome, suggesting that cytoplasmic DIPs carry comprehensive and valuable information for finding PE of missing proteins. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium with the data set identifier PXD001694.

  20. Signatures of cytoplasmic proteins in the exoproteome distinguish community- and hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 lineages.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Solomon A; Palma Medina, Laura M; Glasner, Corinna; Tsompanidou, Eleni; de Jong, Anne; Grasso, Stefano; Schaffer, Marc; Mäder, Ulrike; Larsen, Anders R; Gumpert, Heidi; Westh, Henrik; Völker, Uwe; Otto, Andreas; Becher, Dörte; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2017-08-18

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the common name for a heterogeneous group of highly drug-resistant staphylococci. Two major MRSA classes are distinguished based on epidemiology, namely community-associated (CA) and hospital-associated (HA) MRSA. Notably, the distinction of CA- and HA-MRSA based on molecular traits remains difficult due to the high genomic plasticity of S. aureus. Here we sought to pinpoint global distinguishing features of CA- and HA-MRSA through a comparative genome and proteome analysis of the notorious MRSA lineage USA300. We show for the first time that CA- and HA-MRSA isolates can be distinguished by 2 distinct extracellular protein abundance clusters that are predictive not only for epidemiologic behavior, but also for their growth and survival within epithelial cells. This 'exoproteome profiling' also groups more distantly related HA-MRSA isolates into the HA exoproteome cluster. Comparative genome analysis suggests that these distinctive features of CA- and HA-MRSA isolates relate predominantly to the accessory genome. Intriguingly, the identified exoproteome clusters differ in the relative abundance of typical cytoplasmic proteins, suggesting that signatures of cytoplasmic proteins in the exoproteome represent a new distinguishing feature of CA- and HA-MRSA. Our comparative genome and proteome analysis focuses attention on potentially distinctive roles of 'liberated' cytoplasmic proteins in the epidemiology and intracellular survival of CA- and HA-MRSA isolates. Such extracellular cytoplasmic proteins were recently invoked in staphylococcal virulence, but their implication in the epidemiology of MRSA is unprecedented.

  1. Protein misfolding specifies recruitment to cytoplasmic inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Bersuker, Kirill; Brandeis, Michael; Kopito, Ron R

    2016-04-25

    Inclusion bodies (IBs) containing aggregated disease-associated proteins and polyubiquitin (poly-Ub) conjugates are universal histopathological features of neurodegenerative diseases. Ub has been proposed to target proteins to IBs for degradation via autophagy, but the mechanisms that govern recruitment of ubiquitylated proteins to IBs are not well understood. In this paper, we use conditionally destabilized reporters that undergo misfolding and ubiquitylation upon removal of a stabilizing ligand to examine the role of Ub conjugation in targeting proteins to IBs that are composed of an N-terminal fragment of mutant huntingtin, the causative protein of Huntington's disease. We show that reporters are excluded from IBs in the presence of the stabilizing ligand but are recruited to IBs after ligand washout. However, we find that Ub conjugation is not necessary to target reporters to IBs. We also report that forced Ub conjugation by the Ub fusion degradation pathway is not sufficient for recruitment to IBs. Finally, we find that reporters and Ub conjugates are stable at IBs. These data indicate that compromised folding states, rather than conjugation to Ub, can specify recruitment to IBs. © 2016 Bersuker et al.

  2. A cytoplasmic serine protein kinase binds and may regulate the Fanconi anemia protein FANCA.

    PubMed

    Yagasaki, H; Adachi, D; Oda, T; Garcia-Higuera, I; Tetteh, N; D'Andrea, A D; Futaki, M; Asano, S; Yamashita, T

    2001-12-15

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive disease with congenital anomalies, bone marrow failure, and susceptibility to leukemia. Patient cells show chromosome instability and hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents. At least 8 complementation groups (A-G) have been identified and 6 FA genes (for subtypes A, C, D2, E, F, and G) have been cloned. Increasing evidence indicates that a protein complex assembly of multiple FA proteins, including FANCA and FANCG, plays a crucial role in the FA pathway. Previously, it was reported that FANCA was phosphorylated in lymphoblasts from normal controls, whereas the phosphorylation was defective in those derived from patients with FA of multiple complementation groups. The present study examined phosphorylation of FANCA ectopically expressed in FANCA(-) cells. Several patient-derived mutations abrogated in vivo phosphorylation of FANCA in this system, suggesting that FANCA phosphorylation is associated with its function. In vitro phosphorylation studies indicated that a physiologic protein kinase for FANCA (FANCA-PK) forms a complex with the substrate. Furthermore, at least a part of FANCA-PK as well as phosphorylated FANCA were included in the FANCA/FANCG complex. Thus, FANCA-PK appears to be another component of the FA protein complex and may regulate function of FANCA. FANCA-PK was characterized as a cytoplasmic serine kinase sensitive to wortmannin. Identification of the protein kinase is expected to elucidate regulatory mechanisms that control the FA pathway.

  3. Translation Stress Positively Regulates MscL-Dependent Excretion of Cytoplasmic Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Morra, Rosa; Del Carratore, Francesco; Muhamadali, Howbeer; Horga, Luminita Gabriela; Halliwell, Samantha

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The apparent mislocalization or excretion of cytoplasmic proteins is a commonly observed phenomenon in both bacteria and eukaryotes. However, reports on the mechanistic basis and the cellular function of this so-called “nonclassical protein secretion” are limited. Here we report that protein overexpression in recombinant cells and antibiotic-induced translation stress in wild-type Escherichia coli cells both lead to excretion of cytoplasmic protein (ECP). Condition-specific metabolomic and proteomic analyses, combined with genetic knockouts, indicate a role for both the large mechanosensitive channel (MscL) and the alternative ribosome rescue factor A (ArfA) in ECP. Collectively, the findings indicate that MscL-dependent protein excretion is positively regulated in response to both osmotic stress and arfA-mediated translational stress. PMID:29382730

  4. Polarized trafficking: the palmitoylation cycle distributes cytoplasmic proteins to distinct neuronal compartments.

    PubMed

    Tortosa, Elena; Hoogenraad, Casper C

    2018-02-01

    In neurons, polarized cargo distribution occurs mainly between the soma and axonal and dendritic compartments, and requires coordinated regulation of cytoskeletal remodeling and membrane trafficking. The Golgi complex plays a critical role during neuronal polarization and secretory trafficking has been shown to differentially transport proteins to both axons and dendrites. Besides the Golgi protein sorting, recent data revealed that palmitoylation cycles are an efficient mechanism to localize cytoplasmic, non-transmembrane proteins to particular neuronal compartments, such as the newly formed axon. Palmitoylation allows substrate proteins to bind to and ride with Golgi-derived secretory vesicles to all neuronal compartments. By allowing cytoplasmic proteins to 'hitchhike' on transport carriers in a non-polarized fashion, compartmentalized depalmitoylation may act as a selective retention mechanism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Two novel heat-soluble protein families abundantly expressed in an anhydrobiotic tardigrade.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Ayami; Tanaka, Sae; Yamaguchi, Shiho; Kuwahara, Hirokazu; Takamura, Chizuko; Imajoh-Ohmi, Shinobu; Horikawa, Daiki D; Toyoda, Atsushi; Katayama, Toshiaki; Arakawa, Kazuharu; Fujiyama, Asao; Kubo, Takeo; Kunieda, Takekazu

    2012-01-01

    Tardigrades are able to tolerate almost complete dehydration by reversibly switching to an ametabolic state. This ability is called anhydrobiosis. In the anhydrobiotic state, tardigrades can withstand various extreme environments including space, but their molecular basis remains largely unknown. Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are heat-soluble proteins and can prevent protein-aggregation in dehydrated conditions in other anhydrobiotic organisms, but their relevance to tardigrade anhydrobiosis is not clarified. In this study, we focused on the heat-soluble property characteristic of LEA proteins and conducted heat-soluble proteomics using an anhydrobiotic tardigrade. Our heat-soluble proteomics identified five abundant heat-soluble proteins. All of them showed no sequence similarity with LEA proteins and formed two novel protein families with distinct subcellular localizations. We named them Cytoplasmic Abundant Heat Soluble (CAHS) and Secretory Abundant Heat Soluble (SAHS) protein families, according to their localization. Both protein families were conserved among tardigrades, but not found in other phyla. Although CAHS protein was intrinsically unstructured and SAHS protein was rich in β-structure in the hydrated condition, proteins in both families changed their conformation to an α-helical structure in water-deficient conditions as LEA proteins do. Two conserved repeats of 19-mer motifs in CAHS proteins were capable to form amphiphilic stripes in α-helices, suggesting their roles as molecular shield in water-deficient condition, though charge distribution pattern in α-helices were different between CAHS and LEA proteins. Tardigrades might have evolved novel protein families with a heat-soluble property and this study revealed a novel repertoire of major heat-soluble proteins in these anhydrobiotic animals.

  6. SHuffle, a novel Escherichia coli protein expression strain capable of correctly folding disulfide bonded proteins in its cytoplasm

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Production of correctly disulfide bonded proteins to high yields remains a challenge. Recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli is the popular choice, especially within the research community. While there is an ever growing demand for new expression strains, few strains are dedicated to post-translational modifications, such as disulfide bond formation. Thus, new protein expression strains must be engineered and the parameters involved in producing disulfide bonded proteins must be understood. Results We have engineered a new E. coli protein expression strain named SHuffle, dedicated to producing correctly disulfide bonded active proteins to high yields within its cytoplasm. This strain is based on the trxB gor suppressor strain SMG96 where its cytoplasmic reductive pathways have been diminished, allowing for the formation of disulfide bonds in the cytoplasm. We have further engineered a major improvement by integrating into its chromosome a signal sequenceless disulfide bond isomerase, DsbC. We probed the redox state of DsbC in the oxidizing cytoplasm and evaluated its role in assisting the formation of correctly folded multi-disulfide bonded proteins. We optimized protein expression conditions, varying temperature, induction conditions, strain background and the co-expression of various helper proteins. We found that temperature has the biggest impact on improving yields and that the E. coli B strain background of this strain was superior to the K12 version. We also discovered that auto-expression of substrate target proteins using this strain resulted in higher yields of active pure protein. Finally, we found that co-expression of mutant thioredoxins and PDI homologs improved yields of various substrate proteins. Conclusions This work is the first extensive characterization of the trxB gor suppressor strain. The results presented should help researchers design the appropriate protein expression conditions using SHuffle strains. PMID:22569138

  7. Protein kinases are associated with multiple, distinct cytoplasmic granules in quiescent yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Shah, Khyati H; Nostramo, Regina; Zhang, Bo; Varia, Sapna N; Klett, Bethany M; Herman, Paul K

    2014-12-01

    The cytoplasm of the eukaryotic cell is subdivided into distinct functional domains by the presence of a variety of membrane-bound organelles. The remaining aqueous space may be further partitioned by the regulated assembly of discrete ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes that contain particular proteins and messenger RNAs. These RNP granules are conserved structures whose importance is highlighted by studies linking them to human disorders like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. However, relatively little is known about the diversity, composition, and physiological roles of these cytoplasmic structures. To begin to address these issues, we examined the cytoplasmic granules formed by a key set of signaling molecules, the protein kinases of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Interestingly, a significant fraction of these proteins, almost 20%, was recruited to cytoplasmic foci specifically as cells entered into the G0-like quiescent state, stationary phase. Colocalization studies demonstrated that these foci corresponded to eight different granules, including four that had not been reported previously. All of these granules were found to rapidly disassemble upon the resumption of growth, and the presence of each was correlated with cell viability in the quiescent cultures. Finally, this work also identified new constituents of known RNP granules, including the well-characterized processing body and stress granule. The composition of these latter structures is therefore more varied than previously thought and could be an indicator of additional biological activities being associated with these complexes. Altogether, these observations indicate that quiescent yeast cells contain multiple distinct cytoplasmic granules that may make important contributions to their long-term survival. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  8. Nipah virus fusion protein: Importance of the cytoplasmic tail for endosomal trafficking and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Weis, Michael; Maisner, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) is a highly pathogenic paramyxovirus which encodes two surface glycoproteins: the receptor-binding protein G and the fusion protein F. As for all paramyxoviruses, proteolytic activation of the NiV-F protein is an indispensable prerequisite for viral infectivity. Interestingly, proteolytic activation of NiV-F differs principally from other paramyxoviruses with respect to protease usage (cathepsins instead of trypsin- or furin-like proteases), and the subcellular localization where cleavage takes place (endosomes instead of Golgi or plasma membrane). To allow efficient F protein activation needed for productive virus replication and cell-to-cell fusion, the NiV-F cytoplasmic tail contains a classical tyrosine-based endocytosis signal (Y525RSL) that we have shown earlier to be needed for F uptake and proteolytic activation. In this report, we furthermore revealed that an intact endocytosis signal alone is not sufficient for full bioactivity. The very C-terminus of the cytoplasmic tail is needed in addition. Deletions of more than four residues did not affect F uptake or endosomal cleavage but downregulated the surface expression, likely by delaying the intracellular trafficking through endosomal-recycling compartments. Given that the NiV-F cytoplasmic tail is needed for timely and correct intracellular trafficking, endosomal cleavage and fusion activity, the influence of tail truncations on NiV-mediated cell-to-cell fusion and on pseudotyping lentiviral vectors is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. MapA, an iron-regulated, cytoplasmic membrane protein in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC7942.

    PubMed

    Webb, R; Troyan, T; Sherman, D; Sherman, L A

    1994-08-01

    Growth of Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 in iron-deficient media leads to the accumulation of an approximately 34-kDa protein. The gene encoding this protein, mapA (membrane-associated protein A), has been cloned and sequenced (GenBank accession number, L01621). The mapA transcript is not detectable in normally grown cultures but is stably accumulated by cells grown in iron-deficient media. However, the promoter sequence for this gene does not resemble other bacterial iron-regulated promoters described to date. The carboxyl-terminal region of the derived amino acid sequence of MapA resembles bacterial proteins involved in iron acquisition, whereas the amino-terminal end of MapA has a high degree of amino acid identity with the abundant, chloroplast envelope protein E37. An approach employing improved cellular fractionation techniques as well as electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry was essential in localizing MapA protein to the cytoplasmic membrane of Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942. When these cells were grown under iron-deficient conditions, a significant fraction of MapA could also be localized to the thylakoid membranes.

  10. MapA, an iron-regulated, cytoplasmic membrane protein in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC7942.

    PubMed Central

    Webb, R; Troyan, T; Sherman, D; Sherman, L A

    1994-01-01

    Growth of Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 in iron-deficient media leads to the accumulation of an approximately 34-kDa protein. The gene encoding this protein, mapA (membrane-associated protein A), has been cloned and sequenced (GenBank accession number, L01621). The mapA transcript is not detectable in normally grown cultures but is stably accumulated by cells grown in iron-deficient media. However, the promoter sequence for this gene does not resemble other bacterial iron-regulated promoters described to date. The carboxyl-terminal region of the derived amino acid sequence of MapA resembles bacterial proteins involved in iron acquisition, whereas the amino-terminal end of MapA has a high degree of amino acid identity with the abundant, chloroplast envelope protein E37. An approach employing improved cellular fractionation techniques as well as electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry was essential in localizing MapA protein to the cytoplasmic membrane of Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942. When these cells were grown under iron-deficient conditions, a significant fraction of MapA could also be localized to the thylakoid membranes. Images PMID:8051004

  11. The SARS Coronavirus 3a protein binds calcium in its cytoplasmic domain.

    PubMed

    Minakshi, Rinki; Padhan, Kartika; Rehman, Safikur; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz; Ahmad, Faizan

    2014-10-13

    The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is a positive stranded RNA virus with ∼30kb genome. Among all open reading frames (orfs) of this virus, the orf3a is the largest, and encodes a protein of 274 amino acids, named as 3a protein. Sequence analysis suggests that the orf3a aligned to one calcium pump present in Plasmodium falciparum and the enzyme glutamine synthetase found in Leptospira interrogans. This sequence similarity was found to be limited only to amino acid residues 209-264 which form the cytoplasmic domain of the orf3a. Furthermore, this region was predicted to be involved in the calcium binding. Owing to this hypothesis, we were driven to establish its calcium binding property in vitro. Here, we expressed and purified the cytoplasmic domain of the 3a protein, called Cyto3a, as a recombinant His-tagged protein in the E. coli. The calcium binding nature was established by performing various staining methods such as ruthenium red and stains-all. (45)Ca overlay method was also done to further support the data. Since the 3a protein forms ion channels, we were interested to see any conformational changes occurring in the Cyot3a upon calcium binding, using fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism. These studies clearly indicate a significant change in the conformation of the Cyto3a protein after binding with calcium. Our results strongly suggest that the cytoplasmic domain of the 3a protein of SARS-CoV binds calcium in vitro, causing a change in protein conformation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cytoplasmic Metadherin (MTDH) Provides Survival Advantage under Conditions of Stress by Acting as RNA-binding Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiangbing; Zhu, Danlin; Yang, Shujie; Wang, Xinjun; Xiong, Zhi; Zhang, Yuping; Brachova, Pavla; Leslie, Kimberly K.

    2012-01-01

    Overexpression of metadherin (MTDH) has been documented in many solid tumors and is implicated in metastasis and chemoresistance. MTDH has been detected at the plasma membrane as well as in the cytoplasm and nucleus, and the function of MTDH in these locales remains under investigation. In the nucleus, MTDH acts as a transcription co-factor to induce expression of chemoresistance-associated genes. However, MTDH is predominantly cytoplasmic in prostate tumors, and this localization correlates with poor prognosis. Herein, we used endometrial cancer cells as a model system to define a new role for MTDH in the cytoplasm. First, MTDH was primarily localized to the cytoplasm in endometrial cancer cells, and the N-terminal region of MTDH was required to maintain cytoplasmic localization. Next, we identified novel binding partners for cytoplasmic MTDH, including RNA-binding proteins and components of the RNA-induced silencing complex. Nucleic acids were required for the association of MTDH with these cytoplasmic proteins. Furthermore, MTDH interacted with and regulated protein expression of multiple mRNAs, such as PDCD10 and KDM6A. Depletion of cytoplasmic MTDH was associated with increased stress granule formation, reduced survival in response to chemotherapy and the tyrosine kinase inhibitor BIBF1120, Rad51 nuclear accumulation, and cell cycle arrest at G2/M. Finally, in vivo tumor formation was abrogated with knockdown of cytoplasmic MTDH. Taken together, our data identify a novel function for cytoplasmic MTDH as an RNA-binding protein. Our findings implicate cytoplasmic MTDH in cell survival and broad drug resistance via association with RNA and RNA-binding proteins. PMID:22199357

  13. Covariation of Peptide Abundances Accurately Reflects Protein Concentration Differences*

    PubMed Central

    Pirmoradian, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Most implementations of mass spectrometry-based proteomics involve enzymatic digestion of proteins, expanding the analysis to multiple proteolytic peptides for each protein. Currently, there is no consensus of how to summarize peptides' abundances to protein concentrations, and such efforts are complicated by the fact that error control normally is applied to the identification process, and do not directly control errors linking peptide abundance measures to protein concentration. Peptides resulting from suboptimal digestion or being partially modified are not representative of the protein concentration. Without a mechanism to remove such unrepresentative peptides, their abundance adversely impacts the estimation of their protein's concentration. Here, we present a relative quantification approach, Diffacto, that applies factor analysis to extract the covariation of peptides' abundances. The method enables a weighted geometrical average summarization and automatic elimination of incoherent peptides. We demonstrate, based on a set of controlled label-free experiments using standard mixtures of proteins, that the covariation structure extracted by the factor analysis accurately reflects protein concentrations. In the 1% peptide-spectrum match-level FDR data set, as many as 11% of the peptides have abundance differences incoherent with the other peptides attributed to the same protein. If not controlled, such contradicting peptide abundance have a severe impact on protein quantifications. When adding the quantities of each protein's three most abundant peptides, we note as many as 14% of the proteins being estimated as having a negative correlation with their actual concentration differences between samples. Diffacto reduced the amount of such obviously incorrectly quantified proteins to 1.6%. Furthermore, by analyzing clinical data sets from two breast cancer studies, our method revealed the persistent proteomic signatures linked to three subtypes of breast cancer

  14. Identification of Proteins Involved in Carbohydrate Metabolism and Energy Metabolism Pathways and Their Regulation of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Wheat.

    PubMed

    Geng, Xingxia; Ye, Jiali; Yang, Xuetong; Li, Sha; Zhang, Lingli; Song, Xiyue

    2018-01-23

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) where no functional pollen is produced has important roles in wheat breeding. The anther is a unique organ for male gametogenesis and its abnormal development can cause male sterility. However, the mechanisms and regulatory networks related to plant male sterility are poorly understood. In this study, we conducted comparative analyses using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) of the pollen proteins in a CMS line and its wheat maintainer. Differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) were analyzed based on Gene Ontology classifications, metabolic pathways and transcriptional regulation networks using Blast2GO. We identified 5570 proteins based on 23,277 peptides, which matched with 73,688 spectra, including proteins in key pathways such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvate kinase and 6-phosphofructokinase 1 in the glycolysis pathway, isocitrate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-dehydrogenase and adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) synthases in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway. These proteins may comprise a network that regulates male sterility in wheat. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis, ATP assays and total sugar assays validated the iTRAQ results. These DAPs could be associated with abnormal pollen grain formation and male sterility. Our findings provide insights into the molecular mechanism related to male sterility in wheat.

  15. Cytoplasmic expression of C-MYC protein is associated with risk stratification of mantle cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yi; Zhang, Xi; Chen, Rui; Wei, Yan; Zou, Zhongmin; Chen, Xinghua

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the association of C-MYC protein expression and risk stratification in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), and to evaluate the utility of C-MYC protein as a prognostic biomarker in clinical practice. We conducted immunohistochemical staining of C-MYC, Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), CD8, Ki-67, p53 and SRY (sex determining region Y) -11 (SOX11) to investigate their expression in 64 patients with MCL. The staining results and other clinical data were evaluated for their roles in risk stratification of MCL cases using ANOVA, Chi-square, and Spearman's Rank correlation coefficient analysis. Immunohistochemical staining in our study indicated that SOX11, Ki-67 and p53 presented nuclear positivity of tumor cells, CD8 showed membrane positivity in infiltrating T lymphocytes while PD-L1 showed membrane and cytoplasmic positivity mainly in macrophage cells and little in tumor cells. We observed positive staining of C-MYC either in the nucleus or cytoplasm or in both subcellular locations. There were significant differences in cytoplasmic C-MYC expression, Ki-67 proliferative index of tumor cells, and CD8 positive tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (CD8+TIL) among three risk groups ( P  = 0.000, P  = 0.037 and P =0.020, respectively). However, no significant differences existed in the expression of nuclear C-MYC, SOX11, p53, and PD-L1 in MCL patients with low-, intermediate-, and high risks. In addition, patient age and serum LDH level were also significantly different among 3 groups of patients ( P  = 0.006 and P  = 0.000, respectively). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient analysis indicated that cytoplasmic C-MYC expression, Ki-67 index, age, WBC, as well as LDH level had significantly positive correlations with risk stratification ( P  = 0.000, 0.015, 0.000, 0.029 and 0.000, respectively), while CD8+TIL in tumor microenvironment negatively correlated with risk stratification of patients ( P  = 0.006). Patients with increased positive

  16. Region of Nipah virus C protein responsible for shuttling between the cytoplasm and nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Horie, Ryo; Yoneda, Misako, E-mail: yone@ims.u-tok

    Nipah virus (NiV) causes severe encephalitis in humans, with high mortality. NiV nonstructural C protein (NiV-C) is essential for its pathogenicity, but its functions are unclear. In this study, we focused on NiV-C trafficking in cells and found that it localizes predominantly in the cytoplasm but partly in the nucleus. An analysis of NiV-C mutants showed that amino acids 2, 21–24 and 110–139 of NiV-C are important for its localization in the cytoplasm. Inhibitor treatment indicates that the nuclear export determinant is not a classical CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal. We also determined that amino acids 60–75 and 72–75 were importantmore » for nuclear localization of NiV-C. Furthermore, NiV-C mutants that had lost their capacity for nuclear localization inhibited the interferon (IFN) response more strongly than complete NiV-C. These results indicate that the IFN-antagonist activity of NiV-C occurs in the cytoplasm. -- Highlights: •Nipah virus (NiV) infection resulted in high mortality, but effective treatment has not been established. •Several reports revealed that NiV nonstructural C protein (NiV-C) was essential for NiV pathogenicity, however, whole of NiV-C function is still unknown. •Although nonstructural C proteins of other Paramyxoviruses are expressed in similar mechanism and exert similar activity, subcellular localization and cellular targets are different. In this study, we evaluated the subcellular localization of NiV-C. •To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that NiV-C shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm. We also clarified that NiV-C has nuclear export signal and nuclear localization signal using NiV-C deleted, alanine substitution mutants and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fused proteins. •And we also showed that interferon (IFN) antagonist activity of NiV-C related to its subcellular localization. Our results indicate that NiV-C exert IFN antagonist activity in the cytoplasm.« less

  17. The Cytoplasmic Zinc Finger Protein ZPR1 Accumulates in the Nucleolus of Proliferating Cells

    PubMed Central

    Galcheva-Gargova, Zoya; Gangwani, Laxman; Konstantinov, Konstantin N.; Mikrut, Monique; Theroux, Steven J.; Enoch, Tamar; Davis, Roger J.

    1998-01-01

    The zinc finger protein ZPR1 translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus after treatment of cells with mitogens. The function of nuclear ZPR1 has not been defined. Here we demonstrate that ZPR1 accumulates in the nucleolus of proliferating cells. The role of ZPR1 was examined using a gene disruption strategy. Cells lacking ZPR1 are not viable. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that the loss of ZPR1 caused disruption of nucleolar function, including preribosomal RNA expression. These data establish ZPR1 as an essential protein that is required for normal nucleolar function in proliferating cells. PMID:9763455

  18. A Role for Cytoplasmic Structural Proteins in the Transport of Water and Salts in the Intestine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-08

    inic Structural Proteins in the Transport ot Water and Salts in the Intestine by Paula T. Beall., Ph.D. D)epartment of Physiol.ogy Baylor CotleP,(e of...Med(icine 1200 Moursund Houston, ’T’exas 77030 December 8, 1981 Reproduction in whole or in part is permitted for any purpose of the United States...Research N00014-81-K-0167 A Role for Cytoplasmic Structural Proteins in the .. :..... . .-. ..... TiTans~por’t of Wa• and Salts in ’tIeIntestine

  19. ZMYND10 stabilizes intermediate chain proteins in the cytoplasmic pre-assembly of dynein arms.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyeong Jee; Noh, Shin Hye; Han, Soo Min; Choi, Won-Il; Kim, Hye-Youn; Yu, Seyoung; Lee, Joon Suk; Rim, John Hoon; Lee, Min Goo; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm; Gee, Heon Yung

    2018-03-01

    Zinc finger MYND-type-containing 10 (ZMYND10), a cytoplasmic protein expressed in ciliated cells, causes primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) when mutated; however, its function is poorly understood. Therefore, in this study, we examined the roles of ZMYND10 using Zmynd10-/-mice exhibiting typical PCD phenotypes, including hydrocephalus and laterality defects. In these mutants, morphology, the number of motile cilia, and the 9+2 axoneme structure were normal; however, inner and outer dynein arms (IDA and ODA, respectively) were absent. ZMYND10 interacted with ODA components and proteins, including LRRC6, DYX1C1, and C21ORF59, implicated in the cytoplasmic pre-assembly of DAs, whose levels were significantly reduced in Zmynd10-/-mice. LRRC6 and DNAI1 were more stable when co-expressed with ZYMND10 than when expressed alone. DNAI2, which did not interact with ZMYND10, was not stabilized by co-expression with ZMYND10 alone, but was stabilized by co-expression with DNAI1 and ZMYND10, suggesting that ZMYND10 stabilized DNAI1, which subsequently stabilized DNAI2. Together, these results demonstrated that ZMYND10 regulated the early stage of DA cytoplasmic pre-assembly by stabilizing DNAI1.

  20. A comprehensive analysis of filamentous phage display vectors for cytoplasmic proteins: an analysis with different fluorescent proteins.

    PubMed

    Velappan, Nileena; Fisher, Hugh E; Pesavento, Emanuele; Chasteen, Leslie; D'Angelo, Sara; Kiss, Csaba; Longmire, Michelle; Pavlik, Peter; Bradbury, Andrew R M

    2010-03-01

    Filamentous phage display has been extensively used to select proteins with binding properties of specific interest. Although many different display platforms using filamentous phage have been described, no comprehensive comparison of their abilities to display similar proteins has been conducted. This is particularly important for the display of cytoplasmic proteins, which are often poorly displayed with standard filamentous phage vectors. In this article, we have analyzed the ability of filamentous phage to display a stable form of green fluorescent protein and modified variants in nine different display vectors, a number of which have been previously proposed as being suitable for cytoplasmic protein display. Correct folding and display were assessed by phagemid particle fluorescence, and with anti-GFP antibodies. The poor correlation between phagemid particle fluorescence and recognition of GFP by antibodies, indicates that proteins may fold correctly without being accessible for display. The best vector used a twin arginine transporter leader to transport the displayed protein to the periplasm, and a coil-coil arrangement to link the displayed protein to g3p. This vector was able to display less robust forms of GFP, including ones with inserted epitopes, as well as fluorescent proteins of the Azami green series. It was also functional in mock selection experiments.

  1. Translation repression via modulation of the cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein in the inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xu; Chen, Xiaoli; Liu, Qiuying; Zhang, Shaojie; Hu, Wenqian

    2017-01-01

    Gene expression is precisely regulated during the inflammatory response to control infection and limit the detrimental effects of inflammation. Here, we profiled global mRNA translation dynamics in the mouse primary macrophage-mediated inflammatory response and identified hundreds of differentially translated mRNAs. These mRNAs’ 3’UTRs have enriched binding motifs for several RNA-binding proteins, which implies extensive translational regulatory networks. We characterized one such protein, Zfp36, as a translation repressor. Using primary macrophages from a Zfp36-V5 epitope tagged knock-in mouse generated by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing, we found that the endogenous Zfp36 directly interacts with the cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein. Importantly, this interaction is required for the translational repression of Zfp36’s target mRNAs in resolving inflammation. Altogether, these results uncovered critical roles of translational regulations in controlling appropriate gene expression during the inflammatory response and revealed a new biologically relevant molecular mechanism of translational repression via modulating the cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.27786.001 PMID:28635594

  2. The poly(rC)-binding protein αCP2 is a noncanonical factor in X. laevis cytoplasmic polyadenylation

    PubMed Central

    Vishnu, Melanie R.; Sumaroka, Marina; Klein, Peter S.; Liebhaber, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    Post-transcriptional control of mRNA stability and translation is central to multiple developmental pathways. This control can be linked to cytoplasmic polyadenylation in certain settings. In maturing Xenopus oocytes, specific mRNAs are targeted for polyadenylation via recruitment of the Cytoplasmic Polyadenylation Element (CPE) binding protein (CPEB) to CPE(s) within the 3′ UTR. Cytoplasmic polyadenylation is also critical to early embryonic events, although corresponding determinants are less defined. Here, we demonstrate that the Xenopus ortholog of the poly(rC) binding protein αCP2 can recruit cytoplasmic poly(A) polymerase activity to mRNAs in Xenopus post-fertilization embryos, and that this recruitment relies on cis sequences recognized by αCP2. We find that the hα-globin 3′ UTR, a validated mammalian αCP2 target, constitutes an effective target for cytoplasmic polyadenylation in Xenopus embryos, but not during Xenopus oocyte maturation. We further demonstrate that the cytoplasmic polyadenylation activity is dependent on the action of the C-rich αCP-binding site in conjunction with the adjacent AAUAAA. Consistent with its ability to target mRNA for poly(A) addition, we find that XαCP2 associates with core components of the Xenopus cytoplasmic polyadenylation complex, including the cytoplasmic poly(A) polymerase XGLD2. Furthermore, we observe that the C-rich αCP-binding site can robustly enhance the activity of a weak canonical oocyte maturation CPE in early embryos, possibly via a direct interaction between XαCP2 and CPEB1. These studies establish XαCP2 as a novel cytoplasmic polyadenylation trans factor, indicate that C-rich sequences can function as noncanonical cytoplasmic polyadenylation elements, and expand our understanding of the complexities underlying cytoplasmic polyadenylation in specific developmental settings. PMID:21444632

  3. Region of Nipah virus C protein responsible for shuttling between the cytoplasm and nucleus.

    PubMed

    Horie, Ryo; Yoneda, Misako; Uchida, Shotaro; Sato, Hiroki; Kai, Chieko

    2016-10-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) causes severe encephalitis in humans, with high mortality. NiV nonstructural C protein (NiV-C) is essential for its pathogenicity, but its functions are unclear. In this study, we focused on NiV-C trafficking in cells and found that it localizes predominantly in the cytoplasm but partly in the nucleus. An analysis of NiV-C mutants showed that amino acids 2, 21-24 and 110-139 of NiV-C are important for its localization in the cytoplasm. Inhibitor treatment indicates that the nuclear export determinant is not a classical CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal. We also determined that amino acids 60-75 and 72-75 were important for nuclear localization of NiV-C. Furthermore, NiV-C mutants that had lost their capacity for nuclear localization inhibited the interferon (IFN) response more strongly than complete NiV-C. These results indicate that the IFN-antagonist activity of NiV-C occurs in the cytoplasm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Poliovirus infection induces the co-localization of cellular protein SRp20 with TIA-1, a cytoplasmic stress granule protein.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kerry D; Semler, Bert L

    2013-09-01

    Different types of environmental stress cause mammalian cells to form cytoplasmic foci, termed stress granules, which contain mRNPs that are translationally silenced. These foci are transient and dynamic, and contain components of the cellular translation machinery as well as certain mRNAs and RNA binding proteins. Stress granules are known to be induced by conditions such as hypoxia, nutrient deprivation, and oxidative stress, and a number of cellular factors have been identified that are commonly associated with these foci. More recently it was discovered that poliovirus infection also induces the formation of stress granules, although these cytoplasmic foci appear to be somewhat compositionally unique. Work described here examined the punctate pattern of SRp20 (a host cell mRNA splicing protein) localization in the cytoplasm of poliovirus-infected cells, demonstrating the partial co-localization of SRp20 with the stress granule marker protein TIA-1. We determined that SRp20 does not co-localize with TIA-1, however, under conditions of oxidative stress, indicating that the close association of these two proteins during poliovirus infection is not representative of a general response to cellular stress. We confirmed that the expression of a dominant negative version of TIA-1 (TIA-1-PRD) results in the dissociation of stress granules. Finally, we demonstrated that expression of wild type TIA-1 or dominant negative TIA-1-PRD in cells during poliovirus infection does not dramatically affect viral translation. Taken together, these studies provide a new example of the unique cytoplasmic foci that form during poliovirus infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Poliovirus infection induces the co-localization of cellular protein SRp20 with TIA-1, a cytoplasmic stress granule protein

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Kerry D.; Semler, Bert L.

    2013-01-01

    Different types of environmental stress cause mammalian cells to form cytoplasmic foci, termed stress granules, which contain mRNPs that are translationally silenced. These foci are transient and dynamic, and contain components of the cellular translation machinery as well as certain mRNAs and RNA binding proteins. Stress granules are known to be induced by conditions such as hypoxia, nutrient deprivation, and oxidative stress, and a number of cellular factors have been identified that are commonly associated with these foci. More recently it was discovered that poliovirus infection also induces the formation of stress granules, although these cytoplasmic foci appear to be somewhat compositionally unique. Work described here examined the punctate pattern of SRp20 (a host cell mRNA splicing protein) localization in the cytoplasm of poliovirus-infected cells, demonstrating the partial co-localization of SRp20 with the stress granule marker protein TIA-1. We determined that SRp20 does not co-localize with TIA-1, however, under conditions of oxidative stress, indicating that the close association of these two proteins during poliovirus infection is not representative of a general response to cellular stress. We confirmed that the expression of a dominant negative version of TIA-1 (TIA-1-PRD) results in the dissociation of stress granules. Finally, we demonstrated that expression of wild type TIA-1 or dominant negative TIA-1-PRD in cells during poliovirus infection does not dramatically affect viral translation. Taken together, these studies provide a new example of the unique cytoplasmic foci that form during poliovirus infection. PMID:23830997

  6. N-Myc Interactor Inhibits Prototype Foamy Virus by Sequestering Viral Tas Protein in the Cytoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaomei; Yang, Wei; Liu, Ruikang; Geng, Yunqi; Qiao, Wentao

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Foamy viruses (FVs) are complex retroviruses that establish lifelong persistent infection without evident pathology. However, the roles of cellular factors in FV latency are poorly understood. This study revealed that N-Myc interactor (Nmi) could inhibit the replication of prototype foamy virus (PFV). Overexpression of Nmi reduced PFV replication, whereas its depletion by small interfering RNA increased PFV replication. The Nmi-mediated impairment of PFV replication resulted from the diminished transactivation by PFV Tas of the viral long terminal repeat (LTR) and an internal promoter (IP). Nmi was determined to interact with Tas and abrogate its function by sequestration in the cytoplasm. In addition, human and bovine Nmi proteins were found to inhibit the replication of bovine foamy virus (BFV) and PFV. Together, these results indicate that Nmi inhibits both human and bovine FVs by interfering with the transactivation function of Tas and may have a role in the host defense against FV infection. IMPORTANCE From this study, we report that the N-Myc interactor (Nmi), an interferon-induced protein, can interact with the regulatory protein Tas of the prototype foamy virus and sequester it in the cytoplasm. The results of this study suggest that Nmi plays an important role in maintaining foamy virus latency and may reveal a new pathway in the interferon-mediated antiviral barrier against viruses. These findings are important for understanding virus-host relationships not only with FVs but potentially for other retroviruses as well. PMID:24719420

  7. SH2 and SH3 domains: elements that control interactions of cytoplasmic signaling proteins.

    PubMed

    Koch, C A; Anderson, D; Moran, M F; Ellis, C; Pawson, T

    1991-05-03

    Src homology (SH) regions 2 and 3 are noncatalytic domains that are conserved among a series of cytoplasmic signaling proteins regulated by receptor protein-tyrosine kinases, including phospholipase C-gamma, Ras GTPase (guanosine triphosphatase)-activating protein, and Src-like tyrosine kinases. The SH2 domains of these signaling proteins bind tyrosine phosphorylated polypeptides, implicated in normal signaling and cellular transformation. Tyrosine phosphorylation acts as a switch to induce the binding of SH2 domains, thereby mediating the formation of heteromeric protein complexes at or near the plasma membrane. The formation of these complexes is likely to control the activation of signal transduction pathways by tyrosine kinases. The SH3 domain is a distinct motif that, together with SH2, may modulate interactions with the cytoskeleton and membrane. Some signaling and transforming proteins contain SH2 and SH3 domains unattached to any known catalytic element. These noncatalytic proteins may serve as adaptors to link tyrosine kinases to specific target proteins. These observations suggest that SH2 and SH3 domains participate in the control of intracellular responses to growth factor stimulation.

  8. Coulomb interactions between cytoplasmic electric fields and phosphorylated messenger proteins optimize information flow in cells.

    PubMed

    Gatenby, Robert A; Frieden, B Roy

    2010-08-11

    Normal cell function requires timely and accurate transmission of information from receptors on the cell membrane (CM) to the nucleus. Movement of messenger proteins in the cytoplasm is thought to be dependent on random walk. However, Brownian motion will disperse messenger proteins throughout the cytosol resulting in slow and highly variable transit times. We propose that a critical component of information transfer is an intracellular electric field generated by distribution of charge on the nuclear membrane (NM). While the latter has been demonstrated experimentally for decades, the role of the consequent electric field has been assumed to be minimal due to a Debye length of about 1 nanometer that results from screening by intracellular Cl- and K+. We propose inclusion of these inorganic ions in the Debye-Huckel equation is incorrect because nuclear pores allow transit through the membrane at a rate far faster than the time to thermodynamic equilibrium. In our model, only the charged, mobile messenger proteins contribute to the Debye length. Using this revised model and published data, we estimate the NM possesses a Debye-Huckel length of a few microns and find this is consistent with recent measurement using intracellular nano-voltmeters. We demonstrate the field will accelerate isolated messenger proteins toward the nucleus through Coulomb interactions with negative charges added by phosphorylation. We calculate transit times as short as 0.01 sec. When large numbers of phosphorylated messenger proteins are generated by increasing concentrations of extracellular ligands, we demonstrate they generate a self-screening environment that regionally attenuates the cytoplasmic field, slowing movement but permitting greater cross talk among pathways. Preliminary experimental results with phosphorylated RAF are consistent with model predictions. This work demonstrates that previously unrecognized Coulomb interactions between phosphorylated messenger proteins and

  9. RipA, a Cytoplasmic Membrane Protein Conserved among Francisella Species, Is Required for Intracellular Survival▿

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, James R.; Craven, Robin R.; Hall, Joshua D.; Kijek, Todd M.; Taft-Benz, Sharon; Kawula, Thomas H.

    2008-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent bacterial pathogen that invades and replicates within numerous host cell types, including macrophages and epithelial cells. In an effort to better understand this process, we screened a transposon insertion library of the F. tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) for mutant strains that invaded but failed to replicate within alveolar epithelial cell lines. One such strain isolated from this screen contained an insertion in the gene FTL_1914, which is conserved among all sequenced Francisella species yet lacks significant homology to any gene with known function. A deletion strain lacking FTL_1914 was constructed. This strain did not replicate in either epithelial or macrophage-like cells, and intracellular replication was restored by the wild-type allele in trans. Based on the deletion mutant phenotype, FTL_1914 was termed ripA (required for intracellular proliferation, factor A). Following uptake by J774.A1 cells, F. tularensis LVS ΔripA colocalized with LAMP-1 then escaped the phagosome at the same rate and frequency as wild-type LVS-infected cells. Electron micrographs of the F. tularensis LVS ΔripA mutant demonstrated the reentry of the mutant bacteria into double membrane vacuoles characteristic of autophagosomes in a process that was not dependent on replication. The F. tularensis LVS ΔripA mutant was significantly impaired in its ability to persist in the lung and in its capacity to disseminate and colonize the liver and spleen in a mouse model of pulmonary tularemia. The RipA protein was expressed during growth in laboratory media and localized to the cytoplasmic membrane. Thus, RipA is a cytoplasmic membrane protein conserved among Francisella species that is required for intracellular replication within the host cell cytoplasm as well as disease progression, dissemination, and virulence. PMID:18765722

  10. Sequence and characterization of cytoplasmic nuclear protein import factor p97

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear location sequence-mediated binding of karyophilic proteins to the nuclear pore complexes is one of the earliest steps in nuclear protein import. We previously identified two cytosolic proteins that reconstitute this step in a permeabilized cell assay: the 54/56-kD NLS receptor and p97. A monoclonal antibody to p97 localizes the protein to the cytoplasm and the nuclear envelope. p97 is extracted from nuclear envelopes under the same conditions as the O-glycosylated nucleoporins indicating a tight association with the pore complex. The antibody inhibits import in a permeabilized cell assay but does not affect binding of karyophiles to the nuclear pore complex. Immunodepletion of p97 renders the cytosol inactive for import and identifies at least three other cytosolic proteins that interact with p97. cDNA cloning of p97 shows that it is a unique protein containing 23 cysteine residues. Recombinant p97 binds zinc and a bound metal ion is required for the nuclear envelope binding activity of the protein. PMID:7615630

  11. Proteomic Approach for Extracting Cytoplasmic Proteins from Streptococcus sanguinis using Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    El-Rami, Fadi; Nelson, Kristina; Xu, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus sanguinis is a commensal and early colonizer of oral cavity as well as an opportunistic pathogen of infectious endocarditis. Extracting the soluble proteome of this bacterium provides deep insights about the physiological dynamic changes under different growth and stress conditions, thus defining “proteomic signatures” as targets for therapeutic intervention. In this protocol, we describe an experimentally verified approach to extract maximal cytoplasmic proteins from Streptococcus sanguinis SK36 strain. A combination of procedures was adopted that broke the thick cell wall barrier and minimized denaturation of the intracellular proteome, using optimized buffers and a sonication step. Extracted proteome was quantitated using Pierce BCA Protein Quantitation assay and protein bands were macroscopically assessed by Coomassie Blue staining. Finally, a high resolution detection of the extracted proteins was conducted through Synapt G2Si mass spectrometer, followed by label-free relative quantification via Progenesis QI. In conclusion, this pipeline for proteomic extraction and analysis of soluble proteins provides a fundamental tool in deciphering the biological complexity of Streptococcus sanguinis. PMID:29152022

  12. The Cytoplasmic Adaptor Protein Dok7 Activates the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase MuSK via Dimerization

    SciTech Connect

    Bergamin, E.; Hallock, P; Burden, S

    Formation of the vertebrate neuromuscular junction requires, among others proteins, Agrin, a neuronally derived ligand, and the following muscle proteins: LRP4, the receptor for Agrin; MuSK, a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK); and Dok7 (or Dok-7), a cytoplasmic adaptor protein. Dok7 comprises a pleckstrin-homology (PH) domain, a phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain, and C-terminal sites of tyrosine phosphorylation. Unique among adaptor proteins recruited to RTKs, Dok7 is not only a substrate of MuSK, but also an activator of MuSK's kinase activity. Here, we present the crystal structure of the Dok7 PH-PTB domains in complex with a phosphopeptide representing the Dok7-binding site on MuSK.more » The structure and biochemical data reveal a dimeric arrangement of Dok7 PH-PTB that facilitates trans-autophosphorylation of the kinase activation loop. The structure provides the molecular basis for MuSK activation by Dok7 and for rationalizing several Dok7 loss-of-function mutations found in patients with congenital myasthenic syndromes.« less

  13. MreB-Dependent Organization of the E. coli Cytoplasmic Membrane Controls Membrane Protein Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Oswald, Felix; Varadarajan, Aravindan; Lill, Holger; Peterman, Erwin J G; Bollen, Yves J M

    2016-03-08

    The functional organization of prokaryotic cell membranes, which is essential for many cellular processes, has been challenging to analyze due to the small size and nonflat geometry of bacterial cells. Here, we use single-molecule fluorescence microscopy and three-dimensional quantitative analyses in live Escherichia coli to demonstrate that its cytoplasmic membrane contains microdomains with distinct physical properties. We show that the stability of these microdomains depends on the integrity of the MreB cytoskeletal network underneath the membrane. We explore how the interplay between cytoskeleton and membrane affects trans-membrane protein (TMP) diffusion and reveal that the mobility of the TMPs tested is subdiffusive, most likely caused by confinement of TMP mobility by the submembranous MreB network. Our findings demonstrate that the dynamic architecture of prokaryotic cell membranes is controlled by the MreB cytoskeleton and regulates the mobility of TMPs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. C57BL/6N mutation in Cytoplasmic FMR interacting protein 2 regulates cocaine response

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vivek; Kim, Kyungin; Joseph, Chryshanthi; Kourrich, Saïd; Yoo, Seung Hee; Huang, Hung Chung; Vitaterna, Martha H.; de Villena, Fernando Pardo-Manuel; Churchill, Gary; Bonci, Antonello; Takahashi, Joseph S.

    2015-01-01

    The inbred mouse C57BL/6J is the reference strain for genome sequence and for most behavioral and physiological phenotypes. However the International Knockout Mouse Consortium uses an embryonic stem cell line derived from a related C57BL/6N substrain. We found that C57BL/6N has lower acute and sensitized response to cocaine and methamphetamine. We mapped a single causative locus and identified a non-synonymous mutation of serine to phenylalanine (S968F) in Cytoplasmic FMR interacting protein 2 (Cyfip2) as the causative variant. The S968F mutation destabilizes CYFIP2 and deletion of the C57BL/6N mutant allele leads to acute and sensitized cocaine response phenotypes. We propose CYFIP2 is a key regulator of cocaine response in mammals and present a framework to utilize mouse substrains to discover novel genes and alleles regulating behavior. PMID:24357318

  15. Climate shapes the protein abundance of dominant soil bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bastida, Felipe; Crowther, Tom W; Prieto, Iván; Routh, Devin; García, Carlos; Jehmlich, Nico

    2018-05-28

    Sensitive models of climate change impacts would require a better integration of multi-omics approaches that connect the abundance and activity of microbial populations. Here, we show that climate is a fundamental driver of the protein abundance of Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes and Proteobacteria, supporting the hypothesis that metabolic activity of some dominant phyla may be closely linked to climate. These results may improve our capacity to construct microbial models that better predict the impact of climate change in ecosystem processes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. An ABC transporter B family protein, ABCB19, is required for cytoplasmic streaming and gravitropism of the inflorescence stems.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Keishi; Ueda, Haruko; Shimada, Tomoo; Tamura, Kentaro; Koumoto, Yasuko; Tasaka, Masao; Morita, Miyo Terao; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

    2016-01-01

    A significant feature of plant cells is the extensive motility of organelles and the cytosol, which was originally defined as cytoplasmic streaming. We suggested previously that a three-way interaction between plant-specific motor proteins myosin XIs, actin filaments, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was responsible for cytoplasmic streaming. (1) Currently, however, there are no reports of molecular components for cytoplasmic streaming other than the actin-myosin-cytoskeleton and ER-related proteins. In the present study, we found that elongated cells of inflorescence stems of Arabidopsis thaliana exhibit vigorous cytoplasmic streaming. Statistical analysis showed that the maximal velocity of plastid movements is 7.26 µm/s, which is much faster than the previously reported velocities of organelles. Surprisingly, the maximal velocity of streaming in the inflorescence stem cells was significantly reduced to 1.11 µm/s in an Arabidopsis mutant, abcb19-101, which lacks ATP BINDING CASSETTE SUBFAMILY B19 (ABCB19) that mediates the polar transport of the phytohormone auxin together with PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins. Polar auxin transport establishes the auxin concentration gradient essential for plant development and tropisms. Deficiency of ABCB19 activity eventually caused enhanced gravitropic responses of the inflorescence stems and abnormally flexed inflorescence stems. These results suggest that ABCB19-mediated auxin transport plays a role not only in tropism regulation, but also in cytoplasmic streaming.

  17. [Preliminary proteomics analysis of the total proteins of HL Type cytoplasmic male sterility rice anther].

    PubMed

    Wen, Li; Liu, Gai; Zhang, Zai-Jun; Tao, Jun; Wan, Cui-Xiang; Zhu, Ying-Guo

    2006-03-01

    The proteins of HL type cytoplasmic male sterility rice anther of YTA (CMS) and YTB (maintenance line) were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis with immobilized ph (3-10 non-linear) gradients as the first dimension and SDS-PAGE as the second. The silver-stained proteins spots were analyzed using Image Master 2D software, there were about 1800 detectable spots on each 2D-gel, and about 85 spots were differential expressed. With direct MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis and protein database searching, 9 protein spots out of 16 were identified. Among those proteins, there were Putative nucleic acid binding protein, glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase (ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, AGPase) (EC: 2.7.7.27) large chain, UDP-glucuronic acid decarboxylase, putative calcium-binding protein annexin, putative acetyl-CoA synthetase and putative lipoamide dehydrogenase etc. They were closely associated with metabolism, protein biosynthesis, transcription, signal transduction and so on, all of which are cell activities that are essential to pollen development. Some of the identified proteins, i.e. AGPase, putative lipoamide dehydrogenase and putative acetyl-CoA synthetase were deeply discussed on the relationship to CMS. AGPase catalyzes a very important step in the biosynthesis of alpha 1,4-glucans (glycogen or starch) in bacteria and plants: synthesis of the activated glucosyl donor, ADP-glucose, from glucose-1-phosphate and ATP. The lack of the AGPase in male sterile line might directly result in the reduction of starch, and the synthesis of starch was the most important processes during the development of pollen. In present research, the descent or reduction of putative lipoamide dehydrogenase and putative acetyl-CoA synthetase seemed involved in pollen sterility in rice. The degeneration and formation of various tissues during pollen development may impose high demands for energy and key biosynthetic intermediates. Under such conditions, the TCA cycle needs

  18. New Proteins Involved in Sulfur Trafficking in the Cytoplasm of Allochromatium vinosum*

    PubMed Central

    Stockdreher, Yvonne; Sturm, Marga; Josten, Michaele; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Dobler, Nadine; Zigann, Renate; Dahl, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    The formation of periplasmic sulfur globules is an intermediate step during the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds in various sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms. The mechanism of how this sulfur is activated and crosses the cytoplasmic membrane for further oxidation to sulfite by the dissimilatory reductase DsrAB is incompletely understood, but it has been well documented that the pathway involves sulfur trafficking mediated by sulfur-carrying proteins. So far sulfur transfer from DsrEFH to DsrC has been established. Persulfurated DsrC very probably serves as a direct substrate for DsrAB. Here, we introduce further important players in oxidative sulfur metabolism; the proteins Rhd_2599, TusA, and DsrE2 are strictly conserved in the Chromatiaceae, Chlorobiaceae, and Acidithiobacillaceae families of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and are linked to genes encoding complexes involved in sulfur oxidation (Dsr or Hdr) in the latter two. Here we show via relative quantitative real-time PCR and microarray analysis an increase of mRNA levels under sulfur-oxidizing conditions for rhd_2599, tusA, and dsrE2 in Allochromatium vinosum. Transcriptomic patterns for the three genes match those of major genes for the sulfur-oxidizing machinery rather than those involved in biosynthesis of sulfur-containing biomolecules. TusA appears to be one of the major proteins in A. vinosum. A rhd_2599-tusA-dsrE2-deficient mutant strain, although not viable in liquid culture, was clearly sulfur oxidation negative upon growth on solid media containing sulfide. Rhd_2599, TusA, and DsrE2 bind sulfur atoms via conserved cysteine residues, and experimental evidence is provided for the transfer of sulfur between these proteins as well as to DsrEFH and DsrC. PMID:24648525

  19. Interactions of cullin3/KCTD5 complexes with both cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins: Evidence for a role in protein stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Rutz, Natalja; Heilbronn, Regine; Weger, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.weger@charite.de

    2015-08-28

    Based on its specific interaction with cullin3 mediated by an N-terminal BTB/POZ homologous domain, KCTD5 has been proposed to function as substrate adapter for cullin3 based ubiquitin E3 ligases. In the present study we tried to validate this hypothesis through identification and characterization of additional KCTD5 interaction partners. For the replication protein MCM7, the zinc finger protein ZNF711 and FAM193B, a yet poorly characterized cytoplasmic protein, we could demonstrate specific interaction with KCTD5 both in yeast two-hybrid and co-precipitation studies in mammalian cells. Whereas trimeric complexes of cullin3 and KCTD5 with the respective KCTD5 binding partner were formed, KCTD5/cullin3 inducedmore » polyubiquitylation and/or proteasome-dependent degradation of these binding partners could not be demonstrated. On the contrary, KCTD5 or Cullin3 overexpression increased ZNF711 protein stability. - Highlights: • KCTD5 nuclear translocation depends upon M phase and protein oligomerization. • Identification of MCM7, ZNF711 and FAM193 as KCTD5 interaction partners. • Formation of trimeric complexes of KCTD5/cullin3 with MCM7, ZNF711 and FAM193B. • KCTD5 is not involved in polyubiquitylation of MCM7 replication factor. • The KCTD5/cullin3 complex stabilizes ZNF711 transcription factor.« less

  20. Cytoplasmic Motifs in the Nipah Virus Fusion Protein Modulate Virus Particle Assembly and Egress.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Gunner P; Contreras, Erik M; Dabundo, Jeffrey; Henderson, Bryce A; Matz, Keesha M; Ortega, Victoria; Ramirez, Alfredo; Park, Arnold; Aguilar, Hector C

    2017-05-15

    Nipah virus (NiV), a paramyxovirus in the genus Henipavirus , has a mortality rate in humans of approximately 75%. While several studies have begun our understanding of NiV particle formation, the mechanism of this process remains to be fully elucidated. For many paramyxoviruses, M proteins drive viral assembly and egress; however, some paramyxoviral glycoproteins have been reported as important or essential in budding. For NiV the matrix protein (M), the fusion glycoprotein (F) and, to a much lesser extent, the attachment glycoprotein (G) autonomously induce the formation of virus-like particles (VLPs). However, functional interactions between these proteins during assembly and egress remain to be fully understood. Moreover, if the F-driven formation of VLPs occurs through interactions with host cell machinery, the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of F is a likely interactive domain. Therefore, we analyzed NiV F CT deletion and alanine mutants and report that several but not all regions of the F CT are necessary for efficient VLP formation. Two of these regions contain YXXØ or dityrosine motifs previously shown to interact with cellular machinery involved in F endocytosis and transport. Importantly, our results showed that F-driven, M-driven, and M/F-driven viral particle formation enhanced the recruitment of G into VLPs. By identifying key motifs, specific residues, and functional viral protein interactions important for VLP formation, we improve our understanding of the viral assembly/egress process and point to potential interactions with host cell machinery. IMPORTANCE Henipaviruses can cause deadly infections of medical, veterinary, and agricultural importance. With recent discoveries of new henipa-like viruses, understanding the mechanisms by which these viruses reproduce is paramount. We have focused this study on identifying the functional interactions of three Nipah virus proteins during viral assembly and particularly on the role of one of these proteins, the

  1. Ca sup 2+ binding capacity of cytoplasmic proteins from rod photoreceptors is mainly due to arrestin

    SciTech Connect

    Huppertz, B.; Weyand, I.; Bauer, P.J.

    1990-06-05

    Arrestin (also called S-antigen or 48-kDa protein) binds to photoexcited and phosphorylated rhodopsin and, thereby, blocks competitively the activation of transducin. Using Ca{sup 2+} titration in the presence of the indicator arsenazo III and {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} autoradiography, we show that arrestin is a Ca2(+)-binding protein. The Ca{sup 2+} binding capacity of arresting-containing protein extracts from bovine rod outer segments is about twice as high as that of arrestin-depleted extracts. The difference in the Ca{sup 2+} binding of arrestin-containing and arrestin-depleted protein extracts was attributed to arrestin. Both, these difference-measurements of protein extracts and the measurements of purified arrestin yieldmore » dissociation constants for the Ca{sup 2+} binding of arrestin between 2 and 4 microM. The titration curves are consistent with a molar ratio of one Ca{sup 2+} binding site per arrestin. No Ca{sup 2+} binding in the micromolar range was found in extracts containing mainly transducin and cGMP-phosphodiesterase. Since arrestin is one of the most abundant proteins in rod photoreceptors occurring presumably up to millimolar concentrations in rod outer segments, we suggest that aside from its function to prevent the activation of transducin, arrestin acts probably as an intracellular Ca{sup 2+} buffer.« less

  2. Detection of Antibodies to Brucella Cytoplasmic Proteins in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Neurobrucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Baldi, Pablo C.; Araj, George F.; Racaro, Graciela C.; Wallach, Jorge C.; Fossati, Carlos A.

    1999-01-01

    The diagnosis of human neurobrucellosis usually relies on the detection of antibodies to Brucella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by agglutination tests or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Here we describe the detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to cytoplasmic proteins (CP) of Brucella spp. by ELISA and Western blotting in seven CSF samples from five patients with neurobrucellosis. While IgG to CP (titers of 200 to 12,800) and IgG to LPS (800 to 6,400) were found in the CSF of these patients, these antibodies were not detected in CSF samples from two patients who had systemic brucellosis without neurological involvement. The latter, however, had serum IgG and IgM to both LPS and CP. No reactivity to these antigens was found in CSF samples from 14 and 20 patients suffering from nonbrucellar meningitis and noninfectious diseases, respectively. These findings suggest that, in addition to its usefulness in the serological diagnosis of human systemic brucellosis, the ELISA with CP antigen can be used for the specific diagnosis of human neurobrucellosis. PMID:10473531

  3. Macrophage Fusion Is Controlled by the Cytoplasmic Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase PTP-PEST/PTPN12

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Inmoo; Davidson, Dominique; Souza, Cleiton Martins; Vacher, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages can undergo cell-cell fusion, leading to the formation of multinucleated giant cells and osteoclasts. This process is believed to promote the proteolytic activity of macrophages toward pathogens, foreign bodies, and extracellular matrices. Here, we examined the role of PTP-PEST (PTPN12), a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase, in macrophage fusion. Using a macrophage-targeted PTP-PEST-deficient mouse, we determined that PTP-PEST was not needed for macrophage differentiation or cytokine production. However, it was necessary for interleukin-4-induced macrophage fusion into multinucleated giant cells in vitro. It was also needed for macrophage fusion following implantation of a foreign body in vivo. Moreover, in the RAW264.7 macrophage cell line, PTP-PEST was required for receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)-triggered macrophage fusion into osteoclasts. PTP-PEST had no impact on expression of fusion mediators such as β-integrins, E-cadherin, and CD47, which enable macrophages to become fusion competent. However, it was needed for polarization of macrophages, migration induced by the chemokine CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), and integrin-induced spreading, three key events in the fusion process. PTP-PEST deficiency resulted in specific hyperphosphorylation of the protein tyrosine kinase Pyk2 and the adaptor paxillin. Moreover, a fusion defect was induced upon treatment of normal macrophages with a Pyk2 inhibitor. Together, these data argue that macrophage fusion is critically dependent on PTP-PEST. This function is seemingly due to the ability of PTP-PEST to control phosphorylation of Pyk2 and paxillin, thereby regulating cell polarization, migration, and spreading. PMID:23589331

  4. Antineutrophil cytoplasm autoantibodies against bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed Central

    Walmsley, R S; Zhao, M H; Hamilton, M I; Brownlee, A; Chapman, P; Pounder, R E; Wakefield, A J; Lockwood, C M

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), a constituent of primary neutrophil granules, is a potent natural antibiotic and an antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody (ANCA) antigen in cases of vasculitis in which the target antigen is neither myeloperoxidase (MPO) nor proteinase-3 (PR3). AIM: To investigate BPI as a possible target antigen for ANCAs in inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: ANCAs were detected by routine immunofluorescence (IIF) and solid phase enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) performed for antibodies to the purified neutrophil granule proteins; MPO, PR3, cathepsin-G, lactoferrin, and BPI in serum samples from 88 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (36 with Crohn's disease, 52 with ulcerative colitis). Thirty patients with bacterial enteritis acted as controls. RESULTS: Significantly more patients with ulcerative colitis were ANCA positive by IIF (60%) than patients with Crohn's disease (28%) or infectious enteritis (23%) (p < 0.001). IgG anti-BPI antibodies were present in 29% of patients with ulcerative colitis, 14% of patients with Crohn's disease, and 23% of patients with infectious enteritis, occurring in 44% of those patients with inflammatory bowel disease who were ANCA positive by IIF. Antibodies to other ANCA antigens were rare. The presence of ANCAs was not related to either disease activity or extent; presence of anti-BPI antibodies was significantly related to both a lower serum albumin concentration (p = 0.001) and a higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate (p = 0.02) in patients with ulcerative colitis, and to colonic involvement in patients with Crohn's disease (p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: BPI is a significant minority target antigen for ANCAs in inflammatory bowel disease that seems related to colonic Crohn's disease and disease activity in ulcerative colitis. Anti-BPI antibodies occur in infectious enteritis. PMID:9155585

  5. Macrophage fusion is controlled by the cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP-PEST/PTPN12.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Inmoo; Davidson, Dominique; Souza, Cleiton Martins; Vacher, Jean; Veillette, André

    2013-06-01

    Macrophages can undergo cell-cell fusion, leading to the formation of multinucleated giant cells and osteoclasts. This process is believed to promote the proteolytic activity of macrophages toward pathogens, foreign bodies, and extracellular matrices. Here, we examined the role of PTP-PEST (PTPN12), a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase, in macrophage fusion. Using a macrophage-targeted PTP-PEST-deficient mouse, we determined that PTP-PEST was not needed for macrophage differentiation or cytokine production. However, it was necessary for interleukin-4-induced macrophage fusion into multinucleated giant cells in vitro. It was also needed for macrophage fusion following implantation of a foreign body in vivo. Moreover, in the RAW264.7 macrophage cell line, PTP-PEST was required for receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)-triggered macrophage fusion into osteoclasts. PTP-PEST had no impact on expression of fusion mediators such as β-integrins, E-cadherin, and CD47, which enable macrophages to become fusion competent. However, it was needed for polarization of macrophages, migration induced by the chemokine CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), and integrin-induced spreading, three key events in the fusion process. PTP-PEST deficiency resulted in specific hyperphosphorylation of the protein tyrosine kinase Pyk2 and the adaptor paxillin. Moreover, a fusion defect was induced upon treatment of normal macrophages with a Pyk2 inhibitor. Together, these data argue that macrophage fusion is critically dependent on PTP-PEST. This function is seemingly due to the ability of PTP-PEST to control phosphorylation of Pyk2 and paxillin, thereby regulating cell polarization, migration, and spreading.

  6. Cortical Polarity of the RING Protein PAR-2 Is Maintained by Exchange Rate Kinetics at the Cortical-Cytoplasmic Boundary.

    PubMed

    Arata, Yukinobu; Hiroshima, Michio; Pack, Chan-Gi; Ramanujam, Ravikrishna; Motegi, Fumio; Nakazato, Kenichi; Shindo, Yuki; Wiseman, Paul W; Sawa, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Tetsuya J; Brandão, Hugo B; Shibata, Tatsuo; Sako, Yasushi

    2016-08-23

    Cell polarity arises through the spatial segregation of polarity regulators. PAR proteins are polarity regulators that localize asymmetrically to two opposing cortical domains. However, it is unclear how the spatially segregated PAR proteins interact to maintain their mutually exclusive partitioning. Here, single-molecule detection analysis in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos reveals that cortical PAR-2 diffuses only short distances, and, as a result, most PAR-2 molecules associate and dissociate from the cortex without crossing into the opposing domain. Our results show that cortical PAR-2 asymmetry is maintained by the local exchange reactions that occur at the cortical-cytoplasmic boundary. Additionally, we demonstrate that local exchange reactions are sufficient to maintain cortical asymmetry in a parameter-free mathematical model. These findings suggest that anterior and posterior PAR proteins primarily interact through the cytoplasmic pool and not via cortical diffusion. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Detergent/Nanodisc Screening for High-Resolution NMR Studies of an Integral Membrane Protein Containing a Cytoplasmic Domain

    PubMed Central

    Maslennikov, Innokentiy; Choe, Senyon; Riek, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Because membrane proteins need to be extracted from their natural environment and reconstituted in artificial milieus for the 3D structure determination by X-ray crystallography or NMR, the search for membrane mimetic that conserve the native structure and functional activities remains challenging. We demonstrate here a detergent/nanodisc screening study by NMR of the bacterial α-helical membrane protein YgaP containing a cytoplasmic rhodanese domain. The analysis of 2D [15N,1H]-TROSY spectra shows that only a careful usage of low amounts of mixed detergents did not perturb the cytoplasmic domain while solubilizing in parallel the transmembrane segments with good spectral quality. In contrast, the incorporation of YgaP into nanodiscs appeared to be straightforward and yielded a surprisingly high quality [15N,1H]-TROSY spectrum opening an avenue for the structural studies of a helical membrane protein in a bilayer system by solution state NMR. PMID:23349867

  8. Hunting for low abundant redox proteins in plant plasma membranes.

    PubMed

    Lüthje, Sabine; Hopff, David; Schmitt, Anna; Meisrimler, Claudia-Nicole; Menckhoff, Ljiljana

    2009-04-13

    Nowadays electron transport (redox) systems in plasma membranes appear well established. Members of the flavocytochrome b family have been identified by their nucleotide acid sequences and characterized on the transcriptional level. For their gene products functions have been demonstrated in iron uptake and oxidative stress including biotic interactions, abiotic stress factors and plant development. In addition, NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductases and b-type cytochromes have been purified and characterized from plasma membranes. Several of these proteins seem to belong to the group of hypothetical or unknown proteins. Low abundance and the lack of amino acid sequence data for these proteins still hamper their functional analysis. Consequently, little is known about the physiological function and regulation of these enzymes. In recent years evidence has been presented for the existence of microdomains (so-called lipid rafts) in plasma membranes and their interaction with specific membrane proteins. The identification of redox systems in detergent insoluble membranes supports the idea that redox systems may have important functions in signal transduction, stress responses, cell wall metabolism, and transport processes. This review summarizes our present knowledge on plasma membrane redox proteins and discusses alternative strategies to investigate the function and regulation of these enzymes.

  9. Plasma proteomic analysis reveals altered protein abundances in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Lygirou, Vasiliki; Latosinska, Agnieszka; Makridakis, Manousos; Mullen, William; Delles, Christian; Schanstra, Joost P; Zoidakis, Jerome; Pieske, Burkert; Mischak, Harald; Vlahou, Antonia

    2018-04-17

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) describes the pathological conditions of the heart and blood vessels. Despite the large number of studies on CVD and its etiology, its key modulators remain largely unknown. To this end, we performed a comprehensive proteomic analysis of blood plasma, with the scope to identify disease-associated changes after placing them in the context of existing knowledge, and generate a well characterized dataset for further use in CVD multi-omics integrative analysis. LC-MS/MS was employed to analyze plasma from 32 subjects (19 cases of various CVD phenotypes and 13 controls) in two steps: discovery (13 cases and 8 controls) and test (6 cases and 5 controls) set analysis. Following label-free quantification, the detected proteins were correlated to existing plasma proteomics datasets (plasma proteome database; PPD) and functionally annotated (Cytoscape, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis). Differential expression was defined based on identification confidence (≥ 2 peptides per protein), statistical significance (Mann-Whitney p value ≤ 0.05) and a minimum of twofold change. Peptides detected in at least 50% of samples per group were considered, resulting in a total of 3796 identified proteins (838 proteins based on ≥ 2 peptides). Pathway annotation confirmed the functional relevance of the findings (representation of complement cascade, fibrin clot formation, platelet degranulation, etc.). Correlation of the relative abundance of the proteins identified in the discovery set with their reported concentrations in the PPD was significant, confirming the validity of the quantification method. The discovery set analysis revealed 100 differentially expressed proteins between cases and controls, 39 of which were verified (≥ twofold change) in the test set. These included proteins already studied in the context of CVD (such as apolipoprotein B, alpha-2-macroglobulin), as well as novel findings (such as low density lipoprotein receptor related

  10. The B7-1 Cytoplasmic Tail Enhances Intracellular Transport and Mammalian Cell Surface Display of Chimeric Proteins in the Absence of a Linear ER Export Motif

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi-Chieh; Chen, Bing-Mae; Lu, Wei-Cheng; Su, Chien-I; Prijovich, Zeljko M.; Chung, Wen-Chuan; Wu, Pei-Yu; Chen, Kai-Chuan; Lee, I-Chiao; Juan, Ting-Yi; Roffler, Steve R.

    2013-01-01

    Membrane-tethered proteins (mammalian surface display) are increasingly being used for novel therapeutic and biotechnology applications. Maximizing surface expression of chimeric proteins on mammalian cells is important for these applications. We show that the cytoplasmic domain from the B7-1 antigen, a commonly used element for mammalian surface display, can enhance the intracellular transport and surface display of chimeric proteins in a Sar1 and Rab1 dependent fashion. However, mutational, alanine scanning and deletion analysis demonstrate the absence of linear ER export motifs in the B7 cytoplasmic domain. Rather, efficient intracellular transport correlated with the presence of predicted secondary structure in the cytoplasmic tail. Examination of the cytoplasmic domains of 984 human and 782 mouse type I transmembrane proteins revealed that many previously identified ER export motifs are rarely found in the cytoplasmic tail of type I transmembrane proteins. Our results suggest that efficient intracellular transport of B7 chimeric proteins is associated with the structure rather than to the presence of a linear ER export motif in the cytoplasmic tail, and indicate that short (less than ~ 10-20 amino acids) and unstructured cytoplasmic tails should be avoided to express high levels of chimeric proteins on mammalian cells. PMID:24073236

  11. The nuclear protein Sam68 is cleaved by the FMDV 3C protease redistributing Sam68 to the cytoplasm during FMDV infection of host cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infection by a variety of viruses alters the nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking of certain host cell proteins. In our continued search for interacting factors, we reported the re-localization of RNA helicase A (RHA) from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in cells infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus ...

  12. A Fluorescent Live Imaging Screening Assay Based on Translocation Criteria Identifies Novel Cytoplasmic Proteins Implicated in G Protein-coupled Receptor Signaling Pathways*

    PubMed Central

    Lecat, Sandra; Matthes, Hans W.D.; Pepperkok, Rainer; Simpson, Jeremy C.; Galzi, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Several cytoplasmic proteins that are involved in G protein-coupled receptor signaling cascades are known to translocate to the plasma membrane upon receptor activation, such as beta-arrestin2. Based on this example and in order to identify new cytoplasmic proteins implicated in the ON-and-OFF cycle of G protein-coupled receptor, a live-imaging screen of fluorescently labeled cytoplasmic proteins was performed using translocation criteria. The screening of 193 fluorescently tagged human proteins identified eight proteins that responded to activation of the tachykinin NK2 receptor by a change in their intracellular localization. Previously we have presented the functional characterization of one of these proteins, REDD1, that translocates to the plasma membrane. Here we report the results of the entire screening. The process of cell activation was recorded on videos at different time points and all the videos can be visualized on a dedicated website. The proteins BAIAP3 and BIN1, partially translocated to the plasma membrane upon activation of NK2 receptors. Proteins ARHGAP12 and PKM2 translocated toward membrane blebs. Three proteins that associate with the cytoskeleton were of particular interest : PLEKHH2 rearranged from individual dots located near the cell-substrate adhesion surface into lines of dots. The speriolin-like protein, SPATC1L, redistributed to cell-cell junctions. The Chloride intracellular Channel protein, CLIC2, translocated from actin-enriched plasma membrane bundles to cell-cell junctions upon activation of NK2 receptors. CLIC2, and one of its close paralogs, CLIC4, were further shown to respond with the same translocation pattern to muscarinic M3 and lysophosphatidic LPA receptors. This screen allowed us to identify potential actors in signaling pathways downstream of G protein-coupled receptors and could be scaled-up for high-content screening. PMID:25759509

  13. A Fluorescent Live Imaging Screening Assay Based on Translocation Criteria Identifies Novel Cytoplasmic Proteins Implicated in G Protein-coupled Receptor Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Lecat, Sandra; Matthes, Hans W D; Pepperkok, Rainer; Simpson, Jeremy C; Galzi, Jean-Luc

    2015-05-01

    Several cytoplasmic proteins that are involved in G protein-coupled receptor signaling cascades are known to translocate to the plasma membrane upon receptor activation, such as beta-arrestin2. Based on this example and in order to identify new cytoplasmic proteins implicated in the ON-and-OFF cycle of G protein-coupled receptor, a live-imaging screen of fluorescently labeled cytoplasmic proteins was performed using translocation criteria. The screening of 193 fluorescently tagged human proteins identified eight proteins that responded to activation of the tachykinin NK2 receptor by a change in their intracellular localization. Previously we have presented the functional characterization of one of these proteins, REDD1, that translocates to the plasma membrane. Here we report the results of the entire screening. The process of cell activation was recorded on videos at different time points and all the videos can be visualized on a dedicated website. The proteins BAIAP3 and BIN1, partially translocated to the plasma membrane upon activation of NK2 receptors. Proteins ARHGAP12 and PKM2 translocated toward membrane blebs. Three proteins that associate with the cytoskeleton were of particular interest : PLEKHH2 rearranged from individual dots located near the cell-substrate adhesion surface into lines of dots. The speriolin-like protein, SPATC1L, redistributed to cell-cell junctions. The Chloride intracellular Channel protein, CLIC2, translocated from actin-enriched plasma membrane bundles to cell-cell junctions upon activation of NK2 receptors. CLIC2, and one of its close paralogs, CLIC4, were further shown to respond with the same translocation pattern to muscarinic M3 and lysophosphatidic LPA receptors. This screen allowed us to identify potential actors in signaling pathways downstream of G protein-coupled receptors and could be scaled-up for high-content screening. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Several protein regions contribute to determine the nuclear and cytoplasmic localization of the influenza A virus nucleoprotein.

    PubMed

    Bullido, R; Gómez-Puertas, P; Albo, C; Portela, A

    2000-01-01

    A systematic analysis was carried out to identify the amino acid signals that regulate the nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of the influenza A virus nucleoprotein (NP). The analysis involved determining the intracellular localization of eight deleted recombinant NP proteins and 14 chimeric proteins containing the green fluorescent protein fused to different NP fragments. In addition, the subcellular distribution of NP derivatives that contained specific substitutions at serine-3, which is the major phosphorylation site of the A/Victoria/3/75 NP, were analysed. From the results obtained, it is concluded that the NP contains three signals involved in nuclear accumulation and two regions that cause cytoplasmic accumulation of the fusion proteins. One of the karyophilic signals was located at the N terminus of the protein, and the data obtained suggest that the functionality of this signal can be modified by phosphorylation at serine-3. These findings are discussed in the context of the transport of influenza virus ribonucleoprotein complexes into and out of the nucleus.

  15. Human stanniocalcin-1 interacts with nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins and acts as a SUMO E3 ligase.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Marcos Tadeu; Trindade, Daniel Maragno; Gonçalves, Kaliandra de Almeida; Bressan, Gustavo Costa; Anastassopoulos, Filipe; Yunes, José Andres; Kobarg, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Human stanniocalcin-1 (STC1) is a glycoprotein that has been implicated in different physiological process, including angiogenesis, apoptosis and carcinogenesis. Here we identified STC1 as a putative molecular marker for the leukemic bone marrow microenvironment and identified new interacting protein partners for STC1. Seven selected interactions retrieved from yeast two-hybrid screens were confirmed by GST-pull down assays in vitro. The N-terminal region was mapped to be the region that mediates the interaction with cytoplasmic, mitochondrial and nuclear proteins. STC1 interacts with SUMO-1 and several proteins that have been shown to be SUMOylated and localized to SUMOylation related nuclear bodies. Although STC1 interacts with SUMO-1 and has a high theoretical prediction score for a SUMOylation site, endogenous co-immunoprecipitation and in vitro SUMOylation assays with the purified recombinant protein could not detect STC1 SUMOylation. However, when we tested STC1 for SUMO E3 ligase activity, we found in an in vitro assay, that it significantly increases the SUMOylation of two other proteins. Confocal microscopic subcellular localization studies using both transfected cells and specific antibodies for endogenous STC1 revealed a cytoplasmic and nuclear deposition, the latter in the form of some specific dot-like substructure resembling SUMOylation related nuclear bodies. Together, these findings suggest a new role for STC1 in SUMOylation pathways, in nuclear bodies.

  16. Roles for the Cytoplasmic Tails of the Fusion and Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase Proteins in Budding of the Paramyxovirus Simian Virus 5

    PubMed Central

    Waning, David L.; Schmitt, Anthony P.; Leser, George P.; Lamb, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    The efficient release of many enveloped viruses from cells involves the coalescence of viral components at sites of budding on the plasma membrane of infected cells. This coalescence is believed to require interactions between the cytoplasmic tails of surface glycoproteins and the matrix (M) protein. For the paramyxovirus simian virus 5 (SV5), the cytoplasmic tail of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein has been shown previously to be important for normal virus budding. To investigate a role for the cytoplasmic tail of the fusion (F) protein in virus assembly and budding, we generated a series of F cytoplasmic tail-truncated recombinant viruses. Analysis of these viruses in tissue culture indicated that the cytoplasmic tail of the F protein was dispensable for normal virus replication and budding. To investigate further the requirements for assembly and budding of SV5, we generated two double-mutant recombinant viruses that lack 8 amino acids of the predicted 17-amino-acid HN protein cytoplasmic tail in combination with truncation of either 10 or 18 amino acids from the predicted 20-amino-acid F protein cytoplasmic tail. Both of the double mutant recombinant viruses displayed a replication defect in tissue culture and a budding defect, the extent of which was dependant on the length of the remaining F cytoplasmic tail. Taken together, this work and our earlier data on virus-like particle formation (A. P. Schmitt, G. P. Leser, D. L. Waning, and R. A. Lamb, J. Virol. 76:3953-3964, 2002) suggest a redundant role for the cytoplasmic tails of the HN and F proteins in virus assembly and budding. PMID:12186912

  17. The Influenza Virus M2 Protein Cytoplasmic Tail Interacts with the M1 Protein and Influences Virus Assembly at the Site of Virus Budding ▿

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Benjamin J.; Leser, George P.; Jackson, David; Lamb, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    The cytoplasmic tail of the influenza A virus M2 proton-selective ion channel has been shown to be important for virus replication. Previous analysis of M2 cytoplasmic tail truncation mutants demonstrated a defect in incorporation of viral RNA (vRNA) into virions, suggesting a role for M2 in the recruitment of M1-vRNA complexes. To further characterize the effect of the M2 cytoplasmic tail mutations on virus assembly and budding, we constructed a series of alanine substitution mutants of M2 with mutations in the cytoplasmic tail, from residues 71 to 97. Mutant proteins M2-Mut1 and M2-Mut2, with mutations of residues 71 to 73 and 74 to 76, respectively, appeared to have the greatest effect on virus-like particle and virus budding, showing a defect in M1 incorporation. Mutant viruses containing M2-Mut1 and M2-Mut2 failed to replicate in multistep growth analyses on wild-type (wt) MDCK cells and were able to form plaques only on MDCK cells stably expressing wt M2 protein. Compared to wt M2 protein, M2-Mut1 and M2-Mut2 were unable to efficiently coimmunoprecipitate with M1. Furthermore, statistical analysis of planar sheets of membrane from cells infected by virus containing M2-Mut1 revealed a reduction in M1-hemagglutinin (HA) and M2-HA clustering as well as a severe loss of clustering between M1 and M2. These results suggest an essential, direct interaction between the cytoplasmic tail of M2 and M1 that promotes the recruitment of the internal viral proteins and vRNA to the plasma membrane for efficient virus assembly to occur. PMID:18701586

  18. The extracellular matrix of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms comprises cytoplasmic proteins that associate with the cell surface in response to decreasing pH.

    PubMed

    Foulston, Lucy; Elsholz, Alexander K W; DeFrancesco, Alicia S; Losick, Richard

    2014-09-02

    Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus involves the formation of an extracellular matrix, but the composition of this matrix has been uncertain. Here we report that the matrix is largely composed of cytoplasmic proteins that reversibly associate with the cell surface in a manner that depends on pH. We propose a model for biofilm formation in which cytoplasmic proteins are released from cells in stationary phase. These proteins associate with the cell surface in response to decreasing pH during biofilm formation. Rather than utilizing a dedicated matrix protein, S. aureus appears to recycle cytoplasmic proteins that moonlight as components of the extracellular matrix. Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of multiantibiotic-resistant nosocomial infections and is often found growing as a biofilm in catheters and chronic wounds. Biofilm formation is an important pathogenicity strategy that enhances resistance to antimicrobials, thereby limiting treatment options and ultimately contributing to increased morbidity and mortality. Cells in a biofilm are held together by an extracellular matrix that consists in whole or in part of protein, but the nature of the proteins in the S. aureus matrix is not well understood. Here we postulate that S. aureus recycles proteins from the cytoplasm to form the extracellular matrix. This strategy, of cytoplasmic proteins moonlighting as matrix proteins, could allow enhanced flexibility and adaptability for S. aureus in forming biofilms under infection conditions and could promote the formation of mixed-species biofilms in chronic wounds. Copyright © 2014 Foulston et al.

  19. Expression of autophagy-related protein LC3B, p62, and cytoplasmic p53 in human retinoblastoma tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, M; Zhou, Y-F; Gong, J-Y; Gao, C-B; Li, S-L

    2016-07-01

    Dysfunction of autophagy has been implicated in development and progression of diverse human cancers. However, the exact role and mechanism of autophagy have not been fully understood in human cancers, especially in retinoblastoma (Rb). We determined the autophagy activity in human Rb tissues by assessing the autophagy markers microtubule-associated protein light chain 3B (LC3) and p62 (SQSTM1) in formalin fixed and paraffin embedded human tissue by immunohistochemistry and then associated their expression with patient clinicopathological features. We further explored the correlation between the expression of LC3B and p62 and the expression of cytoplasmic p53, a newly identified autophagy suppressor, in Rb tissues. Our data revealed that the expression of LC3B and p62, was significantly associated with disease progression and tumor invasion of Rb. Furthermore, we also revealed that cytoplasmic expression of p53 was inversely associated with the behavior of tumor invasion. Finally, Spearman correlation analysis demonstrated that cytoplasmic expression of p53 was significantly and inversely correlated to the expression of both LC3B and p62. Autophagy might play an important role in human Rb progression, and LC3B and p62 may be useful predictors of disease progression in patients with Rb.

  20. Abundant storage protein depletion from tuber proteins using ethanol precipitation method: Suitability to proteomics study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Min; Gupta, Ravi; Kim, Sun Hyung; Wang, Yiming; Rakwal, Randeep; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Kim, Sun Tae

    2015-05-01

    High-abundance proteins (HAPs) hamper in-depth proteome study necessitating development of a HAPs depletion method. Here, we report a novel ethanol precipitation method (EPM) for HAPs depletion from total tuber proteins. Ethanol showed a dose-dependent effect on depletion of sporamin from sweet potato and patatin from potato tubers, respectively. The 50% ethanol was an optimal concentration. 2DE analysis of EPM-prepared sweet potato proteins also revealed enrichment of storage proteins (SPs) in ethanol supernatant (ES) resulting in detection of new low-abundance proteins in ethanol pellet (EP), compared to total fraction. The ES fraction showed even higher trypsin inhibitor activity than total proteins, further showing the efficacy of EPM in enrichment of sporamin in ES fraction. Application of this method was demonstrated for comparative proteomics of two sweet potato cultivars (Hwang-geum and Ho-bac) and purification of SP (sporamin) in its native form, as examples. Comparative proteomics identified many cultivar specific protein spots and selected spots were confidently assigned for their protein identity using MALDI-TOF-TOF analysis. Overall, the EPM is simple, reproducible, and economical for depletion of SPs and is suitable for downstream proteomics study. This study opens a door for its potential application to other tuber crops or fruits rich in carbohydrates. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Chemotaxis cluster 1 proteins form cytoplasmic arrays in Vibrio cholerae and are stabilized by a double signaling domain receptor DosM.

    PubMed

    Briegel, Ariane; Ortega, Davi R; Mann, Petra; Kjær, Andreas; Ringgaard, Simon; Jensen, Grant J

    2016-09-13

    Nearly all motile bacterial cells use a highly sensitive and adaptable sensory system to detect changes in nutrient concentrations in the environment and guide their movements toward attractants and away from repellents. The best-studied bacterial chemoreceptor arrays are membrane-bound. Many motile bacteria contain one or more additional, sometimes purely cytoplasmic, chemoreceptor systems. Vibrio cholerae contains three chemotaxis clusters (I, II, and III). Here, using electron cryotomography, we explore V. cholerae's cytoplasmic chemoreceptor array and establish that it is formed by proteins from cluster I. We further identify a chemoreceptor with an unusual domain architecture, DosM, which is essential for formation of the cytoplasmic arrays. DosM contains two signaling domains and spans the two-layered cytoplasmic arrays. Finally, we present evidence suggesting that this type of receptor is important for the structural stability of the cytoplasmic array.

  2. [Comparison of acetonitrile, ethanol and chromatographic column to eliminate high-abundance proteins in human serum].

    PubMed

    Li, Yin; Liao, Ming; He, Xiao; Zhou, Yi; Luo, Rong; Li, Hongtao; Wang, Yun; He, Min

    2012-11-01

    To compare the effects of acetonitrile precipitation, ethanol precipitation and multiple affinity chromatography column Human 14 removal to eliminate high-abundance proteins in human serum. Elimination of serum high-abundance proteins performed with acetonitrile precipitation, ethanol precipitation and multiple affinity chromatography column Human 14 removal. Bis-Tris Mini Gels electrophoresis and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to detect the effect. Grey value analysis from 1-DE figure showed that after serum processed by acetonitrile method, multiple affinity chromatography column Human 14 removal method and ethanol method, the grey value of albumin changed into 157.2, 40.8 and 8.2 respectively from the original value of 19. 2-DE analysis results indicated that using multiple affinity chromatography column Human 14 method, the protein points noticeable increased by 137 compared to the original serum. After processed by acetonitrile method and ethanol method, the protein point reduced, but the low abundance protein point emerged. The acetonitrile precipitation could eliminate the vast majority of high abundance proteins in serum and gain more proteins of low molecular weight, ethanol precipitation could eliminate part of high abundance proteins in serum, but low abundance proteins less harvested, and multiple affinity chromatography column Human 14 method could effectively removed the high abundance proteins, and keep a large number of low abundance proteins.

  3. Nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling protein PP2AB56 contributes to mTORC1-dependent dephosphorylation of FOXK1.

    PubMed

    Nakatsumi, Hirokazu; Oka, Takeru; Higa, Tsunaki; Shirane, Michiko; Nakayama, Keiichi I

    2018-05-29

    Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) kinase is a master regulator of the cellular response to nutrition-related signals such as insulin and amino acids. mTORC1 is activated on the lysosomal membrane and induces phosphorylation of a variety of downstream molecules. We previously showed that activated mTORC1 induces protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-mediated dephosphorylation of the transcription factor forkhead box K1 (FOXK1). The mechanism underlying the signal transduction from the cytoplasmic mTORC1 to the nuclear FOXK1 has remained unclear, however, we now show that a nuclear-cytoplasmic transport system is necessary for the mTORC1-FOXK1 signal transduction. This reaction is mediated by a shuttling protein B56, which is a regulatory subunit of PP2A and plays an essential role in the mTORC1-dependent dephosphorylation of FOXK1. These results suggest that PP2A B56 phosphatase contributes to the signaling for mTORC1-dependent transcriptional regulation. © 2018 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Cortical Recruitment and Nuclear–Cytoplasmic Shuttling of Scd5p, a Protein Phosphatase-1-targeting Protein Involved in Actin Organization and EndocytosisD⃞

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ji Suk; Henry, Kenneth; Geli, María Isabel; Lemmon, Sandra K.

    2006-01-01

    Scd5p regulates endocytosis and cortical actin organization as a targeting subunit for the Ser/Thr protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) in yeast. To identify localization signals in Scd5p required for cell surface recruitment, visualization of GFP-tagged Scd5 truncations and deletions was performed. Scd5p contains a PP1 binding site, a 3-repeat region of 20 amino acids (3R), and a 9-repeat region of 12 amino acids (9R). We found that the 9R is critical for cortical localization of Scd5p, but cortical recruitment is not essential for Scd5p's function in actin organization and endocytosis. We propose that Scd5p can target PP1 to endocytic factors in the cytoplasm that have been disassembled and/or inactivated by phosphorylation. We also found that Scd5p undergoes nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling in a Crm1p-dependent manner. Scd5p-ΔCT lacking the 9R region and its nuclear export signal (NES) accumulates in the nucleus, causing cortical actin and endocytic defects. Cytoplasmic localization and function of Scd5p-ΔCT is restored by NES addition. However, removal of Scd5p's nuclear localization signal prevents nuclear entry, but endocytosis and actin organization remain relatively normal. These results indicate that nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling is not required for regulation of Scd5p's cortical function and suggest that Scd5p has an independent nuclear function. PMID:16251346

  5. Chimeric rabies glycoprotein with a transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail from Newcastle disease virus fusion protein incorporates into the Newcastle disease virion at reduced levels.

    PubMed

    Yu, Gui Mei; Zu, Shu Long; Zhou, Wei Wei; Wang, Xi Jun; Shuai, Lei; Wang, Xue Lian; Ge, Jin Ying; Bu, Zhi Gao

    2017-08-31

    Rabies remains an important worldwide health problem. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was developed as a vaccine vector in animals by using a reverse genetics approach. Previously, our group generated a recombinant NDV (LaSota strain) expressing the complete rabies virus G protein (RVG), named rL-RVG. In this study, we constructed the variant rL-RVGTM, which expresses a chimeric rabies virus G protein (RVGTM) containing the ectodomain of RVG and the transmembrane domain (TM) and a cytoplasmic tail (CT) from the NDV fusion glycoprotein to study the function of RVG's TM and CT. The RVGTM did not detectably incorporate into NDV virions, though it was abundantly expressed at the surface of infected BHK-21 cells. Both rL-RVG and rL-RVGTM induced similar levels of NDV virus-neutralizing antibody (VNA) after initial and secondary vaccination in mice, whereas rabies VNA induction by rL-RVGTM was markedly lower than that induced by rL-RVG. Though rL-RVG could spread from cell to cell like that in rabies virus, rL-RVGTM lost this ability and spread in a manner similar to the parental NDV. Our data suggest that the TM and CT of RVG are essential for its incorporation into NDV virions and for spreading of the recombinant virus from the initially infected cells to surrounding cells.

  6. Mechanism of Cytoplasmic mRNA Translation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Protein synthesis is a fundamental process in gene expression that depends upon the abundance and accessibility of the mRNA transcript as well as the activity of many protein and RNA-protein complexes. Here we focus on the intricate mechanics of mRNA translation in the cytoplasm of higher plants. This chapter includes an inventory of the plant translational apparatus and a detailed review of the translational processes of initiation, elongation, and termination. The majority of mechanistic studies of cytoplasmic translation have been carried out in yeast and mammalian systems. The factors and mechanisms of translation are for the most part conserved across eukaryotes; however, some distinctions are known to exist in plants. A comprehensive understanding of the complex translational apparatus and its regulation in plants is warranted, as the modulation of protein production is critical to development, environmental plasticity and biomass yield in diverse ecosystems and agricultural settings. PMID:26019692

  7. Dephosphorylation of HuR Protein during Alphavirus Infection Is Associated with HuR Relocalization to the Cytoplasm*

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Alexa M.; Anderson, John R.; Barnhart, Michael D.; Sokoloski, Kevin J.; Oko, Lauren; Opyrchal, Mateusz; Galanis, Evanthia; Wilusz, Carol J.; Morrison, Thomas E.; Wilusz, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    We have demonstrated previously that the cellular HuR protein binds U-rich elements in the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of Sindbis virus RNA and relocalizes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm upon Sindbis virus infection in 293T cells. In this study, we show that two alphaviruses, Ross River virus and Chikungunya virus, lack the conserved high-affinity U-rich HuR binding element in their 3′ UTRs but still maintain the ability to interact with HuR with nanomolar affinities through alternative binding elements. The relocalization of HuR protein occurs during Sindbis infection of multiple mammalian cell types as well as during infections with three other alphaviruses. Interestingly, the relocalization of HuR is not a general cellular reaction to viral infection, as HuR protein remained largely nuclear during infections with dengue and measles virus. Relocalization of HuR in a Sindbis infection required viral gene expression, was independent of the presence of a high-affinity U-rich HuR binding site in the 3′ UTR of the virus, and was associated with an alteration in the phosphorylation state of HuR. Sindbis virus-induced HuR relocalization was mechanistically distinct from the movement of HuR observed during a cellular stress response, as there was no accumulation of caspase-mediated HuR cleavage products. Collectively, these data indicate that virus-induced HuR relocalization to the cytoplasm is specific to alphavirus infections and is associated with distinct posttranslational modifications of this RNA-binding protein. PMID:22915590

  8. Quantitative cytochemistry of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins using the Naphthol Yellow S and dinitrofluorobenzene staining methods.

    PubMed

    Tas, J; James, J

    1981-09-01

    The 'total protein staining' of biological specimens with the electrostatically binding Naphthol Yellow S or the covalently binding dinitrofluorobenzene must be interpreted as methods which yield data on the specific amino acid pool of the proteins concerned. Both dyes bind to certain free amino-acid side-chains, giving different dye--protein ratios for various proteins. In the presence of DNA, dinitrofluorobenzene stains all proteins present in cell nuclei, whereas Naphthol Yellow S only stains the majority of the non-histone proteins. When protein staining methods are combined with the Feulgen--Pararosanile (SO2) procedure for DNA, decreased Feulgen--DNA contents were measured in dinitrofluorobenzene-stained isolated nuclei and lymphocytes.

  9. Plasmodium falciparum aldolase and the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of certain apical organellar proteins promote actin polymerization.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Suraya A; Martin, Stephen R; Grainger, Munira; Howell, Steven A; Green, Judith L; Holder, Anthony A

    2014-10-01

    The current model of Apicomplexan motility and host cell invasion is that both processes are driven by an actomyosin motor located beneath the plasma membrane, with the force transduced to the outside of the cell via coupling through aldolase and the cytoplasmic tail domains (CTDs) of certain type 1 membrane proteins. In Plasmodium falciparum (Pf), aldolase is thought to bind to the CTD of members of the thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP) family, which are micronemal proteins and represented by MTRAP in merozoites. Other type 1 membrane proteins including members of the erythrocyte binding antigen (EBA) and reticulocyte binding protein homologue (RH) protein families, which are also apical organellar proteins, have also been implicated in host cell binding in erythrocyte invasion. However, recent studies with Toxoplasma gondii have questioned the importance of aldolase in these processes. Using biolayer interferometry we show that Pf aldolase binds with high affinity to both rabbit and Pf actin, with a similar affinity for filamentous (F-) actin and globular (G-) actin. The interaction between Pf aldolase and merozoite actin was confirmed by co-sedimentation assays. Aldolase binding was shown to promote rabbit actin polymerization indicating that the interaction is more complicated than binding alone. The CTDs of some but not all type 1 membrane proteins also promoted actin polymerization in the absence of aldolase; MTRAP and RH1 CTDs promoted actin polymerization but EBA175 CTD did not. Direct actin polymerization mediated by membrane protein CTDs may contribute to actin recruitment, filament formation and stability during motor assembly, and actin-mediated movement, independent of aldolase. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The mammalian RNA-binding protein Staufen2 links nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA processing pathways in neurons.

    PubMed

    Monshausen, Michaela; Gehring, Niels H; Kosik, Kenneth S

    2004-01-01

    Members of the Staufen family of RNA-binding proteins are highly conserved cytoplasmic RNA transporters associated with RNA granules. staufen2 is specifically expressed in neurons where the delivery of RNA to dendrites is thought to have a role in plasticity. We found that Staufen2 interacts with the nuclear pore protein p62, with the RNA export protein Tap and with the exon-exon junction complex (EJC) proteins Y14-Mago. The interaction of Staufen2 with the Y14-Mago heterodimer seems to represent a highly conserved complex as the same proteins are involved in the Staufen-mediated localization of oskar mRNA in Drosophila oocytes. A pool of Staufen2 is present in neuronal nuclei and colocalizes to a large degree with p62 and partly with Tap, Y14, and Mago. We suggest a model whereby a set of conserved genes in the oskar mRNA export pathway may be recruited to direct a dendritic destination for mRNAs originating as a Staufen2 nuclear complex.

  11. Dimerization of the bacterial effector protein AvrBs3 in the plant cell cytoplasm prior to nuclear import.

    PubMed

    Gürlebeck, Doreen; Szurek, Boris; Bonas, Ulla

    2005-04-01

    The effector protein AvrBs3 from the bacterial phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria is translocated into the plant cell where it specifically induces hypertrophy symptoms or the hypersensitive reaction. Activity of AvrBs3 depends on nuclear localization signals (NLSs) and an acidic activation domain, suggesting a role in regulation of plant transcription. Here, we show that AvrBs3 dimerizes in the plant cell prior to its nuclear import. AvrBs3 deletion derivatives were tested in the yeast two-hybrid system revealing that the repeat region, which confers specific recognition in resistant plants and is crucial for virulence function, is also essential for the self-interaction. GST pull-down assays showed that the AvrBs3-AvrBs3 interaction occurs independent of plant proteins. Coexpression of two different inactive mutant AvrBs3 derivatives in Bs3-resistant pepper plants resulted in 'trans-complementation', i.e., the induction of a hypersensitive reaction. This clearly indicates that AvrBs3-dimerization occurs in planta. Interestingly, 'trans-complementation' was not observed in susceptible plants suggesting that wild-type homodimers are needed for the AvrBs3 virulence function in plants. Furthermore, a green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion of AvrBs3 deleted in the NLSs (AvrBs3DeltaNLS-GFP), normally localized in the cytoplasm, was imported into the nucleus upon coexpression with wild-type AvrBs3 in Nicotiana benthamiana. Thus, AvrBs3 dimerization takes place in the cytoplasm of the plant cell prior to nuclear import. Given the fact that dimerization is a common feature of transcriptional regulators, our data are consistent with the idea that AvrBs3 manipulates expression of plant genes involved in the establishment of compatible and incompatible interactions.

  12. Protein synthesis and the recovery of both survival and cytoplasmic "petite" mutation in ultraviolet-treated yeast cells. II. Mitochondrial protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Heude, M; Chanet, R

    1975-04-01

    The contribution of mitochondrial proteins in the repair of UV-induced lethal and cytoplasmic genetic damages was studied in dark liquid held exponential and stationary phase yeast cells. This was performed by using the specific inhibitors, erythromycin (ER) anc chloramphenicol (CAP). It was shown that mitochondrial proteins are involved in the recovery of stationary phase cells. Mitochondrial proteins are partly implicated in the mechanisms leading to the restoration of the (see article) genotype in UV-irradiated dark liquid held exponential phase cells. Here again, in stationary phase cells, mitochondrial enzymes do not seem to participate in the negative liquid holding (NLH) process for the (see article) induction, as shown by inhibiting mitochondrial protein synthesis or both mitochondrial and nuclear protein synthesis. When cells are grown in glycerol, the response after dark liquid holding of UV-treated cells in the different growth stages are similar to that found for glucose-grown cells. In other words, the fate of cytoplasmic genetic damage, in particular, is not correlated with the repressed or derepressed state of the mitochondria.

  13. Solution Structure and Membrane Interaction of the Cytoplasmic Tail of HIV-1 gp41 Protein.

    PubMed

    Murphy, R Elliot; Samal, Alexandra B; Vlach, Jiri; Saad, Jamil S

    2017-11-07

    The cytoplasmic tail of gp41 (gp41CT) remains the last HIV-1 domain with an unknown structure. It plays important roles in HIV-1 replication such as mediating envelope (Env) intracellular trafficking and incorporation into assembling virions, mechanisms of which are poorly understood. Here, we present the solution structure of gp41CT in a micellar environment and characterize its interaction with the membrane. We show that the N-terminal 45 residues are unstructured and not associated with the membrane. However, the C-terminal 105 residues form three membrane-bound amphipathic α helices with distinctive structural features such as variable degree of membrane penetration, hydrophobic and basic surfaces, clusters of aromatic residues, and a network of cation-π interactions. This work fills a major gap by providing the structure of the last segment of HIV-1 Env, which will provide insights into the mechanisms of Gag-mediated Env incorporation as well as the overall Env mobility and conformation on the virion surface. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Measuring cell viscoelastic properties using a force-spectrometer: influence of protein-cytoplasm interactions

    PubMed Central

    Canetta, Elisabetta; Duperray, Alain; Leyrat, Anne; Verdier, Claude

    2005-01-01

    Cell adhesive and rheological properties play a very important role in cell transmigration through the endothelial barrier, in particular in the case of inflammation (leukocytes) or cancer metastasis (cancer cells). In order to characterize cell viscoelastic properties, we have designed a force spectrometer (AFM) which can stretch cells thereby allowing measurement of their rheological properties. This custom-made force spectrometer allows two different visualizations, one lateral and one from below. It allows investigation of the effects of rheology involved during cell stretching. To test the ability of our system to characterize such viscoelastic properties, ICAM-1 transfected CHO cells were analyzed. Two forms of ICAM-1 were tested; wild type ICAM-1, which can interact with the cytoskeleton, and a mutant form which lacks the cytoplasmic domain, and is unable to associate with the cytoskeleton. Stretching experiments carried out on these cells show the formation of long filaments. Using a previous model of filament elongation, we could determine the viscoelastic properties of a single cell. As expected, different viscoelastic components were found between the wild type and the mutant, which reveal that the presence of interactions between ICAM-1 and the cytoskeleton increases the stiffness of the cell. PMID:16308464

  15. Measuring cell viscoelastic properties using a force-spectrometer: influence of protein-cytoplasm interactions.

    PubMed

    Canetta, Elisabetta; Duperray, Alain; Leyrat, Anne; Verdier, Claude

    2005-01-01

    Cell adhesive and rheological properties play a very important role in cell transmigration through the endothelial barrier, in particular in the case of inflammation (leukocytes) or cancer metastasis (cancer cells). In order to characterize cell viscoelastic properties, we have designed a force spectrometer (AFM) which can stretch cells thereby allowing measurement of their rheological properties. This custom-made force spectrometer allows two different visualizations, one lateral and one from below. It allows investigation of the effects of rheology involved during cell stretching. To test the ability of our system to characterize such viscoelastic properties, ICAM-1 transfected CHO cells were analyzed. Two forms of ICAM-1 were tested; wild type ICAM-1, which can interact with the cytoskeleton, and a mutant form which lacks the cytoplasmic domain, and is unable to associate with the cytoskeleton. Stretching experiments carried out on these cells show the formation of long filaments. Using a previous model of filament elongation, we could determine the viscoelastic properties of a single cell. As expected, different viscoelastic components were found between the wild type and the mutant, which reveal that the presence of interactions between ICAM-1 and the cytoskeleton increases the stiffness of the cell.

  16. Distinct transcriptional responses elicited by unfolded nuclear or cytoplasmic protein in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Yusuke; Chen, Ling-chun; Chu, Bernard W; Swigut, Tomek; Wandless, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells possess a variety of signaling pathways that prevent accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins. Chief among these is the heat shock response (HSR), which is assumed to respond to unfolded proteins in the cytosol and nucleus alike. In this study, we probe this axiom further using engineered proteins called ‘destabilizing domains’, whose folding state we control with a small molecule. The sudden appearance of unfolded protein in mammalian cells elicits a robust transcriptional response, which is distinct from the HSR and other known pathways that respond to unfolded proteins. The cellular response to unfolded protein is strikingly different in the nucleus and the cytosol, although unfolded protein in either compartment engages the p53 network. This response provides cross-protection during subsequent proteotoxic stress, suggesting that it is a central component of protein quality control networks, and like the HSR, is likely to influence the initiation and progression of human pathologies. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07687.001 PMID:26314864

  17. Measurement of Rapid Protein Diffusion in the Cytoplasm by Photo-Converted Intensity Profile Expansion.

    PubMed

    Gura Sadovsky, Rotem; Brielle, Shlomi; Kaganovich, Daniel; England, Jeremy L

    2017-03-14

    The fluorescence microscopy methods presently used to characterize protein motion in cells infer protein motion from indirect observables, rather than measuring protein motion directly. Operationalizing these methods requires expertise that can constitute a barrier to their broad utilization. Here, we have developed PIPE (photo-converted intensity profile expansion) to directly measure the motion of tagged proteins and quantify it using an effective diffusion coefficient. PIPE works by pulsing photo-convertible fluorescent proteins, generating a peaked fluorescence signal at the pulsed region, and analyzing the spatial expansion of the signal. We demonstrate PIPE's success in measuring accurate diffusion coefficients in silico and in vitro and compare effective diffusion coefficients of native cellular proteins and free fluorophores in vivo. We apply PIPE to measure diffusion anomality in the cell and use it to distinguish free fluorophores from native cellular proteins. PIPE's direct measurement and ease of use make it appealing for cell biologists. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Inhibition of host protein synthesis by Sindbis virus: correlation with viral RNA replication and release of nuclear proteins to the cytoplasm.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Miguel A; García-Moreno, Manuel; Carrasco, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Infection of mammalian cells by Sindbis virus (SINV) profoundly blocks cellular mRNA translation. Experimental evidence points to viral non-structural proteins (nsPs), in particular nsP2, as the mediator of this inhibition. However, individual expression of nsP1, nsP2, nsP3 or nsP1-4 does not block cellular protein synthesis in BHK cells. Trans-complementation of a defective SINV replicon lacking most of the coding region for nsPs by the co-expression of nsP1-4 propitiates viral RNA replication at low levels, and inhibition of cellular translation is not observed. Exit of nuclear proteins including T-cell intracellular antigen and polypyrimidine tract-binding protein is clearly detected in SINV-infected cells, but not upon the expression of nsPs, even when the defective replicon was complemented. Analysis of a SINV variant with a point mutation in nsP2, exhibiting defects in the shut-off of host protein synthesis, indicates that both viral RNA replication and the release of nuclear proteins to the cytoplasm are greatly inhibited. Furthermore, nucleoside analogues that inhibit cellular and viral RNA synthesis impede the blockade of host mRNA translation, in addition to the release of nuclear proteins. Prevention of the shut-off of host mRNA translation by nucleoside analogues is not due to the inhibition of eIF2α phosphorylation, as this prevention is also observed in PKR(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts that do not phosphorylate eIF2α after SINV infection. Collectively, our observations are consistent with the concept that for the inhibition of cellular protein synthesis to occur, viral RNA replication must take place at control levels, leading to the release of nuclear proteins to the cytoplasm. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Detection and initial characterization of protein entities consisting of the HIV glycoprotein cytoplasmic C-terminal domain alone.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Tanya; Ruppert, Thomas; Schaal, Heiner; Bosch, Valerie

    2013-06-20

    Employing antibodies against the cytoplasmic tail of the HIV-1 glycoprotein (Env-CT), in addition to gp160/gp41, we have identified several novel small Env proteins (<25kD) in HIV-1 transfected and infected cells. Mass spectrometric and mutational analyses show that two mechanisms contribute to their generation. Thus the protein, designated Tr-Env-CT (for truncated Env-CT), consists of the C-terminal 139 amino acids (aa) of Env (aa 718-856) with the N-terminal Q718 modified to pyroglutamic acid. It is likely derived from full-length Env protein by proteolytic processing. A further heterogeneous set of slightly larger proteins, termed Env-CT* species, are rather derived from spliced mRNAs containing only those Env C-terminal residues (aa 719-856) which overlap with the second tat and rev coding exons. They are N-terminally extended in the same reading frame. It is conceivable that essential Env-CT functions may be fulfilled by these novel species rather than by the full-length glycoprotein itself. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cytoplasmic poly (A)-binding protein critically regulates epidermal maintenance and turnover in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Dhiru; Kulkarni, Jahnavi; Nadahalli, Kavana; Lakshmanan, Vairavan; Krishna, Srikar; Sasidharan, Vidyanand; Dilipkumar, Shilpa; Gulyani, Akash; Raghavan, Srikala

    2017-01-01

    Identifying key cellular events that facilitate stem cell function and tissue organization is crucial for understanding the process of regeneration. Planarians are powerful model system to study regeneration and stem cell (neoblast) function. Here, using planaria, we show that the initial events of regeneration, such as epithelialization and epidermal organization are critically regulated by a novel cytoplasmic poly A-binding protein, SMED-PABPC2. Knockdown of smed-pabpc2 leads to defects in epidermal lineage specification, disorganization of epidermis and ECM, and deregulated wound healing, resulting in the selective failure of neoblast proliferation near the wound region. Polysome profiling suggests that epidermal lineage transcripts, including zfp-1, are translationally regulated by SMED-PABPC2. Together, our results uncover a novel role for SMED-PABPC2 in the maintenance of epidermal and ECM integrity, critical for wound healing and subsequent processes for regeneration. PMID:28807897

  1. Cytoplasmic poly (A)-binding protein critically regulates epidermal maintenance and turnover in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Dhiru; Kulkarni, Jahnavi; Nadahalli, Kavana; Lakshmanan, Vairavan; Krishna, Srikar; Sasidharan, Vidyanand; Geo, Jini; Dilipkumar, Shilpa; Pasricha, Renu; Gulyani, Akash; Raghavan, Srikala; Palakodeti, Dasaradhi

    2017-09-01

    Identifying key cellular events that facilitate stem cell function and tissue organization is crucial for understanding the process of regeneration. Planarians are powerful model system to study regeneration and stem cell (neoblast) function. Here, using planaria, we show that the initial events of regeneration, such as epithelialization and epidermal organization are critically regulated by a novel cytoplasmic poly A-binding protein, SMED-PABPC2. Knockdown of smed-pabpc2 leads to defects in epidermal lineage specification, disorganization of epidermis and ECM, and deregulated wound healing, resulting in the selective failure of neoblast proliferation near the wound region. Polysome profiling suggests that epidermal lineage transcripts, including zfp-1 , are translationally regulated by SMED-PABPC2 . Together, our results uncover a novel role for SMED-PABPC2 in the maintenance of epidermal and ECM integrity, critical for wound healing and subsequent processes for regeneration. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. On the intracellular trafficking of mouse S5 ribosomal protein from cytoplasm to nucleoli.

    PubMed

    Matragkou, Ch; Papachristou, H; Karetsou, Z; Papadopoulos, G; Papamarcaki, T; Vizirianakis, I S; Tsiftsoglou, A S; Choli-Papadopoulou, T

    2009-10-09

    The non-ribosomal functions of mammalian ribosomal proteins have recently attracted worldwide attention. The mouse ribosomal protein S5 (rpS5) derived from ribosomal material is an assembled non-phosphorylated protein. The free form of rpS5 protein, however, undergoes phosphorylation. In this study, we have (a) investigated the potential role of phosphorylation in rpS5 protein transport into the nucleus and then into nucleoli and (b) determined which of the domains of rpS5 are involved in this intracellular trafficking. In vitro PCR mutagenesis of mouse rpS5 cDNA, complemented by subsequent cloning and expression of rpS5 truncated recombinant forms, produced in fusion with green fluorescent protein, permitted the investigation of rpS5 intracellular trafficking in HeLa cells using confocal microscopy complemented by Western blot analysis. Our results indicate the following: (a) rpS5 protein enters the nucleus via the region 38-50 aa that forms a random coil as revealed by molecular dynamic simulation. (b) Immunoprecipitation of rpS5 with casein kinase II and immobilized metal affinity chromatography analysis complemented by in vitro kinase assay revealed that phosphorylation of rpS5 seems to be indispensable for its transport from nucleus to nucleoli; upon entering the nucleus, Thr-133 phosphorylation triggers Ser-24 phosphorylation by casein kinase II, thus promoting entrance of rpS5 into the nucleoli. Another important role of rpS5 N-terminal region is proposed to be the regulation of protein's cellular level. The repetitively co-appearance of a satellite C-terminal band below the entire rpS5 at the late stationary phase, and not at the early logarithmic phase, of cell growth suggests a specific degradation balancing probably the unassembled ribosomal protein molecules with those that are efficiently assembled to ribosomal subunits. Overall, these data provide new insights on the structural and functional domains within the rpS5 molecule that contribute to its

  3. Psp Stress Response Proteins Form a Complex with Mislocalized Secretins in the Yersinia enterocolitica Cytoplasmic Membrane.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Disha; Moumene, Amal; Flores-Kim, Josué; Darwin, Andrew J

    2017-09-12

    The bacterial phage shock protein system (Psp) is a conserved extracytoplasmic stress response that is essential for the virulence of some pathogens, including Yersinia enterocolitica It is induced by events that can compromise inner membrane (IM) integrity, including the mislocalization of outer membrane pore-forming proteins called secretins. In the absence of the Psp system, secretin mislocalization permeabilizes the IM and causes rapid cell death. The Psp proteins PspB and PspC form an integral IM complex with two independent roles. First, the PspBC complex is required to activate the Psp response in response to some inducing triggers, including a mislocalized secretin. Second, PspBC are sufficient to counteract mislocalized secretin toxicity. Remarkably, secretin mislocalization into the IM induces psp gene expression without significantly affecting the expression of any other genes. Furthermore, psp null strains are killed by mislocalized secretins, whereas no other null mutants have been found to share this specific secretin sensitivity. This suggests an exquisitely specific relationship between secretins and the Psp system, but there has been no mechanism described to explain this. In this study, we addressed this deficiency by using a coimmunoprecipitation approach to show that the Psp proteins form a specific complex with mislocalized secretins in the Y. enterocolitica IM. Importantly, analysis of different secretin mutant proteins also revealed that this interaction is absolutely dependent on a secretin adopting a multimeric state. Therefore, the Psp system has evolved with the ability to detect and detoxify dangerous secretin multimers while ignoring the presence of innocuous monomers. IMPORTANCE The phage shock protein (Psp) response has been linked to important phenotypes in diverse bacteria, including those related to antibiotic resistance, biofilm formation, and virulence. This has generated widespread interest in understanding various aspects of

  4. Xenopus cytoplasmic linker–associated protein 1 (XCLASP1) promotes axon elongation and advance of pioneer microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Marx, Astrid; Godinez, William J.; Tsimashchuk, Vasil; Bankhead, Peter; Rohr, Karl; Engel, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic microtubules (MTs) are required for neuronal guidance, in which axons extend directionally toward their target tissues. We found that depletion of the MT-binding protein Xenopus cytoplasmic linker–associated protein 1 (XCLASP1) or treatment with the MT drug Taxol reduced axon outgrowth in spinal cord neurons. To quantify the dynamic distribution of MTs in axons, we developed an automated algorithm to detect and track MT plus ends that have been fluorescently labeled by end-binding protein 3 (EB3). XCLASP1 depletion reduced MT advance rates in neuronal growth cones, very much like treatment with Taxol, demonstrating a potential link between MT dynamics in the growth cone and axon extension. Automatic tracking of EB3 comets in different compartments revealed that MTs increasingly slowed as they passed from the axon shaft into the growth cone and filopodia. We used speckle microscopy to demonstrate that MTs experience retrograde flow at the leading edge. Microtubule advance in growth cone and filopodia was strongly reduced in XCLASP1-depleted axons as compared with control axons, but actin retrograde flow remained unchanged. Instead, we found that XCLASP1-depleted growth cones lacked lamellipodial actin organization characteristic of protrusion. Lamellipodial architecture depended on XCLASP1 and its capacity to associate with MTs, highlighting the importance of XCLASP1 in actin–microtubule interactions. PMID:23515224

  5. Identification of Differentially Abundant Proteins of Edwardsiella ictaluri during Iron Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Dumpala, Pradeep R.; Peterson, Brian C.; Lawrence, Mark L.; Karsi, Attila

    2015-01-01

    Edwardsiella ictaluri is a Gram-negative facultative anaerobe intracellular bacterium that causes enteric septicemia in channel catfish. Iron is an essential inorganic nutrient of bacteria and is crucial for bacterial invasion. Reduced availability of iron by the host may cause significant stress for bacterial pathogens and is considered a signal that leads to significant alteration in virulence gene expression. However, the precise effect of iron-restriction on E. ictaluri protein abundance is unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify differentially abundant proteins of E. ictaluri during in vitro iron-restricted conditions. We applied two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) for determining differentially abundant proteins and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF/TOF MS) for protein identification. Gene ontology and pathway-based functional modeling of differentially abundant proteins was also conducted. A total of 50 unique differentially abundant proteins at a minimum of 2-fold (p ≤ 0.05) difference in abundance due to iron-restriction were detected. The numbers of up- and down-regulated proteins were 37 and 13, respectively. We noted several proteins, including EsrB, LamB, MalM, MalE, FdaA, and TonB-dependent heme/hemoglobin receptor family proteins responded to iron restriction in E. ictaluri. PMID:26168192

  6. Identification of Cytoplasmic Proteins Interacting with the Mammary Cell Transforming Domain of Ese-1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    experiments using antibodies targeting epitope-tagged recombinant forms of these three putative SBCPs and recombinant and endogenous Ese- 1. These...The antagonistic regulation of human MUC4 and ErbB-2 genes by the Ets protein PEA3 in pancreatic cancer cells: implications for the proliferation

  7. The cytoplasmic domain of the gamete membrane fusion protein HAP2 targets the protein to the fusion site in Chlamydomonas and regulates the fusion reaction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanjie; Pei, Jimin; Grishin, Nick; Snell, William J

    2015-03-01

    Cell-cell fusion between gametes is a defining step during development of eukaryotes, yet we know little about the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the gamete membrane fusion reaction. HAP2 is the sole gamete-specific protein in any system that is broadly conserved and shown by gene disruption to be essential for gamete fusion. The wide evolutionary distribution of HAP2 (also known as GCS1) indicates it was present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor and, therefore, dissecting its molecular properties should provide new insights into fundamental features of fertilization. HAP2 acts at a step after membrane adhesion, presumably directly in the merger of the lipid bilayers. Here, we use the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas to characterize contributions of key regions of HAP2 to protein location and function. We report that mutation of three strongly conserved residues in the ectodomain has no effect on targeting or fusion, although short deletions that include those residues block surface expression and fusion. Furthermore, HAP2 lacking a 237-residue segment of the cytoplasmic region is expressed at the cell surface, but fails to localize at the apical membrane patch specialized for fusion and fails to rescue fusion. Finally, we provide evidence that the ancient HAP2 contained a juxta-membrane, multi-cysteine motif in its cytoplasmic region, and that mutation of a cysteine dyad in this motif preserves protein localization, but substantially impairs HAP2 fusion activity. Thus, the ectodomain of HAP2 is essential for its surface expression, and the cytoplasmic region targets HAP2 to the site of fusion and regulates the fusion reaction. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. A differential protein solubility approach for the depletion of highly abundant proteins in plasma using ammonium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Bollineni, Ravi Chand; Guldvik, Ingrid J; Grönberg, Henrik; Wiklund, Fredrik; Mills, Ian G; Thiede, Bernd

    2015-12-21

    Depletion of highly abundant proteins is an approved step in blood plasma analysis by mass spectrometry (MS). In this study, we explored a precipitation and differential protein solubility approach as a fractionation strategy for abundant protein removal from plasma. Total proteins from plasma were precipitated with 90% saturated ammonium sulfate, followed by differential solubilization in 55% and 35% saturated ammonium sulfate solutions. Using a four hour liquid chromatography (LC) gradient and an LTQ-Orbitrap XL mass spectrometer, a total of 167 and 224 proteins were identified from the 55% and 35% ammonium sulfate fractions, whereas 235 proteins were found in the remaining protein fractions with at least two unique peptides. SDS-PAGE and exclusive total spectrum counts from LC-MS/MS analyses clearly showed that majority of the abundant plasma proteins were solubilized in 55% and 35% ammonium sulfate solutions, indicating that the remaining protein fraction is of potential interest for identification of less abundant plasma proteins. Serum albumin, serotransferrin, alpha-1-antitrypsin and transthyretin were the abundant proteins that were highly enriched in 55% ammonium sulfate fractions. Immunoglobulins, complement system proteins, and apolipoproteins were among other abundant plasma proteins that were enriched in 35% ammonium sulfate fractions. In the remaining protein fractions a total of 40 unique proteins were identified of which, 32 proteins were identified with at least 10 exclusive spectrum counts. According to PeptideAtlas, 9 of these 32 proteins were estimated to be present at low μg ml(-1) (0.12-1.9 μg ml(-1)) concentrations in the plasma, and 17 at low ng ml(-1) (0.1-55 ng ml(-1)) range.

  9. Efficient soluble expression of disulfide bonded proteins in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli in fed-batch fermentations on chemically defined minimal media.

    PubMed

    Gąciarz, Anna; Khatri, Narendar Kumar; Velez-Suberbie, M Lourdes; Saaranen, Mirva J; Uchida, Yuko; Keshavarz-Moore, Eli; Ruddock, Lloyd W

    2017-06-15

    The production of recombinant proteins containing disulfide bonds in Escherichia coli is challenging. In most cases the protein of interest needs to be either targeted to the oxidizing periplasm or expressed in the cytoplasm in the form of inclusion bodies, then solubilized and re-folded in vitro. Both of these approaches have limitations. Previously we showed that soluble expression of disulfide bonded proteins in the cytoplasm of E. coli is possible at shake flask scale with a system, known as CyDisCo, which is based on co-expression of a protein of interest along with a sulfhydryl oxidase and a disulfide bond isomerase. With CyDisCo it is possible to produce disulfide bonded proteins in the presence of intact reducing pathways in the cytoplasm. Here we scaled up production of four disulfide bonded proteins to stirred tank bioreactors and achieved high cell densities and protein yields in glucose fed-batch fermentations, using an E. coli strain (BW25113) with the cytoplasmic reducing pathways intact. Even without process optimization production of purified human single chain IgA 1 antibody fragment reached 139 mg/L and hen avidin 71 mg/L, while purified yields of human growth hormone 1 and interleukin 6 were around 1 g/L. Preliminary results show that human growth hormone 1 was also efficiently produced in fermentations of W3110 strain and when glucose was replaced with glycerol as the carbon source. Our results show for the first time that efficient production of high yields of soluble disulfide bonded proteins in the cytoplasm of E. coli with the reducing pathways intact is feasible to scale-up to bioreactor cultivations on chemically defined minimal media.

  10. Probing short-range protein Brownian motion in the cytoplasm of living cells.

    PubMed

    Di Rienzo, Carmine; Piazza, Vincenzo; Gratton, Enrico; Beltram, Fabio; Cardarelli, Francesco

    2014-12-23

    The translational motion of molecules in cells deviates from what is observed in dilute solutions. Theoretical models provide explanations for this effect but with predictions that drastically depend on the nanoscale organization assumed for macromolecular crowding agents. A conclusive test of the nature of the translational motion in cells is missing owing to the lack of techniques capable of probing crowding with the required temporal and spatial resolution. Here we show that fluorescence-fluctuation analysis of raster scans at variable timescales can provide this information. By using green fluorescent proteins in cells, we measure protein motion at the unprecedented timescale of 1 μs, unveiling unobstructed Brownian motion from 25 to 100 nm, and partially suppressed diffusion above 100 nm. Furthermore, experiments on model systems attribute this effect to the presence of relatively immobile structures rather than to diffusing crowding agents. We discuss the implications of these results for intracellular processes.

  11. Probing short-range protein Brownian motion in the cytoplasm of living cells

    PubMed Central

    Di Rienzo, Carmine; Piazza, Vincenzo; Gratton, Enrico; Beltram, Fabio; Cardarelli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The translational motion of molecules in cells deviates from what is observed in dilute solutions. Theoretical models provide explanations for this effect but with predictions that drastically depend on the nanoscale organization assumed for macromolecular crowding agents. A conclusive test of the nature of the translational motion in cells is missing owing to the lack of techniques capable of probing crowding with the required temporal and spatial resolution. Here we show that fluorescence-fluctuation analysis of raster scans at variable timescales can provide this information. By using green fluorescent proteins in cells, we measure protein motion at the unprecedented timescale of 1 μs, unveiling unobstructed Brownian motion from 25 to 100 nm, and partially suppressed diffusion above 100 nm. Furthermore, experiments on model systems attribute this effect to the presence of relatively immobile structures rather than to diffusing crowding agents. We discuss the implications of these results for intracellular processes. PMID:25532887

  12. Influence of Protein Abundance on High-Throughput Protein-Protein Interaction Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-05

    the interaction data sets we determined, via comparisons with strict randomized simulations , the propensity for essential proteins to selectively...and analysis of high- quality PPI data sets. Materials and Methods We analyzed protein interaction networks for yeast and E. coli determined from Y2H...we reinvestigated the centrality-lethality rule, which implies that proteins having more interactions are more likely to be essential. From analysis

  13. Identification of stress responsive genes by studying specific relationships between mRNA and protein abundance.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Shimpei; Yahara, Koji

    2018-03-01

    Protein expression is regulated by the production and degradation of mRNAs and proteins but the specifics of their relationship are controversial. Although technological advances have enabled genome-wide and time-series surveys of mRNA and protein abundance, recent studies have shown paradoxical results, with most statistical analyses being limited to linear correlation, or analysis of variance applied separately to mRNA and protein datasets. Here, using recently analyzed genome-wide time-series data, we have developed a statistical analysis framework for identifying which types of genes or biological gene groups have significant correlation between mRNA and protein abundance after accounting for potential time delays. Our framework stratifies all genes in terms of the extent of time delay, conducts gene clustering in each stratum, and performs a non-parametric statistical test of the correlation between mRNA and protein abundance in a gene cluster. Consequently, we revealed stronger correlations than previously reported between mRNA and protein abundance in two metabolic pathways. Moreover, we identified a pair of stress responsive genes ( ADC17 and KIN1 ) that showed a highly similar time series of mRNA and protein abundance. Furthermore, we confirmed robustness of the analysis framework by applying it to another genome-wide time-series data and identifying a cytoskeleton-related gene cluster (keratin 18, keratin 17, and mitotic spindle positioning) that shows similar correlation. The significant correlation and highly similar changes of mRNA and protein abundance suggests a concerted role of these genes in cellular stress response, which we consider provides an answer to the question of the specific relationships between mRNA and protein in a cell. In addition, our framework for studying the relationship between mRNAs and proteins in a cell will provide a basis for studying specific relationships between mRNA and protein abundance after accounting for potential

  14. Ultrastructural and biochemical evidence for the presence of mature steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in the cytoplasm of human luteal cells.

    PubMed

    Sierralta, Walter D; Kohen, Paulina; Castro, Olga; Muñoz, Alex; Strauss, Jerome F; Devoto, Luigi

    2005-10-20

    The distribution of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) inside thecal and granulosa-lutein cells of human corpus luteum (CL) was assessed by immunoelectron microscopy. We found greater levels of StAR immunolabeling in steroidogenic cells from early- and mid-than in late luteal phase CL and lower levels in cells from women treated with a GnRH antagonist in the mid-luteal phase. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed significant levels of StAR antigen in the mitochondria and in the cytoplasm of luteal cells. The 30 kDa mature StAR protein was present in both mitochondria and cytosol (post-mitochondrial) fractions from homogenates of CL at different ages, whereas cytochrome c and mitochondrial HSP70 were detected only in the mitochondrial fraction. Therefore, we hypothesized that either appreciable processing of StAR 37 kDa pre-protein occurs outside the mitochondria, or mature StAR protein is selectively released into the cytoplasm after mitochondrial processing. The presence of mature StAR in the cytoplasm is consonant with the notion that StAR acts on the outer mitochondrial membrane to effect sterol import, and that StAR may interact with other cytoplasmic proteins involved in cholesterol metabolism, including hormone sensitive lipase.

  15. A model for the dynamic nuclear/nucleolar/cytoplasmic trafficking of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) nucleocapsid protein based on live cell imaging

    SciTech Connect

    You, Jae-Hwan; Howell, Gareth; Pattnaik, Asit K.

    2008-08-15

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), an arterivirus, in common with many other positive strand RNA viruses, encodes a nucleocapsid (N) protein which can localise not only to the cytoplasm but also to the nucleolus in virus-infected cells and cells over-expressing N protein. The dynamic trafficking of positive strand RNA virus nucleocapsid proteins and PRRSV N protein in particular between the cytoplasm and nucleolus is unknown. In this study live imaging of permissive and non-permissive cell lines, in conjunction with photo-bleaching (FRAP and FLIP), was used to investigate the trafficking of fluorescent labeled (EGFP) PRRSV-N protein. The data indicatedmore » that EGFP-PRRSV-N protein was not permanently sequestered to the nucleolus and had equivalent mobility to cellular nucleolar proteins. Further the nuclear import of N protein appeared to occur faster than nuclear export, which may account for the observed relative distribution of N protein between the cytoplasm and the nucleolus.« less

  16. The Mammalian Proteins MMS19, MIP18, and ANT2 Are Involved in Cytoplasmic Iron-Sulfur Cluster Protein Assembly*

    PubMed Central

    van Wietmarschen, Niek; Moradian, Annie; Morin, Gregg B.; Lansdorp, Peter M.; Uringa, Evert-Jan

    2012-01-01

    Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are essential cofactors of proteins with a wide range of biological functions. A dedicated cytosolic Fe-S cluster assembly (CIA) system is required to assemble Fe-S clusters into cytosolic and nuclear proteins. Here, we show that the mammalian nucleotide excision repair protein homolog MMS19 can simultaneously bind probable cytosolic iron-sulfur protein assembly protein CIAO1 and Fe-S proteins, confirming that MMS19 is a central protein of the CIA machinery that brings Fe-S cluster donor proteins and the receiving apoproteins into proximity. In addition, we show that mitotic spindle-associated MMXD complex subunit MIP18 also interacts with both CIAO1 and Fe-S proteins. Specifically, it binds the Fe-S cluster coordinating regions in Fe-S proteins. Furthermore, we show that ADP/ATP translocase 2 (ANT2) interacts with Fe-S apoproteins and MMS19 in the CIA complex but not with the individual proteins. Together, these results elucidate the composition and interactions within the late CIA complex. PMID:23150669

  17. HIV-1 tat protein recruits CIS to the cytoplasmic tail of CD127 to induce receptor ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Sugden, Scott, E-mail: scott.sugden@ircm.qc.ca

    HIV-1 Tat protein down regulates expression of the IL-7 receptor alpha-chain (CD127) from the surface of CD8 T cells resulting in impaired T cell proliferation and cytolytic capacity. We have previously shown that soluble Tat protein is taken up by CD8 T cells and interacts with the cytoplasmic tail of CD127 to induce receptor degradation. The N-terminal domain of Tat interacts with CD127 while the basic domain directs CD127 to the proteasome. We have also shown that upon IL-7 binding to its receptor, CD127 is phosphorylated resulting in CIS-mediated proteasomal degradation. Here, we show that Tat mimics this process bymore » recruiting CIS to CD127 in the absence of IL-7 and receptor phosphorylation, leading to CD127 ubiquitination and degradation. Tat therefore acts as an adapter to induce cellular responses under conditions where they may not otherwise occur. Thusly, Tat reduces IL-7 signaling and impairs CD8 T cell survival and function. -- Highlights: •Soluble HIV-1 Tat decreases CD127 expression on CD8 T cells, causing dysfunction. •Tat induces CD127 ubiquitination without activating IL-7 signaling. •Tat binds CD127 and recruits the E3 ubiquitin ligase CIS via its basic domain. •Tat hijacks a normal cellular mechanism to degrade CD127 without IL-7 signaling.« less

  18. Mutations in the Transmembrane Domain and Cytoplasmic Tail of Hendra Virus Fusion Protein Disrupt Virus-Like-Particle Assembly.

    PubMed

    Cifuentes-Muñoz, Nicolás; Sun, Weina; Ray, Greeshma; Schmitt, Phuong Tieu; Webb, Stacy; Gibson, Kathleen; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis; Schmitt, Anthony P

    2017-07-15

    Hendra virus (HeV) is a zoonotic paramyxovirus that causes deadly illness in horses and humans. An intriguing feature of HeV is the utilization of endosomal protease for activation of the viral fusion protein (F). Here we investigated how endosomal F trafficking affects HeV assembly. We found that the HeV matrix (M) and F proteins each induced particle release when they were expressed alone but that their coexpression led to coordinated assembly of virus-like particles (VLPs) that were morphologically and physically distinct from M-only or F-only VLPs. Mutations to the F protein transmembrane domain or cytoplasmic tail that disrupted endocytic trafficking led to failure of F to function with M for VLP assembly. Wild-type F functioned normally for VLP assembly even when its cleavage was prevented with a cathepsin inhibitor, indicating that it is endocytic F trafficking that is important for VLP assembly, not proteolytic F cleavage. Under specific conditions of reduced M expression, we found that M could no longer induce significant VLP release but retained the ability to be incorporated as a passenger into F-driven VLPs, provided that the F protein was competent for endocytic trafficking. The F and M proteins were both found to traffic through Rab11-positive recycling endosomes (REs), suggesting a model in which F and M trafficking pathways converge at REs, enabling these proteins to preassemble before arriving at plasma membrane budding sites. IMPORTANCE Hendra virus and Nipah virus are zoonotic paramyxoviruses that cause lethal infections in humans. Unlike that for most paramyxoviruses, activation of the henipavirus fusion protein occurs in recycling endosomal compartments. In this study, we demonstrate that the unique endocytic trafficking pathway of Hendra virus F protein is required for proper viral assembly and particle release. These results advance our basic understanding of the henipavirus assembly process and provide a novel model for the interplay between

  19. Open Reading Frame S/L of Varicella-Zoster Virus Encodes a Cytoplasmic Protein Expressed in Infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kemble, George W.; Annunziato, Paula; Lungu, Octavian; Winter, Ruth E.; Cha, Tai-An; Silverstein, Saul J.; Spaete, Richard R.

    2000-01-01

    We report the discovery of a novel gene in the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) genome, designated open reading frame (ORF) S/L. This gene, located at the left end of the prototype VZV genome isomer, expresses a polyadenylated mRNA containing a splice within the 3′ untranslated region in virus-infected cells. Sequence analysis reveals significant differences between the ORF S/Ls of wild-type and attenuated strains of VZV. Antisera raised to a bacterially expressed portion of ORF S/L reacted specifically with a 21-kDa protein synthesized in cells infected with a VZV clinical isolate and with the original vaccine strain of VZV (Oka-ATCC). Cells infected with other VZV strains, including a wild-type strain that has been extensively passaged in tissue culture and commercially produced vaccine strains of Oka, synthesize a family of proteins ranging in size from 21 to 30 kDa that react with the anti-ORF S/L antiserum. MeWO cells infected with recombinant VZV harboring mutations in the C-terminal region of the ORF S/L gene lost adherence to the stratum and adjacent cells, resulting in an altered plaque morphology. Immunohistochemical analysis of VZV-infected cells demonstrated that ORF S/L protein localizes to the cytoplasm. ORF S/L protein was present in skin lesions of individuals with primary or reactivated infection and in the neurons of a dorsal root ganglion during virus reactivation. PMID:11070031

  20. Identification of a cytoplasmic interaction partner of the large regulatory proteins Rep78/Rep68 of adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV-2)

    SciTech Connect

    Weger, Stefan; Hammer, Eva; Goetz, Anne

    2007-05-25

    Through yeast two-hybrid analysis and coimmunoprecipitation studies, we have identified a novel cellular AAV-2 Rep78/Rep68 interaction partner located predominantly in the cytoplasm. In public databases, it has been assigned as KCTD5, because of a region of high similarity to the cytoplasmic tetramerization domain of voltage-gated potassium channels. Whereas Rep/KCTD5 interaction relied on the region surrounding the Rep nuclear localization signal, nuclear accumulation of Rep was not required. Wildtype Rep78/Rep68 proteins induced the translocation of large portions of KCTD5 into the nucleus pointing to functional interactions both in the cytoplasm and the nucleus. In line with an anticipated functional interference inmore » the cytoplasm, KCTD5 overexpression completely abrogated Rep68-mediated posttranscriptional activation of a HIV-LTR driven luciferase reporter gene. Our study expands the panel of already identified nuclear Rep interaction partners to a cytoplasmic protein, which raises the awareness that important steps in the AAV life cycle may be regulated in this compartment.« less

  1. Unprecedented Abundance of Protein Tyrosine Phosphorylation Modulates Shigella flexneri Virulence.

    PubMed

    Standish, Alistair James; Teh, Min Yan; Tran, Elizabeth Ngoc Hoa; Doyle, Matthew Thomas; Baker, Paul J; Morona, Renato

    2016-10-09

    Evidence is accumulating that protein tyrosine phosphorylation plays a crucial role in the ability of important human bacterial pathogens to cause disease. While most works have concentrated on its role in the regulation of a major bacterial virulence factor, the polysaccharide capsule, recent studies have suggested a much broader role for this post-translational modification. This prompted us to investigate protein tyrosine phosphorylation in the human pathogen Shigella flexneri. We first completed a tyrosine phosphoproteome, identifying 905 unique tyrosine phosphorylation sites on at least 573 proteins (approximately 15% of all proteins). This is the most tyrosine-phosphorylated sites and proteins in a single bacterium identified to date, substantially more than the level seen in eukaryotic cells. Most had not previously been identified and included proteins encoded by the virulence plasmid, which is essential for S. flexneri to invade cells and cause disease. In order to investigate the function of these phosphorylation sites in important virulence factors, phosphomimetic and ablative mutations were constructed in the type 3 secretion system ATPase Spa47 and the master virulence regulator VirB. This revealed that tyrosine residues phosphorylated in our study are critical for Spa47 and VirB activity, and tyrosine phosphorylation likely regulates their functional activity and subsequently the virulence of this major human pathogen. This study suggests that tyrosine phosphorylation plays a critical role in regulating a wide variety of virulence factors in the human pathogen S. flexneri and serves as a base for future studies defining its complete role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. trans-Golgi retention of a plasma membrane protein: mutations in the cytoplasmic domain of the asialoglycoprotein receptor subunit H1 result in trans-Golgi retention

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Unlike the wild-type asialoglycoprotein receptor subunit H1 which is transported to the cell surface, endocytosed and recycled, a mutant lacking residues 4-33 of the 40-amino acid cytoplasmic domain was found to be retained intracellularly upon expression in different cell lines. The mutant protein accumulated in the trans-Golgi, as judged from the acquisition of trans-Golgi-specific modifications of the protein and from the immunofluorescence staining pattern. It was localized to juxtanuclear, tubular structures that were also stained by antibodies against galactosyltransferase and gamma-adaptin. The results of further mutagenesis in the cytoplasmic domain indicated that the size rather than the specific sequence of the cytoplasmic domain determines whether H1 is retained in the trans-Golgi or transported to the cell surface. Truncation to less than 17 residues resulted in retention, and extension of a truncated tail by an unrelated sequence restored surface transport. The transmembrane segment of H1 was not sufficient for retention of a reporter molecule and it could be replaced by an artificial apolar sequence without affecting Golgi localization. The cytoplasmic domain thus appears to inhibit interaction(s) of the exoplasmic portion of H1 with trans-Golgi component(s) for example by steric hindrance or by changing the positioning of the protein in the membrane. This mechanism may also be functional in other proteins. PMID:7615632

  3. Similarity of a 16.5kDa tegumental protein of the human liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini to nematode cytoplasmic motility protein.

    PubMed

    Labbunruang, Nipawan; Phadungsil, Wansika; Tesana, Smarn; Smooker, Peter M; Grams, Rudi

    2016-05-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini is the causative agent of human opisthorchiasis in Thailand and long lasting infection with the parasite has been correlated with the development of cholangiocarcinoma. In this work we have molecularly characterized the first member of a protein family carrying two DM9 repeats in this parasite (OvDM9-1). InterPro and other protein family databases describe the DM9 repeat as a protein domain of unknown function that has been first noted in Drosophila melanogaster. Two paralogous proteins have been partially characterized in the genus Fasciola, Fasciola hepatica TP16.5, a novel tegumental antigen in human fascioliasis and, recently F. gigantica DM9-1, a parenchymal protein with structural similarity to nematode cytoplasmic motility protein (MFP2). In this study, we show further evidence that this family of trematode proteins is related to MFP2 in sequence and structure. Soluble recombinant OvDM9-1 was used for structural analyses and for production of specific antisera. The native protein was detected in soluble and insoluble crude worm extracts and in seemingly various oligomeric forms in the latter. The potential for oligomerization was supported by cross-linking experiments of recombinant OvDM9-1. Structure prediction suggested a β-rich secondary structure of the protein and this was supported by a circular dichroism analysis. Molecular modeling in Phyre2 identified both MFP2 domains as distant homologs of OvDM9-1. The protein was located in tegumental type tissue and the cecal epithelium in the mature parasite. Recombinant OvDM9-1 was used as target in indirect ELISA but sera from infected hamsters showed only marginal reactivity towards it. It is proposed that OvDM9-1 and other members of this protein family have a role in cellular transport through functions on the cytoskeleton. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Different forms of soluble cytoplasmic mRNA binding proteins and particles in Xenopus laevis oocytes and embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, M.T.; Krohne, G.; Franke, W.W.

    1991-01-01

    To gain insight into the mechanisms involved in the formation of maternally stored mRNPs during Xenopus laevis development, we searched for soluble cytoplasmic proteins of the oocyte that are able to selectively bind mRNAs, using as substrate radiolabeled mRNA. In vitro mRNP assembly in solution was followed by UV-cross-linking and RNase digestion, resulting in covalent tagging of polypeptides by nucleotide transfer. Five polypeptides of approximately 54, 56 60, 70, and 100 kD (p54, p56, p60, p70, and p100) have been found to selectively bind mRNA and assemble into mRNPs. These polypeptides, which correspond to previously described native mRNP components, occurmore » in three different particle classes of approximately 4.5S, approximately 6S, and approximately 15S, as also determined by their reactions with antibodies against p54 and p56. Whereas the approximately 4.5S class contains p42, p60, and p70, probably each in the form of individual molecules or small complexes, the approximately 6S particles appears to consist only of p54 and p56, which occur in a near-stoichiometric ratio suggestive of a heterodimer complex. The approximately 15S particles contain, in addition to p54 and p56, p60 and p100 and this is the single occurring form of RNA-binding p100. We have also observed changes in the in vitro mRNA binding properties of these polypeptides during oogenesis and early embryonic development, in relation to their phosphorylation state and to the activity of an approximately 15S particle-associated protein kinase, suggesting that these proteins are involved in the developmental translational regulation of maternal mRNAs.« less

  5. Mutations in the Cytoplasmic Domain of the Newcastle Disease Virus Fusion Protein Confer Hyperfusogenic Phenotypes Modulating Viral Replication and Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Samal, Sweety; Khattar, Sunil K.; Paldurai, Anandan; Palaniyandi, Senthilkumar; Zhu, Xiaoping; Collins, Peter L.

    2013-01-01

    The Newcastle disease virus (NDV) fusion protein (F) mediates fusion of viral and host cell membranes and is a major determinant of NDV pathogenicity. In the present study, we demonstrate the effects of functional properties of F cytoplasmic tail (CT) amino acids on virus replication and pathogenesis. Out of a series of C-terminal deletions in the CT, we were able to rescue mutant viruses lacking two or four residues (rΔ2 and rΔ4). We further rescued viral mutants with individual amino acid substitutions at each of these four terminal residues (rM553A, rK552A, rT551A, and rT550A). In addition, the NDV F CT has two conserved tyrosine residues (Y524 and Y527) and a dileucine motif (LL536-537). In other paramyxoviruses, these residues were shown to affect fusion activity and are central elements in basolateral targeting. The deletion of 2 and 4 CT amino acids and single tyrosine substitution resulted in hyperfusogenic phenotypes and increased viral replication and pathogenesis. We further found that in rY524A and rY527A viruses, disruption of the targeting signals did not reduce the expression on the apical or basolateral surface in polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, whereas in double tyrosine mutant, it was reduced on both the apical and basolateral surfaces. Interestingly, in rL536A and rL537A mutants, the F protein expression was more on the apical than on the basolateral surface, and this effect was more pronounced in the rL537A mutant. We conclude that these wild-type residues in the NDV F CT have an effect on regulating F protein biological functions and thus modulating viral replication and pathogenesis. PMID:23843643

  6. Mutations in the cytoplasmic domain of the Newcastle disease virus fusion protein confer hyperfusogenic phenotypes modulating viral replication and pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Samal, Sweety; Khattar, Sunil K; Paldurai, Anandan; Palaniyandi, Senthilkumar; Zhu, Xiaoping; Collins, Peter L; Samal, Siba K

    2013-09-01

    The Newcastle disease virus (NDV) fusion protein (F) mediates fusion of viral and host cell membranes and is a major determinant of NDV pathogenicity. In the present study, we demonstrate the effects of functional properties of F cytoplasmic tail (CT) amino acids on virus replication and pathogenesis. Out of a series of C-terminal deletions in the CT, we were able to rescue mutant viruses lacking two or four residues (rΔ2 and rΔ4). We further rescued viral mutants with individual amino acid substitutions at each of these four terminal residues (rM553A, rK552A, rT551A, and rT550A). In addition, the NDV F CT has two conserved tyrosine residues (Y524 and Y527) and a dileucine motif (LL536-537). In other paramyxoviruses, these residues were shown to affect fusion activity and are central elements in basolateral targeting. The deletion of 2 and 4 CT amino acids and single tyrosine substitution resulted in hyperfusogenic phenotypes and increased viral replication and pathogenesis. We further found that in rY524A and rY527A viruses, disruption of the targeting signals did not reduce the expression on the apical or basolateral surface in polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, whereas in double tyrosine mutant, it was reduced on both the apical and basolateral surfaces. Interestingly, in rL536A and rL537A mutants, the F protein expression was more on the apical than on the basolateral surface, and this effect was more pronounced in the rL537A mutant. We conclude that these wild-type residues in the NDV F CT have an effect on regulating F protein biological functions and thus modulating viral replication and pathogenesis.

  7. Fragile X-like behaviors and abnormal cortical dendritic spines in cytoplasmic FMR1-interacting protein 2-mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Kihoon; Chen, Hogmei; Gennarino, Vincenzo A; Richman, Ronald; Lu, Hui-Chen; Zoghbi, Huda Y

    2015-04-01

    Silencing of fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene and loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) cause fragile X syndrome (FXS), a genetic disorder characterized by intellectual disability and autistic behaviors. FMRP is an mRNA-binding protein regulating neuronal translation of target mRNAs. Abnormalities in actin-rich dendritic spines are major neuronal features in FXS, but the molecular mechanism and identity of FMRP targets mediating this phenotype remain largely unknown. Cytoplasmic FMR1-interacting protein 2 (Cyfip2) was identified as an interactor of FMRP, and its mRNA is a highly ranked FMRP target in mouse brain. Importantly, Cyfip2 is a component of WAVE regulatory complex, a key regulator of actin cytoskeleton, suggesting that Cyfip2 could be implicated in the dendritic spine phenotype of FXS. Here, we generated and characterized Cyfip2-mutant (Cyfip2(+/-)) mice. We found that Cyfip2(+/-) mice exhibited behavioral phenotypes similar to Fmr1-null (Fmr1(-/y)) mice, an animal model of FXS. Synaptic plasticity and dendritic spines were normal in Cyfip2(+/-) hippocampus. However, dendritic spines were altered in Cyfip2(+/-) cortex, and the dendritic spine phenotype of Fmr1(-/y) cortex was aggravated in Fmr1(-/y); Cyfip2(+/-) double-mutant mice. In addition to the spine changes at basal state, metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)-induced dendritic spine regulation was impaired in both Fmr1(-/y) and Cyfip2(+/-) cortical neurons. Mechanistically, mGluR activation induced mRNA translation-dependent increase of Cyfip2 in wild-type cortical neurons, but not in Fmr1(-/y) or Cyfip2(+/-) neurons. These results suggest that misregulation of Cyfip2 function and its mGluR-induced expression contribute to the neurobehavioral phenotypes of FXS. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. RNA protein interactions governing expression of the most abundant protein in human body, type I collagen.

    PubMed

    Stefanovic, Branko

    2013-01-01

    Type I collagen is the most abundant protein in human body. The protein turns over slowly and its replacement synthesis is low. However, in wound healing or in pathological fibrosis the cells can increase production of type I collagen several hundred fold. This increase is predominantly due to posttranscriptional regulation, including increased half-life of collagen messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and their increased translatability. Type I collagen is composed of two α1 and one α2 polypeptides that fold into a triple helix. This stoichiometry is strictly regulated to prevent detrimental synthesis of α1 homotrimers. Collagen polypeptides are co-translationally modified and the rate of modifications is in dynamic equilibrium with the rate of folding, suggesting coordinated translation of collagen α1(I) and α2(I) polypeptides. Collagen α1(I) mRNA has in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) a C-rich sequence that binds protein αCP, this binding stabilizes the mRNA in collagen producing cells. In the 5' UTR both collagen mRNAs have a conserved stem-loop (5' SL) structure. The 5' SL is critical for high collagen expression, knock in mice with disruption of the 5' SL are resistant to liver fibrosis. the 5' SL binds protein LARP6 with strict sequence specificity and high affinity. LARP6 recruits RNA helicase A to facilitate translation initiation and associates collagen mRNAs with vimentin and nonmuscle myosin filaments. Binding to vimentin stabilizes collagen mRNAs, while nonmuscle myosin regulates coordinated translation of α1(I) and α2(I) mRNAs. When nonmuscle myosin filaments are disrupted the cells secrete only α1 homotrimers. Thus, the mechanism governing high collagen expression involves two RNA binding proteins and development of cytoskeletal filaments. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Pendrin protein abundance in the kidney is regulated by nitric oxide and cAMP.

    PubMed

    Thumova, Monika; Pech, Vladimir; Froehlich, Otto; Agazatian, Diana; Wang, Xiaonan; Verlander, Jill W; Kim, Young Hee; Wall, Susan M

    2012-09-15

    Pendrin is a Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchanger, expressed in the apical regions of some intercalated cell subtypes, and is critical in the pressor response to angiotensin II. Since angiotensin type 1 receptor inhibitors reduce renal pendrin protein abundance in mice in vivo through a mechanism that is dependent on nitric oxide (NO), we asked if NO modulates renal pendrin expression in vitro and explored the mechanism by which it occurs. Thus we quantified pendrin protein abundance by confocal fluorescent microscopy in cultured mouse cortical collecting ducts (CCDs) and connecting tubules (CNTs). After overnight culture, CCDs maintain their tubular structure and maintain a solute gradient when perfused in vitro. Pendrin protein abundance increased 67% in CNT and 53% in CCD when NO synthase was inhibited (N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, 100 μM), while NO donor (DETA NONOate, 200 μM) application reduced pendrin protein by ∼33% in the CCD and CNT. When CNTs were cultured in the presence of the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (10 μM), NO donors did not alter pendrin abundance. Conversely, pendrin protein abundance rose when cAMP content was increased by the application of an adenylyl cyclase agonist (forskolin, 10 μM), a cAMP analog (8-bromo-cAMP, 1 mM), or a phosphodiesterase inhibitor (BAY60-7550, 50 μM). Since NO reduces cellular cAMP in the CNT, we asked if NO reduces pendrin abundance by reducing cAMP. With blockade of cGMP-stimulated phosphodiesterase II, NO did not alter pendrin protein abundance. We conclude that NO acts through cAMP to reduce pendrin total protein abundance by enhancing cAMP degradation.

  10. Pendrin protein abundance in the kidney is regulated by nitric oxide and cAMP

    PubMed Central

    Thumova, Monika; Pech, Vladimir; Froehlich, Otto; Agazatian, Diana; Wang, Xiaonan; Verlander, Jill W.; Kim, Young Hee

    2012-01-01

    Pendrin is a Cl−/HCO3− exchanger, expressed in the apical regions of some intercalated cell subtypes, and is critical in the pressor response to angiotensin II. Since angiotensin type 1 receptor inhibitors reduce renal pendrin protein abundance in mice in vivo through a mechanism that is dependent on nitric oxide (NO), we asked if NO modulates renal pendrin expression in vitro and explored the mechanism by which it occurs. Thus we quantified pendrin protein abundance by confocal fluorescent microscopy in cultured mouse cortical collecting ducts (CCDs) and connecting tubules (CNTs). After overnight culture, CCDs maintain their tubular structure and maintain a solute gradient when perfused in vitro. Pendrin protein abundance increased 67% in CNT and 53% in CCD when NO synthase was inhibited (NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, 100 μM), while NO donor (DETA NONOate, 200 μM) application reduced pendrin protein by ∼33% in the CCD and CNT. When CNTs were cultured in the presence of the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (10 μM), NO donors did not alter pendrin abundance. Conversely, pendrin protein abundance rose when cAMP content was increased by the application of an adenylyl cyclase agonist (forskolin, 10 μM), a cAMP analog (8-bromo-cAMP, 1 mM), or a phosphodiesterase inhibitor (BAY60-7550, 50 μM). Since NO reduces cellular cAMP in the CNT, we asked if NO reduces pendrin abundance by reducing cAMP. With blockade of cGMP-stimulated phosphodiesterase II, NO did not alter pendrin protein abundance. We conclude that NO acts through cAMP to reduce pendrin total protein abundance by enhancing cAMP degradation. PMID:22811483

  11. Quantitative proteomic view on secreted, cell surface-associated, and cytoplasmic proteins of the methicillin-resistant human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus under iron-limited conditions.

    PubMed

    Hempel, Kristina; Herbst, Florian-Alexander; Moche, Martin; Hecker, Michael; Becher, Dörte

    2011-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is capable of colonizing and infecting humans by its arsenal of surface-exposed and secreted proteins. Iron-limited conditions in mammalian body fluids serve as a major environmental signal to bacteria to express virulence determinants. Here we present a comprehensive, gel-free, and GeLC-MS/MS-based quantitative proteome profiling of S. aureus under this infection-relevant situation. (14)N(15)N metabolic labeling and three complementing approaches were combined for relative quantitative analyses of surface-associated proteins. The surface-exposed and secreted proteome profiling approaches comprise trypsin shaving, biotinylation, and precipitation of the supernatant. By analysis of the outer subproteomic and cytoplasmic protein fraction, 1210 proteins could be identified including 221 surface-associated proteins. Thus, access was enabled to 70% of the predicted cell wall-associated proteins, 80% of the predicted sortase substrates, two/thirds of lipoproteins and more than 50% of secreted and cytoplasmic proteins. For iron-deficiency, 158 surface-associated proteins were quantified. Twenty-nine proteins were found in altered amounts showing particularly surface-exposed proteins strongly induced, such as the iron-regulated surface determinant proteins IsdA, IsdB, IsdC and IsdD as well as lipid-anchored iron compound-binding proteins. The work presents a crucial subject for understanding S. aureus pathophysiology by the use of methods that allow quantitative surface proteome profiling.

  12. Cytoplasmic sequestration of the tumor suppressor p53 by a heat shock protein 70 family member, mortalin, in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Gestl, Erin E., E-mail: egestl@wcupa.edu; Anne Boettger, S., E-mail: aboettger@wcupa.edu

    2012-06-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Eight human colorectal cell lines were evaluated for p53 and mortalin localization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Six cell lines displayed cytoplasmic sequestration of the tumor suppressor p53. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Direct interaction between mortalin and p53 was shown in five cell lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell lines positive for p53 sequestration yielded elevated p53 expression levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study yields the first evidence of cytoplasmic sequestration p53 by mortalin. -- Abstract: While it is known that cytoplasmic retention of p53 occurs in many solid tumors, the mechanisms responsible for this retention have not been positively identified. Since heatshock proteins like mortalin have been associated withmore » p53 inactivation in other tumors, the current study sought to characterize this potential interaction in never before examined colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines. Six cell lines, one with 3 different fractions, were examined to determine expression of p53 and mortalin and characterize their cellular localization. Most of these cell lines displayed punctate p53 and mortalin localization in the cell cytoplasm with the exception of HCT-8 and HCT116 379.2 cells, where p53 was not detected. Nuclear p53 was only observed in HCT-116 40-16, LS123, and HT-29 cell lines. Mortalin was only localized in the cytoplasm in all cell lines. Co-immunoprecipitation and immunohistochemistry revealed that p53 and mortalin were bound and co-localized in the cytoplasmic fraction of four cell lines, HCT-116 (40-16 and 386; parental and heterozygous fractions respectively of the same cell line), HT-29, LS123 and LoVo, implying that p53 nuclear function is limited in those cell lines by being restricted to the cytoplasm. Mortalin gene expression levels were higher than gene expression levels of p53 in all cell lines. Cell lines with cytoplasmic sequestration of p53, however, also displayed

  13. Upon Infection the Cellular WD Repeat-containing Protein 5 (WDR5) Localizes to Cytoplasmic Inclusion Bodies and Enhances Measles Virus Replication.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dzwokai; George, Cyril X; Nomburg, Jason; Pfaller, Christian K; Cattaneo, Roberto; Samuel, Charles E

    2017-12-13

    Replication of negative-strand RNA viruses occurs in association with discrete cytoplasmic foci called inclusion bodies. Whereas inclusion bodies represent a prominent subcellular structure induced by viral infection, our knowledge of the cellular protein components involved in inclusion body formation and function is limited. Using measles virus-infected HeLa cells, we found that the WD repeat-containing protein 5 (WDR5), a subunit of histone H3 lysine 4 methyltransferases, was selectively recruited to virus-induced inclusion bodies. Furthermore, WDR5 was found in complexes containing viral proteins associated with RNA replication. WDR5 was not detected with mitochondria, stress granules, or other known secretory or endocytic compartments of infected cells. WDR5 deficiency decreased both viral protein production and infectious virus yields. Interferon production was modestly increased in WDR5 deficient cells. Thus, our study identifies WDR5 as a novel viral inclusion body-associated cellular protein and suggests a role for WDR5 in promoting viral replication. IMPORTANCE Measles virus is a human pathogen that remains a global concern with more than 100,000 measles-related deaths annually despite the availability of an effective vaccine. As measles continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality, understanding the virus-host interactions at the molecular level that affect virus replication efficiency is important for development and optimization of treatment procedures. Measles virus is an RNA virus that encodes six genes and replicates in the cytoplasm of infected cells in discrete cytoplasmic replication bodies, though little is known of the biochemical nature of these structures. Here we show that the cellular protein WDR5 is enriched in the cytoplasmic viral replication factories and enhances virus growth. WDR5-containing protein complex includes viral proteins responsible for viral RNA replication. Thus, we have identified WDR5 as a host factor that

  14. Yeast Ran-Binding Protein 1 (Yrb1) Shuttles between the Nucleus and Cytoplasm and Is Exported from the Nucleus via a CRM1 (XPO1)-Dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Künzler, Markus; Gerstberger, Thomas; Stutz, Françoise; Bischoff, F. Ralf; Hurt, Ed

    2000-01-01

    The RanGTP-binding protein RanBP1, which is located in the cytoplasm, has been implicated in release of nuclear export complexes from the cytoplasmic side of the nuclear pore complex. Here we show that Yrb1 (the yeast homolog of RanBP1) shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Nuclear import of Yrb1 is a facilitated process that requires a short basic sequence within the Ran-binding domain (RBD). By contrast, nuclear export of Yrb1 requires an intact RBD, which forms a ternary complex with the Xpo1 (Crm1) NES receptor in the presence of RanGTP. Nuclear export of Yrb1, however, is insensitive towards leptomycin B, suggesting a novel type of substrate recognition between Yrb1 and Xpo1. Taken together, these data suggest that ongoing nuclear import and export is an important feature of Yrb1 function in vivo. PMID:10825193

  15. Differentially abundant proteins associated with heterosis in the primary roots of popcorn

    PubMed Central

    Heringer, Angelo S.; Freitas, Ismael L. J.; Santa-Catarina, Claudete; do Amaral-Júnior, Antônio T.

    2018-01-01

    Although heterosis has significantly contributed to increases in worldwide crop production, the molecular mechanisms regulating this phenomenon are still unknown. In the present study, we used a comparative proteomic approach to explore hybrid vigor via the proteome of both the popcorn L54 ♀ and P8 ♂ genotypes and the resultant UENF/UEM01 hybrid cross. To analyze the differentially abundant proteins involved in heterosis, we used the primary roots of these genotypes to analyze growth parameters and extract proteins. The results of the growth parameter analysis showed that the mid- and best-parent heterosis were positive for root length and root dry matter but negative for root fresh matter, seedling fresh matter, and protein content. The comparative proteomic analysis identified 1343 proteins in the primary roots of hybrid UENF/UEM01 and its parental lines; 220 proteins were differentially regulated in terms of protein abundance. The mass spectrometry proteomic data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier “PXD009436”. A total of 62 regulated proteins were classified as nonadditive, of which 53.2% were classified as high parent abundance (+), 17.8% as above-high parent abundance (+ +), 16.1% as below-low parent abundance (− −), and 12.9% as low parent abundance (-). A total of 22 biological processes were associated with nonadditive proteins; processes involving translation, ribosome biogenesis, and energy-related metabolism represented 45.2% of the nonadditive proteins. Our results suggest that heterosis in the popcorn hybrid UENF/UEM01 at an early stage of plant development is associated with an up-regulation of proteins related to synthesis and energy metabolism. PMID:29758068

  16. Differentially abundant proteins associated with heterosis in the primary roots of popcorn.

    PubMed

    Rockenbach, Mathias F; Corrêa, Caio C G; Heringer, Angelo S; Freitas, Ismael L J; Santa-Catarina, Claudete; do Amaral-Júnior, Antônio T; Silveira, Vanildo

    2018-01-01

    Although heterosis has significantly contributed to increases in worldwide crop production, the molecular mechanisms regulating this phenomenon are still unknown. In the present study, we used a comparative proteomic approach to explore hybrid vigor via the proteome of both the popcorn L54 ♀ and P8 ♂ genotypes and the resultant UENF/UEM01 hybrid cross. To analyze the differentially abundant proteins involved in heterosis, we used the primary roots of these genotypes to analyze growth parameters and extract proteins. The results of the growth parameter analysis showed that the mid- and best-parent heterosis were positive for root length and root dry matter but negative for root fresh matter, seedling fresh matter, and protein content. The comparative proteomic analysis identified 1343 proteins in the primary roots of hybrid UENF/UEM01 and its parental lines; 220 proteins were differentially regulated in terms of protein abundance. The mass spectrometry proteomic data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier "PXD009436". A total of 62 regulated proteins were classified as nonadditive, of which 53.2% were classified as high parent abundance (+), 17.8% as above-high parent abundance (+ +), 16.1% as below-low parent abundance (- -), and 12.9% as low parent abundance (-). A total of 22 biological processes were associated with nonadditive proteins; processes involving translation, ribosome biogenesis, and energy-related metabolism represented 45.2% of the nonadditive proteins. Our results suggest that heterosis in the popcorn hybrid UENF/UEM01 at an early stage of plant development is associated with an up-regulation of proteins related to synthesis and energy metabolism.

  17. Insights on Structure and Function of a Late Embryogenesis Abundant Protein from Amaranthus cruentus: An Intrinsically Disordered Protein Involved in Protection against Desiccation, Oxidant Conditions, and Osmotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Saucedo, Alma L.; Hernández-Domínguez, Eric E.; de Luna-Valdez, Luis A.; Guevara-García, Angel A.; Escobedo-Moratilla, Abraham; Bojorquéz-Velázquez, Esaú; del Río-Portilla, Federico; Fernández-Velasco, Daniel A.; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P.

    2017-01-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are part of a large protein family that protect other proteins from aggregation due to desiccation or osmotic stresses. Recently, the Amaranthus cruentus seed proteome was characterized by 2D-PAGE and one highly accumulated protein spot was identified as a LEA protein and was named AcLEA. In this work, AcLEA cDNA was cloned into an expression vector and the recombinant protein was purified and characterized. AcLEA encodes a 172 amino acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 18.34 kDa and estimated pI of 8.58. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that AcLEA is evolutionarily close to the LEA3 group. Structural characteristics were revealed by nuclear magnetic resonance and circular dichroism methods. We have shown that recombinant AcLEA is an intrinsically disordered protein in solution even at high salinity and osmotic pressures, but it has a strong tendency to take a secondary structure, mainly folded as α-helix, when an inductive additive is present. Recombinant AcLEA function was evaluated using Escherichia coli as in vivo model showing the important protection role against desiccation, oxidant conditions, and osmotic stress. AcLEA recombinant protein was localized in cytoplasm of Nicotiana benthamiana protoplasts and orthologs were detected in seeds of wild and domesticated amaranth species. Interestingly AcLEA was detected in leaves, stems, and roots but only in plants subjected to salt stress. This fact could indicate the important role of AcLEA protection during plant stress in all amaranth species studied. PMID:28439280

  18. The extracellular matrix of the oleolytic biofilms of Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus comprises cytoplasmic proteins and T2SS effectors that promote growth on hydrocarbons and lipids.

    PubMed

    Ennouri, Habiba; d'Abzac, Paul; Hakil, Florence; Branchu, Priscilla; Naïtali, Murielle; Lomenech, Anne-Marie; Oueslati, Ridha; Desbrières, Jacques; Sivadon, Pierre; Grimaud, Régis

    2017-01-01

    The assimilation of the nearly water insoluble substrates hydrocarbons and lipids by bacteria entails specific adaptations such as the formation of oleolytic biofilms. The present article reports that the extracellular matrix of an oleolytic biofilm formed by Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus at n-hexadecane-water interfaces is largely composed of proteins typically cytoplasmic such as translation factors and chaperones, and a lesser amount of proteins of unknown function that are predicted extra-cytoplasmic. Matrix proteins appear to form a structured film on hydrophobic interfaces and were found mandatory for the development of biofilms on lipids, alkanes and polystyrene. Exo-proteins secreted through the type-2 secretion system (T2SS) were shown to be essential for the formation of oleolytic biofilms on both alkanes and triglycerides. The T2SS effector involved in biofilm formation on triglycerides was identified as a lipase. In the case of biofilm formation on n-hexadecane, the T2SS effector is likely involved in the mass transfer, capture or transport of alkanes. We propose that M. hydrocarbonoclasticus uses cytoplasmic proteins released by cell lysis to form a proteinaceous matrix and dedicated proteins secreted through the T2SS to act specifically in the assimilation pathways of hydrophobic substrates. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Nuclear-cytoplasmic partitioning of cucumber mosaic virus protein 2b determines the balance between its roles as a virulence determinant and an RNA-silencing suppressor.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhiyou; Chen, Aizhong; Chen, Wenhu; Liao, Qiansheng; Zhang, Hengmu; Bao, Yiming; Roossinck, Marilyn J; Carr, John P

    2014-05-01

    The Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) 2b protein is an RNA-silencing suppressor that plays roles in CMV accumulation and virulence. The 2b proteins of subgroup IA CMV strains partition between the nucleus and cytoplasm, but the biological significance of this is uncertain. We fused an additional nuclear localization signal (NLS) to the 2b protein of subgroup IA strain Fny-CMV to create 2b-NLS and tested its effects on subcellular distribution, silencing, and virulence. The additional NLS enhanced 2b protein nuclear and nucleolar accumulation, but nuclear and nucleolar enrichment correlated with markedly diminished silencing suppressor activity in patch assays and abolished 2b protein-mediated disruption of microRNA activity in transgenic Arabidopsis. Nucleus/nucleolus-localized 2b protein possesses at least some ability to inhibit antiviral silencing, but this was not sufficient to prevent recovery from disease in younger, developing leaves in Arabidopsis. However, enhanced nuclear and nucleolar accumulation of 2b increased virulence and accelerated symptom appearance in older leaves. Experiments with Arabidopsis lines carrying mutant Dicer-like alleles demonstrated that compromised suppressor activity explained the diminished ability of 2b-NLS to enhance virus accumulation. Remarkably, the increased virulence that 2b-NLS engendered was unrelated to effects on microRNA- or short interfering RNA-regulated host functions. Thus, although nucleus- and nucleolus-localized 2b protein is less efficient at silencing suppression than cytoplasm-localized 2b, it enhances CMV virulence. We propose that partitioning of the 2b protein between the cytoplasmic and nuclear/nucleolar compartments allows CMV to regulate the balance between virus accumulation and damage to the host, presumably to maximize the benefit for the virus. In this work, the main finding is that nucleus/nucleolus-localized 2b protein is strongly associated with CMV virulence, which is independent of its effect on

  20. Leukemia-Associated Nup214 Fusion Proteins Disturb the XPO1-Mediated Nuclear-Cytoplasmic Transport Pathway and Thereby the NF-κB Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Saito, Shoko; Cigdem, Sadik; Okuwaki, Mitsuru; Nagata, Kyosuke

    2016-07-01

    Nuclear-cytoplasmic transport through nuclear pore complexes is mediated by nuclear transport receptors. Previous reports have suggested that aberrant nuclear-cytoplasmic transport due to mutations or overexpression of nuclear pore complexes and nuclear transport receptors is closely linked to diseases. Nup214, a component of nuclear pore complexes, has been found as chimeric fusion proteins in leukemia. Among various Nup214 fusion proteins, SET-Nup214 and DEK-Nup214 have been shown to be engaged in tumorigenesis, but their oncogenic mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we examined the functions of the Nup214 fusion proteins by focusing on their effects on nuclear-cytoplasmic transport. We found that SET-Nup214 and DEK-Nup214 interact with exportin-1 (XPO1)/CRM1 and nuclear RNA export factor 1 (NXF1)/TAP, which mediate leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES)-dependent protein export and mRNA export, respectively. SET-Nup214 and DEK-Nup214 decreased the XPO1-mediated nuclear export of NES proteins such as cyclin B and proteins involved in the NF-κB signaling pathway by tethering XPO1 onto nuclear dots where Nup214 fusion proteins are localized. We also demonstrated that SET-Nup214 and DEK-Nup214 expression inhibited NF-κB-mediated transcription by abnormal tethering of the complex containing p65 and its inhibitor, IκB, in the nucleus. These results suggest that SET-Nup214 and DEK-Nup214 perturb the regulation of gene expression through alteration of the nuclear-cytoplasmic transport system. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of the endonuclease ankyrin repeats and LEM domain-containing protein 1 (Ankle1) is mediated by canonical nuclear export- and nuclear import signals.

    PubMed

    Zlopasa, Livija; Brachner, Andreas; Foisner, Roland

    2016-06-01

    Ankyrin repeats and LEM domain containing protein 1 (Ankle1) belongs to the LEM protein family, whose members share a chromatin-interacting LEM motif. Unlike most other LEM proteins, Ankle1 is not an integral protein of the inner nuclear membrane but shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. It contains a GIY-YIG-type nuclease domain, but its function is unknown. The mammalian genome encodes only one other GIY-YIG domain protein, termed Slx1. Slx1 has been described as a resolvase that processes Holliday junctions during homologous recombination-mediated DNA double strand break repair. Resolvase activity is regulated in a spatial and temporal manner during the cell cycle. We hypothesized that Ankle1 may have a similar function and its nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling may contribute to the regulation of Ankle1 activity. Hence, we aimed at identifying the domains mediating Ankle1 shuttling and investigating whether cellular localization is affected during DNA damage response. Sequence analysis predicts the presence of two canonical nuclear import and export signals in Ankle1. Immunofluorescence microscopy of cells expressing wild-type and various mutated Ankle1-fusion proteins revealed a C-terminally located classical monopartite nuclear localization signal and a centrally located CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal that mediate nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of Ankle1. These sequences are also functional in heterologous proteins. The predominant localization of Ankle1 in the cytoplasm, however, does not change upon induction of several DNA damage response pathways throughout the cell cycle. We identified the domains mediating nuclear import and export of Ankle1. Ankle1's cellular localization was not affected following DNA damage.

  2. RASCAL is a new human cytomegalovirus-encoded protein that localizes to the nuclear lamina and in cytoplasmic vesicles at late times postinfection.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew S; Furlong, Wendy E; Pennell, Leesa; Geadah, Marc; Hertel, Laura

    2010-07-01

    The products of numerous open reading frames (ORFs) present in the genome of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) have not been characterized. Here, we describe the identification of a new CMV protein localizing to the nuclear envelope and in cytoplasmic vesicles at late times postinfection. Based on this distinctive localization pattern, we called this new protein nuclear rim-associated cytomegaloviral protein, or RASCAL. Two RASCAL isoforms exist, a short version of 97 amino acids encoded by the majority of CMV strains and a longer version of 176 amino acids encoded by the Towne, Toledo, HAN20, and HAN38 strains. Both isoforms colocalize with lamin B in deep intranuclear invaginations of the inner nuclear membrane (INM) and in novel cytoplasmic vesicular structures possibly derived from the nuclear envelope. INM infoldings have been previously described as sites of nucleocapsid egress, which is mediated by the localized disruption of the nuclear lamina, promoted by the activities of viral and cellular kinases recruited by the lamina-associated proteins UL50 and UL53. RASCAL accumulation at the nuclear membrane required the presence of UL50 but not of UL53. RASCAL and UL50 also appeared to specifically interact, suggesting that RASCAL is a new component of the nuclear egress complex (NEC) and possibly involved in mediating nucleocapsid egress from the nucleus. Finally, the presence of RASCAL within cytoplasmic vesicles raises the intriguing possibility that this protein might participate in additional steps of virion maturation occurring after capsid release from the nucleus.

  3. Cytoplasmic CopZ-Like Protein and Periplasmic Rusticyanin and AcoP Proteins as Possible Copper Resistance Determinants in Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Claudio A; von Bernath, Diego; Martínez-Bussenius, Cristóbal; Castillo, Rodrigo A; Jerez, Carlos A

    2016-02-15

    Acidophilic organisms, such as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, possess high-level resistance to copper and other metals. A. ferrooxidans contains canonical copper resistance determinants present in other bacteria, such as CopA ATPases and RND efflux pumps, but these components do not entirely explain its high metal tolerance. The aim of this study was to find other possible copper resistance determinants in this bacterium. Transcriptional expression of A. ferrooxidans genes coding for a cytoplasmic CopZ-like copper-binding chaperone and the periplasmic copper-binding proteins rusticyanin and AcoP, which form part of an iron-oxidizing supercomplex, was found to increase when the microorganism was grown in the presence of copper. All of these proteins conferred more resistance to copper when expressed heterologously in a copper-sensitive Escherichia coli strain. This effect was absent when site-directed-mutation mutants of these proteins with altered copper-binding sites were used in this metal sensitivity assay. These results strongly suggest that the three copper-binding proteins analyzed here are copper resistance determinants in this extremophile and contribute to the high-level metal resistance of this industrially important biomining bacterium. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Cytoplasmic CopZ-Like Protein and Periplasmic Rusticyanin and AcoP Proteins as Possible Copper Resistance Determinants in Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Claudio A.; von Bernath, Diego; Martínez-Bussenius, Cristóbal; Castillo, Rodrigo A.

    2015-01-01

    Acidophilic organisms, such as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, possess high-level resistance to copper and other metals. A. ferrooxidans contains canonical copper resistance determinants present in other bacteria, such as CopA ATPases and RND efflux pumps, but these components do not entirely explain its high metal tolerance. The aim of this study was to find other possible copper resistance determinants in this bacterium. Transcriptional expression of A. ferrooxidans genes coding for a cytoplasmic CopZ-like copper-binding chaperone and the periplasmic copper-binding proteins rusticyanin and AcoP, which form part of an iron-oxidizing supercomplex, was found to increase when the microorganism was grown in the presence of copper. All of these proteins conferred more resistance to copper when expressed heterologously in a copper-sensitive Escherichia coli strain. This effect was absent when site-directed-mutation mutants of these proteins with altered copper-binding sites were used in this metal sensitivity assay. These results strongly suggest that the three copper-binding proteins analyzed here are copper resistance determinants in this extremophile and contribute to the high-level metal resistance of this industrially important biomining bacterium. PMID:26637599

  5. High Expression of Cry1Ac Protein in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) by Combining Independent Transgenic Events that Target the Protein to Cytoplasm and Plastids.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amarjeet Kumar; Paritosh, Kumar; Kant, Uma; Burma, Pradeep Kumar; Pental, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic cotton was developed using two constructs containing a truncated and codon-modified cry1Ac gene (1,848 bp), which was originally characterized from Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki strain HD73 that encodes a toxin highly effective against many lepidopteran pests. In Construct I, the cry1Ac gene was cloned under FMVde, a strong constitutively expressing promoter, to express the encoded protein in the cytoplasm. In Construct II, the encoded protein was directed to the plastids using a transit peptide taken from the cotton rbcSIb gene. Genetic transformation experiments with Construct I resulted in a single copy insertion event in which the Cry1Ac protein expression level was 2-2.5 times greater than in the Bacillus thuringiensis cotton event Mon 531, which is currently used in varieties and hybrids grown extensively in India and elsewhere. Another high expression event was selected from transgenics developed with Construct II. The Cry protein expression resulting from this event was observed only in the green plant parts. No transgenic protein expression was observed in the non-green parts, including roots, seeds and non-green floral tissues. Thus, leucoplasts may lack the mechanism to allow entry of a protein tagged with the transit peptide from a protein that is only synthesized in tissues containing mature plastids. Combining the two events through sexual crossing led to near additive levels of the toxin at 4-5 times the level currently used in the field. The two high expression events and their combination will allow for effective resistance management against lepidopteran insect pests, particularly Helicoverpa armigera, using a high dosage strategy.

  6. Evaluation of three high abundance protein depletion kits for umbilical cord serum proteomics

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background High abundance protein depletion is a major challenge in the study of serum/plasma proteomics. Prior to this study, most commercially available kits for depletion of highly abundant proteins had only been tested and evaluated in adult serum/plasma, while the depletion efficiency on umbilical cord serum/plasma had not been clarified. Structural differences between some adult and fetal proteins (such as albumin) make it likely that depletion approaches for adult and umbilical cord serum/plasma will be variable. Therefore, the primary purposes of the present study are to investigate the efficiencies of several commonly-used commercial kits during high abundance protein depletion from umbilical cord serum and to determine which kit yields the most effective and reproducible results for further proteomics research on umbilical cord serum. Results The immunoaffinity based kits (PROTIA-Sigma and 5185-Agilent) displayed higher depletion efficiency than the immobilized dye based kit (PROTBA-Sigma) in umbilical cord serum samples. Both the PROTIA-Sigma and 5185-Agilent kit maintained high depletion efficiency when used three consecutive times. Depletion by the PROTIA-Sigma Kit improved 2DE gel quality by reducing smeared bands produced by the presence of high abundance proteins and increasing the intensity of other protein spots. During image analysis using the identical detection parameters, 411 ± 18 spots were detected in crude serum gels, while 757 ± 43 spots were detected in depleted serum gels. Eight spots unique to depleted serum gels were identified by MALDI- TOF/TOF MS, seven of which were low abundance proteins. Conclusions The immunoaffinity based kits exceeded the immobilized dye based kit in high abundance protein depletion of umbilical cord serum samples and dramatically improved 2DE gel quality for detection of trace biomarkers. PMID:21554704

  7. Cytoplasmic bacteriophage display system

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F.W.; Rosenberg, A.H.

    1998-06-16

    Disclosed are display vectors comprising DNA encoding a portion of a structural protein from a cytoplasmic bacteriophage, joined covalently to a protein or peptide of interest. Exemplified are display vectors wherein the structural protein is the T7 bacteriophage capsid protein. More specifically, in the exemplified display vectors the C-terminal amino acid residue of the portion of the capsid protein is joined to the N-terminal residue of the protein or peptide of interest. The portion of the T7 capsid protein exemplified comprises an N-terminal portion corresponding to form 10B of the T7 capsid protein. The display vectors are useful for high copy number display or lower copy number display (with larger fusion). Compositions of the type described herein are useful in connection with methods for producing a virus displaying a protein or peptide of interest. 1 fig.

  8. Cytoplasmic bacteriophage display system

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F. William; Rosenberg, Alan H.

    1998-06-16

    Disclosed are display vectors comprising DNA encoding a portion of a structural protein from a cytoplasmic bacteriophage, joined covalently to a protein or peptide of interest. Exemplified are display vectors wherein the structural protein is the T7 bacteriophage capsid protein. More specifically, in the exemplified display vectors the C-terminal amino acid residue of the portion of the capsid protein is joined to the N-terminal residue of the protein or peptide of interest. The portion of the T7 capsid protein exemplified comprises an N-terminal portion corresponding to form 10B of the T7 capsid protein. The display vectors are useful for high copy number display or lower copy number display (with larger fusion). Compositions of the type described herein are useful in connection with methods for producing a virus displaying a protein or peptide of interest.

  9. Lipid-binding proteins modulate ligand-dependent trans-activation by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and localize to the nucleus as well as the cytoplasm.

    PubMed

    Helledie, T; Antonius, M; Sorensen, R V; Hertzel, A V; Bernlohr, D A; Kølvraa, S; Kristiansen, K; Mandrup, S

    2000-11-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are activated by a variety of fatty acids, eicosanoids, and hypolipidemic and insulin-sensitizing drugs. Many of these compounds bind avidly to members of a family of small lipid-binding proteins, the fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs). Fatty acids are activated to CoA esters, which bind with high affinity to the acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP). Thus, the availability of known and potential PPAR ligands may be regulated by lipid-binding proteins. In this report we show by transient transfection of CV-1 cells that coexpression of ACBP and adipocyte lipid-binding protein (ALBP) exerts a ligand- and PPAR subtype-specific attenuation of PPAR-mediated trans-activation, suggesting that lipid-binding proteins, when expressed at high levels, may function as negative regulators of PPAR activation by certain ligands. Expression of ACBP, ALBP, and keratinocyte lipid-binding protein (KLBP) is induced during adipocyte differentiation, a process during which PPARgamma plays a prominent role. We present evidence that endogenous ACBP, ALBP, and KLBP not only localize to the cytoplasm but also exhibit a prominent nuclear localization in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In addition, forced expression of ACBP, ALBP, and KLBP in CV-1 cells resulted in a substantial accumulation of all three proteins in the nucleus. These results suggest that lipid-binding proteins, contrary to the general assumption, may exert their action in the nucleus as well as in the cytoplasm.

  10. Abundance and Temperature Dependency of Protein-Protein Interaction Revealed by Interface Structure Analysis and Stability Evolution

    PubMed Central

    He, Yi-Ming; Ma, Bin-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Protein complexes are major forms of protein-protein interactions and implement essential biological functions. The subunit interface in a protein complex is related to its thermostability. Though the roles of interface properties in thermal adaptation have been investigated for protein complexes, the relationship between the interface size and the expression level of the subunits remains unknown. In the present work, we studied this relationship and found a positive correlation in thermophiles rather than mesophiles. Moreover, we found that the protein interaction strength in complexes is not only temperature-dependent but also abundance-dependent. The underlying mechanism for the observed correlation was explored by simulating the evolution of protein interface stability, which highlights the avoidance of misinteraction. Our findings make more complete the picture of the mechanisms for protein complex thermal adaptation and provide new insights into the principles of protein-protein interactions. PMID:27220911

  11. Abundance and Temperature Dependency of Protein-Protein Interaction Revealed by Interface Structure Analysis and Stability Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yi-Ming; Ma, Bin-Guang

    2016-05-01

    Protein complexes are major forms of protein-protein interactions and implement essential biological functions. The subunit interface in a protein complex is related to its thermostability. Though the roles of interface properties in thermal adaptation have been investigated for protein complexes, the relationship between the interface size and the expression level of the subunits remains unknown. In the present work, we studied this relationship and found a positive correlation in thermophiles rather than mesophiles. Moreover, we found that the protein interaction strength in complexes is not only temperature-dependent but also abundance-dependent. The underlying mechanism for the observed correlation was explored by simulating the evolution of protein interface stability, which highlights the avoidance of misinteraction. Our findings make more complete the picture of the mechanisms for protein complex thermal adaptation and provide new insights into the principles of protein-protein interactions.

  12. Pre-expression of a sulfhydryl oxidase significantly increases the yields of eukaryotic disulfide bond containing proteins expressed in the cytoplasm of E.coli.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Van Dat; Hatahet, Feras; Salo, Kirsi E H; Enlund, Eveliina; Zhang, Chi; Ruddock, Lloyd W

    2011-01-07

    Disulfide bonds are one of the most common post-translational modifications found in proteins. The production of proteins that contain native disulfide bonds is challenging, especially on a large scale. Either the protein needs to be targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum in eukaryotes or to the prokaryotic periplasm. These compartments that are specialised for disulfide bond formation have an active catalyst for their formation, along with catalysts for isomerization to the native state. We have recently shown that it is possible to produce large amounts of prokaryotic disulfide bond containing proteins in the cytoplasm of wild-type bacteria such as E. coli by the introduction of catalysts for both of these processes. Here we show that the introduction of Erv1p, a sulfhydryl oxidase and a disulfide isomerase allows the efficient formation of natively folded eukaryotic proteins with multiple disulfide bonds in the cytoplasm of E. coli. The production of disulfide bonded proteins was also aided by the use of an appropriate fusion protein to keep the folding intermediates soluble and by choice of media. By combining the pre-expression of a sulfhydryl oxidase and a disulfide isomerase with these other factors, high level expression of even complex disulfide bonded eukaryotic proteins is possible Our results show that the production of eukaryotic proteins with multiple disulfide bonds in the cytoplasm of E. coli is possible. The required exogenous components can be put onto a single plasmid vector allowing facile transfer between different prokaryotic strains. These results open up new avenues for the use of E. coli as a microbial cell factory.

  13. Pre-expression of a sulfhydryl oxidase significantly increases the yields of eukaryotic disulfide bond containing proteins expressed in the cytoplasm of E.coli

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Disulfide bonds are one of the most common post-translational modifications found in proteins. The production of proteins that contain native disulfide bonds is challenging, especially on a large scale. Either the protein needs to be targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum in eukaryotes or to the prokaryotic periplasm. These compartments that are specialised for disulfide bond formation have an active catalyst for their formation, along with catalysts for isomerization to the native state. We have recently shown that it is possible to produce large amounts of prokaryotic disulfide bond containing proteins in the cytoplasm of wild-type bacteria such as E. coli by the introduction of catalysts for both of these processes. Results Here we show that the introduction of Erv1p, a sulfhydryl oxidase and a disulfide isomerase allows the efficient formation of natively folded eukaryotic proteins with multiple disulfide bonds in the cytoplasm of E. coli. The production of disulfide bonded proteins was also aided by the use of an appropriate fusion protein to keep the folding intermediates soluble and by choice of media. By combining the pre-expression of a sulfhydryl oxidase and a disulfide isomerase with these other factors, high level expression of even complex disulfide bonded eukaryotic proteins is possible Conclusions Our results show that the production of eukaryotic proteins with multiple disulfide bonds in the cytoplasm of E. coli is possible. The required exogenous components can be put onto a single plasmid vector allowing facile transfer between different prokaryotic strains. These results open up new avenues for the use of E. coli as a microbial cell factory. PMID:21211066

  14. Three major nucleolar proteins migrate from nucleolus to nucleoplasm and cytoplasm in root tip cells of Vicia faba L. exposed to aluminum.

    PubMed

    Qin, Rong; Zhang, Huaning; Li, Shaoshan; Jiang, Wusheng; Liu, Donghua

    2014-09-01

    Results from our previous investigation indicated that Al could affect the nucleolus and induce extrusion of silver-staining nucleolar particles containing argyrophilic proteins from the nucleolus into the cytoplasm in root tip cells of Vicia faba L. So far, the nucleolar proteins involved have not been identified. It is well known that nucleophosmin (B23), nucleolin (C23), and fibrillarin are three major and multifunctional nucleolar proteins. Therefore, effects of Al on B23, C23, and fibrillarin in root tip cells of V. faba exposed to 100 μM Al for 48 h were observed and analyzed using indirect immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blotting. The results from this work demonstrated that after 100 μM of Al treatment for 48 h, B23 and C23 migrated from the nucleolus to the cytoplasm and fibrillarin from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm. In some cells, fibrillarin was present only in the cytoplasm. Western blotting data revealed higher expression of the three major nucleolar proteins in Al-treated roots compared with the control and that the B23 content increased markedly. These findings confirmed our previous observations.

  15. The cytoplasmic end of transmembrane domain 3 regulates the activity of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae G-protein-coupled alpha-factor receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, William; Eilers, Markus; Ying, Weiwen; Konopka, James B

    2002-01-01

    The binding of alpha-factor to its receptor (Ste2p) activates a G-protein-signaling pathway leading to conjugation of MATa cells of the budding yeast S. cerevisiae. We conducted a genetic screen to identify constitutively activating mutations in the N-terminal region of the alpha-factor receptor that includes transmembrane domains 1-5. This approach identified 12 unique constitutively activating mutations, the strongest of which affected polar residues at the cytoplasmic ends of transmembrane domains 2 and 3 (Asn84 and Gln149, respectively) that are conserved in the alpha-factor receptors of divergent yeast species. Targeted mutagenesis, in combination with molecular modeling studies, suggested that Gln149 is oriented toward the core of the transmembrane helix bundle where it may be involved in mediating an interaction with Asn84. These residues appear to play specific roles in maintaining the inactive conformation of the protein since a variety of mutations at either position cause constitutive receptor signaling. Interestingly, the activity of many mammalian G-protein-coupled receptors is also regulated by conserved polar residues (the E/DRY motif) at the cytoplasmic end of transmembrane domain 3. Altogether, the results of this study suggest a conserved role for the cytoplasmic end of transmembrane domain 3 in regulating the activity of divergent G-protein-coupled receptors. PMID:11861550

  16. Garlic virus X 11-kDa protein granules move within the cytoplasm and traffic a host protein normally found in the nucleolus.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuwen; Yan, Fei; Guo, Wei; Zheng, Hongying; Lin, Lin; Peng, Jiejun; Adams, Michael J; Chen, Jianping

    2011-09-01

    The subcellular localization of the 11-kDa protein (p11) encoded by ORF3 of Garlic virus X (GarVX; genus Allexivirus, family Alphaflexiviridae) was examined by confocal microscopy. Granules with intense fluorescence were visible on the endoplasmic reticulum when p11 fused with green or red fluorescent protein (GFP or RFP) was expressed in epidermal cells of Nicotiana benthamiana. Moreover, the p11-RFP granules moved in the cytoplasm, along the cell periphery and through the cell membranes to adjacent cells. A 17-kDa protein (p17) of garlic interacting with p11 was identified by yeast two-hybridization and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. When p17 fused to GFP was expressed in epidermal cells of N. benthamiana, it localized to the nucleolus. However, in the presence of GarVX p11, the distribution of p17 changed to that of p11, but did not appear to affect the pattern of movement of p11. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2011 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD. NO CLAIM TO ORIGINAL US GOVERNMENT WORKS.

  17. Differential protein abundance of a basolateral MCT1 transporter in the human gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Al-Mosauwi, Hashemeya; Ryan, Elizabeth; McGrane, Alison; Riveros-Beltran, Stefanie; Walpole, Caragh; Dempsey, Eugene; Courtney, Danielle; Fearon, Naomi; Winter, Desmond; Baird, Alan; Stewart, Gavin

    2016-12-01

    Bacterially derived short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyrate, are vital in maintaining the symbiotic relationship that exists between humans and their gastrointestinal microbial populations. A key step in this process is the transport of SCFAs across colonic epithelial cells via MCT1 transporters. This study investigated MCT1 protein abundance in various human intestinal tissues. Initial RT-PCR analysis confirmed the expected MCT1 RNA expression pattern of colon > small intestine > stomach. Using surgical resection samples, immunoblot analysis detected higher abundance of a 45 kDa MCT1 protein in colonic tissue compared to ileum tissue (P < 0.001, N = 4, unpaired t-test). Importantly, MCT1 abundance was found to be significantly lower in sigmoid colon compared to ascending colon (P < 0.01, N = 8-11, ANOVA). Finally, immunolocalization studies confirmed MCT1 to be abundant in the basolateral membranes of surface epithelial cells of the ascending, transverse, and descending colon, but significantly less prevalent in the sigmoid colon (P < 0.05, N = 5-21, ANOVA). In conclusion, these data confirm that basolateral MCT1 protein abundance is correlated to levels of bacterially derived SCFAs along the human gastrointestinal tract. These findings highlight the importance of precise tissue location in studies comparing colonic MCT1 abundance between normal and diseased states. © 2016 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  18. Natural Genetic Variation Influences Protein Abundances in C. elegans Developmental Signalling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kapil Dev; Roschitzki, Bernd; Snoek, L. Basten; Grossmann, Jonas; Zheng, Xue; Elvin, Mark; Kamkina, Polina; Schrimpf, Sabine P.; Poulin, Gino B.; Kammenga, Jan E.; Hengartner, Michael O.

    2016-01-01

    Complex traits, including common disease-related traits, are affected by many different genes that function in multiple pathways and networks. The apoptosis, MAPK, Notch, and Wnt signalling pathways play important roles in development and disease progression. At the moment we have a poor understanding of how allelic variation affects gene expression in these pathways at the level of translation. Here we report the effect of natural genetic variation on transcript and protein abundance involved in developmental signalling pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans. We used selected reaction monitoring to analyse proteins from the abovementioned four pathways in a set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) generated from the wild-type strains N2 (Bristol) and CB4856 (Hawaii) to enable quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. About half of the cases from the 44 genes tested showed a statistically significant change in protein abundance between various strains, most of these were however very weak (below 1.3-fold change). We detected a distant QTL on the left arm of chromosome II that affected protein abundance of the phosphatidylserine receptor protein PSR-1, and two separate QTLs that influenced embryonic and ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis on chromosome IV. Our results demonstrate that natural variation in C. elegans is sufficient to cause significant changes in signalling pathways both at the gene expression (transcript and protein abundance) and phenotypic levels. PMID:26985669

  19. Late-assembly of human ribosomal protein S20 in the cytoplasm is essential for the functioning of the small subunit ribosome

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, Lin-Ru; Chou, Chang-Wei; Wu, Jing-Ying

    2013-11-15

    Using immuno-fluorescent probing and Western blotting analysis, we reveal the exclusive cytoplasm nature of the small subunit ribosomal protein S20. To illustrate the importance of the cellular compartmentation of S20 to the function of small subunit 40S, we created a nuclear resident S20{sub NLS} mutant gene and examined polysome profile of cells that had been transfected with the S20{sub NLS} gene. As a result, we observed the formation of recombinant 40S carried S20{sub NLS} but this recombinant 40S was never found in the polysome, suggesting such a recombinant 40S was translation incompetent. Moreover, by the tactic of the energy depletionmore » and restoration, we were able to restrain the nuclear-resided S20{sub NLS} in the cytoplasm. Yet, along a progressive energy restoration, we observed the presence of recombinant 40S subunits carrying the S20{sub NLS} in the polysome. This proves that S20 needs to be cytoplasmic in order to make a functional 40S subunit. Furthermore, it also implies that the assembly order of ribosomal protein in eukaryote is orderly regulated. - Highlights: • The step of S20 assembled on 40S is happened in the cytoplasm. • A small subunit assembled with a nuclear S20{sub NLS} is translational incompetence. • Using energy depletion and recovery to manipulate the cellular compartment of S20{sub NLS}. • Cytoplasm-retained S20{sub NLS} is crucial for creating a functional small subunit.« less

  20. A new coarse-grained model for E. coli cytoplasm: accurate calculation of the diffusion coefficient of proteins and observation of anomalous diffusion.

    PubMed

    Hasnain, Sabeeha; McClendon, Christopher L; Hsu, Monica T; Jacobson, Matthew P; Bandyopadhyay, Pradipta

    2014-01-01

    A new coarse-grained model of the E. coli cytoplasm is developed by describing the proteins of the cytoplasm as flexible units consisting of one or more spheres that follow Brownian dynamics (BD), with hydrodynamic interactions (HI) accounted for by a mean-field approach. Extensive BD simulations were performed to calculate the diffusion coefficients of three different proteins in the cellular environment. The results are in close agreement with experimental or previously simulated values, where available. Control simulations without HI showed that use of HI is essential to obtain accurate diffusion coefficients. Anomalous diffusion inside the crowded cellular medium was investigated with Fractional Brownian motion analysis, and found to be present in this model. By running a series of control simulations in which various forces were removed systematically, it was found that repulsive interactions (volume exclusion) are the main cause for anomalous diffusion, with a secondary contribution from HI.

  1. Visualization and dissemination of multidimensional proteomics data comparing protein abundance during Caenorhabditis elegans development.

    PubMed

    Riffle, Michael; Merrihew, Gennifer E; Jaschob, Daniel; Sharma, Vagisha; Davis, Trisha N; Noble, William S; MacCoss, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    Regulation of protein abundance is a critical aspect of cellular function, organism development, and aging. Alternative splicing may give rise to multiple possible proteoforms of gene products where the abundance of each proteoform is independently regulated. Understanding how the abundances of these distinct gene products change is essential to understanding the underlying mechanisms of many biological processes. Bottom-up proteomics mass spectrometry techniques may be used to estimate protein abundance indirectly by sequencing and quantifying peptides that are later mapped to proteins based on sequence. However, quantifying the abundance of distinct gene products is routinely confounded by peptides that map to multiple possible proteoforms. In this work, we describe a technique that may be used to help mitigate the effects of confounding ambiguous peptides and multiple proteoforms when quantifying proteins. We have applied this technique to visualize the distribution of distinct gene products for the whole proteome across 11 developmental stages of the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. The result is a large multidimensional dataset for which web-based tools were developed for visualizing how translated gene products change during development and identifying possible proteoforms. The underlying instrument raw files and tandem mass spectra may also be downloaded. The data resource is freely available on the web at http://www.yeastrc.org/wormpes/ . Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  2. Visualization and Dissemination of Multidimensional Proteomics Data Comparing Protein Abundance During Caenorhabditis elegans Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riffle, Michael; Merrihew, Gennifer E.; Jaschob, Daniel; Sharma, Vagisha; Davis, Trisha N.; Noble, William S.; MacCoss, Michael J.

    2015-11-01

    Regulation of protein abundance is a critical aspect of cellular function, organism development, and aging. Alternative splicing may give rise to multiple possible proteoforms of gene products where the abundance of each proteoform is independently regulated. Understanding how the abundances of these distinct gene products change is essential to understanding the underlying mechanisms of many biological processes. Bottom-up proteomics mass spectrometry techniques may be used to estimate protein abundance indirectly by sequencing and quantifying peptides that are later mapped to proteins based on sequence. However, quantifying the abundance of distinct gene products is routinely confounded by peptides that map to multiple possible proteoforms. In this work, we describe a technique that may be used to help mitigate the effects of confounding ambiguous peptides and multiple proteoforms when quantifying proteins. We have applied this technique to visualize the distribution of distinct gene products for the whole proteome across 11 developmental stages of the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. The result is a large multidimensional dataset for which web-based tools were developed for visualizing how translated gene products change during development and identifying possible proteoforms. The underlying instrument raw files and tandem mass spectra may also be downloaded. The data resource is freely available on the web at http://www.yeastrc.org/wormpes/.

  3. Snake venoms are integrated systems, but abundant venom proteins evolve more rapidly.

    PubMed

    Aird, Steven D; Aggarwal, Shikha; Villar-Briones, Alejandro; Tin, Mandy Man-Ying; Terada, Kouki; Mikheyev, Alexander S

    2015-08-28

    While many studies have shown that extracellular proteins evolve rapidly, how selection acts on them remains poorly understood. We used snake venoms to understand the interaction between ecology, expression level, and evolutionary rate in secreted protein systems. Venomous snakes employ well-integrated systems of proteins and organic constituents to immobilize prey. Venoms are generally optimized to subdue preferred prey more effectively than non-prey, and many venom protein families manifest positive selection and rapid gene family diversification. Although previous studies have illuminated how individual venom protein families evolve, how selection acts on venoms as integrated systems, is unknown. Using next-generation transcriptome sequencing and mass spectrometry, we examined microevolution in two pitvipers, allopatrically separated for at least 1.6 million years, and their hybrids. Transcriptomes of parental species had generally similar compositions in regard to protein families, but for a given protein family, the homologs present and concentrations thereof sometimes differed dramatically. For instance, a phospholipase A2 transcript comprising 73.4 % of the Protobothrops elegans transcriptome, was barely present in the P. flavoviridis transcriptome (<0.05 %). Hybrids produced most proteins found in both parental venoms. Protein evolutionary rates were positively correlated with transcriptomic and proteomic abundances, and the most abundant proteins showed positive selection. This pattern holds with the addition of four other published crotaline transcriptomes, from two more genera, and also for the recently published king cobra genome, suggesting that rapid evolution of abundant proteins may be generally true for snake venoms. Looking more broadly at Protobothrops, we show that rapid evolution of the most abundant components is due to positive selection, suggesting an interplay between abundance and adaptation. Given log-scale differences in toxin

  4. Microtubule plus end-tracking proteins play critical roles in directional growth of hyphae by regulating the dynamics of cytoplasmic microtubules in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Cui J Tracy; Kim, Hye-Ryun; Vargas Arispuro, Irasema; Kim, Jung-Mi; Huang, An-Chi; Liu, Bo

    2014-11-01

    Cytoplasmic microtubules (MTs) serve as a rate-limiting factor for hyphal tip growth in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. We hypothesized that this function depended on the MT plus end-tracking proteins (+TIPs) including the EB1 family protein EBA that decorated the MT plus ends undergoing polymerization. The ebAΔ mutation reduced colony growth and the mutant hyphae appeared in an undulating pattern instead of exhibiting unidirectional growth in the control. These phenotypes were enhanced by a mutation in another +TIP gene clipA. EBA was required for plus end-tracking of CLIPA, the Kinesin-7 motor KipA, and the XMAP215 homologue AlpA. In addition, cytoplasmic dynein also depended on EBA to track on most polymerizing MT plus ends, but not for its conspicuous appearance at the MT ends near the hyphal apex. The loss of EBA reduced the number of cytoplasmic MTs and prolonged dwelling times for MTs after reaching the hyphal apex. Finally, we found that colonies were formed in the absence of EBA, CLIPA, and NUDA together, suggesting that they were dispensable for fundamental functions of MTs. This study provided a comprehensive delineation of the relationship among different +TIPs and their contributions to MT dynamics and unidirectional hyphal expansion in filamentous fungi. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. GLYCINE-RICH RNA-BINDING PROTEIN1 interacts with RECEPTOR-LIKE CYTOPLASMIC PROTEIN KINASE1 and suppresses cell death and defense responses in pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Sung; Kim, Nak Hyun; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2015-01-01

    Plants use a variety of innate immune regulators to trigger cell death and defense responses against pathogen attack. We identified pepper (Capsicum annuum) GLYCINE-RICH RNA-BINDING PROTEIN1 (CaGRP1) as a RECEPTOR-LIKE CYTOPLASMIC PROTEIN KINASE1 (CaPIK1)-interacting partner, based on bimolecular fluorescence complementation and coimmunoprecipitation analyses as well as gene silencing and transient expression analysis. CaGRP1 contains an N-terminal RNA recognition motif and a glycine-rich region at the C-terminus. The CaGRP1 protein had DNA- and RNA-binding activity in vitro. CaGRP1 interacted with CaPIK1 in planta. CaGRP1 and CaGRP1-CaPIK1 complexes were localized to the nucleus in plant cells. CaPIK1 phosphorylated CaGRP1 in vitro and in planta. Transient coexpression of CaGRP1 with CaPIK1 suppressed the CaPIK1-triggered cell death response, accompanied by a reduced CaPIK1-triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst. The RNA recognition motif region of CaGRP1 was responsible for the nuclear localization of CaGRP1 as well as the suppression of the CaPIK1-triggered cell death response. CaGRP1 silencing in pepper conferred enhanced resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria (Xcv) infection; however, CaPIK1-silenced plants were more susceptible to Xcv. CaGRP1 interacts with CaPIK1 and negatively regulates CaPIK1-triggered cell death and defense responses by suppressing ROS accumulation. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Relative and accurate measurement of protein abundance using 15N stable isotope labeling in Arabidopsis (SILIA).

    PubMed

    Guo, Guangyu; Li, Ning

    2011-07-01

    In the quantitative proteomic studies, numerous in vitro and in vivo peptide labeling strategies have been successfully applied to measure differentially regulated protein and peptide abundance. These approaches have been proven to be versatile and repeatable in biological discoveries. (15)N metabolic labeling is one of these widely adopted and economical methods. However, due to the differential incorporation rates of (15)N or (14)N, the labeling results produce imperfectly matched isotopic envelopes between the heavy and light nitrogen-labeled peptides. In the present study, we have modified the solid Arabidopsis growth medium to standardize the (15)N supply, which led to a uniform incorporation of (15)N into the whole plant protein complement. The incorporation rate (97.43±0.11%) of (15)N into (15)N-coded peptides was determined by correlating the intensities of peptide ions with the labeling efficiencies according to Gaussian distribution. The resulting actual incorporation rate (97.44%) and natural abundance of (15)N/(14)N-coded peptides are used to re-calculate the intensities of isotopic envelopes of differentially labeled peptides, respectively. A modified (15)N/(14)N stable isotope labeling strategy, SILIA, is assessed and the results demonstrate that this approach is able to differentiate the fold change in protein abundance down to 10%. The machine dynamic range limitation and purification step will make the precursor ion ratio deriving from the actual ratio fold change. It is suggested that the differentially mixed (15)N-coded and (14)N-coded plant protein samples that are used to establish the protein abundance standard curve should be prepared following a similar protein isolation protocol used to isolate the proteins to be quantitated. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 UL37 Protein Tyrosine Residues Conserved among All Alphaherpesviruses Are Required for Interactions with Glycoprotein K, Cytoplasmic Virion Envelopment, and Infectious Virus Production

    PubMed Central

    Chouljenko, Dmitry V.; Jambunathan, Nithya; Chouljenko, Vladimir N.; Naderi, Misagh; Brylinski, Michal; Caskey, John R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) UL37 protein functions in virion envelopment at trans-Golgi membranes, as well as in retrograde and anterograde transport of virion capsids. Recently, we reported that UL37 interacts with glycoprotein K (gK) and its interacting partner protein UL20 (N. Jambunathan, D. Chouljenko, P. Desai, A. S. Charles, R. Subramanian, V. N. Chouljenko, and K. G. Kousoulas, J Virol 88:5927–5935, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00278-14), facilitating cytoplasmic virion envelopment. Alignment of UL37 homologs encoded by alphaherpesviruses revealed the presence of highly conserved residues in the central portion of the UL37 protein. A cadre of nine UL37 site-specific mutations were produced and tested for their ability to inhibit virion envelopment and infectious virus production. Complementation analysis revealed that replacement of tyrosines 474 and 480 with alanine failed to complement the UL37-null virus, while all other mutated UL37 genes complemented the virus efficiently. The recombinant virus DC474-480 constructed with tyrosines 474, 476, 477, and 480 mutated to alanine residues produced a gK-null-like phenotype characterized by the production of very small plaques and accumulation of capsids in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Recombinant viruses having either tyrosine 476 or 477 replaced with alanine produced a wild-type phenotype. Immunoprecipitation assays revealed that replacement of all four tyrosines with alanines substantially reduced the ability of gK to interact with UL37. Alignment of HSV UL37 with the human cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus UL37 homologs revealed that Y480 was conserved only for alphaherpesviruses. Collectively, these results suggest that the UL37 conserved tyrosine 480 residue plays a crucial role in interactions with gK to facilitate cytoplasmic virion envelopment and infectious virus production. IMPORTANCE The HSV-1 UL37 protein is conserved among all herpesviruses, functions in both

  8. Functional Interaction between the Cytoplasmic ABC Protein LptB and the Inner Membrane LptC Protein, Components of the Lipopolysaccharide Transport Machinery in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Martorana, Alessandra M.; Benedet, Mattia; Maccagni, Elisa A.; Sperandeo, Paola; Villa, Riccardo; Dehò, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The assembly of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the outer leaflet of the outer membrane (OM) requires the transenvelope Lpt (lipopolysaccharide transport) complex, made in Escherichia coli of seven essential proteins located in the inner membrane (IM) (LptBCFG), periplasm (LptA), and OM (LptDE). At the IM, LptBFG constitute an unusual ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter, composed by the transmembrane LptFG proteins and the cytoplasmic LptB ATPase, which is thought to extract LPS from the IM and to provide the energy for its export across the periplasm to the cell surface. LptC is a small IM bitopic protein that binds to LptBFG and recruits LptA via its N- and C-terminal regions, and its role in LPS export is not completely understood. Here, we show that the expression level of lptB is a critical factor for suppressing lethality of deletions in the C-terminal region of LptC and the functioning of a hybrid Lpt machinery that carries Pa-LptC, the highly divergent LptC orthologue from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We found that LptB overexpression stabilizes C-terminally truncated LptC mutant proteins, thereby allowing the formation of a sufficient amount of stable IM complexes to support growth. Moreover, the LptB level seems also critical for the assembly of IM complexes carrying Pa-LptC which is otherwise defective in interactions with the E. coli LptFG components. Overall, our data suggest that LptB and LptC functionally interact and support a model whereby LptB plays a key role in the assembly of the Lpt machinery. IMPORTANCE The asymmetric outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria contains in its outer leaflet an unusual glycolipid, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS largely contributes to the peculiar permeability barrier properties of the OM that prevent the entry of many antibiotics, thus making Gram-negative pathogens difficult to treat. In Escherichia coli the LPS transporter (the Lpt machine) is made of seven essential proteins (LptABCDEFG) that form a

  9. LDL receptor-related protein 1 regulates the abundance of diverse cell-signaling proteins in the plasma membrane proteome.

    PubMed

    Gaultier, Alban; Simon, Gabriel; Niessen, Sherry; Dix, Melissa; Takimoto, Shinako; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Gonias, Steven L

    2010-12-03

    LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) is an endocytic receptor, reported to regulate the abundance of other receptors in the plasma membrane, including uPAR and tissue factor. The goal of this study was to identify novel plasma membrane proteins, involved in cell-signaling, that are regulated by LRP1. Membrane protein ectodomains were prepared from RAW 264.7 cells in which LRP1 was silenced and control cells using protease K. Peptides were identified by LC-MS/MS. By analysis of spectral counts, 31 transmembrane and secreted proteins were regulated in abundance at least 2-fold when LRP1 was silenced. Validation studies confirmed that semaphorin4D (Sema4D), plexin domain-containing protein-1 (Plxdc1), and neuropilin-1 were more abundant in the membranes of LRP1 gene-silenced cells. Regulation of Plxdc1 by LRP1 was confirmed in CHO cells, as a second model system. Plxdc1 coimmunoprecipitated with LRP1 from extracts of RAW 264.7 cells and mouse liver. Although Sema4D did not coimmunoprecipitate with LRP1, the cell-surface level of Sema4D was increased by RAP, which binds to LRP1 and inhibits binding of other ligands. These studies identify Plxdc1, Sema4D, and neuropilin-1 as novel LRP1-regulated cell-signaling proteins. Overall, LRP1 emerges as a generalized regulator of the plasma membrane proteome.

  10. Role of molecular chaperones and TPR-domain proteins in the cytoplasmic transport of steroid receptors and their passage through the nuclear pore.

    PubMed

    Galigniana, Mario D; Echeverría, Pablo C; Erlejman, Alejandra G; Piwien-Pilipuk, Graciela

    2010-01-01

    In the absence of hormone, corticosteroid receptors such as GR (glucocorticoid receptor) and (mineralocorticoid receptor) are primarily located in the cytoplasm. Upon steroid-binding, they rapidly accumulate in the nucleus. Regardless of their primary location, these receptors and many other nuclear factors undergo a constant and dynamic nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. All members of the steroid receptor family are known to form large oligomeric structures with the heat-shock proteins of 90-kDa (hsp90) and 70-kDa (hsp70), the small acidic protein p23, and a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) -domain protein such as FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs), cyclophilins (CyPs) or the serine/threonine protein phosphatase 5 (PP5). It has always been stated that the dissociation of the chaperone heterocomplex (a process normally referred to as receptor "transformation") is the first step that permits the nuclear import of steroid receptors. However the experimental evidence is consistent with a model where the chaperone machinery is required for the retrotransport of the receptor through the cytoplasm and also facilitates the passage through the nuclear pore. Recent evidence indicates that the hsp90-based chaperone system also interacts with structures of the nuclear pore such as importin β and the integral nuclear pore glycoprotein Nup62 facilitating the passage of the untransformed receptor through the nuclear pore.

  11. Complete genome sequence and integrated protein localization and interaction map for alfalfa dwarf virus, which combines properties of both cytoplasmic and nuclear plant rhabdoviruses

    SciTech Connect

    Bejerman, Nicolás, E-mail: n.bejerman@uq.edu.au; Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072; Giolitti, Fabián

    Summary: We have determined the full-length 14,491-nucleotide genome sequence of a new plant rhabdovirus, alfalfa dwarf virus (ADV). Seven open reading frames (ORFs) were identified in the antigenomic orientation of the negative-sense, single-stranded viral RNA, in the order 3′-N-P-P3-M-G-P6-L-5′. The ORFs are separated by conserved intergenic regions and the genome coding region is flanked by complementary 3′ leader and 5′ trailer sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleoprotein amino acid sequence indicated that this alfalfa-infecting rhabdovirus is related to viruses in the genus Cytorhabdovirus. When transiently expressed as GFP fusions in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, most ADV proteins accumulated in the cellmore » periphery, but unexpectedly P protein was localized exclusively in the nucleus. ADV P protein was shown to have a homotypic, and heterotypic nuclear interactions with N, P3 and M proteins by bimolecular fluorescence complementation. ADV appears unique in that it combines properties of both cytoplasmic and nuclear plant rhabdoviruses. - Highlights: • The complete genome of alfalfa dwarf virus is obtained. • An integrated localization and interaction map for ADV is determined. • ADV has a genome sequence similarity and evolutionary links with cytorhabdoviruses. • ADV protein localization and interaction data show an association with the nucleus. • ADV combines properties of both cytoplasmic and nuclear plant rhabdoviruses.« less

  12. Depleting high-abundant and enriching low-abundant proteins in human serum: An evaluation of sample preparation methods using magnetic nanoparticle, chemical depletion and immunoaffinity techniques.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, Jemmyson Romário; da Silva Fernandes, Rafael; de Souza Pessôa, Gustavo; Raimundo, Ivo Milton; Arruda, Marco Aurélio Zezzi

    2017-08-01

    The efficiency of three different depletion methods to remove the most abundant proteins, enriching those human serum proteins with low abundance is checked to make more efficient the search and discovery of biomarkers. These methods utilize magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), chemical reagents (sequential application of dithiothreitol and acetonitrile, DTT/ACN), and commercial apparatus based on immunoaffinity (ProteoMiner, PM). The comparison between methods shows significant removal of abundant protein, remaining in the supernatant at concentrations of 4.6±0.2, 3.6±0.1, and 3.3±0.2µgµL -1 (n=3) for MNPs, DTT/ACN and PM respectively, from a total protein content of 54µgµL -1 . Using GeLC-MS/MS analysis, MNPs depletion shows good efficiency in removing high molecular weight proteins (>80kDa). Due to the synergic effect between the reagents DTT and ACN, DTT/ACN-based depletion offers good performance in the depletion of thiol-rich proteins, such as albumin and transferrin (DTT action), as well as of high molecular weight proteins (ACN action). Furthermore, PM equalization confirms its efficiency in concentrating low-abundant proteins, decreasing the dynamic range of protein levels in human serum. Direct comparison between the treatments reveals 72 proteins identified when using MNP depletion (43 of them exclusively by this method), but only 20 proteins using DTT/ACN (seven exclusively by this method). Additionally, after PM treatment 30 proteins were identified, seven exclusively by this method. Thus, MNPs and DTT/ACN depletion can be simple, quick, cheap, and robust alternatives for immunochemistry-based protein depletion, providing a potential strategy in the search for disease biomarkers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification of proteins of altered abundance in oil palm infected with Ganoderma boninense.

    PubMed

    Al-Obaidi, Jameel R; Mohd-Yusuf, Yusmin; Razali, Nurhanani; Jayapalan, Jaime Jacqueline; Tey, Chin-Chong; Md-Noh, Normahnani; Junit, Sarni Mat; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Hashim, Onn Haji

    2014-03-24

    Basal stem rot is a common disease that affects oil palm, causing loss of yield and finally killing the trees. The disease, caused by fungus Ganoderma boninense, devastates thousands of hectares of oil palm plantings in Southeast Asia every year. In the present study, root proteins of healthy oil palm seedlings, and those infected with G. boninense, were analyzed by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). When the 2-DE profiles were analyzed for proteins, which exhibit consistent significant change of abundance upon infection with G. boninense, 21 passed our screening criteria. Subsequent analyses by mass spectrometry and database search identified caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase, caffeic acid O-methyltransferase, enolase, fructokinase, cysteine synthase, malate dehydrogenase, and ATP synthase as among proteins of which abundances were markedly altered.

  14. Identification of Proteins of Altered Abundance in Oil Palm Infected with Ganoderma boninense

    PubMed Central

    Al-Obaidi, Jameel R.; Mohd-Yusuf, Yusmin; Razali, Nurhanani; Jayapalan, Jaime Jacqueline; Tey, Chin-Chong; Md-Noh, Normahnani; Junit, Sarni Mat; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Hashim, Onn Haji

    2014-01-01

    Basal stem rot is a common disease that affects oil palm, causing loss of yield and finally killing the trees. The disease, caused by fungus Ganoderma boninense, devastates thousands of hectares of oil palm plantings in Southeast Asia every year. In the present study, root proteins of healthy oil palm seedlings, and those infected with G. boninense, were analyzed by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). When the 2-DE profiles were analyzed for proteins, which exhibit consistent significant change of abundance upon infection with G. boninense, 21 passed our screening criteria. Subsequent analyses by mass spectrometry and database search identified caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase, caffeic acid O-methyltransferase, enolase, fructokinase, cysteine synthase, malate dehydrogenase, and ATP synthase as among proteins of which abundances were markedly altered. PMID:24663087

  15. Unfoldomics of prostate cancer: on the abundance and roles of intrinsically disordered proteins in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Landau, Kevin S; Na, Insung; Schenck, Ryan O; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2016-01-01

    Prostatic diseases such as prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia are highly prevalent among men. The number of studies focused on the abundance and roles of intrinsically disordered proteins in prostate cancer is rather limited. The goal of this study is to analyze the prevalence and degree of disorder in proteins that were previously associated with the prostate cancer pathogenesis and to compare these proteins to the entire human proteome. The analysis of these datasets provides means for drawing conclusions on the roles of disordered proteins in this common male disease. We also hope that the results of our analysis can potentially lead to future experimental studies of these proteins to find novel pathways associated with this disease. PMID:27453073

  16. Comparison of Depletion Strategies for the Enrichment of Low-Abundance Proteins in Urine.

    PubMed

    Filip, Szymon; Vougas, Konstantinos; Zoidakis, Jerome; Latosinska, Agnieszka; Mullen, William; Spasovski, Goce; Mischak, Harald; Vlahou, Antonia; Jankowski, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Proteome analysis of complex biological samples for biomarker identification remains challenging, among others due to the extended range of protein concentrations. High-abundance proteins like albumin or IgG of plasma and urine, may interfere with the detection of potential disease biomarkers. Currently, several options are available for the depletion of abundant proteins in plasma. However, the applicability of these methods in urine has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we compared different, commercially available immunodepletion and ion-exchange based approaches on urine samples from both healthy subjects and CKD patients, for their reproducibility and efficiency in protein depletion. A starting urine volume of 500 μL was used to simulate conditions of a multi-institutional biomarker discovery study. All depletion approaches showed satisfactory reproducibility (n=5) in protein identification as well as protein abundance. Comparison of the depletion efficiency between the unfractionated and fractionated samples and the different depletion strategies, showed efficient depletion in all cases, with the exception of the ion-exchange kit. The depletion efficiency was found slightly higher in normal than in CKD samples and normal samples yielded more protein identifications than CKD samples when using both initial as well as corresponding depleted fractions. Along these lines, decrease in the amount of albumin and other targets as applicable, following depletion, was observed. Nevertheless, these depletion strategies did not yield a higher number of identifications in neither the urine from normal nor CKD patients. Collectively, when analyzing urine in the context of CKD biomarker identification, no added value of depletion strategies can be observed and analysis of unfractionated starting urine appears to be preferable.

  17. Comparison of Depletion Strategies for the Enrichment of Low-Abundance Proteins in Urine

    PubMed Central

    Filip, Szymon; Vougas, Konstantinos; Zoidakis, Jerome; Latosinska, Agnieszka; Mullen, William; Spasovski, Goce; Mischak, Harald; Vlahou, Antonia; Jankowski, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Proteome analysis of complex biological samples for biomarker identification remains challenging, among others due to the extended range of protein concentrations. High-abundance proteins like albumin or IgG of plasma and urine, may interfere with the detection of potential disease biomarkers. Currently, several options are available for the depletion of abundant proteins in plasma. However, the applicability of these methods in urine has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we compared different, commercially available immunodepletion and ion-exchange based approaches on urine samples from both healthy subjects and CKD patients, for their reproducibility and efficiency in protein depletion. A starting urine volume of 500 μL was used to simulate conditions of a multi-institutional biomarker discovery study. All depletion approaches showed satisfactory reproducibility (n=5) in protein identification as well as protein abundance. Comparison of the depletion efficiency between the unfractionated and fractionated samples and the different depletion strategies, showed efficient depletion in all cases, with the exception of the ion-exchange kit. The depletion efficiency was found slightly higher in normal than in CKD samples and normal samples yielded more protein identifications than CKD samples when using both initial as well as corresponding depleted fractions. Along these lines, decrease in the amount of albumin and other targets as applicable, following depletion, was observed. Nevertheless, these depletion strategies did not yield a higher number of identifications in neither the urine from normal nor CKD patients. Collectively, when analyzing urine in the context of CKD biomarker identification, no added value of depletion strategies can be observed and analysis of unfractionated starting urine appears to be preferable. PMID:26208298

  18. Cytoplasmic Localization of HTLV-1 HBZ Protein: A Biomarker of HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP).

    PubMed

    Baratella, Marco; Forlani, Greta; Raval, Goutham U; Tedeschi, Alessandra; Gout, Olivier; Gessain, Antoine; Tosi, Giovanna; Accolla, Roberto S

    2017-01-01

    HTLV-1 is the causative agent of a severe form of adult T cell leukemia/Lymphoma (ATL), and of a chronic progressive neuromyelopathy designated HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Two important HTLV-1-encoded proteins, Tax-1 and HBZ, play crucial roles in the generation and maintenance of the oncogenic process. Less information is instead available on the molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to HAM/TSP. More importantly, no single specific biomarker has been described that unambiguously define the status of HAM/TSP. Here we report for the first time the finding that HBZ, described until now as an exclusive nuclear protein both in chronically infected and in ATL cells, is instead exclusively localized in the cytoplasm of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients suffering of HAM/TSP. Interestingly, at the single cell level, HBZ and Tax-1 proteins are never found co-expressed in the same cell, suggesting the existence of mechanisms of expression uncoupling of these two important HTLV-1 viral products in HAM/TSP patients. Cells expressing cytoplasmic HBZ were almost exclusively found in the CD4+ T cell compartment that was not, at least in a representative HAM/TSP patient, expressing the CD25 marker. Less than 1 percent CD8+ T cells were fond positive for HBZ, while B cells and NK cells were found negative for HBZ in HAM/TSP patients. Our results identify the cytoplasmic localization of HBZ in HAM/TSP patient as a possible biomarker of this rather neglected tropical disease, and raise important hypotheses on the role of HBZ in the pathogenesis of the neuromyelopathy associated to HTLV-1 infection.

  19. A Simple Method for Rapid Depletion of Rubisco from Soybean (Glycine max) Leaf for Proteomic Analysis of Lower Abundance Proteins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    2-DE analysis of complex plant proteomes has limited dynamic resolution because only abundant proteins can be detected. Proteomic assessment of the low abundance proteins within leaf tissue is difficult when it is comprised of 30 – 50% of the CO2 fixation enzyme Rubisco. Resolution can be improved t...

  20. Relationships between protein-encoding gene abundance and corresponding process are commonly assumed yet rarely observed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocca, Jennifer D.; Hall, Edward K.; Lennon, Jay T.; Evans, Sarah E.; Waldrop, Mark P.; Cotner, James B.; Nemergut, Diana R.; Graham, Emily B.; Wallenstein, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    For any enzyme-catalyzed reaction to occur, the corresponding protein-encoding genes and transcripts are necessary prerequisites. Thus, a positive relationship between the abundance of gene or transcripts and corresponding process rates is often assumed. To test this assumption, we conducted a meta-analysis of the relationships between gene and/or transcript abundances and corresponding process rates. We identified 415 studies that quantified the abundance of genes or transcripts for enzymes involved in carbon or nitrogen cycling. However, in only 59 of these manuscripts did the authors report both gene or transcript abundance and rates of the appropriate process. We found that within studies there was a significant but weak positive relationship between gene abundance and the corresponding process. Correlations were not strengthened by accounting for habitat type, differences among genes or reaction products versus reactants, suggesting that other ecological and methodological factors may affect the strength of this relationship. Our findings highlight the need for fundamental research on the factors that control transcription, translation and enzyme function in natural systems to better link genomic and transcriptomic data to ecosystem processes.

  1. Depletion of abundant plant RuBisCO protein using the protamine sulfate precipitation method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu Ji; Lee, Hye Min; Wang, Yiming; Wu, Jingni; Kim, Sang Gon; Kang, Kyu Young; Park, Ki Hun; Kim, Yong Chul; Choi, In Soo; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Rakwal, Randeep; Kim, Sun Tae

    2013-07-01

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) is the most abundant plant leaf protein, hampering deep analysis of the leaf proteome. Here, we describe a novel protamine sulfate precipitation (PSP) method for the depletion of RuBisCO. For this purpose, soybean leaf total proteins were extracted using Tris-Mg/NP-40 extraction buffer. Obtained clear supernatant was subjected to the PSP method, followed by 13% SDS-PAGE analysis of total, PS-supernatant and -precipitation derived protein samples. In a dose-dependent experiment, 0.1% w/v PS was found to be sufficient for precipitating RuBisCO large and small subunits (LSU and SSU). Western blot analysis confirmed no detection of RuBisCO LSU in the PS-supernatant proteins. Application of this method to Arabidopsis, rice, and maize leaf proteins revealed results similar to soybean. Furthermore, 2DE analyses of PS-treated soybean leaf displayed enriched protein profile for the protein sample derived from the PS-supernatant than total proteins. Some enriched 2D spots were subjected to MALDI-TOF-TOF analysis and were successfully assigned for their protein identity. Hence, the PSP method is: (i) simple, fast, economical, and reproducible for RuBisCO precipitation from the plant leaf sample; (ii) applicable to both dicot and monocot plants; and (iii) suitable for downstream proteomics analysis. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Effects of copper and tributyltin on stress protein abundance in the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, B J; Irby, R B; Snell, T W

    1991-01-01

    1. Exposure of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis to elevated temperature resulted in the synthesis of a number of proteins, including a prominent one of 58,000 Da (SP58). 2. This protein is immunologically crossreactive with the 65,000 Da heat shock protein of the moth Heliothis virescens, which is a member of a highly conserved family of mitochondrial proteins. 3. Exposure of rotifers to sublethal doses of CuSO4 leads to a 4-5-fold increase in abundance of SP58, with maximum increase occurring at a dose that is approximately 5% of the LC50 for that compound. 4. A similar response was seen with tributyl tin (TBT). Kinetics of induction were sigmoidal, with induction occurring in the range of 20-30 micrograms/l. 5. No response was observed when rotifers were exposed to aluminum chloride, mercury chloride, pentachlorophenol, sodium arsenite, sodium azide, sodium dodecyl sulfate, or zinc chloride. 6. These results indicate that changes in stress protein abundance may prove useful as a biomarker of exposure to particular toxicants.

  3. Studies on Antifungal Potential, Primary Characterization and Mode of Action of a De Novo Cytoplasmic Protein (EAF) from Human Commensal Escherichia coli Against Aspergillus spp.

    PubMed

    Balhara, Meenakshi; Ruhil, Sonam; Dhankhar, Sandeep; Chhillar, Anil K

    2015-01-01

    A de novo protein named as EAF (Escherichia antifungal protein) from the cytoplasmic pool of an Escherichia coli strain (MTCC 1652), has been purified to homogeneity using anion exchange (Q-XL Sepharose) and cation exchange (SP-Sepharose) chromatography. The MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) values of purified protein against A. fumigatus (the major pathogenic species) were found to be comparable with standard drugs i.e. 3.90 µg/ml, 3.90 µg/ml and 1.25 µg/disc via microbroth dilution assay (MDA), percentage spore germination inhibition (PSGI) and disc diffusion assay (DDA) respectively. Toxicity results confirmed that it causes no haemolysis against human RBCs upto a concentration of 1000.0 µg/ml as compared to Amphotericin B (conventional antifungal drug) that causes hundred percent haemolysis at a concentration of 37.50 µg/ml only.The purified protein demonstrated a molecular mass of 28 kDa on SDS-PAGE which was further authenticated by MALDI-TOF. Proteomic and bioinformatics studies deciphered its significant homology (72 %) with chain A-D-ribose binding protein (cluster 2 sugar binding periplasmic proteins; sequence homologues of transcription regulatory proteins) from E. coli. Single dimensional page analysis of A. fumigatusproteins with due effect of EAF (at MIC50) revealed the inhibition of two major proteins; a heat shock protein 70-Hsp70 (68 kDa); having role in protein folding and functioning andphenylanalyl-t RNA synthetase PodG subunit protein (74 kDa); involved in growth polarity in fungi. Scanning electron microscopic studies depicted homologous results. We suggest that EAF most likely belongs to a new group of proteins with potent antifungal characteristics, negligible toxicity and targeting vital proteins of fungal metabolism.

  4. Absolute Quantification of Middle- to High-Abundant Plasma Proteins via Targeted Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Julia; Ceglarek, Uta

    2017-01-01

    The increasing number of peptide and protein biomarker candidates requires expeditious and reliable quantification strategies. The utilization of liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the absolute quantitation of plasma proteins and peptides facilitates the multiplexed verification of tens to hundreds of biomarkers from smallest sample quantities. Targeted proteomics assays derived from bottom-up proteomics principles rely on the identification and analysis of proteotypic peptides formed in an enzymatic digestion of the target protein. This protocol proposes a procedure for the establishment of a targeted absolute quantitation method for middle- to high-abundant plasma proteins waiving depletion or enrichment steps. Essential topics as proteotypic peptide identification and LC-MS/MS method development as well as sample preparation and calibration strategies are described in detail.

  5. Separomics applied to the proteomics and peptidomics of low-abundance proteins: Choice of methods and challenges - A review.

    PubMed

    Baracat-Pereira, Maria Cristina; de Oliveira Barbosa, Meire; Magalhães, Marcos Jorge; Carrijo, Lanna Clicia; Games, Patrícia Dias; Almeida, Hebréia Oliveira; Sena Netto, José Fabiano; Pereira, Matheus Rodrigues; de Barros, Everaldo Gonçalves

    2012-06-01

    The enrichment and isolation of proteins are considered limiting steps in proteomic studies. Identification of proteins whose expression is transient, those that are of low-abundance, and of natural peptides not described in databases, is still a great challenge. Plant extracts are in general complex, and contaminants interfere with the identification of proteins involved in important physiological processes, such as plant defense against pathogens. This review discusses the challenges and strategies of separomics applied to the identification of low-abundance proteins and peptides in plants, especially in plants challenged by pathogens. Separomics is described as a group of methodological strategies for the separation of protein molecules for proteomics. Several tools have been used to remove highly abundant proteins from samples and also non-protein contaminants. The use of chromatographic techniques, the partition of the proteome into subproteomes, and an effort to isolate proteins in their native form have allowed the isolation and identification of rare proteins involved in different processes.

  6. Intake of Meat Proteins Substantially Increased the Relative Abundance of Genus Lactobacillus in Rat Feces

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yingying; Lin, Xisha; Li, He; Li, Yingqiu; Shi, Xuebin; Zhao, Fan; Xu, Xinglian; Li, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-01-01

    Diet has been shown to have a critical influence on gut bacteria and host health, and high levels of red meat in diet have been shown to increase colonic DNA damage and thus be harmful to gut health. However, previous studies focused more on the effects of meat than of meat proteins. In order to investigate whether intake of meat proteins affects the composition and metabolic activities of gut microbiota, feces were collected from growing rats that were fed with either meat proteins (from beef, pork or fish) or non-meat proteins (casein or soy) for 14 days. The resulting composition of gut microbiota was profiled by sequencing the V4-V5 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA genes and the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were analyzed using gas chromatography. The composition of gut microbiota and SCFA levels were significantly different between the five diet groups. At a recommended dose of 20% protein in the diet, meat protein-fed rats had a higher relative abundance of the beneficial genus Lactobacillus, but lower levels of SCFAs and SCFA-producing bacteria including Fusobacterium, Bacteroides and Prevotella, compared with the soy protein-fed group. Further work is needed on the regulatory pathways linking dietary protein intake to gut microbiota. PMID:27042829

  7. Intake of Meat Proteins Substantially Increased the Relative Abundance of Genus Lactobacillus in Rat Feces.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yingying; Lin, Xisha; Li, He; Li, Yingqiu; Shi, Xuebin; Zhao, Fan; Xu, Xinglian; Li, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-01-01

    Diet has been shown to have a critical influence on gut bacteria and host health, and high levels of red meat in diet have been shown to increase colonic DNA damage and thus be harmful to gut health. However, previous studies focused more on the effects of meat than of meat proteins. In order to investigate whether intake of meat proteins affects the composition and metabolic activities of gut microbiota, feces were collected from growing rats that were fed with either meat proteins (from beef, pork or fish) or non-meat proteins (casein or soy) for 14 days. The resulting composition of gut microbiota was profiled by sequencing the V4-V5 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA genes and the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were analyzed using gas chromatography. The composition of gut microbiota and SCFA levels were significantly different between the five diet groups. At a recommended dose of 20% protein in the diet, meat protein-fed rats had a higher relative abundance of the beneficial genus Lactobacillus, but lower levels of SCFAs and SCFA-producing bacteria including Fusobacterium, Bacteroides and Prevotella, compared with the soy protein-fed group. Further work is needed on the regulatory pathways linking dietary protein intake to gut microbiota.

  8. The Nonreceptor Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase PTP1B Binds to the Cytoplasmic Domain of N-Cadherin and Regulates the Cadherin–Actin Linkage

    PubMed Central

    Balsamo, Janne; Arregui, Carlos; Leung, TinChung; Lilien, Jack

    1998-01-01

    Cadherin-mediated adhesion depends on the association of its cytoplasmic domain with the actin-containing cytoskeleton. This interaction is mediated by a group of cytoplasmic proteins: α-and β- or γ- catenin. Phosphorylation of β-catenin on tyrosine residues plays a role in controlling this association and, therefore, cadherin function. Previous work from our laboratory suggested that a nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase, bound to the cytoplasmic domain of N-cadherin, is responsible for removing tyrosine-bound phosphate residues from β-catenin, thus maintaining the cadherin–actin connection (Balsamo et al., 1996). Here we report the molecular cloning of the cadherin-associated tyrosine phosphatase and identify it as PTP1B. To definitively establish a causal relationship between the function of cadherin-bound PTP1B and cadherin-mediated adhesion, we tested the effect of expressing a catalytically inactive form of PTP1B in L cells constitutively expressing N-cadherin. We find that expression of the catalytically inactive PTP1B results in reduced cadherin-mediated adhesion. Furthermore, cadherin is uncoupled from its association with actin, and β-catenin shows increased phosphorylation on tyrosine residues when compared with parental cells or cells transfected with the wild-type PTP1B. Both the transfected wild-type and the mutant PTP1B are found associated with N-cadherin, and recombinant mutant PTP1B binds to N-cadherin in vitro, indicating that the catalytically inactive form acts as a dominant negative, displacing endogenous PTP1B, and rendering cadherin nonfunctional. Our results demonstrate a role for PTP1B in regulating cadherin-mediated cell adhesion. PMID:9786960

  9. Exoproteome analysis reveals higher abundance of proteins linked to alkaline stress in persistent Listeria monocytogenes strains.

    PubMed

    Rychli, Kathrin; Grunert, Tom; Ciolacu, Luminita; Zaiser, Andreas; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan; Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Wagner, Martin

    2016-02-02

    The foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, responsible for listeriosis a rare but severe infection disease, can survive in the food processing environment for month or even years. So-called persistent L. monocytogenes strains greatly increase the risk of (re)contamination of food products, and are therefore a great challenge for food safety. However, our understanding of the mechanism underlying persistence is still fragmented. In this study we compared the exoproteome of three persistent strains with the reference strain EGDe under mild stress conditions using 2D differential gel electrophoresis. Principal component analysis including all differentially abundant protein spots showed that the exoproteome of strain EGDe (sequence type (ST) 35) is distinct from that of the persistent strain R479a (ST8) and the two closely related ST121 strains 4423 and 6179. Phylogenetic analyses based on multilocus ST genes showed similar grouping of the strains. Comparing the exoproteome of strain EGDe and the three persistent strains resulted in identification of 22 differentially expressed protein spots corresponding to 16 proteins. Six proteins were significantly increased in the persistent L. monocytogenes exoproteomes, among them proteins involved in alkaline stress response (e.g. the membrane anchored lipoprotein Lmo2637 and the NADPH dehydrogenase NamA). In parallel the persistent strains showed increased survival under alkaline stress, which is often provided during cleaning and disinfection in the food processing environments. In addition, gene expression of the proteins linked to stress response (Lmo2637, NamA, Fhs and QoxA) was higher in the persistent strain not only at 37 °C but also at 10 °C. Invasion efficiency of EGDe was higher in intestinal epithelial Caco2 and macrophage-like THP1 cells compared to the persistent strains. Concurrently we found higher expression of proteins involved in virulence in EGDe e.g. the actin-assembly-inducing protein ActA and the

  10. Conservation of protein abundance patterns reveals the regulatory architecture of the EGFR-MAPK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, T.; Niepel, M.; McDermott, J. E.

    It is not known whether cancer cells generally show quantitative differences in the expression of signaling pathway proteins that could dysregulate signal transduction. To explore this issue, we first defined the primary components of the EGF-MAPK pathway in normal human mammary epithelial cells, identifying 16 core proteins and 10 feedback regulators. We then quantified their absolute abundance across a panel of normal and cancer cell lines. We found that core pathway proteins were expressed at very similar levels across all cell types. In contrast, the EGFR and transcriptionally controlled feedback regulators were expressed at highly variable levels. The absolute abundancemore » of most core pathway proteins was between 50,000- 70,000 copies per cell, but the adaptors SOS1, SOS2, and GAB1 were found at far lower levels (2,000-5,000 per cell). MAPK signaling showed saturation in all cells between 3,000-10,000 occupied EGFR, consistent with the idea that low adaptor levels limit signaling. Our results suggest that the core MAPK pathway is essentially invariant across different cell types, with cell- specific differences in signaling likely due to variable levels of feedback regulators. The low abundance of adaptors relative to the EGFR could be responsible for previous observation of saturable signaling, endocytosis, and high affinity EGFR.« less

  11. Antibody-based analysis reveals “filamentous vs. non-filamentous” and “cytoplasmic vs. nuclear” crosstalk of cytoskeletal proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Kumeta, Masahiro, E-mail: kumeta@lif.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Hirai, Yuya; Yoshimura, Shige H.

    2013-12-10

    To uncover the molecular composition and dynamics of the functional scaffold for the nucleus, three fractions of biochemically-stable nuclear protein complexes were extracted and used as immunogens to produce a variety of monoclonal antibodies. Many helix-based cytoskeletal proteins were identified as antigens, suggesting their dynamic contribution to nuclear architecture and function. Interestingly, sets of antibodies distinguished distinct subcellular localization of a single isoform of certain cytoskeletal proteins; distinct molecular forms of keratin and actinin were found in the nucleus. Their nuclear shuttling properties were verified by the apparent nuclear accumulations under inhibition of CRM1-dependent nuclear export. Nuclear keratins do notmore » take an obvious filamentous structure, as was revealed by non-filamentous cytoplasmic keratin-specific monoclonal antibody. These results suggest the distinct roles of the helix-based cytoskeletal proteins in the nucleus. - Highlights: • A set of monoclonal antibodies were raised against nuclear scaffold proteins. • Helix-based cytoskeletal proteins were involved in nuclear scaffold. • Many cytoskeletal components shuttle into the nucleus in a CRM1-dependent manner. • Sets of antibodies distinguished distinct subcellular localization of a single isoform. • Nuclear keratin is soluble and does not form an obvious filamentous structure.« less

  12. Mild Lipid Stress Induces Profound Loss of MC4R Protein Abundance and Function

    PubMed Central

    Cragle, Faith K.

    2014-01-01

    Food intake is controlled at the central level by the melanocortin pathway in which the agonist α-MSH binds to melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), a Gs-coupled G protein-coupled receptor expressed by neurons in the paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, which signals to reduce appetite. Consumption of a high-fat diet induces hypothalamic accumulation of palmitate, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, apoptosis, and unresponsiveness to prolonged treatment with MC4R agonists. Here we have modeled effects of lipid stress on MC4R by using mHypoE-42 immortalized hypothalamic neurons expressing endogenous MC4R and Neuro2A cells expressing a tagged MC4R reporter, HA-MC4R-GFP. In the hypothalamic neurons, exposure to elevated palmitate in the physiological range induced splicing of X-box binding protein 1, but it did not activate C/EBP-homologous protein or induce increased levels of cleaved caspase-3, indicating mild ER stress. Such mild ER stress coexisted with a minimal loss of MC4R mRNA and yet a profound loss of cAMP signaling in response to incubation with the agonist. These findings were mirrored in the Neuro2A cells expressing HA-MC4R-GFP, in which protein abundance of the tagged receptor was decreased, whereas the activity per receptor number was maintained. The loss of cAMP signaling in response to α-MSH by elevated palmitate was corrected by treatment with a chemical chaperone, 4-phenylbutyrate in both mHypoE-42 hypothalamic neurons and in Neuro2A cells in which protein abundance of HA-MC4R-GFP was increased. The data indicate that posttranscriptional decrease of MC4R protein contribute to lower the response to α-MSH in hypothalamic neurons exposed to even a mild level of lipid stress and that a chemical chaperone corrects such a defect. PMID:24506538

  13. Interaction of cellular proteins with BCL-xL targeted to cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in adenovirus infected cells.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, T; Vijayalingam, S; Kuppuswamy, M; Chinnadurai, G

    2015-09-01

    Adenovirus-mediated apoptosis was suppressed when cellular anti-apoptosis proteins (BCL-2 and BCL-xL) were substituted for the viral E1B-19K. For unbiased proteomic analysis of proteins targeted by BCL-xL in adenovirus-infected cells and to visualize the interactions with target proteins, BCL-xL was targeted to cytosolic inclusion bodies utilizing the orthoreovirus µNS protein sequences. The chimeric protein was localized in non-canonical cytosolic factory-like sites and promoted survival of virus-infected cells. The BCL-xL-associated proteins were isolated from the cytosolic inclusion bodies in adenovirus-infected cells and analyzed by LC-MS. These proteins included BAX, BAK, BID, BIK and BIM as well as mitochondrial proteins such as prohibitin 2, ATP synthase and DNA-PKcs. Our studies suggested that in addition to the interaction with various pro-apoptotic proteins, the association with certain mitochondrial proteins such as DNA-PKcs and prohibitins might augment the survival function of BCL-xL in virus infected cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An Abundant Evolutionarily Conserved CSB-PiggyBac Fusion Protein Expressed in Cockayne Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Newman, John C.; Bailey, Arnold D.; Fan, Hua-Ying; Pavelitz, Thomas; Weiner, Alan M.

    2008-01-01

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a devastating progeria most often caused by mutations in the CSB gene encoding a SWI/SNF family chromatin remodeling protein. Although all CSB mutations that cause CS are recessive, the complete absence of CSB protein does not cause CS. In addition, most CSB mutations are located beyond exon 5 and are thought to generate only C-terminally truncated protein fragments. We now show that a domesticated PiggyBac-like transposon PGBD3, residing within intron 5 of the CSB gene, functions as an alternative 3′ terminal exon. The alternatively spliced mRNA encodes a novel chimeric protein in which CSB exons 1–5 are joined in frame to the PiggyBac transposase. The resulting CSB-transposase fusion protein is as abundant as CSB protein itself in a variety of human cell lines, and continues to be expressed by primary CS cells in which functional CSB is lost due to mutations beyond exon 5. The CSB-transposase fusion protein has been highly conserved for at least 43 Myr since the divergence of humans and marmoset, and appears to be subject to selective pressure. The human genome contains over 600 nonautonomous PGBD3-related MER85 elements that were dispersed when the PGBD3 transposase was last active at least 37 Mya. Many of these MER85 elements are associated with genes which are involved in neuronal development, and are known to be regulated by CSB. We speculate that the CSB-transposase fusion protein has been conserved for host antitransposon defense, or to modulate gene regulation by MER85 elements, but may cause CS in the absence of functional CSB protein. PMID:18369450

  15. LEAping to conclusions: a computational reanalysis of late embryogenesis abundant proteins and their possible roles.

    PubMed

    Wise, Michael J

    2003-10-29

    The late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins cover a number of loosely related groups of proteins, originally found in plants but now being found in non-plant species. Their precise function is unknown, though considerable evidence suggests that LEA proteins are involved in desiccation resistance. Using a number of statistically-based bioinformatics tools the classification of a large set of LEA proteins, covering all Groups, is reexamined together with some previous findings. Searches based on peptide composition return proteins with similar composition to different LEA Groups; keyword clustering is then applied to reveal keywords and phrases suggestive of the Groups' properties. Previous research has suggested that glycine is characteristic of LEA proteins, but it is only highly over-represented in Groups 1 and 2, while alanine, thought characteristic of Group 2, is over-represented in Group 3, 4 and 6 but under-represented in Groups 1 and 2. However, for LEA Groups 1 2 and 3 it is shown that glutamine is very significantly over-represented, while cysteine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine and tryptophan are significantly under-represented. There is also evidence that the Group 4 LEA proteins are more appropriately redistributed to Group 2 and Group 3. Similarly, Group 5 is better found among the Group 3 LEA proteins. There is evidence that Group 2 and Group 3 LEA proteins, though distinct, might be related. This relationship is also evident in the overlapping sets of keywords for the two Groups, emphasising alpha-helical structure and, at a larger scale, filaments, all of which fits well with experimental evidence that proteins from both Groups are natively unstructured, but become structured under stress conditions. The keywords support localisation of LEA proteins both in the nucleus and associated with the cytoskeleton, and a mode of action similar to chaperones, perhaps the cold shock chaperones, via a role in DNA-binding. In general, non-globular and

  16. The novel 2Fe–2S outer mitochondrial protein mitoNEET displays conformational flexibility in its N-terminal cytoplasmic tethering domain

    PubMed Central

    Conlan, Andrea R.; Paddock, Mark L.; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Cohen, Aina E.; Abresch, Edward C.; Wiley, Sandra; Roy, Melinda; Nechushtai, Rachel; Jennings, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    A primary role for mitochondrial dysfunction is indicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. A widely used drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes is pioglitazone, a member of the thiazolidinedione class of molecules. MitoNEET, a 2Fe–2S outer mitochondrial membrane protein, binds pioglitazone [Colca et al. (2004 ▶), Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 286, E252–E260]. The soluble domain of the human mitoNEET protein has been expressed C-terminal to the superfolder green fluorescent protein and the mitoNEET protein has been isolated. Comparison of the crystal structure of mitoNEET isolated from cleavage of the fusion protein (1.4 Å resolution, R factor = 20.2%) with other solved structures shows that the CDGSH domains are superimposable, indicating proper assembly of mitoNEET. Furthermore, there is considerable flexibility in the position of the cytoplasmic tethering arms, resulting in two different conformations in the crystal structure. This flexibility affords multiple orientations on the outer mitochondrial membrane. PMID:19574633

  17. A cytoplasmic protein, bystin, interacts with trophinin, tastin, and cytokeratin and may be involved in trophinin-mediated cell adhesion between trophoblast and endometrial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Nao; Zara, Jane; Sato, Takaaki; Ong, Edgar; Bakhiet, Nouna; Oshima, Robert G.; Watson, Kellie L.; Fukuda, Michiko N.

    1998-01-01

    Trophinin and tastin form a cell adhesion molecule complex that potentially mediates an initial attachment of the blastocyst to uterine epithelial cells at the time of implantation. Trophinin and tastin, however, do not directly bind to each other, suggesting the presence of an intermediary protein. The present study identifies a cytoplasmic protein, named bystin, that directly binds trophinin and tastin. Bystin consists of 306 amino acid residues and is predicted to contain tyrosine, serine, and threonine residues in contexts conforming to motifs for phosphorylation by protein kinases. Database searches revealed a 53% identity of the predicted peptide sequence with the Drosophila bys (mrr) gene. Direct protein–protein interactions of trophinin, tastin, and bystin analyzed by yeast two-hybrid assays and by in vitro protein binding assays indicated that binding between bystin and trophinin and between bystin and tastin is enhanced when cytokeratin 8 and 18 are present as the third molecule. Immunocytochemistry of bystin showed that bystin colocalizes with trophinin, tastin, and cytokeratins in a human trophoblastic teratocarcinoma cell, HT-H. It is therefore possible that these molecules form a complex and thus are involved in the process of embryo implantation. PMID:9560222

  18. Differential protein abundance in promastigotes of nitric oxide-sensitive and resistant Leishmania chagasi strains.

    PubMed

    Alcolea, Pedro J; Tuñón, Gabriel I L; Alonso, Ana; García-Tabares, Francisco; Ciordia, Sergio; Mena, María C; Campos, Roseane N S; Almeida, Roque P; Larraga, Vicente

    2016-11-01

    Leishmania chagasi is the causative agent of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. Domestic and stray dogs are the main reservoirs. The life cycle of the parasite involves two stages. Promastigotes are extracellular and develop within the sand fly gut. Amastigotes survive inside the harsh environment of the phagolysosome of mammalian host phagocytes, which display the nitric oxide defense mechanism. Surprisingly, we were able to isolate promastigotes that are also resistant to NO. This finding may be explained by the preadaptative hypothesis. An insight into the proteome of NO-sensitive and resistant promastigotes is presented herein. Total protein extracts were prepared from promastigote cultures of an NO-sensitive and a resistant strain at early-logarithmic, mid-logarithmic and stationary phase. A population enriched in metacyclic promastigotes was also isolated by Percoll gradient centrifugation. In vitro infectivity of both strains was compared. Differential protein abundance was analyzed by 2DE-MALDI-TOF/TOF. The most striking results were tested at the mRNA level by qRT-PCR. Three biological replicates were performed in all cases. NO-resistant L. chagasi promastigotes are more infective than NO-sensitive ones. Among the differentially abundant spots, 40 proteins could be successfully identified in the sensitive strain and 38 in resistant promastigotes. The increase of G6PD and the decrease of ARG and GPX transcripts and proteins contribute to NO resistance in L. chagasi promastigotes. These proteins may be studied as potential drug targets and/or vaccine candidates in the future. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Predicting network modules of cell cycle regulators using relative protein abundance statistics.

    PubMed

    Oguz, Cihan; Watson, Layne T; Baumann, William T; Tyson, John J

    2017-02-28

    Parameter estimation in systems biology is typically done by enforcing experimental observations through an objective function as the parameter space of a model is explored by numerical simulations. Past studies have shown that one usually finds a set of "feasible" parameter vectors that fit the available experimental data equally well, and that these alternative vectors can make different predictions under novel experimental conditions. In this study, we characterize the feasible region of a complex model of the budding yeast cell cycle under a large set of discrete experimental constraints in order to test whether the statistical features of relative protein abundance predictions are influenced by the topology of the cell cycle regulatory network. Using differential evolution, we generate an ensemble of feasible parameter vectors that reproduce the phenotypes (viable or inviable) of wild-type yeast cells and 110 mutant strains. We use this ensemble to predict the phenotypes of 129 mutant strains for which experimental data is not available. We identify 86 novel mutants that are predicted to be viable and then rank the cell cycle proteins in terms of their contributions to cumulative variability of relative protein abundance predictions. Proteins involved in "regulation of cell size" and "regulation of G1/S transition" contribute most to predictive variability, whereas proteins involved in "positive regulation of transcription involved in exit from mitosis," "mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint" and "negative regulation of cyclin-dependent protein kinase by cyclin degradation" contribute the least. These results suggest that the statistics of these predictions may be generating patterns specific to individual network modules (START, S/G2/M, and EXIT). To test this hypothesis, we develop random forest models for predicting the network modules of cell cycle regulators using relative abundance statistics as model inputs. Predictive performance is assessed by the

  20. Hijacking of RIG-I signaling proteins into virus-induced cytoplasmic structures correlates with the inhibition of type I interferon responses.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Felix W; Covaleda, Lina M; Sanchez-Aparicio, Maria T; Silvas, Jesus A; Diaz-Vizarreta, Ana C; Patel, Jenish R; Popov, Vsevolod; Yu, Xue-jie; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Aguilar, Patricia V

    2014-04-01

    Recognition of viral pathogens by the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptor (RLR) family results in the activation of type I interferon (IFN) responses. To avoid this response, most viruses have evolved strategies that target different essential steps in the activation of host innate immunity. In this study, we report that the nonstructural protein NSs of the newly described severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is a potent inhibitor of IFN responses. The SFTSV NSs protein was found to inhibit the activation of the beta interferon (IFN-β) promoter induced by viral infection and by a RIG-I ligand. Astonishingly, we found that SFTSV NSs interacts with and relocalizes RIG-I, the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM25, and TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) into SFTSV NSs-induced cytoplasmic structures. Interestingly, formation of these SFTSV NSs-induced structures occurred in the absence of the Atg7 gene, a gene essential for autophagy. Furthermore, confocal microscopy studies revealed that these SFTSV NSs-induced structures colocalize with Rab5 but not with Golgi apparatus or endoplasmic reticulum markers. Altogether, the data suggest that sequestration of RIG-I signaling molecules into endosome-like structures may be the mechanism used by SFTSV to inhibit IFN responses and point toward a novel mechanism for the suppression of IFN responses. The mechanism by which the newly described SFTSV inhibits host antiviral responses has not yet been fully characterized. In this study, we describe the redistribution of RIG-I signaling components into virus-induced cytoplasmic structures in cells infected with SFTSV. This redistribution correlates with the inhibition of host antiviral responses. Further characterization of the interplay between the viral protein and components of the IFN responses could potentially provide targets for the rational development of therapeutic interventions.

  1. Hijacking of RIG-I Signaling Proteins into Virus-Induced Cytoplasmic Structures Correlates with the Inhibition of Type I Interferon Responses

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Felix W.; Covaleda, Lina M.; Sanchez-Aparicio, Maria T.; Silvas, Jesus A.; Diaz-Vizarreta, Ana C.; Patel, Jenish R.; Popov, Vsevolod; Yu, Xue-jie; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recognition of viral pathogens by the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptor (RLR) family results in the activation of type I interferon (IFN) responses. To avoid this response, most viruses have evolved strategies that target different essential steps in the activation of host innate immunity. In this study, we report that the nonstructural protein NSs of the newly described severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is a potent inhibitor of IFN responses. The SFTSV NSs protein was found to inhibit the activation of the beta interferon (IFN-β) promoter induced by viral infection and by a RIG-I ligand. Astonishingly, we found that SFTSV NSs interacts with and relocalizes RIG-I, the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM25, and TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) into SFTSV NSs-induced cytoplasmic structures. Interestingly, formation of these SFTSV NSs-induced structures occurred in the absence of the Atg7 gene, a gene essential for autophagy. Furthermore, confocal microscopy studies revealed that these SFTSV NSs-induced structures colocalize with Rab5 but not with Golgi apparatus or endoplasmic reticulum markers. Altogether, the data suggest that sequestration of RIG-I signaling molecules into endosome-like structures may be the mechanism used by SFTSV to inhibit IFN responses and point toward a novel mechanism for the suppression of IFN responses. IMPORTANCE The mechanism by which the newly described SFTSV inhibits host antiviral responses has not yet been fully characterized. In this study, we describe the redistribution of RIG-I signaling components into virus-induced cytoplasmic structures in cells infected with SFTSV. This redistribution correlates with the inhibition of host antiviral responses. Further characterization of the interplay between the viral protein and components of the IFN responses could potentially provide targets for the rational development of therapeutic interventions. PMID:24478431

  2. Characterization and analysis of posttranslational modifications of the human large cytoplasmic ribosomal subunit proteins by mass spectrometry and Edman sequencing.

    PubMed

    Odintsova, Tatyana I; Müller, Eva-Christina; Ivanov, Anton V; Egorov, Tsezi A; Bienert, Ralf; Vladimirov, Serguei N; Kostka, Susanne; Otto, Albrecht; Wittmann-Liebold, Brigitte; Karpova, Galina G

    2003-04-01

    The 60S ribosomal proteins were isolated from ribosomes of human placenta and separated by reversed phase HPLC. The fractions obtained were subjected to trypsin and Glu-C digestion and analyzed by mass fingerprinting (MALDI-TOF), MS/MS (ESI), and Edman sequencing. Forty-six large subunit proteins were found, 22 of which showed masses in accordance with the SwissProt database (June 2002) masses (proteins L6, L7, L9, L13, L15, L17, L18, L21, L22, L24, L26, L27, L30, L32, L34, L35, L36, L37, L37A, L38, L39, L41). Eleven (proteins L7, L10A, L11, L12, L13A, L23, L23A, L27A, L28, L29, and P0) resulted in mass changes that are consistent with N-terminal loss of methionine, acetylation, internal methylation, or hydroxylation. A loss of methionine without acetylation was found for protein L8 and L17. For nine proteins (L3, L4, L5, L7A, L10, L14, L19, L31, and L40), the molecular masses could not be determined. Proteins P1 and protein L3-like were not identified by the methods applied.

  3. Protein stabilization by RSUME accounts for PTTG pituitary tumor abundance and oncogenicity.

    PubMed

    Fuertes, M; Sapochnik, M; Tedesco, L; Senin, S; Attorresi, A; Ajler, P; Carrizo, G; Cervio, A; Sevlever, G; Bonfiglio, J J; Stalla, G K; Arzt, E

    2018-06-01

    Increased levels of the proto-oncogene pituitary tumor-transforming gene 1 (PTTG) have been repeatedly reported in several human solid tumors, especially in endocrine-related tumors such as pituitary adenomas. Securin PTTG has a critical role in pituitary tumorigenesis. However, the cause of upregulation has not been found yet, despite analyses made at the gene, promoter and mRNA level that show that no mutations, epigenetic modifications or other mechanisms that deregulate its expression may explain its overexpression and action as an oncogene. We describe that high PTTG protein levels are induced by the RWD-containing sumoylation enhancer (RWDD3 or RSUME), a protein originally identified in the same pituitary tumor cell line in which PTTG was also cloned. We demonstrate that PTTG and RSUME have a positive expression correlation in human pituitary adenomas. RSUME increases PTTG protein in pituitary tumor cell lines, prolongs the half-life of PTTG protein and regulates the PTTG induction by estradiol. As a consequence, RSUME enhances PTTG transcription factor and securin activities. PTTG hyperactivity on the cell cycle resulted in recurrent and unequal divisions without cytokinesis, and the consequential appearance of aneuploidies and multinucleated cells in the tumor. RSUME knockdown diminishes securin PTTG and reduces its tumorigenic potential in a xenograft mouse model. Taken together, our findings show that PTTG high protein steady state levels account for PTTG tumor abundance and demonstrate a critical role of RSUME in this process in pituitary tumor cells. © 2018 Society for Endocrinology.

  4. Dissecting DNA damage response pathways by analyzing protein localization and abundance changes during DNA replication stress

    PubMed Central

    Tkach, Johnny M.; Yimit, Askar; Lee, Anna Y.; Riffle, Michael; Costanzo, Michael; Jaschob, Daniel; Hendry, Jason A.; Ou, Jiongwen; Moffat, Jason; Boone, Charles; Davis, Trisha N.; Nislow, Corey; Brown, Grant W.

    2012-01-01

    Re-localization of proteins is a hallmark of the DNA damage response. We use high-throughput microscopic screening of the yeast GFP fusion collection to develop a systems-level view of protein re-organization following drug-induced DNA replication stress. Changes in protein localization and abundance reveal drug-specific patterns of functional enrichments. Classification of proteins by sub-cellular destination allows the identification of pathways that respond to replication stress. We analyzed pairwise combinations of GFP fusions and gene deletion mutants to define and order two novel DNA damage responses. In the first, Cmr1 forms subnuclear foci that are regulated by the histone deacetylase Hos2 and are distinct from the typical Rad52 repair foci. In a second example, we find that the checkpoint kinases Mec1/Tel1 and the translation regulator Asc1 regulate P-body formation. This method identifies response pathways that were not detected in genetic and protein interaction screens, and can be readily applied to any form of chemical or genetic stress to reveal cellular response pathways. PMID:22842922

  5. Discrepancy between mRNA and protein abundance: Insight from information retrieval process in computers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Degeng

    2008-01-01

    Discrepancy between the abundance of cognate protein and RNA molecules is frequently observed. A theoretical understanding of this discrepancy remains elusive, and it is frequently described as surprises and/or technical difficulties in the literature. Protein and RNA represent different steps of the multi-stepped cellular genetic information flow process, in which they are dynamically produced and degraded. This paper explores a comparison with a similar process in computers - multi-step information flow from storage level to the execution level. Functional similarities can be found in almost every facet of the retrieval process. Firstly, common architecture is shared, as the ribonome (RNA space) and the proteome (protein space) are functionally similar to the computer primary memory and the computer cache memory respectively. Secondly, the retrieval process functions, in both systems, to support the operation of dynamic networks – biochemical regulatory networks in cells and, in computers, the virtual networks (of CPU instructions) that the CPU travels through while executing computer programs. Moreover, many regulatory techniques are implemented in computers at each step of the information retrieval process, with a goal of optimizing system performance. Cellular counterparts can be easily identified for these regulatory techniques. In other words, this comparative study attempted to utilize theoretical insight from computer system design principles as catalysis to sketch an integrative view of the gene expression process, that is, how it functions to ensure efficient operation of the overall cellular regulatory network. In context of this bird’s-eye view, discrepancy between protein and RNA abundance became a logical observation one would expect. It was suggested that this discrepancy, when interpreted in the context of system operation, serves as a potential source of information to decipher regulatory logics underneath biochemical network operation. PMID

  6. Discrepancy between mRNA and protein abundance: insight from information retrieval process in computers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Degeng

    2008-12-01

    Discrepancy between the abundance of cognate protein and RNA molecules is frequently observed. A theoretical understanding of this discrepancy remains elusive, and it is frequently described as surprises and/or technical difficulties in the literature. Protein and RNA represent different steps of the multi-stepped cellular genetic information flow process, in which they are dynamically produced and degraded. This paper explores a comparison with a similar process in computers-multi-step information flow from storage level to the execution level. Functional similarities can be found in almost every facet of the retrieval process. Firstly, common architecture is shared, as the ribonome (RNA space) and the proteome (protein space) are functionally similar to the computer primary memory and the computer cache memory, respectively. Secondly, the retrieval process functions, in both systems, to support the operation of dynamic networks-biochemical regulatory networks in cells and, in computers, the virtual networks (of CPU instructions) that the CPU travels through while executing computer programs. Moreover, many regulatory techniques are implemented in computers at each step of the information retrieval process, with a goal of optimizing system performance. Cellular counterparts can be easily identified for these regulatory techniques. In other words, this comparative study attempted to utilize theoretical insight from computer system design principles as catalysis to sketch an integrative view of the gene expression process, that is, how it functions to ensure efficient operation of the overall cellular regulatory network. In context of this bird's-eye view, discrepancy between protein and RNA abundance became a logical observation one would expect. It was suggested that this discrepancy, when interpreted in the context of system operation, serves as a potential source of information to decipher regulatory logics underneath biochemical network operation.

  7. Membrane-Dependent Effects of a Cytoplasmic Helix on the Structure and Drug Binding of the Influenza Virus M2 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Cady, Sarah; Wang, Tuo; Hong, Mei

    2011-01-01

    The influenza A M2 protein forms a proton channel for virus infection and also mediates virus assembly and budding. The minimum protein length that encodes both functions contains the transmembrane (TM) domain (roughly residues 22 to 46) for the amantadine-sensitive proton-channel activity and an amphipathic cytoplasmic helix (roughly residues 45 to 62) for curvature induction and virus budding. However, structural studies involving the TM domain with or without the amphipathic helix differed on the drug-binding site. Here we use solid-state NMR spectroscopy to determine the amantadine binding site in the cytoplasmic-helix-containing M2(21–61). 13C-2H distance measurements of 13C-labeled protein and 2H-labeled amantadine showed that in DMPC bilayers, the first equivalent of drug bound S31 inside the M2(21–61) pore, similar to the behavior of M2TM in DMPC bilayers. The non-specific surface site of D44 observed in M2TM is disfavored in the longer peptide. Thus, the pharmacologically relevant drug-binding site in the fully functional M2(21–61) is S31 in the TM pore. Interestingly, when M2(21–61) was reconstituted into a virus-mimetic membrane containing 30% cholesterol, no chemical shift perturbation was observed for pore-lining residues, while M2TM in the same membrane exhibited drug-induced chemical shift changes. Reduction of the cholesterol level and the use of unsaturated phospholipids shifted the conformational equilibrium of M2TM fully to the bound state, but did not rescue drug binding to M2(21–61). These results suggest that the amphipathic helix, together with cholesterol, modulates the ability of the TM helices to bind amantadine. Thus, the M2 protein interacts with the lipid membrane and small-molecule inhibitors in a complex fashion, and a careful examination of the environmental dependence of the protein conformation is required to fully understand the structure-function relation of this protein. PMID:21661724

  8. Investigation of SnSPR1, a novel and abundant surface protein of Sarcocystis neurona merozoites.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Deqing; Howe, Daniel K

    2008-04-15

    An expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing project has produced over 15,000 partial cDNA sequences from the equine pathogen Sarcocystis neurona. While many of the sequences are clear homologues of previously characterized genes, a significant number of the S. neurona ESTs do not exhibit similarity to anything in the extensive sequence databases that have been generated. In an effort to characterize parasite proteins that are novel to S. neurona, a seemingly unique gene was selected for further investigation based on its abundant representation in the collection of ESTs and the predicted presence of a signal peptide and glycolipid anchor addition on the encoded protein. The gene was expressed in E. coli, and monospecific polyclonal antiserum against the recombinant protein was produced by immunization of a rabbit. Characterization of the native protein in S. neurona merozoites and schizonts revealed that it is a low molecular weight surface protein that is expressed throughout intracellular development of the parasite. The protein was designated Surface Protein 1 (SPR1) to reflect its display on the outer surface of merozoites and to distinguish it from the ubiquitous SAG/SRS surface antigens of the heteroxenous Coccidia. Interestingly, infection assays in the presence of the polyclonal antiserum suggested that SnSPR1 plays some role in attachment and/or invasion of host cells by S. neurona merozoites. The work described herein represents a general template for selecting and characterizing the various unidentified gene sequences that are plentiful in the EST databases for S. neurona and other apicomplexans. Furthermore, this study illustrates the value of investigating these novel sequences since it can offer new candidates for diagnostic or vaccine development while also providing greater insight into the biology of these parasites.

  9. Structure, dynamics and biophysics of the cytoplasmic protein–protein complexes of the bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate: Sugar phosphotransferase system

    SciTech Connect

    Clore, G. Marius; Venditti, Vincenzo

    2013-10-01

    The bacterial phosphotransferase system (PTS) couples phosphoryl transfer, via a series of bimolecular protein–protein interactions, to sugar transport across the membrane. The multitude of complexes in the PTS provides a paradigm for studying protein interactions, and for understanding how the same binding surface can specifically recognize a diverse array of targets. Fifteen years of work aimed at solving the solution structures of all soluble protein–protein complexes of the PTS has served as a test bed for developing NMR and integrated hybrid approaches to study larger complexes in solution and to probe transient, spectroscopically invisible states, including encounter complexes. We reviewmore » these approaches, highlighting the problems that can be tackled with these methods, and summarize the current findings on protein interactions.« less

  10. Maternal bisphenol A exposure alters rat offspring hepatic and skeletal muscle insulin signaling protein abundance.

    PubMed

    Galyon, Kristina D; Farshidi, Farnoosh; Han, Guang; Ross, Michael G; Desai, Mina; Jellyman, Juanita K

    2017-03-01

    The obesogenic and diabetogenic effects of the environmental toxin bisphenol A during critical windows of development are well recognized. Liver and skeletal muscle play a central role in the control of glucose production, utilization, and storage. We hypothesized that maternal bisphenol A exposure disrupts insulin signaling in rat offspring liver and skeletal muscle. We determined the protein expression of hepatic and skeletal muscle insulin signaling molecules including insulin receptor beta, its downstream target insulin receptor substrate 1 and glucose transporters (glucose transporter 2, glucose transporter 4), and hepatic glucose-regulating enzymes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucokinase. Rat dams had ad libitum access to filtered drinking water (control) or drinking water with bisphenol A from 2 weeks prior to mating and through pregnancy and lactation. Offspring litters were standardized to 4 males and 4 females and nursed by the same dam. At weaning, bisphenol A exposure was removed from all offspring. Glucose tolerance was tested at 6 weeks and 6 months. Liver and skeletal muscle was collected from 3 week old and 10 month old offspring for protein expression (Western blot) of insulin receptor beta, insulin receptor substrate 1, glucose transporter 2, glucose transporter 4, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and glucokinase. Male, but not female, bisphenol A offspring had impaired glucose tolerance at 6 weeks and 6 months. Both male and female adult offspring had higher glucose-stimulated insulin secretion as well as the ratio of stimulated insulin to glucose. Male bisphenol A offspring had higher liver protein abundance of the 200 kDa insulin receptor beta precursor (2-fold), and insulin receptor substrate 1 (1.5-fold), whereas glucose transporter 2 was 0.5-fold of the control at 3 weeks of age. In adult male bisphenol A offspring, the abundance of insulin receptor beta was higher (2-fold) and glucose transporter 4 was 0.8-fold of the control in

  11. Abundance of Plasma Antioxidant Proteins Confers Tolerance to Acute Hypobaric Hypoxia Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Padhy, Gayatri; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Ganju, Lilly

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Padhy, Gayatri, Niroj Kumar Sethy, Lilly Ganju, and Kalpana Bhargava. Abundance of plasma antioxidant proteins confers tolerance to acute hypobaric hypoxia exposure. High Alt Med Biol 14:289–297, 2013—Systematic identification of molecular signatures for hypobaric hypoxia can aid in better understanding of human adaptation to high altitude. In an attempt to identify proteins promoting hypoxia tolerance during acute exposure to high altitude, we screened and identified hypoxia tolerant and susceptible rats based on hyperventilation time to a simulated altitude of 32,000 ft (9754 m). The hypoxia tolerance was further validated by estimating 8-isoprotane levels and protein carbonyls, which revealed that hypoxia tolerant rats possessed significant lower plasma levels as compared to susceptible rats. We used a comparative plasma proteome profiling approach using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE) combined with MALDI TOF/TOF for both groups, along with an hypoxic control group. This resulted in the identification of 19 differentially expressed proteins. Seven proteins (TTR, GPx-3, PON1, Rab-3D, CLC11, CRP, and Hp) were upregulated in hypoxia tolerant rats, while apolipoprotein A-I (APOA1) was upregulated in hypoxia susceptible rats. We further confirmed the consistent higher expression levels of three antioxidant proteins (PON1, TTR, and GPx-3) in hypoxia-tolerant animals using ELISA and immunoblotting. Collectively, these proteomics-based results highlight the role of antioxidant enzymes in conferring hypoxia tolerance during acute hypobaric hypoxia. The expression of these antioxidant enzymes could be used as putative biomarkers for screening altitude adaptation as well as aiding in better management of altered oxygen pathophysiologies. PMID:24067188

  12. Protein degradation rate is the dominant mechanism accounting for the differences in protein abundance of basal p53 in a human breast and colorectal cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Eszter; Salehi-Reyhani, Ali; Barclay, Michael; Stumpf, Michael P H; Klug, David R

    2017-01-01

    We determine p53 protein abundances and cell to cell variation in two human cancer cell lines with single cell resolution, and show that the fractional width of the distributions is the same in both cases despite a large difference in average protein copy number. We developed a computational framework to identify dominant mechanisms controlling the variation of protein abundance in a simple model of gene expression from the summary statistics of single cell steady state protein expression distributions. Our results, based on single cell data analysed in a Bayesian framework, lends strong support to a model in which variation in the basal p53 protein abundance may be best explained by variations in the rate of p53 protein degradation. This is supported by measurements of the relative average levels of mRNA which are very similar despite large variation in the level of protein.

  13. Translational arrest due to cytoplasmic redox stress delays adaptation to growth on methanol and heterologous protein expression in a typical fed-batch culture of Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Edwards-Jones, Bryn; Aw, Rochelle; Barton, Geraint R; Tredwell, Gregory D; Bundy, Jacob G; Leak, David J

    2015-01-01

    We have followed a typical fed-batch induction regime for heterologous protein production under the control of the AOX1 promoter using both microarray and metabolomic analysis. The genetic constructs involved 1 and 3 copies of the TRY1 gene, encoding human trypsinogen. In small-scale laboratory cultures, expression of the 3 copy-number construct induced the unfolded protein response (UPR) sufficiently that titres of extracellular trypsinogen were lower in the 3-copy construct than with the 1-copy construct. In the fed-batch-culture, a similar pattern was observed, with higher expression from the 1-copy construct, but in this case there was no significant induction of UPR with the 3-copy strain. Analysis of the microarray and metabolomic information indicates that the 3-copy strain was undergoing cytoplasmic redox stress at the point of induction with methanol. In this Crabtree-negative yeast, this redox stress appeared to delay the adaptation to growth on methanol and supressed heterologous protein production, probably due to a block in translation. Although redox imbalance as a result of artificially imposed hypoxia has previously been described, this is the first time that it has been characterised as a result of a transient metabolic imbalance and shown to involve a stress response which can lead to translational arrest. Without detailed analysis of the underlying processes it could easily have been mis-interpreted as secretion stress, transmitted through the UPR.

  14. Translational Arrest Due to Cytoplasmic Redox Stress Delays Adaptation to Growth on Methanol and Heterologous Protein Expression in a Typical Fed-Batch Culture of Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Edwards-Jones, Bryn; Aw, Rochelle; Barton, Geraint R.; Tredwell, Gregory D.; Bundy, Jacob G.; Leak, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Results We have followed a typical fed-batch induction regime for heterologous protein production under the control of the AOX1 promoter using both microarray and metabolomic analysis. The genetic constructs involved 1 and 3 copies of the TRY1 gene, encoding human trypsinogen. In small-scale laboratory cultures, expression of the 3 copy-number construct induced the unfolded protein response (UPR) sufficiently that titres of extracellular trypsinogen were lower in the 3-copy construct than with the 1-copy construct. In the fed-batch-culture, a similar pattern was observed, with higher expression from the 1-copy construct, but in this case there was no significant induction of UPR with the 3-copy strain. Analysis of the microarray and metabolomic information indicates that the 3-copy strain was undergoing cytoplasmic redox stress at the point of induction with methanol. In this Crabtree-negative yeast, this redox stress appeared to delay the adaptation to growth on methanol and supressed heterologous protein production, probably due to a block in translation. Conclusion Although redox imbalance as a result of artificially imposed hypoxia has previously been described, this is the first time that it has been characterised as a result of a transient metabolic imbalance and shown to involve a stress response which can lead to translational arrest. Without detailed analysis of the underlying processes it could easily have been mis-interpreted as secretion stress, transmitted through the UPR. PMID:25785713

  15. Cytoplasmic and nuclear localizations are important for the hypersensitive response conferred by maize autoactive Rp1-D21 protein

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Disease resistance (R-) genes have been isolated from many plant species. Most encode nucleotide binding leucine-rich-repeat (NLR) proteins that trigger a rapid localized programmed cell death termed the hypersensitive response (HR) upon pathogen recognition. Despite their structural similarities, d...

  16. Enhanced Detection of Low-Abundance Human Plasma Proteins by Integrating Polyethylene Glycol Fractionation and Immunoaffinity Depletion

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haipeng; Yu, Jia; Qiao, Rui; Zhou, Mi; Yang, Yongtao; Zhou, Jian; Xie, Peng

    2016-01-01

    The enormous depth complexity of the human plasma proteome poses a significant challenge for current mass spectrometry-based proteomic technologies in terms of detecting low-level proteins in plasma, which is essential for successful biomarker discovery efforts. Typically, a single-step analytical approach cannot reduce this intrinsic complexity. Current simplex immunodepletion techniques offer limited capacity for detecting low-abundance proteins, and integrated strategies are thus desirable. In this respect, we developed an improved strategy for analyzing the human plasma proteome by integrating polyethylene glycol (PEG) fractionation with immunoaffinity depletion. PEG fractionation of plasma proteins is simple, rapid, efficient, and compatible with a downstream immunodepletion step. Compared with immunodepletion alone, our integrated strategy substantially improved the proteome coverage afforded by PEG fractionation. Coupling this new protocol with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, 135 proteins with reported normal concentrations below 100 ng/mL were confidently identified as common low-abundance proteins. A side-by-side comparison indicated that our integrated strategy was increased by average 43.0% in the identification rate of low-abundance proteins, relying on an average 65.8% increase of the corresponding unique peptides. Further investigation demonstrated that this combined strategy could effectively alleviate the signal-suppressive effects of the major high-abundance proteins by affinity depletion, especially with moderate-abundance proteins after incorporating PEG fractionation, thereby greatly enhancing the detection of low-abundance proteins. In sum, the newly developed strategy of incorporating PEG fractionation to immunodepletion methods can potentially aid in the discovery of plasma biomarkers of therapeutic and clinical interest. PMID:27832179

  17. Mutation of the TYTLE Motif in the Cytoplasmic Tail of the Sendai Virus Fusion Protein Deeply Affects Viral Assembly and Particle Production

    PubMed Central

    Essaidi-Laziosi, Manel; Shevtsova, Anastasia; Gerlier, Denis; Roux, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Enveloped viruses contain glycoproteins protruding from the viral membrane. These proteins play a crucial role in the extra-cellular steps of the virus life cycle, namely attachment to and entry into cells. Their role during the intracellular late phase of virus multiplication has been less appreciated, overlooked by the documented central organizer role of the matrix M protein. Sendai virus, a member of the Paramyxoviridae family, expresses two trans-membrane proteins on its surface, HN and F. In previous work, we have shown that suppression of F in the context of an infection, results in about 70% reduction of virus particle production, a reduction similar to that observed upon suppression of the matrix M protein. Moreover, a TYTLE motif present in F cytoplasmic tail has been proposed essential for virus particle production. In the present work, using original alternate conditional siRNA suppression systems, we generated a double F gene recombinant Sendai virus expressing wt-F and a nonviable mutated TYTLE/5A F protein (F5A). Suppression of the wild type F gene expression in cells infected with this virus allowed the analysis of F5A properties in the context of the infection. Coupling confocal imaging analysis to biochemical characterization, we found that F5A i) was not expressed at the cell surface but restricted to the endoplasmic reticulum, ii) was still capable of interaction with M and iii) had profound effect on M and HN cellular distribution. On the basis of these data, we propose a model for SeV particle formation based on an M/F complex that would serve as nucleation site for virus particle assembly at the cell surface. PMID:24339863

  18. Relative Abundance of Integral Plasma Membrane Proteins in Arabidopsis Leaf and Root Tissue Determined by Metabolic Labeling and Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Bernfur, Katja; Larsson, Olaf; Larsson, Christer; Gustavsson, Niklas

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic labeling of proteins with a stable isotope (15N) in intact Arabidopsis plants was used for accurate determination by mass spectrometry of differences in protein abundance between plasma membranes isolated from leaves and roots. In total, 703 proteins were identified, of which 188 were predicted to be integral membrane proteins. Major classes were transporters, receptors, proteins involved in membrane trafficking and cell wall-related proteins. Forty-one of the integral proteins, including nine of the 13 isoforms of the PIP (plasma membrane intrinsic protein) aquaporin subfamily, could be identified by peptides unique to these proteins, which made it possible to determine their relative abundance in leaf and root tissue. In addition, peptides shared between isoforms gave information on the proportions of these isoforms. A comparison between our data for protein levels and corresponding data for mRNA levels in the widely used database Genevestigator showed an agreement for only about two thirds of the proteins. By contrast, localization data available in the literature for 21 of the 41 proteins show a much better agreement with our data, in particular data based on immunostaining of proteins and GUS-staining of promoter activity. Thus, although mRNA levels may provide a useful approximation for protein levels, detection and quantification of isoform-specific peptides by proteomics should generate the most reliable data for the proteome. PMID:23990937

  19. Krit 1 interactions with microtubules and membranes are regulated by Rap1 and integrin cytoplasmic domain associated protein-1

    PubMed Central

    Béraud-Dufour, Sophie; Gautier, Romain; Albiges-Rizo, Corinne; Chardin, Pierre; Faurobert, Eva

    2007-01-01

    The small G protein Rap1 regulates diverse cellular processes such as integrin activation, cell adhesion, cell-cell junction formation and cell polarity. It is crucial to identify Rap1 effectors to better understand signalling pathways controlling these processes. Krit1, a FERM protein, was identified as a Rap1 partner in a yeast two-hydrid screen, but this interaction was not confirmed in subsequent studies. As evidence suggests a role for Krit1 in Rap1-dependent pathways, we readdressed this question. Here, we demonstrate by biochemical assays that Krit1 is a specific Rap1 effector. We show that, like other FERM proteins, Krit1 adopts two conformations: a closed conformation in which its N-terminal NPAY motif interacts with its C-terminus and an opened conformation bound to ICAP-1, a negative regulator of focal adhesion assembly. We show that a ternary complex can form in vitro between Krit1, Rap1 and ICAP-1 and that Rap1 binds Krit1 FERM domain in both closed and opened conformations. Unlike ICAP-1, Rap1 does not open Krit1. Using sedimentation assays, we show that Krit1 binds in vitro to microtubules through its N and C-termini and that Rap1 and ICAP-1 inhibit Krit1 binding to microtubules. Consistently, YFP-Krit1 localizes on CFP-labelled microtubules in BHK cells and is delocalized from microtubules upon co-expression with activated Rap1V12. Finally, we show that Krit1 binds to PIP2 containing liposomes and that Rap1 enhances this binding. Based on these results, we propose a model in which Krit1 would be delivered by microtubules to the plasma membrane where it would be captured by Rap1 and ICAP-1. PMID:17916086

  20. The cytoplasmic tail of L-selectin interacts with the adaptor-protein complex AP-1 subunit μ1A via a novel basic binding motif

    PubMed Central

    Tikhonova, Irina G.; Ivetic, Aleksandar; Schu, Peter

    2017-01-01

    L-selectin regulates leukocyte adhesion and rolling along the endothelium. Proteins binding to the cytoplasmic tail of L-selectin regulate L-selectin functions. We used L-selectin cytoplasmic tail peptide pulldown assays combined with high sensitivity liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to identify novel L-selectin tail-binding proteins. Incubation of the L-selectin tail with cell extracts from phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated Raw 264.7 macrophages resulted in the binding of μ1A of the clathrin-coated vesicle AP-1 complex. Furthermore, full-length GST-μ1A and the GST-μ1A C-terminal domain, but not the GST-μ1A N-terminal domain, bind to L-selectin tail peptide, and the intracellular pool of L-selectin colocalizes with AP-1 at the trans-Golgi network. We identified a novel basic protein motif consisting of a cluster of three dibasic residues (356RR357, 359KK360, and 362KK363) in the membrane-proximal domain of the L-selectin tail as well as a doublet of aspartic acid residues (369DD370) in the membrane-distal end of the L-selectin tail involved in μ1A binding. Stimulation of Raw 264.7 macrophages with PMA augmented the amount of μ1A associated with anti-L-selectin immunoprecipitates. However, full-length GST-μ1A did not bind to the phospho-L-selectin tail or phospho-mimetic S364D L-selectin tail. Accordingly, we propose that phosphorylation of μ1A is required for interaction with the L-selectin tail and that L-selectin tail phosphorylation may regulate this interaction in vivo. Molecular docking of the L-selectin tail to μ1A was used to identify the μ1A surface domain binding the L-selectin tail and to explain how phosphorylation of the L-selectin tail abrogates μ1A interaction. Our findings indicate that L-selectin is transported constitutively by the AP-1 complex, leading to the formation of a trans-Golgi network reserve pool and that phosphorylation of the L-selectin tail blocks AP-1-dependent retrograde transport of L-selectin. PMID

  1. The cytoplasmic tail of L-selectin interacts with the adaptor-protein complex AP-1 subunit μ1A via a novel basic binding motif.

    PubMed

    Dib, Karim; Tikhonova, Irina G; Ivetic, Aleksandar; Schu, Peter

    2017-04-21

    L-selectin regulates leukocyte adhesion and rolling along the endothelium. Proteins binding to the cytoplasmic tail of L-selectin regulate L-selectin functions. We used L-selectin cytoplasmic tail peptide pulldown assays combined with high sensitivity liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to identify novel L-selectin tail-binding proteins. Incubation of the L-selectin tail with cell extracts from phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated Raw 264.7 macrophages resulted in the binding of μ1A of the clathrin-coated vesicle AP-1 complex. Furthermore, full-length GST-μ1A and the GST-μ1A C-terminal domain, but not the GST-μ1A N-terminal domain, bind to L-selectin tail peptide, and the intracellular pool of L-selectin colocalizes with AP-1 at the trans -Golgi network. We identified a novel basic protein motif consisting of a cluster of three dibasic residues ( 356 RR 357 , 359 KK 360 , and 362 KK 363 ) in the membrane-proximal domain of the L-selectin tail as well as a doublet of aspartic acid residues ( 369 DD 370 ) in the membrane-distal end of the L-selectin tail involved in μ1A binding. Stimulation of Raw 264.7 macrophages with PMA augmented the amount of μ1A associated with anti-L-selectin immunoprecipitates. However, full-length GST-μ1A did not bind to the phospho-L-selectin tail or phospho-mimetic S364D L-selectin tail. Accordingly, we propose that phosphorylation of μ1A is required for interaction with the L-selectin tail and that L-selectin tail phosphorylation may regulate this interaction in vivo Molecular docking of the L-selectin tail to μ1A was used to identify the μ1A surface domain binding the L-selectin tail and to explain how phosphorylation of the L-selectin tail abrogates μ1A interaction. Our findings indicate that L-selectin is transported constitutively by the AP-1 complex, leading to the formation of a trans -Golgi network reserve pool and that phosphorylation of the L-selectin tail blocks AP-1-dependent retrograde transport of L

  2. The nuclear protein Sam68 is cleaved by the FMDV 3C protease redistributing Sam68 to the cytoplasm during FMDV infection of host cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, Paul; Schafer, Elizabeth A.; Rieder, Elizabeth, E-mail: elizabeth.rieder@ars.usda.gov

    2012-03-30

    Picornavirus infection can lead to disruption of nuclear pore traffic, shut-off of cell translation machinery, and cleavage of proteins involved in cellular signal transduction and the innate response to infection. Here, we demonstrated that the FMDV 3C{sup pro} induced the cleavage of nuclear RNA-binding protein Sam68 C-terminus containing the nuclear localization sequence (NLS). Consequently, it stimulated the redistribution of Sam68 to the cytoplasm. The siRNA knockdown of Sam68 resulted in a 1000-fold reduction in viral titers, which prompted us to study the effect of Sam68 on FMDV post-entry events. Interestingly, Sam68 interacts with the internal ribosomal entry site within themore » 5 Prime non-translated region of the FMDV genome, and Sam68 knockdown decreased FMDV IRES-driven activity in vitro suggesting that it could modulate translation of the viral genome. The results uncover a novel role for Sam68 in the context of picornaviruses and the proteolysis of a new cellular target of the FMDV 3C{sup pro}.« less

  3. Depletion of highly abundant proteins in blood plasma by ammonium sulfate precipitation for 2D-PAGE analysis.

    PubMed

    Mahn, Andrea; Ismail, Maritza

    2011-11-15

    Ammonium sulfate precipitation (ASP) was explored as a method for depleting some highly abundant proteins from blood plasma, in order to reduce the dynamic range of protein concentration and to improve the detection of low abundance proteins by 2D-PAGE. 40% ammonium sulfate saturation was chosen since it allowed depleting 39% albumin and 82% α-1-antitrypsin. ASP-depletion showed high reproducibility in 2D-PAGE analysis (4.2% variation in relative abundance of albumin), similar to that offered by commercial affinity-depletion columns. Besides, it allowed detecting 59 spots per gel, very close to the number of spots detected in immuno-affinity-depleted plasma. Thus, ASP at 40% saturation is a reliable depletion method that may help in proteomic analysis of blood plasma. Finally, ASP-depletion seems to be complementary to hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC)-depletion, and therefore an ASP-step followed by a HIC-step could probably deplete the most highly abundant plasma proteins, thus improving the detection of low abundance proteins by 2D-PAGE. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Sirtuin 2 microtubule deacetylase is an abundant neuronal protein that accumulates in the aging CNS

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Michele M.; Tomkinson, Elizabeth M.; Nobles, Johnathan; Wizeman, John W.; Amore, Allison M.; Quinti, Luisa; Chopra, Vanita; Hersch, Steven M.; Kazantsev, Aleksey G.

    2011-01-01

    Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) is one of seven known mammalian protein deacetylases homologous to the yeast master lifespan regulator Sir2. In recent years, the sirtuin protein deacetylases have emerged as candidate therapeutic targets for many human diseases, including metabolic and age-dependent neurological disorders. In non-neuronal cells, SIRT2 has been shown to function as a tubulin deacetylase and a key regulator of cell division and differentiation. However, the distribution and function of the SIRT2 microtubule (MT) deacetylase in differentiated, postmitotic neurons remain largely unknown. Here, we show abundant and preferential expression of specific isoforms of SIRT2 in the mammalian central nervous system and find that a previously uncharacterized form, SIRT2.3, exhibits age-dependent accumulation in the mouse brain and spinal cord. Further, our studies reveal that focal areas of endogenous SIRT2 expression correlate with reduced α-tubulin acetylation in primary mouse cortical neurons and suggest that the brain-enriched species of SIRT2 may function as the predominant MT deacetylases in mature neurons. Recent reports have demonstrated an association between impaired tubulin acetyltransferase activity and neurodegenerative disease; viewed in this light, our results showing age-dependent accumulation of the SIRT2 neuronal MT deacetylase in wild-type mice suggest a functional link between tubulin acetylation patterns and the aging brain. PMID:21791548

  5. Unbiased screen identifies aripiprazole as a modulator of abundance of the polyglutamine disease protein, ataxin-3

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Maria do Carmo; Ashraf, Naila S.; Fischer, Svetlana; Yang, Yemen; Schapka, Emily; Joshi, Gnanada; McQuade, Thomas J.; Dharia, Rahil M.; Dulchavsky, Mark; Ouyang, Michelle; Cook, David; Sun, Duxin; Larsen, Martha J.; Gestwicki, Jason E.; Todi, Sokol V.; Ivanova, Magdalena I.; Paulson, Henry L.

    2016-01-01

    No disease-modifying treatment exists for the fatal neurodegenerative polyglutamine disease known both as Machado-Joseph disease and spinocerebellar ataxia type 3. As a potential route to therapy, we identified small molecules that reduce levels of the mutant disease protein, ATXN3. Screens of a small molecule collection, including 1250 Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs, in a novel cell-based assay, followed by secondary screens in brain slice cultures from transgenic mice expressing the human disease gene, identified the atypical antipsychotic aripiprazole as one of the hits. Aripiprazole increased longevity in a Drosophila model of Machado-Joseph disease and effectively reduced aggregated ATXN3 species in flies and in brains of transgenic mice treated for 10 days. The aripiprazole-mediated decrease in ATXN3 abundance may reflect a complex response culminating in the modulation of specific components of cellular protein homeostasis. Aripiprazole represents a potentially promising therapeutic drug for Machado-Joseph disease and possibly other neurological proteinopathies. PMID:27645800

  6. Separomics applied to the proteomics and peptidomics of low-abundance proteins: Choice of methods and challenges – A review

    PubMed Central

    Baracat-Pereira, Maria Cristina; de Oliveira Barbosa, Meire; Magalhães, Marcos Jorge; Carrijo, Lanna Clicia; Games, Patrícia Dias; Almeida, Hebréia Oliveira; Sena Netto, José Fabiano; Pereira, Matheus Rodrigues; de Barros, Everaldo Gonçalves

    2012-01-01

    The enrichment and isolation of proteins are considered limiting steps in proteomic studies. Identification of proteins whose expression is transient, those that are of low-abundance, and of natural peptides not described in databases, is still a great challenge. Plant extracts are in general complex, and contaminants interfere with the identification of proteins involved in important physiological processes, such as plant defense against pathogens. This review discusses the challenges and strategies of separomics applied to the identification of low-abundance proteins and peptides in plants, especially in plants challenged by pathogens. Separomics is described as a group of methodological strategies for the separation of protein molecules for proteomics. Several tools have been used to remove highly abundant proteins from samples and also non-protein contaminants. The use of chromatographic techniques, the partition of the proteome into subproteomes, and an effort to isolate proteins in their native form have allowed the isolation and identification of rare proteins involved in different processes. PMID:22802713

  7. Comparative Study of Human and Mouse Postsynaptic Proteomes Finds High Compositional Conservation and Abundance Differences for Key Synaptic Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bayés, Àlex; Collins, Mark O.; Croning, Mike D. R.; van de Lagemaat, Louie N.; Choudhary, Jyoti S.; Grant, Seth G. N.

    2012-01-01

    Direct comparison of protein components from human and mouse excitatory synapses is important for determining the suitability of mice as models of human brain disease and to understand the evolution of the mammalian brain. The postsynaptic density is a highly complex set of proteins organized into molecular networks that play a central role in behavior and disease. We report the first direct comparison of the proteome of triplicate isolates of mouse and human cortical postsynaptic densities. The mouse postsynaptic density comprised 1556 proteins and the human one 1461. A large compositional overlap was observed; more than 70% of human postsynaptic density proteins were also observed in the mouse postsynaptic density. Quantitative analysis of postsynaptic density components in both species indicates a broadly similar profile of abundance but also shows that there is higher abundance variation between species than within species. Well known components of this synaptic structure are generally more abundant in the mouse postsynaptic density. Significant inter-species abundance differences exist in some families of key postsynaptic density proteins including glutamatergic neurotransmitter receptors and adaptor proteins. Furthermore, we have identified a closely interacting set of molecules enriched in the human postsynaptic density that could be involved in dendrite and spine structural plasticity. Understanding synapse proteome diversity within and between species will be important to further our understanding of brain complexity and disease. PMID:23071613

  8. Cytoplasmic Domain of MscS Interacts with Cell Division Protein FtsZ: A Possible Non-Channel Function of the Mechanosensitive Channel in Escherichia Coli.

    PubMed

    Koprowski, Piotr; Grajkowski, Wojciech; Balcerzak, Marcin; Filipiuk, Iwona; Fabczak, Hanna; Kubalski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial mechano-sensitive (MS) channels reside in the inner membrane and are considered to act as emergency valves whose role is to lower cell turgor when bacteria enter hypo-osmotic environments. However, there is emerging evidence that members of the Mechano-sensitive channel Small (MscS) family play additional roles in bacterial and plant cell physiology. MscS has a large cytoplasmic C-terminal region that changes its shape upon activation and inactivation of the channel. Our pull-down and co-sedimentation assays show that this domain interacts with FtsZ, a bacterial tubulin-like protein. We identify point mutations in the MscS C-terminal domain that reduce binding to FtsZ and show that bacteria expressing these mutants are compromised in growth on sublethal concentrations of β-lactam antibiotics. Our results suggest that interaction between MscS and FtsZ could occur upon inactivation and/or opening of the channel and could be important for the bacterial cell response against sustained stress upon stationary phase and in the presence of β-lactam antibiotics.

  9. Cytoplasmic Domain of MscS Interacts with Cell Division Protein FtsZ: A Possible Non-Channel Function of the Mechanosensitive Channel in Escherichia Coli

    PubMed Central

    Koprowski, Piotr; Grajkowski, Wojciech; Balcerzak, Marcin; Filipiuk, Iwona; Fabczak, Hanna; Kubalski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial mechano-sensitive (MS) channels reside in the inner membrane and are considered to act as emergency valves whose role is to lower cell turgor when bacteria enter hypo-osmotic environments. However, there is emerging evidence that members of the Mechano-sensitive channel Small (MscS) family play additional roles in bacterial and plant cell physiology. MscS has a large cytoplasmic C-terminal region that changes its shape upon activation and inactivation of the channel. Our pull-down and co-sedimentation assays show that this domain interacts with FtsZ, a bacterial tubulin-like protein. We identify point mutations in the MscS C-terminal domain that reduce binding to FtsZ and show that bacteria expressing these mutants are compromised in growth on sublethal concentrations of β-lactam antibiotics. Our results suggest that interaction between MscS and FtsZ could occur upon inactivation and/or opening of the channel and could be important for the bacterial cell response against sustained stress upon stationary phase and in the presence of β-lactam antibiotics. PMID:25996836

  10. Strategies for Characterization of Low-Abundant Intact or Truncated Low-Molecular-Weight Proteins From Human Plasma.

    PubMed

    Cai, Tanxi; Yang, Fuquan

    2017-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight region (LMW, MW≤30kDa) of human serum/plasma proteins, including small intact proteins, truncated fragments of larger proteins, along with some other small components, has been associated with the ongoing physiological and pathological events, and thereby represent a treasure trove of diagnostic molecules. Great progress in the mining of novel biomarkers from this diagnostic treasure trove for disease diagnosis and health monitoring has been achieved based on serum samples from healthy individuals and patients and powerful new approaches in biochemistry and systems biology. However, cumulative evidence indicates that many potential LMW protein biomarkers might still have escaped from detection due to their low abundance, the dynamic complexity of serum/plasma, and the limited efficiency of characterization approaches. Here, we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge with respect to strategies for the characterization of low-abundant LMW proteins (small intact or truncated proteins) from human serum/plasma, involving prefractionation or enrichment methods to reduce dynamic range and mass spectrometry-based characterization of low-abundant LMW proteins. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Roles of the conserved cytoplasmic region and non-conserved carboxy-terminal region of SecE in Escherichia coli protein translocase.

    PubMed

    Kontinen, V P; Yamanaka, M; Nishiyama, K; Tokuda, H

    1996-06-01

    SecE, an essential membrane component of the Escherichia coli protein translocase, consists of 127 amino acid residues. Only a part of the second putative cytoplasmic region comprising some 13 residues is essential for the SecE function as long as the proper topological arrangement is retained. The Trp84 and Pro85 residues of this region are conserved in all eubacterial SecE homologues. The conservation of positively charged residues corresponding to Arg80 and Lys81 is also substantial. We deleted or replaced these residues to assess their roles in the SecE function. Deletion of the Arg80-Lys81 dipeptide did not abolish the SecE function whereas that of Trp84 or Pro85 caused a loss of the function. Strikingly, however, replacement of Pro85 with either Gly, Ser, or Ala, and that of Trp84 with Lys did not abolish the SecE function. These results indicate that the strong conservation of these residues does not reflect their obligatory requirement for the SecE function. A chimeric SecE possessing the cytoplasmic region of the E. coli SecE and the following region of the Bacillus subtilis SecE was able to form the translocation machinery together with SecA, SecY, and SecG. Although a Leu to Arg mutation at position 108 has been thought to cause a loss of signal recognition fidelity and thereby suppress a signal sequence defect, the same mutation at position 111 caused a complete loss of the function. The levels of SecY and SecG in the secEcsE501 mutant, which expresses SecE at a decreased level and is sensitive to low temperature, increased upon the expression of functional SecE derivatives, irrespective of the site of mutation, suggesting that the levels of SecY and SecG are co-operatively determined by the level of functional, but not non-functional, SecE. Based on these results, the SecE function in the translocase is discussed.

  12. Filarial Abundant Larval Transcript Protein ALT-2: An Immunomodulatory Therapeutic Agent for Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Sridhar M; Reddy, Pooja M; Amdare, Nitin; Khatri, Vishal; Tarnekar, Aaditya; Goswami, Kalyan; Reddy, Maryada Venkata Rami

    2017-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) that accounts for about 5-10 % of all diabetes cases results from the autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. It is characterized by severe inflammatory reaction mediated by pronounced T helper type-1 response. Parasitic infections having the ability to skew the host immune responses towards type-2 type as a part of their defense mechanism are able to induce protection against autoimmune diseases like T1D. Hence, the present study is undertaken to explore a recombinant abundant larval transcript protein of the human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi ( rBm ALT-2), a known anti-inflammatory molecule for its therapeutic effect on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced T1D in mice. The diabetic mice on treatment with r Bm ALT-2 showed a significant ( p  < 0.0005) decrease in their fasting blood glucose levels. By the end of the second week after the initiation of treatment with the r Bm ALT-2, 28 % of the diabetic mice became normal and none of them were diabetic by the end of 5th week. The anti-diabetic effect of r Bm ALT-2 significantly correlated with the concomitant redressal of the pancreatic histopathological damage caused by STZ assault (rho = 0.87; p  < 0.0005). The sera of r Bm ALT-2 treated diabetic mice had increased levels of IgG1 antibodies associated with decreased IgG2a antibodies against the principal autoantigen insulin. The splenocyte proliferative response and the cytokine release in the treated mice showed marked bias against inflammation skewing the immune response to Th-2 type. From this study, it can be envisaged that that filarial proteins like r Bm ALT-2 with effective immunomodulatory activity and anti-diabetic effect are promising alternative therapeutic agents for T1D.

  13. Galectin-3 is a non-classic RNA binding protein that stabilizes the mucin MUC4 mRNA in the cytoplasm of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Coppin, Lucie; Vincent, Audrey; Frénois, Frédéric; Duchêne, Belinda; Lahdaoui, Fatima; Stechly, Laurence; Renaud, Florence; Villenet, Céline; Van Seuningen, Isabelle; Leteurtre, Emmanuelle; Dion, Johann; Grandjean, Cyrille; Poirier, Françoise; Figeac, Martin; Delacour, Delphine; Porchet, Nicole; Pigny, Pascal

    2017-03-06

    Pancreatic cancer cells express high levels of MUC1, MUC4 and MUC16 mRNAs that encode membrane-bound mucins. These mRNAs share unusual features such as a long half-life. However, it remains unknown how mucin mRNA stability is regulated. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is an endogenous lectin playing important biological functions in epithelial cells. Gal-3 is encoded by LGALS3 which is up-regulated in pancreatic cancer. Despite the absence of a RNA-recognition motif, Gal-3 interacts indirectly with pre-mRNAs in the nucleus and promotes constitutive splicing. However a broader role of Gal-3 in mRNA fate is unexplored. We report herein that Gal-3 increases MUC4 mRNA stability through an intermediate, hnRNP-L which binds to a conserved CA repeat element in the 3'UTR in a Gal-3 dependent manner and also controls Muc4 mRNA levels in epithelial tissues of Gal3 -/- mice. Gal-3 interacts with hnRNP-L in the cytoplasm, especially during cell mitosis, but only partly associates with protein markers of P-Bodies or Stress Granules. By RNA-IP plus RNA-seq analysis and imaging, we demonstrate that Gal-3 binds to mature spliced MUC4 mRNA in the perinuclear region, probably in hnRNP-L-containing RNA granules. Our findings highlight a new role for Gal-3 as a non-classic RNA-binding protein that regulates MUC4 mRNA post-transcriptionally.

  14. Galectin-3 is a non-classic RNA binding protein that stabilizes the mucin MUC4 mRNA in the cytoplasm of cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Coppin, Lucie; Vincent, Audrey; Frénois, Frédéric; Duchêne, Belinda; Lahdaoui, Fatima; Stechly, Laurence; Renaud, Florence; Villenet, Céline; Seuningen, Isabelle Van; Leteurtre, Emmanuelle; Dion, Johann; Grandjean, Cyrille; Poirier, Françoise; Figeac, Martin; Delacour, Delphine; Porchet, Nicole; Pigny, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer cells express high levels of MUC1, MUC4 and MUC16 mRNAs that encode membrane-bound mucins. These mRNAs share unusual features such as a long half-life. However, it remains unknown how mucin mRNA stability is regulated. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is an endogenous lectin playing important biological functions in epithelial cells. Gal-3 is encoded by LGALS3 which is up-regulated in pancreatic cancer. Despite the absence of a RNA-recognition motif, Gal-3 interacts indirectly with pre-mRNAs in the nucleus and promotes constitutive splicing. However a broader role of Gal-3 in mRNA fate is unexplored. We report herein that Gal-3 increases MUC4 mRNA stability through an intermediate, hnRNP-L which binds to a conserved CA repeat element in the 3′UTR in a Gal-3 dependent manner and also controls Muc4 mRNA levels in epithelial tissues of Gal3−/− mice. Gal-3 interacts with hnRNP-L in the cytoplasm, especially during cell mitosis, but only partly associates with protein markers of P-Bodies or Stress Granules. By RNA-IP plus RNA-seq analysis and imaging, we demonstrate that Gal-3 binds to mature spliced MUC4 mRNA in the perinuclear region, probably in hnRNP-L-containing RNA granules. Our findings highlight a new role for Gal-3 as a non-classic RNA-binding protein that regulates MUC4 mRNA post-transcriptionally. PMID:28262838

  15. Protein synthesis and the recovery of both survival and cytoplasmic "petite" mutation in ultraviolet-treated yeast cells. I. Nuclear-directed protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Heude, M; Chanet, R; Moustacchi, E

    1975-04-01

    The contribution of nuclear-directed protein synthesis in the repair of lethal and mitochondrial genetic damage after UV-irradiation of exponential and stationary phage haploid yeast cells was examined. This was carried out using cycloheximide (CH), a specific inhibitor of nuclear protein synthesis. It appears that nuclear protein synthesis is required for the increase in survival seen after the liquid holding of cells at both stages, as well as for the "petite" recovery seen after the liquid holding of exponential phase cells. The characteristic negative liquid holding effect observed for the UV induction of "petites" in stationary phase cells (increase of the frequency of "petites" during storage) remained following all the treatments which inhibited nuclear protein synthesis. However, the application of photoreactivating light following dark holding with cycloheximide indicates that some steps of the repair of both nuclear and mitochondrial damage are performed in the absence of a synthesis of proteins.

  16. High Throughput Screening for Compounds That Alter Muscle Cell Glycosylation Identifies New Role for N-Glycans in Regulating Sarcolemmal Protein Abundance and Laminin Binding*

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Paula V.; Pang, Mabel; Marshall, Jamie L.; Kung, Raymond; Nelson, Stanley F.; Stalnaker, Stephanie H.; Wells, Lance; Crosbie-Watson, Rachelle H.; Baum, Linda G.

    2012-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is an X-linked disorder characterized by loss of dystrophin, a cytoskeletal protein that connects the actin cytoskeleton in skeletal muscle cells to extracellular matrix. Dystrophin binds to the cytoplasmic domain of the transmembrane glycoprotein β-dystroglycan (β-DG), which associates with cell surface α-dystroglycan (α-DG) that binds laminin in the extracellular matrix. β-DG can also associate with utrophin, and this differential association correlates with specific glycosylation changes on α-DG. Genetic modification of α-DG glycosylation can promote utrophin binding and rescue dystrophic phenotypes in mouse dystrophy models. We used high throughput screening with the plant lectin Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA) to identify compounds that altered muscle cell surface glycosylation, with the goal of finding compounds that increase abundance of α-DG and associated sarcolemmal glycoproteins, increase utrophin usage, and increase laminin binding. We identified one compound, lobeline, from the Prestwick library of Food and Drug Administration-approved compounds that fulfilled these criteria, increasing WFA binding to C2C12 cells and to primary muscle cells from wild type and mdx mice. WFA binding and enhancement by lobeline required complex N-glycans but not O-mannose glycans that bind laminin. However, inhibiting complex N-glycan processing reduced laminin binding to muscle cell glycoproteins, although O-mannosylation was intact. Glycan analysis demonstrated a general increase in N-glycans on lobeline-treated cells rather than specific alterations in cell surface glycosylation, consistent with increased abundance of multiple sarcolemmal glycoproteins. This demonstrates the feasibility of high throughput screening with plant lectins to identify compounds that alter muscle cell glycosylation and identifies a novel role for N-glycans in regulating muscle cell function. PMID:22570487

  17. Ribosome abundance regulates the recovery of skeletal muscle protein mass upon recuperation from postnatal undernutrition in mice

    PubMed Central

    Fiorotto, Marta L; Davis, Teresa A; Sosa, Horacio A; Villegas-Montoya, Carolina; Estrada, Irma; Fleischmann, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Nutritionally-induced growth faltering in the perinatal period has been associated with reduced adult skeletal muscle mass; however, the mechanisms responsible for this are unclear. To identify the factors that determine the recuperative capacity of muscle mass, we studied offspring of FVB mouse dams fed a protein-restricted diet during gestation (GLP) or pups suckled from postnatal day 1 (PN1) to PN11 (E-UN), or PN11 to PN22 (L-UN) on protein-restricted or control dams. All pups were refed under control conditions following the episode of undernutrition. Before refeeding, and 2, 7 and 21 days later, muscle protein synthesis was measured in vivo. There were no long-term deficits in protein mass in GLP and E-UN offspring, but in L-UN offspring muscle protein mass remained significantly smaller even after 18 months (P < 0.001). E-UN differed from L-UN offspring by their capacity to upregulate postprandial muscle protein synthesis when refed (P < 0.001), a difference that was attributable to a transient increase in ribosomal abundance, i.e. translational capacity, in E-UN offspring (P < 0.05); translational efficiency was similar across dietary treatments. The postprandial phosphorylation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases were similar among treatments. However, activation of the ribosomal S6 kinase 1 via mTOR (P < 0.02), and total upstream binding factor abundance were significantly greater in E-UN than L-UN offspring (P < 0.02). The results indicate that the capacity of muscles to recover following perinatal undernutrition depends on developmental age as this establishes whether ribosome abundance can be enhanced sufficiently to promote the protein synthesis rates required to accelerate protein deposition for catch-up growth. PMID:25239457

  18. Structural insights into a secretory abundant heat-soluble protein from an anhydrobiotic tardigrade, Ramazzottius varieornatus.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Yohta; Miura, Yoshimasa; Mizohata, Eiichi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi

    2017-08-01

    Upon stopping metabolic processes, some tardigrades can undergo anhydrobiosis. Secretory abundant heat-soluble (SAHS) proteins have been reported as candidates for anhydrobiosis-related proteins in tardigrades, which seem to protect extracellular components and/or secretory organelles. We determined structures of a SAHS protein from Ramazzottius varieornatus (RvSAHS1), which is one of the toughest tardigrades. RvSAHS1 shows a β-barrel structure similar to fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs), in which hydrophilic residues form peculiar hydrogen bond networks, which would provide RvSAHS1 with better tolerance against dehydration. We identified two putative ligand-binding sites: one that superimposes on those of some FABPs and the other, unique to and conserved in SAHS proteins. These results indicate that SAHS proteins constitute a new FABP family. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  19. Function of the cytoplasmic tail of human calcitonin receptor-like receptor in complex with receptor activity-modifying protein 2

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwasako, Kenji, E-mail: kuwasako@fc.miyazaki-u.ac.jp; Kitamura, Kazuo; Nagata, Sayaka

    2010-02-12

    Receptor activity-modifying protein 2 (RAMP2) enables calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR) to form an adrenomedullin (AM)-specific receptor. Here we investigated the function of the cytoplasmic C-terminal tail (C-tail) of human (h)CRLR by co-transfecting its C-terminal mutants into HEK-293 cells stably expressing hRAMP2. Deleting the C-tail from CRLR disrupted AM-evoked cAMP production or receptor internalization, but did not affect [{sup 125}I]AM binding. We found that CRLR residues 428-439 are required for AM-evoked cAMP production, though deleting this region had little effect on receptor internalization. Moreover, pretreatment with pertussis toxin (100 ng/mL) led to significant increases in AM-induced cAMP production via wild-type CRLR/RAMP2more » complexes. This effect was canceled by deleting CRLR residues 454-457, suggesting Gi couples to this region. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that CRLR truncation mutants lacking residues in the Ser/Thr-rich region extending from Ser{sup 449} to Ser{sup 467} were unable to undergo AM-induced receptor internalization and, in contrast to the effect on wild-type CRLR, overexpression of GPCR kinases-2, -3 and -4 failed to promote internalization of CRLR mutants lacking residues 449-467. Thus, the hCRLR C-tail is crucial for AM-evoked cAMP production and internalization of the CRLR/RAMP2, while the receptor internalization is dependent on the aforementioned GPCR kinases, but not Gs coupling.« less

  20. Dgat1 and Dgat2 regulate enterocyte triacylglycerol distribution and alter proteins associated with cytoplasmic lipid droplets in response to dietary fat

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Yu-Han; Carreiro, Alicia L.; Buhman, Kimberly K.

    2017-01-01

    Enterocytes, the absorptive cells of the small intestine, mediate efficient absorption of dietary fat (triacylglycerol, TAG). The digestive products of dietary fat are taken up by enterocytes, re-esterified into TAG, and packaged on chylomicrons (CMs) for secretion into blood or temporarily stored within cytoplasmic lipid droplets (CLDs). Altered enterocyte TAG distribution impacts susceptibility to high fat diet associated diseases, but molecular mechanisms directing TAG toward these fates are unclear. Two enzymes, acyl CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (Dgat1) and Dgat2, catalyze the final, committed step of TAG synthesis within enterocytes. Mice with intestine-specific overexpression of Dgat1 (Dgat1Int) or Dgat2 (Dgat2Int), or lack of Dgat1 (Dgat1−/−), were previously found to have altered intestinal TAG secretion and storage. We hypothesized that varying intestinal Dgat1 and Dgat2 levels alters TAG distribution in subcellular pools for CM synthesis as well as the morphology and proteome of CLDs. To test this we used ultrastructural and proteomic methods to investigate intracellular TAG distribution and CLD-associated proteins in enterocytes from Dgat1Int, Dgat2Int, and Dgat1−/− mice 2 hours after a 200 μl oral olive oil gavage. We found that varying levels of intestinal Dgat1 and Dgat2 altered TAG pools involved in CM assembly and secretion, the number or size of CLDs present in enterocytes, and the enterocyte CLD proteome. Overall, these results support a model where Dgat1 and Dgat2 function coordinately to regulate the process of dietary fat absorption by preferentially synthesizing TAG for incorporation into distinct subcellular TAG pools in enterocytes. PMID:28249764

  1. Pericardial fluid level of heart-type cytoplasmic fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) is an indicator of severe myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed

    Tambara, Keiichi; Fujita, Masatoshi; Miyamoto, Shoichi; Doi, Kazuhiko; Nishimura, Kazunobu; Komeda, Masashi

    2004-02-01

    Heart-type cytoplasmic fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) has been reported as a sensitive and specific marker for the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. Our hypothesis was that serum or pericardial fluid levels of H-FABP can reflect not only myocardial infarction but also myocardial ischemia. A total of 34 patients with unstable angina, who had anginal symptoms and/or ST-changes in ECG monitoring within 24 h before operation, were classified into group A (n=17), and those without these symptoms and changes into group B (n=17). Blood and pericardial fluid samples were obtained immediately after median sternotomy, and serum and pericardial fluid levels of creatine kinase-MB, cardiac troponin-T, and H-FABP were measured. Serum H-FABP levels were slightly elevated compared with their normal values in both groups. While they showed no difference between groups A and B (group A vs. B: 8.5+/-1.0 vs. 7.1+/-0.7 ng/ml, P=0.25), pericardial fluid levels of H-FABP were significantly higher in group A than in group B (16.3+/-2.0 vs. 9.6+/-1.0 ng/ml, P=0.0046). H-FABP showed a weak correlation between its serum levels and pericardial fluid levels (r=0.40). Pericardial fluid levels of H-FABP reflect myocardial ischemia occurring within 24 h of their measurements. H-FABP may be secreted into the interstitial space by increased permeability of the myocardial cell membrane associated with severe myocardial ischemia. Thus, pericardial fluid reflects pathophysiological conditions of cardiomyocytes more sensitively than circulating blood.

  2. Dgat1 and Dgat2 regulate enterocyte triacylglycerol distribution and alter proteins associated with cytoplasmic lipid droplets in response to dietary fat.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yu-Han; Carreiro, Alicia L; Buhman, Kimberly K

    2017-06-01

    Enterocytes, the absorptive cells of the small intestine, mediate efficient absorption of dietary fat (triacylglycerol, TAG). The digestive products of dietary fat are taken up by enterocytes, re-esterified into TAG, and packaged on chylomicrons (CMs) for secretion into blood or temporarily stored within cytoplasmic lipid droplets (CLDs). Altered enterocyte TAG distribution impacts susceptibility to high fat diet associated diseases, but molecular mechanisms directing TAG toward these fates are unclear. Two enzymes, acyl CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (Dgat1) and Dgat2, catalyze the final, committed step of TAG synthesis within enterocytes. Mice with intestine-specific overexpression of Dgat1 (Dgat1 Int ) or Dgat2 (Dgat2 Int ), or lack of Dgat1 (Dgat1 -/- ), were previously found to have altered intestinal TAG secretion and storage. We hypothesized that varying intestinal Dgat1 and Dgat2 levels alters TAG distribution in subcellular pools for CM synthesis as well as the morphology and proteome of CLDs. To test this we used ultrastructural and proteomic methods to investigate intracellular TAG distribution and CLD-associated proteins in enterocytes from Dgat1 Int , Dgat2 Int , and Dgat1 -/- mice 2h after a 200μl oral olive oil gavage. We found that varying levels of intestinal Dgat1 and Dgat2 altered TAG pools involved in CM assembly and secretion, the number or size of CLDs present in enterocytes, and the enterocyte CLD proteome. Overall, these results support a model where Dgat1 and Dgat2 function coordinately to regulate the process of dietary fat absorption by preferentially synthesizing TAG for incorporation into distinct subcellular TAG pools in enterocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Humoral immune response against lipopolysaccharide and cytoplasmic proteins of Brucella abortus in cattle vaccinated with B. abortus S19 or experimentally infected with Yersinia enterocolitica serotype 0:9.

    PubMed Central

    Baldi, P C; Giambartolomei, G H; Goldbaum, F A; Abdón, L F; Velikovsky, C A; Kittelberger, R; Fossati, C A

    1996-01-01

    The humoral immune responses against three different antigens of Brucella abortus were monitored by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in cattle vaccinated with B. abortus S19 or experimentally infected with Yersinia enterocolitica serotype 0:9. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM responses against (i) B. abortus lipopolysaccharide (LPS), (ii) total cytoplasmic proteins depleted of LPS (LPS-free CYT), and (iii) B. abortus 18-kDa cytoplasmic protein were measured. Vaccinated animals and Yersinia-infected animals developed high anti-LPS IgM and IgG titers, which overlapped with those obtained with sera from B. abortus 544-infected animals used as positive controls. In contrast, only a slight or negative IgG and IgM response against LPS-free CYT and the 18-kDa protein was detected in vaccinated or Yersinia-infected cattle, although its levels were always significantly lower than those of B. abortus 544-infected animals. These data indicate that cytoplasmic proteins of B. abortus could be useful for the differential diagnosis of bovine brucellosis. PMID:8807216

  4. Analysis of the Plasma Proteome in COPD: Novel Low Abundance Proteins Reflect the Severity of Lung Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Merali, Salim; Barrero, Carlos A.; Bowler, Russell P.; Chen, Diane Er; Criner, Gerard; Braverman, Alan; Litwin, Samuel; Yeung, Anthony; Kelsen, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    The search for COPD biomarkers has largely employed a targeted approach that focuses on plasma proteins involved in the systemic inflammatory response and in lung injury and repair. This proof of concept study was designed to test the idea that an open, unbiased, in-depth proteomics approach could identify novel, low abundance plasma proteins i.e., ng/mL concentration, which could serve as potential biomarkers. Differentially expressed proteins were identified in a discovery group with severe COPD (FEV1 <45% predicted; n = 10). Subjects with normal lung function matched for age, sex, ethnicity and smoking history served as controls (n = 10). Pooled plasma from each group was exhaustively immunodepleted of abundant proteins, d separated by 1-D gel electrophoresis and extensively fractionated prior to LC-tandem mass spectroscopy (GeLC-MS). Thirty one differentially expressed proteins were identified in the discovery group including markers of lung defense against oxidant stress, alveolar macrophage activation, and lung tissue injury and repair. Four of the 31 proteins (i.e., GRP78, soluble CD163, IL1AP and MSPT9) were measured in a separate verification group of 80 subjects with varying COPD severity by immunoassay. All 4 were significantly altered in COPD and 2 (GRP78 and soluble CD163) correlated with both FEV1 and the extent of emphysema. In-depth, plasma proteomic analysis identified a group of novel, differentially expressed, low abundance proteins that reflect known pathogenic mechanisms and the severity of lung remodeling in COPD. These proteins may also prove useful as COPD biomarkers. PMID:24111704

  5. Analysis of the plasma proteome in COPD: Novel low abundance proteins reflect the severity of lung remodeling.

    PubMed

    Merali, Salim; Barrero, Carlos A; Bowler, Russell P; Chen, Diane Er; Criner, Gerard; Braverman, Alan; Litwin, Samuel; Yeung, Anthony; Kelsen, Steven G

    2014-04-01

    The search for COPD biomarkers has largely employed a targeted approach that focuses on plasma proteins involved in the systemic inflammatory response and in lung injury and repair. This proof of concept study was designed to test the idea that an open, unbiased, in-depth proteomics approach could identify novel, low abundance plasma proteins i.e., ng/mL concentration, which could serve as potential biomarkers. Differentially expressed proteins were identified in a discovery group with severe COPD (FEV1 <45% predicted; n = 10). Subjects with normal lung function matched for age, sex, ethnicity and smoking history served as controls (n = 10). Pooled plasma from each group was exhaustively immunodepleted of abundant proteins, d separated by 1-D gel electrophoresis and extensively fractionated prior to LC-tandem mass spectroscopy (GeLC-MS). Thirty one differentially expressed proteins were identified in the discovery group including markers of lung defense against oxidant stress, alveolar macrophage activation, and lung tissue injury and repair. Four of the 31 proteins (i.e., GRP78, soluble CD163, IL1AP and MSPT9) were measured in a separate verification group of 80 subjects with varying COPD severity by immunoassay. All 4 were significantly altered in COPD and 2 (GRP78 and soluble CD163) correlated with both FEV1 and the extent of emphysema. In-depth, plasma proteomic analysis identified a group of novel, differentially expressed, low abundance proteins that reflect known pathogenic mechanisms and the severity of lung remodeling in COPD. These proteins may also prove useful as COPD biomarkers.

  6. An Arabidopsis Ran-binding protein, AtRanBP1c, is a co-activator of Ran GTPase-activating protein and requires the C-terminus for its cytoplasmic localization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Soo-Hwan; Roux, Stanley J.

    2003-01-01

    Ran-binding proteins (RanBPs) are a group of proteins that bind to Ran (Ras-related nuclear small GTP-binding protein), and thus either control the GTP/GDP-bound states of Ran or help couple the Ran GTPase cycle to a cellular process. AtRanBP1c is a Ran-binding protein from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. that was recently shown to be critically involved in the regulation of auxin-induced mitotic progression [S.-H. Kim et al. (2001) Plant Cell 13:2619-2630]. Here we report that AtRanBP1c inhibits the EDTA-induced release of GTP from Ran and serves as a co-activator of Ran-GTPase-activating protein (RanGAP) in vitro. Transient expression of AtRanBP1c fused to a beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter reveals that the protein localizes primarily to the cytosol. Neither the N- nor C-terminus of AtRanBP1c, which flank the Ran-binding domain (RanBD), is necessary for the binding of PsRan1-GTP to the protein, but both are needed for the cytosolic localization of GUS-fused AtRanBP1c. These findings, together with a previous report that AtRanBP1c is critically involved in root growth and development, imply that the promotion of GTP hydrolysis by the Ran/RanGAP/AtRanBP1c complex in the cytoplasm, and the resulting concentration gradient of Ran-GDP to Ran-GTP across the nuclear membrane could be important in the regulation of auxin-induced mitotic progression in root tips of A. thaliana.

  7. Region-Specific Protein Abundance Changes in the Brain of MPTP-induced Parkinson’s Disease Mouse Model

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xu; Zhou, Jianying; Chin, Mark H

    2010-02-15

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the nigrostriatal region of the brain; however, the neurodegeneration extends well beyond dopaminergic neurons. To gain a better understanding of the molecular changes relevant to PD, we applied two-dimensional LC-MS/MS to comparatively analyze the proteome changes in four brain regions (striatum, cerebellum, cortex, and the rest of brain) using a MPTP-induced PD mouse model with the objective to identify nigrostriatal-specific and other region-specific protein abundance changes. The combined analyses resulted in the identification of 4,895 non-redundant proteins with at least two unique peptides per protein. The relative abundance changes in eachmore » analyzed brain region were estimated based on the spectral count information. A total of 518 proteins were observed with significant MPTP-induced changes across different brain regions. 270 of these proteins were observed with specific changes occurring either only in the striatum and/or in the rest of the brain region that contains substantia nigra, suggesting that these proteins are associated with the underlying nigrostriatal pathways. Many of the proteins that exhibit significant abundance changes were associated with dopamine signaling, mitochondrial dysfunction, the ubiquitin system, calcium signaling, the oxidative stress response, and apoptosis. A set of proteins with either consistent change across all brain regions or with changes specific to the cortex and cerebellum regions were also detected. One of the interesting proteins is ubiquitin specific protease (USP9X), a deubiquination enzyme involved in the protection of proteins from degradation and promotion of the TGF-β pathway, which exhibited altered abundances in all brain regions. Western blot validation showed similar spatial changes, suggesting that USP9X is potentially associated with neurodegeneration. Together, this study for the first time presents an overall

  8. Surfing the wave, cycle, life history, and genes/proteins expressed by testicular germ cells. Part 3: developmental changes in spermatid flagellum and cytoplasmic droplet and interaction of sperm with the zona pellucida and egg plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Hermo, Louis; Pelletier, R-Marc; Cyr, Daniel G; Smith, Charles E

    2010-04-01

    Spermiogenesis constitutes the steps involved in the metamorphosis of spermatids into spermatozoa. It involves modification of several organelles in addition to the formation of several structures including the flagellum and cytoplasmic droplet. The flagellum is composed of a neck region and middle, principal, and end pieces. The axoneme composed of nine outer microtubular doublets circularly arranged to form a cylinder around a central pair of microtubules is present throughout the flagellum. The middle and principal pieces each contain specific components such as the mitochondrial sheath and fibrous sheath, respectively, while outer dense fibers are common to both. A plethora of proteins are constituents of each of these structures, with each playing key roles in functions related to the fertility of spermatozoa. At the end of spermiogenesis, a portion of spermatid cytoplasm remains associated with the released spermatozoa, referred to as the cytoplasmic droplet. The latter has as its main feature Golgi saccules, which appear to modify the plasma membrane of spermatozoa as they move down the epididymal duct and hence may be partly involved in male gamete maturation. The end product of spermatogenesis is highly streamlined and motile spermatozoa having a condensed nucleus equipped with an acrosome. Spermatozoa move through the female reproductive tract and eventually penetrate the zona pellucida and bind to the egg plasma membrane. Many proteins have been implicated in the process of fertilization as well as a plethora of proteins involved in the development of spermatids and sperm, and these are high lighted in this review. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Mass Spectrometry of Human Leukocyte Antigen Class I Peptidomes Reveals Strong Effects of Protein Abundance and Turnover on Antigen Presentation*

    PubMed Central

    Bassani-Sternberg, Michal; Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Mann, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    HLA class I molecules reflect the health state of cells to cytotoxic T cells by presenting a repertoire of endogenously derived peptides. However, the extent to which the proteome shapes the peptidome is still largely unknown. Here we present a high-throughput mass-spectrometry-based workflow that allows stringent and accurate identification of thousands of such peptides and direct determination of binding motifs. Applying the workflow to seven cancer cell lines and primary cells, yielded more than 22,000 unique HLA peptides across different allelic binding specificities. By computing a score representing the HLA-I sampling density, we show a strong link between protein abundance and HLA-presentation (p < 0.0001). When analyzing overpresented proteins – those with at least fivefold higher density score than expected for their abundance – we noticed that they are degraded almost 3 h faster than similar but nonpresented proteins (top 20% abundance class; median half-life 20.8h versus 23.6h, p < 0.0001). This validates protein degradation as an important factor for HLA presentation. Ribosomal, mitochondrial respiratory chain, and nucleosomal proteins are particularly well presented. Taking a set of proteins associated with cancer, we compared the predicted immunogenicity of previously validated T-cell epitopes with other peptides from these proteins in our data set. The validated epitopes indeed tend to have higher immunogenic scores than the other detected HLA peptides. Remarkably, we identified five mutated peptides from a human colon cancer cell line, which have very recently been predicted to be HLA-I binders. Altogether, we demonstrate the usefulness of combining MS-analysis with immunogenesis prediction for identifying, ranking, and selecting peptides for therapeutic use. PMID:25576301

  10. Method optimization for proteomic analysis of soybean leaf: Improvements in identification of new and low-abundance proteins

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita, Rosilene Oliveira; de Almeida Soares, Eduardo; de Barros, Everaldo Gonçalves; Loureiro, Marcelo Ehlers

    2012-01-01

    The most critical step in any proteomic study is protein extraction and sample preparation. Better solubilization increases the separation and resolution of gels, allowing identification of a higher number of proteins and more accurate quantitation of differences in gene expression. Despite the existence of published results for the optimization of proteomic analyses of soybean seeds, no comparable data are available for proteomic studies of soybean leaf tissue. In this work we have tested the effects of modification of a TCA-acetone method on the resolution of 2-DE gels of leaves and roots of soybean. Better focusing was obtained when both mercaptoethanol and dithiothreitol were used in the extraction buffer simultaneously. Increasing the number of washes of TCA precipitated protein with acetone, using a final wash with 80% ethanol and using sonication to ressuspend the pellet increased the number of detected proteins as well the resolution of the 2-DE gels. Using this approach we have constructed a soybean protein map. The major group of identified proteins corresponded to genes of unknown function. The second and third most abundant groups of proteins were composed of photosynthesis and metabolism related genes. The resulting protocol improved protein solubility and gel resolution allowing the identification of 122 soybean leaf proteins, 72 of which were not detected in other published soybean leaf 2-DE gel datasets, including a transcription factor and several signaling proteins. PMID:22802721

  11. A cherry protein and its gene, abundantly expressed in ripening fruit, have been identified as thaumatin-like.

    PubMed

    Fils-Lycaon, B R; Wiersma, P A; Eastwell, K C; Sautiere, P

    1996-05-01

    A 29-kD polypeptide is the most abundant soluble protein in ripe cherry fruit (Prunus avium L); accumulation begins at the onset of ripening as the fruit turns from yellow to red. This protein was extracted from ripe cherries and purified by size-exclusion and ion-exchange chromatography. Antibodies to the purified protein were used to screen a cDNA library from ripe cherries. Numerous recombinant plaques reacted positively with the antibodies; the DNA sequence of representative clones encoded a polypeptide of 245 amino acid residues. A signal peptide was indicated, and the predicted mature protein corresponded to the purified protein in size (23.3 kD, by mass spectrometry) and isoelectric point (4.2). A search of known protein sequences revealed a strong similarity between this polypeptide and the thaumatin family of pathogenesis-related proteins. The cherry thaumatin-like protein does not have a sweet taste, and no antifungal activity was seen in preliminary assays. Expression of the protein appears to be regulated at the gene level, with mRNA levels at their highest in the ripe fruit.

  12. A cherry protein and its gene, abundantly expressed in ripening fruit, have been identified as thaumatin-like.

    PubMed Central

    Fils-Lycaon, B R; Wiersma, P A; Eastwell, K C; Sautiere, P

    1996-01-01

    A 29-kD polypeptide is the most abundant soluble protein in ripe cherry fruit (Prunus avium L); accumulation begins at the onset of ripening as the fruit turns from yellow to red. This protein was extracted from ripe cherries and purified by size-exclusion and ion-exchange chromatography. Antibodies to the purified protein were used to screen a cDNA library from ripe cherries. Numerous recombinant plaques reacted positively with the antibodies; the DNA sequence of representative clones encoded a polypeptide of 245 amino acid residues. A signal peptide was indicated, and the predicted mature protein corresponded to the purified protein in size (23.3 kD, by mass spectrometry) and isoelectric point (4.2). A search of known protein sequences revealed a strong similarity between this polypeptide and the thaumatin family of pathogenesis-related proteins. The cherry thaumatin-like protein does not have a sweet taste, and no antifungal activity was seen in preliminary assays. Expression of the protein appears to be regulated at the gene level, with mRNA levels at their highest in the ripe fruit. PMID:8685266

  13. Triple SILAC quantitative proteomic analysis reveals differential abundance of cell signaling proteins between normal and lung cancer-derived exosomes.

    PubMed

    Clark, David J; Fondrie, William E; Yang, Austin; Mao, Li

    2016-02-05

    Exosomes are 30-100 nm sized membrane vesicles released by cells into the extracellular space that mediate intercellular communication via transfer of proteins and other biological molecules. To better understand the role of these microvesicles in lung carcinogenesis, we employed a Triple SILAC quantitative proteomic strategy to examine the differential protein abundance between exosomes derived from an immortalized normal bronchial epithelial cell line and two non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines harboring distinct activating mutations in the cell signaling molecules: Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In total, we were able to quantify 721 exosomal proteins derived from the three cell lines. Proteins associated with signal transduction, including EGFR, GRB2 and SRC, were enriched in NSCLC exosomes, and could actively regulate cell proliferation in recipient cells. This study's investigation of the NSCLC exosomal proteome has identified enriched protein cargo that can contribute to lung cancer progression, which may have potential clinical implications in biomarker development for patients with NSCLC. The high mortality associated with lung cancer is a result of late-stage diagnosis of the disease. Current screening techniques used for early detection of lung cancer lack the specificity for accurate diagnosis. Exosomes are nano-sized extracellular vesicles, and the increased abundance of select protein cargo in exosomes derived from cancer cells may be used for diagnostic purposes. In this paper, we applied quantitative proteomic analysis to elucidate abundance differences in exosomal protein cargo between two NSCLC cell lines with distinctive oncogene mutations and an immortalized normal bronchial epithelial cell line. This study revealed proteins associated with cell adhesion, the extracellular matrix, and a variety of signaling molecules were enriched in NSCLC exosomes. The present data reveals

  14. Long-term cadmium exposure influences the abundance of proteins that impact the cell wall structure in medicago sativa stems.

    PubMed

    Gutsch, Annelie; Keunen, Els; Guerriero, Gea; Renaut, Jenny; Cuypers, Ann; Hausman, Jean-François; Sergeant, Kjell

    2018-06-15

    Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential, toxic heavy metal that poses serious threats to both the ecosystem and the health of humans. Plants employ various cellular and molecular mechanisms to minimize the impact of Cd toxicity and the cell walls function as defensive barrier during Cd exposure. In this study, we adopted a quantitative gel-based proteomic approach (two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis) to investigate changes in the abundance of cell wall- and soluble proteins in stems of Medicago sativa L. upon long-term exposure to Cd (at 10 mg Cd per kg soil as CdSO 4 ). Obtained protein data were complemented with targeted gene expression analyses. Plants were affected by Cd exposure at an early growth stage but seemed to recover at a more mature plant stage as no difference in biomass was observed. The accumulation of Cd was highest in the roots followed by stems and leaves. Quantitative proteomics revealed a changed abundance for 179 cell wall proteins and 30 proteins in the soluble fraction upon long-term Cd exposure. These proteins are involved in cell wall remodeling, defense response, carbohydrate metabolism and promotion of the lignification process. The data indicate that Cd exposure alters the cell wall proteome and underline the role of cell wall proteins in defense against Cd stress. The identified proteins are linked to alterations in the cell wall structure and lignification process in stems of M. sativa, underpinning the function of the cell wall as an effective barrier against Cd stress. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Application of an Improved Proteomics Method for Abundant Protein Cleanup: Molecular and Genomic Mechanisms Study in Plant Defense*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yixiang; Gao, Peng; Xing, Zhuo; Jin, Shumei; Chen, Zhide; Liu, Lantao; Constantino, Nasie; Wang, Xinwang; Shi, Weibing; Yuan, Joshua S.; Dai, Susie Y.

    2013-01-01

    High abundance proteins like ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (Rubisco) impose a consistent challenge for the whole proteome characterization using shot-gun proteomics. To address this challenge, we developed and evaluated Polyethyleneimine Assisted Rubisco Cleanup (PARC) as a new method by combining both abundant protein removal and fractionation. The new approach was applied to a plant insect interaction study to validate the platform and investigate mechanisms for plant defense against herbivorous insects. Our results indicated that PARC can effectively remove Rubisco, improve the protein identification, and discover almost three times more differentially regulated proteins. The significantly enhanced shot-gun proteomics performance was translated into in-depth proteomic and molecular mechanisms for plant insect interaction, where carbon re-distribution was used to play an essential role. Moreover, the transcriptomic validation also confirmed the reliability of PARC analysis. Finally, functional studies were carried out for two differentially regulated genes as revealed by PARC analysis. Insect resistance was induced by over-expressing either jacalin-like or cupin-like genes in rice. The results further highlighted that PARC can serve as an effective strategy for proteomics analysis and gene discovery. PMID:23943779

  16. Genome analysis of Excretory/Secretory proteins in Taenia solium reveals their Abundance of Antigenic Regions (AAR).

    PubMed

    Gomez, Sandra; Adalid-Peralta, Laura; Palafox-Fonseca, Hector; Cantu-Robles, Vito Adrian; Soberón, Xavier; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis; Bobes, Raúl J; Laclette, Juan P; Yauner, Luis del Pozo; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrián

    2015-05-19

    Excretory/Secretory (ES) proteins play an important role in the host-parasite interactions. Experimental identification of ES proteins is time-consuming and expensive. Alternative bioinformatics approaches are cost-effective and can be used to prioritize the experimental analysis of therapeutic targets for parasitic diseases. Here we predicted and functionally annotated the ES proteins in T. solium genome using an integration of bioinformatics tools. Additionally, we developed a novel measurement to evaluate the potential antigenicity of T. solium secretome using sequence length and number of antigenic regions of ES proteins. This measurement was formalized as the Abundance of Antigenic Regions (AAR) value. AAR value for secretome showed a similar value to that obtained for a set of experimentally determined antigenic proteins and was different to the calculated value for the non-ES proteins of T. solium genome. Furthermore, we calculated the AAR values for known helminth secretomes and they were similar to that obtained for T. solium. The results reveal the utility of AAR value as a novel genomic measurement to evaluate the potential antigenicity of secretomes. This comprehensive analysis of T. solium secretome provides functional information for future experimental studies, including the identification of novel ES proteins of therapeutic, diagnosis and immunological interest.

  17. Proteomics-based identification of differentially abundant proteins reveals adaptation mechanisms of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri during Citrus sinensis infection.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Leandro M; Soares, Márcia R; Facincani, Agda P; Ferreira, Cristiano B; Ferreira, Rafael M; Ferro, Maria I T; Gozzo, Fábio C; Felestrino, Érica B; Assis, Renata A B; Garcia, Camila Carrião M; Setubal, João C; Ferro, Jesus A; de Oliveira, Julio C F

    2017-07-11

    Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xac) is the causal agent of citrus canker. A proteomic analysis under in planta infectious and non-infectious conditions was conducted in order to increase our knowledge about the adaptive process of Xac during infection. For that, a 2D-based proteomic analysis of Xac at 1, 3 and 5 days after inoculation, in comparison to Xac growth in NB media was carried out and followed by MALDI-TOF-TOF identification of 124 unique differentially abundant proteins. Among them, 79 correspond to up-regulated proteins in at least one of the three stages of infection. Our results indicate an important role of proteins related to biofilm synthesis, lipopolysaccharides biosynthesis, and iron uptake and metabolism as possible modulators of plant innate immunity, and revealed an intricate network of proteins involved in reactive oxygen species adaptation during Plants` Oxidative Burst response. We also identified proteins previously unknown to be involved in Xac-Citrus interaction, including the hypothetical protein XAC3981. A mutant strain for this gene has proved to be non-pathogenic in respect to classical symptoms of citrus canker induced in compatible plants. This is the first time that a protein repertoire is shown to be active and working in an integrated manner during the infection process in a compatible host, pointing to an elaborate mechanism for adaptation of Xac once inside the plant.

  18. Genome analysis of Excretory/Secretory proteins in Taenia solium reveals their Abundance of Antigenic Regions (AAR)

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Sandra; Adalid-Peralta, Laura; Palafox-Fonseca, Hector; Cantu-Robles, Vito Adrian; Soberón, Xavier; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis; Bobes, Raúl J.; Laclette, Juan P.; Yauner, Luis del Pozo; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    Excretory/Secretory (ES) proteins play an important role in the host-parasite interactions. Experimental identification of ES proteins is time-consuming and expensive. Alternative bioinformatics approaches are cost-effective and can be used to prioritize the experimental analysis of therapeutic targets for parasitic diseases. Here we predicted and functionally annotated the ES proteins in T. solium genome using an integration of bioinformatics tools. Additionally, we developed a novel measurement to evaluate the potential antigenicity of T. solium secretome using sequence length and number of antigenic regions of ES proteins. This measurement was formalized as the Abundance of Antigenic Regions (AAR) value. AAR value for secretome showed a similar value to that obtained for a set of experimentally determined antigenic proteins and was different to the calculated value for the non-ES proteins of T. solium genome. Furthermore, we calculated the AAR values for known helminth secretomes and they were similar to that obtained for T. solium. The results reveal the utility of AAR value as a novel genomic measurement to evaluate the potential antigenicity of secretomes. This comprehensive analysis of T. solium secretome provides functional information for future experimental studies, including the identification of novel ES proteins of therapeutic, diagnosis and immunological interest. PMID:25989346

  19. Pro-Inflammatory Flagellin Proteins of Prevalent Motile Commensal Bacteria Are Variably Abundant in the Intestinal Microbiome of Elderly Humans

    PubMed Central

    Neville, B. Anne; Sheridan, Paul O.; Harris, Hugh M. B.; Coughlan, Simone; Flint, Harry J.; Duncan, Sylvia H.; Jeffery, Ian B.; Claesson, Marcus J.; Ross, R. Paul; Scott, Karen P.; O'Toole, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    Some Eubacterium and Roseburia species are among the most prevalent motile bacteria present in the intestinal microbiota of healthy adults. These flagellate species contribute “cell motility” category genes to the intestinal microbiome and flagellin proteins to the intestinal proteome. We reviewed and revised the annotation of motility genes in the genomes of six Eubacterium and Roseburia species that occur in the human intestinal microbiota and examined their respective locus organization by comparative genomics. Motility gene order was generally conserved across these loci. Five of these species harbored multiple genes for predicted flagellins. Flagellin proteins were isolated from R. inulinivorans strain A2-194 and from E. rectale strains A1-86 and M104/1. The amino-termini sequences of the R. inulinivorans and E. rectale A1-86 proteins were almost identical. These protein preparations stimulated secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) from human intestinal epithelial cell lines, suggesting that these flagellins were pro-inflammatory. Flagellins from the other four species were predicted to be pro-inflammatory on the basis of alignment to the consensus sequence of pro-inflammatory flagellins from the β- and γ- proteobacteria. Many fliC genes were deduced to be under the control of σ28. The relative abundance of the target Eubacterium and Roseburia species varied across shotgun metagenomes from 27 elderly individuals. Genes involved in the flagellum biogenesis pathways of these species were variably abundant in these metagenomes, suggesting that the current depth of coverage used for metagenomic sequencing (3.13–4.79 Gb total sequence in our study) insufficiently captures the functional diversity of genomes present at low (≤1%) relative abundance. E. rectale and R. inulinivorans thus appear to synthesize complex flagella composed of flagellin proteins that stimulate IL-8 production. A greater depth of sequencing, improved evenness of sequencing and improved

  20. The rendez-vous of mobile sieve-element and abundant companion-cell proteins.

    PubMed

    De Marco, Federica; Le Hir, Rozenn; Dinant, Sylvie

    2018-06-01

    Thousands of sieve tube exudate proteins (STEP) have now been identified and predicted to fulfill a diversity of functions. However, most STEPs should be considered putative, since methods to collect sieve tube exudates have many technical drawbacks, and advanced functional characterization will be required to distinguish contaminant from bonafide proteins, and determine the latter's location and activity in sieve elements (SE). One major challenge is to develop new approaches to elucidate the function of these SE proteins, which in turn, is expected to shed light on intriguing aspects of SE cell biology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cytoplasmic RNA Granules in Somatic Maintenance.

    PubMed

    Moujaber, Ossama; Stochaj, Ursula

    2018-05-30

    Cytoplasmic RNA granules represent subcellular compartments that are enriched in protein-bound RNA species. RNA granules are produced by evolutionary divergent eukaryotes, including yeast, mammals, and plants. The functions of cytoplasmic RNA granules differ widely. They are dictated by the cell type and physiological state, which in turn is determined by intrinsic cell properties and environmental factors. RNA granules provide diverse cellular functions. However, all of the granules contribute to aspects of RNA metabolism. This is exemplified by transcription, RNA storage, silencing, and degradation, as well as mRNP remodeling and regulated translation. Several forms of cytoplasmic mRNA granules are linked to normal physiological processes. For instance, they may coordinate protein synthesis and thereby serve as posttranscriptional "operons". RNA granules also participate in cytoplasmic mRNA trafficking, a process particularly well understood for neurons. Many forms of RNA granules support the preservation of somatic cell performance under normal and stress conditions. On the other hand, severe insults or disease can cause the formation and persistence of RNA granules that contribute to cellular dysfunction, especially in the nervous system. Neurodegeneration and many other diseases linked to RNA granules are associated with aging. Nevertheless, information related to the impact of aging on the various types of RNA granules is presently very limited. This review concentrates on cytoplasmic RNA granules and their role in somatic cell maintenance. We summarize the current knowledge on different types of RNA granules in the cytoplasm, their assembly and function under normal, stress, or disease conditions. Specifically, we discuss processing bodies, neuronal granules, stress granules, and other less characterized cytoplasmic RNA granules. Our focus is primarily on mammalian and yeast models, because they have been critical to unravel the physiological role of various

  2. Protein abundances can distinguish between naturally-occurring and laboratory strains of Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague

    DOE PAGES

    Merkley, Eric D.; Sego, Landon H.; Lin, Andy; ...

    2017-08-30

    Adaptive processes in bacterial species can occur rapidly in laboratory culture, leading to genetic divergence between naturally occurring and laboratory-adapted strains. Differentiating wild and closely-related laboratory strains is clearly important for biodefense and bioforensics; however, DNA sequence data alone has thus far not provided a clear signature, perhaps due to lack of understanding of how diverse genome changes lead to adapted phenotypes. Protein abundance profiles from mass spectrometry-based proteomics analyses are a molecular measure of phenotype. Proteomics data contains sufficient information that powerful statistical methods can uncover signatures that distinguish wild strains of Yersinia pestis from laboratory-adapted strains.

  3. Adipose triglyceride lipase protein abundance and translocation to the lipid droplet increase during leptin-induced lipolysis in bovine adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Koltes, D A; Spurlock, M E; Spurlock, D M

    2017-10-01

    Proper regulation of lipid metabolism is critical for preventing the development of metabolic diseases. It is clear that leptin plays a critical role in the regulation of energy homeostasis by regulating energy intake. However, leptin can also regulate energy homeostasis by inducing lipolysis in adipocytes, but it is unclear how the major lipases are involved in leptin-stimulated lipolysis. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine if (1) leptin acts directly to induce lipolysis in bovine adipocytes, (2) the potential lipases involved in leptin-induced lipolysis in bovine adipocytes, and (3) increases translocation of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) during leptin-stimulated lipolysis in bovine stromal vascular cell-derived adipocytes. As hypothesized, leptin induced a lipolytic response (P = 0.02) in isolated adipocytes which was accompanied by an increase in phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 (P = 0.03), a well-documented secondary messenger of leptin, and ATGL protein abundance (P < 0.01). Protein abundance of STAT3, perilipin, HSL, and phosphorylation of HSL by PKA and AMPK were not altered during leptin-stimulated lipolysis (P > 0.05). Immunostaining techniques were employed to determine the location of HSL and ATGL. Both lipases translocated to the lipid droplet after 2 h of exposure to isoproterenol (P < 0.02). However, only ATGL was translocated to the lipid droplet during leptin-stimulated lipolysis (P = 0.04), indicating ATGL may be the active lipase in leptin-stimulated lipolysis. In summary, leptin stimulates lipolysis in bovine adipocytes. The lack of phosphorylated HSL and translocation of HSL to the lipid droplet during leptin-stimulated lipolysis suggest minimal activity by PKA. Interestingly, leptin-stimulated lipolysis is accompanied by an increase in ATGL protein abundance and translocation to the lipid droplet, indicating its involvement in leptin

  4. Cytoplasmic tail domain of glycoprotein B is essential for HHV-6 infection

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmoud, Nora F.; Faculty of Pharmacy, Suez Canal University, Ismailia; Jasirwan, Chyntia

    2016-03-15

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) glycoprotein B (gB) is an abundantly expressed viral glycoprotein required for viral entry and cell fusion, and is highly conserved among herpesviruses. The present study examined the function of HHV-6 gB cytoplasmic tail domain (CTD). A gB CTD deletion mutant was constructed which, in contrast to its revertant, could not be reconstituted. Moreover, deletion of gB cytoplasmic tail impaired the intracellular transport of gB protein to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Taken together, these results suggest that gB CTD is critical for HHV-6 propagation and important for intracellular transportation. - Highlights: • Glycoprotein B (gB) is highlymore » conserved among herpesviruses. • HHV-6 gB is also abundantly expressed in virions. • In the present study, we showed the function of HHV-6 gB cytoplasmic tail domain (CTD). • We found that deletion of gB CTD impairs the intracellular transport of gB protein to the trans-Golgi network (TGN), and CTD of gB is critical for HHV-6 propagation.« less

  5. Truncation of the TAR DNA-binding protein 43 is not a prerequisite for cytoplasmic relocalization, and is suppressed by caspase inhibition and by introduction of the A90V sequence variant

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, Nicholas J.; Moss, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    The RNA-binding and -processing protein TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is heavily linked to the underlying causes and pathology of neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. In these diseases, TDP-43 is mislocalized, hyperphosphorylated, ubiquitinated, aggregated and cleaved. The importance of TDP-43 cleavage in the disease pathogenesis is still poorly understood. Here we detail the use of D-sorbitol as an exogenous stressor that causes TDP-43 cleavage in HeLa cells, resulting in a 35 kDa truncated product that accumulates in the cytoplasm within one hour of treatment. We confirm that the formation of this 35 kDa cleavage product is mediated by the activation of caspases. Inhibition of caspases blocks the cleavage of TDP-43, but does not prevent the accumulation of full-length protein in the cytoplasm. Using D-sorbitol as a stressor and caspase activator, we also demonstrate that the A90V variant of TDP-43, which lies adjacent to the caspase cleavage site within the nuclear localization sequence of TDP-43, confers partial resistance against caspase-mediated generation of the 35 kDa cleavage product. PMID:28510586

  6. Reduced Abundance and Subverted Functions of Proteins in Prion-Like Diseases: Gained Functions Fascinate but Lost Functions Affect Aetiology.

    PubMed

    Allison, W Ted; DuVal, Michèle G; Nguyen-Phuoc, Kim; Leighton, Patricia L A

    2017-10-24

    Prions have served as pathfinders that reveal many aspects of proteostasis in neurons. The recent realization that several prominent neurodegenerative diseases spread via a prion-like mechanism illuminates new possibilities for diagnostics and therapeutics. Thus, key proteins in Alzheimer Disease and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), including amyloid-β precursor protein, Tau and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), spread to adjacent cells in their misfolded aggregated forms and exhibit template-directed misfolding to induce further misfolding, disruptions to proteostasis and toxicity. Here we invert this comparison to ask what these prion-like diseases can teach us about the broad prion disease class, especially regarding the loss of these key proteins' function(s) as they misfold and aggregate. We also consider whether functional amyloids might reveal a role for subverted protein function in neurodegenerative disease. Our synthesis identifies SOD1 as an exemplar of protein functions being lost during prion-like protein misfolding, because SOD1 is inherently unstable and loses function in its misfolded disease-associated form. This has under-appreciated parallels amongst the canonical prion diseases, wherein the normally folded prion protein, PrP C , is reduced in abundance in fatal familial insomnia patients and during the preclinical phase in animal models, apparently via proteostatic mechanisms. Thus while template-directed misfolding and infectious properties represent gain-of-function that fascinates proteostasis researchers and defines (is required for) the prion(-like) diseases, loss and subversion of the functions attributed to hallmark proteins in neurodegenerative disease needs to be integrated into design towards effective therapeutics. We propose experiments to uniquely test these ideas.

  7. Protocol for Standardizing High-to-Moderate Abundance Protein Biomarker Assessments Through an MRM-with-Standard-Peptides Quantitative Approach.

    PubMed

    Percy, Andrew J; Yang, Juncong; Chambers, Andrew G; Mohammed, Yassene; Miliotis, Tasso; Borchers, Christoph H

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative mass spectrometry (MS)-based approaches are emerging as a core technology for addressing health-related queries in systems biology and in the biomedical and clinical fields. In several 'omics disciplines (proteomics included), an approach centered on selected or multiple reaction monitoring (SRM or MRM)-MS with stable isotope-labeled standards (SIS), at the protein or peptide level, has emerged as the most precise technique for quantifying and screening putative analytes in biological samples. To enable the widespread use of MRM-based protein quantitation for disease biomarker assessment studies and its ultimate acceptance for clinical analysis, the technique must be standardized to facilitate precise and accurate protein quantitation. To that end, we have developed a number of kits for assessing method/platform performance, as well as for screening proposed candidate protein biomarkers in various human biofluids. Collectively, these kits utilize a bottom-up LC-MS methodology with SIS peptides as internal standards and quantify proteins using regression analysis of standard curves. This chapter details the methodology used to quantify 192 plasma proteins of high-to-moderate abundance (covers a 6 order of magnitude range from 31 mg/mL for albumin to 18 ng/mL for peroxidredoxin-2), and a 21-protein subset thereof. We also describe the application of this method to patient samples for biomarker discovery and verification studies. Additionally, we introduce our recently developed Qualis-SIS software, which is used to expedite the analysis and assessment of protein quantitation data in control and patient samples.

  8. Direct Correlation between Motile Behavior and Protein Abundance in Single Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gillet, Sébastien; Frankel, Nicholas W.; Weibel, Douglas B.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how stochastic molecular fluctuations affect cell behavior requires the quantification of both behavior and protein numbers in the same cells. Here, we combine automated microscopy with in situ hydrogel polymerization to measure single-cell protein expression after tracking swimming behavior. We characterized the distribution of non-genetic phenotypic diversity in Escherichia coli motility, which affects single-cell exploration. By expressing fluorescently tagged chemotaxis proteins (CheR and CheB) at different levels, we quantitatively mapped motile phenotype (tumble bias) to protein numbers using thousands of single-cell measurements. Our results disagreed with established models until we incorporated the role of CheB in receptor deamidation and the slow fluctuations in receptor methylation. Beyond refining models, our central finding is that changes in numbers of CheR and CheB affect the population mean tumble bias and its variance independently. Therefore, it is possible to adjust the degree of phenotypic diversity of a population by adjusting the global level of expression of CheR and CheB while keeping their ratio constant, which, as shown in previous studies, confers functional robustness to the system. Since genetic control of protein expression is heritable, our results suggest that non-genetic diversity in motile behavior is selectable, supporting earlier hypotheses that such diversity confers a selective advantage. PMID:27599206

  9. Functional characterization of the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein gene family from Pinus tabuliformis (Pinaceae) in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jie; Lan, Ting

    2016-01-19

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are a large and highly diverse gene family present in a wide range of plant species. LEAs are proposed to play a role in various stress tolerance responses. Our study represents the first-ever survey of LEA proteins and their encoding genes in a widely distributed pine (Pinus tabuliformis) in China. Twenty-three LEA genes were identified from the P. tabuliformis belonging to seven groups. Proteins with repeated motifs are an important feature specific to LEA groups. Ten of 23 pine LEA genes were selectively expressed in specific tissues, and showed expression divergence within each group. In addition, we selected 13 genes representing each group and introduced theses genes into Escherichia coli to assess the protective function of PtaLEA under heat and salt stresses. Compared with control cells, the E. coli cells expressing PtaLEA fusion protein exhibited enhanced salt and heat resistance and viability, indicating the protein may play a protective role in cells under stress conditions. Furthermore, among these enhanced tolerance genes, a certain extent of function divergence appeared within a gene group as well as between gene groups, suggesting potential functional diversity of this gene family in conifers.

  10. Functional insights into the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein family from Dendrobium officinale (Orchidaceae) using an Escherichia coli system

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Hong; Zeng, Xu; Guo, Shunxing

    2016-01-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, a diverse family, accumulate during seed desiccation in the later stages of embryogenesis. LEA proteins are associated with tolerance to abiotic stresses, such as drought, salinity and high or cold temperature. Here, we report the first comprehensive survey of the LEA gene family in Dendrobium officinale, an important and widely grown medicinal orchid in China. Based on phylogenetic relationships with the complete set of Arabidopsis and Oryza LEA proteins, 17 genes encoding D. officinale LEAs (DofLEAs) were identified and their deduced proteins were classified into seven groups. The motif composition of these deduced proteins was correlated with the gene structure found in each LEA group. Our results reveal the DofLEA genes are widely distributed and expressed in tissues. Additionally, 11 genes from different groups were introduced into Escherichia coli to assess the functions of DofLEAs. Expression of 6 and 7 DofLEAs in E. coli improved growth performance compared with the control under salt and heat stress, respectively. Based on qPCR data, all of these genes were up-regulated in various tissues following exposure to salt and heat stresses. Our results suggest that DofLEAs play an important role in responses to abiotic stress. PMID:28004781

  11. Chernobyl seed project. Advances in the identification of differentially abundant proteins in a radio-contaminated environment.

    PubMed

    Rashydov, Namik M; Hajduch, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Plants have the ability to grow and successfully reproduce in radio-contaminated environments, which has been highlighted by nuclear accidents at Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011). The main aim of this article is to summarize the advances of the Chernobyl seed project which has the purpose to provide proteomic characterization of plants grown in the Chernobyl area. We present a summary of comparative proteomic studies on soybean and flax seeds harvested from radio-contaminated Chernobyl areas during two successive generations. Using experimental design developed for radio-contaminated areas, altered abundances of glycine betaine, seed storage proteins, and proteins associated with carbon assimilation into fatty acids were detected. Similar studies in Fukushima radio-contaminated areas might complement these data. The results from these Chernobyl experiments can be viewed in a user-friendly format at a dedicated web-based database freely available at http://www.chernobylproteomics.sav.sk.

  12. Chernobyl seed project. Advances in the identification of differentially abundant proteins in a radio-contaminated environment

    PubMed Central

    Rashydov, Namik M.; Hajduch, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Plants have the ability to grow and successfully reproduce in radio-contaminated environments, which has been highlighted by nuclear accidents at Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011). The main aim of this article is to summarize the advances of the Chernobyl seed project which has the purpose to provide proteomic characterization of plants grown in the Chernobyl area. We present a summary of comparative proteomic studies on soybean and flax seeds harvested from radio-contaminated Chernobyl areas during two successive generations. Using experimental design developed for radio-contaminated areas, altered abundances of glycine betaine, seed storage proteins, and proteins associated with carbon assimilation into fatty acids were detected. Similar studies in Fukushima radio-contaminated areas might complement these data. The results from these Chernobyl experiments can be viewed in a user-friendly format at a dedicated web-based database freely available at http://www.chernobylproteomics.sav.sk. PMID:26217350

  13. Study of model systems to test the potential function of Artemia group 1 late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins.

    PubMed

    Warner, Alden H; Guo, Zhi-hao; Moshi, Sandra; Hudson, John W; Kozarova, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Embryos of the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, are genetically programmed to develop either ovoviparously or oviparously depending on environmental conditions. Shortly upon their release from the female, oviparous embryos enter diapause during which time they undergo major metabolic rate depression while simultaneously synthesize proteins that permit them to tolerate a wide range of stressful environmental events including prolonged periods of desiccation, freezing, and anoxia. Among the known stress-related proteins that accumulate in embryos entering diapause are the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins. This large group of intrinsically disordered proteins has been proposed to act as molecular shields or chaperones of macromolecules which are otherwise intolerant to harsh conditions associated with diapause. In this research, we used two model systems to study the potential function of the group 1 LEA proteins from Artemia. Expression of the Artemia group 1 gene (AfrLEA-1) in Escherichia coli inhibited growth in proportion to the number of 20-mer amino acid motifs expressed. As well, clones of E. coli, transformed with the AfrLEA-1 gene, expressed multiple bands of LEA proteins, either intrinsically or upon induction with isopropyl-β-thiogalactoside (IPTG), in a vector-specific manner. Expression of AfrLEA-1 in E. coli did not overcome the inhibitory effects of high concentrations of NaCl and KCl but modulated growth inhibition resulting from high concentrations of sorbitol in the growth medium. In contrast, expression of the AfrLEA-1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae did not alter the growth kinetics or permit yeast to tolerate high concentrations of NaCl, KCl, or sorbitol. However, expression of AfrLEA-1 in yeast improved its tolerance to drying (desiccation) and freezing. Under our experimental conditions, both E. coli and S. cerevisiae appear to be potentially suitable hosts to study the function of Artemia group 1 LEA proteins under environmentally

  14. Affinity of hemoglobin for the cytoplasmic fragment of human erythrocyte membrane band 3. Equilibrium measurements at physiological pH using matrix-bound proteins: the effects of ionic strength, deoxygenation and of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate.

    PubMed

    Chétrite, G; Cassoly, R

    1985-10-05

    The cytoplasmic fragment of band 3 protein isolated from the human erythrocyte membrane was linked to a CNBr-activated Sepharose matrix in an attempt to measure, in batch experiments, its equilibrium binding constant with oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin at physiological pH and ionic strength values and in the presence or the absence of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. All the experiments were done at pH 7.2, and equilibrium constants were computed on the basis of one hemoglobin tetramer bound per monomer of fragment. In 10 mM-phosphate buffer, a dissociation constant KD = 2 X 10(-4)M was measured for oxyhemoglobin and was shown to increase to 8 X 10(-4)M in the presence of 50 mM-NaCl. Association could not be demonstrated at higher salt concentrations. Diphosphoglycerate-stripped deoxyhemoglobin was shown to associate more strongly with the cytoplasmic fragment of band 3. In 10 mM-bis-Tris (pH 7.2) and in the presence of 120 mM-NaCl, a dissociation constant KD = 4 X 10(-4)M was measured. Upon addition of increasing amounts of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, the complex formed between deoxyhemoglobin and the cytoplasmic fragment of band 3 was dissociated. On the reasonable assumption that the hemoglobin binding site present on band 3 fragment was not modified upon linking the protein to the Sepharose matrix, the results indicated that diphosphoglycerate-stripped deoxyhemoglobin or partially liganded hemoglobin tetramers in the T state could bind band 3 inside the intact human red blood cell.

  15. Disordered nucleiome: Abundance of intrinsic disorder in the DNA- and RNA-binding proteins in 1121 species from Eukaryota, Bacteria and Archaea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Uversky, Vladimir N; Kurgan, Lukasz

    2016-05-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are abundant in various proteomes, where they play numerous important roles and complement biological activities of ordered proteins. Among functions assigned to IDPs are interactions with nucleic acids. However, often, such assignments are made based on the guilty-by-association principle. The validity of the extension of these correlations to all nucleic acid binding proteins has never been analyzed on a large scale across all domains of life. To fill this gap, we perform a comprehensive computational analysis of the abundance of intrinsic disorder and intrinsically disordered domains in nucleiomes (∼548 000 nucleic acid binding proteins) of 1121 species from Archaea, Bacteria and Eukaryota. Nucleiome is a whole complement of proteins involved in interactions with nucleic acids. We show that relative to other proteins in the corresponding proteomes, the DNA-binding proteins have significantly increased disorder content and are significantly enriched in disordered domains in Eukaryotes but not in Archaea and Bacteria. The RNA-binding proteins are significantly enriched in the disordered domains in Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryota, while the overall abundance of disorder in these proteins is significantly increased in Bacteria, Archaea, animals and fungi. The high abundance of disorder in nucleiomes supports the notion that the nucleic acid binding proteins often require intrinsic disorder for their functions and regulation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Characterization of the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins family and their role in drought stress tolerance in upland cotton.

    PubMed

    Magwanga, Richard Odongo; Lu, Pu; Kirungu, Joy Nyangasi; Lu, Hejun; Wang, Xingxing; Cai, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Zhongli; Zhang, Zhenmei; Salih, Haron; Wang, Kunbo; Liu, Fang

    2018-01-15

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are large groups of hydrophilic proteins with major role in drought and other abiotic stresses tolerance in plants. In-depth study and characterization of LEA protein families have been carried out in other plants, but not in upland cotton. The main aim of this research work was to characterize the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein families and to carry out gene expression analysis to determine their potential role in drought stress tolerance in upland cotton. Increased cotton production in the face of declining precipitation and availability of fresh water for agriculture use is the focus for breeders, cotton being the backbone of textile industries and a cash crop for many countries globally. In this work, a total of 242, 136 and 142 LEA genes were identified in G. hirsutum, G. arboreum and G. raimondii respectively. The identified genes were classified into eight groups based on their conserved domain and phylogenetic tree analysis. LEA 2 were the most abundant, this could be attributed to their hydrophobic character. Upland cotton LEA genes have fewer introns and are distributed in all chromosomes. Majority of the duplicated LEA genes were segmental. Syntenic analysis showed that greater percentages of LEA genes are conserved. Segmental gene duplication played a key role in the expansion of LEA genes. Sixty three miRNAs were found to target 89 genes, such as miR164, ghr-miR394 among others. Gene ontology analysis revealed that LEA genes are involved in desiccation and defense responses. Almost all the LEA genes in their promoters contained ABRE, MBS, W-Box and TAC-elements, functionally known to be involved in drought stress and other stress responses. Majority of the LEA genes were involved in secretory pathways. Expression profile analysis indicated that most of the LEA genes were highly expressed in drought tolerant cultivars Gossypium tomentosum as opposed to drought susceptible, G. hirsutum. The tolerant

  17. Glucagon induces translocation of glucokinase from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of hepatocytes by transfer between 6-phosphofructo 2-kinase/fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase-2 and the glucokinase regulatory protein.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Kirsty S; Al-Oanzi, Ziad H; O'Harte, Finbarr P M; Agius, Loranne; Arden, Catherine

    2014-06-01

    Glucokinase activity is a major determinant of hepatic glucose metabolism and blood glucose homeostasis. Liver glucokinase activity is regulated acutely by adaptive translocation between the nucleus and the cytoplasm through binding and dissociation from its regulatory protein (GKRP) in the nucleus. Whilst the effect of glucose on this mechanism is well established, the role of hormones in regulating glucokinase location and its interaction with binding proteins remains unsettled. Here we show that treatment of rat hepatocytes with 25mM glucose caused decreased binding of glucokinase to GKRP, translocation from the nucleus and increased binding to 6-phosphofructo 2-kinase/fructose 2,6 bisphosphatase-2 (PFK2/FBPase2) in the cytoplasm. Glucagon caused dissociation of glucokinase from PFK2/FBPase2, concomitant with phosphorylation of PFK2/FBPase2 on Ser-32, uptake of glucokinase into the nucleus and increased interaction with GKRP. Two novel glucagon receptor antagonists attenuated the action of glucagon. This establishes an unequivocal role for hormonal control of glucokinase translocation. Given that glucagon excess contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetes, glucagon may play a role in the defect in glucokinase translocation and activity evident in animal models and human diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Glucagon induces translocation of glucokinase from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of hepatocytes by transfer between 6-phosphofructo 2-kinase/fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase-2 and the glucokinase regulatory protein

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Kirsty S.; Al-Oanzi, Ziad H.; O'Harte, Finbarr P.M.; Agius, Loranne; Arden, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Glucokinase activity is a major determinant of hepatic glucose metabolism and blood glucose homeostasis. Liver glucokinase activity is regulated acutely by adaptive translocation between the nucleus and the cytoplasm through binding and dissociation from its regulatory protein (GKRP) in the nucleus. Whilst the effect of glucose on this mechanism is well established, the role of hormones in regulating glucokinase location and its interaction with binding proteins remains unsettled. Here we show that treatment of rat hepatocytes with 25 mM glucose caused decreased binding of glucokinase to GKRP, translocation from the nucleus and increased binding to 6-phosphofructo 2-kinase/fructose 2,6 bisphosphatase-2 (PFK2/FBPase2) in the cytoplasm. Glucagon caused dissociation of glucokinase from PFK2/FBPase2, concomitant with phosphorylation of PFK2/FBPase2 on Ser-32, uptake of glucokinase into the nucleus and increased interaction with GKRP. Two novel glucagon receptor antagonists attenuated the action of glucagon. This establishes an unequivocal role for hormonal control of glucokinase translocation. Given that glucagon excess contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetes, glucagon may play a role in the defect in glucokinase translocation and activity evident in animal models and human diabetes. PMID:24566088

  19. The Cytoplasmic Permeation Pathway of Neurotransmitter Transporters†

    PubMed Central

    Rudnick, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Ion-coupled solute transporters are responsible for transporting nutrients, ions and signaling molecules across a variety of biological membranes. Recent high-resolution crystal structures of several transporters from protein families that were previously thought to be unrelated show common structural features indicating a large structural family representing transporters from all kingdoms of life. This review describes studies that led to an understanding of the conformational changes required for solute transport in this family. The first structure in this family showed the bacterial amino acid transporter LeuT, which is homologous to neurotransmitter transporters, in an extracellularly-oriented conformation with a molecule of leucine occluded at the substrate site. Studies with the mammalian serotonin transporter identified positions, buried in the LeuT structure, that defined a potential pathway leading from the cytoplasm to the substrate binding site. Modeling studies utilized an inverted structural repeat within the LeuT crystal structure to predict the conformation of LeuT in which the cytoplasmic permeation pathway, consisting of positions identified in SERT, was open for substrate diffusion to the cytoplasm. From the difference between the model and the crystal structures, a simple “rocking bundle” mechanism was proposed, in which a 4-helix bundle changed its orientation with respect to the rest of the protein to close the extracellular pathway and open the cytoplasmic one. Subsequent crystal structures from structurally related proteins provide evidence supporting this model for transport. PMID:21774491

  20. LEA polypeptide profiling of recalcitrant and orthodox legume seeds reveals ABI3-regulated LEA protein abundance linked to desiccation tolerance.

    PubMed

    Delahaie, Julien; Hundertmark, Michaela; Bove, Jérôme; Leprince, Olivier; Rogniaux, Hélène; Buitink, Julia

    2013-11-01

    In contrast to orthodox seeds that acquire desiccation tolerance during maturation, recalcitrant seeds are unable to survive drying. These desiccation-sensitive seeds constitute an interesting model for comparative analysis with phylogenetically close species that are desiccation tolerant. Considering the importance of LEA (late embryogenesis abundant) proteins as protective molecules both in drought and in desiccation tolerance, the heat-stable proteome was characterized in cotyledons of the legume Castanospermum australe and it was compared with that of the orthodox model legume Medicago truncatula. RNA sequencing identified transcripts of 16 homologues out of 17 LEA genes for which polypeptides are detected in M. truncatula seeds. It is shown that for 12 LEA genes, polypeptides were either absent or strongly reduced in C. australe cotyledons compared with M. truncatula seeds. Instead, osmotically responsive, non-seed-specific dehydrins accumulated to high levels in the recalcitrant cotyledons compared with orthodox seeds. Next, M. truncatula mutants of the abscisic acid insensitive3 (ABI3) gene were characterized. Mature Mtabi3 seeds were found to be desiccation sensitive when dried below a critical water content of 0.4 g H2O g DW(-1). Characterization of the LEA proteome of the Mtabi3 seeds revealed a subset of LEA proteins with severely reduced abundance that were also found to be reduced or absent in C. australe cotyledons. Transcripts of these genes were indeed shown to be ABI3 responsive. The results highlight those LEA proteins that are critical to desiccation tolerance and suggest that comparable regulatory pathways responsible for their accumulation are missing in both desiccation-sensitive genotypes, revealing new insights into the mechanistic basis of the recalcitrant trait in seeds.

  1. LEA polypeptide profiling of recalcitrant and orthodox legume seeds reveals ABI3-regulated LEA protein abundance linked to desiccation tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Hundertmark, Michaela; Buitink, Julia

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to orthodox seeds that acquire desiccation tolerance during maturation, recalcitrant seeds are unable to survive drying. These desiccation-sensitive seeds constitute an interesting model for comparative analysis with phylogenetically close species that are desiccation tolerant. Considering the importance of LEA (late embryogenesis abundant) proteins as protective molecules both in drought and in desiccation tolerance, the heat-stable proteome was characterized in cotyledons of the legume Castanospermum australe and it was compared with that of the orthodox model legume Medicago truncatula. RNA sequencing identified transcripts of 16 homologues out of 17 LEA genes for which polypeptides are detected in M. truncatula seeds. It is shown that for 12 LEA genes, polypeptides were either absent or strongly reduced in C. australe cotyledons compared with M. truncatula seeds. Instead, osmotically responsive, non-seed-specific dehydrins accumulated to high levels in the recalcitrant cotyledons compared with orthodox seeds. Next, M. truncatula mutants of the ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3) gene were characterized. Mature Mtabi3 seeds were found to be desiccation sensitive when dried below a critical water content of 0.4g H2O g DW–1. Characterization of the LEA proteome of the Mtabi3 seeds revealed a subset of LEA proteins with severely reduced abundance that were also found to be reduced or absent in C. australe cotyledons. Transcripts of these genes were indeed shown to be ABI3 responsive. The results highlight those LEA proteins that are critical to desiccation tolerance and suggest that comparable regulatory pathways responsible for their accumulation are missing in both desiccation-sensitive genotypes, revealing new insights into the mechanistic basis of the recalcitrant trait in seeds. PMID:24043848

  2. The X11L/X11{beta}/MINT2 and X11L2/X11{gamma}/MINT3 scaffold proteins shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm

    SciTech Connect

    Sumioka, Akio; Saito, Yuhki; Sakuma, Megumi

    2008-03-10

    The X11/MINT family proteins are adaptor scaffolding proteins involved in formation of multiprotein complexes, and trafficking and metabolism of membrane proteins such as the beta-amyloid precursor protein. We found that a significant portion of X11L and X11L2 are recovered in nuclear fraction of mouse brain homogenates. EGFP-X11s were not detected in the nucleus of N2a neuroblastoma cells; however, administration of leptomycin B (LMB) induced substantial nuclear accumulation of EGFP-X11L and EGFP-X11L2, while EGFP-X11 showed little accumulation. Fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP) analysis indicated that EGFP-X11L2 and EGFP-X11L are shuttled between the cytoplasm and nucleus, the former more effectively than themore » latter. We identified a nuclear export signal (NES) in the N-terminus of X11L2, mutation of which induces nuclear accumulation of EGFP-X11L2 in the absence of LMB. X11L2 fused to the Gal4 DNA binding domain (DBD) showed transcriptional activity, suggesting that X11L2 could function as a transcriptional activator if tethered near a promoter. Interestingly, attenuation of the nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of GAL4-DBD-X11L2 by mutating the NES or attaching the SV40 nuclear localization signal significantly decreased the apparent transcriptional activity. Our observations suggest that X11L2 functions in the nucleus by a mechanism distinct from conventional transactivators.« less

  3. A Group 6 Late Embryogenesis Abundant Protein from Common Bean Is a Disordered Protein with Extended Helical Structure and Oligomer-forming Properties*

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Najera, Lucero Y.; Saab-Rincón, Gloria; Battaglia, Marina; Amero, Carlos; Pulido, Nancy O.; García-Hernández, Enrique; Solórzano, Rosa M.; Reyes, José L.; Covarrubias, Alejandra A.

    2014-01-01

    Late embryogenesis-abundant proteins accumulate to high levels in dry seeds. Some of them also accumulate in response to water deficit in vegetative tissues, which leads to a remarkable association between their presence and low water availability conditions. A major sub-group of these proteins, also known as typical LEA proteins, shows high hydrophilicity and a high percentage of glycine and other small amino acid residues, distinctive physicochemical properties that predict a high content of structural disorder. Although all typical LEA proteins share these characteristics, seven groups can be distinguished by sequence similarity, indicating structural and functional diversity among them. Some of these groups have been extensively studied; however, others require a more detailed analysis to advance in their functional understanding. In this work, we report the structural characterization of a group 6 LEA protein from a common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (PvLEA6) by circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance showing that it is a disordered protein in aqueous solution. Using the same techniques, we show that despite its unstructured nature, the addition of trifluoroethanol exhibited an intrinsic potential in this protein to gain helicity. This property was also promoted by high osmotic potentials or molecular crowding. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PvLEA6 protein is able to form soluble homo-oligomeric complexes that also show high levels of structural disorder. The association between PvLEA6 monomers to form dimers was shown to occur in plant cells by bimolecular fluorescence complementation, pointing to the in vivo functional relevance of this association. PMID:25271167

  4. EBV latent membrane protein 1 abundance correlates with patient age but not with metastatic behavior in north African nasopharyngeal carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Khabir, Abdelmajid; Karray, Hela; Rodriguez, Sandrine; Rosé, Mathieu; Daoud, Jamel; Frikha, Mounir; Boudawara, Tahia; Middeldorp, Jaap; Jlidi, Rachid; Busson, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Background Undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinomas are rare in a majority of countries but they occur at a high incidence in South China and to a lesser extent in North Africa. They are constantly associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) regardless of patient geographic origin. In North Africa, the distribution of NPC cases according to patient age is bi-modal with a large group of patients being around 50 years old (80%) and a smaller group below 25 years old. We and others have previously shown that the juvenile form of NPC has distinct biological characteristics including a low amount of p53 and Bcl2 in the tumor tissue and a low level of anti-EBV IgG and IgA in the peripheral blood. Results To get more insight on potential oncogenic mechanisms specific of these two forms, LMP1 abundance was assessed in 82 NPC patients of both groups, using immuno-histochemistry and semi-quantitative evaluation of tissue staining. Serum levels of anti-EBV antibodies were simultaneously assessed. For LMP1 staining, we used the S12 antibody which has proven to be more sensitive than the common anti-LMP1 CS1-4 for analysis of tissue sections. In all NPC biopsies, at least a small fraction of cells was positively stained by S12. LMP1 abundance was strongly correlated to patient age, with higher amounts of the viral protein detected in specimens of the juvenile form. In contrast, LMP1 abundance was not correlated to the presence of lymph node or visceral metastases, nor to the risk of metastatic recurrence. It was also independent of the level of circulating anti-EBV antibodies. Conclusion The high amount of LMP1 recorded in tumors from young patients confirms that the juvenile form of NPC has specific features regarding not only cellular but also viral gene expression. PMID:15842731

  5. EBV latent membrane protein 1 abundance correlates with patient age but not with metastatic behavior in north African nasopharyngeal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Khabir, Abdelmajid; Karray, Hela; Rodriguez, Sandrine; Rosé, Mathieu; Daoud, Jamel; Frikha, Mounir; Boudawara, Tahia; Middeldorp, Jaap; Jlidi, Rachid; Busson, Pierre

    2005-04-20

    Undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinomas are rare in a majority of countries but they occur at a high incidence in South China and to a lesser extent in North Africa. They are constantly associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) regardless of patient geographic origin. In North Africa, the distribution of NPC cases according to patient age is bi-modal with a large group of patients being around 50 years old (80%) and a smaller group below 25 years old. We and others have previously shown that the juvenile form of NPC has distinct biological characteristics including a low amount of p53 and Bcl2 in the tumor tissue and a low level of anti-EBV IgG and IgA in the peripheral blood. To get more insight on potential oncogenic mechanisms specific of these two forms, LMP1 abundance was assessed in 82 NPC patients of both groups, using immuno-histochemistry and semi-quantitative evaluation of tissue staining. Serum levels of anti-EBV antibodies were simultaneously assessed. For LMP1 staining, we used the S12 antibody which has proven to be more sensitive than the common anti-LMP1 CS1-4 for analysis of tissue sections. In all NPC biopsies, at least a small fraction of cells was positively stained by S12. LMP1 abundance was strongly correlated to patient age, with higher amounts of the viral protein detected in specimens of the juvenile form. In contrast, LMP1 abundance was not correlated to the presence of lymph node or visceral metastases, nor to the risk of metastatic recurrence. It was also independent of the level of circulating anti-EBV antibodies. The high amount of LMP1 recorded in tumors from young patients confirms that the juvenile form of NPC has specific features regarding not only cellular but also viral gene expression.

  6. Characterization of an 18-kilodalton Brucella cytoplasmic protein which appears to be a serological marker of active infection of both human and bovine brucellosis.

    PubMed Central

    Goldbaum, F A; Leoni, J; Wallach, J C; Fossati, C A

    1993-01-01

    Some anticytoplasmic protein monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) from mice immunized by infection with Brucella ovis cells have been obtained. One of these MAbs, BI24, was used to purify by immunoaffinity a protein with a pI of 5.6 and a molecular mass of 18 kDa. This protein was present in all of the rough and smooth Brucella species studied, but it could not be detected in Yersinia enterocolitica 09. Three internal peptides of this protein were partially sequenced; no homology with other bacterial proteins was found. The immunogenicity of the 18-kDa protein was studied with both human and bovine sera by a capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system with MAb BI24. Images PMID:8370742

  7. Characterization of an 18-kilodalton Brucella cytoplasmic protein which appears to be a serological marker of active infection of both human and bovine brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Goldbaum, F A; Leoni, J; Wallach, J C; Fossati, C A

    1993-08-01

    Some anticytoplasmic protein monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) from mice immunized by infection with Brucella ovis cells have been obtained. One of these MAbs, BI24, was used to purify by immunoaffinity a protein with a pI of 5.6 and a molecular mass of 18 kDa. This protein was present in all of the rough and smooth Brucella species studied, but it could not be detected in Yersinia enterocolitica 09. Three internal peptides of this protein were partially sequenced; no homology with other bacterial proteins was found. The immunogenicity of the 18-kDa protein was studied with both human and bovine sera by a capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system with MAb BI24.

  8. Photoreception and signal transduction in corals: proteomic and behavioral evidence for cytoplasmic calcium as a mediator of light responsivity.

    PubMed

    Hilton, J Daniel; Brady, Aisling K; Spaho, Skender A; Vize, Peter D

    2012-12-01

    Little is known about how corals sense and respond to light. In this report the proteome of coral is explored using 2D protein electrophoresis in two species, Montastraea cavernosa and Acropora millepora. Multiple protein species have major shifts in abundance in both species when sampled in daylight compared to corals sampled late in the night. These changes were observed both in larvae lacking zooxanthellae and in adult tissue containing zooxanthellae, including both Pacific and Caribbean corals. When larvae kept in the dark were treated with either thapsigargin or ionomycin, compounds that raise the level of cytoplasmic calcium, the night pattern of proteins shifted to the day pattern. This implies that photoreceptors responding to light elevate calcium levels and that calcium acts as the second messenger relaying light responses in corals. Corals spawn at night, and spawning can be delayed by exposure to light or pushed forward by early artificial sunsets. In a series of behavioral experiments, treatment of corals with ionomycin or thapsigargin was found to delay broadcast spawning in M. franksi, demonstrating that pharmacologically altering cytoplasmic calcium levels generates the same response as light exposure. Together these results show that the photo-responsive cells of corals detect and respond to light by altering cytoplasmic calcium levels, similarly to the transduction pathways in complex invertebrate eyes. The primacy of cytoplasmic calcium levels in light responsivity has broad implications for coral reproduction, including predicting how different species spawn at different times after sunset and how reproductive isolation is achieved during coral speciation.

  9. In vitro evidence for UV-protection of the eye by the corneal epithelium mediated by the cytoplasmic protein, RNA, and ascorbate.

    PubMed

    Ringvold, A

    1997-10-01

    (1) To evaluate the effect of ribonucleic acid (RNA) and ascorbate on UV-absorption and their impact on ultraviolet-induced (UV) fluorescence from various proteins, and (2) to compare RNA and DNA reduction of protein fluorescence. These informations will be useful for later work on the UV-filtering effect of the corneal epithelium. Spectrophotometry and spectrofluorimetry. (1) RNA and ascorbate caused a significant UV-absorption and reduced the fluorescence from various water-soluble proteins, the degree of reduction varying independently from one protein to the other. (2) RNA and DNA showed protein fluorescence reduction of roughly the same order. The results are discussed both in the context of UV-protection of the cell nucleus in general, and the possible UV-filtering effect for the eye of bovine corneal epithelium.

  10. The eIF4E-binding proteins are modifiers of cytoplasmic eIF4E relocalization during the heat shock response

    PubMed Central

    Sukarieh, R.; Sonenberg, N.; Pelletier, J.

    2009-01-01

    Stress granules (SGs) arise as a consequence of cellular stress, contain stalled translation preinitiation complexes, and are associated with cell survival during environmental insults. SGs are dynamic entities with proteins relocating into and out of them during stress. Among the repertoire of proteins present in SGs is eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), a translation factor required for cap-dependent translation and that regulates a rate-limiting step for protein synthesis. Herein, we demonstrate that localization of eIF4E to SGs is dependent on the presence of a family of repressor proteins, eIF4E-binding proteins (4E-BPs). Our results demonstrate that 4E-BPs regulate the SG localization of eIF4E. PMID:19244480

  11. The eIF4E-binding proteins are modifiers of cytoplasmic eIF4E relocalization during the heat shock response.

    PubMed

    Sukarieh, R; Sonenberg, N; Pelletier, J

    2009-05-01

    Stress granules (SGs) arise as a consequence of cellular stress, contain stalled translation preinitiation complexes, and are associated with cell survival during environmental insults. SGs are dynamic entities with proteins relocating into and out of them during stress. Among the repertoire of proteins present in SGs is eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), a translation factor required for cap-dependent translation and that regulates a rate-limiting step for protein synthesis. Herein, we demonstrate that localization of eIF4E to SGs is dependent on the presence of a family of repressor proteins, eIF4E-binding proteins (4E-BPs). Our results demonstrate that 4E-BPs regulate the SG localization of eIF4E.

  12. The Late Embryogenesis Abundant Protein Family in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): Genome-Wide Characterization and Expression during Abiotic Stress.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunlai; Hu, Wei; Yan, Yan; Tie, Weiwei; Ding, Zehong; Guo, Jianchun; He, Guangyuan

    2018-05-17

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, as a highly diverse group of polypeptides, play an important role in plant adaptation to abiotic stress; however, LEAs from cassava have not been studied in cassava. In this study, 26 LEA members were genome-wide identified from cassava, which were clustered into seven subfamily according to evolutionary relationship, protein motif, and gene structure analyses. Chromosomal location and duplication event analyses suggested that 26 MeLEAs distributed in 10 chromosomes and 11 MeLEA paralogues were subjected to purifying selection. Transcriptomic analysis showed the expression profiles of MeLEAs in different tissues of stem, leaves, and storage roots of three accessions. Comparative transcriptomic analysis revealed that the function of MeLEAs in response to drought may be differentiated in different accessions. Compared with the wild subspecies W14, more MeLEA genes were activated in cultivated varieties Arg7 and SC124 after drought treatment. Several MeLEA genes showed induction under various stresses and related signaling treatments. Taken together, this study demonstrates the transcriptional control of MeLEAs in tissue development and the responses to abiotic stress in cassava and identifies candidate genes for improving crop resistance to abiotic stress.

  13. The Prader-Willi syndrome proteins MAGEL2 and necdin regulate leptin receptor cell surface abundance through ubiquitination pathways.

    PubMed

    Wijesuriya, Tishani Methsala; De Ceuninck, Leentje; Masschaele, Delphine; Sanderson, Matthea R; Carias, Karin Vanessa; Tavernier, Jan; Wevrick, Rachel

    2017-11-01

    In Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), obesity is caused by the disruption of appetite-controlling pathways in the brain. Two PWS candidate genes encode MAGEL2 and necdin, related melanoma antigen proteins that assemble into ubiquitination complexes. Mice lacking Magel2 are obese and lack leptin sensitivity in hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin neurons, suggesting dysregulation of leptin receptor (LepR) activity. Hypothalamus from Magel2-null mice had less LepR and altered levels of ubiquitin pathway proteins that regulate LepR processing (Rnf41, Usp8, and Stam1). MAGEL2 increased the cell surface abundance of LepR and decreased their degradation. LepR interacts with necdin, which interacts with MAGEL2, which complexes with RNF41 and USP8. Mutations in the MAGE homology domain of MAGEL2 suppress RNF41 stabilization and prevent the MAGEL2-mediated increase of cell surface LepR. Thus, MAGEL2 and necdin together control LepR sorting and degradation through a dynamic ubiquitin-dependent pathway. Loss of MAGEL2 and necdin may uncouple LepR from ubiquitination pathways, providing a cellular mechanism for obesity in PWS. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Identification of potential bladder cancer markers in urine by abundant-protein depletion coupled with quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Lun; Lin, Tsung-Shih; Tsai, Cheng-Han; Wu, Chih-Ching; Chung, Ting; Chien, Kun-Yi; Wu, Maureen; Chang, Yu-Sun; Yu, Jau-Song; Chen, Yi-Ting

    2013-06-24

    In this study, we evaluated the reproducibility of abundant urine protein depletion by hexapeptide-based library beads and an antibody-based affinity column using the iTRAQ technique. The antibody-based affinity-depletion approach, which proved superior, was then applied in conjunction with iTRAQ to discover proteins that were differentially expressed between pooled urine samples from hernia and bladder cancer patients. Several proteins, including seven apolipoproteins, TIM, SAA4, and proEGF were further verified in 111 to 203 individual urine samples from patients with hernia, bladder cancer, or kidney cancer. Six apolipoproteins (APOA1, APOA2, APOB, APOC2, APOC3, and APOE) were able to differentiate bladder cancer from hernia. SAA4 was significantly increased in bladder cancer subgroups, whereas ProEGF was significantly decreased in bladder cancer subgroups. Additionally, the combination of SAA4 and ProEGF exhibited higher diagnostic capacity (AUC=0.80 and p<0.001) in discriminating bladder cancer from hernia than either marker alone. Using MetaCore software to interpret global changes of the urine proteome caused by bladder cancer, we found that the most notable alterations were in immune-response/alternative complement and blood-coagulation pathways. This study confirmed the clinical significance of the urine proteome in the development of non-invasive biomarkers for the detection of bladder cancer. In this study, we evaluated the reproducibility of abundant urine protein depletion by hexapeptide-based library beads and an antibody-based affinity column using the iTRAQ technique. The antibody-based affinity-depletion approach, which proved superior, was then applied in conjunction with iTRAQ to discover proteins that were differentially expressed between pooled urine samples from hernia and bladder cancer patients. Several proteins, including seven apolipoproteins, TIM, SAA4, and proEGF were further verified in 111 to 203 individual urine samples from patients

  15. [THE PHYSICAL CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL BASICS OF CELLS ABSORPTION OF UNESTERIFIED FATTY ACIDS; ALBUMIN, CAVEOLIN, CLATHRIN AND LIPID-BINDING PROTEINS OF CYTOPLASM (THE LECTURE)].

    PubMed

    Titov, V N; Shoibonov, B B

    2016-03-01

    From aposition of phylogenetic theory of general pathology, obesity and metabolic syndrome are pathology of fatty cells. However, the first is a pathology of phylogenetically early visceral fatty cells of omentum. They supply with substratum of energy realization of biologic function of trophology, homeostasis, endoecology and adaptation. The visceral fatty cells of omentum have no receptors to insulin and synthesize adaptively insulin and they are not characterized by biologic reaction of proliferation. The obesity is a pathology of late in phylogenesis subcutaneous adpocytes. They are insulin-dependent and supply with substratum of energy realization of one biologic function of locomotion--movement at the expense of constriction of cross-striated miocytes. The adipocytes in terms of adaptation synthesize humoral mediator adponectin and actively implement biologic function of proliferation. Under both aphysiologic conditions increases passive by gradient of concentration, absorption by cells albumin-unbound free fatty acids in unionized form in micellae's composition. The passive aphysiologic absorption of free fatty acids by cells which under intracellular compartmentalization don't oxidize mitochondria results in synthesis, accumulation of triglycerides in cytoplasm of cells which don't implement it physiologically. The aphysiologic absorption of free fatty acids by cells, their etherification in triglyceride, in particular, in phylogenetically late β-cells of islets and either late cardiomyocytes which fatty acids don't synthesize de novo results in development of aphysiologic processes and disorder of function. From position of biology, these cells in vivo are subjected to loss similar to apoptosis. The formation of corpuscles of apoptosis compromise biologic function of endoecology activating biologic reaction of inflammation.

  16. Phytochrome-imposed oscillations in PIF3 protein abundance regulate hypocotyl growth under diurnal light/dark conditions in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Soy, Judit; Leivar, Pablo; González-Schain, Nahuel; Sentandreu, Maria; Prat, Salomé; Quail, Peter H; Monte, Elena

    2012-08-01

    Arabidopsis seedlings display rhythmic growth when grown under diurnal conditions, with maximal elongation rates occurring at the end of the night under short-day photoperiods. Current evidence indicates that this behavior involves the action of the growth-promoting bHLH factors PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4) and PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 5 (PIF5) at the end of the night, through a coincidence mechanism that combines their transcriptional regulation by the circadian clock with control of protein accumulation by light. To assess the possible role of PIF3 in this process, we have analyzed hypocotyl responses and marker gene expression in pif single- and higher-order mutants. The data show that PIF3 plays a prominent role as a promoter of seedling growth under diurnal light/dark conditions, in conjunction with PIF4 and PIF5. In addition, we provide evidence that PIF3 functions in this process through its intrinsic transcriptional regulatory activity, at least in part by directly targeting growth-related genes, and independently of its ability to regulate phytochrome B (phyB) levels. Furthermore, in sharp contrast to PIF4 and PIF5, our data show that the PIF3 gene is not subject to transcriptional regulation by the clock, but that PIF3 protein abundance oscillates under diurnal conditions as a result of a progressive decline in PIF3 protein degradation mediated by photoactivated phyB, and consequent accumulation of the bHLH factor during the dark period. Collectively, the data suggest that phyB-mediated, post-translational regulation allows PIF3 accumulation to peak just before dawn, at which time it accelerates hypocotyl growth, together with PIF4 and PIF5, by directly regulating the induction of growth-related genes. © 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Two new subfamilies of DNA mismatch repair proteins (MutS) specifically abundant in the marine environment

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, Hiroyuki; Ray, Jessica; Toyoda, Kensuke; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Nagasaki, Keizo; Bratbak, Gunnar; Claverie, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    MutS proteins are ubiquitous in cellular organisms and have important roles in DNA mismatch repair or recombination. In the virus world, the amoeba-infecting Mimivirus, as well as the recently sequenced Cafeteria roenbergensis virus are known to encode a MutS related to the homologs found in octocorals and ɛ-proteobacteria. To explore the presence of MutS proteins in other viral genomes, we performed a genomic survey of four giant viruses (‘giruses') (Pyramimonas orientalis virus (PoV), Phaeocystis pouchetii virus (PpV), Chrysochromulina ericina virus (CeV) and Heterocapsa circularisquama DNA virus (HcDNAV)) that infect unicellular marine algae. Our analysis revealed the presence of a close homolog of Mimivirus MutS in all the analyzed giruses. These viral homologs possess a specific domain structure, including a C-terminal HNH-endonuclease domain, defining the new MutS7 subfamily. We confirmed the presence of conserved mismatch recognition residues in all members of the MutS7 subfamily, suggesting their role in DNA mismatch repair rather than DNA recombination. PoV and PpV were found to contain an additional type of MutS, which we propose to call MutS8. The MutS8 proteins in PoV and PpV were found to be closely related to homologs from ‘Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus', an obligate intracellular amoeba-symbiont belonging to the Bacteroidetes. Furthermore, our analysis revealed that MutS7 and MutS8 are abundant in marine microbial metagenomes and that a vast majority of these environmental sequences are likely of girus origin. Giruses thus seem to represent a major source of the underexplored diversity of the MutS family in the microbial world. PMID:21248859

  18. tRNA travels from the cytoplasm to organelles

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, Mary Anne T.; Hopper, Anita K.

    2011-01-01

    Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) encoded by the nuclear genome are surprisingly dynamic. Although tRNAs function in protein synthesis occurring on cytoplasmic ribosomes, tRNAs can transit from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and then again return to the cytoplasm by a process known as the tRNA retrograde process. Subsets of the cytoplasmic tRNAs are also imported into mitochondria and function in mitochondrial protein synthesis. The numbers of tRNA species that are imported into mitchondria differ among organisms, ranging from just a few to the entire set needed to decode mitochondrially encoded mRNAs. For some tRNAs, import is dependent on the mitochondrial protein import machinery, whereas the majority of tRNA mitochondrial import is independent of this machinery. Although cytoplasmic proteins and proteins located on the mitochondrial surface participating in the tRNA import process have been described for several organisms, the identity of these proteins differ among organisms. Likewise, the tRNA determinants required for mitochondrial import differ among tRNA species and organisms. Here, we present an overview and discuss the current state of knowledge regarding the mechanisms involved in the tRNA retrograde process and continue with an overview of tRNA import into mitochondria. Finally, we highlight areas of future research to understand the function and regulation of movement of tRNAs between the cytoplasm and organelles. PMID:21976284

  19. Dynamics of the association of heat shock protein HSPA6 (Hsp70B') and HSPA1A (Hsp70-1) with stress-sensitive cytoplasmic and nuclear structures in differentiated human neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Shorbagi, Sadek; Brown, Ian R

    2016-11-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are cellular repair agents that counter the effects of protein misfolding that is a characteristic feature of neurodegenerative diseases. HSPA1A (Hsp70-1) is a widely studied member of the HSPA (Hsp70) family. The little-studied HSPA6 (Hsp70B') is present in the human genome and absent in mouse and rat; hence, it is missing in current animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. Differentiated human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells were employed to compare the dynamics of the association of YFP-tagged HSPA6 and HSPA1A with stress-sensitive cytoplasmic and nuclear structures. Following thermal stress, live-imaging confocal microscopy and Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) demonstrated that HSPA6 displayed a prolonged and more dynamic association, compared to HSPA1A, with centrioles that play critical roles in neuronal polarity and migration. HSPA6 and HSPA1A also targeted nuclear speckles, rich in RNA splicing factors, and the granular component of the nucleolus that is involved in rRNA processing and ribosomal subunit assembly. HSPA6 and HSPA1A displayed similar FRAP kinetics in their interaction with nuclear speckles and the nucleolus. Subsequently, during the recovery from neuronal stress, HSPA6, but not HSPA1A, localized with the periphery of nuclear speckles (perispeckles) that have been characterized as transcription sites. The stress-induced association of HSPA6 with perispeckles displayed the greatest dynamism compared to the interaction of HSPA6 or HSPA1A with other stress-sensitive cytoplasmic and nuclear structures. This suggests involvement of HSPA6 in transcriptional recovery of human neurons from cellular stress that is not apparent for HSPA1A.

  20. Novel origin of lamin-derived cytoplasmic intermediate filaments in tardigrades.

    PubMed

    Hering, Lars; Bouameur, Jamal-Eddine; Reichelt, Julian; Magin, Thomas M; Mayer, Georg

    2016-02-03

    Intermediate filament (IF) proteins, including nuclear lamins and cytoplasmic IF proteins, are essential cytoskeletal components of bilaterian cells. Despite their important role in protecting tissues against mechanical force, no cytoplasmic IF proteins have been convincingly identified in arthropods. Here we show that the ancestral cytoplasmic IF protein gene was lost in the entire panarthropod (onychophoran + tardigrade + arthropod) rather than arthropod lineage and that nuclear, lamin-derived proteins instead acquired new cytoplasmic roles at least three times independently in collembolans, copepods, and tardigrades. Transcriptomic and genomic data revealed three IF protein genes in the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini, one of which (cytotardin) occurs exclusively in the cytoplasm of epidermal and foregut epithelia, where it forms belt-like filaments around each epithelial cell. These results suggest that a lamin derivative has been co-opted to enhance tissue stability in tardigrades, a function otherwise served by cytoplasmic IF proteins in all other bilaterians.

  1. Function of Nup98 subtypes and their fusion proteins, Nup98-TopIIβ and Nup98-SETBP1 in nuclear-cytoplasmic transport.

    PubMed

    Saito, Shoko; Yokokawa, Takafumi; Iizuka, Gemmei; Cigdem, Sadik; Okuwaki, Mitsuru; Nagata, Kyosuke

    2017-05-20

    Nup98 is a component of the nuclear pore complex. The nup98-fusion genes derived by chromosome translocations are involved in hematopoietic malignancies. Here, we investigated the functions of Nup98 isoforms and two unexamined Nup98-fusion proteins, Nup98-TopIIβ and Nup98-SETBP1. We first demonstrated that two Nup98 isoforms are expressed in various mouse tissues and similarly localized in the nucleus and the nuclear envelope. We also showed that Nup98-TopIIβ and Nup98-SETBP1 are localized in the nucleus and partially co-localized with full-length Nup98 and a nuclear export receptor XPO1. We demonstrated that Nup98-TopIIβ and Nup98-SETBP1 negatively regulate the XPO1-mediated protein export. Our results will contribute to the understanding of the molecular mechanism by which the Nup98-fusion proteins induce tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Xenopus egg cytoplasm with intact actin.

    PubMed

    Field, Christine M; Nguyen, Phuong A; Ishihara, Keisuke; Groen, Aaron C; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    We report optimized methods for preparing Xenopus egg extracts without cytochalasin D, that we term "actin-intact egg extract." These are undiluted egg cytoplasm that contains abundant organelles, and glycogen which supplies energy, and represents the least perturbed cell-free cytoplasm preparation we know of. We used this system to probe cell cycle regulation of actin and myosin-II dynamics (Field et al., 2011), and to reconstitute the large, interphase asters that organize early Xenopus embryos (Mitchison et al., 2012; Wühr, Tan, Parker, Detrich, & Mitchison, 2010). Actin-intact Xenopus egg extracts are useful for analysis of actin dynamics, and interaction of actin with other cytoplasmic systems, in a cell-free system that closely mimics egg physiology, and more generally for probing the biochemistry and biophysics of the egg, zygote, and early embryo. Detailed protocols are provided along with assays used to check cell cycle state and tips for handling and storing undiluted egg extracts. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Acyl homoserine lactone changes the abundance of proteins and the levels of organic acids associated with stationary phase in Salmonella Enteritidis.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Felipe Alves; Pimentel-Filho, Natan de Jesus; Carrijo, Lanna Clícia; Bento, Cláudia Braga Pereira; Baracat-Pereira, Maria Cristina; Pinto, Uelinton Manoel; de Oliveira, Leandro Licursi; Vanetti, Maria Cristina Dantas

    2017-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is cell-cell communication mechanism mediated by signaling molecules known as autoinducers (AIs) that lead to differential gene expression. Salmonella is unable to synthesize the AI-1 acyl homoserine lactone (AHL), but is able to recognize AHLs produced by other microorganisms through SdiA protein. Our study aimed to evaluate the influence of AI-1 on the abundance of proteins and the levels of organic acids of Salmonella Enteritidis. The presence of N-dodecyl-homoserine lactone (C12-HSL) did not interfere on the growth or the total amount of extracted proteins of Salmonella. However, the abundance of the proteins PheT, HtpG, PtsI, Adi, TalB, PmgI (or GpmI), Eno, and PykF enhanced while the abundance of the proteins RplB, RplE, RpsB, Tsf, OmpA, OmpC, OmpD, and GapA decreased when Salmonella Enteritidis was anaerobically cultivated in the presence of C12-HSL. Additionally, the bacterium produced less succinic, lactic, and acetic acids in the presence of C12-HSL. However, the concentration of extracellular formic acid reached 20.46 mM after 24 h and was not detected when the growth was in the absence of AI-1. Considering the cultivation period for protein extraction, their abundance, process and function, as well as the levels of organic acids, we observed in cells cultivated in presence of C12-HSL a correlation with what is described in the literature as entry into the stationary phase of growth, mainly related to nitrogen and amino acid starvation and acid stress. Further studies are needed in order to determine the specific role of the differentially abundant proteins and extracellular organic acids secreted by Salmonella in the presence of quorum sensing signaling molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of the methylation preference region in heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K by protein arginine methyltransferase 1 and its implication in regulating nuclear/cytoplasmic distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Yuan-I; Hsu, Sheng-Chieh; Chau, Gar-Yang

    2011-01-21

    Research highlights: {yields} Verifying by direct methylation assay the substrate sites of PRMT1 in the hnRNP K protein. {yields} Identifying the preferred PMRT1 methylation regions in hnRNP K by kinetic analysis. {yields} Linking methylation in regulating nuclear localization of hnRNP K. -- Abstract: Protein arginine methylation plays crucial roles in numerous cellular processes. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) is a multi-functional protein participating in a variety of cellular functions including transcription and RNA processing. HnRNP K is methylated at multiple sites in the glycine- and arginine-rich (RGG) motif. Using various RGG domain deletion mutants of hnRNP K as substrates,more » here we show by direct methylation assay that protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) methylated preferentially in a.a. 280-307 of the RGG motif. Kinetic analysis revealed that deletion of a.a. 280-307, but not a.a. 308-327, significantly inhibited rate of methylation. Importantly, nuclear localization of hnRNP K was significantly impaired in mutant hnRNP K lacking the PRMT1 methylation region or upon pharmacological inhibition of methylation. Together our results identify preferred PRMT1 methylation sequences of hnRNP K by direct methylation assay and implicate a role of arginine methylation in regulating intracellular distribution of hnRNP K.« less

  5. Relative changes in the abundance of branchial Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase alpha-isoform-like proteins in marine euryhaline milkfish (Chanos chanos) acclimated to environments of different salinities.

    PubMed

    Tang, Cheng-Hao; Chiu, Yu-Huei; Tsai, Shu-Chuan; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2009-08-01

    Previous studies revealed that upon salinity challenge, milkfish (Chanos chanos), the euryhaline teleost, exhibited adaptive changes in branchial Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity with different Na(+) and K(+) affinities. Since alteration of activity and ion-affinity may be influenced by changes in different isoforms of NKA alpha-subunit (i.e., the catalytic subunit), it is, thus, intriguing to compare the patterns of protein abundance of three major NKA alpha-isoform-like proteins (i.e., alpha1, alpha2, and alpha3) in the gills of euryhaline milkfish following salinity challenge. The protein abundance of three NKA alpha-isoform-like proteins in gills of milkfish reared in seawater (SW), fresh water (FW), as well as hypersaline water (HSW, 60 per thousand) were analyzed by immunoblotting. In the acclimation experiments, the SW group revealed significantly higher levels of NKA alpha1- and alpha3-like proteins than the FW or HSW group. Time-course experiments on milkfish that were transferred from SW to HSW revealed the abundance of branchial NKA alpha1-like and alpha3-like proteins decreased significantly after 96 and 12 hr, respectively, and no significant difference was found in NKA alpha2-like protein. Furthermore, when fish were transferred from SW to FW, the amounts of NKA alpha1- and alpha3-like proteins was significantly decreased after 96 hr. Taken together, acute and chronic changes in the abundance of branchial NKA alpha1- and alpha3-like proteins may fulfill the requirements of altering NKA activity with different Na(+) or K(+) affinity for euryhaline milkfish acclimated to environments of various salinities. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Simplified and Efficient Quantification of Low-abundance Proteins at Very High Multiplex via Targeted Mass Spectrometry*

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Michael W.; Keshishian, Hasmik; Mani, D. R.; Gillette, Michael A.; Carr, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Liquid chromatography–multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (LC-MRM-MS) of plasma that has been depleted of abundant proteins and fractionated at the peptide level into six to eight fractions is a proven method for quantifying proteins present at low nanogram-per-milliliter levels. A drawback of fraction-MRM is the increased analysis time due to the generation of multiple fractions per biological sample. We now report that the use of heated, long, fused silica columns (>30 cm) packed with 1.9 μm of packing material can reduce or eliminate the need for fractionation prior to LC-MRM-MS without a significant loss of sensitivity or precision relative to fraction-MRM. We empirically determined the optimal column length, temperature, gradient duration, and sample load for such assays and used these conditions to study detection sensitivity and assay precision. In addition to increased peak capacity, longer columns packed with smaller beads tolerated a 4- to 6-fold increase in analyte load without a loss of robustness or reproducibility. The longer columns also provided a 4-fold improvement in median limit-of-quantitation values with increased assay precision relative to the standard 12 cm columns packed with 3 μm material. Overall, the optimized chromatography provided an approximately 3-fold increase in analysis throughput with excellent robustness and less than a 2-fold reduction in quantitative sensitivity relative to fraction-MRM. The value of the system for increased multiplexing was demonstrated by the ability to configure an 800-plex MRM-MS assay, run in a single analysis, comprising 2400 transitions with retention time scheduling to monitor 400 unlabeled and heavy labeled peptide pairs. PMID:24522978

  7. Plasmodium knowlesi Skeleton-Binding Protein 1 Localizes to the ‘Sinton and Mulligan’ Stipplings in the Cytoplasm of Monkey and Human Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lucky, Amuza Byaruhanga; Sakaguchi, Miako; Katakai, Yuko; Kawai, Satoru; Yahata, Kazuhide; Templeton, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    The malaria parasite, Plasmodium, exports protein products to the infected erythrocyte to introduce modifications necessary for the establishment of nutrient acquisition and surface display of host interaction ligands. Erythrocyte remodeling impacts parasite virulence and disease pathology and is well documented for the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, but has been less described for other Plasmodium species. For P. falciparum, the exported protein skeleton-binding protein 1 (PfSBP1) is involved in the trafficking of erythrocyte surface ligands and localized to membranous structures within the infected erythrocyte, termed Maurer's clefts. In this study, we analyzed SBP1 orthologs across the Plasmodium genus by BLAST analysis and conserved gene synteny, which were also recently described by de Niz et al. (2016). To evaluate the localization of an SBP1 ortholog, we utilized the zoonotic malaria parasite, Plasmodium knowlesi. Immunofluorescence assay of transgenic P. knowlesi parasites expressing epitope-tagged recombinant PkSBP1 revealed a punctate staining pattern reminiscent of Maurer's clefts, following infection of either monkey or human erythrocytes. The recombinant PkSBP1-positive puncta co-localized with Giemsa-stained structures, known as ‘Sinton and Mulligan’ stipplings. Immunoelectron microscopy also showed that recombinant PkSBP1 localizes within or on the membranous structures akin to the Maurer's clefts. The recombinant PkSBP1 expressed in P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes co-localized with PfSBP1 at the Maurer's clefts, indicating an analogous trafficking pattern. A member of the P. knowlesi 2TM protein family was also expressed and localized to membranous structures in infected monkey erythrocytes. These results suggest that the trafficking machinery and induced erythrocyte cellular structures of P. knowlesi are similar following infection of both monkey and human erythrocytes, and are conserved with P. falciparum. PMID:27732628

  8. Plasmodium knowlesi Skeleton-Binding Protein 1 Localizes to the 'Sinton and Mulligan' Stipplings in the Cytoplasm of Monkey and Human Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Lucky, Amuza Byaruhanga; Sakaguchi, Miako; Katakai, Yuko; Kawai, Satoru; Yahata, Kazuhide; Templeton, Thomas J; Kaneko, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    The malaria parasite, Plasmodium, exports protein products to the infected erythrocyte to introduce modifications necessary for the establishment of nutrient acquisition and surface display of host interaction ligands. Erythrocyte remodeling impacts parasite virulence and disease pathology and is well documented for the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, but has been less described for other Plasmodium species. For P. falciparum, the exported protein skeleton-binding protein 1 (PfSBP1) is involved in the trafficking of erythrocyte surface ligands and localized to membranous structures within the infected erythrocyte, termed Maurer's clefts. In this study, we analyzed SBP1 orthologs across the Plasmodium genus by BLAST analysis and conserved gene synteny, which were also recently described by de Niz et al. (2016). To evaluate the localization of an SBP1 ortholog, we utilized the zoonotic malaria parasite, Plasmodium knowlesi. Immunofluorescence assay of transgenic P. knowlesi parasites expressing epitope-tagged recombinant PkSBP1 revealed a punctate staining pattern reminiscent of Maurer's clefts, following infection of either monkey or human erythrocytes. The recombinant PkSBP1-positive puncta co-localized with Giemsa-stained structures, known as 'Sinton and Mulligan' stipplings. Immunoelectron microscopy also showed that recombinant PkSBP1 localizes within or on the membranous structures akin to the Maurer's clefts. The recombinant PkSBP1 expressed in P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes co-localized with PfSBP1 at the Maurer's clefts, indicating an analogous trafficking pattern. A member of the P. knowlesi 2TM protein family was also expressed and localized to membranous structures in infected monkey erythrocytes. These results suggest that the trafficking machinery and induced erythrocyte cellular structures of P. knowlesi are similar following infection of both monkey and human erythrocytes, and are conserved with P. falciparum.

  9. Fabrication of diverse pH-sensitive functional mesoporous silica for selective removal or depletion of highly abundant proteins from biological samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaojiao; Lan, Jingfeng; Li, Huihui; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Haixia

    2017-01-01

    In proteomic studies, poor detection of low abundant proteins is a major problem due to the presence of highly abundant proteins. Therefore, the specific removal or depletion of highly abundant proteins prior to analysis is necessary. In response to this problem, a series of pH-sensitive functional mesoporous silica materials composed of 2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate and methacrylic acid units were designed and synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization. These functional mesoporous silica materials were characterized and their ability for adsorption and separation of proteins was evaluated. Possessing a pH-sensitive feature, the synthesized functional materials showed selective adsorption of some proteins in aqueous or buffer solutions at certain pH values. The specific removal of a particular protein from a mixed protein solution was subsequently studied. The analytical results confirmed that all the target proteins (bovine serum albumin, ovalbumin, and lysozyme) can be removed by the proposed materials from a five-protein mixture in a single operation. Finally, the practical application of this approach was also evaluated by the selective removal of certain proteins from real biological samples. The results revealed that the maximum removal efficiencies of ovalbumin and lysozyme from egg white sample were obtained as 99% and 92%, respectively, while the maximum removal efficiency of human serum albumin from human serum sample was about 80% by the proposed method. It suggested that this treatment process reduced the complexity of real biological samples and facilitated the identification of hidden proteins in chromatograms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dynamics of Galectin-3 in the Nucleus and Cytoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Haudek, Kevin C.; Spronk, Kimberly J.; Voss, Patricia G.; Patterson, Ronald J.; Wang, John L.; Arnoys, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    This review summarizes selected studies on galectin-3 (Gal3) as an example of the dynamic behavior of a carbohydrate-binding protein in the cytoplasm and nucleus of cells. Within the 15-member galectin family of proteins, Gal3 (Mr ~30,000) is the sole representative of the chimera subclass in which a proline- and glycine-rich NH2-terminal domain is fused onto a COOH-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain responsible for binding galactose-containing glycoconjugates. The protein shuttles between the cytoplasm and nucleus on the basis of targeting signals that are recognized by importin(s) for nuclear localization and exportin-1 (CRM1) for nuclear export. Depending on the cell type, specific experimental conditions in vitro, or tissue location, Gal3 has been reported to be exclusively cytoplasmic, predominantly nuclear, or distributed between the two compartments. The nuclear versus cytoplasmic distribution of the protein must reflect, then, some balance between nuclear import and export, as well as mechanisms of cytoplasmic anchorage or binding to a nuclear component. Indeed, a number of ligands have been reported for Gal3 in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. Most of the ligands appear to bind Gal3, however, through protein-protein interactions rather than through protein-carbohydrate recognition. In the cytoplasm, for example, Gal3 interacts with the apoptosis repressor Bcl-2 and this interaction may be involved in Gal3’s anti-apoptotic activity. In the nucleus, Gal3 is a required pre-mRNA splicing factor; the protein is incorporated into spliceosomes via its association with the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) complex. Although the majority of these interactions occur via the carbohydrate recognition domain of Gal3 and saccharide ligands such as lactose can perturb some of these interactions, the significance of the protein’s carbohydrate-binding activity, per se, remains a challenge for future investigations. PMID:19616076

  11. Protein relative abundance patterns associated with sucrose-induced dysbiosis are conserved across taxonomically diverse oral microcosm biofilm models of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Rudney, Joel D; Jagtap, Pratik D; Reilly, Cavan S; Chen, Ruoqiong; Markowski, Todd W; Higgins, LeeAnn; Johnson, James E; Griffin, Timothy J

    2015-12-19

    The etiology of dental caries is multifactorial, but frequent consumption of free sugars, notably sucrose, appears to be a major factor driving the supragingival microbiota in the direction of dysbiosis. Recent 16S rRNA-based studies indicated that caries-associated communities were less diverse than healthy supragingival plaque but still displayed considerable taxonomic diversity between individuals. Metagenomic studies likewise have found that healthy oral sites from different people were broadly similar with respect to gene function, even though there was an extensive individual variation in their taxonomic profiles. That pattern may also extend to dysbiotic communities. In that case, shifts in community-wide protein relative abundance might provide better biomarkers of dysbiosis that can be achieved through taxonomy alone. In this study, we used a paired oral microcosm biofilm model of dental caries to investigate differences in community composition and protein relative abundance in the presence and absence of sucrose. This approach provided large quantities of protein, which facilitated deep metaproteomic analysis. Community composition was evaluated using 16S rRNA sequencing and metaproteomic approaches. Although taxonomic diversity was reduced by sucrose pulsing, considerable inter-subject variation in community composition remained. By contrast, functional analysis using the SEED ontology found that sucrose induced changes in protein relative abundance patterns for pathways involving glycolysis, lactate production, aciduricity, and ammonia/glutamate metabolism that were conserved across taxonomically diverse dysbiotic oral microcosm biofilm communities. Our findings support the concept of using function-based changes in protein relative abundance as indicators of dysbiosis. Our microcosm model cannot replicate all aspects of the oral environment, but the deep level of metaproteomic analysis it allows makes it suitable for discovering which proteins are

  12. The Capsicum annuum class IV chitinase ChitIV interacts with receptor-like cytoplasmic protein kinase PIK1 to accelerate PIK1-triggered cell death and defence responses

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Sung; Kim, Nak Hyun; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2015-01-01

    The pepper receptor-like cytoplasmic protein kinase, CaPIK1, which mediates signalling of plant cell death and defence responses was previously identified. Here, the identification of a class IV chitinase, CaChitIV, from pepper plants (Capsicum annuum), which interacts with CaPIK1 and promotes CaPIK1-triggered cell death and defence responses, is reported. CaChitIV contains a signal peptide, chitin-binding domain, and glycol hydrolase domain. CaChitIV expression was up-regulated by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) infection. Notably, avirulent Xcv infection rapidly induced CaChitIV expression in pepper leaves. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation and co-immunoprecipitation revealed that CaPIK1 interacts with CaChitIV in planta, and that the CaPIK1–CaChitIV complex is localized mainly in the cytoplasm and plasma membrane. CaChitIV is also localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. Transient co-expression of CaChitIV with CaPIK1 enhanced CaPIK1-triggered cell death response and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) bursts. Co-silencing of both CaChitIV and CaPIK1 in pepper plants conferred enhanced susceptibility to Xcv infection, which was accompanied by a reduced induction of cell death response, ROS and NO bursts, and defence response genes. Ectopic expression of CaPIK1 in Arabidopsis enhanced basal resistance to Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis infection. Together, the results suggest that CaChitIV positively regulates CaPIK1-triggered cell death and defence responses through its interaction with CaPIK1. PMID:25694549

  13. The Capsicum annuum class IV chitinase ChitIV interacts with receptor-like cytoplasmic protein kinase PIK1 to accelerate PIK1-triggered cell death and defence responses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Sung; Kim, Nak Hyun; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2015-04-01

    The pepper receptor-like cytoplasmic protein kinase, CaPIK1, which mediates signalling of plant cell death and defence responses was previously identified. Here, the identification of a class IV chitinase, CaChitIV, from pepper plants (Capsicum annuum), which interacts with CaPIK1 and promotes CaPIK1-triggered cell death and defence responses, is reported. CaChitIV contains a signal peptide, chitin-binding domain, and glycol hydrolase domain. CaChitIV expression was up-regulated by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) infection. Notably, avirulent Xcv infection rapidly induced CaChitIV expression in pepper leaves. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation and co-immunoprecipitation revealed that CaPIK1 interacts with CaChitIV in planta, and that the CaPIK1-CaChitIV complex is localized mainly in the cytoplasm and plasma membrane. CaChitIV is also localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. Transient co-expression of CaChitIV with CaPIK1 enhanced CaPIK1-triggered cell death response and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) bursts. Co-silencing of both CaChitIV and CaPIK1 in pepper plants conferred enhanced susceptibility to Xcv infection, which was accompanied by a reduced induction of cell death response, ROS and NO bursts, and defence response genes. Ectopic expression of CaPIK1 in Arabidopsis enhanced basal resistance to Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis infection. Together, the results suggest that CaChitIV positively regulates CaPIK1-triggered cell death and defence responses through its interaction with CaPIK1. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  14. Integration of multi-omics data of a genome-reduced bacterium: Prevalence of post-transcriptional regulation and its correlation with protein abundances

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Hua; van Noort, Vera; Lluch-Senar, Maria; Hennrich, Marco L.; H. Wodke, Judith A.; Yus, Eva; Alibés, Andreu; Roma, Guglielmo; Mende, Daniel R.; Pesavento, Christina; Typas, Athanasios; Gavin, Anne-Claude; Serrano, Luis; Bork, Peer

    2016-01-01

    We developed a comprehensive resource for the genome-reduced bacterium Mycoplasma pneumoniae comprising 1748 consistently generated ‘-omics’ data sets, and used it to quantify the power of antisense non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), lysine acetylation, and protein phosphorylation in predicting protein abundance (11%, 24% and 8%, respectively). These factors taken together are four times more predictive of the proteome abundance than of mRNA abundance. In bacteria, post-translational modifications (PTMs) and ncRNA transcription were both found to increase with decreasing genomic GC-content and genome size. Thus, the evolutionary forces constraining genome size and GC-content modify the relative contributions of the different regulatory layers to proteome homeostasis, and impact more genomic and genetic features than previously appreciated. Indeed, these scaling principles will enable us to develop more informed approaches when engineering minimal synthetic genomes. PMID:26773059

  15. Sequential extraction results in improved proteome profiling of medicinal plant Pinellia ternata tubers, which contain large amounts of high-abundance proteins.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaolin; Xiong, Erhui; An, Sufang; Gong, Fangping; Wang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Pinellia ternata tuber is one of the well-known Chinese traditional medicines. In order to understand the pharmacological properties of tuber proteins, it is necessary to perform proteome analysis of P. ternata tubers. However, a few high-abundance proteins (HAPs), mainly mannose-binding lectin (agglutinin), exist in aggregates of various sizes in the tubers and seriously interfere with proteome profiling by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Therefore, selective depletion of these HAPs is a prerequisite for enhanced proteome analysis of P. ternata tubers. Based on differential protein solubility, we developed a novel protocol involving two sequential extractions for depletion of some HAPs and prefractionation of tuber proteins prior to 2-DE. The first extraction using 10% acetic acid selectively extracted acid-soluble HAPs and the second extraction using the SDS-containing buffer extracted remaining acid-insoluble proteins. After application of the protocol, 2-DE profiles of P. ternata tuber proteins were greatly improved and more protein spots were detected, especially low-abundance proteins. Moreover, the subunit composition of P. ternata lectin was analyzed by electrophoresis. Native lectin consists of two hydrogen-bonded subunits (11 kDa and 25 kDa) and the 11 kDa subunit was a glycoprotein. Subsequently, major HAPs in the tubers were analyzed by mass spectrometry, with nine protein spots being identified as lectin isoforms. The methodology was easy to perform and required no specialized apparatus. It would be useful for proteome analysis of other tuber plants of Araceae.

  16. Interleukin (IL)-1 in rat parturition: IL-1 receptors 1 and 2 and accessory proteins abundance in pregnant rat uterus at term - regulation by progesterone.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Tomohito; Takeda, Jun; Fang, Xin; Bronson, Heather; Olson, David M

    2016-07-01

    The role of interleukin-1 (IL-1), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, in parturition is typically noted by changes in its concentrations. Studying the expression of its receptor family, IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) 1, IL-1R2, IL-1R accessory protein (IL-1RAcP), and its predominantly brain isoform, IL-1RAcPb, during late gestation in the uterus in the Long-Evans rat is another. We assessed changes in their mRNA and protein relative abundance in the uterus and compared IL-1RAcP and IL-1RAcPb mRNA abundance in uterus, cervix, ovaries, placenta, and whole blood of Long-Evans rats during late gestation or in RU486 and progesterone-treated dams using quantitative real-time PCR and western immunoblotting. IL-1R1, IL-1RAcP, and IL-1RAcPb mRNA abundance significantly increased in the uterus at delivery whereas IL-1R2 mRNA abundance significantly decreased. IL-1R1 protein increased at term and IL-1R2 protein decreased at term compared to nonpregnant uteri. IL1-RAcPb mRNA abundance was less than IL-1RAcP, but in the lower uterine segment it was the highest of all tissues examined. RU486 stimulated preterm delivery and an increase in IL-1R1 mRNA abundance whereas progesterone administration extended pregnancy and suppressed the increase in IL-1R1. These data suggest that changes in uterine sensitivity to IL-1 occur during late gestation and suggest another level of regulation for the control of delivery. The roles for IL-1RAcP and IL-1RAcPb need to be determined, but may relate to different intracellular signaling pathways. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  17. Distinct functional domains within the acidic cluster of tegument protein pp28 required for trafficking and cytoplasmic envelopment of human cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jun-Young; Jeon, Hyejin; Hong, Sookyung; Britt, William J

    2016-10-01

    Human cytomegalovirus UL99-encoded tegument protein pp28 contains a 16 aa acidic cluster that is required for pp28 trafficking to the assembly compartment (AC) and the virus assembly. However, functional signals within the acidic cluster of pp28 remain undefined. Here, we demonstrated that an acidic cluster rather than specific sorting signals was required for trafficking to the AC. Recombinant viruses with chimeric pp28 proteins expressing non-native acidic clusters exhibited delayed viral growth kinetics and decreased production of infectious virus, indicating that the native acidic cluster of pp28 was essential for wild-type virus assembly. These results suggested that the acidic cluster of pp28 has distinct functional domains required for trafficking and for efficient virus assembly. The first half (aa 44-50) of the acidic cluster was sufficient for pp28 trafficking, whereas the native acidic cluster consisting of aa 51-59 was required for the assembly of wild-type levels of infectious virus.

  18. Rat1p and Xrn1p are functionally interchangeable exoribonucleases that are restricted to and required in the nucleus and cytoplasm, respectively.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, A W

    1997-01-01

    XRN1 encodes an abundant cytoplasmic exoribonuclease, Xrn1p, responsible for mRNA turnover in yeast. A screen for bypass suppressors of the inviability of xrn1 ski2 double mutants identified dominant alleles of RAT1, encoding an exoribonuclease homologous with Xrn1p. These RAT1 alleles restored XRN1-like functions, including cytoplasmic RNA turnover, wild-type sensitivity to the microtubule-destabilizing drug benomyl, and sporulation. The mutations were localized to a region of the RAT1 gene encoding a putative bipartite nuclear localization sequence (NLS). Fusions to green fluorescent protein were used to demonstrate that wild-type Rat1p is localized to the nucleus and that the mutant alleles result in mislocalization of Rat1p to the cytoplasm. Conversely, targeting Xrn1p to the nucleus by the addition of the simian virus 40 large-T-antigen NLS resulted in complementation of the temperature sensitivity of a rat1-1 strain. These results indicate that Xrn1p and Rat1p are functionally interchangeable exoribonucleases that function in and are restricted to the cytoplasm and nucleus, respectively. It is likely that the higher eukaryotic homologs of these proteins will function similarly in the cytoplasm and nucleus. PMID:9315672

  19. Highly abundant defense proteins in human sweat as revealed by targeted proteomics and label-free quantification mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Csősz, É; Emri, G; Kalló, G; Tsaprailis, G; Tőzsér, J

    2015-10-01

    The healthy human skin with its effective antimicrobial defense system forms an efficient barrier against invading pathogens. There is evidence suggesting that the composition of this chemical barrier varies between diseases, making the easily collected sweat an ideal candidate for biomarker discoveries. Our aim was to provide information about the normal composition of the sweat, and to study the chemical barrier found at the surface of skin. Sweat samples from healthy individuals were collected during sauna bathing, and the global protein panel was analysed by label-free mass spectrometry. SRM-based targeted proteomic methods were designed and stable isotope labelled reference peptides were used for method validation. Ninety-five sweat proteins were identified, 20 of them were novel proteins. It was shown that dermcidin is the most abundant sweat protein, and along with apolipoprotein D, clusterin, prolactin-inducible protein and serum albumin, they make up 91% of secreted sweat proteins. The roles of these highly abundant proteins were reviewed; all of which have protective functions, highlighting the importance of sweat glands in composing the first line of innate immune defense system, and maintaining the epidermal barrier integrity. Our findings with regard to the proteins forming the chemical barrier of the skin as determined by label-free quantification and targeted proteomics methods are in accordance with previous studies, and can be further used as a starting point for non-invasive sweat biomarker research. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  20. The Skp1 Protein from Toxoplasma Is Modified by a Cytoplasmic Prolyl 4-Hydroxylase Associated with Oxygen Sensing in the Social Amoeba Dictyostelium*

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yuechi; Brown, Kevin M.; Wang, Zhuo A.; van der Wel, Hanke; Teygong, Crystal; Zhang, Dongmei; Blader, Ira J.; West, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    In diverse types of organisms, cellular hypoxic responses are mediated by prolyl 4-hydroxylases that use O2 and α-ketoglutarate as substrates to hydroxylate conserved proline residues in target proteins. Whereas in metazoans these enzymes control the stability of the HIFα family of transcription factor subunits, the Dictyostelium enzyme (DdPhyA) contributes to O2 regulation of development by a divergent mechanism involving hydroxylation and subsequent glycosylation of DdSkp1, an adaptor subunit in E3SCF ubiquitin ligases. Sequences related to DdPhyA, DdSkp1, and the glycosyltransferases that cap Skp1 hydroxyproline occur also in the genomes of Toxoplasma and other protists, suggesting that this O2 sensing mechanism may be widespread. Here we show by disruption of the TgphyA locus that this enzyme is required for Skp1 glycosylation in Toxoplasma and that disrupted parasites grow slowly at physiological O2 levels. Conservation of cellular function was tested by expression of TgPhyA in DdphyA-null cells. Simple gene replacement did not rescue Skp1 glycosylation, whereas overexpression not only corrected Skp1 modification but also restored the O2 requirement to a level comparable to that of overexpressed DdPhyA. Bacterially expressed TgPhyA protein can prolyl hydroxylate both Toxoplasma and Dictyostelium Skp1s. Kinetic analyses showed that TgPhyA has similar properties to DdPhyA, including a superimposable dependence on the concentration of its co-substrate α-ketoglutarate. Remarkably, however, TgPhyA had a significantly higher apparent affinity for O2. The findings suggest that Skp1 hydroxylation by PhyA is a conserved process among protists and that this biochemical pathway may indirectly sense O2 by detecting the levels of O2-regulated metabolites such as α-ketoglutarate. PMID:22648409

  1. Deep Coverage Proteomics Identifies More Low-Abundance Missing Proteins in Human Testis Tissue with Q-Exactive HF Mass Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Luo, Weijia; Wu, Feilin; Peng, Xuehui; Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Manli; Zhao, Yan; Su, Na; Qi, YingZi; Chen, Lingsheng; Zhang, Yangjun; Wen, Bo; He, Fuchu; Xu, Ping

    2016-11-04

    Since 2012, missing proteins (MPs) investigation has been one of the critical missions of Chromosome-Centric Human Proteome Project (C-HPP) through various biochemical strategies. On the basis of our previous testis MPs study, faster scanning and higher resolution mass-spectrometry-based proteomics might be conducive to MPs exploration, especially for low-abundance proteins. In this study, Q-Exactive HF (HF) was used to survey proteins from the same testis tissues separated by two separating methods (tricine- and glycine-SDS-PAGE), as previously described. A total of 8526 proteins were identified, of which more low-abundance proteins were uniquely detected in HF data but not in our previous LTQ Orbitrap Velos (Velos) reanalysis data. Further transcriptomics analysis showed that these uniquely identified proteins by HF also had lower expression at the mRNA level. Of the 81 total identified MPs, 74 and 39 proteins were listed as MPs in HF and Velos data sets, respectively. Among the above MPs, 47 proteins (43 neXtProt PE2 and 4 PE3) were ranked as confirmed MPs after verifying with the stringent spectra match and isobaric and single amino acid variants filtering. Functional investigation of these 47 MPs revealed that 11 MPs were testis-specific proteins and 7 MPs were involved in spermatogenesis process. Therefore, we concluded that higher scanning speed and resolution of HF might be factors for improving the low-abundance MP identification in future C-HPP studies. All mass-spectrometry data from this study have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD004092.

  2. Distinctive eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in melanocytic nevi: an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Shon, Wonwoo; Wada, David A; Gibson, Lawrence E; Flotte, Thomas J; Scheithauer, Bernd W

    2011-11-01

    We sought to further determine the histochemical, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural properties of eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in melanocytic nevi. Skin specimens from four patients with a known diagnosis of conventional melanocytic nevus (3) or Spitz nevus (1) and containing intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusion bodies were selected. In addition, melanomas (25), Spitz nevi (10) and blue nevi (4) were examined to determine the frequency of the inclusions. Inclusions tended to be located in multinucleated melanocytes with abundant vacuolated cytoplasm. In conventional (hematoxylin and eosin-stained) sections, the degree of density and eosinophilia of intracytoplasmic inclusions varied with size. Periodic acid-Schiff, Fontana and Congo red stains showed no reactivity. All bodies were immunoreactive for ubiquitin but negative for tyrosinase, keratin and vimentin. Ultrastructurally, inclusion bodies were non-membrane bound, ranged from 4 to 7 µm, and were comprised of radiating filamentous structures with or without an electron-dense core. Electron probe x-ray microanalysis revealed no significant peaks. None of additional melanomas, Spitz nevi and blue nevi that were evaluated showed similar inclusions. The inclusion bodies described herein bear no resemblance to other cytoplasmic inclusion bodies previously described in melanocytic lesions. There is no discernible relationship to melanosomes by ultrastructural analysis. We postulate a relationship with dysfunction of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation occurring in melanocytes. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Effects of Calorie Restriction and Fiber Type on Glucose Uptake and Abundance of Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation Proteins in Single Fibers from Old Rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiyan; Arias, Edward B; Yu, Carmen S; Verkerke, Anthony R P; Cartee, Gregory D

    2017-11-09

    Calorie restriction (CR; reducing calorie intake by ~40% below ad libitum) can increase glucose uptake by insulin-stimulated muscle. Because skeletal muscle is comprised of multiple, heterogeneous fiber types, our primary aim was to determine the effects of CR (initiated at 14 weeks old) and fiber type on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by single fibers of diverse fiber types in 23-26-month-old rats. Isolated epitrochlearis muscles from AL and CR rats were incubated with [3H]-2-deoxyglucose ± insulin. Glucose uptake and fiber type were determined for single fibers dissected from the muscles. We also determined CR-effects on abundance of several key metabolic proteins in single fibers. CR resulted in: (a) significantly (p < .05 to .001) greater glucose uptake by insulin-stimulated type I, IIA, IIB, IIBX, and IIX fibers; (b) significantly (p < .05 to .001) reduced abundance of several mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) and oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) proteins in type I, IIA, and IIBX but not IIB and IIX fibers; and (c) unaltered hexokinase II abundance in each fiber type. These results demonstrate that CR can enhance glucose uptake in each fiber type of rat skeletal muscle in the absence of upregulation of the abundance of hexokinase II or key mitochondrial ETC and OxPhos proteins. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Unraveling sterol-dependent membrane phenotypes by analysis of protein abundance-ratio distributions in different membrane fractions under biochemical and endogenous sterol depletion.

    PubMed

    Zauber, Henrik; Szymanski, Witold; Schulze, Waltraud X

    2013-12-01

    During the last decade, research on plasma membrane focused increasingly on the analysis of so-called microdomains. It has been shown that function of many membrane-associated proteins involved in signaling and transport depends on their conditional segregation within sterol-enriched membrane domains. High throughput proteomic analysis of sterol-protein interactions are often based on analyzing detergent resistant membrane fraction enriched in sterols and associated proteins, which also contain proteins from these microdomain structures. Most studies so far focused exclusively on the characterization of detergent resistant membrane protein composition and abundances. This approach has received some criticism because of its unspecificity and many co-purifying proteins. In this study, by a label-free quantitation approach, we extended the characterization of membrane microdomains by particularly studying distributions of each protein between detergent resistant membrane and detergent-soluble fractions (DSF). This approach allows a more stringent definition of dynamic processes between different membrane phases and provides a means of identification of co-purifying proteins. We developed a random sampling algorithm, called Unicorn, allowing for robust statistical testing of alterations in the protein distribution ratios of the two different fractions. Unicorn was validated on proteomic data from methyl-β-cyclodextrin treated plasma membranes and the sterol biosynthesis mutant smt1. Both, chemical treatment and sterol-biosynthesis mutation affected similar protein classes in their membrane phase distribution and particularly proteins with signaling and transport functions.

  5. Unraveling Sterol-dependent Membrane Phenotypes by Analysis of Protein Abundance-ratio Distributions in Different Membrane Fractions Under Biochemical and Endogenous Sterol Depletion*

    PubMed Central

    Zauber, Henrik; Szymanski, Witold; Schulze, Waltraud X.

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, research on plasma membrane focused increasingly on the analysis of so-called microdomains. It has been shown that function of many membrane-associated proteins involved in signaling and transport depends on their conditional segregation within sterol-enriched membrane domains. High throughput proteomic analysis of sterol-protein interactions are often based on analyzing detergent resistant membrane fraction enriched in sterols and associated proteins, which also contain proteins from these microdomain structures. Most studies so far focused exclusively on the characterization of detergent resistant membrane protein composition and abundances. This approach has received some criticism because of its unspecificity and many co-purifying proteins. In this study, by a label-free quantitation approach, we extended the characterization of membrane microdomains by particularly studying distributions of each protein between detergent resistant membrane and detergent-soluble fractions (DSF). This approach allows a more stringent definition of dynamic processes between different membrane phases and provides a means of identification of co-purifying proteins. We developed a random sampling algorithm, called Unicorn, allowing for robust statistical testing of alterations in the protein distribution ratios of the two different fractions. Unicorn was validated on proteomic data from methyl-β-cyclodextrin treated plasma membranes and the sterol biosynthesis mutant smt1. Both, chemical treatment and sterol-biosynthesis mutation affected similar protein classes in their membrane phase distribution and particularly proteins with signaling and transport functions. PMID:24030099

  6. The Ubiquitous Distribution of Late Embryogenesis Abundant Proteins across Cell Compartments in Arabidopsis Offers Tailored Protection against Abiotic Stress[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Candat, Adrien; Paszkiewicz, Gaël; Neveu, Martine; Gautier, Romain; Logan, David C.; Avelange-Macherel, Marie-Hélène; Macherel, David

    2014-01-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are hydrophilic, mostly intrinsically disordered proteins, which play major roles in desiccation tolerance. In Arabidopsis thaliana, 51 genes encoding LEA proteins clustered into nine families have been inventoried. To increase our understanding of the yet enigmatic functions of these gene families, we report the subcellular location of each protein. Experimental data highlight the limits of in silico predictions for analysis of subcellular localization. Thirty-six LEA proteins localized to the cytosol, with most being able to diffuse into the nucleus. Three proteins were exclusively localized in plastids or mitochondria, while two others were found dually targeted to these organelles. Targeting cleavage sites could be determined for five of these proteins. Three proteins were found to be endoplasmic reticulum (ER) residents, two were vacuolar, and two were secreted. A single protein was identified in pexophagosomes. While most LEA protein families have a unique subcellular localization, members of the LEA_4 family are widely distributed (cytosol, mitochondria, plastid, ER, and pexophagosome) but share the presence of the class A α-helix motif. They are thus expected to establish interactions with various cellular membranes under stress conditions. The broad subcellular distribution of LEA proteins highlights the requirement for each cellular compartment to be provided with protective mechanisms to cope with desiccation or cold stress. PMID:25005920

  7. CTP synthase forms cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Gou, Ke-Mian; State Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193; Chang, Chia-Chun

    2014-04-15

    CTP synthase is an essential metabolic enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of CTP. Multiple studies have recently showed that CTP synthase protein molecules form filamentous structures termed cytoophidia or CTP synthase filaments in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, as well as in bacteria. Here we report that CTP synthase can form cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm, but also in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Both glutamine deprivation and glutamine analog treatment promote formation of cytoplasmic cytoophidia (C-cytoophidia) and nuclear cytoophidia (N-cytoophidia). N-cytoophidia are generally shorter and thinner than their cytoplasmic counterparts. In mammalian cells, both CTP synthasemore » 1 and CTP synthase 2 can form cytoophidia. Using live imaging, we have observed that both C-cytoophidia and N-cytoophidia undergo multiple rounds of fusion upon glutamine analog treatment. Our study reveals the coexistence of cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus, therefore providing a good opportunity to investigate the intracellular compartmentation of CTP synthase. - Highlights: • CTP synthase forms cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus. • Glutamine deprivation and Glutamine analogs promotes cytoophidium formation. • N-cytoophidia exhibit distinct morphology when compared to C-cytoophidia. • Both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 form cytoophidia in mammalian cells. • Fusions of cytoophidia occur in the cytoplasm and nucleus.« less

  8. The Effect of Pre-Analytical Variability on the Measurement of MRM-MS-Based Mid- to High-Abundance Plasma Protein Biomarkers and a Panel of Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Mahecha, Adriana; Kuzyk, Michael A.; Domanski, Dominik; Borchers, Christoph H.; Basik, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Blood sample processing and handling can have a significant impact on the stability and levels of proteins measured in biomarker studies. Such pre-analytical variability needs to be well understood in the context of the different proteomics platforms available for biomarker discovery and validation. In the present study we evaluated different types of blood collection tubes including the BD P100 tube containing protease inhibitors as well as CTAD tubes, which prevent platelet activation. We studied the effect of different processing protocols as well as delays in tube processing on the levels of 55 mid and high abundance plasma proteins using novel multiple-reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) assays as well as 27 low abundance cytokines using a commercially available multiplexed bead-based immunoassay. The use of P100 tubes containing protease inhibitors only conferred proteolytic protection for 4 cytokines and only one MRM-MS-measured peptide. Mid and high abundance proteins measured by MRM are highly stable in plasma left unprocessed for up to six hours although platelet activation can also impact the levels of these proteins. The levels of cytokines were elevated when tubes were centrifuged at cold temperature, while low levels were detected when samples were collected in CTAD tubes. Delays in centrifugation also had an impact on the levels of cytokines measured depending on the type of collection tube used. Our findings can help in the development of guidelines for blood collection and processing for proteomic biomarker studies. PMID:22701622

  9. The effect of pre-analytical variability on the measurement of MRM-MS-based mid- to high-abundance plasma protein biomarkers and a panel of cytokines.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Mahecha, Adriana; Kuzyk, Michael A; Domanski, Dominik; Borchers, Christoph H; Basik, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Blood sample processing and handling can have a significant impact on the stability and levels of proteins measured in biomarker studies. Such pre-analytical variability needs to be well understood in the context of the different proteomics platforms available for biomarker discovery and validation. In the present study we evaluated different types of blood collection tubes including the BD P100 tube containing protease inhibitors as well as CTAD tubes, which prevent platelet activation. We studied the effect of different processing protocols as well as delays in tube processing on the levels of 55 mid and high abundance plasma proteins using novel multiple-reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) assays as well as 27 low abundance cytokines using a commercially available multiplexed bead-based immunoassay. The use of P100 tubes containing protease inhibitors only conferred proteolytic protection for 4 cytokines and only one MRM-MS-measured peptide. Mid and high abundance proteins measured by MRM are highly stable in plasma left unprocessed for up to six hours although platelet activation can also impact the levels of these proteins. The levels of cytokines were elevated when tubes were centrifuged at cold temperature, while low levels were detected when samples were collected in CTAD tubes. Delays in centrifugation also had an impact on the levels of cytokines measured depending on the type of collection tube used. Our findings can help in the development of guidelines for blood collection and processing for proteomic biomarker studies.

  10. Correlation of interleukin-6 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 concentrations with crescent formation and myeloperoxidase-specific anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody titer in SCG/Kj mice by treatment with anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody or mizoribine.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Tomokazu; Kusunoki, Reina; Iwamura, Chiaki; Kobayashi, Shigeto; Yumura, Wako; Kameoka, Yosuke; Nakayama, Toshinori; Suzuki, Kazuo

    2013-09-01

    Myeloperoxidase-specific anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA) is associated with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) and glomerular crescent formation. Pathogenic factors in RPGN were analyzed by using SCG/Kj mice, which spontaneously develop MPO-ANCA-associated RPGN. The serum concentration of soluble IL-6R was determined by using ELISA and those of another 23 cytokines and chemokines by Bio-Plex analysis. Sections of frozen kidney tissue were examined by fluorescence microscopy and the CD3(+) B220(+) T cell subset in the spleen determined by a flow cytometry. Concentrations of IL-6 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 were significantly correlated with the percentages of crescent formation. Anti-IL-6R antibody, which has been effective in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, was administered to SCG/Kj mice to elucidate the role of IL-6 in the development of RPGN. MPO-ANCA titers decreased after administration of anti-IL-6R antibody, but not titers of mizoribine, which is effective in Kawasaki disease model mice. These results suggest that IL-6-mediated signaling is involved in the production of MPO-ANCA. © 2013 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Cryptotanshinone, a novel tumor angiogenesis inhibitor, destabilizes tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA via decreasing nuclear-cytoplasmic translocation of RNA-binding protein HuR.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhijie; Zhao, Yang; Li, Junbo; Tao, Li; Shi, Peiliang; Wei, Zhonghong; Sheng, Xiaobo; Shen, Dandan; Liu, Zhaoguo; Zhou, Liang; Tian, Chao; Fan, Fangtian; Shen, Cunsi; Zhu, Pingting; Wang, Aiyun; Chen, Wenxing; Zhao, Qingshun; Lu, Yin

    2016-10-01

    Cryptotanshinone (CT), one major lipophilic component isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, has shown to possess chemopreventive properties against various types of cancer cells. In this study, CT was shown to be a potent anti-angiogenic agent in zebrafish, and mouse models and could limit tumor growth by inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. We further found that CT could inhibit the proliferation, migration, angiogenic sprouting, and tube formation of HUVECs. In addition, we demonstrated that CT could lower the level of TNF-α due to the destabilization of TNF-α mRNA, which associated with regulating 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of TNF-α and preventing the translocation of RNA binding protein, HuR, from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Moreover, the underlying mechanism responsible for the regulation in angiogenesis by CT was partially related to the suppression of NF-κB, and STAT3 activity. Based on the abilities of CT in targeting tumor cells, inhibiting angiogenesis, and destroying tumor vasculature, CT is worthy of further investigation for preventive, and therapeutic purposes in cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Highly efficient enrichment of low-abundance intact proteins by core-shell structured Fe3O4-chitosan@graphene composites.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Fang, Xiaoni; Yan, Guoquan; Gao, Mingxia; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2017-11-01

    In proteomics research, the screening and monitoring of disease biomarkers is still a major challenge, mainly due to their low concentration in biological samples. However, the universal enrichment of intact proteins has not been further studied. In this work, we developed a Fe 3 O 4 -chitosan@graphene (Fe 3 O 4 -CS@G) core-shell composite to enrich low-abundance proteins from biological samples. Fe 3 O 4 -CS@G composite holds chitosan layer decorated Fe 3 O 4 core, which improves the hydrophilicity of materials greatly. Meanwhile, the graphene nanosheets shell formed via electrostatic assembly endows the composite with huge surface area (178m 2 /g). The good water dispersibility ensures the sufficient contact opportunities between graphene composites and proteins, and the large surface area provides enough adsorption sites for the enrichment of proteins. Using Fe 3 O 4 -CS@G, four standard proteins Cyt-c, BSA, Myo and OVA were enriched with better adsorption capacity and recovery rate, compared with previously reported magnetic graphene composites. Additionally, the mechanism of compared to" is corrected into "compared with". proteins adsorption on Fe 3 O 4 -CS@G was further studied, which indicates that hydrophobic and electrostatic interaction work together to facilitate the universal and efficient enrichment of proteins. Human plasma sample was employed to further evaluate the enrichment performance of Fe 3 O 4 -CS@G. Eventually, 123 proteins were identified from one of SAX fractions of human plasma, which is much better than commercial Sep-pak C18 enrichment column (39 proteins). All these outstanding performances suggest that Fe 3 O 4 -CS@G is an ideal platform for the enrichment of low-abundance intact proteins and thus holds great potential to facilitate the identification of biomarkers from biological samples in proteomics research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The fused in sarcoma protein forms cytoplasmic aggregates in motor neurons derived from integration-free induced pluripotent stem cells generated from a patient with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis carrying the FUS-P525L mutation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinxiu; Chen, Jiayu; Liu, Wenchao; Li, Xiaogang; Chen, Qi; Liu, Tao; Gao, Shaorong; Deng, Min

    2015-07-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that primarily affects motor neurons (MNs) and has no effective treatment. Mutations in the fused in sarcoma (FUS) gene and abnormal aggregation of FUS protein have been reported in ALS. However, the mechanisms involved in ALS are poorly understood. Clinical drug trails have failed due to a lack of appropriate disease models, including a lack of access to MNs from ALS patients. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells derived from patients with ALS provide an indispensable resource for in vitro mechanistic studies and for future patient-specific cell-based therapies. Previous reports demonstrated that viral-based ALS-iPS cells generated from fibroblasts harvested from Caucasian populations are ideal for basic research; however, ALS-iPS cells are precluded from cell-based therapeutic applications because of the risks associated with the integration of viral sequences into the genome and inconvenience associated with dermal biopsies. To establish a model for use in clinical applications, using episomal vectors, we generated an integration-free iPS cell line from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) harvested from a familial ALS (FALS) patient carrying the FUS-P525L mutation and a healthy control. Furthermore, we successfully differentiated ALS patient-specific iPS cells into MNs and subsequently detected cytoplasmic mislocalization and formation of FUS protein aggregates in MNs due to the FUS-P525L mutation. Our findings offer a cell-based disease model for use in further elucidating ALS pathogenesis and provide a tool for exploring gene repair coupled with cell replacement therapy.

  14. Sequential Extraction Results in Improved Proteome Profiling of Medicinal Plant Pinellia ternata Tubers, Which Contain Large Amounts of High-Abundance Proteins

    PubMed Central

    An, SuFang; Gong, FangPing; Wang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Pinellia ternata tuber is one of the well-known Chinese traditional medicines. In order to understand the pharmacological properties of tuber proteins, it is necessary to perform proteome analysis of P. ternata tubers. However, a few high-abundance proteins (HAPs), mainly mannose-binding lectin (agglutinin), exist in aggregates of various sizes in the tubers and seriously interfere with proteome profiling by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Therefore, selective depletion of these HAPs is a prerequisite for enhanced proteome analysis of P. ternata tubers. Based on differential protein solubility, we developed a novel protocol involving two sequential extractions for depletion of some HAPs and prefractionation of tuber proteins prior to 2-DE. The first extraction using 10% acetic acid selectively extracted acid-soluble HAPs and the second extraction using the SDS-containing buffer extracted remaining acid-insoluble proteins. After application of the protocol, 2-DE profiles of P. ternata tuber proteins were greatly improved and more protein spots were detected, especially low-abundance proteins. Moreover, the subunit composition of P. ternata lectin was analyzed by electrophoresis. Native lectin consists of two hydrogen-bonded subunits (11 kDa and 25 kDa) and the 11 kDa subunit was a glycoprotein. Subsequently, major HAPs in the tubers were analyzed by mass spectrometry, with nine protein spots being identified as lectin isoforms. The methodology was easy to perform and required no specialized apparatus. It would be useful for proteome analysis of other tuber plants of Araceae. PMID:23185632

  15. Proteomic analysis reveals differential accumulation of small heat shock proteins and late embryogenesis abundant proteins between ABA-deficient mutant vp5 seeds and wild-type Vp5 seeds in maize

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaolin; Gong, Fangping; Yang, Le; Hu, Xiuli; Tai, Fuju; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    ABA is a major plant hormone that plays important roles during many phases of plant life cycle, including seed development, maturity and dormancy, and especially the acquisition of desiccation tolerance. Understanding of the molecular basis of ABA-mediated plant response to stress is of interest not only in basic research on plant adaptation but also in applied research on plant productivity. Maize mutant viviparous-5 (vp5), deficient in ABA biosynthesis in seeds, is a useful material for studying ABA-mediated response in maize. Due to carotenoid deficiency, vp5 endosperm is white, compared to yellow Vp5 endosperm. However, the background difference at proteome level between vp5 and Vp5 seeds is unclear. This study aimed to characterize proteome alterations of maize vp5 seeds and to identify ABA-dependent proteins during seed maturation. We compared the embryo and endosperm proteomes of vp5 and Vp5 seeds by gel-based proteomics. Up to 46 protein spots, most in embryos, were found to be differentially accumulated between vp5 and Vp5. The identified proteins included small heat shock proteins (sHSPs), late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, stress proteins, storage proteins and enzymes among others. However, EMB564, the most abundant LEA protein in maize embryo, accumulated in comparable levels between vp5 and Vp5 embryos, which contrasted to previously characterized, greatly lowered expression of emb564 mRNA in vp5 embryos. Moreover, LEA proteins and sHSPs displayed differential accumulations in vp5 embryos: six out of eight identified LEA proteins decreased while nine sHSPs increased in abundance. Finally, we discussed the possible causes of global proteome alterations, especially the observed differential accumulation of identified LEA proteins and sHSPs in vp5 embryos. The data derived from this study provides new insight into ABA-dependent proteins and ABA-mediated response during maize seed maturation. PMID:25653661

  16. A Gestational High Protein Diet Affects the Abundance of Muscle Transcripts Related to Cell Cycle Regulation throughout Development in Porcine Progeny

    PubMed Central

    Oster, Michael; Murani, Eduard; Metges, Cornelia C.; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Wimmers, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Background In various animal models pregnancy diets have been shown to affect offspring phenotype. Indeed, the underlying programming of development is associated with modulations in birth weight, body composition, and continual diet-dependent modifications of offspring metabolism until adulthood, producing the hypothesis that the offspring's transcriptome is permanently altered depending on maternal diet. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess alterations of the offspring's transcriptome due to gestational protein supply, German Landrace sows were fed isoenergetic diets containing protein levels of either 30% (high protein - HP) or 12% (adequate protein - AP) throughout their pregnancy. Offspring muscle tissue (M. longissimus dorsi) was collected at 94 days post conception (dpc), and 1, 28, and 188 days post natum (dpn) for use with Affymetrix GeneChip Porcine Genome Arrays and subsequent statistical and Ingenuity pathway analyses. Numerous transcripts were found to have altered abundance at 94 dpc and 1 dpn; at 28 dpn no transcripts were altered, and at 188 dpn only a few transcripts showed a different abundance between diet groups. However, when assessing transcriptional changes across developmental time points, marked differences were obvious among the dietary groups. Depending on the gestational dietary exposure, short- and long-term effects were observed for mRNA expression of genes related to cell cycle regulation, energy metabolism, growth factor signaling pathways, and nucleic acid metabolism. In particular, the abundance of transcripts related to cell cycle remained divergent among the groups during development. Conclusion Expression analysis indicates that maternal protein supply induced programming of the offspring's genome; early postnatal compensation of the slight growth retardation obvious at birth in HP piglets resulted, as did a permanently different developmental alteration and responsiveness to the common environment of the transcriptome. The

  17. Proteomic analysis reveals strong mitochondrial involvement in cytoplasmic male sterility of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Guo, Jinju; Wang, Peng; Cheng, Qing; Sun, Limin; Wang, Hongyu; Wang, Yutong; Kao, Lina; Li, Yanan; Qiu, Tuoyu; Yang, Wencai; Shen, Huolin

    2017-09-25

    Although cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is widely used for developing pepper hybrids, its molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we used a high-throughput proteomics method called label-free to compare protein abundance across a pepper CMS line (A-line) and its isogenic maintainer line (B-line). Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD006104. Approximately 324 differentially abundant protein species were identified and quantified; among which, 47 were up-accumulated and 140 were down-accumulated in the A-line; additionally, 75 and 62 protein species were specifically accumulated in the A-line and B-line, respectively. Protein species involved in pollen exine formation, pyruvate metabolic processes, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, and oxidative stress response were observed to be differentially accumulated between A-line and B-line, suggesting their potential roles in the regulation of pepper pollen abortion. Based on our data, we proposed a potential regulatory network for pepper CMS that unifies these processes. Artificial emasculation is a major obstacle in pepper hybrid breeding for its high labor cost and poor seed purity. While the use of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in hybrid system is seriously frustrated because a long time is needed to cultivate male sterility line and its isogenic restore line. Transgenic technology is an effective and rapid method to obtain male sterility lines and its widely application has very important significance in speeding up breeding process in pepper. Although numerous studies have been conducted to select the genes related to male sterility, the molecular mechanism of cytoplasmic male sterility in pepper remains unknown. In this study, we used the high-throughput proteomic method called "label-free", coupled with liquid chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), to perform a novel comparison of expression profiles in a CMS pepper line

  18. Analysis of the saliva proteome from patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma reveals differences in abundance levels of proteins associated with tumour progression and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Paul; Wormald, Robert; Meleady, Paula; Henry, Michael; Curran, Aongus; Clynes, Martin

    2008-07-21

    The objective of this study was to identify differentially expressed proteins in saliva from HNSCC patients compared to a control group. Saliva samples from eight individuals with non-malignant conditions of the head and neck region were employed as a control group and compared to saliva from eight patients with HNSCC using 2D DIGE analysis and subsequent mass spectrometry identification of candidate proteins. Beta fibrin (+2.77-fold), S100 calcium binding protein (+5.35-fold), transferrin (+3.37-fold), immunoglobulin heavy chain constant region gamma (+3.28) and cofilin-1 (+6.42) were all found to be significantly increased in the saliva from HNSCC samples compared to the control group whereas transthyretin (-2.92-fold) was significantly decreased. The increased abundance of one of the proteins identified (S100 calcium binding protein) was confirmed by immunoblot analysis. Many of these proteins are involved in tumour progression, metastasis and angiogenesis. The proximity of saliva to the developing tumour is undoubtedly a major factor in facilitating detection of these proteins and such a strategy may lead to the development of a panel of biomarkers useful for therapeutic monitoring and for early detection of HNSCC.

  19. Coupling of the nucleus and cytoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Crisp, Melissa; Liu, Qian; Roux, Kyle; Rattner, J.B.; Shanahan, Catherine; Burke, Brian; Stahl, Phillip D.; Hodzic, Didier

    2006-01-01

    The nuclear envelope defines the barrier between the nucleus and cytoplasm and features inner and outer membranes separated by a perinuclear space (PNS). The inner nuclear membrane contains specific integral proteins that include Sun1 and Sun2. Although the outer nuclear membrane (ONM) is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum, it is nevertheless enriched in several integral membrane proteins, including nesprin 2 Giant (nesp2G), an 800-kD protein featuring an NH2-terminal actin-binding domain. A recent study (Padmakumar, V.C., T. Libotte, W. Lu, H. Zaim, S. Abraham, A.A. Noegel, J. Gotzmann, R. Foisner, and I. Karakesisoglou. 2005. J. Cell Sci. 118:3419–3430) has shown that localization of nesp2G to the ONM is dependent upon an interaction with Sun1. In this study, we confirm and extend these results by demonstrating that both Sun1 and Sun2 contribute to nesp2G localization. Codepletion of both of these proteins in HeLa cells leads to the loss of ONM-associated nesp2G, as does overexpression of the Sun1 lumenal domain. Both treatments result in the expansion of the PNS. These data, together with those of Padmakumar et al. (2005), support a model in which Sun proteins tether nesprins in the ONM via interactions spanning the PNS. In this way, Sun proteins and nesprins form a complex that links the nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (the LINC complex). PMID:16380439

  20. Helicobacter pylori Containing Only Cytoplasmic Urease Is Susceptible to Acid

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Partha; Parlow, Mary; Zitzer, Jason B.; Vakil, Nimish B.; Mobley, Harry L. T.; Levy, Marilyn; Phadnis, Suhas H.; Dunn, Bruce E.

    1998-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori, an important etiologic agent in a variety of gastroduodenal diseases, produces large amounts of urease as an essential colonization factor. We have demonstrated previously that urease is located within the cytoplasm and on the surface of H. pylori both in vivo and in stationary-phase culture. The purpose of the present study was to assess the relative contributions of cytoplasmic and surface-localized urease to the ability of H. pylori to survive exposure to acid in the presence of urea. Toward this end, we compared the acid resistance in vitro of H. pylori cells which possessed only cytoplasmic urease to that of bacteria which possessed both cytoplasmic and surface-localized or extracellular urease. Bacteria with only cytoplasmic urease activity were generated by using freshly subcultured bacteria or by treating repeatedly subcultured H. pylori with flurofamide (1 μM), a potent, but poorly diffusible urease inhibitor. H. pylori with cytoplasmic and surface-located urease activity survived in an acid environment when 5 mM urea was present. In contrast, H. pylori with only cytoplasmic urease shows significantly reduced survival when exposed to acid in the presence of 5 mM urea. Similarly, Escherichia coli SE5000 expressing H. pylori urease and the Ni2+ transport protein NixA, which expresses cytoplasmic urease activity at levels similar to those in wild-type H. pylori, survived minimally when exposed to acid in the presence of 5 to 50 mM urea. We conclude that cytoplasmic urease activity alone is not sufficient (although cytoplasmic urease activity is likely to be necessary) to allow survival of H. pylori in acid; the activity of surface-localized urease is essential for resistance of H. pylori to acid under the assay conditions used. Therefore, the mechanism whereby urease becomes associated with the surface of H. pylori, which involves release of the enzyme from bacteria due to autolysis followed by adsorption of the enzyme to the surface of

  1. Increased uncoupling protein-2 mRNA abundance and glucocorticoid action in adipose tissue in the sheep fetus during late gestation is dependent on plasma cortisol and triiodothyronine

    PubMed Central

    Gnanalingham, MG; Mostyn, A; Forhead, AJ; Fowden, AL; Symonds, ME; Stephenson, T

    2005-01-01

    The endocrine regulation of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2), an inner mitochondrial protein, in fetal adipose tissue remains unclear. The present study aimed to determine if fetal plasma cortisol and triiodothyronine (T3) influenced the mRNA abundance of UCP2, glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1) and 2 (11βHSD2) in fetal adipose tissue in the sheep during late gestation. Perirenal–abdominal adipose tissue was sampled from ovine fetuses to which either cortisol (2–3 mg kg−1 day−1) or saline was infused for 5 days up to 127–130 days gestation, or near term fetuses (i.e. 142–145 days gestation) that were either adrenalectomised (AX) or remained intact. Fetal plasma cortisol and T3 concentrations were higher in the cortisol infused animals and lower in AX fetuses compared with their corresponding control group, and increased with gestational age. UCP2 and GR mRNA abundance were significantly lower in AX fetuses compared with age-matched controls, and increased with gestational age and by cortisol infusion. Glucocorticoid action in fetal adipose tissue was augmented by AX and suppressed by cortisol infusion, the latter also preventing the gestational increase in 11βHSD1 mRNA and decrease in 11βHSD2 mRNA. When all treatment groups were combined, both fetal plasma cortisol and T3 concentrations were positively correlated with UCP2, GR and 11βHSD2 mRNA abundance, but negatively correlated with 11βHSD1 mRNA abundance. In conclusion, plasma cortisol and T3 are both required for the late gestation rise in UCP2 mRNA and differentially regulate glucocorticoid action in fetal adipose tissue in the sheep during late gestation. PMID:15961419

  2. Maternal nutritional programming of fetal adipose tissue development: differential effects on messenger ribonucleic acid abundance for uncoupling proteins and peroxisome proliferator-activated and prolactin receptors.

    PubMed

    Bispham, J; Gardner, D S; Gnanalingham, M G; Stephenson, T; Symonds, M E; Budge, H

    2005-09-01

    Maternal nutrient restriction at specific stages of gestation has differential effects on fetal development such that the offspring are programmed to be at increased risk of a range of adult diseases, including obesity. We investigated the effect of maternal nutritional manipulation through gestation on fetal adipose tissue deposition in conjunction with mRNA abundance for uncoupling protein (UCP)1 and 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)alpha and gamma, together with long and short forms of the prolactin receptor (PRLR). Singleton-bearing ewes were either nutrient restricted (3.2-3.8 MJ day(-1) metabolizable energy) or fed to appetite (8.7-9.9 MJ day(-1)) over the period of maximal placental growth, i.e. between 28 and 80 d gestation. After 80 d gestation, ewes were either fed to calculated requirements, (6.7-7.5 MJ day(-1)), or to appetite (8.0-10.9 MJ day(-1)). At term, offspring of nutrient-restricted ewes possessed more adipose tissue, an adaptation that was greatest in those born to mothers that fed to requirements in late gestation. This was accompanied by an increased mRNA abundance for UCP2 and PPARalpha, an adaptation not seen in mothers re-fed to appetite. Maternal nutrition had no effect on mRNA abundance for UCP1, PPARgamma, or PRLR. Irrespective of maternal nutrition, mRNA abundance for UCP1 was positively correlated with PPARgamma and the long and short forms of PRLR, indicating that these factors may act together to ensure that UCP1 abundance is maximized in the newborn. In conclusion, we have shown, for the first time, differential effects of maternal nutrition on key regulatory components of fetal fat metabolism.

  3. Computational and Statistical Analyses of Amino Acid Usage and Physico-Chemical Properties of the Twelve Late Embryogenesis Abundant Protein Classes

    PubMed Central

    Jaspard, Emmanuel; Macherel, David; Hunault, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Late Embryogenesis Abundant Proteins (LEAPs) are ubiquitous proteins expected to play major roles in desiccation tolerance. Little is known about their structure - function relationships because of the scarcity of 3-D structures for LEAPs. The previous building of LEAPdb, a database dedicated to LEAPs from plants and other organisms, led to the classification of 710 LEAPs into 12 non-overlapping classes with distinct properties. Using this resource, numerous physico-chemical properties of LEAPs and amino acid usage by LEAPs have been computed and statistically analyzed, revealing distinctive features for each class. This unprecedented analysis allowed a rigorous characterization of the 12 LEAP classes, which differed also in multiple structural and physico-chemical features. Although most LEAPs can be predicted as intrinsically disordered proteins, the analysis indicates that LEAP class 7 (PF03168) and probably LEAP class 11 (PF04927) are natively folded proteins. This study thus provides a detailed description of the structural properties of this protein family opening the path toward further LEAP structure - function analysis. Finally, since each LEAP class can be clearly characterized by a unique set of physico-chemical properties, this will allow development of software to predict proteins as LEAPs. PMID:22615859

  4. Constrained Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Relative Abundances of Protein Conformation in a Heterogeneous Mixture from Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Intensity Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Onuk, A. Emre; Akcakaya, Murat; Bardhan, Jaydeep P.; Erdogmus, Deniz; Brooks, Dana H.; Makowski, Lee

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a model for maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) of the relative abundances of different conformations of a protein in a heterogeneous mixture from small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) intensities. To consider cases where the solution includes intermediate or unknown conformations, we develop a subset selection method based on k-means clustering and the Cramér-Rao bound on the mixture coefficient estimation error to find a sparse basis set that represents the space spanned by the measured SAXS intensities of the known conformations of a protein. Then, using the selected basis set and the assumptions on the model for the intensity measurements, we show that the MLE model can be expressed as a constrained convex optimization problem. Employing the adenylate kinase (ADK) protein and its known conformations as an example, and using Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate the performance of the proposed estimation scheme. Here, although we use 45 crystallographically determined experimental structures and we could generate many more using, for instance, molecular dynamics calculations, the clustering technique indicates that the data cannot support the determination of relative abundances for more than 5 conformations. The estimation of this maximum number of conformations is intrinsic to the methodology we have used here. PMID:26924916

  5. Conformation of a Group 2 Late Embryogenesis Abundant Protein from Soybean. Evidence of Poly (l-Proline)-type II Structure1

    PubMed Central

    Soulages, Jose L.; Kim, Kangmin; Arrese, Estela L.; Walters, Christina; Cushman, John C.

    2003-01-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are members of a large group of hydrophilic, glycine-rich proteins found in plants, algae, fungi, and bacteria known collectively as hydrophilins that are preferentially expressed in response to dehydration or hyperosmotic stress. Group 2 LEA (dehydrins or responsive to abscisic acid) proteins are postulated to stabilize macromolecules against damage by freezing, dehydration, ionic, or osmotic stress. However, the structural and physicochemical properties of group 2 LEA proteins that account for such functions remain unknown. We have analyzed the structural properties of a recombinant form of a soybean (Glycine max) group 2 LEA (rGmDHN1). Differential scanning calorimetry of purified rGmDHN1 demonstrated that the protein does not display a cooperative unfolding transition upon heating. Ultraviolet absorption and circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed that the protein is in a largely hydrated and unstructured conformation in solution. However, ultraviolet absorption and circular dichroism measurements collected at different temperatures showed that the protein exists in equilibrium between two extended conformational states: unordered and left-handed extended helical or poly (l-proline)-type II structures. It is estimated that 27% of the residues of rGmDHN1 adopt or poly (l-proline)-type II-like helical conformation at 12°C. The content of extended helix gradually decreases to 15% as the temperature is increased to 80°C. Studies of the conformation of the protein in solution in the presence of liposomes, trifluoroethanol, and sodium dodecyl sulfate indicated that rGmDHN1 has a very low intrinsic ability to adopt α-helical structure and to interact with phospholipid bilayers through amphipathic α-helices. The ability of the protein to remain in a highly extended conformation at low temperatures could constitute the basis of the functional role of GmDHN1 in the prevention of freezing, desiccation, ionic, or osmotic

  6. Estimating abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sutherland, Chris; Royle, Andy

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides a non-technical overview of ‘closed population capture–recapture’ models, a class of well-established models that are widely applied in ecology, such as removal sampling, covariate models, and distance sampling. These methods are regularly adopted for studies of reptiles, in order to estimate abundance from counts of marked individuals while accounting for imperfect detection. Thus, the chapter describes some classic closed population models for estimating abundance, with considerations for some recent extensions that provide a spatial context for the estimation of abundance, and therefore density. Finally, the chapter suggests some software for use in data analysis, such as the Windows-based program MARK, and provides an example of estimating abundance and density of reptiles using an artificial cover object survey of Slow Worms (Anguis fragilis).

  7. The epididymis, cytoplasmic droplets and male fertility.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Trevor G

    2011-01-01

    The potential of spermatozoa to become motile during post-testicular maturation, and the relationship between the cytoplasmic droplet and fertilizing capacity are reviewed. Post-testicular maturation of spermatozoa involves the autonomous induction of motility, which can occur in vivo in testes with occluded excurrent ducts and in vitro in testicular explants, and artefactual changes in morphology that appear to occur in the testis in vitro. Both modifications may reflect time-dependent oxidation of disulphide bonds of head and tail proteins. Regulatory volume decrease (RVD), which counters sperm swelling at ejaculation, is discussed in relation to loss of cytoplasmic droplets and consequences for fertility. It is postulated that: (i) fertile males possess spermatozoa with sufficient osmolytes to drive RVD at ejaculation, permitting the droplet to round up and pinch off without membrane rupture; and (ii) infertile males possess spermatozoa with insufficient osmolytes so that RVD is inadequate, the droplet swells and the resulting flagellar angulation prevents droplet loss. Droplet retention at ejaculation is a harbinger of infertility caused by failure of the spermatozoon to negotiate the uterotubal junction or mucous and reach the egg. In this hypothesis, the epididymis regulates fertility indirectly by the extent of osmolyte provision to spermatozoa, which influences RVD and therefore droplet loss. Man is an exception, because ejaculated human spermatozoa retain their droplets. This may reflect their short midpiece, approximating head length, permitting a swollen droplet to extend along the entire midpiece; this not only obviates droplet migration and flagellar angulation but also hampers droplet loss.

  8. PROTEINS IN NUCLEOCYTOPLASMIC INTERACTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, David; Goldstein, Lester

    1968-01-01

    The behavior of nuclear proteins in Amoeba proteus was studied by tritiated amino acid labeling, nuclear transplantation, and cytoplasmic amputation. During prophase at least 77% (but probably over 95%) of the nuclear proteins is released to the cytoplasm. These same proteins return to the nucleus within the first 3 hr of interphase. When cytoplasm is amputated from an ameba in mitosis (shen the nuclear proteins are in the cytoplasm), the resultant daughter nuclei are depleted in the labeled nuclear proteins. The degree of depletion is less than proportional to the amount of cytoplasm removed because a portion of rapidly migrating protein (a nuclear protein that is normally shuttling between nucleus and cytoplasm and is thus also present in the cytoplasm) which would normally remain in the cytoplasm is taken up by the reconstituting daughter nuclei. Cytoplasmic fragments cut from mitotic cells are enriched in both major classes of nuclear proteins, i.e. rapidly migrating protein and slow turn-over protein. An interphase nucleus implanted into such an enucleated cell acquires from the cytoplasm essentially all of the excess nuclear proteins of both classes. The data indicate that there is a lack of binding sites in the cytoplasm for the rapidly migrating nuclear protein. The quantitative aspects of the distribution of rapidly migrating protein between the nucleus and the cytoplasm indicate that the distribution is governed primarily by factors within the nucleus. PMID:5677972

  9. Differential abundance analysis of mesocarp protein from high- and low-yielding oil palms associates non-oil biosynthetic enzymes to lipid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Tony Eng Keong; Yeap, Wan Chin; Daim, Leona Daniela Jeffery; Ng, Boon Zean; Lee, Fong Chin; Othman, Ainul Masni; Appleton, David Ross; Chew, Fook Tim; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna

    2015-01-01

    The oil palm Elaeis guineensis Jacq. which produces the highest yield per unit land area of the oil crops is the most important commercial oil crop in South East Asia. The fleshy mesocarp of oil palm fruit, where oil is mostly derived from, contains up to 90 % dry weight of oil (one of the most concentrated in plant tissues). Hence, there is attention given to gain insights into the processes of oil deposition in this oil rich tissue. For that purpose, two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE) coupled with western assays, were used here to analyze differential protein levels in genetically-related high-and low-yielding oil palm mesocarps. From the DIGE comparative analysis in combination with western analysis, 41 unique differentially accumulated proteins were discovered. Functional categorization of these proteins placed them in the metabolisms of lipid, carbohydrate, amino acids, energy, structural proteins, as well as in other functions. In particular, higher abundance of fructose-1,6-biphosphate aldolase combined with reduced level of triosephosphate isomerase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase may be indicative of important flux balance changes in glycolysis, while amino acid metabolism also appeared to be closely linked with oil yield. Forty-one proteins in several important biological pathways were identified as exhibiting differential in abundance at critical oil production stages. These confirm that oil yield is a complex trait involving the regulation of genes in multiple biological pathways. The results also provide insights into key control points of lipid biosynthesis in oil palm and can assist in the development of genetic markers for use in oil palm breeding programmes.

  10. Abundant constitutive expression of the immediate-early 94K protein from cytomegalovirus (Colburn) in a DNA-transfected mouse cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Jeang, K.T.; Cho, M.S.; Hayward, G.S.

    1984-10-01

    A 94-kilodalton phosphoprotein known as IE94 is the only viral polypeptide synthesized in abundance under immediate-early conditions after infection by cytomegalovirus (CMV) strain Colburn in either permissive primate or nonpermissive rodent cells. The authors isolated a clonal Ltk/sup +/ cell line which expressed the /sup 35/methionine-labeled IE94 polypeptide in sufficient abundance to be visualized directly in autoradiographs after gel electrophoresis of total-cell-culture protein extracts. The IE94 polypeptide synthesized in the transfected cells was indistinguishable in size and overall net charge from that produced in virus-infected cells. In addition, the IE94 protein expressed in LH/sub 2/p198-3 cells was phosphorylated (presumably bymore » a cellular protein kinase) and generated similar phosphopeptide patterns after partial tryptic digestion to those obtained with the CMV IE94 protein from infected cells. The cell line contained two to four stably integrated copies of the IE94 gene and synthesized a single virus-specific mRNA of 2.5 kilobases detectable on Northern blots. A new antigen, detectable by indirect anticomplement immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibody against the human CMV IE68 protein, was present in the nuclei of more than 95% of the LH/sub 2/l198-3 cells. This evidence suggests that (unlike most herpesvirus genes) the CMV IE94 gene, together with its complex promoter and spliced mRNA structure, may contain all of the regulatory elements necessary for strong constitutive expression in mammalian cells in the absence of other viral factors.« less

  11. Proteomic Characterization of Differential Abundant Proteins Accumulated between Lower and Upper Epidermises of Fleshy Scales in Onion (Allium cepa L.) Bulbs

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    The onion (Allium cepa L.) is widely planted worldwide as a valuable vegetable crop. The scales of an onion bulb are a modified type of leaf. The one-layer-cell epidermis of onion scales is commonly used as a model experimental material in botany and molecular biology. The lower epidermis (LE) and upper epidermis (UE) of onion scales display obvious differences in microscopic structure, cell differentiation and pigment synthesis; however, associated proteomic differences are unclear. LE and UE can be easily sampled as single-layer-cell tissues for comparative proteomic analysis. In this study, a proteomic approach based on 2-DE and mass spectrometry (MS) was applied to compare LE and UE of fleshy scales from yellow and red onions. We identified 47 differential abundant protein spots (representing 31 unique proteins) between LE and UE in red and yellow onions. These proteins are mainly involved in pigment synthesis, stress response, and cell division. Particularly, the differentially accumulated chalcone-flavanone isomerase and flavone O-methyltransferase 1-like in LE may result in the differences in the onion scale color between red and yellow onions. Moreover, stress-related proteins abundantly accumulated in both LE and UE. In addition, the differential accumulation of UDP-arabinopyranose mutase 1-like protein and β-1,3-glucanase in the LE may be related to the different cell sizes between LE and UE of the two types of onion. The data derived from this study provides new insight into the differences in differentiation and developmental processes between onion epidermises. This study may also make a contribution to onion breeding, such as improving resistances and changing colors. PMID:28036352

  12. Proteomic Characterization of Differential Abundant Proteins Accumulated between Lower and Upper Epidermises of Fleshy Scales in Onion (Allium cepa L.) Bulbs.

    PubMed

    Wu, Si; Ning, Fen; Wu, Xiaolin; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The onion (Allium cepa L.) is widely planted worldwide as a valuable vegetable crop. The scales of an onion bulb are a modified type of leaf. The one-layer-cell epidermis of onion scales is commonly used as a model experimental material in botany and molecular biology. The lower epidermis (LE) and upper epidermis (UE) of onion scales display obvious differences in microscopic structure, cell differentiation and pigment synthesis; however, associated proteomic differences are unclear. LE and UE can be easily sampled as single-layer-cell tissues for comparative proteomic analysis. In this study, a proteomic approach based on 2-DE and mass spectrometry (MS) was applied to compare LE and UE of fleshy scales from yellow and red onions. We identified 47 differential abundant protein spots (representing 31 unique proteins) between LE and UE in red and yellow onions. These proteins are mainly involved in pigment synthesis, stress response, and cell division. Particularly, the differentially accumulated chalcone-flavanone isomerase and flavone O-methyltransferase 1-like in LE may result in the differences in the onion scale color between red and yellow onions. Moreover, stress-related proteins abundantly accumulated in both LE and UE. In addition, the differential accumulation of UDP-arabinopyranose mutase 1-like protein and β-1,3-glucanase in the LE may be related to the different cell sizes between LE and UE of the two types of onion. The data derived from this study provides new insight into the differences in differentiation and developmental processes between onion epidermises. This study may also make a contribution to onion breeding, such as improving resistances and changing colors.

  13. A pilot study evaluating protein abundance in pressure ulcer fluid from people with and without spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Edsberg, Laura E.; Wyffels, Jennifer T.; Ogrin, Rajna; Craven, B. Catharine; Houghton, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the biochemistry of chronic pressure ulcers differs between patients with and without chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) through measurement and comparison of the concentration of wound fluid inflammatory mediators, growth factors, cytokines, acute phase proteins, and proteases. Design Survey. Setting Tertiary spinal cord rehabilitation center and skilled nursing facilities. Participants Twenty-nine subjects with SCI and nine subjects without SCI (>18 years) with at least one chronic pressure ulcer Stage II, III, or IV were enrolled. Outcome measures Total protein and 22 target analyte concentrations including inflammatory mediators, growth factors, cytokines, acute phase proteins, and proteases were quantified in the wound fluid and blood serum samples. Blood samples were tested for complete blood count, albumin, hemoglobin A1c, total iron binding capacity, iron, percent (%) saturation, C-reactive protein, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Results Wound fluid concentrations were significantly different between subjects with SCI and subjects without SCI for total protein concentration and nine analytes, MMP-9, S100A12, S100A8, S100A9, FGF2, IL-1b, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and TGF-b1. Subjects without SCI had higher values for all significantly different analytes measured in wound fluid except FGF2, TGF-b1, and wound fluid total protein. Subject-matched circulating levels of analytes and the standardized local concentration of the same proteins in the wound fluid were weakly or not correlated. Conclusions The biochemical profile of chronic pressure ulcers is different between SCI and non-SCI populations. These differences should be considered when selecting treatment options. Systemic blood serum properties may not represent the local wound environment. PMID:24968005

  14. BCR-ABL1 promotes leukemia by converting p27 into a cytoplasmic oncoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Ryan J.; Besson, Arnaud; Jeng, Sophia; Carey, Alyssa; LaTocha, Dorian H.; Fleischman, Angela G.; Duquesnes, Nicolas; Eide, Christopher A.; Vasudevan, Kavin B.; Loriaux, Marc M.; Firpo, Eduardo; Cortes, Jorge E.; McWeeney, Shannon; O’Hare, Thomas; Roberts, James M.; Druker, Brian J.; Deininger, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that p27, a nuclear cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor and tumor suppressor, can acquire oncogenic activities upon mislocalization to the cytoplasm. To understand how these antagonistic activities influence oncogenesis, we dissected the nuclear and cytoplasmic functions of p27 in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), a well-characterized malignancy caused by the BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase. p27 is predominantly cytoplasmic in CML and nuclear in normal cells. BCR-ABL1 regulates nuclear and cytoplasmic p27 abundance by kinase-dependent and -independent mechanisms, respectively. p27 knockdown in CML cell lines with predominantly cytoplasmic p27 induces apoptosis, consistent with a leukemogenic role of cytoplasmic p27. Accordingly, a p27 mutant (p27CK−) devoid of Cdk inhibitory nuclear functions enhances leukemogenesis in a murine CML model compared with complete absence of p27. In contrast, p27 mutations that enhance its stability (p27T187A) or nuclear retention (p27S10A) attenuate leukemogenesis over wild-type p27, validating the tumor-suppressor function of nuclear p27 in CML. We conclude that BCR-ABL1 kinase-dependent and -independent mechanisms convert p27 from a nuclear tumor suppressor to a cytoplasmic oncogene. These findings suggest that cytoplasmic mislocalization of p27 despite BCR-ABL1 inhibition by tyrosine kinase inhibitors may contribute to drug resistance, and effective therapeutic strategies to stabilize nuclear p27 must also prevent cytoplasmic mislocalization. PMID:25293778

  15. First cytoplasmic loop of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor can function at the third cytoplasmic loop position of rhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Takahiro; Tose, Koji; Shichida, Yoshinori

    2008-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are classified into several families based on their amino acid sequences. In family 1, GPCRs such as rhodopsin and adrenergic receptor, the structure-function relationship has been extensively investigated to demonstrate that exposure of the third cytoplasmic loop is essential for selective G protein activation. In contrast, much less is known about other families. Here we prepared chimeric mutants between Gt-coupled rhodopsin and Gi/Go- and Gs-coupled glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor of family 2 and tried to identify the loop region that functions at the third cytoplasmic loop position of rhodopsin. We succeeded in expressing a mutant having the first cytoplasmic loop of GLP-1 receptor and found that this mutant activated Gi and Go efficiently but did not activate Gt. Moreover, the rhodopsin mutant having the first loop of Gs-coupled secretin receptor of family 2 decreased the Gi and Go activation efficiencies. Therefore, the first loop of GLP-1 receptor would share a similar role to the third loop of rhodopsin in G protein activation. This result strongly suggested that different families of GPCRs have maintained molecular architectures of their ancestral types to generate a common mechanism, namely exposure of the cytoplasmic loop, to activate peripheral G protein.

  16. Coordinate regulation of two cytoplasmic RNA species transcribed from early region 2 of the adenovirus 2 genome.

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, C J; Rosenthal, R; Bhaduri, S; Raskas, H

    1981-01-01

    Early region 2 (E2) of the adenovirus 2 genome specifies a 72,000-dalton DNA-binding protein that is required for viral DNA replication. Electron microscopy studies have detected two major forms of 20S E2 mRNA, one species with a 5' leader from map position 75 and a second form having a leader from position 72 (Chow et al., J. Mol. Biol. 134:265-303, 1979). Only the species with a leader from position 75 was detected at early times; however, both forms were found at late times. We have analyzed the temporal regulation of E2 expression by documenting mRNA accumulation in the cytoplasm. Kinetic studies of pulse-labeled RNAs demonstrated a peak of E2 cytoplasmic RNa synthesis at 10 to 12 h, coinciding with the time of maximal synthesis of the 72,000-dalton DNA binding protein and viral DNA. To estimate the relative abundances of the two major E2 RNA species at various times during infection, total E2 cytoplasmic and polysomal 20S RNAs were isolated by hybridization-selection with specific DNA probes. The leader sequences in the selected RNAs were then quantitated by further RNA-DNA hybridization. We found that the elevated accumulation rate for E2 cytoplasmic RNA at late times reflected an increase in formation of both major species. Moreover, for all time points examined 66% of the mRNA species had a 5' end from map position 75, and 33% had a 5' terminus from position 72. Continuous labeling experiments provided evidence that both RNA forms have comparable half-lives. The results suggest that the two major species encoded by E2 are regulated in a coordinate fashion late in infection. Images PMID:6894621

  17. Coordinate regulation of two cytoplasmic RNA species transcribed from early region 2 of the adenovirus 2 genome.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, C J; Rosenthal, R; Bhaduri, S; Raskas, H

    1981-06-01

    Early region 2 (E2) of the adenovirus 2 genome specifies a 72,000-dalton DNA-binding protein that is required for viral DNA replication. Electron microscopy studies have detected two major forms of 20S E2 mRNA, one species with a 5' leader from map position 75 and a second form having a leader from position 72 (Chow et al., J. Mol. Biol. 134:265-303, 1979). Only the species with a leader from position 75 was detected at early times; however, both forms were found at late times. We have analyzed the temporal regulation of E2 expression by documenting mRNA accumulation in the cytoplasm. Kinetic studies of pulse-labeled RNAs demonstrated a peak of E2 cytoplasmic RNa synthesis at 10 to 12 h, coinciding with the time of maximal synthesis of the 72,000-dalton DNA binding protein and viral DNA. To estimate the relative abundances of the two major E2 RNA species at various times during infection, total E2 cytoplasmic and polysomal 20S RNAs were isolated by hybridization-selection with specific DNA probes. The leader sequences in the selected RNAs were then quantitated by further RNA-DNA hybridization. We found that the elevated accumulation rate for E2 cytoplasmic RNA at late times reflected an increase in formation of both major species. Moreover, for all time points examined 66% of the mRNA species had a 5' end from map position 75, and 33% had a 5' terminus from position 72. Continuous labeling experiments provided evidence that both RNA forms have comparable half-lives. The results suggest that the two major species encoded by E2 are regulated in a coordinate fashion late in infection.

  18. The N-methyl-D-aspartate-evoked cytoplasmic calcium increase in adult rat dorsal root ganglion neuronal somata was potentiated by substance P pretreatment in a protein kinase C-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Castillo, C; Norcini, M; Baquero-Buitrago, J; Levacic, D; Medina, R; Montoya-Gacharna, J V; Blanck, T J J; Dubois, M; Recio-Pinto, E

    2011-03-17

    The involvement of substance P (SP) in neuronal sensitization through the activation of the neurokinin-1-receptor (NK1r) in postsynaptic dorsal horn neurons has been well established. In contrast, the role of SP and NK1r in primary sensory dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, in particular in the soma, is not well understood. In this study, we evaluated whether SP modulated the NMDA-evoked transient increase in cytoplasmic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]cyt) in the soma of dissociated adult DRG neurons. Cultures were treated with nerve growth factor (NGF), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) or both NGF+PGE2. Treatment with NGF+PGE2 increased the percentage of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) responsive neurons. There was no correlation between the percentage of NMDA responsive neurons and the level of expression of the NR1 and NR2B subunits of the NMDA receptor or of the NK1r. Pretreatment with SP did not alter the percentage of NMDA responsive neurons; while it potentiated the NMDA-evoked [Ca2+]cyt transient by increasing its magnitude and by prolonging the period during which small- and some medium-sized neurons remained NMDA responsive. The SP-mediated potentiation was blocked by the SP-antagonist ([D-Pro4, D-Trp7,9]-SP (4-11)) and by the protein kinase C (PKC) blocker bisindolylmaleimide I (BIM); and correlated with the phosphorylation of PKCε. The Nk1r agonist [Sar9, Met(O2)11]-SP (SarMet-SP) also potentiated the NMDA-evoked [Ca2+]cyt transient. Exposure to SP or SarMet-SP produced a rapid increase in the labeling of phosphorylated-PKCε. In none of the conditions we detected phosphorylation of the NR2B subunit at Ser-1303. Phosphorylation of the NR2B subunit at Tyr1472 was enhanced to a similar extent in cells exposed to NMDA, SP or NMDA+SP, and that enhancement was blocked by BIM. Our findings suggest that NGF and PGE2 may contribute to the injury-evoked sensitization of DRG neurons in part by enhancing their NMDA-evoked [Ca2+]cyt transient in all sized DRG neurons; and that SP may further

  19. The Ontogeny of Cytochrome P450 Enzyme Activity and Protein Abundance in Conventional Pigs in Support of Preclinical Pediatric Drug Research.

    PubMed

    Millecam, Joske; De Clerck, Laura; Govaert, Elisabeth; Devreese, Mathias; Gasthuys, Elke; Schelstraete, Wim; Deforce, Dieter; De Bock, Lies; Van Bocxlaer, Jan; Sys, Stanislas; Croubels, Siska

    2018-01-01

    Since the implementation of several legislations to improve pediatric drug research, more pediatric clinical trials are being performed. In order to optimize these pediatric trials, adequate preclinical data are necessary, which are usually obtained by juvenile animal models. The growing piglet has been increasingly suggested as a potential animal model due to a high degree of anatomical and physiological similarities with humans. However, physiological data in pigs on the ontogeny of major organs involved in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs are largely lacking. The aim of this study was to unravel the ontogeny of porcine hepatic drug metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP450) activities as well as protein abundances. Liver microsomes from 16 conventional pigs (8 males and 8 females) per age group: 2 days, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 6-7 months were prepared. Activity measurements were performed with substrates of major human CYP450 enzymes: midazolam (CYP3A), tolbutamide (CYP2C), and chlorzoxazone (CYP2E). Next, the hepatic scaling factor, microsomal protein per gram liver (MPPGL), was determined to correct for enzyme losses during the fractionation process. Finally, protein abundance was determined using proteomics and correlated with enzyme activity. No significant sex differences within each age category were observed in enzyme activity or MPPGL. The biotransformation rate of all three substrates increased with age, comparable with human maturation of CYP450 enzymes. The MPPGL decreased from birth till 8 weeks of age followed by an increase till 6-7 months of age. Significant sex differences in protein abundance were observed for CYP1A2, CYP2A19, CYP3A22, CYP4V2, CYP2C36, CYP2E_1, and CYP2E_2. Midazolam and tolbutamide are considered good substrates to evaluate porcine CYP3A/2C enzymes, respectively. However, chlorzoxazone is not advised to evaluate porcine CYP2E enzyme activity. The increase in biotransformation rate with age can be

  20. The Abundant Class III Chitinase Homolog in Young Developing Banana Fruits Behaves as a Transient Vegetative Storage Protein and Most Probably Serves as an Important Supply of Amino Acids for the Synthesis of Ripening-Associated Proteins1

    PubMed Central

    Peumans, Willy J.; Proost, Paul; Swennen, Rony L.; Van Damme, Els J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Analyses of the protein content and composition revealed dramatic changes in gene expression during in situ banana (Musa spp.) fruit formation/ripening. The total banana protein content rapidly increases during the first 60 to 70 d, but remains constant for the rest of fruit formation/ripening. During the phase of rapid protein accumulation, an inactive homolog of class III chitinases accounts for up to 40% (w/v) of the total protein. Concomitant with the arrest of net protein accumulation, the chitinase-related protein (CRP) progressively decreases and several novel proteins appear in the electropherograms. Hence, CRP behaves as a fruit-specific vegetative storage protein that accumulates during early fruit formation and serves as a source of amino acids for the synthesis of ripening-associated proteins. Analyses of individual proteins revealed that a thaumatin-like protein, a β-1,3-glucanase, a class I chitinase, and a mannose-binding lectin are the most abundant ripening-associated proteins. Because during the ripening of prematurely harvested bananas, similar changes take place as in the in situ ripening bananas, CRP present in immature fruits is a sufficient source of amino acids for a quasi-normal synthesis of ripening-associated proteins. However, it is evident that the conversion of CRP in ripening-associated proteins takes place at an accelerated rate, especially when climacteric ripening is induced by ethylene. The present report also includes a discussion of the accumulation of the major banana allergens and the identification of suitable promoters for the production of vaccines in transgenic bananas. PMID:12376669

  1. Localization of the herpes simplex virus type 1 major capsid protein VP5 to the cell nucleus requires the abundant scaffolding protein VP22a.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, P; Addison, C; Cross, A M; Kennard, J; Preston, V G; Rixon, F J

    1994-05-01

    The intracellular distributions of three herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) capsid proteins, VP23, VP5 and VP22a, were examined using vaccinia virus and plasmid expression systems. During infection of cells with HSV-1 wild-type virus, all three proteins were predominantly located in the nucleus, which is the site of capsid assembly. However, when expressed in the absence of any other HSV-1 proteins, although VP22a was found exclusively in the nucleus as expected, VP5 and VP23 were distributed throughout the cell. Thus nuclear localization is not an intrinsic property of these proteins but must be mediated by one or more HSV-1-induced proteins. Co-expression experiments demonstrated that VP5 was efficiently transported to the nucleus in the presence of VP22a, but the distribution of VP23 was unaffected by the presence of either or both of the other two proteins.

  2. Identification of an abundant 56 kDa protein implicated in food allergy as granule-bound starch synthase

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rice, the staple food of South and East Asian counties, is considered to be hypoallergenic. However, several clinical studies have documented rice-induced allergy in sensitive patients. Rice proteins with molecular weights of 14-16 kDa, 26 kDa, 33 kDa and 56 kDa have been identified as allergens. Re...

  3. CYTOPLASMIC FILAMENTS OF AMOEBA PROTEUS

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Thomas D.; Ito, Susumu

    1970-01-01

    The role of filaments in consistency changes and movement in a motile cytoplasmic extract of Amoeba proteus was investigated by correlating light and electron microscopic observations with viscosity measurements. The extract is prepared by the method of Thompson and Wolpert (1963). At 0°C, this extract is nonmotile and similar in structure to ameba cytoplasm, consisting of groundplasm, vesicles, mitochondria, and a few 160 A filaments. The extract undergoes striking ATP-stimulated streaming when warmed to 22°C. Two phases of movement are distinguished. During the first phase, the apparent viscosity usually increases and numerous 50–70 A filaments appear in samples of the extract prepared for electron microscopy, suggesting that the increase in viscosity in caused, at least in part, by the formation of these thin filaments. During this initial phase of ATP-stimulated movement, these thin filaments are not detectable by phase-contrast or polarization microscopy, but later, in the second phase of movement, 70 A filaments aggregate to form birefringent microscopic fibrils. A preparation of pure groundplasm with no 160 A filaments or membranous organelles exhibits little or no ATP-stimulated movement, but 50–70 A filaments form and aggregate into birefringent fibrils. This observation and the structural relationship of the 70 A and the 160 A filaments in the motile extract suggest that both types of filaments may be required for movement. These two types of filaments, 50–70 A and 160 A, are also present in the cytoplasm of intact amebas. Fixed cells could not be used to study the distribution of these filaments during natural ameboid movement because of difficulties in preserving the normal structure of the ameba during preparation for electron microscopy. PMID:4915451

  4. Response of amphibian egg non-yolk cytoplasm to gravity orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. C.; Neff, A. W.; Malacinski, G. M.

    1985-01-01

    In order to study amphibian egg cytoplasmic organization and egg symmetrization at the molecular level, a library of seventeen monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) against Xenopus laevis non-yolk egg proteins was produced. Several of these MoAbs react with non-yolk cytoplasmic antigens which are unevenly distributed in the fertile Xenopus egg.

  5. Mechanisms for cytoplasmic organization: an overview.

    PubMed

    Pagliaro, L

    2000-01-01

    One of the basic characteristics of life is the intrinsic organization of cytoplasm, yet we know surprisingly little about the manner in which cytoplasmic macromolecules are arranged. It is clear that cytoplasm is not the homogeneous "soup" it was once envisioned to be, but a comprehensive model for cytoplasmic organization is not available in modern cell biology. The premise of this volume is that phase separation in cytoplasm may play a role in organization at the subcellular level. Other mechanisms for non-membrane-bounded intracellular organization have previously been proposed. Some of these will be reviewed in this chapter. Multiple mechanisms, involving phase separation, specific intracellular targeting, formation of macromolecular complexes, and channeling, all could well contribute to cytoplasmic organization. Temporal and spatial organization, as well as composition, are likely to be important in defining the characteristics of cytoplasm.

  6. Abundant RNA editing sites of chloroplast protein-coding genes in Ginkgo biloba and an evolutionary pattern analysis.

    PubMed

    He, Peng; Huang, Sheng; Xiao, Guanghui; Zhang, Yuzhou; Yu, Jianing

    2016-12-01

    RNA editing is a posttranscriptional modification process that alters the RNA sequence so that it deviates from the genomic DNA sequence. RNA editing mainly occurs in chloroplasts and mitochondrial genomes, and the number of editing sites varies in terrestrial plants. Why and how RNA editing systems evolved remains a mystery. Ginkgo biloba is one of the oldest seed plants and has an important evolutionary position. Determining the patterns and distribution of RNA editing in the ancient plant provides insights into the evolutionary trend of RNA editing, and helping us to further understand their biological significance. In this paper, we investigated 82 protein-coding genes in the chloroplast genome of G. biloba and identified 255 editing sites, which is the highest number of RNA editing events reported in a gymnosperm. All of the editing sites were C-to-U conversions, which mainly occurred in the second codon position, biased towards to the U_A context, and caused an increase in hydrophobic amino acids. RNA editing could change the secondary structures of 82 proteins, and create or eliminate a transmembrane region in five proteins as determined in silico. Finally, the evolutionary tendencies of RNA editing in different gene groups were estimated using the nonsynonymous-synonymous substitution rate selection mode. The G. biloba chloroplast genome possesses the highest number of RNA editing events reported so far in a seed plant. Most of the RNA editing sites can restore amino acid conservation, increase hydrophobicity, and even influence protein structures. Similar purifying selections constitute the dominant evolutionary force at the editing sites of essential genes, such as the psa, some psb and pet groups, and a positive selection occurred in the editing sites of nonessential genes, such as most ndh and a few psb genes.

  7. Depth-specific fluctuations of gene expression and protein abundance modulate the photophysiology in the seagrass Posidonia oceanica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Procaccini, Gabriele; Ruocco, Miriam; Marín-Guirao, Lázaro; Dattolo, Emanuela; Brunet, Christophe; D'Esposito, Daniela; Lauritano, Chiara; Mazzuca, Silvia; Serra, Ilia Anna; Bernardo, Letizia; Piro, Amalia; Beer, Sven; Björk, Mats; Gullström, Martin; Buapet, Pimchanok; Rasmusson, Lina M.; Felisberto, Paulo; Gobert, Sylvie; Runcie, John W.; Silva, João; Olivé, Irene; Costa, Monya M.; Barrote, Isabel; Santos, Rui

    2017-02-01

    Here we present the results of a multiple organizational level analysis conceived to identify acclimative/adaptive strategies exhibited by the seagrass Posidonia oceanica to the daily fluctuations in the light environment, at contrasting depths. We assessed changes in photophysiological parameters, leaf respiration, pigments, and protein and mRNA expression levels. The results show that the diel oscillations of P. oceanica photophysiological and respiratory responses were related to transcripts and proteins expression of the genes involved in those processes and that there was a response asynchrony between shallow and deep plants probably caused by the strong differences in the light environment. The photochemical pathway of energy use was more effective in shallow plants due to higher light availability, but these plants needed more investment in photoprotection and photorepair, requiring higher translation and protein synthesis than deep plants. The genetic differentiation between deep and shallow stands suggests the existence of locally adapted genotypes to contrasting light environments. The depth-specific diel rhythms of photosynthetic and respiratory processes, from molecular to physiological levels, must be considered in the management and conservation of these key coastal ecosystems.

  8. Depth-specific fluctuations of gene expression and protein abundance modulate the photophysiology in the seagrass Posidonia oceanica

    PubMed Central

    Procaccini, Gabriele; Ruocco, Miriam; Marín-Guirao, Lázaro; Dattolo, Emanuela; Brunet, Christophe; D’Esposito, Daniela; Lauritano, Chiara; Mazzuca, Silvia; Serra, Ilia Anna; Bernardo, Letizia; Piro, Amalia; Beer, Sven; Björk, Mats; Gullström, Martin; Buapet, Pimchanok; Rasmusson, Lina M.; Felisberto, Paulo; Gobert, Sylvie; Runcie, John W.; Silva, João; Olivé, Irene; Costa, Monya M.; Barrote, Isabel; Santos, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Here we present the results of a multiple organizational level analysis conceived to identify acclimative/adaptive strategies exhibited by the seagrass Posidonia oceanica to the daily fluctuations in the light environment, at contrasting depths. We assessed changes in photophysiological parameters, leaf respiration, pigments, and protein and mRNA expression levels. The results show that the diel oscillations of P. oceanica photophysiological and respiratory responses were related to transcripts and proteins expression of the genes involved in those processes and that there was a response asynchrony between shallow and deep plants probably caused by the strong differences in the light environment. The photochemical pathway of energy use was more effective in shallow plants due to higher light availability, but these plants needed more investment in photoprotection and photorepair, requiring higher translation and protein synthesis than deep plants. The genetic differentiation between deep and shallow stands suggests the existence of locally adapted genotypes to contrasting light environments. The depth-specific diel rhythms of photosynthetic and respiratory processes, from molecular to physiological levels, must be considered in the management and conservation of these key coastal ecosystems. PMID:28211527

  9. Crystal structure of secretory abundant heat soluble protein 4 from one of the toughest “water bears” micro‐animals Ramazzottius Varieornatus

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Yohta

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Though anhydrobiotic tardigrades (micro‐animals also known as water bears) possess many genes of secretory abundant heat soluble (SAHS) proteins unique to Tardigrada, their functions are unknown. A previous crystallographic study revealed that a SAHS protein (RvSAHS1) from one of the toughest tardigrades, Ramazzottius varieornatus, has a β‐barrel architecture similar to fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) and two putative ligand binding sites (LBS1 and LBS2) where fatty acids can bind. However, some SAHS proteins such as RvSAHS4 have different sets of amino acid residues at LBS1 and LBS2, implying that they prefer other ligands and have different functions. Here RvSAHS4 was crystallized and analyzed under a condition similar to that for RvSAHS1. There was no electron density corresponding to a fatty acid at LBS1 of RvSAHS4, where a putative fatty acid was observed in RvSAHS1. Instead, LBS2 of RvSAHS4, which was composed of uncharged residues, captured a putative polyethylene glycol molecule. These results suggest that RvSAHS4 mainly uses LBS2 for the binding of uncharged molecules. PMID:29493034

  10. ScII: an abundant chromosome scaffold protein is a member of a family of putative ATPases with an unusual predicted tertiary structure

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Here, we describe the cloning and characterization of ScII, the second most abundant protein after topoisomerase II, of the chromosome scaffold fraction to be identified. ScII is structurally related to a protein, Smc1p, previously found to be required for accurate chromosome segregation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ScII and the other members of the emerging family of SMC1-like proteins are likely to be novel ATPases, with NTP-binding A and B sites separated by two lengthy regions predicted to form an alpha-helical coiled-coil. Analysis of the ScII B site predicted that ScII might use ATP by a mechanism similar to the bacterial recN DNA repair and recombination enzyme. ScII is a mitosis-specific scaffold protein that colocalizes with topoisomerase II in mitotic chromosomes. However, ScII appears not to be associated with the interphase nuclear matrix. ScII might thus play a role in mitotic processes such as chromosome condensation or sister chromatid disjunction, both of which have been previously shown to involve topoisomerase II. PMID:7929577

  11. Gel-sol transition of the cytoplasm and its regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janmey, Paul A.

    1991-05-01

    The cytoplasm of motile cells contains a dynamic system of filamentous protein polymers that endow the cell with elasticity permitting it to maintain its shape in the presence of mechanical forces encountered in vivo. Part of this cytoskeleton is composed of filaments of polymerized actin. Remodeling of this network is required for cell motility and cytoplasmic restructuring, and the reversible polymerization of actin per se has been suggested to cause morphologic changes such as cell ruffling and pseudopd extension. Changes in the degree of polymerization of acting and in the association of actin filaments into supramolecular structures are often associated with cell activation. Such activation is initiated by extracellular signals that bind to receptors which are often coupled by G-proteins to the production of intracellular second messangers. Cytoplasmic gel-sol transitions therefore can occur by formation and dissolution of actin networks, mediated by a variety of actin-binding proteins which are regulated by intracellular signalling molecules such as Ca2+ and polyphosphoinositides. The effects of three actin binding proteins: profilin, gelsolin and ABP (Tilamin) on the polymerization of actin and the viscoelasticity of the resulting networks measured in vitro suggest possible roles of these proteins in vivo. In particular, gelsolin, which activated by Ca2+ to sever and cap actin filaments, and released from filament ends by PIP2, appears to be a likely candidate for regulation of gel-sol transitions in response to cell activation. Recent results demonstrate that the hydrolysis of ATP that occurs following actin polymerization also influences the structure of the resulting filament. In addition being regulated by acting-binding proteins, the viscoelasticity of actin networks is also affected by the presence of the other two classes of cytoplasmic protein polymers, microtubules and intermediate filaments.

  12. A mechanism for intergenomic integration: abundance of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small-subunit protein influences the translation of the large-subunit mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Rodermel, S; Haley, J; Jiang, C Z; Tsai, C H; Bogorad, L

    1996-01-01

    Multimeric protein complexes in chloroplasts and mitochondria are generally composed of products of both nuclear and organelle genes of the cell. A central problem of eukaryotic cell biology is to identify and understand the molecular mechanisms for integrating the production and accumulation of the products of the two separate genomes. Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) is localized in the chloroplasts of photosynthetic eukaryotic cells and is composed of small subunits (SS) and large subunits (LS) coded for by nuclear rbcS and chloroplast rbcL genes, respectively. Transgenic tobacco plants containing antisense rbcS DNA have reduced levels of rbcS mRNA, normal levels of rbcL mRNA, and coordinately reduced LS and SS proteins. Our previous experiments indicated that the rate of translation of rbcL mRNA might be reduced in some antisense plants; direct evidence is presented here. After a short-term pulse there is less labeled LS protein in the transgenic plants than in wild-type plants, indicating that LS accumulation is controlled in the mutants at the translational and/or posttranslational levels. Consistent with a primary restriction at translation, fewer rbcL mRNAs are associated with polysomes of normal size and more are free or are associated with only a few ribosomes in the antisense plants. Effects of the rbcS antisense mutation on mRNA and protein accumulation, as well as on the distribution of mRNAs on polysomes, appear to be minimal for other chloroplast and nuclear photosynthetic genes. Our results suggest that SS protein abundance specifically contributes to the regulation of LS protein accumulation at the level of rbcL translation initiation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:8632983

  13. Abundance in proteins expressed after functional electrical stimulation cycling or arm cycling ergometry training in persons with chronic spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Gorgey, Ashraf S; Graham, Zachary A; Bauman, William A; Cardozo, Christopher; Gater, David R

    2017-07-01

    Longitudinal design. The study determined the effects of two forms of exercise training on the abundance of two proteins, (glucose transporter-4 [GLUT-4], adenosine monophosphate kinase [AMPK]) involved in glucose utilization and the transcriptional coactivator that regulates the genes involved in energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) coactivator 1 alpha [PGC-1α]), in muscles in men with chronic motor-complete spinal cord injury (SCI). Clinical trial at a Medical Center. Nine men with chronic motor-complete SCI participated in functional electrical stimulation lower extremity cycling (FES-LEC; n = 4) or arm cycling ergometer (arm-cycling ergometer [ACE]; n = 5) 5 days/week for 16 weeks. Whole body composition was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. An intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed to measure glucose effectiveness (Sg) and insulin sensitivity (Si). Muscle biopsies of the right vastus lateralis (VL) and triceps muscles were collected one week prior to and post the exercise training intervention. Neither training intervention altered body composition or carbohydrate metabolism. GLUT-4 increased by 3.8 fold in the VL after FES training and increased 0.6 fold in the triceps after ACE training. PGC-1α increased by 2.3 fold in the VL after FES training and 3.8 fold in the triceps after ACE training. AMPK increased by 3.4 fold in the VL after FES training and in the triceps after ACE training. FES-LEC and ACE training were associated with greater protein expressions in the trained muscles by effectively influencing the abundance of GLUT-4, AMPK and PGC-1α. Thus, FES-LEC training of paralyzed muscle can modulate protein expression similar to that of trained and innervated muscle.

  14. Abundant Type III Lipid Transfer Proteins in Arabidopsis Tapetum Are Secreted to the Locule and Become a Constituent of the Pollen Exine1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ming-Der; Chen, Tung-Ling L.; Huang, Anthony H.C.

    2013-01-01

    Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are small secretory proteins in plants with defined lipid-binding structures for possible lipid exocytosis. Special groups of LTPs unique to the anther tapetum are abundant, but their functions are unclear. We studied a special group of LTPs, type III LTPs, in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Their transcripts were restricted to the anther tapetum, with levels peaking at the developmental stage of maximal pollen-wall exine synthesis. We constructed an LTP-Green Fluorescent Protein (LTP-GFP) plasmid, transformed it into wild-type plants, and monitored LTP-GFP in developing anthers with confocal laser scanning microscopy. LTP-GFP appeared in the tapetum and was secreted via the endoplasmic reticulum-trans-Golgi network machinery into the locule. It then moved to the microspore surface and remained as a component of exine. Immuno-transmission electron microscopy of native LTP in anthers confirmed the LTP-GFP observations. The in vivo association of LTP-GFP and exine in anthers was not observed with non-type III or structurally modified type III LTPs or in transformed exine-defective mutant plants. RNA interference knockdown of individual type III LTPs produced no observable mutant phenotypes. RNA interference knockdown of two type III LTPs produced microscopy-observable morphologic changes in the intine underneath the exine (presumably as a consequence of changes in the exine not observed by transmission electron microscopy) and pollen susceptible to dehydration damage. Overall, we reveal a novel transfer pathway of LTPs in which LTPs bound or nonbound to exine precursors are secreted from the tapetum to become microspore exine constituents; this pathway explains the need for plentiful LTPs to incorporate into the abundant exine. PMID:24096413

  15. Genetic analysis of the cytoplasmic dynein subunit families.

    PubMed

    Pfister, K Kevin; Shah, Paresh R; Hummerich, Holger; Russ, Andreas; Cotton, James; Annuar, Azlina Ahmad; King, Stephen M; Fisher, Elizabeth M C

    2006-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dyneins, the principal microtubule minus-end-directed motor proteins of the cell, are involved in many essential cellular processes. The major form of this enzyme is a complex of at least six protein subunits, and in mammals all but one of the subunits are encoded by at least two genes. Here we review current knowledge concerning the subunits, their interactions, and their functional roles as derived from biochemical and genetic analyses. We also carried out extensive database searches to look for new genes and to clarify anomalies in the databases. Our analysis documents evolutionary relationships among the dynein subunits of mammals and other model organisms, and sheds new light on the role of this diverse group of proteins, highlighting the existence of two cytoplasmic dynein complexes with distinct cellular roles.

  16. Genetic Analysis of the Cytoplasmic Dynein Subunit Families

    PubMed Central

    Pfister, K. Kevin; Shah, Paresh R; Hummerich, Holger; Russ, Andreas; Cotton, James; Annuar, Azlina Ahmad; King, Stephen M; Fisher, Elizabeth M. C

    2006-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dyneins, the principal microtubule minus-end-directed motor proteins of the cell, are involved in many essential cellular processes. The major form of this enzyme is a complex of at least six protein subunits, and in mammals all but one of the subunits are encoded by at least two genes. Here we review current knowledge concerning the subunits, their interactions, and their functional roles as derived from biochemical and genetic analyses. We also carried out extensive database searches to look for new genes and to clarify anomalies in the databases. Our analysis documents evolutionary relationships among the dynein subunits of mammals and other model organisms, and sheds new light on the role of this diverse group of proteins, highlighting the existence of two cytoplasmic dynein complexes with distinct cellular roles. PMID:16440056

  17. An abundantly expressed mucin-like protein from Toxocara canis infective larvae: the precursor of the larval surface coat glycoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Gems, D; Maizels, R M

    1996-01-01

    Evasion of host immunity by Toxocara canis infective larvae is mediated by the nematode surface coat, which is shed in response to binding by host antibody molecules or effector cells. The major constituent of the coat is the TES-120 glycoprotein series. We have isolated a 730-bp cDNA from the gene encoding the apoprotein precursor of TES-120. The mRNA is absent from T. canis adults but hyperabundant in larvae, making up approximately 10% of total mRNA, and is trans-spliced with the nematode 5' leader sequence SL1. It encodes a 15.8-kDa protein (after signal peptide removal) containing a typical mucin domain: 86 amino acid residues, 72.1% of which are Ser or Thr, organized into an array of heptameric repeats, interspersed with proline residues. At the C-terminal end of the putative protein are two 36-amino acid repeats containing six Cys residues, in a motif that can also be identified in several genes in Caenorhabditis elegans. Although TES-120 displays size and charge heterogeneity, there is a single copy gene and a homogeneous size of mRNA. The association of overexpression of some membrane-associated mucins with immunosuppression and tumor metastasis suggests a possible model for the role of the surface coat in immune evasion by parasitic nematodes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 PMID:8643687

  18. Cytoplasmic Domains and Voltage-Dependent Potassium Channel Gating

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Francisco; Domínguez, Pedro; de la Peña, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    The basic architecture of the voltage-dependent K+ channels (Kv channels) corresponds to a transmembrane protein core in which the permeation pore, the voltage-sensing components and the gating machinery (cytoplasmic facing gate and sensor–gate coupler) reside. Usually, large protein tails are attached to this core, hanging toward the inside of the cell. These cytoplasmic regions are essential for normal channel function and, due to their accessibility to the cytoplasmic environment, constitute obvious targets for cell-physiological control of channel behavior. Here we review the present knowledge about the molecular organization of these intracellular channel regions and their role in both setting and controlling Kv voltage-dependent gating properties. This includes the influence that they exert on Kv rapid/N-type inactivation and on activation/deactivation gating of Shaker-like and eag-type Kv channels. Some illustrative examples about the relevance of these cytoplasmic domains determining the possibilities for modulation of Kv channel gating by cellular components are also considered. PMID:22470342

  19. Protein covalent immobilization via its scarce thiol versus abundant amine groups: Effect on orientation, cell binding domain exposure and conformational lability.

    PubMed

    Ba, O M; Hindie, M; Marmey, P; Gallet, O; Anselme, K; Ponche, A; Duncan, A C

    2015-10-01

    Quantity, orientation, conformation and covalent linkage of naturally cell adhesive proteins adsorbed or covalently linked to a surface, are known to influence the preservation of their subsequent long term cell adhesion properties and bioactivity. In the present work, we explore two different strategies for the covalent linking of plasma fibronectin (pFN) - used as a cell adhesive model protein, onto a polystyrene (PS) surface. One is aimed at tethering the protein to the surface in a semi-oriented fashion (via one of the 4 free thiol reactive groups on the protein) with a heterofunctional coupling agent (SSMPB method). The other aims to immobilize the protein in a more random fashion by reaction between the abundant pendant primary amine bearing amino acids of the pFN and activated carboxylic surface functions obtained after glutaric anhydride surface treatment (GA method). The overall goal will be to verify the hypothesis of a correlation between covalent immobilization of a model cell adhesive protein to a PS surface in a semi-oriented configuration (versus randomly oriented) with promotion of enhanced exposure of the protein's cell binding domain. This in turn would lead to enhanced cell adhesion. Ideally the goal is to elaborate substrates exhibiting a long term stable protein monolayer with preserved cell adhesive properties and bioactivity for biomaterial and/or cell adhesion commercial plate applications. However, the initial restrictive objective of this paper is to first quantitatively and qualitatively investigate the reversibly (merely adsorbed) versus covalently irreversibly bound protein to the surface after the immobilization procedure. Although immobilized surface amounts were similar (close to the monolayer range) for all immobilization approaches, covalent grafting showed improved retention and stronger "tethering" of the pFN protein to the surface (roughly 40%) after SDS rinsing compared to that for mere adsorption (0%) suggesting an added value

  20. Regulation of mRNA abundance by polypyrimidine tract-binding protein-controlled alternate 5' splice site choice.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Fursham M; Makeyev, Eugene V

    2014-11-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) provides a potent mechanism for increasing protein diversity and modulating gene expression levels. How alternate splice sites are selected by the splicing machinery and how AS is integrated into gene regulation networks remain important questions of eukaryotic biology. Here we report that polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (Ptbp1/PTB/hnRNP-I) controls alternate 5' and 3' splice site (5'ss and 3'ss) usage in a large set of mammalian transcripts. A top scoring event identified by our analysis was the choice between competing upstream and downstream 5'ss (u5'ss and d5'ss) in the exon 18 of the Hps1 gene. Hps1 is essential for proper biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles and loss of its function leads to a disease called type 1 Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome (HPS). We show that Ptbp1 promotes preferential utilization of the u5'ss giving rise to stable mRNAs encoding a full-length Hps1 protein, whereas bias towards d5'ss triggered by Ptbp1 down-regulation generates transcripts susceptible to nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). We further demonstrate that Ptbp1 binds to pyrimidine-rich sequences between the u5'ss and d5'ss and activates the former site rather than repressing the latter. Consistent with this mechanism, u5'ss is intrinsically weaker than d5'ss, with a similar tendency observed for other genes with Ptbp1-induced u5'ss bias. Interestingly, the brain-enriched Ptbp1 paralog Ptbp2/nPTB/brPTB stimulated the u5'ss utilization but with a considerably lower efficiency than Ptbp1. This may account for the tight correlation between Hps1 with Ptbp1 expression levels observed across mammalian tissues. More generally, these data expand our understanding of AS regulation and uncover a post-transcriptional strategy ensuring co-expression of a subordinate gene with its master regulator through an AS-NMD tracking mechanism.

  1. Regulation of mRNA Abundance by Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein-Controlled Alternate 5′ Splice Site Choice

    PubMed Central

    Hamid, Fursham M.; Makeyev, Eugene V.

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) provides a potent mechanism for increasing protein diversity and modulating gene expression levels. How alternate splice sites are selected by the splicing machinery and how AS is integrated into gene regulation networks remain important questions of eukaryotic biology. Here we report that polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (Ptbp1/PTB/hnRNP-I) controls alternate 5′ and 3′ splice site (5′ss and 3′ss) usage in a large set of mammalian transcripts. A top scoring event identified by our analysis was the choice between competing upstream and downstream 5′ss (u5′ss and d5′ss) in the exon 18 of the Hps1 gene. Hps1 is essential for proper biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles and loss of its function leads to a disease called type 1 Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome (HPS). We show that Ptbp1 promotes preferential utilization of the u5′ss giving rise to stable mRNAs encoding a full-length Hps1 protein, whereas bias towards d5′ss triggered by Ptbp1 down-regulation generates transcripts susceptible to nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). We further demonstrate that Ptbp1 binds to pyrimidine-rich sequences between the u5′ss and d5′ss and activates the former site rather than repressing the latter. Consistent with this mechanism, u5′ss is intrinsically weaker than d5′ss, with a similar tendency observed for other genes with Ptbp1-induced u5′ss bias. Interestingly, the brain-enriched Ptbp1 paralog Ptbp2/nPTB/brPTB stimulated the u5′ss utilization but with a considerably lower efficiency than Ptbp1. This may account for the tight correlation between Hps1 with Ptbp1 expression levels observed across mammalian tissues. More generally, these data expand our understanding of AS regulation and uncover a post-transcriptional strategy ensuring co-expression of a subordinate gene with its master regulator through an AS-NMD tracking mechanism. PMID:25375251

  2. Correlation Between Expression of Recombinant Proteins and Abundance of H3K4Me3 on the Enhancer of Human Cytomegalovirus Major Immediate-Early Promoter.

    PubMed

    Soo, Benjamin P C; Tay, Julian; Ng, Shirelle; Ho, Steven C L; Yang, Yuansheng; Chao, Sheng-Hao

    2017-08-01

    Role of epigenetic regulation in the control of gene expression is well established. The impact of several epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and histone acetylation, on recombinant protein production in mammalian cells has been investigated recently. Here we investigate the correlation between the selected epigenetic markers and five trastuzumab biosimilar-producing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines in which the expression of trastuzumab is driven by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) major immediate-early (MIE) promoter. We chose the producing clones in which transcription was the determinative step for the production of recombinant trastuzumab. We found that the abundance of trimethylation of histone 3 at lysine 4 (H3K4Me3) on the enhancer of HCMV MIE promoter correlated well with the relative titers of recombinant trastuzumab among the clones. Such close correlation was not observed between the recombinant protein and other epigenetic markers examined in our study. Our results demonstrate that the HCMV MIE enhancer-bound H3K4Me3 epigenetic marker may be used as the epigenetic indicator to predict the relative production of recombinant proteins between the producing CHO cell lines.

  3. DNA–protein π-interactions in nature: abundance, structure, composition and strength of contacts between aromatic amino acids and DNA nucleobases or deoxyribose sugar

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Katie A.; Kellie, Jennifer L.; Wetmore, Stacey D.

    2014-01-01

    Four hundred twenty-eight high-resolution DNA–protein complexes were chosen for a bioinformatics study. Although 164 crystal structures (38% of those searched) contained no interactions, 574 discrete π–contacts between the aromatic amino acids and the DNA nucleobases or deoxyribose were identified using strict criteria, including visual inspection. The abundance and structure of the interactions were determined by unequivocally classifying the contacts as either π–π stacking, π–π T-shaped or sugar–π contacts. Three hundred forty-four nucleobase–amino acid π–π contacts (60% of all interactions identified) were identified in 175 of the crystal structures searched. Unprecedented in the literature, 230 DNA–protein sugar–π contacts (40% of all interactions identified) were identified in 137 crystal structures, which involve C–H···π and/or lone–pair···π interactions, contain any amino acid and can be classified according to sugar atoms involved. Both π–π and sugar–π interactions display a range of relative monomer orientations and therefore interaction energies (up to –50 (–70) kJ mol−1 for neutral (charged) interactions as determined using quantum chemical calculations). In general, DNA–protein π-interactions are more prevalent than perhaps currently accepted and the role of such interactions in many biological processes may yet to be uncovered. PMID:24744240

  4. Novel origin of lamin-derived cytoplasmic intermediate filaments in tardigrades

    PubMed Central

    Hering, Lars; Bouameur, Jamal-Eddine; Reichelt, Julian; Magin, Thomas M; Mayer, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Intermediate filament (IF) proteins, including nuclear lamins and cytoplasmic IF proteins, are essential cytoskeletal components of bilaterian cells. Despite their important role in protecting tissues against mechanical force, no cytoplasmic IF proteins have been convincingly identified in arthropods. Here we show that the ancestral cytoplasmic IF protein gene was lost in the entire panarthropod (onychophoran + tardigrade + arthropod) rather than arthropod lineage and that nuclear, lamin-derived proteins instead acquired new cytoplasmic roles at least three times independently in collembolans, copepods, and tardigrades. Transcriptomic and genomic data revealed three IF protein genes in the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini, one of which (cytotardin) occurs exclusively in the cytoplasm of epidermal and foregut epithelia, where it forms belt-like filaments around each epithelial cell. These results suggest that a lamin derivative has been co-opted to enhance tissue stability in tardigrades, a function otherwise served by cytoplasmic IF proteins in all other bilaterians. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11117.001 PMID:26840051

  5. CYTOPLASMIC ANTIGEN RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THE ACTINOMYCETALES

    PubMed Central

    Kwapinski, J. B.

    1964-01-01

    Kwapinski, J. B. (The University of New England, Armidale, N.S.W., Australia). Cytoplasmic antigen relationships among the Actinomycetales. J. Bacteriol. 87:1234–1237. 1964.—Cytoplasm obtained from 44 strains of the Actinomycetales was tested against the homologous and heterologous antisera in a diffusion precipitation test. A pattern of serological relationships among the cytoplasmic fractions was revealed, with Mycobacterium smegmatis occupying a central position in the antigenic evolution of these microorganisms. Images PMID:4959802

  6. Enhanced Colorimetric Immunoassay Accompanying with Enzyme Cascade Amplification Strategy for Ultrasensitive Detection of Low-Abundance Protein

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhuangqiang; Hou, Li; Xu, Mingdi; Tang, Dianping

    2014-01-01

    Methods based on enzyme labels have been developed for colorimetric immunoassays, but most involve poor sensitivity and are unsuitable for routine use. Herein, we design an enhanced colorimetric immunoassay for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) coupling with an enzyme-cascade-amplification strategy (ECAS-CIA). In the presence of target PSA, the labeled alkaline phosphatase on secondary antibody catalyzes the formation of palladium nanostructures, which catalyze 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine-H2O2 system to produce the colored products, thus resulting in the signal cascade amplification. Results indicated that the ECAS-CIA presents good responses toward PSA, and allows detection of PSA at a concentration as low as 0.05 ng mL−1. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation are below 9.5% and 10.7%, respectively. Additionally, the methodology is validated for analysis of clinical serum specimens with consistent results obtained by PSA ELISA kit. Importantly, the ECAS-CIA opens a new horizon for protein diagnostics and biosecurity. PMID:24509941

  7. Microscale depletion of high abundance proteins in human biofluids using IgY14 immunoaffinity resin: Analysis of human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid

    DOE PAGES

    Hyung, Seok Won; Piehowski, Paul D.; Moore, Ronald J.; ...

    2014-09-06

    Removal of highly abundant proteins in plasma is often carried out using immunoaffinity depletion to extend the dynamic range of measurements to lower abundance species. While commercial depletion columns are available for this purpose, they generally are not applicable to limited sample quantities (<20 µL) due to low yields stemming from losses caused by nonspecific binding to the column matrix. Additionally, the cost of the depletion media can be prohibitive for larger scale studies. Modern LC-MS instrumentation provides the sensitivity necessary to scale-down depletion methods with minimal sacrifice to proteome coverage, which makes smaller volume depletion columns desirable for maximizingmore » sample recovery when samples are limited, as well as for reducing the expense of large scale studies. We characterized the performance of a 346 µL column volume micro-scale depletion system, using four different flow rates to determine the most effective depletion conditions for ~6 μL injections of human plasma proteins and then evaluated depletion reproducibility at the optimum flow rate condition. Depletion of plasma using a commercial 10 mL depletion column served as the control. Results showed depletion efficiency of the micro-scale column increased as flow rate decreased, and that our micro-depletion was reproducible. We found, in an initial application, a 600 µL sample of human cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) pooled from multiple sclerosis patients was depleted and then analyzed using reversed phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to demonstrate the utility of the system for this important biofluid where sample quantities are more commonly limited.« less

  8. Microscale depletion of high abundance proteins in human biofluids using IgY14 immunoaffinity resin: analysis of human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Hyung, Seok-Won; Piehowski, Paul D; Moore, Ronald J; Orton, Daniel J; Schepmoes, Athena A; Clauss, Therese R; Chu, Rosalie K; Fillmore, Thomas L; Brewer, Heather; Liu, Tao; Zhao, Rui; Smith, Richard D

    2014-11-01

    Removal of highly abundant proteins in plasma is often carried out using immunoaffinity depletion to extend the dynamic range of measurements to lower abundance species. While commercial depletion columns are available for this purpose, they generally are not applicable to limited sample quantities (<20 μL) due to low yields stemming from losses caused by nonspecific binding to the column matrix and concentration of large eluent volumes. Additionally, the cost of the depletion media can be prohibitive for larger-scale studies. Modern LC-MS instrumentation provides the sensitivity necessary to scale-down depletion methods with minimal sacrifice to proteome coverage, which makes smaller volume depletion columns desirable for maximizing sample recovery when samples are limited, as well as for reducing the expense of large-scale studies. We characterized the performance of a 346 μL column volume microscale depletion system, using four different flow rates to determine the most effective depletion conditions for ∼6-μL injections of human plasma proteins and then evaluated depletion reproducibility at the optimum flow rate condition. Depletion of plasma using a commercial 10-mL depletion column served as the control. Results showed depletion efficiency of the microscale column increased as flow rate decreased, and that our microdepletion was reproducible. In an initial application, a 600-μL sample of human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pooled from multiple sclerosis patients was depleted and then analyzed using reversed phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to demonstrate the utility of the system for this important biofluid where sample quantities are more commonly limited.

  9. Nuclear lamina at the crossroads of the cytoplasm and nucleus.

    PubMed

    Gerace, Larry; Huber, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear lamina is a protein meshwork that lines the nuclear envelope in metazoan cells. It is composed largely of a polymeric assembly of lamins, which comprise a distinct sequence homology class of the intermediate filament protein family. On the basis of its structural properties, the lamina originally was proposed to provide scaffolding for the nuclear envelope and to promote anchoring of chromatin and nuclear pore complexes at the nuclear surface. This viewpoint has expanded greatly during the past 25 years, with a host of surprising new insights on lamina structure, molecular composition and functional attributes. It has been established that the self-assembly properties of lamins are very similar to those of cytoplasmic intermediate filament proteins, and that the lamin polymer is physically associated with components of the cytoplasmic cytoskeleton and with a multitude of chromatin and inner nuclear membrane proteins. Cumulative evidence points to an important role for the lamina in regulating signaling and gene activity, and in mechanically coupling the cytoplasmic cytoskeleton to the nucleus. The significance of the lamina has been vaulted to the forefront by the discovery that mutations in lamins and lamina-associated polypeptides lead to an array of human diseases. A key future challenge is to understand how the lamina integrates pathways for mechanics and signaling at the molecular level. Understanding the structure of the lamina from the atomic to supramolecular levels will be essential for achieving this goal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cytoplasmic ASPP1 inhibits apoptosis through the control of YAP

    PubMed Central

    Vigneron, Arnaud M.; Ludwig, Robert L.; Vousden, Karen H.

    2010-01-01

    The ASPP (apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53) family of proteins can function in the nucleus to modulate the transcriptional activity of p53, with ASPP1 and ASPP2 contributing to the expression of apoptotic target genes. In this study, we describe a new function for cytoplasmic ASPP1 in controlling YAP (Yes-associated protein)/TAZ. ASPP1 can inhibit the interaction of YAP with LATS1 (large tumor suppressor 1), a kinase that phosphorylates YAP/TAZ and promotes cytoplasmic sequestration and protein degradation. This function of ASPP1 therefore enhances nuclear accumulation of YAP/TAZ and YAP/TAZ-dependent transcriptional regulation. The consequence of YAP/TAZ activation by ASPP1 is to inhibit apoptosis, in part through the down-regulation of Bim expression, leading to resistance to anoikis and enhanced cell migration. These results reveal a potential oncogenic role for cytoplasmic ASPP1, in contrast to the tumor-suppressive activity described previously for nuclear ASPP1. PMID:21041411

  11. Hepatic nuclear sterol regulatory binding element protein 2 abundance is decreased and that of ABCG5 increased in male hamsters fed plant sterols.

    PubMed

    Harding, Scott V; Rideout, Todd C; Jones, Peter J H

    2010-07-01

    The effect of dietary plant sterols on cholesterol homeostasis has been well characterized in the intestine, but how plant sterols affect lipid metabolism in other lipid-rich tissues is not known. Changes in hepatic cholesterol homeostasis in response to high dietary intakes of plant sterols were determined in male golden Syrian hamsters fed hypercholesterolemia-inducing diets with and without 2% plant sterols (wt:wt; Reducol, Forbes Meditech) for 28 d. Plasma and hepatic cholesterol concentrations, cholesterol biosynthesis and absorption, and changes in the expression of sterol response element binding protein 2 (SREBP2) and liver X receptor-beta (LXRbeta) and their target genes were measured. Plant sterol feeding reduced plasma total cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol concentrations 43% (P < 0.0001), 60% (P < 0.0001), and 21% (P = 0.001), respectively, compared with controls. Furthermore, there was a 93% reduction (P < 0.0001) in hepatic total cholesterol and >6-fold (P = 0.029) and >2-fold (P < 0.0001) increases in hepatic beta-sitosterol and campesterol concentrations, respectively, in plant sterol-fed hamsters compared with controls. Plant sterol feeding also increased fractional cholesterol synthesis >2-fold (P < 0.03) and decreased cholesterol absorption 83% (P < 0.0001) compared with controls. Plant sterol feeding increased hepatic protein expression of cytosolic (inactive) SREBP2, decreased nuclear (active) SREBP2, and tended to increase LXRbeta (P = 0.06) and ATP binding cassette transporter G5, indicating a differential modulation of the expression of proteins central to cholesterol metabolism. In conclusion, high-dose plant sterol feeding of hamsters changes hepatic protein abundance in favor of cholesterol excretion despite lower hepatic cholesterol concentrations and higher cholesterol fractional synthesis.

  12. Single-molecule imaging of cytoplasmic dynein in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ananthanarayanan, Vaishnavi; Tolić, Iva M

    2015-01-01

    While early fluorescence microscopy experiments employing fluorescent probes afforded snapshots of the cell, the power of live-cell microscopy is required to understand complex dynamics in biological processes. The first successful cloning of green fluorescent protein in the 1990s paved the way for development of approaches that we now utilize for visualization in a living cell. In this chapter, we discuss a technique to observe fluorescently tagged single molecules in fission yeast. With a few simple modifications to the established total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, cytoplasmic dynein molecules in the cytoplasm and on the microtubules can be visualized and their intracellular dynamics can be studied. We illustrate a technique to study motor behavior, which is not apparent in conventional ensemble studies of motors. In general, this technique can be employed to study single-molecule dynamics of fluorescently tagged proteins in the cell interior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cellular stress induces cytoplasmic RNA granules in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Daniel; Sunnerhagen, Per

    2011-01-01

    Severe stress causes plant and animal cells to form large cytoplasmic granules containing RNA and proteins. Here, we demonstrate the existence of stress-induced cytoplasmic RNA granules in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Homologs to several known protein components of mammalian processing bodies and stress granules are found in fission yeast RNA granules. In contrast to mammalian cells, poly(A)-binding protein (Pabp) colocalizes in stress-induced granules with decapping protein. After glucose deprivation, protein kinase A (PKA) is required for accumulation of Pabp-positive granules and translational down-regulation. This is the first demonstration of a role for PKA in RNA granule formation. In mammals, the translation initiation protein eIF2α is a key regulator of formation of granules containing poly(A)-binding protein. In S. pombe, nonphosphorylatable eIF2α does not block but delays granule formation and subsequent clearance after exposure to hyperosmosis. At least two separate pathways in S. pombe appear to regulate stress-induced granules: pka1 mutants are fully proficient to form granules after hyperosmotic shock; conversely, eIF2α does not affect granule formation in glucose starvation. Further, we demonstrate a Pka1-dependent link between calcium perturbation and RNA granules, which has not been described earlier in any organism.

  14. Cytoplasmic Streaming - Skylab Student Experiment ED-63

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This chart describes the Skylab student experiment (ED-63), Cytoplasmic Streaming, proposed by Cheryl A. Peitz of Arapahoe High School, Littleton, Colorado. Experiment ED-63 was to observe the effect of zero-gravity on cytoplasmic streaming in the aquatic plant named Elodea, commonly called water weed or water thyme. The phenomenon of cytoplasmic streaming is not well understood, but it is recognized as the circulation mechanism of the internal materials or cytoplasm of a cell. Cytoplasm is a gelatinous substance that has the ability to change its viscosity and flow, carrying various cell materials with it. The activity can be stimulated by sunlight or heat. In March 1972, NASA and the National Science Teachers Association selected 25 experiment proposals for flight on Skylab. Science advisors from the Marshall Space Flight Center aided and assisted the students in developing the proposals for flight on Skylab.

  15. Integrated proteomic and N-glycoproteomic analyses of doxorubicin sensitive and resistant ovarian cancer cells reveal glycoprotein alteration in protein abundance and glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Junjie; Zhang, Chengqian; Xue, Peng; Wang, Jifeng; Chen, Xiulan; Guo, Xiaojing; Yang, Fuquan

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the most common cancer among women in the world, and chemotherapy remains the principal treatment for patients. However, drug resistance is a major obstacle to the effective treatment of ovarian cancers and the underlying mechanism is not clear. An increased understanding of the mechanisms that underline the pathogenesis of drug resistance is therefore needed to develop novel therapeutics and diagnostic. Herein, we report the comparative analysis of the doxorubicin sensitive OVCAR8 cells and its doxorubicin-resistant variant NCI/ADR-RES cells using integrated global proteomics and N-glycoproteomics. A total of 1525 unique N-glycosite-containing peptides from 740 N-glycoproteins were identified and quantified, of which 253 N-glycosite-containing peptides showed significant change in the NCI/ADR-RES cells. Meanwhile, stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) based comparative proteomic analysis of the two ovarian cancer cells led to the quantification of 5509 proteins. As about 50% of the identified N-glycoproteins are low-abundance membrane proteins, only 44% of quantified unique N-glycosite-containing peptides had corresponding protein expression ratios. The comparison and calibration of the N-glycoproteome versus the proteome classified 14 change patterns of N-glycosite-containing peptides, including 8 up-regulated N-glycosite-containing peptides with the increased glycosylation sites occupancy, 35 up-regulated N-glycosite-containing peptides with the unchanged glycosylation sites occupancy, 2 down-regulated N-glycosite-containing peptides with the decreased glycosylation sites occupancy, 46 down-regulated N-glycosite-containing peptides with the unchanged glycosylation sites occupancy. Integrated proteomic and N-glycoproteomic analyses provide new insights, which can help to unravel the relationship of N-glycosylation and multidrug resistance (MDR), understand the mechanism of MDR, and discover the new diagnostic and

  16. Compartmentalization of membrane trafficking, glucose transport, glycolysis, actin, tubulin and the proteasome in the cytoplasmic droplet/Hermes body of epididymal sperm.

    PubMed

    Au, Catherine E; Hermo, Louis; Byrne, Elliot; Smirle, Jeffrey; Fazel, Ali; Kearney, Robert E; Smith, Charles E; Vali, Hojatollah; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Julia; Simon, Paul H G; Mandato, Craig; Nilsson, Tommy; Bergeron, John J M

    2015-08-01

    Discovered in 1909 by Retzius and described mainly by morphology, the cytoplasmic droplet of sperm (renamed here the Hermes body) is conserved among all mammalian species but largely undefined at the molecular level. Tandem mass spectrometry of the isolated Hermes body from rat epididymal sperm characterized 1511 proteins, 43 of which were localized to the structure in situ by light microscopy and two by quantitative electron microscopy localization. Glucose transporter 3 (GLUT-3) glycolytic enzymes, selected membrane traffic and cytoskeletal proteins were highly abundant and concentrated in the Hermes body. By electron microscope gold antibody labelling, the Golgi trafficking protein TMED7/p27 localized to unstacked flattened cisternae of the Hermes body, as did GLUT-3, the most abundant protein. Its biogenesis was deduced through the mapping of protein expression for all 43 proteins during male germ cell differentiation in the testis. It is at the terminal step 19 of spermiogenesis that the 43 characteristic proteins accumulated in the nascent Hermes body. © 2015 The Authors.

  17. An investigation of excess residual cytoplasm in human spermatozoa and its distinction from the cytoplasmic droplet

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown cytoplasmic droplets to be normal morphological occurrences in human male spermatozoa. When the cytoplasm around the sperm midpiece is present in large amounts, however, pathological effects may transpire. The cytoplasmic droplet then becomes known as excess residual cytoplasm, which can impair overall sperm function and produce higher levels of reactive oxygen species, potentially leading to male infertility. Though the distinction between cytoplasmic droplets and excess residual cytoplasm has been made, some studies fail to recognize the difference and incorrectly label the latter as a cytoplasmic droplet. This review attempts to clarify excess residual cytoplasm’s effect on fertility, examine the enzymes responsible, and suggest tests and possible treatment options for those affected by this defect. PMID:23159014

  18. Deep cytoplasmic rearrangements in ventralized Xenopus embryos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, E. E.; Denegre, J. M.; Danilchik, M. V.

    1993-01-01

    Following fertilization in Xenopus, dramatic rearrangements of the egg cytoplasm relocalize maternally synthesized egg components. During the first cell cycle the vegetal yolk mass rotates relative to the egg surface, toward the sperm entry point (SEP) (J. P. Vincent, G. F. Oster, and J. C. Gerhart, 1986, Dev. Biol. 113, 484-500), while concomitant deep cytoplasmic rearrangements occur in the animal hemisphere (M. V. Danilchik and J. M. Denegre, 1991, Development 111, 845-856). In this paper we examine the role of vegetal yolk mass rotation in producing the animal cytoplasmic rearrangements. We inhibited rotation by uv-irradiating embryos during the first cell cycle, a treatment that yields an extremely ventralized phenotype. Both uv-irradiated embryos and unirradiated control embryos show cytoplasmic rearrangements in the animal hemisphere during the first cell cycle. Cytoplasmic rearrangements on the SEP side of the embryo associated with the path of the sperm pronucleus, plus a swirl on the anti-SEP (dorsal) side, are seen, whether or not yolk mass rotation has occurred. This result suggests a role for the expanding sperm aster in directing animal hemisphere cytoplasmic movements. In unirradiated control embryos the anti-SEP (dorsal) swirl is larger than that in uv-irradiated embryos and often extends into the vegetal hemisphere, consistent with the animal cytoplasm having been pulled dorsally and vegetally by the sliding vegetal yolk mass. Thus the yolk mass rotation may normally enhance the dorsalward cytoplasmic movement, begun by the sperm aster, enough to induce normal axis formation. We extended our observations of unirradiated control and uv-irradiated embryos through early cleavages. The vegetal extent of the anti-SEP (dorsal) swirl pattern seen in control embryos persists through the early cleavage period, such that labeled animal cytoplasm extends deep into dorsal third-tier blastomeres at the 32-cell stage. Significantly, in uv-irradiated embryos

  19. Ribosome surface properties may impose limits on the nature of the cytoplasmic proteome

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Much of the molecular motion in the cytoplasm is diffusive, which possibly limits the tempo of processes. We studied the dependence of protein mobility on protein surface properties and ionic strength. We used surface-modified fluorescent proteins (FPs) and determined their translational diffusion coefficients (D) in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli, Lactococcus lactis and Haloferax volcanii. We find that in E. coli D depends on the net charge and its distribution over the protein, with positive proteins diffusing up to 100-fold slower than negative ones. This effect is weaker in L. lactis and Hfx. volcanii due to electrostatic screening. The decrease in mobility is probably caused by interaction of positive FPs with ribosomes as shown in in vivo diffusion measurements and confirmed in vitro with purified ribosomes. Ribosome surface properties may thus limit the composition of the cytoplasmic proteome. This finding lays bare a paradox in the functioning of prokaryotic (endo)symbionts. PMID:29154755

  20. Cerium oxide-triggered 'one-to-many' catalytic cycling strategy for in situ amplified electronic signal of low-abundance protein.

    PubMed

    Tang, Juan; Chen, Xian; Zhou, Jun; Li, Qunfang; Chen, Guonan; Tang, Dianping

    2013-08-07

    Multifunctionalized thionine-modified cerium oxide (Thi-CeO2) nanostructures with redox ability and catalytic activity were designed as the bionanolabels for in situ amplified electronic signal of low-abundance protein (carcinoembryonic antigen, CEA, used as a model) based on a cerium oxide-triggered 'one-to-many' catalytic cycling strategy. Initially, the carried CeO2 nanoparticles autocatalytically hydrolyzed the phosphate ester bond of l-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AAP) to produce a new reactant (l-ascorbic acid, AA), then the generated AA was electrochemically oxidized by the assembled thionine on the Thi-CeO2, and the resultant product was then reduced back to AA by the added tris(2-carboxyethy)phosphine (TCEP). The catalytic cycling could be re-triggered by the thionine and TCEP, resulting in amplification of the electrochemical signal. Under the optimized conditions, the electrochemical immunosensor exhibited a wide linear range of 0.1 pg mL(-1) to 80 ng mL(-1) with a low detection limit of 0.08 pg mL(-1) CEA at the 3σblank level. In addition, the methodology was evaluated for the analysis of clinical serum samples, and was in good accordance with values obtained using the commercialized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method.

  1. Getting ready to translate: cytoplasmic maturation of eukaryotic ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Panse, Vikram Govind

    2011-01-01

    The ribosome is the 'universal ribozyme' that is responsible for the final step of decoding genetic information into proteins. While the function of the ribosome is being elucidated at the atomic level, in comparison, little is known regarding its assembly in vivo and intracellular transport. In contrast to prokaryotic ribosomes, the construction of eukaryotic ribosomes, which begins in the nucleolus, requires >200 evolutionary conserved non-ribosomal trans-acting factors, which transiently associate with pre-ribosomal subunits at distinct assembly stages and perform specific maturation steps. Notably, pre-ribosomal subunits are transported to the cytoplasm in a functionally inactive state where they undergo maturation prior to entering translation. In this review, I will summarize our current knowledge of the eukaryotic ribosome assembly pathway with emphasis on cytoplasmic maturation events that render pre-ribosomal subunits translation competent.

  2. Cytoplasmic rearrangements associated with amphibian egg symmetrization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malacinski, G. M.

    1984-01-01

    Cytoplasmic rearrangements which follow fertilization were mentioned in normal and inverted eggs. A set of yolk compartments was resolved by cytological analyses of both normally oriented and inverted eggs. Those compartments were characterized by their yolk platelet compositions and movement during egg inversion. It is found that during egg inversion the yolk compartments shift minor cytoplasmic compartments which line the egg cortex. Those yolk mass shifts occurred only after the inverted egg was activated. The direction of shift of the major yolk components, rather than the sperm entrance site, determines the dorsal/ventral polarity of the inverted egg. Among different spawnings the rate of shift varied. Eggs that displayed the fastest rate of shift exhibited the highest frequency of developmental abnormalities during organogenesis. Interpretation of novel observations on cytoplasmic organization provide criticism of some earlier models. A new density compartment model is presented as a coherent way to view the organization of the egg cytoplasm and the development of bilateral symmetry.

  3. Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) Constitutes a Large and Diverse Family of Proteins Involved in Development and Abiotic Stress Responses in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.)

    PubMed Central

    Pedrosa, Andresa Muniz; Martins, Cristina de Paula Santos; Gonçalves, Luana Pereira; Costa, Marcio Gilberto Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins are an ubiquitous group of polypeptides that were first described to accumulate during plant seed dehydration, at the later stages of embryogenesis. Since then they have also been recorded in vegetative plant tissues experiencing water limitation and in anhydrobiotic bacteria and invertebrates and, thereby, correlated with the acquisition of desiccation tolerance. This study provides the first comprehensive study about the LEA gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.), the most important and widely grown fruit crop around the world. A surprisingly high number (72) of genes encoding C. sinensis LEAs (CsLEAs) were identified and classified into seven groups (LEA_1, LEA_2, LEA_3 and LEA_4, LEA_5, DEHYDRIN and SMP) based on their predicted amino acid sequences and also on their phylogenetic relationships with the complete set of Arabidopsis thaliana LEA proteins (AtLEAs). Approximately 60% of the CsLEAs identified in this study belongs to the unusual LEA_2 group of more hydrophobic LEA proteins, while the other LEA groups contained a relatively small number of members typically hydrophilic. A correlation between gene structure and motif composition was observed within each LEA group. Investigation of their chromosomal localizations revealed that the CsLEAs were non-randomly distributed across all nine chromosomes and that 33% of all CsLEAs are segmentally or tandemly duplicated genes. Analysis of the upstream sequences required for transcription revealed the presence of various stress-responsive cis-acting regulatory elements in the promoter regions of CsLEAs, including ABRE, DRE/CRT, MYBS and LTRE. Expression analysis using both RNA-seq data and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR) revealed that the CsLEA genes are widely expressed in various tissues, and that many genes containing the ABRE promoter sequence are induced by drought, salt and PEG. These results provide a useful reference for further exploration of

  4. Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) Constitutes a Large and Diverse Family of Proteins Involved in Development and Abiotic Stress Responses in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.).

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Andresa Muniz; Martins, Cristina de Paula Santos; Gonçalves, Luana Pereira; Costa, Marcio Gilberto Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins are an ubiquitous group of polypeptides that were first described to accumulate during plant seed dehydration, at the later stages of embryogenesis. Since then they have also been recorded in vegetative plant tissues experiencing water limitation and in anhydrobiotic bacteria and invertebrates and, thereby, correlated with the acquisition of desiccation tolerance. This study provides the first comprehensive study about the LEA gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.), the most important and widely grown fruit crop around the world. A surprisingly high number (72) of genes encoding C. sinensis LEAs (CsLEAs) were identified and classified into seven groups (LEA_1, LEA_2, LEA_3 and LEA_4, LEA_5, DEHYDRIN and SMP) based on their predicted amino acid sequences and also on their phylogenetic relationships with the complete set of Arabidopsis thaliana LEA proteins (AtLEAs). Approximately 60% of the CsLEAs identified in this study belongs to the unusual LEA_2 group of more hydrophobic LEA proteins, while the other LEA groups contained a relatively small number of members typically hydrophilic. A correlation between gene structure and motif composition was observed within each LEA group. Investigation of their chromosomal localizations revealed that the CsLEAs were non-randomly distributed across all nine chromosomes and that 33% of all CsLEAs are segmentally or tandemly duplicated genes. Analysis of the upstream sequences required for transcription revealed the presence of various stress-responsive cis-acting regulatory elements in the promoter regions of CsLEAs, including ABRE, DRE/CRT, MYBS and LTRE. Expression analysis using both RNA-seq data and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR) revealed that the CsLEA genes are widely expressed in various tissues, and that many genes containing the ABRE promoter sequence are induced by drought, salt and PEG. These results provide a useful reference for further exploration of

  5. Induction of ketosis in rats fed low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets depends on the relative abundance of dietary fat and protein.

    PubMed

    Bielohuby, Maximilian; Menhofer, Dominik; Kirchner, Henriette; Stoehr, Barbara J M; Müller, Timo D; Stock, Peggy; Hempel, Madlen; Stemmer, Kerstin; Pfluger, Paul T; Kienzle, Ellen; Christ, Bruno; Tschöp, Matthias H; Bidlingmaier, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Low-carbohydrate/high-fat diets (LC-HFDs) in rodent models have been implicated with both weight loss and as a therapeutic approach to treat neurological diseases. LC-HFDs are known to induce ketosis; however, systematic studies analyzing the impact of the macronutrient composition on ketosis induction and weight loss success are lacking. Male Wistar rats were pair-fed for 4 wk either a standard chow diet or one of three different LC-HFDs, which only differed in the relative abundance of fat and protein (percentages of fat/protein in dry matter: LC-75/10; LC-65/20; LC-55/30). We subsequently measured body composition by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), analyzed blood chemistry and urine acetone content, evaluated gene expression changes of key ketogenic and gluconeogenic genes, and measured energy expenditure (EE) and locomotor activity (LA) during the first 4 days and after 3 wk on the respective diets. Compared with chow, rats fed with LC-75/10, LC-65/20, and LC-55/30 gained significantly less body weight. Reductions in body weight were mainly due to lower lean body mass and paralleled by significantly increased fat mass. Levels of β-hydroxybutyate were significantly elevated feeding LC-75/10 and LC-65/20 but decreased in parallel to reductions in dietary fat. Acetone was about 16-fold higher with LC-75/10 only (P < 0.001). In contrast, rats fed with LC-55/30 were not ketotic. Serum fibroblast growth factor-21, hepatic mRNA expression of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA-lyase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1β were increased with LC-75/10 only. Expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase was downregulated by 50-70% in LC-HF groups. Furthermore, EE and LA were significantly decreased in all groups fed with LC-HFDs after 3 wk on the diets. In rats, the absence of dietary carbohydrates per se does not induce ketosis. LC-HFDs must be high in fat

  6. Increased reactive oxygen species production and lower abundance of complex I subunits and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B protein despite normal mitochondrial respiration in insulin-resistant human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Lefort, Natalie; Glancy, Brian; Bowen, Benjamin; Willis, Wayne T; Bailowitz, Zachary; De Filippis, Elena A; Brophy, Colleen; Meyer, Christian; Højlund, Kurt; Yi, Zhengping; Mandarino, Lawrence J

    2010-10-01

    The contribution of mitochondrial dysfunction to skeletal muscle insulin resistance remains elusive. Comparative proteomics are being applied to generate new hypotheses in human biology and were applied here to isolated mitochondria to identify novel changes in mitochondrial protein abundance present in insulin-resistant muscle. Mitochondria were isolated from vastus lateralis muscle from lean and insulin-sensitive individuals and from obese and insulin-resistant individuals who were otherwise healthy. Respiration and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production rates were measured in vitro. Relative abundances of proteins detected by mass spectrometry were determined using a normalized spectral abundance factor method. NADH- and FADH(2)-linked maximal respiration rates were similar between lean and obese individuals. Rates of pyruvate and palmitoyl-DL-carnitine (both including malate) ROS production were significantly higher in obesity. Mitochondria from obese individuals maintained higher (more negative) extramitochondrial ATP free energy at low metabolic flux, suggesting that stronger mitochondrial thermodynamic driving forces may underlie the higher ROS production. Tandem mass spectrometry identified protein abundance differences per mitochondrial mass in insulin resistance, including lower abundance of complex I subunits and enzymes involved in the oxidation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and fatty acids (e.g., carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B). We provide data suggesting normal oxidative capacity of mitochondria in insulin-resistant skeletal muscle in parallel with high rates of ROS production. Furthermore, we show specific abundance differences in proteins involved in fat and BCAA oxidation that might contribute to the accumulation of lipid and BCAA frequently associated with the pathogenesis of insulin resistance.

  7. Selection with Gene-Cytoplasm Interactions. I. Maintenance of Cytoplasm Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Gregorius, H. R.; Ross, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    General conditions for the protectedness of gene-cytoplasm polymorphisms are considered for a biallelic model with two cytoplasm types and under the assumption that nuclear polymorphisms cannot be maintained in the presence of only one cytoplasm type. Analytical results involving male fertilities, female fertilities, viabilities and selfing rates are obtained, and numerical results show spiral and cyclic behavior of population trajectories. It is shown that a maternally inherited cytoplasmic polymorphism cannot be maintained in the absence of a nuclear polymorphism, and that a gene-cytoplasm polymorphism can only be maintained if the population shows sexual asymmetry, i.e. , if the ratio of male to female fertility varies among genotypes. Thus, the classical viability selection model does not allow gene-cytoplasm polymorphisms. PMID:17246213

  8. Cytoplasmic peptide:N-glycanase cleaves N-glycans on a carboxypeptidase Y mutant during ERAD in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hosomi, Akira; Suzuki, Tadashi

    2015-04-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) is a pathway by which misfolded or improperly assembled proteins in the ER are directed to degradation. The cytoplasmic peptide:N-glycanase (PNGase) is a deglycosylating enzyme that cleaves N-glycans from misfolded glycoproteins during the ERAD process. The mutant form of yeast carboxypeptidase Y (CPY*) is an ERAD model substrate that has been extensively studied in yeast. While a delay in the degradation of CPY* in yeast cells lacking the cytoplasmic PNGase (Png1 in yeast) was evident, the in vivo action of PNGase on CPY* has not been detected. We constructed new ERAD substrates derived from CPY*, bearing epitope tags at both N- and C-termini and examined the degradation intermediates observed in yeast cells with compromised proteasome activity. The occurrence of the PNGase-mediated deglycosylation of intact CPY* and its degradation intermediates was evident. A major endoproteolytic reaction on CPY* appears to occur between amino acid 400 and 404. The findings reported herein clearly indicate that PNGase indeed releases N-glycans from CPY* during the ERAD process in vivo. This report implies that the PNGase-mediated deglycosylation during the ERAD process may occur more abundantly than currently envisaged. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies Associated With Infective Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Langlois, Vincent; Lesourd, Anais; Girszyn, Nicolas; Ménard, Jean-Francois; Levesque, Hervé; Caron, Francois; Marie, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To determine the prevalence of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) in patients with infective endocarditis (IE) in internal medicine; and to compare clinical and biochemical features and outcome between patients exhibiting IE with and without ANCA. Fifty consecutive patients with IE underwent ANCA testing. The medical records of these patients were reviewed. Of the 50 patients with IE, 12 exhibited ANCA (24%). ANCA-positive patients with IE exhibited: longer duration between the onset of first symptoms and IE diagnosis (P = 0.02); and more frequently: weight loss (P = 0.017) and renal impairment (P = 0.08), lower levels of C-reactive protein (P = 0.0009) and serum albumin (P = 0.0032), involvement of both aortic and mitral valves (P = 0.009), and longer hospital stay (P = 0.016). Under multivariate analysis, significant factors for ANCA-associated IE were: longer hospital stay (P = 0.004), lower level of serum albumin (P = 0.02), and multiple valve involvement (P = 0.04). Mortality rate was 25% in ANCA patients; death was because of IE complications in all these patients. Our study identifies a high prevalence of ANCA in unselected patients with IE in internal medicine (24%). Our findings further underscore that ANCA may be associated with a subacute form of IE leading to multiple valve involvement and more frequent renal impairment. Because death was due to IE complications in all patients, our data suggest that aggressive therapy may be required to improve such patients’ outcome. PMID:26817911

  10. Red light-regulated growth. I. Changes in the abundance of indoleacetic acid and a 22-kilodalton auxin-binding protein in the maize mesocotyl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, A. M.; Cochran, D. S.; Lamerson, P. M.; Evans, M. L.; Cohen, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    We examined the changes in the levels of indoleacetic acid (IAA), IAA esters, and a 22-kilodalton subunit auxin-binding protein (ABP1) in apical mesocotyl tissue of maize (Zea mays L.) during continuous red light (R) irradiation. These changes were compared with the kinetics of R-induced growth inhibition in the same tissue. Upon the onset of continuous irradiation, growth decreased in a continuous manner following a brief lag period. The decrease in growth continued for 5 hours, then remained constant at 25% of the dark rate. The abundance of ABP1 and the level of free IAA both decreased in the mesocotyl. Only the kinetics of the decrease in IAA within the apical mesocotyl correlated with the initial change in growth, although growth continued to decrease even after IAA content reached its final level, 50% of the dark control. This decrease in IAA within the mesocotyl probably occurs primarily by a change in its transport within the shoot since auxin applied as a pulse move basipetally in R-irradiated tissue at the same rate but with half the area as dark control tissue. In situ localization of auxin in etiolated maize shoots revealed that R-irradiated shoots contained less auxin in the epidermis than the dark controls. Irradiated mesocotyl grew 50% less than the dark controls even when incubated in an optimal level of auxin. However, irradiated and dark tissue contained essentially the same amount of radioactivity after incubation in [14C]IAA indicating that the light treatment does not affect the uptake into the tissue through the cut end, although it is possible that a small subset of cells within the mesocotyl is affected. These observations support the hypothesis that R causes a decrease in the level of auxin in epidermal cells of the mesocotyl, consequently constraining the growth of the entire mesocotyl.

  11. Phase separation between nucleoid and cytoplasm in Escherichia coli as defined by immersive refractometry.

    PubMed Central

    Valkenburg, J A; Woldringh, C L

    1984-01-01

    The refractive indices of nucleoid and cytoplasm in Escherichia coli were derived theoretically and experimentally. For the theoretical estimates, we made use of the known macromolecular composition of E. coli B/r (G. Churchward and H. Bremer, J. Theor. Biol. 94:651-670, 1982) and of estimates of cell and nucleoid volumes. These were obtained from micrographs of living bacteria made with a confocal scanning light microscope. The theoretical values were calculated, assuming that all DNA occurred in the nucleoid and that all protein and RNA occurred in the cytoplasm. Comparison with experimental refractive index values directly obtained by immersive refractometry showed that, besides its DNA, the nucleoid must contain an additional amount of solids equivalent to 8.6% (wt/vol) protein. With the nucleoid containing 6.8% (wt/vol) DNA and 8.6% (wt/vol) protein and the cytoplasm containing 21% (wt/vol) protein and 4% (wt/vol) RNA, a mass difference is obtained, which accounts for the phase separation observed between the nucleoid and cytoplasm in living cells by phase-contrast microscopy. The decrease in the refractive index of the nucleoid relative to that of the cytoplasm observed upon, for instance, OsO4 fixation was interpreted as being indicative of the loss of protein content in the nucleoid. Images PMID:6389508

  12. Retrograde movement of tRNAs from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Hussam H; Hopper, Anita K

    2005-08-09

    In eukaryotes, tRNAs transcribed in the nucleus function in cytoplasmic protein synthesis. The Ran-GTP-binding exportin, Los1p/Xpo-t, and additional pathway(s) mediate tRNA transport to the cytoplasm. Although tRNA movement was thought to be unidirectional, recent reports that yeast precursor tRNA splicing occurs in the cytoplasm, whereas fully spliced tRNAs can reside in the nucleus, require that either the precursor tRNA splicing machinery or mature tRNAs move from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Our data argue against the first possibility and strongly support the second. Combining heterokaryon analysis with fluorescence in situ hybridization, we show that a foreign tRNA encoded by one nucleus can move from the cytoplasm to a second nucleus that does not encode the tRNA. We also discovered nuclear accumulation of endogenous cytoplasmic tRNAs in haploid yeast cells in response to nutritional deprivation. Nuclear accumulation of cytoplasmic tRNA requires Ran and the Mtr10/Kap111 member of the importin-beta family. Retrograde tRNA nuclear import may provide a novel mechanism to regulate gene expression in eukaryotes.

  13. Retrograde movement of tRNAs from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Shaheen, Hussam H.; Hopper, Anita K.

    2005-01-01

    In eukaryotes, tRNAs transcribed in the nucleus function in cytoplasmic protein synthesis. The Ran-GTP-binding exportin, Los1p/Xpo-t, and additional pathway(s) mediate tRNA transport to the cytoplasm. Although tRNA movement was thought to be unidirectional, recent reports that yeast precursor tRNA splicing occurs in the cytoplasm, whereas fully spliced tRNAs can reside in the nucleus, require that either the precursor tRNA splicing machinery or mature tRNAs move from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Our data argue against the first possibility and strongly support the second. Combining heterokaryon analysis with fluorescence in situ hybridization, we show that a foreign tRNA encoded by one nucleus can move from the cytoplasm to a second nucleus that does not encode the tRNA. We also discovered nuclear accumulation of endogenous cytoplasmic tRNAs in haploid yeast cells in response to nutritional deprivation. Nuclear accumulation of cytoplasmic tRNA requires Ran and the Mtr10/Kap111 member of the importin-β family. Retrograde tRNA nuclear import may provide a novel mechanism to regulate gene expression in eukaryotes. PMID:16040803

  14. Alpha fetoprotein mediates HBx induced carcinogenesis in the hepatocyte cytoplasm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Chen, Xiangmei; Liu, Hui; Li, Hui; Jiang, Wei; Hou, Wenting; McNutt, Michael A; Lu, Fengmin; Li, Gang

    2015-10-15

    Although tumor-associated fetal protein AFP has demonstrated utility as a clinical tumor marker, the significance of intracellular AFP is s