Science.gov

Sample records for abundant domestic coal

  1. Health impacts of domestic coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelman, R.B.

    1999-07-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has concluded that, with the possible exception of mercury, there is no compelling evidence to indicate that emissions from coal-burning electric utility generators cause human health problems. The absence of detectable health problems is in part due to the fact that the coals burned in the US generally contain low to modest concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements and that many coal-burning utilities employ sophisticated pollution control systems that efficiently reduce the emissions of hazardous elements. This is not so in many developing countries, especially in homes where coal is used for heating and cooking. Domestic use of coal can present serious human health problems because the coals are generally mined locally with little regard to their composition and the coals are commonly burned in poorly vented or unvented stoves directly exposing residents to the emissions. In China alone several hundred million people commonly burn raw coal in unvented stoves that permeate their homes with high levels of toxic metals and organic compounds. At least 3,000 people in Guizhou Province in southwest China are suffering from severe arsenic poisoning. The primary source of the arsenic appears to be consumption of chili peppers dried over fires fueled with high-arsenic coal. Coal's in the region contain up to 35,000 ppm arsenic. Chili peppers dried over these high-arsenic coal fires absorb 500 ppm arsenic on average. More than 10 million people in Guizhou Province and surrounding areas suffer from dental and skeletal fluorosis. The excess fluorine is due to eating corn dried over burning briquettes made from high-fluorine coals and high-fluoring clay binders. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons formed during coal combustion are believed to cause or contribute to the high incidence of esophageal and lung cancers in parts of China. Domestic coal combustion has also caused selenium poisoning and possibly mercury poisoning

  2. Health impacts of domestic coal use in China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelman, R.B.; Belkin, H.E.; Zheng, B.

    1999-01-01

    Domestic coal combustion has had profound adverse effects on the health of millions of people worldwide. In China alone several hundred million people commonly burn raw coal in unvented stoves that permeate their homes with high levels of toxic metals and organic compounds. At least 3,000 people in Guizhou Province in southwest China are suffering from severe arsenic poisoning. The primary source of the arsenic appears to be consumption of chili peppers dried over fires fueled with high-arsenic coal. Coal samples in the region were found to contain up to 35,000 ppm arsenic. Chili peppers dried over high-arsenic coal fires adsorb 500 ppm arsenic on average. More than 10 million people in Guizhou Province and surrounding areas suffer from dental and skeletal fluorosis. The excess fluorine is caused by eating corn dried over burning briquettes made from high-fluorine coals and high-fluorine clay binders. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons formed during coal combustion are believed to cause or contribute to the high incidence of esophageal and lung cancers in parts of China. Domestic coal combustion also has caused selenium poisoning and possibly mercury poisoning. Better knowledge of coal quality parameters may help to reduce some of these health problems. For example, information on concentrations and distributions of potentially toxic elements in coal may help delineate areas of a coal deposit to be avoided. Information on the modes of occurrence of these elements and the textural relations of the minerals and macerals in coal may help predict the behavior of the potentially toxic components during coal combustion.

  3. 26 CFR 1.272-1 - Expenditures relating to disposal of coal or domestic iron ore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... domestic iron ore. 1.272-1 Section 1.272-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Expenditures relating to disposal of coal or domestic iron ore. (a) Introduction. Section 272 provides special... sometimes referred to as a “coal royalty contract” or “iron ore royalty contract”) for the disposal of...

  4. 26 CFR 1.272-1 - Expenditures relating to disposal of coal or domestic iron ore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... domestic iron ore. 1.272-1 Section 1.272-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... relating to disposal of coal or domestic iron ore. (a) Introduction. Section 272 provides special treatment... sometimes referred to as a “coal royalty contract” or “iron ore royalty contract”) for the disposal of...

  5. 26 CFR 1.272-1 - Expenditures relating to disposal of coal or domestic iron ore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... domestic iron ore. 1.272-1 Section 1.272-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Expenditures relating to disposal of coal or domestic iron ore. (a) Introduction. Section 272 provides special... sometimes referred to as a “coal royalty contract” or “iron ore royalty contract”) for the disposal of...

  6. 26 CFR 1.272-1 - Expenditures relating to disposal of coal or domestic iron ore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... domestic iron ore. 1.272-1 Section 1.272-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Expenditures relating to disposal of coal or domestic iron ore. (a) Introduction. Section 272 provides special... sometimes referred to as a “coal royalty contract” or “iron ore royalty contract”) for the disposal of...

  7. 26 CFR 1.272-1 - Expenditures relating to disposal of coal or domestic iron ore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... domestic iron ore. 1.272-1 Section 1.272-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Expenditures relating to disposal of coal or domestic iron ore. (a) Introduction. Section 272 provides special... sometimes referred to as a “coal royalty contract” or “iron ore royalty contract”) for the disposal of...

  8. Abundances of sulfur, chlorine, and trace elements in Illinois Basin coals, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, C.L.

    1997-12-31

    Abundances of sulfur, chlorine and 52 trace elements in 220 channel and drill-core samples of high volatile bituminous coals (Pennsylvanian age) from the Illinois Basin, USA, are evaluated for the purpose of better understanding geologic processes affecting trace element variation in the coal seams. Mean elemental abundances in Illinois Basin coals are listed in a table. Most Illinois Basin coals are high-sulfur (> 3% total sulfur). Peat was influenced by seawater during early diagenesis. However, low-medium sulfur coal (<3% total sulfur) occurs in restricted areas along the Walshville Channel, which is a contemporaneous river in the peat swamp. A comparison of trace element abundances between high-sulfur and low-medium sulfur coals showed that only seven elements (boron, sulfur, iron, molybdenum, mercury, thallium, and uranium) are clearly more abundant in high-sulfur coal than in low-medium sulfur coal. Apparently, boron, sulfur, molybdenum, and uranium in high-sulfur coals were derived from seawater that inundated the peat swamp and terminated peat accumulation. Iron, mercury, and thallium had a terrestrial source and were incorporated in pyrite during diagenesis. Their enrichment in high-sulfur coal is related to pyrite formation in a reducing environment. The chlorine content in Illinois Basin coals, including channel and drill core samples, varies from 0.01% to 0.8% (on a dry basis). Coal samples from surface mines (< 50 meter depth) are usually low in chlorine content (<0.1%). Samples from underground mines (> 50 meter depth) have a chlorine content ranging between 0.1% to 0.5%. Variation of chlorine content in each of the two coal seams shows that chlorine content increases with depth because the chloride in coal is in equilibrium with the chloride in the groundwater, which is also depth dependent. A low chlorine content in shallow regions of a coal seam is a result of leaching by fresh groundwater.

  9. Abundances of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 14 chinese and american coals and their relation to coal rank and weathering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, R.; Liu, Gaisheng; Zhang, Jiahua; Chou, C.-L.; Liu, J.

    2010-01-01

    The abundances of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the priority list of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) have been determined in 14 Chinese and American coals. The ranks of the samples range from lignite, bituminous coal, anthracite, to natural coke. Soxhlet extraction was conducted on each coal for 48 h. The extract was analyzed on a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The results show that the total PAH content ranged from 0.31 to 57.6 ??g/g of coal (on a dry basis). It varied with coal rank and is highest in the maturity range of bituminous coal rank. High-molecular-weight (HMW) PAHs are predominant in low-rank coals, but low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs are predominant in high-rank coals. The low-sulfur coals have a higher PAH content than high-sulfur coals. It may be explained by an increasing connection between disulfide bonds and PAHs in high-sulfur coal. In addition, it leads us to conclude that the PAH content of coals may be related to the depositional environment. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  10. Abundance and modes of occurrence of mercury in some low-sulfur coals from China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zheng, Lingyun; Liu, Gaisheng; Chou, C.-L.

    2008-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the hazardous trace elements in coal. Mercury in coal is almost totally emitted into the atmosphere during coal combustion. Especially for utilities burning low-sulfur coals that do not require scrubbers, Hg reduction will be neglected. Hg abundances of 52 low-sulfur coal samples from different coalfields in six provinces of China were determined by a flow injection mercury system (FIMS). The results show that Hg abundances in selected low-sulfur coals range from 0.03??ppm to 0.79??ppm, with an arithmetic mean of 0.24??ppm, which is higher than that of average Chinese coals (0.19??ppm). Correlation analysis and sequential extraction procedures are performed to study possible modes of occurrence of Hg in low-sulfur coals. Modes of occurrence of Hg are variable in low-sulfur coals, and the sulfide-bound and organic-bound Hg may be the dominant forms. In addition, the silicate-bound Hg may be the main form in some of these coals because of magmatic intrusion. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Coal and the Present Energy Situation: Abundant coal reserves can be used to alleviate the oil and gas shortage.

    PubMed

    Osborn, E F

    1974-02-01

    To summarize, we must make greater use of coal, an energy resource that the nation has in great abundance, if we are to approach our former position of self-sufficiency in energy production. The first step is to move immediately to replace the oil and gas used in electric generating plants with coal and to require that coal be used in fossil fuel electric plants planned or under construction in the next few years. The technology to remove sulfur and particulates from the stack gases is at hand, and therefore environmental regulations can be met. Producing and transporting the required increased tonnages of coal are problems that can be met with appropriate incentives to the coal and transportation industries. Improved mining technology would be helpful but is not a requiremlent. Oil and gas from coal should be in significant commercial production in about a decade. Underground, or in situ, gasification of coal, now in field tests, looks promising as a practical process for recovering the energy from coal, especially in deep or thick beds that cannot be mined efficiently. Recoverable methane occurs in coal beds in the United States in an amount approximately equal to the total reserves of natural gas-about 260 trillion cubic feet. This large reserve of natural gas should be exploited as quickly as possible. Only minor investments in exploration and modest advances in technology are required. Finally, as coal production is expanded. adequate planning and the most modern technology should be used to ensure that coal is extracted with maximum recovery and with minimum damage to the environment. PMID:17773028

  12. Performance study of vegetated sequencing batch coal slag bed treating domestic wastewater in suburban area.

    PubMed

    Chan, S Y; Tsang, Y F; Chua, H; Sin, S N; Cui, L H

    2008-06-01

    A practical and affordable wastewater treatment system serving small community in suburban areas was studied. The system was a vegetated sequencing batch coal slag bed integrated with the rhythmical movement of wastewater and air like that of a sequencing batch reactor. The removal mechanisms capitalized on the pollutant removal process in conventional constructed wetland. Cyperus alternifolius was planted into the coal slag bed to form a novel plant-soil-microbial interactive system. Nutrients in the domestic wastewater, which cause environmental nuisance like eutrophication, were targeted to be eliminated by the process design. Operated with the contact time of 18 h, the treatment systems achieved around 60% removal efficiency for carbonaceous matters. The removals of ammonia nitrogen and phosphorus were about 50% and 40%, respectively, while the removal of total suspended solids was approaching 80%. From the current study, the construction cost of the vegetated sequencing batch coal slag bed was 256 RMB/m3 and the operation cost was 0.13 RMB/m3. With the advantages of ease of operation, low costs, desirable treatment efficiency and aesthetic value, the vegetated sequencing batch coal slag bed is proposed to be an alternative for onsite domestic wastewater treatment in suburban areas. PMID:17709244

  13. An explanation of large-scale coal and gas outbursts in underground coal mines: the effect of low-permeability zones on abnormally abundant gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, F. H.; Cheng, Y. P.

    2013-09-01

    Large-scale coal and gas outbursts post a risk of fatal disasters in underground mines. Large-scale outbursts (outburst of coal and rock greater than 500 t) in recent years in China indicate that there is abundant gas in areas of outbursts containing large amounts of potential energy. The adequate sealing properties of the roof and floor of a coal seam are required for local abundant gas around the site of an outburst, but an annular low-permeability zone in a coal seam, which prevents the loss by gas migration through the coal seam itself, is also required. The distribution of coal gas with this annular zone of low permeability is described, and it is proposed that the annular zone of low permeability creates conditions for confining the coal gas. The effect of this low-permeability zone on the gas distribution is analyzed after allowing for simplifications in the model. The results show that the permeability and length of the low-permeability zone have a great impact on the gas distribution. A steep gradient of gas pressure in the low-permeability zone and the high gas pressure in the abundant zone of gas can promote coal mass failure and coal wall deformation, thereby accelerating the coal and gas outburst. The high pressure gas in abundant zone of gas will lead to a large-scale outburst if an outburst occurs.

  14. Comparative study of combustion product emissions of Pakistani coal briquettes and traditional Pakistani domestic fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Wachter, E.A.; Gammage, R.B.; Haas, J.W. III; Wilson, D.L.; DePriest, J.C.; Wade, J.; Ahmad, N.; Sibtain, F.; Zahid Raza, M.

    1992-10-01

    A comparative emissions study was conducted on combustion products of various solid domestic cooking fuels; the objective was to compare relative levels of organic and inorganic toxic emissions from traditional Pakistani fuels (wood, wood charcoal, and dried animal dung) with manufactured low-rank coal briquettes (Lakhra and Sor- Range coals) under conditions simulating domestic cooking. A small combustion shed 12 m{sup 3} internal volume, air exchange rate 14 h{sup {minus}1} was used to simulate south Asian cooking rooms. 200-g charges of the various fuels were ignited in an Angethi stove located inside the shed, then combusted to completion; effluents from this combustion were monitored as a function of time. Measurements were made of respirable particulates, volatile and semi-volatile organics, CO, SO{sub 2}, and NO{sub x}. Overall it appears that emissions from coal briquettes containing combustion amendments (slaked lime, clay, and potassium nitrate oxidizer) are no greater than emissions from traditional fuels, and in some cases are significantly lower; generally, emissions are highest for all fuels in the early stages of combustion.

  15. Comparative study of combustion product emissions of Pakistani coal briquettes and traditional Pakistani domestic fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Wachter, E.A.; Gammage, R.B.; Haas, J.W. III; Wilson, D.L. ); DePriest, J.C.; Wade, J. ); Ahmad, N.; Sibtain, F.; Zahid Raza, M. )

    1992-10-01

    A comparative emissions study was conducted on combustion products of various solid domestic cooking fuels; the objective was to compare relative levels of organic and inorganic toxic emissions from traditional Pakistani fuels (wood, wood charcoal, and dried animal dung) with manufactured low-rank coal briquettes (Lakhra and Sor- Range coals) under conditions simulating domestic cooking. A small combustion shed 12 m[sup 3] internal volume, air exchange rate 14 h[sup [minus]1] was used to simulate south Asian cooking rooms. 200-g charges of the various fuels were ignited in an Angethi stove located inside the shed, then combusted to completion; effluents from this combustion were monitored as a function of time. Measurements were made of respirable particulates, volatile and semi-volatile organics, CO, SO[sub 2], and NO[sub x]. Overall it appears that emissions from coal briquettes containing combustion amendments (slaked lime, clay, and potassium nitrate oxidizer) are no greater than emissions from traditional fuels, and in some cases are significantly lower; generally, emissions are highest for all fuels in the early stages of combustion.

  16. An explanation of large-scale coal and gas outbursts in underground coal mines: the effect of low-permeability zones on abnormally abundant gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, F. H.; Cheng, Y. P.

    2014-08-01

    Large-scale coal and gas outbursts pose a risk of fatal disasters in underground mines. Large-scale outbursts (outburst of coal and rock greater than 500 t) in recent years in China indicate that there is abundant gas in areas of outbursts containing large amounts of potential energy. The adequate sealing properties of the roof and floor of a coal seam are required for local abundant gas around the site of an outburst, but an annular low-permeability zone in a coal seam, which prevents the loss by gas migration through the coal seam itself, is also required. The distribution of coal gas with this annular zone of low permeability is described, and it is proposed that the annular zone of low permeability creates conditions for confining the coal gas. The effect of this low-permeability zone on the gas distribution is analyzed after allowing for simplifications in the model. The results show that the permeability and length of the low-permeability zone have a great impact on the gas distribution, and the permeability is required to be several orders of magnitude less than that of normal coal and enough length is also in demand. A steep gradient of gas pressure in the low-permeability zone and the high-pressure gas in the abundant zone of gas can promote coal mass failure and coal wall deformation, thereby accelerating the coal and gas outburst. The high-pressure gas in abundant zone of gas will lead to a large-scale outburst if an outburst occurs.

  17. Uranium in coal and fly ash: Abundance, forms, and environmental significance

    SciTech Connect

    Zielinski, R.A.; Affolter, R.H.; Budahn, J.R.; O'Connor, J.T.; Rice, C.A.

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize recent studies within the US Geological Survey (USGS) that further define the abundance, form, and leachability of uranium in coal and fly ash. Uranium was chosen from the hazardous air pollutant elements because the application of fission-track radiography provided some unique observations of the spatial distribution of uranium on a microscopic scale. Radiation-based measurements of uranium abundance by low energy gamma-ray spectrometry also provided informative determinations of long-lived uranium decay products of environmental concern, i.e. {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb. Accurate determinations of the distribution, abundance, and leachability of uranium have broad applicability as a basis for comparison with other less mobile actinide elements such as Th, and with other hazardous air pollutant elements that may share some similar chemical properties.

  18. 26 CFR 1.631-3 - Gain or loss upon the disposal of coal or domestic iron ore with a retained economic interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... domestic iron ore with a retained economic interest. 1.631-3 Section 1.631-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Sales and Exchanges § 1.631-3 Gain or loss upon the disposal of coal or domestic iron ore with a... disposes of coal (including lignite), or iron ore mined in the United States, held for more than 1 year...

  19. 26 CFR 1.631-3 - Gain or loss upon the disposal of coal or domestic iron ore with a retained economic interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... domestic iron ore with a retained economic interest. 1.631-3 Section 1.631-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Sales and Exchanges § 1.631-3 Gain or loss upon the disposal of coal or domestic iron ore with a... disposes of coal (including lignite), or iron ore mined in the United States, held for more than 1 year...

  20. 26 CFR 1.631-3 - Gain or loss upon the disposal of coal or domestic iron ore with a retained economic interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... domestic iron ore with a retained economic interest. 1.631-3 Section 1.631-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Sales and Exchanges § 1.631-3 Gain or loss upon the disposal of coal or domestic iron ore with a... disposes of coal (including lignite), or iron ore mined in the United States, held for more than 1 year...

  1. 26 CFR 1.631-3 - Gain or loss upon the disposal of coal or domestic iron ore with a retained economic interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... domestic iron ore with a retained economic interest. 1.631-3 Section 1.631-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Sales and Exchanges § 1.631-3 Gain or loss upon the disposal of coal or domestic iron ore with a... disposes of coal (including lignite), or iron ore mined in the United States, held for more than 1 year...

  2. 26 CFR 1.631-3 - Gain or loss upon the disposal of coal or domestic iron ore with a retained economic interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... domestic iron ore with a retained economic interest. 1.631-3 Section 1.631-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Sales and Exchanges § 1.631-3 Gain or loss upon the disposal of coal or domestic iron ore with a... disposes of coal (including lignite), or iron ore mined in the United States, held for more than 1 year...

  3. The abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in activated sludge under autotrophic domestication.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Ma, Chao; Sun, Shifang; Xie, Hui; Zhang, Wei; Feng, Jun; Song, Cunjiang

    2013-04-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) play a key role in nitrogen-removal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as they can transform ammonia into nitrite. AOB can be enriched in activated sludge through autotrophic domestication although they are difficult to be isolated. In this study, autotrophic domestication was carried out in a lab-scale sequencing-batch-reactor (SBR) system with two activated sludge samples. The ammonia removal capacity of the sludge samples increased during the domestication, and pH exhibited a negative correlation with the ammonia removal amount, which indicated that it was one important factor of microbial ammonia oxidation. The count of AOB, measured by the most probable number (MPN) method, increased significantly during autotrophic domestication as ammonia oxidation efficiency was enhanced. We investigated the changes in the community structure of AOB before and after domestication by amoA clone library and T-RFLP profile. It showed that AOB had been successfully enriched and the community structure significantly shifted during the domestication. Two groups of AOB were found in sludge samples: Nitrosomonas-like group remained predominant all the time and Nitrosospira-like group changed obviously. Simultaneously, the total heterotrophic bacteria were investigated by MPN and Biolog assay. The metabolic diversity of heterotrophs had changed minutely, although the count of them decreased significantly and lost superiority of microbial communities in the sludge. PMID:24620598

  4. Air toxics in coal: Distribution and abundance of selected trace elements in the Powder River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, S.S.; Stanton, R.W.

    1994-12-31

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments identified 12 potentially toxic elements, called ``air toxics,`` that may be released during the combustion of coal. The elements identified in the amendments are As, Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and U (radionuclides). In this study, the distribution and concentration of these elements were examined, on a whole-coal basis, in samples from two cores of the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed (Paleocene, Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation), in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming. The distribution of these elements in the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed is also compared to the distribution of the same elements in a correlative coal bed, the Anderson-Dietz 1 coal bed in the Powder River Basin of Montana.

  5. Binderless coal briquettes as a possible fuel for smoke-reducing domestic appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Desterke, S.M.G.; Tasker, P.J.

    1984-10-17

    In the report, the combustion of Phoenix coal (small nuts) is compared to that of binderless pillow-shaped briquettes made from the same coal. The accent is on the temperature profiles of the stack, plate, and bridge of the stove but some attention is also given to the smoke-emission pattern from the stack during the lighting-up period.

  6. Rail Transportation A review of administrative, judicial and legislative developments affecting domestic and export coal traffic

    SciTech Connect

    Loftus, C.M.

    1983-11-01

    During the past year, several important decisions by the Interstate Commerce Commission and the Federal courts have substantially expanded the extent of deregulation of the railroad industry. Without exception, these decisions have been adverse to the interests of shippers of coal by rail. Through the Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act of 1976 (the ''4-R Act'') and the Staggers Rail Act of 1980 Congress clearly intended and directed a substantial relaxation of government regulation of the railroad industry. However, this deregulation was focused by Congress upon those transportation markets where the availability of other transportation options protected shippers from the exercise by the railroads of monopoly power in pricing and other activities. Where shippers are ''captive'' to the railroads, Congress recognized the need for continued regulation to protect shippers against the imposition of unreasonable rates. In a series of major decisions since enactment of the Staggers Act, the ICC has whittled away the protections which Congress provided in the law to such an extent that, for practical purposes, we are approaching full deregulation, at least in the area of rail rates. Of most importance to coal shipping interests are the Commission's recent decisions (a) proposing new guidelines for establishing maximum coal rate levels, and (b) exempting export coal traffic from all aspects of regulation under the Interstate Commerce Act.

  7. Trace element abundances in major minerals of Late Permian coals from southwestern Guizhou province, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Jiahua; Ren, D.; Zheng, C.; Zeng, R.; Chou, C.-L.; Liu, J.

    2002-01-01

    Fourteen samples of minerals were separated by handpicking from Late Permian coals in southwestern Guizhou province, China. These 14 minerals were nodular pyrite, massive recrystallized pyrite, pyrite deposited from low-temperature hydrothermal fluid and from ground water; clay minerals; and calcite deposited from low-temperature hydrothermal fluid and from ground water. The mineralogy, elemental composition, and distribution of 33 elements in these samples were studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS), atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS), inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and ion-selective electrode (ISE). The results show that various minerals in coal contain variable amounts of trace elements. Clay minerals have high concentrations of Ba, Be, Cs, F, Ga, Nb, Rb, Th, U, and Zr. Quartz has little contribution to the concentration of trace elements in bulk coal. Arsenic, Mn, and Sr are in high concentrations in calcite. Pyrite has high concentrations of As, Cd, Hg, Mo, Sb, Se, Tl, and Zn. Different genetic types of calcite in coal can accumulate different trace elements; for example Ba, Co, Cr, Hg, Ni, Rb, Sn, Sr, and Zn are in higher concentrations in calcite deposited from low-temperature hydrothermal fluid than in that deposited from ground water. Furthermore, the concentrations of some trace elements are quite variable in pyrite; different genetic types of pyrites (Py-A, B, C, D) have different concentrations of trace elements, and the concentrations of trace elements are also different in pyrite of low-temperature hydrothermal origin collected from different locations. The study shows that elemental concentration is rather uniform in a pyrite vein. There are many micron and submicron mosaic pyrites in a pyrite vein, which is enriched in some trace elements, such as As and Mo. The

  8. Coal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brant, Russell A.; Glass, Gary B.

    1983-01-01

    Principle work of 23 state geological surveys is summarized. Work includes mapping/estimating coal resources, centralizing data in National Coal Resources Data System through cooperative programs, exploration drilling, and others. Comments on U.S. Geological Survey activities, coal-related conferences/meetings, and industry research activities are…

  9. Effects of earthworms and substrate on diversity and abundance of denitrifying genes (nirS and nirK) and denitrifying rate during rural domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Longmian; Zhang, Yimin; Luo, Xingzhang; Zhang, Jibiao; Zheng, Zheng

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the performance of an ecological filter (EF) and vermifiltration (VF) system, the effects of substrate and earthworms on the diversity and abundance of denitrifying genes coding for nitrite (nirS and nirK) reductases and on denitrifying rate, and the factors influencing denitrification. The majority of organic matter, ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen from sewage was removed by the soil layer in both reactors, and their total removal efficiencies increased in VF compared with those in EF. Additionally, substrate in the reactors significantly influenced the Shannon diversity index and abundance of nirS and nirK, as well as the denitrifying rate. However, the earthworms only significantly influenced nirS diversity. Furthermore, evaluation of the factors controlling denitrification implied that increasing NH3-N availability, diversity and abundance of nirS and nirK or decreasing available NO3-N might be responsible for the enhanced denitrification activity obtained using VF for rural domestic wastewater treatment. PMID:27099942

  10. New developments in coal briquetting technology

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, P.V.; Bosworth, G.B.; Kalb, G.W.

    1993-12-31

    Briquetting of coal has been with us for well over a century. In the earliest applications of coal briquetting, less valuable fine coal was agglomerated into briquettes using a wide variety of binders, including coal tar, pitch and asphalt. Eventually, roll briquetters came into more widespread use, permitting the process to become a continuous one. Coal briquetting went out of favor during the 1950s in most of the industrialized world. The major reason for this decline in use was the discovery that the coal gas distillates used for binders were harmful to human health. Also, the abundance of cheap petroleum made coal briquettes a less attractive alternative as an industrial or domestic fuel. The re-emergence of coal as a primary industrial fuel and also its increased prominence as a fuel for thermal electric power stations led to a large increase in the annual volume of coal being mined worldwide. Coal preparation technology steadily improved over the years with the general exception of fine coal preparation. The processes available for treating this size range were considerably more expensive per unit mass of coal treated than coarse coal processes. Also, costly dewatering equipment was required after cleaning to remove surface moisture. Even with dewatering, the high surface area per unit mass of fine coal versus coarse coal resulted in high moisture contents. Therefore, little incentive existed to improve the performance of fine coal processes since this would only increase the amount of wet coal fines which would have to be dealt with. With such an ever-increasing volume of coal fines being created each year, there emerged an interest in recovering this valuable product. Several schemes were developed to recover coal fines discarded in abandoned tailings impoundments by previous operations.

  11. The oxidative potential of PM10 from coal, briquettes and wood charcoal burnt in an experimental domestic stove

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Longyi; Hou, Cong; Geng, Chunmei; Liu, Junxia; Hu, Ying; Wang, Jing; Jones, Tim; Zhao, Chengmei; BéruBé, Kelly

    2016-02-01

    Coal contains many potentially harmful trace elements. Coal combustion in unvented stoves, which is common in most parts of rural China, can release harmful emissions into the air that when inhaled cause health issues. However, few studies have dealt specifically with the toxicological mechanisms of the particulate matter (PM) released by coal and other solid fuel combustion. In this paper, PM10 particles that were generated during laboratory stove combustion of raw powdered coal, clay-mixed honeycomb briquettes, and wood charcoal were analysed for morphology, trace element compositions, and toxicity as represented by oxidative DNA damage. The analyses included Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Plasmid Scission Assay (PSA). Gravimetric analysis indicated that the equivalent mass concentration of PM10 emitted by burning raw powdered coal was higher than that derived by burning honeycomb briquette. FESEM observation revealed that the coal burning-derived PM10 particles were mainly soot aggregates. The PSA results showed that the PM10 emitted by burning honeycomb briquettes had a higher oxidative capacity than that from burning raw powdered coal and wood charcoal. It is also demonstrated that the oxidative capacity of the whole particle suspensions were similar to those of the water soluble fractions; indicating that the DNA damage induced by coal burning-derived PM10 were mainly a result of the water-soluble fraction. An ICP-MS analysis revealed that the amount of total analysed water-soluble elements in the PM10 emitted by burning honeycomb briquettes was higher than that in PM produced by burning raw powdered coal, and both were higher than PM from burning wood charcoal. The total analysed water-soluble elements in these coal burning-derived PM10 samples had a significantly positive correlation with the level of DNA damage; indicating that the oxidative capacity of the coal burning

  12. Differences in leukocyte differentiation molecule abundances on domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) neutrophils identified by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Highland, Margaret A; Schneider, David A; White, Stephen N; Madsen-Bouterse, Sally A; Knowles, Donald P; Davis, William C

    2016-06-01

    Although both domestic sheep (DS) and bighorn sheep (BHS) are affected by similar respiratory bacterial pathogens, experimental and field data indicate BHS are more susceptible to pneumonia. Cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for use in flow cytometry (FC) are valuable reagents for interspecies comparative immune system analyses. This study describes cross-reactive mAbs that recognize leukocyte differentiation molecules (LDMs) and major histocompatibility complex antigens on DS and BHS leukocytes. Characterization of multichannel eosinophil autofluorescence in this study permitted cell-type specific gating of granulocytes for evaluating LDMs, specifically on neutrophils, by single-label FC. Evaluation of relative abundances of LDMs by flow cytometry revealed greater CD11a, CD11b, CD18 (β2 integrins) and CD 172a (SIRPα) on DS neutrophils and greater CD14 (lipopolysaccharide receptor) on BHS neutrophils. Greater CD25 (IL-2) was identified on BHS lymphocytes following Concavalin A stimulation. While DS and BHS have similar total peripheral blood leukocyte counts, BHS have proportionately more neutrophils. PMID:27260809

  13. Annual Coal Distribution

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    The Annual Coal Distribution Report (ACDR) provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing state. All data for the report year are final and this report supersedes all data in the quarterly distribution reports.

  14. Western coal marketing days

    SciTech Connect

    Dahle, H.

    1983-01-01

    Fifteen papers were presented covering the following: the outlook for Powder River Basin Coals; markets for medium-range Western coals; outlook for domestic coal sales; Canada - the reliable coal supplier; coal requirements and procurement policies; coal procurement at Nevada Power Co; Nebraska Public Power District coal fired power plants - specifications and projections; NSP and its fuel needs; coal procurement at Grand River Dam Authority; Son of OPEC: Western Fuels and its coal contracting procedures; an update of the coal supply and demand situation of China Light and Power Co. Ltd; maximum rate guidelines - deja vu or the real thing.; Western coal shippers concerns; domestic and export movements; 1984-eleven years later. Most of the papers are in the form of transcripts.

  15. Differences in leukocyte differentiation molecule abundances on domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) neutrophils identified by flow cytometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although both domestic sheep (DS) and bighorn sheep (BHS) are affected by similar respiratory bacterial pathogens, experimental and field data indicate BHS are more susceptible to pneumonia. Cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for use in flow cytometry (FC) are valuable reagents for interspe...

  16. Cogasification of domestic fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Green, A.; Peres, S.; Mullin, J.; Xue, H.

    1995-12-31

    Advanced developments in military aircraft turbine technology have been applied to aeroderivative and large frame combustion turbines. When these advanced turbines are applied to combined cycle systems they result in the highest efficiency electrical generation systems now available. Integrating such a system with a front end coal gasifier is now considered one of the most promising near term Clean Coal Technologies. Gasification of other domestic solid fuels: biomass, MSW and tires could also provide the fuel input to combustion turbines. However, with low oil prices natural gas energy prices are too close to the energy prices of solid fuels to overcome the capital and operating costs of a conventional gasifier. The authors here consider on-site cogasification of domestic fuels to identify feedstock combinations that could be cogasified profitably even when oil prices are low. Coal-natural gas, coal-biomass, biomass-natural gas, coal-MSW are among the promising, domestic combinations. They conclude that cogasification of domestic fuels could serve as a near term clean combustion technology helpful towards trade deficit reduction and achieving global environmental goals.

  17. Differences in leukocyte differentiation molecule abundances on domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) neutrophils identified by flow cytometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abundance was assessed by utilizing a panel of cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) tested in this study. Characterization of multichannel autofluorescence of eosinophils permitted cell-type specific gating of granulocytes for quantification of LDMs on neutrophils and eosinophils by indirect,...

  18. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2002-07-15

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  19. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2002-10-15

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  20. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2003-01-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  1. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan

    2002-04-15

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), and up to 5500 psi with emphasis upon 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced

  2. Domestic Violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ083 WOMEN’S HEALTH Domestic Violence • What is domestic violence? • What are the types of abuse? • How can ... available to help abused women? What is domestic violence? Domestic violence is a pattern of threatening or ...

  3. U.S. DOE indirect coal liquefaction program: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, J.; Schmetz, E.; Winslow, J.; Tischer, R.; Srivastava, R.

    1997-12-31

    Coal is the most abundant domestic energy resource in the United States. The Fossil Energy Organization within the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been supporting a coal liquefaction program to develop improved technologies to convert coal to clean and cost-effective liquid fuels to complement the dwindling supply of domestic petroleum crude. The goal of this program is to produce coal liquids that are competitive with crude at $20 to $25 per barrel. Indirect and direct liquefaction routes are the two technologies being pursued under the DOE coal liquefaction program. This paper will give an overview of the DOE indirect liquefaction program. More detailed discussions will be given to the F-T diesel and DME fuels which have shown great promises as clean burning alternative diesel fuels. The authors also will briefly discuss the economics of indirect liquefaction and the hurdles and opportunities for the early commercial deployment of these technologies. Discussions will be preceded by two brief reviews on the liquid versus gas phase reactors and the natural gas versus coal based indirect liquefaction.

  4. The directory of United States coal & technology export resources. Profiles of domestic US corporations, associations and public entities, nationwide, which offer products or services suitable for export, relating to coal and its utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of available U.S. coal and coal related resources to potential purchasers of those resources abroad. The directory lists business entities within the US which offer coal related resources, products and services for sale on the international market. Each listing is intended to describe the particular business niche or range of product and/or services offered by a particular company. The listing provides addresses, telephones, and telex/fax for key staff in each company committed to the facilitation of international trade. The content of each listing has been formulated especially for this directory and reflects data current as of the date of this edition. The directory listings are divided into four primary classifications: coal resources; technology resources; support services; and financing and resource packaging. The first three of which are subdivided as follows: Coal Resources -- coal derivatives, coal exporters, and coal mining; Technology Resources -- advanced utilization, architects and engineers, boiler equipment, emissions control and waste disposal systems, facility construction, mining equipment, power generation systems, technical publications, and transport equipment; Support Services -- coal transport, facility operations, freight forwarders, sampling services and equipment, and technical consultants. Listings for the directory were solicited on the basis of this industry breakdown. Each of the four sections of this directory begins with a matrix illustrating which companies fall within the particular subclassifications specific to that main classification. A general alphabetical index of companies and an index by product/service classification are provided following the last section of the directory.

  5. Domestic Violence

    MedlinePlus

    Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also ... a child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...

  6. Domestic violence

    MedlinePlus

    Domestic violence is when a person uses abusive behavior to control a partner or other family member. The ... of any age, sex, culture, or class. When domestic violence is aimed at a child, it is called ...

  7. Domestic Violence

    MedlinePlus

    Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also be ... child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...

  8. 43 CFR 9239.5-3 - Coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the coal. Liberty Bell Gold Mining Company v. Smuggler-Union Mining Company (203 Fed. 795). The mining... trespass until the trespass account is settled. (e) Right of surface owner to mine coal for domestic...

  9. 43 CFR 9239.5-3 - Coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the coal. Liberty Bell Gold Mining Company v. Smuggler-Union Mining Company (203 Fed. 795). The mining... trespass until the trespass account is settled. (e) Right of surface owner to mine coal for domestic...

  10. Rationale for continuing R&D in direct coal conversion to produce high quality transportation fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, R.D.; McIlvried, H.G.; Gray, D.

    1995-12-31

    For the foreseeable future, liquid hydrocarbon fuels will play a significant role in the transportation sector of both the United States and the world. Factors favoring these fuels include convenience, high energy density, and the vast existing infrastructure for their production and use. At present the U.S. consumes about 26% of the world supply of petroleum, but this situation is expected to change because of declining domestic production and increasing competition for imports from countries with developing economies. A scenario and time frame are developed in which declining world resources will generate a shortfall in petroleum supply that can be allieviated in part by utilizing the abundant domestic coal resource base. One option is direct coal conversion to liquid transportation fuels. Continued R&D in coal conversion technology will results in improved technical readiness that can significantly reduce costs so that synfuels can compete economically in a time frame to address the shortfall.

  11. Coal quality databases: Practical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelman, R.B.; Gross, P.M.K.

    1999-07-01

    Domestic and worldwide coal use will be influenced by concerns about the effects of coal combustion on the local, regional and global environment. Reliable coal quality data can help decision-makers to better assess risks and determine impacts of coal constituents on technological behavior, economic byproduct recovery, and environmental and human health issues. The US Geological Survey (USGS) maintains an existing coal quality database (COALQUAL) that contains analyses of approximately 14,000 col samples from every major coal-producing basin in the US. For each sample, the database contains results of proximate and ultimate analyses; sulfur form data; and major, minor, and trace element concentrations for approximately 70 elements

  12. Microbial desulfurization of coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dastoor, M. N.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments indicate that several sulfur-oxidizing bacteria strains have been very efficient in desulfurizing coal. Process occurs at room temperature and does not require large capital investments of high energy inputs. Process may expand use of abundant reserves of high-sulfur bituminous coal, which is currently restricted due to environmental pollution. On practical scale, process may be integrated with modern coal-slurry transportation lines.

  13. Bio-coal briquette

    SciTech Connect

    Honda, Hiroshi

    1993-12-31

    Some of the developing nations aim to earn foreign currency by exporting oil and/or gas and to increase the domestic consumption of coal to ensure a secure energy supply. Therefore, it is very important to promote effective coal utilization in these nations. Currently, these countries experience problems associated with coal use for household cooking and household industries. For household cooking, coal creates too much smoke and smells unpleasant. In addition, illegally obtained firewood is almost free in local agricultural regions. Coal is also used in household industries; however, simple stoker boilers are inefficient, since unburned coal particles tend to drop through screens during the combustion process. The bio-coal briquette, on the other hand, is an effective and efficient fuel, since it utilizes coal, which is to be used extensively in households and in small and medium-scale industry sectors in some coal-producing countries, as a primary fuel and bamboos (agricultural waste) as a secondary fuel. In addition, the use of bio-coal briquettes will greatly help reduce unburned coal content.

  14. Abundances and distribution of minerals and elements in high-alumina coal fly ash from the Jungar Power Plant, Inner Mongolia, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dai, S.; Zhao, L.; Peng, S.; Chou, C.-L.; Wang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Li, D.; Sun, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The fly ash from the Jungar Power Plant, Inner Mongolia, China, is unique because it is highly enriched in alumina (Al2O3>50%). The fly ash mainly consists of amorphous glass and mullite and trace amounts of corundum, quartz, char, calcite, K-feldspar, clay minerals, and Fe-bearing minerals. The mullite content in fly ash is as high as 37.4% because of high boehmite and kaolinite contents in feed coal. Corundum is a characteristic mineral formed during the combustion of boehmite-rich coal.Samples from the economizer were sieved into six size fractions (<120, 120-160, 160-300, 300-360, 360-500, and >500 mesh) and separated into magnetic, mullite+corundum+quartz (MCQ) and glass phases for mineralogical and chemical analysis. The corundum content increases but amorphous glass decreases with decreasing particle size. Fractions of small particle sizes are relatively high in mullite, probably because mullite was formed from fine clay mineral particles under high-temperature combustion condition. Similarly, fine corundum crystals formed in the boiler from boehmite in feed coal. The magnetic phase consists of hematite, magnetite, magnesioferrite, and MgFeAlO4 crystals. The MCQ phase is composed of 89% mullite, 6.1% corundum, 4.5% quartz, and 0.5% K-feldspar.Overall, the fly ash from the power plant is significantly enriched in Al2O3 with an average of 51.9%, but poor in SiO2, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, Na2O, P2O5, and As. Arsenic, TiO2, Th, Al2O3, Bi, La, Ga, Ni, and V are high in mullite, and the magnetic matter is enriched in Fe2O3, CaO, MnO, TiO2, Cs, Co, As, Cd, Ba, Ni, Sb, MgO, Zn, and V. The remaining elements are high in the glass fraction. The concentration of K2O, Na2O, P2O5, Nb, Cr, Ta, U, W, Rb, and Ni do not clearly vary with particle size, while SiO2 and Hg decrease and the remaining elements clearly increase with decreasing particle size. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Domestic Violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... to anyone regardless of race, age, sexual orientation, religion, or gender. Domestic violence affects people of all ... ABOUT The Attorney General Budget & Performance Strategic Plans History AGENCIES BUSINESS Business Opportunities Small & Disadvantaged Business Grants ...

  16. Abundance of Dioxygenase Genes Similar to Ralstonia sp. Strain U2 nagAc Is Correlated with Naphthalene Concentrations in Coal Tar-Contaminated Freshwater Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Dionisi, Hebe M.; Chewning, Christopher S.; Morgan, Katherine H.; Menn, Fu-Min; Easter, James P.; Sayler, Gary S.

    2004-01-01

    We designed a real-time PCR assay able to recognize dioxygenase large-subunit gene sequences with more than 90% similarity to the Ralstonia sp. strain U2 nagAc gene (nagAc-like gene sequences) in order to study the importance of organisms carrying these genes in the biodegradation of naphthalene. Sequencing of PCR products indicated that this real-time PCR assay was specific and able to detect a variety of nagAc-like gene sequences. One to 100 ng of contaminated-sediment total DNA in 25-μl reaction mixtures produced an amplification efficiency of 0.97 without evident PCR inhibition. The assay was applied to surficial freshwater sediment samples obtained in or in close proximity to a coal tar-contaminated Superfund site. Naphthalene concentrations in the analyzed samples varied between 0.18 and 106 mg/kg of dry weight sediment. The assay for nagAc-like sequences indicated the presence of (4.1 ± 0.7) × 103 to (2.9 ± 0.3) × 105 copies of nagAc-like dioxygenase genes per μg of DNA extracted from sediment samples. These values corresponded to (1.2 ± 0.6) × 105 to (5.4 ± 0.4) × 107 copies of this target per g of dry weight sediment when losses of DNA during extraction were taken into account. There was a positive correlation between naphthalene concentrations and nagAc-like gene copies per microgram of DNA (r = 0.89) and per gram of dry weight sediment (r = 0.77). These results provide evidence of the ecological significance of organisms carrying nagAc-like genes in the biodegradation of naphthalene. PMID:15240274

  17. Domestic violence.

    PubMed

    2016-03-30

    Essential facts Domestic violence and abuse includes any incident or repeated incidents of controlling, coercive or threatening behaviour, violence or abuse between family members or intimate partners (including former partners). It can involve psychological, physical, sexual, financial and emotional abuse, as well as 'honour'-based violence and forced marriage. According to the Office for National Statistics, at least 1.4 million women and 700,000 men aged between 16 and 59 experienced domestic abuse in England and Wales in 2013/14 - equivalent to 8.5% of women and 4.5% of men. PMID:27027171

  18. Coal sector profile

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-05

    Coal is our largest domestic energy resource with recoverable reserves estimated at 268 billion short tons or 5.896 quads Btu equivalent. This is approximately 95 percent of US fossil energy resources. It is relatively inexpensive to mine, and on a per Btu basis it is generally much less costly to produce than other energy sources. Its chief drawbacks are the environmental, health and safety concerns that must be addressed in its production and consumption. Historically, coal has played a major role in US energy markets. Coal fueled the railroads, heated the homes, powered the factories. and provided the raw materials for steel-making. In 1920, coal supplied over three times the amount of energy of oil, gas, and hydro combined. From 1920 until the mid 1970s, coal production remained fairly constant at 400 to 600 million short tons a year. Rapid increases in overall energy demands, which began during and after World War II were mostly met by oil and gas. By the mid 1940s, coal represented only half of total energy consumption in the US. In fact, post-war coal production, which had risen in support of the war effort and the postwar Marshall plan, decreased approximately 25 percent between 1945 and 1960. Coal demand in the post-war era up until the 1970s was characterized by increasing coal use by the electric utilities but decreasing coal use in many other markets (e.g., rail transportation). The oil price shocks of the 1970s, combined with natural gas shortages and problems with nuclear power, returned coal to a position of prominence. The greatly expanded use of coal was seen as a key building block in US energy strategies of the 1970s. Coal production increased from 613 million short tons per year in 1970 to 950 million short tons in 1988, up over 50 percent.

  19. Coal: the cornerstone of America's energy future

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, R.A.

    2006-06-15

    In April 2005, US Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman asked the National Coal Council to develop a 'report identifying the challenges and opportunities of more fully exploring our domestic coal resources to meet the nation's future energy needs'. The Council has responded with eight specific recommendations for developing and implementing advanced coal processing and combustion technologies to satisfy our unquenchable thirst for energy. These are: Use coal-to-liquids technologies to produce 2.6 million barrels/day; Use coal-to-natural gas technologies to produce 4 trillion ft{sup 3}/yr; Build 100 GW of clean coal plants by 2025; Produce ethanol from coal; Develop coal-to-hydrogen technologies; Use CO{sub 2} to enhance recovery of oil and coal-bed methane; Increase the capacity of US coal mines and railroads; and Invest in technology development and implementation. 1 ref.; 4 figs.; 1 tab.

  20. Sulfur compounds in coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attar, A.; Corcoran, W. H.

    1977-01-01

    The literature on the chemical structure of the organic sulfur compounds (or functional groups) in coal is reviewed. Four methods were applied in the literature to study the sulfur compounds in coal: direct spectrometric and chemical analysis, depolymerization in drastic conditions, depolymerization in mild conditions, and studies on simulated coal. The data suggest that most of the organic sulfur in coal is in the form of thiophenic structures and aromatic and aliphatic sulfides. The relative abundance of the sulfur groups in bituminous coal is estimated as 50:30:20%, respectively. The ratio changes during processing and during the chemical analysis. The main effects are the transformation during processing of sulfides to the more stable thiophenic compounds and the elimination of hydrogen sulfide.

  1. Mutualism breakdown in breadfruit domestication

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Xiaoke; Koch, Alexander M.; Jones, A. Maxwell P.; Ragone, Diane; Murch, Susan; Hart, Miranda M.

    2012-01-01

    During the process of plant domestication, below-ground communities are rarely considered. Some studies have attempted to understand the changes in root symbionts owing to domestication, but little is known about how it influences mycorrhizal response in domesticated crops. We hypothesized that selection for above-ground traits may also result in decreased mycorrhizal abundance in roots. Breadfruit (Artocarpus sp.) has a long domestication history, with a strong geographical movement of cultivars from west to east across the Melanesian and Polynesian islands. Our results clearly show a decrease in arbuscular mycorrhizas (AMs) along a domestication gradient from wild to recently derived cultivars. We showed that the vesicular and arbuscular colonization rate decreased significantly in more recently derived breadfruit cultivars. In addition, molecular analyses of breadfruit roots indicated that AM fungal species richness also responded along the domestication gradient. These results suggest that human-driven selection for plant cultivars can have unintended effects on below-ground mutualists, with potential impacts on the stress tolerance of crops and long-term food security. PMID:21920983

  2. Carboniferous coal swamp vegetation

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, T.L.; Peppers, R.A.; DiMichele, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Carboniferous Period was one of considerable change on the Earth. The volume explores these changes by using plant morphology and paleoecology to develop the relationship between plant evolution and the derived coal sources. Both are interrelated by the regional and stratigraphic trends in paleoecology and paleoclimatology. The book is divided into three sections dealing with geology, plant morphology including palynology, and paleoecology. In Section I, the paleogeography, geologic settings of major coal basins, coal resources, coal-ball origins and occurrences, and the sources of paleobotanical information are presented with biostratigraphic correlations of Europe and the United States. Section II emphasizes plant morphology as form and structure provide the means of identifying plants and, in turn, establishing development, size, habit, reproductive biology, environmental parameters, and evolutionary change. Quantitative abundances and stratigraphic ranges of plants and spores are compared and summarized. Lastly, Section III integrates coal-ball peats and coal-spore floras as complementary sources for the quantitative analyses of coal-swamp vegetation in relation to climate and coal. The local and regional swamp studies are interfaced and basinal geology and depositional interpretations in a stratigraphic succession.

  3. IDENTIFICATION AND EMISSION RATES OF MOLECULAR TRACERS IN COAL SMOKE PARTICULATE MATTER. (R823990)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The abundances and distributions of organic constituents in coal smoke particulate matter are dependent on thermal combustion temperature, ventilation, burn time, and coal rank (geologic maturity). Important coal rank indicators from smoke include (1) the decreases in CPIs of ...

  4. Outlook and Challenges for Chinese Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Aden, Nathaniel T.; Fridley, David G.; Zheng, Nina

    2008-06-20

    China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. The rapid growth of coal demand since 2001 has created deepening strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about supply security. Although China's coal is 'plentiful,' published academic and policy analyses indicate that peak production will likely occur between 2016 and 2029. Given the current economic growth trajectory, domestic production constraints will lead to a coal gap that is not likely to be filled with imports. Urbanization, heavy industry growth, and increasing per-capita consumption are the primary drivers of rising coal usage. In 2006, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement accounted for 71% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units could save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand. If China follows Japan, steel production would peak by 2015; cement is likely to follow a similar trajectory. A fourth wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. New demand from coal-to-liquids and coal-to-chemicals may add 450 million tonnes of coal demand by 2025. Efficient growth among these drivers indicates that China's annual coal demand will reach 4.2 to 4.7 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not been able to reduce China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Few substitution options exist: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth would require over 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas, 48 GW of nuclear, or 86 GW of hydropower capacity. While these alternatives will continue to grow, the scale of development using existing technologies will be insufficient to substitute significant coal demand before 2025. The central role of heavy industry in GDP growth and the difficulty of substituting other fuels suggest that coal consumption is inextricably entwined with

  5. Recovery of minerals from US coals

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderborgh, N.E.

    1982-01-01

    Projections show that domestic coal will serve for the majority of energy supplies during the next decades. Thorough chemical cleaning of this coal can be accomplished in long residence time, slurry transport systems to produce high-quality fuel product. Concurrently, mineral recovery from coals will supplement existing ores. This paper describes this concept and given preliminary engineering considerations for mineral recovery during transport operations.

  6. Health impacts of coal and coal use: Possible solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelman, R.B.; Orem, W.; Castranova, V.; Tatu, C.A.; Belkin, H.E.; Zheng, B.; Lerch, H.E.; Maharaj, S.V.; Bates, A.L.

    2002-01-01

    Coal will be a dominant energy source in both developed and developing countries for at least the first half of the 21st century. Environmental problems associated with coal, before mining, during mining, in storage, during combustion, and postcombustion waste products are well known and are being addressed by ongoing research. The connection between potential environmental problems with human health is a fairly new field and requires the cooperation of both the geoscience and medical disciplines. Three research programs that illustrate this collaboration are described and used to present a range of human health problems that are potentially caused by coal. Domestic combustion of coal in China has, in some cases, severely affected human health. Both on a local and regional scale, human health has been adversely affected by coals containing arsenic, fluorine, selenium, and possibly, mercury. Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), an irreversible kidney disease of unknown origin, has been related to the proximity of Pliocene lignite deposits. The working hypothesis is that groundwater is leaching toxic organic compounds as it passes through the lignites and that these organics are then ingested by the local population contributing to this health problem. Human disease associated with coal mining mainly results from inhalation of particulate matter during the mining process. The disease is Coal Worker's Pneumoconiosis characterized by coal dust-induced lesions in the gas exchange regions of the lung; the coal worker's "black lung disease". ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Coal, energy and environment: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, J.S.; Hawse, M.L.

    1994-12-31

    This international conference held in Czechoslovakia was a bold attempt to establish working relationships among scientists and engineers from three world areas: Taiwan, the United States of America, and Czechoslovakia. The magic words unifying this gathering were ``clean coal utilization.`` For the ten nationalities represented, the common elements were the clean use of coal as a domestic fuel and as a source of carbon, the efficient and clean use of coal in power generation, and other uses of coal in environmentally acceptable processes. These three world areas have serious environmental problems, differing in extent and nature, but sufficiently close to create a working community for discussions. Beyond this, Czechoslovakia is emerging from the isolation imposed by control from Moscow. The need for each of these nations to meet and know one another was imperative. The environmental problems in Czechoslovakia are extensive and deep-seated. These proceedings contain 63 papers grouped into the following sections: The research university and its relationship with accrediting associations, government and private industry; Recent advances in coal utilization research; New methods of mining and reclamation; Coal-derived waste disposal and utilization; New applications of coal and environmental technologies; Mineral and trace elements in coal; Human and environmental impacts of coal production and utilization in the Silesian/Moravian region; and The interrelationships between fossil energy use and environmental objectives. Most papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  8. Coal Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Coal slurries are "clean" pulverized coal mixed with oil or water. Significant fuel savings can be realized when using coal slurries. Advanced Fuels Technology (AFT) utilized a COSMIC program, (Calculation of Complex Chemical Equilibrium Compositions), which provides specific capabilities for determining combustion products. The company has developed a cleaning process that removes much of the mineral sulphur and ash from the coals.

  9. Drivers for the renaissance of coal.

    PubMed

    Steckel, Jan Christoph; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Jakob, Michael

    2015-07-21

    Coal was central to the industrial revolution, but in the 20th century it increasingly was superseded by oil and gas. However, in recent years coal again has become the predominant source of global carbon emissions. We show that this trend of rapidly increasing coal-based emissions is not restricted to a few individual countries such as China. Rather, we are witnessing a global renaissance of coal majorly driven by poor, fast-growing countries that increasingly rely on coal to satisfy their growing energy demand. The low price of coal relative to gas and oil has played an important role in accelerating coal consumption since the end of the 1990s. In this article, we show that in the increasingly integrated global coal market the availability of a domestic coal resource does not have a statistically significant impact on the use of coal and related emissions. These findings have important implications for climate change mitigation: If future economic growth of poor countries is fueled mainly by coal, ambitious mitigation targets very likely will become infeasible. Building new coal power plant capacities will lead to lock-in effects for the next few decades. If that lock-in is to be avoided, international climate policy must find ways to offer viable alternatives to coal for developing countries. PMID:26150491

  10. Drivers for the renaissance of coal

    PubMed Central

    Steckel, Jan Christoph; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Jakob, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Coal was central to the industrial revolution, but in the 20th century it increasingly was superseded by oil and gas. However, in recent years coal again has become the predominant source of global carbon emissions. We show that this trend of rapidly increasing coal-based emissions is not restricted to a few individual countries such as China. Rather, we are witnessing a global renaissance of coal majorly driven by poor, fast-growing countries that increasingly rely on coal to satisfy their growing energy demand. The low price of coal relative to gas and oil has played an important role in accelerating coal consumption since the end of the 1990s. In this article, we show that in the increasingly integrated global coal market the availability of a domestic coal resource does not have a statistically significant impact on the use of coal and related emissions. These findings have important implications for climate change mitigation: If future economic growth of poor countries is fueled mainly by coal, ambitious mitigation targets very likely will become infeasible. Building new coal power plant capacities will lead to lock-in effects for the next few decades. If that lock-in is to be avoided, international climate policy must find ways to offer viable alternatives to coal for developing countries. PMID:26150491

  11. Fleas parasitizing domestic dogs in Spain.

    PubMed

    Gracia, M J; Calvete, C; Estrada, R; Castillo, J A; Peribáñez, M A; Lucientes, J

    2008-02-14

    In addition to their importance to veterinary clinical practice as ectoparasites, fleas of domestic dogs are of special concern because they can be vectors of disease, including zoonoses. Flea assemblages parasitizing domestic dogs usually comprise several flea species whose distribution is determined by factors acting at several scales. Knowledge of these factors will aid in assessment of the distribution patterns of flea parasitism, and is an important tool in developing control strategies and in evaluation of flea-borne disease risk in dogs and humans. In this survey we used data from 744 domestic dogs from 79 localities in Spain to explore the associations between the abundance of flea species, host-dependent factors (sex and age), and host habitat factors including abode (farm, house with garden, apartment), location (urban or rural), the presence of other pets, and dog activity (measured as the frequency with which dogs left their abode). We also considered environmental factors including the time of year and mean annual temperature and rainfall. Variations in flea community structure at infracommunity and component community levels were also explored. Four flea species were found parasitizing dogs. Ctenocephalides felis was the most abundant (88.02% of fleas identified), followed by Ctenocephalides canis (10.38%), Pulex irritans (1.47%) and Echidnophaga gallinacea (0.13%). Overall flea abundance was higher on dogs living on farms than in apartments, as was the abundance of Ct. felis, Ct. canis and P. irritans. Ct. felis was more abundant on dogs living in houses than in apartments, but the reverse was found for P. irritans. Overall flea abundance and Ct. canis abundance were highest in rural areas, whereas the presence of other pets sharing the abode was associated with higher overall flea abundance and Ct. felis abundance. Only P. irritans abundance was positively related to the activity of dogs. Ct. canis and P. irritans abundances were higher during the

  12. Appalachian coal assessment: Defining the coal systems of the Appalachian basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milici, R.C.

    2005-01-01

    The coal systems concept may be used to organize the geologic data for a relatively large, complex area, such as the Appalachian basin, in order to facilitate coal assessments in the area. The concept is especially valuable in subjective assessments of future coal production, which would require a detailed understanding of the coal geology and coal chemistry of the region. In addition, subjective assessments of future coal production would be enhanced by a geographical information system that contains the geologic and geochemical data commonly prepared for conventional coal assessments. Coal systems are generally defined as one or more coal beds or groups of coal beds that have had the same or similar genetic history from their inception as peat deposits, through their burial, diagenesis, and epigenesis to their ultimate preservation as lignite, bituminous coal, or anthracite. The central and northern parts of the Appalachian basin contain seven coal systems (Coal Systems A-G). These systems may be defined generally on the following criteria: (1) on the primary characteristics of their paleopeat deposits, (2) on the stratigraphic framework of the Paleozoic coal measures, (3) on the relative abundance of coal beds within the major stratigraphic groupings, (4) on the amount of sulfur related to the geologic and climatic conditions under which paleopeat deposits accumulated, and (5) on the rank of the coal (lignite to anthracite). ??2005 Geological Society of America.

  13. Chemical composition and some trace element contents in coals and coal ash from Tamnava-Zapadno Polje Coal Field, Serbia

    SciTech Connect

    Vukasinovic-Pesic, V.; Rajakovic, L.J.

    2009-07-01

    The chemical compositions and trace element contents (Zn, Cu, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cd, As, B, Hg, Sr, Se, Be, Ba, Mn, Th, V, U) in coal and coal ash samples from Tamnava-Zapadno Polje coal field in Serbia were studied. The coal from this field belongs to lignite. This high volatility coal has high moisture and low S contents, moderate ash yield, and high calorific value. The coal ash is abundant in alumosilicates. Many trace elements such as Ni > Cd > Cr > B > As > Cu > Co > Pb > V > Zn > Mn in the coal and Ni > Cr > As > B > Cu > Co = Pb > V > Zn > Mn in the coal ash are enriched in comparison with Clarke concentrations.

  14. Burning coal refuse in fluid beds

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinau, J.H.; Sneyd, R.J.; Lombardi, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    This paper deals with the application of fluid bed combustion technology to the burning of coal-mining waste. The designs of two stage fluid bed combustors/dryers are demonstrated as useful in the drying of coal, slag and coke, using coal and coal refuse (gob) as fuel. Anthracite mining refuse (culm) is more than abundant in Northeastern Pennsylvania. After demonstration at Shamokin, Pennsylvania, a full commercial-sized fluid bed boiler using culm is used for district heating in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. Limited research work has shown the utility of using fine coal as filter aid in sludge incineration. With the rising avenues of the suitability of coal as auxiliary fuel in fluid bed sludge incineration, an expansion of these concepts combines the use of coal or coal refuse as filter aid and auxiliary fuel. Limestone addition controls SO/sub 2/ emission.

  15. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    SciTech Connect

    Aden, Nathaniel; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

    2009-07-01

    likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. If coal to chemicals capacity reaches 70 million tonnes and coal-to-liquids capacity reaches 60 million tonnes, coal feedstock requirements would add an additional 450 million tonnes by 2025. Even with more efficient growth among these drivers, China's annual coal demand is expected to reach 3.9 to 4.3 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not reversed China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Substitution is a matter of scale: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth of 200 million tonnes would require 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas (compared to 2007 growth of 13 BCM), 48 GW of nuclear (compared to 2007 growth of 2 GW), or 86 GW of hydropower capacity (compared to 2007 growth of 16 GW). Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on a high growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China has a low proportion of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport capacity. Furthermore, transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transportation oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 million tonnes by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets.

  16. Coal pump

    DOEpatents

    Bonin, John H.; Meyer, John W.; Daniel, Jr., Arnold D.

    1983-01-01

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  17. Coal desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, William H. (Inventor); Vasilakos, Nicholas P. (Inventor); Lawson, Daniel D. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method for enhancing solubilizing mass transport of reactive agents into and out of carbonaceous materials, such as coal. Solubility parameters of mass transfer and solvent media are matched to individual peaks in the solubility parameter spectrum of coals to enhance swelling and/or dissolution. Methanol containing reactive agent carriers are found particularly effective for removing organic sulfur from coals by chlorinolysis.

  18. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Project fact sheets 2000, status as of June 30, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2000-09-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program), a model of government and industry cooperation, responds to the Department of Energy's (DOE) mission to foster a secure and reliable energy system that is environmentally and economically sustainable. The CCT Program represents an investment of over $5.2 billion in advanced coal-based technology, with industry and state governments providing an unprecedented 66 percent of the funding. With 26 of the 38 active projects having completed operations, the CCT Program has yielded clean coal technologies (CCTs) that are capable of meeting existing and emerging environmental regulations and competing in a deregulated electric power marketplace. The CCT Program is providing a portfolio of technologies that will assure that U.S. recoverable coal reserves of 274 billion tons can continue to supply the nation's energy needs economically and in an environmentally sound manner. As the nation embarks on a new millennium, many of the clean coal technologies have realized commercial application. Industry stands ready to respond to the energy and environmental demands of the 21st century, both domestically and internationally, For existing power plants, there are cost-effective environmental control devices to control sulfur dioxide (S02), nitrogen oxides (NO,), and particulate matter (PM). Also ready is a new generation of technologies that can produce electricity and other commodities, such as steam and synthetic gas, and provide efficiencies and environmental performance responsive to global climate change concerns. The CCT Program took a pollution prevention approach as well, demonstrating technologies that remove pollutants or their precursors from coal-based fuels before combustion. Finally, new technologies were introduced into the major coal-based industries, such as steel production, to enhance environmental performance. Thanks in part to the CCT Program, coal--abundant, secure, and economical--can continue in

  19. Coal Utilization in Schools: Issues and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pusey, Robert H.

    Coal, at one-third the cost of natural gas and one-fifth the cost of oil, is our cheapest source of energy and is also in abundant supply. Because of significant technological advances, coal-fired equipment now approaches the clean and automatic operational characteristics of gas- and oil-fired boilers. For these reasons, and because schools are…

  20. Coal: America's energy future. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    2006-03-15

    Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman requested the National Coal Council in April 2005 a report identifying the challenges and opportunities of more fully exploring the USA's domestic coal resources to meet the nations' future energy needs. This resultant report addresses the Secretary's request in the context of the President's focus, with eight findings and recommendations that would use technology to leverage the USA's extensive coal assets and reduce dependence on imported energy. Volume I outlines these findings and recommendations. Volume II provides technical data and case histories to support the findings and recommendations. Chapter headings of Volume I are: Coal-to-Liquids to Produce 2.6 MMbbl/d; Coal-to-Natural Gas to Produce 4.0 Tcf Per Year; Coal-to-Clean Electricity; Coal to Produce Ethanol; Coal-to-Hydrogen; Enhanced Oil and Gas (Coalbed Methane); Recovery as Carbon Management Strategies; Delineate U.S. Coal Reserves and Transportation Constraints as Part of an Effort to Maximize U.S. Coal Production; and Penn State Study, 'Economic Benefits of Coal Conversion Investments'.

  1. Radionuclides in Western coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, D.T.; Styron, C.E.; Casella, V.R.

    1983-09-23

    The increase in domestic energy production coupled with the switch from oil and natural gas to coal as a boiler-fuel source have prompted various federal agencies to assess the potential environmental and health risks associated with coal-fired power plants. Because it has been suggested that Western coals contain more uranium than Eastern coals, particular concern has been expressed about radioactive emissions from the increasing number of power plants that burn low-sulfur Western coal. As a result, the radionuclides in coal program was established to analyze low-sulfur coal reserves in Western coal fields for radioactivity. Samples from seams of obvious commercial value were taken from 19 operating mines that represented 65% of Western coal production. Although the present study did not delve deeply into underlying causative factors, the following general conclusions were reached. Commercially exploited Western coals do not show any alarming pattern of radionuclide content and probably have lower radioactivity levels than Eastern coals. The materials that were present appeared to be in secular equilibrium in coal, and a detailed dose assessment failed to show a significant hazard associated with the combustion of Western coal. Flue gas desulfurization technology apparently has no significant impact on radionuclide availability, nor does it pose any significant radiologic health risks. This study has also shown that Western coals are not more radioactive than most soils and that most solid combustion products have emanation powers <1%, which greatly reduce dose estimates from this pathway. In summary, the current use of mined, Western coals in fossil-fueled power plants does not present any significant radiological hazard.

  2. Pelletization of fine coals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sastry, K.V.S.

    1995-12-31

    Coal is one of the most abundant energy resources in the US with nearly 800 million tons of it being mined annually. Process and environmental demands for low-ash, low-sulfur coals and economic constraints for high productivity are leading the coal industry to use such modern mining methods as longwall mining and such newer coal processing techniques as froth flotation, oil agglomeration, chemical cleaning and synthetic fuel production. All these processes are faced with one common problem area--fine coals. Dealing effectively with these fine coals during handling, storage, transportation, and/or processing continues to be a challenge facing the industry. Agglomeration by the unit operation of pelletization consists of tumbling moist fines in drums or discs. Past experimental work and limited commercial practice have shown that pelletization can alleviate the problems associated with fine coals. However, it was recognized that there exists a serious need for delineating the fundamental principles of fine coal pelletization. Accordingly, a research program has been carried involving four specific topics: (i) experimental investigation of coal pelletization kinetics, (ii) understanding the surface principles of coal pelletization, (iii) modeling of coal pelletization processes, and (iv) simulation of fine coal pelletization circuits. This report summarizes the major findings and provides relevant details of the research effort.

  3. Role of CCTs in the evolving domestic electricity market

    SciTech Connect

    Grahame, T.J.

    1997-12-31

    The paper summarizes the key points and issues in the role of clean coal technologies in the domestic marketplace. Then suggested solutions to bringing precommercial CCTs to the market are presented. Finally, the outlook for possible actions by government and the private sector are briefly discussed.

  4. The World Coal Quality Inventory (WoCQI)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelman, Robert B.; Lovern, Vivian S.

    2001-01-01

    The Issue Policymakers around the world require accurate information on coal, particularly information on coal properties and characteristics, to make informed decisions regarding the best use of indigenous resources, international import needs and export opportunities, domestic and foreign policy objectives, technology transfer opportunities, foreign investment prospects, environmental and health assessments, and byproduct use and disposal issues.

  5. Quarterly coal report, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-26

    In the second quarter of 1993, the United States produced 235 million short tons of coal. This brought the total for the first half of 1993 to 477 million short tons, a decrease of 4 percent (21 million short tons) from the amount produced during the first half of 1992. The decrease was due to a 26-million-short-ton decline in production east of the Mississippi River, which was partially offset by a 5-million-short-ton increase in coal production west of the Mississippi River. Compared with the first 6 months of 1992, all States east of the Mississippi River had lower coal production levels, led by West Virginia and Illinois, which produced 9 million short tons and 7 million short tons less coal, respectively. The principal reasons for the drop in coal output for the first 6 months of 1993 compared to a year earlier were: a decrease in demand for US coal in foreign markets, particularly the steam coal markets; a draw-down of electric utility coal stocks to meet the increase in demand for coal-fired electricity generation; and a lower producer/distributor stock build-up. Distribution of US coal in the first half of 1993 was 15 million short tons lower than in the first half of 1992, with 13 million short tons less distributed to overseas markets and 2 million short tons less distributed to domestic markets.

  6. Finding a Place for Energy: Siting Coal Conversion Facilities. Resource Publications in Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calzonetti, Frank J.; Eckert, Mark S.

    The process of identifying, licensing, and developing energy facility sites for the conversion of coal into more useful forms is the focus of this book, intended for geography students, professors, and researchers. The use of domestic coal resources will ameliorate U.S. dependency on imported fuel. However, because coal is a bulky, dirty fuel…

  7. A resource and technology assessment of coal utilization in India

    SciTech Connect

    Chikkatur, A.P.

    2008-10-15

    Electricity production in India is projected to expand dramatically in the near term to energize new industrial development, while also easing the energy shortages throughout the country. Much of the new growth in electricity production will be fueled by domestic coal resources; however, there is worldwide concern about increased coal use, as greater carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion will exacerbate climate change. At the same time, there are now a number of different existing and emerging technological options for coal conversion and greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction worldwide that could potentially be useful for the Indian coal-power sector. This paper reviews coal utilization in India and examines current and emerging coal power technologies with near- and long-term potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from coal power generation. 107 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Clean coal technologies: Research, development, and demonstration program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, has structured an integrated program for research, development, and demonstration of clean coal technologies that will enable the nation to use its plentiful domestic coal resources while meeting environmental quality requirements. The program provides the basis for making coal a low-cost, environmentally sound energy choice for electric power generation and fuels production. These programs are briefly described.

  9. Chemicals from coal. Utilization of coal-derived phenolic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Song, C.; Schobert, H.H.

    1999-07-01

    This article provides an overview for possible utilization of coal-derived phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds are abundant in coal-derived liquids. Coal-derived phenolic compounds include phenol, cresol, catechol, methylcatechol, naphthol, and their derivatives. Liquids from coal liquefaction, pyrolysis, gasification, and carbonization are potential sources of phenolic chemicals, although certain processing and separation are needed. There are opportunities for coal-based phenolic chemicals, because there are existing industrial applications and potential new applications. Currently the petrochemical industry produces phenol in multi-step processes, and new research and development has resulted in a one-step process. Selective methylation of phenol can produce a precursor for aromatic engineering plastics. Catalytic oxidation of phenol has been commercialized recently for catechol production. There are potential new uses of phenol that could replace large-volume multi-step chemical processes that are based on benzene as the starting material. New chemical research on coal and coal-derived liquids can pave the way for their non-fuel uses for making chemicals and materials.

  10. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-08-04

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  11. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-10-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  12. Coal liquefaction with coal tar solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Gir, S.; Rhodes, D.E.

    1986-12-16

    A method is described of liquefying coal, comprising: mixing solid coal with a process solvent comprising coal tar material which has been at least partially hydrogenated under conditions which selectively hydrogenate aromatic coal tar components to hydroaromatics and which preserve the integrity of organonitrogen coal tar components, to produce a coal-solvent slurry; treating the coal-solvent slurry under coal-liquefying conditions in a liquefaction zone to produce a solution containing coal liquefaction products; and recovering coal liquefaction products from the solution.

  13. Markets for coal and coal technologies in Asian and Pacific Basin countries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    In a new market analysis available from the Utility Data Institute (UDI), Viking Systems International (VSI) of Pittsburgh, PA, argues that the nations in the Pacific Basin and South Asia provide an exciting market opportunity for vendors and suppliers of coal power technology, services, and fuel. Critical market factors for increased coal use include: (1) availability of domestic coal resources; (2) price of competing fuels; (3) infrastructure for mining and transportation; (4) environmental regulations concerning coal use; and (5) the development and application of new coal technologies. An overview is presented of the current energy situation and future development options in thirteen different countries: Afghanistan, Australia, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, People's Republic of China, Philippines, Republic of China (Taiwan), Republic of Korea (South Korea), and Thailand. More than 150 detailed tables, charts, and maps present analyses of existing coal reserves, coal characteristics, domestic energy production by fuel mix, energy consumption, electric power generation, and regulatory practices in each country. The report was developed by VSI from two computerized data bases---one on coal characteristics and reserves, the other on electric utilities and power plants in Asian countries. A chapter in the report describes the data bases in more detail.

  14. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009 is to provide an updated status of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commercial-scale demonstrations of clean coal technologies (CCT). These demonstrations have been performed under the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). Program Update 2009 provides: (1) a discussion of the role of clean coal technology demonstrations in improving the nation’s energy security and reliability, while protecting the environment using the nation’s most abundant energy resource—coal; (2) a summary of the funding and costs of the demonstrations; and (3) an overview of the technologies being demonstrated, along with fact sheets for projects that are active, recently completed, or recently discontinued.

  15. Sequential leaching of coal to investigate the elution of inorganic elements into coal extract (HyperCoal)

    SciTech Connect

    Lian Zhang; Toshimasa Takanohashi; Tetsuya Nakazato; Ikuo Saito; Hiroaki Tao

    2008-07-15

    Two Argonne premium coal samples, Illinois No. 6 (IL) and Wyodak-Anderson (WY), were extracted by 1-methynaphthalene for 1 h at 360{sup o}C and under 1 MPa nitrogen (cold) protection. Elution of inorganic elements into coal extracts as well as their chemistry has been mainly investigated. An indirect method for metallic speciation was employed by initially washing coal with a variety of acids. Subsequently, the washed coals as well as the respective raw coal were extracted. For a given metal, elution of its ion-exchangeable fraction was defined as the difference between its amounts eluted into the extracts of raw coal and acetic acid-washed coal. Elution of submicrometer discrete particles was defined as the difference between the extracts of acetic acid-washed coal and nitric acid-washed coal. Elution of its fraction insoluble in nitric acid was assigned as organometals which are chemically associated with coal carbonaceous matrix and/or those incorporated into fine clay minerals. About 822 and 1110 ppm inorganic elements were eluted into the extracts of IL and WY coals, respectively. Fe was the most prevalent. The transition metals including Cr, Ni, Mn, Co, Cu, and Zn were also abundant. These metals were mostly nitric-acid insoluble. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy characterization suggested the high-spin Fe{sup 3+} state for Fe that is virtually totally associated with coal functional groups. Regarding the remaining metals in coal extracts, they are mainly submicrometer discrete particles in IL extract. Elution of the ion-exchangeable carboxylates was however prominent during WY coal extraction. 43 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Environmental effects of increased coal utilization: ecological effects of gaseous emissions from coal combustion.

    PubMed Central

    Glass, N R

    1979-01-01

    This report is limited to an evaluation of the ecological and environmental effects of gaseous emissions and aerosols of various types which result from coal combustion. It deals with NOx, SOx, fine particulate, photochemical oxidant and acid precipitation as these pollutants affect natural and managed resources and ecosystems. Also, synergistic effects involving two or more pollutants are evaluated as well as ecosystem level effects of gaseous pollutants. There is a brief summary of the effects on materials and atmospheric visibility of increased coal combustion. The economic implications of ecological effects are identified to the extent they can be determined within acceptable limits. Aquatic and terrestrial effects are distinguished where the pollutants in question are clearly problems in both media. At present, acid precipitation is most abundant in the north central and northeastern states. Total SOx and NOx emissions are projected to remain high in these regions while increasing relatively more in the western than in the eastern regions of the country. A variety of ecological processes are affected and altered by air pollution. Such processes include community succession and retrogression, nutrient biogeochemical cycling, photosynthetic activity, primary and secondary productivity, species diversity and community stability. Estimates of the non health-related cost of air pollutants range from several hundred million dollars to $1.7 billion dollars per year. In general, these estimates include only those relatively easily measured considerations such as the known losses to cultivate crops from acute air pollution episodes or the cost of frequent repainting required as a result of air pollution. No substantial nationwide estimates of losses to forest productivity, natural ecosystem productivity which is tapped by domestic grazing animals and wildlife, and other significant dollar losses are available. PMID:44247

  17. Domestic Communication Satellites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Andrew

    1974-01-01

    A discussion of the Federal Communications Commission's new policy on domestic satellites in light of our 1) military and economic history; 2) corporate interests; 3) citizen surveillance; and 4) media control. (HB)

  18. Will Abundant Natural Gas Solve Climate Change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McJeon, H. C.; Edmonds, J.; Bauer, N.; Leon, C.; Fisher, B.; Flannery, B.; Hilaire, J.; Krey, V.; Marangoni, G.; Mi, R.; Riahi, K.; Rogner, H.; Tavoni, M.

    2015-12-01

    The rapid deployment of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling technologies enabled the production of previously uneconomic shale gas resources in North America. Global deployment of these advanced gas production technologies could bring large influx of economically competitive unconventional gas resources to the energy system. It has been hoped that abundant natural gas substituting for coal could reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, which in turn could reduce climate forcing. Other researchers countered that the non-CO2 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with shale gas production make its lifecycle emissions higher than those of coal. In this study, we employ five state-of-the-art integrated assessment models (IAMs) of energy-economy-climate systems to assess the full impact of abundant gas on climate change. The models show large additional natural gas consumption up to +170% by 2050. The impact on CO2 emissions, however, is found to be much smaller (from -2% to +11%), and a majority of the models reported a small increase in climate forcing (from -0.3% to +7%) associated with the increased use of abundant gas. Our results show that while globally abundant gas may substantially change the future energy market equilibrium, it will not significantly mitigate climate change on its own in the absence of climate policies.

  19. Energy Policy Act transportation rate study: Interim report on coal transportation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to examine changes in domestic coal distribution and railroad coal transportation rates since enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90). From 1988 through 1993, the demand for low-sulfur coal increased, as a the 1995 deadline for compliance with Phase 1 of CAAA90 approached. The shift toward low-sulfur coal came sooner than had been generally expected because many electric utilities switched early from high-sulfur coal to ``compliance`` (very low-sulfur) coal. They did so to accumulate emissions allowances that could be used to meet the stricter Phase 2 requirements. Thus, the demand for compliance coal increased the most. The report describes coal distribution and sulfur content, railroad coal transportation and transportation rates, and electric utility contract coal transportation trends from 1979 to 1993 including national trends, regional comparisons, distribution patterns and regional profiles. 14 figs., 76 tabs.

  20. Rheology of coal-water slurries prepared by the high-pressure roll mill grinding of coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; De, A.

    1996-08-01

    The preparation of coal water slurries to replace fuel oil for direct combustion has become an important field in modem coal technology. The U.S. Department of Energy has planned or has underway several demonstration projects to burn coal-water slurries to replace fuel oil is attractive not only because there is an assured domestic supply of coal, but also on various technoeconomic grounds. Coal-water slurries combine the handling flexibility of fuel oil in power plants and various other industrial applications. This report discusses the rheology of coal-water slurries and the correlation to the coal preparation by grinding with a choke-fed high pressure roll mill. Performance of the roll mills and energy consumption are described.

  1. Cleaning and utilization of coals for low emission at Swedish power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Forssberg, K.S.E.; Ryk, L.

    1995-10-01

    The paper discusses coal utilization in Sweden. All hard coals have to be imported from other countries. Peat from domestic sources is used as a complement. environmental legislation and taxation on fuel and emissions are severe. This situation affects the procurement, preparation, handling and use of coal. The paper presents: R and D projects concerning deep cleaning of thermal coal; handling and treatment of coal used in PFBC boilers and for blast furnace injection; dust prevention for coal and peat briquettes; and procurement of col emphasizing quality and environmental issues.

  2. Hard Coal in the Fuel-Mix Of Poland: The Long-Term Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawlik, Lidia; Kaliski, Maciej; Kamiński, Jacek; Sikora, Andrzej P.; Szurlej, Adam

    2016-06-01

    This paper reviews the coal policy of Poland. It analyzes the forecasts of production and consumption of hard coal, the size of exports and imports and its importance for the energy sector on the basis of strategic documents. The main aim of the article is to show the role of hard coal in the fuel - energy balance of Poland until 2050. The adoption of appropriate assumptions for each scenario, including the maximum supply of hard coal from domestic mines, coal price curves, CO2 emission allowances and several calculations performed allowed to obtain certain results on the basis of which the future role of hard coal was determined.

  3. The place of hard coal in energy supply pattern of Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, A.O.; Aydiner, K.

    2009-07-01

    Lignite and hard coal are the major sources of domestic energy sources of Turkey. Hard coal is produced at only one district in the country. Zonguldak Hard Coal Basin is the major power for development of the Turkish steel-making industry. It is the only hard coal basin in the country and it has, to date, supplied approximately 400 million tons of run-of-mine hard coal. This article investigates the potential of hard coal as an energy source and discusses the measures to activate the region for the future energy supply objectives of the country.

  4. Quarterly Coal Report, April-June 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-10-18

    The Quarterly Coal Report provides comprehensive information about coal production, exports, imports, receipts, consumption, and stocks in the United States. The data presented in this report were collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (P.L. 93-275) as amended. This issue shows detailed quarterly data for April-June 1985, aggregated quarterly historical and projected data for 1980 through 1986, and aggregated annual historical and projected data for 1960 through 1995. All data for 1984 and previous years are final. All 1985 data are preliminary and subject to revision. During the first and second quarters of 1985, the US coal industry continued to return to normal operations after the threat of a strike by US coal miners in 1984. For the first 6 months of 1985 the industry showed the following developments: Coal production was only 2.4% less than in the same period of 1984, when it reached a record January-June total. Coal exports were 10.0% higher than their 1984 level for the same time period. The United States imported 52.3% more coal than it did in the first 6 months of 1984, chiefly from Colombia. Domestic coal consumption reached a record-setting level for January-June, 3.6% greater than the previous record in 1984.

  5. Coal handling and distribution: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Lema, J.E.

    1998-12-31

    Reliable, timely and efficient transportation service for distribution of coal from mines and processing plants to power producers, industrial facilities, and port terminals is a key factor in achieving full utilization of US coal in domestic and international markets. Transportation service must meet standards of performance which not only cover the amount of coal traffic to be handled, but also the quality of the service, especially as expressed in units of time, e.g. train arrival times at mines and processing plants, transit times for coal shipments, and cycle times for trains in dedicated coal transportation service. Although the focus of this presentation is handling and distribution of coal, an important commodity produced by the mining industry, what is said will apply likewise to other mined commodities which, similar to coal, often must be transported as heavy bulk freight in large amounts utilizing railroad and marine services. Turning now to handling and distribution of coal, in particular, five major points will be addressed: (1) coal traffic flows have changed significantly since 1980; (2) the railroad network is under severe pressure with regard to the adequacy of transportation service experienced since 1997; (3) a fresh look is needed to determine what steps are needed to ensure adequate railroad service today and in years ahead; (4) the nation`s inland waterways system is a vital component of the bulk freight distribution network that should be upgraded; (5) intermodalism is a hallmark of coal distribution which should be enhanced by focusing on improving short-line and regional railroad/Class 1 railroad, railroad/barge line, truck/railroad, and truck/barge line connectivity and access to coal terminals.

  6. Solar abundance of osmium

    PubMed Central

    Jacoby, George; Aller, Lawrence H.

    1976-01-01

    The abundance parameter, log gfA, where g is the statistical weight of the lower level, f is the oscillator strength, and A is the abundance (by numbers of atoms with respect to hydrogen), has been derived for three lines of osmium by a method of spectrum synthesis. An apparent discordance of the derived abundance with that found from the carbonaceous chondrites is probably to be attributed primarily to errors in the f-values, and blending with unknown contributors. PMID:16592314

  7. Pollution extents of organic substances from a coal gangue dump of Jiulong Coal Mine, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y Z; Fan, J S; Qin, P; Niu, H Y

    2009-02-01

    This paper addresses the distribution and occurrence of harmful organic substances in coal gangue dump from Jiulong Coal Mine and its influence on the environment. The samples were taken from the coal gangue dump and coal waste water stream and analyzed by organic geochemical methods. The results indicate that the coal gangues contain abundant harmful organic substances like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The TOC and sulfur contents of the samples are much higher than those of the background sample except Sample JL7. The contents of organic bulk parameters are relatively high. Ten carcinogenic PAHs were identified and these harmful organic substances have influenced the surrounding area. Along the waste water stream, organic substances pollute at least 1,800 m far from the coal gangue dump. PMID:18288575

  8. Coal preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    The acid rain control legislation has prompted the Department of Energy (DOE) to seek new technology using the Clean Coal Technology program solicitation. The main goal of the program is to reduce SO{sub 2} emissions below 9 Mt/a (10 million stpy) and NO{sub x} emission below 5.4 Mt/a (6 million stpy) by the year 2000. This would be accomplished by using precombustion, combustion, post combustion and conversion technology. Utilities are considering installing new scrubbers, switching fuel or possibly deep clean. However, the time required to implement the control technology is short. Due to the legislation, about 110 plants will have to adopt one of the approaches. This paper reports that in characterization of coal, Ames Laboratory used a scanning electron microscope- based, automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) technique to identify coal and mineral matter association. Various forms of organic sulfur were identified using peroxyacetic acid oxidation of coal. This was followed by subsequent microscopic, GC-MS, and HRMS analysis by Southern Illinois University. In ultrafine grinding of coal, it was reported by the Mining and Mineral Institute of Alabama that silica sand or flint shot used less energy compared to steel ball mills.

  9. Carbon cycle in advanced coal chemical engineering.

    PubMed

    Yi, Qun; Li, Wenying; Feng, Jie; Xie, Kechang

    2015-08-01

    This review summarizes how the carbon cycle occurs and how to reduce CO2 emissions in highly efficient carbon utilization from the most abundant carbon source, coal. Nowadays, more and more attention has been paid to CO2 emissions and its myriad of sources. Much research has been undertaken on fossil energy and renewable energy and current existing problems, challenges and opportunities in controlling and reducing CO2 emission with technologies of CO2 capture, utilization, and storage. The coal chemical industry is a crucial area in the (CO2 value chain) Carbon Cycle. The realization of clean and effective conversion of coal resources, improving the utilization and efficiency of resources, whilst reducing CO2 emissions is a key area for further development and investigation by the coal chemical industry. Under a weak carbon mitigation policy, the value and price of products from coal conversion are suggested in the carbon cycle. PMID:25978270

  10. Coal's role in electrical power generation: Will it remain competitive?

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, C.

    1999-07-01

    Coal is the most abundant worldwide fossil fuel. In the US, coal represents 95% of fossil energy reserves. The US coal resources represent more energy than either proven oil or natural gas reserves and can be expected to last more than 250 years at current consumption rates. Coal fired power plants currently produce 56% of electrical generation in the US and 36% worldwide, and forecasts show coal use to increase. Impressive statistics such as these, along with the direct correlation between electrical growth and GDP should indicate that coal has a bright future. There are some clouds on the horizon, however, that could dim this seemingly rosy picture. Potentially, the greatest challenge to coal's future is CO2 emission restrictions to address global climate change. Realistically, coal has to be a part of the generation mix of developing nations, particularly those with abundant coal resources such as China and India. If electrification of these countries and corresponding economic growth is to take place, there are not presently a lot of cost effective alternatives. This paper presents a discussion of what the coal industry is doing to remain competitive. It looks at environmental and competitive issues facing coal use.

  11. Solvent dewatering coal

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.E.; Buchholz, H.F.

    1984-07-17

    Drying of wet coal is facilitated by the addition of a nonaqueous solvent, such as acetone, to the coal followed by application of heat to remove both solvent and water from the coal. The coal may be further upgraded by briquetting or pelletizing fine coal particles with waxes and resins extracted from the coal, or the waxes and resins may be left on the coal to reduce the tendency of the coal to reabsorb water. In addition, minerals such as sodium and potassium salts may be removed from the coal to reduce slagging and fouling behavior of the coal.

  12. Investigation of coal structure. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nishioka, Masaharu

    1994-03-01

    A better understanding of coal structure is the first step toward more effective utilization of the most abundant hydrocarbon resource. Detailed characterization of coal structure is very difficult, even with today`s highly developed analytical techniques. This is primarily due to the amorphous nature of these high-molecular-weight mixtures. Coal has a polymeric character and has been popularly represented as a three-dimensional cross-linked network. There is, however, little or no information which positively verifies this model. The principal objective of this research was to further investigate the physical structure of coal and to determine the extent to which coal molecules may be covalently cross-linked and/or physically associated. Two common characterization methods, swellability and extractability, were used. A technique modifying the conventional swelling procedure was established to better determine network or associated model conformation. A new method for evaluating coal swelling involving laser scattering has also been developed. The charge-transfer interaction is relatively strong in high-volatile bituminous coal. Soaking in the presence of electron donors and acceptors proved effective for solubilizing the coal, but temperatures in excess of 200 C were required. More than 70 wt% of the coal was readily extracted with pyridine after soaking. Associative/dissociative equilibria of coal molecules were observed during soaking. From these results, the associated model has gained credibility over the network model as the representative structure of coal. Significant portions of coal molecules are unquestionably physically associated, but the overall extent is not known at this time.

  13. Independent Domestication of Two Old World Cotton Species

    PubMed Central

    Renny-Byfield, Simon; Page, Justin T.; Udall, Joshua A.; Sanders, William S.; Peterson, Daniel G.; Arick, Mark A.; Grover, Corrinne E.; Wendel, Jonathan F.

    2016-01-01

    Domesticated cotton species provide raw material for the majority of the world's textile industry. Two independent domestication events have been identified in allopolyploid cotton, one in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and the other to Egyptian cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.). However, two diploid cotton species, Gossypium arboreum L. and Gossypium herbaceum L., have been cultivated for several millennia, but their status as independent domesticates has long been in question. Using genome resequencing data, we estimated the global abundance of various repetitive DNAs. We demonstrate that, despite negligible divergence in genome size, the two domesticated diploid cotton species contain different, but compensatory, repeat content and have thus experienced cryptic alterations in repeat abundance despite equivalence in genome size. Evidence of independent origin is bolstered by estimates of divergence times based on molecular evolutionary analysis of f7,000 orthologous genes, for which synonymous substitution rates suggest that G. arboreum and G. herbaceum last shared a common ancestor approximately 0.4–2.5 Ma. These data are incompatible with a shared domestication history during the emergence of agriculture and lead to the conclusion that G. arboreum and G. herbaceum were each domesticated independently. PMID:27289095

  14. Independent Domestication of Two Old World Cotton Species.

    PubMed

    Renny-Byfield, Simon; Page, Justin T; Udall, Joshua A; Sanders, William S; Peterson, Daniel G; Arick, Mark A; Grover, Corrinne E; Wendel, Jonathan F

    2016-01-01

    Domesticated cotton species provide raw material for the majority of the world's textile industry. Two independent domestication events have been identified in allopolyploid cotton, one in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and the other to Egyptian cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.). However, two diploid cotton species, Gossypium arboreum L. and Gossypium herbaceum L., have been cultivated for several millennia, but their status as independent domesticates has long been in question. Using genome resequencing data, we estimated the global abundance of various repetitive DNAs. We demonstrate that, despite negligible divergence in genome size, the two domesticated diploid cotton species contain different, but compensatory, repeat content and have thus experienced cryptic alterations in repeat abundance despite equivalence in genome size. Evidence of independent origin is bolstered by estimates of divergence times based on molecular evolutionary analysis of f7,000 orthologous genes, for which synonymous substitution rates suggest that G. arboreum and G. herbaceum last shared a common ancestor approximately 0.4-2.5 Ma. These data are incompatible with a shared domestication history during the emergence of agriculture and lead to the conclusion that G. arboreum and G. herbaceum were each domesticated independently. PMID:27289095

  15. THE ENVIRONMENTAL AND POLLUTION ASPECTS OF COAL SLURRY PIPELINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the anticipated increases in coal consumption in the next decade, greater demands will be made on existing transportation systems to move to market the abundant reserves of coal in the U.S. Conventional transportation modes such as rail and barge will have to expand their ca...

  16. Domestic Research at Rand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand Corp., Santa Monica, CA.

    This third descriptive inventory of the Rand Corporation's domestic non-military research covers all projects since 1972, as well as its special 1969-1975 program for New York City. For each of over 300 research projects in nine program areas, brief summaries identify the project title and sponsor, beginning and ending dates, person-years of work…

  17. Challenging Domestic Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarlett, Chris

    2002-01-01

    In Britain, a Women's Aid program offers practical support and assistance to abused women. Survivors of domestic abuse can benefit from the opportunity afforded by an objective appraisal of the social context of their personal experiences, facilitated by trained volunteers. (JOW)

  18. Domestic Communications Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Network Project Notebook, 1972

    1972-01-01

    The June, 1972 Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) decision allowed an "open skies" policy in regard to domestic communication satellites and raised Liberal opposition to a situation where exclusive and unchecked communications power is now in the hands of private entrepreneurs, primarily the big Defense Department oriented aerospace…

  19. Energy Information Administration quarterly coal report, October--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-21

    The United States produced just over 1 billion short tons of coal in 1992, 0.4 percent more than in 1991. Most of the 4-million-short-ton increase in coal production occurred west of the Mississippi River, where a record level of 408 million short tons of coal was produced. The amount of coal received by domestic consumers in 1992 totaled 887 million short tons. This was 7 million short tons more than in 1991, primarily due to increased coal demand from electric utilities. The average price of delivered coal to each sector declined by about 2 percent. Coal consumption in 1992 was 893 million short tons, only 1 percent higher than in 1991, due primarily to a 1-percent increase in consumption at electric utility plants. Consumer coal stocks at the end of 1992 were 163 million short tons, a decrease of 3 percent from the level at the end of 1991, and the lowest year-end level since 1989. US coal exports fell 6 percent from the 1991 level to 103 million short tons in 1992. Less coal was exported to markets in Europe, Asia, and South America, but coal exports to Canada increased 4 million short tons.

  20. US coal reserves: A review and update

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This report is the third in series of ``U.S. Coal Reserves`` reports. As part of the Administration of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) program to provide information on coal, it presents detailed estimates of domestic coal reserves, which are basic to the analysis and forecasting of future coal supply. It also describes the data, methods, and assumptions used to develop such estimates and explain terminology related to recent data programs. In addition, the report provides technical documentation for specific revisions and adjustments to the demonstrated reserve base (DRB) of coal in the United States and for coal quality and reserve allocations. It makes the resulting data available for general use by the public. This report includes data on recoverable coal reserves located at active mines and on the estimated distribution of rank and sulfur content in those reserves. An analysis of the projected demand and depletion in recoverable reserves at active mines is used to evaluate the areas and magnitude of anticipated investment in new mining capacity.

  1. New Zealand coal resources

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, T.A.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2004-09-15

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in conjunction with partners from some 50 countries, is developing an integrated electronic database of coal-quality information the World Coal Quality Inventory (WoCQI). Information is provided for samples representing prominent coal beds in all of the major coal-producing countries, as well as coals from many of the smaller producers. This Fact Sheet summarizes coal-quality and coal-resource information for New Zealand. 7 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Preparation for upgrading western subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, R.W.; Cha, C.Y.; Sheesley, D.C.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this project was to establish the physical and chemical characteristics of western coal and determine the best preparation technologies for upgrading this resource. Western coal was characterized as an abundant, easily mineable, clean, low-sulfur coal with low heating value, high moisture, susceptibility to spontaneous ignition, and considerable transit distances from major markets. Project support was provided by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The research was conducted by the Western Research Institute, (WRI) in Laramie, Wyoming. The project scope of work required the completion of four tasks: (1) project planning, (2) literature searches and verbal contacts with consumers and producers of western coal, (3) selection of the best technologies to upgrade western coal, and (4) identification of research needed to develop the best technologies for upgrading western coals. The results of this research suggest that thermal drying is the best technology for upgrading western coals. There is a significant need for further research in areas involving physical and chemical stabilization of the dried coal product. Excessive particle-size degradation and resulting dustiness, moisture reabsorption, and high susceptibility to spontaneous combustion are key areas requiring further research. Improved testing methods for the determination of equilibrium moisture and susceptibility to spontaneous ignition under various ambient conditions are recommended.

  3. Coal industry annual 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  4. Coal industry annual 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  5. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  6. Coal and Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Reba; And Others

    This teaching unit explores coal as an energy resource. Goals, student objectives, background information, and activity options are presented for each major section. The sections are: (1) an introduction to coal (which describes how and where coal was formed and explains the types of coal); (2) the mining of coal (including the methods and ways of…

  7. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

    1988-01-21

    The present invention relates to a cell-free preparation and process for the microbial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products. More specifically, the present invention relates to bacterial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products and a cell-free bacterial byproduct useful for solubilizing coal. 5 tabs.

  8. Geochemistry of rare earth elements in Permian coals from the Huaibei Coalfield, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zheng, Lingyun; Liu, Gaisheng; Chou, C.-L.; Qi, C.; Zhang, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REEs) in coals are important because of: (a) REE patterns can be an indicator of the nature of source rocks of the mineral matter as well as sedimentary environments; (b) REEs abundance in coal may have industrial-significance. In this study, a total of thirty-four samples of Permian coal, partings, roof, and floor were collected from the Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui Province, China. Abundances of rare earth elements (REEs) and other elements in the samples were determined by inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled-plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The results show that the REEs are enriched in coals in the Huaibei Coalfield as compared with Chinese and U.S. coals and the world coal average. Coals in the Lower Shihezi Formation (No. 7, 5, and 4 Coals) and Upper Shihezi Formation (No. 3) have higher REE abundances than the coals in Shanxi Formation (No. 10). Magmatic intrusion resulted in high enrichment of REEs concentrations in No. 5 and 7 Coals. The REE abundances are positively correlated with the ash content. The mineral matter in these coals is mainly made up of clay minerals and carbonates. The REEs are positively correlated with lithophile elements including Si, Al, Ti, Fe, and Na, which are mainly distributed in clay minerals, indicating that REEs are contained mainly in clay minerals. The REE abundances in coals normalized by the ash are higher than that in partings. REEs abundances of coals cannot be accounted for by the REE content in the mineral matter, and some REEs associated with organic matter in coals. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. OXYGEN ABUNDANCES IN CEPHEIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Luck, R. E.; Andrievsky, S. M.; Korotin, S. N.; Kovtyukh, V. V. E-mail: serkor@skyline.od.ua E-mail: scan@deneb1.odessa.ua

    2013-07-01

    Oxygen abundances in later-type stars, and intermediate-mass stars in particular, are usually determined from the [O I] line at 630.0 nm, and to a lesser extent, from the O I triplet at 615.7 nm. The near-IR triplets at 777.4 nm and 844.6 nm are strong in these stars and generally do not suffer from severe blending with other species. However, these latter two triplets suffer from strong non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects and thus see limited use in abundance analyses. In this paper, we derive oxygen abundances in a large sample of Cepheids using the near-IR triplets from an NLTE analysis, and compare those abundances to values derived from a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of the [O I] 630.0 nm line and the O I 615.7 nm triplet as well as LTE abundances for the 777.4 nm triplet. All of these lines suffer from line strength problems making them sensitive to either measurement complications (weak lines) or to line saturation difficulties (strong lines). Upon this realization, the LTE results for the [O I] lines and the O I 615.7 nm triplet are in adequate agreement with the abundance from the NLTE analysis of the near-IR triplets.

  10. [Domestic violence in Chile].

    PubMed

    León, Tomás; Grez, Marcela; Prato, Juan Andrés; Torres, Rafael; Ruiz, Sergio

    2014-08-01

    According to recent surveys, there is a high prevalence of domestic violence (DV) in Chile. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed, Scielo, and Lilacs with the MesH terms "Chile", "Mental Health", "Health", "Domestic Violence", to explore the impact of DV on health in Chile. Eleven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Two studies were prospective, exploring the influence of DV on maternal-infant health. Nine studies explored the influence of DV on mental health in adults. DV was associated with deranged mental health indicators specially anxiety and depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Similar results were observed among mothers who were victims of violence and their children. It is concluded that DV is a complex phenomenon with serious effects on health. However the number of studies on the subject is low and new follow up studies are required. Predictive models for DV and effective preventive measures are urgently needed. PMID:25424674

  11. Coal quality trends and distribution of Title III trace elements in Eastern Kentucky coals

    SciTech Connect

    Eble, C.F.; Hower, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    The quality characteristics of eastern Kentucky coal beds vary both spatially and stratigraphically. Average total sulfur contents are lowest, and calorific values highest, in the Big Sandy and Upper Cumberland Reserve Districts. Average coal thickness is greatest in these two districts as well. Conversely, the thinnest coal with the highest total sulfur content, and lowest calorific value, on average, occurs in the Princess and Southwest Reserve Districts. Several Title III trace elements, notably arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, and nickel, mirror this distribution (lower average concentrations in the Big Sandy and Upper Cumberland Districts, higher average concentrations in the Princess and Southwest Districts), probably because these elements are primarily associated with sulfide minerals in coal. Ash yields and total sulfur contents are observed to increase in a stratigraphically older to younger direction. Several Title III elements, notably cadmium, chromium, lead, and selenium follow this trend, with average concentrations being higher in younger coals. Average chlorine concentration shows a reciprocal distribution, being more abundant in older coals. Some elements, such as arsenic, manganese, mercury, cobalt, and, to a lesser extent, phosphorus show concentration spikes in coal beds directly above, or below, major marine zones. With a few exceptions, average Title III trace element concentrations for eastern Kentucky coals are comparable with element distributions in other Appalachian coal-producing states.

  12. Lead in Chinese coals: distribution, modes of occurrence, and environmental effects.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ting; Liu, Guijian; Zhou, Chuncai; Sun, Ruoyu; Chen, Jian; Wu, Dun

    2014-06-01

    Lead (Pb) has gained much attention since the 1970s because of its potential and cumulative toxicity. As one of the most hazardous elements in coals, Pb can be released into the environment during coal mining, processing, and utilization. This study presents a synthesis on the abundance, distribution, modes of occurrence, and environmental impacts of Pb in Chinese coals. Using the expected coal reserves as the weighting factor and based on the previously published Pb content in 4,304 coal samples (including results obtained in our laboratory) from main coalfields or coal mines in China, the weighted mean Pb content in Chinese coals is 13.0 μg/g, which is higher than that of the American coals (11 μg/g) and average world coals (7.8 μg/g). With respect to regional distribution of Pb in Chinese coals, Pb content can be arbitrarily divided into three groups (<20, 20-40, >40 μg/g). Following this classification, coals from Tibet have the highest average Pb content (128.94 μg/g). The abundance of Pb in coals varies with coal-forming periods and coal ranks, with the late Triassic and higher rank coals having the highest Pb content, which could be ascribed to regional geochemical differences and later geological evolution as well as magma hydrothermal activities. The enrichment of Pb in coals is influenced by several geological factors, including coal-forming plants, source rocks, hydrothermal fluid, and depositional environment. Pb, dominantly associates with sulfide minerals, especially galena in coals. During coal combustion or pyrolysis, Pb is partly emitted into the atmosphere and partly partitioned to solid residues. Accumulation of Pb from coal utilization in human body could lead to a range of health problems and increase the risk of cancer. PMID:24218089

  13. Clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Liang-Shih Fan; Fanxing Li

    2006-07-15

    The article describes the physics-based techniques that are helping in clean coal conversion processes. The major challenge is to find a cost- effective way to remove carbon dioxide from the flue gas of power plants. One industrially proven method is to dissolve CO{sub 2} in the solvent monoethanolamine (MEA) at a temperature of 38{sup o}C and then release it from the solvent in another unit when heated to 150{sup o}C. This produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. Research is in progress with alternative solvents that require less energy. Another technique is to use enriched oxygen in place of air in the combustion process which produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. A process that is more attractive from an energy management viewpoint is to gasify coal so that it is partially oxidized, producing a fuel while consuming significantly less oxygen. Several IGCC schemes are in operation which produce syngas for use as a feedstock, in addition to electricity and hydrogen. These schemes are costly as they require an air separation unit. Novel approaches to coal gasification based on 'membrane separation' or chemical looping could reduce the costs significantly while effectively capturing carbon dioxide. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 photo.

  14. Domestic Violence: Protecting Yourself and Your Children

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Domestic Violence: Protecting Yourself and Your Children Domestic Violence: Protecting Yourself and Your Children What is domestic violence? Domestic violence is abuse by a ...

  15. Clean and Secure Energy from Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Philip; Davies, Lincoln; Kelly, Kerry; Lighty, JoAnn; Reitze, Arnold; Silcox, Geoffrey; Uchitel, Kirsten; Wendt, Jost; Whitty, Kevin

    2014-08-31

    The University of Utah, through their Institute for Clean and Secure Energy (ICSE), performed research to utilize the vast energy stored in our domestic coal resources and to do so in a manner that will capture CO2 from combustion from stationary power generation. The research was organized around the theme of validation and uncertainty quantification (V/UQ) through tightly coupled simulation and experimental designs and through the integration of legal, environment, economics and policy issues. The project included the following tasks: • Oxy-Coal Combustion – To ultimately produce predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. • High-Pressure, Entrained-Flow Coal Gasification – To ultimately provide a simulation tool for industrial entrained-flow integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) gasifier with quantified uncertainty. • Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) – To develop a new carbon-capture technology for coal through CLC and to transfer this technology to industry through a numerical simulation tool with quantified uncertainty bounds. • Underground Coal Thermal Treatment – To explore the potential for creating new in-situ technologies for production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) from deep coal deposits and to demonstrate this in a new laboratory-scale reactor. • Mercury Control – To understand the effect of oxy-firing on the fate of mercury. • Environmental, Legal, and Policy Issues – To address the legal and policy issues associated with carbon management strategies in order to assess the appropriate role of these technologies in our evolving national energy portfolio. • Validation/Uncertainty Quantification for Large Eddy Simulations of the Heat Flux in the Tangentially Fired Oxy-Coal Alstom Boiler Simulation Facility – To produce predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for the heat flux in commercial-scale, tangentially fired, oxy-coal boilers.

  16. Nanodiamonds from coal under ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, J.; Liu, P.; Yang, G. W.

    2015-03-01

    Coal is the most abundant energy resource, but it is only useful for producing energy via combustion due to its structural characteristics. However, coal is also inexpensive and is the most plentiful and readily available carbon source material for the production of nanodiamonds compared with the most widely used solid carbon source, high-purity graphite, and the high-purity hydrocarbon gas precursor, methane. Here, we report a simple and green top-down strategy for synthesizing nanodiamonds with a cubic phase and a mean size of 3 nm from various types of coal at atmospheric pressure and room temperature using a novel process involving laser ablation in liquid. Furthermore, we have systematically studied the process of phase transformation from coal to nanodiamonds using nucleation thermodynamics, growth kinetics and structural stability. The synthesized nanodiamonds have turned out to be soluble monodisperse colloids that exhibit strong and stable fluorescence both in alcohol and in water. These results provide a route for producing nanodiamonds from inexpensive and abundant coal.Coal is the most abundant energy resource, but it is only useful for producing energy via combustion due to its structural characteristics. However, coal is also inexpensive and is the most plentiful and readily available carbon source material for the production of nanodiamonds compared with the most widely used solid carbon source, high-purity graphite, and the high-purity hydrocarbon gas precursor, methane. Here, we report a simple and green top-down strategy for synthesizing nanodiamonds with a cubic phase and a mean size of 3 nm from various types of coal at atmospheric pressure and room temperature using a novel process involving laser ablation in liquid. Furthermore, we have systematically studied the process of phase transformation from coal to nanodiamonds using nucleation thermodynamics, growth kinetics and structural stability. The synthesized nanodiamonds have turned out to be

  17. Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation

    DOEpatents

    Schindler, Harvey D.; Chen, James M.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a coal liquefaction process using two stages. The first stage liquefies the coal and maximizes the product while the second stage hydrocracks the remainder of the coal liquid to produce solvent.

  18. Coal industry annual 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  19. Coal burning process

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, F.C.; Cowan, T.L.

    1980-02-05

    This process is for devolatilizing coal to produce a volatile hydrocarbon gas leaving a residue of unburned coal. The volatile hydrocarbon gas and other coal or said residual coal are thereafter burned together in a common furnace. The volatilization of the coal may be carried out substantially endothermically, and preferably on the plant site where the burning of the volatilized hydrocarbon takes place together with other coal or the residue coal. The volatile matter is removed from the coal in a volatile state before the residue coal exits from the burner nozzle and then enters the combustion chamber where the volatilized hydrocarbon gas and residue coal are burned together. The removed volatilized hydrocarbon gas can be placed within the same coal burning plant to join with the unburned residual coal, passing to the burner to burn therewith.

  20. Genetic perspectives on crop domestication

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Briana L.; Olsen, Kenneth M.

    2010-01-01

    The process of crop domestication has long been a topic of active research for biologists, anthropologists and others. Genetic data have proved a powerful resource for drawing inferences on questions regarding the geographical origins of crops, the numbers of independent domestication events for a given crop species, the specific molecular changes underlying domestication traits, and the nature of artificial selection during domestication and subsequent crop improvement. We would argue that these genetic inferences are fundamentally compatible with recent archaeological data that support a view of domestication as a geographically diffuse, gradual process. In this review, we summarize methodologies ranging from QTL mapping to resequencing used in genetic analyses of crop evolution. We also highlight recent major insights regarding the timing and spatial patterning of crop domestication and the distinct genetic underpinnings of domestication, diversification, and improvement traits. PMID:20541451

  1. Palynomorphs of Permian Gondwana coal from borehole GDH-38, Barapukuria Coal Basin, Bangladesh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Akhtar, A.; Kosanke, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    Thirty-two core samples of Permian Gondwana coal from three coal beds of borehole GDH-38, Barapukuria Coal Basin, Dinajpur, the north-northwestern part of Bangladesh, have been collected for palynological analysis. All samples except one yielded palynomorphs and some samples contain well-preserved and abundant palynomorphs of the gymnospermal and cryptogamic groups that are considered to be useful for future correlation studies. The lower coal bed (331.6-372.5 m) can easily be differentiated from the upper two coal beds by the presence of Alisporites, Cordaitina, Corisaccites, Hamiapollenites, Leuckisporites, Nuskoisporites, Tumoripollenites, Vestgisporites and Vittatina. It is difficult to palynologically differentiate the middle (198.1-208 m) and upper (162.3-172.9 m) coal beds as they contain a very limited number of specimens by which they can be identified. The middle bed is distinguished by the presence of Microbaculispora and Weylandites and the upper bed by the presence of a single taxon Acanthotriletes. Some of the vesiculate or saccate taxa extracted from these coal beds are typical of those occurring in Permian strata of Gondwana in India, South Africa, South America, Russia, Australia and Antarctica. They are thought to be derived from Glossopteris flora, which is characterised by an abundance of Pteridospermic plants of the gymnosperm group. ?? 2000 Elsevier Science Limited. All rights reserved.

  2. Palynomorphs of Permian Gondwana coal from borehole GDH-38, Barapukuria Coal Basin, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtar, A.; Kosanke, R. M.

    2000-07-01

    Thirty-two core samples of Permian Gondwana coal from three coal beds of borehole GDH-38, Barapukuria Coal Basin, Dinajpur, the north-northwestern part of Bangladesh, have been collected for palynological analysis. All samples except one yielded palynomorphs and some samples contain well-preserved and abundant palynomorphs of the gymnospermal and cryptogamic groups that are considered to be useful for future correlation studies. The lower coal bed (331.6-372.5 m) can easily be differentiated from the upper two coal beds by the presence of Alisporites, Cordaitina, Corisaccites, Hamiapollenites, Leuckisporites, Nuskoisporites, Tumoripollenites, Vestgisporites and Vittatina. It is difficult to palynologically differentiate the middle (198.1-208 m) and upper (162.3-172.9 m) coal beds as they contain a very limited number of specimens by which they can be identified. The middle bed is distinguished by the presence of Microbaculispora and Weylandites and the upper bed by the presence of a single taxon Acanthotriletes. Some of the vesiculate or saccate taxa extracted from these coal beds are typical of those occurring in Permian strata of Gondwana in India, South Africa, South America, Russia, Australia and Antarctica. They are thought to be derived from Glossopteris flora, which is characterised by an abundance of Pteridospermic plants of the gymnosperm group.

  3. Coal combustion science

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.R.; Baxter, L.L.; Fletcher, T.H.; Mitchell, R.E.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency (IEA) Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks include: coal devolatilization, coal char combustion, and fate of mineral matter during coal combustion. 91 refs., 40 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Domestication and cereal feeding developed domestic pig-type intestinal microbiota in animals of suidae.

    PubMed

    Ushida, Kazunari; Tsuchida, Sayaka; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Toyoda, Atsushi; Maruyama, Fumito

    2016-06-01

    Intestinal microbiota are characterized by host-specific microorganisms, which have been selected through host-microbe interactions under phylogenetic evolution and transition of feeding behavior by the host. Although many studies have focused on disease-related intestinal microbiota, the origin and evolution of host-specific intestinal microbiota have not been well elucidated. Pig is the ideal mammal model to reveal the origin and evolution of host-specific intestinal microbiota because their direct wild ancestor and close phylogenetic neighbors are available for comparison. The pig has been recognized as a Lactobacillus-type animal. We analyzed the intestinal microbiota of various animals in Suidae: domestic pigs, wild boars and Red river hogs to survey the origin and evolution of Lactobacillus-dominated intestinal microbiota by metagenomic approach and following quantitative PCR confirmation. The metagenomic datasets were separated in two clusters; the wild animal cluster being characterized by a high abundance of Bifidobacterium, whereas the domesticated (or captured) animal cluster by Lactobacillus. In addition, Enterobacteriaceae were harbored as the major family only in domestic Sus scrofa. We conclude that domestication may have induced a larger Enterobacteriaceae population in pigs, and the introduction of modern feeding system further caused the development of Lactobacillus-dominated intestinal microbiota, with genetic and geographical factors possibly having a minor impact. PMID:26315488

  5. Alkaloid-derived molecules in low rank Argonne premium coals.

    SciTech Connect

    Winans, R. E.; Tomczyk, N. A.; Hunt, J. E.

    2000-11-30

    Molecules that are probably derived from alkaloids have been found in the extracts of the subbituminous and lignite Argonne Premium Coals. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS) have been used to characterize pyridine and supercritical extracts. The supercritical extraction used an approach that has been successful for extracting alkaloids from natural products. The first indication that there might be these natural products in coals was the large number of molecules found containing multiple nitrogen and oxygen heteroatoms. These molecules are much less abundant in bituminous coals and absent in the higher rank coals.

  6. Cooling of dried coal

    SciTech Connect

    Siddoway, M.A.

    1988-06-14

    This patent describes a process for noncombustibly drying particulate coal comprising: separating the coal into two wet coal streams; passing one wet coal system into a dryer to form a bed; heating air in a furnace; admitting the heated air to the dryer to fluidize the bed; withdrawing dryer exhaust gas; passing the exhaust gas through a cyclone and withdrawing coal fines from the cyclone; withdrawing a hot, dry coal stream from the dryer; blending the drier hot dry coal stream with the cyclone coal fines; withdrawing cyclone exhaust gas; wet scrubbing the cyclone exhaust gas to form a coal fines slurry and scrubber exhaust gas; passing the coal fines slurry to a sedimentation pool; blending the second wet coal stream with the drier hot dry coal stream and the cyclone coal fines; passing the latter blended stream to a cooler to form a bed; fluidizing the latter bed with ambient air; withdrawing cooler exhaust gas and passing the gas to a cyclone; passing exhaust gas from the latter cyclone to a baghouse and collecting coal fines therein; passing the latter coal fines to the furnace as fuel for heating the air; and withdrawing cooled coal from the cooler and blending the cooled coal with coal fines from the latter cyclone.

  7. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Dady Dadyburjor; Philip R. Biedler; Chong Chen; L. Mitchell Clendenin; Manoj Katakdaunde; Elliot B. Kennel; Nathan D. King; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-08-31

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed carbon products, using mildly hydrogenated solvents to extract the organic portion of coal to create synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and carbon fibers. The focus of this effort was on development of lower cost solvents, milder hydrogenation conditions and improved yield in order to enable practical production of these products. This technology is needed because of the long-term decline in production of domestic feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. Currently, carbon products represents a market of roughly 5 million tons domestically, and 19 million tons worldwide. Carbon products are mainly derived from feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. The domestic supply of petroleum pitch is declining because of the rising price of liquid fuels, which has caused US refineries to maximize liquid fuel production. As a consequence, the long term trend has a decline in production of petroleum pitch over the past 20 years. The production of coal tar pitch, as in the case of petroleum pitch, has likewise declined significantly over the past two decades. Coal tar pitch is a byproduct of metallurgical grade coke (metcoke) production. In this industry, modern metcoke facilities are recycling coal tar as fuel in order to enhance energy efficiency and minimize environmental emissions. Metcoke production itself is dependent upon the production requirements for domestic steel. Hence, several metcoke ovens have been decommissioned over the past two decades and have not been replaced. As a consequence sources of coal tar are being taken off line and are not being replaced. The long-term trend is a reduction in coal tar pitch production. Thus import of feedstocks, mainly from Eastern Europe and China, is on the rise despite the relatively large transportation cost. To reverse this trend, a new process for producing carbon products is needed. The process must be

  8. Solar abundance of platinum

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Harry; Aller, Lawrence H.

    1975-01-01

    Three lines of neutral platinum, located at λ 2997.98 Å, λ 3064.71 Å, and λ 3301.86 Å have been used to determine the solar platinum abundance by the method of spectral synthesis. On the scale, log A(H) = 12.00, the thus-derived solar platinum abundance is 1.75 ± 0.10, in fair accord with Cameron's value of log A(Pt) = 1.69 derived by Mason from carbonaceous chondrites and calculated on the assumption that log A(Si) = 7.55 in the sun. PMID:16592278

  9. Oxidation of coal: a mechanistic puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabartty, S.K.

    1981-03-29

    The mechanism of coal oxidation was investigated by two-phase oxidation of hvb and lvb coals. The oxidants used were commercial bleach, tetrabutylammonium fluoroborate and tetrabutylammonium permanganate. After extraction, the compounds were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Coal-oxidation is much more complicated than would be expected from oxidations of standard organic compounds. It is reasonable to assume that aliphatic structures, particularly benzylic methyl, methylene or methine groups, or carbon adjacent to hetero-atoms are the most reactive, and are oxidized to ketones or carboxylic acids. In order to degrade coal to CO/sub 2/ and water-soluble low-molecular-weight compounds by mild oxidants, an abundance of these functional groups must be assumed. However, the stability of ethyl-polyvinylbenzene polymer towards hypochlorite oxidant indicates that activation of coal-carbon for oxidation results from features other than electronegativity of aromatic rings. The uniqueness of the coal-oxidation has to rest on a destabilizing factor which makes even aromatic sites vulnerable. One may speculate that mineral matter in coal is coordinated with aromatic structures, and that the resultant complexes are destabilized by electrophilic attack. If a coal is an entangled interpenetrating macromolecular mixture, the destabilizing effect would decrease with increasing compactness of the physical structure which accompanies increase in rank;higher rank coals would therefore be less reactive. However, if the oxidant can also, like mineral matter, intercalate, it would open the structure up, and produce destabilization. The success of wet oxidation would then depend less on the oxidation potential than on the ability of the oxidant to intercalate. The oxidation of lvb coal with assistance from phase-transfer catalysts in a two-phase system is consistent with this view.

  10. War and domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Colson, E

    1995-01-01

    A longterm study (begun in 1956) of the people of four villages in Gwembe District in Zambia provides information on deaths due to Rhodesian action or to Zimbabwean freedom fighters and on deaths due to domestic violence (which is likely to have been underreported because it is considered shameful). During the decade of the 1970s, one woman and three men died from Rhodesian action and 5 women were killed by kinsmen (two husbands, two sons, and one brother). The police left the kin to settle the case of the sister killed by the brother. One man who killed his mother persuaded a younger, unmarried kinsman to be charged and punished in his stead; another left the community. One of the men who killed his wife was released because of his age (he paid damages to his children in accordance with matrilineal tradition); the other was released for lack of evidence. Battered women usually do not press charges against their husbands but may leave them and, if young, marry again. In some cases, battered women seeking divorce have also won compensation for broken bones. Domestic violence may have been especially prevalent in this period because the economic situation deteriorated, men could not find work, and the Rhodesian war added stress and disrupted the local transportation system. In response, men began to drink more heavily and male violence directed against women and men brewed along with locally-produced alcohol. Domestic violence may be exacerbated when men use women as an outlet for their anger and frustration in stressful times of war. PMID:12295013

  11. Air toxic emissions from the combustion of coal: Identifying and quantifying hazardous air pollutants from US coals

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1992-09-01

    This report addresses the key air toxic emissions likely to emanate from continued and expanded use of domestic coal. It identifies and quantifies those trace elements specified in the US 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, by tabulating selected characterization data on various source coals by region, state, and rank. On the basis of measurements by various researchers, this report also identifies those organic compounds likely to be derived from the coal combustion process (although their formation is highly dependent on specific boiler configurations and operating conditions).

  12. The development of coal briquette for household use in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Soelistijo, U.W.; Suganal; Dauley, B.; Suprapto, S.; Sumaryono

    1994-12-31

    It is assured that coal utilization in Indonesia has played a significant role in reducing domestic oil consumption, and that domestic coal consumption continues to increase. In the meantime, Indonesian coal is used primarily to generate electricity, manufacture cement, and produce metal for industry. However, since the energy diversification policy was introduced in 1976, Indonesian coal production is poised for rapid development. Coal will function as the bridge to the future nonconventional energy use from the current conventional energy use. Coal in the form of briquettes have also been promoted as fuel in for household use since April 1993. This type of fuel is well accepted because it is smokeless, odorless, and easy to use. If all people in Indonesia use briquettes as fuel in the years between 1993 and 2000, the savings will range from US $0.57 billion to US $0.93 billion if the price is set at US $1.78 per liter of kerosene. Consequently, the use of briquettes for household use is aimed to substitute for kerosene and firewood. Moreover, this substitution will create additional multiplying effects such as increased employment and business in coal briquette making and marketing.

  13. Coal liquefaction

    DOEpatents

    Schindler, Harvey D.

    1985-01-01

    In a two-stage liquefaction wherein coal, hydrogen and liquefaction solvent are contacted in a first thermal liquefaction zone, followed by recovery of an essentially ash free liquid and a pumpable stream of insoluble material, which includes 850.degree. F.+ liquid, with the essentially ash free liquid then being further upgraded in a second liquefaction zone, the liquefaction solvent for the first stage includes the pumpable stream of insoluble material from the first liquefaction stage, and 850.degree. F.+ liquid from the second liquefaction stage.

  14. Animal evolution during domestication: the domesticated fox as a model

    PubMed Central

    Trut, Lyudmila; Oskina, Irina; Kharlamova, Anastasiya

    2009-01-01

    Summary We review the evolution of domestic animals, emphasizing the effect of the earliest steps of domestication on its course. Using the first domesticated species, the dog (Canis familiaris) as an illustration, we describe the evolutionary specificities of the historical domestication, such as the high level and wide range of diversity. We suggest that the process of earliest domestication via unconscious and later conscious selection of human-defined behavioral traits may accelerate phenotypic variations. The review is based on the results of the long-term experiment designed to reproduce early mammalian domestication in the silver fox (Vulpes vulpes) selected for tameability, or amenability to domestication. We describe changes in behavior, morphology and physiology that appeared in the fox during its selection for tameability and that were similar to those observed in the domestic dog. Based on the experimental fox data and survey of relevant data, we discuss the developmental, genetic and possible molecular-genetic mechanisms of these changes. We assign the causative role in evolutionary transformation of domestic animals to selection for behavior and to the neurospecific regulatory genes it affects. PMID:19260016

  15. Stellar Oxygen Abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Jeremy

    1994-04-01

    This dissertation addresses several issues concerning stellar oxygen abundances. The 7774 {\\AA} O I triplet equivalent widths of Abia & Rebolo [1989, AJ, 347, 186] for metal-poor dwarfs are found to be systematically too high. I also argue that current effective temperatures used in halo star abundance studies may be ~150 K too low. New color-Teff relations are derived for metal-poor stars. Using the revised Teff values and improved equivalent widths for the 7774A O I triplet, the mean [O/Fe] ratio for a handful of halo stars is found to be +0.52 with no dependence on Teff or [Fe/H]. Possible cosmological implications of the hotter Teff scale are discussed along with additional evidence supporting the need for a higher temperature scale for metal-poor stars. Our Teff scale leads to a Spite Li plateau value of N(Li)=2.28 +/- 0.09. A conservative minimal primordial value of N(Li)=2.35 is inferred. If errors in the observations and models are considered, consistency with standard models of Big Bang nucleosynthesis is still achieved with this larger Li abundance. The revised Teff scale raises the observed B/Be ratio of HD 140283 from 10 to 12, making its value more comfortably consistent with the production of the observed B and Be by ordinary spallation. Our Teff values are found to be in good agreement with values predicted from both the Victoria and Yale isochrone color-Teff relations. Thus, it appears likely that no changes in globular cluster ages would result. Next, we examine the location of the break in the [O/Fe] versus [Fe/H] plane in a quantitative fashion. Analysis of a relatively homogeneous data set does not favor any unique break point in the range -1.7 /= -3), in agreement with the new results for halo dwarfs. We find that the gap in the observed [O/H] distribution, noted by Wheeler et al

  16. Abundances of light elements.

    PubMed Central

    Pagel, B E

    1993-01-01

    Recent developments in the study of abundances of light elements and their relevance to cosmological nucleosynthesis are briefly reviewed. The simplest model, based on standard cosmology and particle physics and assuming homogeneous baryon density at the relevant times, continues to stand up well. PMID:11607388

  17. The Czechoslovak coal base and possibilities for its utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Roubicek, V.; Buchtele, J.; Nemec, J.

    1994-12-31

    The fuel and energy base in Czechoslovakia is presently in a period of great structural change. A substantial problem is the evolution from a centrally planned system to a market economy model of extraction, production, and consumption for fuel and energy sources. The paper describes the historical and current situation in the coal industry and the uses for the black coal, brown coal, and lignite resources of the country. The solution to the problem of how best to utilize the domestic coal base, and coal generally, is closely connected with the global restructuring of the Czechoslovak economy. The most difficult step of this process is, undoubtedly, adapting the Czechoslovak fuel and energy base to market economy conditions.

  18. Coal: America' energy future. Volume II. A technical overview

    SciTech Connect

    2006-03-15

    Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman requested the national Coal Council in April 2005 a report identifying the challenges and opportunities of more fully exploring our domestic coal resources to meet the nations' future energy needs. This resultant report addresses the Secretary's request in the context of the President's focus, with eight findings and recommendations that would use technology to leverage the USA's extensive coal assets and reduce dependence on imported energy. Volume I outlines these findings and recommendations. Volume II provides technical data and case histories to support the findings and recommendations. Chapter headings of Volume II are: Electricity Generation; Coal-to-Liquids; An Overview of the Natural Gas Situation; and Economic Benefits of Coal Conversion Investments. 8 apps.

  19. Barge transportation's future in an expanding coal market

    SciTech Connect

    Faig, E.

    1982-10-01

    The potential for growth in domestic coal production is virtually unlimited. Because of the high costs of oil and gas generation and adverse consumer reaction to nuclear generation, coal is frequently the most viable fuel alternative available to electric utility companies. The location of the inland waterways relative to the nation's coalfields and the inherent advantages of barging suggest that water transportation will continue to play an important role in moving coal. In addition, the projected increase in steam coal demand for export will place a tremendous strain on the nation's transportation system. The result will be a need for greater cooperation between the competing transportation modes, which could mean benefits for all concerned. For these reasons the outlook for increased water movement of coal is optimistic.

  20. Sequential solvent extraction for forms of antimony in five selected coals

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, C.C.; Liu, G.J.; Kang, Y.; Chou, C.L.; Wang, R.W.

    2008-03-15

    Abundance of antimony in bulk samples has been determined in five selected coals, three coals from Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui, China, and two from the Illinois Basin in the United States. The Sb abundance in these samples is in the range of 0.11-0.43 {mu} g/g. The forms of Sb in coals were studied by sequential solvent extraction. The six forms of Sb are water soluble, ion changeable, organic matter bound, carbonate bound, silicate bound, and sulfide bound. Results of sequential extraction show that silicate-bound Sb is the most abundant form in these coals. Silicate-plus sulfide-bound Sb accounts for more than half of the total Sb in all coals. Bituminous coals are higher in organic matter bound Sb than anthracite and natural coke, indicating that the Sb in the organic matter may be incorporated into silicate and sulfide minerals during metamorphism.

  1. Sequential solvent extraction for forms of antimony in five selected coals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, C.; Liu, Gaisheng; Kong, Y.; Chou, C.-L.; Wang, R.

    2008-01-01

    Abundance of antimony in bulk samples has been determined in five selected coals, three coals from Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui, China, and two from the Illinois Basin in the United States. The Sb abundance in these samples is in the range of 0.11-0.43 ??g/g. The forms of Sb in coals were studied by sequential solvent extraction. The six forms of Sb are water soluble, ion changeable, organic matter bound, carbonate bound, silicate bound, and sulfide bound. Results of sequential extraction show that silicate-bound Sb is the most abundant form in these coals. Silicate- plus sulfide-bound Sb accounts for more than half of the total Sb in all coals. Bituminous coals are higher in organic matterbound Sb than anthracite and natural coke, indicating that the Sb in the organic matter may be incorporated into silicate and sulfide minerals during metamorphism. ?? 2008 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  2. Core questions in domestication research

    PubMed Central

    Zeder, Melinda A.

    2015-01-01

    The domestication of plants and animals is a key transition in human history, and its profound and continuing impacts are the focus of a broad range of transdisciplinary research spanning the physical, biological, and social sciences. Three central aspects of domestication that cut across and unify this diverse array of research perspectives are addressed here. Domestication is defined as a distinctive coevolutionary, mutualistic relationship between domesticator and domesticate and distinguished from related but ultimately different processes of resource management and agriculture. The relative utility of genetic, phenotypic, plastic, and contextual markers of evolving domesticatory relationships is discussed. Causal factors are considered, and two leading explanatory frameworks for initial domestication of plants and animals, one grounded in optimal foraging theory and the other in niche-construction theory, are compared. PMID:25713127

  3. Mineralogical and compositional characteristics of Late Permian coals from an area of high lung cancer rate in Xuan Wei, Yunnan, China: Occurrence and origin of quartz and chamosite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dai, S.; Tian, L.; Chou, C.-L.; Zhou, Y.; Zhang, M.; Zhao, L.; Wang, Jingyuan; Yang, Z.; Cao, H.; Ren, D.

    2008-01-01

    Some townships in Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, have one of the highest lung cancer mortality rates in China and the epidemic disease in the area has generally been attributed to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) released from domestic coal burning. However, the cancer-causing culprit is not settled as Tian [Tian, L., 2005. Coal Combustion Emissions and Lung Cancer in Xuan Wei, China. Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley.] found nanometer quartz in these coals, soot emissions, and lung cancer tissues. We have conducted mineralogical and geochemical studies of the coals from Xuan Wei for the purpose of shedding light on the minerals which may be related to the epidemic lung cancer. In this paper, abundances, modes of occurrence, and origins of minerals and elements in the coals from two mines in Xuan Wei have been studied using optical microscope, low-temperature ashing, X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The minerals in the coals are mainly composed of quartz, chamosite, kaolinite, and calcite. The particle size of quartz is rather small, mostly less than 20????m and it is of authigenic origin. Chamosite occurs mainly as cell-fillings. The occurrence of quartz and chamosite indicates that they were derived from the hydrothermal fluids. Epigenetic calcite is derived from calcic fluids. Kaolinite is derived mainly from sediment source region of Kangdian Oldland to the west of coal basin. The composition of Xuan Wei coal is high in SiO2, Fe2O3, TiO2, CaO, MnO, V, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn. The high SiO2 content is attributed to quartz, and the Fe2O3 content to chamosite. The high Mn and low Mg contents in the coal indicate the inputs of hydrothermal fluids. CaO occurs mainly in epigenetic calcite. Elements Ti, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and rare earth elements were derived from the basaltic rocks at sediment source region. ?? 2008

  4. Coal daily by fax

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    COAL Daily lets you quickly and easily track U.S. coal market developments, including spot coal prices and market and business news. The Btu-, quality- and location-specific prices and analyses reflect the large investment to systematically collect accurate coal market price data Fieldston has made.

  5. Coal systems analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, P.D.

    2005-07-01

    This collection of papers provides an introduction to the concept of coal systems analysis and contains examples of how coal systems analysis can be used to understand, characterize, and evaluate coal and coal gas resources. Chapter are: Coal systems analysis: A new approach to the understanding of coal formation, coal quality and environmental considerations, and coal as a source rock for hydrocarbons by Peter D. Warwick. Appalachian coal assessment: Defining the coal systems of the Appalachian Basin by Robert C. Milici. Subtle structural influences on coal thickness and distribution: Examples from the Lower Broas-Stockton coal (Middle Pennsylvanian), Eastern Kentucky Coal Field, USA by Stephen F. Greb, Cortland F. Eble, and J.C. Hower. Palynology in coal systems analysis The key to floras, climate, and stratigraphy of coal-forming environments by Douglas J. Nichols. A comparison of late Paleocene and late Eocene lignite depositional systems using palynology, upper Wilcox and upper Jackson Groups, east-central Texas by Jennifer M.K. O'Keefe, Recep H. Sancay, Anne L. Raymond, and Thomas E. Yancey. New insights on the hydrocarbon system of the Fruitland Formation coal beds, northern San Juan Basin, Colorado and New Mexico, USA by W.C. Riese, William L. Pelzmann, and Glen T. Snyder.

  6. Coal processing and utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, H.-D.

    1980-04-01

    It is noted that the rising price of oil as well as supply concerns have lead to an increase in the use of coal. It is shown that in order for coal to take a greater role in energy supply, work must commence now in the areas of coal extraction and processing. Attention is given to new technologies such as coke production, electricity and heat generation, coal gasification, and coal liquifaction. Also covered are a separator for nitrogen oxides and active coal regeneration. Finally, the upgrading of coal is examined.

  7. The utilization of Indonesia`s low rank coal: Its potential, challenges and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Panaka, P.

    1997-07-01

    It has known that there are around 36 billion tons of coal resources potential in Indonesia, however over 21 billion tons (58.7%) is classified as low-rank (lignite) coal. Due to their properties, these coals are not economical to be transported for a long distance and are therefore unexportable. That`s why these low-rank coals still under-utilized at present. As the utilization of low-rank coals is expected to grow in importance as the domestic`s demand for energy increases in the near future, efforts should also be directed to find the possible upgrading technology for low-rank coals by reducing the total moisture of it, once the possible upgrading technology has been adopted, then those coal can be converted into coal water mixture, coal liquefaction, gasification, briquetting, etc., even for mine mouth power-plant. The challenges facing low-rank coals are: low conversion efficiency resulting from the high moisture content and relatively low in calorific values, the risk of spontaneous combustion, ash deposit formation and higher CO{sub 2} emission To response to these challenges, the adoption of new and advanced technologies for the utilization of low-rank coals from the third countries is therefore required. Combined cycle technologies such as CFBC, PFBC and IGCC, etc. combined with coal up-grading technology are applicable to low-rank coals and are expected to become a major future power plant for Indonesia. The main question for low-rank coals is whether these plants can be competitive when the extra costs involved in up-grading (drying) the coal are taken into account.

  8. Domestic and Domesticating Education in the Late Victorian City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heggie, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the various types of domestic education, particularly cookery, available in Manchester between 1870 and 1902. The work of the two local School Boards and the Manchester School of Domestic Economy are shown as part of a complicated network of provision--a mixed economy of welfare, including enthusiastic philanthropists and…

  9. Solar abundance of iridium

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Stephen; Aller, Lawrence H.

    1976-01-01

    By a method of spectrum synthesis, which yields log gfA, where g is the statistical weight of the lower level, f is the oscillator strength, and A is the abundance, an attempt is made to deduce the solar iridium abundance from one relatively unblended, but fairly weak IrI line, λ 3220.78 Å. If the Corliss-Bozman f-value for this line is adopted, we find log A(Ir) = 0.82 on the scale log A(H) = 12.00. The discordance with the value found from carbonaceous chondrites may arise from faulty f-values or from difficulties arising from line blending in this far ultraviolet domain of the solar spectrum. PMID:16578735

  10. Beluga coal gasification feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Chaney; Lawrence Van Bibber

    2006-07-15

    The objective of the study was to determine the economic feasibility of developing and siting a coal-based integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) plant in the Cook Inlet region of Alaska for the co-production of electric power and marketable by-products. The by-products, which may include synthesis gas, Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquids, fertilizers such as ammonia and urea, alcohols, hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide, would be manufactured for local use or for sale in domestic and foreign markets. This report for Phase 1 summarizes the investigation of an IGCC system for a specific industrial setting on the Cook Inlet, the Agrium U.S. Inc. ('Agrium') fertilizer plant in Nikiski, Alaska. Faced with an increase in natural gas price and a decrease in supply, the Agrium is investigating alternatives to gas as feed stock for their plant. This study considered all aspects of the installation and infrastructure, including: coal supply and cost, coal transport costs, delivery routes, feedstock production for fertilizer manufacture, plant steam and power, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) uses, markets for possible additional products, and environmental permit requirements. The Cook Inlet-specific Phase 1 results, reported here, provided insight and information that led to the conclusion that the second study should be for an F-T plant sited at the Usibelli Coal Mine near Healy, Alaska. This Phase 1 case study is for a very specific IGCC system tailored to fit the chemical and energy needs of the fertilizer manufacturing plant. It demonstrates the flexibility of IGCC for a variety of fuel feedstocks depending on plant location and fuel availability, as well as the available variety of gas separation, gas cleanup, and power and steam generation technologies to fit specific site needs. 18 figs., 37 tabs., 6 apps.

  11. [Domestic violence: any progress?].

    PubMed

    Henrion, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Since the publication of the French national survey of violence against women in 2000, the fight against domestic violence has made steady progress. Knowledge of the phenomenon has significantly improved. A nationwide study of murders and manslaughters perpetrated by one partner of a couple against the other has been published annually since 2006. In 2012, domestic violence resulted in the deaths of 314 persons: 166 women, 31 men, 25 children, 9 collateral victims, 14 rivals, and two former spouses killed by their ex-fathers in law. In addition, 67 perpetrators committed suicide (51 men and3 women). The number of victims fluctuates from year to year but has remained fairly stable since 2006 (n=168). Legislation has improved significantly: eight new laws have been passed since 2004, all designed to protect women and to ensure that violent men are restrained and treated. New measures to inform and protect women have been implemented and others have been improved, such as the anonymous helpline (phone no 3919, "domestic violence information"). An inter-ministerial committee on the protection of women from violence and the prevention of human trafficking (MIPROF) was created on 3 January 2013. A website entitled "Stop violence against women " (Stop violences faites aux femmes) is now available. The "Imminent Danger" mobile phone system, designed to alert police if a suspected or known perpetrator breaches restraint conditions, will be extended to the entire country from January 2014. Referees charged with coordinating comprehensive long-tern care of women victims have been deployed at the county level. Information centers on the rights of women and families (CIDFF) now form a local nationwide network. Routine interviews with a midwife during the fourth month of pregnancy, focusing on the woman's emotional, economic and social conditions, have been implemented in 21 % of maternity units and should gradually be generalized. The authorities who have enforced the law have

  12. Coal combustion products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalyoncu, R.S.; Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    Coal-burning powerplants, which supply more than half of U.S. electricity, also generate coal combustion products, which can be both a resource and a disposal problem. The U.S. Geological Survey collaborates with the American Coal Ash Association in preparing its annual report on coal combustion products. This Fact Sheet answers questions about present and potential uses of coal combustion products.

  13. Hydromechanical Advanced Coal Excavator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estus, Jay M.; Summers, David

    1990-01-01

    Water-jet cutting reduces coal dust and its hazards. Advanced mining system utilizes full-face, hydromechanical, continuous miner. Coal excavator uses high-pressure water-jet lances, one in each of cutting heads and one in movable lance, to make cuts across top, bottom and middle height, respectively, of coal face. Wedge-shaped cutting heads advance into lower and upper cuts in turn, thereby breaking coal toward middle cut. Thrust cylinders and walking pads advance excavator toward coal face.

  14. Geochemistry of tin (Sn) in Chinese coals.

    PubMed

    Qu, Qinyuan; Liu, Guijian; Sun, Ruoyu; Kang, Yu

    2016-02-01

    Based on 1625 data collected from the published literature, the geochemistry of tin (Sn) in Chinese coals, including the abundance, distribution, modes of occurrence, genetic types and combustion behavior, was discussed to make a better understanding. Our statistic showed the average Sn of Chinese coal was 3.38 mg/kg, almost two times higher than the world. Among all the samples collected, Guangxi coals occupied an extremely high Sn enrichment (10.46 mg/kg), making sharp contrast to Xinjiang coals (0.49 mg/kg). Two modes of occurrence of Sn in Chinese coals were found, including sulfide-bounded Sn and clay-bounded Sn. In some coalfields, such as Liupanshui, Huayingshan and Haerwusu, a response between REEs distribution and Sn content was found which may caused by the transportation of Sn including clay minerals between coal seams. According to the responses reflecting on REEs patterns of each coalfield, several genetic types of Sn in coalfields were discussed. The enrichment of Sn in Guangxi coals probably caused by Sn-rich source rocks and multiple-stage hydrothermal fluids. The enriched Sn in western Guizhou coals was probably caused by volcanic ashes and sulfide-fixing mechanism. The depletion of Sn in Shengli coalfield, Inner Mongolia, may attribute to hardly terrigenous input and fluids erosion. As a relative easily volatilized element, the Sn-containing combustion by-products tended to be absorbed on the fine particles of fly ash. In 2012, the emission flux of Sn by Chinese coal combustion was estimated to be 0.90 × 10(9) g. PMID:25686909

  15. Overview of Contaminant Removal From Coal-Derived Syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Layne, A. W.; Alvin, M. A.; Granite, E.; Pennline, H. W.; Siriwardane, R. V.; Keairns, D.; Newby, R. A.

    2007-11-01

    Gasification is an important strategy for increasing the utilization of abundant domestic coal reserves. DOE envisions increased use of gasification in the United States during the next 20 years. As such, the DOE Gasification Technologies Program, including the FutureGen initiative, will strive to approach a near-zero emissions goal, with respect to multiple pollutants, such as sulfur, mercury, and nitrogen oxides. Since nearly one-third of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions are produced by coal-powered generation facilities, conventional coal-burning power plants, and advanced power generation plants, such as IGCC, present opportunities in which carbon can be removed and then permanently stored.
    Gas cleaning systems for IGCC power generation facilities have been effectively demonstrated and used in commercial operations for many years. These systems can reduce sulfur, mercury, and other contaminants in synthesis gas produced by gasifiers to the lowest level achievable in coal-based energy systems. Currently, DOE Fossil Energy's goals set for 2010 direct completion of R&D for advanced gasification combined cycle technology to produce electricity from coal at 45–50% plant efficiency. By 2012, completion of R&D to integrate this technology with carbon dioxide separation, capture, and sequestration into a zero-emissions configuration is targeted with a goal to provide electricity with less than a 10% increase in cost of electricity. By 2020, goals are set to develop zero-emissions plants that are fuel-flexible and capable of multi-product output and thermal efficiencies of over 60% with coal. These objectives dictate that it is essential to not only reduce contaminant emissions into the generated synthesis gas, but also to increase the process or system operating temperature to that of humid gas cleaning criteria conditions (150 to 370 °C), thus reducing the energy penalties that currently exist as a result of lowering process temperatures (-40 to 38

  16. Coal data: A reference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  17. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    SciTech Connect

    David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

    2007-06-30

    For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for economic

  18. Replacement Cost of Domestic Crude

    1994-12-01

    The DEEPWATER model forecasts the replacement cost of domestic crude oil for 13 offshore regions in the lower 48 states. The replacement cost of domestic crude oil is the constant or levelized selling price that will recover the full expense of exploration, development, and productions with a reasonable return on capital.

  19. The Complexities of Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Donald G.

    2007-01-01

    Comments on the article by Robert Bornstein, "The complex relationship between dependency and domestic violence: Converging psychological factors and social forces." Although a more focused examination of the psychological factors involved in domestic violence is welcome, there are some factual errors in Bornstein's article that need attention and…

  20. Investigations into coal coprocessing and coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Guffey, F.D.; Netzel, D.A.; Miknis, F.P.; Thomas, K.P.; Zhang, Tiejun; Haynes, H.W. Jr.

    1994-06-01

    The conversion of coal to liquid suitable as feedstock to a petroleum refinery is dependent upon several process variables. These variables include temperature, pressure, coal rank, catalyst type, nature of the feed to the reactor, type of process, etc. Western Research Institute (WRI) has initiated a research program in the area of coal liquefaction to address the impact of some of these variables upon the yield and quality of the coal-derived liquid. The principal goal of this research is to improve the efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. Two different approaches are currently being investigated. These include the coprocessing of a heavy liquid, such as crude oil, and coal using a dispersed catalyst and the direct liquefaction of coal using a supported catalyst. Another important consideration in coal liquefaction is the utilization of hydrogen, including both externally- and internally-supplied hydrogen. Because the incorporation of externally-supplied hydrogen during conversion of this very aromatic fossil fuel to, for example, transportation fuels is very expensive, improved utilization of internally-supplied hydrogen can lead to reducing processing costs. The objectives of this investigation, which is Task 3.3.4, Coal Coprocessing, of the 1991--1992 Annual Research Plan, are: (1) to evaluate coal/oil pretreatment conditions that are expected to improve the liquid yield through more efficient dispersion of an oil-soluble, iron-based catalyst, (2) to characterize the coke deposits on novel, supported catalysts after coal liquefaction experiments and to correlate the carbon skeletal structure parameters of the coke deposit with catalyst performance as measured by coal liquefaction product yield, and (3) to determine the modes of hydrogen utilization during coal liquefaction and coprocessing. Experimental results are discussed in this report.

  1. Abundance of field galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klypin, Anatoly; Karachentsev, Igor; Makarov, Dmitry; Nasonova, Olga

    2015-12-01

    We present new measurements of the abundance of galaxies with a given circular velocity in the Local Volume: a region centred on the Milky Way Galaxy and extending to distance ˜10 Mpc. The sample of ˜750 mostly dwarf galaxies provides a unique opportunity to study the abundance and properties of galaxies down to absolute magnitudes MB ≈ -10 and virial masses M_vir= 109{ M_{⊙}}. We find that the standard Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model gives remarkably accurate estimates for the velocity function of galaxies with circular velocities V ≳ 70 kms-1 and corresponding virial masses M_vir≳ 5× 10^{10}{ M_{⊙}}, but it badly fails by overpredicting ˜5 times the abundance of large dwarfs with velocities V = 30-40 kms-1. The warm dark matter (WDM) models cannot explain the data either, regardless of mass of WDM particle. Just as in previous observational studies, we find a shallow asymptotic slope dN/dlog V ∝ Vα, α ≈ -1 of the velocity function, which is inconsistent with the standard ΛCDM model that predicts the slope α = -3. Though reminiscent to the known overabundance of satellite problem, the overabundance of field galaxies is a much more difficult problem. For the standard ΛCDM model to survive, in the 10 Mpc radius of the Milky Way there should be 1000 not yet detected galaxies with virial mass M_vir≈ 10^{10}{ M_{⊙}}, extremely low surface brightness and no detectable H I gas. So far none of this type of galaxies have been discovered.

  2. Biogeochemistry of Microbial Coal-Bed Methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strąpoć, Dariusz; Mastalerz, Maria; Dawson, Katherine; Macalady, Jennifer; Callaghan, Amy V.; Wawrik, Boris; Turich, Courtney; Ashby, Matthew

    2011-05-01

    Microbial methane accumulations have been discovered in multiple coal-bearing basins over the past two decades. Such discoveries were originally based on unique biogenic signatures in the stable isotopic composition of methane and carbon dioxide. Basins with microbial methane contain either low-maturity coals with predominantly microbial methane gas or uplifted coals containing older, thermogenic gas mixed with more recently produced microbial methane. Recent advances in genomics have allowed further evaluation of the source of microbial methane, through the use of high-throughput phylogenetic sequencing and fluorescent in situ hybridization, to describe the diversity and abundance of bacteria and methanogenic archaea in these subsurface formations. However, the anaerobic metabolism of the bacteria breaking coal down to methanogenic substrates, the likely rate-limiting step in biogenic gas production, is not fully understood. Coal molecules are more recalcitrant to biodegradation with increasing thermal maturity, and progress has been made in identifying some of the enzymes involved in the anaerobic degradation of these recalcitrant organic molecules using metagenomic studies and culture enrichments. In recent years, researchers have attempted lab and subsurface stimulation of the naturally slow process of methanogenic degradation of coal.

  3. Introduction of clean coal technology in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Takashi Kiga

    2008-01-15

    Coal is an abundant resource, found throughout the world, and inexpensive and constant in price. For this reason, coal is expected to play a role as one of the energy supply sources in the world. The most critical issues to promote utilization of coal are to decrease the environmental load. In this report, the history, outline and recent developments of the clean coal technology in Japan, mainly the thermal power generation technology are discussed. As recent topics, here outlined first is the technology against global warming such as the improvement of steam condition for steam turbines, improvement of power generation efficiency by introducing combined generation, carbon neutral combined combustion of biomass, and carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technology. Also introduced are outlines of Japanese superiority in application technology against NOx and SO{sub 2} which create acid rain, development status of the technical improvement in the handling method for coal which is a rather difficult solid-state resource, and utilization of coal ash.

  4. Biogeochemistry of microbial coal-bed methane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strc, D.; Mastalerz, Maria; Dawson, K.; MacAlady, J.; Callaghan, A.V.; Wawrik, B.; Turich, C.; Ashby, M.

    2011-01-01

    Microbial methane accumulations have been discovered in multiple coal-bearing basins over the past two decades. Such discoveries were originally based on unique biogenic signatures in the stable isotopic composition of methane and carbon dioxide. Basins with microbial methane contain either low-maturity coals with predominantly microbial methane gas or uplifted coals containing older, thermogenic gas mixed with more recently produced microbial methane. Recent advances in genomics have allowed further evaluation of the source of microbial methane, through the use of high-throughput phylogenetic sequencing and fluorescent in situ hybridization, to describe the diversity and abundance of bacteria and methanogenic archaea in these subsurface formations. However, the anaerobic metabolism of the bacteria breaking coal down to methanogenic substrates, the likely rate-limiting step in biogenic gas production, is not fully understood. Coal molecules are more recalcitrant to biodegradation with increasing thermal maturity, and progress has been made in identifying some of the enzymes involved in the anaerobic degradation of these recalcitrant organic molecules using metagenomic studies and culture enrichments. In recent years, researchers have attempted lab and subsurface stimulation of the naturally slow process of methanogenic degradation of coal. Copyright ?? 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  5. Late embryogenesis abundant proteins

    PubMed Central

    Olvera-Carrillo, Yadira; Reyes, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins accumulate at the onset of seed desiccation and in response to water deficit in vegetative plant tissues. The typical LEA proteins are highly hydrophilic and intrinsically unstructured. They have been classified in different families, each one showing distinctive conserved motifs. In this manuscript we present and discuss some of the recent findings regarding their role in plant adaptation to water deficit, as well as those concerning to their possible function, and how it can be related to their intrinsic structural flexibility. PMID:21447997

  6. Coal char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.L.

    1995-07-01

    A series of investigations of coal and char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion is reported for a suite of coals ranging in rank from lignite to low-volatile (lv) bituminous coal under combustion conditions similar to those found in commercial-scale boilers. Experimental measurements are described that utilize identical particle sizing characteristics to determine initial and final size distributions. Mechanistic interpretation of the data suggest that coal fragmentation is an insignificant event and that char fragmentation is controlled by char structure. Chars forming cenospheres fragment more extensively than solid chars. Among the chars that fragment, large particles produce more fine material than small particles. In all cases, coal and char fragmentation are seen to be sufficiently minor as to be relatively insignificant factors influencing fly ash size distribution, particle loading, and char burnout.

  7. Flare Plasma Iron Abundance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Dan, Chau; Jain, Rajmal; Schwartz, Richard A.; Tolbert, Anne K.

    2008-01-01

    The equivalent width of the iron-line complex at 6.7 keV seen in flare X-ray spectra suggests that the iron abundance of the hottest plasma at temperatures >approx.10 MK may sometimes be significantly lower than the nominal coronal abundance of four times the photospheric value that is commonly assumed. This conclusion is based on X-ray spectral observations of several flares seen in common with the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) and the Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) on the second Indian geostationary satellite, GSAT-2. The implications of this will be discussed as it relates to the origin of the hot flare plasma - either plasma already in the corona that is directly heated during the flare energy release process or chromospheric plasma that is heated by flare-accelerated particles and driven up into the corona. Other possible explanations of lower-than-expected equivalent widths of the iron-line complex will also be discussed.

  8. Investigating the origins of horse domestication.

    PubMed

    Levine, M A

    1999-04-01

    Before the development of firearms, the horse was crucial to warfare and, before the invention of the steam engine, it was the fastest and most reliable form of land transport. It is crucial to the life of nomadic pastoralists on the Eurasian steppe and played a major role in the evolution of human society during the Bronze Age and Iron Age. Understanding the human past requires knowledge of the origins and development of horse husbandry. The problem of being able to identify the early stages of horse domestication is one that many researchers have grappled with for the most part unsuccessfully. Until recently the most important criteria used had been that of increased relative abundance. That is, around 3500 BC, in some parts of Eurasia, there was an apparent increase in the proportions of horse bones and teeth found in archaeological deposits by comparison with preceding periods. However, other evidence suggests that the observed increase during the Copper Age could be explained as well, or even better, by increased hunting rather than by domestication. PMID:11314236

  9. Coal feed lock

    DOEpatents

    Pinkel, I. Irving

    1978-01-01

    A coal feed lock is provided for dispensing coal to a high pressure gas producer with nominal loss of high pressure gas. The coal feed lock comprises a rotor member with a diametral bore therethrough. A hydraulically activated piston is slidably mounted in the bore. With the feed lock in a charging position, coal is delivered to the bore and then the rotor member is rotated to a discharging position so as to communicate with the gas producer. The piston pushes the coal into the gas producer. The rotor member is then rotated to the charging position to receive the next load of coal.

  10. Hydrodesulfurization of chlorinized coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Rohatgi, N. K. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method of desulfurization is described in which high sulfur coals are desulfurized by low temperature chlorinolysis of coal in liquid media, preferably water, followed by hydrodesulfurization at a temperature above 500 C. The coals are desulfurized to an extent of up to 90% by weight and simultaneously dechlorinated to a chlorine content below 0.1% by weight. The product coals have lower volatiles loss, lower oxygen and nitrogen content and higher fixed carbon than raw coals treated with hydrogen under the same conditions. Heating the chlorinated coal to a temperature above 500 C. in inert gas such as nitrogen results in significantly less desulfurization.

  11. Coal extraction - environmental prediction

    SciTech Connect

    C. Blaine Cecil; Susan J. Tewalt

    2002-08-01

    To predict and help minimize the impact of coal extraction in the Appalachian region, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is addressing selected mine-drainage issues through the following four interrelated studies: spatial variability of deleterious materials in coal and coal-bearing strata; kinetics of pyrite oxidation; improved spatial geologic models of the potential for drainage from abandoned coal mines; and methodologies for the remediation of waters discharged from coal mines. As these goals are achieved, the recovery of coal resources will be enhanced. 2 figs.

  12. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    SciTech Connect

    Evan Hughes

    2009-01-08

    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  13. Coal desulfurization process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, G. C.; Gavalas, G. R.; Ganguli, P. S.; Kalfayan, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    A method for chlorinolysis of coal is an organic solvent at a moderate temperautre and atmospheric pressure has been proven to be effective in removing sulfur, particularly the organic sulfur, from coal. Chlorine gas is bubbled through a slurry of moist coal in chlorinated solvent. The chlorinated coal is separated, hydrolyzed and the dechlorinated. Preliminary results of treating a high sulfutr (4.77%S) bituminous coal show that up to 70% organic sulfur, 90% hyritic sulfur and 76% total sulfur can be removed. The treated coal is dechlorinated by heating at 500 C. The presence of moisture helps to remove organic sulfur.

  14. Solar coal gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, D. W.; Aiman, W. R.; Otsuki, H. H.; Thorsness, C. B.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of solar coal gasification has been performed. The analysis indicates that the medium-Btu product gas from a solar coal-gasification plant would not only be less expensive than that from a Lurgi coal-gasification plant but also would need considerably less coal to produce the same amount of gas. A number of possible designs for solar coal-gasification reactors are presented. These designs allow solar energy to be chemically stored while at the same time coal is converted to a clean-burning medium-Btu gas.

  15. Catagenesis of coals

    SciTech Connect

    Stanov, V.V.

    1981-09-01

    On the basis of the equations of chemical kinetics and thermodynamics a general equation is derived for the metamorphosis of coals. This equation is used to investigate the conditions for catagenic processes in several coal deposits and oil-bearing structures. It is shown that the catagenesis of coal ceases when the temperature falls in connection with uplift and denudation of the strata surrounding the coal. If there is a very rapid burial of the coal-bearing rocks and thus rapid heating, the catagenesis lags somewhat behind coals and anthracites. Catagenesis of lignites is governed by the pressure and rate of burial.

  16. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    SciTech Connect

    Ray Chamberland; Aku Raino; David Towle

    2006-09-30

    For more than two decades, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has developed a range of low cost, in-furnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes ALSTOM's internally developed TFS 2000 firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). As of 2004, more than 200 units representing approximately 75,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with ALSTOM low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coals to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coals, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing (retrofit) boiler equipment. If enacted, proposed Clear Skies legislation will, by 2008, require an average, effective, domestic NOx emissions rate of 0.16 lb/MMBtu, which number will be reduced to 0.13 lb/MMBtu by 2018. Such levels represent a 60% and 67% reduction, respectively, from the effective 2000 level of 0.40 lb/MMBtu. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. In light of these needs, ALSTOM, in cooperation with the DOE, is developing an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner which, when integrated with ALSTOM's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems, will provide a means to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx at less than 3/4 the cost of an SCR with low to no impact on balance of plant issues when firing a high volatile bituminous coal. Such coals can be more economic to fire than subbituminous or Powder River Basin (PRB) coals, but are more problematic from a NOx control standpoint as existing

  17. Geochemistry of trace elements in coals from the Zhuji Mine, Huainan Coalfield, Anhui, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sun, R.; Liu, Gaisheng; Zheng, Lingyun; Chou, C.-L.

    2010-01-01

    The abundances of nine major elements and thirty-eight trace elements in 520 samples of low sulfur coals from the Zhuji Mine, Huainan Coalfield, Anhui, China, were determined. Samples were mainly collected from 10 minable coal seams of 29 boreholes during exploration. The B content in coals shows that the influence of brackish water decreased toward the top of coal seams; marine transgression and regression occurred frequently in the Lower Shihezi Formation. A wide range of elemental abundances is found. Weighted means of Na, K, Fe, P, Be, B, Co, Ni, Cr, Se, Sb, Ba, and Bi abundances in Zhuji coals are higher, and the remainder elements are either lower or equal to the average values of elements in coals of northern China. Compared to the Chinese coals, the Zhuji coals are higher in Na, K, Be, B, Cr, Co, Se, Sn, Sb, and Bi, but lower in Ti, P, Li, V and Zn. The Zhuji coals are lower only in S, P, V and Zn than average U.S. and world coals. Potassium, Mg, Ca, Mn, Sr, As, Se, Sb and light rare earth elements (LREE) had a tendency to be enriched in thicker coal seams, whereas Fe, Ti, P, V, Co, Ni, Y, Mo, Pb and heavy rare earth elements (HREE) were inclined to concentrate in thinner coal seams. The enrichment of some elements in the Shanxi or Upper Shihezi Formations is related to their depositional environments. The elements are classified into three groups based on their stratigraphic distributions from coal seams 3 to 11-2, and the characteristics of each group are discussed. Lateral distributions of selected elements are also investigated. The correlation coefficients of elemental abundances with ash content show that the elements may be classified into four groups related to modes of occurrence of these elements. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of coal geology, resources, and reserves in the northern Wyoming Powder River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, David C.; Haacke, Jon E.; Osmonson, Lee M.; Luppens, James A.; Pierce, Paul E.; Rohrbacher, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    The abundance of new borehole data from recent coal bed natural gas development in the Powder River Basin was utilized by the U.S. Geological Survey for the most comprehensive evaluation to date of coal resources and reserves in the Northern Wyoming Powder River Basin assessment area. It is the second area within the Powder River Basin to be assessed as part of a regional coal assessment program; the first was an evaluation of coal resources and reserves in the Gillette coal field, adjacent to and south of the Northern Wyoming Powder River Basin assessment area. There are no active coal mines in the Northern Wyoming Powder River Basin assessment area at present. However, more than 100 million short tons of coal were produced from the Sheridan coal field between the years 1887 and 2000, which represents most of the coal production within the northwestern part of the Northern Wyoming Powder River Basin assessment area. A total of 33 coal beds were identified during the present study, 24 of which were modeled and evaluated to determine in-place coal resources. Given current technology, economic factors, and restrictions to mining, seven of the beds were evaluated for potential reserves. The restrictions included railroads, a Federal interstate highway, urban areas, and alluvial valley floors. Other restrictions, such as depth, thickness of coal beds, mined-out areas, and areas of burned coal, were also considered. The total original coal resource in the Northern Wyoming Powder River Basin assessment area for all 24 coal beds assessed, with no restrictions applied, was calculated to be 285 billion short tons. Available coal resources, which are part of the original coal resource that is accessible for potential mine development after subtracting all restrictions, are about 263 billion short tons (92.3 percent of the original coal resource). Recoverable coal, which is that portion of available coal remaining after subtracting mining and processing losses, was determined

  19. Coliquefaction of waste rubber tires with coal

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, E.C.; Tuntawiroon, W.

    1994-12-31

    There is an interest in the conversion of coal to liquid fuels because of the abundant supply of coal and the diminishing reserves of petroleum. Standard coal liquefaction techniques utilize H{sub 2} gas as a source of hydrogen to cap the radical species produced during liquefaction. Waste materials such as plastics, oils, and rubber tires with a high hydrogen content could be an alternative source of hydrogen that, in principle, could be transferred from the waste materials to the coal during liquefaction. An added benefit of such a program of waste material utilization would be a diminution in materials disposed of in landfills or incinerators. Rubber tires are approximately one third by weight carbon black. Farcasiu and Smith have shown that carbon black increases yields in coal liquefaction. Since carbon black is one of the top fifty chemicals produced in America during 1993 (3.22 billion pounds) the recovery and reuse of carbon black from tires could become economically attractive. Giavarini has shown in recent work that carbon black could be reclaimed and activated to produce quality carbon blacks after pyrolyzing waste rubber tires. Rubber tires also contain zinc oxide which is added as a filler and also aids in the vulcanization of the rubber. Waste plastics contain many metals used for coloring, waste oils contain metals acquired while used as a lubricant, and waste rubber tires contain zinc. A past investigation suggested that coal undergoing liquefaction may act as a {open_quotes}scavenger{close_quotes} for heavy metals. The ability of coal to trap metals will be discussed in the present paper. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) is a technique which can map the dispersion of an element within a sample by the detection of characteristic X-rays. Using EPMA, samples of the insoluble fraction produced by the coliquefaction experiments were analyzed to determine whether several heavy elements of interest were trapped in coal particles.

  20. Process for beneficiating coal

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, L.E.; Fox, K.M.; Herman, D.E.; McGarry, P.E.

    1982-06-01

    Mine run coal is pulverized and the extended surfaces of the coal particles are rendered hydrophobic and oilophilic by a chemical bonding and graft polymerization reaction with a water insoluble organic polymerizable monomer under peroxidation influence in a predominantly water reaction medium. The mineral ash present in the coal and particularly the iron pyrites remains hydrophilic and is separated from the polymeric organic surface bonded coal product in a water washing step wherein the washed coal floats on and is recovered from the water phase and the ash is removed with the separated wash water in a critical wash step. Excess water is removed from the beneficiated hydrophobic surface-altered coal product mechanically. The hydrophobic and oilophilic organic polymeric surface bonded coating about the coal particles is fortified by inclusion of additional unbound free fatty acids by further small additions thereof. The carboxylic acid groups present in the coal-oil product are thereafter converted to a metal soap. The beneficiated coal product can be used ''dry,'' or additional quantities of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel can be incorporated with the ''dry'' beneficiated coal product to produce a flowable fluid or liquid coal product having the rheological property of marked thixotropy. Introduction of this physically induced property into the liquid coal-oil-mixture prevents settling out of the heavier coal particles from the relatively ash-free fluid fuel composition under extended storage periods.

  1. Apparatus for beneficiating coal

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, L.E.; Fox, K.M.; Herman, D.E.; McGarry, P.E.

    1985-08-20

    Mine run coal is pulverized and the extended surfaces of the coal particles are rendered hydrophobic and oilophilic by a chemical bonding and graft polymerization reaction with a water insoluble organic polymerizable monomer under peroxidation influence in a predominantly water reaction medium. The mineral ash present in the coal and particularly the iron pyrites remains hydrophilic and is separated from the polymeric organic surface bonded coal product in a water washing step wherein the washed coal floats on and is recovered from the water phase and the ash is removed with the separated wash water in a critical wash step. Excess water is removed from the beneficiated hydrophobic surface-altered coal product mechanically. The hydrophobic and oilophilic organic polymeric surface bonded coating about the coal particles is fortified by inclusion of additional unbound free fatty acids by further small additions thereof. The carboxylic acid groups present in the coal-oil product are thereafter converted to a metal soap. The beneficiated coal product can be used ''dry'', or additional quantities of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel can be incorporated with the ''dry'' beneficiated coal product to produce a flowable fluid or liquid coal product having the rheological property of marked thixotropy. Introduction of this physically induced property into the liquid coal-oil-mixture prevents settling out of the heavier coal particles from the relatively ash-free fluid fuel composition under extended storage periods.

  2. Coal Combustion Science

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.R.; Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. )

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

  3. International perspectives on coal preparation

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  4. Coal pump development phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushida, R. O.; Sankur, V. D.; Gerbracht, F. G.; Mahajan, V.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques for achieving continuous coal sprays were studied. Coazial injection with gas and pressure atomization were studied. Coal particles, upon cooling, were found to be porous and fragile. Reactivity tests on the extruded coal showed overall conversion to gases and liquids unchanged from that of the raw coal. The potentials for applications of the coal pump to eight coal conversion processes were examined.

  5. Oxygen abundance and convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van't Veer, C.; Cayrel, R.

    The triplet IR lines of O I near 777 nm are computed with the Kurucz's code, modified to accept several convection models. The program has been run with the MLT algorithm, with l/H = 1.25 and 0.5, and with the Canuto-Mazzitelli and Canuto-Goldman-Mazzitelli approaches, on a metal-poor turnoff-star model atmosphere with Teff=6200 K, log g = 4.3, [Fe/H]= -1.5. The results show that the differences in equivalent widths for the 4 cases do not exceed 2 per cent (0.3 mA). The convection treatment is therefore not an issue for the oxygen abundance derived from the permitted lines.

  6. Production of High-Hydrogen Content Coal-Derived Liquids [Part 1 of 3

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Bergin

    2011-03-30

    The primary goal of this project has been to evaluate and compare the effect of the intrinsic differences between cobalt (Co) and iron (Fe) catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis using coal-derived syngas. Crude oil, especially heavy, high-sulfur crude, is no longer the appropriate source for the additional, or marginal, amounts of middle-distillate fuels needed to meet growing US and world demand for diesel and jet fuels. Only about 1/3 of the marginal crude oil barrel can be made into diesel and jet fuels. The remaining 2/3 contributes further to global surpluses of by-products. FT can produce these needed marginal, low-sulfur middle-distillate fuels more efficiently, with less environmental impact, and from abundant US domestic resources. Cobalt FT catalyst is more efficient, and less expensive overall, than iron FT catalyst. Mechanisms of cobalt FT catalyst functioning, and poisoning, have been elucidated. Each of these primary findings is amplified by several secondary findings, and these are presented, and verified in detail. The most effective step the United States can take to begin building toward improved long-term national energy security, and to reduce dependence, over time, on imported crude oil from unfriendly and increasingly unstable areas of the world, is to begin producing additional, or marginal amounts of, middle-distillate-type fuels, such as ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and jet fuel (not gasoline) from US domestic resources other than petroleum. FT synthesis of these middle distillate fuels offers the advantage of being able to use abundant and affordable US coal and biomass as the primary feedstocks. Use of the cobalt FT catalyst system has been shown conclusively to be more effective and less expensive than the use of iron FT catalyst with syngas derived from coal, or from coal and biomass combined. This finding is demonstrated in detail for the initial case of a relatively small FT plant of about 2000 barrels per day based upon coal

  7. Production of High-Hydrogen Content Coal-Derived Liquids [Part 3 of 3

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Bergin

    2011-03-30

    The primary goal of this project has been to evaluate and compare the effect of the intrinsic differences between cobalt (Co) and iron (Fe) catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis using coal-derived syngas. Crude oil, especially heavy, high-sulfur crude, is no longer the appropriate source for the additional, or marginal, amounts of middle-distillate fuels needed to meet growing US and world demand for diesel and jet fuels. Only about 1/3 of the marginal crude oil barrel can be made into diesel and jet fuels. The remaining 2/3 contributes further to global surpluses of by-products. FT can produce these needed marginal, low-sulfur middle-distillate fuels more efficiently, with less environmental impact, and from abundant US domestic resources. Cobalt FT catalyst is more efficient, and less expensive overall, than iron FT catalyst. Mechanisms of cobalt FT catalyst functioning, and poisoning, have been elucidated. Each of these primary findings is amplified by several secondary findings, and these are presented, and verified in detail. The most effective step the United States can take to begin building toward improved long-term national energy security, and to reduce dependence, over time, on imported crude oil from unfriendly and increasingly unstable areas of the world, is to begin producing additional, or marginal amounts of, middle-distillate-type fuels, such as ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and jet fuel (not gasoline) from US domestic resources other than petroleum. FT synthesis of these middle distillate fuels offers the advantage of being able to use abundant and affordable US coal and biomass as the primary feedstocks. Use of the cobalt FT catalyst system has been shown conclusively to be more effective and less expensive than the use of iron FT catalyst with syngas derived from coal, or from coal and biomass combined. This finding is demonstrated in detail for the initial case of a relatively small FT plant of about 2000 barrels per day based upon coal

  8. Production of High-Hydrogen Content Coal-Derived Liquids [Part 2 of 3

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Bergin

    2011-03-30

    The primary goal of this project has been to evaluate and compare the effect of the intrinsic differences between cobalt (Co) and iron (Fe) catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis using coal-derived syngas. Crude oil, especially heavy, high-sulfur crude, is no longer the appropriate source for the additional, or marginal, amounts of middle-distillate fuels needed to meet growing US and world demand for diesel and jet fuels. Only about 1/3 of the marginal crude oil barrel can be made into diesel and jet fuels. The remaining 2/3 contributes further to global surpluses of by-products. FT can produce these needed marginal, low-sulfur middle-distillate fuels more efficiently, with less environmental impact, and from abundant US domestic resources. Cobalt FT catalyst is more efficient, and less expensive overall, than iron FT catalyst. Mechanisms of cobalt FT catalyst functioning, and poisoning, have been elucidated. Each of these primary findings is amplified by several secondary findings, and these are presented, and verified in detail. The most effective step the United States can take to begin building toward improved long-term national energy security, and to reduce dependence, over time, on imported crude oil from unfriendly and increasingly unstable areas of the world, is to begin producing additional, or marginal amounts of, middle-distillate-type fuels, such as ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and jet fuel (not gasoline) from US domestic resources other than petroleum. FT synthesis of these middle distillate fuels offers the advantage of being able to use abundant and affordable US coal and biomass as the primary feedstocks. Use of the cobalt FT catalyst system has been shown conclusively to be more effective and less expensive than the use of iron FT catalyst with syngas derived from coal, or from coal and biomass combined. This finding is demonstrated in detail for the initial case of a relatively small FT plant of about 2000 barrels per day based upon coal

  9. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Strandberg, Gerald W.; Lewis, Susan N.

    1990-01-01

    This invention deals with the solubilization of coal using species of Streptomyces. Also disclosed is an extracellular component from a species of Streptomyces, said component being able to solubilize coal.

  10. Chemicals from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Harold A. Wittcoff; Bryan G. Reuben; Jeffrey S. Plotkin

    2004-12-01

    This chapter contains sections titled: Chemicals from Coke Oven Distillate; The Fischer-Tropsch Reaction; Coal Hydrogenation; Substitute Natural Gas (SNG); Synthesis Gas Technology; Calcium Carbide; Coal and the Environment; and Notes and References

  11. Measuring coal thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, C.; Blaine, J.; Geller, G.; Robinson, R.; Summers, D.; Tyler, J.

    1980-01-01

    Laboratory tested concept, for measuring thickness of overhead coal using noncontacting sensor system coupled to controller and high pressure water jet, allows mining machines to remove virtually all coal from mine roofs without danger of cutting into overlying rock.

  12. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... that results from breathing in dust from coal, graphite, or man-made carbon over a long time. ... Wear a protective mask when working around coal, graphite, or man-made carbon. Companies should enforce the ...

  13. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  14. Continuous coal processing method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryason, P. R. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A coal pump is provided in which solid coal is heated in the barrel of an extruder under pressure to a temperature at which the coal assumes plastic properties. The coal is continuously extruded, without static zones, using, for example, screw extrusion preferably without venting through a reduced diameter die to form a dispersed spray. As a result, the dispersed coal may be continuously injected into vessels or combustors at any pressure up to the maximum pressure developed in the extrusion device. The coal may be premixed with other materials such as desulfurization aids or reducible metal ores so that reactions occur, during or after conversion to its plastic state. Alternatively, the coal may be processed and caused to react after extrusion, through the die, with, for example, liquid oxidizers, whereby a coal reactor is provided.

  15. Annual Coal Report

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Provides information about U.S. coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience, including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public.

  16. Coal Production 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-29

    Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

  17. Indonesian coal mining

    SciTech Connect

    2008-11-15

    The article examines the opportunities and challenges facing the Indonesian coal mining industry and how the coal producers, government and wider Indonesian society are working to overcome them. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Liquid chromatographic analysis of coal surface properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, K.C.

    1992-04-07

    The main objectives of this proposed research work are to refine further the inverse liquid chromatography technique for the study of surface properties of raw coals, treated coals and coal minerals in water, to evaluate relatively surface properties of raw coals, treated coals and coal minerals by inverse liquid chromatography, and to evaluate flotability of various treated coals in conjunction with surface properties of coals. Coals such as Pittsburgh seam coal, Illinois No. 6 coal, Wyodak coal are chosen as representatives of high-rank bituminous coal, high volatile bituminous coal and subbituminous coal, respectively. Coal minerals such as pyrite and dolomite are chosen as representative coal minerals.

  19. Tuberculosis in domestic animal species.

    PubMed

    Pesciaroli, M; Alvarez, J; Boniotti, M B; Cagiola, M; Di Marco, V; Marianelli, C; Pacciarini, M; Pasquali, P

    2014-10-01

    M. bovis and M. caprae, members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC), are the major causative agents of tuberculosis in domestic animals. Notably, M. bovis exhibits a wide host range; the infection has been reported in many domesticated animals and free or captive wildlife. Despite most of them acting as spill-over hosts in particular epidemiological scenarios, some domesticated species as pigs, camelids and goats may display high rates of infection and possibly play a role in the inter-species transmission of the disease. The aim of this review is to make an updated overview of the susceptibility and the role in the transmission of the disease of the most common domesticated animals species such as small ruminants, pigs, horses, camelids, dogs and cats. An overview of the diagnostic approaches to detect the infection in each of the species included in the review is also presented. PMID:25151859

  20. Coal prep `95

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The proceedings of Coal Prep `95 - the 12th International Coal Preparation Exhibition and Conference, held May 2-4, 1995 in Lexington, KY are presented. The Conference covered such topics as chemicals for coal preparation, quality control, coal cleaning, operations, and research and development. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 24 papers for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  1. Method for fluorinating coal

    DOEpatents

    Huston, John L.; Scott, Robert G.; Studier, Martin H.

    1978-01-01

    Coal is fluorinated by contact with fluorine gas at low pressure. After pial fluorination, when the reaction rate has slowed, the pressure is slowly increased until fluorination is complete, forming a solid fluorinated coal of approximate composition CF.sub.1.55 H.sub.0.15. The fluorinated coal and a solid distillate resulting from vacuum pyrolysis of the fluorinated coal are useful as an internal standard for mass spectrometric unit mass assignments from about 100 to over 1500.

  2. Coal Extraction - Environmental Prediction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cecil, C. Blaine; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2002-01-01

    Coal from the Appalachian region has supplied energy to the Nation for more than 200 years. Appalachian coal fueled America through a civil war and helped win two world wars. Appalachian coal has also provided fuel for keeping America warm in the winter and cool in the summer and has served as the basis for the steel, automobile, organic chemicals, chlorine, and aluminum industries. These benefits have not come without environmental costs, however. Coal extraction and utilization have had significant environmental impacts.

  3. Considerations on coal gasification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franzen, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    Commercial processes for the gasification of coal with oxygen are discussed. The Koppers-Totzek process for the gasification of coal dust entrained in a stream of gasifying agents is described in particular detail. The outlook for future applications of coal gasification is presented.

  4. Flash hydrogenation of coal

    DOEpatents

    Manowitz, Bernard; Steinberg, Meyer; Sheehan, Thomas V.; Winsche, Warren E.; Raseman, Chad J.

    1976-01-01

    A process for the hydrogenation of coal comprising the contacting of powdered coal with hydrogen in a rotating fluidized bed reactor. A rotating fluidized bed reactor suitable for use in this process is also disclosed. The coal residence time in the reactor is limited to less than 5 seconds while the hydrogen contact time is not in excess of 0.2 seconds.

  5. Coal production 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-29

    Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

  6. Prediction of coal hydrophobicity

    SciTech Connect

    Labuschagne, B.C.J.; Wheelock, T.D.; Guo, R.K.; David, H.T.; Markuszewski, R.

    1988-12-31

    Many coals exhibit a certain degree of native hydrophobicity. The more hydrophobic coals (the higher-rank coals) are easily beneficiated by froth flotation or oil agglomeration, while the more hydrophilic coals (the lower-rank coals) are floated or agglomerated with difficulty. Coals of different ranks and often even of the same rank sometimes differ greatly in hydrophobicity as measured by contact angle or natural floatability. Although the degree of hydrophobicity of a coal is related to its rank and has been correlated with other surface properties of the coal , the known information is still not sufficient to allow a good estimation to be made of the hydrophobicity of a given coal and does not explain the variation of coal hydrophobicity as a function of rank. A statistical analysis of previously published data, as well as newly acquired data, shows that coal hydrophobicity correlates better with moisture content than with carbon content, and better with the moisture/carbon molar ratio than with the hydrogen/carbon or oxygen/carbon atomic ratios. These findings indicate that there is a strong association between hydrophobicity and coal moisture content.

  7. Hydrogen from coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Hydrogen production from coal by hydrogasification is described. The process involves the solubilization of coal to form coal liquids, which are hydrogasified to produce synthetic pipeline gas; steam reforming this synthetic gas by a nuclear heat source produces hydrogen. A description is given of the hydrogen plant, its performance, and its effect on the environment.

  8. Actinide abundances in ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagee, B.; Bernatowicz, T. J.; Podosek, F. A.; Johnson, M. L.; Burnett, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of actinide and light REE (LREE) abundances and of phosphate abundances in equilibrated ordinary chondrites were obtained and were used to define the Pu abundance in the solar system and to determine the degree of variation of actinide and LREE abundances. The results were also used to compare directly the Pu/U ratio with the earlier obtained ratio determined indirectly, as (Pu/Nd)x(Nd/U), assuming that Pu behaves chemically as a LREE. The data, combined with high-accuracy isotope-dilution data from the literature, show that the degree of gram-scale variability of the Th, U, and LREE abundances for equilibrated ordinary chondrites is a factor of 2-3 for absolute abundances and up to 50 percent for relative abundances. The observed variations are interpreted as reflecting the differences in the compositions and/or proportions of solar nebula components accreted to ordinary chondrite parent bodies.

  9. An in situ occurrence of coal balls in the Amburgy coal bed, Pikeville Formation (Duckmantian), central Appalachian Basin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greb, S.F.; Eble, C.F.; Chesnut, D.R., Jr.; Phillips, T.L.; Hower, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Carbonate concretions containing permineralized peat, commonly called coal balls, were encountered in the Amburgy coal, a generally low-ash (9.4%), but commonly high-sulfur (3.6%), Middle Pennsylvanian coal of the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field. These are the first coal balls from the Amburgy coal, and one of only a few reported occurrences from the central Appalachian Basin. The coal balls occur in the upper part of the coal, between two paleochannel cut-outs at the top of the Pikeville Formation, and immediately beneath a scour with a marine fossil lag at the base of the Kendrick Shale Member, Hyden Formation. The coal is thickest (1.3 m) in a narrow (<300 m), elongate depression between the bounding paleochannels, and thins toward the occurrence of coal balls. Total biovolume as measured from acetate peels of coal balls indicates cordaites or lycopsid (36.1% each) dominance. Vertical sampling through one coal-ball aggregate shows zoning from a lower cordaites-dominant (88.7%) assemblage, to a middle, degraded, sphenopsid-rich assemblage, to an upper lycopsid-dominant (88.6%) assemblage. Beneath the coal balls, palynologic and petrographic analyses indicate the basal and middle portions of the bed are dominated by arborescent lycopsid spores and cordaites pollen, and by vitrinite macerals. The top part of the bed, above the coal balls, contains increased intertinite macerals, increased percentages of small fern spores, and variable ash yield (5-21%). Thickening of the Amburgy coal along a structural low, in combination with basal high-ash yields, vitrinite-dominance, and heterogenous palynoflora, indicate paleotopographic control on initial peat accumulation. Abundant lycopsid spores in the basal and middle part of the coal reflect rheotrophic conditions consistent with accumulation in a paleotopographic depression. Apparent zonation preserved in one of the coal-ball masses may document plant successions in response to flooding. Similar percentages of cordaites and

  10. Capella: Structure and Abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickhouse, Nancy S.

    1999-01-01

    This grant covers the analysis of EUVE spectra of the cool star binary system Capella. This project has also required the analysis of simultaneous Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) data. The ASCA spectrum of Capella could not be fit with standard models; by imposing models based on strong lines observed with EUVE, a problem wavelength region was identified. Correcting the problem required calculations of atomic collision strengths of higher principal quantum number than had ever been calculated. With these new models applied to the ASCA spectrum, better fits were obtained. Findings are that: (1) ASCA and EUVE spectra are both dominated by a region at 6 x 10(exp 6) K. (2) The high energy cut-off of the ASCA spectrum is consistent with emission from the highest ionization stages of EUVE, namely Fe XXIV. (3) EUVE requires a continuous emission measure distribution with more than two temperatures. (4) The ASCA spectra are of such high statistical significance that systematic uncertainties dominate, including atomic physics issues and calibration issues. (5) While the ASCA spectral fits achieve lower Chi(exp 2 with two-temperature fits, the EUVE-derived emission measure distribution models are also consistent with the spectra. (6) The Fe/H ratio obtained from the ASCA fit is within 20 % of the Fe/H abundance obtained from the summed spectra of Capella over 5 EUVE pointings, as well as the 1996 EUVE data. This result confirms our claims that quasi-continua composed of weak emission lines in the short wavelength spectrometer of EUVE are not major contributors to the measured Capella continuum. Other abundance ratios are also determined from the ASCA data, using models derived with EUVE. Si, Si, and Mg appear to be close to solar photospheric values, while the ratio of Ne/Fe is three to four times lower than solar photospheric values. Whether there is a general First Ionization Potential (FIP) effect or a specific neon anomaly cannot be determined

  11. Comparison of quantitative techniques for vegetational analysis in a middle-Pennsylvanian coal

    SciTech Connect

    Klare, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    This investigation involved the biostatistical analysis of a middle-Pennsylvanian coal and its associated coal balls from Monroe County, Iowa. The types of fossil material examined in this study were coal-ball macrofossils, coal-ball miospores and coal miospores. Comparison of the three types of data was facilitated by the use of cluster analysis, which grouped the samples into clusters with similar vegetative composition. Cluster analysis of coal ball macrofossils, based on the percent composition of six major taxonomic groups, yielded two main clusters and three minor ones. Coal balls in the largest cluster were floristically dominated by leaves and stems of medullosan pteridosperms and small cordaites. Coal balls in the second major cluster contained abundant roots in an extremely degraded peat. Coal balls in the minor clusters were dominated by large pieces of lycopod, sphenopsid or pteridosperm wood. Cluster analysis of the miospores yielded three large groups of samples (Densosporites, Lycospora or Florinites-dominated), which were present in both coal and coal balls, as well as various smaller clusters. Comparison of cluster membership showed excellent correspondence between the root-dominated and Densosporites clusters, with lesser correspondence between the other macro and miospore clusters. Comparison of the Lovilia miospore flora with the palynostratigraphic zonation of Iowa coals proposed by Ravn (1986), and that proposed for the Illinois Basin by Peppers (1985) suggests correlation with the Blackoak Member of the Kalo Formation in Iowa or approximately the Pope Creek Coal Member of the Abbott Formation of Illinois.

  12. Coal combustion: Science and technology of industrial and utility applications

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, J.

    1988-01-01

    Despite the competition of oil and gas and the increasing importance of nuclear power, coal is still one of the main sources of energy in the world. In some regions of the world, the reserve of oil and natural gas is nearly depleted. The supply of such fuels relies on shipment from foreign countries, and may be vulnerable to political crisis, while coals are still abundant and easily available. Therefore, the technology of burning coal for energy, which seems rather old, has not lost its vitality and is in fact developing fast. Because of industry development, especially in developing countries, more and more coal is burned each year. If coal is not burned properly, it may pollute the environment and affect the ecological balance of the surrounding regions. Great attention has been paid to curb these issues, and significant progress has been achieved. Technology of desulfurization of flue gases, low nitrogen oxide coal burners, and also the technology of clean burning of coal by fluidized-bed combustion have all been developed and commercialized. Further improvements are under development. At the same time, new techniques have been used in the measurements and diagnoses of coal combustion. These new techniques facilitate more efficient and cleaner burning of coal. Although coal combustion is a very complicated physiochemical phenomenon, the use of the computer enables and pushes forward the theoretical analysis of coal combustion. Besides, the mathematical modelling of the coal combustion process is also a fast progressing field of research and encouraging results have been obtained by scientists throughout the world. This book compiles the papers presented in the conference on the subject of clean cool technology and fluidized-bed combustion.

  13. Palynological studies of Middle Pennsylvanian coal beds of the proposed Pennsylvania System stratotype in West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Kosanke, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    One hundred and ninety-one segment samples from 27 coal beds and adjacent strata occurring in the Kanawha Formation and Charleston Sandstone have been collected and examined in detail. More than 25,000 palynomorphs have been counted in order to establish a standard for the stratotype. Palynomorph abundance, assemblages, range zones, and correlations are documented. Paleoecology, as evidenced by succession of salynomorphs within coal beds and extinctions between coal beds, is reported.

  14. Radionuclides in US coals

    SciTech Connect

    Bisselle, C. A.; Brown, R. D.

    1984-03-01

    The current state of knowledge with respect to radionuclide concentrations in US coals is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the levels of uranium in coal (and lignite) which are considered to represent a concern resulting from coal combustion; areas of the US where such levels have been found; and possible origins of high radionuclide levels in coal. The report reviews relevant studies and presents new data derived from a computerized search of radionuclide content in about 4000 coal samples collected throughout the coterminous US. 103 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  15. Coal recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Good, Robert J.; Badgujar, Mohan

    1992-01-01

    A method for the beneficiation of coal by selective agglomeration and the beneficiated coal product thereof is disclosed wherein coal, comprising impurities, is comminuted to a particle size sufficient to allow impurities contained therein to disperse in water, an aqueous slurry is formed with the comminuted coal particles, treated with a compound, such as a polysaccharide and/or disaccharide, to increase the relative hydrophilicity of hydrophilic components, and thereafter the slurry is treated with sufficient liquid agglomerant to form a coagulum comprising reduced impurity coal.

  16. Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald Hill; Kenneth Nemeth; Gary Garrett; Kimberly Sams

    2009-01-31

    The Southern States Energy Board's (SSEB) 'Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies' program began on June 1, 2003, and was completed on January 31, 2009. The project proved beneficial in providing state decision-makers with information that assisted them in removing barriers or implementing incentives to deploy clean coal technologies. This was accomplished through two specific tasks: (1) domestic energy security and diversity; and (2) the energy-water interface. Milestones accomplished during the project period are: (1) Presentations to Annual Meetings of SSEB Members, Associate Member Meetings, and the Gasification Technologies Council. (2) Energy: Water reports - (A) Regional Efforts to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies: Impacts and Implications for Water Supply and Quality. June 2004. (B) Energy-Water Interface Challenges: Coal Bed Methane and Mine Pool Water Characterization in the Southern States Region. 2004. (C) Freshwater Availability and Constraints on Thermoelectric Power Generation in the Southeast U.S. June 2008. (3) Blackwater Interactive Tabletop Exercise - Decatur, Georgia April 2007. (4) Blackwater Report: Blackwater: Energy and Water Interdependency Issues: Best Practices and Lessons Learned. August 2007. (5) Blackwater Report: BLACKWATER: Energy Water Interdependency Issues REPORT SUMMARY. April 2008.

  17. CO2 SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF TEXAS LOW-RANK COALS

    SciTech Connect

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers, Jr.; Jerry L. Jensen

    2004-07-01

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The main tasks for this reporting period were to correlate well logs and refine coal property maps, evaluate methane content and gas composition of Wilcox Group coals, and initiate discussions concerning collection of additional, essential data with Anadarko. To assess the volume of CO{sub 2} that may be sequestered and volume of methane that can be produced in the vicinity of the proposed Sam Seymour sequestration site, we used approximately 200 additional wells logs from Anadarko Petroleum Corp. to correlate and map coal properties of the 3 coal-bearing intervals of Wilcox group. Among the maps we are making are maps of the number of coal beds, number of coal beds greater than 5 ft thick, and cumulative coal thickness for each coal interval. This stratigraphic analysis validates the presence of abundant coal for CO{sub 2} sequestration in the Wilcox Group in the vicinity of Sam Seymour power plant. A typical wellbore in this region may penetrate 20 to 40 coal beds with cumulative coal thickness between 80 and 110 ft. Gas desorption analyses of approximately 75 coal samples from the 3 Wilcox coal intervals indicate that average methane content of Wilcox coals in this area ranges between 216 and 276 scf/t, basinward of the freshwater boundary indicated on a regional hydrologic map. Vitrinite reflectance data indicate that Wilcox coals are thermally immature for gas generation in this area. Minor amounts of biogenic gas may be present, basinward of the freshwater line, but we infer that most of the Wilcox coalbed gas in the deep coal beds is migrated thermogenic gas. Analysis based on limited data suggest that sites for CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed gas recovery should be located basinward of the Wilcox

  18. Clean coal: Global opportunities for small businesses

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The parallel growth in coal demand and environmental concern has spurred interest in technologies that burn coal with greater efficiency and with lower emissions. Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) will ensure that continued use of the world`s most abundant energy resource is compatible with a cleaner, healthier environment. Increasing interest in CCTs opens the door for American small businesses to provide services and equipment for the clean and efficient use of coal. Key players in most coal-related projects are typically large equipment manufacturers, power project developers, utilities, governments, and multinational corporations. At the same time, the complexity and scale of many of these projects creates niche markets for small American businesses with high-value products and services. From information technology, control systems, and specialized components to management practices, financial services, and personnel training methods, small US companies boast some of the highest value products and services in the world. As a result, American companies are in a prime position to take advantage of global niche markets for CCTs. This guide is designed to provide US small businesses with an overview of potential international market opportunities related to CCTs and to provide initial guidance on how to cost-effectively enter that growing global market.

  19. Evaluation of hydraulic coal transport system concepts for surface mines

    SciTech Connect

    Roberge, J.; Stoukidis, M.; Rubin, L.; Burnett, M.

    1981-11-01

    Coal haulage from the pit of United States surface mines is most often accomplished with truck haul transportation schemes. The demand for domestic production of coal is expected to increase greatly over the next decade. Efforts to restrain and curtail increasing power production costs will require optimum productivity within the coal producing industry. The objective of this program was to develop concepts for in-pit hydraulic transport systems for surface coal mines that will permit significant increases in coal extraction and pit haulage productivity as compared to truck haulage. Large particle coal transport was demonstrated to be the most desirable for central and western United States surface mines. Three conceptual hydrotransport systems, including a centrifugal pump, jet pump and ventilated inducer system, were developed for each of two currently active mining operations. General and site-specific design parameters were developed for each of the conceptual hydrotransport systems. A detailed economic comparison of capital and operating and maintenance costs for each of the hydrotransport systems was made with the existing truck haul operations. An increase in haulage productivity of approximately 19% was demonstrated for the central surface mine, while that of the western surface mine increased by more than 180%. Included in this report is a bibliography containing over 600 citations pertinent to hydraulic transport of coal.

  20. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLVIII. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting domestic cats and wild felids in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Horak, Ivan G; Heyne, Heloise; Donkin, Edward F

    2010-01-01

    Ticks collected from domestic cats (Felis catus), cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus),caracals (Caracal caracal), African wild cats (Felis lybica), black-footed cats (Felis nigripes), a serval (Leptailurus serval), lions(Panthera leo), and leopards (Panthera pardus) were identified and counted. Thirteen species of ixodid ticks and one argasid tick were identified from domestic cats and 17 species of ixodid ticks from wild felids. The domestic cats and wild felids harboured 11 ixodid species in common. The adults of Haemaphysalis elliptica, the most abundant tick species infesting cats and wild felids, were most numerous on a domestic cat in late winter and in mid-summer, during 2 consecutive years. The recorded geographic distribution of the recently described Haemaphysalis colesbergensis, a parasite of cats and caracals, was extended by 2 new locality records in the Northern Cape Province, South Africa. PMID:23327159

  1. Characterization of biodegraded coals

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, R.M.; Franz, J.A.; Campbell, J.A.; Linehan, J.C.; Stewart, D.L.; Thomas, B.L.

    1988-01-01

    Microbial degradation of coals to materials that are soluble in water has been a topic of intensive research for the last few years. The potential for economical recovery of low-grade coals, coupled with possibilities for further upgrading by microbial desulfurization or methanation has spurred intensive research at a number of laboratories. Until very recently, coal biodegradation has been accomplished using low-grade, naturally oxidized coals such as leonardiate, or coals subjected to pretreatment with oxidizing chemicals. The authors have been able to accomplish the biodegradation of bituminous Illinois 6 coal after a pretreatment consisting of air oxidation, using a culture of the fungus Penicillium sp. They report in this paper results of chemical and spectrometric analyses of the starting materials and products from Illinois 6 coal biodegradation, and compare the results with those previously reported from the biodegradation of leonardite.

  2. Coal: the new black

    SciTech Connect

    Tullo, A.H.; Tremblay, J.-F.

    2008-03-15

    Long eclipsed by oil and natural gas as a raw material for high-volume chemicals, coal is making a comeback, with oil priced at more than $100 per barrel. It is relatively cheap feedstock for chemicals such as methanol and China is building plants to convert coal to polyolefins on a large scale and interest is spreading worldwide. Over the years several companies in the US and China have made fertilizers via the gasification of coal. Eastman in Tennessee gasifies coal to make methanol which is then converted to acetic acid, acetic anhydride and acetate fiber. The future vision is to convert methanol to olefins. UOP and Lurgi are the major vendors of this technology. These companies are the respective chemical engineering arms of Honeywell and Air Liquide. The article reports developments in China, USA and India on coal-to-chemicals via coal gasification or coal liquefaction. 2 figs., 2 photo.

  3. Coal to gas substitution using coal?!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempka, Thomas; Schlüter, Ralph

    2010-05-01

    Substitution of carbon-intensive coal with less carbon-intensive natural gas for energy production is discussed as one main pillar targeting reduction of antrophogenic greenhouse gas emissions by means of climate change mitigation. Other pillars are energy efficiency, renewable energies, carbon capture and storage as well as further development of nuclear energy. Taking into account innovative clean coal technologies such as UCG-CCS (underground coal gasification with carbon capture and storage), in which coal deposits are developed using directional drilling technologies and subsequently converted into a synthesis gas of high calorific value, the coupled conceptual approach can provide a synergetic technology for coal utilization and mitigation of carbon emissions. This study aims at the evaluation of UCǴ s carbon mitigation potentials and the review of the economical boundary conditions. The analytical models applied within this study are based on data available from world-wide UCG projects and extensive laboratory studies. In summary, scenarios considering costs and carbon storage potentials are economically feasible and thus competitive with less carbon-intensive energy generation technologies such as natural gas. Thus, coal to gas substitution can be one of the coal based options.

  4. Capella: Structure and Abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickhouse, Nancy S.

    1999-01-01

    This grant covers the analysis of ASCA spectra of the cool star binary system Capella. This project has also required the analysis of simultaneous EUVE data. The ASCA spectrum of Capella could not be fit with standard models; by imposing models based on strong lines observed with EUVE, a problem wavelength region was identified. Correcting the problem required calculations of atomic collision strengths of higher principal quantum number than had ever been calculated, resulting in a paper in process by Liedahl and Brickhouse. With these new models applied to the ASCA spectrum, better fits were obtained. While solar abundance ratios are generally consistent with the ASCA data, the ratio of Ne/Fe is three to four times lower than solar photospheric values. Whether there is a general First Ionization Potential (FIP) effect or a specific neon anomaly cannot be determined from these data. Detailed discussion has been provided to NASA in the most recent annual report (1997). Two poster presentations have been made regarding modeling requirements. A substantial paper is in the final revision form, following review by six co-authors. The results of this work have wide implications, since the newly calculated emission lines almost certainly contribute to other problems in fitting not only other stellar spectra, but also composite supernova remnants, galaxies, and cooling flow clusters of galaxies. Furthermore, Liedahl and Brickhouse have identified other species for which lines of a similar nature (high principal quantum number) will contribute significant flux. For moderate resolution X-ray spectra, lines left out of the models in relatively isolated bands, will be attributed to continuum flux by spectral fitting engines, causing errors in line-to-continuum ratios. Thus addressing the general theoretical problem is of crucial importance.

  5. Geochemical database of feed coal and coal combustion products (CCPs) from five power plants in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Affolter, Ronald H.; Groves, Steve; Betterton, William J.; William, Benzel; Conrad, Kelly L.; Swanson, Sharon M.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Clough, James G.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Kolker, Allan; Hower, James C.

    2011-01-01

    The principal mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Resources Program (ERP) is to (1) understand the processes critical to the formation, accumulation, occurrence, and alteration of geologically based energy resources; (2) conduct scientifically robust assessments of those resources; and (3) study the impacts of energy resource occurrence and (or) their production and use on both the environment and human health. The ERP promotes and supports research resulting in original, geology-based, non-biased energy information products for policy and decision makers, land and resource managers, other Federal and State agencies, the domestic energy industry, foreign governments, non-governmental groups, and academia. Investigations include research on the geology of oil, gas, and coal, and the impacts associated with energy resource occurrence, production, quality, and utilization. The ERP's focus on coal is to support investigations into current issues pertaining to coal production, beneficiation and (or) conversion, and the environmental impact of the coal combustion process and coal combustion products (CCPs). To accomplish these studies, the USGS combines its activities with other organizations to address domestic and international issues that relate to the development and use of energy resources.

  6. Multi-perpetrator domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Salter, Michael

    2014-04-01

    A significant proportion of reports of domestic violence against women involve multiple perpetrators. Although the number of perpetrators has been consistently identified as a measure of abuse severity, only a minority of studies of domestic violence examine the role of multiple offenders. Data on multi-perpetrator domestic violence (MDV) is frequently removed from analysis in domestic violence studies, or multi-perpetrator incidents are treated as single-perpetrator incidents. However, the available research links MDV to negative mental and physical health outcomes, intimate partner homicide, homelessness among women, and severe mental illness and suicidality. This article reviews the available prevalence data on MDV and draws together research on the contexts in which MDV takes place. It highlights two groups that are particularly vulnerable to MDV: (1) girls and women partnered to members of gangs and organized crime groups and (2) girls and women in some ethnic minority communities. While discussions of honor in relation to domestic violence are often racialized in Western media, this article highlights the cross-cultural role of masculine honor in collective violence against women in the working class and impoverished communities of majority cultures as well as in migrant and ethnic minority communities. It is clear that such complex forms of violence present a range of challenges for intervention and treatment and the article emphasizes the need for specialized and coordinated modes of investigation, support, and care. PMID:24217092

  7. Abundances in dwarf irregular galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufour, Reginald J.

    1986-01-01

    The results of abundance studies of dwarf irregular galaxies and similar objects are reviewed with special attention to variations in the CNO element group. Observations of the forbidden N II and semiforbidden C III lines in the most metal-poor galaxy known, IZw 18, are presented for the first time and CNO abundances are derived via a photoionization model and discussed in the context of the abundances found in other metal-poor H II regions and galaxies.

  8. Process for hydrogenating coal and coal solvents

    DOEpatents

    Tarrer, Arthur R.; Shridharani, Ketan G.

    1983-01-01

    A novel process is described for the hydrogenation of coal by the hydrogenation of a solvent for the coal in which the hydrogenation of the coal solvent is conducted in the presence of a solvent hydrogenation catalyst of increased activity, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is produced by reacting ferric oxide with hydrogen sulfide at a temperature range of 260.degree. C. to 315.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere to produce an iron sulfide hydrogenation catalyst for the solvent. Optimally, the reaction temperature is 275.degree. C. Alternately, the reaction can be conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere at 350.degree. C.

  9. Variation under domestication in plants: 1859 and today.

    PubMed

    Brown, Anthony H D

    2010-08-27

    Charles Darwin began The Origin of Species with a chapter entitled variation under domestication, which encapsulated decades of his research on a diverse array of animal and plant domesticated species. Variation in these species compared with that in their wild relatives, their origins and their selection by humans, formed a paradigm for his theory of the evolutionary origin of species by means of natural selection. This chapter, its subsequent expansion into a two-volume monograph, together with the rediscovery of Mendel's laws, later became the foundation of scientific plant breeding. In the period up to the present, several advances in genetics (such as artificial mutation, polyploidy, adaptation and genetic markers) have amplified the discipline with concepts and questions, the seeds of which are in Darwin's original words. Today, we are witnessing a flowering of genomic research into the process of domestication itself, particularly the specific major and minor genes involved. In one striking way, our view of domestic diversity contrasts with that in Darwin's writing. He stressed the abundance of diversity and the diversifying power of artificial selection, whereas we are concerned about dwindling genetic diversity that attends modern agriculture and development. In this context, it is paramount to strive for a deeper understanding of how farmer selection including both deliberate selection and unconscious selection, might generate and retain diversity. This knowledge is essential for devising in situ conservation measures. PMID:20643742

  10. Abundance coefficients, a new method for measuring microorganism relative abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forester, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    A new method of measuring the relative abundance of microorganisms by using a set of interrelated coefficients, termed 'abundance coefficients' or 'AC', is proposed. These coefficients provide a means of recording abundance for geometric density categories, and each density measurement represents an approximation of the Poisson parameter ??t. The AC is the natural logarithm of a 'characteristic value,' which is a particular number for each geometric density category. The 'characteristic values' are based upon a probabilistic error statement derived from the Poisson formula, and they present evidence for separation of the geometric category boundaries by e = 2.71828. The proposed AC provide a means for recording species abundance in a manner suitable for arithmetic manipulation, for population structure studies, and for the determination of practical limits for defining the presence or absence of a species. Further, these coefficients provide for both intrasample and intersample abundance comparisons. ?? 1977 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

  11. Large-eddy simulation of pulverized coal swirl jet flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muto, Masaya; Watanabe, Hiroaki; Kurose, Ryoichi; Komori, Satoru; Balusamy, Saravanan; Hochgreb, Simone

    2013-11-01

    Coal is an important energy resource for future demand for electricity, as coal reserves are much more abundant than those of other fossil fuels. In pulverized coal fired power plants, it is very important to improve the technology for the control of environmental pollutants such as nitrogen oxide, sulfur oxide and ash particles including unburned carbon. In order to achieve these requirements, understanding the pulverized coal combustion mechanism is necessary. However, the combustion process of the pulverized coal is not well clarified so far since pulverized coal combustion is a complicated phenomenon in which the maximum flame temperature exceeds 1500 degrees Celsius and some substances which can hardly be measured, for example, radical species and highly reactive solid particles are included. Accordingly, development of new combustion furnaces and burners requires high cost and takes a long period. In this study, a large-eddy simulation (LES) is applied to a pulverized coal combustion field and the results will be compared with the experiment. The results show that present LES can capture the general feature of the pulverized coal swirl jet flame.

  12. Petrology of Jurassic (Kimmeridgian) coals, Atlantic Continental Shelf, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Hower, J.C.; Wild, G.D. )

    1993-08-01

    Ten coals of Kimmeridgian age were recovered from the COST B-3 borehole, offshore New Jersey. Separation of the coal from other cuttings was done at 1.8 specific gravity, meaning that partings and mineral-rich lithotypes were lost in processing. The coals are distributed over an interval of 3.49 to 3.93 km depth. Coal rank, by vitrinite maximum reflectance, spans the lower portion of the high volatile A bituminous range. A single Cretaceous coal with 0.32%R[sub max] occurs at 2.08 km depth. Vitrinite content ranges from 51 to over 90% with vitrinite content generally increasing upward in the section. Telinite with resinite cell fillings is an important vitrinite form. Resinite occurs in concentrations of up to 9% in the Jurassic coals and is nearly 12% in the Cretaceous lignite. Fusinite plus semifusinite ranges from 2 to 31%. Inertinite occurs in a wide variety of forms from low-reflectance semifusinite to massive, structureless fusinite. Inertodetrinite also is a component of the abundant detrital bands of some of the Jurassic coals. The gravity separation did not eliminate all mineral matter. Massive pyrite and marcasite occur in several coals and clay occurs with the detrital minerals.

  13. State Support of Domestic Production

    SciTech Connect

    Amy Wright

    2007-12-30

    This project was developed in response to a cooperative agreement offering by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under the State Support of Domestic Production DE-FC26-04NT15456. The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) performed efforts in support of State programs related to the security, reliability and growth if our nation's domestic production of oil and natural gas. The project objectives were to improve the States ability to monitor the security of oil and gas operations; to maximize the production of domestic oil and natural gas thereby minimizing the threat to national security posed by interruptions in energy imports; to assist States in developing and maintaining high standards of environmental protection; to assist in addressing issues that limit the capacity of the industry; to promote the deployment of the appropriate application of technology for regulatory efficiency; and to inform the public about emerging energy issues.

  14. Coal Gasification (chapter only)

    SciTech Connect

    Shadle, L.J.; Berry, D.A.; Syamlal, Madhava

    2002-11-15

    Coal gasification is presented in terms of the chemistry of coal conversion and the product gas characteristics, the historical development of coal gasifiers, variations in the types and performance of coal gasifiers, the configuration of gasification systems, and the status and economics of coal gasification. In many ways, coal gasification processes have been tailored to adapt to the different types of coal feedstocks available. Gasification technology is presented from a historical perspective considering early uses of coal, the first practical demonstration and utilization of coal gasification, and the evolution of the various processes used for coal gasification. The development of the gasification industry is traced from its inception to its current status in the world economy. Each type of gasifier is considered focusing on the process innovations required to meet the changing market needs. Complete gasification systems are described including typical system configurations, required system attributes, and aspects of the industry's environmental and performance demands. The current status, economics of gasification technology, and future of gasification are also discussed.

  15. Microbial conversion of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, R.M. )

    1989-10-01

    The objectives of this project were to describe in detail the degradation of coals by fungi and microbes, to expand the range of applicability of the process to include new microbes and other coal types, to identify the means by which biosolubilization of coal is accomplished, and to explore means to enhance the rates and extent of coal bioconversion. The project was initiated in a response to the discovery by Dr. Martin Cohen at the University of Hartford, of a fungal strain of Coriolus versicolor that would render a solid coal substance, leonardite, into a liquid product. The project has identified the principal agent of leonardite solubilization as a powerful metal chelator, most likely a fungal-produced siderophore. Another nonlaccase enzyme has also been identified as a unique biosolubilizing agent produced by C. versicolor. Assays were developed for the quantitative determination of biological coal conversion, and for the determination of potency of biosolubilizing agent. Screening studies uncovered several microbial organisms capable of coal biodegradation, and led to the discovery that prolonged heating in air at the moderate temperature of 150{degree}C allowed the biodegradation of Illinois {number sign}6 coal to material soluble in dilute base. Chemical studies showed that leonardite biosolubilization was accompanied by relatively small change in composition, while solubilization of Illinois {number sign}6 coal involves considerable oxidation of the coal. 24 refs., 32 figs., 27 tabs.

  16. Microbial solubilization of coals

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.; Fredrickson, J.K.; Stewart, D.L.; Thomas, B.L.; McCulloch, M.; Wilson, B.W.; Bean, R.M.

    1988-11-01

    Microbial solubilization of coal may serve as a first step in a process to convert low-rank coals or coal-derived products to other fuels or products. For solubilization of coal to be an economically viable technology, a mechanistic understanding of the process is essential. Leonardite, a highly oxidized, low-rank coal, has been solubilized by the intact microorganism, cell-free filtrate, and cell-free enzyme of /ital Coriolus versicolor/. A spectrophotometric conversion assay was developed to quantify the amount of biosolubilized coal. In addition, a bituminous coal, Illinois No. 6, was solubilized by a species of /ital Penicillium/, but only after the coal had been preoxidized in air. Model compounds containing coal-related functionalities have been incubated with the leonardite-degrading fungus, its cell-free filtrate, and purified enzyme. The amount of degradation was determined by gas chromatography and the degradation products were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We have also separated the cell-free filtrate of /ital C. versicolor/ into a <10,000 MW and >10,000 MW fraction by ultrafiltration techniques. Most of the coal biosolubilization activity is contained in the <10,000 MW fraction while the model compound degradation occurs in the >10,000 MW fraction. The >10,000 MW fraction appears to contain an enzyme with laccase-like activity. 10 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Petrographic characterization of coals in Kozlu and Kilic Formations (Westphalian A), Zonguldak, Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Toprak, S.; Deul, M.

    1984-12-01

    The Zonguldak coal region is about 130 km (80 mi) long and 30-50 km (18-31 mi) wide and is situated on the southwest coast of the Black Sea. The basin is the main bituminous coal-producing region of Turkey. It has a complicated faulted structure. The Carboniferous of the Zonguldak region consists of three natural divisions: Alacaagzi (Namurian), Kozlu and Kilic (Westphalian A), and Karadon (Westphalian B, C, and D). The main concern of this study is the Kozlu and Kilic Formations, which have about 31 coal seams with a total thickness of 45 m (150 ft) of coal. The coals show semi-bright luster and very fine banding. Clarain, fusain, and durain are common lithotypes; the predominant lithotype is vitrinous clarain. Few thick vitrain bands are present. Some Turkish bituminous coals contain a very high percentage of mineral matter. Clay minerals, pyrite, and calcite are the most common. Ninety polished samples were taken from three different locations - Karadon, Uzulmez, and Kozlu - and analyzed under a reflected light microscope with oil immersion objectives. The Turkish bituminous coals exhibit a complex combination of macerals and microlithotypes. Vitrinite is the most abundant maceral type, and exinite is the least abundant. The presence of a high amount of inertinite macerals and duroclarite as well as virtinertite microlithotypes suggests a lacustrine depositional environment for the coals. Successive coal seams, or even a single coal seam, indicate transgressions and regressions.

  18. Assessment of Domestic Appliance Noise.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Jeanette Rosamond

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The aims of this study were: (i) to identify the factors involved in eliciting a subjective reaction to domestic appliance noise, (ii) to identify the noise index (or indices) that correlate highly with a subjective reaction to the noise, and (iii) to investigate the contribution of domestic appliance noise to an individual's daily noise dose. Two series of experimental studies were carried out using several examples of each of five types of domestic appliances. One determined the index values of domestic appliance noise--namely L_{WA} (using ISO 3741), L_{pA} , L_{pD}, L _{p}, PNL, L_{Aeq, 30 sec}, L_{Amax} and L_{AX}; the other determined subjective reactions to domestic appliance noise (judgements of noisiness, annoyance, the acceptability of the appliance noise and appraisals of usefulness). The success or failure of the research hypotheses was assessed statistically by analysis of variance, regression analysis, log linear analysis, Hotelling test, bootstrapping, t-test and post-hoc comparisons. Ratings of annoyance, noisiness and the acceptability of the noise of the appliance were found to be interrelated and interdependent, and not influenced by appraisals of usefulness of the appliances. Noisiness ratings were the most consistent of the subjective ratings investigated, and were influenced by the duration of the exposure, and the actual appliance type under investigation. Significant correlations were obtained between noisiness ratings and all the noise indices under investigation. However, statistical analysis demonstrated that L_ {WA} correlated less successfully with noisiness ratings than all other indices. L_ {Amax},L_{Aeq,30 sec }, and L_{AX} indices were the most successful. It is therefore suggested that the labelling of domestic appliance noise consist of L_{WA} and L _{Aeq} as measured in a standardised test environment. The percentage contribution of domestic appliance noise to the total

  19. A Positive Domestic Violence Screen Predicts Future Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houry, Debra; Feldhaus, Kim; Peery, Benjamin; Abbott, Jean; Lowenstein, Steven R.; al-Bataa-de-Montero, Sameerah; Levine, Saul

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a brief screen for domestic violence (DV) predicts future violence. We conducted a cohort study of adult women who presented to an inner-city emergency department during an 8-week study period. Participants were screened for DV using the Partner Violence Screen (PVS). At 4 months, follow-up telephone…

  20. Superheroes and masterminds of plant domestication.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ainsworth, Natalia E; Tenaillon, Maud I

    2016-01-01

    Domestication is one of the most fundamental changes in the evolution of human societies. The geographical origins of domesticated plants are inferred from archaeology, ecology and genetic data. Scenarios vary among species and include single, diffuse or multiple independent domestications. Cultivated plants present a panel of traits, the "domestication syndrome" that distinguish them from their wild relatives. It encompasses yield-, food usage-, and cultivation-related traits. Most genes underlying those traits are "masterminds" affecting the regulation of gene networks. Phenotypic convergence of domestication traits across species or within species between independently domesticated forms rarely coincides with convergence at the gene level. We review here current data/models that propose a protracted transition model for domestication and investigate the impact of mating system, life cycle and gene flow on the pace of domestication. Finally, we discuss the cost of domestication, pointing to the importance of characterizing adaptive functional variation in wild resources. PMID:27317057

  1. 34. BOILER HOUSE, COAL CONVEYOR AND TURNAROUND TRACK FOR COAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. BOILER HOUSE, COAL CONVEYOR AND TURN-AROUND TRACK FOR COAL CARS (NOTE: COAL CAR No. 6 IN FAR BACK GROUND) - Delaware County Electric Company, Chester Station, Delaware River at South end of Ward Street, Chester, Delaware County, PA

  2. Looking southeast at coal conveyor leading from the coal unloading ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking southeast at coal conveyor leading from the coal unloading station to the coal elevator. - Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation, Allenport Works, Boiler House, Route 88 on West bank of Monongahela River, Allenport, Washington County, PA

  3. 35. BOILER HOUSE, TRACK FOR COAL CARS LEADING TO COAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. BOILER HOUSE, TRACK FOR COAL CARS LEADING TO COAL TOWER No. 2 (NOTE: SKYLIGHT ABOVE; COAL CARS IN FAR BACKGROUND) - Delaware County Electric Company, Chester Station, Delaware River at South end of Ward Street, Chester, Delaware County, PA

  4. 39. BOILER HOUSE, COAL CONVEYOR LEADING FROM COAL TOWER No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. BOILER HOUSE, COAL CONVEYOR LEADING FROM COAL TOWER No. 1 (WEST) (NOTE: COAL CARS No. 9 & 5 IN BACKGROUND) - Delaware County Electric Company, Chester Station, Delaware River at South end of Ward Street, Chester, Delaware County, PA

  5. Erratum: Interstellar Abundance Standards Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofia, U. J.; Meyer, D. M.

    2001-09-01

    In the Letter ``Interstellar Abundance Standards Revisited'' by U. J. Sofia and D. M. Meyer (ApJ, 554, L221 [2001]), Table 2 and its footnotes contain several typographical errors. The corrected table is shown below. We note that the solar reference standard now implies a positive abundance of nitrogen in halo dust.

  6. Labyrinth seal coal injector

    SciTech Connect

    Lindahl, P.D.

    1994-12-31

    This invention is a labyrinth seal coal injector able to inject dry, sized, coal or other materials having a significant amount of fines into a pressurized pipeline for transport or other purposes. The injector is comprised of a rotor or screw of steel helicoidal flights attached to a steel shaft that is rotated by a motor. The rotor is in a pipe-like housing with an inlet on the side for coal and an outlet on the downstream end of the housing at the reducer. The reducer allows the loose coal or other particles to become compacted and form an hydraulic seal against the pressurized water. Water is introduced into the reducer and serves to lubricate the compacted coal as it is introduced into the pipeline. A knife valve is used in initiation of the flow of coal into the pipeline.

  7. 13. Coal ejectors mounted on aft bulkhead of coal bunker. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Coal ejectors mounted on aft bulkhead of coal bunker. Ejectors were used to flush overboard live coals and clinkers from firebed (pipe for carrying coals overboard has been removed from ejector in foreground). Coal doors from bunker appear beside ejector in foreground). Coal doors from bunker appear beside ejectors at deck; note firing shovels in background against hull. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  8. Coal-Sizing Auger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, E. V.

    1985-01-01

    Aft end of auger, like forward, face-piercing end, equipped with hard cutting bits such as diamonds. As auger breaks face, pulls broken coal lumps into jaws and forces them into hardened throat section. There, cutting bits chew up lumps: Clearance between throat and auger shaft sets maximum size for coal particles that pass through. Auger motion pushes coal particles into mixing chamber, where paddles combine them with water.

  9. Supercritical solvent coal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Yields of soluble organic extract are increased up to about 50% by the supercritical extraction of particulate coal at a temperature below the polymerization temperature for coal extract fragments (450 C.) and a pressure from 500 psig to 5,000 psig by the conjoint use of a solvent mixture containing a low volatility, high critical temperature coal dissolution catalyst such as phenanthrene and a high volatility, low critical temperature solvent such as toluene.

  10. Pulverized coal fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Rini, Michael J.; Towle, David P.

    1992-01-01

    A pulverized coal fuel injector contains an acceleration section to improve the uniformity of a coal-air mixture to be burned. An integral splitter is provided which divides the coal-air mixture into a number separate streams or jets, and a center body directs the streams at a controlled angle into the primary zone of a burner. The injector provides for flame shaping and the control of NO/NO.sub.2 formation.

  11. Integrated coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Effron, Edward

    1978-01-01

    In a process for the liquefaction of coal in which coal liquids containing phenols and other oxygenated compounds are produced during the liquefaction step and later hydrogenated, oxygenated compounds are removed from at least part of the coal liquids in the naphtha and gas oil boiling range prior to the hydrogenation step and employed as a feed stream for the manufacture of a synthesis gas or for other purposes.

  12. Assessment of Coal Geology, Resources, and Reserves in the Gillette Coalfield, Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luppens, James A.; Scott, David C.; Haacke, Jon E.; Osmonson, Lee M.; Rohrbacher, Timothy J.; Ellis, Margaret S.

    2008-01-01

    The Gillette coalfield, within the Powder River Basin in east-central Wyoming, is the most prolific coalfield in the United States. In 2006, production from the coalfield totaled over 431 million short tons of coal, which represented over 37 percent of the Nation's total yearly production. The Anderson and Canyon coal beds in the Gillette coalfield contain some of the largest deposits of low-sulfur subbituminous coal in the world. By utilizing the abundance of new data from recent coalbed methane development in the Powder River Basin, this study represents the most comprehensive evaluation of coal resources and reserves in the Gillette coalfield to date. Eleven coal beds were evaluated to determine the in-place coal resources. Six of the eleven coal beds were evaluated for reserve potential given current technology, economic factors, and restrictions to mining. These restrictions included the presence of railroads, a Federal interstate highway, cities, a gas plant, and alluvial valley floors. Other restrictions, such as thickness of overburden, thickness of coal beds, and areas of burned coal were also considered. The total original coal resource in the Gillette coalfield for all eleven coal beds assessed, and no restrictions applied, was calculated to be 201 billion short tons. Available coal resources, which are part of the original coal resource that is accessible for potential mine development after subtracting all restrictions, are about 164 billion short tons (81 percent of the original coal resource). Recoverable coal, which is the portion of available coal remaining after subtracting mining and processing losses, was determined for a stripping ratio of 10:1 or less. After mining and processing losses were subtracted, a total of 77 billion short tons of coal were calculated (48 percent of the original coal resource). Coal reserves are the portion of the recoverable coal that can be mined, processed, and marketed at a profit at the time of the economic

  13. Petrology, geochemistry, and palynology of Joggins Formation (Westphalian A) coals, Cumberland basin, Nova Scotia

    SciTech Connect

    Hower, J.C.; Calder, J.H.; Cortland, F.E.

    1996-09-01

    Five Westphalian A coals were collected from the Joggins Formation section exposed along Chignecto Bay at Joggins, Nova Scotia. Several of the coal beds along the bay were mined beginning in the early 17th century. There has been little detailed investigation of the coal beds of this classic section. The lowermost coal, the Upper Coal 29 (Fundy), is a high-vitrinite coal with a spore assemblage dominated by arboreous lycopod spores with tree ferns subdominant. The upper portions of the coal bed have the highest ratio of well-preserved to poorly-preserved telinite of any of the coals investigated. Coal 19 (Forty Brine) has 88% total vitrinite but, unlike the Fundy coal bed, the telinite has a poor preservation ratio and half of the total vitrinite population comprises gelocollinite and vitrodetrinite. The latter coal bed is directly overlain by a basin-wide limestone bed. The Lower Kimberly (Coal 15) shows good preservation of vitrinite with relatively abundant telinite among the total vitrinite. The Upper Kimberly, which underlies the tetrapod-bearing lycopsid trees found by Lyell and Dawson in 1852, exhibits an upward decrease in arboreous lycopod spores and an increase in the tree fern spore Punctatisporites minutus. The megaspore record is similarly dominated by Lagenicularugosa paralycopodites and tree fern spores. Telinite preservation increases upwards in the Upper Kimberly but overall is well below the preservation ratio of the Fundy coal bed. The coals are all high sulfur, up to 13.7% total sulfur for the lower lithotype of the Fundy coal bed. The Kimberly coals are not only high in total and pyritic sulfur, but also have high concentrations of chalcophile elements.

  14. Distribution of potentially hazardous trace elements in coals from Shanxi province, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, J.Y.; Zheng, C.G.; Ren, D.Y.; Chou, C.-L.; Liu, J.; Zeng, R.-S.; Wang, Z.P.; Zhao, F.H.; Ge, Y.T.

    2004-01-01

    Shanxi province, located in the center of China, is the biggest coal base of China. There are five coal-forming periods in Shanxi province: Late Carboniferous (Taiyuan Formation), Early Permian (Shanxi Formation), Middle Jurassic (Datong Formation), Tertiary (Taxigou Formation), and Quaternary. Hundred and ten coal samples and a peat sample from Shanxi province were collected and the contents of 20 potentially hazardous trace elements (PHTEs) (As, B, Ba, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, F, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Th, U, V and Zn) in these samples were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrometry, cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, ion chromatography spectrometry, and wet chemical analysis. The result shows that the brown coals are enriched in As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, F and Zn compared with the bituminous coals and anthracite, whereas the bituminous coals are enriched in B, Cl, Hg, and the anthracite is enriched in Cl, Hg, U and V. A comparison with world averages and crustal abundances (Clarke values) shows that the Quaternary peat is highly enriched in As and Mo, Tertiary brown coals are highly enriched in Cd, Middle Jurassic coals, Early Permian coals and Late Carboniferous coals are enriched in Hg. According to the coal ranks, the bituminous coals are highly enriched in Hg, whereas Cd, F and Th show low enrichments, and the anthracite is also highly enriched in Hg and low enrichment in Th. The concentrations of Cd, F, Hg and Th in Shanxi coals are more than world arithmetic means of concentrations for the corresponding elements. Comparing with the United States coals, Shanxi coals show higher concentrations of Cd, Hg, Pb, Se and Th. Most of Shanxi coals contain lower concentrations of PHTEs. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Domestic Role Sharing in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Linda

    1981-01-01

    Investigated the extent to which Swedish couples (N=128) share domestic tasks using a mail survey. Suggests Swedish couples shared household chores more evenly than American couples. Results indicated variables measuring social exchange theory, family life-cycle stage, and socialization had the greatest influence on role sharing behavior.…

  16. Natural Rubber from Domestic Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States is wholly dependent upon imports of natural rubber from tropical countries and is the world’s largest consumer of this strategic raw material. Development of domestic rubber crops will create supply security for this strategic raw material, enhance rural development, and create bio...

  17. Domestic Violence. Technical Assistance Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    Substance abuse has long been recognized as a precipitating factor in many domestic violence incidents. The main type of substance abuse is alcohol usage. Forty-six percent of the offenders reported being dependent on or abusing alcohol, while another 28% were found to be dependent on opiates, cocaine, marijuana, or inhalants. Nearly two-fifths of…

  18. The fate of diamondoids in coals and sedimentary rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wei, Z.; Moldowan, J.M.; Jarvie, D.M.; Hill, R.

    2006-01-01

    Diamondoids were detected in the extracts of a series of coals and rocks varying in maturity, lithology, source input, and depositional environment. At the same maturity level, diamondoids are generally about a magnitude more abundant in source rocks than in coals. The concentrations of diamondoids are maturity dependent. However, while diamondoids become more abundant with the increasing thermal maturity, a diminution in diamondoid concentrations is observed at the maturity value of about Ro = 4.0% in both coals and rocks. The occurrence of diamantane destruction at 550 ??C during pyrolysis suggests that diamondoids may be eventually destroyed at high temperatures in the Earth. Here we propose three main phases of diamondoid life in nature: diamondoid generation (phase I, Ro 4.0%). ?? 2006 Geological Society of America.

  19. The fate of diamondoids in coals and sedimentary rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Z.; Moldowan, J.M.; Jarvie, D.M.; Hill, R.

    2006-12-15

    Diamondoids were detected in the extracts of a series of coals and rocks varying in maturity, lithology, source input, and depositional environment. At the same maturity level, diamondoids are generally about a magnitude more abundant in source rocks than in coals. The concentrations of diamondoids are maturity dependent. However, while diamondoids become more abundant with the increasing thermal maturity, a diminution in diamondoid concentrations is observed at the maturity value of about R{sub o} = 4.0% in both coals and rocks. The occurrence of diamantane destruction at 550{sup o}C during pyrolysis suggests that diamondoids may be eventually destroyed at high temperatures in the Earth. Here we propose three main phases of diamondoid life in nature: diamondoid generation (phase I, R{sub o} < 1.1%), diamondoid generation and enrichment (phase II, 1.1% {le} R{sub o} {le}4.0%), and diamondoid destruction (phase III, R{sub o} > 4.0%).

  20. Evaluation of the behavior of Colombian coals during the combustion in fixed bed

    SciTech Connect

    Giraldo, M.; Chejne, F.; Hill, A.

    2000-07-01

    The improvements in the technological processes that have coal as energy source must be based on the knowledge of physical and chemical properties of coal and in the knowledge of its evolution during the combustion process. These characteristics are involved in the coal behavior. Moreover, the coal porosity has an important relevance on the reaction rate and in diverse physical and chemical properties, and therefore, is a key parameter in the usefulness of coal. This project includes studies about Colombian coal combustion and its kinetic behavior. The coal was characterized and classified by particle size,and origin. In this research project, the physical and chemical properties of coal that affect its applicability in different kinds of technological processes have been studied as well as the characteristics that could be related to pollutant generation. The study considers the following issues: the types and level of criteria pollutant precursor compounds such as sulfur and nitrogen in coal, the influence of particle size and porosity in the generation of pollutant species, the participation of pollutant species in the combustion process, and basic properties such as heat capacity, and heat effects related to the conversion of coal during heating test. Coal from Antioquia, Valle del Cauca and Cundinamarca Regions were used. These coals are used domestically by the industrial and power sector. Particle sizes of 4, 2.5 and 1 cm were used from each one of these coals. The combustion tests were done in a fixed bed pilot furnace. The amount of air used was controlled during the experiment. In addition, air and gas flow, concentration and temperatures were registered. This paper presents a description of: characteristics of each test, composition of generated gases, and the influence of the particle size and coal origin in the pollutant emissions, also includes the results of test done in different samples took along each test.

  1. Fluidized bed coal desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravindram, M.

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory scale experiments were conducted on two high volatile bituminous coals in a bench scale batch fluidized bed reactor. Chemical pretreatment and posttreatment of coals were tried as a means of enhancing desulfurization. Sequential chlorination and dechlorination cum hydrodesulfurization under modest conditions relative to the water slurry process were found to result in substantial sulfur reductions of about 80%. Sulfur forms as well as proximate and ultimate analyses of the processed coals are included. These studies indicate that a fluidized bed reactor process has considerable potential for being developed into a simple and economic process for coal desulfurization.

  2. Coal supply for California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yancik, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    The potential sources and qualities of coals available for major utility and industrial consumers in California are examined and analyzed with respect to those factors that would affect the reliability of supplies. Other considerations, such as the requirements and assurances needed by the coal producers to enter into long-term contracts and dedicate large reserves of coal to these contracts are also discussed. Present and potential future mining contraints on coal mine operators are identified and analyzed with respect to their effect on availability of supply.

  3. Handbook of coal analysis

    SciTech Connect

    James G. Speight

    2005-05-01

    The Handbook deals with the various aspects of coal analysis and provides a detailed explanation of the necessary standard tests and procedures that are applicable to coal in order to help define usage and behavior relative to environmental issues. It provides details of the meaning of various test results and how they might be applied to predict coal behavior during use. Emphasis is on ASTM standards and test methods but ISO and BSI standards methods are included. Chapter headings are: Coal analysis; Sampling and sample preparation; Proximate analysis; Ultimate analysis; Mineral matter; Physical and electrical properties; Thermal properties; Mechanical properties; Spectroscopic properties; Solvent properties; and Glossary.

  4. Coal liquefaction quenching process

    DOEpatents

    Thorogood, Robert M.; Yeh, Chung-Liang; Donath, Ernest E.

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved coal liquefaction quenching process which prevents the formation of coke with a minimum reduction of thermal efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. In the process, the rapid cooling of the liquid/solid products of the coal liquefaction reaction is performed without the cooling of the associated vapor stream to thereby prevent formation of coke and the occurrence of retrograde reactions. The rapid cooling is achieved by recycling a subcooled portion of the liquid/solid mixture to the lower section of a phase separator that separates the vapor from the liquid/solid products leaving the coal reactor.

  5. Genetic analysis of safflower domestication

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is an oilseed crop in the Compositae (a.k.a. Asteraceae) that is valued for its oils rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Here, we present an analysis of the genetic architecture of safflower domestication and compare our findings to those from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), an independently domesticated oilseed crop within the same family. We mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying 24 domestication-related traits in progeny from a cross between safflower and its wild progenitor, Carthamus palaestinus Eig. Also, we compared QTL positions in safflower against those that have been previously identified in cultivated x wild sunflower crosses to identify instances of colocalization. Results We mapped 61 QTL, the vast majority of which (59) exhibited minor or moderate phenotypic effects. The two large-effect QTL corresponded to one each for flower color and leaf spininess. A total of 14 safflower QTL colocalized with previously reported sunflower QTL for the same traits. Of these, QTL for three traits (days to flower, achene length, and number of selfed seed) had cultivar alleles that conferred effects in the same direction in both species. Conclusions As has been observed in sunflower, and unlike many other crops, our results suggest that the genetics of safflower domestication is quite complex. Moreover, our comparative mapping results indicate that safflower and sunflower exhibit numerous instances of QTL colocalization, suggesting that parallel trait transitions during domestication may have been driven, at least in part, by parallel genotypic evolution at some of the same underlying genes. PMID:24502326

  6. Fuel blending with PRB coal

    SciTech Connect

    McCartney, R.H.; Williams, R.L. Jr.

    2009-03-15

    Many methods exist to accomplish coal blending at a new or existing power plant. These range from a basic use of the secondary (emergency) stockout/reclaim system to totally automated coal handling facilities with segregated areas for two or more coals. Suitable choices for different sized coal plant are discussed, along with the major components of the coal handling facility affected by Powder River Basin coal. 2 figs.

  7. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    Research continues on coal liquefaction in the following areas: (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  8. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  9. Reduced emissions from inexpensive high-sulphur coal briquettes

    SciTech Connect

    Gammage, R.B.; Wachter, E.A.; Wade, J.; Wilson, D.L.; Haas, J.W. ); Ahmad, N.; Siltain, F.; Raza, M.Z. )

    1992-01-01

    Airborne emissions were measured during the combustion of Pakistani high-sulphur coal, cold briquetted with lime and clay; comparison was made to emissions from raw coal and traditional fuels burnt in a native, mud-lined Angethi stove. Compared to raw coal, the amended coal gave fourfold reduced emission of respirable-size particles (RSP) and threefold reduced total releases of SO[sub 2]. In domestic cooking, substitution of the amended coal briquettes for traditional fuels will not worsen indoor air quality with respect to CO, SO[sub 2], NO[sub x], and RSP. The high peak amounts of CO (100--250 ppm), SO[sub 2] (2--5 ppm), and NO[sub x] (1--5 ppm) were limited to the early phase of burning. The high thermal value of the coal briquettes together with a simple briquetting technology, make this fuel an attractive energy alternative in countries that are underdeveloped, developing, or experiencing major restructuring.

  10. Reduced emissions from inexpensive high-sulphur coal briquettes

    SciTech Connect

    Gammage, R.B.; Wachter, E.A.; Wade, J.; Wilson, D.L.; Haas, J.W.; Ahmad, N.; Siltain, F.; Raza, M.Z.

    1992-12-01

    Airborne emissions were measured during the combustion of Pakistani high-sulphur coal, cold briquetted with lime and clay; comparison was made to emissions from raw coal and traditional fuels burnt in a native, mud-lined Angethi stove. Compared to raw coal, the amended coal gave fourfold reduced emission of respirable-size particles (RSP) and threefold reduced total releases of SO{sub 2}. In domestic cooking, substitution of the amended coal briquettes for traditional fuels will not worsen indoor air quality with respect to CO, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and RSP. The high peak amounts of CO (100--250 ppm), SO{sub 2} (2--5 ppm), and NO{sub x} (1--5 ppm) were limited to the early phase of burning. The high thermal value of the coal briquettes together with a simple briquetting technology, make this fuel an attractive energy alternative in countries that are underdeveloped, developing, or experiencing major restructuring.

  11. Clean coal technologies market potential

    SciTech Connect

    Drazga, B.

    2007-01-30

    Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

  12. Identification of the yellow skin gene reveals a hybrid origin of the domestic chicken.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Jonas; Larson, Greger; Gunnarsson, Ulrika; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Tixier-Boichard, Michele; Strömstedt, Lina; Wright, Dominic; Jungerius, Annemieke; Vereijken, Addie; Randi, Ettore; Jensen, Per; Andersson, Leif

    2008-02-01

    Yellow skin is an abundant phenotype among domestic chickens and is caused by a recessive allele (W*Y) that allows deposition of yellow carotenoids in the skin. Here we show that yellow skin is caused by one or more cis-acting and tissue-specific regulatory mutation(s) that inhibit expression of BCDO2 (beta-carotene dioxygenase 2) in skin. Our data imply that carotenoids are taken up from the circulation in both genotypes but are degraded by BCDO2 in skin from animals carrying the white skin allele (W*W). Surprisingly, our results demonstrate that yellow skin does not originate from the red junglefowl (Gallus gallus), the presumed sole wild ancestor of the domestic chicken, but most likely from the closely related grey junglefowl (Gallus sonneratii). This is the first conclusive evidence for a hybrid origin of the domestic chicken, and it has important implications for our views of the domestication process. PMID:18454198

  13. Theoretical principles of use of coal fractions with different densities for combustion

    SciTech Connect

    S.G. Gagarin; A.M. Gyul'maliev

    2009-02-15

    It is reasonable to complement the conventional preparation of steam coal involving the removal of ash components and pyritic sulfur by the isolation of the lightest organic fractions, which possess enhanced performance characteristics. These fractions are smoothly saleable both on the domestic and world markets for effective pulverized-coal combustion via new combustion technologies. Heavier (inertinite) fractions of the coal preparation concentrate marketed at lower prices can be considered appropriate fuel for burning in circulating fluidized-bed combustion systems. 13 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Ohio Clean Fuels, Inc. , prototype commercial coal/oil co-processing plant project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    This report discusses the economics of coal as a source of domestic petroleum products and clean power production. The following topics are discussed: Economic incentives for the use of coal; applications of coal/oil coprocessing including (a) integration with a refinery; (b) cost reduction technique for alternate new supplies of oil; (c) power production meeting acid rain controls and comparative economics of copro powered facilities vs conventional power plant technology; costs of non-conventional supplies of crude and costs of coprocessing compared with offshore conventional oil. 10 refs., 1 fig., 20 tabs.

  15. Hydrogen production from coal using a nuclear heat source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quade, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    A strong candidate for hydrogen production in the intermediate time frame of 1985 to 1995 is a coal-based process using a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) as a heat source. Expected process efficiencies in the range of 60 to 70% are considerably higher than all other hydrogen production processes except steam reforming of a natural gas. The process involves the preparation of a coal liquid, hydrogasification of that liquid, and steam reforming of the resulting gaseous or light liquid product. A study showing process efficiency and cost of hydrogen vs nuclear reactor core outlet temperature has been completed, and shows diminishing returns at process temperatures above about 1500 F. A possible scenario combining the relatively abundant and low-cost Western coal deposits with the Gulf Coast hydrogen users is presented which provides high-energy density transportation utilizing coal liquids and uranium.

  16. Coal in sub-Saharan-African countries undergoing desertification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, J.N.; Brownfield, M.E.; Bergin, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Coal has been reported in 11 of the 16 sub-Saharan countries discussed in this appraisal: Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Niger, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia, and Somalia. No coal occurrences have been reported in Gambia, Togo, Burkina, Chad, and Djibouti but coal may be present within these countries because neighboring countries do contain coal-bearing rocks. Most of these countries are undergoing desertification or will in the near future. Wood, directly or in the form of charcoal, constitutes two-thirds of the fuel used in Africa. Destruction of forest and shrub lands for fuel is occurring at an increasing rate because of desertification and increasing energy demands. The decline in biological productivity, coupled with concentration of population in areas where water is available and crops may be grown, leads to increasing shortages of wood for fuel. Part of the present and future energy needs of the sub-Saharan region could be met by use of indigenous coal and peat. Nine sedimentary basins, completely or partially within the sub-Saharan region, have the potential of either coal and/or peat deposits of economic value: 1- Senegal Basin, 2- Taoudeni Basin and Gao Trough, 3- Niger Basin, 4- Chad Basin, 5- Chari Basin, 6- Benue Trough (Depression), 7- Sudan Trough, 8- Plateau and Rift Belt, and 9- Somali Basin. Niger and Nigeria are the only countries in sub-Saharan Africa in which coal is presently being mined as a fuel source for powerplants and domestic use. Peat occurs in the deltas, lower river, and interdunal basin areas of Senegal, Mauritania, and Sudan. Peat can be used as an alternate fuel source and is currently being tested as a soil amendment in the agricultural sector. Coal and peat exploration and development studies are urgently required and should be initiated so the coal and peat utilization potential of each country can be determined. The overall objective of these studies is to establish, within the sub

  17. Coal in sub-Saharan-African countries undergoing desertification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, J. N.; Brownfield, M. E.; Bergin, M. J.

    Coal has been reported in 11 of the 16 sub-Saharan countries discussed in this appraisal: Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Niger, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia, and Somalia. No coal occurrences have been reported in Gambia, Togo, Burkina, Chad, and Djibouti but coal may be present within these countries because neighboring countries do contain coal-bearing rocks. Most of these countries are undergoing desertification or will in the near future. Wood, directly or in the form of charcoal, constitutes two-thirds of the fuel used in Africa. Destruction of forest and shrub lands for fuel is occurring at an increasing rate because of desertification and increasing energy demands. The decline in biological productivity, coupled with concentration of population in areas where water is available and crops may be grown, leads to increasing shortages of wood for fuel. Part of the present and future energy needs of the sub-Saharan region could be met by use of indigenous coal and peat. Nine sedimentary basins, completely or partially within the sub-Saharan region, have the potential of either coal and/or peat deposits of economic value: 1- Senegal Basin, 2- Taoudeni Basin and Gao Trough, 3- Niger Basin, 4- Chad Basin, 5- Chari Basin, 6- Benue Trough (Depression), 7- Sudan Trough, 8- Plateau and Rift Belt, and 9- Somali Basin. Niger and Nigeria are the only countries in sub-Saharan Africa in which coal is presently being mined as a fuel source for powerplants and domestic use. Peat occurs in the deltas, lower river, and interdunal basin areas of Senegal, Mauritania, and Sudan. Peat can be used as an alternate fuel source and is currently being tested as a soil amendment in the agricultural sector. Coal and peat exploration and development studies are urgently required and should be initiated so the coal and peat utilization potential of each country can be determined. The overall objective of these studies is to establish, within the sub

  18. Coal and coal gas resources in the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, A.R.; Tyler, R.; Kaiser, W.R.; McMurray, R.G.; Nance, H.S. )

    1996-01-01

    Accurate assessment and delineation of coal and coal gas resources within basins are important aspects of resource development. Previous estimates of coal resources in the Piceance Basin range from 248 to 382 billion tons, and in-place coal gas resources are generally accepted to be 84 Tcf. Assuming no depth restrictions, we estimate coal and coal gas resources to be approximately 289 billion tons and 99 Tcf, respectively. Coal gas resources in the Piceance were calculated using two different approaches because of the topographic relief in the basin. The first method, which correlated ash-free gas content with depth, overestimated coal gas resources under topographically high areas. The second method, based on coal rank, eliminated topographic effects but underestimated coal gas resources in parts of the basin where unusually high gas contents occur owing to gas migration. Therefore, coal gas resources range between 80 and 136 Tcf, depending on the method used. Assuming no depth restrictions, 80 percent of the coal (255 billion tons) and 75 percent of the coal gas (76 Tcf) resources are found in the lower part of the Cameo-Wheeler Fairfield coal group. The regional distribution of coal gas resources generally follows net coal trends. Maximum in-place coal gas resources exceed 60 Bcf/mi[sup 2] in the deeper parts of the basin and are double the 30 Bcf/mi[sup 2] previously reported.

  19. Coal and coal gas resources in the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, A.R.; Tyler, R.; Kaiser, W.R.; McMurray, R.G.; Nance, H.S.

    1996-12-31

    Accurate assessment and delineation of coal and coal gas resources within basins are important aspects of resource development. Previous estimates of coal resources in the Piceance Basin range from 248 to 382 billion tons, and in-place coal gas resources are generally accepted to be 84 Tcf. Assuming no depth restrictions, we estimate coal and coal gas resources to be approximately 289 billion tons and 99 Tcf, respectively. Coal gas resources in the Piceance were calculated using two different approaches because of the topographic relief in the basin. The first method, which correlated ash-free gas content with depth, overestimated coal gas resources under topographically high areas. The second method, based on coal rank, eliminated topographic effects but underestimated coal gas resources in parts of the basin where unusually high gas contents occur owing to gas migration. Therefore, coal gas resources range between 80 and 136 Tcf, depending on the method used. Assuming no depth restrictions, 80 percent of the coal (255 billion tons) and 75 percent of the coal gas (76 Tcf) resources are found in the lower part of the Cameo-Wheeler Fairfield coal group. The regional distribution of coal gas resources generally follows net coal trends. Maximum in-place coal gas resources exceed 60 Bcf/mi{sup 2} in the deeper parts of the basin and are double the 30 Bcf/mi{sup 2} previously reported.

  20. Second annual clean coal technology conference: Proceedings. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-09

    The Second Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference was held at Atlanta, Georgia, September 7--9, 1993. The Conference, cosponsored by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB), seeks to examine the status and role of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) and its projects. The Program is reviewed within the larger context of environmental needs, sustained economic growth, world markets, user performance requirements and supplier commercialization activities. This will be accomplished through in-depth review and discussion of factors affecting domestic and international markets for clean coal technology, the environmental considerations in commercial deployment, the current status of projects, and the timing and effectiveness of transfer of data from these projects to potential users, suppliers, financing entities, regulators, the interested environmental community and the public. Individual papers have been entered separately.

  1. Biological production of ethanol from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Due to the abundant supply of coal in the United States, significant research efforts have occurred over the past 15 years concerning the conversion of coal to liquid fuels. Researchers at the University of Arkansas have concentrated on a biological approach to coal liquefaction, starting with coal-derived synthesis gas as the raw material. Synthesis gas, a mixture of CO, H[sub 2], CO[sub 2], CH[sub 4] and sulfur gases, is first produced using traditional gasification techniques. The CO, CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2] are then converted to ethanol using a bacterial culture of Clostridium 1jungdahlii. Ethanol is the desired product if the resultant product stream is to be used as a liquid fuel. However, under normal operating conditions, the wild strain'' produces acetate in favor of ethanol in conjunction with growth in a 20:1 molar ratio. Research was performed to determine the conditions necessary to maximize not only the ratio of ethanol to acetate, but also to maximize the concentration of ethanol resulting in the product stream.

  2. Petrography and microanalysis of Pennsylvanian coal-ball concretions (Herrin Coal, Illinois Basin, USA): Bearing on fossil plant preservation and coal-ball origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siewers, Fredrick D.; Phillips, Tom L.

    2015-11-01

    Petrographic analyses of 25 coal balls from well-studied paleobotanical profiles in the Middle Pennsylvanian Herrin Coal (Westphalian D, Illinois Basin) and five select coal balls from university collections, indicate that Herrin Coal-ball peats were permineralized by fibrous and non-fibrous carbonates. Fibrous carbonates occur in fan-like to spherulitic arrays in many intracellular (within tissue) pores, and are best developed in relatively open extracellular (between plant) pore spaces. Acid etched fibrous carbonates appear white under reflected light and possess a microcrystalline texture attributable to abundant microdolomite. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and electron microprobe analysis demonstrate that individual fibers have a distinct trigonal prism morphology and are notable for their magnesium content (≈ 9-15 mol% MgCO3). Non-fibrous carbonates fill intercrystalline spaces among fibers and pores within the peat as primary precipitates and neomorphic replacements. In the immediate vicinity of plant cell walls, non-fibrous carbonates cut across fibrous carbonates as a secondary, neomorphic phase attributed to coalification of plant cell walls. Dolomite occurs as diagenetic microdolomite associated with the fibrous carbonate phase, as sparite replacements, and as void-filling cement. Maximum dolomite (50-59 wt.%) is in the top-of-seam coal-ball zone at the Sahara Mine, which is overlain by the marine Anna Shale. Coal-ball formation in the Herrin Coal began with the precipitation of fibrous high magnesium calcite. The trigonal prism morphology of the carbonate fibers suggests rapid precipitation from super-saturated, meteoric pore waters. Carbonate precipitation from marine waters is discounted on the basis of stratigraphic, paleobotanical, and stable isotopic evidence. Most non-fibrous carbonate is attributable to later diagenetic events, including void-fill replacements, recrystallization, and post-depositional fracture fills. Evidence

  3. The boron abundance of Procyon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemke, Michael; Lambert, David L.; Edvardsson, Bengt

    1993-01-01

    The B I 2496.8 A resonance line and HST/GHRS echelle spectra are used with model atmospheres and synthetic spectra to derive the B abundance of the F dwarfs Procyon (Alpha Canis Minoris), Theta Ursae Majoris, and Iota Pegasi. The B abundance of Theta UMa and Iota Peg is similar to that derived by Boesgaard and Heacox (1978) from the B II resonance line in spectra of A- and B-type stars. These two dwarfs show normal abundances of Li, Be, and B. Procyon, which is highly depleted in Li and Be, is depleted in B by a factor of at least 3. Comparison of the spectra of Procyon and the halo dwarf HD 140283 shows that the B abundance assigned by Duncan et al. (1992) to three halo dwarfs is not greatly overestimated as a result of contamination of the B I line by an unidentified line.

  4. Geochemistry of environmentally sensitive trace elements in Permian coals from the Huainan coalfield, Anhui, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, J.; Liu, Gaisheng; Jiang, M.; Chou, C.-L.; Li, H.; Wu, B.; Zheng, Lingyun; Jiang, D.

    2011-01-01

    To study the geochemical characteristics of 11 environmentally sensitive trace elements in the coals of the Permian Period from the Huainan coalfield, Anhui province, China, borehole samples of 336 coals, two partings, and four roof and floor mudstones were collected from mineable coal seams. Major elements and selected trace elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HAAS). The depositional environment, abundances, distribution, and modes of occurrence of trace elements were investigated. Results show that clay and carbonate minerals are the principal inorganic constituents in the coals. A lower deltaic plain, where fluvial channel systems developed successively, was the likely depositional environment of the Permian coals in the Huainan coalfield. All major elements have wider variation ranges than those of Chinese coals except for Mg and Fe. The contents of Cr, Co, Ni, and Se are higher than their averages for Chinese coals and world coals. Vertical variations of trace elements in different formations are not significant except for B and Ba. Certain roof and partings are distinctly higher in trace elements than underlying coal bench samples. The modes of occurrence of trace elements vary in different coal seams as a result of different coal-forming environments. Vanadium, Cr, and Th are associated with aluminosilicate minerals, Ba with carbonate minerals, and Cu, Zn, As, Se, and Pb mainly with sulfide minerals. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Simulated coal spill causes mortality and growth inhibition in tropical marine organisms

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Kathryn L. E.; Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Flores, Florita; Negri, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Coal is a principal fossil fuel driving economic and social development, and increases in global coal shipments have paralleled expansion of the industry. To identify the potential harm associated with chronic marine coal contamination, three taxa abundant in tropical marine ecosystems (the coral Acropora tenuis, the reef fish Acanthochromis polyacanthus and the seagrass Halodule uninervis) were exposed to five concentrations (0–275 mg coal l−1) of suspended coal dust (<63 μm) over 28 d. Results demonstrate that chronic coal exposure can cause considerable lethal effects on corals, and reductions in seagrass and fish growth rates. Coral survivorship and seagrass growth rates were inversely related to increasing coal concentrations (≥38 mg coal l−1) and effects increased between 14 and 28 d, whereas fish growth rates were similarly depressed at all coal concentrations tested. This investigation provides novel insights into direct coal impacts on key tropical taxa for application in the assessment of risks posed by increasing coal shipments in globally threatened marine ecosystems. PMID:27174014

  6. Simulated coal spill causes mortality and growth inhibition in tropical marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Berry, Kathryn L E; Hoogenboom, Mia O; Flores, Florita; Negri, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    Coal is a principal fossil fuel driving economic and social development, and increases in global coal shipments have paralleled expansion of the industry. To identify the potential harm associated with chronic marine coal contamination, three taxa abundant in tropical marine ecosystems (the coral Acropora tenuis, the reef fish Acanthochromis polyacanthus and the seagrass Halodule uninervis) were exposed to five concentrations (0-275 mg coal l(-1)) of suspended coal dust (<63 μm) over 28 d. Results demonstrate that chronic coal exposure can cause considerable lethal effects on corals, and reductions in seagrass and fish growth rates. Coral survivorship and seagrass growth rates were inversely related to increasing coal concentrations (≥38 mg coal l(-1)) and effects increased between 14 and 28 d, whereas fish growth rates were similarly depressed at all coal concentrations tested. This investigation provides novel insights into direct coal impacts on key tropical taxa for application in the assessment of risks posed by increasing coal shipments in globally threatened marine ecosystems. PMID:27174014

  7. Simulated coal spill causes mortality and growth inhibition in tropical marine organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, Kathryn L. E.; Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Flores, Florita; Negri, Andrew P.

    2016-05-01

    Coal is a principal fossil fuel driving economic and social development, and increases in global coal shipments have paralleled expansion of the industry. To identify the potential harm associated with chronic marine coal contamination, three taxa abundant in tropical marine ecosystems (the coral Acropora tenuis, the reef fish Acanthochromis polyacanthus and the seagrass Halodule uninervis) were exposed to five concentrations (0–275 mg coal l‑1) of suspended coal dust (<63 μm) over 28 d. Results demonstrate that chronic coal exposure can cause considerable lethal effects on corals, and reductions in seagrass and fish growth rates. Coral survivorship and seagrass growth rates were inversely related to increasing coal concentrations (≥38 mg coal l‑1) and effects increased between 14 and 28 d, whereas fish growth rates were similarly depressed at all coal concentrations tested. This investigation provides novel insights into direct coal impacts on key tropical taxa for application in the assessment of risks posed by increasing coal shipments in globally threatened marine ecosystems.

  8. Coal briquetting methods

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, D.V.; Smith, C.D.

    1980-09-23

    Methods of and apparatus for cleaning coal in which halogenated hydrocarbons are used as parting liquids are disclosed. Various novel techniques, components, and combinations thereof are employed to maximize efficiency; to minimize costs and adverse environmental impacts; to make it possible to recover coal of a character which has heretofore been economically unrecoverable; to produce a superior product; and to reach other worthwhile goals.

  9. Polymeric character of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Wert, C.A.; Weller, M.

    1982-10-01

    We have measured the internal friction spectrum of a number of coals through the range bituminous to anthracite. Damping peaks are seen which bear great similarity in position and height to those found for many polymers. This manifestation of polymer-like character adds to our understanding of the macromolecular character of the coal structure.

  10. New Coal Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heritage, John

    1979-01-01

    Tighter federal air pollution control standards for new coal-burning electric power plants have been issued. Through use of air pollution control devices all types of coal will be useable under the new standards. Even stricter standards may be imposed where visibility may be affected in areas now enjoying very clean air. (RE)

  11. Mechanochemical hydrogenation of coal

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Ralph T.; Smol, Robert; Farber, Gerald; Naphtali, Leonard M.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogenation of coal is improved through the use of a mechanical force to reduce the size of the particulate coal simultaneously with the introduction of gaseous hydrogen, or other hydrogen donor composition. Such hydrogen in the presence of elemental tin during this one-step size reduction-hydrogenation further improves the yield of the liquid hydrocarbon product.

  12. Dewatering of fine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Hogg, R.

    1995-10-01

    The factors which control the dewatering of fine coal by gravity/centrifugal drainage and by gas displacement (vacuum/hyperbaric filtration) are evaluated. A generalized model is presented and used to describe dewatering kinetics and to establish dewatering limits. Applications to the design of dewatering systems for fine coal dewatering are discussed.

  13. Dry piston coal feeder

    DOEpatents

    Hathaway, Thomas J.; Bell, Jr., Harold S.

    1979-01-01

    This invention provides a solids feeder for feeding dry coal to a pressurized gasifier at elevated temperatures substantially without losing gas from the gasifier by providing a lock having a double-acting piston that feeds the coals into the gasifier, traps the gas from escaping, and expels the trapped gas back into the gasifier.

  14. COAL USE REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The world's coal reserves have been estimated to be about one exagram accessible with current extraction technology. The energy content has been valued at 290 zettajourles. Using a value of 15 terawatt as the current global energy consumption, the coal supply could global needs f...

  15. LIBS Analysis for Coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    E. Romero, Carlos; De Saro, Robert

    Coal is a non-uniform material with large inherent variability in composition, and other important properties, such as calorific value and ash fusion temperature. This quality variability is very important when coal is used as fuel in steam generators, since it affects boiler operation and control, maintenance and availability, and the extent and treatment of environmental pollution associated with coal combustion. On-line/in situ monitoring of coal before is fed into a boiler is a necessity. A very few analytical techniques like X-ray fluorescence and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis are available commercially with enough speed and sophistication of data collection for continuous coal monitoring. However, there is still a need for a better on-line/in situ technique that has higher selectivity, sensitivity, accuracy and precision, and that is safer and has a lower installation and operating costs than the other options. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is ideal for coal monitoring in boiler applications as it need no sample preparation, it is accurate and precise it is fast, and it can detect all of the elements of concern to the coal-fired boiler industry. LIBS data can also be adapted with advanced data processing techniques to provide real-time information required by boiler operators nowadays. This chapter summarizes development of LIBS for on-line/in situ coal applications in utility boilers.

  16. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Carr, Norman L.; Moon, William G.; Prudich, Michael E.

    1983-01-01

    A C.sub.5 -900.degree. F. (C.sub.5 -482.degree. C.) liquid yield greater than 50 weight percent MAF feed coal is obtained in a coal liquefaction process wherein a selected combination of higher hydrogen partial pressure, longer slurry residence time and increased recycle ash content of the feed slurry are controlled within defined ranges.

  17. Hydrogen production from coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The gasification reactions necessary for the production of hydrogen from montana subbituminous coal are presented. The coal composition is given. The gasifier types mentioned include: suspension (entrained) combustion; fluidized bed; and moving bed. Each gasification process is described. The steam-iron process, raw and product gas compositions, gasifier feed quantities, and process efficiency evaluations are also included.

  18. Method for coal liquefaction

    DOEpatents

    Wiser, Wendell H.; Oblad, Alex G.; Shabtai, Joseph S.

    1994-01-01

    A process is disclosed for coal liquefaction in which minute particles of coal in intimate contact with a hydrogenation catalyst and hydrogen arc reacted for a very short time at a temperature in excess of 400.degree. C. at a pressure of at least 1500 psi to yield over 50% liquids with a liquid to gaseous hydrocarbon ratio in excess of 8:1.

  19. Diatoms in coal: Miocene Venado Formation, Limon Basin, Costa Rica, Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, J.D.; Coates, D.A.; Bradbury, J.P.; Bohor, B.F.

    1985-01-01

    Diatoms occur in coal in the Venado Formation on the southwest flank of the Limon Basin in Provincia Alajuela, northern Costa Rica. The Venado Formation contains more than 300 m of mudstones, siltstones, sandstones, limestones, and coal beds that crop out on the northeast flank of the Cordillera de Tilaran. Coal beds of unknown extent and correlation occur mainly in the middle part of the formation. The coal deposit here named informally the Pataste coal bed. Coal samples were examined with a scanning electron microscope and an x-ray analyzer attachment. Part A contains abundant diatoms and macerated diatom material and rare spicules of freshwater sponges. Diatoms identified are Melosira ambigua, Pinularia, Eunotia spp. and Achnathes exigua. Parts B and C of the coal bed contain fewer diatom remains and more sponge spicules than part A. The common presence of Melosira ambigua in A implies the proximity of open-water lacustrine environments. The other diatom species are benthic or bottom-dwelling forms that lived in slightly acidic, humic-rich paludal environments. Presumably, the swamp in which the coal was formed was most extensive during the deposition of A, and became progressively restricted thereafter. The increase of sponge spicules relative to diatoms in B and C suggests progressively, shallower lacustrine or restricted swamp conditions. The comparatively great abundance of biogenic opaline material in the coal is due to the influx of silica form a volcanic source represented by the tonstein layers.

  20. U.S. Coal Power Project Database

    SciTech Connect

    2007-10-15

    The database represents an inventory of coal power projects under development in the U.S. The database is designed to provide a concise overview of the current status of domestic projects (118 as of 1 Oct 2007). The database contains key project data on coal power plants currently being evaluated, developed, or constructed. It is of value to anyone interested in tracking coal power development including utilities, power project developers, equipment manufacturers, pipefitters and other vendors, investment banks, regulators, consultants, and analysts. The database is a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet which enables users to easily and quickly search for projects of interest by developer, technology, location, size, cost, status, or other characteristics. The database is updated as project specifics change to ensure that information is kept timely. Updates are provided via email on a monthly basis as part of an annual subscription. Database fields include: developer, owner, project name and description, location, technology, capacity, investment cost, proposed in-service date, status, air quality permit, and CPCN/siting approval.

  1. Chemicals from coal - The Eastman experience. [Anhydride

    SciTech Connect

    Larkins, T.H.

    1986-03-01

    Tennessee Eastman Company is a major producer of chemicals, fibers and plastics. It is located in Kingsport, Tennessee, headquarters for the Eastman Chemicals Division of Eastman Kodak Company. Eastman Companies employ a total of 12,250 people in Kingsport. Other domestic Eastman Chemicals Division plants are located in Texas, South Carolina, Arkansas and New York. The authors began to witness a flow of products from one of the most highly technical and sophisticated chemical processes in operation in the world. The Eastman ''Chemicals-from-Coal'' facility is not a sunfuel plant. To be sure, we are producing syngas from coal, but the syngas is used to produce acetic anhydride. Acetic anhydride is very important to Eastman. This chemical intermediate eventually finds its way into such diverse products as aspirin, cigarette filters, tool handles, and photographic film. It also is used to make other chemical intermediates such as cellulose esters, anhydrides, triacetin, and acetate ester solvents, all of which have a variety of end uses. The chemicals-from-coal project had its inception in the late 1960's when Eastman stepped up its program of energy conservation and began a search for lower cost chemical feedstocks. Our concern started before the national concern caused by a ten-fold increase in petroleum prices during the past decade.

  2. Coal and biomass to fuels and power.

    PubMed

    Williams, Robert H; Liu, Guangjian; Kreutz, Thomas G; Larson, Eric D

    2011-01-01

    Systems with CO(2) capture and storage (CCS) that coproduce transportation fuels and electricity from coal plus biomass can address simultaneously challenges of climate change from fossil energy and dependence on imported oil. Under a strong carbon policy, such systems can provide competitively clean low-carbon energy from secure domestic feedstocks by exploiting the negative emissions benefit of underground storage of biomass-derived CO(2), the low cost of coal, the scale economies of coal energy conversion, the inherently low cost of CO(2) capture, the thermodynamic advantages of coproduction, and expected high oil prices. Such systems require much less biomass to make low-carbon fuels than do biofuels processes. The economics are especially attractive when these coproduction systems are deployed as alternatives to CCS for stand-alone fossil fuel power plants. If CCS proves to be viable as a major carbon mitigation option, the main obstacles to deployment of coproduction systems as power generators would be institutional. PMID:22432630

  3. 25 CFR 11.454 - Domestic violence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Domestic violence. 11.454 Section 11.454 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.454 Domestic violence. (a) A person who commits domestic violence by...

  4. 25 CFR 11.454 - Domestic violence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Domestic violence. 11.454 Section 11.454 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.454 Domestic violence. (a) A person who commits domestic violence...

  5. 25 CFR 11.454 - Domestic violence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Domestic violence. 11.454 Section 11.454 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.454 Domestic violence. (a) A person who commits domestic violence...

  6. 25 CFR 11.454 - Domestic violence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Domestic violence. 11.454 Section 11.454 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.454 Domestic violence. (a) A person who commits domestic violence...

  7. 25 CFR 11.454 - Domestic violence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Domestic violence. 11.454 Section 11.454 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.454 Domestic violence. (a) A person who commits domestic violence...

  8. 31 CFR 515.320 - Domestic bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Domestic bank. 515.320 Section 515.320... Domestic bank. The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office within the United States of any of the following which is not a national of a designated foreign country; any bank or trust...

  9. 31 CFR 535.320 - Domestic bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Domestic bank. 535.320 Section 535.320....320 Domestic bank. (a) The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office within the United States of any of the following which is not Iran or an Iranian entity: any bank or trust...

  10. 31 CFR 500.320 - Domestic bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Domestic bank. 500.320 Section 500... § 500.320 Domestic bank. The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office within the United States of any of the following which is not a national of any designated foreign country: Any bank or...

  11. 31 CFR 535.320 - Domestic bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Domestic bank. 535.320 Section 535.320....320 Domestic bank. (a) The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office within the United States of any of the following which is not Iran or an Iranian entity: any bank or trust...

  12. 31 CFR 515.320 - Domestic bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Domestic bank. 515.320 Section 515.320... Domestic bank. The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office within the United States of any of the following which is not a national of a designated foreign country; any bank or trust...

  13. 31 CFR 515.320 - Domestic bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Domestic bank. 515.320 Section 515... § 515.320 Domestic bank. The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office within the United States of any of the following which is not a national of a designated foreign country; any bank or...

  14. 31 CFR 535.320 - Domestic bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Domestic bank. 535.320 Section 535... § 535.320 Domestic bank. (a) The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office within the United States of any of the following which is not Iran or an Iranian entity: any bank or trust...

  15. 31 CFR 515.320 - Domestic bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Domestic bank. 515.320 Section 515.320... Domestic bank. The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office within the United States of any of the following which is not a national of a designated foreign country; any bank or trust...

  16. 31 CFR 535.320 - Domestic bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Domestic bank. 535.320 Section 535.320....320 Domestic bank. (a) The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office within the United States of any of the following which is not Iran or an Iranian entity: any bank or trust...

  17. 31 CFR 515.320 - Domestic bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Domestic bank. 515.320 Section 515.320... Domestic bank. The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office within the United States of any of the following which is not a national of a designated foreign country; any bank or trust...

  18. 31 CFR 535.320 - Domestic bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Domestic bank. 535.320 Section 535.320....320 Domestic bank. (a) The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office within the United States of any of the following which is not Iran or an Iranian entity: any bank or trust...

  19. Risk Factors for Domestic Violence in Curacao

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wijk, N. Ph. L.; de Bruijn, J. G. M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single…

  20. A pipeline strategy for grain crop domestication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent decades, in the interest of diversifying the global food system, improving human nutrition, or making agriculture more sustainable, there have been many proposals for domesticating or completing the domestication of wild plants or semi-domesticated “orphan” crops. However, very few new cro...

  1. 7 CFR 983.12 - Domestic shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Domestic shipments. 983.12 Section 983.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.12 Domestic shipments. Domestic shipments means shipments to...

  2. Genetics and consequences of crop domestication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenotypic variation has been manipulated by humans during crop domestication, which occurred primarily between 3,000 and 10,000 years ago in the various centers of origin around the world. The process of domestication has profound consequences on crops, where the domesticate has moderately reduced ...

  3. Coal Formation and Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orem, W. H.; Finkelman, R. B.

    2003-12-01

    Coal is one of the most complex and challenging natural materials to analyze and to understand. Unlike most rocks, which consist predominantly of crystalline mineral grains, coal is largely an assemblage of amorphous, degraded plant remains metamorphosed to various degrees and intermixed with a generous sprinkling of minute syngenetic, diagenetic, epigenetic, and detrital mineral grains, and containing within its structure various amounts of water, oils, and gases. Each coal is unique, having been derived from different plant sources over geologic time, having experienty -45ced different thermal histories, and having been exposed to varying geologic processes. This diversity presents a challenge to constructing a coherent picture of coal geochemistry and the processes that influence the chemical composition of coal.Despite the challenge coal presents to geochemists, a thorough understanding of the chemistry and geology of this complex natural substance is essential because of its importance to our society. Coal is, and will remain for sometime, a crucial source of energy for the US and for many other countries (Figure 1). In the USA, more than half of the electricity is generated by coal-fired power plants, and almost 90% of the coal mined in the USA is sold for electricity generation (Pierce et al., 1996). It is also an important source of coke for steel production, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and even perfumes ( Schobert, 1987). It may also, in some cases, be an economic source of various mineral commodities. The utilization of coal through mining, transport, storage, combustion, and the disposal of the combustion by-products, also presents a challenge to geochemists because of the wide range of environmental and human health problems arising from these activities. The sound and effective use of coal as a natural resource requires a better understanding of the geochemistry of coal, i.e., the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the coal that control its

  4. Coal depositional models in some Tertiary and Cretaceous coal fields in the U.S. Western Interior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flores, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    Detailed stratigraphic and sedimentological studies of the Tertiary Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, and the Cretaceous Blackhawk Formation and Star Point Sandstone in the Wasatch Plateau, Utah, indicate that the depositional environments of coal played a major role in controlling coal thickness, lateral continuity, potential minability, and type of floor and roof rocks. The potentially minable, thick coal beds of the Tongue River Member were primarily formed in long-lived floodbasin backswamps of upper alluvial plain environment. Avulsion of meandering fluvial channels contributed to the erratic lateral extent of coals in this environment. Laterally extensive coals formed in floodbasin backswamps of a lower alluvial plain environment; however, interruption by overbank and crevasse-splay sedimentation produced highly split and merging coal beds. Lacustrine sedimentation common to the lower alluvial plain, similar to the lake-covered lower alluvial valley of the Atchafalaya River Basin, is related to a high-constructive delta. In contrast to these alluvial coals are the deltaic coal deposits of the Blackhawk Formation. The formation consists of three coal populations: upper delta plain, lower delta plain, and 'back-barrier'. Coals of the lower delta plain are thick and laterally extensive, in contrast to those of the upper delta plain and 'back-barrier', which contain abundant, very thin and laterally discontinuous carbonaceous shale partings. The reworking of the delta-front sediments of the Star Point Sandstone suggests that the Blackhawk-Star Point delta was a high-destructive system. ?? 1979.

  5. State coal profiles, January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-02

    The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

  6. Apparatus for processing coal

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.M.

    1985-02-12

    Apparatus for processing coal to prevent the creation of extreme fines and to extract pyrites from the principal coal fractions in which there are two air circulating circuits having processing components which cooperate in their respective circuits to result initially in substantial extraction of fines in the first circuit while releasing principal granulated coal fractions and pyrites to the second circuit where specific gravity separation of the pyrites and principal coal fractions occur. The apparatus includes a source of drying heat added to the air moving in the circuits and delivered at the places where surface moisture drying is most effective. Furthermore, the apparatus is operated so as to reduce coal to a desired size without creating an excessive volume of extreme fines, to separate pyrites and hard to grind components by specific gravity in a region where fines are not present, and to use the extreme fines as a source of fuel to generate drying heat.

  7. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1991-05-16

    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  8. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.; Deo, M.; Eddings, E.; Sarofim, A.; Gueishen, K.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.; Mandalaparty, P.; Zhang, H.

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  9. Coal resources of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    In the late 1800s, whaling ships carried Alaskan coal, and it was used to thaw ground for placer gold mining. Unfortunate and costly political maneuvers in the early 1900s delayed coal removal, but the Alaska Railroad and then World War II provided incentives for opening mines. Today, 33 million acres (about 9% of the state) is classified as prospectively valuable for coal, much of it under federal title. Although the state's geology is poorly known, potential for discovery of new fields exists. The US Geological Survey estimates are outdated, although still officially used. The total Alaska onshore coal resource is estimated to be 216 to 4216 billion tons of which 141 billion tons are identified resources; an additional 1430 billion tons are believed to lie beneath Cook Inlet. Transportation over mountain ranges and wetlands is the biggest hurdle for removal. Known coal sources and types are described and mapped. 1 figure.

  10. Concentration and distribution of sixty-one elements in coals from DPR Korea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hu, Jiawen; Zheng, B.; Finkelman, R.B.; Wang, B.; Wang, M.; Li, S.; Wu, D.

    2006-01-01

    Fifty coal samples (28 anthracite and 22 lignites) were collected from both main and small coal mines in DPR Korea prioritized by resource distribution and coal production. The concentrations of 61 elements in 50 coal samples were determined by several multielement and element-specific techniques, including inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), ion chromatogram (IC), cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS), and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS). The ranges, arithmetic means and geometric means of concentrations of these elements are presented. A comparison with crustal abundances (Clarke values) shows that some potentially hazardous elements in the coals of DPR Korea are highly enriched Li, B, S, Cl, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Sn, Sb, W, Te, Hg, Ag, Pb, and La, Ce, Dy, Tm, Ge, Mo, Cs, Tl, Bi, Th and U are moderately enriched. A comparison of ranges and means of elemental concentrations in DPR Korea, Chinese, and world coals shows the ranges of most elements in DPR Korea coals are very close to the ranges of world coals. Arithmetic means of most elements in DPR Korea coals are close to that of American coals. Most elements arithmetic means are higher in Jurassic and Paleogene coals than coals of other ages. In DPR Korea coals, only seven elements in early Permian coals are higher than other periods: Li, Zn, Se, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Bi. Only five elements B, As, Sr, Mo, W in Neogene coals have arithmetic means higher than others. SiO2 and Al2O 3 in ashes are more than 70% except six samples. The correlation between ash yields and major elements from high to low is in the order of Si>Al>Ti>K>Mg>Fe>Na>Ca>P>S. Most elements have high positive correlation with ash (r>0.5) and show high inorganic affinity. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 19 CFR 123.13 - Foreign repairs to domestic locomotives and other domestic railroad equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... domestic railroad equipment. 123.13 Section 123.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... International Traffic § 123.13 Foreign repairs to domestic locomotives and other domestic railroad equipment. A report of the first arrival in the United States of a domestic locomotive or other railroad...

  12. 19 CFR 123.13 - Foreign repairs to domestic locomotives and other domestic railroad equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... domestic railroad equipment. 123.13 Section 123.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... International Traffic § 123.13 Foreign repairs to domestic locomotives and other domestic railroad equipment. A report of the first arrival in the United States of a domestic locomotive or other railroad...

  13. 19 CFR 123.13 - Foreign repairs to domestic locomotives and other domestic railroad equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... domestic railroad equipment. 123.13 Section 123.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... International Traffic § 123.13 Foreign repairs to domestic locomotives and other domestic railroad equipment. A report of the first arrival in the United States of a domestic locomotive or other railroad...

  14. 19 CFR 123.13 - Foreign repairs to domestic locomotives and other domestic railroad equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... domestic railroad equipment. 123.13 Section 123.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... International Traffic § 123.13 Foreign repairs to domestic locomotives and other domestic railroad equipment. A report of the first arrival in the United States of a domestic locomotive or other railroad...

  15. Geological and geochemical characteristics of high arsenic coals from endemic arsenosis areas in southwestern Guizhou Province, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ding, Z.; Zheng, B.; Long, J.; Belkin, H.E.; Finkelman, R.B.; Chen, C.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Southwest Guizhou Province is one of the most important areas of disseminated, sediment-hosted-type Au deposits in China and is an important area of coal production. The chemistry of most of the coals in SW Guizhou is similar to those in other parts of China. Their As content is near the Chinese coal average, but some local, small coal mines contain high As coals. The highest As content is up to 3.5 wt.% in the coal. The use of high As coals has caused in excess of 3000 cases of As poisoning in several villages. The high As coals are in the Longtan formation, which is an alternating marine facies and terrestrial facies. The coals are distributed on both sides of faults that parallel the regional anticlinal axis. The As content of coal is higher closer to the fault plane. The As content of coal changes greatly in different coal beds and different locations of the same bed. Geological structures such as anticlines, faults and sedimentary strata control the distribution of high As coals. Small Au deposits as well as Sb, Hg, and Th mineralization, are found near the high As coals. Although some As-bearing minerals such as pyrite, arsenopyrite, realgar (?), As-bearing sulfate, As-bearing clays, and phosphate are found in the high As coals, their contents cannot account for the abundance of As in some coals. Analysis of the coal indicates that As mainly exists in the form of As5+ and As3+, perhaps, combined with organic compounds. The occurrence of such exceptionally high As contents in coal and the fact that the As is dominantly organically associated are unique observations. ?? 201 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  16. Attitudes toward Women Coal Miners in an Appalachian Coal Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trent, Roger B.; Stout-Wiegand, Nancy

    1987-01-01

    In a coal mining community, a survey revealed that the level of negative sentiment toward women coal miners was substantial and varied by gender role. Male coal miners were negative toward female co-workers, but they supported women's right to coal mine jobs, while female homemakers did not. (Author/CH)

  17. Apparatus and method for feeding coal into a coal gasifier

    DOEpatents

    Bissett, Larry A.; Friggens, Gary R.; McGee, James P.

    1979-01-01

    This invention is directed to a system for feeding coal into a gasifier operating at high pressures. A coal-water slurry is pumped to the desired pressure and then the coal is "dried" prior to feeding the coal into the gasifier by contacting the slurry with superheated steam in an entrained bed dryer for vaporizing the water in the slurry.

  18. Infrared Microspectroscopy Of Coals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenner, Douglas

    1983-11-01

    Coals consist of a wide range of plant matter which has undergone metamorphosis, as well as various minerals. The organic matter in the coal contains the remnants of a variety of parts of plants such as trunks, bark, roots, stems, leaves, spores, and so forth. The various coherent remnant organic bodies in the coal, which are generally of microscopic dimensions, are termed "macerals." Most analyses of the chemical functionalities in coals use the coal in a ground-up particulate form which contains a huge variety of different macerals as well as minerals. Such analyses give only averaged information, rather than being characteristic of any individual component of the coal. Now, however, a new microscopic IR (infrared) spectroscopy technique makes possible the chemical analysis of individual macerals of coal. Areas as small as 25 micrometers across can be analyzed. The technique utilizes a computer-controlled IR microspectrophotometer (which is now commercially available) in conjunction with newly-developed procedures for preparing uncontaminated thin sections of coals. The sample preparation technique utilizes a hydrocarbon-soluble adhesive to cement the coal to a glass slide for final grinding. This enables removal of the adhesive with a solvent to produce an uncontaminated specimen. A suitable thickness for the specimens has been found to he roughly 15 micrometers. Using this technique variations from specimen to specimen within a given maceral type, or even heterogeneities within a single maceral, can be determined. Preliminary experiments using this new technique have been made on single macerals of homogeneous vitrinite and liptinite in Illinois No. 6 coal. The spectra clearly contrasted the more aromatic and hydroxyl-containing structure of the vitrinite to the more aliphatic structure of the liptinite. In this paper, details of this new technique are discussed, and recent results, including representative spectra, are presented.

  19. Volcanic ash in feed coal and its influence on coal combustion products

    SciTech Connect

    Brownfield, M.E.; Affolter, R.H.; Cathcart, J.D.; Brownfield, I.K.; Hower, J.C.; Stricker, G.D.; O'Connor, J.T.

    2000-07-01

    The US Geological Survey and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research are collaborating with an Indiana Utility to determine the physical and chemical properties of feed coal and coal combustion products (CCPs) from a coal-fired power plant. The plant utilizes a low-sulfur (.23--.47 weight percent S) coal from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of feed coal samples identified two mineral suites. A primary suite (not authigenic) consisting of quartz (detrital and volcanic beta-form grains), biotite, and minor zircon and a secondary authigenic mineral suite containing calcite, alumino-phosphates (crandallite and gorceixite), kaolinite, quartz, anatase, barite, and pyrite. The authigenic minerals are attributed to air-fall and reworked volcanic ash that was deposited in peat-forming mires. The Powder River Basin feed coals contain higher amounts of Ba, Ca, Mg, Na, Sr, and P compared to other analyzed eastern coals. These elements are associated with alumino-phosphate, biotite, calcite, and clay minerals. The element associations are indicative of coal that incorporated volcanic ash during deposition. XRD analysis of CCPs revealed a predominance of glass, perovskite, lime, gehlenite, quartz, and phosphates with minor amounts of periclase, anhydrite, hematite, and spinel group minerals in the fly ash; and quartz, plagioclase (albite and anorthite), pyroxene (augite and fassaite), rhodonite, and akermanite in the bottom ash. Microprobe and SEM analysis of fly ash samples revealed quartz, zircon, monazite, euhedral laths of corundum with merrillite, hematite, dendritic spinels/ferrites, and rounded grains of wollastonite with periclase. The abundant Ca and Mg mineral phases in the fly ashes are related to the presence of carbonate, clay, and phosphate minerals in the feed coal. The Ca- and Mg-rich mineral phases in the CCPs can be attributed to volcanic minerals deposited in the

  20. Artificial cloning of domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Keefer, Carol L

    2015-07-21

    Domestic animals can be cloned using techniques such as embryo splitting and nuclear transfer to produce genetically identical individuals. Although embryo splitting is limited to the production of only a few identical individuals, nuclear transfer of donor nuclei into recipient oocytes, whose own nuclear DNA has been removed, can result in large numbers of identical individuals. Moreover, clones can be produced using donor cells from sterile animals, such as steers and geldings, and, unlike their genetic source, these clones are fertile. In reality, due to low efficiencies and the high costs of cloning domestic species, only a limited number of identical individuals are generally produced, and these clones are primarily used as breed stock. In addition to providing a means of rescuing and propagating valuable genetics, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) research has contributed knowledge that has led to the direct reprogramming of cells (e.g., to induce pluripotent stem cells) and a better understanding of epigenetic regulation during embryonic development. In this review, I provide a broad overview of the historical development of cloning in domestic animals, of its application to the propagation of livestock and transgenic animal production, and of its scientific promise for advancing basic research. PMID:26195770

  1. Artificial cloning of domestic animals

    PubMed Central

    Keefer, Carol L.

    2015-01-01

    Domestic animals can be cloned using techniques such as embryo splitting and nuclear transfer to produce genetically identical individuals. Although embryo splitting is limited to the production of only a few identical individuals, nuclear transfer of donor nuclei into recipient oocytes, whose own nuclear DNA has been removed, can result in large numbers of identical individuals. Moreover, clones can be produced using donor cells from sterile animals, such as steers and geldings, and, unlike their genetic source, these clones are fertile. In reality, due to low efficiencies and the high costs of cloning domestic species, only a limited number of identical individuals are generally produced, and these clones are primarily used as breed stock. In addition to providing a means of rescuing and propagating valuable genetics, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) research has contributed knowledge that has led to the direct reprogramming of cells (e.g., to induce pluripotent stem cells) and a better understanding of epigenetic regulation during embryonic development. In this review, I provide a broad overview of the historical development of cloning in domestic animals, of its application to the propagation of livestock and transgenic animal production, and of its scientific promise for advancing basic research. PMID:26195770

  2. Neuropsychological correlates of domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Cohen, R A; Rosenbaum, A; Kane, R L; Warnken, W J; Benjamin, S

    1999-01-01

    Neuropsychological functioning was assessed in 39 males who had committed domestic violence (batterers) and compared to 63 nonviolent (both maritally discordant and satisfied) subjects recruited by advertisement. Subjects were subsequently divided into two groups (head injured, nonhead injured) and these groups were also contrasted as a function of batterer status. Tests were administered to assess for cognitive and behavioral functions, including executive dysfunction, hypothesized to be a factor contributing to propensity for violence. Questionnaires and structured clinical interviews were used to assess marital discord, emotional distress, and violent behaviors. Batterers differed from nonbatterers across several cognitive domains: executive, learning, memory, and verbal functioning. Batterers were reliably discriminated from nonbatterers based on three neuropsychological tasks: Digit Symbol, Recognition Memory Test-Words, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Neuropsychological performance was the strongest correlate of domestic violence of all clinical variables measured. However, the inclusion of two other variables, severity of emotional distress and history of head injury, together with the neuropsychological indices provided the strongest correlation with batterers status. Among batterers, neuropsychological performance did not vary as a function of head injury status, indicating that while prior head injury was correlated with batterer status, it was not the sole basis for their impairments. The findings suggest that current cognitive status, prior brain injury, childhood academic problems, as well as psychosocial influences, contribute along with coexisting emotional distress to a propensity for domestic violence. PMID:10751047

  3. Domestic violence against elderly women.

    PubMed Central

    Grunfeld, A. F.; Larsson, D. M.; Mackay, K.; Hotch, D.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the experiences of four elderly abused women to better understand the influence of violence on their lives and the implications for intervention by family physicians. DESIGN: Qualitative case presentations of four elderly women who participated in a hospital-based domestic violence intervention program. SETTING: The Domestic Violence Program of Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Centre, an intervention program based in the emergency department. PARTICIPANTS: Four English-speaking working-class women ranging from 63 to 73 years of age who had experienced battering by male partners and who volunteered after expressing interest in follow-up service by the Domestic Violence Program. METHOD: Qualitative analysis of the oral narratives of the four participants. FINDINGS: Eleven themes emerging from the women's narratives were identified and illustrated with verbatim quotations: the marriage license as a hitting license, violence in the family of origin, powerlessness, women treated as objects, survival, barriers to leaving, memories linked to children's ages, community support, turning points, integrating and processing experiences of abuse, and witnessing and helping other women. CONCLUSIONS: The abuse these women endured greatly influenced their lives and health. PMID:8792018

  4. Public drinking water violations in mountaintop coal mining areas of West Virginia, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountaintop coal mining (MTM) has adverse impacts on surface and ground water quality. Instances of domestic well water contamination from mining activities have been documented, but possible mining impacts on public water treatment systems are unknown. We analyzed the U.S. Envir...

  5. Sage-Grouse and Coal-Bed Methane: Can They Coexist within the Powder River Basin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    Concerns are growing regarding the availability of sustainable energy sources due to a rapidly growing human population and a better understanding of climate change. In recent years, the United States has focused much attention on developing domestic energy sources, which include coal-bed methane (CBM). There are vast deposits of the natural gas…

  6. Control of mercury emissions from coal fired electric uitlity boilers: An update

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coal-fired power plants in the U.S. are known to be the major anthropogenic source of domestic mercury emissions. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recently proposed to reduce emissions of mercury from these plants. In March 2005, EPA plans to promulgate final regulat...

  7. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEM CAPABILITIES FOR COAL-FIRED STEAM GENERATORS. VOLUME II. TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the availability of technology for reducing SO2 emissions from coal-fired steam generators using flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Foreign and domestic lime, limestone, double alkali, magnesium slurry, and Wellman-Lord FGD systems are described, and the...

  8. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEM CAPABILITIES FOR COAL-FIRED STEAM GENERATORS. VOLUME I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the availability of technology for reducing SO2 emissions from coal-fired steam generators using flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Foreign and domestic lime, limestone, double alkali, magnesium slurry, and Wellman-Lord FGD systems are described, and the...

  9. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, D.D.; Bencho, J.R.

    1995-11-01

    In 1988, ICF Kaiser Engineers was awarded DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88881 to research, develop, engineer and design a commercially acceptable advanced froth flotation coal cleaning technology. The DOE initiative is in support of the continued utilization of our most abundant energy resource. Besides the goal of commercialability, coal cleaning performance and product quality goals were established by the DOE for this and similar projects. primary among these were the goals of 85 percent energy recovery and 85 percent pyrite rejection. Three nationally important coal resources were used for this project: the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, the Upper Freeport coal, and the Illinois No. 6 coal. Following is a summary of the key findings of this project.

  10. Coal in a changing climate

    SciTech Connect

    Lashof, D.A.; Delano, D.; Devine, J.

    2007-02-15

    The NRDC analysis examines the changing climate for coal production and use in the United States and China, the world's two largest producers and consumers of coal. The authors say that the current coal fuel cycle is among the most destructive activities on earth, placing an unacceptable burden on public health and the environment. There is no such thing as 'clean coal.' Our highest priorities must be to avoid increased reliance on coal and to accelerate the transition to an energy future based on efficient use of renewable resources. Energy efficiency and renewable energy resources are technically capable of meeting the demands for energy services in countries that rely on coal. However, more than 500 conventional coal-fired power plants are expected in China in the next eight years alone, and more than 100 are under development in the United States. Because it is very likely that significant coal use will continue during the transition to renewables, it is important that we also take the necessary steps to minimize the destructive effects of coal use. That requires the U.S. and China to take steps now to end destructive mining practices and to apply state of the art pollution controls, including CO{sub 2} control systems, to sources that use coal. Contents of the report are: Introduction; Background (Coal Production; Coal Use); The Toll from Coal (Environmental Effects of Coal Production; Environmental Effects of Coal Transportation); Environmental Effects of Coal Use (Air Pollutants; Other Pollutants; Environmental Effects of Coal Use in China); What Is the Future for Coal? (Reducing Fossil Fuel Dependence; Reducing the Impacts of Coal Production; Reducing Damage From Coal Use; Global Warming and Coal); and Conclusion. 2 tabs.

  11. Coal preparation becomes more efficient

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.E.

    1982-05-01

    Although many coal preparation processes have not changed greatly over the years, the mining of more difficult-to-wash coal, strict quality requirements, and competitive markets are forcing operators to adopt more advanced methods. Today, modern coal beneficiation plants can be as complex as chemical or mineral process plants. Coal preparation plant equipment is described briefly.

  12. Impregnating Coal With Calcium Carbonate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Pramod K.; Voecks, Gerald E.; Gavalas, George R.

    1991-01-01

    Relatively inexpensive process proposed for impregnating coal with calcium carbonate to increase rates of gasification and combustion of coal and to reduce emission of sulfur by trapping sulfur in calcium sulfide. Process involves aqueous-phase reactions between carbon dioxide (contained within pore network of coal) and calcium acetate. Coal impregnated with CO2 by exposing it to CO2 at high pressure.

  13. Coal Activities for Secondary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Coal Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This collection of lesson plans designed for teachers of 4th- through 12th-grade students utilizes an assortment of teaching strategies for topics related to coal and the coal industry. Activities cover the following topics: coal formation; coal identification; "the geologist's dilemma" (a supply and demand activity); geologic time and the…

  14. Coal market momentum converts skeptics

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-01-15

    Tight supplies, soaring natural gas prices and an improving economy bode well for coal. Coal Age presents it 'Forecast 2006' a survey of 200 US coal industry executives. Questions asked included predicted production levels, attitudes, expenditure on coal mining, and rating of factors of importance. 7 figs.

  15. Workshop on the utilization of coal as an alternative to petroleum fuels in the Andean region. Volume 2. Contributed papers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-06-28

    Since the advent of the petroleum crisis in the mid-seventies, with its escalating fuel-oil prices, coal production has shown a substantial increase. Worldwide coal reserves are large, and the technology exists to exploit these reserves. Andean countries, especially Peru, are known to have significant underutilized coal reserves, which could prove socially and economically attractive for energy policy and planning and for long-term self-sufficiency. At present, many industrial operations and electric-generating facilities in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru are dependent on fuel-oil from diminishing domestic reserves or from imports. With current prices of coal generally about half those for residual petroleum fuels (based on energy content), the potential exists for exploitation of Andean coal as an alternative to petroleum fuels. Greater use of coal resources would help meet the demand for increased energy needed to improve living standards and for increased industrialization in the area.

  16. Microbial desulfurization of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, G.F.; Dugan, P.R.; McIlwain, M.E.; Stevens, C.J.

    1992-03-01

    A bacterial coal depyritization process was operated at a large laboratory scale for four months treating almost 500 kg of an Illinois {number_sign}6 coal supplied by the Monterey Coal Company and ground to 80% minus 100 mesh. The main features of the process were a 200-{ell} aerated trough bioreactor consisting of a channel 2.44 m long with a porous aeration tube running along its V-shaped bottom, an inclined 40 {mu}m screen for dewatering the coal slurry, and a liquid recycle stream to inoculate the incoming coal with the bacteria and ferric ion required for pyrite removal. The process was started up with large numbers of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans bacteria grown on iron media in a specially built electrolysis cell. Natural selection pressures then created a mixed culture well adapted to the coal from these bacteria, smaller numbers of T. thiooxidans added later, and the bacteria carried into the system with the coal. The process was run at 2.0 < pH < 2.7 and 18{degrees}C < temperature < 22{degrees}C.

  17. Environmentally conscious coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Hickmott, D.D.; Brown, L.F.; Currier, R.P.

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to evaluate the environmental impacts of home-scale coal combustion on the Navajo Reservation and develop strategies to reduce adverse health effects associated with home-scale coal combustion. Principal accomplishments of this project were: (1) determination of the metal and gaseous emissions of a representative stove on the Navajo Reservation; (2) recognition of cyclic gaseous emissions in combustion in home-scale combustors; (3) `back of the envelope` calculation that home-scale coal combustion may impact Navajo health; and (4) identification that improved coal stoves require the ability to burn diverse feedstocks (coal, wood, biomass). Ultimately the results of Navajo home-scale coal combustion studies will be extended to the Developing World, particularly China, where a significant number (> 150 million) of households continue to heat their homes with low-grade coal.

  18. Structure and thermoplasticity of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Komaki, I.; Itagaki, S.; Miura, T.

    2004-07-01

    Chapters cover: molecular structure and thermoplastic properties of coal; {sup 1}H-nmr study of relaxation mechanisms of coal aggregate; structural changes of coal macromolecules during softening; quantitative estimation of metaplsat in heat-treated coal by solvent extraction; effects of surface oxidation on thermoplastic properties of coal; analysis of dilatation and contraction of coal during carbonization; formation mechanisms of coke texture during resolidification; modified CPD model for coal devolatilization; mathematical modelling of coke mechanical structure; and simulating particulate dynamics in the carbonization process based on discrete element treatment.

  19. Eastern Kentucky coal resource series

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This ten-year study was sponsored by the Institute for Mining and Minerals Research of the University of Kentucky through a grant from the Kentucky Energy Cabinet. The available reports include: Western Kentucky Coal Resources, 1978, $25; Coal Resources of the Princess District, 1983, $10; Coal Resources of the Southwestern District, 1983, $10; Coal Resources of the Licking River District, 1983, $10; Coal Resources of the Hazard District, 1983, $5; Coal Resources of the Big Sandy District, 1983, $5; Coal Resources of the Upper Cumberland District, 1983, $5.

  20. Clean coal technology: The new coal era

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Program is a government and industry cofunded effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal processes in a series of full-scale showcase`` facilities built across the country. Begun in 1986 and expanded in 1987, the program is expected to finance more than $6.8 billion of projects. Nearly two-thirds of the funding will come from the private sector, well above the 50 percent industry co-funding expected when the program began. The original recommendation for a multi-billion dollar clean coal demonstration program came from the US and Canadian Special Envoys on Acid Rain. In January 1986, Special Envoys Lewis and Davis presented their recommendations. Included was the call for a 5-year, $5-billion program in the US to demonstrate, at commercial scale, innovative clean coal technologies that were beginning to emerge from research programs both in the US and elsewhere in the world. As the Envoys said: if the menu of control options was expanded, and if the new options were significantly cheaper, yet highly efficient, it would be easier to formulate an acid rain control plan that would have broader public appeal.

  1. Prospects for coal slurry pipelines in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    The coal slurry pipeline segment of the transport industry is emerging in the United States. If accepted it will play a vital role in meeting America's urgent energy requirements without public subsidy, tax relief, or federal grants. It is proven technology, ideally suited for transport of an abundant energy resource over thousands of miles to energy short industrial centers and at more than competitive costs. Briefly discussed are the following: (1) history of pipelines; (2) California market potential; (3) slurry technology; (4) environmental benefits; (5) market competition; and (6) a proposed pipeline.

  2. Farewell, king coal!

    PubMed

    Seaton, Anthony

    2016-04-01

    Coal mining provided the power for the industrial development of the West, at great cost to the health of the workforce and, from industrial pollution, of the population. Medical appreciation of the diseases of miners was slow to develop and has been marked by controversy relating to the roles of coal and quartz and the causation of emphysema. Research by the MRC and the British coal industry resolved these issues as the industry itself declined. However, from the research has come an understanding of the influence of inhalation of different inhaled pollutants on human health that has been applied to predicting and preventing possible hazards of developing nanotechnologies. PMID:26856364

  3. Underground gasification of coal

    DOEpatents

    Pasini, III, Joseph; Overbey, Jr., William K.; Komar, Charles A.

    1976-01-20

    There is disclosed a method for the gasification of coal in situ which comprises drilling at least one well or borehole from the earth's surface so that the well or borehole enters the coalbed or seam horizontally and intersects the coalbed in a direction normal to its major natural fracture system, initiating burning of the coal with the introduction of a combustion-supporting gas such as air to convert the coal in situ to a heating gas of relatively high calorific value and recovering the gas. In a further embodiment the recovered gas may be used to drive one or more generators for the production of electricity.

  4. A commitment to coal

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, Q.

    2006-07-15

    Quin Shea explores the need for power generated with coal and the advanced technologies that will generate that power more efficiently and cleanly in the future. The article considers the air and waste challenges of using coal, including progress toward reducing emissions of SO{sub 2}, NOx, and mercury; efforts to address CO{sub 2}, including voluntary programs like the Climate Challenge, Power Partners, and the Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate; and the regulation and beneficial use of coal-combustion byproducts (e.g., fly ash, bottom ash, flue gas desulfurization materials, boiler slag). 17 refs.

  5. Clean coal today

    SciTech Connect

    1990-01-01

    This is the first issue of the Clean Coal Today publication. Each issue will provide project status reports, feature articles about certain projects and highlight key events concerning the US Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Projects described in this publication include: Colorado-Ute Electric Association Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor Project at Nucla, Colorado; Babcock and Wilcox coolside and limestone injection multistage burner process (dry sorbent injection); Coal Tech's Advanced Cyclone Combustor Project; and the TIDD pressurized fluidized bed combustor combined cycle facility in Brilliant, Ohio. The status of other projects is included.

  6. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, C.H.

    1986-02-11

    A process is described for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range. 1 fig.

  7. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, Charles H.

    1986-01-01

    A process for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range.

  8. Solar and stellar photospheric abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allende Prieto, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    The determination of photospheric abundances in late-type stars from spectroscopic observations is a well-established field, built on solid theoretical foundations. Improving those foundations to refine the accuracy of the inferred abundances has proven challenging, but progress has been made. In parallel, developments on instrumentation, chiefly regarding multi-object spectroscopy, have been spectacular, and a number of projects are collecting large numbers of observations for stars across the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, promising important advances in our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. After providing a brief description of the basic physics and input data involved in the analysis of stellar spectra, a review is made of the analysis steps, and the available tools to cope with large observational efforts. The paper closes with a quick overview of relevant ongoing and planned spectroscopic surveys, and highlights of recent research on photospheric abundances.

  9. Coal Cleaning by Gas Agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Meiyu Shen; Royce Abbott; T. D. Wheelock

    1998-03-01

    The gas agglomeration method of coal cleaning was demonstrated with laboratory scale mixing equipment which made it possible to generate microscopic gas bubbles in aqueous suspensions of coal particles. A small amount of i-octane was introduced to enhance the hydrophobicity of the coal. Between 1.0 and 2.5 v/w% i-octane was sufficient based on coal weight. Coal agglomerates or aggregates were produced which were bound together by small gas bubbles.

  10. Coal desulfurization by aqueous chlorination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Vasilakos, N.; Corcoran, W. H.; Grohmann, K.; Rohatgi, N. K. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method of desulfurizing coal is described in which chlorine gas is bubbled through an aqueous slurry of coal at low temperature below 130 degrees C., and at ambient pressure. Chlorinolysis converts both inorganic and organic sulfur components of coal into water soluble compounds which enter the aqueous suspending media. The media is separated after chlorinolysis and the coal dechlorinated at a temperature of from 300 C to 500 C to form a non-caking, low-sulfur coal product.

  11. Hydrocarbon-generating potential of humic coals from dry pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shan-Tan Lu; Kaplan, I.R. )

    1990-02-01

    For comparing the oil- and gas-generation potential of humic coals, two immature subbituminous coals (Australia Gippsland, an oil-prone Eocene coal (R{sub 0} = 0.37%, HI = 237.5), and a gas-prone Rocky Mountain Upper Cretaceous coal (R{sub 0} = 0.45%, HI = 110.5)) as well as an exinite-poor, vitrinite-dominant, Gulf Coast Wilcox lignite (R{sub 0} = 0.32%, HI = 183.7) were selected for dry pyrolysis at 300{degree}C from 2 to 1,000 hr. The results indicate that Australia Gippsland Eocene coal (GEC) generated four times as much liquid hydrocarbon, i.e., C{sub 12+}-saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, as the Rocky Mountain coal (RMC), whereas both coals have the same potential for generation of gaseous hydrocarbons. Wilcox lignite (WL) generated as much liquid hydrocarbon as GEC. The two coals (GEC and RMC) and lignite (WL) exhibit similar H/C ratios, have high pristane/phytane ratios of 5.0, 4.5, and 5.1, respectively, and {delta}{sub 13}C values of {minus}25.7, {minus}24.9, and {minus}25.5% in RMC, GEC, and WL, respectively. The study suggests that the relative abundances of various macerals (exinite, vitrinite, and inertinite) are not critical to the hydrocarbon-generating potential. Rather, the amount of dispersed algae and bacterial material (unidentified) in the coal probably is more significant. 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Robust Abundance Estimation in Animal Abundance Surveys with Imperfect Detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surveys of animal abundance are central to the conservation and management of living natural resources. However, detection uncertainty complicates the sampling process of many species. One sampling method employed to deal with this problem is depletion (or removal) surveys in whi...

  13. Coronal abundances and their variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saba, Julia L. R.

    1995-01-01

    This contract supports the investigation of elemental abundances in the solar corona, principally through analysis of high-resolution soft X-ray spectra from the Flat Crystal Spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission. The goals of the study are a characterization of the mean values of relative abundances of elements accessible in the FCS data, and information on the extent and circumstances of their variability. This report is a summation of the data analysis and reporting activities which occurred during the period of 15 April 1994 to 15 April 1995.

  14. The solar abundance of beryllium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, J. E.; Aller, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    The solar abundance of beryllium is deduced from high-resolution Kitt Peak observations of the 3130.43- and 3131.08-A lines of Be II interpreted by the method of spectrum synthesis. The results are in good agreement with those previously obtained by Grevesse (1968) and by Hauge and Engvold (1968) and indicate that in the photospheric layers, beryllium is depleted below the chondritic value by a factor of about two. It is found that the beryllium abundance is equal to logN(Be)/N(H) + 12 = 1.08 plus or minus 0.05.

  15. Chemical Abundances of Symbiotic Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gałan, C.; Mikołajewska, J.; Hinkle, K. H.; Joyce, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    High resolution (R ˜ 50000), near-IR spectra were used to measure photospheric abundances of CNO and elements around the iron peak for 24 symbiotic giants. Spectrum synthesis was employed using local thermal equilibrium and hydrostatic model atmospheres. The metallicities are distributed in a wide range with maximum around [Fe/H] ˜-0.4 - - 0.3 dex. Enrichment in 14N indicates that all the sample giants have experienced the first dredge-up. The relative abundance of [Ti/Fe] is generally large in red symbiotic systems.

  16. Coronal Abundances and Their Variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saba, Julia L. R.

    1996-01-01

    This contract supported the investigation of elemental abundances in the solar corona, principally through analysis of high-resolution soft X-ray spectra from the Flat Crystal Spectrometer on NASA's Solar Maximum Mission. The goals of the study were a characterization of the mean values of relative abundances of elements accessible in the FCS data, and information on the extent and circumstances of their variability. This is the Final Report, summarizing the data analysis and reporting activities which occurred during the period of performance, June 1993 - December 1996.

  17. SOLAR MODELS WITH REVISED ABUNDANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, S. L.; Li, T. D.; Yang, W. M.; Li, L. H.

    2011-04-20

    We present new solar models in which we use the latest low abundances and further include the effects of rotation, magnetic fields, and extra-mixing processes. We assume that the extra-element mixing can be treated as a diffusion process, with the diffusion coefficient depending mainly on the solar internal configuration of rotation and magnetic fields. We find that such models can well reproduce the observed solar rotation profile in the radiative region. Furthermore, the proposed models can match the seismic constraints better than the standard solar models, also when these include the latest abundances, but neglect the effects of rotation and magnetic fields.

  18. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  19. Preliminary study on the mode of occurrence of arsenic in high arsenic coals from southwest Guizhou Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ding, Z.; Zheng, B.; Zhang, Jiahua; Belkin, H.E.; Finkelman, R.B.; Zhao, F.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Chen, C.

    1999-01-01

    Coal samples from high arsenic coal areas have been analyzed by electron microprobe analyzer (EMPA), scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (SEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), low temperature ashing (LTA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), instrument neutron activation analysis (INAA) and wet chemical analysis. Although some As-bearing minerals such as pyrite, arsenopyrite, realgar (?), As-bearing sulfate, and As-bearing clays are found in the high arsenic coals, their contents do not account for the abundance of arsenic in the some coals. Analysis of the coal indicates that arsenic exists mainly in the form of As5+ and As3+, combined with compounds in the organic matrix. The occurrence of such exceptionally high arsenic contents in coal and the fact that the arsenic is dominantly organically associated are unique observations. The modes of occurrence of arsenic in high As-coals are discussed.

  20. Environmental implications of United States coal exports: a comparative life cycle assessment of future power system scenarios.

    PubMed

    Bohnengel, Barrett; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia; Bergerson, Joule

    2014-08-19

    Stricter emissions requirements on coal-fired power plants together with low natural gas prices have contributed to a recent decline in the use of coal for electricity generation in the United States. Faced with a shrinking domestic market, many coal companies are taking advantage of a growing coal export market. As a result, U.S. coal exports hit an all-time high in 2012, fueled largely by demand in Asia. This paper presents a comparative life cycle assessment of two scenarios: a baseline scenario in which coal continues to be burned domestically for power generation, and an export scenario in which coal is exported to Asia. For the coal export scenario we focus on the Morrow Pacific export project being planned in Oregon by Ambre Energy that would ship 8.8 million tons of Powder River Basin (PRB) coal annually to Asian markets via rail, river barge, and ocean vessel. Air emissions (SOx, NOx, PM10 and CO2e) results assuming that the exported coal is burned for electricity generation in South Korea are compared to those of a business as usual case in which Oregon and Washington's coal plants, Boardman and Centralia, are retrofitted to comply with EPA emissions standards and continue their coal consumption. Findings show that although the environmental impacts of shipping PRB coal to Asia are significant, the combination of superior energy efficiency among newer South Korean coal-fired power plants and lower emissions from U.S. replacement of coal with natural gas could lead to a greenhouse gas reduction of 21% in the case that imported PRB coal replaces other coal sources in this Asian country. If instead PRB coal were to replace natural gas or nuclear generation in South Korea, greenhouse gas emissions per unit of electricity generated would increase. Results are similar for other air emissions such as SOx, NOx and PM. This study provides a framework for comparing energy export scenarios and highlights the importance of complete life cycle assessment in

  1. Geochemistry and petrology of selected coal samples from Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belkin, H.E.; Tewalt, S.J.; Hower, J.C.; Stucker, J.D.; O'Keefe, J. M. K.

    2009-01-01

    Indonesia has become the world's largest exporter of thermal coal and is a major supplier to the Asian coal market, particularly as the People's Republic of China is now (2007) and perhaps may remain a net importer of coal. Indonesia has had a long history of coal production, mainly in Sumatra and Kalimantan, but only in the last two decades have government and commercial forces resulted in a remarkable coal boom. A recent assessment of Indonesian coal-bed methane (CBM) potential has motivated active CBM exploration. Most of the coal is Paleogene and Neogene, low to moderate rank and has low ash yield and sulfur (generally < 10 and < 1??wt.%, respectively). Active tectonic and igneous activity has resulted in significant rank increase in some coal basins. Eight coal samples are described that represent the major export and/or resource potential of Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua. Detailed geochemistry, including proximate and ultimate analysis, sulfur forms, and major, minor, and trace element determinations are presented. Organic petrology and vitrinite reflectance data reflect various precursor flora assemblages and rank variations, including sample composites from active igneous and tectonic areas. A comparison of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) elements abundance with world and US averages show that the Indonesian coals have low combustion pollution potential.

  2. Mining conditions and deposition in the Amburgy (Westphalian B) coal, Breathitt Group, central Appalachian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Greb, S.F.; Eble, C.F.; Hower, J.C.; Phillips, T.L.

    1996-09-01

    Carbonate concretions called clay balls are rare in the Central Appalachian Basin, but were found in the Amburgy coal overlain by the Kendrick Shale Member. In the study area, the Amburgy coal is 0.7 to 0.9 meters thick, moderate to high in sulfur content, moderate to high in ash yield, and mostly bright clarain, except at the top near the area of coal balls, where durain of limited extent occurs. The coal is co-dominated by lycopod and cordaites; tree spores, with subordinate Calamites. The local durain layer is dominated by Densosporites, produced by the shrubby lycopod Ompbalophloios. Coal balls were encountered where the durain is immediately overlain by a coquinoid hash of broken and whole marine fossils, along a trend of coal thinning. The coal balls contain permineralized cordaites, lycopods, calamites, and ferns. The Amburgy coal accumulated as a succession of planar mires. Local splits in the seam are common, indicating contemporaneous clastic influx. The abundance of Cordaites may indicate brackish mire waters related to a coastal position and initial eustatic rise of the marginal Kendrick seas. Near the end of the Amburgy mires, the high ash-Omphalopbloios association is interpreted as a local area that was being drowned by the Kendrick transgression. Ravinement within this local embayment, rapid inundation by marine waters, and concentration of carbonate-bearing waters within transgressive scours may have contributed to the formation of coal balls and pyritic concretions in the upper part of the coal bed.

  3. Antinuclear antibodies in domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Gershwin, Laurel J

    2005-06-01

    Antinuclear antibodies in domestic animal species have been commonly detected for many years, with the greatest frequency occurring in dogs as well as horses and cats. Most commonly, the assay used in diagnostic laboratories is indirect immunofluorescence on HEP-2 cells, similar to that used in human medicine, but with the exception that species-specific antiglobulin reagents are used instead of antihuman immunoglobulin. To a lesser extent, the Crithidia luciliae test for antibodies to double-stranded DNA has been used. Several research groups have used other assays. PMID:16014553

  4. Shell Coal Gasification Project. Final report on eighteen diverse feeds

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.N.; Kiszka, M.B.; Mahagaokar, U.; Krewinghaus, A.B.

    1993-07-01

    This report summarizes the overall performance of the Shell Coal Gasification Process at SCGP-1 in Deer Park, Texas. It covers the four year demonstration and experimental program jointly conducted by Shell oil and Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij, with support from the Electric Power Research Institute. The report describes coal properties and gasification results on eighteen feeds which include seventeen diverse coals from domestic and international markets, and petroleum coke. Comparisons between design premises and actual performance on two key feeds, Illinois No. 5 coal and Texas lignite demonstrate that the plant met and exceeded design targets on all key process parameters. Equipment performance results are discussed for all areas of the plant based on periodic interim inspections, and the final inspection conducted in April 1991 after the end of operations. The report describes process control tests conducted in gasifier lead and turbine lead configurations, demonstrating the ability of the process to meet utility requirements for load following. Environmental result on the process for a wide variety of feedstocks are documented. These results underscore the inherent strength of the SCGP technology in meeting and exceeding all environmental standards for air, water and solids. The excellent applicability of the Shell Coal Gasification Process in integrated combined cycle power generation systems is described in view of the high efficiency derived from this process.

  5. Jameson cell coal flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Manlapig, E.V.; Jackson, B.R.; Harbort, G.J.; Cheng, C.Y.

    1993-12-31

    Jameson cells have been applied to coal flotation recent years. Some coal mines have Jameson cells in operation, some are having Jameson cells installed and others are considering to use Jameson cells in their flotation circuits. As an example, the application of Jameson cells in Newlands Coal Mine is described and the performance of the Jameson Cell is summarized. It has been demonstrated that the Jameson Cell performs well with minimum supervision and maintenance. The test work conducted at the University of Queensland and Blackwater Coal Mine has showed that the Jameson Cell performed consistently well at all testing conditions. The parallel tests have demonstrated that the Jameson Cell is superior over the conventional cells.

  6. Quarterly coal report

    SciTech Connect

    Young, P.

    1996-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the third quarter of 1995. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  7. Coal markets squeeze producers

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, M.

    2005-12-01

    Supply/demand fundamentals seem poised to keep prices of competing fossil fuels high, which could cushion coal prices, but increased mining and transportation costs may squeeze producer profits. Are markets ready for more volatility?

  8. Coal Liquefaction Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, T. F.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a graduate level engineering course offered at the University of Southern California on coal liquefaction processes. Lecture topics and course requirements are discussed. A 64-item bibliography of papers used in place of a textbook is included. (BT)

  9. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Karr, Jr., Clarence

    1977-04-19

    An improved coal liquefaction process is provided which enables conversion of a coal-oil slurry to a synthetic crude refinable to produce larger yields of gasoline and diesel oil. The process is characterized by a two-step operation applied to the slurry prior to catalytic desulfurization and hydrogenation in which the slurry undergoes partial hydrogenation to crack and hydrogenate asphaltenes and the partially hydrogenated slurry is filtered to remove minerals prior to subsequent catalytic hydrogenation.

  10. Coal Liquefaction desulfurization process

    DOEpatents

    Givens, Edwin N.

    1983-01-01

    In a solvent refined coal liquefaction process, more effective desulfurization of the high boiling point components is effected by first stripping the solvent-coal reacted slurry of lower boiling point components, particularly including hydrogen sulfide and low molecular weight sulfur compounds, and then reacting the slurry with a solid sulfur getter material, such as iron. The sulfur getter compound, with reacted sulfur included, is then removed with other solids in the slurry.

  11. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Skinner, Ronald W.; Tao, John C.; Znaimer, Samuel

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved process for the production of liquid carbonaceous fuels and solvents from carbonaceous solid fuels, especially coal. The claimed improved process includes the hydrocracking of the light SRC mixed with a suitable hydrocracker solvent. The recycle of the resulting hydrocracked product, after separation and distillation, is used to produce a solvent for the hydrocracking of the light solvent refined coal.

  12. Characterization of biodegraded coals

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, R.M.; Franz, J.A.; Campbell, J.C.; Linehan, J.C.; Stewart, D.L.; Thomas, B.L.

    1988-04-01

    We have been able to accomplish the biodegradation of bituminous Illinois No. 6 coal after a pretreatment consisting of air oxidation, using a culture of the fungus Penicillium sp. We report in this paper results of chemical and spectrometric analyses of the starting materials and products from Illinois No. 6 coal biodegradation, and compare the results with those previously reported from the biodegradation of leonardite. 13 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  13. Method for coal liquefaction

    DOEpatents

    Wiser, W.H.; Oblad, A.G.; Shabtai, J.S.

    1994-05-03

    A process is disclosed for coal liquefaction in which minute particles of coal in intimate contact with a hydrogenation catalyst and hydrogen arc reacted for a very short time at a temperature in excess of 400 C at a pressure of at least 1500 psi to yield over 50% liquids with a liquid to gaseous hydrocarbon ratio in excess of 8:1. 1 figures.

  14. American coal imports 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Frank Kolojeski

    2007-09-15

    As 2007 ends, the US coal industry passes two major milestones - the ending of the Synfuel tax break, affecting over 100M st annually, and the imposition of tighter and much more expensive safety measures, particularly in deep mines. Both of these issues, arriving at a time of wretched steam coal price levels, promise to result in a major shake up in the Central Appalachian mining sector. The report utilizes a microeconomic regional approach to determine whether either of these two schools of thought have any validity. Transport, infrastructure, competing fuels and regional issues are examined in detail and this forecasts estimates coal demand and imports on a region by region basis for the years 2010 and 2015. Some of the major highlights of the forecast are: Import growth will be driven by steam coal demand in the eastern and southern US; Transport will continue to be the key driver - we believe that inland rail rates will deter imports from being railed far inland and that the great majority of imports will be delivered directly by vessel, barge or truck to end users; Colombian coal will be the overwhelmingly dominant supply source and possesses a costs structure to enable it to compete with US-produced coal in any market conditions; Most of the growth will come from existing power plants - increasing capacity utilization at existing import facilities and other plants making investments to add imports to the supply portfolio - the growth is not dependent upon a lot of new coal fired capacity being built. Contents of the report are: Key US market dynamics; International supply dynamics; Structure of the US coal import market; and Geographic analysis.

  15. THE SOLAR FLARE IRON ABUNDANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, K. J. H.; Dennis, B. R. E-mail: Brian.R.Dennis@nasa.gov

    2012-03-20

    The abundance of iron is measured from emission line complexes at 6.65 keV (Fe line) and 8 keV (Fe/Ni line) in RHESSI X-ray spectra during solar flares. Spectra during long-duration flares with steady declines were selected, with an isothermal assumption and improved data analysis methods over previous work. Two spectral fitting models give comparable results, viz., an iron abundance that is lower than previous coronal values but higher than photospheric values. In the preferred method, the estimated Fe abundance is A(Fe) = 7.91 {+-} 0.10 (on a logarithmic scale, with A(H) = 12) or 2.6 {+-} 0.6 times the photospheric Fe abundance. Our estimate is based on a detailed analysis of 1898 spectra taken during 20 flares. No variation from flare to flare is indicated. This argues for a fractionation mechanism similar to quiet-Sun plasma. The new value of A(Fe) has important implications for radiation loss curves, which are estimated.

  16. Coal repository. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-11-01

    The Coal Repository Project was initiated in 1980 by the Department of Energy/Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center to provide a centralized system for the collection of well characterized coal samples, and distribution to organizations involved in the chemical beneficiation of coal and related research. TRW Energy Development Group, together with its subcontractor Commercial Testing and Engineering Company, established the Coal Repository at the TRW Capistrano Chemical Facility, which is the location of the DOE-owned Multi-Use Fuel and Energy Processes Test Plant (MEP). Twenty tons each of three coals (Illinois No. 6, Kentucky No. 11 (West), and Pittsburgh No. 8 (from an Ohio mine)) were collected, characterized, and stored under a nitrogen atmosphere. Ten tons of each coal are 3/8-inch x 0, five tons of each are 14-mesh x 0, and five tons of each are 100-mesh x 0. Although TRW was within budget and on schedule, Department of Energy funding priorities in this area were altered such that the project was terminated prior to completion of the original scope of work. 9 figures, 3 tables.

  17. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles; Larson, Doug; Carr, Tom; Rath, Larry; Balash, Peter; Yih-Huei, Wan

    2008-11-28

    Growing concern over climate change is prompting new thinking about the technologies used to generate electricity. In the future, it is possible that new government policies on greenhouse gas emissions may favor electric generation technology options that release zero or low levels of carbon emissions. The Western U.S. has abundant wind and coal resources. In a world with carbon constraints, the future of coal for new electrical generation is likely to depend on the development and successful application of new clean coal technologies with near zero carbon emissions. This scoping study explores the economic and technical feasibility of combining wind farms with advanced coal generation facilities and operating them as a single generation complex in the Western US. The key questions examined are whether an advanced coal-wind hybrid (ACWH) facility provides sufficient advantages through improvements to the utilization of transmission lines and the capability to firm up variable wind generation for delivery to load centers to compete effectively with other supply-side alternatives in terms of project economics and emissions footprint. The study was conducted by an Analysis Team that consists of staff from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Western Interstate Energy Board (WIEB). We conducted a screening level analysis of the economic competitiveness and technical feasibility of ACWH generation options located in Wyoming that would supply electricity to load centers in California, Arizona or Nevada. Figure ES-1 is a simple stylized representation of the configuration of the ACWH options. The ACWH consists of a 3,000 MW coal gasification combined cycle power plant equipped with carbon capture and sequestration (G+CC+CCS plant), a fuel production or syngas storage facility, and a 1,500 MW wind plant. The ACWH project is connected to load centers by a 3,000 MW

  18. Coal science for the clean use of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, J.S.

    1994-12-31

    Coal will need to be retained as a major source of energy in the next century. It will need to be used more effectively and more cleanly. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to introduce new technology supported by a local community of science and technology. Only in this way can the full benefits of international advances in coal utilization be fully achieved. It is important that full advantage be taken of the advances that have been achieved in laboratory techniques and in the better understanding of fundamental coal science. This paper reviews available technologies in power generation, industrial process heat, coal combustion, coal gasification, and coal analytical procedures.

  19. Coal systems - A gateway to predictive assessments of coal production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milici, R.

    2004-01-01

    Current federal and State coal assessments estimate resources in the ground, resources available for mining, and economically recoverable resources. None of these assessments predict the amount of coal that may be produced from an assessed area in the near future (???20 years). Predictive assessments of coal production would be based on an understanding of the regional coal geology (coal systems), potential demand, and knowledge of the mining history of the region. The output of the predictive assessment would be a supply curve - a probability distribution of the amount of coal expected to be produced from current and new mines during the assessment period.

  20. Genetic patterns of domestication in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) and wild Cajanus relatives.

    PubMed

    Kassa, Mulualem T; Penmetsa, R Varma; Carrasquilla-Garcia, Noelia; Sarma, Birinchi K; Datta, Subhojit; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Varshney, Rajeev K; von Wettberg, Eric J B; Cook, Douglas R

    2012-01-01

    Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) is an annual or short-lived perennial food legume of acute regional importance, providing significant protein to the human diet in less developed regions of Asia and Africa. Due to its narrow genetic base, pigeonpea improvement is increasingly reliant on introgression of valuable traits from wild forms, a practice that would benefit from knowledge of its domestication history and relationships to wild species. Here we use 752 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) derived from 670 low copy orthologous genes to clarify the evolutionary history of pigeonpea (79 accessions) and its wild relatives (31 accessions). We identified three well-supported lineages that are geographically clustered and congruent with previous nuclear and plastid sequence-based phylogenies. Among all species analyzed Cajanus cajanifolius is the most probable progenitor of cultivated pigeonpea. Multiple lines of evidence suggest recent gene flow between cultivated and non-cultivated forms, as well as historical gene flow between diverged but sympatric species. Evidence supports that primary domestication occurred in India, with a second and more recent nested population bottleneck focused in tropical regions that is the likely consequence of pigeonpea breeding. We find abundant allelic variation and genetic diversity among the wild relatives, with the exception of wild species from Australia for which we report a third bottleneck unrelated to domestication within India. Domesticated C. cajan possess 75% less allelic diversity than the progenitor clade of wild Indian species, indicating a severe "domestication bottleneck" during pigeonpea domestication. PMID:22745789

  1. Genetic Patterns of Domestication in Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) and Wild Cajanus Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Kassa, Mulualem T.; Penmetsa, R. Varma; Carrasquilla-Garcia, Noelia; Sarma, Birinchi K.; Datta, Subhojit; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Varshney, Rajeev K.; von Wettberg, Eric J. B.; Cook, Douglas R.

    2012-01-01

    Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) is an annual or short-lived perennial food legume of acute regional importance, providing significant protein to the human diet in less developed regions of Asia and Africa. Due to its narrow genetic base, pigeonpea improvement is increasingly reliant on introgression of valuable traits from wild forms, a practice that would benefit from knowledge of its domestication history and relationships to wild species. Here we use 752 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) derived from 670 low copy orthologous genes to clarify the evolutionary history of pigeonpea (79 accessions) and its wild relatives (31 accessions). We identified three well-supported lineages that are geographically clustered and congruent with previous nuclear and plastid sequence-based phylogenies. Among all species analyzed Cajanus cajanifolius is the most probable progenitor of cultivated pigeonpea. Multiple lines of evidence suggest recent gene flow between cultivated and non-cultivated forms, as well as historical gene flow between diverged but sympatric species. Evidence supports that primary domestication occurred in India, with a second and more recent nested population bottleneck focused in tropical regions that is the likely consequence of pigeonpea breeding. We find abundant allelic variation and genetic diversity among the wild relatives, with the exception of wild species from Australia for which we report a third bottleneck unrelated to domestication within India. Domesticated C. cajan possess 75% less allelic diversity than the progenitor clade of wild Indian species, indicating a severe “domestication bottleneck” during pigeonpea domestication. PMID:22745789

  2. Actinide abundances in ordinary chondrites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagee, B.; Bernatowicz, T.J.; Podosek, F.A.; Johnson, M.L.; Burnett, D.S.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of 244Pu fission Xe, U, Th, and light REE (LREE) abundances, along with modal petrographic determinations of phosphate abundances, were carried out on equilibrated ordinary chondrites in order to define better the solar system Pu abundance and to determine the degree of variation of actinide and LREE abundances. Our data permit comparison of the directly measured Pu/ U ratio with that determined indirectly as (Pu/Nd) ?? (Nd/U) assuming that Pu behaves chemically as a LREE. Except for Guaren??a, and perhaps H chondrites in general, Pu concentrations are similar to that determined previously for St. Se??verin, although less precise because of higher trapped Xe contents. Trapped 130Xe 136Xe ratios appear to vary from meteorite to meteorite, but, relative to AVCC, all are similar in the sense of having less of the interstellar heavy Xe found in carbonaceous chondrite acid residues. The Pu/U and Pu/Nd ratios are consistent with previous data for St. Se??verin, but both tend to be slightly higher than those inferred from previous data on Angra dos Reis. Although significant variations exist, the distribution of our Th/U ratios, along with other precise isotope dilution data for ordinary chondrites, is rather symmetric about the CI chondrite value; however, actinide/(LREE) ratios are systematically lower than the CI value. Variations in actinide or LREE absolute and relative abundances are interpreted as reflecting differences in the proportions and/or compositions of more primitive components (chondrules and CAI materials?) incorporated into different regions of the ordinary chondrite parent bodies. The observed variations of Th/U, Nd/U, or Ce/U suggest that measurements of Pu/U on any single equilibrated ordinary chondrite specimen, such as St. Se??verin, should statistically be within ??20-30% of the average solar system value, although it is also clear that anomalous samples exist. ?? 1990.

  3. 3D Geological Modeling of CoalBed Methane (CBM) Resources in the Taldykuduk Block Karaganda Coal Basin, Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadykov, Raman; Kiponievich Ogay, Evgeniy; Royer, Jean-Jacques; Zhapbasbayev, Uzak; Panfilova, Irina

    2015-04-01

    Coal Bed Methane (CBM) is gas stored in coal layers. It can be extracted from wells after hydraulic fracturing and/or solvent injection, and secondary recovery techniques such as CO2 injection. Karaganda Basin is a very favorable candidate region to develop CBM production for the following reasons: (i) Huge gas potential; (ii) Available technologies for extracting and commercializing the gas produced by CBM methods; (iii) Experience in degassing during underground mining operations for safety reasons; (iv) Local needs in energy for producing electricity for the industrial and domestic market. The objectives of this work are to model the Taldykuduk block coal layers and their properties focusing on Coal Bed Methane production. It is motivated by the availability of large coal bed methane resources in Karaganda coal basin which includes 4 300 Bm3 equivalent 2 billion tons of coal (B = billion = 109) with gas content 15-25 m3/t of coal (for comparison San Juan basin (USA) has < 20 m3/t). The CBM reserves estimations are about: Saransk block, 26.3 Bm3 and Taldykuduk block, 23.5 Bm3. Methane (CH4) can be considered as an environmentally-friendly fuel compared to coal. Actually, the methane extracted during mining is released in the atmosphere, collecting it for recovering energy will reduce CO2 equivalent emissions by 36 Mt, good news regarding climate warming issues. The exploitation method will be based on a EOR technology consisting in injecting CO2 which replaces methane in pores because it has a higher adsorption capacity than CH4; exploiting CBM by CO2 injection provides thus a safe way to sequestrate CO2 in adsorbed form. The 3D geological model was built on Gocad/Skua using the following available data set: 926 wells and large area (7 x 12 km). No seismic data; coal type and chemical components (S, ash, …); unreliable available cross-section & maps due to old acquisition; quality mature coal; complex heterogeneous fractures network reported on geological cross

  4. Influence of palaeotopography on the distribution of coal in the Western Coalfield, Sydney basin, Australia: comparison with South African coals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutton, A. C.; Feldtmann, R.

    1996-07-01

    The Western Coalfield of New South Wales, centred on the town of Lithgow, is one of several areas of the Sydney Basin (Australia) that produces Permian coals for export and for domestic: use. The lowermost seam of the Illawarra Coal Measures, the Lithgow seam, was deposited in an alluvial fan to proximal braidplain complex. The style of clastic sedimentation and coal seam development was strongly influenced by the palaeotopography, especially basement highs which represent erosional remnants of the pre-Permian erosional cycle. The influence of the palaeotopography is seen in the distribution of the basal conglomerate, the thickness of the basal Shoalhaven Group (which is thinnest on and near the basement highs), the location of the alluvial fan facies of the Illawarra Coal Measures (which are adjacent to the highs and received a large proportion of the clastic detritus from these highs) and the development of the coal seams (which are distal to the basement highs). Of great significance is the location of economic sections of the Lithgow seam with respect to palaeotopographic highs. Adjacent to the highs the Lithgow seam is either too thin or contains too many claystone bands to allow mining. Between the highs: and further to the east and north of the highs, where the precursor peats formed on the floodplain and interfan areas, the seam is of significantly better quality and has been mined.

  5. Renal biomarkers in domestic species.

    PubMed

    Hokamp, Jessica A; Nabity, Mary B

    2016-03-01

    Current conventional tests of kidney damage and function in blood (serum creatinine and urea nitrogen) and urine (urine protein creatinine ratio and urine specific gravity) are widely used for diagnosis and monitoring of kidney disease. However, they all have important limitations, and additional markers of glomerular filtration rate and glomerular and tubular damage are desirable, particularly for earlier detection of renal disease when therapy is most effective. Additionally, urinary markers of kidney damage and function may help localize damage to the affected portion of the kidney. In general, the presence of high- and intermediate-molecular weight proteins in the urine are indicative of glomerular damage, while low-molecular weight proteins and enzymes in the urine suggest tubular damage due to decreased reabsorption of proteins, direct tubular damage, or both. This review aims to discuss many of these new blood and urinary biomarkers in domestic veterinary species, focusing primarily on dogs and cats, how they may be used for diagnosis of renal disease, and their limitations. Additionally, a brief discussion of serum creatinine is presented, highlighting its limitations and important considerations for its improved interpretation in domestic species based on past literature and recent studies. PMID:26918420

  6. DNA testing and domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Mellersh, Cathryn

    2012-02-01

    There are currently about 80 different DNA tests available for mutations that are associated with inherited disease in the domestic dog, and as the tools available with which to dissect the canine genome become increasingly sophisticated, this number can be expected to rise dramatically over the next few years. With unrelenting media pressure focused firmly on the health of the purebred domestic dog, veterinarians and dog breeders are turning increasingly to DNA tests to ensure the health of their dogs. It is ultimately the responsibility of the scientists who identify disease-associated genetic variants to make sensible choices about which discoveries are appropriate to develop into commercially available DNA tests for the lay dog breeder, who needs to balance the need to improve the genetic health of their breed with the need to maintain genetic diversity. This review discusses some of the factors that should be considered along the route from mutation discovery to DNA test and some representative examples of DNA tests currently available. PMID:22071879

  7. Genetic analysis of sunflower domestication.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, John M; Tang, Shunxue; Knapp, Steven J; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2002-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling phenotypic differences between cultivated sunflower and its wild progenitor were investigated in an F(3) mapping population. Composite interval mapping revealed the presence of 78 QTL affecting the 18 quantitative traits of interest, with 2-10 QTL per trait. Each QTL explained 3.0-68.0% of the phenotypic variance, although only 4 (corresponding to 3 of 18 traits) had effects >25%. Overall, 51 of the 78 QTL produced phenotypic effects in the expected direction, and for 13 of 18 traits the majority of QTL had the expected effect. Despite being distributed across 15 of the 17 linkage groups, there was a substantial amount of clustering among QTL controlling different traits. In several cases, regions influencing multiple traits harbored QTL with antagonistic effects, producing a cultivar-like phenotype for some traits and a wild-like phenotype for others. On the basis of the directionality of QTL, strong directional selection for increased achene size appears to have played a central role in sunflower domestication. None of the other traits show similar evidence of selection. The occurrence of numerous wild alleles with cultivar-like effects, combined with the lack of major QTL, suggests that sunflower was readily domesticated. PMID:12136028

  8. Domestic Abuse in Behshahr, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rahmatian, Ali Akbar; Hosseini, Seyyed Ali Asghar

    2015-01-01

    Background: The United Nations in a resolution defined abuse as any violent act that is primarily or exclusively committed against females and results in physical, sexual and psychological harm. Objectives: The aim of this research was to study the contributing factors of husband’s violence against females residing in the city of Behshahr, Iran. Materials and Methods: We distributed a specifically designed questionnaire among 380 married females aged between 15 and 65 years. According to the Morgan table, the subjects were randomly selected from a list of 301000 females. Demographic data and data on spouse abuse were then analyzed using the SPSS software, Spearman and Pearson correlation coefficients. According to Cronbach’s alpha, the reliability of the questionnaire was 0.96. Results: All of the females reported at least one form of violence within the past year, with R square 0.20, indicating that the independent variable can explain 20% of the violence against females. years of marriage, female’s education, male’s addiction and the number of children each had their share in the explanation of violence against females. Conclusions: This study revealed a high prevalence of domestic violence in the sample population. Violence existed among all ages, social categories and male occupational groups, and also involved both employed and unemployed females. The situation regarding domestic abuse is similar worldwide. PMID:26834799

  9. Genetic testing in domestic cats

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    Varieties of genetic tests are currently available for the domestic cat that support veterinary health care, breed management, species identification, and forensic investigations. Approximately thirty-five genes contain over fifty mutations that cause feline health problems or alterations in the cat’s appearance. Specific genes, such as sweet and drug receptors, have been knocked-out of Felidae during evolution and can be used along with mtDNA markers for species identification. Both STR and SNP panels differentiate cat race, breed, and individual identity, as well as gender-specific markers to determine sex of an individual. Cat genetic tests are common offerings for commercial laboratories, allowing both the veterinary clinician and the private owner to obtain DNA test results. This article will review the genetic tests for the domestic cat, and their various applications in different fields of science. Highlighted are genetic tests specific to the individual cat, which are a part of the cat’s genome. PMID:22546621

  10. ''HOT'' coal problems and prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Rigsby, L.S.

    1982-12-01

    The self-heating of coal is a phenomena which, when understood, need not be feared by anyone engaged in the handling or shipping of coal. A lack of knowledge of how and why coal self-heats has resulted in spontaneous combustion events which should never have occurred. A lack of knowledge as to what to do to prevent and stop coal fires has lead to increased damages and costs. Self-heating of coal resulting in spontaneous combustion is a rare event. There is some evidence suggesting that spontaneous combustion of coal cargoes is linked to periods of rapidly accelerating demand. When demand is high lower quality coals are sold. When coal heating problems occur they can often be traced to these low quality coals. The history of the ocean transport of coal has been a long and successful one. While occasional incidences of coal fires have occurred their frequency has declined over the past 80 years. The recent occurrence of a few related incidents has caused concern throughout the shipping community about the problem of coal heating and coal fires. The purpose of this paper is to increase the general level of knowledge concerning coal self-heating.

  11. Wheat domestication: lessons for the future.

    PubMed

    Charmet, Gilles

    2011-03-01

    Wheat was one of the first crops to be domesticated more than 10,000 years ago in the Middle East. Molecular genetics and archaeological data have allowed the reconstruction of plausible domestication scenarios leading to modern cultivars. For diploid einkorn and tetraploid durum wheat, a single domestication event has likely occurred in the Karacadag Mountains, Turkey. Following a cross between tetraploid durum and diploid T. tauschii, the resultant hexaploid bread wheat was domesticated and disseminated around the Caucasian region. These polyploidisation events facilitated wheat domestication and created genetic bottlenecks, which excluded potentially adaptive alleles. With the urgent need to accelerate genetic progress to confront the challenges of climate change and sustainable agriculture, wild ancestors and old landraces represent a reservoir of underexploited genetic diversity that may be utilized through modern breeding methods. Understanding domestication processes may thus help identifying new strategies. PMID:21377616

  12. Chicken domestication: from archeology to genomics.

    PubMed

    Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Rognon, Xavier

    2011-03-01

    Current knowledge on chicken domestication is reviewed on the basis of archaeological, historical and molecular data. Several domestication centres have been identified in South and South-East Asia. Gallus gallus is the major ancestor species, but Gallus sonneratii has also contributed to the genetic make-up of the domestic chicken. Genetic diversity is now distributed among traditional populations, standardized breeds and highly selected lines. Knowing the genome sequence has accelerated the identification of causal mutations determining major morphological differences between wild Gallus and domestic breeds. Comparative genome resequencing between Gallus and domestic chickens has identified 21 selective sweeps, one involving a non-synonymous mutation in the TSHR gene, which functional consequences remain to be explored. The resequencing approach could also identify candidate genes responsible of quantitative traits loci (QTL) effects in selected lines. Genomics is opening new ways to understand major switches that took place during domestication and subsequent selection. PMID:21377614

  13. Maps showing coal-split boundaries, isopachs of coal splits, coal resources, and coal quality; Mammoth coal bed, Paleocene Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation, Bull Mountain coal field, south-central Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Connor, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    A U.S. Geological Survey Maps are presented showing coal-split boundaries, isopachs of coal splits, coal resources, and coal quality; mammoth coal bed, Paleocene Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation, Bull Mountain coal field, south-central Montana.

  14. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Program update 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program) is a $7.14 billion cost-shared industry/government technology development effort. The program is to demonstrate a new generation of advanced coal-based technologies, with the most promising technologies being moved into the domestic and international marketplace. Clean coal technologies being demonstrated under the CCT program are creating the technology base that allows the nation to meet its energy and environmental goals efficiently and reliably. The fact that most of the demonstrations are being conducted at commercial scale, in actual user environments, and under conditions typical of commercial operations allows the potential of the technologies to be evaluated in their intended commercial applications. The technologies are categorized into four market sectors: advanced electric power generation systems; environmental control devices; coal processing equipment for clean fuels; and industrial technologies. Sections of this report describe the following: Role of the Program; Program implementation; Funding and costs; The road to commercial realization; Results from completed projects; Results and accomplishments from ongoing projects; and Project fact sheets. Projects include fluidized-bed combustion, integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants, advanced combustion and heat engines, nitrogen oxide control technologies, sulfur dioxide control technologies, combined SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} technologies, coal preparation techniques, mild gasification, and indirect liquefaction. Industrial applications include injection systems for blast furnaces, coke oven gas cleaning systems, power generation from coal/ore reduction, a cyclone combustor with S, N, and ash control, cement kiln flue gas scrubber, and pulse combustion for steam coal gasification.

  15. Germline modification of domestic animals

    PubMed Central

    Tang, L.; González, R.; Dobrinski, I.

    2016-01-01

    Genetically-modified domestic animal models are of increasing significance in biomedical research and agriculture. As authentic ES cells derived from domestic animals are not yet available, the prevailing approaches for engineering genetic modifications in those animals are pronuclear microinjection and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT, also known as cloning). Both pronuclear microinjection and SCNT are inefficient, costly, and time-consuming. In animals produced by pronuclear microinjection, the exogenous transgene is usually inserted randomly into the genome, which results in highly variable expression patterns and levels in different founders. Therefore, significant efforts are required to generate and screen multiple founders to obtain animals with optimal transgene expression. For SCNT, specific genetic modifications (both gain-of-function and loss-of-function) can be engineered and carefully selected in the somatic cell nucleus before nuclear transfer. SCNT has been used to generate a variety of genetically modified animals such as goats, pigs, sheep and cattle; however, animals resulting from SCNT frequently suffer from developmental abnormalities associated with incomplete nuclear reprogramming. Other strategies to generate genetically-modified animals rely on the use of the spermatozoon as a natural vector to introduce genetic material into the female gamete. This sperm mediated DNA transfer (SMGT) combined with intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI) has relatively high efficiency and allows the insertion of large DNA fragments, which, in turn, enhance proper gene expression. An approach currently being developed to complement SCNT for producing genetically modified animals is germ cell transplantation using genetically modified male germline stem cells (GSCs). This approach relies on the ability of GSCs that are genetically modified in vitro to colonize the recipient testis and produce donor derived sperm upon transplantation. As the genetic change

  16. Coal from the swash zone - Herrin (no. 11) coal in western Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Hower, J.C.; Neuder, G.L.; Graese, A.M.; Trinkle, E.J.

    1984-04-01

    The Herrin is typically a bright, banded coal, with abundant vitrain and bright clarain, and has a parting, the ''blue band,'' in the lower third of the seam. Herrin coal from a core in the transition zone, however, is largely a coarse breccia with calcite cement. The blue band is present in its usual position as a slickensided clay rather than as indurated siltstone as at nearby sites. A fossiliferous limestone is present in the upper third of the seam. Breccia lithotypes are duller than would be expected in the Herrin coal, but do include fragments with appearance of vitrain and bright clarain. Microscopically, however, the predominate macerals of the lithotypes are not vitrinite, as would be expected, but rather semifusinite. Vitrinite group macerals are frequently ''pseudovitrinite'' or forms showing signs of degradation. The presence of limestone ''offshore'' and as a parting within the coal and the pervasive calcite cementing between breccia fragments points to the strong influence of marine conditions on the peat. Nonbrecciated bands indicate that at least some of the seam is autochthonous. The breccia suggest a high-energy environment where peat fragments were ripped up in place or transported in from elsewhere. Any peat transport was probably along the strike of the transition zone. The peat was oxidized during fragmentation and transport, resulting in alteration of humic macerals to semifusinite and fusinite.

  17. Arsenic concentrations in Chinese coals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingshi; Zheng, Baoshan; Wang, Binbin; Li, Shehong; Wu, Daishe; Hu, Jun

    2006-03-15

    The arsenic concentrations in 297 coal samples were collected from the main coal-mines of 26 provinces in China were determined by molybdenum blue coloration method. These samples were collected from coals that vary widely in coal rank and coal-forming periods from the five main coal-bearing regions in China. Arsenic content in Chinese coals range between 0.24 to 71 mg/kg. The mean of the concentration of Arsenic is 6.4+/-0.5 mg/kg and the geometric mean is 4.0+/-8.5 mg/kg. The level of arsenic in China is higher in northeastern and southern provinces, but lower in northwestern provinces. The relationship between arsenic content and coal-forming period, coal rank is studied. It was observed that the arsenic contents decreases with coal rank in the order: Tertiary>Early Jurassic>Late Triassic>Late Jurassic>Middle Jurassic>Late Permian>Early Carboniferous>Middle Carboniferous>Late Carboniferous>Early Permian; It was also noted that the arsenic contents decrease in the order: Subbituminous>Anthracite>Bituminous. However, compared with the geological characteristics of coal forming region, coal rank and coal-forming period have little effect on the concentration of arsenic in Chinese coal. The average arsenic concentration of Chinese coal is lower than that of the whole world. The health problems in China derived from in coal (arsenism) are due largely to poor local life-style practices in cooking and home heating with coal rather than to high arsenic contents in the coal. PMID:16256172

  18. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Sastry, K.V.S.; Hanson, J.S.; Narayanan, K.S.; Urbina, R.H.; Diao, J.; Yin, Y.; Harris, G.; Hu, Weibei; Zou, Y.; Chen, W.; Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Xhong, K.; Xiao, L.; Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R.; Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT; Columbia Univ., New York, NY; Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA )

    1989-08-15

    The primary goal of this project is to develop advanced flotation methods for coal cleaning in order to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur removal at 90% Btu yield, using coal samples procured from six major US coal seams. Concomitantly, the ash content of these coals is to be reduced to 6% or less. Investigation of mechanisms for the control of coal and pyrite surfaces prior to fine coal flotation is an important aspect of the project objectives. Large quantities of coal samples have been procured from six major seams. Samples of the same coals are also to be supplied to the University of Pittsburgh for selective agglomeration research. A second objective is to investigate factors involved in the progressive weathering and oxidation of coal stored in three storage modes, namely, open, covered and in an argon-inerted atmosphere, over a period of twelve months. After regular intervals of weathering, samples of the three base coals are to be collected and shipped to both the University of Pittsburgh and the University of California at Berkeley for characterization studies of the weathered coals. Work is divided into 8 tasks: (1) project work plan; (2) coal procurement and weathering; (3) coal characterization; (4) standard beneficiation test; (5) grinding studies; (6) surface modification studies; (7) exploratory R D and support; and (8) task integration and project management. 8 refs., 50 figs., 38 tabs.

  19. Mercury speciation and emissions from coal combustion in Guiyang, southwest China

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, S.L.; Feng, X.B.; Qiu, H.R.; Yin, G.X.; Yang, Z.C.

    2007-10-15

    Although China has been regarded as one of the largest anthropogenic mercury emission source with coal combustion, so far the actual measurements of Hg species and Hg emissions from the combustion and the capture of Hg in Chinese emission control devices were very limited. Aiming at Hg mercury species measurements in Guiyang, the capital city of Guizhou province in Southwest China, we studied flue gases of medium-to-small-sized industrial steam coal-firing boiler (10-30 t/h) with no control devices, medium-to-small-sized industrial steam coal-firing boiler with WFGD and large-scale coal combustion with ESPs using Ontario Hytro method. We obtained mercury emission factors of the three representative coal combustion and estimated mercury emissions in Guiyang in 2003, as well as the whole province from 1986 to 2002. Coal combustion in Guiyang emitted 1898 kg mercury to the atmosphere, of which 36% Hg is released from power plants, 41% from industrial coal combustion, and 23% from domestic users, and 267 kg is Hg{sup P}, 813 kg is Hg{sup 2+} and 817 kg is Hg{sup 0}. Mercury emission in Guizhou province increased sharply from 5.8 t in 1986 to 16.4 t in 2002. With the implementation of national economic strategy of China's Western Development, the annual mercury emission from coal combustion in the province is estimated to be about 32 t in 2015.

  20. 5. annual clean coal technology conference: powering the next millennium. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The Fifth Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference focuses on presenting strategies and approaches that will enable clean coal technologies to resolve the competing, interrelated demands for power, economic viability, and environmental constraints associated with the use of coal in the post-2000 era. The program addresses the dynamic changes that will result from utility competition and industry restructuring, and to the evolution of markets abroad. Current projections for electricity highlight the preferential role that electric power will have in accomplishing the long-range goals of most nations. Increase demands can be met by utilizing coal in technologies that achieve environmental goals while keeping the cost- per-unit of energy competitive. Results from projects in the DOE Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program confirm that technology is the pathway to achieving these goals. The industry/government partnership, cemented over the past 10 years, is focused on moving the clean coal technologies into the domestic and international marketplaces. The Fifth Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference provides a forum to discuss these benchmark issues and the essential role and need for these technologies in the post-2000 era. This volume contains technical papers on: advanced coal process systems; advanced industrial systems; advanced cleanup systems; and advanced power generation systems. In addition, there are poster session abstracts. Selected papers from this proceedings have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  1. Mercury speciation and emissions from coal combustion in Guiyang, Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shunlin; Feng, Xinbin; Qiu, Jianrong; Yin, Guoxun; Yang, Zaichan

    2007-10-01

    Although China has been regarded as one of the largest anthropogenic mercury emission source with coal combustion, so far the actual measurements of Hg species and Hg emissions from the combustion and the capture of Hg in Chinese emission control devices were very limited. Aiming at Hg mercury species measurements in Guiyang, the capital city of Guizhou province in Southwest China, we studied flue gases of medium-to-small-sized industrial steam coal-firing boiler (10-30 t/h) with no control devices, medium-to-small-sized industrial steam coal-firing boiler with WFGD and large-scale coal combustion with ESPs using Ontario Hytro method. We obtained mercury emission factors of the three representative coal combustion and estimated mercury emissions in Guiyang in 2003, as well as the whole province from 1986 to 2002. Coal combustion in Guiyang emitted 1898 kg mercury to the atmosphere, of which 36% Hg is released from power plants, 41% from industrial coal combustion, and 23% from domestic users, and 267 kg is Hg(p), 813 kg is Hg(2+) and 817 kg is Hg0. Mercury emission in Guizhou province increased sharply from 5.8 t in 1986 to 16.4 t in 2002. With the implementation of national economic strategy of China's Western Development, the annual mercury emission from coal combustion in the province is estimated to be about 32 t in 2015. PMID:17517388

  2. Comparisons of pyrite variability from selected western Kentucky and western Pennsylvania coals

    SciTech Connect

    Frankie, K.A.; Hower, J.C.

    1983-03-01

    Pyrite (and marcasite) variation in the lower Kittanning coal of western Pennsylvania has been petrographically characterized using three parameters of size (categories rather than absolute size), morphology (framboidal, euhedral, dendritic, massive, and cleat), and microlithotype (organic) association. The purpose of this study is to evaluate what influence paleo-environments have on the nature of variation of pyrite in coal. Comparison of coals has been done using the percentages of pyrite in the microlithotypes vitrite and clarite. In the lower Kittanning coal, framboidal pyrite is generally less abundant and dendritic pyrite was not observed at all. Euhedral pyrite exhibited no clear variation between the two environments. Massive pyrite was more abundant in the set of samples from the mine with the highest average pyritic sulfur but otherwise exhibited no variation. In contrast, a larger percentage of pyrite in the western Kentucky coals examined is framboidal and dendritic. Mines examined in the Moorman syncline of western Kentucky do have a framboidal pyrite percentage comparable to the lower Kittanning samples, but the percentage of dendritic pyrite (particularly in the Western Kentucky No. 9 coal) is significantly higher for the western Kentucky coals. Bulk petrography of the coals is similar with all having greater than 80% total vitrinite. The association of the pyritic sulfur does, however, change significantly between the various coals studied and particularly between the coals of western Kentucky and among the marine lower Kittanning samples and the fresh water lower Kittanning samples. Among the pyrite in the fresh water coals, massive (perhaps epigenetic) pyrite dominates the associations.

  3. Mothers, domestic violence, and child protection.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Heather; Walsh, Tamara

    2010-05-01

    This article explores the relationship between understandings of domestic violence and the child protection response drawing on material gathered in focus groups with workers who support mothers dealing with both domestic violence and child protection issues. The interviewees expressed concern that the dynamics of domestic violence are often misunderstood and inappropriately responded to by child protection workers. This article critically examines the interviewees' concerns and concludes that to properly protect children, it is crucial that child protection workers have a clear understanding of the dynamics of and issues related to domestic violence. PMID:20348440

  4. Fuel for Life: Domestic Cooking Fuels and Women’s Health in Rural China

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Peng; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Xue, Jianhong

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is evidence that household air pollution is associated with poor health in China, and that this form of air pollution may even be more of a health concern in China than the much-publicized outdoor air pollution. However, there is little empirical evidence on the relationship between household air pollution and health in China based on nationally representative and longitudinal data. This study examines the association between the type of domestic cooking fuel and the health of women aged ≥16 in rural China. Methods: Using longitudinal and biomarker data from the China Family Panel Studies (n = 12,901) and the China Health and Nutrition Survey (n = 15,539), we investigate the impact of three major domestic cooking fuels (wood/straw, coal, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)) on health status using both cross-sectional and panel approaches. Results: Compared to women whose households cook with dirty fuels like wood/straw, women whose households cook with cleaner fuels like LPG have a significantly lower probability of chronic or acute diseases and are more likely to report better health. Cooking with domestic coal instead of wood or straw is also associated with elevated levels of having certain risks (such as systolic blood pressure) related to cardiovascular diseases. Conclusions: Our study provides evidence that using cleaner fuels like LPG is associated with better health among women in rural China, suggesting that the shift from dirty fuels to cleaner choices may be associated with improved health outcomes. PMID:27517950

  5. Release behavior and formation mechanism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during coal pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Meiqi; Wang, Yulong; Dong, Jie; Li, Fan; Xie, Kechang

    2016-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are major environmental pollutants. They have attracted considerable attention due to their severe potential carcinogenic, mutagenic and genotoxic effects on human health. In this study, five different rank coals from China were pyrolyzed using pyro-probe CDS 5250 and the release behavior of 16 PAHs under different pyrolysis conditions were studied by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS). The structural characteristics of the five coals were determined by Cross-Polarization/Magic Angle Spinning Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (CP/MAS (13)C NMR) spectroscopy, and then the factors influencing the formation of PAHs during coal pyrolysis were discussed together with the coal structural data. It was shown that the amount of PAHs generated during coal pyrolysis was largely related to coal rank and followed the order of medium metamorphic coal > low metamorphic coal > high metamorphic coal. The amount of total PAHs varied as the temperature was increased from 400 °C to 1200 °C, which showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing, with the maximum value at 800 °C. Moreover, the species of PAHs released varied with pyrolysis temperatures. When the temperature was lower than 800 °C, the small ring PAHs were the most abundant, while the proportion of heavy rings increased at higher temperature. The results indicate that the formation of PAHs during coal pyrolysis depends on the structure of the coal. The species and amounts of PAHs generated during coal pyrolysis are closely related to the contents of protonated aromatic carbons and bridging ring junction aromatic carbons present in the coal structure. PMID:27239965

  6. Underground Coal Gasification Program

    1994-12-01

    CAVSIM is a three-dimensional, axisymmetric model for resource recovery and cavity growth during underground coal gasification (UCG). CAVSIM is capable of following the evolution of the cavity from near startup to exhaustion, and couples explicitly wall and roof surface growth to material and energy balances in the underlying rubble zones. Growth mechanisms are allowed to change smoothly as the system evolves from a small, relatively empty cavity low in the coal seam to a large,more » almost completely rubble-filled cavity extending high into the overburden rock. The model is applicable to nonswelling coals of arbitrary seam thickness and can handle a variety of gas injection flow schedules or compositions. Water influx from the coal aquifer is calculated by a gravity drainage-permeation submodel which is integrated into the general solution. The cavity is considered to consist of up to three distinct rubble zones and a void space at the top. Resistance to gas flow injected from a stationary source at the cavity floor is assumed to be concentrated in the ash pile, which builds up around the source, and also the overburden rubble which accumulates on top of this ash once overburden rock is exposed at the cavity top. Char rubble zones at the cavity side and edges are assumed to be highly permeable. Flow of injected gas through the ash to char rubble piles and the void space is coupled by material and energy balances to cavity growth at the rubble/coal, void/coal and void/rock interfaces. One preprocessor and two postprocessor programs are included - SPALL calculates one-dimensional mean spalling rates of coal or rock surfaces exposed to high temperatures and generates CAVSIM input: TAB reads CAVSIM binary output files and generates ASCII tables of selected data for display; and PLOT produces dot matrix printer or HP printer plots from TAB output.« less

  7. Washability of fine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallaro, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine the theoretical beneficiation potential of US coals when pulverized down to 44 microns, (2) to determine the effects of fine grinding on the liberation of ash, pyritic sulfur, and other impurities, and (3) to assess the impact of their removal on oil and gas replacement, environmental regulations, and specification feedstocks for emerging coal utilization technologies. With the emphasis on fine coal cleaning, we have developed a centrifugal float-sink technique for coals crushed down to 44 microns. Employing this technique will provide a complete fine coal gravimetric evaluation of US coals crushed down to 44 microns. Parallel research is being conducted through in-house studies by PETC, and contracts with the University of Alaska, the University of North Dakota, and Commercial Testing and Engineering, Inc. Results thus far have been encouraging for selected Northern Appalachian Region Coals (NAR), which have shown pyritic sulfur, SO/sub 2/ emission, and ash reductions of 94, 60, and 82%, respectively, for the float 1.30 specific gravity product. However, the data evaluated for several samples indicate a possible problem in the yield/ash relationship for the float 1.30 specific gravity products for samples crushed to 75 and 44 microns top size. Thus, testing was begun to try to resolve these anomalies in the data. Test results using surface active agents, a reverse order of float-sink, and sample pre-heat techniques have been promising. These modifications to the standard technique resulted in an increase in weight recovery of float 1.30 specific gravity material and a decrease in ash content for each of the other specific gravity fractions, thus showing an improvement in the yield/ash relationship.

  8. Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile

    DOEpatents

    Yavorsky, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

  9. Leachability of trace elements in coal and coal combustion wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, C.A.; Breit, G.N.; Fishman, N.S.; Bullock, J.H. Jr.

    1999-07-01

    Leaching of trace elements from coal and coal combustion waste (CCW) products from a coal-fired power plant, burning coal from the Appalachian and Illinois basins, was studied using deionized (DI) water as a lixiviant to resemble natural conditions in waste disposal sites exposed to dilute meteoric water infiltration. Samples of bottom ash, fly ash, and feed coal were collected from two combustion units at monthly intervals, along with a bulk sample of wastes deposited in an on-site disposal pond. The units burn different coals, one a high-sulfur coal (2.65 to 3.5 weight percent S) and the other, a low-sulfur coal (0.6--0.9 eight percent S). Short-term batch leaches with DI water were performed for times varying from a few minutes to 18 hours. Select fly ash samples were also placed in long-term (> 1 year) flow-through columns.

  10. What component of coal causes coal workers' pneumoconiosis?

    SciTech Connect

    McCunney, R.J.; Morfeld, P.; Payne, S.

    2009-04-15

    The objective was to evaluate the component of coal responsible for coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). A literature search of PubMED was conducted to address studies that have evaluated the risk of CWP based on the components of coal. The risk of CWP (CWP) depends on the concentration and duration of exposure to coal dust. Epidemiology studies have shown inverse links between CWP and quartz content. Coal from the USA and Germany has demonstrated links between iron content and CWP; these same studies indicate virtually no role for quartz. In vitro studies indicate strong mechanistic links between iron content in coal and reactive oxygen species, which play a major role in the inflammatory response associated with CWP. The active agent within coal appears to be iron, not quartz. By identifying components of coal-before mining activities, the risk of developing CWP may be reduced.

  11. Coronal abundances and their variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saba, Julia L. R.

    1994-01-01

    This contract supports the investigation of elemental abundances in the solar corona, principally through analysis of high-resolution software X-ray spectra from the Flat Crystal Spectrometer on NASA's Solar Maximum Mission. The goals of the study are a characterization of the mean values of relative abundances of elements accessible in the FCS data, and information on the extent and circumstances of their variability. This report is a summation of the data analysis and reporting activities which occurred since the last report, submitted two months early, in April 1994, to facilitate evaluation of the first year's progress for contract renewal. Hence this report covers the period 15 April 1994 - 15 December 1994. A list of publications resulting from this research is included.

  12. The solar abundance of thulium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, J. E.; Aller, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    Consideration of one relatively unblended line of the solar spectrum, namely, the 3131.258-A line of Tm II, which yields a thulium abundance of 0.80 plus or minus 0.10 with the Corliss and Bozman (1962) f-value. The uncertainty of this figure is discussed in conjunction with the contradictory findings of some other investigators. The need for further detailed study of the lanthanides by the method of spectrum synthesis is pointed out.

  13. Composition and properties of coals from the Yurty coal occurrence

    SciTech Connect

    N.G. Vyazova; L.N. Belonogova; V.P. Latyshev; E.A. Pisar'kova

    2008-10-15

    Coals from the Yurty coal occurrence were studied. It was found that the samples were brown non-coking coals with low sulfur contents (to 1%) and high yields of volatile substances. The high heat value of coals was 20.6-27.7 MJ/kg. The humic acid content varied from 5.45 to 77.62%. The mineral matter mainly consisted of kaolinite, a-quartz, and microcline. The concentration of toxic elements did not reach hazardous values.

  14. Chlorine Abundances in Martian Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, D.D.; Garrison, D.H.; Park, J.

    2009-01-01

    Chlorine measurements made in martian surface rocks by robotic spacecraft typically give Chlorine (Cl) abundances of approximately 0.1-0.8%. In contrast, Cl abundances in martian meteorites appear lower, although data is limited, and martian nakhlites were also subjected to Cl contamination by Mars surface brines. Chlorine abundances reported by one lab for whole rock (WR) samples of Shergotty, ALH77005, and EET79001 range 108-14 ppm, whereas Cl in nakhlites range 73-1900 ppm. Measurements of Cl in various martian weathering phases of nakhlites varied 0.04-4.7% and reveal significant concentration of Cl by martian brines Martian meteorites contain much lower Chlorine than those measured in martian surface rocks and give further confirmation that Cl in these surface rocks was introduced by brines and weathering. It has been argued that Cl is twice as effective as water in lowering the melting point and promoting melting at shallower martian depths, and that significant Cl in the shergottite source region would negate any need for significant water. However, this conclusion was based on experiments that utilized Cl concentrations more analogous to martian surface rocks than to shergottite meteorites, and may not be applicable to shergottites.

  15. Surface abundances of OC supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, F.; Foschino, S.; Bouret, J.-C.; Barbá, R.; Howarth, I.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Some O and B stars show unusually strong or weak lines of carbon and/or nitrogen. These objects are classified as OBN or OBC stars. It has recently been shown that nitrogen enrichment and carbon depletion are the most likely explanations for the existence of the ON class. Aims: We investigate OC stars (all being supergiants) to check that surface abundances are responsible for the observed anomalous line strengths. Methods: We perform a spectroscopic analysis of three OC supergiants using atmosphere models. A fourth star was previously studied by us. Our sample thus comprises all OC stars known to date in the Galaxy. We determine the stellar parameters and He, C, N, and O surface abundances. Results: We show that all stars have effective temperatures and surface gravities fully consistent with morphologically normal O supergiants. However, OC stars show little, if any, nitrogen enrichment and carbon surface abundances consistent with the initial composition. OC supergiants are thus barely chemically evolved, unlike morphologically normal O supergiants. Based on observations obtained at the ESO/La Silla Observatory under programs 081.D-2008, 083.D-0589, 089.D-0975.

  16. Domestic and regional satellite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keigler, John E.; Profera, Charles E.

    1990-07-01

    The technical characteristics of domestic and regional satellite systems are discussed. Spacecraft technology is reviewed, communication payload technology developments are discussed, and resources and economics are discussed. It is seen that, compared to the installation of terrestrial microwave or optical cable networks in remote and harsh areas, satellite systems offer both lower costs and shorter time to bring on line. Proven technology and mature hardware is available for regions where orbit/spectrum space is still plentiful. As in North America, the sequence of growth is likely to be C-band and then K-band. Corresponding earth station advances in efficient modulation techniques and time-division multiple access will increase the capacity per transponder channel, while frequency and spatial reuse will provide more channels per satellite.

  17. Microbial prevalence in domestic humidifiers.

    PubMed Central

    Burge, H A; Solomon, W R; Boise, J R

    1980-01-01

    The prevalence of viable thermophilic bacteria and actinomycetes and mesophilic fungi was examined in 145 samples from 110 domestic humidifiers. A total of 72 and 43% of furnace and console humidifier samples, respectively, contained viable thermophilic bacteria, whereas 60 and 72% of these samples produced mesophilic fungal growth. Thermophilic actinomycetes were recovered from seven humidifier samples. Efforts to detect thermophilic actinomycete antigens in 15 humidifier fluid samples were not successful. Antifoulants added to humidifier fluid reservoirs had no apparent effect on microbial frequency. Airborne microbial recoveries did not reflect patterns of humidifier contamination with respect to either kinds or numbers of microorganisms in 20 homes in which volumetric air samples were obtained during humidifier operation. PMID:7377779

  18. (Basic properties of coals and other solids)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-25

    This report discusses basic properties of bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite coals. Properties of coal liquids are also investigated. Heats of immersion in strong acids are found for Pittsburgh {number sign}8, Illinois {number sign}6, and Wyodak coals. Production of coal liquids by distillation is discussed. Heats of titration of coal liquids and coal slurries are reported. (VC)

  19. Genetic Divergence in Domesticated and Non-Domesticated Gene Regions of Barley Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Songxian; Sun, Dongfa; Sun, Genlou

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the genetic divergence in the chromosomal regions with domesticated and non-domesticated genes. The objective of our study is to examine the effect of natural selection on shaping genetic diversity of chromosome region with domesticated and non-domesticated genes in barley using 110 SSR markers. Comparison of the genetic diversity loss between wild and cultivated barley for each chromosome showed that chromosome 5H had the highest divergence of 35.29%, followed by 3H, 7H, 4H, 2H, 6H. Diversity ratio was calculated as (diversity of wild type – diversity of cultivated type)/diversity of wild type×100%. It was found that diversity ratios of the domesticated regions on 5H, 1H and 7H were higher than those of non-domesticated regions. Diversity ratio of the domesticated region on 2H and 4H is similar to that of non-domesticated region. However, diversity ratio of the domesticated region on 3H is lower than that of non-domesticated region. Averaged diversity among six chromosomes in domesticated region was 33.73% difference between wild and cultivated barley, and was 27.56% difference in the non-domesticated region. The outcome of this study advances our understanding of the evolution of crop chromosomes. PMID:25812037

  20. The future of coal

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    This interdisciplinary MIT study examines the factors that will affect the use of coal in a world where significant constraints are placed on emissions of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases. Chapter headings are: Purpose of the Study; The Role of Coal in Energy Growth and CO{sub 2} Emissions; Coal-based Electricity Generation; Geological Carbon Sequestration; Coal Consumption in China and India; Analysis, Research, Development, and Demonstration; Public Attitudes toward Energy, Global Warming, and Carbon Taxes; and Findings and Recommendations. The central message of the study is that demonstration of technical, economic, and institutional features of carbon capture and sequestration at commercial scale coal combustion and conversion plants, will (1) give policymakers and the public confidence that a practical carbon mitigation control option exists, (2) shorten the deployment time and reduce the cost for carbon capture and sequestration should a carbon emission control policy be adopted, and (3) maintain opportunities for the lowest cost and most widely available energy form to be used to meet the world's pressing energy needs in an environmentally acceptable manner. 12 apps.

  1. Coal combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Wilkes, Colin; Mongia, Hukam C.; Tramm, Peter C.

    1988-01-01

    In a coal combustion system suitable for a gas turbine engine, pulverized coal is transported to a rich zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio exceeding 1 at a temperature above the slagging temperature of the coal so that combustible hot gas and molten slag issue from the rich zone combustor. A coolant screen of water stretches across a throat of a quench stage and cools the combustible gas and molten slag to below the slagging temperature of the coal so that the slag freezes and shatters into small pellets. The pelletized slag is separated from the combustible gas in a first inertia separator. Residual ash is separated from the combustible gas in a second inertia separator. The combustible gas is mixed with secondary air in a lean zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio of less than 1 to produce hot gas motive at temperature above the coal slagging temperature. The motive fluid is cooled in a dilution stage to an acceptable turbine inlet temperature before being transported to the turbine.

  2. Coal cleaning process

    SciTech Connect

    Kindig, J.K.

    1994-01-11

    Fine particle coal is beneficiated in specially designed dense medium cyclones to improve particle acceleration and enhance separation efficiency. Raw coal feed is first sized to remove fine coal particles. The coarse fraction is then separated into clean coal, middlings, and refuse. Middlings are comminuted for beneficiation with the fine fraction. The fine fraction is deslimed in a countercurrent cyclone circuit and then separated as multiple fractions of different size specifications in dense medium cyclones. The dense medium contains ultra-fine magnetite particles of a narrow size distribution which aid separation and improves magnetite recovery. Magnetite is recovered from each separated fraction independently, with non-magnetic effluent water from one fraction diluting feed to a smaller-size fraction, and improving both overall coal and magnetite recovery. Magnetite recovery is in specially designed recovery units, based on particle size, with final separation in a rougher-cleaner-scavenger circuit of magnetic drum separators incorporating a high strength rare earth magnet. 12 figs.

  3. Dewatering of fine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Sastry, K.V.S. . Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    Fine coal dewatering is one of the most pressing problem facing the coal cleaning industry. This project was undertaken with the objective of improving the dewatering process with surface chemical activation by primarily understanding the fundamental and process engineering aspects of vacuum filtration. Specific tasks for this project included -- development of an experimental apparatus and procedure to yield highly reproducible results and extensive data from each test, detailed experimental investigation of the dewatering characteristics of coal fines with and without the addition of flocculants and surfactants, and under different operating conditions, and finally identification and establishment of the physical limits of mechanical dewatering. Following are the significant conclusions from the study: Fineness and size distribution of the coal fines have the most significant influence on the coal dewatering process; usage of flocculants and surfactants is almost essential in reducing the cake moisture and in increasing the filter throughputs; based on the experimental data and the literature information, the existence of an asymptotic limit for filter cake moisture correlatable with a capillary number of the filter cake was identified. 66 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Organic matter in a coal ball: Peat or coal?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatcher, P.G.; Lyons, P.C.; Thompson, C.L.; Brown, F.W.; Maciel, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    Chemical analyses of morphologically preserved organic matter in a Carboniferous coal ball reveal that the material is coalified to a rank approximately equal to that of the surrounding coal. Hence, the plant tissues in the coal ball were chemically altered by coalification processes and were not preserved as peat. Copyright ?? 1982 AAAS.

  5. From in situ coal to the final coal product: A case study of the Danville Coal Member (Indiana)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastalerz, Maria; Padgett, P.L.

    1999-01-01

    A surface coal mine operation and preparation plant in southwestern Indiana was sampled to examine variations in coal quality and coal petrography parameters for the Danville Coal Member of the Dugger Formation (Pennsylvanian-Desmoinesian, Westphalian D). Representative samples from in situ coal, preparation plant feeds, and a final coal product were collected in order to compare coal quality, coal petrography, trace element concentrations, and ash chemistry of the coal to those of the product. Coal quality parameters of the in situ samples and various feeds, coarse refuse, and final product were variable. The quality of the final coal product was best predicted by the coal quality of the clean coal feed (from the middle portions of the seam). Some trace element contents, especially lead and arsenic, varied between the coal feeds and the product. Lead contents increased in the feeds and product compared to the channel sample of the raw coal, possibly due to contamination in the handling process.A surface coal mine operation and preparation plant in southwestern Indiana was sampled to examine variations in coal quality and coal petrography parameters for the Danville Coal Member of the Dugger Formation (Pennsylvanian-Desmoinesian, Westphalian D). Representative samples from in situ coal, preparation plant feeds, and a final coal product were collected in order to compare coal quality, coal petrography, trace element concentrations, and ash chemistry of the coal to those of the product. Coal quality parameters of the in situ samples and various feeds, coarse refuse, and final product were variable. The quality of the final coal product was best predicted by the coal quality of the clean coal feed (from the middle portions of the seam). Some trace element contents, especially lead and arsenic, varied between the coal feeds and the product. Lead contents increased in the feeds and product compared to the channel sample of the raw coal, possibly due to contamination in

  6. Viscosity Depressants for Coal Liquefaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalfayan, S. H.

    1983-01-01

    Proposed process modification incorporates viscosity depressants to prevent coal from solidifying during liquefaction. Depressants reduce amount of heat needed to liquefy coal. Possible depressants are metallic soaps, such as stearate, and amides, such as stearamide and dimer acid amides.

  7. Improved Coal-Thickness Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, T. A.

    1984-01-01

    Summed signals and dielectric-filled antenna improve measurement. Improved FM radar for measuring thickness of coal seam eliminates spectrum splitting and reduces magnitude of echo from front coal surface.

  8. Dry cleaning of Turkish coal

    SciTech Connect

    Cicek, T.

    2008-07-01

    This study dealt with the upgrading of two different type of Turkish coal by a dry cleaning method using a modified air table. The industrial size air table used in this study is a device for removing stones from agricultural products. This study investigates the technical and economical feasibility of the dry cleaning method which has never been applied before on coals in Turkey. The application of a dry cleaning method on Turkish coals designated for power generation without generating environmental pollution and ensuring a stable coal quality are the main objectives of this study. The size fractions of 5-8, 3-5, and 1-3 mm of the investigated coals were used in the upgrading experiments. Satisfactory results were achieved with coal from the Soma region, whereas the upgrading results of Hsamlar coal were objectionable for the coarser size fractions. However, acceptable results were obtained for the size fraction 1-3 mm of Hsamlar coal.

  9. 2008 Coal Age buyers guide

    SciTech Connect

    2008-07-15

    The buyers guide lists more than 1200 companies mainly based in the USA, that provide equipment and services to US coal mines and coal preparation plants. The guide is subdivided by product categories.

  10. Low-rank coal research

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  11. China's post-coal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Ye; Stern, Nicholas; Wu, Tong; Lu, Jiaqi; Green, Fergus

    2016-08-01

    Slowing GDP growth, a structural shift away from heavy industry, and more proactive policies on air pollution and clean energy have caused China's coal use to peak. It seems that economic growth has decoupled from growth in coal consumption.

  12. COMBUSTION OF HYDROTHERMALLY TREATED COALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of: (1) the relationship of the combustion characteristics of hydrothermally treated (HTT) coals to environmental emissions, boiler design, and interchangeability of solid fuels produced by the Hydrothermal Coal Process (HCP) with raw coa...

  13. 2009 Coal Age Buyers Guide

    SciTech Connect

    2009-07-15

    The buyers guide lists more than 1200 companies mainly based in the USA, that provide equipment and services to US coal mines and coal preparation plants. The guide is subdivided by product categories.

  14. The Abundance of Interstellar Fluorine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauroesch, James T.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this program was to obtain FUSE observations of the interstellar absorption lines of F I at 951 and 954 Angstroms to derive the abundance of fluorine toward the star HD 164816. The nucleosynthetic source(s) of fluorine are still a matter of debate - the present day abundance of fluorine can potentially constrain models for pulsationally driven dredge-up in asymptotic giant branch stars. An accurate measure for the depletion behavior of fluorine will determine whether it may be detectable in QSO absorption line systems - an unambiguous detection of fluorine at suitably high redshifts would provide the best evidence to date for the neutrino process in massive stars. Furthermore, due to its extreme reactivity, measurement of the gas-phase interstellar fluorine abundance is important for models of grain chemistry. Despite the importance of measuring the interstellar fluorine abundance, at the time of our proposal only one previous detection has been made due to the low relative abundance of fluorine, the lack of lines outside the far-UV, and the blending of the available F I transitions with lines of Hz. The star HD 164816 is associated with the Lagoon nebula (M8), and at a distance of approximately 1.5 kpc probes both distant and local gas. Beginning April 8th, 2004 FUSE FP-Split observations of the star HD 164816 were obtained for this program. This data became available in the FUSE data archive May 21, 2004, and these observations were then downloaded and we began our analysis. Our analysis procedure has involved (1) fitting stellar models to the FUSE spectra, (2) using the multiple lines of Hz and N I at other wavelengths in the FUSE bandpass to derive column densities for the lines of H2 and N I which are blended with the F I features at 951 and 954 angstroms (3) the measurement of the column densities of F I and the species O I and C1 I which are important species for the dis-entangling of dust and nucleosynthetic effects. As discussed in

  15. 12 CFR 613.3100 - Domestic lending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Domestic lending. 613.3100 Section 613.3100 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELIGIBILITY AND SCOPE OF FINANCING Financing for Banks Operating Under Title III of the Farm Credit Act § 613.3100 Domestic lending. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this subpart,...

  16. INTESTINAL FLORA OF WILD AND DOMESTIC TURKEYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GOAL: To describe and compare the intestinal bacterial communities of domestic and wild turkeys. METHODS: Ceca from five domestic turkeys killed on-farm (Farm A) and eight from the abattoir (five from Farm A, three from Farm B) were examined for bacterial composition. Ceca from wild birds were p...

  17. 7 CFR 1260.310 - Domestic assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Domestic assessments. 1260.310 Section 1260.310... Rules and Regulations § 1260.310 Domestic assessments. (a) A $1.00 per head assessment on cattle sold... portion of the assessments which are equivalent to the producer's proportionate share of the proceeds....

  18. Pathobiology of avian influenza in domestic ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestic ducks are an important source of food and income in many parts of the world. The susceptibility of domestic ducks to avian influenza (AI) viruses varies depending on many factors, including the species and the age of the ducks, the virus strain, and management practices. Although wild wat...

  19. Responding to Domestic Violence against Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalans, Loretta J.; Lurigio, Arthur J.

    1995-01-01

    Gives an overview of issues related to domestic violence against women as a social problem: changing responses from the legal system and the community over the course of history, possible causes of domestic violence against women, current perspectives and trends, prevalence, seriousness, and our response as a society. (LKS)

  20. Domestic Violence during Pregnancy in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahapatro, Meerambika; Gupta, R. N.; Gupta, Vinay; Kundu, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    Domestic violence can result in many negative health consequences for women's health and well-being. Studies on domestic violence illustrate that abused women in various settings had increased health problems such as injury, chronic pain, gastrointestinal, and gynecological signs including sexually transmitted diseases, depression, and…

  1. The Effect of Divorce on Domestic Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolzenberg, Lisa; D'Alessio, Stewart J.

    2007-01-01

    Social scientists remain unsure as to whether divorce acts to alleviate domestic violence or whether ex-spouses become the targets of the displaced violence. Using data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System and the Census, this study investigates the relationship between the divorce rate and the domestic crime rate. The study…

  2. Child-Visiting and Domestic Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Melanie

    1992-01-01

    Explains problems with child visiting in cases of domestic abuse. Data on domestic abuse, child care concerns, and child adjustment problems were collected from 25 mothers and 22 fathers at a child visiting program serving separated and abusive families. Psychological abuse of mothers correlated with child adjustment problems. (BB)

  3. 7 CFR 1260.310 - Domestic assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Domestic assessments. 1260.310 Section 1260.310... Rules and Regulations § 1260.310 Domestic assessments. (a) A $1.00 per head assessment on cattle sold... portion of the assessments which are equivalent to the producer's proportionate share of the proceeds....

  4. Culture and Domestic Violence: Transforming Knowledge Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bent-Goodley, Tricia B.

    2005-01-01

    Cultural competence continues to receive limited attention in domestic violence service provision from research to the evaluation of programs. Yet with changing demographics reflecting larger numbers of people of color and increasing needs for more effective responses, it is critical that we change the way we think about domestic violence. Using a…

  5. Empowering Women with Domestic Violence Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anczewska, Marta; Roszczynska-Michta, Joanna; Waszkiewicz, Justyna; Charzynska, Katarzyna; Czabala, Czeslaw

    2012-01-01

    It is generally held that it has been only recently that domestic violence gained appropriate attention as a major social problem. However several approaches, drawn from different theories are applicable in explaining the origin of this negative phenomenon. It is well recognized that trauma of domestic violence has destructive impact on somatic…

  6. Domestic Violence against Married Women in Edirne

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tokuc, Burcu; Ekuklu, Galip; Avcioglu, Serap

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence and risk factors of domestic violence against married women in Edirne, Turkey. This is a cross-sectional study which included a representative sample of the married women living in the Provincial Center of Edirne. The total past year prevalence of some forms of physical domestic violence is 34% in…

  7. Domestic Violence against Married Women in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yount, Kathryn M.; Carrera, Jennifer S.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluate the effects of marital resources and early-life experiences on recent domestic violence and attitudes about wife abuse among 2,074 married Cambodian women. Household standard of living was negatively associated with physical domestic violence. Women with 8-13 fewer years of schooling than their husbands more often experienced physical…

  8. Familial Variables Related to Domestic Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matlock, Tracy; And Others

    Domestic violence is the most frequent type of violent crime, thus children are likely to experience or witness violence at home. In this study, familial variables predictive of domestic violence were investigated. Data were collected from 64 intake forms at a battered women's shelter in the Mississippi Delta. Most clients were white and had…

  9. Teaching about Domestic Violence: Strategies for Empowerment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Saundra

    1993-01-01

    Offers the author's experiences in teaching a college-level domestic violence sociology course, presenting specific strategies and a description of the syllabus. The course presents a feminist analysis of domestic violence and examines how the patriarchal structure and ideology of society create and perpetuate violence. (SLD)

  10. Toxoplasmosis in wild and domestic animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii is widely distributed in wild and domestic animals. The present chapter reviews toxoplasmosis in wild and domestic animals. Coverage in wild animal species is limited to confirmed cases of toxoplasmosis, cases with parasite isolation, cases with parasite detection by PCR, and exper...

  11. Domestic Options to Offshore Oil and Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kash, Don E.

    1983-01-01

    The continuing controversey over offshore oil/gas has given impetus to searching for domestic energy alternatives. The need for and types of several alternative sources are discussed. Indicates that the United States needs to pursue both offshore and other domestic liquid-fuel sources if it is to avoid becoming increasingly dependent on imports.…

  12. Toward a Biopsychosocial Model of Domestic Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenry, Patrick C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Interviewed and physically assessed 102 married men in an attempt to develop a biopsychosocial model of male domestic violence. Used Tobit analysis to identify significant predictors. Analyzed separately, each domain was significantly related to male domestic violence. When considered together, only the biological and social domains yielded…

  13. Sustainable development with clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  14. Clean power generation from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.W.; Basu, P.

    2007-09-15

    The chapter gives an overview of power generation from coal, describing its environmental impacts, methods of cleaning coal before combustion, combustion methods, and post-combustion cleanup. It includes a section on carbon dioxide capture, storage and utilization. Physical, chemical and biological cleaning methods are covered. Coal conversion techniques covered are: pulverized coal combustion, fluidized-bed combustion, supercritical boilers, cyclone combustion, magnetohydrodynamics and gasification. 66 refs., 29 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. SUBMICROSCOPIC ( less than 1 mu m) MINERAL CONTENTS OF VITRINITES IN SELECTED BITUMINOUS COAL BEDS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minkin, J.A.; Chao, E.C.T.; Thompson, C.L.; Wandless, M.-V.; Dulong, F.T.; Larson, R.R.; Neuzil, S.G.

    1983-01-01

    An important aspect of the petrographic description of coal is the characterization of coal quality, including chemical attributes. For geologic investigations, data on the concentrations, distribution, and modes of occurrence of minor and trace elements provide a basis for reconstructing the probable geochemical environment of the swamp material that was converted into peat, and the geochemical conditions that prevailed during and subsequent to coalification. We have been using electron (EPMA) and proton (PIXE) microprobe analytical methods to obtain data on the chemical characteristics of specific coal constituents in their original associations within coal samples. The present study is aimed at evaluation of the nature of mineral occurrences and heterogeneous elemental concentrations within vitrinites. Vitrinites are usually the most abundant, and therefore most important, maceral group in bituminous coal. 8 refs.

  16. Locomotive applications of coal-fueled diesel and gas turbine engines

    SciTech Connect

    Braglia, B.L.; Poindexter, C.K. Jr.

    1986-03-01

    The potential now exists for using one of our most abundant energy resources as a locomotive fuel. Coal-fueled diesel and gas turbine locomotives have been shown to provide a significant economic benefit to this nation's railroads, measured in terms of internal rate of return. The performance of coal-fueled locomotives will be competitive with state of the art diesel-electric locomotives and may even offer the opportunity to enhance this performance (high horsepower gas turbines). A change to coal fuels must be accomplished without any accompanying detrimental impact on our environment. The largest changes caused by the reintroduction of coal fuels will occur in the infrastructure of this nation's railroads; coal fueling facilities, fuel tenders, and modified maintenance and operating practices will be required. 5 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  17. Pyrolysis of coal

    DOEpatents

    Babu, Suresh P.; Bair, Wilford G.

    1992-01-01

    A method for mild gasification of crushed coal in a single vertical elongated reaction vessel providing a fluidized bed reaction zone, a freeboard reaction zone, and an entrained reaction zone within the single vessel. Feed coal and gas may be fed separately to each of these reaction zones to provide different reaction temperatures and conditions in each reaction zone. The reactor and process of this invention provides for the complete utilization of a coal supply for gasification including utilization of caking and non-caking or agglomerating feeds in the same reactor. The products may be adjusted to provide significantly greater product economic value, especially with respect to desired production of char having high surface area.

  18. Hydroliquefaction of coal

    DOEpatents

    Sze, Morgan C.; Schindler, Harvey D.

    1982-01-01

    Coal is catalytically hydroliquefied by passing coal dispersed in a liquefaction solvent and hydrogen upwardly through a plurality of parallel expanded catalyst beds, in a single reactor, in separate streams, each having a cross-sectional flow area of no greater than 255 inches square, with each of the streams through each of the catalyst beds having a length and a liquid and gas superficial velocity to maintain an expanded catalyst bed and provide a Peclet Number of at least 3. If recycle is employed, the ratio of recycle to total feed (coal and liquefaction solvent) is no greater than 2:1, based on volume. Such conditions provide for improved selectivity to liquid product to thereby reduce hydrogen consumption. The plurality of beds are formed by partitions in the reactor.

  19. Zimbabwe's coal reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, J.R.

    1981-03-01

    The coal potential of Zimbabwe is not widely known, but the country has proved and inferred reserves of around 30,000,000,000 metric tons and intends to become an exporter by 1985. At present there is only one operating coal company in Zimbabwe, the Wankie Colliery Company Limited, but the interest in other coalfields is intensifying. Coal is seen as one of the country's resources with the greatest potential for production increases. The plan is to export 5,000,000 tons per year by 1985, increasing to 10,000,000 tons by 1990. Current exports are insignificant. Current production, from Wankie, is around 3,000,000 tons per year but, with the construction of a new power station, this is to be increased to 7,000,000 tons. Wankie currently operates two underground and three open pit mines.

  20. Parallel reductions in phenolic constituents resulting from the domestication of eggplant.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Rachel S; Whitaker, Bruce D; Little, Damon P; Wu, Shi-Biao; Kennelly, Edward J; Long, Chun-Lin; Litt, Amy

    2015-07-01

    Crop domestication is often accompanied by changes in metabolite compositions that alter traits such as flavor, color, or other beneficial properties. Fruits of eggplants (Solanum melongena L.) and related species are abundant and diverse in pharmacologically interesting phenolic compounds, particularly hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) conjugates such as the antioxidant caffeoylquinic acids (CQA) and HCA-polyamine amides (HCAA). To understand metabolite variability through the lens of natural and artificial selection, HPLC-DAD was used to generate phenolic profiles for 32 compounds in fruits from 93 accessions representing 9 Solanum species. Profiles were used for identification of species-level and infraspecific chemical patterns across both genetic distance and landscape. Sampling of plant lines included the undomesticated progenitor of eggplant and Asian landraces with a genetic background associated with three Asian regions near proposed separate centers of domestication to test whether chemical changes were convergent despite different origins. Results showed ten compounds were unique to species, and ten other compounds varied significantly in abundance among species. Five CQAs and three HCA-polyamine conjugates were more abundant in wild (undomesticated) versus domesticated eggplant, indicating that artificial selection may have led to reduced phenolic levels. No chemical abundance patterns were associated with site-origin. However, one genetically distinct lineage of geographically-restricted SE Asian eggplants (S. melongena subsp. ovigerum) had a higher HCAA content and diversity than other lineages, which is suggested to be related to artificial selection for small, firm fruit. Overall, patterns show that fruit size, palatability and texture were preferentially selected over health-beneficial phytochemical content during domestication of several nightshade crops. PMID:25813879