Science.gov

Sample records for abundant energy resources

  1. Save Energy Now Resources

    SciTech Connect

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides information resources to industrial energy users and partnering organizations to help the nation’s industrial sector save energy and improve productivity.

  2. Renewable energy: energy from geothermal resources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    The geothermal resources of Florida are poor in most parts of the state, but offer potential in one or two areas. Groundwater heat pumps are efficient and presently abundant water resources exist in most Florida areas, but widespread use of these units could affect Florida's groundwater supplies if reinjection wells are not required. The effect of large numbers of wells on an aquifer in small geographic areas has not been adequately assessed. Data on groundwater heat pump energy use for Florida climatic conditions are needed as is information on the number of units currently operating.

  3. An Energy Resource List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VocEd, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Selected energy resource information, from both federal and private sources, is listed under funding, general information and assistance, recycling, solar, transportation, utilities, and wind power. Books, pamphlets, films, journals, newsletters, and other materials are included. (MF)

  4. Abundance models improve spatial and temporal prioritization of conservation resources.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Alison; Fink, Daniel; Reynolds, Mark D; Hochachka, Wesley M; Sullivan, Brian L; Bruns, Nicholas E; Hallstein, Eric; Merrifield, Matt S; Matsumoto, Sandi; Kelling, Steve

    2015-10-01

    Conservation prioritization requires knowledge about organism distribution and density. This information is often inferred from models that estimate the probability of species occurrence rather than from models that estimate species abundance, because abundance data are harder to obtain and model. However, occurrence and abundance may not display similar patterns and therefore development of robust, scalable, abundance models is critical to ensuring that scarce conservation resources are applied where they can have the greatest benefits. Motivated by a dynamic land conservation program, we develop and assess a general method for modeling relative abundance using citizen science monitoring data. Weekly estimates of relative abundance and occurrence were compared for prioritizing times and locations of conservation actions for migratory waterbird species in California, USA. We found that abundance estimates consistently provided better rankings of observed counts than occurrence estimates. Additionally, the relationship between abundance and occurrence was nonlinear and varied by species and season. Across species, locations prioritized by occurrence models had only 10-58% overlap with locations prioritized by abundance models, highlighting that occurrence models will not typically identify the locations of highest abundance that are vital for conservation of populations.

  5. Relative resource abundance explains butterfly biodiversity in island communities.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Naoaki; Yokoyama, Jun; Kawata, Masakado

    2007-06-19

    Ecologists have long been intrigued by the factors that control the pattern of biodiversity, i.e., the distribution and abundance of species. Previous studies have demonstrated that coexisting species partition their resources and/or that the compositional similarity between communities is determined by environmental factors, lending support to the niche-assembly model. However, no attempt has been made to test whether the relative amount of resources that reflects relative niche space controls relative species abundance in communities. Here, we demonstrate that the relative abundance of butterfly species in island communities is significantly related to the relative biomasses of their host plants but not to the geographic distance between communities. In the studied communities, the biomass of particular host plant species positively affected the abundance of the butterfly species that used them, and consequently, influenced the relative abundance of the butterfly communities. This indicated that the niche space of butterflies (i.e., the amount of resources) strongly influences butterfly biodiversity patterns. We present this field evidence of the niche-apportionment model that propose that the relative amount of niche space explains the pattern of the relative abundance of the species in communities.

  6. Resource abundance and the critical transition to cooperation.

    PubMed

    Connelly, B D; Bruger, E L; McKinley, P K; Waters, C M

    2017-04-01

    Cooperation is abundant in nature, occurring at all levels of biological complexity. Yet cooperation is continually threatened by subversion from noncooperating cheaters. Previous studies have shown that cooperation can nevertheless be maintained when the benefits that cooperation provides to relatives outweigh the associated costs. These fitness costs and benefits are not fixed properties, but can be affected by the environment in which populations reside. Here, we describe how one environmental factor, resource abundance, decisively affects the evolution of cooperative public goods production in two independent evolving systems. In the Avida digital evolution platform, populations evolved in environments with different levels of a required resource, whereas populations of Vibrio cholerae evolved in the presence of different nutrient concentrations. In both systems, cooperators and cheaters co-existed stably in resource-rich environments, whereas cheaters dominated in resource-poor environments. These two outcomes were separated by a sharp transition that occurred at a critical level of resource. These results offer new insights into how the environment affects the evolution of cooperation and highlight the challenges that populations of cooperators face when they experience environmental change.

  7. Health Effects of Energy Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, William; Tatu, Calin; Pavlovic, Nikola; Bunnell, Joseph; Kolker, Allan; Engle, Mark; Stout, Ben

    2010-01-01

    Energy resources (coal, oil, and natural gas) are among the cornerstones of modern industrial society. The exploitation of these resources, however, is not without costs. Energy materials may contain harmful chemical substances that, if mobilized into air, water, or soil, can adversely impact human health and environmental quality. In order to address the issue of human exposure to toxic substances derived from energy resources, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Resources Program developed a project entitled 'Impacts of Energy Resources on Human Health and Environmental Quality.' The project is intended to provide policymakers and the public with the scientific information needed to weigh the human health and environmental consequences of meeting our energy needs. This fact sheet discusses several areas where the USGS Energy Resources Program is making scientific advances in this endeavor.

  8. Unconventional Energy Resources: 2015 Review

    SciTech Connect

    Collaboration: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Energy Minerals Division

    2015-12-15

    This paper includes 10 summaries for energy resource commodities including coal and unconventional resources, and an analysis of energy economics and technology prepared by committees of the Energy Minerals Division of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Unconventional energy resources, as used in this report, are those energy resources that do not occur in discrete oil or gas reservoirs held in structural or stratigraphic traps in sedimentary basins. Such resources include coalbed methane, oil shale, U and Th deposits and associated rare earth elements of industrial interest, geothermal, gas shale and liquids, tight gas sands, gas hydrates, and bitumen and heavy oil. Current U.S. and global research and development activities are summarized for each unconventional energy resource commodity in the topical sections of this report, followed by analysis of unconventional energy economics and technology.

  9. Unconventional Energy Resources: 2013 Review

    SciTech Connect

    Collaboration: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Energy Minerals Division

    2013-11-30

    This report contains nine unconventional energy resource commodity summaries and an analysis of energy economics prepared by committees of the Energy Minerals Division of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Unconventional energy resources, as used in this report, are those energy resources that do not occur in discrete oil or gas reservoirs held in structural or stratigraphic traps in sedimentary basins. These resources include coal, coalbed methane, gas hydrates, tight-gas sands, gas shale and shale oil, geothermal resources, oil sands, oil shale, and U and Th resources and associated rare earth elements of industrial interest. Current U.S. and global research and development activities are summarized for each unconventional energy commodity in the topical sections of this report.

  10. Energy and Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Bent

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the feasibility of utilizing continuous sources of of energy, particularly solar and wind energy. Outlines an energy plan for Denmark, which would supply all of Denmark's energy needs by the year 2050. (MLH)

  11. Temporal variation in bird and resource abundance across an elevational gradient in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, Patrick J.; Woodworth, Bethany L.; Camp, Richard J.; Turner, Kathryn; McClure, Katherine; Goodall, Katherine; Henneman, Carlene; Spiegel, Caleb; Lebrun, Jaymi; Tweed, Erik; Samuel, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We documented patterns of nectar availability and nectarivorous bird abundance over ~3 years at nine study sites across an 1,800-m elevational gradient on Hawaii Island to investigate the relationship between resource variation and bird abundance. Flower density (flowers ha-1) and nectar energy content were measured across the gradient for the monodominant 'Ōhi'a (Metrosideros polymorpha). Four nectarivorous bird species were captured monthly in mist nets and surveyed quarterly with point-transect distance sampling at each site to examine patterns of density and relative abundance. Flowering peaks were associated with season but not rainfall or elevation. Bird densities peaked in the winter and spring of each year at high elevations, but patterns were less clear at middle and low elevations. Variability in bird abundance was generally best modeled as a function of elevation, season, and flower density, but the strength of the latter effect varied with species. The low elevations had the greatest density of flowers but contained far fewer individuals of the two most strongly nectarivorous species. There is little evidence of large-scale altitudinal movement of birds in response to 'Ōhi'a flowering peaks. The loose relationship between nectar and bird abundance may be explained by a number of potential mechanisms, including (1) demographic constraints to movement; (2) nonlimiting nectar resources; and (3) the presence of an "ecological trap," whereby birds are attracted by the high resource abundance of, but suffer increased mortality at, middle and low elevations as a result of disease.

  12. Western Energy Corridor -- Energy Resource Report

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie Roberts; Michael Hagood

    2011-06-01

    The world is facing significant growth in energy demand over the next several decades. Strategic in meeting this demand are the world-class energy resources concentrated along the Rocky Mountains and northern plains in Canada and the U.S., informally referred to as the Western Energy Corridor (WEC). The fossil energy resources in this region are rivaled only in a very few places in the world, and the proven uranium reserves are among the world's largest. Also concentrated in this region are renewable resources contributing to wind power, hydro power, bioenergy, geothermal energy, and solar energy. Substantial existing and planned energy infrastructure, including refineries, pipelines, electrical transmission lines, and rail lines provide access to these resources.

  13. Unconventional Energy Resources: 2011 Review

    SciTech Connect

    Collaboration: American Association of Petroleum Geologists

    2011-12-15

    This report contains nine unconventional energy resource commodity summaries prepared by committees of the Energy Minerals Division (EMD) of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Unconventional energy resources, as used in this report, are those energy resources that do not occur in discrete oil or gas reservoirs held in structural or stratigraphic traps in sedimentary basins. These resources include coal, coalbed methane, gas hydrates, tight gas sands, gas shale and shale oil, geothermal resources, oil sands, oil shale, and uranium resources. Current U.S. and global research and development activities are summarized for each unconventional energy commodity in the topical sections of this report. Coal and uranium are expected to supply a significant portion of the world's energy mix in coming years. Coalbed methane continues to supply about 9% of the U.S. gas production and exploration is expanding in other countries. Recently, natural gas produced from shale and low-permeability (tight) sandstone has made a significant contribution to the energy supply of the United States and is an increasing target for exploration around the world. In addition, oil from shale and heavy oil from sandstone are a new exploration focus in many areas (including the Green River area of Wyoming and northern Alberta). In recent years, research in the areas of geothermal energy sources and gas hydrates has continued to advance. Reviews of the current research and the stages of development of these unconventional energy resources are described in the various sections of this report.

  14. Energy Information Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaddy, Carol T., Ed.; Wells, Kathy, Ed.

    This document was published with the small energy user in mind--the student writing a term paper, the homemaker seeking tips on cutting utility bills, the elderly, farmers, small business owners, factory managers, and Arkansans in all walks of life. Although the volume contains a significant selection of books, magazines, films, and organizations…

  15. Biomass energies: resources, links, constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Smil, V.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: radiation and photosynthesis; primary production and biomass; resources; wood for energy; silviculture; requirements and effects; crop residues; residues for energy conversion; sugar crops and grain; cassava; fuel crops; aquatic plants; freshwater plants; ocean algae; animal wastes; Chinese biogas generation; and ecodisasters.

  16. Three energy variables predict ant abundance at a geographical scale.

    PubMed Central

    Kaspari, M; Alonso, L; O'Donnell, S

    2000-01-01

    Energy theory posits three processes that link local abundance of ectotherms to geographical gradients in temperature. A survey of 49 New World habitats found a two order of magnitude span in the abundance (nests m(-2)) of ground nesting ants (Formicidae). Abundance increased with net primary productivity (r2=0.55), a measure of the baseline supply of harvestable energy. Abundance further increased with mean temperature (r2=0.056), a constraint on foraging activity for this thermophilic taxon. Finally for a given mean temperature, ants were more abundant in seasonal sites with longer, colder winters (r2 = 0.082) that help ectotherm taxa sequester harvested energy in non-productive months. All three variables are currently changing on a global scale. All should be useful in predicting biotic responses to climate change. PMID:10737406

  17. Energy resources of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Theobald, P.K.; Schweinfurth, Stanley P.; Duncan, Donald Cave

    1972-01-01

    Estimates are made of United States resources of coal, petroleum liquids, natural gas, uranium, geothermal energy, and oil from oil shale. The estimates, compiled by specialists of the U.S. Geological Survey, are generally made on geologic projections of favorable rocks and on anticipated frequency of the energy resource in the favorable rocks. Accuracy of the estimates probably ranges from 20 to 50 percent for identified-recoverable resources to about an order of magnitude for undiscovered-submarginal resources. The total coal resource base in the United States is estimated to be about 3,200 billion tons, of which 200-390 billion tons can be considered in the category identified and recoverable. More than 70 percent of current production comes from the Appalachian basin where the resource base, better known than for the United States as a whole, is about 330 billion tons, of which 22 billion tons is identified and recoverable. Coals containing less than 1 percent sulfur are the premium coals. These are abundant in the western coal fields, but in the Appalachian basin the resource base for low-sulfur coal is estimated to be only a little more than 100 billion tons, of which 12 billion tons is identified and recoverable. Of the many estimates of petroleum liquids and natural-gas resources, those of the U.S. Geological Survey are the largest because, in general, our estimates include the largest proportion of favorable ground for exploration. We estimate the total resource base for petroleum liquids to be about 2,900 billion barrels, of which 52 billion barrels is identified and recoverable. Of the total resource base, some 600 billion barrels is in Alaska or offshore from Alaska, 1,500 billion barrels is offshore from the United States, and 1,300 billion barrels is onshore in the conterminous United States. Identified-recoverable resources of petroleum liquids corresponding to these geographic units are 11, 6, and 36 billion barrels, respectively. The total natural

  18. Energy for lunar resource exploitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, Peter E.

    1992-01-01

    Humanity stands at the threshold of exploiting the known lunar resources that have opened up with the access to space. America's role in the future exploitation of space, and specifically of lunar resources, may well determine the level of achievement in technology development and global economic competition. Space activities during the coming decades will significantly influence the events on Earth. The 'shifting of history's tectonic plates' is a process that will be hastened by the increasingly insistent demands for higher living standards of the exponentially growing global population. Key to the achievement of a peaceful world in the 21st century, will be the development of a mix of energy resources at a societally acceptable and affordable cost within a realistic planning horizon. This must be the theme for the globally applicable energy sources that are compatible with the Earth's ecology. It is in this context that lunar resources development should be a primary goal for science missions to the Moon, and for establishing an expanding human presence. The economic viability and commercial business potential of mining, extracting, manufacturing, and transporting lunar resource based materials to Earth, Earth orbits, and to undertake macroengineering projects on the Moon remains to be demonstrated. These extensive activities will be supportive of the realization of the potential of space energy sources for use on Earth. These may include generating electricity for use on Earth based on beaming power from Earth orbits and from the Moon to the Earth, and for the production of helium 3 as a fuel for advanced fusion reactors.

  19. Energy for lunar resource exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, Peter E.

    1992-02-01

    Humanity stands at the threshold of exploiting the known lunar resources that have opened up with the access to space. America's role in the future exploitation of space, and specifically of lunar resources, may well determine the level of achievement in technology development and global economic competition. Space activities during the coming decades will significantly influence the events on Earth. The 'shifting of history's tectonic plates' is a process that will be hastened by the increasingly insistent demands for higher living standards of the exponentially growing global population. Key to the achievement of a peaceful world in the 21st century, will be the development of a mix of energy resources at a societally acceptable and affordable cost within a realistic planning horizon. This must be the theme for the globally applicable energy sources that are compatible with the Earth's ecology. It is in this context that lunar resources development should be a primary goal for science missions to the Moon, and for establishing an expanding human presence. The economic viability and commercial business potential of mining, extracting, manufacturing, and transporting lunar resource based materials to Earth, Earth orbits, and to undertake macroengineering projects on the Moon remains to be demonstrated. These extensive activities will be supportive of the realization of the potential of space energy sources for use on Earth. These may include generating electricity for use on Earth based on beaming power from Earth orbits and from the Moon to the Earth, and for the production of helium 3 as a fuel for advanced fusion reactors.

  20. Auctions for coastal energy resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Robert M.

    It is becoming increasingly common to allocate public resources to the private sector for the purpose of developing these resources. One of the earliest uses of auctions in the U.S. for allocating rights to public resources was in the offshore oil and gas industry. The U.S. Federal government, through the Department of Interior (DOI), has used auctions to allocate development rights to offshore oil and gas resources to the private sector since the 1950's. Since then many things have changed. Oil and gas markets have gone through boom and bust cycles, giant technological advances in extraction and assessment have taken place, and alternative energy based in the coastal zone is now in demand in markets as well. There has been an enormous amount of research into the drivers of bidder behavior in auctions and optimal auction design in the last 60 years as well. Throughout all of this, the DOI has continued to use basically the same exact auction design to allocate oil and gas leases. The U.S. offshore oil and gas resources sold by the Department of Interior have accounted for more than $65 billion in revenue since the program started. These offshore resources are an important source of government revenue and national wealth. Additionally, the expansion of the energy sector offshore has enormous potential for electricity generation in the U.S., estimated by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory as approaching 54 gigawatts by 2030 (U.S. Department of Energy, 2008). Taken together, the DOI controls access to a large part of the future of energy in the U.S. The research herein assesses the auction formats used to allocate both fossil fuels and renewable resources on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). The first manuscript looks at the current method used by the DOI to allocate oil and gas leases on the OCS, and is primarily interested in how bidders behave in this environment. Using latent class estimation techniques to separate distinct bidding behavior in a laboratory

  1. Renewable Energy Resources in Lebanon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdy, R.

    2010-12-01

    The energy sector in Lebanon plays an important role in the overall development of the country, especially that it suffers from many serious problems. The fact that Lebanon is among the few countries that are not endowed with fossil fuels in the Middle East made this sector cause one third of the national debt in Lebanon. Despite the large government investments in the power sector, demand still exceeds supply and Lebanon frequently goes through black out in peak demand times or has to resort to importing electricity from Syria. The Energy production sector has dramatic environmental and economical impacts in the form of emitted gasses and environment sabotage, accordingly, it is imperative that renewable energy (RE) be looked at as an alternative energy source. Officials at the Ministry of Energy and Water (MEW) and Lebanese Electricity (EDL) have repeatedly expressed their support to renewable energy utilization. So far, only very few renewable energy applications can be observed over the country. Major efforts are still needed to overcome this situation and promote the use of renewable energy. These efforts are the shared responsibility of the government, EDL, NGO's and educational and research centers. Additionally, some efforts are being made by some international organizations such as UNDP, ESCWA, EC and other donor agencies operating in Lebanon. This work reviews the status of Energy in Lebanon, the installed RE projects, and the potential projects. It also reviews the stakeholders in the field of RE in Lebanon Conclusion In considering the best R.E. alternative, it is important to consider all potential R.E. sources, their costs, market availability, suitability for the selected location, significance of the energy produced and return on investment. Several RE resources in Lebanon have been investigated; Tides and waves energy is limited and not suitable two tentative sites for geothermal energy are available but not used. Biomass resources badly affect the

  2. Excessive abundance of common resources deters social responsibility.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojie; Perc, Matjaž

    2014-02-24

    We study the evolution of cooperation in the collective-risk social dilemma game, where the risk is determined by a collective target that must be reached with individual contributions. All players initially receive endowments from the available amount of common resources. While cooperators contribute part of their endowment to the collective target, defectors do not. If the target is not reached, the endowments of all players are lost. In our model, we introduce a feedback between the amount of common resources and the contributions of cooperators. We show that cooperation can be sustained only if the common resources are preserved but never excessively abound. This, however, requires a delicate balance between the amount of common resources that initially exist, and the amount cooperators contribute to the collective target. Exceeding critical thresholds in either of the two amounts leads to loss of cooperation, and consequently to the depletion of common resources.

  3. Excessive abundance of common resources deters social responsibility

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaojie; Perc, Matjaž

    2014-01-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in the collective-risk social dilemma game, where the risk is determined by a collective target that must be reached with individual contributions. All players initially receive endowments from the available amount of common resources. While cooperators contribute part of their endowment to the collective target, defectors do not. If the target is not reached, the endowments of all players are lost. In our model, we introduce a feedback between the amount of common resources and the contributions of cooperators. We show that cooperation can be sustained only if the common resources are preserved but never excessively abound. This, however, requires a delicate balance between the amount of common resources that initially exist, and the amount cooperators contribute to the collective target. Exceeding critical thresholds in either of the two amounts leads to loss of cooperation, and consequently to the depletion of common resources. PMID:24561876

  4. Excessive abundance of common resources deters social responsibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaojie; Perc, Matjaž

    2014-02-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in the collective-risk social dilemma game, where the risk is determined by a collective target that must be reached with individual contributions. All players initially receive endowments from the available amount of common resources. While cooperators contribute part of their endowment to the collective target, defectors do not. If the target is not reached, the endowments of all players are lost. In our model, we introduce a feedback between the amount of common resources and the contributions of cooperators. We show that cooperation can be sustained only if the common resources are preserved but never excessively abound. This, however, requires a delicate balance between the amount of common resources that initially exist, and the amount cooperators contribute to the collective target. Exceeding critical thresholds in either of the two amounts leads to loss of cooperation, and consequently to the depletion of common resources.

  5. Energy resources - cornucopia or empty barrel?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    Over the last 25 yr, considerable debate has continued about the future supply of fossil fuel. On one side are those who believe we are rapidly depleting resources and that the resulting shortages will have a profound impact on society. On the other side are those who see no impending crisis because long-term trends are for cheaper prices despite rising production. The concepts of resources and reserves have historically created considerable misunderstanding in the minds of many nongeologists. Hubbert-type predictions of energy production assume that there is a finite supply of energy that is measurable; however, estimates of resources and reserves are inventories of the amounts of a fossil fuel perceived to be available over some future period of time. As those resources/reserves are depleted over time, additional amounts of fossil fuels are inventoried. Throughout most of this century, for example, crude oil reserves in the United States have represented a 10-14-yr supply. For the last 50 yr, resource crude oil estimates have represented about a 60-70-yr supply for the United States. Division of reserve or resource estimates by current or projected annual consumption therefore is circular in reasoning and can lead to highly erroneous conclusions. Production histories of fossil fuels are driven more by demand than by the geologic abundance of the resource. Examination of some energy resources with well-documented histories leads to two conceptual models that relate production to price. The closed-market model assumes that there is only one source of energy available. Although the price initially may fall because of economies of scale long term, prices rise as the energy source is depleted and it becomes progressively more expensive to extract. By contrast, the open-market model assumes that there is a variety of available energy sources and that competition among them leads to long-term stable or falling prices. At the moment, the United States and the world

  6. Constraining dark energy from the abundance of weak gravitational lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, Nevin N.; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2003-05-01

    We examine the prospect of using the observed abundance of weak gravitational lenses to constrain the equation-of-state parameter w=p/ρ of dark energy. Dark energy modifies the distance-redshift relation, the amplitude of the matter power spectrum, and the rate of structure growth. As a result, it affects the efficiency with which dark-matter concentrations produce detectable weak-lensing signals. Here we solve the spherical-collapse model with dark energy, clarifying some ambiguities found in the literature. We also provide fitting formulae for the non-linear overdensity at virialization and the linear-theory overdensity at collapse. We then compute the variation in the predicted weak-lens abundance with w. We find that the predicted redshift distribution and number count of weak lenses are highly degenerate in w and the present matter density Ω0. If we fix Ω0 the number count of weak lenses for w=-2/3 is a factor of ~2 smaller than for the Λ cold dark matter (CDM) model w=-1. However, if we allow Ω0 to vary with w such that the amplitude of the matter power spectrum as measured by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) matches that obtained from the X-ray cluster abundance, the decrease in the predicted lens abundance is less than 25 per cent for -1 <=w< -0.4. We show that a more promising method for constraining dark energy - one that is largely unaffected by the Ω0-w degeneracy as well as uncertainties in observational noise - is to compare the relative abundance of virialized X-ray lensing clusters with the abundance of non-virialized, X-ray underluminous, lensing haloes. For aperture sizes of ~15 arcmin, the predicted ratio of the non-virialized to virialized lenses is greater than 40 per cent and varies by ~20 per cent between w=-1 and -0.6. Overall, we find that, if all other weak-lensing parameters are fixed, a survey must cover at least ~40 deg2 in order for the weak-lens number count to differentiate a ΛCDM cosmology from a dark-energy model with w

  7. Unconventional energy resources: 2007-2008 review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warwick, P.D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes five 2007-2008 resource commodity committee reports prepared by the Energy Minerals Division (EMD) of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Current United States and global research and development activities related to gas hydrates, gas shales, geothermal resources, oil sands, and uranium resources are included in this review. These commodity reports were written to advise EMD leadership and membership of the current status of research and development of unconventional energy resources. Unconventional energy resources are defined as those resources other than conventional oil and natural gas that typically occur in sandstone and carbonate rocks. Gas hydrate resources are potentially enormous; however, production technologies are still under development. Gas shale, geothermal, oil sand, and uranium resources are now increasing targets of exploration and development, and are rapidly becoming important energy resources that will continue to be developed in the future. ?? 2009 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  8. Technical Resources for Energy Savings Plus Health

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Energy Savings Plus Health Guide equips school districts to integrate indoor air quality protections into school energy efficiency retrofits and other building upgrade projects. This page lists additional resources related to Energy Savings Plus Health

  9. Guide to Resource Planning with Energy Efficiency

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document is a “how-to” guide that describes the key issues, best practices, and main process steps for integrating energy efficiency into resource planning on an equal basis with other resources.

  10. Energy Criteria for Resource Optimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    Resource optimization in building design is based on the total system over its expected useful life. Alternative environmental systems can be evaluated in terms of resource costs and goal effectiveness. (Author/MF)

  11. University Student Conceptual Resources for Understanding Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabo, Hannah C.; Goodhew, Lisa M.; Robertson, Amy D.

    2016-01-01

    We report some of the common, prevalent conceptual resources that students used to reason about energy, based on our analysis of written responses to questions given to 807 introductory physics students. These resources include, for example, associating forms of energy with indicators, relating forces and energy, and representing energy…

  12. A large detector for cosmic ray abundance and energy measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsop, C.

    A large aperture, balloon borne cosmic ray detector was designed to measure the energy spectra of individual cosmic ray species with Z greater than 8 in the energy range 0.3GeV/N to 400GeV/N. The energy dependence of the abundance spectrum extending up to such high energies will provide valuable data for determining the nature of the origin and propagation of cosmic rays in the Galaxy. The properties of cosmic ray nuclei and the interpretation of the energy dependence of the abundance spectrum are discussed. The design and response of the BUGS IV cosmic ray detector are described. The measurement techniques used are gas scintillation, gas proportional scintillation and Cerenkov radiation from both gases and solids. The light collection properties of the detector and several experimental investigations of the light collection efficiency of the drift chamber region are described. The expected signals from the gas scintillation and gas Cerenkov emissions are predicted and the choice of a suitable scintillating gas mixture for minimizing the uncertainty in the charge and energy measurements is considered. The theoretical aspects of electron drift and diffusion in gases and several experimental investigations on the electron drift in the BUGS IV drift chamber are given. Also some preliminary results from a uniform field drift chamber are included which demonstrate the sensitivity of the electron drift velocity in inert gas mixtures to water vapor contamination. The expected overall performance of BUGS IV and the results of an experimental simulation of the parachute landing of the detector are given.

  13. Geothermal Energy - An Emerging Resource

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, John R.

    1987-01-20

    Address on the Department of Energy's overall energy policy, the role of alternative energy sources within the policy framework, and expectations for geothermal energy. Commendation of the industry's decision to pursue the longer-term field effort while demand for geothermal energy is low, and thus prepare for a substantial geothermal contribution to the nation's energy security.

  14. Assessment of rural energy resources; Methodological guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Rijal, K.; Bansal, N.K.; Grover, P.D. )

    1990-01-01

    This article presents the methodological guidelines used to assess rural energy resources with an example of its application in three villages each from different physiographic zones of Nepal. Existing energy demand patterns of villages are compared with estimated resource availability, and rural energy planning issues are discussed. Economics and financial supply price of primary energy resources are compared, which provides insight into defective energy planning and policy formulation and implication in the context of rural areas of Nepal. Though aware of the formidable consequences, the rural populace continues to exhaust the forest as they are unable to find financially cheaper alternatives. Appropriate policy measures need to be devised by the government to promote the use of economically cost-effective renewable energy resources so as to change the present energy usage pattern to diminish the environmental impact caused by over exploitation of forest resources beyond their regenerative capacity.

  15. Interstellar isomeric species: Energy, stability and abundance relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etim, Emmanuel E.; Arunan, Elangannan

    2016-12-01

    Accurate enthalpies of formation are reported for known and potential interstellar isomeric species using high-level ab initio quantum-chemical calculations. A total of 130 molecules comprising of 31 isomeric groups and 24 cyanide/isocyanide pairs with molecules ranging from 3 to 12 atoms have been considered. The results show an interesting relationship between energy, stability and abundance (ESA) existing among these molecules. Among the isomeric species, isomers with lower enthalpies of formation are more easily observed in the interstellar medium compared to their counterparts with higher enthalpies of formation. Available data in the literature confirm the high abundance of the most stable isomer over other isomers in the different groups considered. Potential for interstellar hydrogen bonding accounts for the few exceptions observed. Thus, in general, it suffices to say that the interstellar abundances of related species could be linked to their stabilities if other factors do not dominate. The immediate consequences of this relationship in addressing some of the whys and wherefores among interstellar molecules and in predicting some possible candidates for future astronomical observations are discussed.

  16. University student conceptual resources for understanding energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabo, Hannah C.; Goodhew, Lisa M.; Robertson, Amy D.

    2016-06-01

    We report some of the common, prevalent conceptual resources that students used to reason about energy, based on our analysis of written responses to questions given to 807 introductory physics students. These resources include, for example, associating forms of energy with indicators, relating forces and energy, and representing energy quantitatively. This research responds to a need for large-scale, resources-oriented research on students' conceptual understanding and has the potential to support the development of an underexplored dimension of pedagogical content knowledge-knowledge of student resources for understanding energy. Our aim is to promote instructor take-up of the resources theory of knowledge, and we suggest a number of ways in which instructors might capitalize on the resources we report.

  17. Modeling renewable energy resources in integrated resource planning

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, D.; Neil, C.; Taylor, A.

    1994-06-01

    Including renewable energy resources in integrated resource planning (IRP) requires that utility planning models properly consider the relevant attributes of the different renewable resources in addition to conventional supply-side and demand-side options. Otherwise, a utility`s resource plan is unlikely to have an appropriate balance of the various resource options. The current trend toward regulatory set-asides for renewable resources is motivated in part by the perception that the capabilities of current utility planning models are inadequate with regard to renewable resources. Adequate modeling capabilities and utility planning practices are a necessary prerequisite to the long-term penetration of renewable resources into the electric utility industry`s resource mix. This report presents a review of utility planning models conducted for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The review examines the capabilities of utility planning models to address key issues in the choice between renewable resources and other options. The purpose of this review is to provide a basis for identifying high priority areas for advancing the state of the art.

  18. Energy Education: A Catalog of Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Albany. Atmospheric Science Research Center.

    This list of energy resource materials is broken down into five categories: (1) general resources; (2) electricity; (3) nuclear and fossil fuels; (4) conservation; and (5) future fuels. (An added feature for New York residents is a concluding list of resources available gratis from New York electric companies). Materials cited include audiovisual…

  19. Water Resources Management for Shale Energy Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoxtheimer, D.

    2015-12-01

    The increase in the exploration and extraction of hydrocarbons, especially natural gas, from shale formations has been facilitated by advents in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies. Shale energy resources are very promising as an abundant energy source, though environmental challenges exist with their development, including potential adverse impacts to water quality. The well drilling and construction process itself has the potential to impact groundwater quality, however if proper protocols are followed and well integrity is established then impacts such as methane migration or drilling fluids releases can be minimized. Once a shale well has been drilled and hydraulically fractured, approximately 10-50% of the volume of injected fluids (flowback fluids) may flow out of the well initially with continued generation of fluids (produced fluids) throughout the well's productive life. Produced fluid TDS concentrations often exceed 200,000 mg/L, with elevated levels of strontium (Sr), bromide (Br), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), barium (Ba), chloride (Cl), radionuclides originating from the shale formation as well as fracturing additives. Storing, managing and properly disposisng of these fluids is critical to ensure water resources are not impacted by unintended releases. The most recent data in Pennsylvania suggests an estimated 85% of the produced fluids were being recycled for hydraulic fracturing operations, while many other states reuse less than 50% of these fluids and rely moreso on underground injection wells for disposal. Over the last few years there has been a shift to reuse more produced fluids during well fracturing operations in shale plays around the U.S., which has a combination of economic, regulatory, environmental, and technological drivers. The reuse of water is cost-competitive with sourcing of fresh water and disposal of flowback, especially when considering the costs of advanced treatment to or disposal well injection and lessens

  20. Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project; energy resources activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1998-01-01

    Oil, natural gas, and coal (energy resources) have been produced from rocks in the Front Range of Colorado and Wyoming for more than a century, and significant quantities of oil and gas continue to be developed in the study area of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project (fig. 1). As an infrastructure resource, energy resources helped to fuel past development of (1) urban areas in the Front Range as well as (2) some of the manufacturing and mining upon which the urban centers were built and thrived. At present, much of the oil and gas extracted from rocks beneath the Front Range urban corridor is used locally; the people living in the urban area provide a need and viable marketplace for these commodities.

  1. Teachers Environmental Resource Unit: Energy and Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bemiss, Clair W.

    Problems associated with energy production and power are studied in this teacher's guide to better understand the impact of man's energy production on the environment, how he consumes energy, and in what quantities. The resource unit is intended to provide the teacher with basic information that will aid classroom review of these problems. Topics…

  2. Venezuelan energy resources and electric power system

    SciTech Connect

    Altimari, J.

    1994-06-01

    This article discusses the changing energy policy of Venezuela which is intended to make its electric power sector more competitive. The topics of the article include an overview of the power industry (both private and public utilities), energy sources, power system capacity, generation resources, power demand, load management, and energy conservation.

  3. Petroleum and the Environment: Teaching about Petroleum and the Future of Energy Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Travis; Camphire, Geoffrey

    2005-01-01

    Students live in a world that is powered by petroleum and other energy resources to an unsurpassed degree. The United States today consumes more than 24% of all the energy used in the world--and about 60% of this energy is provided by petroleum (oil and natural gas). The availability of abundant, inexpensive energy is the main reason that the…

  4. Energy density and variability in abundance of pigeon guillemot prey: Support for the quality-variability trade-off hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Litzow, Michael A.; Piatt, J.F.; Abookire, Alisa A.; Robards, Martin D.

    2004-01-01

    1. The quality-variability trade-off hypothesis predicts that (i) energy density (kJ g-1) and spatial-temporal variability in abundance are positively correlated in nearshore marine fishes; and (ii) prey selection by a nearshore piscivore, the pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba Pallas), is negatively affected by variability in abundance. 2. We tested these predictions with data from a 4-year study that measured fish abundance with beach seines and pigeon guillemot prey utilization with visual identification of chick meals. 3. The first prediction was supported. Pearson's correlation showed that fishes with higher energy density were more variable on seasonal (r = 0.71) and annual (r = 0.66) time scales. Higher energy density fishes were also more abundant overall (r = 0.85) and more patchy at a scale of 10s of km (r = 0.77). 4. Prey utilization by pigeon guillemots was strongly non-random. Relative preference, defined as the difference between log-ratio transformed proportions of individual prey taxa in chick diets and beach seine catches, was significantly different from zero for seven of the eight main prey categories. 5. The second prediction was also supported. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to summarize variability in correlated prey characteristics (energy density, availability and variability in abundance). Two PCA scores explained 32% of observed variability in pigeon guillemot prey utilization. Seasonal variability in abundance was negatively weighted by these PCA scores, providing evidence of risk-averse selection. Prey availability, energy density and km-scale variability in abundance were positively weighted. 6. Trophic interactions are known to create variability in resource distribution in other systems. We propose that links between resource quality and the strength of trophic interactions may produce resource quality-variability trade-offs.

  5. Progress on alternative energy resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couch, H. T.

    1982-03-01

    Progress in the year 1981 toward the development of energy systems suitable for replacing petroleum products combustion and growing in use to fulfill a near term expansion in energy use is reviewed. Coal is noted to be a potentially heavy pollution source, and the presence of environmentally acceptable methods of use such as fluidized-bed combustion and gasification and liquefaction reached the prototype stage in 1981, MHD power generation was achieved in two U.S. plants, with severe corrosion problems remaining unsolved for the electrodes. Solar flat plate collectors sales amounted to 20 million sq ft in 1981, and solar thermal electric conversion systems with central receivers neared completion. Solar cells are progressing toward DOE goals of $.70/peak W by 1986, while wind energy conversion sales were 2000 machines in 1981, and the industry is regarded as maturing. Finally, geothermal, OTEC, and fusion systems are reviewed.

  6. The relative importance of resources and natural enemies in determining herbivore abundance: thistles, tephritids and parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Walker, Matthew; Hartley, Susan E; Jones, T Hefin

    2008-09-01

    1. The relative importance of host-plant resources and natural enemies in influencing the abundance of insect herbivores was investigated in potted plant and natural population experiments, using tephritid (Diptera: Tephritidae) flies, their host plant, creeping thistle Cirsium arvense, and their Hymenoptera parasitoids. 2. Experimental manipulation of host-plant quality (i.e. levels of host-plant nutrients) and resource availability (i.e. the number of buds) increased tephritid abundance. There was no evidence that the seed-feeding tephritid fly Xyphosia miliaria preferentially oviposited on fertilized C. arvense. 3. At low thistle densities, X. miliaria showed a constant rate of resource exploitation. At higher thistle densities, a threshold was detected, above which additional buds were not attacked. 4. Parasitism attack was variable across host (tephritid) densities but levels of parasitism were consistently higher on the fertilized thistles. 5. Experimental manipulation of host-plant quality and resource availability (quantity) not only directly affects the tephritid population but also, indirectly, leads to high rates of parasitism. Both chemical and physical characteristics of host plants affect the performance of natural enemies. 6. Both top-down and bottom-up forces act to influence tephritid abundance, with bottom-up influences appearing to be the most important.

  7. Evolutionary entropy predicts the outcome of selection: Competition for resources that vary in abundance and diversity.

    PubMed

    Demetrius, Lloyd; Legendre, Stéphane

    2013-02-01

    Competition between individuals for resources which are limited and diverse in composition is the ultimate driving force of evolution. Classical studies of this event contend that the outcome is a deterministic process predicted by the growth rate of the competing types-a tenet called the Malthusian selection principle. Recent studies of competition indicate that the dynamics of selection is a stochastic process, regulated by the population size, the abundance and diversity of the resource, and predicted by evolutionary entropy-a statistical parameter which characterizes the rate at which the population returns to the steady state condition after a random endogenous or exogenous perturbation. This tenet, which we will call the entropic selection principle entails the following relations: This article delineates the analytic, computational and empirical support for this tenet. We show moreover that the Malthusian selection principle, a cornerstone of classical evolutionary genetics, is the limit, as population size and resource abundance tends to infinity of the entropic selection principle. The Malthusian tenet is an approximation to the entropic selection principle-an approximation whose validity increases with increasing population size and increasing resource abundance. Evolutionary entropy is a generic concept that characterizes the interaction dynamics of metabolic entities at several levels of biological organization: cellular, organismic and ecological. Accordingly, the entropic selection principle represents a general rule for explaining the processes of adaptation and evolution at each of these levels.

  8. Enhanced distributed energy resource system

    DOEpatents

    Atcitty, Stanley; Clark, Nancy H.; Boyes, John D.; Ranade, Satishkumar J.

    2007-07-03

    A power transmission system including a direct current power source electrically connected to a conversion device for converting direct current into alternating current, a conversion device connected to a power distribution system through a junction, an energy storage device capable of producing direct current connected to a converter, where the converter, such as an insulated gate bipolar transistor, converts direct current from an energy storage device into alternating current and supplies the current to the junction and subsequently to the power distribution system. A microprocessor controller, connected to a sampling and feedback module and the converter, determines when the current load is higher than a set threshold value, requiring triggering of the converter to supply supplemental current to the power transmission system.

  9. Energy and other non-renewable resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Anticipated U.S. demands for non-renewable energy and mineral resources exceed domestic supplies essential for economic growth. For the long term changes necessary in the energy supply and demand gap, new technologies and substitute materials as well as legislation and socio-economic strategies are elaborated.

  10. Juvenile Salmonid and Baitfish Distribution, Abundance and Prey Resources in Selected Areas of Grays Harbor, Washington

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    size. 14i 188 The density-size distributions of the two species in freshwater also affect the degree of interspecific competition and pressure for...that physiological changes associated with smoltification, changes in population abundance or avail- = ability of food resources, or interspecific ... competition could have 52 depressed growth, but he was unable to offer direct evidence to support or refute any of these alternative hypotheses

  11. [Effects of macro-jellyfish abundance dynamics on fishery resource structure in the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent waters].

    PubMed

    Shan, Xiu-Juan; Zhuang, Zhi-Meng; Jin, Xian-Shi; Dai, Fang-Qun

    2011-12-01

    Based on the bottom trawl survey data in May 2007 and May and June 2008, this paper analyzed the effects of the abundance dynamics of macro-jellyfish on the species composition, distribution, and abundance of fishery resource in the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent waters. From May 2007 to June 2008, the average catch per haul and the top catch per haul of macro-jellyfish increased, up to 222.2 kg x h(-1) and 1800 kg x h(-1) in June 2008, respectively. The macro-jellyfish were mainly distributed in the areas around 50 m isobath, and not beyond 100 m isobath where was the joint front of the coastal waters of East China Sea, Yangtze River runoff, and Taiwan Warm Current. The main distribution area of macro-jellyfish in June migrated northward, as compared with that in May, and the highest catches of macro-jellyfish in May 2007 and May 2008 were found in the same sampling station (122.5 degrees E, 28.5 degrees N). In the sampling stations with higher abundance of macro-jellyfish, the fishery abundance was low, and the fishery species also changed greatly, mainly composed by small-sized species (Trachurus japonicus, Harpadon nehereus, and Acropoma japonicum) and pelagic species (Psenopsis anomala, Octopus variabilis) and Trichiurus japonicus, and P. anomala accounted for 23.7% of the total catch in June 2008. Larimichthys polyactis also occupied higher proportion of the total catch in sampling stations with higher macro-jellyfish abundance, but the demersal species Lophius litulon was not found, and a few crustaceans were collected. This study showed that macro-jellyfish had definite negative effects on the fishery community structure and abundance in the Yangtze River estuary fishery ecosystem, and further, changed the energy flow patterns of the ecosystem through cascading trophic interactions. Therefore, macro-jellyfish was strongly suggested to be an independent ecological group when the corresponding fishery management measures were considered.

  12. Dark Energy and The Dark Matter Relic Abundance

    SciTech Connect

    Rosati, Francesca

    2004-11-17

    Two mechanisms by which the quintessence scalar could enhance the relic abundance of dark matter particles are discussed. These effects can have an impact on supersymmetric candidates for dark matter.

  13. Alaska Energy Inventory Project: Consolidating Alaska's Energy Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papp, K.; Clough, J.; Swenson, R.; Crimp, P.; Hanson, D.; Parker, P.

    2007-12-01

    Alaska has considerable energy resources distributed throughout the state including conventional oil, gas, and coal, and unconventional coalbed and shalebed methane, gas hydrates, geothermal, wind, hydro, and biomass. While much of the known large oil and gas resources are concentrated on the North Slope and in the Cook Inlet regions, the other potential sources of energy are dispersed across a varied landscape from frozen tundra to coastal settings. Despite the presence of these potential energy sources, rural Alaska is mostly dependent upon diesel fuel for both electrical power generation and space heating needs. At considerable cost, large quantities of diesel fuel are transported to more than 150 roadless communities by barge or airplane and stored in large bulk fuel tank farms for winter months when electricity and heat are at peak demands. Recent increases in the price of oil have severely impacted the price of energy throughout Alaska, and especially hard hit are rural communities and remote mines that are off the road system and isolated from integrated electrical power grids. Even though the state has significant conventional gas resources in restricted areas, few communities are located near enough to these resources to directly use natural gas to meet their energy needs. To address this problem, the Alaska Energy Inventory project will (1) inventory and compile all available Alaska energy resource data suitable for electrical power generation and space heating needs including natural gas, coal, coalbed and shalebed methane, gas hydrates, geothermal, wind, hydro, and biomass and (2) identify locations or regions where the most economic energy resource or combination of energy resources can be developed to meet local needs. This data will be accessible through a user-friendly web-based interactive map, based on the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Land Records Information Section's (LRIS) Alaska Mapper, Google Earth, and Terrago Technologies' Geo

  14. Energy resource management for energy-intensive manufacturing industries

    SciTech Connect

    Brenner, C.W.; Levangie, J.

    1981-10-01

    A program to introduce energy resource management into an energy-intensive manufacturing industry is presented. The food industry (SIC No. 20) was chosen and 20 companies were selected for interviews, but thirteen were actually visited. The methodology for this program is detailed. Reasons for choosing the food industry are described. The substance of the information gained and the principal conclusions drawn from the interviews are given. Results of the model Energy Resource Management Plan applied to three companies are compiled at length. Strategies for dissemination of the information gained are described. (MCW)

  15. Hawai‘i Distributed Energy Resource Technologies for Energy Security

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2012-09-30

    HNEI has conducted research to address a number of issues important to move Hawai‘i to greater use of intermittent renewable and distributed energy resource (DER) technologies in order to facilitate greater use of Hawai‘i's indigenous renewable energy resources. Efforts have been concentrated on the Islands of Hawai‘i, Maui, and O‘ahu, focusing in three areas of endeavor: 1) Energy Modeling and Scenario Analysis (previously called Energy Road mapping); 2) Research, Development, and Validation of Renewable DER and Microgrid Technologies; and 3) Analysis and Policy. These efforts focused on analysis of the island energy systems and development of specific candidate technologies for future insertion into an integrated energy system, which would lead to a more robust transmission and distribution system in the state of Hawai‘i and eventually elsewhere in the nation.

  16. Coordinated Collaboration between Heterogeneous Distributed Energy Resources

    DOE PAGES

    Abdollahy, Shahin; Lavrova, Olga; Mammoli, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    A power distribution feeder, where a heterogeneous set of distributed energy resources is deployed, is examined by simulation. The energy resources include PV, battery storage, natural gas GenSet, fuel cells, and active thermal storage for commercial buildings. The resource scenario considered is one that may exist in a not too distant future. Two cases of interaction between different resources are examined. One interaction involves a GenSet used to partially offset the duty cycle of a smoothing battery connected to a large PV system. The other example involves the coordination of twenty thermal storage devices, each associated with a commercial building.more » Storage devices are intended to provide maximum benefit to the building, but it is shown that this can have a deleterious effect on the overall system, unless the action of the individual storage devices is coordinated. A network based approach is also introduced to calculate some type of effectiveness metric to all available resources which take part in coordinated operation. The main finding is that it is possible to achieve synergy between DERs on a system; however this required a unified strategy to coordinate the action of all devices in a decentralized way.« less

  17. 75 FR 75335 - Integration of Variable Energy Resources

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-02

    ... Energy Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 35 Integration of Variable Energy Resources...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 35 Integration of Variable Energy Resources November 18, 2010. AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of...

  18. Arctic energy opportunities: US resources and development

    SciTech Connect

    Frye, K.N.

    1986-04-01

    The importance of the Arctic's dual energy and environmental challenges led the US in July 1984, to pass Public Law 98-373 - the Arctic Research and Policy Act of 1984. The purpose of this law is to provide for a comprehensive national policy dealing with national research needs and objectives in the Arctic with particular emphasis on resource development. This policy also emphasizes the need for greater coordination of available research dollars to better focus the rational and planned development of our Arctic resources. This Act sets forth as it principal finding the declaration that the Arctic, onshore and offshore, contains vital energy resources that can reduce the nation's dependence on foreign oil and improve the national balance of payments. It further provides that the Federal Government, in cooperation with state and local governments, should focus its efforts on the collection and characterization of basic data related to biological, material, geophysical, social, and behavioral phenomena in the Arctic. To carry out this new legislation, the President established an Arctic Research Commission and the Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee that includes the Department of Energy, as well as representatives from the Departments of Commerce, Defense, Interior, State, and other agencies, with the representative of the National Science Foundation serving as the Chairperson. This Interagency Committee is working cooperatively with all parts of the US government and the State of Alaska to develop a five-year Arctic research policy implementation program plan.

  19. World Energy Resources and New Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szmyd, Janusz S.

    2016-01-01

    The development of civilisation is linked inextricably with growing demand for electricity. Thus, the still-rapid increase in the level of utilisation of natural resources, including fossil fuels, leaves it more and more urgent that conventional energy technologies and the potential of the renewable energy sources be made subject to re-evaluation. It is estimated that last 200 years have seen use made of more than 50% of the available natural resources. Equally, if economic forecasts prove accurate, for at least several more decades, oil, natural gas and coal will go on being the basic primary energy sources. The alternative solution represented by nuclear energy remains a cause of considerable public concern, while the potential for use to be made of renewable energy sources is seen to be very much dependent on local environmental conditions. For this reason, it is necessary to emphasise the impact of research that focuses on the further sharpening-up of energy efficiency, as well as actions aimed at increasing society's awareness of the relevant issues. The history of recent centuries has shown that rapid economic and social transformation followed on from the industrial and technological revolutions, which is to say revolutions made possible by the development of power-supply technologies. While the 19th century was "the age of steam" or of coal, and the 20th century the era of oil and gas, the question now concerns the name that will at some point come to be associated with the 21st century. In this paper, the subjects of discussion are primary energy consumption and energy resources, though three international projects on the global scale are also presented, i.e. ITER, Hydrates and DESERTEC. These projects demonstrate new scientific and technical possibilities, though it is unlikely that commercialisation would prove feasible before 2050. Research should thus be focused on raising energy efficiency. The development of high-efficiency technologies that

  20. The selfish brain: Competition for energy resources.

    PubMed

    Peters, Achim

    2011-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes have become the major health problems in many industrialized countries. Here, I present the unconventional concept that a healthy organism maintains its systemic homeostasis by a "competent brain-pull", i.e., the brain's ability to properly demand glucose from the body, and that the underlying cause of obesity is "incompetent brain-pull." I describe the energy fluxes from the environment, through the body, toward the brain as the final consumer in a "supply chain" model. There is data-based support for the hypothesis, which states that under conditions of food abundance incompetent brain-pull will lead to build ups in the supply chain culminating in obesity and type 2 diabetes. There is also support for the related hypothesis, which states that under conditions of food deprivation, a competent brain-pull mechanism is indispensable for the continuation of the brain's high energy level. To experimentally determine how the competent brain-pull functions to demand for cerebral energy, healthy young men undergoing psychosocial stress were studied. It was found that the brain under stressful conditions demands for energy from the body by using a brain-pull mechanism, which is referred to as "cerebral insulin suppression" and in so doing it can satisfy its excessive needs during stress. This article gives an overview about the recent work on the "Selfish Brain" theory dealing with the maintenance of the cerebral and peripheral energy homeostasis.

  1. 77 FR 43592 - System Energy Resources, Inc.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ..., 2012, System Energy Resources, Inc. (System Energy Resources), submitted a supplement to its petition... supplement, System Energy Resources supplements its March 28 petition to provide additional information and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  2. Visualizing Energy Resources Dynamically on Earth

    SciTech Connect

    Shankar, Mallikarjun; Stovall, John P.; Sorokine, Alexandre; Bhaduri, Budhendra L.; King, Jr., Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    For the North American hurricane season, in partnership with the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) and working with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, we have developed a capability that helps visualize the status of the electric transmission system infrastructure. The capability toolkit, called VERDE - Visualizing Energy Resources Dynamically on Earth, takes advantage of the Google Earth platform to display spatiotemporally informed power grid and related data. Custom libraries describe the electrical transmission network in the Eastern United States and the dynamic status of each transmission line. Standard Google Earth layers provide additional spatial context. In addition to live status, VERDE provides a framework and mechanism to ingest and intuitively present predictive models, data from different sources, and response needs.

  3. Energy and Resources Group, University of California, Berkeley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Mark N.

    1987-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary program at the University of California (Berkeley) that addresses the multifaceted problems of energy and resources through a teaching and resource program. Discusses the program's structure, curriculum, research activities, students, resources, and problems and possibilities. (TW)

  4. Future petroleum energy resources of the world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.

    2002-01-01

    and gas endowment estimates. Whereas petroleum resources in the world appear to be significant, certain countries such as the United States may run into import deficits, particularly oil imports from Mexico and natural gas from both Canada and Mexico. The new assessment has been used as the reference supply case in energy supply models by the International Energy Agency and the Energy Information Agency of the Department of Energy. Climate energy modeling groups such as those at Stanford University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and others have also used USGS estimates in global climate models. Many of these models using the USGS estimates converge on potential oil shortfalls in 2036-2040. However, recent articles using the USGS (2000) estimates suggest peaking of oil in 2020-2035 and peaking of non-OPEC (Organization of Petroleum-Exporting Countries) oil in 2015-2020. Such a short time framework places greater emphasis on a transition to increased use of natural gas; i.e., a methane economy. Natural gas in turn may experience similar supply concerns in the 2050-2060 time frame according to some authors. Coal resources are considerable and provide significant petroleum potential either by extracting natural gas from them, by directly converting them into petroleum products, or by utilizing them to generate electricity, thereby reducing natural gas and oil requirements by fuel substitution. Non-conventional oil and gas are quite common in petroleum provinces of the world and represent a significant resources yet to be fully studied and developed. Seventeen non-conventional AU including coal-bed methane, basin-center gas, continuous oil, and gas hydrate occurrences have been preliminarily identified for future assessment. Initial efforts to assess heavy oil deposits and other non-conventional oil and gas deposits also are under way.

  5. Electricity End Uses, Energy Efficiency, and Distributed Energy Resources Baseline

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Lisa; Wei, Max; Morrow, William; Deason, Jeff; Schiller, Steven R.; Leventis, Greg; Smith, Sarah; Leow, Woei Ling; Levin, Todd; Plotkin, Steven; Zhou, Yan

    2017-01-01

    This report was developed by a team of analysts at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with Argonne National Laboratory contributing the transportation section, and is a DOE EPSA product and part of a series of “baseline” reports intended to inform the second installment of the Quadrennial Energy Review (QER 1.2). QER 1.2 provides a comprehensive review of the nation’s electricity system and cover the current state and key trends related to the electricity system, including generation, transmission, distribution, grid operations and planning, and end use. The baseline reports provide an overview of elements of the electricity system. This report focuses on end uses, electricity consumption, electric energy efficiency, distributed energy resources (DERs) (such as demand response, distributed generation, and distributed storage), and evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) methods for energy efficiency and DERs.

  6. Smart Operations in Distributed Energy Resources System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Li; Jie, Shu; Zhang-XianYong; Qing, Zhou

    Smart grid capabilities are being proposed to help solve the challenges concerning system operations due to that the trade-offs between energy and environmental needs will be constantly negotiated while a reliable supply of electricity needs even greater assurance in case of that threats of disruption have risen. This paper mainly explores models for distributed energy resources system (DG, storage, and load),and also reviews the evolving nature of electricity markets to deal with this complexity and a change of emphasis on signals from these markets to affect power system control. Smart grid capabilities will also impact reliable operations, while cyber security issues must be solved as a culture change that influences all system design, implementation, and maintenance. Lastly, the paper explores significant questions for further research and the need for a simulation environment that supports such investigation and informs deployments to mitigate operational issues as they arise.

  7. Investigating Urban Eighth-Grade Students' Knowledge of Energy Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodzin, Alec

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated urban eighth-grade students' knowledge of energy resources and associated issues including energy acquisition, energy generation, storage and transport, and energy consumption and conservation. A 39 multiple-choice-item energy resources knowledge assessment was completed by 1043 eighth-grade students in urban schools in two…

  8. Do primordial lithium abundances imply there's no dark energy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regis, Marco; Clarkson, Chris

    2012-03-01

    Explaining the well established observation that the expansion rate of the universe is apparently accelerating is one of the defining scientific problems of our age. Within the standard model of cosmology, the repulsive `dark energy' supposedly responsible has no explanation at a fundamental level, despite many varied attempts. A further important dilemma in the standard model is the lithium problem, which is the substantial mismatch between the theoretical prediction for 7Li from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and the value that we observe today. This observation is one of the very few we have from along our past worldline as opposed to our past lightcone. By releasing the untested assumption that the universe is homogeneous on very large scales, both apparent acceleration and the lithium problem can be easily accounted for as different aspects of cosmic inhomogeneity, without causing problems for other cosmological phenomena such as the cosmic microwave background. We illustrate this in the context of a void model.

  9. 2016 Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, Walt; Heimiller, Donna; Beiter, Philipp; Scott, George; Draxl, Caroline

    2016-09-01

    This report, the 2016 Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for the United States, was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and updates a previous national resource assessment study, and refines and reaffirms that the available wind resource is sufficient for offshore wind to be a large-scale contributor to the nation's electric energy supply.

  10. 78 FR 78466 - Meeting of the Regional Energy Resource Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... Meeting of the Regional Energy Resource Council AGENCY: Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: The TVA Regional Energy Resource Council (RERC) will hold an orientation meeting... Tennessee Valley. The RERC was established to advise TVA on its energy resource activities and...

  11. 78 FR 60366 - Meeting of the Regional Energy Resource Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... RERC was established to advise TVA on its energy resource activities and the priorities among competing... Meeting of the Regional Energy Resource Council AGENCY: Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The TVA Regional Energy Resource Council (RERC) will hold an orientation...

  12. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 9. The Southwest Region

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, R.L.; Norman, G.T.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-11-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in Nevada and California. Background on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted is presented. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. An introduction and outline to the descriptions of the wind resource given for each state are given. Assessments for individual states are presented as separate chapters. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed.

  13. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 10. Alaska region

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, J.L.; Wentink, T. Jr.; Becker, R. Jr.; Comiskey, A.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-12-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in each subregion of Alaska. Background is presented on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted. A description of the wind resource on a state scale is given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each subregion are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the Alaska wind energy resource. An outline to the descriptions of the wind resource given for each subregion is included. Assessments for individual subregions are presented as separate chapters. The subregion wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the Alaska wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed. This preface outlines the use and interpretation of the information found in the subregion chapters.

  14. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 4. The Northeast region

    SciTech Connect

    Pickering, K.E.; Vilardo, J.M.; Schakenbach, J.T.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-09-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in each state of the region. Background is presented on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled in this chapter into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. An introduction and outline are provided for in the descriptions of the wind resource given for each state. Assessments for individual states are presented. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed. This preface outlines the use and interpretation of the information found in the state chapters.

  15. Investigating Urban Eighth-Grade Students' Knowledge of Energy Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodzin, Alec

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated urban eighth-grade students' knowledge of energy resources and associated issues including energy acquisition, energy generation, storage and transport, and energy consumption and conservation. A 39 multiple-choice-item energy resources knowledge assessment was completed by 1043 eighth-grade students in urban schools in two cities in Pennsylvania, USA. Mean scores for the entire assessment measure indicated low conceptual energy knowledge of the eighth-grade students. Subscale means revealed that student understandings of energy resource acquisition, energy generation, storage and transport, and energy consumption and conservation are not satisfactory. Distractor analysis identified many misunderstandings that eighth-grade students hold with regard to energy resources. Findings revealed that students did not have a sound knowledge and understanding of basic scientific energy resources facts, issues related to energy sources and resources, general trends in the US energy resource supply and use, and the impact energy resource development and use can have on society and the environment. Implications for teacher enactment of energy resources curriculum activities are discussed.

  16. 75 FR 3461 - Minnesota Energy Resources Corporation; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Minnesota Energy Resources Corporation; Notice of Filing January 13, 2010. Take notice that on December 29, 2009, Minnesota Energy Resources Corporation (MERC) filed to...

  17. Energy resource potential of natural gas hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of large gas hydrate accumulations in terrestrial permafrost regions of the Arctic and beneath the sea along the outer continental margins of the world's oceans has heightened interest in gas hydrates as a possible energy resource. However, significant to potentially insurmountable technical issues must be resolved before gas hydrates can be considered a viable option for affordable supplies of natural gas. The combined information from Arctic gas hydrate studies shows that, in permafrost regions, gas hydrates may exist at subsurface depths ranging from about 130 to 2000 m. The presence of gas hydrates in offshore continental margins has been inferred mainly from anomalous seismic reflectors, known as bottom-simulating reflectors, that have been mapped at depths below the sea floor ranging from about 100 to 1100 m. Current estimates of the amount of gas in the world's marine and permafrost gas hydrate accumulations are in rough accord at about 20,000 trillion m3. Disagreements over fundamental issues such as the volume of gas stored within delineated gas hydrate accumulations and the concentration of gas hydrates within hydrate-bearing strata have demonstrated that we know little about gas hydrates. Recently, however, several countries, including Japan, India, and the United States, have launched ambitious national projects to further examine the resource potential of gas hydrates. These projects may help answer key questions dealing with the properties of gas hydrate reservoirs, the design of production systems, and, most important, the costs and economics of gas hydrate production.

  18. Abundance of low energy (50-150 MeV) antiprotons in cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apparao, K. M. V.; Biswas, S.; Durgaprasad, N.; Stephens, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    The progress is presented of the nuclear emulsion experiment to determine abundance of low energy antiprotons in cosmic rays. No antiprotons have been detected so far at upper limit of p/p less than or similar to 4 x .0001 in the energy range 50 MeV to 15 MeV.

  19. Distributed Energy Resources Market Diffusion Model

    SciTech Connect

    Maribu, Karl Magnus; Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui,Afzal S.

    2006-06-16

    Distributed generation (DG) technologies, such as gas-fired reciprocating engines and microturbines, have been found to be economically beneficial in meeting commercial-sector electrical, heating, and cooling loads. Even though the electric-only efficiency of DG is lower than that offered by traditional central stations, combined heat and power (CHP) applications using recovered heat can make the overall system energy efficiency of distributed energy resources (DER) greater. From a policy perspective, however, it would be useful to have good estimates of penetration rates of DER under various economic and regulatory scenarios. In order to examine the extent to which DER systems may be adopted at a national level, we model the diffusion of DER in the US commercial building sector under different technical research and technology outreach scenarios. In this context, technology market diffusion is assumed to depend on the system's economic attractiveness and the developer's knowledge about the technology. The latter can be spread both by word-of-mouth and by public outreach programs. To account for regional differences in energy markets and climates, as well as the economic potential for different building types, optimal DER systems are found for several building types and regions. Technology diffusion is then predicted via two scenarios: a baseline scenario and a program scenario, in which more research improves DER performance and stronger technology outreach programs increase DER knowledge. The results depict a large and diverse market where both optimal installed capacity and profitability vary significantly across regions and building types. According to the technology diffusion model, the West region will take the lead in DER installations mainly due to high electricity prices, followed by a later adoption in the Northeast and Midwest regions. Since the DER market is in an early stage, both technology research and outreach programs have the potential to increase

  20. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 5: the East Central Region

    SciTech Connect

    Brode, R.; Stoner, R.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in each state of the region. Background is presented on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. Assessments for individual states are presented as separate chapters. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed. This preface outlines the use and interpretation of the information found in the state chapters. States include Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia.

  1. Integrated assessment of dispersed energy resources deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Marnay, Chris; Blanco, Raquel; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Kawaan, Cornelia P.; Osborn, Julie G.; Rubio, F. Javier

    2000-06-01

    The goal of this work is to create an integrated framework for forecasting the adoption of distributed energy resources (DER), both by electricity customers and by the various institutions within the industry itself, and for evaluating the effect of this adoption on the power system, particularly on the overall reliability and quality of electrical service to the end user. This effort and follow on contributions are intended to anticipate and explore possible patterns of DER deployment, thereby guiding technical work on microgrids towards the key technical problems. An early example of this process addressed is the question of possible DER adopting customer disconnection. A deployment scenario in which many customers disconnect from their distribution company (disco) entirely leads to a quite different set of technical problems than a scenario in which customers self generate a significant share or all of their on-site electricity requirements and additionally buy and sell energy and ancillary services (AS) locally and/or into wider markets. The exploratory work in this study suggests that the economics under which customers disconnect entirely are unlikely.

  2. The U.S. Geological Survey Energy Resources Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    The United States uses tremendous amounts of geologic energy resources. In 2004 alone, the United States consumed more than 7.4 billion barrels of oil, 21.9 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1.1 billion short tons of coal. Forecasts indicate the Nation's need for energy resources will continue to grow, raising several questions: How much domestic and foreign petroleum resources are available to meet the growing energy demands of the Nation and world? Does the United States have coal deposits of sufficient quantity and quality to meet demand over the next century? What other geologic energy resources can be added to the U.S. energy mix? How do the occurrence and use of energy resources affect environmental quality and human health? Unbiased information from robust scientific studies is needed for sound energy policy and resource management decisions addressing these issues. The U.S. Geological Survey Energy Resources Program provides impartial, scientifically robust information to advance the understanding of geologically based energy resources including: petroleum (oil, natural gas, natural gas liquids), coal, gas hydrates, geothermal resources, oil shale, oil sands, uranium, and heavy oil and natural bitumen. This information can be used to contribute to plans for a secure energy future and to facilitate evaluation and responsible use of resources.

  3. Renewable Energy Resources in the United Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Michael J.; Thomas, M. Pugh

    1990-01-01

    This paper defines renewable energy and outlines possible sources of this energy. Supplies, and ethics are considered. The position of renewable energy sources in the energy policy of Great Britain are discussed. (CW)

  4. Resource Letter PSEn-1: Physics and society: Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobson, Art

    2007-04-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the physics-related literature about energy-and-society. Journal articles, books, and websites are cited for the following topics: general references, textbooks, other pedagogical resources, population growth, fossil fuels, global warming, nuclear power, side effects of nuclear power, fusion power, renewable resources (including hydroelectric, biofuels, wind, photovoltaics, direct solar, geothermal, hydrogen, and energy storage), energy efficiency, and transportation efficiency.

  5. State Energy Alternatives: Alternative Energy Resources by State

    DOE Data Explorer

    This U.S. map provides state by state information on incentives and laws related to alternative fuels and advanced vehicles. Discover what's available in each state for innovation grants, infrastructure grants, and production grants and who to contact. Find out how many alternative refueling stations are available in each state and where they are. Tennessee, for example, in 2009, has 114 alternative refueling stations: 36 biodiesel, 1 electrical, 29 ethanol, 4 natural gas, and 44 propane. There are also 5 Truck Stop Electrification (TSE) sites in Tennessee. Users can also find out from this map interface the contacts for Clean Cities in a state, information about renewable energy projects and activities in each state, fuel prices across a state, and biomass potential resources and current production in each state.

  6. The U.S.Geological Survey Energy Resources Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2010-01-01

    Energy resources are an essential component of modern society. Adequate, reliable, and affordable energy supplies obtained using environmentally sustainable practices underpin economic prosperity, environmental quality and human health, and political stability. National and global demands for all forms of energy are forecast to increase significantly over the next several decades. Throughout its history, our Nation has faced important, often controversial, decisions regarding the competing uses of public lands, the supply of energy to sustain development and enable growth, and environmental stewardship. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Resources Program (ERP) provides information to address these challenges by supporting scientific investigations of energy resources, such as research on the geology, geochemistry, and geophysics of oil, gas, coal, heavy oil and natural bitumen, oil shale, uranium, and geothermal resources, emerging resources such as gas hydrates, and research on the effects associated with energy resource occurrence, production, and (or) utilization. The results from these investigations provide impartial, robust scientific information about energy resources and support the U.S. Department of the Interior's (DOI's) mission of protecting and responsibly managing the Nation's natural resources. Primary consumers of ERP information and products include the DOI land- and resource-management Bureaus; other Federal, State, and local agencies; the U.S. Congress and the Administration; nongovernmental organizations; the energy industry; academia; international organizations; and the general public.

  7. Power Play: Harnessing Resources for Energy Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Lynn W.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses sources of energy education materials, including businesses, industries, and private organizations. Provides names/addresses of principle energy trade associations and guidelines for evaluating energy education materials developed by the private sector. (JN)

  8. Resource Recovery. Energy and Environment. Teacher's Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Smith and Hills, Inc., Jacksonville, FL.

    Designed to assist students in understanding solid waste resource recovery, this teaching aid package aims to get students involved in practical activities that require participation, observation, and interpretation. Provided in this package are definitions, methods, causes and effects, costs, and benefits of resource recovery presented in the…

  9. Wind Power: An Emerging Energy Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Walter F.

    2010-01-01

    One may ask the question, What is energy? Typically the first answers that come to mind are oil, coal, and natural gas or nuclear energy. Most human activities require some form of energy consumption. This may be the energy produced by the food that one eats or the gasoline that is used in cars, trucks, buses, and other vehicles. One cannot ignore…

  10. Women: Tapping a New Resource for Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Action Now, New York, NY.

    In 1973 the Arab oil embargo triggered what has come to be known as the "energy crisis." In 1974, Consumer Action Now (CAN) decided to devote its full efforts to the grave issues of energy and to look for options that would preserve our choices as a new energy era is entered. Any transition to a more energy-efficient society depends on a…

  11. Community Design for Optimal Energy and Resource Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilenky, Stephen; And Others

    Presented is a study which investigated the energy and resource dynamics of a semi-autonomous domestic system for 30 people. The investigation is organized on three levels: (1) developing a preliminary design and design parameters; (2) development and quantification of the energy and resource dynamics; and (3) designing a model to extrapolate…

  12. Increased energy expenditure by a seabird in response to higher food abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jodice, P.G.R.; Roby, D.D.; Suryan, R.M.; Irons, D.B.; Turco, K.R.; Brown, E.D.; Thedinga, J.F.; Visser, G. Henk

    2006-01-01

    Variability in forage fish abundance strongly affects seabird behavior and reproductive success, although details of this relationship are unclear. During 1997 and 1998, we measured (1) daily energy expenditure (DEE) of 80 parent black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla at 2 colonies in Prince William Sound, Alaska (North Icy Bay and Shoup Bay), (2) abundance of surface-schooling forage fishes within the foraging range of each colony, and (3) diet composition, energy delivery rates to nestlings, and reproductive success of kittiwakes at these same colonies. Female DEE was highest at North Icy Bay in 1998, while male DEE did not differ by colony year. Abundances of Pacific herring Clupea pallasi and sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus were highest near North Icy Bay in 1998 and nearly egual in density, although Age 1+ herring comprised the majority of the diet there. Energy delivery rates to nestlings, nestling growth rates, and productivity were also highest at North Icy Bay in 1998. We suggest that female kittiwakes responded to the increased abundance of Age 1+ herring near North Icy Bay in 1998 by increasing their DEE, which in turn positively affected reproductive success. Given that adult kittiwakes have been shown to suffer decreased survival as a response to increased energy expenditure during brood rearing, the positive correlation we observed between increased abundance of a high quality food source, parental effort, and productivity is consistent with maximizing lifetime reproductive success. The lack of a response in male DEE suggests that brood-rearing roles in kittiwakes differ between genders. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  13. Obtain Resources for Climate & Energy Programs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This phase of the Local Climate Action Framework will help users identify and pursue the resources needed for program/project implementation, including internal or external funding, existing or new staff time, technical expertise, or stakeholder buy-in.

  14. Resource Assessment for Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production Potential from Fossil and Renewable Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, M.; Penev, M.; Heimiller, D.

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the energy resources required to produce 4-10 million metric tonnes of domestic, low-carbon hydrogen in order to fuel approximately 20-50 million fuel cell electric vehicles. These projected energy resource requirements are compared to current consumption levels, projected 2040 business as usual consumptions levels, and projected 2040 consumption levels within a carbonconstrained future for the following energy resources: coal (assuming carbon capture and storage), natural gas, nuclear (uranium), biomass, wind (on- and offshore), and solar (photovoltaics and concentrating solar power). The analysis framework builds upon previous analysis results estimating hydrogen production potentials and drawing comparisons with economy-wide resource production projections

  15. Energy Systems Integration: Demonstrating Distributed Resource Communications

    SciTech Connect

    2017-01-01

    Overview fact sheet about the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Schneider Electric Integrated Network Testbed for Energy Grid Research and Technology Experimentation (INTEGRATE) project at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. INTEGRATE is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Grid Modernization Initiative.

  16. A GLOBAL ASSESSMENT OF SOLAR ENERGY RESOURCES: NASA's Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resources (POWER) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T.; Stackhouse, P. W., Jr.; Chandler, W.; Hoell, J. M.; Westberg, D.; Whitlock, C. H.

    2010-12-01

    NASA's POWER project, or the Prediction of the Worldwide Energy Resources project, synthesizes and analyzes data on a global scale. The products of the project find valuable applications in the solar and wind energy sectors of the renewable energy industries. The primary source data for the POWER project are NASA's World Climate Research Project (WCRP)/Global Energy and Water cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) project (Release 3.0) and the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) assimilation model (V 4.0.3). Users of the POWER products access the data through NASA's Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE, Version 6.0) website (http://power.larc.nasa.gov). Over 200 parameters are available to the users. The spatial resolution is 1 degree by 1 degree now and will be finer later. The data covers from July 1983 to December 2007, a time-span of 24.5 years, and are provided as 3-hourly, daily and monthly means. As of now, there have been over 18 million web hits and over 4 million data file downloads. The POWER products have been systematically validated against ground-based measurements, and in particular, data from the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) archive, and also against the National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB). Parameters such as minimum, maximum, daily mean temperature and dew points, relative humidity and surface pressure are validated against the National Climate Data Center (NCDC) data. SSE feeds data directly into Decision Support Systems including RETScreen International clean energy project analysis software that is written in 36 languages and has greater than 260,000 users worldwide.

  17. Fusion energy science: Clean, safe, and abundant energy through innovative science and technology

    SciTech Connect

    2001-01-01

    Fusion energy science combines the study of the behavior of plasmas--the state of matter that forms 99% of the visible universe--with a vision of using fusion--the energy source of the stars--to create an affordable, plentiful, and environmentally benign energy source for humankind. The dual nature of fusion energy science provides an unfolding panorama of exciting intellectual challenge and a promise of an attractive energy source for generations to come. The goal of this report is a comprehensive understanding of plasma behavior leading to an affordable and attractive fusion energy source.

  18. Assessment of solar and wind energy resources in Ethiopia. I. Solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, F.; Mulugetta, Y.

    1996-09-01

    This paper describes how data from a variety of sources are merged to present new countrywide maps of the solar energy distribution over Ethiopia. The spatial coverage of stations with radiation data was found to be unsatisfactory for the purpose of a countrywide solar energy assessment exercise. Therefore, radiation had to be predicted from sunshine hours by employing empirical models. Using data from seven stations in Ethiopia, linear and quadratic correlation relationships between monthly mean daily solar radiation and sunshine hours per day have been developed. These regional models show a distinct improvement over previously employed countrywide models. To produce a national solar-energy distribution profile, a spatial extension of the radiation/sunshine relationships had to be carried out. To do this, the intercepts(a) and slopes(b) of each of the seven linear regression equations and another six from previous studies, completed in neighbouring Sudan, Kenya and Yemen, were used to interpolate the corresponding values to areas between them. Subsequent to these procedures, 142 stations providing only sunshine data were assigned their `appropriate` a and b values to estimate the amount of solar radiation received, which was then used to produce annual and monthly solar radiation distribution maps for Ethiopia. The results show that in all regions solar energy is an abundant resource. 19 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. DOE's Tribal Energy Program Offers Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas C. MacCourt, Chair, Indian Law Practice, Ater Wynne LLP

    2010-06-01

    This handbook is an accessible reference for those who are new to tribal energy project development or who seek a refresher on key development issues as they navigate the project development process. Building upon the wealth of feedback and experiences shared by tribal and other participants in tribal energy workshops conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, it is designed to provide tribal leaders, tribal economic and energy enterprises, and those supporting them with a general overview of the renewable energy project development process. It includes information on how to structure a renewable energy project transaction to protect tribal interests, with an emphasis on joint project development efforts undertaken with nontribal parties; a general overview of key energy development agreements, including power sale agreements, transmission and interconnection agreements, and land leases; and a detailed discussion of ways tribes can finance renewable energy projects, the sources of funding or financing that may be available, the types of investors that may be available, and federal tax incentives for renewable energy projects. The guide also includes a glossary of some of the most commonly used technical terms.

  20. Energy resources development: Politics and policies

    SciTech Connect

    Ender, R.L.; Kim, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    This volume is designed to address the diverse set of energy issues from both policy and political perspectives. The articles raise more questions than they answer, but agree on one point in the energy debate: short-term changes in supply and price are largely irrelevant to long-term issues. The contributions to this book were written after the crisis of the 1970s and before the free fall of prices in the mid-1980s. However, public interest had already waned and energy was no longer a ''national agenda'' issue. While this book would seem to be addressing an issue of less public importance, the authors realize that the cycle of world events will again bring energy forward for greater scrutiny and debate. Although the attention given to energy policy waxes and wanes, the need persists to formulate consistent public approaches and solutions to the problems posed in providing energy to an industrial nation. The wide divergence of energy policy problems under the four administrations demonstrates the lack of consensus on what the real problems are, or what should be done. The articles for this book were selected to address what the current energy issues are, what policy attempts have been made to solve energy problems, and what the policy implications in the future are. Fifteen articles cannot encompass all the aspects of the subject; however, they make significant contributions in analyzing many of its important facts.

  1. Biomass resource potential using energy crops

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, L.L.; Cushman, J.H.; Martin, S.A.

    1993-09-01

    Biomass energy crops can provide a significant and environmentally beneficial source of renewable energy feedstocks for the future. They can revitalize the agricultural sector of the US economy by providing profitable uses for marginal cropland. Energy crops include fast-growing trees, perennial grasses, and annual grasses, all capable of collecting solar energy and storing it as cellulosic compounds for several months to several years. Once solar energy is thus captured, it can be converted by means of currently available technologies to a wide variety of energy products such as electricity, heat, liquid transportation fuels, and gases. Experimental results from field trials have generated optimism that selected and improved energy crops, established on cropland with moderate limitations for crop production, have the potential for producing high yields. Both trees and grasses, under very good growing conditions, have produced average annual yields of 20 to 40 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1}. Sorghum has shown especially high yields in the Midwest. Hybrids between sugar cane and its wild relatives, called energy cane, have yielded as much as 50 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} in Florida. These experimental results demonstrate that some species have the genetic potential for very rapid growth rates. New wood energy crop systems developed by the Department of Energy`s Biofuels Feedstock Development Program offer, at a minimum, a 100% increase in biomass production rates over the 2 to 4 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} of dry leafless woody biomass produced by most natural forest systems. Experimental data indicate that short rotation wood crops established on cropland with moderate limitations are capable of producing biomass yields of 8--20 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} with a present average about 11 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} on typical cropland sites.

  2. Energy Education Resource Guide for Driver Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerhoff, Richard

    This guide is designed to help driver education teachers in Iowa to integrate energy conservation education into the traditional high school driver education course. Following an explanation of the necessity for teaching energy conservation with driver education, the course guide is divided into seven units. The units cover vehicle selection,…

  3. Building America - Resources for Energy Efficient Homes

    SciTech Connect

    2012-04-19

    Building America publications help builders achieve whole-house energy savings in five major climate zones. Using the recommendation and process improvements outlined in the Best Practices Series handbooks, builders can re-engineer their designs to improve energy performance and quality. Case studies for new and existing homes provide results from actual projects.

  4. Terminology Guideline for Classifying Offshore Wind Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Beiter, Philipp; Musial, Walt

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this guideline is to establish a clear and consistent vocabulary for conveying offshore wind resource potential and to interpret this vocabulary in terms that are familiar to the oil and gas (O&G) industry. This involves clarifying and refining existing definitions of offshore wind energy resource classes. The terminology developed in this guideline represents one of several possible sets of vocabulary that may differ with respect to their purpose, data availability, and comprehensiveness. It was customized to correspond with established offshore wind practices and existing renewable energy industry terminology (e.g. DOE 2013, Brown et al. 2015) while conforming to established fossil resource classification as best as possible. The developers of the guideline recognize the fundamental differences that exist between fossil and renewable energy resources with respect to availability, accessibility, lifetime, and quality. Any quantitative comparison between fossil and renewable energy resources, including offshore wind, is therefore limited. For instance, O&G resources are finite and there may be significant uncertainty associated with the amount of the resource. In contrast, aboveground renewable resources, such as offshore wind, do not generally deplete over time but can vary significantly subhourly, daily, seasonally, and annually. The intent of this guideline is to make these differences transparent and develop an offshore wind resource classification that conforms to established fossil resource classifications where possible. This guideline also provides methods to quantitatively compare certain offshore wind energy resources to O&G resource classes for specific applications. Finally, this guideline identifies areas where analogies to established O&G terminology may be inappropriate or subject to misinterpretation.

  5. New Mexico energy research resource registry. Researchers and facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Human resources and facilities in New Mexico available for application to energy research and development are listed. Information regarding individuals with expertise in the environmental, socio-economic, legal, and management and planning areas of the energy effort is included as well as those scientists, engineers, and technicians involved directly in energy research and development.

  6. Energy Education Resources: Kindergarten through 12th Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Information Administration (DOE), Washington, DC.

    This resource guide provides students, educators, and other information users with a list of generally available free or low-cost energy-related educational materials. The 163 organizations listed are each related to the subject fields of coal, electricity, energy efficiency/energy conservation, the environment, geosciences/earth sciences, natural…

  7. Practical Materials for Teaching. Resource File: Edition I. Energy Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This directory lists energy education programs directed at increasing the energy conservation awareness of scientists, engineers, managers, and technicians working in fields where they are responsible for managing energy consumption. The resource is prepared to help with the process of identifying, selecting, and obtaining materials for promoting…

  8. Recoverable Resource Estimate of Identified Onshore Geopressured Geothermal Energy in Texas and Louisiana (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Esposito, A.; Augustine, C.

    2012-04-01

    Geopressured geothermal reservoirs are characterized by high temperatures and high pressures with correspondingly large quantities of dissolved methane. Due to these characteristics, the reservoirs provide two sources of energy: chemical energy from the recovered methane, and thermal energy from the recovered fluid at temperatures high enough to operate a binary power plant for electricity production. Formations with the greatest potential for recoverable energy are located in the gulf coastal region of Texas and Louisiana where significantly overpressured and hot formations are abundant. This study estimates the total recoverable onshore geopressured geothermal resource for identified sites in Texas and Louisiana. In this study a geopressured geothermal resource is defined as a brine reservoir with fluid temperature greater than 212 degrees F and a pressure gradient greater than 0.7 psi/ft.

  9. Geothermal Energy: Evaluation of a Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockemuehl, H. W.

    1976-01-01

    This article suggests the use of geothermal energy for producing electricity, using as an example the development at Wairakei, New Zealand. Other geothermal areas are identified, and economic and environmental co sts of additional development are explored. (Author/AV)

  10. Allee effects and species co-existence in an environment where resource abundance varies.

    PubMed

    M'Gonigle, Leithen K; Greenspoon, Philip B

    2014-11-21

    Explaining patterns of diversity has long been a central focus in ecology. One of the most challenging problems has been to understand how species occupying similar ecological niches can co-exist because, with limited resources, demographic stochasticity is expected to lead to the eventual extinction of all but one of them. The Allee effect has been widely studied for its impact on the extinction risk of rare species. Its potential role in promoting co-existence has received less attention. Here, we present a model in which two species compete for a single resource across a continuous landscape. We show that Allee effects can promote their co-existence when a simple condition is met: resources are distributed unevenly across space. Furthermore, the Allee effect can stabilize co-existence despite the reduction in population density and consequent increase in demographic stochasticity that it causes. The Allee effect might, therefore, be an important force maintaining diverse communities.

  11. Politics of abundance: resources allocation in the public sector in the developed and oil-rich countries

    SciTech Connect

    Ahady, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    This dissertation presents two models of resources allocation in the public sector. The first model, which assumes scarcity of resources available to the state and is suitable to the experiences of the developed Western States, is tested against the data for Denmark, the Netherlands, and Norway. The second model, which assumes an abundance of resources available to the state and is suitable to the experiences of oil-rich countries, is tested against the data for Saudi Arabia, Iran, and Iraq. Findings reveal that the allocation of resources in the public sector in Western countries followed a developmental pattern. Thus, before the 1970s, Western states allocated their budgets almost exclusively to defense and administration. They emphasized economic development until the administration. They emphasized economic development until the 1920s and social welfare programs since the 1930s. The emergence of social welfare and development as major categories of expenditures were separated by a substantial period of time. In contrast to the European experiences, the availability of non tax oil revenues promoted a relatively quick consolidation of state authority in the oil-rich countries. Consequently, oil-rich states were able to allocate large amounts of public resources to economic development and social welfare programs wither simultaneously or in quick succession without much concern for trade-offs.

  12. Wind Energy Resource Assessment of the Caribbean and Central America

    SciTech Connect

    DL Elliott; CI Aspliden; GL Gower; CG Holladay, MN Schwartz

    1987-04-01

    A wind energy resource assessment of the Caribbean and Central America has identified many areas with good to outstanding wind resource potential for wind turbine applications. Annual average wind resource maps and summary tables have been developed for 35 island/country areas throughout the Caribbean and Central America region. The wind resource maps highlight the locations of major resource areas and provide estimates of the wind energy resource potential for typical well-exposed sites in these areas. The average energy in the wind flowing in the layer near the ground is expressed as a wind power class: the greater the average wind energy, the higher the wind power class. The summary tables that are included with each of the 35 island/country wind energy maps provide information on the frequency distribution of the wind speeds (expressed as estimates of the Weibull shape factor, k) and seasonal variations in the wind resource for the major wind resource areas identified on the maps. A new wind power class legend has been developed for relating the wind power classes to values of mean wind power density, mean wind speed, and Weibull k. Guidelines are presented on how to adjust these values to various heights above ground for different roughness and terrain characteristics. Information evaluated in preparing the assessment included existing meteorological data from airports and other weather stations, and from ships and buoys in offshore and coastal areas. In addition, new data from recent measurement sites established for wind energy siting studies were obtained for a few areas of the Caribbean. Other types of information evaluated in the assessment were climatological data and maps on winds aloft, surface pressure, air flow, and topography. The various data were screened and evaluated for their usefulness in preparing the wind resource assessment. Much of the surface data from airports and other land-based weather stations were determined to be from sheltered

  13. 77 FR 41481 - Integration of Variable Energy Resources

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... avoid inadvertently stifling the growth ] of renewable energy resources in an effort to protect the... nearly double between 2009 and 2035.\\29\\ This recent and future growth is being facilitated...

  14. Energy Crisis: Libya's and Nigeria's Role. Resource Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    African-American Inst., New York, NY. School Services Div.

    This resource packet contains practical suggestions and resource materials to help secondary teachers teach about Libya's and Nigeria's roles in the energy crisis. Students become acquainted with the governments and cultures of the two countries, examine their social problems, and learn how the Libyan and Nigerian governments are using money from…

  15. Resource Letter DEAU-1: Dark energy and the accelerating universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linder, Eric V.

    2008-03-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on dark energy and the accelerating universe. It is intended to be of use to researchers, teachers, and students at several levels. Journal articles, books, and websites are cited for the following topics: Einstein's cosmological constant, quintessence or dynamical scalar fields, modified cosmic gravity, relations to high-energy physics, cosmological probes and observations, terrestrial probes, calculational tools and parameter estimation, teaching strategies and educational resources, and the fate of the universe.

  16. Energy Spectra of Abundant Cosmic-ray Nuclei in Sources, According to the ATIC Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panov, A. D.; Sokolskaya, N. V.; Zatsepin, V. I.

    2017-03-01

    One of the main results of the ATIC (Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter) experiment is a collection of energy spectra of abundant cosmic-ray nuclei: protons, He, C, O, Ne, Mg, Si, and Fe measured in terms of energy per particle in the energy range from 50 GeV to tens of teraelectronvolts. In this paper, the ATIC energy spectra of abundant primary nuclei are back-propagated to the spectra in sources in terms of magnetic rigidity using a leaky-box approximation of three different GALPROP-based diffusion models of propagation that fit the latest B/C data of the AMS-02 experiment. It is shown that the results of a comparison of the slopes of the spectra in sources are weakly model dependent; therefore the differences of spectral indices are reliable data. A regular growth of the steepness of spectra in sources in the range of magnetic rigidity of 50–1350 GV is found for a charge range from helium to iron. This conclusion is statistically reliable with significance better than 3.2 standard deviations. The results are discussed and compared to the data of other modern experiments.

  17. Energy resources through photochemistry and catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Graetzel, M.

    1983-01-01

    Topics included in this book are the development of molecular photocatalytic systems for solar-energy conversion, catalysis for oxygen and hydrogen evolution from water, photoelectrolysis of water, and sensitization of semiconductors. Examples are given for the photogeneration of hydrogen and oxygen from water.

  18. Energy Guide: A Directory of Information Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bemis, Virginia; And Others

    This guide is a collection of various information sources pertaining to energy. The chapters separate references according to the type of material (instructional aids, texts, periodicals, reference materials), or the issuing organization (non-government organizations, government services, courses, programs, centers, and research projects). One…

  19. Environmental Action Energy Conservation. Teacher Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The environmental education curriculum called Environment ACTION is designed to empower students with the knowledge and skills necessary to make meaningful environmental changes. This module provides step-by-step instructions on how to explore the sources, production, uses, and environmental effects of energy in their schools and home. There are…

  20. Demand Response Resources for Energy and Ancillary Services (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hummon, M.

    2014-04-01

    Demand response (DR) resources present a potentially important source of grid flexibility particularly on future systems with high penetrations of variable wind an solar power generation. However, DR in grid models is limited by data availability and modeling complexity. This presentation focuses on the co-optimization of DR resources to provide energy and ancillary services in a production cost model of the Colorado test system. We assume each DR resource can provide energy services by either shedding load or shifting its use between different times, as well as operating

  1. Water Efficient Energy Production for Geothermal Resources

    SciTech Connect

    GTO

    2015-06-01

    Water consumption in geothermal energy development occurs at several stages along the life cycle of the plant, during construction of the wells, piping, and plant; during hydroshearing and testing of the reservoir (for EGS); and during operation of the plant. These stages are highlighted in the illustration above. For more information about actual water use during these stages, please see the back of this sheet..

  2. Controls on the Forms and Abundances of Geochemical Energy in Hot Spring Habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shock, E. L.

    2002-12-01

    The rich metabolic diversity of high-temperature microorganisms is the product of an expansive genetic diversity played against a wealth of geochemical energy sources. The abundance of each form of geochemical energy in a hot spring habitat can be determined by quantifying states of thermodynamic disequilibrium of oxidation/reduction reactions, accomplished by combining analytical data with standard state calculations. The results permit comparative imaging of the biogeochemical energy states in terms of physical and compositional variables. Evaluating and ranking energy sources is one of several goals of our recent field work at Yellowstone National Park. Field measurements of temperature, pH, and aqueous concentrations of oxygen, total sulfide, nitrate, nitrite, total ammonia, and ferrous iron, together with lab analyses of aqueous sulfate, mole fractions of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane and nitrogen in gas samples, and mineralogy of iron- and sulfur-bearing phases in hot spring sediments permit tests of hundreds of potential energy-yielding reactions. Complementary major ion analyses permit conversion of concentrations to thermodynamic activities. By selecting sample sites from several hot spring regions, we can study systems that vary in pH from <2 to >9 and in temperature from <20 to >90°C. Activities of reactants and products of overall microbial metabolism also vary enormously in these systems and are generally not correlated with temperature. Likewise, the abundances of energy from individual reactions are unconstrained by temperature. No trends are found between the energy availability of O2-consuming reactions and the amount of dissolved O2 in hot spring fluids. In contrast, activities of other reactants and products of metabolic reactions reveal striking trends with energy availability. In the case of sulfide oxidation, for example, the potential yield of energy varies from 82 to 97 kj per mole of electrons transferred, and exhibits

  3. Distribution and drift dispersal dynamics of a caddisfly grazer in response to resource abundance and its ontogeny

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuhashi, Hiromune; Doi, Hideyuki; Isobe, Yu; Oishi, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Stream grazers have a major impact on food web structure and the productivity of stream ecosystems; however, studies on the longitudinal (upstream versus downstream) and temporal changes in their drift dynamics and resulting distributions remain limited. Here, we investigated the longitudinal and temporal distributions and drift propensity of a trichopteran grazer, the caddisfly, Micrasema quadriloba, during its life cycle in a Japanese stream. The distribution of larvae significantly shifted downstream during the fifth instar larval stage during late winter; with periphyton abundance (i.e. their food source) showing similar shifts downstream. Therefore, our results show that the drift dispersal the caddisfly occurs in response to decline in available food resources (i.e. food-resource scarcity) and an increase in food requirements by growing individuals. Furthermore, our results show that this observed longitudinal shift in larval distribution varies through their life cycle, because the drift dispersal of fifth instar larvae was greater than that of immature larvae. The correlation between periphyton abundance and drift propensity of fourth instar larvae was not statistically significant, whereas that of fifth instar larvae was significantly negative. In conclusion, we detected an ontogenetic shift in drift propensity, which might explain the longitudinal and temporal distributions of this species. PMID:28280576

  4. Variations in the abundance of fisheries resources and ecosystem structure in the Japan/East Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chang Ik; Lee, Jae Bong; Seo, Young Il; Yoon, Sang Cheol; Kim, Suam

    2004-05-01

    Evidence supports the hypothesis that two climatic regime shifts in the North Pacific and the Japan/East Sea, have affected the dynamics of the marine ecosystem and fisheries resources from 1960 to 2000. Changes in both mixed layer depth (MLD) and primary production were detected in the Japan/East Sea after 1976. The 1976 regime shift appears to have caused the biomass replacement with changes in catch production of major exploited fisheries resources, including Pacific saury, Pacific sardine and filefish. Both fisheries yield and fish distribution are reflected in these decadal fluctuations. In the 1960s and 1990s, common squid dominated the catches whereas in the 1970s and 1980s, it was replaced by walleye pollock. In the post-1988 regime shift, the distribution of horse mackerel shifted westward and southward and its distributional overlap with common mackerel decreased. The habitat of Pacific sardine also shifted away from mackerel habitats during this period. To evaluate changes in the organization and structure of the ecosystem in the Japan/East Sea, a mass-balanced model, Ecopath, was employed. Based on two mass-balanced models, representing before (1970-75) and after (1978-84) the 1976 regime shift, the weighted mean trophic level of catch increased from 3.09 before to 3.28 after. Total biomass of species groups in the Japan/East Sea ecosystem increased by 15% and total catch production increased by 48% due to the 1976 regime shift. The largest changes occurred at mid-trophic levels, occupied by fishes and cephalopods. The dominant predatory species shifted from cephalopods to walleye pollock due to the 1976 regime shift. It is concluded that the climatic regime shifts caused changes in the structure of the ecosystem and the roles of major species, as well as, large variations in biomass and production of fisheries resources.

  5. Energy Resources Technical Training and Development Programs for American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Roy E.; White, W. Sedgefield

    Programs concerning environmental energy and energy-resource development were designed and implemented by the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to provide information, training, and technical assistance to Native American tribes. Conducted on reservations in an attempt to partially meet the needs and concerns of American Indians regarding the…

  6. Toward a Regional Geography of Renewable Electrical Energy Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryde, Philip R.

    It is postulated that many types of renewable energy resources, like fossil fuels, are amenable to regional availability analysis. Among these are hydropower, geothermal, ocean temperature gradient, wind, and direct solar energy. A review of the spatial attributes of each of these types reveals areas of the United States that contain comparative…

  7. Resources for Teaching about Energy in the Social Studies Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Robin; Stone, Kim

    1992-01-01

    Lists instructional resources for use by social studies teachers in teaching about energy. Includes curriculum materials, videotapes, organizations, government agencies, and industry trade associations that can provide information. Suggests items on energy conservation, global warming, ecology, nuclear power, fossil fuels, oil spills, and…

  8. Energy resource requirements of a solar heating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, D. W. O.

    1980-01-01

    The paper addresses the question of the total energy resource use of a solar hot water and space heating system compared to the traditional oil, gas and electric heating options. The methods of energy analysis have been applied to a liquid-based, short-term storage solar space and water heating system for a dwelling in Toronto, and the results indicate that the indirect use of energy resources does not have a major impact on the overall energy conservation characteristics of the system which, being in many respects a worst case, takes 1.0-3.5 years of operation to conserve the energy resources, required to build, operate and maintain the system. Over the assumed 20-year lifetime the solar heating system, sized to provide 50% of the heating requirement to a house, uses between 53 and 62% as many energy resources as a conventional system, heating the same house. The energy-conservation characteristics of the system can be completely negated by the use of thermally generated electricity as backup in a 50% solar heating system which replaces oil or gas heating. The collectors and annual operating energy for the pumps were found to be the two most significant factors in the analysis.

  9. BUILDING TRIBAL CAPABILITIES IN ENERGY RESOURCE TRIBES

    SciTech Connect

    Mary Lopez

    2003-04-01

    The CERT Tribal Internship Program is part of the education and training opportunities provided by CERT to accelerate the development of American Indian technical professionals available to serve Tribes and expand the pool of these professionals. Tribes are severely impacted by the inadequate number of Indian professionals available to serve and facilitate Tribal participation and support of the energy future of Tribes,and subsequently the energy future of the nation. By providing interns with hands-on work experience in their field of study two goals are accomplished: (1) the intern is provided opportunities for professional enhancement; and (2) The pool of Indian professionals available to meet the needs of Tribal government and Tribal communities in general is increased. As of January 17, 2003, Lance M Wyatt successfully completed his internship with the Interagency Working Group on Environmental Justice on the Task Force that specifically focuses their work on Tribal nations. While working as an intern with the National Transportation Program, Albuquerque operations, Jacqueline Agnew received an offer to work for the Alaska Native Health Board in Anchorage, Alaska. This was an opportunity that Ms. Agnew did not feel she could afford to forego and she left her internship position in February 2003. At present, CERT is in the process of finding another qualified individual to replace the internship position vacated by Ms. Agnew. Mr. Wyatt's and Ms. Agnew's final comments are given.

  10. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Information Resources Catalogue. A collection of energy efficiency and renewable energy information resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-05-01

    NREL's first annual Information Resources Catalogue is intended to inform anyone interested in energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies of NREL's outreach activities, including publications and services. For ease of use, all entries are categorized by subject. The catalogue is separated into six main sections. The first section lists and describes services that are available through NREL and how they may be accessed. The second section contains a list of documents that are published by NREL on a regular or periodic basis. The third section highlights NREL's series publications written for specific audiences and presenting a wide range of subjects. NREL's General Interest Publications constitute the fourth section of the catalogue and are written for nontechnical audiences. Descriptions are provided for these publications. The fifth section contains Technical Reports that detail research and development projects. The section on Conference Papers/Journal Articles/Book Chapters makes up the sixth and final section of the catalogue.

  11. Pyramid Resource Center-Green Energy Center

    SciTech Connect

    Flory, Paul, D.

    2011-09-02

    There are currently over 3,500 USA/Canadian landfills listed by the EPA/EC and like numbers in Europe that are producing methane-rich landfill gas (LFG). This gas is typically made up of 50-percent methane (CH4), 35-percent carbon dioxide (CO2), and 2 to 25% nitrogen and oxygen (N2 & O2), plus dozens of dilute contaminants. LFG is classified as a renewable fuel, because it is generated via biological decay of municipal solid waste, a constant byproduct of human activity. To date, most LFG has been allowed to escape into the atmosphere. On account of its high CH4 content, LFG may contribute to climate change, as CH4 is one of the most harmful greenhouse gases with 21 times the global warming potential of CO2. Of the landfills that collect LFG, most simply flare it. In the past decade, some landfills have begun to use LFG for electricity generation or for direct combustion as low Btu gas. Very few landfills upgrade LFG to high Btu gas. A patented CO2 WashTM process developed by Acrion Technologies Inc., and licensed to Firm Green Inc. shows promise as an economically and environmentally sustainable process to recover energy and prevent pollution from landfills. The CO2 WashTM has already been proven at lab-scale. It upgrades LFG, which consists of 50% methane (CH4) + 35% carbon dioxide (CO2) + 2 to 25% nitrogen + oxygen (N2+O2), 1 to 2% water vapor, and dozens of contaminants (which total a few hundred to a few thousand parts per million). CH4, which by itself has an energy content of 1,012 British thermal units (Btu) per standard cubic foot (SCF), is the only component in LFG that contributes to its energy content, which is therefore about 400-550 Btu/SCF. Accordingly, raw LFG is usually referred to as medium-Btu gas. To be salable, it is necessary to remove essentially all the components besides CH4, while keeping the vast majority of the revenue producing CH4. This is high-Btu gas, yielding 850 to 1,000 Btu/SCF. The CO2 WashTM process upgrades LFG to about 930 Btu

  12. Wind Energy Resource Assessment for Airborne Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodrow, A.

    2015-12-01

    Google, through its Makani project, is developing a new type of wind energy conversion device called an energy kite. Using a tethered airfoil flying in vertical loops, energy kites access stronger, more consistent wind resources at altitudes between 100-500m AGL. By eliminating mass and cost of the tower, nacelle, and gearbox of a conventional wind turbine, and by increasing the capacity factor of energy generation, energy kites promise to significantly reduce the levelized cost of wind energy. The focus of this presentation will be on the approach Makani has taken to characterize the wind resource at 100-500m, where far less study has taken place compared to the atmosphere accessed by conventional wind turbines.

  13. An assessment of solar energy as a national energy resource

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donovan, P.; Woodward, W.; Cherry, W. E.; Morse, F. H.; Herwig, L. O.

    1972-01-01

    The applications are discussed of solar energy for thermal energy for buildings; chemical and biological conversion of organic materials to liquid, solid, and gaseous fuels; and the generation of electricity. It is concluded that if solar development programs are successful, building heating for public use is possible within 5 years, building cooling in 6 to 10 years, synthetic fuels from organic materials in 5 to 8 years, and electricity production in 10 to 15 years.

  14. Energy Resources Performance Report, FY 1991 and FY 1992.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-07-01

    Once the Federal Columbia River Power System provided all the power our customers needed and surplus energy, which we sold to others. However, we planned for the time when the surplus would disappear. With our customers, we developed centralized, region-wide conservation programs to conserve energy and build the knowledge and ability to save more energy when needed. We began to look at conservation as a resource, comparing it with supply-side alternatives. Much was accomplished. In Bonneville`s service area in the 1980s, our customers acquired 300 average megawatts (aMW) of conservation savings. How? By weatherizing about 240,000 homes, by making aluminum plants, other industrial plants and commercial buildings more efficient, and also by encouraging states to adopt energy-efficient building codes. Now, our energy surplus is gone. Our customers need energy, and in a hurry. While we plan how much energy will be needed, when and by which customers, we must concurrently accelerate our efforts to acquire resources. Our 1990 Resource Program launched a strategy to do just that, starting in 1991 and 1992, with continuing activities in 1993--1995. The goals and plans of the 1990 Resource Program are still being implemented.

  15. Energy education resources: Kindergarten through 12th grade

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    Energy Education Resources: Kindergarten Through 12th Grade is published by the National Energy Information Center (NEIC) a service of the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to provide students, educators, and other information users, a list of generally available free or low-cost energy-related educational materials. Each entry includes the address, telephone number, and description of the organization and the energy-related materials available. Most of the entries also include Internet (Web) and electronic mail (E-Mail) addresses. Each entry is followed by a number, which is referenced in the subject index in the back of this book.

  16. Will greater shrub abundance greatly impact tundra surface-atmosphere exchanges of energy and carbon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, E.; Lafleur, P.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing deciduous shrub abundance, productivity, and range in the Arctic comes with the potential for both negative and positive feedbacks to the climate system. This study presents six seasons of eddy covariance measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and latent and sensible heat fluxes along a shrub gradient in Canada's Low Arctic. Three flux tower sites with 17, 45, and 64% dwarf birch cover were established within a few kilometers of each other to investigate differences in microclimate, energy and carbon exchanges. As expected, there was greater winter snow depth but less summer soil thaw with greater shrub cover. However, snowmelt timing and speed were usually similar among sites. Despite a reduction in albedo in spring and greater leaf area through summer, latent heat fluxes were consistently lower with greater shrub cover. Offset by small differences in sensible heat fluxes, total seasonal atmospheric heating (combined sensible and latent heat fluxes) was similar among sites. We anticipated greater net uptake of CO2 through the growing season with greater shrub cover. However, that was only the case in some years. There was much more week-to-week and year-to-year variability in CO2 fluxes at the shrubbiest site suggesting photosynthesis and respiration processes were more sensitive to weather variations. Shrub abundance does impact tundra surface-atmosphere exchanges of energy and carbon but these observations also highlight the complexity involved in predicting the net climate feedback effect of current and future Arctic vegetation change.

  17. The Texas Energy-Only Resource Adequacy Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, Eric S.; Hurlbut, David; Adib, Parviz; Oren, Shmuel

    2006-12-15

    On Sept. 13, 2006, the Public Utility Commission of Texas put into effect a new Resource Adequacy and Market Power Rule which establishes an Energy-Only resource adequacy mechanism in the ERCOT electricity market, relaxes the $1,000 per MWh offer cap, and replaced existing market mitigation procedures with more market transparency and prompt information disclosure. The authors describe the motivation and rationale underlying the new rule, its development process, and its implementation details. (author)

  18. Applying International Standards for Hydrokinetic Energy Resource Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    The extraction of hydrokinetic energy is the conversion of the kinetic energy of moving water into another more useful form of energy, frequently electricity. This water motion may be in the form of waves, tides, ocean currents or river flows. In addition to the development of the technology, the successful extraction of hydrokinetic energy requires a better understanding of physical, environmental and social aspects of the resource and their interactions with the technology. To assist with the development of the hydrokinetic industry as a whole, much work over the past decade has been completed developing international technical standards which can be used by the full range of stakeholders in the hydrokinetic industry. To support the design of projects for tidal energy extraction, a new International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Specification (TS) has recently been published outlining a standardized methodology for performing resource assessments. In addition, presently work is ongoing on producing another TS for performing resource assessments on in-stream river projects. While the specific technology for extracting the energy from tidal and river flows may be similar, the methodologies for performing the respective resource assessments is quite different due to the differing nature of the physical processes involved. This presentation will discuss both the tidal and in-stream river methodologies, highlighting their respective key aspects. In addition, a case study illustrating the use of the published tidal TS will be presented.

  19. THE RELATIVE ABUNDANCE OF ISOLATED CLUSTERS AS A PROBE OF DARK ENERGY

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jounghun

    2012-06-10

    Those galaxy clusters that do not belong to superclusters are referred to as isolated clusters. Their relative abundance at a given epoch may be a powerful constraint of the dark energy equation of state since it depends strongly on how fast the structures grow on the largest scale in the universe. We note that the mass function of isolated clusters can be separately evaluated through modification of the recently developed Corasaniti-Achitouv (CA) theory according to which the stochastic collapse barrier is quantified by two coefficients: the drifting average coefficient ({beta}) and the diffusion coefficient (D{sub B} ). Regarding {beta} in the CA formalism as an adjustable parameter and assuming that the formation of isolated clusters corresponds to the case of D{sub B} = 0, we determine the mass function of isolated clusters by fitting the numerical results from the MICE simulations to the modified CA formula. It is found that the best-fit value of {beta} changes with redshift and that the CA mass function with D{sub B} = 0 agrees very well with the numerical results at various redshifts. Defining the relative abundance of isolated clusters, {xi}{sub I}, as the ratio of the cumulative mass function of isolated clusters to that of non-isolated clusters at a given epoch, we finally show how sensitively {xi}{sub I} changes with the dark energy equation of state. It is also discussed how {xi}{sub I} can help break the degeneracy between the dark energy equation of state and the other key cosmological parameters.

  20. The potential for indirect effects between co-flowering plants via shared pollinators depends on resource abundance, accessibility and relatedness.

    PubMed

    Carvalheiro, Luísa Gigante; Biesmeijer, Jacobus Christiaan; Benadi, Gita; Fründ, Jochen; Stang, Martina; Bartomeus, Ignasi; Kaiser-Bunbury, Christopher N; Baude, Mathilde; Gomes, Sofia I F; Merckx, Vincent; Baldock, Katherine C R; Bennett, Andrew T D; Boada, Ruth; Bommarco, Riccardo; Cartar, Ralph; Chacoff, Natacha; Dänhardt, Juliana; Dicks, Lynn V; Dormann, Carsten F; Ekroos, Johan; Henson, Kate S E; Holzschuh, Andrea; Junker, Robert R; Lopezaraiza-Mikel, Martha; Memmott, Jane; Montero-Castaño, Ana; Nelson, Isabel L; Petanidou, Theodora; Power, Eileen F; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G; Stout, Jane C; Temitope, Kehinde; Tscharntke, Teja; Tscheulin, Thomas; Vilà, Montserrat; Kunin, William E

    2014-11-01

    Co-flowering plant species commonly share flower visitors, and thus have the potential to influence each other's pollination. In this study we analysed 750 quantitative plant-pollinator networks from 28 studies representing diverse biomes worldwide. We show that the potential for one plant species to influence another indirectly via shared pollinators was greater for plants whose resources were more abundant (higher floral unit number and nectar sugar content) and more accessible. The potential indirect influence was also stronger between phylogenetically closer plant species and was independent of plant geographic origin (native vs. non-native). The positive effect of nectar sugar content and phylogenetic proximity was much more accentuated for bees than for other groups. Consequently, the impact of these factors depends on the pollination mode of plants, e.g. bee or fly pollinated. Our findings may help predict which plant species have the greatest importance in the functioning of plant-pollination networks.

  1. 78 FR 72878 - Integration of Variable Energy Resources; Notice Of Filing Procedures for Order No. 764...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Integration of Variable Energy Resources; Notice Of Filing Procedures for... to compliance obligations in Integration of Variable Energy Resources, Order No. 764, FERC...

  2. Estimating Renewable Energy Resources of Russia: Goals and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiseleva, S.; Rafikova, J.; Shakun, V.

    2012-10-01

    During the last several years in some regions of Russian Federation one can observe a growing interest in renewable energy projects motivated by a necessity to have stable, affordable and autonomous energy sources. Besides, there has been an advance in legal initiatives designed to regulate the development of renewable energy sources in Russia. Some governmental regulations having for an object to stimulate this area, have already been accepted. The regulation contains the target value parameters of the output volume of the electric energy output volumes with the use of renewable energy sources (except hydroelectric power plants with the established capacity exceeding 25 MW. The work shows the results of resource estimating wind, solar, biomass energy resources for Russia, using GIS methods, which allow one to provide more exact predictions for the energy development, and therefore to prove investments and to pass to working out the equipment design of energy plants based on renewable energy sources. Current matters are relating to opportunities and perspectives of renewable sector in Russia.

  3. Final Technical Report: Renewable Energy Feasibility Study and Resources Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Rivero, Mariah

    2016-02-28

    In March 2011, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded White Pine County, Nevada, a grant to assess the feasibility of renewable resource-related economic development activities in the area. The grant project included a public outreach and training component and was to include a demonstration project; however, the demonstration project was not completed due to lack of identification of an entity willing to locate a project in White Pine County. White Pine County completed the assessment of renewable resources and a feasibility study on the potential for a renewable energy-focused economic sector within the County. The feasibility study concluded "all resources studied were present and in sufficient quantity and quality to warrant consideration for development" and there were varying degrees of potential economic impact based on the resource type and project size. The feasibility study and its components were to be used as tools to attract potential developers and other business ventures to the local market. White Pine County also marketed the County’s resources to the renewable energy business community in an effort to develop contracts for demonstration projects. The County also worked to develop partnerships with local educational institutions, including the White Pine County School District, conducted outreach and training for the local community.

  4. Effective management of combined renewable energy resources in Tajikistan.

    PubMed

    Karimov, Khasan S; Akhmedov, Khakim M; Abid, Muhammad; Petrov, Georgiy N

    2013-09-01

    Water is needed mostly in summer time for irrigation and in winter time for generation of electric power. This results in conflicts between downstream countries that utilize water mostly for irrigation and those upstream countries, which use water for generation of electric power. At present Uzbekistan is blocking railway connection that is going to Tajikistan to interfere to transportation of the equipment and materials for construction of Rogun hydropower plant. In order to avoid conflicts between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan a number of measures for the utilization of water resources of the trans-boundary Rivers Amu-Darya and Sir-Darya are discussed. In addition, utilization of water with the supplement of wind and solar energy projects for proper and efficient management of water resources in Central Asia; export-import exchanges of electric energy in summer and winter time between neighboring countries; development of small hydropower project, modern irrigation system in main water consuming countries and large water reservoir hydropower projects for control of water resources for hydropower and irrigation are also discussed. It is also concluded that an effective management of water resources can be achieved by signing Water treaty between upstream and downstream countries, first of all between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. In this paper management of water as renewable energy resource in Tajikistan and Central Asian Republics are presented.

  5. National Renewable Energy Laboratory information resources catalogue. A collection of energy efficiency and renewable energy information resources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-31

    NREL`s first annual Information Resources Catalogue is intended to inform anyone interested in energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies of NREL`s outreach activities, including publications and services. For ease of use, all entries are categorized by subject. The catalogue is separated into six main sections. The first section lists and describes services that are available through NREL and how they may be assessed. The second section contains a list of documents that are published by NREL on a regular or periodic basis. The third section highlights NREL`s series publications written for specific audiences and presenting a wide range of subjects. NREL`s General Interest Publications constitute the fourth section of the catalogue and are written for nontechnical audiences. Descriptions are provided for these publications. The fifth section contains Technical Reports that detail research and development projects. The section on Conference Papers/Journal Articles/Book Chapters makes up the sixth and final section of the catalogue.

  6. Methodology for evaluation of European wave energy resource

    SciTech Connect

    Pontes, T.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents the work performed in order to establish a common methodology for evaluation of the European offshore as well as shoreline wave energy resource. It includes a review (1) on the background theory of ocean waves that is required to deal with resource evaluation, (2) on the phenomena involved in and the methods used to calculate the transformation that waves undergo as they approach the coastline through waters of decreasing depth as well as (3) on the adequate wave data available in Europe. A methodology (proposed to and accepted by the European Community) for the assessment of the European wave energy resource is described. Further research and development work in this field is identified.

  7. World Energy Resources program U. S. Geological Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Masters, C.D.

    1986-05-01

    In 1973, with the OPEC embargo, the US was jarred into the world of insecure energy supplies - a harsh reality considering that throughout much of our history we had sufficient domestic supplies of oil and gas to meet all of our requirements. The US Government's response in 1973 was to assess domestic oil and gas potential, which was found to be substantial but nonetheless short of long-term requirements. Born of the need to become more certain about foreign as well has domestic resources, and working in conjunction with the Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program of the US Department of Energy, the US Geological Survey undertook a program to develop a technical understanding of the reserves and undiscovered recoverable resources of petroleum in every basin in the world with petroleum potential. The World Energy Resources Program prepared an assessment of ultimate resources of crude oil for the World Petroleum Congress (WPC) in 1983, and a revision and update (including nature gas, crude oil, extra heavy oil, and tar sands) are planned for WPC in 1987. This poster session attempts to engender awareness of our scenario of world ultimate petroleum occurrence and to show some elements of the geology that guided our thinking.

  8. Geothermal Energy: Resource and Utilization. A Teaching Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Van Thanh

    The search for new energy resources as alternatives to fossil fuels have generated new interest in the heat of the earth itself. New geothermal areas with a variety of characteristics are being explored, as are new ways of extracting work from naturally heated steam and hot water. Some of this effort is discussed in this three-part module. Five…

  9. 75 FR 4316 - Integration of Variable Energy Resources

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... rates are just and reasonable, eliminate impediments to open access transmission service for all... processing software should be filed in native applications or print-to-PDF format and not in a scanned format... renewable energy resources that are characterized by variability in the fuel source that is beyond...

  10. Review of Test Facilities for Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect

    AKHIL,ABBAS ALI; MARNAY,CHRIS; KIPMAN,TIMOTHY

    2003-05-01

    Since initiating research on integration of distributed energy resources (DER) in 1999, the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) has been actively assessing and reviewing existing DER test facilities for possible demonstrations of advanced DER system integration concepts. This report is a compendium of information collected by the CERTS team on DER test facilities during this period.

  11. Energy resources of the developing countries and some priority markets for the use of solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siddiqi, T. A.; Hein, G. F.

    1977-01-01

    Energy consumption for the developed and non-developed world is expressed as a function of GNP. An almost straight-line graph results when energy consumption statistics are treated in this manner. The richest countries consume the most energy, and the poorest countries the least. It therefore follows that greater energy production in the developing countries (leading to greater energy consumption) will contribute to their economic growth. Energy resources in the developing countries are compared, including: solid fossil fuels, crude oil, natural gas, oil shale, and uranium. Mention is also made of the potential of renewable energy resources, such as solar, wind, and hydroelectric power, in the underdeveloped world; and it is these resources which offer the greatest possibilities for economic improvement if the money is forthcoming, i.e., from the world bank, to fund the necessary technology.

  12. Teaching About Energy. Vol. 3. Units 3 through 8 of the Energy 80 Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enterprise for Education, Santa Monica, CA.

    This document is the third of a three-volume teacher resource book for use with the Energy 80 energy education program. The program is designed to enhance students' understanding of energy, either through supplements to traditional courses, such as mathematics, science, social studies, or homemaking, or by developing a mini-course or…

  13. Teaching About Energy. Vol. 2. Units 1 and 2 of the Energy 80 Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enterprise for Education, Santa Monica, CA.

    This document is the second of a three-volume teacher resource book for use with the Energy 80 energy education program. The program is designed to enhance students' understanding of energy, either through supplements to traditional courses, such as mathematics, science, social studies, or homemaking, or by developing a mini-course or…

  14. ERG--Energy Resources Game: Simulation Gaming of Regional Energy Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Lyle P.; Laessig, Robert E.

    1973-01-01

    ERG--the Energy Resources Game--is a computer based game which explores questions regarding regional energy supply and demand, such as population and economic growth goals; acceptable levels of dependence on imported energy; and acceptable levels of environmental impact. (JA)

  15. An analysis of wind and solar energy resources for the State of Kuwait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhusainan, Haya Nasser

    Kuwait is an important producer of oil and gas. Its rapid socio-economic growth has been characterized by increasing population, high rates of urbanization, and substantial industrialization, which is transforming it into a large big energy consumer as well. In addition to urbanization, climatic conditions have played an important function in increasing demand for electricity in Kuwait. Electricity for thermal cooling has become essential in the hot desert climate, and its use has developed rapidly along with the economic development, urbanization, and population growth. This study examines the long-term wind and solar resources over the Kuwait to determine the feasibility of these resources as potential sustainable and renewable energy sources. The ultimate goal of this research is to help identify the potential role of renewable energy in Kuwait. This study will examine the drivers and requirements for the deployment of these energy sources and their possible integration into the electricity generation sector to illustrate how renewable energy can be a suitable resource for power production in Kuwait and to illustrate how they can also be used to provide electricity for the country. For this study, data from sixteen established stations monitored by the meteorological department were analyzed. A solar resource map was developed that identifies the most suitable locations for solar farm development. A range of different relevant variables, including, for example, electric networks, population zones, fuel networks, elevation, water wells, streets, and weather stations, were combined in a geospatial analysis to predict suitable locations for solar farm development and placement. An analysis of recommendations, future energy targets and strategies for renewable energy policy in Kuwait are then conducted. This study was put together to identify issues and opportunities related to renewable energy in the region, since renewable energy technologies are still limited in

  16. Coal and the Present Energy Situation: Abundant coal reserves can be used to alleviate the oil and gas shortage.

    PubMed

    Osborn, E F

    1974-02-08

    To summarize, we must make greater use of coal, an energy resource that the nation has in great abundance, if we are to approach our former position of self-sufficiency in energy production. The first step is to move immediately to replace the oil and gas used in electric generating plants with coal and to require that coal be used in fossil fuel electric plants planned or under construction in the next few years. The technology to remove sulfur and particulates from the stack gases is at hand, and therefore environmental regulations can be met. Producing and transporting the required increased tonnages of coal are problems that can be met with appropriate incentives to the coal and transportation industries. Improved mining technology would be helpful but is not a requiremlent. Oil and gas from coal should be in significant commercial production in about a decade. Underground, or in situ, gasification of coal, now in field tests, looks promising as a practical process for recovering the energy from coal, especially in deep or thick beds that cannot be mined efficiently. Recoverable methane occurs in coal beds in the United States in an amount approximately equal to the total reserves of natural gas-about 260 trillion cubic feet. This large reserve of natural gas should be exploited as quickly as possible. Only minor investments in exploration and modest advances in technology are required. Finally, as coal production is expanded. adequate planning and the most modern technology should be used to ensure that coal is extracted with maximum recovery and with minimum damage to the environment.

  17. Effects of Distributed Energy Resources on Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR)

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Ruchi; Tuffner, Francis K.; Fuller, Jason C.; Schneider, Kevin P.

    2011-10-10

    Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR) is one of the cheapest technologies which can be intelligently leveraged to provide considerable energy savings. The addition of renewables in the form of distributed resources can affect the entire power system, but more importantly, affects the traditional substation control schemes at the distribution level. This paper looks at the effect on energy consumption, peak load reduction, and voltage profile changes due to the addition of distributed generation in a distribution feeder using combinations of volt var control. An IEEE 13-node system is used to simulate the various cases. Energy savings and peak load reduction for different simulation scenarios are compared.

  18. Turkey's High Temperature Geothermal Energy Resources and Electricity Production Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilgin, Ö.

    2012-04-01

    Turkey is in the first 7 countries in the world in terms of potential and applications. Geothermal energy which is an alternative energy resource has advantages such as low-cost, clean, safe and natural resource. Geothermal energy is defined as hot water and steam which is formed by heat that accumulated in various depths of the Earth's crust; with more than 20oC temperature and which contain more than fused minerals, various salts and gases than normal underground and ground water. It is divided into three groups as low, medium and high temperature. High-temperature fluid is used in electricity generation, low and medium temperature fluids are used in greenhouses, houses, airport runways, animal farms and places such as swimming pools heating. In this study high temperature geothermal fields in Turkey which is suitable for electricity production, properties and electricity production potential was investigated.

  19. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) Vermont Highlight (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-01-01

    Case study on Vermont's innovative strategy for helping low-income families save energy through its Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) program. The DOE Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) granted Vermont to give its weatherization clients access to solar energy systems and one-on-one assistance from energy efficiency coaches to help clients achieve meaningful and long-lasting reductions in their energy bills. Vermont-SERC is administered by the Vermont Office of Economic Opportunity and is carried out by five local weatherization agencies. The purpose of the program is to identify technologies and new approaches-in this case, solar energy and energy efficiency coaches-that can improve weatherization services to low-income clients. The program selects households that have previously received weatherization services. This has several advantages. First, the clients already understand how weatherization works and are willing to strive for additional energy savings. Second, the weatherization agencies are working with clients who have previously had weatherization and therefore have complete energy usage data from utility bills collected during the first energy upgrade installation. This allows the agencies to select the best potential candidates for solar energy. Agencies have existing knowledge of the homes and can pre-screen them for potential structural problems or lack of south-facing exposure.

  20. Energy and other resource conservation within urbanizing areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Peter G.

    1982-05-01

    The reported research seeks to answer several questions regarding energy conservation within urbanizing areas. As a practical matter, to what extent can dependence upon exhaustible resources be reduced? Can these reductions be achieved without severely impairing social well-being and environmental quality? And, what seem to be the prevailing institutional constraints limiting energy conservation within urbanizing areas? The study area was the proposed “downtown” of The Woodlands, a new town north of Houston, Texas. Two plans were developed for this area. In one, no particular attempt was made to conserve energy (conventional plan), while in the other, energy conservation was a primary consideration (conservation plan). For both plans, estimates were made of energy consumption within buildings, in the transportation sector, and in the actual production of building materials themselves (embodied energy). In addition, economic and environmental analyses were performed, including investigation of other resource issues such as water supply, solid waste disposal, stormwater management, and atmospheric emissions. Alternative on-site power systems were also investigated. Within the bounds of economic feasibility and development practicality, it was found that application of energy-conserving methods could yield annual energy savings of as much as 23%, and reduce dependence on prime fuels by 30%. Adverse economic effects on consumers were found to be minimal and environmental quality could be sustained. The major institutional constraints appeared to be those associated with traditional property ownership and with the use of common property resources. The resistance to change of everyday practices in land development and building industries also seemed to constrain potential applications.

  1. A metabolic and body-size scaling framework for parasite within-host abundance, biomass, and energy flux.

    PubMed

    Hechinger, Ryan F

    2013-08-01

    Energetics may provide a useful currency for studying the ecology of parasite assemblages within individual hosts. Parasite assemblages may also provide powerful models to study general principles of ecological energetics. Yet there has been little ecological research on parasite-host energetics, probably due to methodological difficulties. However, the scaling relationships of individual metabolic rate with body or cell size and temperature may permit us to tackle the energetics of parasite assemblages in hosts. This article offers the foundations and initial testing of a metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) framework for parasites in hosts. I first provide equations to estimate energetic flux through observed parasite assemblages. I then develop metabolic scaling theory for parasite abundance, energetics, and biomass in individual hosts. In contrast to previous efforts, the theory factors in both host and parasite metabolic scaling, how parasites use host space, and whether energy or space dictates carrying capacity. Empirical tests indicate that host energetic flux can set parasite carrying capacity, which decreases as predicted considering the scaling of host and parasite metabolic rates. The theory and results also highlight that the phenomenon of "energetic equivalence" is not an assumption of MTE but a possible outcome contingent on how species partition resources. Hence, applying MTE to parasites can lend mechanistic, quantitative, predictive insight into the nature of parasitism and can inform general ecological theory.

  2. A Guide for Vocational Energy Education: Resources, Key People, Classroom Materials. Oregon Vocational Energy Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Vocational Association, Gervais.

    Intended as a resource tool for integrating energy and conservation education into the vocational skills areas, this resource guide consists of listings of instructional and technical materials pertaining to 14 vocational curriculum areas. These areas are agriculture, agriculture/agribusiness, architecture, automotive, business, construction,…

  3. Multi-objective optimal dispatch of distributed energy resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longe, Ayomide

    This thesis is composed of two papers which investigate the optimal dispatch for distributed energy resources. In the first paper, an economic dispatch problem for a community microgrid is studied. In this microgrid, each agent pursues an economic dispatch for its personal resources. In addition, each agent is capable of trading electricity with other agents through a local energy market. In this paper, a simple market structure is introduced as a framework for energy trades in a small community microgrid such as the Solar Village. It was found that both sellers and buyers benefited by participating in this market. In the second paper, Semidefinite Programming (SDP) for convex relaxation of power flow equations is used for optimal active and reactive dispatch for Distributed Energy Resources (DER). Various objective functions including voltage regulation, reduced transmission line power losses, and minimized reactive power charges for a microgrid are introduced. Combinations of these goals are attained by solving a multiobjective optimization for the proposed ORPD problem. Also, both centralized and distributed versions of this optimal dispatch are investigated. It was found that SDP made the optimal dispatch faster and distributed solution allowed for scalability.

  4. Optimal Control of Distributed Energy Resources using Model Predictive Control

    SciTech Connect

    Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Shuai; Samaan, Nader A.; Butler-Purry, Karen

    2012-07-22

    In an isolated power system (rural microgrid), Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) such as renewable energy resources (wind, solar), energy storage and demand response can be used to complement fossil fueled generators. The uncertainty and variability due to high penetration of wind makes reliable system operations and controls challenging. In this paper, an optimal control strategy is proposed to coordinate energy storage and diesel generators to maximize wind penetration while maintaining system economics and normal operation. The problem is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem with the goals of minimizing fuel costs and changes in power output of diesel generators, minimizing costs associated with low battery life of energy storage and maintaining system frequency at the nominal operating value. Two control modes are considered for controlling the energy storage to compensate either net load variability or wind variability. Model predictive control (MPC) is used to solve the aforementioned problem and the performance is compared to an open-loop look-ahead dispatch problem. Simulation studies using high and low wind profiles, as well as, different MPC prediction horizons demonstrate the efficacy of the closed-loop MPC in compensating for uncertainties in wind and demand.

  5. 77 FR 21557 - System Energy Resources, Inc.; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission System Energy Resources, Inc.; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on March 28, 2012, System Energy Resources, Inc. (System Energy Resources), submitted...

  6. Hawaii Energy Strategy: Program guide. [Contains special sections on analytical energy forecasting, renewable energy resource assessment, demand-side energy management, energy vulnerability assessment, and energy strategy integration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The Hawaii Energy Strategy program, or HES, is a set of seven projects which will produce an integrated energy strategy for the State of Hawaii. It will include a comprehensive energy vulnerability assessment with recommended courses of action to decrease Hawaii's energy vulnerability and to better prepare for an effective response to any energy emergency or supply disruption. The seven projects are designed to increase understanding of Hawaii's energy situation and to produce recommendations to achieve the State energy objectives of: Dependable, efficient, and economical state-wide energy systems capable of supporting the needs of the people, and increased energy self-sufficiency. The seven projects under the Hawaii Energy Strategy program include: Project 1: Develop Analytical Energy Forecasting Model for the State of Hawaii. Project 2: Fossil Energy Review and Analysis. Project 3: Renewable Energy Resource Assessment and Development Program. Project 4: Demand-Side Management Program. Project 5: Transportation Energy Strategy. Project 6: Energy Vulnerability Assessment Report and Contingency Planning. Project 7: Energy Strategy Integration and Evaluation System.

  7. Simulating and validating coastal gradients in wind energy resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahmann, Andrea; Floors, Rogier; Karagali, Ioanna; Vasiljevic, Nikola; Lea, Guillaume; Simon, Elliot; Courtney, Michael; Badger, Merete; Peña, Alfredo; Hasager, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    The experimental campaign of the RUNE (Reducing Uncertainty of Near-shore wind resource Estimates) project took place on the western coast of Denmark during the winter 2015-2016. The campaign used onshore scanning lidar technology combined with ocean and satellite information and produced a unique dataset to study the transition in boundary layer dynamics across the coastal zone. The RUNE project aims at reducing the uncertainty of near-shore wind resource estimates produced by mesoscale modeling. With this in mind, simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model were performed to identify the sensitivity in the coastal gradients of wind energy resources to various model parameters and model inputs. Among these: model horizontal grid spacing and the planetary boundary layer and surface-layer scheme. We report on the differences amongst these simulations and preliminary results on the comparison of the model simulations with the RUNE observations of lidar and satellite measurements and near coastal tall mast.

  8. Gulf Stream marine hydrokinetic energy resource characterization off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muglia, M.; He, R.; Lowcher, C.; Bane, J.; Gong, Y.; Taylor, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Gulf Stream off North Carolina has current velocities that approach 3 m/s and an average volume transport of 90 Sv (1 Sv= 106 m3/s) off of Cape Hatteras, making it the most abundant MHK (Marine Hydrokinetic Energy) resource for the state. Resource availability at a specific location depends primarily on the variability in Gulf Stream position, which is least offshore of Cape Hatteras after the stream exits the Florida Straits. Proximity to land and high current velocities in relatively shallow waters on the shelf slope make this an optimal location to quantify the MHK energy resource for NC. 3.5 years of current measurements beginning in August of 2013 from a moored 150 kHz ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) at an optimal location for energy extraction quantify the available energy resource and its variability, and establish the skill of a Mid-Atlantic Bight and South Atlantic Bight Regional Ocean Model in predicting the MHK energy resource. The model agrees well with long-term observed current averages and with weekly to monthly fluctuations in the current speeds. Model and observations over the first 9 months of the ADCP deployment period both averaged 1.15 m/s thirty meters below the surface. The model under estimates observed current speeds for the higher frequency current fluctuations of days to weeks. Comparisons between the model and ADCP observed currents, and velocity derived power density over the entire 3.5 years of observations demonstrate the significant inter-annual variability in power density. Shipboard 300 kHz ADCP cross-stream transects and hourly surface currents measurements off Cape Hatteras from a network of land based HF (high frequency) radars further quantify available MHK energy and assess model skill. Cross-stream transects were made with a vessel-mounted 300 kHz ADCP on a line from the 100-1000m isobaths, and measured currents in the top 100m. These measurements demonstrate the variability in the resource with water depth, and

  9. Resource file: practical publications for energy management, edition III

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    The Resource File is an in-depth bibliography of 166 practical and action-oriented energy conservation publications and materials. It is a reference tool, designed for Federal, state, and local energy managers or people who are asked to recommend how-to conservation guides to the public. Each listing describes a publication's intended audience and provides a summary of its contents. Included are operations and maintenance manuals, life-cycle costing handbooks, home insulation manuals, films on fuel-saving driving techniques, and courses devoted exclusively to home weatherization. 166 items.

  10. Water Resource Impacts Embedded in the Western US Electrical Energy Trade; Current Patterns and Adaptation to Future Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, E. A.; Herron, S.; Qiu, Y.; Tidwell, V. C.; Ruddell, B. L.

    2013-12-01

    Water resources are a key element in the global coupled natural-human (CNH) system, because they are tightly coupled with the world's social, environmental, and economic subsystems, and because water resources are under increasing pressure worldwide. A fundamental adaptive tool used especially by cities to overcome local water resource scarcity is the outsourcing of water resource impacts through substitutionary economic trade. This is generally understood as the indirect component of a water footprint, and as ';virtual water' trade. This work employs generalized CNH methods to reveal the trade in water resource impacts embedded in electrical energy within the Western US power grid, and utilizes a general equilibrium economic trade model combined with drought and demand growth constraints to estimate the future status of this trade. Trade in embedded water resource impacts currently increases total water used for electricity production in the Western US and shifts water use to more water-limited States. Extreme drought and large increases in electrical energy demand increase the need for embedded water resource impact trade, while motivating a shift to more water-efficient generation technologies and more water-abundant generating locations. Cities are the largest users of electrical energy, and in the 21st Century will outsource a larger fraction of their water resource impacts through trade. This trade exposes cities to risks associated with disruption of long-distance transmission and distant hydrological droughts.

  11. Biomass energy: the scale of the potential resource.

    PubMed

    Field, Christopher B; Campbell, J Elliott; Lobell, David B

    2008-02-01

    Increased production of biomass for energy has the potential to offset substantial use of fossil fuels, but it also has the potential to threaten conservation areas, pollute water resources and decrease food security. The net effect of biomass energy agriculture on climate could be either cooling or warming, depending on the crop, the technology for converting biomass into useable energy, and the difference in carbon stocks and reflectance of solar radiation between the biomass crop and the pre-existing vegetation. The area with the greatest potential for yielding biomass energy that reduces net warming and avoids competition with food production is land that was previously used for agriculture or pasture but that has been abandoned and not converted to forest or urban areas. At the global scale, potential above-ground plant growth on these abandoned lands has an energy content representing approximately 5% of world primary energy consumption in 2006. The global potential for biomass energy production is large in absolute terms, but it is not enough to replace more than a few percent of current fossil fuel usage. Increasing biomass energy production beyond this level would probably reduce food security and exacerbate forcing of climate change.

  12. Hawaii energy strategy project 3: Renewable energy resource assessment and development program

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    RLA Consulting (RLA) has been retained by the State of Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism (DBEDT) to conduct a Renewable Energy Resource Assessment and Development Program. This three-phase program is part of the Hawaii Energy Strategy (HES), which is a multi-faceted program intended to produce an integrated energy strategy for the State of Hawaii. The purpose of Phase 1 of the project, Development of a Renewable Energy Resource Assessment Plan, is to better define the most promising potential renewable energy projects and to establish the most suitable locations for project development in the state. In order to accomplish this goal, RLA has identified constraints and requirements for renewable energy projects from six different renewable energy resources: wind, solar, biomass, hydro, wave, and ocean thermal. These criteria were applied to areas with sufficient resource for commercial development and the results of Phase 1 are lists of projects with the most promising development potential for each of the technologies under consideration. Consideration of geothermal energy was added to this investigation under a separate contract with DBEDT. In addition to the project lists, a monitoring plan was developed with recommended locations and a data collection methodology for obtaining additional wind and solar data. This report summarizes the results of Phase 1. 11 figs., 22 tabs.

  13. MEASUREMENTS OF THE RELATIVE ABUNDANCES OF HIGH-ENERGY COSMIC-RAY NUCLEI IN THE TeV/NUCLEON REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, H. S.; Ganel, O.; Han, J. H.; Kim, K. C.; Lee, M. H.; Malinin, A.; Allison, P. S.; Beatty, J. J.; Brandt, T. J.; Bagliesi, M. G.; Bigongiari, G.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Barbier, L.; Childers, J. T.; DuVernois, M. A.; Conklin, N. B.; Coutu, S.; Jeon, J. A.; Lee, J.

    2010-06-01

    We present measurements of the relative abundances of cosmic-ray nuclei in the energy range of 500-3980 GeV/nucleon from the second flight of the Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass balloon-borne experiment. Particle energy was determined using a sampling tungsten/scintillating-fiber calorimeter, while particle charge was identified precisely with a dual-layer silicon charge detector installed for this flight. The resulting element ratios C/O, N/O, Ne/O, Mg/O, Si/O, and Fe/O at the top of atmosphere are 0.919 {+-} 0.123{sup stat} {+-} 0.030{sup syst}, 0.076 {+-} 0.019{sup stat} {+-} 0.013{sup syst}, 0.115 {+-} 0.031{sup stat} {+-} 0.004{sup syst}, 0.153 {+-} 0.039{sup stat} {+-} 0.005{sup syst}, 0.180 {+-} 0.045{sup stat} {+-} 0.006{sup syst}, and 0.139 {+-} 0.043{sup stat} {+-} 0.005{sup syst}, respectively, which agree with measurements at lower energies. The source abundance of N/O is found to be 0.054 {+-} 0.013{sup stat} {+-} 0.009{sup syst+0.010esc} {sub -0.017}. The cosmic-ray source abundances are compared to local Galactic (LG) abundances as a function of first ionization potential and as a function of condensation temperature. At high energies the trend that the cosmic-ray source abundances at large ionization potential or low condensation temperature are suppressed compared to their LG abundances continues. Therefore, the injection mechanism must be the same at TeV/nucleon energies as at the lower energies measured by HEAO-3, CRN, and TRACER. Furthermore, the cosmic-ray source abundances are compared to a mixture of 80% solar system abundances and 20% massive stellar outflow (MSO) as a function of atomic mass. The good agreement with TIGER measurements at lower energies confirms the existence of a substantial fraction of MSO material required in the {approx}TeV per nucleon region.

  14. Nonregenerative natural resources in a sustainable system of energy supply.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Alex M; Hamacher, Thomas

    2012-03-12

    Following the lead of the European Union in introducing binding measures to promote the use of regenerative energy forms, it is not unreasonable to assume that the global demand for combustible raw materials for energy generation will be reduced considerably in the second half of this century. This will not only have a favourable effect on the CO(2) concentration in the atmosphere, but will also help preserve fossil fuels-important as raw materials in the chemical industry-for future generations. Nevertheless, associated with the concomitant massive shift to regenerative energy forms, there will be a strong demand for other exhaustible raw materials, in particular metals, some of which are already regarded as scarce. After reviewing the debate on mineral depletion between "cornucopians" and "pessimists", we discuss the meaning of mineral "scarcity", particularly in the geochemical sense, and mineral "exhaustion". The expected drastic increase in demand for mineral resources caused by demographic and societal pressures, that is, due to the increase in in-use stock, is emphasised. Whilst not discussing the issue of "strong" versus "weak" sustainability in detail, we conclude that regenerative energy systems-like nearly all resource-consuming systems in our society-do not necessarily satisfy generally accepted sustainability criteria. In this regard, we discuss some current examples, namely, lithium and cobalt for batteries, rare earth-based permanent magnets for wind turbines, cadmium and tellurium for solar cells and copper for electrical power distribution.

  15. Energy Security and National Security; Securing U.S. Energy Resources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-19

    from- waste , hydropower, geothermal, and biomass could play an increasingly important role in our nation’s energy supply as they continue to become more...proven, long-standing renewable resource. Wind, geothermal, and biomass power are increasingly competitive economically. Energy- from- waste is also...up more fuel for tanks, Humvees and other military equipment.”46 The Army has selected six sites for biomass / waste -to-energy demonstrations through a

  16. Deep geothermal resources and energy: Current research and developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzella, A.; Milsch, H.; Hahne, B.; van Wees, J. D.; Bruhn, D.

    2012-04-01

    Energy from deep geothermal resources plays an increasing role in many European countries in their efforts to increase the proportion of renewables in their energy portfolio. Deep geothermal heat and electric power have a high load factor, are sustainable and environmentally friendly. However, the safe, sustainable, and economic development of deep geothermal resources, also in less favourable regions, faces a number of issues requiring substantial research efforts: (1) The probability of finding an unknown geothermal reservoir has to be improved. (2) Drilling methods have to be better adapted and developed to the specific needs of geothermal development. (3) The assessment of the geothermal potential should provide more reliable and clear guidelines for the development. (4) Stimulation methods for enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) have to be refined to increase the success rate and reduce the risk associated with induced seismicity. (5) Operation and maintenance in aggressive geothermal environments require specific solutions for corrosion and scaling problems. (6) Last but not least, emerging activities to harness energy from supercritical reservoirs would make significant progress with qualified input from research. In particular, sedimentary basins like e.g. the North German and Polish Basin, the Pannonian Basin, the Po Valley, the Bavarian Molasse Basin or the Upper Rhine Graben have a high geothermal potential, even if geothermal gradients are moderate. We will highlight projects that aim at optimizing exploration, characterization, and modeling prior to drilling and at a better understanding of physical, hydraulic and chemical processes during operation of a geothermal power plant. This includes geophysical, geological and geochemical investigations regarding potential geothermal reservoirs in sedimentary basins, as well as modelling of geothermally relevant reservoir parameters that influence the potential performance and long-term behavior of a future

  17. A strategy for mineral and energy resource independence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    Data acquired by Landsats 1, 2, and 3, are beginning to provide the information on which an improved mineral and energy resource exploration strategy can be based. Landsat 4 is expected to augment this capability with its higher resolution (30 m) and additional spectral bands in the Thematic Mapper (TM) designed specifically to discriminate clay minerals associated with mineral alteration. In addition, a new global magnetic anomaly map, derived from the recent Magsat mission, has recently been compiled by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and others. Preliminary, extremely small-scale renditions of this map indicate that global coverage is nearly complete and that the map will improve upon a previous one derived from Polar Orbiting Geophysical Observatory (POGO) data. Digital processing of the Landsat image data and Magsat geophysical data can be used to create three-dimensional stereoscopic models for which Landsat images provide surface reference to deep structural anomalies. Comparative studies of national Landsat lineament maps, Magsat stereoscopic models, and metallogenic information derived from the Computerized Resources Information Bank (CRIB) inventory of U.S. mineral resources, provide a way of identifying and selecting exploration areas that have mineral resource potential. Landsat images and computer-compatible tapes can provide new and better mosaics and also provide the capability for a closer look at promising sites. ?? 1983.

  18. Wave energy resource assessment based on satellite observations around Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribal, Agustinus; Zieger, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    A preliminary assessment of wave energy resource around Indonesian's ocean has been carried out by means of analyzing satellite observations. The wave energy flux or wave power can be approximated using parameterized sea states. Wave power scales with significant wave height, characteristic wave period and water depth. In this approach, the significant wave heights were obtained from ENVISAT (Environmental Satellite) data which have been calibrated. However, as the characteristic wave period is rarely specified and therefore must be estimated from other variables when information about the wave spectra is unknown. Here, the characteristic wave period was calculated with an empirical model that utilizes altimeter estimates of wave height and backscatter coefficient originally proposed. For the Indonesian region, wave power energy is calculated over two periods of one year each and was compared with the results from global hindcast carried out with a recent release of wave model WAVEWATCH III. We found that, the most promising wave power energy regions around the Indonesian archipelago are located in the south of Java island and the south west of Sumatera island. In these locations, about 20 - 30 kW/m (90th percentile: 30-50 kW/m, 99th percentile: 40-60 kW/m) wave power energy on average has been found around south of Java island during 2010. Similar results have been found during 2011 at the same locations. Some small areas which are located around north of Irian Jaya (West Papua) are also very promising and need further investigation to determine its capacity as a wave energy resource.

  19. Modeling of customer adoption of distributed energy resources

    SciTech Connect

    Marnay, Chris; Chard, Joseph S.; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Lipman, Timothy; Moezzi, Mithra M.; Ouaglal, Boubekeur; Siddiqui, Afzal S.

    2001-08-01

    This report describes work completed for the California Energy Commission (CEC) on the continued development and application of the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). This work was performed at Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) between July 2000 and June 2001 under the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Distributed Energy Resources Integration (DERI) project. Our research on distributed energy resources (DER) builds on the concept of the microgrid ({mu}Grid), a semiautonomous grouping of electricity-generating sources and end-use sinks that are placed and operated for the benefit of its members. Although a {mu}Grid can operate independent of the macrogrid (the utility power network), the {mu}Grid is usually interconnected, purchasing energy and ancillary services from the macrogrid. Groups of customers can be aggregated into {mu}Grids by pooling their electrical and other loads, and the most cost-effective combination of generation resources for a particular {mu}Grid can be found. In this study, DER-CAM, an economic model of customer DER adoption implemented in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) optimization software is used, to find the cost-minimizing combination of on-site generation customers (individual businesses and a {mu}Grid) in a specified test year. DER-CAM's objective is to minimize the cost of supplying electricity to a specific customer by optimizing the installation of distributed generation and the self-generation of part or all of its electricity. Currently, the model only considers electrical loads, but combined heat and power (CHP) analysis capability is being developed under the second year of CEC funding. The key accomplishments of this year's work were the acquisition of increasingly accurate data on DER technologies, including the development of methods for forecasting cost reductions for these technologies, and the creation of a credible

  20. Geothermal energy resource assessment of parts of Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wescott, E.M.; Turner, D.L.; Kienle, J.

    1982-08-01

    The central Seward Peninsula was the subject of a geological, geophysical and geochemical reconnaissance survey during a 30-day period in the summer of 1980. The survey was designed to investigate the geothermal energy resource potential of this region of Alaska. A continental rift system model was proposed to explain many of the Late Tertiary-to-Quaternary topographic, structural, volcanic and geothermal features of the region. Geologic evidence for the model includes normal faults, extensive fields of young alkalic basalts, alignment of volcanic vents, graben valleys and other features consistent with a rift system active from late Miocene time to the present. Five traverses crossing segments of the proposed rift system were run to look for evidence of structure and geothermal resources not evident from surface manifestation. Gravity, helium and mercury soil concentrations were measured along the traverses. Seismic, resistivity, and VLF studies are presented.

  1. Strategies for Energy Efficient Resource Management of Hybrid Programming Models

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dong; Supinski, Bronis de; Schulz, Martin; Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios S; Cameron, Kirk W.

    2013-01-01

    Many scientific applications are programmed using hybrid programming models that use both message-passing and shared-memory, due to the increasing prevalence of large-scale systems with multicore, multisocket nodes. Previous work has shown that energy efficiency can be improved using software-controlled execution schemes that consider both the programming model and the power-aware execution capabilities of the system. However, such approaches have focused on identifying optimal resource utilization for one programming model, either shared-memory or message-passing, in isolation. The potential solution space, thus the challenge, increases substantially when optimizing hybrid models since the possible resource configurations increase exponentially. Nonetheless, with the accelerating adoption of hybrid programming models, we increasingly need improved energy efficiency in hybrid parallel applications on large-scale systems. In this work, we present new software-controlled execution schemes that consider the effects of dynamic concurrency throttling (DCT) and dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) in the context of hybrid programming models. Specifically, we present predictive models and novel algorithms based on statistical analysis that anticipate application power and time requirements under different concurrency and frequency configurations. We apply our models and methods to the NPB MZ benchmarks and selected applications from the ASC Sequoia codes. Overall, we achieve substantial energy savings (8.74% on average and up to 13.8%) with some performance gain (up to 7.5%) or negligible performance loss.

  2. Lower Velocity Sites Improve the Tidal-Stream Energy Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robins, P. E.; Lewis, M. J.; Neill, S. P.; Hashemi, M. R.; Stephenson, G.

    2015-12-01

    It is essential that developers have detailed knowledge of the tidal-stream energy resource. ROMS hydrodynamic models (~1 km resolution) of key areas in northwest Europe, were used to examine the spatial and temporal distribution of the tidal-stream resource. Currently, sites with peak spring tide velocities (M2 and S2 constituents) in excess of 2.5 m/s and water depths between 25 and 50 m are preferred. When assuming this so-called "1st generation" criteria, a limited resource with limited scope for long-term sustainability of the industry was calculated for the Irish Sea; a key area for UK development. Selecting sites that also included 20% lower velocities (>2 m/s) and deeper water locations (>25m) resulted in a seven-fold increase in the available resource (for the Irish Sea). Although new engineering challenges will be encountered (e.g. more wave exposed locations) by developing these 2nd generation tidal-stream energy sites (>2m/s and >25m), some oceanographic challenges would be improved. For example, the flood-ebb tidal flow is not typically rectilinear at 1st generation UK sites (a mean error from rectilinear of ~20° in this assumption), which is reduced to near-rectilinear flow (˜3° error) when including 2nd generation sites. Analysis of our northwest European model revealed more phase diversity is offered by developing lower tidal energy sites, allowing firm and constant electricity generation. Moreover, at 1st generation sites, we calculate significant, and unaccounted, variability in annual practical power generation. For example, mean peak spring tidal velocities can under-estimate the annual practical resource by up to 25%, for regions experiencing similar mean peak spring tidal velocities, due to the ratio of M2 and S2, together with the influence of other tidal constituents, such as K1 and O1. Therefore, based on prevalence, firm power and engineering challengers, we find a strong case for developing lower flow technologies.

  3. Non-energy resources, Connecticut and Rhode Island coastal waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neff, N.F.; Lewis, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    Cores collected from Long Island Sound, Connecticut, were used to establish control on the geologic framework of the area. Lithologic and stratigraphic analyses verified the presence of the following units: (1) Cretaceous coastal plain, (2) Pleistocene glacial till, (3) late Pleistocene glacial lake, (4) late Pleistocene glacial outwash, and (5) Holocene fluvial, estuarine and marine deposits. Cores collected in Block Island Sound, Rhode Island, were obtained from inferred, relict shoreline features and were analyzed for heavy mineral content. Concentrations ranged from 0.3 to 3.4%; no significant downcore changes were found. The results indicated that surficial sediments in areas of high-velocity tidal flow yield greater amounts of heavy minerals than do inferred placer deposits. During the second phase of the program of study, Connecticut and Rhode Island pooled resources to develop a study plan for the comprehensive quantification of all non-energy resources in the adjacent waters of the states. A literature and data survey was conducted to assess the occurrence, extent, and accessibility of these resources. Sand and gravel and heavy minerals were found in concentrations offering potential for resource exploitation. Constraints on exploitation include (1) water depth restrictions for the protection of shellfish beds and public beaches, (2) fishing activities, (3) military, commercial, and fishing vessel traffic, (4) seafloor cable routes and (5) dump sites. Deposits composed of Pleistocene glacial sediments and/or Holocene marine sediments in regions of little or no user conflict were identified as sites potentially suitable for resource exploitation. The study plan stated additional data needs (geophysical profiling and vibracore sampling) at these sites. Subsequent to these recommendations, high-resolution seismic profiles and sidescan sonographs were obtained from these sites. Seismic stratigraphic analyses confirm the presence of extensive deposits of

  4. Parallel Harmony Search Based Distributed Energy Resource Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Ceylan, Oguzhan; Liu, Guodong; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a harmony search based parallel optimization algorithm to minimize voltage deviations in three phase unbalanced electrical distribution systems and to maximize active power outputs of distributed energy resources (DR). The main contribution is to reduce the adverse impacts on voltage profile during a day as photovoltaics (PVs) output or electrical vehicles (EVs) charging changes throughout a day. The IEEE 123- bus distribution test system is modified by adding DRs and EVs under different load profiles. The simulation results show that by using parallel computing techniques, heuristic methods may be used as an alternative optimization tool in electrical power distribution systems operation.

  5. Distribution System Voltage Regulation by Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Ceylan, Oguzhan; Liu, Guodong; Xu, Yan; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a control method to regulate voltages in 3 phase unbalanced electrical distribution systems. A constrained optimization problem to minimize voltage deviations and maximize distributed energy resource (DER) active power output is solved by harmony search algorithm. IEEE 13 Bus Distribution Test System was modified to test three different cases: a) only voltage regulator controlled system b) only DER controlled system and c) both voltage regulator and DER controlled system. The simulation results show that systems with both voltage regulators and DER control provide better voltage profile.

  6. Space resources. Volume 2: Energy, power, and transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Mary Fae (Editor); Mckay, David S. (Editor); Duke, Michael B. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This volume of the Space Resources report covers a number of technical and policy issues concerning the energy and power to carry out advanced space missions and the means of transportation to get to the sites of those missions. Discussed in the first half of this volume are the technologies which might be used to provide power and a variety of ways to convert power from one form to another, store it, move it wherever it is needed, and use it. In the second half of this volume, various kinds of transportation, including both interplanetary and surface systems, are discussed.

  7. Food Waste to Energy: How Six Water Resource Recovery ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Water Resource Recovery Facilities (WRRFs) with anaerobic digestion have been harnessing biogas for heat and power since at least the 1920’s. A few are approaching “energy neutrality” and some are becoming “energy positive” through a combination of energy efficiency measures and the addition of outside organic wastes. Enhancing biogas production by adding fats, oil and grease (FOG) to digesters has become a familiar practice. Less widespread is the addition of other types of food waste, ranging from municipally collected food scraps to the byproducts of food processing facilities and agricultural production. Co-digesting with food waste, however, is becoming more common. As energy prices rise and as tighter regulations increase the cost of compliance, WRRFs across the county are tapping excess capacity while tempering rates. This report presents the co-digestion practices, performance, and the experiences of six such WRRFs. The report describes the types of food waste co-digested and the strategies--specifically, the tools, timing, and partnerships--employed to manage the material. Additionally, the report describes how the facilities manage wastewater solids, providing information about power production, biosolids use, and program costs. This product is intended to describe the available infrastructure for energy recovery from co-digestion of food waste and wastewater treatment facilities.

  8. Geology and mineral and energy resources, Roswell Resource Area, New Mexico; an interactive computer presentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tidball, Ronald R.; Bartsch-Winkler, S. B.

    1995-01-01

    This Compact Disc-Read Only Memory (CD-ROM) contains a program illustrating the geology and mineral and energy resources of the Roswell Resource Area, an administrative unit of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management in east-central New Mexico. The program enables the user to access information on the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, mining history, metallic and industrial mineral commodities, hydrocarbons, and assessments of the area. The program was created with the display software, SuperCard, version 1.5, by Aldus. The program will run only on a Macintosh personal computer. This CD-ROM was produced in accordance with Macintosh HFS standards. The program was developed on a Macintosh II-series computer with system 7.0.1. The program is a compiled, executable form that is nonproprietary and does not require the presence of the SuperCard software.

  9. Species richness - Energy relationships and dung beetle diversity across an aridity and trophic resource gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tshikae, B. Power; Davis, Adrian L. V.; Scholtz, Clarke H.

    2013-05-01

    Understanding factors that drive species richness and turnover across ecological gradients is important for insect conservation planning. To this end, we studied species richness - energy relationships and regional versus local factors that influence dung beetle diversity in game reserves along an aridity and trophic resource gradient in the Botswana Kalahari. Dung beetle species richness, alpha diversity, and abundance declined with increasing aridity from northeast to southwest and differed significantly between dung types (pig, elephant, cattle, sheep) and carrion (chicken livers). Patterns of between-study area species richness on ruminant dung (cattle, sheep) differed to other bait types. Patterns of species richness between bait types in two southwest study areas differed from those in four areas to the northeast. Regional species turnover between study areas was higher than local turnover between bait types. Patterns of southwest to northeast species loss showed greater consistency than northeast to southwest losses from larger assemblages. Towards the southwest, similarity to northeast assemblages declined steeply as beta diversity increased. High beta diversity and low similarity at gradsect extremes resulted from two groups of species assemblages showing either northeast or southwest biogeographical centres. The findings are consistent with the energy hypothesis that indicates insect species richness in lower latitudes is indirectly limited by declining water variables, which drive reduced food resources (lower energy availability) represented, here, by restriction of large mammals dropping large dung types to the northeast and dominance of pellet dropping mammals in the arid southwest Kalahari. The influence of theoretical causal mechanisms is discussed.

  10. Dynamic relationships between body size, species richness, abundance, and energy use in a shallow marine epibenthic faunal community.

    PubMed

    Labra, Fabio A; Hernández-Miranda, Eduardo; Quiñones, Renato A

    2015-01-01

    We study the temporal variation in the empirical relationships among body size (S), species richness (R), and abundance (A) in a shallow marine epibenthic faunal community in Coliumo Bay, Chile. We also extend previous analyses by calculating individual energy use (E) and test whether its bivariate and trivariate relationships with S and R are in agreement with expectations derived from the energetic equivalence rule. Carnivorous and scavenger species representing over 95% of sample abundance and biomass were studied. For each individual, body size (g) was measured and E was estimated following published allometric relationships. Data for each sample were tabulated into exponential body size bins, comparing species-averaged values with individual-based estimates which allow species to potentially occupy multiple size classes. For individual-based data, both the number of individuals and species across body size classes are fit by a Weibull function rather than by a power law scaling. Species richness is also a power law of the number of individuals. Energy use shows a piecewise scaling relationship with body size, with energetic equivalence holding true only for size classes above the modal abundance class. Species-based data showed either weak linear or no significant patterns, likely due to the decrease in the number of data points across body size classes. Hence, for individual-based size spectra, the SRA relationship seems to be general despite seasonal forcing and strong disturbances in Coliumo Bay. The unimodal abundance distribution results in a piecewise energy scaling relationship, with small individuals showing a positive scaling and large individuals showing energetic equivalence. Hence, strict energetic equivalence should not be expected for unimodal abundance distributions. On the other hand, while species-based data do not show unimodal SRA relationships, energy use across body size classes did not show significant trends, supporting energetic

  11. Dynamic relationships between body size, species richness, abundance, and energy use in a shallow marine epibenthic faunal community

    PubMed Central

    Labra, Fabio A; Hernández-Miranda, Eduardo; Quiñones, Renato A

    2015-01-01

    We study the temporal variation in the empirical relationships among body size (S), species richness (R), and abundance (A) in a shallow marine epibenthic faunal community in Coliumo Bay, Chile. We also extend previous analyses by calculating individual energy use (E) and test whether its bivariate and trivariate relationships with S and R are in agreement with expectations derived from the energetic equivalence rule. Carnivorous and scavenger species representing over 95% of sample abundance and biomass were studied. For each individual, body size (g) was measured and E was estimated following published allometric relationships. Data for each sample were tabulated into exponential body size bins, comparing species-averaged values with individual-based estimates which allow species to potentially occupy multiple size classes. For individual-based data, both the number of individuals and species across body size classes are fit by a Weibull function rather than by a power law scaling. Species richness is also a power law of the number of individuals. Energy use shows a piecewise scaling relationship with body size, with energetic equivalence holding true only for size classes above the modal abundance class. Species-based data showed either weak linear or no significant patterns, likely due to the decrease in the number of data points across body size classes. Hence, for individual-based size spectra, the SRA relationship seems to be general despite seasonal forcing and strong disturbances in Coliumo Bay. The unimodal abundance distribution results in a piecewise energy scaling relationship, with small individuals showing a positive scaling and large individuals showing energetic equivalence. Hence, strict energetic equivalence should not be expected for unimodal abundance distributions. On the other hand, while species-based data do not show unimodal SRA relationships, energy use across body size classes did not show significant trends, supporting energetic

  12. 76 FR 34684 - Offshore Renewable Energy; Public Meeting on Information Needs for Resource Assessment and Design...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Offshore Renewable Energy; Public Meeting on Information Needs for Resource Assessment and Design Conditions AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... meteorological and oceanographic information to support cost-effective deployment of offshore renewable...

  13. A prefeasibility study of energy resource options in Hainan, China

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.J.; Russell, M. |; Barron, W.F.; LaRocco, P.; Shen, Z.

    1992-10-01

    This study identifies a strategy that (1) provides future energy services for Hainan in the least environmentally degrading way, (2) eliminates the need to build significant amounts of new fossil-fueled, electric generating capacity, saving capital to invest in other development projects, (3) lowers the cost that Hainan households and businesses will pay to light their homes and run their industries, (4) reduces the future coal import bill, and (5) improves the prospects for export industries. implementing this strategy will promote economic development and growth in Hainan, improve the standard of living, and preserve to the greatest extent possible Hainan`s rich environmental resource base, a key requirement for its tourist industry. The focus of this strategy is to adapt proven policies and techniques for producing and using energy more efficiently to existing conditions in Hainan. This Report applies the principles of integrated resource planning (IRP) and the experiences in other countries to outline a strategy for the Province. The experience is that fuel consumption can be reduced without lessening the ability of consumers, industry, and the government to obtain the energy services that higher use of fuel would otherwise bring. Further, those energy services can be provided with less capital investment than would be necessary if traditional practices were followed. Both of these results have obvious and important development and environmental benefits. In short, consumers have more money available to buy other things; production costs are lowered, improving the ability of firms to compete in international markets; and more capital is available to invest in new machinery and equipment that produces goods and services to use in Hainan or to export to other countries.

  14. A prefeasibility study of energy resource options in Hainan, China

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.J.; Russell, M. Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN ); Barron, W.F. ); LaRocco, P. ); Shen, Z. )

    1992-10-01

    This study identifies a strategy that (1) provides future energy services for Hainan in the least environmentally degrading way, (2) eliminates the need to build significant amounts of new fossil-fueled, electric generating capacity, saving capital to invest in other development projects, (3) lowers the cost that Hainan households and businesses will pay to light their homes and run their industries, (4) reduces the future coal import bill, and (5) improves the prospects for export industries. implementing this strategy will promote economic development and growth in Hainan, improve the standard of living, and preserve to the greatest extent possible Hainan's rich environmental resource base, a key requirement for its tourist industry. The focus of this strategy is to adapt proven policies and techniques for producing and using energy more efficiently to existing conditions in Hainan. This Report applies the principles of integrated resource planning (IRP) and the experiences in other countries to outline a strategy for the Province. The experience is that fuel consumption can be reduced without lessening the ability of consumers, industry, and the government to obtain the energy services that higher use of fuel would otherwise bring. Further, those energy services can be provided with less capital investment than would be necessary if traditional practices were followed. Both of these results have obvious and important development and environmental benefits. In short, consumers have more money available to buy other things; production costs are lowered, improving the ability of firms to compete in international markets; and more capital is available to invest in new machinery and equipment that produces goods and services to use in Hainan or to export to other countries.

  15. 25 CFR 162.520 - Who owns the energy resource information obtained under the WEEL?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS Wind and Solar Resource Leases Weels § 162.520 Who owns the energy resource information obtained under the WEEL? (a) The WEEL must specify the ownership of any energy... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who owns the energy resource information obtained...

  16. 25 CFR 162.520 - Who owns the energy resource information obtained under the WEEL?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS Wind and Solar Resource Leases Weels § 162.520 Who owns the energy resource information obtained under the WEEL? (a) The WEEL must specify the ownership of any energy... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who owns the energy resource information obtained...

  17. 78 FR 28005 - System Energy Resources, Inc.; Grand Gulf Nuclear Station; Order Approving Direct and Indirect...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... COMMISSION System Energy Resources, Inc.; Grand Gulf Nuclear Station; Order Approving Direct and Indirect Transfers of Early Site Permit and Approving Conforming Amendment I System Energy Resources, Inc. (SERI), is... direct transfer of Grand Gulf ESP Site, to a new limited liability company, System Energy Resource,...

  18. Role for Distributed Energy Resources (DER) in the Digital Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Key, Thomas S

    2007-11-01

    A large, and growing, part of the Nation's economy either serves or depends upon the information technology industry. These high-tech or "digital" enterprises are characterized by a dependence on electronic devices, need for completely reliable power supply, and intolerance to any power quality problems. In some cases these enterprises are densely populated with electronic loads and have very high energy usage per square foot. Serving these enterprises presents both electric power and equipment cooling challenges. Traditional electric utilities are often hard-pressed to deliver power that meets the stringent requirements of digital customers, and the economic and social consequences of a service quality or reliability problem can be large. New energy delivery and control options must be developed to effectively serve a digital economy. This report explores how distributed energy resources, partnerships between utility and customer to share the responsibility for service quality, innovative facility designs, higher energy efficiencies and waste-heat utilization can be coupled to meet the needs of a growing digital economy.

  19. Observations of Heavy Element Abundances over a Broad Energy Range in 3He-rich Solar Energetic Particle Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedenbeck, M. E.; Mason, G. M.; Cohen, C. M.; Leske, R. A.; Cummings, A. C.; Dwyer, J. R.; Mazur, J. E.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.

    2006-05-01

    During the maximum of solar cycle 23 a number of 3He-rich solar energetic particle (SEP) events with measurable intensities of heavy elements (Z≥6) at energies >10 MeV/nuc were observed with instrumentation on the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft. This represents a relatively small fraction of all the 3He-rich SEP events that were detected since heavy-ion intensities at these energies were frequently too low to be measured. Using data from two ACE instruments (SIS covering ~10--60 MeV/nuc and ULEIS ~0.2--1 MeV/nuc) we have investigated heavy element abundances over a broad energy range in this special set of events. We report the average abundance ratios and the correlations between different ratios in the two energy intervals. Furthermore we compare the results from the two different energy ranges, both statistically and on an event-by-event basis. In addition, we compare the statistical properties observed in the SIS and ULEIS data sets with previously-published results obtained at intermediate energies (~1--3 MeV/nuc) from instruments on ISEE-3 during the maximum of solar cycle 21 (Mason et al. 1986, Reames et al. 1994).

  20. State Energy Efficiency Resource Standards: Design, Status, and Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, D.; Zinaman, O.

    2014-05-01

    An energy efficiency resource standard (EERS) is a policy that requires utilities or other entities to achieve a specified amount of energy savings through customer energy efficiency programs within a specified timeframe. EERSs may apply to electricity usage, natural gas usage, or both. This paper provides an overview of the key design features of EERSs for electricity, reviews the variation in design of EERSs across states, and provides an estimate of the amount of savings required by currently specified EERSs in each state. As of December, 2013, 23 states have active and binding EERSs for electricity. We estimate that state EERSs will require annual electricity savings of approximately 8-11% of total projected demand by 2020 in states with EERSs, however the level of savings targeted by the policies varies significantly across states. In addition to the variation in targeted savings, the design of EERSs varies significantly across states leading to differences in the suite of incentives created by the policy, the flexibility of compliance with the policy, the balance of benefits and costs of the policy between producers and consumers, and the certainty with which the policy will drive long-term savings.

  1. The Water-Energy-Food Nexus in a Rapidly Developing Resource Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, D. M.; Kirste, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Technological advances and access to global markets have changed the rate at which resource exploitation takes place. The environmental impact of the rapid development and distribution of resources such as minerals and hydrocarbons has led to a greater potential for significant stress on water resources both in terms of quality and quantity. How and where those impacts manifest is crucial to determining appropriate risk management strategies. North East British Columbia has an abundance of shale gas reserves that are anticipated to be exploited at a large scale in coming years, primarily for export as liquefied natural gas (LNG). However, there is growing concern that fracking and other activities related to shale gas development pose risks to water quality and quantity in the region. Water lies at the center of the water-energy-food nexus, with an accelerating water demand for fracking and industrial operations as well as for domestic, environmental and agricultural uses. Climate change is also anticipated to alter the hydrologic regime, posing added stress to the water resource. This case study examines the water-energy-food nexus in the context of a region that is impacted by a rapidly developing resource sector, encompassing water demand/supply, climate change, interaction between deep aquifers and shallow aquifers/surface waters, water quality concerns related to fracking, land use disturbance, and community impacts. Due to the rapid rate of development, there are significant knowledge gaps in our understanding of the water resource. Currently agencies are undertaking water resource assessments and establishing monitoring sites. This research aims to assess water security in North East British Columbia in a coordinated fashion through various partnerships. In addition to collecting baseline knowledge and data, the study will evaluate risk and resilience indicators in relation to water security. A risk assessment framework specific to the shale gas development

  2. 75 FR 36128 - Green Energy Resources, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ... COMMISSION Green Energy Resources, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading June 22, 2010. It appears to the... securities of Green Energy Resources, Inc. (``Green Energy'') because of questions regarding the accuracy of statements by Green Energy in press releases concerning, among other things, the company's involvement in...

  3. Native American Technical Assistance and Training for Renewable Energy Resource Development and Electrical Generation Facilities Management

    SciTech Connect

    A. David Lester

    2008-10-17

    The Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) will facilitate technical expertise and training of Native Americans in renewable energy resource development for electrical generation facilities, and distributed generation options contributing to feasibility studies, strategic planning and visioning. CERT will also provide information to Tribes on energy efficiency and energy management techniques.This project will provide facilitation and coordination of expertise from government agencies and private industries to interact with Native Americans in ways that will result in renewable energy resource development, energy efficiency program development, and electrical generation facilities management by Tribal entities. The intent of this cooperative agreement is to help build capacity within the Tribes to manage these important resources.

  4. NETL's Energy Data Exchange (EDX) - a coordination, collaboration, and data resource discovery platform for energy science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, K.; Rowan, C.; Rager, D.; Dehlin, M.; Baker, D. V.; McIntyre, D.

    2015-12-01

    Multi-organizational research teams working jointly on projects often encounter problems with discovery, access to relevant existing resources, and data sharing due to large file sizes, inappropriate file formats, or other inefficient options that make collaboration difficult. The Energy Data eXchange (EDX) from Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is an evolving online research environment designed to overcome these challenges in support of DOE's fossil energy goals while offering improved access to data driven products of fossil energy R&D such as datasets, tools, and web applications. In 2011, development of NETL's Energy Data eXchange (EDX) was initiated and offers i) a means for better preserving of NETL's research and development products for future access and re-use, ii) efficient, discoverable access to authoritative, relevant, external resources, and iii) an improved approach and tools to support secure, private collaboration and coordination between multi-organizational teams to meet DOE mission and goals. EDX presently supports fossil energy and SubTER Crosscut research activities, with an ever-growing user base. EDX is built on a heavily customized instance of the open source platform, Comprehensive Knowledge Archive Network (CKAN). EDX connects users to externally relevant data and tools through connecting to external data repositories built on different platforms and other CKAN platforms (e.g. Data.gov). EDX does not download and repost data or tools that already have an online presence. This leads to redundancy and even error. If a relevant resource already has an online instance, is hosted by another online entity, EDX will point users to that external host either using web services, inventorying URLs and other methods. EDX offers users the ability to leverage private-secure capabilities custom built into the system. The team is presently working on version 3 of EDX which will incorporate big data analytical

  5. Resource Evaluation and Energy Production Estimate for a Tidal Energy Conversion Installation using Acoustic Flow Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Ian; Baldwin, Ken; Wosnik, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The ``Living Bridge'' project plans to install a tidal turbine at Memorial Bridge in the Piscataqua River at Portsmouth, NH. A spatio-temporal tidal energy resource assessment was performed using long term bottom-deployed Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers ADCP. Two locations were evaluated: at the planned deployment location and mid-channel. The goal was to determine the amount of available kinetic energy that can be converted into usable electrical energy on the bridge. Changes in available kinetic energy with ebb/flood and spring/neap tidal cycles and electrical energy demand were analyzed. A system model is used to calculate the net energy savings using various tidal generator and battery bank configurations. Differences in the tidal characteristics between the two measurement locations are highlighted. Different resource evaluation methodologies were also analyzed, e.g., using a representative ADCP ``bin'' vs. a more refined, turbine-geometry-specific methodology, and using static bin height vs. bin height that move w.r.t. the free surface throughout a tidal cycle (representative of a bottom-fixed or floating turbine deployment, respectively). ADCP operating frequencies and bin sizes affect the standard deviation of measurements, and measurement uncertainties are evaluated. Supported by NSF-IIP grant 1430260.

  6. Water energy resources of the United States with emphasis on low head/low power resources

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Douglas G.; Cherry, Shane J.; Reeves, Kelly S.; Lee, Randy D.; Carroll, Gregory R.; Sommers, Garold L.; Verdin, Kristine L.

    2004-04-01

    Analytical assessments of the water energy resources in the 20 hydrologic regions of the United States were performed using state-of-the-art digital elevation models and geographic information system tools. The principal focus of the study was on low head (less than 30 ft)/low power (less than 1 MW) resources in each region. The assessments were made by estimating the power potential of all the stream segments in a region, which averaged 2 miles in length. These calculations were performed using hydrography and hydraulic heads that were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey’s Elevation Derivatives for National Applications dataset and stream flow predictions from a regression equation or equations developed specifically for the region. Stream segments excluded from development and developed hydropower were accounted for to produce an estimate of total available power potential. The total available power potential was subdivided into high power (1 MW or more), high head (30 ft or more)/low power, and low head/low power total potentials. The low head/low power potential was further divided to obtain the fractions of this potential corresponding to the operating envelopes of three classes of hydropower technologies: conventional turbines, unconventional systems, and microhydro (less than 100 kW). Summing information for all the regions provided total power potential in various power classes for the entire United States. Distribution maps show the location and concentrations of the various classes of low power potential. No aspect of the feasibility of developing these potential resources was evaluated. Results for each of the 20 hydrologic regions are presented in Appendix A, and similar presentations for each of the 50 states are made in Appendix B.

  7. Solar energy resources at South region of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinicius Fiorin, Daniel; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Ramos Martins, Fernando; Bueno Pereira, Enio; Ceconi, Marcio; Brackmann, Rodrigo; Guarnieri, Ricardo André

    The Center for Weather Forecast and Climate Studies at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research, Ministry of Science and Technology - CPTEC/INP-MCT, have installed throughout Brazilian territory several sites to acquired solar irradiation data used to assess the renewable energy potential of Brazil as part of SONDA project (www.cptec.inpe.br/sonda/). One of ground sites is located at the Southern Space Observatory-SSO/CRS/CIE/INPE-MCT, (29o S; 53o W), in São Martinho da Serra, RS, South of Brazil, where diffuse and global solar a irradiation are measured by CM 22 and CM21 Pyrhanometers), direct solar radiation are measured by Pyrheliometer NIP and opaque and thin cloudiness fractions were esteemed by a Total Sky Imager TSI-440 (YES, Inc). Our concern is with the fact that the current world energy scenery, characterized by petroleum sources exhaustion and environmental concerns, point out to the use of clean and renewable energy sources such as the solar energy. This work aims to the evaluation of the solar energy resource by using stochastic models relating the cloud cover fraction and solar radiation parameters such as diffuse-to-direct-beam ratio (DDB), diffuse-toglobal solar irradiation ratio (K), diffuse-to-TOA irradiation ratio (KD ), and global-to-TOA irradiation ratio (KT ), measured with the SONDA Project, where TOA is the total irradiation that reach the atmosphere. Only data collected for zenithal solar angle (SZA) lesser than 75 deg for the period between September/2005 to September/2007 were used. The ground data were averaged for fifteen minutes intervals in order to reduce the influence of high frequency variability of cloud cover. It was observed low correlation (around 0.55) among the diffuse to TOA irradiation ratio and cloud cover. Better correlation (about 0.94) were obtained for K parameter. The statistic deviations RMSE (23-28%) and MBE (0.3-5%) were calculated to validate and compare the models performance. The results showed more

  8. Geothermal resources and energy complex use in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svalova, V.

    2009-04-01

    Geothermal energy use is the perspective way to clean sustainable development of the world. Russia has rich high and low temperature geothermal resources and makes good steps in their use. In Russia the geothermal resources are used predominantly for heat supply both heating of several cities and settlements on Northern Caucasus and Kamchatka with a total number of the population 500000. Besides in some regions of country the deep heat is used for greenhouses of common area 465000 m2. Most active the hydrothermal resources are used in Krasnodar territory, Dagestan and on Kamchatka. The approximately half of extracted resources is applied for heat supply of habitation and industrial puttings, third - to a heating of greenhouses, and about 13 % - for industrial processes. Besides the thermal waters are used approximately on 150 health resorts and 40 factories on bottling mineral water. The most perspective direction of usage of low temperature geothermal resources is the use of heat pumps. This way is optimal for many regions of Russia - in its European part, on Ural and others. The electricity is generated by some geothermal power plants (GeoPP) only in the Kamchatka Peninsula and Kuril Islands. At present three stations work in Kamchatka: Pauzhetka GeoPP (11MW e installed capacity) and two Severo-Mutnovka GeoPP ( 12 and 50 MWe). Moreover, another GeoPP of 100 MVe is now under preparation in the same place. Two small GeoPP are in operation in Kuril's Kunashir Isl, and Iturup Isl, with installed capacity of 2,б MWe and 6 MWe respectively. There are two possible uses of geothermal resources depending on structure and properties of thermal waters: heat/power and mineral extraction. The heat/power direction is preferable for low mineralized waters when valuable components in industrial concentration are absent, and the general mineralization does not interfere with normal operation of system. When high potential geothermal waters are characterized by the high

  9. Job satisfaction in relation to energy resource consciousness and perceptions of energy utilization in selected Illinois manufacturing firms

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, T.S.

    1986-01-01

    This study was developed through a synthesis and review of literature and research related to the current status of job satisfaction, energy resources, and perceptions of how energy is utilized in the manufacturing work environment. This synthesis and review revolved around several proven contributing factors of job satisfaction, such as age, education, and challenge from work itself. Quality of work life programs and their components are discussed in relation to their impact on job satisfaction. The nature of energy resource utilization is traced back through history with an emphasis on the limitations of current resources and options for the future. The review highlights the current debate over what should be the future path of energy resource development. The concept of satisfaction of human needs is reviewed and related to job satisfaction and energy resources. The purpose of this research study was to contribute to the understanding of how perceptions of energy resources relate to job satisfaction. Results of the study indicated that there were no significant differences between an individual's energy resource consciousness and perceptions of energy utilization in the work place, energy resource consciousness and job satisfaction, and job satisfaction and perceptions of energy utilization in the workplace.

  10. Liquefied Natural Gas: A Potential for an Abundant Energy Supply or a Potential for Danger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Joseph

    This unit was designed to develop mathematical applications in relation to a community resource issue. It should both motivate mathematics learning and provide meaningful problems for reinforcing understanding of mathematics content and skills, including ratios and percentages, linear equations, exponential functions, graphing, and the reading and…

  11. Preliminary Results of Detailed Chemical Abundance Analysis of Milky Way Satellite Galaxy Reticulum II Discovered in the Dark Energy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasawa, Daniel; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Li, Ting; Dark Energy Survey Milky Way Science Group

    2016-01-01

    We present preliminary results from abundance analysis of stars in Milky Way satellite galaxies found in the Dark Energy Survey (DES). DES has discovered 16 candidate satellite galaxies of the Milky Way in its first two years of operation. Since January 2015, three candidates have subsequently been revealed to be dark matter-dominated by spectroscopic follow-up studies of their kinematics, confirming their status as satellite galaxies. Spectroscopic follow-up of the remaining 13 candidates is underway. We have analyzed high resolution VLT/GIRAFFE spectra of member stars in one of these satellite galaxies, Reticulum II. Using equivalent width measurement and spectral synthesis methods, we measure the abundances of Iron and other species in order to begin to understand the chemical content of these Milky Way satellites.

  12. Advanced Communication and Control Solutions of Distributed Energy Resources (DER)

    SciTech Connect

    Asgeirsson, Haukur; Seguin, Richard; Sherding, Cameron; de Bruet, Andre, G.; Broadwater, Robert; Dilek, Murat

    2007-01-10

    This report covers work performed in Phase II of a two phase project whose objective was to demonstrate the aggregation of multiple Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) and to offer them into the energy market. The Phase I work (DE-FC36-03CH11161) created an integrated, but distributed, system and procedures to monitor and control multiple DERs from numerous manufacturers connected to the electric distribution system. Procedures were created which protect the distribution network and personnel that may be working on the network. Using the web as the communication medium for control and monitoring of the DERs, the integration of information and security was accomplished through the use of industry standard protocols such as secure SSL,VPN and ICCP. The primary objective of Phase II was to develop the procedures for marketing the power of the Phase I aggregated DERs in the energy market, increase the number of DER units, and implement the marketing procedures (interface with ISOs) for the DER generated power. The team partnered with the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO), the local ISO, to address the energy market and demonstrate the economic dispatch of DERs in response to market signals. The selection of standards-based communication technologies offers the ability of the system to be deployed and integrated with other utilities’ resources. With the use of a data historian technology to facilitate the aggregation, the developed algorithms and procedures can be verified, audited, and modified. The team has demonstrated monitoring and control of multiple DERs as outlined in phase I report including procedures to perform these operations in a secure and safe manner. In Phase II, additional DER units were added. We also expanded on our phase I work to enhance communication security and to develop the market model of having DERs, both customer and utility owned, participate in the energy market. We are proposing a two-part DER energy market model--a utility

  13. Influence of Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) on the Use of the Most Abundant and Attractive Floral Resources in a Plant Community.

    PubMed

    Polatto, L P; Chaud-Netto, J

    2013-12-01

    Some factors influence the distribution of abundance of floral visitors, especially the amount and quality of the floral resources available, the size of the area occupied by the visitor, habitat heterogeneity, and the impact caused by natural enemies and introduced species. The objective of this research was to evaluate the distribution of abundance of the foraging activity of native floral visitors and Apis mellifera L. in the most abundant and attractive food sources in a secondary forest fragment with features of Cerrado-Atlantic Forest. Some plant species were selected and the frequency of foraging made by floral visitors was recorded. A high abundance of visits in flowers was performed by A. mellifera. Two factors may have influenced this result: (1) the occupation of the forest fragment predominantly by vines and shrubs at the expenses of vegetation with arboreal characteristics that favored the encounter of the flowering plants by A. mellifera; (2) rational beekeeping of A. mellifera, causing the number of natural swarms which originate annually from colonies of commercial apiaries and colonies previously established in the environment to be very high, thus leading to an increase in the population size of this bee species in the study site. The frequent occurrence of human-induced fire and deforestation within the forest fragment may have reduced the population size of the bee species, including A. mellifera. As the populations of A. mellifera have the capacity to quickly occupy the environment, this species possibly became dominant after successive disturbances made in the forest fragment.

  14. The difference between energy consumption and energy cost: Modelling energy tariff structures for water resource recovery facilities.

    PubMed

    Aymerich, I; Rieger, L; Sobhani, R; Rosso, D; Corominas, Ll

    2015-09-15

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of incorporating more realistic energy cost models (based on current energy tariff structures) into existing water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) process models when evaluating technologies and cost-saving control strategies. In this paper, we first introduce a systematic framework to model energy usage at WRRFs and a generalized structure to describe energy tariffs including the most common billing terms. Secondly, this paper introduces a detailed energy cost model based on a Spanish energy tariff structure coupled with a WRRF process model to evaluate several control strategies and provide insights into the selection of the contracted power structure. The results for a 1-year evaluation on a 115,000 population-equivalent WRRF showed monthly cost differences ranging from 7 to 30% when comparing the detailed energy cost model to an average energy price. The evaluation of different aeration control strategies also showed that using average energy prices and neglecting energy tariff structures may lead to biased conclusions when selecting operating strategies or comparing technologies or equipment. The proposed framework demonstrated that for cost minimization, control strategies should be paired with a specific optimal contracted power. Hence, the design of operational and control strategies must take into account the local energy tariff.

  15. Mineral and Energy Resources of the Roswell Resource Area, East-Central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartsch-Winkler, Susan B.; Donatich, Alessandro J.

    1995-01-01

    The sedimentary formations of the Roswell Resource Area have significant mineral and energy resources. Some of the pre-Pennsylvanian sequences in the Northwestern Shelf of the Permian Basin are oil and gas reservoirs, and Pennsylvanian rocks in Tucumcari Basin are reservoirs of oil and gas as well as source rocks for oil and gas in Triassic rocks. Pre-Permian rocks also contain minor deposits of uranium and vanadium, limestone, and gases. Hydrocarbon reservoirs in Permian rocks include associated gases such as carbon dioxide, helium, and nitrogen. Permian rocks are mineralized adjacent to the Lincoln County porphyry belt, and include deposits of copper, uranium, manganese, iron, polymetallic veins, and Mississippi-Valley-type lead-zinc. Industrial minerals in Permian rocks include fluorite, barite, potash, halite, polyhalite, gypsum, anhydrite, sulfur, limestone, dolomite, brine deposits (iodine and bromine), aggregate (sand), and dimension stone. Doubly terminated quartz crystals, called 'Pecos diamonds' and collected as mineral specimens, occur in Permian rocks along the Pecos River. Mesozoic sedimentary rocks are hosts for copper, uranium, and small quantities of gold-silver-tellurium veins, as well as significant deposits of oil and gas, carbon dioxide, asphalt, coal, and dimension stone. Mesozoic rocks contain limited amounts of limestone, gypsum, petrified wood, and clay. Tertiary rocks host ore deposits commonly associated with intrusive rocks, including platinum-group elements, iron skarns, manganese, uranium and vanadium, molybdenum, polymetallic vein deposits, gold-silver-tellurium veins, and thorium-rare-earth veins. Museum-quality quartz crystals are associated with Tertiary intrusive rocks. Industrial minerals in Tertiary rocks include fluorite, vein- and bedded-barite, caliche, limestone, and aggregate. Tertiary and Quaternary sediments host important placer deposits of gold and titanium, and occurrences of silver and uranium. Important industrial

  16. An atlas of the wave energy resource in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Pontes, M.T.; Athanassoulis, G.A.; Barstow, S.; Cavaleri, L.; Holmes, B.; Mollison, D.; Oliveira-Pires, H.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents an Atlas of the European offshore wave energy resource that is being developed within the scope of an European project. It will be mainly based on wave estimates produced by the numerical wind-wave model WAM that is in routine operation at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, UK. This model was chosen after a preliminary verification of two models again buoy data for a one-year period. Wave measurements will be used for the Norwegian Sea and the North Sea. The Atlas will be produced as a user-friendly software package for MS-DOS microcomputers permitting fast retrieval of information as well as saving and printing of statistics and maps. The Atlas will include annual and seasonal statistics of significant wave height, mean and peak period, mean direction and wave power levels (global values as well as directional distributions). These data will be both presented as tables, graphs and as geographic maps.

  17. Geothermal energy resource investigations at Mt. Spurr, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D.L.; Wescott, E.M.

    1986-12-01

    Spurr volcano is a composite Quaternary cone of largely andesitic composition located on the west side of Cook Inlet about 80 miles west of Anchorage and about 40 miles from the Beluga electrical transmission line. Geologic mapping (Plate 1-1) shows that the present summit depression was produced by a Mt. St. Helens-type sector collapse, rather than by a caldera collapse. Geochronologic and previous tephrachronologic studies show that there has been an active magmatic system at Spurr volcano during the late Pleistocene-to-Holocene time interval that is of critical interest for geothermal energy resource assessment. Major effort was devoted to geochemical and geophysical surveys of the accessible area south of Mt. Spurr, in addition to geologic mapping and geochronologic studies. Many coincident mercury and helium anomalies were found, suggesting the presence of geothermal systems at depth. Extremely large electrical self-potential anomalies were also found, together with extensive zones of low resistivity discovered by our controlled-source audiomagnetotelluric survey. The juxtaposition of all of these different types of anomalies at certain areas on the south slope of Crater Peak indicates the presence of a geothermal system which should be accessible by drilling to about 2000 ft depth. It is also evident that there is a strong volcanic hazard to be evaluated in considering any development on the south side of Mt. Spurr. This hazardous situation may require angle drilling of production wells from safer areas and placement of power generation facilities at a considerable distance from hazardous areas.

  18. Reexamining Sample Size Requirements for Multivariate, Abundance-Based Community Research: When Resources are Limited, the Research Does Not Have to Be

    PubMed Central

    Forcino, Frank L.; Leighton, Lindsey R.; Twerdy, Pamela; Cahill, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Community ecologists commonly perform multivariate techniques (e.g., ordination, cluster analysis) to assess patterns and gradients of taxonomic variation. A critical requirement for a meaningful statistical analysis is accurate information on the taxa found within an ecological sample. However, oversampling (too many individuals counted per sample) also comes at a cost, particularly for ecological systems in which identification and quantification is substantially more resource consuming than the field expedition itself. In such systems, an increasingly larger sample size will eventually result in diminishing returns in improving any pattern or gradient revealed by the data, but will also lead to continually increasing costs. Here, we examine 396 datasets: 44 previously published and 352 created datasets. Using meta-analytic and simulation-based approaches, the research within the present paper seeks (1) to determine minimal sample sizes required to produce robust multivariate statistical results when conducting abundance-based, community ecology research. Furthermore, we seek (2) to determine the dataset parameters (i.e., evenness, number of taxa, number of samples) that require larger sample sizes, regardless of resource availability. We found that in the 44 previously published and the 220 created datasets with randomly chosen abundances, a conservative estimate of a sample size of 58 produced the same multivariate results as all larger sample sizes. However, this minimal number varies as a function of evenness, where increased evenness resulted in increased minimal sample sizes. Sample sizes as small as 58 individuals are sufficient for a broad range of multivariate abundance-based research. In cases when resource availability is the limiting factor for conducting a project (e.g., small university, time to conduct the research project), statistically viable results can still be obtained with less of an investment. PMID:26058066

  19. Reexamining Sample Size Requirements for Multivariate, Abundance-Based Community Research: When Resources are Limited, the Research Does Not Have to Be.

    PubMed

    Forcino, Frank L; Leighton, Lindsey R; Twerdy, Pamela; Cahill, James F

    2015-01-01

    Community ecologists commonly perform multivariate techniques (e.g., ordination, cluster analysis) to assess patterns and gradients of taxonomic variation. A critical requirement for a meaningful statistical analysis is accurate information on the taxa found within an ecological sample. However, oversampling (too many individuals counted per sample) also comes at a cost, particularly for ecological systems in which identification and quantification is substantially more resource consuming than the field expedition itself. In such systems, an increasingly larger sample size will eventually result in diminishing returns in improving any pattern or gradient revealed by the data, but will also lead to continually increasing costs. Here, we examine 396 datasets: 44 previously published and 352 created datasets. Using meta-analytic and simulation-based approaches, the research within the present paper seeks (1) to determine minimal sample sizes required to produce robust multivariate statistical results when conducting abundance-based, community ecology research. Furthermore, we seek (2) to determine the dataset parameters (i.e., evenness, number of taxa, number of samples) that require larger sample sizes, regardless of resource availability. We found that in the 44 previously published and the 220 created datasets with randomly chosen abundances, a conservative estimate of a sample size of 58 produced the same multivariate results as all larger sample sizes. However, this minimal number varies as a function of evenness, where increased evenness resulted in increased minimal sample sizes. Sample sizes as small as 58 individuals are sufficient for a broad range of multivariate abundance-based research. In cases when resource availability is the limiting factor for conducting a project (e.g., small university, time to conduct the research project), statistically viable results can still be obtained with less of an investment.

  20. Tidal Energy Resource Assessment in Chacao Channel, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, M.; Suarez, L.; Cienfuegos, R.; Thomson, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Chacao Channel, located in Los Lagos region in Chile (41º S; 73º W), is a highly energetic tidal channel, with a complex hydrodynamics resulting from the propagation of tidal waves through a narrow channel. The channel flow exhibits bi-directional tidal currents up to 4 to 5 m/s along with a high tidal range up to 6 m in its east end (Aiken, 2008: Cáceres et al., 2003). The channel has previously been identified as one of the most attractive sites in Chile for tidal energy extraction (Garrad Hassan and Partners, 2009); however this statement is based on global model predictions over coarse bathymetric information. In this investigation, the first hydrodynamic characterization of the Chacao channel is carried out in order to assess the hydrokinetic power available and to select the most interesting spots where the first tidal energy extraction devices might be installed in Chile. The Chacao channel hydrodynamic characterization and resource assessment is carried out in two stages: field measurements and numerical hydrodynamic modeling. The first stage involves a 10 m resolution multi-beam bathymetry of the channel, sea-level measurements using 6 tidal gauges distributed over the channel berms, tidal current measurements with 6 ADCPs distributed along the channel, and detailed measurements of turbulence in a specific spot in the channel using the Tidal Turbulence Mooring (TTM) developed by Thomson et al. (2013). In a second stage, numerical hydrodynamic modeling using FVCOM (Chen et al., 2003) was prepared for the entire Chacao channel region, using the field data collected in the first stage for calibration and validation of the model. The obtained results allow us to define suitable sites for marine energy extraction, finding large areas with 30 to 60 m depths where horizontal currents are above 1.5 m/s during 60% of the time of a 28 days tidal cycle, however the high levels of turbulence detected by the TTM indicate the need for more detailed studies on the

  1. Tidal Energy Conversion Installation at an Estuarine Bridge Site: Resource Evaluation and Energy Production Estimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wosnik, M.; Gagnon, I.; Baldwin, K.; Bell, E.

    2015-12-01

    The "Living Bridge" project aims to create a self-diagnosing, self-reporting "smart bridge" powered by a local renewable energy source, tidal energy - transforming Memorial Bridge, a vertical lift bridge over the tidal Piscataqua River connecting Portsmouth, NH and Kittery, ME, into a living laboratory for researchers, engineers, scientists, and the community. The Living Bridge project includes the installation of a tidal turbine at the Memorial Bridge. The energy converted by the turbine will power structural health monitoring, environmental and underwater instrumentation. Utilizing locally available tidal energy can make bridge operation more sustainable, can "harden" transportation infrastructure against prolonged grid outages and can demonstrate a prototype of an "estuarine bridge of the future". A spatio-temporal tidal energy resource assessment was performed using long term bottom-deployed Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) at two locations: near the planned deployment location in 2013-14 for 123 days and mid-channel in 2007 for 35 days. Data were evaluated to determine the amount of available kinetic energy that can be converted into usable electrical energy on the bridge. Changes in available kinetic energy with ebb/flood and spring/neap tidal cycles and electrical energy demand were analyzed. The target deployment site exhibited significantly more energetic ebb tides than flood tides, which can be explained by the local bathymetry of the tidal estuary. A system model is used to calculate the net energy savings using various tidal generator and battery bank configurations. Different resource evaluation methodologies were also analyzed, e.g., using a representative ADCP "bin" vs. a more refined, turbine-geometry-specific methodology, and using static bin height vs. bin height that move w.r.t. the free surface throughout a tidal cycle (representative of a bottom-fixed or floating turbine deployment, respectively). ADCP operating frequencies and bin

  2. Control and Size Energy Storage for Managing Energy balance of Variable Generation Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Ke, Xinda; Lu, Ning; Jin, Chunlian

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents control algorithms and sizing strategies for using energy storage to manage energy balance for variable generation resources. The control objective is to minimize the hourly generation imbalance between the actual and the scheduled generation of the wind farm. Three control algorithms are compared: tracking power imbalance, post-compensation, and pre-compensation. Measurement data from a wind farm located in South-central Washington State are used in the study. The results show that tracking power imbalance yields the best performance by keeping the hourly energy imbalances zero. However, the energy storage system (ESS) will be significantly oversized. Post-compensation reduces power rating of the ESS but the hourly imbalance may not be kept as zero when large and long-lasting energy imbalances occur. A linear regression forecasting algorithm is developed for the pre-compensation algorithm to pre-charge or pre-discharge the ESS based on predicted energy imbalances. The performance comparison shows that the pre-compensation method significantly reduces the size of the ESS while maintaining satisfactory performance.

  3. Supplement to energy for rural development: Renewable resources and alternative technologies for developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The publication energy for rural development: renewable resources and alternative technologies for developing countries, which presented information on a variety of subjects, including direct uses of solar energy (heating, cooling, distillation, crop drying, photovoltaics), indirect uses of solar energy (wind power, hydropower, photosynthesis, biomass), geothermal energy, and energy storage is reviewed. New technologies developed and advances made in technologies are discussed.

  4. Effects of pollution on land snail abundance, size and diversity as resources for pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca.

    PubMed

    Eeva, Tapio; Rainio, Kalle; Suominen, Otso

    2010-09-01

    Passerine birds need extra calcium during their breeding for developing egg shells and proper growth of nestling skeleton. Land snails are an important calcium source for many passerines and human-induced changes in snail populations may pose a severe problem for breeding birds. We studied from the bird's viewpoint how air pollution affects the shell mass, abundance and diversity of land snail communities along a pollution gradient of a copper smelter. We sampled remnant snail shells from the nests of an insectivorous passerine, the pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca, to find out how the availability of land snails varies along the pollution gradient. The total snail shell mass increased towards the pollution source but declined abruptly in the vicinity of the smelter. This spatial variation in shell mass was evident also within a single snail species and could not be wholly explained by spatially varying snail numbers or species composition. Instead, the total shell mass was related to their shell size, individuals being largest at the moderately polluted areas. Smaller shell size suggests inferior growth of snails in the most heavily polluted area. Our study shows that pollution affects the diversity, abundance (available shell mass) and individual quality of land snails, posing reproductive problems for birds that rely on snails as calcium sources during breeding. There are probably both direct pollution-related (heavy metal and calcium levels) and indirect (habitat change) effects behind the observed changes in snail populations.

  5. High energy density rechargeable magnesium battery using earth-abundant and non-toxic elements

    PubMed Central

    Orikasa, Yuki; Masese, Titus; Koyama, Yukinori; Mori, Takuya; Hattori, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Okado, Tetsuya; Huang, Zhen-Dong; Minato, Taketoshi; Tassel, Cédric; Kim, Jungeun; Kobayashi, Yoji; Abe, Takeshi; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    Rechargeable magnesium batteries are poised to be viable candidates for large-scale energy storage devices in smart grid communities and electric vehicles. However, the energy density of previously proposed rechargeable magnesium batteries is low, limited mainly by the cathode materials. Here, we present new design approaches for the cathode in order to realize a high-energy-density rechargeable magnesium battery system. Ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 demonstrates a high reversible capacity exceeding 300 mAh·g−1 at a voltage of approximately 2.4 V vs. Mg. Further, the electronic and crystal structure of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 changes during the charging and discharging processes, which demonstrates the (de)insertion of magnesium in the host structure. The combination of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 with a magnesium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide–triglyme electrolyte system proposed in this work provides a low-cost and practical rechargeable magnesium battery with high energy density, free from corrosion and safety problems. PMID:25011939

  6. Summary of the mineral- and energy-resource endowment, BLM roswell resource area, east-central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartsch-Winkler, S.; Sutphin, D.M.; Ball, M.M.; Korzeb, S.L.; Kness, R.F.; Dutchover, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    In this summary of two comprehensive resource reports produced by the U.S. Bureau of Mines and the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, we discuss the mineral- and energyresource endowment of the 14-millon-acre Roswell Resource Area, New Mexico, managed by the Bureau of Land Management. The Bureau and Survey reports result from separate studies that are compilations of published and unpublished data and integrate new findings on the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, mineral, industrial, and energy commodities, and resources for the seven-county area. The reports have been used by the Bureau of Land Management in preparation of the Roswell Resource Area Resource Management Plan, and will have future use in nationwide mineral- and energy-resource inventories and assessments, as reference and training documents, and as public-information tools. In the Roswell Resource Area, many metals, industrial mineral commodities, and energy resources are being, or have been, produced or prospected. These include metals and high-technology materials, such as copper, gold, silver, thorium, uranium and/or vanadium, rare-earth element minerals, iron, manganese, tungsten, lead, zinc, and molybdenum; industrial mineral resources, including barite, limestone/dolomite, caliche, clay, fluorspar, gypsum, scoria, aggregate, and sand and gravel; and fuels and associated resources, such as oil, gas, tar sand and heavy oil, coal, and gases associated with hydrocarbons. Other commodities that have yet to be identified in economic concentrations include potash, halite, polyhalite, anhydrite, sulfur, feldspar, building stone and decorative rock, brines, various gases associated with oil and gas exploration, and carbon dioxide. ?? 1993 Oxford University Press.

  7. Characterization of U. S. energy resources and reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This report provides a comprehensive overview of the best available estimates of the total domestic energy potential within the United States. The array of energy sources include those appropriate for power generation, liquid fuels, and direct heat applications. The energy sources examined are: geothermal energy, solar energy, biomass energy, wind energy, shale oil, coal, petroleum, natural gas, peat, uranium, and hydropower. 37 refs., 7 figs., 59 tabs.

  8. Hot dry rock geothermal energy -- a renewable energy resource that is ready for development now

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.W.; Potter, R.M.; Myers, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    Hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal energy, which utilizes the natural heat contained in the earth's crust, is a very large and well-distributed resource of nonpolluting, and essentially renewable, energy that is available globally. Its use could help mitigate climatic change and reduce acid rain, two of the major environmental consequences of our ever-increasing use of fossil fuels for heating and power generation. In addition, HDR, as a readily available source of indigenous energy, can reduce our nations's dependence on imported oil, enhancing national security and reducing our trade deficit. The earth's heat represents an almost unlimited source of energy that can begin to be exploited within the next decade through the HDR heat-mining concept being actively developed in the United States, Great Britain, Japan, and several other countries. On a national scale we can begin to develop this new source, using it directly for power generation or for direct-heat applications, or indirectly in hybrid geothermal/fossil-fuel power plants. In the HDR concept, which has been demonstrated in the field in two different applications and flow- tested for periods up to one year, heat is recovered from the earth by pressurized water in a closed-loop circulation system. As a consequence, minimal effluents are released to the atmosphere, and no wastes are produced. This paper describes the nature of the HDR resource and the technology required to implement the heat-mining concept. An assessment of the requirements for establishing HDR feasibility is presented in the context of providing a commercially competitive energy source.

  9. Earth-Abundant Materials as Photosensitizers in the Molecular Assemblies for Solar Energy Conversion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-31

    solar cells : Can iron complexes serve as photosensitizers in DSSCs?" The Southeastern Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society in Raleigh...Tsuchiya, E. Jakubikova, "Hydroxamate Linker Results in Fastest Interfacial Electron Transfer Rates in Fe(bpy)2(CN)2 - Sensitized Solar Cell ," The...ways to utilize solar energy is conversion of sunlight to electricity via dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) or to chemical fuels via photocatalytic

  10. Resources

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be found on the web, through local libraries, your health care provider, and the yellow pages under "social service organizations." AIDS - resources Alcoholism - resources Allergy - resources ...

  11. Outlook for U. S. forest resources for energy and wood products

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    There will be increased demands placed on our forest resources in the future to generate energy an wood products. Recent legislation, such as the Resources Planning Act, will help to organize efforts to meet thes demands. Forest Service programs encourage intensive forest land management to produce more timber from our natural lands and greater utilization of our timber resources through more efficient production systems.

  12. Role of nuclear energy to a future society of shortage of energy resources and global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Shinzo

    2010-03-01

    Human society entered into the society of large energy consumption since the industrial revolution and consumes more than 10 billion tons of oil equivalent energy a year in the world in the present time, in which over 80% is provided by fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas. Total energy consumption is foreseen to increase year by year from now on due to significant economical and population growth in the developing countries such as China and India. However, fossil fuel resources are limited with conventional crude oil estimated to last about 40 years, and it is said that the peak oil production time has come now. On the other hand, global warming due to green house gases (GHG) emissions, especially carbon dioxide, has become a serious issue. Nuclear energy plays an important role as means to resolve energy security and global warming issues. Four hundred twenty-nine nuclear power plants are operating world widely producing 16% of the total electric power with total plant capacity of 386 GWe without emission of CO 2 as of 2006. It is estimated that another 250 GWe nuclear power is needed to keep the same level contribution of electricity generation in 2030. On the other hand, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) developed the very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) named high temperature gas-cooled engineering test reactor (HTTR) and carbon free hydrogen production process (IS process). Nuclear energy utilization will surely widen in, not only electricity generation, but also various industries such as steel making, chemical industries, together with hydrogen production for transportation by introduction of HTGRs. The details of development of the HTTR and IS process are also described.

  13. 25 CFR 224.73 - How will the scope of energy resource development affect the Secretary's determination of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... energy resource development under the TERA will include a determination as to each type of energy... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How will the scope of energy resource development affect... AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS TRIBAL ENERGY RESOURCE AGREEMENTS UNDER THE...

  14. Wind Energy Resource Assessment on Alaska Native Lands in Cordova Region of Prince William Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Whissel, John C.; Piche, Matthew

    2015-06-29

    The Native Village of Eyak (NVE) has been monitoring wind resources around Cordova, Alaska in order to determine whether there is a role for wind energy to play in the city’s energy scheme, which is now supplies entirely by two run-of-the-river hydro plants and diesel generators. These data are reported in Appendices A and B. Because the hydro resources decline during winter months, and wind resources increase, wind is perhaps an ideal counterpart to round out Cordova’s renewable energy supply. The results of this effort suggests that this is the case, and that developing wind resources makes sense for our small, isolated community.

  15. Interactive energy atlas for Colorado and New Mexico: an online resource for decisionmakers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, Natasha B.; Ignizio, Drew A.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Latysh, Natalie; Matherne, Ann Marie; Linard, Joshua I.; Leib, Kenneth J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the western United States, increased demand for energy is driving the rapid development of nonrenewable and renewable energy resources. Resource managers must balance the benefits of energy development with the potential consequences for ecological resources and ecosystem services. To facilitate access to geospatial data related to energy resources, energy infrastructure, and natural resources that may be affected by energy development, the U.S. Geological Survey has developed an online Interactive Energy Atlas (Energy Atlas) for Colorado and New Mexico. The Energy Atlas is designed to meet the needs of varied users who seek information about energy in the western United States. The Energy Atlas has two primary capabilities: a geographic information system (GIS) data viewer and an interactive map gallery. The GIS data viewer allows users to preview and download GIS data related to energy potential and development in Colorado and New Mexico. The interactive map gallery contains a collection of maps that compile and summarize thematically related data layers in a user-friendly format. The maps are dynamic, allowing users to explore data at different resolutions and obtain information about the features being displayed. The Energy Atlas also includes an interactive decision-support tool, which allows users to explore the potential consequences of energy development for species that vary in their sensitivity to disturbance.

  16. Awareness and Misconceptions of High School Students about Renewable Energy Resources and Applications: Turkey Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tortop, Hasan Said

    2012-01-01

    Turkey is the one of the countries in the world which has potential of renewable energy resource because of its geographical position. However, being usage of renewable energy resources and applications (RERAs) is low, it shows that awareness and consciousness of RERAs is very low too. Education must play a key role in growing out of an energy…

  17. 78 FR 28002 - In the Matter of South Mississippi Electric Power Association, System Energy Resources, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of South Mississippi Electric Power Association, System Energy Resources, Inc., Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Units No. 1; Order Approving Direct and Indirect Transfers of License and Approving Conforming Amendment I South Mississippi Electric Power Association, System Energy Resources,...

  18. Integrating renewable energy resources with energy storage for grid-connected systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Joseph

    Renewable energy resources have been growing at a rapidly accelerating rate as an alternative for fossil fuels in the modern electric grid. As their penetration increases, variability in these resources, particularly wind and solar, poses a risk of instability on the grid. Energy storage can be used to mitigate this risk as well as provide other benefits to the larger grid. In this dissertation, a novel high frequency common bus multiport converter is proposed as a new integration scheme to improve efficiency of the power electronics interface by reducing the number of conversion steps and to reduce the system size by replacing the line frequency transformer with a high frequency transformer tied to the common bus. Two main innovations are introduced: a new switching scheme for the H-bridges on the common bus which allows them to operate in parallel without interfering in each others operation, and a novel single-phase to three-phase matrix converter which converts the high frequency bus to the line frequency in a single conversion stage. This proposed converter is simulated to develop the inner loop control methodology, then a low power prototype is constructed and tested to verify its operation. The results of these tests demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed ideas as well as suggesting new avenues of research to further improve the proposed system.

  19. Energy Flow: Flow Charts Illustrating United States Energy Resources and Usage, from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    DOE Data Explorer

    Decision makers have long recognized the importance of visualizing energy and material flows in a way that distinguishes between resources, transformations and services. Research priorities can be defined in terms of changes to the flows, and the consequences of policy or technology shifts can be traced both upstream and downstream. The usefulness of this top-down view is limited by the level of detail that can be conveyed in a single image. We use two techniques to balance information content with readability. First we employe visualization techniques, such as those embodied in the energy Sankey diagram below (Figure 1), to display both qualitative (relative line weight) and quantitative (listed values) information in a reader-friendly package. The second method is to augment static images with dynamic, scalable digital content containing multiple layers (e.g. energy, carbon and economic data). This transitions the audience from that of a passive reader to an active user of the information. When used in conjunction these approaches enable relatively large, interconnected processes to be described and analyzed efficiently. [copied from the description at http://en.openei.org/wiki/LLNL_Energy_Flow_Charts#cite_note-1

  20. Interactive energy atlas for Colorado and New Mexico: an online resource for decisionmakers and the public

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, N.B.; Babel, N.; Diffendorfer, J.; Ignizio, D.; Hawkins, S.; Latysh, N.; Leib, K.; Linard, J.; Matherne, A.

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the western United States, increased demand for energy is driving the rapid development of oil, gas (including shale gas and coal-bed methane), and uranium, as well as renewable energy resources such as geothermal, solar, and wind. Much of the development in the West is occurring on public lands, including those under Federal and State jurisdictions. In Colorado and New Mexico, these public lands make up about 40 percent of the land area. Both states benefit from the revenue generated by energy production, but resource managers and other decisionmakers must balance the benefits of energy development with the potential consequences for ecosystems, recreation, and other resources. Although a substantial amount of geospatial data on existing energy development and energy potential is available, much of this information is not readily accessible to natural resource decisionmakers, policymakers, or the public. Furthermore, the data often exist in varied formats, requiring considerable processing before these datasets can be used to evaluate tradeoffs among resources, compare development alternatives, or quantify cumulative impacts. To allow for a comprehensive evaluation among different energy types, an interdisciplinary team of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists has developed an online Interactive Energy Atlas for Colorado and New Mexico. The Energy and Environment in the Rocky Mountain Area (EERMA) interdisciplinary team includes investigators from several USGS science centers1. The purpose of the EERMA Interactive Energy Atlas is to facilitate access to geospatial data related to energy resources, energy infrastructure, and natural resources that may be affected by energy development. The Atlas is designed to meet the needs of various users, including GIS analysts, resource managers, policymakers, and the public, who seek information about energy in the western United States. Currently, the Atlas has two primary capabilities, a GIS data viewer and an

  1. Market Design Simulations with Variable Energy Resources (VERs) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.

    2011-06-01

    Presented at the FERC Technical Conference, 29 June 2011, Washington, D.C. This presentation describes NREL research regarding variable generation resources, operating reserves, unit commitment, economic dispatch, and introduces a new and novel modeling tool called 'FESTIV.'

  2. Energy Efficiency as a Preferred Resource: Evidence from Utility Resource Plans in the Western United States and Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, Nichole; Barbose, Galen; Goldman, Charles; Schlegel, Jeff

    2008-09-15

    This article examines the future role of energy efficiency as a resource in the Western United States and Canada, as envisioned in the most recent resource plans issued by 16 utilities, representing about 60percent of the region's load. Utility and third-party administered energy efficiency programs proposed by 15 utilities over a ten-year horizon would save almost 19,000 GWh annually, about 5.2percent of forecast load. There are clear regional trends in the aggressiveness of proposed energy savings. California's investor-owned utilities (IOUs) had the most aggressive savings targets, followed by IOUs in the Pacific Northwest, and the lowest savings were proposed by utilities in Inland West states and by two public utilities on the West coast. The adoption of multiple, aggressive policies targeting energy efficiency and climate change appear to produce sizeable energy efficiency commitments. Certain specific policies, such as mandated energy savings goals for California's IOUs and energy efficiency provisions in Nevada's Renewable Portfolio Standard had a direct impact on the level of energy savings included in the resource plans. Other policies, such as revenue decoupling and shareholder incentives, and voluntary or legislatively mandated greenhouse gas emission reduction policies, may have also impacted utilities' energy efficiency commitments, though the effects of these policies are not easily measured. Despite progress among the utilities in our sample, more aggressive energy efficiency strategies that include high-efficiency standards for additional appliances and equipment, tighter building codes for new construction and renovation, as well as more comprehensive ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs are likely to be necessary to achieve a region-wide goal of meeting 20percent of electricity demand with efficiency in 2020.

  3. Annual Report: Unconventional Fossil Energy Resource Program (30 September 2013)

    SciTech Connect

    Soong, Yee; Guthrie, George

    2014-03-11

    Yee Soong, Technical Coordinator, George Guthrie, Focus Area Lead, UFER Annual Report, NETL-TRS-UFER-2013, NETL Technical Report Series, U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA, 2013, p 14.

  4. Ephedra and Energy Drinks on College Campuses. Infofacts/Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapner, Daniel Ari

    2008-01-01

    The February 2003 death of Baltimore Orioles pitcher Steve Bechler, who according to the coroner's report died after taking ephedrine alkaloids (ephedra), has garnered national attention for the topic of nutritional supplements and energy drinks. Energy drinks and energy-enhancing pills, diet aids, muscle-enlargers, and other supplements fall…

  5. Energy education resources, kindergarten through 12th grade

    SciTech Connect

    Altman, P.

    1991-12-13

    This publication is the result of a study undertaken by the National Energy Information Center (NEIC), a service of the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to provide its customers with a list of generally available free or low-cost energy-related educational materials for primary and secondary students and educators. The list is updated once a year.

  6. Energy education resources: Kindergarten through 12th grade

    SciTech Connect

    Altman, P.

    1992-12-01

    This publication is the result of a study undertaken by the National Energy Information Center (NEIC), a service of the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to provide its customers with a list of generally available free or low-cost energy-related education materials for primary and secondary students and educators. The list is updated once a year.

  7. Energy education resources. Kindergarten through 12th grade

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-17

    This publication is the result of a study undertaken by the National Energy Information Center (NEIC), a service of the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to provide its customers with a list of generally available free or low-cost energy-related educational materials for students and educators. The list is updated once a year.

  8. Presence and abundance of non-native plant species associated with recent energy development in the Williston Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Preston, Todd M.

    2015-01-01

    The Williston Basin, located in the Northern Great Plains, is experiencing rapid energy development with North Dakota and Montana being the epicenter of current and projected development in the USA. The average single-bore well pad is 5 acres with an estimated 58,485 wells in North Dakota alone. This landscape-level disturbance may provide a pathway for the establishment of non-native plants. To evaluate potential influences of energy development on the presence and abundance of non-native species, vegetation surveys were conducted at 30 oil well sites (14 ten-year-old and 16 five-year-old wells) and 14 control sites in native prairie environments across the Williston Basin. Non-native species richness and cover were recorded in four quadrats, located at equal distances, along four transects for a total of 16 quadrats per site. Non-natives were recorded at all 44 sites and ranged from 5 to 13 species, 7 to 15 species, and 2 to 8 species at the 10-year, 5-year, and control sites, respectively. Respective non-native cover ranged from 1 to 69, 16 to 76, and 2 to 82 %. Total, forb, and graminoid non-native species richness and non-native forb cover were significantly greater at oil well sites compared to control sites. At oil well sites, non-native species richness and forb cover were significantly greater adjacent to the well pads and decreased with distance to values similar to control sites. Finally, non-native species whose presence and/or abundance were significantly greater at oil well sites relative to control sites were identified to aid management efforts.

  9. Detection and Characterization of Low Abundance Glycopeptides Via Higher-Energy C-Trap Dissociation and Orbitrap Mass Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart-Smith, Gene; Raftery, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Broad-scale mass spectrometric analyses of glycopeptides are constrained by the considerable complexity inherent to glycoproteomics, and techniques are still being actively developed to address the associated analytical difficulties. Here we apply Orbitrap mass analysis and higher-energy C-trap dissociation (HCD) to facilitate detailed insights into the compositions and heterogeneity of complex mixtures of low abundance glycopeptides. By generating diagnostic oxonium product ions at mass measurement errors of <5 ppm, highly selective glycopeptide precursor ion detections are made at sub-fmol limits of detection: analyses of proteolytic digests of a hen egg glycoprotein mixture detect 88 previously uncharacterized glycopeptides from 666 precursor ions selected for MS/MS, with only one false positive due to co-fragmentation of a non-glycosylated peptide with a glycopeptide. We also demonstrate that by (1) identifying multiple series of glycoforms using high mass accuracy single stage MS spectra, and (2) performing product ion scans at optimized HCD collision energies, the identification of peptide + N-acetylhexosamine (HexNAc) ions (Y1 ions) can be readily achieved at <5 ppm mass measurement errors. These data allow base peptide sequences and glycan compositional information to be attained with high confidence, even for glycopeptides that produce weak precursor ion signals and/or low quality MS/MS spectra. The glycopeptides characterized from low fmol abundances using these methods allow two previously unreported glycosylation sites on the Gallus gallus protein ovoglycoprotein (amino acids 82 and 90) to be confirmed; considerable glycan heterogeneities at amino acid 90 of ovoglycoprotein, and amino acids 34 and 77 of Gallus gallus ovomucoid are also revealed.

  10. Presence and abundance of non-native plant species associated with recent energy development in the Williston Basin.

    PubMed

    Preston, Todd M

    2015-04-01

    The Williston Basin, located in the Northern Great Plains, is experiencing rapid energy development with North Dakota and Montana being the epicenter of current and projected development in the USA. The average single-bore well pad is 5 acres with an estimated 58,485 wells in North Dakota alone. This landscape-level disturbance may provide a pathway for the establishment of non-native plants. To evaluate potential influences of energy development on the presence and abundance of non-native species, vegetation surveys were conducted at 30 oil well sites (14 ten-year-old and 16 five-year-old wells) and 14 control sites in native prairie environments across the Williston Basin. Non-native species richness and cover were recorded in four quadrats, located at equal distances, along four transects for a total of 16 quadrats per site. Non-natives were recorded at all 44 sites and ranged from 5 to 13 species, 7 to 15 species, and 2 to 8 species at the 10-year, 5-year, and control sites, respectively. Respective non-native cover ranged from 1 to 69, 16 to 76, and 2 to 82%. Total, forb, and graminoid non-native species richness and non-native forb cover were significantly greater at oil well sites compared to control sites. At oil well sites, non-native species richness and forb cover were significantly greater adjacent to the well pads and decreased with distance to values similar to control sites. Finally, non-native species whose presence and/or abundance were significantly greater at oil well sites relative to control sites were identified to aid management efforts.

  11. DR Resources for Energy and Ancillary Services in the West (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hummon, M.; Kiliccote, S.

    2014-04-01

    Demand response (DR) resources present a potentially important source of grid flexibility however, DR in grid models is limited by data availability and modeling complexity. This presentation focuses on the co-optimization of DR resources to provide energy and ancillary services in a production cost model of the Colorado "test system". We assume each DR resource can provide energy services by either shedding load or shifting its use between different times, as well as operating reserves: frequency regulation, contingency reserve, and flexibility (or ramping) reserve. There are significant variations in the availabilities of different types of DR resources, which affect both the operational savings as well as the revenue for each DR resource. The results presented include the system-wide avoided fuel and generator start-up costs as well as the composite revenue for each DR resource by energy and operating reserves.

  12. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 2. The North Central Region

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, D.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    The North Central atlas assimilates six collections of wind resource data: one for the region and one for each of the five states that compose the North Central region (Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota). At the state level, features of the climate, topography and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than is provided in the regional discussion, and that data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and international wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed direction and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  13. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 3. Great Lakes Region

    SciTech Connect

    Paton, D.L.; Bass, A.; Smith, D.G.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    The Great Lakes Region atlas assimilates six collections of wind resource data, one for the region and one for each of the five states that compose the Great Lakes region: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin. At the state level, features of the climate, topography, and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than in the regional discussion and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations over several time scales in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and of hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  14. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 7. The south central region

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.L.; Graves, L.F.; Sprankle, A.C.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-03-01

    This atlas of the south central region combines seven collections of wind resource data: one for the region, and one for each of the six states (Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas). At the state level, features of the climate, topography, and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than that provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  15. Wind energy resource atlas: Volume 6. The Southeast region

    SciTech Connect

    Zabransky, J.; Vilardo, J.M.; Schakenbach, J.T.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Southeast atlas assimilates six collections of wind resource data: one for the region and one for each of the five states that compose the Southeast region (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, and South Carolina). At the state level, features of the climate, topography and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than is provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  16. USDOE/Russian Ministry of Fuel and Energy joint collaboration for renewable energy resources

    SciTech Connect

    Touryan, K.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a joint collaboration between the US and Russia to develop renewable energy resources. There are five main goals of the project. First is to establish Intersolarcenter as a sister organization to NREL for joint R&D activities, and to provide training to the staff. Second is to install demonstration systems in parks and selected locations around Moscow. Third is to install pilot projects: a wind/diesel hybrid system at 21 sites in the northern territories; a 500 kW biomass power plant in the Arkhangelsk Region. Fourth is to assist in the start-up operations of a 2 MW/yr Triple Junction amorphous-Si manufacturing facility in Moscow using US technology. Fifth is to explore the possibilities of financing large-scale wind/hybrid and biomass power systems for the nouthern territories (possibly 900 sites).

  17. Influence of environmental factors on abundance and temporal variation of benthic fauna resources in the eutrophic Tha Chin estuary, Samut Sakhon province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ritnim, Nittaya; Meksumpun, Charumas

    2011-01-01

    The influence of environmental factors on the abundance and temporal variation of benthic fauna resources was studied in the eutrophic Tha Chin estuary located in Samut Sakhon province. The objectives were to analyze the status of abundance and temporal variation of the benthic fauna and to clarify the impacts from environmental factors (water and sediment quality). Field surveys were conducted monthly from August 2007 to March 2008 at 11 sampling stations in the estuary. Based on freshwater runoff volumes, the high-, medium-, and low-loading periods were categorized to be from August to October 2007, November to December 2007, and January to March 2008, respectively. The benthic fauna resources were composed of 57 species in eight phyla. Annelids were the dominant species (with the maximum density being 19,885 individuals/m2), followed by the mollusks. Both densities decreased during the low-loading period in 2008. Water quality deteriorated during the high-loading period. Land-based wastewater discharges decreased the levels of salinity and dissolved oxygen but dramatically increased various nutrients. Consequently, the sediment quality deteriorated during the medium-loading period. Bottom deposits during this time depicted high accumulation of acid volatile sulfides (more than 0.76 mg/g dry weight). Analyzing the environmental relationships, deposit feeders (for example, Nereis sp. and Prionospio sp.) and a clam (Arcuatula sp.) showed potential as bio-indicators for environmental monitoring. The overall results revealed the importance of changes in the water and sediment qualities that had an influence on related benthic resources. The increase in the level of NH4(+)-N had a negative impact on the economic clam species, while the sedimentary TOM showed positive correlation (P < 0.05) with this increase. The succession of groups based on feeding behavior seemed to correspond with stress in eutrophication along the salinity gradient and in different estuarine

  18. The xerolithic geothermal (``hot dry rock``) energy resource of the United States: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Nunz, G.J.

    1993-07-01

    This report presents revised estimates, based upon the most current geothermal gradient data, of the xerolithic geothermal (``hot dry rock`` or HDR) energy resources of the United States. State-by-state tabular listings are provided of the HDR energy resource base, the accessible resource base, and the potentially useful resource base. The latter further subdivided into components with potential for electricity generation, process heat, and space heat. Comparisons are made with present estimates of fossil fuel reserves. A full-sized geothermal gradient contour map is provided as a supplement in a pocket inside the back cover of the report.

  19. Recent wind resource characterization activities at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D L; Schwartz, M N

    1997-07-01

    The wind resource characterization team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working to improve the characterization of the wind resource in many key regions of the world. Tasks undertaken in the past year include: updates to the comprehensive meteorological and geographic data bases used in resource assessments in the US and abroad; development and validation of an automated wind resource mapping procedure; support in producing wind forecasting tools useful to utilities involved in wind energy generation; continued support for recently established wind measurement and assessment programs in the US.

  20. Renewable energy resources in a restructured electric industry

    SciTech Connect

    Galen, P.S.

    1996-12-31

    This paper highlights a conference presentation addressing changes in the residential energy sector in view of the increasing competitiveness of the energy market. Renewable energy characteristics are briefly outlined, and capacity and generation data for non-hydroelectric power in 1994 are listed. A review of critical factors in renewables development and policy responses to market impediments is made. Current market barriers are identified, and proposals for Federal policies are made. 17 tabs., 2 figs.

  1. Optimizing Resource and Energy Recovery for Municipal Solid Waste Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant reductions of carbon emissions and air quality impacts can be achieved by optimizing municipal solid waste (MSW) as a resource. Materials and discards management were found to contribute ~40% of overall U.S. GHG emissions as a result of materials extraction, transpo...

  2. Energy Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weedman, Suzanne

    2001-01-01

    Our Nation faces the simultaneous challenges of increasing demand for energy, declining domestic production from existing oil and gas fields, and increasing expectations for environmental protection. The Energy Information Administration (2000) forecasts that worldwide energy consumption will increase 32 percent between 1999 and 2020 because of growth of the world economy. Forecasts indicate that in the same time period, U.S. natural gas consumption will increase 62 percent, petroleum consumption will increase 33 percent, and coal consumption will increase 22 percent. The U.S. Geological Survey provides the objective scientific information our society needs for sound decisions regarding land management, environmental quality, and economic, energy, and strategic policy.

  3. Comparative Cost-Benefit Analysis of Renewable Energy Resource Trade Offs for Military Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    sunlight, wind, geothermal heat and tides. Energy efficiency can be defined as obtaining more with limited resources. In a system , it is the ratio...Solar hot water systems . • Energy-efficient appliances, heat pumps, lights. • Proper building placement to take advantage of sunlight and ventilation...energy generation. 4. Geothermal Energy and How It Works Geothermal energy is harnessed from heat within the Earth. The Earth’s heat is generated

  4. Energy, Natural Resources, and the Environment in the Eighties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Commission for a National Agenda for the Eighties, Washington, DC.

    Presented are the findings of a national panel which investigated the present situation and future policy options regarding energy and the environment. Three sections comprise the report: (1) a chapter dealing with energy supply, consumption, pricing and policy; (2) an analysis of environmental issues such as land use, toxic substances,…

  5. Energy education resources: Kindergarten through 12th grade

    SciTech Connect

    1994-02-24

    This publication provides EIA customers with a list of generally available free or low-cost energy-related educational materials for primary and secondary students and educators. The list is updated once a year. The list is only to aid educators and students in locating materials; it is the responsibility of the educators to help their students draw conclusions about energy issues.

  6. National Energy Education Development (NEED) [Resources Local Participation Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Energy Education Development Project, Reston, VA.

    National Energy Education Development (NEED) is concerned with the dissemination of energy education information, the way children learn best, and the type of citizens students will become. Cooperative learning, where students take responsibility for their own learning and that of others in their group, class, school, and their community, is…

  7. Towards Designing an Integrated Earth Observation System for the Provision of Solar Energy Resource and Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackouse, Paul W., Jr.; Renne, D.; Beyer, H.-G.; Wald, L.; Meyers, R.; Perez, R.; Suri, M.

    2006-01-01

    The GEOSS strategic plan specifically targets the area of improved energy resource management due to the importance of these to the economic and social viability of every nation of the world. With the world s increasing demand for energy resources, the need for new alternative energy resources grows. This paper overviews a new initiative within the International Energy Agency that addresses needs to better manage and develop solar energy resources worldwide. The goal is to provide the solar energy industry, the electricity sector, governments, and renewable energy organizations and institutions with the most suitable and accurate information of the solar radiation resources at the Earth's surface in easily-accessible formats and understandable quality metrics. The scope of solar resource assessment information includes historic data sets and currently derived data products using satellite imagery and other means. Thus, this new task will address the needs of the solar energy sector while at the same time will serve as a model that satisfies GEOSS objectives and goals.

  8. Closing the cycle on food and energy resource flows in order to create a more sustainable rural economy in Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casillas, C. E.

    2009-12-01

    The ecologically sustainable development of economies is often discussed at the urban scale and framed in terms of the environmental threats that accompany rapid growth. The dynamics of rural economies are less complex and provide valuable insights into how resource flows may be better utilized, as well what are the critical roles and relationships of government and society. This paper will present a case study of economic and ecologically appropriate innovations that can be made to the production and consumption behavior within a community on the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua. Orinoco is a small Garifuna community situated on the Pearl Lagoon basin. It has a population of over 1000 people and its economy is primarily based on the exploitation of declining shrimp and fish resources. This paper will quantify the monetary and material resource flows comprising the current economy, and present technically viable alternatives that would utilize the abundant natural resources in a more ecologically sustainable manner, while decreasing the dependence on imported food and fuels. Specifically, the paper will describe how recently implemented projects of energy conservation can be coupled with improved agricultural and fishing practices in order to meet local and external market demands for fish and vegetable oil. Secondary products can be utilized to eliminate the dependence on imported liquid and gas fossil fuels for cooking and electricity generation.

  9. Cost of wind energy: comparing distant wind resources to local resources in the midwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Hoppock, David C; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia

    2010-11-15

    The best wind sites in the United States are often located far from electricity demand centers and lack transmission access. Local sites that have lower quality wind resources but do not require as much power transmission capacity are an alternative to distant wind resources. In this paper, we explore the trade-offs between developing new wind generation at local sites and installing wind farms at remote sites. We first examine the general relationship between the high capital costs required for local wind development and the relatively lower capital costs required to install a wind farm capable of generating the same electrical output at a remote site,with the results representing the maximum amount an investor should be willing to pay for transmission access. We suggest that this analysis can be used as a first step in comparing potential wind resources to meet a state renewable portfolio standard (RPS). To illustrate, we compare the cost of local wind (∼50 km from the load) to the cost of distant wind requiring new transmission (∼550-750 km from the load) to meet the Illinois RPS. We find that local, lower capacity factor wind sites are the lowest cost option for meeting the Illinois RPS if new long distance transmission is required to access distant, higher capacity factor wind resources. If higher capacity wind sites can be connected to the existing grid at minimal cost, in many cases they will have lower costs.

  10. Assessment of regional wind energy resources over the Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobchenko, Anastasiia; Khomenko, Inna

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the study has been to provide a preliminary assessment of different regions of the Ukraine. Investigation is based on thirty-minute wind observations collected through an 8-year period (January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2008) for seven airports of the Ukraine. For renewal of vertical profile of the wind direction and speed radiosounding data were used. By applying of the probabilistic analysis techniques to series of wind data and the wind extreme values, yearly, monthly and diurnal variation of wind speed and direction are derived. Based on these results theoretical distribution functions and exceeding probability are found for each airport. The statistic characteristics obtained were compared with the correspondent values provided for 1936-1960 and 1961-1990 periods and site-related temporal changeability is determined. For each period considered assessment of wind resources at 10 meters height is carried out. Since the geostrophic wind are frequently used to calculate the surface wind at heights between 10 and 200 m, in the research the distribution of the geostrophic wind for each airport were determined. Comparative analysis of distribution and statistic characteristics of geostrophic and surface winds are made. The relation between a set of values of the geostrophic wind and a set of values of the surface wind speed was provided for each airport. Using different relationship for variation of wind speed with height wind resources at heights between 10 and 200 were assessed. The results obtained show that with the lapse of the time wind speed and wind resources is decreased half the size. It is reflected general tendencies in the wind speed changeability over the European territory. Places which are most perspective for wind turbine installation are off-shore sites such as Odessa, and sites situated in the Crimea mountain (Simferopol) and the Donetsk ridge (Donetsk). The results derived in the contribution may be used for modeling and mapping wind

  11. Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Resources for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, M.; Heimiller, D.; Haymes, S.; Musial, W.

    2010-06-01

    This report summarizes the offshore wind resource potential for the contiguous United States and Hawaii as of May 2009. The development of this assessment has evolved over multiple stages as new regional meso-scale assessments became available, new validation data was obtained, and better modeling capabilities were implemented. It is expected that further updates to the current assessment will be made in future reports.

  12. Energy resources in southern Africa: a select bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Cavan, A.

    1981-01-01

    The aims, progress, and possibilities involved in Southern Africa's energy development are the subject of this 473-item bibliography. The primary items of information described in this document are relatively recent (1975-81), originate from both indigenous and international sources, and are mostly in English, although a few are in French and Portuguese. The presented information focuses on the African continent, the Southern African region, and the nations of Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, South Africa, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The energy source topics include alcohol, coal, gas, oil, solar, uranium, water, wind, and wood; as well as a general energy-development category.

  13. Federal Energy Resources Modernization Coordinating Committee. Semiannual Report, October 1, 1991 Through March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, G B

    1992-07-01

    This report summarizes the broad range of activities supported by Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) and other federal agencies focused on meeting the President`s Executive Order on Federal Energy Management promulgated to meet energy savings goals and encourage more efficient management of all federal energy resources. These activities are reported semiannually under the auspices of the FERM Coordinating Committee, and as such include activities undertaken from October 1, 1991, through March 31, 1992. The activities reported are classified into four major categories: (1) technology-base support, which includes development of processes, software, metering and monitoring equipment and strategies, and other tools for the federal energy manager to better understand and characterize their energy resources; (2) federal energy systems testing and monitoring; (3) federal energy systems modernization projects at federal installations in cooperation with the utilities serving the sites; and (4) energy supply, distribution and end-use conservation assessment for federal agencies and/or facilities.

  14. A Resource Assessment Of Geothermal Energy Resources For Converting Deep Gas Wells In Carbonate Strata Into Geothermal Extraction Wells: A Permian Basin Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.

    2006-10-12

    Previously conducted preliminary investigations within the deep Delaware and Val Verde sub-basins of the Permian Basin complex documented bottom hole temperatures from oil and gas wells that reach the 120-180C temperature range, and occasionally beyond. With large abundances of subsurface brine water, and known porosity and permeability, the deep carbonate strata of the region possess a good potential for future geothermal power development. This work was designed as a 3-year project to investigate a new, undeveloped geographic region for establishing geothermal energy production focused on electric power generation. Identifying optimum geologic and geographic sites for converting depleted deep gas wells and fields within a carbonate environment into geothermal energy extraction wells was part of the project goals. The importance of this work was to affect the three factors limiting the expansion of geothermal development: distribution, field size and accompanying resource availability, and cost. Historically, power production from geothermal energy has been relegated to shallow heat plumes near active volcanic or geyser activity, or in areas where volcanic rocks still retain heat from their formation. Thus geothermal development is spatially variable and site specific. Additionally, existing geothermal fields are only a few 10’s of square km in size, controlled by the extent of the heat plume and the availability of water for heat movement. This plume radiates heat both vertically as well as laterally into the enclosing country rock. Heat withdrawal at too rapid a rate eventually results in a decrease in electrical power generation as the thermal energy is “mined”. The depletion rate of subsurface heat directly controls the lifetime of geothermal energy production. Finally, the cost of developing deep (greater than 4 km) reservoirs of geothermal energy is perceived as being too costly to justify corporate investment. Thus further development opportunities

  15. Optimizing resource and energy recovery for materials and waste management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Decisions affecting materials management today are generally based on cost and a presumption of favorable outcomes without an understanding of the environmental tradeoffs. However, there is a growing demand to better understand and quantify the net environmental and energy trade-...

  16. Clean Energy: No Longer a Luxury! Resources in Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This learning activity provides an overview of the problem of clean energy sources and examination of alternatives. Student activity, quiz with answers, related activities, and nine references are provided. (SK)

  17. Climate and Energy Resources for State, Local and Tribal Governments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's State and Local Climate and Energy Program helps state, local and tribal governments develop and implement policies and programs that reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve air quality and public health.

  18. A National Research Council Evaluation of the Department of Energy's Marine and Hydrokinetic Resource Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glickson, D.; Holmes, K. J.; Cooke, D.

    2012-12-01

    Marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) resources are increasingly becoming part of energy regulatory, planning, and marketing activities in the U.S. and elsewhere. In particular, state-based renewable portfolio standards and federal production and investment tax credits have led to an increased interest in the possible deployment of MHK technologies. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Public Law 109-58) directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to estimate the size of the MHK resource base. In order to help DOE prioritize its overall portfolio of future research, increase the understanding of the potential for MHK resource development, and direct MHK device and/or project developers to locations of greatest promise, the DOE Wind and Water Power Program requested that the National Research Council (NRC) provide an evaluation of the detailed assessments being conducted by five individual resource assessment groups. These resource assessment groups were contracted to estimate the amount of extractable energy from wave, tidal, ocean current, ocean thermal energy conversion, and riverine resources. Performing these assessments requires that each resource assessment group estimate the average power density of the resource base, as well as the basic technology characteristics and spatial and temporal constituents that convert power into electricity for that resource. The NRC committee evaluated the methodologies, technologies, and assumptions associated with each of these resource assessments. The committee developed a conceptual framework for delineating the processes used to develop the assessment results requested by the DOE, with definitions of the theoretical, technical, and practical resource to clarify elements of the overall resource assessment process. This allowed the NRC committee to make a comparison of different methods, terminology, and processes among the five resource assessment groups. The committee concluded that the overall approach taken by the wave resource and

  19. Energy Demand and Resources of Japan. Volume I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-08-01

    of such cechnology trans- fers include: • Coal Utilization — Coal Gasification • Direct Process Use of Nuclear Energy — High Temperature Gas...not be large. Coal gasification , on the other hand, could contributp significantly towards offsetting an increasing Japanese dependence on...imported petroleum. Achievement of economical coal gasification in either the U.S. or Japan would provide both with a practical alternative energy source

  20. Process applications for geothermal energy resources. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mikic, B.B.; Meal, H.C.; Packer, M.B.; Guillamon-Duch, H.

    1981-08-01

    The principal goal of the program was to demonstrate economical and technical suitability of geothermal energy as a source of industrial process heat through a cooperative program with industrial firms. To accomplish that: a critical literature survey in the field was performed; a workshop with the paper and pulp industry representatives was organized; and four parallel methods dealing with technical and economical details of geothermal energy use as a source of industrial process heat were developed.

  1. Energy: The Ultimate Resource? Resource Papers for College Geography, No. 77-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Earl

    This paper, intended for instructors and students in undergraduate courses in geography and environmental studies, discusses the significance of energy to our life and our life-styles. The document is designed to be used in a variety of ways--as background reading for a mini-conference on energy legislation and the geographic problems that are…

  2. U.S. Department of Energy Workshop Report: Solar Resources and Forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffel, T.

    2012-06-01

    This report summarizes the technical presentations, outlines the core research recommendations, and augments the information of the Solar Resources and Forecasting Workshop held June 20-22, 2011, in Golden, Colorado. The workshop brought together notable specialists in atmospheric science, solar resource assessment, solar energy conversion, and various stakeholders from industry and academia to review recent developments and provide input for planning future research in solar resource characterization, including measurement, modeling, and forecasting.

  3. Proceedings of the Conference on Research for the Development of Geothermal Energy Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on the development of geothermal energy resources are presented. The purpose of the conference was to acquaint potential user groups with the Federal and National Science Foundation geothermal programs and the method by which the users and other interested members can participate in the program. Among the subjects discussed are: (1) resources exploration and assessment, (2) environmental, legal, and institutional research, (3) resource utilization projects, and (4) advanced research and technology.

  4. 75 FR 11164 - Integration of Variable Energy Resources; Notice Extending Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Power Administration (BPA) filed a motion requesting an extension of at least fourteen days.\\2\\ \\1\\ Integration of Variable Energy Resources, 130 FERC ] 61,053 (2010). \\2\\ BPA indicates, however, that...

  5. Proceedings of the National Conference on Energy Resource Management. Volume 1: Techniques, Procedures and Data Bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brumfield, J. O. (Editor); Schiffman, Y. M. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Topics dealing with the integration of remotely sensed data with geographic information system for application in energy resources management are discussed. Associated remote sensing and image analysis techniques are also addressed.

  6. 78 FR 37567 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... Development Office (IEED) authorized by OMB Control Number 1076-0167. This information collection expires June... Number: 1076-0167. Title: Tribal Energy Resource Agreements, 25 CFR 224. Brief Description of...

  7. Alternative Resources for Curriculum Balance in Nutrition, Economics, Energy, Environmental, Consumer & Citizenship Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harty, Sheila, Comp.

    This annotated directory lists selected informational and educational resources in the subject areas predominant in corporate education efforts. Organized by categories of nutrition, economics, energy, environmental consumer and citizenship education, this list is intended to help provide a balance of resources and perspectives for the classroom…

  8. Satellite Power System (SPS) resource requirements (critical materials, energy and land)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotin, A. D.

    1978-01-01

    The resource impacts of the proposed satellite power system are evaluated. Three classes of resource impacts are considered separately: critical materials, energy, and land use. The analysis focuses on the requirements associated with the annual development of two five-gigawatt satellites and the associated receiving facilities.

  9. Energy resource recovery facility for Kent and Sussex counties, Delaware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-11-01

    An outline of factors which should be considered in planning a solid waste facility is presented. The following topics are considered: (1) information on the technical findings; (2) existing waste disposal facilities, future systems, and waste characteristics; (3) markets for the waste resources are identified; (4) presents a rational means for site evaluation by assigning numerical values to four principal factors in decision making; (5) the refuse derived fuel system and the modular combustion system is described; (6) risks and implementation issues for the most promising systems are identified.

  10. CONFRRM Solar Energy Resource Data: Data from the Cooperative Network for Renewable Resource Measurements

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Cooperative Network for Renewable Resource Measurements (CONFRRM) is a cooperative effort between NREL and other agencies to conduct long-term solar radiation and wind measurements at selected locations in the United States. CONFRRM expands the geographic coverage of measurement locations and provides high quality data for determining site-specific resources, as well as data for the validation and testing of models to predict available resources based on meteorological or satellite data. Twelve sites are currently active in the CONFRRM network. CONFRRM complements and provides additional geographic coverage to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) Integrated Surface Irradiance Study (ISIS) network. Solar data elements measured and reported by the CONFRRM sites include global horizontal irradiance (GHI), direct normal irradiance (DNI), diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI), and global horizontal irradiance measured with a LI-COR pyranometer. Meteorological data include air temperature, relative humidity, pressure, wind speed, wind direction and peak wind speed. Data logger temperature and battery voltage may also be reported. Prior to January 1, 1996, five CONFRRM sites together with South Caroline State College in Orangeburg, South Carolina, made up the Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Solar Radiation Monitoring Network, located in the Southeastern United States. In January 1997 the HBCU sites became part of CONFRRM.

  11. U.S. Geological Survey Energy and Minerals science strategy: a resource lifecycle approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrero, Richard C.; Kolak, Jonathan J.; Bills, Donald J.; Bowen, Zachary H.; Cordier, Daniel J.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Hein, James R.; Kelley, Karen D.; Nelson, Philip H.; Nuccio, Vito F.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Seal, Robert R., II

    2013-01-01

    The economy, national security, and standard of living of the United States depend heavily on adequate and reliable supplies of energy and mineral resources. Based on population and consumption trends, the Nation’s use of energy and minerals can be expected to grow, driving the demand for ever broader scientific understanding of resource formation, location, and availability. In addition, the increasing importance of environmental stewardship, human health, and sustainable growth places further emphasis on energy and mineral resources research and understanding. Collectively, these trends in resource demand and the interconnectedness among resources will lead to new challenges and, in turn, require cutting- edge science for the next generation of societal decisions. The long and continuing history of U.S. Geological Survey contributions to energy and mineral resources science provide a solid foundation of core capabilities upon which new research directions can grow. This science strategy provides a framework for the coming decade that capitalizes on the growth of core capabilities and leverages their application toward new or emerging challenges in energy and mineral resources research, as reflected in five interrelated goals.

  12. Study on Absorption Heat Pump Using Untapped Energy Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Hiroaki; Hihara, Eiji; Bando, Shigeru; Oka, Masahiro; Ichikawa, Toru; Kojima, Hiroshi

    The spread of absorption heat pump is considered an effective strategy to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases andthe heat island impact. However, its large volume and low efficiency as compare to vapor-compression system haverestricted its application area. In order to develop a compact and high-efficiency absorption heat pump, we propose a newtype of system which adopting triple effect cycle at cooling, while double effect at heating. In addition, unused energy,such as sewage water, is used in this system to improve the COP furthermore. System performances were evaluated by discussing the COP, highest pressure, highest temperature, strongest solutionconcentration, and energy consumption at part-load operation. By using sewage water as heat source, COP increaseswhile the highest pressure, highest temperature and strongest solution concentration decrease. From a standpointofperformance at heating and energy consumption, it is found that the proposed system works well and more effective thanthe existing system.

  13. Simulation based energy-resource efficient manufacturing integrated with in-process virtual management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katchasuwanmanee, Kanet; Cheng, Kai; Bateman, Richard

    2016-09-01

    As energy efficiency is one of the key essentials towards sustainability, the development of an energy-resource efficient manufacturing system is among the great challenges facing the current industry. Meanwhile, the availability of advanced technological innovation has created more complex manufacturing systems that involve a large variety of processes and machines serving different functions. To extend the limited knowledge on energy-efficient scheduling, the research presented in this paper attempts to model the production schedule at an operation process by considering the balance of energy consumption reduction in production, production work flow (productivity) and quality. An innovative systematic approach to manufacturing energy-resource efficiency is proposed with the virtual simulation as a predictive modelling enabler, which provides real-time manufacturing monitoring, virtual displays and decision-makings and consequentially an analytical and multidimensional correlation analysis on interdependent relationships among energy consumption, work flow and quality errors. The regression analysis results demonstrate positive relationships between the work flow and quality errors and the work flow and energy consumption. When production scheduling is controlled through optimization of work flow, quality errors and overall energy consumption, the energy-resource efficiency can be achieved in the production. Together, this proposed multidimensional modelling and analysis approach provides optimal conditions for the production scheduling at the manufacturing system by taking account of production quality, energy consumption and resource efficiency, which can lead to the key competitive advantages and sustainability of the system operations in the industry.

  14. 25 CFR 224.64 - How may a tribe assume management of development of different types of energy resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... different types of energy resources? 224.64 Section 224.64 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 224.64 How may a tribe assume management of development of different types of energy resources... develop that type of energy resource and will trigger the public notice and opportunity for...

  15. 25 CFR 224.64 - How may a tribe assume management of development of different types of energy resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... different types of energy resources? 224.64 Section 224.64 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 224.64 How may a tribe assume management of development of different types of energy resources... develop that type of energy resource and will trigger the public notice and opportunity for...

  16. 25 CFR 224.64 - How may a tribe assume management of development of different types of energy resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... different types of energy resources? 224.64 Section 224.64 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 224.64 How may a tribe assume management of development of different types of energy resources... develop that type of energy resource and will trigger the public notice and opportunity for...

  17. 25 CFR 224.64 - How may a tribe assume management of development of different types of energy resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... different types of energy resources? 224.64 Section 224.64 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 224.64 How may a tribe assume management of development of different types of energy resources... develop that type of energy resource and will trigger the public notice and opportunity for...

  18. 25 CFR 224.64 - How may a tribe assume management of development of different types of energy resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... different types of energy resources? 224.64 Section 224.64 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 224.64 How may a tribe assume management of development of different types of energy resources... develop that type of energy resource and will trigger the public notice and opportunity for...

  19. Evaluation of reed resources in Latvia and analysis of its use for energy production.

    PubMed

    Cubars, Edgars; Noviks, Gotfrids

    2012-04-01

    The increasing demand for energy, limited resources of fossil fuel, as well as pollution of the environment and changes in the global climate have raised more interest about the renewable resources. The use of renewable resources has become a very important partof European Union policy. The aim of the paper was to analyse reed resources in Latvia, its dynamics, volume and quality to produce clean energy. The use of reeds as a renewable energy resource contributes in minimizing fossil fuel consumption. The paper presents the results of a research of reed resources in lakes of Latgale (a region in Latvia). The investigation of reed resources showed that in the region they are scattered and rational usage of them is connected with environmental aspects. The greatest amounts of reed resources are concentrated in the biggest lake in Latvia- Lubana Lake and near to it. Studies showed thatthe reed areas in Lubana Lake and Kvapanu ponds have doubled since 1997 and as a result these water reservoirs are becoming overgrown. Using direct measurement methods and metering from distance, it was stated that the total reed resources of greatest Lake - Lubanas are about 6830 tons year(-1) in area of 734 hectares and are situated in 701 reed blocks. The aggregated reed resources of Latgale region are 18 000 tons year(-1) of dry biomass. The investigation proved that reed resources of the region are sufficient to replace up to 21 thousand tons of different fossil fuels. The physical properties of the reed were measured. Carbon quantity, ash content and structure, moisture content proved that reeds are a profitable fuel for heat energy production. Balanced harvesting of reed gives a positive influence on environment.

  20. Energy Resources Available to the United States, 1985 to 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Earl T.

    1979-01-01

    Our energy growth is slowing down and will level off in the 1990s. Our oil and gas production passed a peak in the early 1970s. Coal is the only fossil fuel capable of increased production. Finding rates for petroleum, natural gas, and uranium are less than half what they were twenty years ago. (Author/BB)

  1. Evaluation Framework and Tools for Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Gumerman, Etan Z.; Bharvirkar, Ranjit R.; LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Marnay , Chris

    2003-02-01

    The Energy Information Administration's (EIA) 2002 Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) forecast anticipates the need for 375 MW of new generating capacity (or about one new power plant) per week for the next 20 years, most of which is forecast to be fueled by natural gas. The Distributed Energy and Electric Reliability Program (DEER) of the Department of Energy (DOE), has set a national goal for DER to capture 20 percent of new electric generation capacity additions by 2020 (Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy 2000). Cumulatively, this amounts to about 40 GW of DER capacity additions from 2000-2020. Figure ES-1 below compares the EIA forecast and DEER's assumed goal for new DER by 2020 while applying the same definition of DER to both. This figure illustrates that the EIA forecast is consistent with the overall DEER DER goal. For the purposes of this study, Berkeley Lab needed a target level of small-scale DER penetration upon which to hinge consideration of benefits and costs. Because the AEO2002 forecasted only 3.1 GW of cumulative additions from small-scale DER in the residential and commercial sectors, another approach was needed to estimate the small-scale DER target. The focus here is on small-scale DER technologies under 500 kW. The technology size limit is somewhat arbitrary, but the key results of interest are marginal additional costs and benefits around an assumed level of penetration that existing programs might achieve. Berkeley Lab assumes that small-scale DER has the same growth potential as large scale DER in AEO2002, about 38 GW. This assumption makes the small-scale goal equivalent to 380,000 DER units of average size 100 kW. This report lays out a framework whereby the consequences of meeting this goal might be estimated and tallied up. The framework is built around a list of major benefits and a set of tools that might be applied to estimate them. This study lists some of the major effects of an emerging paradigm shift away from central

  2. Long term variability of wind energy resources in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peline Nemeth, Csilla; Bartholy, Judit; Pongracz, Rita

    2016-04-01

    Hungary is targeting to double green its energy capacity by 2020. Currently, the total capacity of 172 wind turbines in Hungary is 329 MW, which is less than 1.5% of total energy consumption of the country. Different scenarios suggest that the capacity for the wind energy will increase to around 1000 MW by 2030, which highlights the importance of projecting the potential changes of the available wind energy. For this purpose, simulated wind climate variability is evaluated for the future periods of 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 relative to the 1961-1990 reference period. The research is using the following main steps. (1) Since projected wind speed is highly overestimated by the simulation of the regional climate model RegCM for the reference period (1961-1990), a bias correction is necessary to apply to the raw simulated wind data using CARPATCLIM as a reference database. The bias correction method is based on fitting the empirical cumulative density functions of simulated daily time series to the observations for each gridcell using monthly multiplicative correction factors. (2) Thus, for the evaluation of the projected climate change, bias-corrected RegCM outputs are used. Projected monthly wind speed changes in the median and the 90th percentile are relatively small (below 0.4 m/s and 0.6 m/s, respectively) for both future periods (2021-2050 and 2071-2100), however, estimated monthly changes of the 99th percentile may reach 2 m/s in several regions in the country. Differences of the medians do not exceed 0.4 m/s. (3) In order to estimate the available wind energy in the country, changes of the third power of daily wind speed at 100 meter averaged for northwestern gridcells (where most of the wind parks are installed) are calculated for the future periods of 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 relative to the 1961-1990 reference period. Based on the RegCM regional climate model simulations for the Hungary, as a consequence of warming climatic conditions, the available wind energy

  3. Geothermal -- The Energy Under Our Feet: Geothermal Resource Estimates for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Green, B. D.; Nix, R. G.

    2006-11-01

    On May 16, 2006, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado hosted a geothermal resources workshop with experts from the geothermal community. The purpose of the workshop was to re-examine domestic geothermal resource estimates. The participating experts were organized into five working groups based on their primary area of expertise in the following types of geothermal resource or application: (1) Hydrothermal, (2) Deep Geothermal Systems, (3) Direct Use, (4) Geothermal Heat Pumps (GHPs), and (5) Co-Produced and Geopressured. The workshop found that the domestic geothermal resource is very large, with significant benefits.

  4. Assessment of grid-friendly collective optimization framework for distributed energy resources

    SciTech Connect

    Pensini, Alessandro; Robinson, Matthew; Heine, Nicholas; Stadler, Michael; Mammoli, Andrea

    2015-11-04

    Distributed energy resources have the potential to provide services to facilities and buildings at lower cost and environmental impact in comparison to traditional electric-gridonly services. The reduced cost could result from a combination of higher system efficiency and exploitation of electricity tariff structures. Traditionally, electricity tariffs are designed to encourage the use of ‘off peak’ power and discourage the use of ‘onpeak’ power, although recent developments in renewable energy resources and distributed generation systems (such as their increasing levels of penetration and their increased controllability) are resulting in pressures to adopt tariffs of increasing complexity. Independently of the tariff structure, more or less sophisticated methods exist that allow distributed energy resources to take advantage of such tariffs, ranging from simple pre-planned schedules to Software-as-a-Service schedule optimization tools. However, as the penetration of distributed energy resources increases, there is an increasing chance of a ‘tragedy of the commons’ mechanism taking place, where taking advantage of tariffs for local benefit can ultimately result in degradation of service and higher energy costs for all. In this work, we use a scheduling optimization tool, in combination with a power distribution system simulator, to investigate techniques that could mitigate the deleterious effect of ‘selfish’ optimization, so that the high-penetration use of distributed energy resources to reduce operating costs remains advantageous while the quality of service and overall energy cost to the community is not affected.

  5. Global impacts of energy demand on the freshwater resources of nations.

    PubMed

    Holland, Robert Alan; Scott, Kate A; Flörke, Martina; Brown, Gareth; Ewers, Robert M; Farmer, Elizabeth; Kapos, Valerie; Muggeridge, Ann; Scharlemann, Jörn P W; Taylor, Gail; Barrett, John; Eigenbrod, Felix

    2015-12-01

    The growing geographic disconnect between consumption of goods, the extraction and processing of resources, and the environmental impacts associated with production activities makes it crucial to factor global trade into sustainability assessments. Using an empirically validated environmentally extended global trade model, we examine the relationship between two key resources underpinning economies and human well--being-energy and freshwater. A comparison of three energy sectors (petroleum, gas, and electricity) reveals that freshwater consumption associated with gas and electricity production is largely confined within the territorial boundaries where demand originates. This finding contrasts with petroleum, which exhibits a varying ratio of territorial to international freshwater consumption, depending on the origin of demand. For example, although the United States and China have similar demand associated with the petroleum sector, international freshwater consumption is three times higher for the former than the latter. Based on mapping patterns of freshwater consumption associated with energy sectors at subnational scales, our analysis also reveals concordance between pressure on freshwater resources associated with energy production and freshwater scarcity in a number of river basins globally. These energy-driven pressures on freshwater resources in areas distant from the origin of energy demand complicate the design of policy to ensure security of fresh water and energy supply. Although much of the debate around energy is focused on greenhouse gas emissions, our findings highlight the need to consider the full range of consequences of energy production when designing policy.

  6. Global impacts of energy demand on the freshwater resources of nations

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Robert Alan; Scott, Kate A.; Flörke, Martina; Brown, Gareth; Ewers, Robert M.; Farmer, Elizabeth; Kapos, Valerie; Muggeridge, Ann; Taylor, Gail; Barrett, John; Eigenbrod, Felix

    2015-01-01

    The growing geographic disconnect between consumption of goods, the extraction and processing of resources, and the environmental impacts associated with production activities makes it crucial to factor global trade into sustainability assessments. Using an empirically validated environmentally extended global trade model, we examine the relationship between two key resources underpinning economies and human well-being—energy and freshwater. A comparison of three energy sectors (petroleum, gas, and electricity) reveals that freshwater consumption associated with gas and electricity production is largely confined within the territorial boundaries where demand originates. This finding contrasts with petroleum, which exhibits a varying ratio of territorial to international freshwater consumption, depending on the origin of demand. For example, although the United States and China have similar demand associated with the petroleum sector, international freshwater consumption is three times higher for the former than the latter. Based on mapping patterns of freshwater consumption associated with energy sectors at subnational scales, our analysis also reveals concordance between pressure on freshwater resources associated with energy production and freshwater scarcity in a number of river basins globally. These energy-driven pressures on freshwater resources in areas distant from the origin of energy demand complicate the design of policy to ensure security of fresh water and energy supply. Although much of the debate around energy is focused on greenhouse gas emissions, our findings highlight the need to consider the full range of consequences of energy production when designing policy. PMID:26627262

  7. The Fourth R. Resourcefulness in School Energy Conservation. SEED: Schoolhouse Energy Efficiency Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenneco, Inc., Houston, TX.

    An energy audit is a building inspection that, when complete, provides a profile of the building's energy usage. The energy audit determines how energy is used; simple maintenance and operating procedures to conserve energy; and the need, if any, for purchase of new energy saving equipment or modifications to the building. Schoolhouse Energy…

  8. Renewable energy development in China: Resource assessment, technology status, and greenhouse gas mitigation potential

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Y.; Renne, O.D.; Junfeng, Li

    1996-12-31

    China, which has pursued aggressive policies to encourage economic development, could experience the world`s fastest growth in energy consumption over the next two decades. China has become the third largest energy user in the world since 1990 when primary energy consumption reached 960 million tons of coal equivalent (tce). Energy use is increasing at an annual rate of 6-7% despite severe infrastructure and capital constraints on energy sector development. Energy consumption in China is heavily dominated by coal, and fossil fuels provide up to 95% of all commercial energy use. Coal currently accounts for 77% of total primary energy use; oil, 16%; hydropower, 5%; and natural gas, 2%. Coal is expected to continue providing close to three-quarters of all energy consumed, and the amount of coal used is expected to triple by year 2020. Currently, renewable energy resources (except for hydropower) account for only a fraction of total energy consumption. However, the estimated growth in greenhouse gas emissions, as well as serious local and regional environmental pollution problems caused by combustion of fossil fuels, provides strong arguments for the development of renewable energy resources. Renewable energy potential in China is significantly greater than that indicated by the current level of use. With a clear policy goal and consistent efforts from the Government of China, renewables can play a far larger role in its future energy supply.

  9. Early organic evolution: Implications for mineral and energy resources

    SciTech Connect

    Schidlowski, M.

    1992-01-01

    Early Organic Evolution is the proceedings of the ninth Alfred Wegener Conference, the final meeting of IGCP Project 157 held in Germany in 1988. Over the past 15 years, Project 157 has promoted the blending of organic geochemistry, economic geology, and evolutionary biology. This IGCP publication covers a diverse set of topics and truly reflects the interdisciplinary nature of the field of early organic evolution. In the second and largest section, seventeen papers on organic matter in ancient sediments discuss the chemical analysis of early sediments, gas, and oil. The reader is treated to a review of carbon isotope chemistry and a [delta][sup 13]C walk through the past 3.8 billion years, and even deeper yet into the mantle. Following this is a series of papers carefully describing elemental, isotopic, and organic geochemical (particularly biomarker) data from ancient sediments found throughout the earth. This section ends very strongly with the paper by Fowler on the influence of a single alga on Ordovician oils and rocks from Canada. He first gives a detailed account of the considerable chemical and microscopic evidence showing that minimally reworked Gloeocapsomorpha prisca is the main contributor of organic matter to the oil and rock and then goes on to discuss the nature of the organism. In general, this book reviews information presented in other places, but still serves as a good resource for those interested in the evolution of the Earth.

  10. FLASTAR: Florida Alliance for Saving Taxes and Energy Resources. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwin, John R.; Parker, Danny S.

    A study of the Florida Public Building Loan Concept pilot program determined its effectiveness in helping to upgrade building energy systems. The pilot program, termed FLASTAR (Florida Alliance for Saving Taxes and Resources), involved the comprehensive metering of an elementary school to demonstrate energy savings potential after retrofitting…

  11. Developing Clean Energy Projects on Tribal Lands: Data and Resources for Tribes (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-12-01

    This is a outreach brochure (booklet) for the DOE Office of Indian Energy summarizing the renewable energy technology potential on tribal lands. The booklet features tech potential maps for various technologies, information about the activities of DOE-IE, and resources for Tribes.

  12. Energy Conservation in Construction Trades. Special Packages: Instructional Resources for Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    Designed for secondary and postsecondary vocational teachers and administrators, this resource package on energy conservation in construction trades contains three sections of information. Section I provides an instructional module (developed by the Wisconsin Vocational Studies Center) on solar energy; the module is organized into seven units:…

  13. Proceedings of the National Conference on Energy Resource Management. Volume 2: Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brumfield, J. O. (Editor); Schiffman, Y. M. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Subject areas related to the integration of remotely sensed data with geographic information systems for application in energy resource management are covered. The current trends and advances in the application of these systems to a number of energy concerns are addressed.

  14. Socio-Cultural Factors and Energy Resource Development in Rural Areas in the West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Stan L.

    Drawing upon and synthesizing social and demographic data (1940-70) from 14 counties in the Rocky Mountain West which are currently facing extensive population growth as the result of large scale energy resource development, a preliminary model of potential sociocultural impact was developed. Including national energy needs and traditional…

  15. Gills Onions Advanced Energy Recovery System: Turning a Waste Liability into a Renewable Resource

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-13

    Anaerobic Municipal Solid Waste Food Waste from Residential & Food Service Digestion Fats, Oil, and Grease...FOG) from Food Service Anaerobic Methane Wastewater Treatment Bi lid Digestion Fuel Cells oso s Think Holistically! Your Take Away Points...Gills Onions Advanced Energy Recovery System Turning a Waste Liability into a Renewable Resource Waste to Energy Using Fuel Cells

  16. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of "Energy," and describes several educational resources (Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, activities, and other resources). Sidebars offer features on alternative energy, animal energy, internal combustion engines, and energy from food. Subthemes include harnessing energy, human energy, and…

  17. A framework for quantitative assessment of impacts related to energy and mineral resource development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, Seth S.; Diffendorfer, James; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Berger, Byron R.; Cook, Troy A.; Gautier, Donald L.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Gerritsen, Margot; Graffy, Elisabeth; Hawkins, Sarah; Johnson, Kathleen; Macknick, Jordan; McMahon, Peter; Modde, Tim; Pierce, Brenda; Schuenemeyer, John H.; Semmens, Darius; Simon, Benjamin; Taylor, Jason; Walton-Day, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Natural resource planning at all scales demands methods for assessing the impacts of resource development and use, and in particular it requires standardized methods that yield robust and unbiased results. Building from existing probabilistic methods for assessing the volumes of energy and mineral resources, we provide an algorithm for consistent, reproducible, quantitative assessment of resource development impacts. The approach combines probabilistic input data with Monte Carlo statistical methods to determine probabilistic outputs that convey the uncertainties inherent in the data. For example, one can utilize our algorithm to combine data from a natural gas resource assessment with maps of sage grouse leks and piñon-juniper woodlands in the same area to estimate possible future habitat impacts due to possible future gas development. As another example: one could combine geochemical data and maps of lynx habitat with data from a mineral deposit assessment in the same area to determine possible future mining impacts on water resources and lynx habitat. The approach can be applied to a broad range of positive and negative resource development impacts, such as water quantity or quality, economic benefits, or air quality, limited only by the availability of necessary input data and quantified relationships among geologic resources, development alternatives, and impacts. The framework enables quantitative evaluation of the trade-offs inherent in resource management decision-making, including cumulative impacts, to address societal concerns and policy aspects of resource development.

  18. Atlas de Recursos Eólicos del Estado de Oaxaca (The Spanish version of Wind Energy Resource Atlas of Oaxaca)

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; Scott, G.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; George, R.

    2004-04-01

    The Oaxaca Wind Resource Atlas, produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) wind resource group, is the result of an extensive mapping study for the Mexican State of Oaxaca. This atlas identifies the wind characteristics and distribution of the wind resource in Oaxaca. The detailed wind resource maps and other information contained in the atlas facilitate the identification of prospective areas for use of wind energy technologies, both for utility-scale power generation and off-grid wind energy applications.

  19. Resource limits and conversion efficiency with implications for climate change and California's energy supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, Gregory Donald

    There are two commonly-used approaches to modeling the future supply of mineral resources. One is to estimate reserves and compare the result to extraction rates, and the other is to project from historical time series of extraction rates. Perceptions of abundant oil supplies in the Middle East and abundant coal supplies in the United States are based on the former approach. In both of these cases, an approach based on historical production series results in a much smaller resource estimate than aggregate reserve numbers. This difference is not systematic; natural gas production in the United States shows a strong increasing trend even though modest reserve estimates have resulted in three decades of worry about the gas supply. The implication of a future decline in Middle East oil production is that the market for transportation fuels is facing major changes, and that alternative fuels should be analyzed in this light. Because the U.S. holds very large coal reserves, synthesizing liquid hydrocarbons from coal has been suggested as an alternative fuel supply. To assess the potential of this process, one has to look at both the resource base and the net efficiency. The three states with the largest coal production declines in the 1996 to 2006 period are among the top 5 coal reserve holders, suggesting that gross coal reserves are a poor indicator of future production. Of the three categories of coal reserves reported by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, reserves at existing mines is the narrowest category and is approximately the equivalent of proved developed oil reserves. By this measure, Wyoming has the largest coal reserves in the U.S., and it accounted for all of U.S. coal production growth over the 1996 to 2006 time period. In Chapter 2, multi-cycle Hubbert curve analysis of historical data of coal production from 1850 to 2007 demonstrates that U.S. anthracite and bituminous coal are past their production peak. This result contradicts estimates based

  20. Wind and Solar Energy Resource Assessment for Navy Installations in the Midwestern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darmenova, K.; Apling, D.; Higgins, G. J.; Carnes, J.; Smith, C.

    2012-12-01

    A stable supply of energy is critical for sustainable economic development and the ever-increasing demand for energy resources drives the need for alternative weather-driven renewable energy solutions such as solar and wind-generated power. Recognizing the importance of energy as a strategic resource, the Department of the Navy has focused on energy efficient solutions aiming to increase tactical and shore energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Implementing alternative energy solutions will alleviate the Navy installations demands on the National power grid, however transitioning to renewable energy sources is a complex multi-stage process that involves initial investment in resource assessment and feasibility of building solar and wind power systems in Navy's facilities. This study focuses on the wind and solar energy resource assessment for Navy installations in the Midwestern US. We use the dynamically downscaled datasets at 12 km resolution over the Continental US generated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to derive the wind climatology in terms of wind speed, direction, and wind power at 20 m above the surface for 65 Navy facilities. In addition, we derived the transmissivity of the atmosphere, diffuse radiation fraction, cloud cover and seasonal energy potential for a zenith facing surface with unobstructed horizon for each installation location based on the results of a broadband radiative transfer model and our cloud database based on 17-years of GOES data. Our analysis was incorporated in a GIS framework in combination with additional infrastructure data that enabled a synergistic resource assessment based on the combination of climatological and engineering factors.

  1. Analysis of requirements for accelerating the development of geothermal energy resources in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredrickson, C. D.

    1978-01-01

    Various resource data are presented showing that geothermal energy has the potential of satisfying a singificant part of California's increasing energy needs. General factors slowing the development of geothermal energy in California are discussed and required actions to accelerate its progress are presented. Finally, scenarios for developing the most promising prospects in the state directed at timely on-line power are given. Specific actions required to realize each of these individual scenarios are identified.

  2. Geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide - an energy resource perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Burruss; Sean T. Brennan

    2003-03-15

    Most energy used to meet human needs is derived from the combustion of fossil fuels (natural gas, oil, and coal), which releases carbon to the atmosphere, primarily as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2}, a greenhouse gas, is increasing, raising concerns that solar heat will be trapped and the average surficial temperature of the Earth will rise in response. Global warming studies predict that climate changes resulting from increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} will adversely affect life on Earth. In the 200 years since the industrial revolution, the world's population has grown from about 800 million to over 6 billion people and the CO{sub 2} content of the atmosphere has risen from about 280 to about 360 parts per million by volume, a 30 percent increase. International concern about potential global climate change has spurred discussions about limiting the amount of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases released to the atmosphere. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  3. A Global Perspective: NASA's Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resources (POWER) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Taiping; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Chandler, William S.; Hoell, James M.; Westberg, David; Whitlock, Charles H.

    2007-01-01

    The Prediction of the Worldwide Energy Resources (POWER) Project, initiated under the NASA Science Mission Directorate Applied Science Energy Management Program, synthesizes and analyzes data on a global scale that are invaluable to the renewable energy industries, especially to the solar and wind energy sectors. The POWER project derives its data primarily from NASA's World Climate Research Programme (WCRP)/Global Energy and Water cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) project (Version 2.9) and the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) assimilation model (Version 4). The latest development of the NASA POWER Project and its plans for the future are presented in this paper.

  4. Federal Energy Resources Modernization Coordinating Committee; Semiannual report, April 1, 1992--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, G. B.

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the broad range of activities that are focused on meeting the President's Executive Order on Federal Energy Management promulgated to meet energy savings goals and encourage more efficient management of all federal energy resources. These activities are reported semiannually under the auspices of the Federal Energy Resource Modernization (FERM) Coordinating Committee, and as such include activities undertaken from April 1, 1992, through September 30, 1992. The activities reported are classified into four major categories: (1) technology-base support, which includes development of processes, software, metering and monitoring equipment and strategies, and other tools for federal energy managers to better understand and characterize their energy resources; (2) federal energy systems testing and monitoring; (3) federal energy systems revitalization projects at federal installations in cooperation with the utilities serving the sites; and (4) energy supply, distribution and end-use conservation assessment for federal agencies and/or facilities. Lighting systems and air conditioning projects at federal facilities, especially military bases are updated.

  5. Comparative evaluation of solar, fission, fusion, and fossil energy resources. Part 1: Solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The utilization of solar energy to meet the energy needs of the U.S. is discussed. Topics discussed include: availability of solar energy, solar energy collectors, heating for houses and buildings, solar water heater, electric power generation, and ocean thermal power.

  6. Essays on environmental, energy, and natural resource economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan

    My dissertation focuses on examining the interrelationship among the environment, energy and economic development. In the first essay, I explore the effects of increased uncertainty over future output prices, input costs and productivity levels on intertemporal emission permits trading. In a dynamic programming setting, a permit price is a convex function of each of these three sources of uncertainty. Increased uncertainty about future market conditions increases the expected permit price and causes risk-neutral firms to reduce ex ante emissions to smooth marginal abatement costs over time. Empirical analysis shows that increased price volatility induced by electricity market restructuring could explain 8-11% of the allowances banked during Phase I of the U.S. sulfur dioxide trading program. Numerical simulation suggests that high uncertainty may generate substantial initial compliance costs, thereby deterring new entrants and reducing efficiency; sharp emission spikes are also more likely to occur under industry-wide uncertainty shocks. In the second essay, I examine whether electricity restructuring improves the efficiency of U.S. nuclear power generation. Based on the full sample of 73 investor-owned nuclear plants in the United States from 1992 to 1998, I estimate cross-sectional and longitudinal efficiency changes associated with restructuring, at the plant level. Various modeling strategies are presented to deal with the policy endogeneity bias that high cost plants are more likely to be restructured. Overall, I find a strikingly positive relationship between the multiple steps of restructuring and plant operating efficiency. In the third essay, I estimate the economic impact of China's national land conversion program on local farm-dependent economies. The impact of the program on 14 industrial sectors in Gansu provinces are investigated using an input-output model. Due to regulatory restrictions, the agricultural sector cannot automatically expand or shrink

  7. Exploration of Resource and Transmission Expansion Decisions in the Western Renewable Energy Zone Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Andrew D.; Phadke, Amol A.; Wiser, Ryan H.

    2010-06-10

    The Western Renewable Energy Zone (WREZ) initiative brings together a diverse set of voices to develop data, tools, and a unique forum for coordinating transmission expansion in the Western Interconnection. In this paper we use a new tool developed in the WREZ initiative to evaluate possible renewable resource selection and transmission expansion decisions. We evaluate these decisions under a number of alternative future scenarios centered on meeting 33percent of the annual load in the Western Interconnection with new renewable resources located within WREZ-identified resource hubs. Our analysis finds that wind energy is the largest source of renewable energy procured to meet the 33percent RE target across nearly all scenarios analyzed (38-65percent). Solar energy is almost always the second largest source (14-41percent). We find several load zones where wind energy is the least cost resource under a wide range of sensitivity scenarios. Load zones in the Southwest, on the other hand, are found to switch between wind and solar, and therefore to vary transmission expansion decisions, depending on uncertainties and policies that affect the relative economics of each renewable option. Further, we find that even with total transmission expenditures of $17-34 billion these costs still represent just 10-19percent of the total delivered cost of renewable energy.

  8. Challenges for fuel cells as stationary power resource in the evolving energy enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastler, Dan

    The primary market challenges for fuel cells as stationary power resources in evolving energy markets are reviewed. Fuel cell power systems have significant barriers to overcome in their anticipated role as decentralized energy power systems. Market segments for fuel cells include combined heat and power; low-cost energy, premium power; peak shaving; and load management and grid support. Understanding the role and fit of fuel cell systems in evolving energy markets and the highest value applications are a major challenge for developers and government funding organizations. The most likely adopters of fuel cell systems and the challenges facing each adopter in the target market segment are reviewed. Adopters include generation companies, utility distribution companies, retail energy service providers and end-users. Key challenges include: overcoming technology risk; achieving retail competitiveness; understanding high value markets and end-user needs; distribution and service channels; regulatory policy issues; and the integration of these decentralized resources within the electrical distribution system.

  9. Renewable-energy-resource options for the food-processing industry

    SciTech Connect

    Eakin, D.E.; Clark, M.A.; Inaba, L.K.

    1981-09-01

    The food processing industry generates significant quantities of organic process wastes which often require treatment prior to disposal or result in additional expenses for disposal. The food processing industry also requires fuel and electricity to provide the process energy to convert raw materials into finished food products. Depending on the particular process, organic wastes can represent a potential resource for conversion to energy products that can be used for providing process energy or other energy products. This document reports the results of an evaluation of renewable energy resource options for the food processing industry. The options evaluated were direct combustion for providing process heat, fermentation for ethanol production and anaerobic digestion for generation of methane.

  10. Biomass for energy in the European Union - a review of bioenergy resource assessments

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews recent literature on bioenergy potentials in conjunction with available biomass conversion technologies. The geographical scope is the European Union, which has set a course for long term development of its energy supply from the current dependence on fossil resources to a dominance of renewable resources. A cornerstone in European energy policies and strategies is biomass and bioenergy. The annual demand for biomass for energy is estimated to increase from the current level of 5.7 EJ to 10.0 EJ in 2020. Assessments of bioenergy potentials vary substantially due to methodological inconsistency and assumptions applied by individual authors. Forest biomass, agricultural residues and energy crops constitute the three major sources of biomass for energy, with the latter probably developing into the most important source over the 21st century. Land use and the changes thereof is a key issue in sustainable bioenergy production as land availability is an ultimately limiting factor. PMID:22546368

  11. Model Predictive Control-based Optimal Coordination of Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Lian, Jianming; Elizondo, Marcelo A.

    2013-01-07

    Distributed energy resources, such as renewable energy resources (wind, solar), energy storage and demand response, can be used to complement conventional generators. The uncertainty and variability due to high penetration of wind makes reliable system operations and controls challenging, especially in isolated systems. In this paper, an optimal control strategy is proposed to coordinate energy storage and diesel generators to maximize wind penetration while maintaining system economics and normal operation performance. The goals of the optimization problem are to minimize fuel costs and maximize the utilization of wind while considering equipment life of generators and energy storage. Model predictive control (MPC) is used to solve a look-ahead dispatch optimization problem and the performance is compared to an open loop look-ahead dispatch problem. Simulation studies are performed to demonstrate the efficacy of the closed loop MPC in compensating for uncertainties and variability caused in the system.

  12. Model Predictive Control-based Optimal Coordination of Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Lian, Jianming; Elizondo, Marcelo A.

    2013-04-03

    Distributed energy resources, such as renewable energy resources (wind, solar), energy storage and demand response, can be used to complement conventional generators. The uncertainty and variability due to high penetration of wind makes reliable system operations and controls challenging, especially in isolated systems. In this paper, an optimal control strategy is proposed to coordinate energy storage and diesel generators to maximize wind penetration while maintaining system economics and normal operation performance. The goals of the optimization problem are to minimize fuel costs and maximize the utilization of wind while considering equipment life of generators and energy storage. Model predictive control (MPC) is used to solve a look-ahead dispatch optimization problem and the performance is compared to an open loop look-ahead dispatch problem. Simulation studies are performed to demonstrate the efficacy of the closed loop MPC in compensating for uncertainties and variability caused in the system.

  13. IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCING COSTS IN THE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY INDUSTRY: An ENERGY STAR Resource Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Melody, Moya; Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Brown, Richard

    2010-09-30

    As American drinking water agencies face higher production costs, demand, and energy prices, they seek opportunities to reduce costs without negatively affecting the quality of the water they deliver. This guide describes resources for cost-effectively improving the energy efficiency of U.S. public drinking water facilities. The guide (1) describes areas of opportunity for improving energy efficiency in drinking water facilities; (2) provides detailed descriptions of resources to consult for each area of opportunity; (3) offers supplementary suggestions and information for the area; and (4) presents illustrative case studies, including analysis of cost-effectiveness.

  14. Fossil resource and energy security dynamics in conventional and carbon-constrained worlds

    SciTech Connect

    McCollum, David; Bauer, Nico; Calvin, Katherine V.; Kitous, Alban; Riahi, Keywan

    2014-04-01

    Fossil resource endowments and the future development of fossil fuel prices are important factors that will critically influence the nature and direction of the global energy system. In this paper we analyze a multi-model ensemble of long-term energy and emissions scenarios that were developed within the framework of the EMF27 integrated assessment model inter-comparison exercise. The diverse nature of these models highlights large uncertainties in the likely development of fossil resource (coal, oil, and natural gas) consumption, trade, and prices over the course of the twenty-first century and under different climate policy frameworks. We explore and explain some of the differences across scenarios and models and compare the scenario results with fossil resource estimates from the literature. A robust finding across the suite of IAMs is that the cumulative fossil fuel consumption foreseen by the models is well within the bounds of estimated recoverable reserves and resources. Hence, fossil resource constraints are, in and of themselves, unlikely to limit future GHG emissions. Our analysis also shows that climate mitigation policies could lead to a major reallocation of financial flows between regions, in terms of expenditures on fossil fuels and carbon, and can help to alleviate near-term energy security concerns via the reductions in oil imports and increases in energy system diversity they will help to motivate.

  15. A survey and taxonomy on energy efficient resource allocation techniques for cloud computing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hameed, Abdul; Khoshkbarforoushha, Alireza; Ranjan, Rajiv; Jayaraman, Prem Prakash; Kolodziej, Joanna; Balaji, Pavan; Zeadally, Sherali; Malluhi, Qutaibah Marwan; Tziritas, Nikos; Vishnu, Abhinav; Khan, Samee U.; Zomaya, Albert

    2014-06-06

    In a cloud computing paradigm, energy efficient allocation of different virtualized ICT resources (servers, storage disks, and networks, and the like) is a complex problem due to the presence of heterogeneous application (e.g., content delivery networks, MapReduce, web applications, and the like) workloads having contentious allocation requirements in terms of ICT resource capacities (e.g., network bandwidth, processing speed, response time, etc.). Several recent papers have tried to address the issue of improving energy efficiency in allocating cloud resources to applications with varying degree of success. However, to the best of our knowledge there is no published literature on this subject that clearly articulates the research problem and provides research taxonomy for succinct classification of existing techniques. Hence, the main aim of this paper is to identify open challenges associated with energy efficient resource allocation. In this regard, the study, first, outlines the problem and existing hardware and software-based techniques available for this purpose. Furthermore, available techniques already presented in the literature are summarized based on the energy-efficient research dimension taxonomy. The advantages and disadvantages of the existing techniques are comprehensively analyzed against the proposed research dimension taxonomy namely: resource adaption policy, objective function, allocation method, allocation operation, and interoperability.

  16. Partitioning of food resources amongst 18 abundant benthic carnivorous fish species in marine waters on the lower west coast of Australia.

    PubMed

    Platell, M E.; Potter, I C.

    2001-06-15

    The volumetric contributions made by prey and plant material to the diets of 4 elasmobranch and 14 teleost species, collected seasonally by trawling from waters along ca. 200 km of the lower west coast of Australia, have been compared. These benthic carnivores, which were all abundant and collectively contributed 83% to the total number of fish caught, represented nine families (Urolophidae, Scorpaenidae, Triglidae, Platycephalidae, Sillaginidae, Carangidae, Gerreidae, Mullidae and Pempherididae). Some species were numerous in both shallow (5-15 m) and deeper (20-35 m) waters and in both northern and southern regions, whereas others were largely confined to one of these water depths or regions. Comparisons between the diets of the different species, which utilised data collected from individuals throughout the study area, demonstrated that the dietary composition of any given species was almost invariably significantly different from that of every other species. This partly reflected the fact that, while errant polychaetes, gammarid amphipods and tanaids were ingested by all species, their contributions to the diets of the different species varied. Furthermore, echinoderms contributed to the diets of just nine species, and this was substantial only in the case of two sillaginid species, while teleosts were never consumed by six species and only made a marked contribution to the diets of the single species of platycephalid. The diet of each species underwent size-related changes, reflecting a shift from the consumption by smaller fish of prey such as amphipods, mysids and copepods, to the ingestion by larger fish of prey such as polychaetes, carid decapods, isopods and small teleosts. The interspecific and intraspecific differences in dietary compositions would spread the food resources amongst and within species, thereby reducing the potential for competition for those resources within the fish community. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) ordination plots

  17. Results at Mallik highlight progress in gas hydrate energy resource research and development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.

    2005-01-01

    The recent studies that project the role of gas hydrates in the future energy resource management are reviewed. Researchers have long speculated that gas hydrates could eventually be a commercial resource for the future. A Joint Industry Project led by ChevronTexaco and the US Department of Energy is designed to characterize gas hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico. Countries including Japan, canada, and India have established large gas hydrate research and development projects, while China, Korea and Mexico are investigating the viability of forming government-sponsored gas hydrate research projects.

  18. Thorium Deposits of the United States - Energy Resources for the Future?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Gillerman, Virginia S.; Armbrustmacher, Theodore J.

    2009-01-01

    Many nations are exploring new ways to meet their growing energy supply needs, with a particular focus upon methods that produce lower carbon dioxide emissions compared to traditional oil, natural gas, and coal power plants. As a result, thorium-based nuclear power has experienced renewed attention as a potential energy source. Thus, it benefits the United States and other countries to identify and evaluate their indigenous thorium resources. This report describes the geology and resources of the principal thorium districts of the United States.

  19. Local government involvement in long term resource planning for community energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    A program was developed to coordinate governmental, research, utility, and business energy savings efforts, and to evaluate future potential actions, based on actual field data obtained during the implementation of Phase I of the State Resource Plan. This has lead to the establishment of a state conservation and energy efficiency fund for the purpose of establishing a DSM Program. By taking a state wide perspective on resource planning, additional savings, including environmental benefits, can be achieved through further conservation and demand management. This effort has already blossomed into a state directive for DSM programs for the natural gas industry.

  20. Local government involvement in long term resource planning for community energy systems. Demand side management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    A program was developed to coordinate governmental, research, utility, and business energy savings efforts, and to evaluate future potential actions, based on actual field data obtained during the implementation of Phase I of the State Resource Plan. This has lead to the establishment of a state conservation and energy efficiency fund for the purpose of establishing a DSM Program. By taking a state wide perspective on resource planning, additional savings, including environmental benefits, can be achieved through further conservation and demand management. This effort has already blossomed into a state directive for DSM programs for the natural gas industry.

  1. Joint Resource Allocation of Spectrum Sensing and Energy Harvesting in an Energy-Harvesting-Based Cognitive Sensor Network.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Lu, Weidang; Ye, Liang; Li, Feng; Zou, Deyue

    2017-03-16

    The cognitive sensor (CS) can transmit data to the control center in the same spectrum that is licensed to the primary user (PU) when the absence of the PU is detected by spectrum sensing. However, the battery energy of the CS is limited due to its small size, deployment in atrocious environments and long-term working. In this paper, an energy-harvesting-based CS is described, which senses the PU together with collecting the radio frequency energy to supply data transmission. In order to improve the transmission performance of the CS, we have proposed the joint resource allocation of spectrum sensing and energy harvesting in the cases of a single energy-harvesting-based CS and an energy-harvesting-based cognitive sensor network (CSN), respectively. Based on the proposed frame structure, we have formulated the resource allocation as a class of joint optimization problems, which seek to maximize the transmission rate of the CS by jointly optimizing sensing time, harvesting time and the numbers of sensing nodes and harvesting nodes. Using the half searching method and the alternating direction optimization, we have achieved the sub-optimal solution by converting the joint optimization problem into several convex sub-optimization problems. The simulation results have indicated the predominance of the proposed energy-harvesting-based CS and CSN models.

  2. Joint Resource Allocation of Spectrum Sensing and Energy Harvesting in an Energy-Harvesting-Based Cognitive Sensor Network

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Lu, Weidang; Ye, Liang; Li, Feng; Zou, Deyue

    2017-01-01

    The cognitive sensor (CS) can transmit data to the control center in the same spectrum that is licensed to the primary user (PU) when the absence of the PU is detected by spectrum sensing. However, the battery energy of the CS is limited due to its small size, deployment in atrocious environments and long-term working. In this paper, an energy-harvesting-based CS is described, which senses the PU together with collecting the radio frequency energy to supply data transmission. In order to improve the transmission performance of the CS, we have proposed the joint resource allocation of spectrum sensing and energy harvesting in the cases of a single energy-harvesting-based CS and an energy-harvesting-based cognitive sensor network (CSN), respectively. Based on the proposed frame structure, we have formulated the resource allocation as a class of joint optimization problems, which seek to maximize the transmission rate of the CS by jointly optimizing sensing time, harvesting time and the numbers of sensing nodes and harvesting nodes. Using the half searching method and the alternating direction optimization, we have achieved the sub-optimal solution by converting the joint optimization problem into several convex sub-optimization problems. The simulation results have indicated the predominance of the proposed energy-harvesting-based CS and CSN models. PMID:28300763

  3. Energy Conserving Lifestyles: Final Report to the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Seymour I.

    This report examines the broad topic of energy use and its relationship to lifestyles. The emphasis is on three energy conserving lifestyle models: (1) the rural alternative lifestyle; (2) new towns; and (3) energy conserving subdivisions in existing cities. The first chapter presents an introduction. Chapter two examines the back-to-the-land…

  4. Trends in the development of industrially assimilated renewable energy: the problem of resource restrictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizhegorodtsev, R. M.; Ratner, S. V.

    2016-03-01

    An analysis of the dynamics of the development of wind and solar energy and potential resource restrictions of the dissemination of these technologies of energy generation associated with intensive use of rare earth metals and some other mineral resources are presented. The technological prospects of various directions of decisions of the problem of resource restrictions, including escalating of volumes of extraction and production of necessary mineral components, creating substitutes of scarce materials and development of recycling are considered. The bottlenecks of each of the above-mentioned decisions were founded. Conclusions are drawn on the prospects of development of the Russian high-tech sectors of the economy in the context of the most probable decisions of the problem of resource restrictions of wind and solar energy. An increase in extraction and production of rare earth metals and some other materials, stimulation of domestic research and development (R&D) to create the permanent magnets of new types and new technologies of wind-powered generation, and reduction of the resource-demand and technology development of recycling the components of power equipment are the most prospective directions of progress. The innovations in these directions will be in demand on the European, Chinese, and North American markets in the near decades due to the end of the life cycle (approximately 30 years) of wind and solar energy projects started at the turn of the 20th-21st centuries (the beginning of exponential growth in plants). The private investors and relevant regional and federal government agencies can use the qualitative characteristics of the dynamics of industrially assimilated renewable energy to choose the most promising investment orientations in energy projects and selection of the most economically sound development methods of energy and related industries.

  5. Evaluating Programs That Promote Climate and Energy Education-Meeting Teacher Needs for Online Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynds, S. E.; Buhr, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN) Pathway, is a National Science Digital Library (NSDL) Pathways project that was begun in 2010. The main goal of CLEAN is to generate a reviewed collection of educational resources that are aligned with the Essential Principles of Climate Science (EPCS). Another goal of the project is to support a community that will assist students, teachers, and citizens in climate literacy. A complementary program begun in 2010 is the ICEE (Inspiring Climate Education Excellence) program, which is developing online modules and courses designed around the climate literacy principles for use by teachers and other interested citizens. In these projects, we learn about teacher needs through a variety of evaluation mechanisms. The programs use evaluation to assist in the process of providing easy access to high quality climate and energy learning resources that meet classroom requirements. The internal evaluation of the CLEAN program is multidimensional. At the CLEAN resource review camps, teachers and scientists work together in small groups to assess the value of online resources for use in the classroom. The review camps are evaluated using observation and feedback surveys; the resulting evaluation reports provide information to managers to fine-tune future camps. In this way, a model for effective climate resource development meetings has been refined. Evaluation methods used in ICEE and CLEAN include teacher needs assessment surveys, teacher feedback at professional development opportunities, scientist feedback at resource review workshops, and regular analysis of online usage of resources, forums, and education modules. This paper will review the most successful strategies for evaluating the effectiveness of online climate and energy education resources and their use by educators and the general public.

  6. Exploration of Resource and Transmission Expansion Decisions in the Western Renewable Energy Zone Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Andrew; Phadke, Amol; Wiser, Ryan

    2010-02-16

    Building transmission to reach renewable energy (RE) goals requires coordination among renewable developers, utilities and transmission owners, resource and transmission planners, state and federal regulators, and environmental organizations. The Western Renewable Energy Zone (WREZ) initiative brings together a diverse set of voices to develop data, tools, and a unique forum for coordinating transmission expansion in the Western Interconnection. In this report we use a new tool developed in the WREZ initiative to evaluate possible renewable resource selection and transmission expansion decisions. We evaluate these decisions under a number of alternative future scenarios centered on meeting 33% of the annual load in the Western Interconnection with new renewable resources located within WREZ-identified resource hubs. Of the renewable resources in WREZ resource hubs, and under the assumptions described in this report, our analysis finds that wind energy is the largest source of renewable energy procured to meet the 33% RE target across nearly all scenarios analyzed (38-65%). Solar energy is almost always the second largest source (14-41%). Solar exceeds wind by a small margin only when solar thermal energy is assumed to experience cost reductions relative to all other technologies. Biomass, geothermal, and hydropower are found to represent a smaller portion of the selected resources, largely due to the limited resource quantity of these resources identified within the WREZ-identified hubs (16-23% combined). We find several load zones where wind energy is the least cost resource under a wide range of sensitivity scenarios. Load zones in the Southwest, on the other hand, are found to switch between wind and solar, and therefore to vary transmission expansion decisions, depending on uncertainties and policies that affect the relative economics of each renewable option. Uncertainties and policies that impact bus-bar costs are the most important to evaluate carefully, but

  7. 76 FR 37804 - NextEra Energy Resources, LLC, Peetz Logan Interconnect, LLC, PWEC, LLC; Notice of Petition for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission NextEra Energy Resources, LLC, Peetz Logan Interconnect, LLC, PWEC, LLC...Era Energy Resources, LLC (NextEra) and two of its indirect subsidiaries, Peetz Logan Interconnect... convenience in this petition, all of NextEra's Logan County, Colorado projects collectively are...

  8. Geothermal energy resources of Navy/Marine Corps installations on the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edsall, D. W.

    1980-03-01

    The search for alternative energy sources is of great importance to the U.S. Navy. Preliminary examination of data from the literature, bottom hole temperatures from existing deep wells, and heat flow measurements in wells drilled at selected sites as part of a current research program sponsored by the Department of Energy have demonstrated that low temperature waters (-212 F or 100 C) may be available at moderate depths in the major sedimentary basins along the Atlantic and east Gulf Coastal Plain. Although the possible geothermal energy resources present here are not sufficient for electrical power generation, they appear adequate for space heating and cooling. The Navy should take a leading role in planning and executing exploratory drilling and resource evaluation programs, especially at the following installations, all of which are major energy users: Norfolk, Portsmouth, and Virginia Beach, Virginia; Charleston, South Carolina; and Pensacola, Milton, and Panama City, Florida.

  9. Will Abundant Natural Gas Solve Climate Change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McJeon, H. C.; Edmonds, J.; Bauer, N.; Leon, C.; Fisher, B.; Flannery, B.; Hilaire, J.; Krey, V.; Marangoni, G.; Mi, R.; Riahi, K.; Rogner, H.; Tavoni, M.

    2015-12-01

    The rapid deployment of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling technologies enabled the production of previously uneconomic shale gas resources in North America. Global deployment of these advanced gas production technologies could bring large influx of economically competitive unconventional gas resources to the energy system. It has been hoped that abundant natural gas substituting for coal could reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, which in turn could reduce climate forcing. Other researchers countered that the non-CO2 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with shale gas production make its lifecycle emissions higher than those of coal. In this study, we employ five state-of-the-art integrated assessment models (IAMs) of energy-economy-climate systems to assess the full impact of abundant gas on climate change. The models show large additional natural gas consumption up to +170% by 2050. The impact on CO2 emissions, however, is found to be much smaller (from -2% to +11%), and a majority of the models reported a small increase in climate forcing (from -0.3% to +7%) associated with the increased use of abundant gas. Our results show that while globally abundant gas may substantially change the future energy market equilibrium, it will not significantly mitigate climate change on its own in the absence of climate policies.

  10. Proceedings: Second Annual Pacific Northwest Alternative and Renewable Energy Resources Conference.

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    Papers presented at the conference are published in this volume. The purpose of the conference was to solicit regional cooperation in the promoting of near-term development of such alternative and renewable energy resources in the Pacific Northwest as: cogeneration; biomass; wind; small hydro; solar end-use applications; and geothermal direct heat utilization. Separate abstracts of selected papers were prepared for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  11. U.S. Solar Resource Maps and Tools from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Solar maps provide monthly average daily total solar resource information on grid cells. The insolation values represent the resource available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented due south at an angle from horizontal to equal to the latitude of the collector location. [Copied from http://www.nrel.gov/gis/solar.html] Several types of solar maps are made available. The U.S. Solar resource maps show the resource potential for energy from photovoltaics and from concentrating solar power (CSP). Both sets of maps are available in low or high resolution. A dynamic map based on version 2 of PVWATTS calculates electrical energy performance estimates for a grid-connected photovoltaic system. The map of U.S. Solar Measurement Station Locations is also dynamic, showing the spatial distribution of measurement stations across the U.S. that are monitored by programs and agencies such as DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program or NREL's Cooperative Network for Renewable Resource Measurements (CONFRRM). Clicking on a station location will take the user to the website of that station. Finally, static map images providing solar resource information averaged by month are also available.

  12. Balancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy in Western Utility Resource Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-08-10

    Markets for renewable energy have historically been motivated primarily by policy efforts, but a less widely recognized driver is poised to also play a major role in the coming years: utility integrated resource planning (IRP). Resource planning has re-emerged in recent years as an important tool for utilities and regulators, particularly in regions where retail competition has failed to take root. In the western United States, the most recent resource plans contemplate a significant amount of renewable energy additions. These planned additions--primarily coming from wind power--are motivated by the improved economics of wind power, a growing acceptance of wind by electric utilities, and an increasing recognition of the inherent risks (e.g., natural gas price risk, environmental compliance risk) in fossil-based generation portfolios. This report examines how twelve western utilities treat renewable energy in their recent resource plans. In aggregate, these utilities supply approximately half of all electricity demand in the western United States. Our purpose is twofold: (1) to highlight the growing importance of utility IRP as a current and future driver of renewable energy, and (2) to identify methodological/modeling issues, and suggest possible improvements to methods used to evaluate renewable energy as a resource option. Here we summarize the key findings of the report, beginning with a discussion of the planned renewable energy additions called for by the twelve utilities, an overview of how these plans incorporated renewables into candidate portfolios, and a review of the specific technology cost and performance assumptions they made, primarily for wind power. We then turn to the utilities' analysis of natural gas price and environmental compliance risks, and examine how the utilities traded off portfolio cost and risk in selecting a preferred portfolio.

  13. Biomass resources for energy in Ohio: The OH-MARKAL modeling framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakya, Bibhakar

    The latest reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change have indicated that human activities are directly responsible for a significant portion of global warming trends. In response to the growing concerns regarding climate change and efforts to create a sustainable energy future, biomass energy has come to the forefront as a clean and sustainable energy resource. Biomass energy resources are environmentally clean and carbon neutral with net-zero carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, since CO2 is absorbed or sequestered from the atmosphere during the plant growth. Hence, biomass energy mitigates greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions that would otherwise be added to the environment by conventional fossil fuels, such as coal. The use of biomass resources for energy is even more relevant in Ohio, as the power industry is heavily based on coal, providing about 90 percent of the state's total electricity while only 50 percent of electricity comes from coal at the national level. The burning of coal for electricity generation results in substantial GHG emissions and environmental pollution, which are responsible for global warming and acid rain. Ohio is currently one of the top emitters of GHG in the nation. This dissertation research examines the potential use of biomass resources by analyzing key economic, environmental, and policy issues related to the energy needs of Ohio over a long term future (2001-2030). Specifically, the study develops a dynamic linear programming model (OH-MARKAL) to evaluate biomass cofiring as an option in select coal power plants (both existing and new) to generate commercial electricity in Ohio. The OH-MARKAL model is based on the MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) framework. Using extensive data on the power industry and biomass resources of Ohio, the study has developed the first comprehensive power sector model for Ohio. Hence, the model can serve as an effective tool for Ohio's energy planning, since it evaluates economic and environmental

  14. Energy conservation in ethanol production from renewable resources and non-petroleum energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The dry milling process for the conversion of grain to fuel ethanol is reviewed for the application of energy conservation technology, which will reduce the energy consumption to 70,000 Btu per gallon, a reduction of 42% from a distilled spirits process. Specific energy conservation technology applications are outlined and guidelines for the owner/engineer for fuel ethanol plants to consider in the selection on the basis of energy conservation economics of processing steps and equipment are provided. The process was divided into 5 sections and the energy consumed in each step was determined based on 3 sets of conditions; a conventional distilled spirits process; a modern process incorporating commercially proven energy conservation; and a second generation process incorporating advanced conservation technologies which have not yet been proven. Steps discussed are mash preparation and cooking, fermentation, distillation, and distillers dried grains processing. The economics of cogeneration of electricity on fuel ethanol plants is also studied. (MCW)

  15. Sizing Energy Storage to Accommodate High Penetration of Variable Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Du, Pengwei; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W.; Jin, Chunlian; Illian, Howard F.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract—The variability and non-dispatchable nature of wind and solar energy production presents substantial challenges for maintaining system balance. Depending on the economic considerations, energy storage can be a viable solution to balance energy production with consumption. This paper proposes to use discrete Fourier transform to decompose the required balancing power into different time-varying periodic components, i.e., intra-week, intra-day, intra-hour, and real-time. Each component can be used to quantify the maximum energy storage requirement for different types of energy storage. This requirement is the physical limit that could be theoretically accommodated by a power system. The actual energy storage capacity can be further quantified within this limit by the cost-benefit analysis (future work). The proposed approach has been successfully used in a study conducted for the 2030 Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) system model. Some results of this study are provided in this paper.

  16. Wind Energy Resource Atlas. Volume 11. Hawaii and Pacific Islands Region

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, T.A.; Hori, A.M.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, and assessments of the wind resource in each division of the region. Background on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be inerpreted is presented. An introduction and outline to the descriptions of the wind resource for each division are provided. Assessments for individual divisions are presented as separate chapters. Much of the information in the division chapters is given in graphic or tabular form. The sequences for each chapter are similar, but some presentations used for Hawaii are inappropriate or impractical for presentation with the Pacific Islands. Hawaii chapter figure and tables are cited below and appropriate Pacific Islands figure and table numbers are included in brackets ().

  17. Opportunities for Fundamental University-Based Research in Energy and Resource Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoback, M. D.; Hitzman, M.; Tester, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    In this talk we present, from a university perspective, a few examples of fundamental research needs related to improved energy and resource recovery. One example of such a research need is related to the fact that it is not widely recognized that meeting domestic and worldwide energy needs with renewables such as wind and solar will be materials intensive. If widely deployed, the elements required by renewable technologies will be needed in significant quantities and shortage of these "energy critical elements" could significantly inhibit the adoption of otherwise game changing energy technologies. It is imperative to better understand the geology, metallurgy, and mining engineering of critical mineral deposits if we are to sustainably develop these new technologies. Unfortunately, there is currently no consensus among federal and state agencies, the national and international mining industry, the public, and the U.S. academic community regarding the importance of economic geology in the context of securing sufficient energy critical elements to undertake large-scale renewable energy development. Another option for transitioning away from our current hydrocarbon-based energy system to non-carbon based sources, is geothermal energy - from both conventional hydrothermal resources and enhanced or engineered geothermal systems (EGS). Although geothermal energy is currently used for both electric and non-electric applications worldwide from conventional hydrothermal resources and in ground source heat pumps, most of the emphasis in the US has been generating electricity. To this end, there is a need for research, development and demonstration in five important areas - estimating the magnitude and distribution of recoverable geothermal resources, establishing requirements for extracting and utilizing energy from EGS reservoirs the including drilling, reservoir design and stimulation, exploring end use options for district heating, electricity generation and co

  18. Energy and resource consumption of land-based hatchery systems for finfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The early rearing of most marine species will be land-based because of the need for precise control of the rearing environment. This chapter evaluates the resource and energy requirements of six different types of land-based, hatchery production systems: flow-through with a gravity water supply, flo...

  19. Metadata in a Digital Special Library: The Energy and Environmental Information Resources Center in Lafayette, Louisiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Dan

    1999-01-01

    Discusses three kinds of metadata--Dublin Core (DC), MARC21 (formerly USMARC), and Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC)--and how they are used in the Energy & Environmental Information Resources Center (EE-IR Center), a digital special library of text, numeric, and geospatial data in Lafayette, Louisiana. Includes 5 figures. (Contains 48…

  20. Linking energy-sanitation-agriculture: Intersectional resource management in smallholder households in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Krause, Ariane; Rotter, Vera Susanne

    2017-07-15

    In order to create sustainable systems for resource management, residues from cooking and ecological sanitation (EcoSan) can be employed in recycling-driven soil fertility management. However, the link between energy, sanitation, and agricultural productivity is often neglected. Hence, the potential self-sufficient nature of many smallholdings in sub-Saharan Africa is underexploited.

  1. Finding a Place for Energy: Siting Coal Conversion Facilities. Resource Publications in Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calzonetti, Frank J.; Eckert, Mark S.

    The process of identifying, licensing, and developing energy facility sites for the conversion of coal into more useful forms is the focus of this book, intended for geography students, professors, and researchers. The use of domestic coal resources will ameliorate U.S. dependency on imported fuel. However, because coal is a bulky, dirty fuel…

  2. Space technology in the discovery and development of mineral and energy resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, P. D.

    1977-01-01

    Space technology, applied to the discovery and extraction of mineral and energy resources, is summarized. Orbital remote sensing for geological purposes has been widely applied through the use of LANDSAT satellites. These techniques also have been of value for protection against environmental hazards and for a better understanding of crustal structure.

  3. US Department of Energy Integrated Resource Planning Program: Accomplishments and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.L.; Mihlmester, P.E.

    1993-12-17

    The US Department of Energy Integrated Resource Planning Program supports many activities and projects that enhance the process by which utilities assess demand and supply options and, subsequently, evaluate and select resources. The US Department of Energy program coordinates integrated resource planning in risk and regulatory analysis; utility and regional planning; evaluation and verification; information transfer/technological assistance; and demand-side management. Professional staff from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest Laboratories collaborate with peers and stakeholders, in particular, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, and conduct research and activities for the US Department of Energy. Twelve integrated resource planning activities and projects are summarized in this report. The summaries reflect the diversity of planning and research activities supported by the Department. The summaries also reflect the high levels of collaboration and teaming that are required by the Program and practiced by the researchers. It is concluded that the Program is achieving its objectives by encouraging innovation and improving planning and decision making. Furthermore, as the Department continues to implement planned improvements in the Program, the Department is effectively positioned to attain its ambitious goals.

  4. Package of online Teacher Resources for Generate, the EPA Energy Game

    EPA Science Inventory

    These materials will enable teachers to make and utilize their own copy of the energy board game, called Generate, that has been developed in ORD and used in local EPA-RTP STEM outreach. The teacher resource package includes: (1) Webinar presentation for National Science Teach...

  5. Balancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy inWestern Utility Resource Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2005-09-01

    Markets for renewable electricity have grown significantly in recent years, motivated in part by federal tax incentives and in part by state renewables portfolio standards and renewable energy funds. State renewables portfolio standards, for example, motivated approximately 45% of the 4,300 MW of wind power installed in the U.S. from 2001 through 2004, while renewable energy funds supported an additional 15% of these installations. Despite the importance of these state policies, a less widely recognized driver for renewable energy market growth is poised to also play an important role in the coming years: utility integrated resource planning (IRP). Formal resource planning processes have re-emerged in recent years as an important tool for utilities and regulators, particularly in regions where retail competition has failed to take root. In the western United States, recent resource plans contemplate a significant amount of renewable energy additions. These planned additions - primarily coming from wind power - are motivated by the improved economics of wind power, a growing acceptance of wind by electric utilities, and an increasing recognition of the inherent risks (e.g., natural gas price risk, environmental compliance risk) in fossil-based generation portfolios. The treatment of renewable energy in utility resource plans is not uniform, however. Assumptions about the direct and indirect costs of renewable resources, as well as resource availability, differ, as do approaches to incorporating such resources into the candidate portfolios that are analyzed in utility IRPs. The treatment of natural gas price risk, as well as the risk of future environmental regulations, also varies substantially. How utilities balance expected portfolio cost versus risk in selecting a preferred portfolio also differs. Each of these variables may have a substantial effect on the degree to which renewable energy contributes to the preferred portfolio of each utility IRP. This article

  6. Mapping and Assessment of the United States Ocean Wave Energy Resource

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, Paul T; Hagerman, George; Scott, George

    2011-12-01

    This project estimates the naturally available and technically recoverable U.S. wave energy resources, using a 51-month Wavewatch III hindcast database developed especially for this study by National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) National Centers for Environmental Prediction. For total resource estimation, wave power density in terms of kilowatts per meter is aggregated across a unit diameter circle. This approach is fully consistent with accepted global practice and includes the resource made available by the lateral transfer of wave energy along wave crests, which enables wave diffraction to substantially reestablish wave power densities within a few kilometers of a linear array, even for fixed terminator devices. The total available wave energy resource along the U.S. continental shelf edge, based on accumulating unit circle wave power densities, is estimated to be 2,640 TWh/yr, broken down as follows: 590 TWh/yr for the West Coast, 240 TWh/yr for the East Coast, 80 TWh/yr for the Gulf of Mexico, 1570 TWh/yr for Alaska, 130 TWh/yr for Hawaii, and 30 TWh/yr for Puerto Rico. The total recoverable wave energy resource, as constrained by an array capacity packing density of 15 megawatts per kilometer of coastline, with a 100-fold operating range between threshold and maximum operating conditions in terms of input wave power density available to such arrays, yields a total recoverable resource along the U.S. continental shelf edge of 1,170 TWh/yr, broken down as follows: 250 TWh/yr for the West Coast, 160 TWh/yr for the East Coast, 60 TWh/yr for the Gulf of Mexico, 620 TWh/yr for Alaska, 80 TWh/yr for Hawaii, and 20 TWh/yr for Puerto Rico.

  7. Assessment of U.S. Energy Wave Resources: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-328

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, G.

    2012-06-01

    In terms of extractable wave energy resource for our preliminary assessment, the EPRI/National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) assumed that 15% of the available resource could be extracted based on societal constraints of a 30% coverage of the coastline with a 50% efficient wave energy absorbing device. EPRI recognizes that much work needs to be done to better define the extractable resource and we have outlined a comprehensive approach to doing this in our proposed scope of work, along with specific steps for refining our estimate of the available wave energy resources.

  8. Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources: Appendix C - Validation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Douglas

    2004-04-01

    Analytical assessments of the water energy resources in the 20 hydrologic regions of the United States were performed using state-of-the-art digital elevation models and geographic information system tools. The principal focus of the study was on low head (less than 30 ft)/low power (less than 1 MW) resources in each region. The assessments were made by estimating the power potential of all the stream segments in a region, which averaged 2 miles in length. These calculations were performed using hydrography and hydraulic heads that were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey’s Elevation Derivatives for National Applications dataset and stream flow predictions from a regression equation or equations developed specifically for the region. Stream segments excluded from development and developed hydropower were accounted for to produce an estimate of total available power potential. The total available power potential was subdivided into high power (1 MW or more), high head (30 ft or more)/low power, and low head/low power total potentials. The low head/low power potential was further divided to obtain the fractions of this potential corresponding to the operating envelopes of three classes of hydropower technologies: conventional turbines, unconventional systems, and microhydro (less than 100 kW). Summing information for all the regions provided total power potential in various power classes for the entire United States. Distribution maps show the location and concentrations of the various classes of low power potential. No aspect of the feasibility of developing these potential resources was evaluated.

  9. Energy Storage for Variable Renewable Energy Resource Integration - A Regional Assessment for the Northwest Power Pool (NWPP)

    SciTech Connect

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Jin, Chunlian; Balducci, Patrick J.; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Guo, Xinxin; Nguyen, Tony B.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.

    2011-03-20

    This paper addresses the following key questions in the discussion on the integration of renewable energy resources in the Pacific Northwest power grid: a) what will be the future balancing requirement to accommodate a simulated expansion of wind energy resources from 3.3 GW in 2008 to 14.4 GW in 2019 in the Northwest Power Pool (NWPP), and b) what are the most cost effective technological solutions for meeting the balancing requirements in the Northwest Power Pool (NWPP). A life-cycle analysis was performed to assess the least-cost technology option for meeting the new balancing requirement. The technologies considered in this study include conventional turbines (CT), sodium sulfur (NaS) batteries, lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries, pumped hydro energy storage (PH), and demand response (DR). Hybrid concepts that combine 2 or more of the technologies above are also evaluated. This analysis was performed with collaboration by the Bonneville Power Administration and funded by the Energy Storage Systems Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  10. Relative abundances of methane- and sulphur-oxidising symbionts in the gills of a cold seep mussel and link to their potential energy sources.

    PubMed

    Duperron, S; Guezi, H; Gaudron, S M; Pop Ristova, P; Wenzhöfer, F; Boetius, A

    2011-11-01

    Bathymodiolus mussels are key species in many deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystems. They often harbour two types of endosymbiotic bacteria in their gills, sulphur- and methane oxidisers. These bacteria take up sulphide and methane from the environment and provide energy to their hosts, supporting some of the most prolific ecosystems in the sea. In this study, we tested whether symbiont relative abundances in Bathymodiolus gills reflect variations in the highly spatially dynamic chemical environment of cold seep mussels. Samples of Bathymodiolus aff. boomerang were obtained from two cold seeps of the deep Gulf of Guinea, REGAB (5°47.86S, 9°42.69E, 3170 m depth) and DIAPIR (6°41.58S, 10°20.94E, 2700 m depth). Relative abundances of both symbiont types were measured by means of 3D fluorescence in situ hybridisation and image analysis and compared considering the local sulphide and methane concentrations and fluxes assessed via benthic chamber incubations. Specimens inhabiting areas with highest methane content displayed higher relative abundances of methane oxidisers. The bacterial abundances correlated also with carbon stable isotope signatures in the mussel tissue, suggesting a higher contribution of methane-derived carbon to the biomass of mussels harbouring higher densities of methane-oxidising symbionts. A dynamic adaptation of abundances of methanotrophs and thiotrophs in the gill could be a key factor optimising the energy yield for the symbiotic system and could explain the success of dual symbiotic mussels at many cold seeps and hydrothermal vents of the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico.

  11. Pursuing Energy Efficiency as a Hedge against Carbon Regulatory Risks: Current Resource Planning Practices in the West

    SciTech Connect

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles

    2008-07-11

    Uncertainty surrounding the nature and timing of future carbon regulations poses a fundamental and far-reaching financial risk for electric utilities and their ratepayers. Long-term resource planning provides a potential framework within which utilities can assess carbon regulatory risk and evaluate options for mitigating exposure to this risk through investments in energy efficiency and other low-carbon resources. In this paper, we examine current resource planning practices related to managing carbon regulatory risk, based on a comparative analysis of the most-recent long-term resource plans filed by fifteen major utilities in the Western U.S. First, we compare the assumptions and methods used by utilities to assess carbon regulatory risk and to evaluate energy efficiency as a risk mitigation option. Although most utilities have made important strides in beginning to address carbon regulatory risk within their resource plan, we also identify a number of opportunities for improvement and offer recommendations for resource planners and state regulators to consider. We also summarize the composition and carbon intensity of the preferred resource portfolios selected by the fifteen Western utilities, highlighting the contribution of energy efficiency and its impact on the carbon intensity of utilities' proposed resource strategies. Energy efficiency and renewables are the dominant low-carbon resources included in utilities' preferred portfolios. Across the fifteen utilities, energy efficiency constitutes anywhere from 6percent to almost 50percent of the preferred portfolio energy resources, and represents 22percent of all incremental resources in aggregate.

  12. Pursuing Energy Efficiency as a Hedge against Carbon Regulatory Risks: Current Resource Planning Practices in the West

    SciTech Connect

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles

    2008-08-01

    Uncertainty surrounding the nature and timing of future carbon regulations poses a fundamental and far-reaching financial risk for electric utilities and their ratepayers. Long-term resource planning provides a potential framework within which utilities can assess carbon regulatory risk and evaluate options for mitigating exposure to this risk through investments in energy efficiency and other low-carbon resources. In this paper, we examine current resource planning practices related to managing carbon regulatory risk, based on a comparative analysis of the most-recent long-term resource plans filed by fifteen major utilities in the Western U.S. First, we compare the assumptions and methods used by utilities to assess carbon regulatory risk and to evaluate energy efficiency as a risk mitigation option. Although most utilities have made important strides in beginning to address carbon regulatory risk within their resource plan, we also identify a number of opportunities for improvement and offer recommendations for resource planners and state regulators to consider. We also summarize the composition and carbon intensity of the preferred resource portfolios selected by the fifteen Western utilities, highlighting the contribution of energy efficiency and its impact on the carbon intensity of utilities' proposed resource strategies. Energy efficiency and renewables are the dominant low-carbon resources included in utilities' preferred portfolios. Across the fifteen utilities, energy efficiency constitutes anywhere from 6percent to almost 50percent of the preferred portfolio energy resources, and represents 22percent of all incremental resources in aggregate.

  13. Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The resources listed different types of materials related to the aerospace science under specified categories: free materials and inexpensive, selected government publication, audiovisual (government, nongovernment), aviation books, and space books. The list includes the publisher's name and the price for each publication. (SK)

  14. Characterizing China's energy consumption with selective economic factors and energy-resource endowment: a spatial econometric approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lei; Ji, Minhe; Bai, Ling

    2014-09-01

    Coupled with intricate regional interactions, the provincial disparity of energy-resource endowment and other economic conditions in China have created spatially complex energy consumption patterns that require analyses beyond the traditional ones. To distill the spatial effect out of the resource and economic factors on China's energy consumption, this study recast the traditional econometric model in a spatial context. Several analytic steps were taken to reveal different aspects of the issue. Per capita energy consumption (AVEC) at the provincial level was first mapped to reveal spatial clusters of high energy consumption being located in either well developed or energy resourceful regions. This visual spatial autocorrelation pattern of AVEC was quantitatively tested to confirm its existence among Chinese provinces. A Moran scatterplot was employed to further display a relatively centralized trend occurring in those provinces that had parallel AVEC, revealing a spatial structure with attraction among high-high or low-low regions and repellency among high-low or low-high regions. By a comparison between the ordinary least square (OLS) model and its spatial econometric counterparts, a spatial error model (SEM) was selected to analyze the impact of major economic determinants on AVEC. While the analytic results revealed a significant positive correlation between AVEC and economic development, other determinants showed some intricate influential patterns. The provinces endowed with rich energy reserves were inclined to consume much more energy than those otherwise, whereas changing the economic structure by increasing the proportion of secondary and tertiary industries also tended to consume more energy. Both situations seem to underpin the fact that these provinces were largely trapped in the economies that were supported by technologies of low energy efficiency during the period, while other parts of the country were rapidly modernized by adopting advanced

  15. Characterizing China's energy consumption with selective economic factors and energy-resource endowment: a spatial econometric approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lei; Ji, Minhe; Bai, Ling

    2015-06-01

    Coupled with intricate regional interactions, the provincial disparity of energy-resource endowment and other economic conditions in China have created spatially complex energy consumption patterns that require analyses beyond the traditional ones. To distill the spatial effect out of the resource and economic factors on China's energy consumption, this study recast the traditional econometric model in a spatial context. Several analytic steps were taken to reveal different aspects of the issue. Per capita energy consumption (AVEC) at the provincial level was first mapped to reveal spatial clusters of high energy consumption being located in either well developed or energy resourceful regions. This visual spatial autocorrelation pattern of AVEC was quantitatively tested to confirm its existence among Chinese provinces. A Moran scatterplot was employed to further display a relatively centralized trend occurring in those provinces that had parallel AVEC, revealing a spatial structure with attraction among high-high or low-low regions and repellency among high-low or low-high regions. By a comparison between the ordinary least square (OLS) model and its spatial econometric counterparts, a spatial error model (SEM) was selected to analyze the impact of major economic determinants on AVEC. While the analytic results revealed a significant positive correlation between AVEC and economic development, other determinants showed some intricate influential patterns. The provinces endowed with rich energy reserves were inclined to consume much more energy than those otherwise, whereas changing the economic structure by increasing the proportion of secondary and tertiary industries also tended to consume more energy. Both situations seem to underpin the fact that these provinces were largely trapped in the economies that were supported by technologies of low energy efficiency during the period, while other parts of the country were rapidly modernized by adopting advanced

  16. Water Energy Resource Data from Idaho National Laboratory's Virtual Hydropower Prospector

    DOE Data Explorer

    The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hydropower Program is to conduct research and development (R&D) that will improve the technical, societal, and environmental benefits of hydropower and provide cost-competitive technologies that enable the development of new and incremental hydropower capacity, adding diversity to the nation's energy supply. The Virtual Hydropower Prospector is a GIS application to locate and evaluate natural stream water energy resources. In the interactive data map the U.S. is divided into 20 hydrologic regions. The Prospector tool applies an analytical process to determine the gross power potential of these regions and helps users to site potential hydropower projects.

  17. Office of Codes and Standards resource book. Section 1, Building energy codes and standards

    SciTech Connect

    Hattrup, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Codes and Standards has developed this Resource Book to provide: A discussion of DOE involvement in building codes and standards; a current and accurate set of descriptions of residential, commercial, and Federal building codes and standards; information on State contacts, State code status, State building construction unit volume, and State needs; and a list of stakeholders in the building energy codes and standards arena. The Resource Book is considered an evolving document and will be updated occasionally. Users are requested to submit additional data (e.g., more current, widely accepted, and/or documented data) and suggested changes to the address listed below. Please provide sources for all data provided.

  18. Energy-nutrients-water nexus: integrated resource recovery in municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Mo, Weiwei; Zhang, Qiong

    2013-09-30

    Wastewater treatment consumes large amounts of energy and materials to comply with discharge standards. At the same time, wastewater contains resources, which can be recovered for secondary uses if treated properly. Hence, the goal of this paper is to review the available resource recovery methods onsite or offsite of municipal wastewater treatment plants. These methods are categorized into three major resource recovery approaches: onsite energy generation, nutrient recycling and water reuse. Under each approach, the review provides the advantages and disadvantages, recovery potentials and current application status of each method, as well as the synthesized results of the life cycle studies for each approach. From a comprehensive literature review, it was found that, in addition to technology improvements, there is also a need to evaluate the applications of the resource recovery methods in wastewater treatment plants from a life cycle perspective. Future research should investigate the integration of the resource recovery methods to explore the combined benefits and potential tradeoffs of these methods under different scales.

  19. Modeling of thermal storage systems in MILP distributed energy resource models

    SciTech Connect

    Steen, David; Stadler, Michael; Cardoso, Gonçalo; Groissböck, Markus; DeForest, Nicholas; Marnay, Chris

    2014-08-04

    Thermal energy storage (TES) and distributed generation technologies, such as combined heat and power (CHP) or photovoltaics (PV), can be used to reduce energy costs and decrease CO2 emissions from buildings by shifting energy consumption to times with less emissions and/or lower energy prices. To determine the feasibility of investing in TES in combination with other distributed energy resources (DER), mixed integer linear programming (MILP) can be used. Such a MILP model is the well-established Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM); however, it currently uses only a simplified TES model to guarantee linearity and short run-times. Loss calculations are based only on the energy contained in the storage. This paper presents a new DER-CAM TES model that allows improved tracking of losses based on ambient and storage temperatures, and compares results with the previous version. A multi-layer TES model is introduced that retains linearity and avoids creating an endogenous optimization problem. The improved model increases the accuracy of the estimated storage losses and enables use of heat pumps for low temperature storage charging. Ultimately,results indicate that the previous model overestimates the attractiveness of TES investments for cases without possibility to invest in heat pumps and underestimates it for some locations when heat pumps are allowed. Despite a variation in optimal technology selection between the two models, the objective function value stays quite stable, illustrating the complexity of optimal DER sizing problems in buildings and microgrids.

  20. Development of a multi-resource alternate energy facility. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Keel, J.S.

    1981-04-01

    A grant was awarded for development of a bio-gas alternate energy project on a 60 acre cattle farm on the outskirts of Harrison, Arkansas. The project required construction of a bio-gas plant to demonstrate that methane gas produced from livestock manure can lead to semi-independence of rural areas from traditional energy resources, and that the effluent fertilizer produced will reduce reliance on chemical fertilizers. A supplemental grant was awarded for adding a solar hot water heater for the bio-gas plant, and a wind powered electrical generating system for the project. Thus, this is a multi-resource alternate energy facility that uses solar, wind and bio-conversion to produce energy for the farm. The facility has three sub-systems: (a) A bio-gas plant which produces methane gas which can be used for hot water heat or other human comfort needs, generation of electricity, a rich effluent alternate fertilizer, and an alternate vehicle fuel. (b) A solar hot water heater that provides supplemental heat for the methane-powered bio-gas digester circulating hot water system. (c) A wind powered electrical generating system which supplements farm and residential electrical demands. The goals of the facility are to: (a) Introduce small-scale alternate energy technology into farming operations. (b) Demonstrate that small-scale energy alternatives are practical and attainable. (c) Stimulate production of alternate energy technology in Agriculture.

  1. Utilizing an Energy Management System with Distributed Resources to Manage Critical Loads and Reduce Energy Costs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Systems with Electric Power Systems,” IEEE std 1547.4–2011, IEEE , 2011. [3] Department of the Navy, “Department of the Navy’s Energy Program for...Providing Improved Power Quality in Microgrids,” IEEE Industry Applications Magazine , pp. 34–43, September– October 2014. [27] A. Julian, N. Peck...and G. Oriti, “ Power electronics enabled energy management systems,” in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference, Long Beach, CA

  2. Framework for Integrated Water, Energy, and Environmental Resources Assessment, Planning, and Management: Lake Victoria Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgakakos, A.; Yao, H.; Tidwell, A.

    2006-12-01

    This article describes a recent assessment study for Lake Victoria in East Africa. The study includes three interlinked components. The first pertains to Lake Victoria regulation and includes climate and hydrologic forecasting (seasonal, inter-annual, and centennial), and outflow regulation (water resources planning). The second pertains to energy system planning, and the third to environmental and socio-economic impact assessments. These components converge at the operational level where water, energy, and environmental management are harmonized through the use of a decision support system, the Lake Victoria Decision Support Tool. Some of the broad study findings are summarized below: (1)Lake Victoria is entering a new era in which sustainable water resources management is tightly linked to and can only be achieved by proactive energy planning. To meet this new challenge, and maximize the benefit of the decision support system, water and energy sector decisions must be institutionally coordinated. (2)Climate and hydrologic forecasts of sufficient skill are critical for effective water resources and energy planning and management. More specifically, extensive assessments with several GCMs and climate scenarios indicate that Lake Victoria will most likely be adversely impacted by climate change with potentially serious local and regional consequences. Furthermore, seasonal and inter-annual forecasts are very important in meeting medium term water and energy demands and minimizing the costs of thermal energy generation. (3)Wetland ecological and socio-economic benefits are comparable to power sector benefits, underscoring the need for more comprehensive evaluations of non-power water uses and integrative water, energy, and environmental planning and management. (4)Integrated forecast-decision systems are excellent means to bring to bear and make practically available advances in various water-related disciplines for the benefit of managers and policy makers.

  3. NOGA Online: a USGS resource for energy GIS data and services

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biewick, Laura R.H.; Gunther, Greg L.

    2003-01-01

    The PowerPoint presentation in this report was given at the BLM Resource Management Tools Conference in Phoenix, Arizona, April, 2003. Some diagrams that appeared in the original presentation have been updated in this report. It informs that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Central Energy Resources Team (CERT) in Denver, Colorado, is providing National Oil and Gas Assessment (NOGA) results online at http://energy.cr.usgs.gov/oilgas/noga/. Available at this site are recently completed assessments of the potential for undiscovered oil and natural gas resources of five priority provinces (Montana Thrust Belt, Powder River Basin, San Juan Basin, Southwestern Wyoming, Uinta-Piceance) to meet the requirements of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 2000 (EPCA 2000). High demand for current assessment results and for the entirely digital, 1995 NOGA results for other provinces, prompted CERT to develop an internet map application using ArcIMS to deliver geologic data to the public. CERT continues to work on assessing oil and natural gas resources of priority basins in the United States; assessment results and GIS layers are made available at this site on an ongoing basis.

  4. Material resources, energy, and nutrient recovery from waste: are waste refineries the solution for the future?

    PubMed

    Tonini, Davide; Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-08-06

    Waste refineries focusing on multiple outputs of material resources, energy carriers, and nutrients may potentially provide more sustainable utilization of waste resources than traditional waste technologies. This consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluated the environmental performance of a Danish waste refinery solution against state-of-the-art waste technology alternatives (incineration, mechanical-biological treatment (MBT), and landfilling). In total, 252 scenarios were evaluated, including effects from source-segregation, waste composition, and energy conversion pathway efficiencies. Overall, the waste refinery provided global warming (GW) savings comparable with efficient incineration, MBT, and bioreactor landfilling technologies. The main environmental benefits from waste refining were a potential for improved phosphorus recovery (about 85%) and increased electricity production (by 15-40% compared with incineration), albeit at the potential expense of additional toxic emissions to soil. Society's need for the outputs from waste, i.e., energy products (electricity vs transport fuels) and resources (e.g., phosphorus), and the available waste composition were found decisive for the selection of future technologies. On the basis of the results, it is recommended that a narrow focus on GW aspects should be avoided as most waste technologies may allow comparable performance. Rather, other environmental aspects such as resource recovery and toxic emissions should receive attention in the future.

  5. 76 FR 36532 - Iberdrola Renewables, Inc., PacifiCorp, NextEra Energy Resources, LLC, Invenergy Wind North...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ..., Invenergy Wind North America LLC, Horizon Wind Energy LLC v. Bonneville Power Administration; Notice of... Resources, LLC, Invenergy Wind North America LLC, and Horizon Wind Energy LLC (Complainants) filed a...

  6. Mineral, Energy, and Fertilizer Resources of the North Coast of Peru: Perspective from the Santa Rita B Archaeological Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, William E.; Kent, Jonathan D.; Willett, Jason C.

    2004-01-01

    The Santa Rita B archaeological site is in the Chao Valley, approximately 65 km southeast of Trujillo, northern Peru. Location of Santa Rita B at the emergence of several drainages from the Andean cordillera is an important factor in the almost continuous occupation of the site over the past 3,000 years. Mineral resources are abundant throughout the Andes; however, the north coast of Peru was an important center for pre-Columbian mining, metallurgy, and craftsmanship. Success of the Chavin, Moche, Chimu, and other north coast cultures is directly related to the availability and exploitation of mineral and energy resources that include: gold (?silver), as electrum, mainly from placers, and copper from local oxide and carbonate occurrences and from sulfides related to copper porphyry occurrences in the cordillera. An alloy of these three metals is referred to as tumbaga, which is the primary material for Andean metalcraft. Anthracite was used for mirrors by north coast cultures and is available near Rio Chicama, Rio Santa, and east of Santa Rita B. These outcrops are a part of the Alto Chicama, Peru's largest coalfield, which extends from Rio Chicama, in the north, for 200 km southward to Rio Santa. Charcoal from the algorrobo tree and llama dung are considered to be the common pre-Columbian energy sources for cooking and metalwork; however, availability and the higher heat content of anthracite indicate that it was used in metallurgical applications. Bitumen is available from petroleum seeps near Talara, north of the study area, and may have been used as glue or as cement. Hematite, goethite, limonite, and manganese oxides from clay-altered volcanic rock may have provided color and material for ceramics. Guano from the Islas Gua?apes, Chinchas, and Ballestas was used as fertilizer for cotton and other crops.

  7. US East Coast offshore wind energy resources and their relationship to time-varying electricity demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, M. J.; Corcoran, B. A.; Ten Hoeve, J. E.; Jacobson, M. Z.; McIntyre, N.

    2011-12-01

    This study characterizes the annual-mean US East Coast (USEC) offshore wind energy (OWE) resource based on 5 years of skillful, high resolution mesoscale model (WRF-ARW) results at the turbine hub height of 90 m. Model output was validated buoys and offshore towers, which provides insight into the relative errors of forecasting winds in the region. The most suitable locations for OWE are prescribed, based on their wind resource, shallow bathymetry, low hurricane risk, and peak-power generation potential. The offshore region from Maine to Virginia was found to have exceptional overall resource the best wind resource, shallow water, and low hurricane risk. The region east of Long Island, NY to Cape Cod, MA has the best summertime peak resource, due to regional upwelling that often strengthens the sea breeze. Overall, the resource from Maine to Florida out to 200-m depth, using turbine capacity factor cutoffs of 45% and 40% is between 1175-1672 TWh (134-191 GW avg.). Between 30-42% of the electricity demand for the entire US (2009) could be provided using USEC OWE alone and 93-133% of Maine to Florida (2008) demand.

  8. Harnessing Potential Evaporation as a Renewable Energy Resource With Water-Saving Benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavusoglu, A. H.; Chen, X.; Gentine, P.; Sahin, O.

    2015-12-01

    Water's large latent heat of vaporization makes evaporation a critical component of the energy balance at the Earth's surface. An immense amount of energy drives the hydrological cycle and is an important component of various weather and climate patterns. However, the potential of harnessing evaporation has received little attention as a renewable energy resource compared to wind and solar energy. Here, we investigate the potential of harvesting energy from naturally evaporating water. Using weather data across the contiguous United States and a modified model of potential evaporation, we estimate the power availability, intermittency, and the changes in evaporation rates imposed by energy conversion. Our results indicate that natural evaporation can deliver power densities similar to existing renewable energy platforms and require little to no energy storage to match the varying power demands of urban areas. This model also predicts additional, and substantial, water savings by reducing evaporative losses. These findings suggest that evaporative energy harvesting can address significant challenges with water/energy interactions that could be of interest to the hydrology community.

  9. Fort Irwin integrated resource assessment. Volume 3: Sitewide Energy Project identification for buildings and facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.M.; Dittmer, A.L.; Elliott, D.B.; McMordie, K.L.; Richman, E.E.; Stucky, D.J.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Hadley, D.L.

    1995-02-01

    The U.S. Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), supported by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Irwin. This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at the FORSCOM Fort Irwin facility located near Barstow, California. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 16 common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). A narrative description of each ERO is provided, along with a table detailing information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings; impacts on operations and maintenance (O&M); and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis indicating the net present valve (NPV) and savings-to-investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  10. The impacts of climate changes in the renewable energy resources in the Caribbean region

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson III, David J

    2010-02-01

    Assessment of renewable energy resources such as surface solar radiation and wind current has great relevance in the development of local and regional energy policies. This paper examines the variability and availability of these resources as a function of possible climate changes for the Caribbean region. Global climate changes have been reported in the last decades, causing changes in the atmospheric dynamics, which affects the net solar radiation balance at the surface and the wind strength and direction. For this investigation, the future climate changes for the Caribbean are predicted using the parallel climate model (PCM) and it is coupled with the numerical model regional atmospheric modeling system (RAMS) to simulate the solar and wind energy spatial patterns changes for the specific case of the island of Puerto Rico. Numerical results from PCM indicate that the Caribbean basin from 2041 to 2055 will experience a slight decrease in the net surface solar radiation (with respect to the years 1996-2010), which is more pronounced in the western Caribbean sea. Results also indicate that the easterly winds have a tendency to increase in its magnitude, especially from the years 2070 to 2098. The regional model showed that important areas to collect solar energy are located in the eastern side of Puerto Rico, while the more intense wind speed is placed around the coast. A future climate change is expected in the Caribbean that will result in higher energy demands, but both renewable energy sources will have enough intensity to be used in the future as alternative energy resources to mitigate future climate changes.

  11. Audit Report "Department of Energy Efforts to Manage Information Technology Resources in an Energy-Efficient and Environmentally Responsible Manner"

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 emphasizes energy efficiency and conservation as critical to the Nation's economic vitality; its goal of reducing dependence on foreign energy sources; and, related efforts to improve the environment. The Act highlights the significant use of various forms of energy in the Federal sector and promotes efforts to improve the energy efficiency of Federal operations. One specific area of interest is the increasing demand for Federal sector computing resources and the corresponding increase in energy use, with both cost and environmental implications. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reported that, without aggressive conservation measures, data center energy consumption alone is expected to double over the next five years. In our report on Management of the Department's Data Centers at Contractor Sites (DOE/IG-0803, October 2008) we concluded that the Department of Energy had not always improved the efficiency of its contractor data centers even when such modifications were possible and practical. Despite its recognized energy conservation leadership role, the Department had not always taken advantage of opportunities to reduce energy consumption associated with its information technology resources. Nor, had it ensured that resources were managed in a way that minimized impact on the environment. In particular: (1) The seven Federal and contractor sites included in our review had not fully reduced energy consumption through implementation of power management settings on their desktop and laptop computers; and, as a consequence, spent $1.6 million more on energy costs than necessary in Fiscal Year 2008; (2) None of the sites reviewed had taken advantage of opportunities to reduce energy consumption, enhance cyber security, and reduce costs available through the use of techniques, such as 'thin-client computing' in their unclassified environments; and, (3) Sites had not always taken the necessary steps to reduce

  12. What balance do countries exhibit between the central human resources: water, energy and food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossak, Julian; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2013-04-01

    Sufficient water, food and energy is a precondition for human activities. The water, energy and food nexus states that to some extend, these resources can replace each another: land can be used to produce food or energy crops; water can be used as direct water supply, to produce energy or for irrigation; and energy supports water treatment and agricultural yield. We present an overview of the major components of the trade-off together with a set of indicators and data sources to assess these components. The different indicators of the trade-off are summarized and plotted in a novel way on a triangle, which we discuss in view of the resource availability of different countries. Comparing different countries in view of their balance between water, food and energy will inform the discussion about the transition towards more sustainable societies and highlighting alternative strategies for development. This is important in view of possible synergies between the different sectors and as a tool for better coordinated governance approaches.

  13. 75 FR 45623 - Morris Energy Group, LLC v.PSEG Energy Resources & Trade LLC; PSEG Fossil LLC; and PSEG Power LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Morris Energy Group, LLC v.PSEG Energy Resources & Trade LLC; PSEG Fossil..., LLC, PSEG Fossil LLC and PSEG Power LLC (PSEG Power Companies) (Respondents), requesting that...

  14. Energy conservation and alternate energy resources for a dairy utilizing a water flush waste disposal system

    SciTech Connect

    Erdman, M.D.; Bryan, W.L.; Johnson, J.C. Jr.; Newton, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    Electricity use and costs were evaluated for a dairy farm using a water flush disposal system. Electricity conservastion, reducing the peak electrical demand, and alternative energy production from animal waste can be reduce purchased electrical costs while still maintaining the benefits derived from mechanization. ref.

  15. Wind and solar energy resources on the 'Roof of the World'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandler, Harald; Morche, Thomas; Samimi, Cyrus

    2015-04-01

    The Eastern Pamirs of Tajikistan, often referred to as 'Roof of the World', are an arid high mountain plateau characterized by severe energy poverty that may have great potential for renewable energy resources due to the prevailing natural conditions. The lack of energetic infrastructure makes the region a prime target for decentralized integration of wind and solar power. However, up to date no scientific attempt to assess the regional potential of these resources has been carried out. In this context, it is particularly important to evaluate if wind and solar energy are able to provide enough power to generate thermal energy, as other thermal energy carriers are scarce or unavailable and the existing alternative, local harvest of dwarf shrubs, is unsustainable due to the slow regeneration in this environment. Therefore, this study examines the feasibility of using wind and solar energy as thermal energy sources. Financial frame conditions were set on a maximum amount of five million Euros. This sum provides a realistic scenario as it is based on the current budget of the KfW development bank to finance the modernization of the local hydropower plant in the regions only city, Murghab, with about 1500 households. The basis for resource assessment is data of four climate stations, erected for this purpose in 2012, where wind speed, wind direction, global radiation and temperature are measured at a half hourly interval. These measurements confirm the expectation of a large photovoltaic potential and high panel efficiency with up to 84 percent of extraterrestrial radiation reaching the surface and only 16 hours of temperatures above 25°C were measured in two years at the village stations on average. As these observations are only point measurements, radiation data and the ASTER GDEM was used to train a GIS based solar radiation model to spatially extrapolate incoming radiation. With mean validation errors ranging from 5% in July (minimum) to 15% in December (maximum

  16. 77 FR 2286 - Iberdrola Renewables, Inc., PacifiCorp, NextEra Energy Resources, LLC, Invenergy Wind North...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Iberdrola Renewables, Inc., PacifiCorp, NextEra Energy Resources, LLC, Invenergy Wind North America LLC, Horizon Wind Energy LLC v. Bonneville Power Administration; Notice...

  17. 78 FR 15718 - Iberdrola Renewables, Inc. PacifiCorp NextEra Energy Resources, LLC Invenergy Wind North America...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Iberdrola Renewables, Inc. PacifiCorp NextEra Energy Resources, LLC Invenergy Wind North America LLC Horizon Wind Energy LLC v. Bonneville Power Administration; Notice...

  18. Joint Solar Power Industry and Department of Energy Solar Resource and Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, Steve; Myers, Daryl

    2009-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory has embarked on a collaborative effort with the solar industry to establish high quality solar and meteorological measurements. This Solar Resource and Meteorological Assessment Project (SOLRMAP) provides high quality measurements to support deployment of concentrating solar thermal power projects in the United States. The no-funds-exchanged collaboration brings NREL solar resource assessment expertise together with industry needs for measurements. The end result will be high quality data sets to support the financing, design, and monitoring of large scale solar power projects for industry in addition to research-quality data for NREL model development. NREL provides consultation for instrumentation and station deployment, along with instrument calibrations, data acquisition, quality assessment, data distribution, and summary reports. Industry participants provide equipment, infrastructure, and station maintenance.

  19. Current Status and Future Perspective of Nuclear Energy Human Resource Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Shinji

    In recent years, expectations for nuclear energy have been increasing in Japan because of its role and responsibility as a key power source, the contribution it can make to a global nuclear renaissance, the need for energy security, and the importance of combating global warming. Ensuring and fostering good human resources is essential if the nuclear industry is to maintain itself and expand its scale. There are obstacles, however, in doing so : a declining birth rate, job-hunting problem, the wave of retirements in 2007, the declining popularity of engineering departments and particularly nuclear-related subjects, a weakening of nuclear education, and deteriorating research facilities and equipment. While nuclear-related academic, industrial and governmental parties share this recognition and are cooperating and collaborating, all organizations are expected similarly to continue their own wholehearted efforts at human resource development.

  20. Catalytic partial oxidation coupled with membrane purification to improve resource and energy efficiency in syngas production.

    PubMed

    Iaquaniello, G; Salladini, A; Palo, E; Centi, G

    2015-02-01

    Catalytic partial oxidation coupled with membrane purification is a new process scheme to improve resource and energy efficiency in a well-established and large scale-process like syngas production. Experimentation in a semi industrial-scale unit (20 Nm(3)  h(-1) production) shows that a novel syngas production scheme based on a pre-reforming stage followed by a membrane for hydrogen separation, a catalytic partial oxidation step, and a further step of syngas purification by membrane allows the oxygen-to-carbon ratio to be decreased while maintaining levels of feed conversion. For a total feed conversion of 40 %, for example, the integrated novel architecture reduces oxygen consumption by over 50 %, with thus a corresponding improvement in resource efficiency and an improved energy efficiency and economics, these factors largely depending on the air separation stage used to produce pure oxygen.

  1. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 1. Northeast Solar Energy Center Region

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Northeast Solar Energy Center Region. (WHK).

  2. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 3. Southern Solar Energy Center Region

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Southern Solar Energy Center Region. (WHK)

  3. Multi-period Nash bargaining for Coordination of Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect

    2015-11-09

    Flexibility from distributed energy resources presents an enormous potential to provide various services to the smart grid. In this paper, we propose a unified hierarchical framework for aggregation and coordination of various flexible loads, such as commercial building Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems, Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCLs), Distributed Energy Storages (DESs), residential Pool Pumps (PPs), and Electric Vehicles (EVs). Moreover, a multistage Nash-bargaining-based control strategy is proposed to coordinate different aggregations of flexible loads for demand response. Case studies are provided to demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed framework and coordination strategy in managing peak power demand in a community.

  4. Impact of the underground injection control program on energy resource development

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, E.P.

    1983-10-01

    Part C of the Safe Drinking Water Act requires that underground sources of drinking water be protected from endangerment by well injection. The Act, as amended through 1980, and the resultant Underground Injection Control (UIC) program regulations and guidance describe minimum requirements for achieving this protection. Injection wells used in the development of energy resources, for example, those related to oil and natural gas production, and the solution mining of uranium, are regulated under the UIC program. The major features of the program requirements that affect such energy related wells are considered here from the Federal-Regional perspective.

  5. Electric Industry Structure and Regulatory Responses in a High Distributed Energy Resources Future

    SciTech Connect

    Corneli, Steve; Kihm, Steve; Schwartz, Lisa

    2015-11-01

    The emergence of distributed energy resources (DERs) that can generate, manage and store energy on the customer side of the electric meter is widely recognized as a transformative force in the power sector. This report focuses on two key aspects of that transformation: structural changes in the electric industry and related changes in business organization and regulation that are likely to result from them. Both industry structure and regulation are inextricably linked. History shows that the regulation of the power sector has responded primarily to innovation in technologies and business models that created significant structural changes in the sector’s cost and organizational structure.

  6. U.S. Geological Survey Studies of Energy Resources in Sub-Saharan Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Government and the American public need access to information on energy resources in sub-Saharan Africa.Sub-Saharan Africa (mostly Nigeria) produces 5 percent of the world's oil, while supplying the United States with 15 percent of our imports (Energy Information Administration). In the next 10 years, sub-Saharan oil and gas will become increasingly more important to the export market. New discoveries in offshore provinces of West Africa ensure a bright future for the region. Projections indicate that increased oil production in sub-Saharan Africa will far outpace the growth of intraregional consumption, providing greater quantities of oil for export (Forman, 1996). Also, West Africa, although a marginal supplier of liquefied natural gas (LNG) today, will become an important LNG source to the international market by the year 2000 (Oil & Gas Journal, 1996). The United States needs up-to-date information about petroleum resources and the energy balance within the region to predict the future role of sub-Saharan Africa as a major oil and gas exporter. The data required to generate the needed information are often disseminated in archives of oil companies and African geologic surveys, or in obscure publications. For these reasons, the U.S. Geological Survey is collecting data on sub-Saharan energy and constructing a regional energy bibliography. The team of geoscientists will assure that this information is available quickly and from a scientifically based, objective view point.

  7. Identifying high energy density stream-reaches through refined geospatial resolution in hydropower resource assessment

    DOE PAGES

    Pasha, M. Fayzul K.; Yang, Majntxov; Yeasmin, Dilruba; ...

    2016-01-07

    Benefited from the rapid development of multiple geospatial data sets on topography, hydrology, and existing energy-water infrastructures, the reconnaissance level hydropower resource assessment can now be conducted using geospatial models in all regions of the US. Furthermore, the updated techniques can be used to estimate the total undeveloped hydropower potential across all regions, and may eventually help identify further hydropower opportunities that were previously overlooked. To enhance the characterization of higher energy density stream-reaches, this paper explored the sensitivity of geospatial resolution on the identification of hydropower stream-reaches using the geospatial merit matrix based hydropower resource assessment (GMM-HRA) model. GMM-HRAmore » model simulation was conducted with eight different spatial resolutions on six U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 8-digit hydrologic units (HUC8) located at three different terrains; Flat, Mild, and Steep. The results showed that more hydropower potential from higher energy density stream-reaches can be identified with increasing spatial resolution. Both Flat and Mild terrains exhibited lower impacts compared to the Steep terrain. Consequently, greater attention should be applied when selecting the discretization resolution for hydropower resource assessments in the future study.« less

  8. Identifying high energy density stream-reaches through refined geospatial resolution in hydropower resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Pasha, M. Fayzul K.; Yang, Majntxov; Yeasmin, Dilruba; Saetern, Sen; Kao, Shih -Chieh; Smith, Brennan T.

    2016-01-07

    Benefited from the rapid development of multiple geospatial data sets on topography, hydrology, and existing energy-water infrastructures, the reconnaissance level hydropower resource assessment can now be conducted using geospatial models in all regions of the US. Furthermore, the updated techniques can be used to estimate the total undeveloped hydropower potential across all regions, and may eventually help identify further hydropower opportunities that were previously overlooked. To enhance the characterization of higher energy density stream-reaches, this paper explored the sensitivity of geospatial resolution on the identification of hydropower stream-reaches using the geospatial merit matrix based hydropower resource assessment (GMM-HRA) model. GMM-HRA model simulation was conducted with eight different spatial resolutions on six U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 8-digit hydrologic units (HUC8) located at three different terrains; Flat, Mild, and Steep. The results showed that more hydropower potential from higher energy density stream-reaches can be identified with increasing spatial resolution. Both Flat and Mild terrains exhibited lower impacts compared to the Steep terrain. Consequently, greater attention should be applied when selecting the discretization resolution for hydropower resource assessments in the future study.

  9. Embodied exergy-based assessment of energy and resource consumption of buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Jing; Li, Zhi; Li, Jiashuo; Shao, Ling; Han, Mengyao; Guo, Shan

    2014-03-01

    As an effective approach to achieve a more unified and scientific assessment, embodied exergy-based analysis is devised to assess the energy and resource consumption of buildings. A systematic accounting of the landmark buildings in E-town, Beijing is performed, on the basis of raw project data in the Bill of Quantities (BOQ) and the most recent embodied exergy intensities for the Chinese economy in 2007 with 135 industrial sectors. The embodied exergy of the engineering structure of the case buildings is quantified as 4.95E + 14 J, corresponding to an intensity of 8.25E + 09 J/m2 floor area. Total exergy of 51.9% and 28.8% are embodied in the steel and concrete inputs, respectively, due to the fact that the case buildings are structured of reinforced-concrete. The fossil fuel source (coal, crude oil, and natural gas) is predominant among four categories of natural resources (fossil fuel, biological, mineral, and environmental), accounting for 89.9% of the embodied exergy, with coal as the dominant energy resource (75.5%). The material accounts for 89.5% of the embodied exergy, in contrast to 9.0%, 1.4%, and 0.1% for manpower, energy, and equipment respectively. This result indicates that great attention should be given to the use of various materials vs. their value of their contribution.

  10. Proceedings of the 10th study presentation meeting of Japan Society of Energy and Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concerning solar/natural energy, reports are made on a design of wind turbine arrays, hydrogen production by solar thermal conversion, demonstration tests with the interconnected system, etc. About the combustion, discussions are made on efficiency and pollution abatement measures. Besides solid electrolyte and internal-heat-reforming type molten carbonate fuel cells, test runs of phosphoric acid fuel cells for the district heat supply/on-site use are conducted. Furthermore, studies on the ocean thermal energy conversion and the wave power generation are taken up. The global energy system is also proposed which combines the photovoltaic power generation, hydrogen production and methanol fuel synthesis using flue gas CO2 transported by tanker in the desert for the global warming prevention/resource recycling. Reports on energy conservation using energy storage and heat pumps are made. Application of electric power to superconductivity technology is reported on. As for the energy system, district cooling and heating, alternative energy, cogeneration, etc. are introduced, and then many examples of energy conservation and non-pollution are presented.

  11. Water Requirements for Energy Production Technologies: A Collaborative Effort to Support Integrated Resource Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averyt, K.; Macknick, J.; Participants in The WaterEnergy Workshop

    2010-12-01

    Global, national and regional concerns are emerging about the capacity of available water resources to meet increasing energy demands posed by a growing population—particularly as water availability is expected to shift as a result of a warming climate. For the same reasons, the use of both non-traditional water resources and water transport is expected to increase, creating greater demand for energy to move and treat water. Integrated planning efforts designed to avoid collisions between water and energy resource management decisions require consistent data outlining both the water requirements for energy development, and the energy required to move and treat water. Here we present the results of a collaborative, interagency effort to compile, assess, and outline consumptive uses of water associated with different parts of the energy generation process. A consistent set of data is important to support integrated modeling efforts in support of decision making and planning. The leaders of several efforts occurring in parallel to collate water use data converged at a workshop held in August 2010. The participants shared estimates of water use related to the major water-consuming steps of all the energy production processes currently operating in the U.S., and those expected to be online in the future. Discussions also addressed underlying data assumptions, data reliability concerns, and regional variability in reported ranges of values. Participants identified key data gaps, determining whether outside expert engagement could fill the gaps, or if additional research was required. The team collaborated after the meeting to fill in the data gaps utilizing institutional knowledge from a wide variety of agencies. The end result is a compilation of best estimates of the water requirements for energy production, as agreed to by the expert participants at the workshop and subsequent interactions. One key informational gap emerging from the workshop is the need to

  12. Advanced Communication and Control of Distributed Energy Resources at Detroit Edison

    SciTech Connect

    Haukur Asgeirsson; Richard Seguin

    2004-01-31

    The project objective was to create the communication and control system, the process and the economic procedures that will allow owners (e.g., residential, commercial, industrial, manufacturing, etc.) of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) connected in parallel to the electric distribution to have their resources operated in a manner that protects the electric utility distribution network and personnel that may be working on the network. The Distribution Engineering Workstation (DEW) (a power flow and short circuit modeling tool) was modified to calculate the real-time characteristics of the distribution network based on the real-time electric distribution network information and provide DER operating suggestions to the Detroit Edison system operators so that regional electric stability is maintained. Part of the suggestion algorithm takes into account the operational availability of DER’s, which is known by the Energy Aggregator, DTE Energy Technologies. The availability information will be exchanged from DTE Energy Technologies to Detroit Edison. For the calculated suggestions to be used by the Detroit Edison operators, procedures were developed to allow an operator to operate a DER by requesting operation of the DER through DTE Energy Technologies. Prior to issuing control of a DER, the safety of the distribution network and personnel needs to be taken into account. This information will be exchanged from Detroit Edison to DTE Energy Technologies. Once it is safe to control the DER, DTE Energy Technologies will issue the control signal. The real-time monitoring of the DECo system will reflect the DER control. Multi-vendor DER technologies’ representing approximately 4 MW of capacity was monitored and controlled using a web-based communication path. The DER technologies included are a photovoltaic system, energy storage, fuel cells and natural gas/diesel internal combustion engine generators. This report documents Phase I result for the Detroit Edison

  13. Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants.

    PubMed

    De Greef, J; Villani, K; Goethals, J; Van Belle, H; Van Caneghem, J; Vandecasteele, C

    2013-11-01

    Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation - before and after optimisation - as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential.

  14. Modeling of thermal storage systems in MILP distributed energy resource models

    DOE PAGES

    Steen, David; Stadler, Michael; Cardoso, Gonçalo; ...

    2014-08-04

    Thermal energy storage (TES) and distributed generation technologies, such as combined heat and power (CHP) or photovoltaics (PV), can be used to reduce energy costs and decrease CO2 emissions from buildings by shifting energy consumption to times with less emissions and/or lower energy prices. To determine the feasibility of investing in TES in combination with other distributed energy resources (DER), mixed integer linear programming (MILP) can be used. Such a MILP model is the well-established Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM); however, it currently uses only a simplified TES model to guarantee linearity and short run-times. Loss calculations aremore » based only on the energy contained in the storage. This paper presents a new DER-CAM TES model that allows improved tracking of losses based on ambient and storage temperatures, and compares results with the previous version. A multi-layer TES model is introduced that retains linearity and avoids creating an endogenous optimization problem. The improved model increases the accuracy of the estimated storage losses and enables use of heat pumps for low temperature storage charging. Ultimately,results indicate that the previous model overestimates the attractiveness of TES investments for cases without possibility to invest in heat pumps and underestimates it for some locations when heat pumps are allowed. Despite a variation in optimal technology selection between the two models, the objective function value stays quite stable, illustrating the complexity of optimal DER sizing problems in buildings and microgrids.« less

  15. Summary of Information and Resources Related to Energy Use in Healthcare Facilities - Version 1

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Brett C.; Coughlin, Jennifer L.; Mathew, Paul A.

    2009-09-08

    This document presents the results of a review of publicly available information on energy use in health care facilities. The information contained in this document and in the sources cited herein provides the background and context for efforts to reduce energy use and costs in health care. Recognizing the breadth and diversity of relevant information, the author acknowledges that the report is likely not comprehensive. It is intended only to present a broad picture of what is currently known about health care energy use. This review was conducted as part of a 'High Performance Health Care Buildings' research study funded by the California Energy Commission. The study was motivated by the recognition that health care facilities collectively account for a substantial fraction of total commercial building energy use, due in large part to the very high energy intensity of hospitals and other inpatient care facilities. The goal of the study was to develop a roadmap of research, development and deployment (RD&D) needs for the health care industry. In addition to this information review, the road map development process included interviews with industry experts and a full-day workshop at LBNL in March 2009. This report is described as 'Version 1' with the intent that it will be expanded and updated as part of an ongoing LBNL program in healthcare energy efficiency. The document is being released in this form with the hope that it can assist others in finding and accessing the resources described within.

  16. International energy trade impacts on water resource crises: an embodied water flows perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. C.; Zhong, R.; Zhao, P.; Zhang, H. W.; Wang, Y.; Mao, G. Z.

    2016-07-01

    Water and energy are coupled in intimate ways (Siddiqi and Anadon 2011 Energy Policy 39 4529-40), which is amplified by international energy trade. The study shows that the total volume of energy related international embodied water flows averaged 6298 Mm3 yr-1 from 1992-2010, which represents 10% of the water used for energy production including oil, coal, gas and electricity production. This study calculates embodied water import and export status of 219 countries from 1992 to 2010 and embodied water flow changes of seven regions over time (1992/2000/2010). In addition, the embodied water net export risk-crisis index and net embodied water import benefit index are established. According to the index system, 33 countries export vast amounts of water who have a water shortage, which causes water risk and crisis related to energy trade. While 29 countries abate this risk due to their rich water resource, 45 countries import embodied water linked to energy imports. Based on the different status of countries studied, the countries were classified into six groups with different policy recommendations.

  17. Diverse landscapes have a higher abundance and species richness of spring wild bees by providing complementary floral resources over bees’ foraging periods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Landscape simplification and natural habitat loss can negatively affect wild bees. Alternatively, anthropogenic land-use change can potentially diversify landscapes to create complementary habitats that increase overall resource continuity and diversity. We examined the effects of landscape composit...

  18. Explaining Earths Energy Budget: CERES-Based NASA Resources for K-12 Education and Public Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, L. H.; Bethea, K.; Marvel, M. T.; Ruhlman, K.; LaPan, J.; Lewis, P.; Madigan, J.; Oostra, D.; Taylor, J.

    2014-01-01

    Among atmospheric scientists, the importance of the Earth radiation budget concept is well understood. Papers have addressed the topic for over 100 years, and the large Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) science team (among others), with its multiple on-orbit instruments, is working hard to quantify the details of its various parts. In education, Earth's energy budget is a concept that generally appears in middle school and Earth science curricula, but its treatment in textbooks leaves much to be desired. Students and the public hold many misconceptions, and very few people have an appreciation for the importance of this energy balance to the conditions on Earth. More importantly, few have a correct mental model that allows them to make predictions and understand the effect of changes such as increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. As an outreach element of the core CERES team at NASA Langley, a multi-disciplinary group of scientists, educators, graphic artists, writers, and web developers has been developing and refining graphics and resources to explain the Earth's Energy budget over the last few decades. Resources have developed through an iterative process involving ongoing use in front of a variety of audiences, including students and teachers from 3rd to 12th grade as well as public audiences.

  19. Learning About Energy Resources Through Student Created Video Documentaries in the University Science Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, P.; Courtney, A.

    2010-12-01

    Students enrolled in an undergraduate non-science majors’ Energy Perspectives course created 10-15 minute video documentaries on topics related to Energy Resources and the Environment. Video project topics included wave, biodiesel, clean coal, hydro, solar and “off-the-grid” energy technologies. No student had any prior experience with creating video projects. Students had Liberal Arts academic backgrounds that included Anthropology, Theater Arts, International Studies, English and Early Childhood Education. Students were required to: 1) select a topic, 2) conduct research, 3) write a narrative, 4) construct a project storyboard, 5) shoot or acquire video and photos (from legal sources), 6) record the narrative, and 7) construct the video documentary. This study describes the instructional approach of using student created video documentaries as projects in an undergraduate non-science majors’ science course. Two knowledge survey instruments were used for assessment purposes. Each instrument was administered Pre-, Mid- and Post course. One survey focused on the skills necessary to research and produce video documentaries. Results showed students acquired enhanced technology skills especially with regard to research techniques, writing skills and video editing. The second survey assessed students’ content knowledge acquired from each documentary. Results indicated students’ increased their content knowledge of energy resource topics. Students reported very favorable evaluations concerning their experience with creating “Ken Burns” video project documentaries.

  20. US scientific contributions to the water resources program of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, P. K.; Schneider, V. R.

    2007-12-01

    It is well recognized that a better understanding of the water cycle and increased availability of hydrological information for surface and groundwater resources are key factors in the ability to sustainably manage water resources. Since its inception in 1957, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has played a critical role in developing isotope applications for hydrology and building scientific capacity in developing countries. Through an active technical cooperation program with a funding of nearly $8M per biennium, the IAEA assists developing countries in using isotope techniques for the assessment and monitoring of water resources, in particular, groundwater resources. In addition, substantial human resources and institutional capacity are built through the provision of training and appropriate equipment for monitoring. The water resources program of the IAEA is implemented with the support of a number of experts and the United States contributes extensively to this program. Although spanning the entire 50 year history of the IAEA, the contribution of US scientists, and particularly those from the US Geological Survey, has been substantial over the past 10 years. These contributions have included assistance in technical cooperation projects in Africa, Latin America and Asia, as well as internationally coordinated research projects in vadose zone hydrology, surface water - groundwater interactions, and regional aquifer studies. In Ethiopia, a national groundwater assessment program was formulated and a computer database was provided to manage hydrological information. A robust program of capacity building in cooperation with the USGS and Argonne National Laboratory has provided training to a number of IAEA-sponsored candidates from Africa and Latin America. This paper will describe the objectives and results of some of these cooperative efforts.

  1. Environmental engineering: energy value of replacing waste disposal with resource recovery

    PubMed

    Iranpour; Stenstrom; Tchobanoglous; Miller; Wright; Vossoughi

    1999-07-30

    Although in the past, environmental engineering has been primarily concerned with waste disposal, the focus of the field is now shifting toward viewing wastes as potential resources. Because reclamation usually consumes less energy than producing new materials, increasing reclamation not only reduces pollution but saves energy. Technological innovations contributing to this shift are summarized here, and are variously classified as emerging technologies or research topics, as either new departures or incremental improvements, and as opportunistic innovations, or examples of a unifying strategy. Both liquid and solid waste examples are given, such as a recent discovery of effects in disinfecting microfiltered reclaimed wastewater with ultraviolet light. In addition to its value in reducing pollution and conserving energy, this reorientation of environmental engineering could contribute to a more general shift toward greater cooperation among organizations dealing with the environment.

  2. The United Nations framework classification for fossil energy and mineral reserves and resources 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacDonald, D.; Lynch-Bell, M.; Ross, J.; Heiberg, S.; Griffiths, C.; Klett, T.

    2011-01-01

    Effective resource management in a globalizing economy requires accurate assessments of fossil energy and minerals resources. The recoverable quantities must be described and categorized in a manner that is consistent with scientific and social/economic information describing the economy as well as with the information describing the projects to recover them. A number of different standards have evolved over time in response to various professional needs Under a mandate given by the United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) has cooperated with Governments, regulatory agencies, industry, international organizations, and professional organizations (including Committee for Mineral Reserves International Reporting Standards (CRIRSCO), the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), and the Society of Petroleum Evaluation Engineers (SPEE)), as well as with outstanding experts, to define a global classification for extractive activities (including oil, gas, heavy oil and bitumen extraction) that reflects the principal concerns of existing petroleum and mineral classifications. The United Nations Framework Classification for Fossil Energy and Mineral Reserves and Resources-2009 (UNFC-2009) aims to serve the following four principal needs: 1. The needs in international energy and mineral studies to formulate robust and long-sighted policies. 2. The needs of governments in managing their resources accordingly, allowing market prices to be transferred to the wellhead with as little loss as possible. 3. The industries' needs for information while deploying technology, management and finance to secure energy supplies and capture value efficiently within the established frameworks to serve its host countries, shareholders and stakeholders. 4. The financial community's need for information to allocate capital appropriately, providing reduced costs and improved long

  3. Energy resources law: Update on environmental and health and safety regulatory issues

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, T.R.; Porter, J.M.; Hannapel, J.S.; Panzik, S.

    1993-12-31

    This article provides an update on several environmental and health and safety issues that impact the development, management, and use of energy resources. Specifically, regulatory developments involving waste management activities under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), including threshold issues such as the definition of waste under RCRA (i.e., the mixture and derived-from rules), are included in this article. In addition, new regulations on used oil recycling management standards and land disposal restriction for hazardous debris also are summarized. An update on the regulatory developments under the Clean Air Act Amendments, such as nonattainment, mobile sources, hazardous air pollutants, acid rain, operating permits, and enforcement is provided. This article also includes a summary of developments in occupational health and safety, such as Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) enforcement initiatives; new regulations on bloodborne pathogens and progress safety management; recent court decisions on preemption of state standards, air contaminants rulemaking, and disclosure of self-audits; and legislative reforms. The regulatory developments discussed in this article illustrate how the development, management, and use of energy resources are impacted, as compliance with expanding regulatory controls continues to represent an increasing percentage of facilities` operating budgets and as civil and criminal enforcement efforts are accelerated. 102 refs.

  4. Report on audit of Bonneville Power Administration`s energy resource programs

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-08

    The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) must ensure that the costs of its contracts for energy resources are as low as reasonably possible and that the resources are needed. During the audit, we reviewed Bonneville`s energy resource programs and focused on its purchase of electrical output from natural gas fired combustion turbines. The objective of this audit was to determine if Bonneville paid excessive costs to acquire the electrical output from combustion turbine facilities. The audit showed that Bonneville contracted to purchase the output from a combustion turbine facility at excessive cost, and that the electricity was not needed. The cost of the electricity under this contract exceeded the amount of revenue Bonneville could obtain by selling it. Bonneville estimated it would operate the generation facility for only 6 months of the year; the contract, however, required Bonneville to pay the fixed costs of the facility during the other 6 months. Consequently, the cost of the electricity plus the fixed costs in the first year of the contract would exceed revenues by $20.9 million. The contract also contained cost escalators that exceeded the rate of inflation. These cost escalators combined with the excessive initial cost resulted in projected excessive costs of $146.8 million in the first 5 years of the contract, Finally, the contract was not needed due to competition from similar facilities and a desire by customers to diversify their sources of electricity.

  5. Survey of ecological resources at selected US Department of Energy sites

    SciTech Connect

    McAllister, C.; Beckert, H.; Abrams, C.

    1996-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owns and manages a wide range of ecological resources. During the next 30 years, DOE Headquarters and Field Offices will make land-use planning decisions and conduct environmental remediation and restoration activities in response to federal and state statutes. This document fulfills, in part, DOE`s need to know what types of ecological resources it currently owns and manages by synthesizing information on the types and locations of ecological resources at 10 DOE sites: Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Plant, Los Alamos National Laboratory, savannah River Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Fernald Environmental Management Project. This report summarizes information on ecosystems, habitats, and federally listed threatened, endangered, and candidate species that could be stressed by contaminants or physical activity during the restoration process, or by the natural or anthropogenic transport of contaminants from presently contaminated areas into presently uncontaminated areas. This report also provides summary information on the ecosystems, habitats, and threatened and endangered species that exist on each of the 10 sites. Each site chapter contains a general description of the site, including information on size, location, history, geology, hydrology, and climate. Descriptions of the major vegetation and animal communities and of aquatic resources are also provided, with discussions of the treatened or endangered plant or animal species present. Site-specific ecological issues are also discussed in each site chapter. 106 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  6. A resource assessment of Southeast Florida as related to ocean thermal energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leland, Anna E.

    2009-11-01

    An assessment of the thermal resource in the Straits of Florida was performed to estimate the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) potential. Direct measurements of the temperature profile across the Florida Straits were taken from nearshore Southeast Florida to the Exclusive Economic Zone boundary along four evenly spaced transects perpendicular to Florida's Southeast coast, spanning 160 km. Along the southern transects in summer, nearshore cold and warm water resources meet or exceed the average 20°C temperature difference required for OTEC. In winter, the nearshore average Delta T of 17.76°C can produce 59-75% design net power and 70-86% in spring with DeltaT averaging 18.25°C. Offshore along the southern transects, a high steady DeltaT from 18.5-24°C creates an annual average net power of 120-125MW. Along the northern transects, the nearshore resource does not exist, but a consistent OTEC resource is present offshore, providing 70-80% design net power in winter, and 100-158% in spring and summer.

  7. Dynamic Resource Management for Parallel Tasks in an Oversubscribed Energy-Constrained Heterogeneous Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Imam, Neena; Koenig, Gregory A; Machovec, Dylan; Khemka, Bhavesh; Pasricha, Sudeep; Maciejewski, Anthony A; Siegel, Howard; Wright, Michael; Hilton, Marcia; Rambharos, Rejendra

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The worth of completing parallel tasks is modeled using utility functions, which monotonically-decrease with time and represent the importance and urgency of a task. These functions define the utility earned by a task at the time of its completion. The performance of such a system is measured as the total utility earned by all completed tasks over some interval of time (e.g., 24 hours). To maximize system performance when scheduling dynamically arriving parallel tasks onto a high performance computing (HPC) system that is oversubscribed and energy-constrained, we have designed, analyzed, and compared different heuristic techniques. Four utility-aware heuristics (i.e., Max Utility, Max Utility-per-Time, Max Utility-per-Resource, and Max Utility-per-Energy), three FCFS-based heuristics (Conservative Backfilling, EASY Backfilling, and FCFS with Multiple Queues), and a Random heuristic were examined in this study. A technique that is often used with the FCFS-based heuristics is the concept of a permanent reservation. We compare the performance of permanent reservations with temporary place-holders to demonstrate the advantages that place-holders can provide. We also present a novel energy filtering technique that constrains the maximum energy-per-resource used by each task. We conducted a simulation study to evaluate the performance of these heuristics and techniques in an energy-constrained oversubscribed HPC environment. With place-holders, energy filtering, and dropping tasks with low potential utility, our utility-aware heuristics are able to significantly outperform the existing FCFS-based techniques.

  8. Assessment of (mu)grid distributed energy resource potential using DER-CAM and GIS

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Jennifer L.; Marnay, Chris; Bartholomew, Emily; Ouaglal, Boubekeur; Siddiqui, Afzal S.; LaCommare, Kristina S.H.

    2002-01-01

    This report outlines an approach to assess the local potential for deployment of distributed energy resources (DER), small power-generation installations located close to the point where the energy they produce will be consumed. Although local restraints, such as zoning, building codes, and on-site physical barriers are well-known frustrations to DER deployment, no analysis method has been developed to address them within a broad economic analysis framework. The approach developed here combines established economic optimization techniques embedded in the Distributed Energy Resource Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) with a geographic information system (GIS) analysis of local land-use constraint. An example case in the San Diego area is developed from a strictly customer perspective, based on the premise that future development of DER may take the form of microgrids ((mu)Grids) under the control of current utility customers. Beginning with assumptions about which customer combinations h ave complementary energy loads, a GIS was used to locate specific neighborhoods in the San Diego area with promising customer combinations. A detailed energy analysis was conducted for the commercial/residential area chosen covering both electrical and heat energy requirements. Under various scenarios, different combinations of natural gas reciprocating engines were chosen by DER-CAM, ranging in size from 25 kW to 500 kW, often with heat recovery or absorption cooling. These generators typically operate throughout the day and are supplemented by purchased electricity during late-night and early-morning hours, when utility time-of-use prices are lowest. Typical (mu)Grid scenarios displaced about 80 percent of their annual gas heat load through CHP. Self-generation together with absorption cooling dramatically reduce electricity purchases, which usually only occur during nighttime hours.

  9. Metagenomic Analyses Reveal That Energy Transfer Gene Abundances Can Predict the Syntrophic Potential of Environmental Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Oberding, Lisa; Gieg, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrocarbon compounds can be biodegraded by anaerobic microorganisms to form methane through an energetically interdependent metabolic process known as syntrophy. The microorganisms that perform this process as well as the energy transfer mechanisms involved are difficult to study and thus are still poorly understood, especially on an environmental scale. Here, metagenomic data was analyzed for specific clusters of orthologous groups (COGs) related to key energy transfer genes thus far identified in syntrophic bacteria, and principal component analysis was used in order to determine whether potentially syntrophic environments could be distinguished using these syntroph related COGs as opposed to universally present COGs. We found that COGs related to hydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase genes were able to distinguish known syntrophic consortia and environments with the potential for syntrophy from non-syntrophic environments, indicating that these COGs could be used as a tool to identify syntrophic hydrocarbon biodegrading environments using metagenomic data. PMID:27681901

  10. Energy balance in the solar transition region. III - Helium emission in hydrostatic, constant-abundance models with diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontenla, J. M.; Avrett, E. H.; Loeser, R.

    1993-01-01

    In our previous papers we described the mathematical formalism and the computed results for energy-balance hydrostatic models of the solar transition region. In this paper we discuss in some detail the limitations of the hydrostatic and one-dimensional assumptions used. Then we analyze the determination of helium emission when diffusion is included. We use transport coefficients estimated from kinetic theory to determine the helium departures from local ionization balance. We calculate the helium spectra for each of our models and evaluate the role of helium in the energy transport. Also, we investigate the effects of coronal illumination on the structure of the transition region and upper chromosphere, and show how coronal illumination affects various EUV lines and the He I 10830 A line. Comparing with both absolute intensities and detailed line profiles, we show that our models are consistent not only with the observed hydrogen spectra but also with the available helium spectra.

  11. Our living resources: a report to the nation on the distribution, abundance, and health of U.S. plants, animals, and ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaRoe, Edward T.; Farris, Gaye S.; Puckett, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.; Mac, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    Another purpose of this report is to help identify gaps in existing resource inventory and monitoring programs. It contains information collected by a variety of existing research and monitoring efforts by scientists in the National Biological Service, other federal and state agencies, academia, and the private sector. The programs that produced the information in this document were not developed in a coordinated fashion to produce an integrated, comprehensive picture of the status and trends of our nation’s resources; rather, each was developed for its own particular purpose, usually to help manage a specific resource. Thus, even though articles vary greatly in scope, design, and purpose, this report has identified and attempted to combine many of the existing information sources into a broad picture of the condition of our resources. In the future, these sources will be complemented by additional information from other sources—such as state agencies and other inventory and monitoring studies—to fill in the gaps of knowledge and to provide a more complete understanding of the status of our living resources.

  12. 78 FR 77155 - Grant Program To Assess, Evaluate, and Promote Development of Tribal Energy and Mineral Resources

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... coal bed gas) or renewable energy resources (e.g., wind, solar, biomass, hydro and geothermal). Mineral... Bureau of Indian Affairs Grant Program To Assess, Evaluate, and Promote Development of Tribal Energy and...: The Secretary of the Interior, through the Office of Indian Energy and Economic Development...

  13. Food Waste to Energy: How Six Water Resource Recovery Facilities are Boosting Biogas Production and the Bottom Line

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water Resource Recovery Facilities (WRRFs) with anaerobic digestion have been harnessing biogas for heat and power since at least the 1920’s. A few are approaching “energy neutrality” and some are becoming “energy positive” through a combination of energy efficiency measures and...

  14. 77 FR 71414 - M&R Energy Resources Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission M&R Energy Resources Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of M&R...

  15. Evaluating Solar Resource Data Obtained from Multiple Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Andreas, A.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2014-09-01

    Solar radiation resource measurements from radiometers are used to predict and evaluate the performance of photovoltaic and concentrating solar power systems, validate satellite-based models for estimating solar resources, and advance research in solar forecasting and climate change. This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances (GHI) and direct normal irradiances (DNI). These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband irradiometers, and a pyranometer with a shading ring deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL). The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference GHI and DNI.

  16. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume 4. Impact of geothermal resource development in Hawaii (including air and water quality)

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, S.M.; Siegel, B.Z.

    1980-06-01

    The environmental consequences of natural processes in a volcanic-fumerolic region and of geothermal resource development are presented. These include acute ecological effects, toxic gas emissions during non-eruptive periods, the HGP-A geothermal well as a site-specific model, and the geothermal resources potential of Hawaii. (MHR)

  17. Improving Maryland's Offshore Wind Energy Resource Estimate Using Doppler Wind Lidar Technology to Assess Microtmeteorology Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St. Pé, Alexandra; Wesloh, Daniel; Antoszewski, Graham; Daham, Farrah; Goudarzi, Navid; Rabenhorst, Scott; Delgado, Ruben

    2016-06-01

    There is enormous potential to harness the kinetic energy of offshore wind and produce power. However significant uncertainties are introduced in the offshore wind resource assessment process, due in part to limited observational networks and a poor understanding of the marine atmosphere's complexity. Given the cubic relationship between a turbine's power output and wind speed, a relatively small error in the wind speed estimate translates to a significant error in expected power production. The University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC) collected in-situ measurements offshore, within Maryland's Wind Energy Area (WEA) from July-August 2013. This research demonstrates the ability of Doppler wind lidar technology to reduce uncertainty in estimating an offshore wind resource, compared to traditional resource assessment techniques, by providing a more accurate representation of the wind profile and associated hub-height wind speed variability. The second objective of this research is to elucidate the impact of offshore micrometeorology controls (stability, wind shear, turbulence) on a turbine's ability to produce power. Compared to lidar measurements, power law extrapolation estimates and operational National Weather Service models underestimated hub-height wind speeds in the WEA. In addition, lidar observations suggest the frequent development of a low-level wind maximum (LLWM), with high turbinelayer wind shear and low turbulence intensity within a turbine's rotor layer (40m-160m). Results elucidate the advantages of using Doppler wind lidar technology to improve offshore wind resource estimates and its ability to monitor under-sampled offshore meteorological controls impact on a potential turbine's ability to produce power.

  18. Battery cycle life balancing in a microgrid through flexible distribution of energy and storage resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasawneh, Hussam J.; Illindala, Mahesh S.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, a microgrid consisting of four fuel cell-battery hybrid Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) is devised for an industrial crusher-conveyor load. Each fuel cell was accompanied by a Li-ion battery to provide energy storage support under islanded condition of the microgrid since the fuel cells typically have poor transient response characteristics. After carrying out extensive modeling and analysis in MATLAB®, the battery utilization was found to vary significantly based on the DER's 'electrical' placement within the microgrid. This paper presents, under such conditions, a variety of battery life balancing solutions through the use of the new framework of Flexible Distribution of EneRgy and Storage Resources (FDERS). It is based on an in-situ reconfiguration approach through 'virtual' reactances that help in changing the 'electrical' position of each DER without physically displacing any component in the system. Several possible approaches toward balancing the battery utilization are compared in this paper taking advantage of the flexibility that FDERS offers. It was observed that the estimated battery life is dependent on factors such as cycling sequence, pattern, and occurrence.

  19. Ionic and electronic behaviors of earth-abundant semiconductor materials and their applications toward solar energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Matthew T.

    Semiconductor devices offer promise for efficient conversion of sunlight into other useful forms of energy, in either photovoltaic or photoelectrochemical cell configurations to produce electrical power or chemical energy, respectively. This dissertation examines ionic and electronic phenomena in some candidate semiconductors and seeks to understand their implications toward solar energy conversion applications. First, copper sulfide (Cu2S) was examined as a candidate photovoltaic material. It was discovered that its unique property of cation diffusion allows the room-temperature synthesis of vertically-aligned nanowire arrays, a morphology which facilitates study of the diffusion processes. This diffusivity was found to induce hysteresis in the electronic behavior, leading to the phenomena of resistive switching and negative differential resistance. The Cu2S were then demonstrated as morphological templates for solid-state conversion into different types of heterostructures, including segmented and rod-in-tube morphologies. Near-complete conversion to ZnS, enabled by the out-diffusion of Cu back into the substrate, was also achieved. While the ion diffusion property likely hinders the reliability of Cu 2S in photovoltaic applications, it was shown to enable useful electronic and ionic behaviors. Secondly, iron oxide (Fe2O3, hematite) was examined as a photoanode for photoelectrochemical water splitting. Its energetic limitations toward the water electrolysis reactions were addressed using two approaches aimed at achieving greater photovoltages and thereby improved water splitting efficiencies. In the first, a built-in n-p junction produced an internal field to drive charge separation and generate photovoltage. In the second, Fe 2O3 was deposited onto a smaller band gap material, silicon, to form a device capable of producing enhanced total photovoltage by a dual-absorber Z-scheme mechanism. Both approaches resulted in a cathodic shift of the photocurrent onset

  20. Alaskan wave and river hydrokinetic energy resource assessment, river energy converter testing and surface debris mitigation performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J.; Kasper, J.; Schmid, J.; Duvoy, P.; Ravens, T. M.; Hansen, N.; Montlaur, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Alaska Hydrokinetic Energy Research Center (AHERC) is conducting a wave energy assessment study at Yakutat, Alaska, and conducting ongoing river technology studies at the Tanana River Tests Site (TRTS) at Nenana, Alaska. In Aug. 2013 an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) was deployed in 40 m of water off Cannon Beach in Yakutat, AK as part of the Yakutat area wave energy resource assessment. Over the course of the 1.5 year deployment, the ADCP will record area wave and current data in order to verify the area wave energy resource. Preliminary data analysis shows a vigorous wave field with maximum wave heights up to 16 m in Nov. 2013. In addition to the in-situ directional wave data recorded by the ADCP, a SWAN wave climatology spanning the past 20 years is being developed along with a simulation of the wave field for the near shore (5 mEnergy hydrokinetic turbine from river debris flows and to determine the effect of RDDP generated river current turbulence on turbine efficiency. Previous tests have shown that the RDDP effectively sheds debris, however, large debris objects can cause RDDP rotation about its mooring point requiring that a stable attachment between the RDDP and protected floating structure be in place to ensure that debris is diverted away from the protected structure. Performance tests of an Oceana hydrokinetic power turbine will be conducted in late August or early September, 2014 at the TRTS in realistic Alaskan river conditions of current turbulence, high sediment flow and debris. Measurements of river sediment concentration, current velocity and river stage will be made, and current turbulence will be derived. CFD simulations of the RDDP interaction with the river flow will be completed to compare current velocity and turbulence results, depending on

  1. An energy/emissions/economic analysis resource for north Moravia, upper Silesia, and Kisuca

    SciTech Connect

    Walder, V.

    1995-12-31

    The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is sponsoring the Technology Transfer Network (TTN) which is centered in Ostrava, Czech Republic. The primary objective of the TTN is to provide a resource for municipalities, industries, and companies interested in reducing air pollution, improving energy efficiency, and implementing projects in North Moravia, Upper Silesia, and Kisuca. The TTN is providing a communications network (newsletters, mailings, and other media), seminars, workshops, software, access to past and ongoing studies, and a database of U.S. vendors supporting the region. Seminars and major communication material of the TTN will be provided in Czech/Slovak, Polish, and English as appropriate.

  2. Coordinated Optimization of Distributed Energy Resources and Smart Loads in Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Rui; Zhang, Yingchen

    2016-11-14

    Distributed energy resources (DERs) and smart loads have the potential to provide flexibility to the distribution system operation. A coordinated optimization approach is proposed in this paper to actively manage DERs and smart loads in distribution systems to achieve the optimal operation status. A three-phase unbalanced Optimal Power Flow (OPF) problem is developed to determine the output from DERs and smart loads with respect to the system operator's control objective. This paper focuses on coordinating PV systems and smart loads to improve the overall voltage profile in distribution systems. Simulations have been carried out in a 12-bus distribution feeder and results illustrate the superior control performance of the proposed approach.

  3. SEE HYDROPOWER Project, targeted to improve water resource management for a growing renewable energy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peviani, Maximo; Alterach, Julio; Danelli, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    The three years SEE HYDROPOWER project started on June 2009, financed by the South-East Transnational Cooperation Programme (EU), aims to a sustainable exploitation of water concerning hydropower production in SEE countries, looking up to renewable energy sources development, preserving environmental quality and preventing flood risk. Hydropower is the most important renewable resource for energy production in the SEE countries but creates ecological impacts on a local scale. If on one hand, hydroelectric production has to be maintained and likely increased following the demand trend and RES-e Directive, on the other hand, hydropower utilisation often involves severe hydrological changes, damages the connectivity of water bodies and injures river ecosystems. The project gives a strong contribution to the integration between the Water Frame and the RES-e Directives in the involved countries. The SEE HYDROPOWER project promotes the optimal use of water, as multiple natural resources, in order to face the increasing regional electrical-energy demand. Furthermore, SEE HYDROPOWER defines specific needs and test methodologies & tools, in order to help public bodies to take decisions about planning and management of water and hydropower concessions, considering all multi-purposes uses, taking into account the environmental sustainability of natural resources and flooding risks. Investigations is carried on to define common strategies & methods for preserving river with particular concerns to aquatic ecosystems, considering the required Minimum Environmental Flow, macro-habitat quality, migratory fishes and related environmental issues. Other problem addressed by the Project is the contrast between Public Administration and Environmental associations on one side and the Hydropower producers on the other side, for the exploitation of water bodies. Competition between water users (for drinking, irrigation, industrial processes, power generation, etc.) is becoming a serious

  4. Nonactive-Power-Related Ancillary Services provided by Distribute Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yan; Tolbert, Leon M; Rizy, D Tom; Kueck, John D

    2006-01-01

    The nonactive-power-related ancillary services provided by distributed energy (DE) resources are categorized by voltage regulation, reactive power compensation, power factor correction, voltage and/or current unbalance compensation, and harmonics compensation. An instantaneous nonactive power theory is adopted to control the DE system to provide these ancillary services. Three control schemes, including nonactive current compensation, power factor correction, and voltage regulation, are developed which can perform one or more of the ancillary services. The control schemes are implemented in a DE system in simulation and experiments. The simulation and the experimental results show that DE is feasible for providing nonactive-power-related ancillary services.

  5. Coordinated Optimization of Distributed Energy Resources and Smart Loads in Distribution Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Rui; Zhang, Yingchen

    2016-08-01

    Distributed energy resources (DERs) and smart loads have the potential to provide flexibility to the distribution system operation. A coordinated optimization approach is proposed in this paper to actively manage DERs and smart loads in distribution systems to achieve the optimal operation status. A three-phase unbalanced Optimal Power Flow (OPF) problem is developed to determine the output from DERs and smart loads with respect to the system operator's control objective. This paper focuses on coordinating PV systems and smart loads to improve the overall voltage profile in distribution systems. Simulations have been carried out in a 12-bus distribution feeder and results illustrate the superior control performance of the proposed approach.

  6. Impact of the resource conservation and recovery act on energy facility siting

    SciTech Connect

    Tevepaugh, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 is a multifaceted approach to the management of both solid and hazardous waste. The focus of this research is on the RCRA mandated proposed regulations for the siting of hazardous waste disposal facilities. This research is an analysis of the interactions among hazardous waste disposal facilities, energy supply technologies and land use issues. This study addresses the impact of RCRA hazardous waste regulations in a descriptive and exploratory manner. A literature and legislative review, interviews and letters of inquiry were synthesized to identify the relationship between RCRA hazardous waste regulations and the siting of selected energy supply technologies. The results of this synthesis were used to determine if and how RCRA influences national land use issues. It was found that the interaction between RCRA and the siting of hazardous waste disposal facilities required by energy supply technologies will impact national land use issues. All energy supply technologies reviewed generate hazardous waste. The siting of industrial functions such as energy supply facilities and hazardous waste disposal facilities will influence future development patterns. The micro-level impacts from the siting of hazardous waste disposal facilities will produce a ripple effect on land use with successive buffer zones developing around the facilities due to the interactive growth of the land use sectors.

  7. Environmental resources and potential impacts for a nuclear energy center near Green River, Utah. Volume II. Maps

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Maps are included for baseline studies for siting a nuclear energy park. Surface waters, ground water, water resources, forests, plant flora, land use, land ownership and mineral deposits are detailed. (PSB)

  8. DTE Energy Technologies With Detroit Edison Co. and Kinectrics Inc.: Distributed Resources Aggregation Modeling and Field Configuration Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-10-01

    Summarizes the work of DTE Energy Technologies, Detroit Edison, and Kinectrics, under contract to DOE's Distribution and Interconnection R&D, to develop distributed resources aggregation modeling and field configuration testing.

  9. 76 FR 62804 - Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; Notice of Meetings To Discuss Resource Issues Related to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... Meetings: Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC (Duke) Water Quantity and Operations Resource Committee: Thursday... Carolinas, LLC (Duke) Water Quantity and Operations Resource Committee: Operations models. Duke Stakeholder... Erosion of the Islands in Lake Keowee. g. All local, state, and federal agencies, Indian tribes, and...

  10. Resource and energy management of synfuels production with hydrogen and oxygen requirements from electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannon, R. H.; Richardson, R. D.

    The Resource and Energy Management System (REM), which uses electrolytic H2 and O2 to produce synthetic crude and light oils from heavy hydrocarbons is described. The heavy hydrocarbon feedstocks include heavy oils, tar sand bitumens, heavy residual oils, oil shale kerogens, liquefied coal, and pyrolytically-extracted coal liquids. The system includes mini-upgraders, which can be implemented in modular form, to pump electrolytically-derived H2 into heavy oils to upgrade their energy content. Projected costs for the production of synthetic light oils using U.S. coal reserves with the REM process after liquefaction are $30-35/bbl, with the H2 costs being a controlling factor. The modular systems could be built in a much shorter time frame than much larger projects, and would be instrumental in establishing the electrolytic H2 production infrastructure needed for eventual full conversion to an H2-based economy.

  11. Environmental, energy and natural resources status report for the 101st Congress. Special report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    Contents: environmental, energy and natural resources status report for the 101st Congress; abandoned-mine fees passed in budget bill; cleanup effort and NRC fees boosted; other measures stall; Strategic Petroleum Reserve to grow to 1 billion barrels; circle of poison provisions cut in farm bill conference; congress clears landmark oil spill liability legislation; motor fuels tax tops massive debt reduction measure; Bush plans to sign massive clean air bill; global climate change bill passes at session end; lots of conservation provisions in farm bill; tongass bill moves; loggers and owls remain stalemated; major reform bills on parks, land fund and blm wither; coastal zone, great lakes, barrier bills beat deadline; modified tuna bill clears congress; Arizona, Alaska, Nevada wilderness bills approved; bills passed on asbestos, transport, waste reduction; bills passed on alternative power, low-income energy aid; numerous money bills clear Congress at the last minute; EPA-to-cabinet bill dies; DOD to fund environment research.

  12. Optimal investment and scheduling of distributed energy resources with uncertainty in electric vehicles driving schedules

    SciTech Connect

    Cardoso, Goncalo; Stadler, Michael; Bozchalui, Mohammed C.; Sharma, Ratnesh; Marnay, Chris; Barbosa-Povoa, Ana; Ferrao, Paulo

    2013-12-06

    The large scale penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) will introduce technical challenges to the distribution grid, but also carries the potential for vehicle-to-grid services. Namely, if available in large enough numbers, EVs can be used as a distributed energy resource (DER) and their presence can influence optimal DER investment and scheduling decisions in microgrids. In this work, a novel EV fleet aggregator model is introduced in a stochastic formulation of DER-CAM [1], an optimization tool used to address DER investment and scheduling problems. This is used to assess the impact of EV interconnections on optimal DER solutions considering uncertainty in EV driving schedules. Optimization results indicate that EVs can have a significant impact on DER investments, particularly if considering short payback periods. Furthermore, results suggest that uncertainty in driving schedules carries little significance to total energy costs, which is corroborated by results obtained using the stochastic formulation of the problem.

  13. High yield wind energy resources in the mid-Hudson River basin. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sforza, P.M.; Smorto, M.J.; Bailey, B.; Wheeler, R.

    1983-12-01

    An evaluation of high-yield wind energy resources in the franchise area of the Central Hudson Gas and Electric Corporation is presented. A site screening process was used to select seven sites for field tests. Wind data taken at those sites for three months were used as the basis to select four sites for an additional testing period of nine months. A computer simulation was conducted on the performance of eight wind turbines (55 kW to 7350 kW) at the four sites based on the one year data recorded; the results of the computer runs are described. Also, an economic analysis of the operation of the eight wind turbines at the windiest site is presented. Recommendations for wind energy development in the region are discussed.

  14. RD & D priorities for energy production and resource conservation from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This report identifies research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) needs and priorities associated with municipal solid waste (MSW) management technologies that conserve or produce energy or resources. The changing character of MSW waste management and the public`s heightened awareness of its real and perceived benefits and costs creates opportunities for RD&D in MSW technologies. Increased recycling, for example, creates new opportunities for energy, chemicals, and materials recovery. New technologies to control and monitor emissions from MSW combustion facilities are available for further improvement or application. Furthermore, emerging waste-to-energy technologies may offer environmental, economic, and other advantages. Given these developments, DOE identified a need to assess the RD&D needs and pdodties and carefully target RD&D efforts to help solve the carbon`s waste management problem and further the National Energy Strategy. This report presents such an assessment. It identifies and Documents RD&D needs and priorities in the broad area of MSW resource . recovery, focusing on efforts to make MSW management technologies commercially viable or to improve their commercial deployment over a 5 to l0 year period. Panels of technical experts identifies 279 RD&D needs in 12 technology areas, ranking about one-fifth of these needs as priorities. A ``Peer Review Group`` identified mass-burn combustion, ``systems studies,`` landfill gas, and ash utilization and disposal as high priority areas for RD&D based on cost and the impacts of further RD&D. The results of this assessment are intended to provide guidance to DOE concerning possible future RD&D projects.

  15. Shackleton Energy enabling Space Resources Exploitation on the Moon within a Decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keravala, J.; Stone, B.; Tietz, D.; Frischauf, N.

    2013-09-01

    Access to in-space natural resources is a key requirement for increasing exploration and expansion of humanity off Earth. In particular, making use of the Moon's resources in the form of lunar polar ice to fuel propellant depots at key locations in near Earth space enables dramatic reductions in the cost of access and operations in space, while simultaneously leveraging reusable in-space transporters essential to opening the newspace highway system. Success of this private venture will provide for a sustained balance of our terrestrial economy and the growth of our civilisation. Establishing the cis-Lunar highway required to access lunar sourced water from the cold traps of the polar craters provides the backbone infrastructure for an exponential growth of a space-based economy. With that core infrastructure in place, space-based solar power generation systems, debris mitigation capabilities and planetary protection systems plus scientific and exploratory missions, among others, can become commercial realities in our lifetime. Shackleton Energy was founded from the space, mining, energy and exploration sectors to meet this challenge as a fully private venture. Following successful robotic precursor missions, our industrial astronauts combined with a robotic mining capability will make first landings at the South Pole of the Moon and begin deliveries of propellant to our depots in within a decade. Customers, partners, technologies and most importantly, the investor classes aligned with the risk profiles involved, have been identified and all the components for a viable business are available. Infrastructure investment in space programs has traditionally been the province of governments, but sustainable expansion requires commercial leadership and this is now the responsibility of a dynamic new industry. The technologies and know-how are ready to be applied. Launch services to LEO are available and the industrial capability exists in the aerospace, mining and energy

  16. Clean and Secure Energy from Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Spinti, Jennifer; Birgenheier, Lauren; Deo, Milind; Facelli, Julio; Hradisky, Michal; Kelly, Kerry; Miller, Jan; McLennan, John; Ring, Terry; Ruple, John; Uchitel, Kirsten

    2015-09-30

    This report summarizes the significant findings from the Clean and Secure Energy from Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Resources program sponsored by the Department of Energy through the National Energy Technology Laboratory. There were four principle areas of research; Environmental, legal, and policy issues related to development of oil shale and oil sands resources; Economic and environmental assessment of domestic unconventional fuels industry; Basin-scale assessment of conventional and unconventional fuel development impacts; and Liquid fuel production by in situ thermal processing of oil shale Multiple research projects were conducted in each area and the results have been communicated via sponsored conferences, conference presentations, invited talks, interviews with the media, numerous topical reports, journal publications, and a book that summarizes much of the oil shale research relating to Utah’s Uinta Basin. In addition, a repository of materials related to oil shale and oil sands has been created within the University of Utah’s Institutional Repository, including the materials generated during this research program. Below is a listing of all topical and progress reports generated by this project and submitted to the Office of Science and Technical Information (OSTI). A listing of all peer-reviewed publications generated as a result of this project is included at the end of this report; Geomechanical and Fluid Transport Properties 1 (December, 2015); Validation Results for Core-Scale Oil Shale Pyrolysis (February, 2015); and Rates and Mechanisms of Oil Shale Pyrolysis: A Chemical Structure Approach (November, 2014); Policy Issues Associated With Using Simulation to Assess Environmental Impacts (November, 2014); Policy Analysis of the Canadian Oil Sands Experience (September, 2013); V-UQ of Generation 1 Simulator with AMSO Experimental Data (August, 2013); Lands with Wilderness Characteristics, Resource Management Plan Constraints, and Land Exchanges

  17. Distributed Resource Energy Analysis and Management System (DREAMS) Development for Real-time Grid Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Nakafuji, Dora; Gouveia, Lauren

    2016-10-24

    This project supports development of the next generation, integrated energy management infrastructure (EMS) able to incorporate advance visualization of behind-the-meter distributed resource information and probabilistic renewable energy generation forecasts to inform real-time operational decisions. The project involves end-users and active feedback from an Utility Advisory Team (UAT) to help inform how information can be used to enhance operational functions (e.g. unit commitment, load forecasting, Automatic Generation Control (AGC) reserve monitoring, ramp alerts) within two major EMS platforms. Objectives include: Engaging utility operations personnel to develop user input on displays, set expectations, test and review; Developing ease of use and timeliness metrics for measuring enhancements; Developing prototype integrated capabilities within two operational EMS environments; Demonstrating an integrated decision analysis platform with real-time wind and solar forecasting information and timely distributed resource information; Seamlessly integrating new 4-dimensional information into operations without increasing workload and complexities; Developing sufficient analytics to inform and confidently transform and adopt new operating practices and procedures; Disseminating project lessons learned through industry sponsored workshops and conferences;Building on collaborative utility-vendor partnership and industry capabilities

  18. Assessing risk to birds from industrial wind energy development via paired resource selection models.

    PubMed

    Miller, Tricia A; Brooks, Robert P; Lanzone, Michael; Brandes, David; Cooper, Jeff; O'Malley, Kieran; Maisonneuve, Charles; Tremblay, Junior; Duerr, Adam; Katzner, Todd

    2014-06-01

    When wildlife habitat overlaps with industrial development animals may be harmed. Because wildlife and people select resources to maximize biological fitness and economic return, respectively, we estimated risk, the probability of eagles encountering and being affected by turbines, by overlaying models of resource selection for each entity. This conceptual framework can be applied across multiple spatial scales to understand and mitigate impacts of industry on wildlife. We estimated risk to Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) from wind energy development in 3 topographically distinct regions of the central Appalachian Mountains of Pennsylvania (United States) based on models of resource selection of wind facilities (n = 43) and of northbound migrating eagles (n = 30). Risk to eagles from wind energy was greatest in the Ridge and Valley region; all 24 eagles that passed through that region used the highest risk landscapes at least once during low altitude flight. In contrast, only half of the birds that entered the Allegheny Plateau region used highest risk landscapes and none did in the Allegheny Mountains. Likewise, in the Allegheny Mountains, the majority of wind turbines (56%) were situated in poor eagle habitat; thus, risk to eagles is lower there than in the Ridge and Valley, where only 1% of turbines are in poor eagle habitat. Risk within individual facilities was extremely variable; on average, facilities had 11% (SD 23; range = 0-100%) of turbines in highest risk landscapes and 26% (SD 30; range = 0-85%) of turbines in the lowest risk landscapes. Our results provide a mechanism for relocating high-risk turbines, and they show the feasibility of this novel and highly adaptable framework for managing risk of harm to wildlife from industrial development.

  19. IEEE 1547 and 2030 Standards for Distributed Energy Resources Interconnection and Interoperability with the Electricity Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, T.

    2014-12-01

    Public-private partnerships have been a mainstay of the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (DOE/NREL) approach to research and development. These partnerships also include technology development that enables grid modernization and distributed energy resources (DER) advancement, especially renewable energy systems integration with the grid. Through DOE/NREL and industry support of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standards development, the IEEE 1547 series of standards has helped shape the way utilities and other businesses have worked together to realize increasing amounts of DER interconnected with the distribution grid. And more recently, the IEEE 2030 series of standards is helping to further realize greater implementation of communications and information technologies that provide interoperability solutions for enhanced integration of DER and loads with the grid. For these standards development partnerships, for approximately $1 of federal funding, industry partnering has contributed $5. In this report, the status update is presented for the American National Standards IEEE 1547 and IEEE 2030 series of standards. A short synopsis of the history of the 1547 standards is first presented, then the current status and future direction of the ongoing standards development activities are discussed.

  20. Grid of the Future: Quantification of Benefits from Flexible Energy Resources in Scenarios With Extra-High Penetration of Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Bebic, Jovan; Hinkle, Gene; Matic, Slobodan; Schmitt, William

    2015-01-15

    The main objective of this study is to quantify the entitlement for system benefits attainable by pervasive application of flexible energy resources in scenarios with extra-high penetration of renewable energy. The quantified benefits include savings in thermal energy and reduction of CO2 emissions. Both are primarily a result of displacement of conventional thermal generation by renewable energy production, but there are secondary improvements that arise from lowering operating reserves, removing transmission constraints, and by partially removing energy-delivery losses due to energy production by distributed solar. The flexible energy resources in the context of this study include energy storage and adjustable loads. The flexibility of both was constrained to a time horizon of one day. In case of energy storage this means that the state of charge is restored to the starting value at the end of each day, while for load this means that the daily energy consumed is maintained constant. The extra-high penetration of renewable energy in the context of this study means the level of penetration resulting in significant number of hours where instantaneous power output from renewable resources added to the power output from baseload nuclear fleet surpasses the instantaneous power consumption by the load.

  1. An Evaluation of the Consumer Costs and Benefits of Energy Efficiency Resource Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessans, Mark D.

    Of the modern-day policies designed to encourage energy efficiency, one with a significant potential for impact is that of Energy Efficiency Resource Standards (EERS). EERS policies place the responsibility for meeting an efficiency target on the electric and gas utilities, typically setting requirements for annual reductions in electricity generation or gas distribution to customers as a percentage of sales. To meet these requirements, utilities typically implement demand-side management (DSM) programs, which encourage energy efficiency at the customer level through incentives and educational initiatives. In Maryland, a statewide EERS has provided for programs which save a significant amount of energy, but is ultimately falling short in meeting the targets established by the policy. This study evaluates residential DSM programs offered by Pepco, a utility in Maryland, for cost-effectiveness. However, unlike most literature on the topic, analysis focuses on the costs-benefit from the perspective of the consumer, and not the utility. The results of this study are encouraging: the majority of programs analyzed show that the cost of electricity saved, or levelized cost of saved energy (LCSE), is less expensive than the current retail cost of electricity cost in Maryland. A key goal of this study is to establish a metric for evaluating the consumer cost-effectiveness of participation in energy efficiency programs made available by EERS. In doing so, the benefits of these programs can be effectively marketed to customers, with the hope that participation will increase. By increasing consumer awareness and buy-in, the original goals set out through EERS can be realized and the policies can continue to receive support.

  2. Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants

    SciTech Connect

    De Greef, J.; Villani, K.; Goethals, J.; Van Belle, H.; Van Caneghem, J.; Vandecasteele, C.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • WtE plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. • Emission and consumption data before and after 5 technical improvements are discussed. • Plant performance can be increased without introduction of new techniques or re-design. • Diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operation are essential. - Abstract: Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation – before and after optimisation – as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential.

  3. Visual Resource Analysis for Solar Energy Zones in the San Luis Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Robert; Abplanalp, Jennifer M.; Zvolanek, Emily; Brown, Jeffery

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study conducted by Argonne National Laboratory’s (Argonne’s) Environmental Science Division for the U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The study analyzed the regional effects of potential visual impacts of solar energy development on three BLM-designated solar energy zones (SEZs) in the San Luis Valley (SLV) in Colorado, and, based on the analysis, made recommendations for or against regional compensatory mitigation to compensate residents and other stakeholders for the potential visual impacts to the SEZs. The analysis was conducted as part of the solar regional mitigation strategy (SRMS) task conducted by BLM Colorado with assistance from Argonne. Two separate analyses were performed. The first analysis, referred to as the VSA Analysis, analyzed the potential visual impacts of solar energy development in the SEZs on nearby visually sensitive areas (VSAs), and, based on the impact analyses, made recommendations for or against regional compensatory mitigation. VSAs are locations for which some type of visual sensitivity has been identified, either because the location is an area of high scenic value or because it is a location from which people view the surrounding landscape and attach some level of importance or sensitivity to what is seen from the location. The VSA analysis included both BLM-administered lands in Colorado and in the Taos FO in New Mexico. The second analysis, referred to as the SEZ Analysis, used BLM visual resource inventory (VRI) and other data on visual resources in the former Saguache and La Jara Field Offices (FOs), now contained within the San Luis Valley FO (SLFO), to determine whether the changes in scenic values that would result from the development of utility-scale solar energy facilities in the SEZs would affect the quality and quantity of valued scenic resources in the SLV region as a whole. If the regional effects were judged to be significant, regional

  4. The Influence of a CO2 Pricing Scheme on Distributed Energy Resources in California's Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Lai, Judy; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2010-06-01

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) to determine the potential role of commercial-sector distributed energy resources (DER) with combined heat and power (CHP) in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) reductions. Historically, relatively little attention has been paid to the potential of medium-sized commercial buildings with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. In our research, we examine how these medium-sized commercial buildings might implement DER and CHP. The buildings are able to adopt and operate various technologies, e.g., photovoltaics (PV), on-site thermal generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, batteries and thermal storage systems. We apply the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), which is a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that minimizes a site?s annual energy costs and/or CO2 emissions. Using 138 representative mid-sized commercial sites in California, existing tariffs of major utilities, and expected performance data of available technologies in 2020, we find the GHG reduction potential for these buildings. We compare different policy instruments, e.g., a CO2 pricing scheme or a feed-in tariff (FiT), and show their contributions to the California Air Resources Board (CARB) goals of additional 4 GW CHP capacities and 6.7 Mt/a GHG reduction in California by 2020. By applying different price levels for CO2, we find that there is competition between fuel cells and PV/solar thermal. It is found that the PV/solar thermal adoption increases rapidly, but shows a saturation at high CO2 prices, partly due to limited space for PV and solar thermal. Additionally, we find that large office buildings are good hosts for CHP in general. However, most interesting is the fact that fossil-based CHP adoption also increases with increasing CO2 prices. We will show service territory specific results since the

  5. A Methodology to Evaluate Ecological Resources and Risk Using Two Case Studies at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Bunn, Amoret; Downs, Janelle; Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn; Salisbury, Jennifer; Kosson, David

    2017-03-01

    An assessment of the potential risks to ecological resources from remediation activities or other perturbations should involve a quantitative evaluation of resources on the remediation site and in the surrounding environment. We developed a risk methodology to rapidly evaluate potential impact on ecological resources for the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southcentral Washington State. We describe the application of the risk evaluation for two case studies to illustrate its applicability. The ecological assessment involves examining previous sources of information for the site, defining different resource levels from 0 to 5. We also developed a risk rating scale from non-discernable to very high. Field assessment is the critical step to determine resource levels or to determine if current conditions are the same as previously evaluated. We provide a rapid assessment method for current ecological conditions that can be compared to previous site-specific data, or that can be used to assess resource value on other sites where ecological information is not generally available. The method is applicable to other Department of Energy's sites, where its development may involve a range of state regulators, resource trustees, Tribes and other stakeholders. Achieving consistency across Department of Energy's sites for valuation of ecological resources on remediation sites will assure Congress and the public that funds and personnel are being deployed appropriately.

  6. A Methodology to Evaluate Ecological Resources and Risk Using Two Case Studies at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Bunn, Amoret; Downs, Janelle; Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn; Salisbury, Jennifer; Kosson, David

    2017-03-01

    An assessment of the potential risks to ecological resources from remediation activities or other perturbations should involve a quantitative evaluation of resources on the remediation site and in the surrounding environment. We developed a risk methodology to rapidly evaluate potential impact on ecological resources for the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southcentral Washington State. We describe the application of the risk evaluation for two case studies to illustrate its applicability. The ecological assessment involves examining previous sources of information for the site, defining different resource levels from 0 to 5. We also developed a risk rating scale from non-discernable to very high. Field assessment is the critical step to determine resource levels or to determine if current conditions are the same as previously evaluated. We provide a rapid assessment method for current ecological conditions that can be compared to previous site-specific data, or that can be used to assess resource value on other sites where ecological information is not generally available. The method is applicable to other Department of Energy's sites, where its development may involve a range of state regulators, resource trustees, Tribes and other stakeholders. Achieving consistency across Department of Energy's sites for valuation of ecological resources on remediation sites will assure Congress and the public that funds and personnel are being deployed appropriately.

  7. Multi-agent coordination algorithms for control of distributed energy resources in smart grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortes, Andres

    Sustainable energy is a top-priority for researchers these days, since electricity and transportation are pillars of modern society. Integration of clean energy technologies such as wind, solar, and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), is a major engineering challenge in operation and management of power systems. This is due to the uncertain nature of renewable energy technologies and the large amount of extra load that PEVs would add to the power grid. Given the networked structure of a power system, multi-agent control and optimization strategies are natural approaches to address the various problems of interest for the safe and reliable operation of the power grid. The distributed computation in multi-agent algorithms addresses three problems at the same time: i) it allows for the handling of problems with millions of variables that a single processor cannot compute, ii) it allows certain independence and privacy to electricity customers by not requiring any usage information, and iii) it is robust to localized failures in the communication network, being able to solve problems by simply neglecting the failing section of the system. We propose various algorithms to coordinate storage, generation, and demand resources in a power grid using multi-agent computation and decentralized decision making. First, we introduce a hierarchical vehicle-one-grid (V1G) algorithm for coordination of PEVs under usage constraints, where energy only flows from the grid in to the batteries of PEVs. We then present a hierarchical vehicle-to-grid (V2G) algorithm for PEV coordination that takes into consideration line capacity constraints in the distribution grid, and where energy flows both ways, from the grid in to the batteries, and from the batteries to the grid. Next, we develop a greedy-like hierarchical algorithm for management of demand response events with on/off loads. Finally, we introduce distributed algorithms for the optimal control of distributed energy resources, i

  8. David Grant Medical Center energy use baseline and integrated resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Richman, E.E.; Hoshide, R.K.; Dittmer, A.L.

    1993-04-01

    The US Air Mobility Command (AMC) has tasked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) with supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program's (FEMP) mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy resource opportunities (EROs) at the David Grant Medical Center (DGMC). This report describes the methodology used to identify and evaluate the EROs at DGMC, provides a life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis for each ERO, and prioritizes any life-cycle cost-effective EROs based on their net present value (NPV), value index (VI), and savings to investment ratio (SIR or ROI). Analysis results are presented for 17 EROs that involve energy use in the areas of lighting, fan and pump motors, boiler operation, infiltration, electric load peak reduction and cogeneration, electric rate structures, and natural gas supply. Typical current energy consumption is approximately 22,900 MWh of electricity (78,300 MBtu), 87,600 kcf of natural gas (90,300 MBtu), and 8,300 gal of fuel oil (1,200 MBtu). A summary of the savings potential by energy-use category of all independent cost-effective EROs is shown in a table. This table includes the first cost, yearly energy consumption savings, and NPV for each energy-use category. The net dollar savings and NPV values as derived by the life-cycle cost analysis are based on the 1992 federal discount rate of 4.6%. The implementation of all EROs could result in a yearly electricity savings of more than 6,000 MWh or 26% of current yearly electricity consumption. More than 15 MW of billable load (total billed by the utility for a 12-month period) or more than 34% of current billed demand could also be saved. Corresponding natural gas savings would be 1,050 kcf (just over 1% of current consumption). Total yearly net energy cost savings for all options would be greater than $343,340. This value does not include any operations and maintenance (O M) savings.

  9. Seattle's System for Evaluating Energy Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logie, P.; Macdonald, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    In 1975, the City Council developed a blueprint called "Energy 1990" for meeting Seattle's future electric energy needs. Priorities for addressing or offsetting expected growth in demand are in order: (1) conservation; (2) hydroelectricity; (3) other renewable sources such as wind, biomass, solar, and geothermal energy; (4) abundant nonrenewable resources such as coal, and (5) other renewables. An energy resources planning group was formed and a data base was established. Resource options were investigated and the recommendations were published.

  10. American Indian Energy Resources and Development. University of New Mexico, Native American Studies, Development Series No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Roxanne Dunbar, Ed.

    One of a series of scholarly books published each year in the field of American Indian economic development, this volume contains two articles regarding the development of American Indian energy resources. In the first article, Richard Nafziger traces the exploitation of American Indian tribes by energy corporations whose main goal is overall…

  11. Optimizing Distributed Energy Resources and building retrofits with the strategic DER-CAModel

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, M.; Groissböck, M.; Cardoso, G.; Marnay, C.

    2014-08-05

    The pressuring need to reduce the import of fossil fuels as well as the need to dramatically reduce CO2 emissions in Europe motivated the European Commission (EC) to implement several regulations directed to building owners. Most of these regulations focus on increasing the number of energy efficient buildings, both new and retrofitted, since retrofits play an important role in energy efficiency. Overall, this initiative results from the realization that buildings will have a significant impact in fulfilling the 20/20/20-goals of reducing the greenhouse gas emissions by 20%, increasing energy efficiency by 20%, and increasing the share of renewables to 20%, all by 2020. The Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) is an optimization tool used to support DER investment decisions, typically by minimizing total annual costs or CO2 emissions while providing energy services to a given building or microgrid site. This document shows enhancements made to DER-CAM to consider building retrofit measures along with DER investment options. Specifically, building shell improvement options have been added to DER-CAM as alternative or complementary options to investments in other DER such as PV, solar thermal, combined heat and power, or energy storage. The extension of the mathematical formulation required by the new features introduced in DER-CAM is presented and the resulting model is demonstrated at an Austrian Campus building by comparing DER-CAM results with and without building shell improvement options. Strategic investment results are presented and compared to the observed investment decision at the test site. Results obtained considering building shell improvement options suggest an optimal weighted average U value of about 0.53 W/(m2K) for the test site. This result is approximately 25% higher than what is currently observed in the building, suggesting that the retrofits made in 2002 were not optimal. Furthermore

  12. Optimizing Distributed Energy Resources and building retrofits with the strategic DER-CAModel

    DOE PAGES

    Stadler, M.; Groissböck, M.; Cardoso, G.; ...

    2014-08-05

    The pressuring need to reduce the import of fossil fuels as well as the need to dramatically reduce CO2 emissions in Europe motivated the European Commission (EC) to implement several regulations directed to building owners. Most of these regulations focus on increasing the number of energy efficient buildings, both new and retrofitted, since retrofits play an important role in energy efficiency. Overall, this initiative results from the realization that buildings will have a significant impact in fulfilling the 20/20/20-goals of reducing the greenhouse gas emissions by 20%, increasing energy efficiency by 20%, and increasing the share of renewables to 20%,more » all by 2020. The Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) is an optimization tool used to support DER investment decisions, typically by minimizing total annual costs or CO2 emissions while providing energy services to a given building or microgrid site. This document shows enhancements made to DER-CAM to consider building retrofit measures along with DER investment options. Specifically, building shell improvement options have been added to DER-CAM as alternative or complementary options to investments in other DER such as PV, solar thermal, combined heat and power, or energy storage. The extension of the mathematical formulation required by the new features introduced in DER-CAM is presented and the resulting model is demonstrated at an Austrian Campus building by comparing DER-CAM results with and without building shell improvement options. Strategic investment results are presented and compared to the observed investment decision at the test site. Results obtained considering building shell improvement options suggest an optimal weighted average U value of about 0.53 W/(m2K) for the test site. This result is approximately 25% higher than what is currently observed in the building, suggesting that the retrofits made in 2002 were not optimal. Furthermore, the results obtained with

  13. Use of numerical wind-wave models for assessment of the offshore wave energy resource

    SciTech Connect

    Pontes, M.T.; Barstow, S.; Bertotti, L.; Cavaleri, L.; Oliveira-Pires, H.

    1997-08-01

    In the last two decades the performance of numerical wind-wave models has improved considerably. Several models have been routinely producing good quality wave estimates globally since the mid-1980s. The verifications of wind-wave models have mainly focused on the evaluation of the error of the significant wave height H{sub s} estimates. However, for wave energy purposes, the main parameters to be assessed are the wave power P{sub w} and the mean (energy) period T{sub e}. Since P{sub w} is proportional to H{sub s}{sup 2}T{sub e}, its expected error is much larger than for the single-wave parameters. This paper summarizes the intercomparison of two wind-wave models against buoy data in the North Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea to select the most suitable one for the construction of an Atlas of the wave energy resource in European waters. A full verification in the two basins of the selected model--the WAM model, implemented in the routine operation of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts--was then performed against buoy and satellite altimeter data. It was found that the WAM model accuracy is very good for offshore locations in the North Atlantic; but for the Mediterranean Sea the results are much less accurate, probably due to a lower quality of the input wind fields.

  14. Use of numerical wind-wave models for assessment of the offshore wave energy resource

    SciTech Connect

    Pontes, M.T.; Barstow, S.; Bertotti, L.; Cavaleri, L.; Oliveira-Pires, H.

    1996-12-31

    In the last two decades the performance of numerical wind-wave models has improved considerably. Several models have been routinely producing since the mid 1980`s good quality wave estimates globally. The verifications of wind-wave models have mainly focused on the evaluation of the error of the significant wave height H{sub s} estimates. However for wave energy purposes the main parameters to be assessed are the wave power P{sub w} and the mean (energy) period T{sub e}. Since P{sub w} is proportional to H{sub s}{sup 2}T{sub e}, its expected error is much larger than for the single wave parameters. This paper summarizes the intercomparison of two wind-wave models against buoy data in the North Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea to select the most suitable one for the construction of an Atlas of the wave energy resource in Europe. A full verification in the two basins of the selected model--the WAM model, implemented in the routine operation of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts--was then performed against buoy and satellite altimeter data. It was found that the WAM model accuracy is very good for offshore locations in the North Atlantic, but for the Mediterranean Sea the results are much less accurate probably due to a lower quality of the input wind fields.

  15. Environmental multi-objective optimization of the use of biomass resources for energy.

    PubMed

    Vadenbo, Carl; Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2017-02-17

    Bioenergy is often considered an important component, alongside other renewables, to mitigate global warming and to reduce fossil fuel dependency. Determining sustainable strategies for utilizing biomass resources, however, requires a holistic perspective to reflect a wider range of potential environmental consequences. To circumvent the limitations of scenario-based life cycle assessment (LCA), we develop a multi-objective optimization model to systematically identify the environmentally-optimal use of biomass for energy under given system constraints. Besides satisfying annual final energy demand, the model constraints comprise availability of biomass and arable land, technology- and system-specific capacities, and relevant policy targets. Efficiencies and environmental performances of bioenergy conversions are derived using biochemical process models combined with LCA data. The application of the optimization model is exemplified by a case aimed at determining the environmentally-optimal use of biomass in the Danish energy system in 2025. A multi-objective formulation based on fuzzy intervals for six environmental impact categories resulted in impact reductions of 13-43% compared to the baseline. The robustness of the optimal solution was analyzed with respect to parameter uncertainty and choice of environmental objectives.

  16. 80 and 100 Meter Wind Energy Resource Potential for the United States (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; Scott, G.; Flowers, L.; Brower, M.; Hale, E.; Phelps, B.

    2010-05-01

    Accurate information about the wind potential in each state is required for federal and state policy initiatives that will expand the use of wind energy in the United States. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and AWS Truewind have collaborated to produce the first comprehensive new state-level assessment of wind resource potential since 1993. The estimates are based on high-resolution maps of predicted mean annual wind speeds for the contiguous 48 states developed by AWS Truewind. These maps, at spatial resolution of 200 meters and heights of 60 to 100 meters, were created with a mesoscale-microscale modeling technique and adjusted to reduce errors through a bias-correction procedure involving data from more than 1,000 measurement masts. NREL used the capacity factor maps to estimate the wind energy potential capacity in megawatts for each state by capacity factor ranges. The purpose of this presentation is to (1) inform state and federal policy makers, regulators, developers, and other stakeholders on the availability of the new wind potential information that may influence development, (2) inform the audience of how the new information was derived, and (3) educate the audience on how the information should be interpreted in developing state and federal policy initiatives.

  17. NASA Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resource High Resolution Meteorology Data For Sustainable Building Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, William S.; Hoell, James M.; Westberg, David; Zhang, Taiping; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    A primary objective of NASA's Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resource (POWER) project is to adapt and infuse NASA's solar and meteorological data into the energy, agricultural, and architectural industries. Improvements are continuously incorporated when higher resolution and longer-term data inputs become available. Climatological data previously provided via POWER web applications were three-hourly and 1x1 degree latitude/longitude. The NASA Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data set provides higher resolution data products (hourly and 1/2x1/2 degree) covering the entire globe. Currently POWER solar and meteorological data are available for more than 30 years on hourly (meteorological only), daily, monthly and annual time scales. These data may be useful to several renewable energy sectors: solar and wind power generation, agricultural crop modeling, and sustainable buildings. A recent focus has been working with ASHRAE to assess complementing weather station data with MERRA data. ASHRAE building design parameters being investigated include heating/cooling degree days and climate zones.

  18. Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Canada, Britain, and Spain. We found that the energy industry is not in crisis ; however, U.S. government policies, laws, dollars, and even public...CEIMAT (Centro de Investagaciones Energeticas , Medioambeintales y Tecnologicas) Research and development Page 3 of 28ENERGY 8/10/04http://www.ndu.edu...procurement or storage of standard, common use fuels. NATURAL GAS Natural gas, abundant globally and domestically, offers energy versatility among

  19. Impact of Distributed Energy Resources on the Reliability of Critical Telecommunications Facilities: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, D. G.; Arent, D. J.; Johnson, L.

    2006-06-01

    This paper documents a probabilistic risk assessment of existing and alternative power supply systems at a large telecommunications office. The analysis characterizes the increase in the reliability of power supply through the use of two alternative power configurations. Failures in the power systems supporting major telecommunications service nodes are a main contributor to significant telecommunications outages. A logical approach to improving the robustness of telecommunication facilities is to increase the depth and breadth of technologies available to restore power during power outages. Distributed energy resources such as fuel cells and gas turbines could provide additional on-site electric power sources to provide backup power, if batteries and diesel generators fail. The analysis is based on a hierarchical Bayesian approach and focuses on the failure probability associated with each of three possible facility configurations, along with assessment of the uncertainty or confidence level in the probability of failure. A risk-based characterization of final best configuration is presented.

  20. Improving Power Quality in Low-Voltage Networks Containing Distributed Energy Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazumder, Sumit; Ghosh, Arindam; Zare, Firuz

    2013-05-01

    Severe power quality problems can arise when a large number of single-phase distributed energy resources (DERs) are connected to a low-voltage power distribution system. Due to the random location and size of DERs, it may so happen that a particular phase generates excess power than its load demand. In such an event, the excess power will be fed back to the distribution substation and will eventually find its way to the transmission network, causing undesirable voltage-current unbalance. As a solution to this problem, the article proposes the use of a distribution static compensator (DSTATCOM), which regulates voltage at the point of common coupling (PCC), thereby ensuring balanced current flow from and to the distribution substation. Additionally, this device can also support the distribution network in the absence of the utility connection, making the distribution system work as a microgrid. The proposals are validated through extensive digital computer simulation studies using PSCADTM.

  1. Optimal Voltage Regulation for Unbalanced Distribution Networks Considering Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yan; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    With increasing penetration of distributed generation in the distribution networks (DN), the secure and optimal operation of DN has become an important concern. In this paper, an iterative quadratic constrained quadratic programming model to minimize voltage deviations and maximize distributed energy resource (DER) active power output in a three phase unbalanced distribution system is developed. The optimization model is based on the linearized sensitivity coefficients between controlled variables (e.g., node voltages) and control variables (e.g., real and reactive power injections of DERs). To avoid the oscillation of solution when it is close to the optimum, a golden search method is introduced to control the step size. Numerical simulations on modified IEEE 13 nodes test feeders show the efficiency of the proposed model. Compared to the results solved by heuristic search (harmony algorithm), the proposed model converges quickly to the global optimum.

  2. Study of the Utah uranium-milling industry. Volume II. Utah energy resources: uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Millar, R.D.; Neilson, L.T.; Turley, R.E.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a general overview of the uranium mining and milling industry and its history and present status with particular reference to Utah. This volume serves two purposes: (1) it serves as a companion volume to Volume I, which is a policy analysis; and (2) it serves as one of a set of energy resource assessment studies previously performed by the authors. The following topics are covered: development of the uranium industry on the Colorado Plateau with emphasis on Utah; geology of uranium; uranium reserves; uranium exploration in Utah; uranium ore production and mining operation in Utah; uranium milling operations in Utah; utilization of uranium; uranium mill tailings; and future outlook. Appendices on pricing of uranium and incentives for production since World War II are also presented.

  3. Disturbance observer based active and adaptive synchronization of energy resource chaotic system.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Wang, Meng; Li, Donghai; Zuo, Min; Wang, Xiaoyi

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, synchronization of a three-dimensional energy resource chaotic system is considered. For the sake of achieving the synchronization between the drive and response systems, two different nonlinear control approaches, i.e. active control with known parameters and adaptive control with unknown parameters, have been designed. In order to guarantee the transient performance, finite-time boundedness (FTB) and finite-time stability (FTS) are introduced in the design of active control and adaptive control, respectively. Simultaneously, in view of the existence of disturbances, a new disturbance observer is proposed to estimate the disturbance. The conditions of the asymptotic stability for the closed-loop system are obtained. Numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the proposed approaches.

  4. Estimate of the Geothermal Energy Resource in the Major Sedimentary Basins in the United States (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Esposito, A.; Porro, C.; Augustine, C.; Roberts, B.

    2012-09-01

    Because most sedimentary basins have been explored for oil and gas, well logs, temperatures at depth, and reservoir properties such as depth to basement and formation thickness are well known. The availability of this data reduces exploration risk and allows development of geologic exploration models for each basin. This study estimates the magnitude of recoverable geothermal energy from 15 major known U.S. sedimentary basins and ranks these basins relative to their potential. The total available thermal resource for each basin was estimated using the volumetric heat-in-place method originally proposed by (Muffler, 1979). A qualitative recovery factor was determined for each basin based on data on flow volume, hydrothermal recharge, and vertical and horizontal permeability. Total sedimentary thickness maps, stratigraphic columns, cross sections, and temperature gradient information was gathered for each basin from published articles, USGS reports, and state geological survey reports. When published data were insufficient, thermal gradients and reservoir properties were derived from oil and gas well logs obtained on oil and gas commission databases. Basin stratigraphy, structural history, and groundwater circulation patterns were studied in order to develop a model that estimates resource size, temperature distribution, and a probable quantitative recovery factor.

  5. Validated modeling of distributed energy resources at distribution voltages : LDRD project 38672.

    SciTech Connect

    Ralph, Mark E.; Ginn, Jerry W.

    2004-03-01

    A significant barrier to the deployment of distributed energy resources (DER) onto the power grid is uncertainty on the part of utility engineers regarding impacts of DER on their distribution systems. Because of the many possible combinations of DER and local power system characteristics, these impacts can most effectively be studied by computer simulation. The goal of this LDRD project was to develop and experimentally validate models of transient and steady state source behavior for incorporation into utility distribution analysis tools. Development of these models had not been prioritized either by the distributed-generation industry or by the inverter industry. A functioning model of a selected inverter-based DER was developed in collaboration with both the manufacturer and industrial power systems analysts. The model was written in the PSCAD simulation language, a variant of the ElectroMagnetic Transients Program (EMTP), a code that is widely used and accepted by utilities. A stakeholder team was formed and a methodology was established to address the problem. A list of detailed DER/utility interaction concerns was developed and prioritized. The list indicated that the scope of the problem significantly exceeded resources available for this LDRD project. As this work progresses under separate funding, the model will be refined and experimentally validated. It will then be incorporated in utility distribution analysis tools and used to study a variety of DER issues. The key next step will be design of the validation experiments.

  6. The Use of Reanalysis Data for Wind Resource Assessment at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, M.; George, R.; Elliott, D.

    1999-04-07

    An important component of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory wind resource assessment methodology is the use of available upper-air data to construct detailed vertical profiles for a study region. Currently, the most useful upper-air data for this type of analysis are archived observations from approximately 1800 rawinsonde and pilot balloon stations worldwide. However, significant uncertainty exists in the accuracy of the constructed profiles for many regions. The United States Reanalysis Data Set, recently created by the National Center for Atmospheric Research and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, has the potential to improve the quality of the vertical profiles. The initial evaluation of the usefulness of the Reanalysis data for wind resource assessment consisted of contrasting reanalysis-derived vertical profiles of the wind characteristics to those generated from upper-air observations for comparable locations. The results indicate that, while reanalysis data can be substituted for upper-air observation data in the assessment methodology for areas of the world where observation data are limited, enough discrepancies with observation data have been noticed to warrant further studies.

  7. Utilization of industrial dairy waste as microalgae cultivation medium : a potential study for sustainable energy resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurmayani, S.; Sugiarti, Y.; Putra, R. H.

    2016-04-01

    Microalgae is one of biodiesel resources and call as third generation biofuel. Biodiesel is one alternative energy that being developed. So study about resource of biodiesel need a development, for the example is development the basic material such as microalgae. In this paper we explain the potential use of dairy waste from industry as a cultivation medium of microalgae for biodiesel production. Dairy waste from dairy industry contains 34.98% protein, 4.42% lactose, 9.77% fiber, 11.04% fat, 2.33% calcium, 1.05% phosfor, and 0.4 % magnesium, meaning that the dairy waste from dairy industry has a relatively high nutrient content and complete from a source of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus as macro nutrients. The method in this paper is literature review to resulting a new conclusion about the potency of waste water from dairy industry as microalgae cultivation medium. Based on the study, the dairy waste from dairy industry has potency to be used as cultivation medium of Botryococcus braunii in the production of biodiesel, replacing the conventional cultivation medium.

  8. The water-energy-food-climate-economics nexus: solving hunger and resource scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lall, U.

    2011-12-01

    A nexus refers to the core or to interconnectivity across issues. Addressing the boundary interactions of traditional sectors in an interconnected world as human activities change the physical boundaries of land and climate is an emerging academic and governance discourse. Through contrasting examples from the US and India, I shed light on the descriptive aspects of these connections and feedbacks that define potential impacts or traps for societies, and ponder whether a massive conceptual or numerical Earth System Model can help inform outcomes, or whether there are dominant links at particular scales (physical, social, economic or biological) that characterize the emergent dynamics and define critical equilibrium or transient solutions in certain places. However, the real question is what next given the definition of the nexus? Here, I argue that given the current valuation and management structure of different resource sectors and the associated information flows and sensitivities, the interlinked energy-climate issues can emerge as useful drivers of improved productivity in water-food systems, thus promoting resource and environmental sustainability while promoting economic development. Thus, levers can be found that help steer the course of these complex interacting systems towards desirable sectoral outcomes.

  9. Estimate of Geothermal Energy Resource in Major U.S. Sedimentary Basins (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Porro, C.; Augustine, C.

    2012-04-01

    This study estimates the magnitude of geothermal energy from fifteen major known US sedimentary basins and ranks these basins relative to their potential. Because most sedimentary basins have been explored for oil and gas, well logs, temperatures at depth, and reservoir properties are known. This reduces exploration risk and allows development of geologic exploration models for each basin as well as a relative assessment of geologic risk elements for each play. The total available thermal resource for each basin was estimated using the volumetric heat-in-place method originally proposed by Muffler (USGS). Total sedimentary thickness maps, stratigraphic columns, cross sections, and temperature gradient Information were gathered for each basin from published articles, USGS reports, and state geological survey reports. When published data was insufficient, thermal gradients and reservoir properties were derived from oil and gas well logs obtained on oil and gas commission websites. Basin stratigraphy, structural history, and groundwater circulation patterns were studied in order to develop a model that estimates resource size and temperature distribution, and to qualitatively assess reservoir productivity.

  10. Natural gas hydrates of Circum-Pacific margin-a future energy resource

    SciTech Connect

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Cooper, A.K.

    1986-07-01

    Natural gas hydrates are probably present within the uppermost 1100 m (3600 ft) of oceanic sediment in the following regions of outer continental margins rimming the Pacific Ocean basin: (1) the continental slope east of the North Island of New Zealand; (2) the landward slope of the Nankai Trough off Japan; (3) the continental slope of the northwestern and eastern Aleutian Trench; (4) the continental slope off northern California; (5) the landward slope of the Middle America Trench off Central America; (6) the landward slope of the Peru-Chile Trench; and (7) the basinal sediment of the Ross Sea and the continental margin off Wilkes Land, Antarctica. These gas hydrates likely contain and cap significant quantities of methane. Geophysical evidence for gas hydrates is found mainly in the widespread occurrence on marine seismic records of an anomalous reflection event that apparently marks the base of the gas-hydrate zone. Geochemical evidence consists of analyses of gases and interstitial fluids obtained from drilling in offshore sedimentary deposits, particularly at nine DSDP sites cored adjacent to the Middle America Trench where gas hydrates were recovered. Natural gas hydrates will probably be identified in many other Circum-Pacific regions as exploration for offshore petroleum moves into deeper waters over continental and island-arc slopes. Initially, these gas hydrates will probably not be considered as potential energy resources, but special drilling procedures may be needed to penetrate them safely. However, if appropriate reservoirs are found in association with the gas hydrates, then an important energy resource may be discovered.

  11. Resource utilization by desert quail: time and energy, food and water

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, D.L.; Nagy, K.A.

    1985-04-01

    Time-energy budgets (TEB) of Gambel's Quail (Callipepla gambelii) were compiled during two summers in the Colorado Desert of California. Quail spent 6.77 h/d foraging, 6.2 h/d inactive during daylight hours, and 11.02 h/d inactive at night. Field metabolic rate (FMR) calculated from this activity budget was 81.8 kJ/d. Of this, 47.3 kJ/d was expended during foraging, 12.6 kJ/d in daytime inactivity, and 20.4 kJ/d in nighttime inactivity. Despite the extremely hot thermal environment (maximum ambient temperature approx. =45/sup 0/C), there was no energy cost above resting levels for thermoregulation. FMR was also measured simultaneously with doubly labeled water (DLW), and averaged 90.8 kJ/d. The FMR of C. gambelii was only 40% of that predicted for a bird of its body mass. Energy assimilation efficiency, measured in laboratory feeding experiments with a mixed seed and arthropod diet, was 60.3%. An individual quail in the field thus required 150.3 kJ/d in its diet, representing a dry matter intake of 8.1 g/d. It was calculated that over the course of a year, a population of Gambel's Quail consumes seeds with a total energy content approx. =15% as great as that in seeds consumed by a population of desert rodents or harvester ants in the same area. Gambel's Quail thus may be important factors in the competition for resources among desert granivores, particularly because they can eat one of their competitors (harvester ants). 44 references, 2 figures, 7 tables.

  12. A mathematical method for verifying the validity of measured information about the flows of energy resources based on the state estimation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazderin, A. V.; Sof'in, V. V.; Samoylenko, V. O.

    2015-11-01

    Efforts aimed at improving energy efficiency in all branches of the fuel and energy complex shall be commenced with setting up a high-tech automated system for monitoring and accounting energy resources. Malfunctions and failures in the measurement and information parts of this system may distort commercial measurements of energy resources and lead to financial risks for power supplying organizations. In addition, measurement errors may be connected with intentional distortion of measurements for reducing payment for using energy resources on the consumer's side, which leads to commercial loss of energy resource. The article presents a universal mathematical method for verifying the validity of measurement information in networks for transporting energy resources, such as electricity and heat, petroleum, gas, etc., based on the state estimation theory. The energy resource transportation network is represented by a graph the nodes of which correspond to producers and consumers, and its branches stand for transportation mains (power lines, pipelines, and heat network elements). The main idea of state estimation is connected with obtaining the calculated analogs of energy resources for all available measurements. Unlike "raw" measurements, which contain inaccuracies, the calculated flows of energy resources, called estimates, will fully satisfy the suitability condition for all state equations describing the energy resource transportation network. The state equations written in terms of calculated estimates will be already free from residuals. The difference between a measurement and its calculated analog (estimate) is called in the estimation theory an estimation remainder. The obtained large values of estimation remainders are an indicator of high errors of particular energy resource measurements. By using the presented method it is possible to improve the validity of energy resource measurements, to estimate the transportation network observability, to eliminate

  13. Helium-3 inventory of lunar samples: A potential future energy resource for mankind?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murali, A. V.; Jordan, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Recent public concern over the safety, cost, and environmental impact of the worldwide fission reactors has focused the attention of scientists and engineers towards perfecting fusion technology because it promises a much more environmentally acceptable 'clean' energy supply. The fusion reaction D-2 + He-3 yields p(14.7 MeV) + He-4(3.6 MeV) has long been recognized as an ideal candidate for producing commercially 'safer and cleaner' fusion power. Naturally occurring He-3 is scarce on earth; however, lunar regolith is a potential ore for He-3 because the high He-3 in solar wind has been implanted in the lunar regolith for more than 4 x 10(exp 9) years, along with other volatile species. The helium abundance in lunar soils is dependent not only on the maturity of soils (I(sub S)/FeO) but also on their mineralogy. The titanium-rich (ilmenite) lunar soils are important repositories for volatiles, which may be released by heating these soils up to approximately 700 C.

  14. A measurement of the energy spectra and relative abundance of the cosmic-ray H and He isotopes over a broad energy range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webber, W. R.; Yushak, S. M.

    1983-01-01

    The measurements reported of these isotopes were made using two sets of detectors during the same minimum modulation period in 1977. One measurement was made with a balloon-borne telescope, the other with telescopes on the Voyager spacecraft. It is noted that together they provide the widest energy range yet available for studying these isotopes: 14-150 MeV per nucleon for H2 and 10-290 MeV per nucleon for He-3. The simultaneous helium isotope observations are used to give a mutually consistent picture of galactic propagation and solar modulation. The data define the form of the interstellar H-1 and He-4 spectra, an interstellar matter path length for both H-1 and He-4, and a total residual modulation for He-4. The H-2 observations suggest a picture that is very similar for the galactic propagation of H-1 and He-4.

  15. The Putative SLC Transporters Mfsd5 and Mfsd11 Are Abundantly Expressed in the Mouse Brain and Have a Potential Role in Energy Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Perland, Emelie; Lekholm, Emilia; Eriksson, Mikaela M.; Bagchi, Sonchita; Arapi, Vasiliki; Fredriksson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background Solute carriers (SLCs) are membrane bound transporters responsible for the movement of soluble molecules such as amino acids, ions, nucleotides, neurotransmitters and oligopeptides over cellular membranes. At present, there are 395 SLCs identified in humans, where about 40% are still uncharacterized with unknown expression and/or function(s). Here we have studied two uncharacterized atypical SLCs that belong to the Major Facilitator Superfamily Pfam clan, Major facilitator superfamily domain 5 (MFSD5) and Major facilitator superfamily domain 11 (MFSD11). We provide fundamental information about the histology in mice as well as data supporting their disposition to regulate expression levels to keep the energy homeostasis. Results In mice subjected to starvation or high-fat diet, the mRNA expression of Mfsd5 was significantly down-regulated (P<0.001) in food regulatory brain areas whereas Mfsd11 was significantly up-regulated in mice subjected to either starvation (P<0.01) or high-fat diet (P<0.001). qRT-PCR analysis on wild type tissues demonstrated that both Mfsd5 and Mfsd11 have a wide central and peripheral mRNA distribution, and immunohistochemistry was utilized to display the abundant protein expression in the mouse embryo and the adult mouse brain. Both proteins are expressed in excitatory and inhibitory neurons, but not in astrocytes. Conclusions Mfsd5 and Mfsd11 are both affected by altered energy homeostasis, suggesting plausible involvement in the energy regulation. Moreover, the first histological mapping of MFSD5 and MFSD11 shows ubiquitous expression in the periphery and the central nervous system of mice, where the proteins are expressed in excitatory and inhibitory mouse brain neurons. PMID:27272503

  16. Characterization of deep geothermal energy resources using Electro-Magnetic methods, Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loveless, Sian; Harcout-Menou, Virginie; De Ridder, Fjo; Claessens, Bert; Laenen, Ben

    2014-05-01

    Sedimentary basins in Northwest Europe have significant potential for low to medium enthalpy, deep geothermal energy resources. These resources are currently assessed using standard exploration techniques (seismic investigations followed by drilling of a borehole). This has enabled identification of geothermal resources but such techniques are extremely costly. The high cost of exploration remains one of the main barriers to geothermal project development due to the lack of capital in the geothermal industry. We will test the possibility of using the Electro-Magnetic (EM) methods to aid identification of geothermal resources in conjunction with more traditional exploration methods. An EM campaign could cost a third of a seismic campaign and is also often a passive technology, resulting in smaller environmental impacts than seismic surveys or drilling. EM methods image changes in the resistivity of the earth's sub-surface using natural or induced frequency dependant variations of electric and magnetic fields. Changes in resistivity can be interpreted as representing different subsurface properties including changes in rock type, chemistry, temperature and/or hydraulic transmissivity. While EM techniques have proven to be useful in geothermal exploration in high enthalpy areas in the last 2-3 years only a handful of studies assess their applicability in low enthalpy sedimentary basins. Challenges include identifying which sub-surface features cause changes in electrical resistivity as low enthalpy reservoirs are unlikely to exhibit the hydrothermally altered clay layer above the geothermal aquifer that is typical for high enthalpy reservoirs. Yet a principal challenge is likely to be the high levels of industrialisation in the areas of interest. Infrastructure such as train tracks and power cables can create a high level of background noise that can obfuscate the relevant signal. We present our plans for an EM campaign in the Flemish region of Belgium. Field

  17. Connecting Distributed Energy Resources to the Grid: Their Benefits to the DER Owner etc.

    SciTech Connect

    Poore, WP

    2003-07-09

    The vision of the Distributed Energy Research Program (DER) program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is that the United States will have the cleanest and most efficient and reliable energy system in the world by maximizing the use of affordable distributed energy resources. Electricity consumers will be able to choose from a diverse number of efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly distributed energy options and easily connect them into the nation's energy infrastructure while providing benefits to their owners and other stakeholders. The long-term goal of this vision is that DER will achieve a 20% share of new electric capacity additions in the United States by 2010, thereby helping to make the nation's electric power generation and delivery system more efficient, reliable, secure, clean, economical, and diverse in terms of fuel use (oil, natural gas, solar, hydroelectric, etc.) and prime mover resource (solar, wind, gas turbines, etc.). Near- and mid-term goals are to develop new technologies for implementing and operating DER and address barriers associated with DER usage and then to reduce costs and emissions and improve the efficiency and reliability of DER. Numerous strategies for meeting these goals have been developed into a research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) program that supports generation and delivery systems architecture, including modeling and simulation tools. The benefits associated with DER installations are often significant and numerous. They almost always provide tangible economic benefits, such as energy savings or transmission and distribution upgrade deferrals, as well as intangible benefits, such as power quality improvements that lengthen maintenance or repair intervals for power equipment. Also, the benefits routinely are dispersed among end users, utilities, and the public. For instance, an end user may use the DER to reduce their peak demand and save money due to lower demand charges. Reduced end user

  18. The role of natural resource and environmental economics in determining the trade-offs in consumption and production of energy inputs: The case of biomass energy crops

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, M.; Graham, R.L.

    1993-12-31

    Natural resource economics issues deal with flows and funds of renewable and nonrenewable resources over time. These issues include topics concerned with management of fisheries, forests, mineral, energy resources, the extinction of species and the irreversibility of development over time. Environmental economics issues deal with regulation of polluting activities and the valuation of environmental amenities. In this study we outline a framework for studying both natural resource and environmental economics issues for any renewable or nonrenewable resource. Valuation from both the cost and benefit sides are addressed as they relate to the valuation of environmental programs or policies. By using this top-down approach to analyze and determine the costs and benefits of using renewable or nonrenewable resources, policy-makers on the global, national and local scales may be better informed as to the probable nonmarket and market ramifications of their natural resource and environmental policy decisions. This general framework for analysis is then focused to address biomass energy crops and their usage as inputs to energy production. As with any energy technology, a complete analysis must include an examination of the entire fuel cycle; specifically both production and consumption sides. From a production standpoint, market valuation issues such as crop management techniques, inputs to production, and community economics issues must be addressed as well as nonmarket valuation issues such as soil erosion, ground water effects and carbon sequestration. On the consumption side, market valuation considerations such as energy fuel efficiency and quality, cost of conversion and employment of labor are important factors while the critical nonmarket valuation factors are ambient air visibility, greenhouse gas release, and disposal of the by-products of conversion and combustion.

  19. Multi-time Scale Coordination of Distributed Energy Resources in Isolated Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mayhorn, Ebony; Xie, Le; Butler-Purry, Karen

    2016-03-31

    In isolated power systems, including microgrids, distributed assets, such as renewable energy resources (e.g. wind, solar) and energy storage, can be actively coordinated to reduce dependency on fossil fuel generation. The key challenge of such coordination arises from significant uncertainty and variability occurring at small time scales associated with increased penetration of renewables. Specifically, the problem is with ensuring economic and efficient utilization of DERs, while also meeting operational objectives such as adequate frequency performance. One possible solution is to reduce the time step at which tertiary controls are implemented and to ensure feedback and look-ahead capability are incorporated to handle variability and uncertainty. However, reducing the time step of tertiary controls necessitates investigating time-scale coupling with primary controls so as not to exacerbate system stability issues. In this paper, an optimal coordination (OC) strategy, which considers multiple time-scales, is proposed for isolated microgrid systems with a mix of DERs. This coordination strategy is based on an online moving horizon optimization approach. The effectiveness of the strategy was evaluated in terms of economics, technical performance, and computation time by varying key parameters that significantly impact performance. The illustrative example with realistic scenarios on a simulated isolated microgrid test system suggests that the proposed approach is generalizable towards designing multi-time scale optimal coordination strategies for isolated power systems.

  20. Horse dung waste utilization as a household energy resource and estimation of biogas production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umbara, Rian F.; Sumaryatie, Erni D.; Kirom, M. R.; Iskandar, Reza F.

    2013-09-01

    Horses are still used as traditional transportation in Soreang, West Java. About 6-7 horses can produce 25-30 kg of dung every day. Horse dung can produce biogas that can be used as an energy resource. A biogas reactor with capacity of 4 m3 has been built in Soreang. The reactor is filled with a mixture of 50 kg of horse dung and 100 liters of water every two days. This research was conducted to observe the quality of biogas produced from the reactor and to estimate the volume of biogas produced per day. The observation of daily biogas production conducted in 22 days. Laboratory tests showed that the composition of gases contained in the produced biogas consists of 56.53% of CH4, 26.98% of CO2, 12.35% of N2, 4.13% of O2, and 0.007% of H2. Daily biogas production data indicate a stationary trend. A moving average time series model is used to model the data. Using the model, it is estimated that the reactor can produce 0.240112 m3 of biogas per day, which is sufficient to meet the energy needs of a household.