Science.gov

Sample records for abundant energy source

  1. Energy Spectra of Abundant Cosmic-ray Nuclei in Sources, According to the ATIC Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Panov, A. D.; Sokolskaya, N. V.; Zatsepin, V. I., E-mail: panov@dec1.sinp.msu.ru

    One of the main results of the ATIC (Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter) experiment is a collection of energy spectra of abundant cosmic-ray nuclei: protons, He, C, O, Ne, Mg, Si, and Fe measured in terms of energy per particle in the energy range from 50 GeV to tens of teraelectronvolts. In this paper, the ATIC energy spectra of abundant primary nuclei are back-propagated to the spectra in sources in terms of magnetic rigidity using a leaky-box approximation of three different GALPROP-based diffusion models of propagation that fit the latest B/C data of the AMS-02 experiment. It is shown that themore » results of a comparison of the slopes of the spectra in sources are weakly model dependent; therefore the differences of spectral indices are reliable data. A regular growth of the steepness of spectra in sources in the range of magnetic rigidity of 50–1350 GV is found for a charge range from helium to iron. This conclusion is statistically reliable with significance better than 3.2 standard deviations. The results are discussed and compared to the data of other modern experiments.« less

  2. Molecular hydrogen: An abundant energy source for bacterial activity in nuclear waste repositories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libert, M.; Bildstein, O.; Esnault, L.; Jullien, M.; Sellier, R.

    A thorough understanding of the energy sources used by microbial systems in the deep terrestrial subsurface is essential since the extreme conditions for life in deep biospheres may serve as a model for possible life in a nuclear waste repository. In this respect, H 2 is known as one of the most energetic substrates for deep terrestrial subsurface environments. This hydrogen is produced from abiotic and biotic processes but its concentration in natural systems is usually maintained at very low levels due to hydrogen-consuming bacteria. A significant amount of H 2 gas will be produced within deep nuclear waste repositories, essentially from the corrosion of metallic components. This will consequently improve the conditions for microbial activity in this specific environment. This paper discusses different study cases with experimental results to illustrate the fact that microorganisms are able to use hydrogen for redox processes (reduction of O 2, NO3-, Fe III) in several waste disposal conditions. Consequences of microbial activity include: alteration of groundwater chemistry and shift in geochemical equilibria, gas production or consumption, biocorrosion, and potential modifications of confinement properties. In order to quantify the impact of hydrogen bacteria, the next step will be to determine the kinetic rate of the reactions in realistic conditions.

  3. Source abundances of ultra heavy elements derived from UHCRE measurements.

    PubMed

    Domingo, C; Font, J; Baixeras, C; Fernandez, F

    1996-11-01

    A total of 205 tracks have been located, measured, and positively identified as originating from Ultra Heavy (Z > or = 65) cosmic ray ions with energies over 2 GeV/amu in the 10 UHCRE plastic track detector (mainly Lexan polycarbonate) stacks studied by our Group. About 40 values of reduced etch rate S have been obtained along each of these tracks. A method based on determining the gradient of S, together with calibration in accelerators, is used to determine the charge of each ion resulting in one of such tracks to obtain the charge spectrum of the recorded Ultra Heavy ions. The abundance ratio of ions with 87 < or = Z < or = 100 to those with 74 < or = Z < or = 86 as well as that of ions with 81 < or = Z < or = 86 to those with 74 < or = Z < or = 80 are calculated at 0.016 and 0.32, respectively, which agree with the values obtained from measurements in the HEAO-3 and Ariel-6 experiments. The abundance ratio of ions with 70 < or = Z < or = 73 to those with 74 < or = Z < or = 86 is also calculated, but its value (0.074) did not seem to be significant because of our detectors' low registration efficiency in the charge range 70 < or = Z < or = 73. A computer program developed by our Group, based on the Leaky Box cosmic ray propagation model, has been used to determine the source abundances of cosmic ray nuclei with Z > or = 65 inferred from the abundances measured in the UHCRE. It appeared that r-process synthesized elements were overabundant compared to the Solar System abundances, as predicted by other authors.

  4. Energy Sources and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with energy sources and development. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss energy sources and development related to the historical perspective, biological development, current aspects, and future expectations…

  5. Diversification of energy sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The concept of energy source diversification was introduced as a substitution conservation action. The current status and philosophy behind a diversification program is presented in the context of a national energy policy. Advantages, disadvantages (constraints), and methods of implementation for diversification are discussed. The energy source systems for diversification are listed and an example impact assessment is outlined which deals with the water requirements of the specific energy systems.

  6. Alternative energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, R. W.

    1982-04-01

    Renewable energy sources and their potential contribution for solving energy needs are presented. Centralized supply technologies include those alternative fuels derived from biomass using solar energy, (supplying 57% of the energy supply in some countries), and those using directly collected solar energy to manufacture a fuel. Fuel utilization effects can be doubled by using combined heat and power stations, and other major sources include wind, wave, tidal, and solar. In terms of local supply technology, wood burning appliances are becoming more popular, and methane is being used for heating and to fuel spark ignition engines. Geothermal low temperature heating exists worldwide at a capacity of 7.2 GW, supplying heat, particularly in Hungary, parts of the U.S.S.R., and Iceland, and a geothermal research program has been established in the United States. Sweden has a potential hydroelectric capacity of 600 MW, and the United States has a 100 GW capacity. Many of these technologies are already cost effective.

  7. Energy sources for Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Okoroji, C.E.I.

    1982-09-01

    A public consensus has developed on the need for national energy policies and better planning in the utilization of energy resources in Nigeria. A look at Nigeria's energy future is timely as a period of rapid technological growth and industrial development begins. At the present time, Nigeria exports a relatively high percentage (92%) of the petroleum produced annually. In addition, about 95% of all produced natural gas is flared. Only a relatively minor fraction of the coal produced is used and the rest exported to West African countries. Water power in Nigeria is not yet fully developed. Although the depositsmore » of uranium and oil sand may be substantial, the reserves are not currently known. The proportions in which mineral fuels are used are not related to their relative abundance. Based on present production rates, domestic reserves of petroleum will last 20 years, those of natural gas 63 years, and those of coal 1503 years. Nigeria is not currently and is not likely to become self-sufficient in terms of energy requirements. During the past decade, Nigeria's population has increased by 28.4%. Of vital concern for the immediate future in Nigeria are the demands on energy consumption and mineral resources resulting from increasing population pressure.« less

  8. Coal as an abundant source of graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Ruquan; Xiang, Changsheng; Lin, Jian; Peng, Zhiwei; Huang, Kewei; Yan, Zheng; Cook, Nathan P.; Samuel, Errol L. G.; Hwang, Chih-Chau; Ruan, Gedeng; Ceriotti, Gabriel; Raji, Abdul-Rahman O.; Martí, Angel A.; Tour, James M.

    2013-12-01

    Coal is the most abundant and readily combustible energy resource being used worldwide. However, its structural characteristic creates a perception that coal is only useful for producing energy via burning. Here we report a facile approach to synthesize tunable graphene quantum dots from various types of coal, and establish that the unique coal structure has an advantage over pure sp2-carbon allotropes for producing quantum dots. The crystalline carbon within the coal structure is easier to oxidatively displace than when pure sp2-carbon structures are used, resulting in nanometre-sized graphene quantum dots with amorphous carbon addends on the edges. The synthesized graphene quantum dots, produced in up to 20% isolated yield from coal, are soluble and fluorescent in aqueous solution, providing promise for applications in areas such as bioimaging, biomedicine, photovoltaics and optoelectronics, in addition to being inexpensive additives for structural composites.

  9. Coal as an abundant source of graphene quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ruquan; Xiang, Changsheng; Lin, Jian; Peng, Zhiwei; Huang, Kewei; Yan, Zheng; Cook, Nathan P; Samuel, Errol L G; Hwang, Chih-Chau; Ruan, Gedeng; Ceriotti, Gabriel; Raji, Abdul-Rahman O; Martí, Angel A; Tour, James M

    2013-01-01

    Coal is the most abundant and readily combustible energy resource being used worldwide. However, its structural characteristic creates a perception that coal is only useful for producing energy via burning. Here we report a facile approach to synthesize tunable graphene quantum dots from various types of coal, and establish that the unique coal structure has an advantage over pure sp2-carbon allotropes for producing quantum dots. The crystalline carbon within the coal structure is easier to oxidatively displace than when pure sp2-carbon structures are used, resulting in nanometre-sized graphene quantum dots with amorphous carbon addends on the edges. The synthesized graphene quantum dots, produced in up to 20% isolated yield from coal, are soluble and fluorescent in aqueous solution, providing promise for applications in areas such as bioimaging, biomedicine, photovoltaics and optoelectronics, in addition to being inexpensive additives for structural composites.

  10. Cold dark energy constraints from the abundance of galaxy clusters

    DOE PAGES

    Heneka, Caroline; Rapetti, David; Cataneo, Matteo; ...

    2017-10-05

    We constrain cold dark energy of negligible sound speed using galaxy cluster abundance observations. In contrast to standard quasi-homogeneous dark energy, negligible sound speed implies clustering of the dark energy fluid at all scales, allowing us to measure the effects of dark energy perturbations at cluster scales. We compare those models and set the stage for using non-linear information from semi-analytical modelling in cluster growth data analyses. For this, we recalibrate the halo mass function with non-linear characteristic quantities, the spherical collapse threshold and virial overdensity, that account for model and redshift-dependent behaviours, as well as an additional mass contributionmore » for cold dark energy. Here in this paper, we present the first constraints from this cold dark matter plus cold dark energy mass function using our cluster abundance likelihood, which self-consistently accounts for selection effects, covariances and systematic uncertainties. We combine cluster growth data with cosmic microwave background, supernovae Ia and baryon acoustic oscillation data, and find a shift between cold versus quasi-homogeneous dark energy of up to 1σ. We make a Fisher matrix forecast of constraints attainable with cluster growth data from the ongoing Dark Energy Survey (DES). For DES, we predict ~ 50 percent tighter constraints on (Ωm, w) for cold dark energy versus wCDM models, with the same free parameters. Overall, we show that cluster abundance analyses are sensitive to cold dark energy, an alternative, viable model that should be routinely investigated alongside the standard dark energy scenario.« less

  11. Cold dark energy constraints from the abundance of galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Heneka, Caroline; Rapetti, David; Cataneo, Matteo

    We constrain cold dark energy of negligible sound speed using galaxy cluster abundance observations. In contrast to standard quasi-homogeneous dark energy, negligible sound speed implies clustering of the dark energy fluid at all scales, allowing us to measure the effects of dark energy perturbations at cluster scales. We compare those models and set the stage for using non-linear information from semi-analytical modelling in cluster growth data analyses. For this, we recalibrate the halo mass function with non-linear characteristic quantities, the spherical collapse threshold and virial overdensity, that account for model and redshift-dependent behaviours, as well as an additional mass contributionmore » for cold dark energy. Here in this paper, we present the first constraints from this cold dark matter plus cold dark energy mass function using our cluster abundance likelihood, which self-consistently accounts for selection effects, covariances and systematic uncertainties. We combine cluster growth data with cosmic microwave background, supernovae Ia and baryon acoustic oscillation data, and find a shift between cold versus quasi-homogeneous dark energy of up to 1σ. We make a Fisher matrix forecast of constraints attainable with cluster growth data from the ongoing Dark Energy Survey (DES). For DES, we predict ~ 50 percent tighter constraints on (Ωm, w) for cold dark energy versus wCDM models, with the same free parameters. Overall, we show that cluster abundance analyses are sensitive to cold dark energy, an alternative, viable model that should be routinely investigated alongside the standard dark energy scenario.« less

  12. Fission Energy and Other Sources of Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfven, Hannes

    1974-01-01

    Discusses different forms of energy sources and basic reasons for the opposition to the use of atomic energy. Suggests that research efforts should also be aimed toward the fission technology to make it acceptable besides major research studies conducted in the development of alternative energy sources. (CC)

  13. Abundance and sources of atmospheric halocarbons in the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenenberger, Fabian; Henne, Stephan; Hill, Matthias; Vollmer, Martin K.; Kouvarakis, Giorgos; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; O'Doherty, Simon; Maione, Michela; Emmenegger, Lukas; Peter, Thomas; Reimann, Stefan

    2018-03-01

    A wide range of anthropogenic halocarbons is released to the atmosphere, contributing to stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. Using measurements of atmospheric abundances for the estimation of halocarbon emissions on the global and regional scale has become an important top-down tool for emission validation in the recent past, but many populated and developing areas of the world are only poorly covered by the existing atmospheric halocarbon measurement network. Here we present 6 months of continuous halocarbon observations from Finokalia on the island of Crete in the Eastern Mediterranean. The gases measured are the hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), HFC-134a (CH2FCF3), HFC-125 (CHF2CF3), HFC-152a (CH3CHF2) and HFC-143a (CH3CF3) and the hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), HCFC-22 (CHClF2) and HCFC-142b (CH3CClF2). The Eastern Mediterranean is home to 250 million inhabitants, consisting of a number of developed and developing countries, for which different emission regulations exist under the Kyoto and Montreal protocols. Regional emissions of halocarbons were estimated with Lagrangian atmospheric transport simulations and a Bayesian inverse modeling system, using measurements at Finokalia in conjunction with those from Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) sites at Mace Head (Ireland), Jungfraujoch (Switzerland) and Monte Cimone (Italy). Measured peak mole fractions at Finokalia showed generally smaller amplitudes for HFCs than at the European AGAGE sites except for periodic peaks of HFC-152a, indicating strong upwind sources. Higher peak mole fractions were observed for HCFCs, suggesting continued emissions from nearby developing regions such as Egypt and the Middle East. For 2013, the Eastern Mediterranean inverse emission estimates for the four analyzed HFCs and the two HCFCs were 13.9 (11.3-19.3) and 9.5 (6.8-15.1) Tg CO2eq yr-1, respectively. These emissions contributed 16.8 % (13.6-23.3 %) and 53.2 % (38.1-84.2 %) to the total inversion

  14. Solar Photoelectrochemical Energy Conversion using Earth-Abundant Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukowski, Mark A.

    Although the vast majority of energy consumed worldwide is derived from fossil fuels, the growing interest in making cleaner alternative energies more economically viable has motivated recent research efforts aimed to improve photovoltaic, wind, and biomass power generation. Clean power generation also requires clean burning fuels, such as H2 and O2, so that energy can still be provided on demand at all times, despite the intermittent nature inherent to solar or wind power. My research has focused on the rational approach to synthesizing earth-abundant nanomaterials with applications in the generation of clean alternative fuels and understanding the structure-property relationships which directly influence their performance. Herein, we describe the development of low-cost, earth-abundant layered metal chalcogenides as high-performance electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution, and hematite photoanodes for photoelectrochemical oxygen evolution. This work has revealed a particularly interesting concept where catalytic performance can be enhanced by controlling the phase behavior of the material and taking advantage of previously unexploited properties to overcome the challenges traditionally limiting the performance of these layered materials for hydrogen evolution catalysis.

  15. Introduction to energy sources. [Monograph

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1978-01-01

    Energy resources are reviewed in lay terms in an effort to increase the public's awareness of energy issues. Summaries of the principal sources of energy describe availability, technological requirements, and environmental impacts. The emphasis is placed on making energy use more efficient and the implications of shifting to centralized power plants, with more reliance on electricity. The purpose of this monograph is to demonstrate that energy issues can be examined and assessed by non-experts.

  16. Abundance and Source Population of Suprathermal Heavy Ions in Corotating Interaction Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensema, R. J.; Desai, M. I.; Broiles, T. W.; Dayeh, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we analyze the abundances of suprathermal heavy ions in 75 Corotating Interaction Region (CIR) events between January 1st 1995 and December 31st 2008. We correlate the heavy ion abundances in these CIRs with those measured in the solar wind and suprathermal populations upstream of these events. Our analysis reveals that the CIR suprathermal heavy ion abundances vary by nearly two orders of magnitude over the solar activity cycle, with higher abundances (e.g., Fe/O) occurring during solar maximum and depleted values occurring during solar minimum. The abundances are also energy dependent, with larger abundances at higher energies, particularly during solar maximum. Following the method used by Mason et al. 2008, we correlate the CIR abundances with the corresponding solar wind and suprathermal values measured during 6-hour intervals for upstream periods spanning 10 days prior to the start of each CIR event. This correlation reveals that suprathermal heavy ions are better correlated with upstream suprathermal abundances measured at the same energy compared with the solar wind heavy ion abundances. Using the 6-hour averaging method, we also identified timeframes of maximum correlation between the CIR and the upstream suprathermal abundances, and find that the time of maximum correlation depends on the energy of the suprathermal ions. We discuss the implications of these results in terms of previous studies of CIR and suprathermal particles, and CIR seed populations and acceleration mechanisms.

  17. Elemental abundance anomalies in the late Cenomanian extinction interval: a search for the source(s)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orth, C.J.; Attrep, M.; Quintana, L.R.; Elder, W.P.; Kauffman, E.G.; Diner, R.; Villamil, T.

    1993-01-01

    Elemental abundances have been measured by neutron activation methods across the Cenomanian-Turonian (late Cretaceous) extinction interval in samples collected from sixteen sites in the Western Interior Basin of North America and from twelve widely separated locations around the globe, including six ODP/DSDP sites. In most Western Interior Basin sites, in Colombia, and in western Europe (weaker), two closely spaced elemental abundance peaks occur in the upper Cenomanian (??? 92 m.y.), spanning the ammonite zones of Sciponoceras gracile through Neocardioceras juddii. Elements with anomalously high concentrations include Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Ir, Pt and Au. The lower peak coincides with the disappearance (extinction) of the foraminifer Rotalipora cushmani. In North American sections R. greenhornensis also disappears at or just below this horizon, but in Europe it disappears considerably earlier than R. cushmani. A series of molluscan extinction and speciation or migration events also begins near the stratigraphic level of the lower elemental abundance peak. The well-documented positive ?? 13C excursion begins just before the extinctions and the elemental anomalies, and continues into the lower Turonian, well above the upper anomaly. This carbon isotope excursion has been observed in East European sections where we find little or no evidence of the elemental anomalies, suggesting that the two phenomena may not be tightly coupled. Elemental abundance ratios in the anomalies closely resemble those of Mid-Atlantic Ridge basalt or Hawaiian lava (tholeiitic), but not those of C1 chondrite, black shale, average crustal rocks, or lamproite and kimberlite of roughly similar age in southeastern Kansas. The excess Ir and other siderophiles hint at possible large-body impact(s) for the source. However, we have not located microspherules (other than biogenic calcispheres) or shocked mineral grains in any of our samples. Furthermore, Sc, Ti, V and Mn are not enriched in

  18. Fusion energy science: Clean, safe, and abundant energy through innovative science and technology

    SciTech Connect

    None

    Fusion energy science combines the study of the behavior of plasmas--the state of matter that forms 99% of the visible universe--with a vision of using fusion--the energy source of the stars--to create an affordable, plentiful, and environmentally benign energy source for humankind. The dual nature of fusion energy science provides an unfolding panorama of exciting intellectual challenge and a promise of an attractive energy source for generations to come. The goal of this report is a comprehensive understanding of plasma behavior leading to an affordable and attractive fusion energy source.

  19. Increased energy expenditure by a seabird in response to higher food abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jodice, P.G.R.; Roby, D.D.; Suryan, R.M.; Irons, D.B.; Turco, K.R.; Brown, E.D.; Thedinga, J.F.; Visser, G. Henk

    2006-01-01

    Variability in forage fish abundance strongly affects seabird behavior and reproductive success, although details of this relationship are unclear. During 1997 and 1998, we measured (1) daily energy expenditure (DEE) of 80 parent black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla at 2 colonies in Prince William Sound, Alaska (North Icy Bay and Shoup Bay), (2) abundance of surface-schooling forage fishes within the foraging range of each colony, and (3) diet composition, energy delivery rates to nestlings, and reproductive success of kittiwakes at these same colonies. Female DEE was highest at North Icy Bay in 1998, while male DEE did not differ by colony year. Abundances of Pacific herring Clupea pallasi and sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus were highest near North Icy Bay in 1998 and nearly egual in density, although Age 1+ herring comprised the majority of the diet there. Energy delivery rates to nestlings, nestling growth rates, and productivity were also highest at North Icy Bay in 1998. We suggest that female kittiwakes responded to the increased abundance of Age 1+ herring near North Icy Bay in 1998 by increasing their DEE, which in turn positively affected reproductive success. Given that adult kittiwakes have been shown to suffer decreased survival as a response to increased energy expenditure during brood rearing, the positive correlation we observed between increased abundance of a high quality food source, parental effort, and productivity is consistent with maximizing lifetime reproductive success. The lack of a response in male DEE suggests that brood-rearing roles in kittiwakes differ between genders. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  20. Tungsten Abundances in Hawaiian Picrites: Implications for the Mantle Sources of Hawaiian Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, T. J.; Arevalo, R. D.; Walker, R. J.; McDonough, W. F.

    2008-12-01

    Tungsten abundances have been measured in a suite of Hawaiian picrites (MgO >13 wt.%) from nine Hawaiian shield volcanoes (Mauna Kea, Mauna Loa, Hualalai, Loihi, Koolau, Kilauea, Kohala, Lanai and Molokai). Tungsten concentrations in the parental melts for these volcanoes have been estimated via the intersection of linear W-MgO trends with the putative MgO content of the parental melt (~16 wt.%). Tungsten behaves as a highly incompatible trace element in mafic to ultramafic systems; thus, given an independent assessment of the degree of partial melting for each volcanic center, the W abundances in their mantle sources can be determined. The mantle sources for Hualalai, Kilauea, Kohala and Loihi have non- uniform estimated W abundances of 11, 13, 16 and 27 ng/g, respectively, giving an average source abundance of 17±5 ng/g. This average source abundance is nearly six times more enriched than Depleted MORB Mantle (DMM: 3.0±2.3 ng/g) and slightly elevated relative to the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE: 13±10 ng/g). The relatively high abundances of W in the Hawaiian sources relative to the DMM can potentially be explained as a consequence of crustal recycling. For example, incorporation of 30% oceanic crust (30 ng/g W), including 3% sediment (1500 ng/g W), into a DMM source could create the W enrichment observed in the Loihi source, consistent with estimates from earlier models based on other trace elements and isotope systems. The Hualalai source, however, has also been suggested to contain a substantial recycled component, as implied by similarly radiogenic 187Os/188Os, yet this source has the lowest estimated W abundance among the volcanic centers studied. The conflict between these results may: 1) reflect chemical differences among recycled components, 2) indicate a more complex history for Hualalai samples, e.g. involvement of a melt percolation component, or 3) implicate other sources of W.

  1. Antimatter as an Energy Source

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Gerald P.

    2009-03-16

    Antiprotons and positrons are constantly generated in space, and periodically manufactured by humans here on Earth. Harvesting of these particles in space and forming stable antimatter atoms and molecules would create a significant energy source for power and propulsion. Though dedicated fabrication of these particles on Earth consumes much more energy than could be liberated upon annihilation, manufactured antimatter represents a high-density energy storage mechanism well suited for spacecraft power and propulsion. In this paper the creation, storage, and utilization of antimatter is introduced. Specific examples of electrical energy generation and deep-space propulsion based on antimatter are also reviewed.

  2. Ethanol: A Strategic Energy Source?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-04

    needs. The present administration cites our dependence on oil as one of our critical national weaknesses. Our international standing and economic ... stability will improve if we can discover plentiful renewable energy sources that eventually reduce global demand for oil. Ethanol is one of several

  3. Sources of sedimentary PAHs in tropical Asian waters: differentiation between pyrogenic and petrogenic sources by alkyl homolog abundance.

    PubMed

    Saha, Mahua; Togo, Ayako; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Murakami, Michio; Takada, Hideshige; Zakaria, Mohamad P; Chiem, Nguyen H; Tuyen, Bui Cach; Prudente, Maricar; Boonyatumanond, Ruchaya; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Bhattacharya, Badal; Mishra, Pravakar; Tana, Touch Seang

    2009-02-01

    We collected surface sediment samples from 174 locations in India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, and the Philippines and analyzed them for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hopanes. PAHs were widely distributed in the sediments, with comparatively higher concentrations in urban areas (Sigma PAHs: approximately 1000 to approximately 100,000 ng/g-dry) than in rural areas ( approximately 10 to approximately 100g-dry), indicating large sources of PAHs in urban areas. To distinguish petrogenic and pyrogenic sources of PAHs, we calculated the ratios of alkyl PAHs to parent PAHs: methylphenanthrenes to phenanthrene (MP/P), methylpyrenes+methylfluoranthenes to pyrene+fluoranthene (MPy/Py), and methylchrysenes+methylbenz[a]anthracenes to chrysene+benz[a]anthracene (MC/C). Analysis of source materials (crude oil, automobile exhaust, and coal and wood combustion products) gave thresholds of MP/P=0.4, MPy/Py=0.5, and MC/C=1.0 for exclusive combustion origin. All the combustion product samples had the ratios of alkyl PAHs to parent PAHs below these threshold values. Contributions of petrogenic and pyrogenic sources to the sedimentary PAHs were uneven among the homologs: the phenanthrene series had a greater petrogenic contribution, whereas the chrysene series had a greater pyrogenic contribution. All the Indian sediments showed a strong pyrogenic signature with MP/P approximately 0.5, MPy/Py approximately 0.1, and MC/C approximately 0.2, together with depletion of hopanes indicating intensive inputs of combustion products of coal and/or wood, probably due to the heavy dependence on these fuels as sources of energy. In contrast, sedimentary PAHs from all other tropical Asian cities were abundant in alkylated PAHs with MP/P approximately 1-4, MPy/Py approximately 0.3-1, and MC/C approximately 0.2-1.0, suggesting a ubiquitous input of petrogenic PAHs. Petrogenic contributions to PAH homologs varied among the countries: largest in Malaysia

  4. Solar particle abundances at energies of greater than 1 MeV per nucleon and the role of interplanetary shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.; Reames, D. V.; Von Rosenvinge, T. T.

    1991-01-01

    The abundances of elements in large solar energetic-particle events in the energy range of 2-12 MeV per nucleon are examined. It is confirmed that the abundances relative to mean values vary approximately monotonically as a function of mass, except for He-4; some events show a gradual depletion of heavy ions, whereas a small number displays a gradual increase. A further organization of abundance data is shown, which depends on the longitude of the source region. Enhancements in Fe/C and other heavy elements relative to C occur when source regions are near west 60 deg; the enhancements are attributed to the sampling of a flare-heated material. Depletions of these elements are found to be greatest for source regions near central meridian; they are matched by a steepening of the spectrum and can be understood in terms of diffusive shock acceleration.

  5. Energy Sources | Climate Neutral Research Campuses | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    . Common systems include: Biomass Deep Water Cooling Fuel Cells Geothermal Energy Ground-Source Heat Pumps Sources Energy Sources Many opportunities exist to improve the efficiency of energy supply systems and to incorporate renewable energy, especially at large research campuses with many facilities

  6. Modeling unobserved sources of heterogeneity in animal abundance using a Dirichlet process prior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorazio, R.M.; Mukherjee, B.; Zhang, L.; Ghosh, M.; Jelks, H.L.; Jordan, F.

    2008-01-01

    In surveys of natural populations of animals, a sampling protocol is often spatially replicated to collect a representative sample of the population. In these surveys, differences in abundance of animals among sample locations may induce spatial heterogeneity in the counts associated with a particular sampling protocol. For some species, the sources of heterogeneity in abundance may be unknown or unmeasurable, leading one to specify the variation in abundance among sample locations stochastically. However, choosing a parametric model for the distribution of unmeasured heterogeneity is potentially subject to error and can have profound effects on predictions of abundance at unsampled locations. In this article, we develop an alternative approach wherein a Dirichlet process prior is assumed for the distribution of latent abundances. This approach allows for uncertainty in model specification and for natural clustering in the distribution of abundances in a data-adaptive way. We apply this approach in an analysis of counts based on removal samples of an endangered fish species, the Okaloosa darter. Results of our data analysis and simulation studies suggest that our implementation of the Dirichlet process prior has several attractive features not shared by conventional, fully parametric alternatives. ?? 2008, The International Biometric Society.

  7. Renewable Sources of Energy and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diatta, Christian Sina

    1979-01-01

    Reviewed are the status of conventional sources of energy, prospects for the development of alternative sources of energy, and the consequences of that development on countries that are in the process of industrialization. (BT)

  8. Diversity, abundance, and possible sources of fecal bacteria in the Yangtze River.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haohao; He, Xiwei; Ye, Lin; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Wu, Bing; Ren, Hongqiang

    2017-03-01

    The fecal bacteria in natural waters may pose serious risks on human health. Although many source tracking methods have been developed and used to determine the possible sources of the fecal pollution, little is known about the overall diversity and abundance of fecal bacterial community in natural waters. In this study, a method based on fecal bacterial sequence library was introduced to evaluate the fecal bacterial profile in the Yangtze River (Nanjing section). Our results suggested that the Yangtze River water harbors diverse fecal bacteria. Fifty-eight fecal operational taxonomic units (97% identity level) were detected in the Yangtze River water samples and the relative abundance of fecal bacteria in these samples ranged from 0.1 to 8%. It was also found that the relative abundances of the fecal bacteria in locations near to the downstream of wastewater treatment plants were obviously higher than those in other locations. However, the high abundance of fecal bacteria could decrease to the normal level in 2~4 km in the river due to degradation or dilution, and the overall fecal bacteria level changed little when the Yangtze River flew through the Nanjing City. Moreover, the fecal bacteria in the Yangtze River water were found to be highly associated (Spearman rho = 0.804, P < 0.001) with the potential pathogenic bacteria. Collectively, the findings in this study reveal the diversity, abundance, and possible sources of fecal bacteria in the Yangtze River and advance our understandings of the fecal bacteria community in the natural waters.

  9. Estimating abundance while accounting for rarity, correlated behavior, and other sources of variation in counts.

    PubMed

    Dorazio, Robert M; Martin, Julien; Edwards, Holly H

    2013-07-01

    The class of N-mixture models allows abundance to be estimated from repeated, point count surveys while adjusting for imperfect detection of individuals. We developed an extension of N-mixture models to account for two commonly observed phenomena in point count surveys: rarity and lack of independence induced by unmeasurable sources of variation in the detectability of individuals. Rarity increases the number of locations with zero detections in excess of those expected under simple models of abundance (e.g., Poisson or negative binomial). Correlated behavior of individuals and other phenomena, though difficult to measure, increases the variation in detection probabilities among surveys. Our extension of N-mixture models includes a hurdle model of abundance and a beta-binomial model of detectability that accounts for additional (extra-binomial) sources of variation in detections among surveys. As an illustration, we fit this model to repeated point counts of the West Indian manatee, which was observed in a pilot study using aerial surveys. Our extension of N-mixture models provides increased flexibility. The effects of different sets of covariates may be estimated for the probability of occurrence of a species, for its mean abundance at occupied locations, and for its detectability.

  10. Estimating abundance while accounting for rarity, correlated behavior, and other sources of variation in counts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorazio, Robert M.; Martin, Juulien; Edwards, Holly H.

    2013-01-01

    The class of N-mixture models allows abundance to be estimated from repeated, point count surveys while adjusting for imperfect detection of individuals. We developed an extension of N-mixture models to account for two commonly observed phenomena in point count surveys: rarity and lack of independence induced by unmeasurable sources of variation in the detectability of individuals. Rarity increases the number of locations with zero detections in excess of those expected under simple models of abundance (e.g., Poisson or negative binomial). Correlated behavior of individuals and other phenomena, though difficult to measure, increases the variation in detection probabilities among surveys. Our extension of N-mixture models includes a hurdle model of abundance and a beta-binomial model of detectability that accounts for additional (extra-binomial) sources of variation in detections among surveys. As an illustration, we fit this model to repeated point counts of the West Indian manatee, which was observed in a pilot study using aerial surveys. Our extension of N-mixture models provides increased flexibility. The effects of different sets of covariates may be estimated for the probability of occurrence of a species, for its mean abundance at occupied locations, and for its detectability.

  11. Economics of alternative energy sources.

    PubMed

    Ryle, M

    1977-05-12

    An important part of the oil and natural gas at present consumed in the UK is used for the heating of buildings, a demand which shows large diurnal, day-to-day and annual fluctuations. The replacement of this energy by nuclear-generated electricity, as at present envisaged, would require the construction of some 250 GW of additional capacity by the end of the century, a progamme which does not seem feasible. By incorporating relatively cheap, short term storage in the form of low-grade heat, the generating capacity required to fulfil peak demand could be reduced by more than 50%. As soon as such storage is provided, however, other sources of energy become viable and attractive alternatives, and the UK is well situated to make use of wind, wave, and tidal power. It seems likely that the value of North Sea oil/gas reserves as feedstock to the chemical industry will rise sufficiently to make an early reduction in their consumption as fuel of great economic importance.

  12. Supplementing Conservation Practices with Alternative Energy Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraetsch, Gayla A.

    1981-01-01

    Universities and colleges have two major roles: to reduce their own energy consumption and costs, and to develop and test new energy options. Alternative energy sources considered include solar energy, wind power, biomass, hydropower, ocean energy, geothermal heat, coal, and nuclear energy. (MLW)

  13. Abundant Renewable Energy Resources Exist in Lao PDR | News | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    electricity generation, assessing the technical potential of domestic solar, wind, and biomass. The report set renewable energy targets; identify opportunities to meet growing domestic electricity demand ; offset current electricity import trends; and position the country as an exporter of electricity. Read

  14. Consider a source: Microplastic in rivers is abundant, mobile, and selects for unique bacterial assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoellein, T. J.; Kelly, J. J.; McCormick, A.; London, M.

    2016-02-01

    Microplastic particles (< 5mm) in oceans are an emerging ecological concern. While rivers are considered a major source of microplastic to oceans, little is known about microplastic abundance, transport, and biological interactions in rivers. Our initial research an urban river showed microplastic collected downstream of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was more abundant than upstream, more abundant than many marine sites, and had higher occurrences of bacterial taxa associated with plastic decomposition and gastrointestinal pathogens than natural habitats (e.g., seston and water column). Based on these data, we conducted follow-up projects to measure 1) the role of WWTPs on microplastic abundance in 10 rivers, 2) microplastic concentrations in WWTP influent, sludge, and effluent, and 3) deposition rates of microplastic downstream of a WWTP point source. In each project, we characterized bacterial community composition on microplastic and natural habitats using next-generation Illumina sequencing. Although maximum concentrations varied among 10 sites, microplastic concentration was significantly higher downstream of WWTPs than upstream. WWTPs retained a significant component of microplastic in two activated sludge plants (>90%). Microplastic deposition length in an urban river was >2 km, and concentrations were orders of magnitude higher in the sediment than water column. Finally, bacterial communities were distinct on microplastic in water column and sediment habitats, yet communities became more similar with increasing distance from WWTP effluent sites. These data support the role of rivers as sources of microplastic to downstream ecosystems, but also illustrate that rivers are active sites of microplastic retention and bacterial colonization. Results will inform policies and engineering advances for mitigating microplastic inputs and redistribution. We advocate for research on plastic in the environment which synthesizes data from freshwater and marine

  15. Conservation as an alternative energy source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    A speech is given outlining the energy situation in the United States. It is warned that the existing energy situation cannot prevail and the time is fast running out for continued growth or even maintenance of present levels. Energy conservation measures are given as an aid to decrease U.S. energy consumption, which would allow more time to develop alternative sources of energy.

  16. Abundances and energy spectra of high energy heavy cosmic-ray nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Barthelmy, S.D.

    1985-01-01

    We have measured the relative abundances of the cosmic rays in the iron group region at energies from a few GeV/amu to approximately 70 GeV/amu. This is done using a balloon-borne instrument consisting of gas ionization chambers, a plastic scintillator, a plastic Cherenkov counter, and a CO/sub 2/ gas Cherenkov counter. The instrument was flown from Palestine, Texas in the fall of 1982 for a total exposure of 62 m/sup 2/-ster-hr at an average atmospheric depth of 4 g/cm/sup 2/. The elemental charge was determined for a combination of the scintillator and plastic Cherenkov detector. Results are reported on themore » /sub 22/Ti//sub 26/Fe, /sub 24/Cr//sub 26/Fe, /sub 20/Ca//sub 26/Fe, and /sub 28/Ni//sub 28/Fe abundance ratios from 2 to 70 GeV/amu. Within this work results on the previously unused method of relativistic rise in gas ionization chambers is detailed as well as results on the return to nonsaturation of plastic scintillators.« less

  17. The Abundance of Helium in the Source Plasma of Solar Energetic Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reames, Donald V.

    2017-11-01

    Studies of patterns of abundance enhancements of elements, relative to solar coronal abundances, in large solar energetic-particle (SEP) events, and of their power-law dependence on the mass-to-charge ratio, A/Q, of the ions, have been used to determine the effective source-plasma temperature, T, that defines the Q-values of the ions. We find that a single assumed value for the coronal reference He/O ratio in all SEP events is often inconsistent with the transport-induced power-law trend of the other elements. In fact, the coronal He/O varies rather widely from one SEP event to another. In the large Fe-rich SEP events with T ≈ 3 MK, where shock waves, driven out by coronal mass ejections (CMEs), have reaccelerated residual ions from impulsive suprathermal events that occur earlier in solar active regions, He/O ≈ 90, a ratio similar to that in the slow solar wind, which may also originate from active regions. Ions in the large SEP events with T < 2 MK may be accelerated outside active regions, and have values of 40 ≤ He/O ≤ 60. Mechanisms that determine coronal abundances, including variations of He/O, are likely to occur near the base of the corona (at ≈ 1.1 RS) and thus to affect both SEPs (at 2 - 3 RS) and the solar wind. Other than He, reference coronal abundances for heavier elements show little temperature dependence or systematic difference between SEP events; He, the element with the highest first-ionization potential, is unique. The CME-driven shock waves probe the same regions of space, at ≈ 2 RS near active regions, which are also likely sources of the slow solar wind, providing complementary information on conditions in those regions.

  18. Chemical Abundance Measurements of Ultra-Faint Dwarf Galaxies Discovered by the Dark Energy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasawa, Daniel; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Simon, Joshua D.; Hansen, Terese; Li, Ting; Bernstein, Rebecca; Balbinot, Eduardo; Drlica-Wagner, Alex; Pace, Andrew; Strigari, Louis; Pellegrino, Craig; DePoy, Darren L.; Suntzeff, Nicholas; Bechtol, Keith; Dark Energy Suvey

    2018-01-01

    We present chemical abundance analysis results derived from high-resolution spectroscopy of ultra-faint dwarfs discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. Ultra-faint dwarf galaxies preserve a fossil record of the chemical abundance patterns imprinted by the first stars in the Universe. High-resolution spectroscopic observations of member stars in several recently discovered Milky Way satellites reveal a range of abundance patterns among ultra-faint dwarfs suggesting that star formation processes in the early Universe were quite diverse. The chemical content provides a glimpse not only of the varied nucleosynthetic processes and chemical history of the dwarfs themselves, but also the environment in which they were formed. We present the chemical abundance analysis of these objects and discuss possible explanations for the observed abundance patterns.

  19. Very-low-energy-spread ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y.

    1997-05-01

    Ion beams with low axial energy spread are required in many applications such as ion projection lithography, isobaric separation in radioactive ion beam experiments, and ion beam deposition processes. In an ion source, the spread of the axial ion energy is caused by the nonuniformity of the plasma potential distribution along the source axis. Multicusp ion sources are capable of production positive and negative ions with good beam quality and relatively low energy spread. By intorducing a magnetic filter inside the multicusp source chamber, the axial plasma potential distribution is modified and the energy spread of positive hydrogen ions can be reduced to as low as 1 eV. The energy spread measurements of multicusp sources have been conducted by employing three different techniques: an electrostatic energy analyzer at the source exit; a magnetic deflection spectrometer; and a retarding-field energy analyzer for the accelerated beam. These different measurements confirmed tha! t ! the axial energy spread of positive and negative ions generated in the filter-equipped multicusp sources are small. New ion source configurations are now being investigated at LBNL with the purpose of achieving enen lower energy spread (<1eV) and of maximizing source performance such as reliability and lifetime.

  20. Implications of new measurements of O-16 + p + C-12,13, N-14,15 for the abundances of C, N isotopes at the cosmic ray source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guzik, T. G.; Wefel, J. P.; Crawford, H. J.; Greiner, D. E.; Lindstrom, P. J.; Schimmerling, W.; Symons, T. J. M.

    1985-01-01

    The fragmentation of a 225 MeV/n O-16 beam was investigated at the Bevalac. Preliminary cross sections for mass = 13, 14, 15 fragments are used to constrain the nuclear excitation functions employed in galactic propagation calculations. Comparison to cosmic ray isotonic data at low energies shows that in the cosmic ray source C-13/C approximately 2% and N-14/0=3-6%. No source abundance of N-15 is required with the current experimental results.

  1. Hybrid Energy: Combining Nuclear and Other Energy Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jong Suk; Garcia, Humberto E.

    2015-02-01

    The leading cause of global climate change is generally accepted to be growing emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) as a result of increased use of fossil fuels [1]. Among various sources of GHG, the global electricity supply sector generates the largest share of GHG emissions (37.5% of total CO2 emissions) [2]. Since the current electricity production heavily relies on fossil fuels, it is envisioned that bolstering generation technologies based on non-emitting energy sources, i.e., nuclear and/or renewables could reduce future GHG emissions. Integrated nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems HES) are very-low-emitting options, but they are capital-intensive technologies that should operate atmore » full capacities to maximize profits. Hence, electricity generators often pay the grid to take electricity when demand is low, resulting in negative profits for many hours per year. Instead of wasting an excess generation capacity at negative profit during off-peak hours when electricity prices are low, nuclear-renewable HES could result in positive profits by storing and/or utilizing surplus thermal and/or electrical energy to produce useful storable products to meet industrial and transportation demands. Consequently, it is necessary (1) to identify key integrated system options based on specific regions and (2) to propose optimal operating strategy to economically produce products on demand. In prioritizing region-specific HES options, available resources, markets, existing infrastructures, and etc. need to be researched to identify attractive system options. For example, the scarcity of water (market) and the availability of abundant solar radiation make solar energy (resource) a suitable option to mitigate the water deficit the Central-Southern region of the U.S. Thus, a solar energy-driven desalination process would be an attractive option to be integrated into a nuclear power plant to support the production of fresh water in this region. In this work, we introduce

  2. Benthic marine litter in four Gulfs in Greece, Eastern Mediterranean; abundance, composition and source identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutsodendris, Andreas; Papatheodorou, George; Kougiourouki, Ourania; Georgiadis, Michalis

    2008-04-01

    The types, abundance, distribution and sources of benthic marine litter found in four Greek Gulfs (Patras, Corinth, Echinades and Lakonikos) were studied using bottom trawl nets. Mean distribution and weight densities range between 72-437 Item/km 2 and 6.7-47.4 kg/km 2. Litter items were sorted into material and usage categories. Plastic litter (56%) is the most dominant material category followed by metal (17%) and glass (11%). Beverage packaging (32%) is the dominant usage category followed by general packaging (28%) and food packaging (21%). Based on the typological results three dominant litter sources were identified; land-based, vessel-based and fishery-based. Application of factor analysis (R- and Q-mode) conducted on both material and usage litter datasets confirmed the existence of the three dominant litter sources. Q-mode analysis further resulted in the quantification of the litter sources; land-based ones provided the majority (69%) of the total litter items followed by vessel-based (26%) and fishery-based (5%) sources. Diverse environmental parameters influence significantly these amounts among the four Gulfs.

  3. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Urbanization - Energy Sources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Introduction to changes in basal energy sources with urbanization, overview of terrestrial leaf litter dynamics in urban streams, overview of how urbanization can affect primary production, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon quantity and quality.

  4. Delays in Tapping Energy Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abelson, Philip H.

    1975-01-01

    Summarizes factors that will create severe energy shortages by 1980. Indicates that conservation is not enough, and the quickest path toward relief is the expansion of surface mining of low-sulfur coal in the Rocky Mountain states. (GS)

  5. Power conditioning system for energy sources

    DOEpatents

    Mazumder, Sudip K [Chicago, IL; Burra, Rajni K [Chicago, IL; Acharya, Kaustuva [Chicago, IL

    2008-05-13

    Apparatus for conditioning power generated by an energy source includes an inverter for converting a DC input voltage from the energy source to a square wave AC output voltage, and a converter for converting the AC output voltage from the inverter to a sine wave AC output voltage.

  6. Growth of sedimentary Bathyarchaeota on lignin as an energy source.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tiantian; Wu, Weichao; Liang, Wenyue; Lever, Mark Alexander; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Wang, Fengping

    2018-06-05

    Members of the archaeal phylum Bathyarchaeota are among the most abundant microorganisms on Earth. Although versatile metabolic capabilities such as acetogenesis, methanogenesis, and fermentation have been suggested for bathyarchaeotal members, no direct confirmation of these metabolic functions has been achieved through growth of Bathyarchaeota in the laboratory. Here we demonstrate, on the basis of gene-copy numbers and probing of archaeal lipids, the growth of Bathyarchaeota subgroup Bathy-8 in enrichments of estuarine sediments with the biopolymer lignin. Other organic substrates (casein, oleic acid, cellulose, and phenol) did not significantly stimulate growth of Bathyarchaeota Meanwhile, putative bathyarchaeotal tetraether lipids incorporated 13 C from 13 C-bicarbonate only when added in concert with lignin. Our results are consistent with organoautotrophic growth of a bathyarchaeotal group with lignin as an energy source and bicarbonate as a carbon source and shed light into the cycling of one of Earth's most abundant biopolymers in anoxic marine sediment.

  7. Looking for alternative energy sources.

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael

    2012-02-21

    With unrest in oil-exporting countries, backlashes against biofuels and photovoltaics, and a nuclear incident in Japan, the year 2011 rattled confidence in future energy supplies. The search for alternatives is all the more urgent, but some of the solutions investigated hark back to fossil fuels that we can't afford to burn.

  8. THE ABUNDANCE OF X-SHAPED RADIO SOURCES: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE GRAVITATIONAL WAVE BACKGROUND

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, David H.; Saripalli, Lakshmi; Subrahmanyan, Ravi, E-mail: roberts@brandeis.edu

    Coalescence of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in galaxy mergers is potentially the dominant contributor to the low frequency gravitational wave background (GWB). It was proposed by Merritt and Ekers that X-shaped radio galaxies are signposts of such coalescences and that their abundance might be used to predict the magnitude of the GWB. In Roberts et al. we presented radio images of all 52 X-shaped radio source candidates out of the sample of 100 selected by Cheung for which archival VLA data were available. These images indicate that at most 21% of the candidates might be genuine X-shaped radio sources thatmore » were formed by a restarting of beams in a new direction following a major merger. This suggests that fewer than 1.3% of extended radio sources appear to be candidates for genuine axis reorientations (“spin flips”), much smaller than the 7% suggested by Leahy and Parma. Thus, the associated GWB may be substantially smaller than previous estimates. These results can be used to normalize detailed calculations of the SMBH coalescence rate and the GWB.« less

  9. The Sun: Source of the Earth's Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Barbara J.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Sun is the primary source of the Earth's energy. However, due to the complexity in the way the energy affects Earth, the various solar sources of the energy, and the variation exhibited by the Sun it is difficult to understand and predict the Earth's response to solar drivers. In addition to visible light the radiant energy of the Sun can exhibit variation in nearly all wavelengths, which can vary over nearly all timescales. Depending on the wavelength of the incident radiation the light can deposit energy in a wide variety or locations and drive processes from below Earth's surface to interplanetary space. Other sources of energy impacting Earth include energetic particles, magnetic fields, and mass and flow variations in the solar wind. Many of these variable energetic processes cannot be coupled and recent results continue to demonstrate that the complex dynamics of the Sun can have a great range of measurable impacts on Earth.

  10. Termite nests as an abundant source of cultivable actinobacteria for biotechnological purposes.

    PubMed

    Sujada, Nikhom; Sungthong, Rungroch; Lumyong, Saisamorn

    2014-01-01

    A total of 118 actinobacterial isolates were collected from the three types of termite nests (mound, carton, and subterranean nests) to evaluate their potential as a source of bioactive actinobacteria with antimicrobial activity. The highest number (67 isolates) and generic abundance (7 known genera) of actinobacterial isolates were obtained from carton nests. Streptomyces was the dominant genus in each type of termite nest. In the non-Streptomyces group, Nocardia was the dominant genus detected in mound and carton nests, while Pseudonocardia was the dominant genus in subterranean nests. A discovery trend of novel species (<99% similarity in the 16S rRNA gene sequence) was also observed in the termite nests examined. Each type of termite nest housed >20% of bioactive actinobacteria that could inhibit the growth of at least one test organism, while 12 isolates, belonging to the genera Streptomyces, Amycolatopsis, Pseudonocardia, Micromonospora and Nocardia, exhibited distinct antimicrobial activities. Streptomyces sp. CMU-NKS-3 was the most distinct bioactive isolate. It was closely related to S. padanus MITKK-103T, which was confirmed by 99% similarities in their 16S rRNA gene sequences. The highest level of extracellular antimicrobial substances was produced by the isolate CMU-NKS-3, which was grown in potato dextrose broth and exhibited a wide range (6.10×10(-4)-1.25 mg mL(-1)) of minimum inhibitory concentrations against diverse pathogens. We concluded that termite nests are an abundant source of bioactive strains of cultivable actinobacteria for future biotechnological needs.

  11. Termite Nests as an Abundant Source of Cultivable Actinobacteria for Biotechnological Purposes

    PubMed Central

    Sujada, Nikhom; Sungthong, Rungroch; Lumyong, Saisamorn

    2014-01-01

    A total of 118 actinobacterial isolates were collected from the three types of termite nests (mound, carton, and subterranean nests) to evaluate their potential as a source of bioactive actinobacteria with antimicrobial activity. The highest number (67 isolates) and generic abundance (7 known genera) of actinobacterial isolates were obtained from carton nests. Streptomyces was the dominant genus in each type of termite nest. In the non-Streptomyces group, Nocardia was the dominant genus detected in mound and carton nests, while Pseudonocardia was the dominant genus in subterranean nests. A discovery trend of novel species (<99% similarity in the 16S rRNA gene sequence) was also observed in the termite nests examined. Each type of termite nest housed >20% of bioactive actinobacteria that could inhibit the growth of at least one test organism, while 12 isolates, belonging to the genera Streptomyces, Amycolatopsis, Pseudonocardia, Micromonospora and Nocardia, exhibited distinct antimicrobial activities. Streptomyces sp. CMU-NKS-3 was the most distinct bioactive isolate. It was closely related to S. padanus MITKK-103T, which was confirmed by 99% similarities in their 16S rRNA gene sequences. The highest level of extracellular antimicrobial substances was produced by the isolate CMU-NKS-3, which was grown in potato dextrose broth and exhibited a wide range (6.10×10−4–1.25 mg mL−1) of minimum inhibitory concentrations against diverse pathogens. We concluded that termite nests are an abundant source of bioactive strains of cultivable actinobacteria for future biotechnological needs. PMID:24909709

  12. ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The technology assessment provides an introduction to the use of several alternative energy sources at wastewater treatment plants. The report contains fact sheets (technical descriptions) and data sheets (cost and design information) for the technologies. Cost figures and schema...

  13. An evaluation of sources of nitrogen in shallow groundwater using (15)N abundance technique.

    PubMed

    Alva, A K; Dou, H; Paramasivam, S; Wang, F L; Graetz, D A; Sajwan, K S

    2006-01-01

    A (15)N abundance technique was employed to identify the source of NO(3)-N in groundwater under three commercial citrus production sites in central Florida. Water samples were collected from 0 to 300 and 300 to 600 cm depths in the surficial aquifer and analyzed for NO(3)-N and delta N-15 (delta (15)N). Groundwater samples were also collected in a residential area adjacent to one of the citrus groves and analyzed for NO(3)-N and delta (15)N. The delta (15)N values were in the range of (+)1 to (+)10% in both depths underneath the citrus groves. The range of delta (15)N measured in this study represents the range expected for groundwater that was impacted by NO(3)-N originated from mineralization of organic N from the soil as well as from the crop residue. There are occasional high delta (15)N values which are indicative of the effects of NH(3) volatilization losses of applied fertilizer N. The range of delta (15)N values for groundwater samples collected from the residential area adjacent to the citrus groves was very similar to that from the groundwater underneath the citrus groves. Thus, the source of NO(3)-N that impacted the groundwater under the citrus groves also impacted the groundwater in the adjacent residential area.

  14. Preserving Source Location Privacy for Energy Harvesting WSNs.

    PubMed

    Huang, Changqin; Ma, Ming; Liu, Yuxin; Liu, Anfeng

    2017-03-30

    Fog (From cOre to edGe) computing employs a huge number of wireless embedded devices to enable end users with anywhere-anytime-to-anything connectivity. Due to their operating nature, wireless sensor nodes often work unattended, and hence are exposed to a variety of attacks. Preserving source-location privacy plays a key role in some wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. In this paper, a redundancy branch convergence-based preserved source location privacy scheme (RBCPSLP) is proposed for energy harvesting sensor networks, with the following advantages: numerous routing branches are created in non-hotspot areas with abundant energy, and those routing branches can merge into a few routing paths before they reach the hotspot areas. The generation time, the duration of routing, and the number of routing branches are then decided independently based on the amount of energy obtained, so as to maximize network energy utilization, greatly enhance privacy protection, and provide long network lifetimes. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the RBCPSLP scheme allows a several-fold improvement of the network energy utilization as well as the source location privacy preservation, while maximizing network lifetimes.

  15. Preserving Source Location Privacy for Energy Harvesting WSNs

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Changqin; Ma, Ming; Liu, Yuxin; Liu, Anfeng

    2017-01-01

    Fog (From cOre to edGe) computing employs a huge number of wireless embedded devices to enable end users with anywhere-anytime-to-anything connectivity. Due to their operating nature, wireless sensor nodes often work unattended, and hence are exposed to a variety of attacks. Preserving source-location privacy plays a key role in some wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. In this paper, a redundancy branch convergence-based preserved source location privacy scheme (RBCPSLP) is proposed for energy harvesting sensor networks, with the following advantages: numerous routing branches are created in non-hotspot areas with abundant energy, and those routing branches can merge into a few routing paths before they reach the hotspot areas. The generation time, the duration of routing, and the number of routing branches are then decided independently based on the amount of energy obtained, so as to maximize network energy utilization, greatly enhance privacy protection, and provide long network lifetimes. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the RBCPSLP scheme allows a several-fold improvement of the network energy utilization as well as the source location privacy preservation, while maximizing network lifetimes. PMID:28358341

  16. Aeolian dispersal of bacteria in southwest Greenland: their sources, abundance, diversity and physiological states.

    PubMed

    Šantl-Temkiv, Tina; Gosewinkel, Ulrich; Starnawski, Piotr; Lever, Mark; Finster, Kai

    2018-04-01

    The Arctic is undergoing dramatic climatic changes that cause profound transformations in its terrestrial ecosystems and consequently in the microbial communities that inhabit them. The assembly of these communities is affected by aeolian deposition. However, the abundance, diversity, sources and activity of airborne microorganisms in the Arctic are poorly understood. We studied bacteria in the atmosphere over southwest Greenland and found that the diversity of bacterial communities correlated positively with air temperature and negatively with relative humidity. The communities consisted of 1.3×103 ± 1.0×103 cells m-3, which were aerosolized from local terrestrial environments or transported from marine, glaciated and terrestrial surfaces over long distances. On average, airborne bacterial cells displayed a high activity potential, reflected in the high 16S rRNA copy number (590 ± 300 rRNA cell-1), that correlated positively with water vapor pressure. We observed that bacterial clades differed in their activity potential. For instance, a high activity potential was seen for Rubrobacteridae and Clostridiales, while a low activity potential was observed for Proteobacteria. Of those bacterial families that harbor ice-nucleation active species, which are known to facilitate freezing and may thus be involved in cloud and rain formation, cells with a high activity potential were rare in air, but were enriched in rain.

  17. Controlling hazardous energy sources (lockout/tagout)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominguez, Manuel B.

    1991-01-01

    The minimum requirements as established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard 29 CFR 1910.147 are discussed for preventing the unexpected operation of equipment or release of energy which could cause injury to personnel, damage to equipment, harm to the environment, or loss or compromise of test data. Safety requirements both for government and contractor personnel are explained for potentially hazardous energy sources during work operations at LeRC (Cleveland and Plum Brook Stations). Basic rules are presented to ensure protection against harmful exposures, and baseline implementation requirements are discussed from which detailed lockout/tagout procedures can be developed for individual equipment items. Examples of energy sources covered by this document include electrical, pneumatic, mechanical, chemical, cryogenic, thermal, spring tension/compression suspended or moving loads, and other potentially hazardous sources. Activities covered by this standard include, but are not limited to, construction, maintenance, installation, calibration, inspection, cleaning, or repair.

  18. Controlling hazardous energy sources (lockout/tagout)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, Manuel B.

    1991-10-01

    The minimum requirements as established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard 29 CFR 1910.147 are discussed for preventing the unexpected operation of equipment or release of energy which could cause injury to personnel, damage to equipment, harm to the environment, or loss or compromise of test data. Safety requirements both for government and contractor personnel are explained for potentially hazardous energy sources during work operations at LeRC (Cleveland and Plum Brook Stations). Basic rules are presented to ensure protection against harmful exposures, and baseline implementation requirements are discussed from which detailed lockout/tagout procedures can be developed for individual equipment items. Examples of energy sources covered by this document include electrical, pneumatic, mechanical, chemical, cryogenic, thermal, spring tension/compression suspended or moving loads, and other potentially hazardous sources. Activities covered by this standard include, but are not limited to, construction, maintenance, installation, calibration, inspection, cleaning, or repair.

  19. Indian energy sources in 1980's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, A. C.

    Indian energy sources for electrical power generation are surveyed with a view to the development of the available hydroelectric resources. The capital-intensive nature of hydroelectric projects and their long gestation periods have impeded the rapid exploitation of the hydroelectric resources in the country, which are expected to provide 37% of the 16,200 MW capacity anticipated by 2001. Alternative sources of power such as solar and wind energy, biogas conversion and the use of industrial waste heat to produce electricity are discussed with case studies presented.

  20. Alternate energy sources for catheter ablation.

    PubMed

    Wang, P J; Homoud, M K; Link, M S; Estes III, N A

    1999-07-01

    Because of the limitations of conventional radiofrequency ablation in creating large or linear lesions, alternative energy sources have been used as possible methods of catheter ablation. Modified radiofrequency energy, cryoablation, and microwave, laser, and ultrasound technologies may be able to create longer, deeper, and more controlled lesions and may be particularly suited for the treatment of ventricular tachycardias and for linear atrial ablation. Future studies will establish the efficacy of these new and promising technologies.

  1. Forest biomass as an energy source

    Treesearch

    P.E. Laks; R.W. Hemingway; A. Conner

    1979-01-01

    The Task Force on Forest Biomass as an Energy Source was chartered by the Society of American Foresters on September 26, 1977, and took its present form following an amendment to the charter on October 5, 1977. It built upon the findings of two previous task forces, the Task Force on Energy and Forest Resources and the Task Force for Evaluation of the CORRIM Report (...

  2. Energy scavenging sources for biomedical sensors.

    PubMed

    Romero, E; Warrington, R O; Neuman, M R

    2009-09-01

    Energy scavenging has increasingly become an interesting option for powering electronic devices because of the almost infinite lifetime and the non-dependence on fuels for energy generation. Moreover, the rise of wireless technologies promises new applications in medical monitoring systems, but these still face limitations due to battery lifetime and size. A trade-off of these two factors has typically governed the size, useful life and capabilities of an autonomous system. Energy generation from sources such as motion, light and temperature gradients has been established as commercially viable alternatives to batteries for human-powered flashlights, solar calculators, radio receivers and thermal-powered wristwatches, among others. Research on energy harvesting from human activities has also addressed the feasibility of powering wearable or implantable systems. Biomedical sensors can take advantage of human-based activities as the energy source for energy scavengers. This review describes the state of the art of energy scavenging technologies for powering sensors and instrumentation of physiological variables. After a short description of the human power and the energy generation limits, the different transduction mechanisms, recent developments and challenges faced are reviewed and discussed.

  3. Mule deer and energy development-Long-term trends of habituation and abundance.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Hall; Korfanta, Nicole M; Nielson, Ryan M; Monteith, Kevin L; Strickland, Dale

    2017-11-01

    As the extent and intensity of energy development in North America increases, so do disturbances to wildlife and the habitats they rely upon. Impacts to mule deer are of particular concern because some of the largest gas fields in the USA overlap critical winter ranges. Short-term studies of 2-3 years have shown that mule deer and other ungulates avoid energy infrastructure; however, there remains a common perception that ungulates habituate to energy development, and thus, the potential for a demographic effect is low. We used telemetry data from 187 individual deer across a 17-year period, including 2 years predevelopment and 15 years during development, to determine whether mule deer habituated to natural gas development and if their response to disturbance varied with winter severity. Concurrently, we measured abundance of mule deer to indirectly link behavior with demography. Mule deer consistently avoided energy infrastructure through the 15-year period of development and used habitats that were an average of 913 m further from well pads compared with predevelopment patterns of habitat use. Even during the last 3 years of study, when most wells were in production and reclamation efforts underway, mule deer remained >1 km away from well pads. The magnitude of avoidance behavior, however, was mediated by winter severity, where aversion to well pads decreased as winter severity increased. Mule deer abundance declined by 36% during the development period, despite aggressive onsite mitigation efforts (e.g. directional drilling and liquid gathering systems) and a 45% reduction in deer harvest. Our results indicate behavioral effects of energy development on mule deer are long term and may affect population abundance by displacing animals and thereby functionally reducing the amount of available habitat. © 2017 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A Web Based Puzzle for Energy Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secken, Nilgun

    2006-01-01

    At present many countries in the world consume too much fossil fuels such as petroleum, natural gas and coal to meet their energy needs. These fossil fuels are not renewable; their sources are limited and reducing gradually. More importantly they have been becoming more expensive day by day and their damage to the environment has been increasing.…

  5. Reusable Energy and Power Sources: Rechargeable Batteries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiung, Steve C.; Ritz, John M.

    2007-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries are very popular within consumer electronics. If one uses a cell phone or portable electric tool, she/he understands the need to have a reliable product and the need to remember to use the recharging systems that follow a cycle of charge/discharge. Rechargeable batteries are being called "green" energy sources. They are a…

  6. Alternative Energy Sources in Seismic Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tün, Muammer; Pekkan, Emrah; Mutlu, Sunay; Ecevitoğlu, Berkan

    2015-04-01

    When the suitability of a settlement area is investigated, soil-amplification, liquefaction and fault-related hazards should be defined, and the associated risks should be clarified. For this reason, soil engineering parameters and subsurface geological structure of a new settlement area should be investigated. Especially, faults covered with quaternary alluvium; thicknesses, shear-wave velocities and geometry of subsurface sediments could lead to a soil amplification during an earthquake. Likewise, changes in shear-wave velocities along the basin are also very important. Geophysical methods can be used to determine the local soil properties. In this study, use of alternative seismic energy sources when implementing seismic reflection, seismic refraction and MASW methods in the residential areas of Eskisehir/Turkey, were discussed. Our home developed seismic energy source, EAPSG (Electrically-Fired-PS-Gun), capable to shoot 2x24 magnum shotgun cartridges at once to generate P and S waves; and our home developed WD-500 (500 kg Weight Drop) seismic energy source, mounted on a truck, were developed under a scientific research project of Anadolu University. We were able to reach up to penetration depths of 1200 m for EAPSG, and 800 m for WD-500 in our seismic reflection surveys. WD-500 seismic energy source was also used to perform MASW surveys, using 24-channel, 10 m apart, 4.5 Hz vertical geophone configuration. We were able to reach 100 m of penetration depth in MASW surveys.

  7. Kansas Energy Sources: A Geological Review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merriam, D.F.; Brady, L.L.; Newell, K.D.

    2012-01-01

    Kansas produces both conventional energy (oil, gas, and coal) and nonconventional (coalbed gas, wind, hydropower, nuclear, geothermal, solar, and biofuels) and ranks the 22nd in state energy production in the U. S. Nonrenewable conventional petroleum is the most important energy source with nonrenewable, nonconventional coalbed methane gas becoming increasingly important. Many stratigraphic units produce oil and/or gas somewhere in the state with the exception of the Salina Basin in north-central Kansas. Coalbed methane is produced from shallow wells drilled into the thin coal units in southeastern Kansas. At present, only two surface coal mines are active in southeastern Kansas. Although Kansas has been a major exporter of energy in the past (it ranked first in oil production in 1916), now, it is an energy importer. ?? 2011 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  8. Alternative Explanations for Extreme Supersolar Iron Abundances Inferred from the Energy Spectrum of Cygnus X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomsick, John A.; Parker, Michael L.; García, Javier A.; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Barret, Didier; Chiu, Jeng-Lun; Clavel, Maïca; Fabian, Andrew; Fürst, Felix; Gandhi, Poshak; Grinberg, Victoria; Miller, Jon M.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Walton, Dominic J.

    2018-03-01

    Here we study a 1–200 keV energy spectrum of the black hole binary Cygnus X-1 taken with NuSTAR and Suzaku. This is the first report of a NuSTAR observation of Cyg X-1 in the intermediate state, and the observation was taken during the part of the binary orbit where absorption due to the companion’s stellar wind is minimal. The spectrum includes a multi-temperature thermal disk component, a cutoff power-law component, and relativistic and nonrelativistic reflection components. Our initial fits with publicly available constant density reflection models (relxill and reflionx) lead to extremely high iron abundances (>9.96 and {10.6}-0.9+1.6 times solar, respectively). Although supersolar iron abundances have been reported previously for Cyg X-1, our measurements are much higher and such variability is almost certainly unphysical. Using a new version of reflionx that we modified to make the electron density a free parameter, we obtain better fits to the spectrum even with solar iron abundances. We report on how the higher density ({n}e=({3.98}-0.25+0.12)× {10}20 cm‑3) impacts other parameters such as the inner radius and inclination of the disk.

  9. Energy harvesting: small scale energy production from ambient sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeatman, Eric M.

    2009-03-01

    Energy harvesting - the collection of otherwise unexploited energy in the local environment - is attracting increasing attention for the powering of electronic devices. While the power levels that can be reached are typically modest (microwatts to milliwatts), the key motivation is to avoid the need for battery replacement or recharging in portable or inaccessible devices. Wireless sensor networks are a particularly important application: the availability of essentially maintenance free sensor nodes, as enabled by energy harvesting, will greatly increase the feasibility of large scale networks, in the paradigm often known as pervasive sensing. Such pervasive sensing networks, used to monitor buildings, structures, outdoor environments or the human body, offer significant benefits for large scale energy efficiency, health and safety, and many other areas. Sources of energy for harvesting include light, temperature differences, and ambient motion, and a wide range of miniature energy harvesters based on these sources have been proposed or demonstrated. This paper reviews the principles and practice in miniature energy harvesters, and discusses trends, suitable applications, and possible future developments.

  10. Universal energy spectrum from point sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomozawa, Yukio

    1992-01-01

    The suggestion is made that the energy spectrum from point sources such as galactic black hole candidates (GBHC) and active galactic nuclei (AGN) is universal on the average, irrespective of the species of the emitted particles, photons, nucleons, or others. The similarity between the observed energy spectra of cosmic rays, gamma-rays, and X-rays is discussed. In other words, the existing data for gamma-rays and X-rays seem to support the prediction. The expected data from the Gamma Ray Observatory are to provide a further test.

  11. Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion for Personal Power Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) February 2012 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) November 2010 to September...accepted power source to date . 3 2. Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion 2.1 Thermophotovoltaic Overview Figure 1 describes the primary...photovoltaic material systems for thermophotovoltaic conversion to date are gallium antimonide (GaSb)-related materials (homogeneous: 0.72 eV

  12. 10 CFR 39.53 - Energy compensation source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Energy compensation source. 39.53 Section 39.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.53 Energy compensation source. The licensee may use an energy compensation source (ECS) which is...

  13. 10 CFR 39.53 - Energy compensation source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy compensation source. 39.53 Section 39.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.53 Energy compensation source. The licensee may use an energy compensation source (ECS) which is...

  14. 10 CFR 39.53 - Energy compensation source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Energy compensation source. 39.53 Section 39.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.53 Energy compensation source. The licensee may use an energy compensation source (ECS) which is...

  15. 10 CFR 39.53 - Energy compensation source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Energy compensation source. 39.53 Section 39.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.53 Energy compensation source. The licensee may use an energy compensation source (ECS) which is...

  16. 10 CFR 39.53 - Energy compensation source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Energy compensation source. 39.53 Section 39.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.53 Energy compensation source. The licensee may use an energy compensation source (ECS) which is...

  17. Building Energy Management Open Source Software

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Saifur

    Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy in November 2013, a Building Energy Management Open Source Software (BEMOSS) platform was engineered to improve sensing and control of equipment in small- and medium-sized commercial buildings. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA), small- (5,000 square feet or smaller) and medium-sized (between 5,001 to 50,000 square feet) commercial buildings constitute about 95% of all commercial buildings in the U.S. These buildings typically do not have Building Automation Systems (BAS) to monitor and control building operation. While commercial BAS solutions exist, including those from Siemens, Honeywell, Johnsons Controls and many more, they aremore » not cost effective in the context of small- and medium-sized commercial buildings, and typically work with specific controller products from the same company. BEMOSS targets small and medium-sized commercial buildings to address this gap.« less

  18. PASOTRON high-energy microwave source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goebel, Dan M.; Schumacher, Robert W.; Butler, Jennifer M.; Hyman, Jay, Jr.; Santoru, Joseph; Watkins, Ron M.; Harvey, Robin J.; Dolezal, Franklin A.; Eisenhart, Robert L.; Schneider, Authur J.

    1992-04-01

    A unique, high-energy microwave source, called PASOTRON (Plasma-Assisted Slow-wave Oscillator), has been developed. The PASOTRON utilizes a long-pulse E-gun and plasma- filled slow-wave structure (SWS) to produce high-energy pulses from a simple, lightweight device that utilizes no externally produced magnetic fields. Long pulses are obtained from a novel E-gun that employs a low-pressure glow discharge to provide a stable, high current- density electron source. The electron accelerator consists of a high-perveance, multi-aperture array. The E-beam is operated in the ion-focused regime where the plasma filling the SWS space-charge neutralizes the beam, and the self-pinch force compresses the beamlets and increases the beam current density. A scale-model PASOTRON, operating as a backward- wave oscillator in C-band with a 100-kV E-beam, has produced output powers in the 3 to 5 MW range and pulse lengths of over 100 microsecond(s) ec, corresponding to an integrated energy per pulse of up to 500 J. The E-beam to microwave-radiation power conversion efficiency is about 20%.

  19. Meta-analysis: abundance, behavior, and hydraulic energy shape biotic effects on sediment transport in streams.

    PubMed

    Albertson, L K; Allen, D C

    2015-05-01

    An increasing number of studies have emphasized the need to bridge the disciplines of ecology and geomorphology. A large number of case studies show that organisms can affect erosion, but a comprehensive understanding of biological impacts on sediment transport conditions is still lacking. We use meta-analysis to synthesize published data to quantify the effects of the abundance, body size, and behavior of organisms on erosion in streams. We also explore the influence of current velocity, discharge, and sediment grain size on the strength of biotic effects on erosion. We found that species that both increase erosion (destabilizers) and decrease erosion (stabilizers) can alter incipient sediment motion, sediment suspension, and sediment deposition above control conditions in which the organisms were not present. When abundance was directly manipulated, these biotic effects were consistently stronger in the higher abundance treatment, increasing effect sizes by 66%. Per capita effect size and per capita biomass were also consistently positively correlated. Fish and crustaceans were the most studied organisms, but aquatic insects increased the effect size by 550 x compared to other types of organisms after accounting for biomass. In streams with lower discharge and smaller grain sizes, we consistently found stronger biotic effects. Taken collectively, these findings provide synthetic evidence that biology can affect physical processes in streams, and these effects can be mediated by hydraulic energy. We suggest that future studies focus on understudied organisms, such as biofilms, conducting experiments under realistic field conditions, and developing hypotheses for the effect of biology on erosion and velocity currents in the context of restoration to better understand the forces that mediate physical disturbances in stream ecosystems.

  20. THE ABUNDANCE OF X-SHAPED RADIO SOURCES. I. VLA SURVEY OF 52 SOURCES WITH OFF-AXIS DISTORTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, David H.; Cohen, Jake P.; Lu, Jing

    Cheung identified a sample of 100 candidate X-shaped radio galaxies using the NRAO FIRST survey; these are small-axial-ratio extended radio sources with off-axis emission. Here, we present radio images of 52 of these sources that have been made from archival Very Large Array data with resolution of about 1″. Fifty-one of the 52 were observed at 1.4 GHz, 7 were observed at 1.4 and 5 GHz, and 1 was observed only at 5 GHz. We also present overlays of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey red images for 48 of the sources, and DSS II overlays for the remainder. Optical counterpartsmore » have been identified for most sources, but there remain a few empty fields. Our higher resolution VLA images along with FIRST survey images of the sources in the sample reveal that extended extragalactic radio sources with small axial ratios are largely (60%) cases of double radio sources with twin lobes that have off-axis extensions, usually with inversion-symmetric structure. The available radio images indicate that at most 20% of sources might be genuine X-shaped radio sources that could have formed by a restarting of beams in a new direction following an interruption and axis flip. The remaining 20% are in neither of these categories. The implications of this result for the gravitational wave background are discussed in Roberts et al.« less

  1. Energy Recovery Linacs for Light Source Applications

    SciTech Connect

    George Neil

    2011-04-01

    Energy Recovery Linacs are being considered for applications in present and future light sources. ERLs take advantage of the continuous operation of superconducting rf cavities to accelerate high average current beams with low losses. The electrons can be directed through bends, undulators, and wigglers for high brightness x ray production. They are then decelerated to low energy, recovering power so as to minimize the required rf drive and electrical draw. When this approach is coupled with advanced continuous wave injectors, very high power, ultra-short electron pulse trains of very high brightness can be achieved. This paper will review the statusmore » of worldwide programs and discuss the technology challenges to provide such beams for photon production.« less

  2. Outlook for alternative energy sources. [aviation fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Predictions are made concerning the development of alternative energy sources in the light of the present national energy situation. Particular emphasis is given to the impact of alternative fuels development on aviation fuels. The future outlook for aircraft fuels is that for the near term, there possibly will be no major fuel changes, but minor specification changes may be possible if supplies decrease. In the midterm, a broad cut fuel may be used if current development efforts are successful. As synfuel production levels increase beyond the 1990's there may be some mixtures of petroleum-based and synfuel products with the possibility of some shale distillate and indirect coal liquefaction products near the year 2000.

  3. An Open Source Extensible Smart Energy Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, Linda

    Aggregated distributed energy resources are the subject of much interest in the energy industry and are expected to play an important role in meeting our future energy needs by changing how we use, distribute and generate electricity. This energy future includes an increased amount of energy from renewable resources, load management techniques to improve resiliency and reliability, and distributed energy storage and generation capabilities that can be managed to meet the needs of the grid as well as individual customers. These energy assets are commonly referred to as Distributed Energy Resources (DER). DERs rely on a means to communicate informationmore » between an energy provider and multitudes of devices. Today DER control systems are typically vendor-specific, using custom hardware and software solutions. As a result, customers are locked into communication transport protocols, applications, tools, and data formats. Today’s systems are often difficult to extend to meet new application requirements, resulting in stranded assets when business requirements or energy management models evolve. By partnering with industry advisors and researchers, an implementation DER research platform was developed called the Smart Energy Framework (SEF). The hypothesis of this research was that an open source Internet of Things (IoT) framework could play a role in creating a commodity-based eco-system for DER assets that would reduce costs and provide interoperable products. SEF is based on the AllJoynTM IoT open source framework. The demonstration system incorporated DER assets, specifically batteries and smart water heaters. To verify the behavior of the distributed system, models of water heaters and batteries were also developed. An IoT interface for communicating between the assets and a control server was defined. This interface supports a series of “events” and telemetry reporting, similar to those defined by current smart grid communication standards. The results

  4. Building Energy Management Open Source Software

    SciTech Connect

    This is the repository for Building Energy Management Open Source Software (BEMOSS), which is an open source operating system that is engineered to improve sensing and control of equipment in small- and medium-sized commercial buildings. BEMOSS offers the following key features: (1) Open source, open architecture – BEMOSS is an open source operating system that is built upon VOLTTRON – a distributed agent platform developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). BEMOSS was designed to make it easy for hardware manufacturers to seamlessly interface their devices with BEMOSS. Software developers can also contribute to adding additional BEMOSS functionalities and applications.more » (2) Plug & play – BEMOSS was designed to automatically discover supported load controllers (including smart thermostats, VAV/RTUs, lighting load controllers and plug load controllers) in commercial buildings. (3) Interoperability – BEMOSS was designed to work with load control devices form different manufacturers that operate on different communication technologies and data exchange protocols. (4) Cost effectiveness – Implementation of BEMOSS deemed to be cost-effective as it was built upon a robust open source platform that can operate on a low-cost single-board computer, such as Odroid. This feature could contribute to its rapid deployment in small- or medium-sized commercial buildings. (5) Scalability and ease of deployment – With its multi-node architecture, BEMOSS provides a distributed architecture where load controllers in a multi-floor and high occupancy building could be monitored and controlled by multiple single-board computers hosting BEMOSS. This makes it possible for a building engineer to deploy BEMOSS in one zone of a building, be comfortable with its operation, and later on expand the deployment to the entire building to make it more energy efficient. (6) Ability to provide local and remote monitoring – BEMOSS provides both local and remote

  5. Cyanate as energy source for nitrifiers

    PubMed Central

    Palatinszky, Marton; Herbold, Craig; Jehmlich, Nico; Pogoda, Mario; Han, Ping; von Bergen, Martin; Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Karst, Søren M.; Galushko, Alexander; Koch, Hanna; Berry, David; Daims, Holger; Wagner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizers are collectively responsible for the aerobic oxidation of ammonia via nitrite to nitrate and play essential roles for the global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. The physiology of these nitrifying microbes has been intensively studied since the first experiments of Sergei Winogradsky more than a century ago. Urea and ammonia are the only recognized energy sources that promote the aerobic growth of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea. Here we report the aerobic growth of a pure culture of the ammonia-oxidizing thaumarchaeote Nitrososphaera gargensis1 on cyanate as the sole source of energy and reductant, the first organism known to do so. Cyanate, which is a potentially important source of reduced nitrogen in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems2, is converted to ammonium and CO2 by this archaeon using a cyanase that is induced upon addition of this compound. Within the cyanase gene family, this cyanase is a member of a distinct clade that also contains cyanases of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria of the genus Nitrospira. We demonstrate by co-culture experiments that these nitrite-oxidizers supply ammonia-oxidizers lacking cyanase with ammonium from cyanate, which is fully nitrified by this consortium through reciprocal feeding. Screening of a comprehensive set of more than 3,000 publically available metagenomes from environmental samples revealed that cyanase-encoding genes clustering with the cyanases of these nitrifiers are widespread in the environment. Our results demonstrate an unexpected metabolic versatility of nitrifying microbes and suggest a previously unrecognized importance of cyanate for N-cycling in the environment. PMID:26222031

  6. Relative and contextual contribution of different sources to the composition and abundance of indoor air bacteria in residences.

    PubMed

    Miletto, Marzia; Lindow, Steven E

    2015-12-10

    The study of the microbial communities in the built environment is of critical importance as humans spend the majority of their time indoors. While the microorganisms in living spaces, especially those in the air, can impact health and well-being, little is known of their identity and the processes that determine their assembly. We investigated the source-sink relationships of airborne bacteria in 29 homes in the San Francisco Bay Area. Samples taken in the sites expected to be source habitats for indoor air microbes were analyzed by 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR. The community composition was related to the characteristics of the household collected at the time of sampling, including the number of residents and pets, activity levels, frequency of cooking and vacuum cleaning, extent of natural ventilation, and abundance and type of vegetation surrounding the building. Indoor air harbored a diverse bacterial community dominated by Diaphorobacter sp., Propionibacterium sp., Sphingomonas sp., and Alicyclobacillus sp. Source-sink analysis suggested that outdoor air was the primary source of indoor air microbes in most homes. Bacterial phylogenetic diversity and relative abundance in indoor air did not differ statistically from that in outdoor air. Moreover, the abundance of bacteria in outdoor air was positively correlated with that in indoor air, as would be expected if outdoor air was the main contributor to the bacterial community in indoor bioaerosols. The number of residents, presence of pets, and local tap water also influenced the diversity and size of indoor air microbes. The bacterial load in air increased with the number of residents, activity, and frequency of natural ventilation, and the proportion of bacteria putatively derived from skin increased with the number of residents. Vacuum cleaning increased the signature of pet- and floor-derived bacteria in indoor air, while the frequency of natural ventilation decreased the relative

  7. Estimating parasitic sea lamprey abundance in Lake Huron from heterogenous data sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, Robert J.; Jones, Michael L.; Bence, James R.; McDonald, Rodney B.; Mullett, Katherine M.; Bergstedt, Roger A.

    2003-01-01

    The Great Lakes Fishery Commission uses time series of transformer, parasitic, and spawning population estimates to evaluate the effectiveness of its sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control program. This study used an inverse variance weighting method to integrate Lake Huron sea lamprey population estimates derived from two estimation procedures: 1) prediction of the lake-wide spawning population from a regression model based on stream size and, 2) whole-lake mark and recapture estimates. In addition, we used a re-sampling procedure to evaluate the effect of trading off sampling effort between the regression and mark-recapture models. Population estimates derived from the regression model ranged from 132,000 to 377,000 while mark-recapture estimates of marked recently metamorphosed juveniles and parasitic sea lampreys ranged from 536,000 to 634,000 and 484,000 to 1,608,000, respectively. The precision of the estimates varied greatly among estimation procedures and years. The integrated estimate of the mark-recapture and spawner regression procedures ranged from 252,000 to 702,000 transformers. The re-sampling procedure indicated that the regression model is more sensitive to reduction in sampling effort than the mark-recapture model. Reliance on either the regression or mark-recapture model alone could produce misleading estimates of abundance of sea lampreys and the effect of the control program on sea lamprey abundance. These analyses indicate that the precision of the lakewide population estimate can be maximized by re-allocating sampling effort from marking sea lampreys to trapping additional streams.

  8. Energy density and variability in abundance of pigeon guillemot prey: Support for the quality-variability trade-off hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Litzow, Michael A.; Piatt, John F.; Abookire, Alisa A.; Robards, Martin D.

    2004-01-01

    1. The quality-variability trade-off hypothesis predicts that (i) energy density (kJ g-1) and spatial-temporal variability in abundance are positively correlated in nearshore marine fishes; and (ii) prey selection by a nearshore piscivore, the pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba Pallas), is negatively affected by variability in abundance. 2. We tested these predictions with data from a 4-year study that measured fish abundance with beach seines and pigeon guillemot prey utilization with visual identification of chick meals. 3. The first prediction was supported. Pearson's correlation showed that fishes with higher energy density were more variable on seasonal (r = 0.71) and annual (r = 0.66) time scales. Higher energy density fishes were also more abundant overall (r = 0.85) and more patchy at a scale of 10s of km (r = 0.77). 4. Prey utilization by pigeon guillemots was strongly non-random. Relative preference, defined as the difference between log-ratio transformed proportions of individual prey taxa in chick diets and beach seine catches, was significantly different from zero for seven of the eight main prey categories. 5. The second prediction was also supported. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to summarize variability in correlated prey characteristics (energy density, availability and variability in abundance). Two PCA scores explained 32% of observed variability in pigeon guillemot prey utilization. Seasonal variability in abundance was negatively weighted by these PCA scores, providing evidence of risk-averse selection. Prey availability, energy density and km-scale variability in abundance were positively weighted. 6. Trophic interactions are known to create variability in resource distribution in other systems. We propose that links between resource quality and the strength of trophic interactions may produce resource quality-variability trade-offs.

  9. 46 CFR 111.10-5 - Multiple energy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Multiple energy sources. 111.10-5 Section 111.10-5...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-5 Multiple energy sources. Failure of any single generating set energy source such as a boiler, diesel, gas turbine, or steam turbine must not cause all generating sets...

  10. 46 CFR 111.10-5 - Multiple energy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Multiple energy sources. 111.10-5 Section 111.10-5...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-5 Multiple energy sources. Failure of any single generating set energy source such as a boiler, diesel, gas turbine, or steam turbine must not cause all generating sets...

  11. 46 CFR 111.10-5 - Multiple energy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Multiple energy sources. 111.10-5 Section 111.10-5...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-5 Multiple energy sources. Failure of any single generating set energy source such as a boiler, diesel, gas turbine, or steam turbine must not cause all generating sets...

  12. 46 CFR 111.10-5 - Multiple energy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Multiple energy sources. 111.10-5 Section 111.10-5...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-5 Multiple energy sources. Failure of any single generating set energy source such as a boiler, diesel, gas turbine, or steam turbine must not cause all generating sets...

  13. 46 CFR 111.10-5 - Multiple energy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Multiple energy sources. 111.10-5 Section 111.10-5...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-5 Multiple energy sources. Failure of any single generating set energy source such as a boiler, diesel, gas turbine, or steam turbine must not cause all generating sets...

  14. Review of biomass as a source of energy for Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Leszczynski, S.; Brzychczyk, P.; Sekula, R.

    To the present day, biomass has not been considered as an energy source for Poland, and over 95% of energy is generated through fossil fuel combustion. However, it is necessary to search for new energy sources because of high prices of traditional energy carriers and massive environmental pollution caused by these fuels. Biomass seems to be one of the best renewable energy sources. Basic components of biomass in Poland and estimations of energetic resources of biomass are presented.

  15. [Effects of adding straw carbon source to root knot nematode diseased soil on soil microbial biomass and protozoa abundance].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Si-Hui; Lian, Jian-Hong; Cao, Zhi-Ping; Zhao, Li

    2013-06-01

    A field experiment with successive planting of tomato was conducted to study the effects of adding different amounts of winter wheat straw (2.08 g x kg(-1), 1N; 4.16 g x kg(-1), 2N; and 8.32 g x kg(-1), 4N) to the soil seriously suffered from root knot nematode disease on the soil microbial biomass and protozoa abundance. Adding straw carbon source had significant effects on the contents of soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) and the abundance of soil protozoa, which all decreased in the order of 4N > 2N > 1N > CK. The community structure of soil protozoa also changed significantly under straw addition. In the treatments with straw addition, the average proportion of fagellate, amoeba, and ciliates accounted for 36.0%, 59.5%, and 4.5% of the total protozoa, respectively. Under the same adding amounts of wheat straw, there was an increase in the soil MBC and MBN contents, MBC/MBN ratio, and protozoa abundance with increasing cultivation period.

  16. Simultaneous Quantification of Temperature, Pyroxenite Abundance, and Upwelling Rates in the Iceland Mantle Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, E.; Lesher, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    The compositions and volumes of basalts erupted at the earth's surface are a function of mantle temperature, mantle composition, and the rate at which the mantle upwells through the melting zone. Thus, basaltic magmatism has long been used to probe the thermal and physiochemical state of the earth's mantle. Great insight has been gained into the mantle beneath the global spreading ridge system, where the mantle source is assumed to be homogeneous peridotite that upwells passively [1]. However, it is now recognized that many basalt source regions are lithologically heterogeneous (i.e. containing recycled lithospheric material ranging from harzburgite to pyroxenite) and upwell at rates in excess of those governed by plate separation. To account for these complexities, we have developed a forward melting model for lithologically heterogeneous mantle that incorporates thermodynamically and experimentally constrained melting functions for a range of peridotite and pyroxenite lithologies. The model is unique because it quantifies mantle upwelling rates based on the net buoyancy of the source, thus providing a means for linking basalt compositions/volumes to mantle flow while accounting for source heterogeneity. We apply the model to investigate the mantle properties governing magmatism along different rift segments in Iceland, where lithologic heterogeneity and variable upwelling rates have been inferred through geochemical means [2,3]. Using constraints from seismically determined crustal thicknesses and recent estimates of the proportion of pyroxenite-derived melt contributing to Icelandic basalt compositions [4,5], we show that mantle sources beneath Iceland have excess potential temperatures >85 °C, contain <7% pyroxenite, and maximum upwelling rates ~14 times the passive rate. Our modeling highlights the dominant role of elevated mantle temperature and enhanced upwelling for high productivity magmatism in Iceland, and a subordinate role for mantle heterogeneity

  17. Acetone in the atmosphere of Hong Kong: Abundance, sources and photochemical precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, H.; Ling, Z. H.; Cheung, K.; Wang, D. W.; Simpson, I. J.; Blake, D. R.

    2013-02-01

    Intensive field measurements were carried out at a mountain site and an urban site at the foot of the mountain from September to November 2010 in Hong Kong. Acetone was monitored using both canister air samples and 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine cartridges. The spatiotemporal patterns of acetone showed no difference between the two sites (p > 0.05), and the mean acetone mixing ratios on O3 episode days were higher than those on non-O3 episode days at both sites (p < 0.05). The source contributions to ambient acetone at both sites were estimated using a receptor model i.e. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). The PMF results showed that vehicular emission and secondary formation made the most important contribution to ambient acetone, followed by the solvent use at both sites. However, the contribution of biogenic emission at the mountain site was significantly higher than that at the urban site, whereas biomass burning made more remarkable contribution at the urban site than that at the mountain site. The mechanism of oxidation formation of acetone was investigated using a photochemical box model. The results indicated that i-butene was the main precursor of secondary acetone at the mountain site, while the oxidation of i-butane was the major source of secondary acetone at the urban site.

  18. An Abundant Perivascular Source of Stem Cells for Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    James, Aaron W.; Zara, Janette N.; Corselli, Mirko; Askarinam, Asal; Zhou, Ann M.; Hourfar, Alireza; Nguyen, Alan; Megerdichian, Silva; Asatrian, Greg; Pang, Shen; Stoker, David; Zhang, Xinli; Wu, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Adipose tissue is an ideal mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) source, as it is dispensable and accessible with minimal morbidity. However, the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue is a heterogeneous cell population, which has disadvantages for tissue regeneration. In the present study, we prospectively purified human perivascular stem cells (PSCs) from n = 60 samples of human lipoaspirate and documented their frequency, viability, and variation with patient demographics. PSCs are a fluorescence-activated cell sorting-sorted population composed of pericytes (CD45−, CD146+, CD34−) and adventitial cells (CD45−, CD146−, CD34+), each of which we have previously reported to have properties of MSCs. Here, we found that PSCs make up, on average, 43.2% of SVF from human lipoaspirate (19.5% pericytes and 23.8% adventitial cells). These numbers were minimally changed by age, gender, or body mass index of the patient or by length of refrigerated storage time between liposuction and processing. In a previous publication, we observed that human PSCs (hPSCs) formed significantly more bone in vivo in comparison with unsorted human SVF (hSVF) in an intramuscular implantation model. We now extend this finding to a bone injury model, observing that purified hPSCs led to significantly greater healing of mouse critical-size calvarial defects than hSVF (60.9% healing as opposed to 15.4% healing at 2 weeks postoperative by microcomputed tomography analysis). These studies suggest that adipose-derived hPSCs are a new cell source for future efforts in skeletal regenerative medicine. Moreover, hPSCs are a stem cell-based therapeutic that is readily approvable by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, with potentially increased safety, purity, identity, potency, and efficacy. PMID:23197874

  19. Wearable energy sources based on 2D materials.

    PubMed

    Yi, Fang; Ren, Huaying; Shan, Jingyuan; Sun, Xiao; Wei, Di; Liu, Zhongfan

    2018-05-08

    Wearable energy sources are in urgent demand due to the rapid development of wearable electronics. Besides flexibility and ultrathin thickness, emerging 2D materials present certain extraordinary properties that surpass the properties of conventional materials, which make them advantageous for high-performance wearable energy sources. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of recent advances in 2D material based wearable energy sources including wearable batteries, supercapacitors, and different types of energy harvesters. The crucial roles of 2D materials in the wearable energy sources are highlighted. Based on the current progress, the existing challenges and future prospects are outlined and discussed.

  20. 47 CFR 80.1099 - Ship sources of energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ship sources of energy. 80.1099 Section 80.1099... Stations § 80.1099 Ship sources of energy. (a) There must be available at all times, while the ship is at sea, a supply of electrical energy sufficient to operate the radio installations and to charge any...

  1. 47 CFR 80.1099 - Ship sources of energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ship sources of energy. 80.1099 Section 80.1099... Stations § 80.1099 Ship sources of energy. (a) There must be available at all times, while the ship is at sea, a supply of electrical energy sufficient to operate the radio installations and to charge any...

  2. 47 CFR 80.1099 - Ship sources of energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship sources of energy. 80.1099 Section 80.1099... Stations § 80.1099 Ship sources of energy. (a) There must be available at all times, while the ship is at sea, a supply of electrical energy sufficient to operate the radio installations and to charge any...

  3. 47 CFR 80.1099 - Ship sources of energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ship sources of energy. 80.1099 Section 80.1099... Stations § 80.1099 Ship sources of energy. (a) There must be available at all times, while the ship is at sea, a supply of electrical energy sufficient to operate the radio installations and to charge any...

  4. 47 CFR 80.1099 - Ship sources of energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ship sources of energy. 80.1099 Section 80.1099... Stations § 80.1099 Ship sources of energy. (a) There must be available at all times, while the ship is at sea, a supply of electrical energy sufficient to operate the radio installations and to charge any...

  5. Panchromatic spectral energy distributions of Herschel sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berta, S.; Lutz, D.; Santini, P.; Wuyts, S.; Rosario, D.; Brisbin, D.; Cooray, A.; Franceschini, A.; Gruppioni, C.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Hwang, H. S.; Le Floc'h, E.; Magnelli, B.; Nordon, R.; Oliver, S.; Page, M. J.; Popesso, P.; Pozzetti, L.; Pozzi, F.; Riguccini, L.; Rodighiero, G.; Roseboom, I.; Scott, D.; Symeonidis, M.; Valtchanov, I.; Viero, M.; Wang, L.

    2013-03-01

    Combining far-infrared Herschel photometry from the PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) and Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) guaranteed time programs with ancillary datasets in the GOODS-N, GOODS-S, and COSMOS fields, it is possible to sample the 8-500 μm spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of galaxies with at least 7-10 bands. Extending to the UV, optical, and near-infrared, the number of bands increases up to 43. We reproduce the distribution of galaxies in a carefully selected restframe ten colors space, based on this rich data-set, using a superposition of multivariate Gaussian modes. We use this model to classify galaxies and build median SEDs of each class, which are then fitted with a modified version of the magphys code that combines stellar light, emission from dust heated by stars and a possible warm dust contribution heated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). The color distribution of galaxies in each of the considered fields can be well described with the combination of 6-9 classes, spanning a large range of far- to near-infrared luminosity ratios, as well as different strength of the AGN contribution to bolometric luminosities. The defined Gaussian grouping is used to identify rare or odd sources. The zoology of outliers includes Herschel-detected ellipticals, very blue z ~ 1 Ly-break galaxies, quiescent spirals, and torus-dominated AGN with star formation. Out of these groups and outliers, a new template library is assembled, consisting of 32 SEDs describing the intrinsic scatter in the restframe UV-to-submm colors of infrared galaxies. This library is tested against L(IR) estimates with and without Herschel data included, and compared to eightother popular methods often adopted in the literature. When implementing Herschel photometry, these approaches produce L(IR) values consistent with each other within a median absolute deviation of 10-20%, the scatter being dominated more by fine tuning of the codes, rather than by the choice of

  6. Marine litter on the beaches of the Adriatic and Ionian Seas: An assessment of their abundance, composition and sources.

    PubMed

    Vlachogianni, Thomais; Fortibuoni, Tomaso; Ronchi, Francesca; Zeri, Christina; Mazziotti, Cristina; Tutman, Pero; Varezić, Dubravka Bojanić; Palatinus, Andreja; Trdan, Štefan; Peterlin, Monika; Mandić, Milica; Markovic, Olivera; Prvan, Mosor; Kaberi, Helen; Prevenios, Michael; Kolitari, Jerina; Kroqi, Gulielm; Fusco, Marina; Kalampokis, Evangelos; Scoullos, Michael

    2018-06-01

    The abundance, composition and sources of marine litter were determined on beaches located in the seven countries of the Adriatic-Ionian macroregion, namely Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Greece, Italy, Montenegro and Slovenia. A total of 70,581 marine litter items were classified and recorded through one-year long surveys carried out in 31 sites. The average litter density of 0.67 items/m 2 found within this study is considered to be relatively high. The beaches investigated differed in terms of human-induced pressures; their majority is classified either as semi-urban or semi-rural, while very few beaches could be characterized as urban or remote/natural. The majority of litter items were made of artificial/anthropogenic polymer materials accounting for 91.1% of all litter. Litter from shoreline sources accounted for 33.4% of all litter collected. The amount of litter from sea-based sources ranged in the different countries from 1.54% to 14.84%, with an average of 6.30% at regional level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of abundance ratios of somatic coliphages and bacteriophages of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron GA17 for microbial source identification.

    PubMed

    Muniesa, Maite; Lucena, Francisco; Blanch, Anicet R; Payán, Andrey; Jofre, Juan

    2012-12-01

    Water contaminated with human faeces is a risk to human health and management of water bodies can be improved by determining the sources of faecal pollution. Field studies show that existing methods are insufficient and that different markers are required. This study proposes the combined use of two microbial indicators, the concentrations of which are presented as ratios. This provides a more reliable approach to identifying faecal sources as it avoids variation due to treatment or ageing of the contamination. Among other indicators, bacteriophages have been proposed as rapid and cheap indicators of faecal pollution. Samples analysed in this study were derived from wastewater treatment plants (raw sewage, secondary and tertiary effluents and raw sewage sludge) river water, seawater and animal related wastewater. The abundance ratios of faecal coliforms and Bacteroides phages, either strain RYC2056 (non-specific for faecal origin) or strain GA17 (specific for human pollution), and among somatic coliphages and phages infecting both Bacteroides strains, were evaluated. The results indicate that the ratio of somatic coliphages and phages infecting Bacteroides strain GA17, which is specific to human faecal sources, provides a robust method for discriminating samples, even those presenting different levels and ages of pollution, and allows samples polluted with human faeces to be distinguished from those containing animal faecal pollution. This method allows the generation of numerical data that can be further applied to numerical methods for faecal pollution discrimination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Alternative Natural Energy Sources in Building Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Albert J.; Schubert, Robert P.

    This publication provides a discussion of various energy conserving building systems and design alternatives. The information presented here covers alternative space and water heating systems, and energy conserving building designs incorporating these systems and other energy conserving techniques. Besides water, wind, solar, and bio conversion…

  9. Sinks and sources: Assessing microplastic abundance in river sediment and deposit feeders in an Austral temperate urban river system.

    PubMed

    Nel, Holly A; Dalu, Tatenda; Wasserman, Ryan J

    2018-01-15

    Microplastics are important novel pollutants in freshwaters but their behaviour in river sediments is poorly understood due to the large amounts of coloured dissolved organic matter that impede sample processing. The present study aimed to 1.) estimate the microplastic pollution dynamics in an urban river system experiencing temporal differences in river flow, and 2.) investigate the potential use of chironomids as indicators of microplastic pollution levels in degraded freshwater environments. Microplastic levels were estimated from sediment and Chironomus spp. larvae collected from various sites along the Bloukrans River system, in the Eastern Cape South Africa during the summer and winter season. River flow, water depth, channel width, substrate embeddedness and sediment organic matter were simultaneously collected from each site. The winter season was characterised by elevated microplastic abundances, likely as a result of lower energy and increased sediment deposition associated with reduced river flow. In addition, results showed that particle distribution may be governed by various other external factors, such as substrate type and sediment organic matter. The study further highlighted that deposit feeders associated with the benthic river habitats, namely Chironomus spp. ingest microplastics and that the seasonal differences in sediment microplastic dynamics were reflected in chironomid microplastic abundance. There was a positive, though weakly significant relationship between deposit feeders and sediment suggesting that deposit feeders such as Chironomus spp. larvae could serve as an important indicator of microplastic loads within freshwater ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dynamic relationships between body size, species richness, abundance, and energy use in a shallow marine epibenthic faunal community

    PubMed Central

    Labra, Fabio A; Hernández-Miranda, Eduardo; Quiñones, Renato A

    2015-01-01

    We study the temporal variation in the empirical relationships among body size (S), species richness (R), and abundance (A) in a shallow marine epibenthic faunal community in Coliumo Bay, Chile. We also extend previous analyses by calculating individual energy use (E) and test whether its bivariate and trivariate relationships with S and R are in agreement with expectations derived from the energetic equivalence rule. Carnivorous and scavenger species representing over 95% of sample abundance and biomass were studied. For each individual, body size (g) was measured and E was estimated following published allometric relationships. Data for each sample were tabulated into exponential body size bins, comparing species-averaged values with individual-based estimates which allow species to potentially occupy multiple size classes. For individual-based data, both the number of individuals and species across body size classes are fit by a Weibull function rather than by a power law scaling. Species richness is also a power law of the number of individuals. Energy use shows a piecewise scaling relationship with body size, with energetic equivalence holding true only for size classes above the modal abundance class. Species-based data showed either weak linear or no significant patterns, likely due to the decrease in the number of data points across body size classes. Hence, for individual-based size spectra, the SRA relationship seems to be general despite seasonal forcing and strong disturbances in Coliumo Bay. The unimodal abundance distribution results in a piecewise energy scaling relationship, with small individuals showing a positive scaling and large individuals showing energetic equivalence. Hence, strict energetic equivalence should not be expected for unimodal abundance distributions. On the other hand, while species-based data do not show unimodal SRA relationships, energy use across body size classes did not show significant trends, supporting energetic

  11. Balancing Green Power; How to deal with variable energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, David

    2016-04-01

    Renewable energy sources are large but some are variable and intermittent. The wide-scale use of renewable energy sources for energy supply will require the adoption of ways to compensate for their variability. This book reviews the technical options looking at their pros and cons and how they might work together to support a reliable and sustainable energy system. This is a rapidly advancing area of research and practice and Balancing Green Power offers an ideal introduction to the field.

  12. Changes in carbon sources fueling benthic secondary production over depth and time: coupling Chironomidae stable carbon isotopes to larval abundance.

    PubMed

    Frossard, Victor; Verneaux, Valérie; Millet, Laurent; Magny, Michel; Perga, Marie-Elodie

    2015-06-01

    Stable C isotope ratio (δ(13)C) values of chironomid remains (head capsules; HC) were used to infer changes in benthic C sources over the last 150 years for two French sub-Alpine lakes. The HCs were retrieved from a series of sediment cores from different depths. The HC δ(13)C values started to decrease with the onset of eutrophication. The HC δ(13)C temporal patterns varied among depths, which revealed spatial differences in the contribution of methanotrophic bacteria to the benthic secondary production. The estimates of the methane (CH4)-derived C contribution to chironomid biomass ranged from a few percent prior to the 1930s to up to 30 % in recent times. The chironomid fluxes increased concomitantly with changes in HC δ(13)C values before a drastic decrease due to the development of hypoxic conditions. The hypoxia reinforced the implication for CH4-derived C transfer to chironomid production. In Lake Annecy, the HC δ(13)C values were negatively correlated to total organic C (TOC) content in the sediment (Corg), whereas no relationship was found in Lake Bourget. In Lake Bourget, chironomid abundances reached their maximum with TOC contents between 1 and 1.5 % Corg, which could constitute a threshold for change in chironomid abundance and consequently for the integration of CH4-derived C into the lake food webs. Our results indicated that the CH4-derived C contribution to the benthic food webs occurred at different depths in these two large, deep lakes (deep waters and sublittoral zone), and that the trophic transfer of this C was promoted in sublittoral zones where O2 gradients were dynamic.

  13. A Chandra Survey of Milky Way Globular Clusters. I. Emissivity and Abundance of Weak X-Ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zhongqun; Li, Zhiyuan; Xu, Xiaojie; Li, Xiangdong

    2018-05-01

    Based on archival Chandra data, we have carried out an X-ray survey of 69, or nearly half the known population of, Milky Way globular clusters (GCs), focusing on weak X-ray sources, mainly cataclysmic variables (CVs) and coronally active binaries (ABs). Using the cumulative X-ray luminosity per unit stellar mass (i.e., X-ray emissivity) as a proxy of the source abundance, we demonstrate a paucity (lower by 41% ± 27% on average) of weak X-ray sources in most GCs relative to the field, which is represented by the Solar Neighborhood and Local Group dwarf elliptical galaxies. We also revisit the mutual correlations among the cumulative X-ray luminosity (L X), cluster mass (M), and stellar encounter rate (Γ), finding {L}{{X}}\\propto {M}0.74+/- 0.13, {L}{{X}}\\propto {{{Γ }}}0.67+/- 0.07 and {{Γ }}\\propto {M}1.28+/- 0.17. The three quantities can further be expressed as {L}{{X}}\\propto {M}0.64+/- 0.12 {{{Γ }}}0.19+/- 0.07, which indicates that the dynamical formation of CVs and ABs through stellar encounters in GCs is less dominant than previously suggested, and that the primordial formation channel has a substantial contribution. Taking these aspects together, we suggest that a large fraction of primordial, soft binaries have been disrupted in binary–single or binary–binary stellar interactions before they could otherwise evolve into X-ray-emitting close binaries, whereas the same interactions also have led to the formation of new close binaries. No significant correlations between {L}{{X}}/{L}K and cluster properties, including dynamical age, metallicity, and structural parameters, are found.

  14. Energy Efficiency and Importance of Renewable Energy Sources in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skapare, I.; Kreslins, A.

    2007-10-01

    The main goal of Latvian energy policy is to ensure safe and environmentally friendly long-term energy supply at cost-effective prices, contributing to enhance competitiveness, and to ensure safe energy transit. The Latvian Parliament approved an Energy Efficiency Strategy in 2000. Its objective is to decrease energy consumption per unit of GDP by 25% by 2010. Awareness raising, implementation of standards and economic incentives for self financing are the main instruments to increase energy efficiency, mentioned in the strategy. Latvia, as many other European Union member states, is dependent on the import of primary energy resources. The Latvian Renewable Energy strategy is still under development. The only recent study on RES was developed in the framework of a PHARE program in year 2000: "Renewable energy resource program", where three main objectives for a future RES strategy were proposed: 1. To increase the use of wood waste and low value wood and forest residues. 2. To improve efficiency of combustion technologies and to replace outdated plants. 3. To increase the use of renewables in Combined Heat and Power plants (CHP). Through the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership, partners will develop a set of new shared activities, and coordinate and strengthen existing efforts in this area.

  15. Alternative Energy Sources. Experiments You Can Do...from Edison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benrey, Ronald M.; Schultz, Robert F.

    Eight experiments dealing with alternative energy sources are presented. Each experiment includes an introductory section which provides background information and discusses the promises and problems of the particular energy source, a list of materials needed to complete the experiment, and the procedures to be used. The experiments involve:…

  16. Potential Energy Sources Pose Mining Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Summarizes the discussions of a Division of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry symposium on solids handling for synthetic fuels production. Included is a description of technical difficulties with the use of coal seams and deposits of oil shale and oil sand as potential sources of fuel. (CC)

  17. High energy efficient solid state laser sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of highly efficient coherent optical sources was reviewed. This work has focused on nonlinear frequency conversion of the highly coherent output of the non-planar ring laser oscillators developed earlier in the program, and includes high efficiency second harmonic generation and the operation of optical parametric oscillators for wavelength diversity and tunability.

  18. High energy efficient solid state laser sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of highly efficient coherent optical sources is reviewed. This work focusses on nonlinear frequency conversion of the highly coherent output of the Non-Planar Ring Laser Oscillators developed earlier in the program, and includes high efficiency second harmonic generation and the operation of optical parametric oscillators for wavelength diversity and tunability.

  19. Energy Harvesting Research: The Road from Single Source to Multisource.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yang; Jantunen, Heli; Juuti, Jari

    2018-06-07

    Energy harvesting technology may be considered an ultimate solution to replace batteries and provide a long-term power supply for wireless sensor networks. Looking back into its research history, individual energy harvesters for the conversion of single energy sources into electricity are developed first, followed by hybrid counterparts designed for use with multiple energy sources. Very recently, the concept of a truly multisource energy harvester built from only a single piece of material as the energy conversion component is proposed. This review, from the aspect of materials and device configurations, explains in detail a wide scope to give an overview of energy harvesting research. It covers single-source devices including solar, thermal, kinetic and other types of energy harvesters, hybrid energy harvesting configurations for both single and multiple energy sources and single material, and multisource energy harvesters. It also includes the energy conversion principles of photovoltaic, electromagnetic, piezoelectric, triboelectric, electrostatic, electrostrictive, thermoelectric, pyroelectric, magnetostrictive, and dielectric devices. This is one of the most comprehensive reviews conducted to date, focusing on the entire energy harvesting research scene and providing a guide to seeking deeper and more specific research references and resources from every corner of the scientific community. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Non-equilibrium electron energy distributions in HII regions: Implications for abundance determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dopita, Michael; Nicholls, David

    2012-07-01

    Although the analysis of HII region emission lines provides the main way of probing the chemical evolution of the universe throughout cosmic time, currently significant (factor of 2) discrepancies exist between the different methods (principally the strong line, electron temperature and recombination line methods) used to calibrate the cosmic chemical abundance scale. Although effects such as temperature fluctuations and geometrical effects have been invoked, these fail to explain the observations, particularly in the UV. Here we will show that there exists good grounds for supposing that the electrons in HII regions, as in other space plasmas, are not distributed according to a Boltzmann law. Rather, they follow a κ- distribution with κ ˜ 10. With this novel formulation, we can resolve the abundance discrepancies which have plagued this field for over three decades. Interestingly enough, the size of the correction in emission line strengths increases as we go into the UV.

  1. Isomer Energy Source for Space Propulsion Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    1,590 Engine F/W (no shield) 3.4 5.0 20.0 A similar core design replacing the fission fuel with the isomer 178Hfm2 is the starting point for this...particles interact and collide with other atoms in the fuel material, reactor core , or coolant, their energy can be transferred to thermal energy...thrust (44). The program produced several reactors that made it all the way through the testing stages of development . The reactors used uranium-235

  2. Eucalyptus as a pollution - controlling energy source

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This article describes the possibility of using Eucalyptus as a biomass crop in Florida. It is not only a good fuel for energy production, but it can help alleviate the water pollution problem because of its substantial uptake of excess nutrients and tolerance of flooding.

  3. HH55 and its energy source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyer, Mark H.; Graham, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    Imaging and spectroscopic observations of HH55 in the Lupus molecular cloud are presented. Cohen and Schwartz (1987) have shown that HH55 is apparently not excited by the nearby T Tau star RU Lup as once thought but rather by the coincident FIR point source 15533 - 3742 extracted from IRAS coadded images. The optical counterpart of this IR source is identified as an active, relatively unobscured M-dwarf star. The forbidden emission lines observed in the stellar spectrum exhibit slight asymmetries to blueshifted velocities. Deconvolution of the emission lines reveals a weak moderate-velocity (-100 km/sec) wind component and a stronger emission component whose velocity is very close to that of the star.

  4. Education and Training in New and Renewable Sources of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beresovski, T.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Identifies past and present efforts and future directions for UNESCO activities related to energy but focusing on alternative energy sources. Reports results of an international survey and analysis of programs, facilities, and needs in alternative energy education and training. Outlines curricula for policymakers, specialists, and technicians. (DC)

  5. Overview of Nepal's energy sources and environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, C. K.

    In the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal faces environmental problems of most industrialized countries whereas it has problems similar to the least developed countries, in the hills. Types and quantity of energy use have a close link with the environmental degradation in Nepal Himalaya. Over dependence on the forest to meet the energy demand in the hills has aggravated the environmental problems. Lack of forest cover on the hills, the intense monsoon rain, the fragile geology and steep terrain are contributing to the acceleration of landslides, soil erosion and temperature rise. The rise of average minimum temperature is causing glaciers to retreat and thereby the development of large bodies of glacial lake. Glacial lake outbursts of 1981 in Kodari and of 1985 in Namche bazar area caused extensive damage on infrastructures down stream. Heavy use of commercial fuel (hydrocarbons) in the bowl shaped Kathmandu valley is causing air and water pollution and an increase in the average minimum temperature. Extensive development of hydropower, biogas plants and massive reforestation on naked hills and efficient use of imported hydrocarbons are the solution to existing energy and environmental problems.

  6. Risk with energy from conventional and nonconventional sources.

    PubMed

    Inhaber, H

    1979-02-23

    Risk to human health was compared for five conventional and six nonconventional energy systems. The entire cycle for producing energy was considered, not just part. The most important conclusion drawn is that the risk to human health from nonconventional sources can be as high as, or even higher than, that of conventional sources. This result is produced only when the risk per unit energy is considered, rather than the risk per solar panel or windmill. The risk from nonconventional energy sources derives from the large amount of material and labor needed, along with their backup and storage requirements. Risk evaluation is a relatively new discipline, and therefore the results presented here can be considered only a beginning. However, society should keep relative risk in mind when evaluating present and future energy sources.

  7. Economic dispatch optimization for system integrating renewable energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jihane, Kartite; Mohamed, Cherkaoui

    2018-05-01

    Nowadays, the use of energy is growing especially in transportation and electricity industries. However this energy is based on conventional sources which pollute the environment. Multi-source system is seen as the best solution to sustainable development. This paper proposes the Economic Dispatch (ED) of hybrid renewable power system. The hybrid system is composed of ten thermal generators, photovoltaic (PV) generator and wind turbine generator. To show the importance of renewable energy sources (RES) in the energy mix we have ran the simulation for system integrated PV only and PV plus wind. The result shows that the system with renewable energy sources (RES) is more compromising than the system without RES in terms of fuel cost.

  8. Space-time dependence between energy sources and climate related energy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engeland, Kolbjorn; Borga, Marco; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Tøfte, Lena; Warland, Geir

    2014-05-01

    and solar power production and their co-fluctuation at small time scales. The multi-scale nature of the variability is less studied, i.e., the potential adverse or favorable co-fluctuation at intermediate time scales involving water scarcity or abundance, is less present in the literature.Our review points out that it could be especially interesting to promote research on how the pronounced large-scale fluctuations in inflow to hydropower (intra-annual run-off) and smaller scale fluctuations in wind- and solar-power interact in an energy system. There is a need to better represent the profound difference between wind-, solar- and hydro-energy sources. On the one hand, they are all directly linked to the 2-D horizontal dynamics of meteorology. On the other hand, the branching structure of hydrological systems transforms this variability and governs the complex combination of natural inflows and reservoir storage.Finally, we note that the CRE production is, in addition to weather, also influenced by the energy system and market, i.e., the energy transport and demand across scales as well as changes of market regulation. The CRE production system lies thus in this nexus between climate, energy systems and market regulations. The work presented is part of the FP7 project COMPLEX (Knowledge based climate mitigation systems for a low carbon economy; http://www.complex.ac.uk)

  9. Resource management tools based on renewable energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas; Boghrat, Pedram; Pradhan, Ranjit; Kostrzewski, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    Renewable energy is an important source of power for unattended sensors (ground, sea, air), tagging systems, and other remote platforms for Homeland Security and Homeland Defense. Also, Command, Control, Communication, and Intelligence (C3I) systems and technologies often require renewable energy sources for information assurance (IA), in general, and anti-tampering (AT), in particular. However, various geophysical and environmental conditions determine different types of energy harvesting: solar, thermal, vibration, acoustic, hydraulic, wind, and others. Among them, solar energy is usually preferable, but, both a solar habitat and the necessity for night operation can create a need for other types of renewable energy. In this paper, we introduce figures of merit (FoMs) for evaluating preferences of specific energy sources, as resource management tools, based on geophysical conditions. Also, Battery Systemic Modeling is discussed.

  10. History of energy sources and their utilization in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Ogunsola, O.I.

    1990-01-01

    Nigeria, a major oil producer, is rich in other energy sources. These include wood, coal, gas, tar sands, and hydro power. Although oil has been the most popular, some other energy sources have a longer history. This article discusses the historical trends in the production and utilization of Nigerian energy sources. Wood has the longest history. However,its utilization was limited to domestic cooking. Imported coal was first used in 1896, but it was not discovered in Nigeria until 1909 and was first produced in 1916. Although oil exploration started in 1901, it was first discovered in commercial quantity in 1956more » and produced in 1958. Oil thereafter took over the energy scene from coal until 1969, when hydro energy was first produced. Energy consumption has been mainly from hydro. Tar sands account for about 55% of total proven non-renewable reserves.« less

  11. Redox Disproportionation of Glucose as a Major Biosynthetic Energy Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    1996-01-01

    Previous studies have concluded that very little if any energy is required for the microbial biosynthesis of amino acids and lipids from glucose -- processes that yield almost as much ATP (adenosine triphosphate) as they consume. However, these studies did not establish the strength nor the nature of the energy source driving these biological transformations. To identify and estimate the strength of the energy source behind these processes, we calculated the free energy change due to the redox disproportionation of substrate carbon of (a) 26 redox-balanced fermentation reactions, and (b) the biosynthesis of amino acids, lipids, and nucleotides of E. coli from glucose. A plot of the negative free energy of these reactions per mmole of carbon as a function of the number of disproportionative electron transfers per mmol of carbon showed that the energy yields of these fermentations and biosyntheses were directly proportional to the degree of redox disproportionation of carbon. Since this linear relationship showed that redox disproportionation was the dominant energy source of these reactions, we were able to establish that amino acid and lipid biosynthesis obtained most of their energy from redox disproportionation (greater than 94%). In contrast nucleotide biosynthesis was not driven by redox disproportionation of carbon, and consequently depended completely on ATP for energy. This crucial and previously unrecognized role of sugars as an energy source of biosynthesis suggests that sugars were involved at the earliest stage in the origin of anabolic metabolism.

  12. Chemical Disequilibria and Sources of Gibbs Free Energy Inside Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotov, M. Y.

    2010-12-01

    these putative redox transformations. Sulfates may have not formed in cold and/or short-term aqueous environments with a limited H2 escape. In contrast to Earth, Mars and Europa, the moon may have no (or very limited [4]) potential for sulfate reduction. Despite nutrient (C, N, P and S) and metal (e.g. Fe, Ni) rich environments and multiple sources of Gibbs free energy during aqueous episode(s), putative life on Enceladus [4] would have adapted to survive in low water activity alkaline brines rich in ammonia, methanol and organic liquids at temperature >150-170 K. The comet-like abundances of major plume gases and apparent redox disequilibria in aquatic systems are consistent with a minimal influence of aqueous processes on endogenic chemical reactions and may indicate abiotic interior. Alternatively, plume gases may represent never melted primordial parcels of the icy shell, while the deeper interior could contain altered species transformed in abiotic and/or biological processes. Refs: [1] Waite J. et al. (2009) Nature 460, 487-490. [2] Postberg F. et al. (2009) Nature 459, 1098-1101. [3] Hansen C. et al. (2010) 38th COSPAR Sci. Assembly. [4] McKay C. et al. (2008) Astrobiology 8, 909-919.

  13. Policy Enabling Environment for Corporate Renewable Energy Sourcing

    SciTech Connect

    Interest in renewable energy (RE) procurement in new markets is on the rise. Corporations are increasing their commitments to procuring RE, motivated by an interest in using clean energy sources and reducing their energy expenses. Many large companies have facilities and supply chains in multiple countries, and are interested in procuring renewable energy in the grids where they use energy. The policy environment around the world plays a key role in shaping where and how corporations will invest in renewables. This fact sheet details findings from a recent 21st Century Power Partnership report, Policies to Enable Corporate Renewable Energy Sourcingmore » Internationally.« less

  14. Access to primary energy sources - the basis of national energy security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szlązak, Jan; Szlązak, Rafał A.

    2017-11-01

    National energy security is of fundamental importance for economic development of a country. To ensure such safety energy raw material, also called primary energy sources, are necessary. Currently in Poland primary energy sources include mainly fossil fuels, such as hard coal, brown coal, natural gas and crude oil. Other sources, e.g. renewable energy sources account for c. 15% in the energy mix. Primary energy sources are used to produce mainly electricity, which is considered as the cleanest form of energy. Poland does not have, unfortunately, sufficient energy sources and is forced to import some of them, mainly natural gas and crude oil. The article presents an insightful analysis of energy raw material reserves possessed by Poland and their structure taking account of the requirements applicable in the European Union, in particular, those related to environmental protection. The article also describes demand for electricity now and in the perspective of 2030. Primary energy sources necessary for its production have also been given. The article also includes the possibilities for the use of renewable energy sources in Poland, however, climatic conditions there are not are not particularly favourable to it. All the issues addressed in the article are summed up and ended with conclusions.

  15. Fresnel cup reflector directs maximum energy from light source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laue, E. G.; Youngberg, C. L.

    1964-01-01

    To minimize shielding and overheating, a composite Fresnel cup reflector design directs the maximum energy from a light source. It consists of a uniformly ellipsoidal end surface and an extension comprising a series of confocal ellipsoidal and concentric spherical surfaces.

  16. Comparative studies of energy sources in gynecologic laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Law, Kenneth S K; Lyons, Stephen D

    2013-01-01

    Energy sources incorporating "vessel sealing" capabilities are being increasingly used in gynecologic laparoscopic surgery although conventional monopolar and bipolar electrosurgery remain popular. The preference for one device over another is based on a combination of factors, including the surgeon's subjective experience, availability, and cost. Although comparative clinical studies and meta-analyses of laparoscopic energy sources have reported small but statistically significant differences in volumes of blood loss, the clinical significance of such small volumes is questionable. The overall usefulness of the various energy sources available will depend on a number of factors including vessel burst pressure and seal time, lateral thermal spread, and smoke production. Animal studies and laboratory-based trials are useful in providing a controlled environment to investigate such parameters. At present, there is insufficient evidence to support the use of one energy source over another. Copyright © 2013 AAGL. All rights reserved.

  17. [Applications of GIS in biomass energy source research].

    PubMed

    Su, Xian-Ming; Wang, Wu-Kui; Li, Yi-Wei; Sun, Wen-Xiang; Shi, Hai; Zhang, Da-Hong

    2010-03-01

    Biomass resources have the characteristics of widespread and dispersed distribution, which have close relations to the environment, climate, soil, and land use, etc. Geographic information system (GIS) has the functions of spatial analysis and the flexibility of integrating with other application models and algorithms, being of predominance to the biomass energy source research. This paper summarized the researches on the GIS applications in biomass energy source research, with the focus in the feasibility study of bioenergy development, assessment of biomass resources amount and distribution, layout of biomass exploitation and utilization, evaluation of gaseous emission from biomass burning, and biomass energy information system. Three perspectives of GIS applications in biomass energy source research were proposed, i. e., to enrich the data source, to improve the capacity on data processing and decision-support, and to generate the online proposal.

  18. Cassava as an energy source: a selected bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, C.

    1980-01-01

    This selected bibliography includes 250 articles on cassava as a potential energy source. Factors included are things which influence cassava growth; such as weeding, fertilizer, diseases and genetic selection, as well as the conversion of cassava to ethanol. (DP)

  19. A power conditioning system for radioisotope thermoelectric generator energy sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, J. A., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The use of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) as the primary source of energy in unmanned spacecraft is discussed. RTG output control, power conditioning system requirements, the electrical design, and circuit performance are also discussed.

  20. An integrated multi-source energy harvester based on vibration and magnetic field energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhengwen; Qiu, Jing; Wang, Xian; Gao, Yuan; Liu, Xin; Chang, Qijie; Long, Yibing; He, Xingduo

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, an integrated multi-source energy harvester (IMSEH) employing a special shaped cantilever beam and a piezoelectric transducer to convert vibration and magnetic field energy into electrical energy is presented. The electric output performance of the proposed IMSEH has been investigated. Compared to a traditional multi-source energy harvester (MSEH) or single source energy harvester (SSEH), the proposed IMSEH can simultaneously harvest vibration and magnetic field energy with an integrated structure and the electric output is greatly improved. When other conditions keep identical, the IMSEH can obtain high voltage of 12.8V. Remarkably, the proposed IMSEHs have great potential for its application in wireless sensor network.

  1. SWOT analysis of the renewable energy sources in Romania - case study: solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupu, A. G.; Dumencu, A.; Atanasiu, M. V.; Panaite, C. E.; Dumitrașcu, Gh; Popescu, A.

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of energy sector worldwide triggered intense preoccupation on both finding alternative renewable energy sources and environmental issues. Romania is considered to have technological potential and geographical location suitable to renewable energy usage for electricity generation. But this high potential is not fully exploited in the context of policies and regulations adopted globally, and more specific, European Union (EU) environmental and energy strategies and legislation related to renewable energy sources. This SWOT analysis of solar energy source presents the state of the art, potential and future prospects for development of renewable energy in Romania. The analysis concluded that the development of solar energy sector in Romania depends largely on: viability of legislative framework on renewable energy sources, increased subsidies for solar R&D, simplified methodology of green certificates, and educating the public, investors, developers and decision-makers.

  2. Turbulence generation through intense kinetic energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maqui, Agustin F.; Donzis, Diego A.

    2016-06-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are used to systematically study the development and establishment of turbulence when the flow is initialized with concentrated regions of intense kinetic energy. This resembles both active and passive grids which have been extensively used to generate and study turbulence in laboratories at different Reynolds numbers and with different characteristics, such as the degree of isotropy and homogeneity. A large DNS database was generated covering a wide range of initial conditions with a focus on perturbations with some directional preference, a condition found in active jet grids and passive grids passed through a contraction as well as a new type of active grid inspired by the experimental use of lasers to photo-excite the molecules that comprise the fluid. The DNS database is used to assert under what conditions the flow becomes turbulent and if so, the time required for this to occur. We identify a natural time scale of the problem which indicates the onset of turbulence and a single Reynolds number based exclusively on initial conditions which controls the evolution of the flow. It is found that a minimum Reynolds number is needed for the flow to evolve towards fully developed turbulence. An extensive analysis of single and two point statistics, velocity as well as spectral dynamics and anisotropy measures is presented to characterize the evolution of the flow towards realistic turbulence.

  3. Evaluating microbial carbon sources in Athabasca oil sands tailings ponds using natural abundance stable and radiocarbon isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahad, J. M.; Pakdel, H.

    2013-12-01

    Natural abundance stable (δ13C) and radiocarbon (Δ14C) isotopes of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) were used to evaluate the carbon sources utilized by the active microbial populations in surface sediments from Athabasca oil sands tailings ponds. The absence of algal-specific PLFAs at three of the four sites investigated, in conjunction with δ13C signatures for PLFAs that were generally within ~3‰ of that reported for oil sands bitumen (~ -30‰), indicated that the microbial communities growing on petroleum constituents were dominated by aerobic heterotrophs. The Δ14C values of PLFAs ranged from -906 to -586‰ and pointed to a significant uptake of fossil carbon (up to ~90% of microbial carbon derived from petroleum), particularly in PLFAs (e.g., cy17:0 and cy19:0) often associated with petroleum hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. The comparatively higher levels of 14C in other, less specific PLFAs (e.g., 16:0) indicated the preferential uptake of younger organic matter by the general microbial population (~50-80% of microbial carbon derived from petroleum). Since the main carbon pools in tailings sediment were essentially 'radiocarbon dead' (i.e., no detectable 14C), the principal source for this modern carbon is considered to be the Athabasca River, which provides the bulk of the water used in the bitumen extraction process. The preferential uptake of the minor amount of young and presumably more biodegradable material present in systems otherwise dominated by recalcitrant petroleum constituents has important implications for remediation strategies. On the one hand, it implies that mining-related organic contaminants could persist in the environment long after tailings pond reclamation has begun. Alternatively, it may be that the young, labile organic matter provided by the Athabasca River plays an important role in stimulating or supporting the microbial utilization of petroleum carbon in oil sands tailings ponds via co-metabolism or priming processes

  4. Secondary School Teachers' Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Renewable Energy Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liarakou, Georgia; Gavrilakis, Costas; Flouri, Eleni

    2009-04-01

    Investigating knowledge, perceptions as well as attitudes of public that concern various aspects of environmental issues is of high importance for Environmental Education. An integrated understanding of these parameters can properly support the planning of Environmental Education curriculum and relevant educational materials. In this survey we investigated knowledge and attitudes of secondary school teachers in Greece towards renewable energy sources, particularly wind and solar energy systems. A questionnaire with both open and close questions was used as the main methodological instrument. Findings revealed that although teachers were informed about renewable energy sources and well disposed towards these sources, they hardly expressed clear positions regarding several issues about wind and solar energy technologies and farms. Moreover such themes are limited integrated in teaching either as extra curricular educational programs or through the curriculum. These findings cannot confirm that teachers could influence students' opinion towards renewable energy systems. Thus, authorities should invest more in Environmental Education and relevant Teachers' Education.

  5. Electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, W.K.; Stirling, W.L.

    1979-10-25

    An electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources is provided. The system, employing crossed electric and magnetic fields, separates the electrons from the ions as they are extracted from the ion source plasma generator and before the ions are accelerated to their full energy. With the electric and magnetic fields oriented 90/sup 0/ to each other, the electrons remain at approximately the electrical potential at which they were generated. The electromagnetic forces cause the ions to be accelerated to the full accelerating supply voltage energy while being deflected through an angle of less than 90/sup 0/. The electrons precess out of the accelerating field region into an electron recovery region where they are collected at a small fraction of the full accelerating supply energy. It is possible, by this method, to collect > 90% of the electrons extracted along with the negative ions from a negative ion source beam at < 4% of full energy.

  6. Proceedings of the conference on alternative energy sources for Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Rothman, I.N.

    1981-01-01

    Four primary areas of study for alternative energy sources for Texas are considered. These are: energy demand supply and economics; prospects for energy resources (oil, lignite, coal, nuclear, goethermal and solar) and conservation; financial and technical constraints; and future planning. The following papers are presented: US energy outlook to 1990; energy supply and demand projections; comparative economics of solar energy in the generation of big power; gas present and future prospects; prospects for enhanced recovery of oil in Texas; the outlook for coal in USA; implementation of nuclear power in Texas; future outlook - geopressured-geothermal energy for Texas; future prospectsmore » for conservation and solar energy; financing and money supply constraints; technical constraints to energy supply increase; planning for the future - the crisis that drones on. Two papers have been abstracted separately.« less

  7. The importance of the different kinds of energy sources for energy future of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Yusuf Alper; Aladağ, Canan

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays, the need of energy has been increasing day by day with the population growth and the advancements of technology. In this study, the current state of nuclear, wind and solar energy on the worldwide has been generally investigated. The general assessments have been made based on Turkey's energy potential and the evaluation situation of this potential. The current political structures of countries are generally assessed and under this policy, the last situation and the latest implemented innovations are given. Turkey's energy demand is constantly increasing and Turkey is a country that needs to energy imports. This is a need for new energy sources to meet the growing need for energy. Nuclear, wind and solar energy are the new sources of energy to the fore in our country recently. In this study is given general information on the usage of energy sources of making and some deficiencies were been emphasized by political considerations in this regard.

  8. Writable electrochemical energy source based on graphene oxide

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Di

    2015-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) was mainly used as raw material for various types of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as a cost effective method to make graphene like materials. However, applications of its own unique properties such as extraordinary proton conductivity and super-permeability to water were overlooked. Here GO based battery-like planar energy source was demonstrated on arbitrary insulating substrate (e.g. polymer sheet/paper) by coating PEDOT, GO ink and rGO on Ag charge collectors. Energy from such GO battery depends on its length and one unit cell with length of 0.5 cm can generate energy capacity of 30 Ah/L with voltage up to 0.7 V when room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) is added. With power density up to 0.4 W/cm3 and energy density of 4 Wh/L, GO battery was demonstrated to drive an electrochromic device. This work is the first attempt to generate decent energy using the fast transported water molecules inside GO. It provides very safe energy source that enables new applications otherwise traditional battery technology can not make including building a foldable energy source on paper and platform for futuristic wearable electronics. A disposable energy source made of GO was also written on a plastic glove to demonstrate wearability. PMID:26462557

  9. Very High-Energy Gamma-Ray Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weekes, Trevor C.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses topics related to high-energy, gamma-ray astronomy (including cosmic radiation, gamma-ray detectors, high-energy gamma-ray sources, and others). Also considers motivation for the development of this field, the principal results to date, and future prospects. (JN)

  10. Energy sources, self-organization, and the origin of life.

    PubMed

    Boiteau, Laurent; Pascal, Robert

    2011-02-01

    The emergence and early developments of life are considered from the point of view that contingent events that inevitably marked evolution were accompanied by deterministic driving forces governing the selection between different alternatives. Accordingly, potential energy sources are considered for their propensity to induce self-organization within the scope of the chemical approach to the origin of life. Requirements in terms of quality of energy locate thermal or photochemical activation in the atmosphere as highly likely processes for the formation of activated low-molecular weight organic compounds prone to induce biomolecular self-organization through their ability to deliver quanta of energy matching the needs of early biochemical pathways or the reproduction of self-replicating entities. These lines of reasoning suggest the existence of a direct connection between the free energy content of intermediates of early pathways and the quanta of energy delivered by available sources of energy.

  11. Renewable energy sources in Bulgaria: Current state and trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolev, K.

    The over-dependency of Bulgaria on imported fuel stressed the importance of developing a new energy strategy based on energy saving which includes also using renewable energy sources (RES). The target is the substitution of at least 2 percent of the real primary energy consumption with RES by 2010. The author gives a generalized analysis of the available RES in Bulgaria -solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and mini-hydraulic. The potentialities of each source for its usage as a suitable energy supply are pointed out, as well as the current status of research and implementation work, problems connected with legislation, financing and production of particular facilities. The governmental policy concerning RES is considered briefly. A description is given to the project 'Technical and Economical Assessment of Possibilities for Expansion of the RES-part in the Energy Balance of the Country' developed and started in 1994 in the framework of the PHARE program.

  12. Energy Sources, Self-organization, and the Origin of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boiteau, Laurent; Pascal, Robert

    2011-02-01

    The emergence and early developments of life are considered from the point of view that contingent events that inevitably marked evolution were accompanied by deterministic driving forces governing the selection between different alternatives. Accordingly, potential energy sources are considered for their propensity to induce self-organization within the scope of the chemical approach to the origin of life. Requirements in terms of quality of energy locate thermal or photochemical activation in the atmosphere as highly likely processes for the formation of activated low-molecular weight organic compounds prone to induce biomolecular self-organization through their ability to deliver quanta of energy matching the needs of early biochemical pathways or the reproduction of self-replicating entities. These lines of reasoning suggest the existence of a direct connection between the free energy content of intermediates of early pathways and the quanta of energy delivered by available sources of energy.

  13. Methods of performing downhole operations using orbital vibrator energy sources

    DOEpatents

    Cole, Jack H.; Weinberg, David M.; Wilson, Dennis R.

    2004-02-17

    Methods of performing down hole operations in a wellbore. A vibrational source is positioned within a tubular member such that an annulus is formed between the vibrational source and an interior surface of the tubular member. A fluid medium, such as high bulk modulus drilling mud, is disposed within the annulus. The vibrational source forms a fluid coupling with the tubular member through the fluid medium to transfer vibrational energy to the tubular member. The vibrational energy may be used, for example, to free a stuck tubular, consolidate a cement slurry and/or detect voids within a cement slurry prior to the curing thereof.

  14. Microinstallations Based on Renewable Energy Sources in the Construction Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzak, Lucjan

    2017-10-01

    The focus of this paper is on the status and prognoses of the use of microinstallations based on renewable energy sources to supply heat and power. The technologies that have been important in Europe and Poland for microgeneration of electricity include photovoltaic systems, micro wind turbines and co-generation systems. Solar collectors, heat pumps and biomass have also been used to generate heat. Microinstallations for renewable energy sources represent the initial point and the foundation for the development of micro networks, intelligent networks and the whole prosumer energy sector.

  15. Low energy spread ion source with a coaxial magnetic filter

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lee, Yung-Hee Yvette

    2000-01-01

    Multicusp ion sources are capable of producing ions with low axial energy spread which are necessary in applications such as ion projection lithography (IPL) and radioactive ion beam production. The addition of a radially extending magnetic filter consisting of a pair of permanent magnets to the multicusp source reduces the energy spread considerably due to the improvement in the uniformity of the axial plasma potential distribution in the discharge region. A coaxial multicusp ion source designed to further reduce the energy spread utilizes a cylindrical magnetic filter to achieve a more uniform axial plasma potential distribution. The coaxial magnetic filter divides the source chamber into an outer annular discharge region in which the plasma is produced and a coaxial inner ion extraction region into which the ions radially diffuse but from which ionizing electrons are excluded. The energy spread in the coaxial source has been measured to be 0.6 eV. Unlike other ion sources, the coaxial source has the capability of adjusting the radial plasma potential distribution and therefore the transverse ion temperature (or beam emittance).

  16. High energy density rechargeable magnesium battery using earth-abundant and non-toxic elements

    PubMed Central

    Orikasa, Yuki; Masese, Titus; Koyama, Yukinori; Mori, Takuya; Hattori, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Okado, Tetsuya; Huang, Zhen-Dong; Minato, Taketoshi; Tassel, Cédric; Kim, Jungeun; Kobayashi, Yoji; Abe, Takeshi; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    Rechargeable magnesium batteries are poised to be viable candidates for large-scale energy storage devices in smart grid communities and electric vehicles. However, the energy density of previously proposed rechargeable magnesium batteries is low, limited mainly by the cathode materials. Here, we present new design approaches for the cathode in order to realize a high-energy-density rechargeable magnesium battery system. Ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 demonstrates a high reversible capacity exceeding 300 mAh·g−1 at a voltage of approximately 2.4 V vs. Mg. Further, the electronic and crystal structure of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 changes during the charging and discharging processes, which demonstrates the (de)insertion of magnesium in the host structure. The combination of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 with a magnesium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide–triglyme electrolyte system proposed in this work provides a low-cost and practical rechargeable magnesium battery with high energy density, free from corrosion and safety problems. PMID:25011939

  17. High energy density rechargeable magnesium battery using earth-abundant and non-toxic elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orikasa, Yuki; Masese, Titus; Koyama, Yukinori; Mori, Takuya; Hattori, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Okado, Tetsuya; Huang, Zhen-Dong; Minato, Taketoshi; Tassel, Cédric; Kim, Jungeun; Kobayashi, Yoji; Abe, Takeshi; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

    2014-07-01

    Rechargeable magnesium batteries are poised to be viable candidates for large-scale energy storage devices in smart grid communities and electric vehicles. However, the energy density of previously proposed rechargeable magnesium batteries is low, limited mainly by the cathode materials. Here, we present new design approaches for the cathode in order to realize a high-energy-density rechargeable magnesium battery system. Ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 demonstrates a high reversible capacity exceeding 300 mAh.g-1 at a voltage of approximately 2.4 V vs. Mg. Further, the electronic and crystal structure of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 changes during the charging and discharging processes, which demonstrates the (de)insertion of magnesium in the host structure. The combination of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 with a magnesium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide-triglyme electrolyte system proposed in this work provides a low-cost and practical rechargeable magnesium battery with high energy density, free from corrosion and safety problems.

  18. Microwave, irrigated, pulsed, or conventional radiofrequency energy source: which energy source for which catheter ablation?

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Ali; Grumbrecht, Stephan; Neumann, Thomas; Neuzner, Joerg; Pitschner, Heinz F

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the diameter of endomyocardial lesions induced with the delivery of microwave, cooled, or pulsed energy versus conventional RF energy. In vitro tests were performed in fresh endomyocardial preparations of pig hearts in a 10-L bath of NaCl 0.9% solution at 37 degrees C and constant 1.5 L/min flow. Ablation 7 Fr catheters with 4-mm tip electrodes were used, except for the delivery of microwave energy. Energy delivery time was set to 60 s/50 W in all experiments. Cooled energy delivery was performed with a closed irrigation catheter. Pulsed energy delivery was performed using a special controller with a duty-cycle of 5 ms. Microwave energy was delivered with a 2.5-GHz generator and 10-mm antenna. Electrode temperature and impedance were measured simultaneously. After ablation, lesion length, width, and depth were measured with microcalipers, and volume calculated by a formula for ellipsoid bodies. Each energy delivery mode was tested in ten experiments. The deepest lesions were created with cooled energy delivery, and the largest volume by microwave energy delivery. Pulsed RF produced significantly deeper lesions than conventional RF energy delivery. Cooled or pulsed RF energy delivery created deeper transmural lesions than conventional RF. To create linear lesions at anatomically complex sites (isthmus), microwave energy seemed superior by rapidly creating deep and long lesions.

  19. Polarimeter for Low Energy X-ray Astrophysical Sources (PLEXAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Stephen S.; Pierce, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Polarimeter for Low Energy X-ray Astrophysical Sources (PLEXAS) is an astrophysics mission concept for measuring the polarization of X-ray sources at low energies below the C-K band (less than 277 eV). PLEXAS uses the concept of variations in the reflectivity of a multilayered X-ray telescope as a function of the orientation of an X-rays polarization vector with respect to the reflecting surface of the optic. By selecting an appropriate multilayer, and rotating the X-ray telescope while pointing to a source, there will be a modulation in the source intensity, as measured at the focus of the telescope, which is proportional to the degree of polarization in the source.

  20. Energy Efficiency of Biogas Produced from Different Biomass Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begum, Shahida; Nazri, A. H.

    2013-06-01

    Malaysia has different sources of biomass like palm oil waste, agricultural waste, cow dung, sewage waste and landfill sites, which can be used to produce biogas and as a source of energy. Depending on the type of biomass, the biogas produced can have different calorific value. At the same time the energy, being used to produce biogas is dependent on transportation distance, means of transportation, conversion techniques and for handling of raw materials and digested residues. An energy systems analysis approach based on literature is applied to calculate the energy efficiency of biogas produced from biomass. Basically, the methodology is comprised of collecting data, proposing locations and estimating the energy input needed to produce biogas and output obtained from the generated biogas. The study showed that palm oil and municipal solid waste is two potential sources of biomass. The energy efficiency of biogas produced from palm oil residues and municipal solid wastes is 1.70 and 3.33 respectively. Municipal solid wastes have the higher energy efficiency due to less transportation distance and electricity consumption. Despite the inherent uncertainties in the calculations, it can be concluded that the energy potential to use biomass for biogas production is a promising alternative.

  1. Absolute calorimetric calibration of low energy brachytherapy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stump, Kurt E.

    In the past decade there has been a dramatic increase in the use of permanent radioactive source implants in the treatment of prostate cancer. A small radioactive source encapsulated in a titanium shell is used in this type of treatment. The radioisotopes used are generally 125I or 103Pd. Both of these isotopes have relatively short half-lives, 59.4 days and 16.99 days, respectively, and have low-energy emissions and a low dose rate. These factors make these sources well suited for this application, but the calibration of these sources poses significant metrological challenges. The current standard calibration technique involves the measurement of ionization in air to determine the source air-kerma strength. While this has proved to be an improvement over previous techniques, the method has been shown to be metrologically impure and may not be the ideal means of calbrating these sources. Calorimetric methods have long been viewed to be the most fundamental means of determining source strength for a radiation source. This is because calorimetry provides a direct measurement of source energy. However, due to the low energy and low power of the sources described above, current calorimetric methods are inadequate. This thesis presents work oriented toward developing novel methods to provide direct and absolute measurements of source power for low-energy low dose rate brachytherapy sources. The method is the first use of an actively temperature-controlled radiation absorber using the electrical substitution method to determine total contained source power of these sources. The instrument described operates at cryogenic temperatures. The method employed provides a direct measurement of source power. The work presented here is focused upon building a metrological foundation upon which to establish power-based calibrations of clinical-strength sources. To that end instrument performance has been assessed for these source strengths. The intent is to establish the limits of

  2. Oil shale as an energy source in Israel

    SciTech Connect

    Fainberg, V.; Hetsroni, G.

    1996-01-01

    Reserves, characteristics, energetics, chemistry, and technology of Israeli oil shales are described. Oil shale is the only source of energy and the only organic natural resource in Israel. Its reserves of about 12 billion tons will be enough to meet Israel`s requirements for about 80 years. The heating value of the oil shale is 1,150 kcal/kg, oil yield is 6%, and sulfur content of the oil is 5--7%. A method of oil shale processing, providing exhaustive utilization of its energy and chemical potential, developed in the Technion, is described. The principal feature of the method is a two-stage pyrolysis ofmore » the oil shale. As a result, gas and aromatic liquids are obtained. The gas may be used for energy production in a high-efficiency power unit, or as a source for chemical synthesis. The liquid products can be an excellent source for production of chemicals.« less

  3. Development of a high-energy distributed energy source electromagnetic railgun with improved energy conversion efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tower, M. M.; Haight, C. H.

    1984-03-01

    The development status of a single-pulse distributed-energy-source electromagnetic railgun (ER) based on the design of Tower (1982) is reviewed. The five-stage ER is 3.65 m long, with energy inputs every 30 cm starting at the breech and a 12.7-mm-square bore cross section, and is powered by a 660-kJ 6-kV modular capacitor bank. Lexan cubes weighing 2.5 grams have been accelerated to velocities up to 8.5 km/sec at 500 kA and conversion efficiency up to 20 percent. Design goal for a 20-mm-sq-cross-section ER is acceleration of a 60-g projectile to 3-4 km/sec at 35-percent efficiency. Drawings, photographs, and graphs of performance are provided.

  4. Development of a continuous broad-energy-spectrum electron source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamo, R. C.; Nanevicz, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    The development of a practical prototype, large-area, continuous-spectrum, multienergy electron source to simulate the lower energy (approx = 1 to 30 keV) portion of the geosynchronous orbit electron environment was investigated. The results of future materials-charging tests using this multienergy source should significantly improve the understanding of actual in-orbit charging processes and should help to resolve some of the descrepancies between predicted and observed spacecraft materials performance.

  5. UV emissions from low energy artificial light sources.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Leona; Moseley, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Energy efficient light sources have been introduced across Europe and many other countries world wide. The most common of these is the Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL), which has been shown to emit ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are an alternative technology that has minimal UV emissions. This brief review summarises the different energy efficient light sources available on the market and compares the UV levels and the subsequent effects on the skin of normal individuals and those who suffer from photodermatoses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The source of multi spectral energy of solar energetic electron

    SciTech Connect

    Herdiwijaya, Dhani

    2015-04-16

    We study the solar energetic electron distribution obtained from ACE and GOES satellites which have different altitudes and electron spectral energy during the year 1997 to 2011. The electron spectral energies were 0.038–0.315 MeV from EPAM instrument onboard ACE satellite and >2 MeV from GOES satellite. We found that the low electron energy has no correlation with high energy. In spite of we have corrected to the altitude differences. It implied that they originated from time dependent events with different sources and physical processes at the solar atmosphere. The sources of multi spectral energetic electron were related to flare andmore » CME phenomena. However, we also found that high energetic electron comes from coronal hole.« less

  7. Electric Transport Traction Power Supply System With Distributed Energy Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, E. Y.; Schurov, N. I.; Rozhkova, M. V.

    2016-04-01

    The paper states the problem of traction substation (TSS) leveling of daily-load curve for urban electric transport. The circuit of traction power supply system (TPSS) with distributed autonomous energy source (AES) based on photovoltaic (PV) and energy storage (ES) units is submitted here. The distribution algorithm of power flow for the daily traction load curve leveling is also introduced in this paper. In addition, it illustrates the implemented experiment model of power supply system.

  8. The use of hydrazine as an alternate source of energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carvalho, J. A., Jr.; Bressan, C.; Ferreira, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The potentials of using hydrazine as an alternative source of energy was studied. Three chemical reactions are considered: oxidation with air, oxidation with hydrogen peroxide, and thermocatalytic decomposition. Performance data of gasoline, ethylic alcohol, and propane are compared. An item about the NO(x) emissions by the various investigated reactions is included. Promising results are shown, mainly those regarding the available energy per unit volume of unburned gases (vaporized fuel and oxidizer).

  9. Energy: Sources and Issues. Science Syllabus for Middle and Junior High Schools. Block I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappiello, Jane E.; O'Neil, Karen E.

    This syllabus provides a list of concepts and understandings related to four areas of energy. They are: (1) the nature of energy (an energy definition, basic categories of energy, forms of energy, laws of energy conversion, and measuring energy); (2) energy sources of the past and present (history of energy use and present major sources of…

  10. Relative Abundances and Energy Spectra of C, N, and 0 as Measured by the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter Balloon Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fazely, A. R.; Gunasingha, R. M.; Adams, J. H.; Ahn, E. J.; Ahn, H. S.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Case, G.; Chang, J.; Christl, M.; Ellison, S.

    2003-01-01

    We present results on the spectra and the relative abundances of C, N, and 0 nuclei in the cosmic radiation as measured from the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter Balloon Experiment (ATIC) . The ATIC detector has completed two successful balloon flights from McMurdo, Antarctica lasting a total of more than 35 days. ATIC is designed as a multiple, long duration balloon flight, investigation of the cosmic ray spectra from below 50 GeV to near 100 TeV total energy, using a fully active Bismuth Germanate calorimeter. It is equipped with a large area mosaic of silicon detector pixels capable of charge identification from H to Fe. As a redundancy check for the charge identification and a particle tracking system, three projective layers of x-y scintillator hodoscopes were employed, above, in the middle and below a 0.75 nuclear interaction length graphite target.

  11. Presence and abundance of non-native plant species associated with recent energy development in the Williston Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Preston, Todd M.

    2015-01-01

    The Williston Basin, located in the Northern Great Plains, is experiencing rapid energy development with North Dakota and Montana being the epicenter of current and projected development in the USA. The average single-bore well pad is 5 acres with an estimated 58,485 wells in North Dakota alone. This landscape-level disturbance may provide a pathway for the establishment of non-native plants. To evaluate potential influences of energy development on the presence and abundance of non-native species, vegetation surveys were conducted at 30 oil well sites (14 ten-year-old and 16 five-year-old wells) and 14 control sites in native prairie environments across the Williston Basin. Non-native species richness and cover were recorded in four quadrats, located at equal distances, along four transects for a total of 16 quadrats per site. Non-natives were recorded at all 44 sites and ranged from 5 to 13 species, 7 to 15 species, and 2 to 8 species at the 10-year, 5-year, and control sites, respectively. Respective non-native cover ranged from 1 to 69, 16 to 76, and 2 to 82 %. Total, forb, and graminoid non-native species richness and non-native forb cover were significantly greater at oil well sites compared to control sites. At oil well sites, non-native species richness and forb cover were significantly greater adjacent to the well pads and decreased with distance to values similar to control sites. Finally, non-native species whose presence and/or abundance were significantly greater at oil well sites relative to control sites were identified to aid management efforts.

  12. Testing Special Relativity at High Energies with Astrophysical Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    2007-01-01

    Since the group of Lorentz boosts is unbounded, there is a question as to whether Lorentz invariance (LI) holds to infinitely short distances. However, special and general relativity may break down at the Planck scale. Various quantum gravity scenarios such as loop quantum gravity, as well as some forms of string theory and extra dimension models may imply Lorentz violation (LV) at ultrahigh energies. The Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), to be launched in mid-December, will measure the spectra of distant extragalactic sources of high energy gamma-rays, particularly active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts. GLAST can look for energy-dependent gamma-ray propagation effects from such sources as a signal of Lorentz invariance violation. These sources may also exhibit the high energy cutoffs predicted to be the result of intergalactic annihilation interactions with low energy photons having a flux level as determined by various astronomical observations. With LV the threshold for such interactions can be significantly raised, changing the predicted absorption turnover in the observed spectrum of the sources. Stecker and Glashow have shown that the existence such absorption features in the spectra of extragalactic sources puts constraints on LV. Such constraints have important implications for some quantum gravity and large extra dimension models. Future spaceborne detectors dedicated to measuring gamma-ray polarization can look for birefringence effects as a possible signal of loop quantum gravity. A very small LV may also result in the modification or elimination of the GZK effect, thus modifying the spectrum of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. This possibility can be explored with ground-based arrays such as Auger or with a space based detector system such as the proposed OWL satellite mission.

  13. Using Alternate Energy Sources. The Illinois Plan for Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Univ., Normal.

    This guide, which is one in the "Exploration" series of curriculum guides intended to assist junior high and middle school industrial educators in helping their students explore diverse industrial situations and technologies used in industry, deals with using alternate energy sources. The following topics are covered in the individual lessons:…

  14. A Penning sputter ion source with very low energy spread

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouri, Z.; Li, R.; Holt, R. A.; Rosner, S. D.

    2010-03-01

    We have developed a version of the Frankfurt Penning ion source that produces ion beams with very low energy spreads of ˜3 eV, while operating in a new discharge mode characterized by very high pressure, low voltage, and high current. The extracted ions also comprise substantial metastable and doubly charged species. Detailed studies of the operating parameters of the source showed that careful adjustment of the magnetic field and gas pressure is critical to achieving optimum performance. We used a laser-fluorescence method of energy analysis to characterize the properties of the extracted ion beam with a resolving power of 1×10 4, and to measure the absolute ion beam energy to an accuracy of 4 eV in order to provide some insight into the distribution of plasma potential within the ion source. This characterization method is widely applicable to accelerator beams, though not universal. The low energy spread, coupled with the ability to produce intense ion beams from almost any gas or conducting solid, make this source very useful for high-resolution spectroscopic measurements on fast-ion beams.

  15. Cassava: a basic energy source in the tropics

    SciTech Connect

    Cock, J.H.

    1982-11-19

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the fourth most important source of food energy in the tropics. More than two-thirds of the total production of this crop is used as food for humans, with lesser amounts being used for animal feed and industrial purposes. The ingestion of high levels of cassava has been associated with chronic cyanide toxicity in parts of Africa, but this appears to be related to inadequate processing of the root and poor overall nutrition. Although cassava is not a complete food it is important as a cheap source of calories. The crop has a high yield potential undermore » good conditions, and compared to other crops it excels under suboptimal conditions, thus offering the possibility of using marginal land to increase total agricultural production. Breeding programs that bring together germ plasm from different regions coupled with improved agronomic practices can markedly increase yields. The future demand for fresh cassava may depend on improved storage methods. The markets for cassava as a substitute for cereal flours in bakery products and as an energy source in animal feed rations are likely to expand. The use of cassava as a source of ethanol for fuel depends on finding an efficient source of energy for distillation or an improved method of separating ethanol from water. 7 figures, 8 tables.« less

  16. Cassava: a basic energy source in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Cock, J H

    1982-11-19

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the fourth most important source of food energy in the tropics. More than two-thirds of the total production of this crop is used as food for humans, with lesser amounts being used for animal feed and industrial purposes. The ingestion of high levels of cassava has been associated with chronic cyanide toxicity in parts of Africa, but this appears to be related to inadequate processing of the root and poor overall nutrition. Although cassava is not a complete food it is important as a cheap source of calories. The crop has a high yield potential under good conditions, and compared to other crops it excels under suboptimal conditions, thus offering the possibility of using marginal land to increase total agricultural production. Breeding programs that bring together germ plasm from different regions coupled with improved agronomic practices can markedly increase yields. The future demand for fresh cassava may depend on improved storage methods. The markets for cassava as a substitute for cereal flours in bakery products and as an energy source in animal feed rations are likely to expand. The use of cassava as a source of ethanol for fuel depends on finding an efficient source of energy for distillation or an improved method of separating ethanol from water.

  17. Optical arc sensor using energy harvesting power source

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Kyoo Nam, E-mail: knchoi@inu.ac.kr; Rho, Hee Hyuk, E-mail: rdoubleh0902@inu.ac.kr

    Wireless sensors without external power supply gained considerable attention due to convenience both in installation and operation. Optical arc detecting sensor equipping with self sustaining power supply using energy harvesting method was investigated. Continuous energy harvesting method was attempted using thermoelectric generator to supply standby power in micro ampere scale and operating power in mA scale. Peltier module with heat-sink was used for high efficiency electricity generator. Optical arc detecting sensor with hybrid filter showed insensitivity to fluorescent and incandescent lamps under simulated distribution panel condition. Signal processing using integrating function showed selective arc discharge detection capability to different arcmore » energy levels, with a resolution below 17 J energy difference, unaffected by bursting arc waveform. The sensor showed possibility for application to arc discharge detecting sensor in power distribution panel. Also experiment with proposed continuous energy harvesting method using thermoelectric power showed possibility as a self sustainable power source of remote sensor.« less

  18. Optical arc sensor using energy harvesting power source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kyoo Nam; Rho, Hee Hyuk

    2016-06-01

    Wireless sensors without external power supply gained considerable attention due to convenience both in installation and operation. Optical arc detecting sensor equipping with self sustaining power supply using energy harvesting method was investigated. Continuous energy harvesting method was attempted using thermoelectric generator to supply standby power in micro ampere scale and operating power in mA scale. Peltier module with heat-sink was used for high efficiency electricity generator. Optical arc detecting sensor with hybrid filter showed insensitivity to fluorescent and incandescent lamps under simulated distribution panel condition. Signal processing using integrating function showed selective arc discharge detection capability to different arc energy levels, with a resolution below 17J energy difference, unaffected by bursting arc waveform. The sensor showed possibility for application to arc discharge detecting sensor in power distribution panel. Also experiment with proposed continuous energy harvesting method using thermoelectric power showed possibility as a self sustainable power source of remote sensor.

  19. HIGH-ENERGY NEUTRINOS FROM SOURCES IN CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Ke; Olinto, Angela V.

    2016-09-01

    High-energy cosmic rays can be accelerated in clusters of galaxies, by mega-parsec scale shocks induced by the accretion of gas during the formation of large-scale structures, or by powerful sources harbored in clusters. Once accelerated, the highest energy particles leave the cluster via almost rectilinear trajectories, while lower energy ones can be confined by the cluster magnetic field up to cosmological time and interact with the intracluster gas. Using a realistic model of the baryon distribution and the turbulent magnetic field in clusters, we studied the propagation and hadronic interaction of high-energy protons in the intracluster medium. We report themore » cumulative cosmic-ray and neutrino spectra generated by galaxy clusters, including embedded sources, and demonstrate that clusters can contribute a significant fraction of the observed IceCube neutrinos above 30 TeV while remaining undetected in high-energy cosmic rays and γ rays for reasonable choices of parameters and source scenarios.« less

  20. Exotic X-ray Sources from Intermediate Energy Electron Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouffani, K.; Wells, D.; Harmon, F.; Jones, J. L.; Lancaster, G.

    2003-08-01

    High intensity x-ray beams are used in a wide variety of applications in solid-state physics, medicine, biology and material sciences. Synchrotron radiation (SR) is currently the primary, high-quality x-ray source that satisfies both brilliance and tunability. The high cost, large size and low x-ray energies of SR facilities, however, are serious limitations. Alternatively, "novel" x-ray sources are now possible due to new small linear accelerator (LINAC) technology, such as improved beam emittance, low background, sub-Picosecond beam pulses, high beam stability and higher repetition rate. These sources all stem from processes that produce Radiation from relativistic Electron beams in (crystalline) Periodic Structures (REPS), or the periodic "structure" of laser light. REPS x-ray sources are serious candidates for bright, compact, portable, monochromatic, and tunable x-ray sources with varying degrees of polarization and coherence. Despite the discovery and early research into these sources over the past 25 years, these sources are still in their infancy. Experimental and theoretical research are still urgently needed to answer fundamental questions about the practical and ultimate limits of their brightness, mono-chromaticity etc. We present experimental results and theoretical comparisons for three exotic REPS sources. These are Laser-Compton Scattering (LCS), Channeling Radiation (CR) and Parametric X-Radiation (PXR).

  1. Low power energy harvesting and storage techniques from ambient human powered energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Faruk

    Conventional electrochemical batteries power most of the portable and wireless electronic devices that are operated by electric power. In the past few years, electrochemical batteries and energy storage devices have improved significantly. However, this progress has not been able to keep up with the development of microprocessors, memory storage, and sensors of electronic applications. Battery weight, lifespan and reliability often limit the abilities and the range of such applications of battery powered devices. These conventional devices were designed to be powered with batteries as required, but did not allow scavenging of ambient energy as a power source. In contrast, development in wireless technology and other electronic components are constantly reducing the power and energy needed by many applications. If energy requirements of electronic components decline reasonably, then ambient energy scavenging and conversion could become a viable source of power for many applications. Ambient energy sources can be then considered and used to replace batteries in some electronic applications, to minimize product maintenance and operating cost. The potential ability to satisfy overall power and energy requirements of an application using ambient energy can eliminate some constraints related to conventional power supplies. Also power scavenging may enable electronic devices to be completely self-sustaining so that battery maintenance can eventually be eliminated. Furthermore, ambient energy scavenging could extend the performance and the lifetime of the MEMS (Micro electromechanical systems) and portable electronic devices. These possibilities show that it is important to examine the effectiveness of ambient energy as a source of power. Until recently, only little use has been made of ambient energy resources, especially for wireless networks and portable power devices. Recently, researchers have performed several studies in alternative energy sources that could provide

  2. Energy intake and sources of energy intake in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Ocké, M C; Larrañaga, N; Grioni, S; van den Berg, S W; Ferrari, P; Salvini, S; Benetou, V; Linseisen, J; Wirfält, E; Rinaldi, S; Jenab, M; Halkjaer, J; Jakobsen, M U; Niravong, M; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Kaaks, R; Bergmann, M; Moutsiou, E; Trichopoulou, A; Lauria, C; Sacerdote, C; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Peeters, P H M; Hjartåker, A; Parr, C L; Tormo, M J; Sanchez, M J; Manjer, J; Hellstrom, V; Mulligan, A; Spencer, E A; Riboli, E; Bingham, S; Slimani, N

    2009-11-01

    To describe energy intake and its macronutrient and food sources among 27 regions in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 subjects aged 35-74 years were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall. Intakes of macronutrients (g/day) and energy (kcal/day) were estimated using standardized national nutrient databases. Mean intakes were weighted by season and day of the week and were adjusted for age, height and weight, after stratification by gender. Extreme low- and high-energy reporters were identified using Goldberg's cutoff points (ratio of energy intake and estimated basal metabolic rate <0.88 or >2.72), and their effects on macronutrient and energy intakes were studied. Low-energy reporting was more prevalent in women than in men. The exclusion of extreme-energy reporters substantially lowered the EPIC-wide range in mean energy intake from 2196-2877 to 2309-2866 kcal among men. For women, these ranges were 1659-2070 and 1873-2108 kcal. There was no north-south gradient in energy intake or in the prevalence of low-energy reporting. In most centres, cereals and cereal products were the largest contributors to energy intake. The food groups meat, dairy products and fats and oils were also important energy sources. In many centres, the highest mean energy intakes were observed on Saturdays. These data highlight and quantify the variations and similarities in energy intake and sources of energy intake among 10 European countries. The prevalence of low-energy reporting indicates that the study of energy intake is hampered by the problem of underreporting.

  3. Radioactivity as a significant energy source in prebiotic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Garzón, L; Garzón, M L

    2001-01-01

    Radioactivity in the continental crust (due mainly to the isotopes 238U, 235U, 232Th and 40K), as a energy source for chemical evolution in the early Archean (between 3.5 and approximately 4 Ga bp), is reviewed. The most important radioactive source in the continental crust is due to the production and accumulation of radioactive gases within the crust voids (porosity). The study of such mechanism has allowed us to reach a deeper understanding about the nature of the radioactive source and to describe its behavior, particularly with regard to prebiotic chemical evolution. An effective total energy of 3 x 10(18) Ja-1 has been obtained for a depth of 1 km, 4 Ga ago. If a depth of 30 km is taken, the obtained value is almost equal to the UV solar energy radiation (lambda < 150 nm). Within the voids the radioactive source of the continental crust played a relevant role in prebiotic synthesis. In uranium deposits of the same age, the role of radioactivity must have been even more relevant in favoring chemical evolution.

  4. Mono-energy coronary angiography with a compact light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggl, Elena; Mechlem, Korbinian; Braig, Eva; Kulpe, Stephanie; Dierolf, Martin; Günther, Benedikt; Achterhold, Klaus; Herzen, Julia; Gleich, Bernhard; Rummeny, Ernst; Noël, Peter B.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Muenzel, Daniela

    2017-03-01

    While conventional x-ray tube sources reliably provide high-power x-ray beams for everyday clinical practice, the broad spectra that are inherent to these sources compromise the diagnostic image quality. For a monochromatic x-ray source on the other hand, the x-ray energy can be adjusted to optimal conditions with respect to contrast and dose. However, large-scale synchrotron sources impose high spatial and financial demands, making them unsuitable for clinical practice. During the last decades, research has brought up compact synchrotron sources based on inverse Compton scattering, which deliver a highly brilliant, quasi-monochromatic, tunable x-ray beam, yet fitting into a standard laboratory. One application that could benefit from the invention of these sources in clinical practice is coronary angiography. Being an important and frequently applied diagnostic tool, a high number of complications in angiography, such as renal failure, allergic reaction, or hyperthyroidism, are caused by the large amount of iodine-based contrast agent that is required for achieving sufficient image contrast. Here we demonstrate monochromatic angiography of a porcine heart acquired at the MuCLS, the first compact synchrotron source. By means of a simulation, the CNR in a coronary angiography image achieved with the quasi-mono-energetic MuCLS spectrum is analyzed and compared to a conventional x-ray-tube spectrum. The results imply that the improved CNR achieved with a quasi-monochromatic spectrum can allow for a significant reduction of iodine contrast material.

  5. New chemical sources of energy: A theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaban, Galina

    The research presented in this dissertation employs methods of quantum chemistry for the search of highly energetic chemical compounds that can have applications as possible energy sources. The areas of research include: (1) improvement of orbital optimization methods for different types of wavefunctions which leads to substantial savings of computer time and memory; (2) predicting new high energy isomers for singlet and triplet states of Nsb3F and their kinetic stability with respect to isomerisation and dissociation reactions; (3) estimation of minimum energy reaction paths for dissociation reactions of high energy isomers of Nsb2Osb2 including potential energy barriers and minimum energy crossing points between the closest singlet and triplet states; (4) investigation of thermodynamic and kinetic stability of Van der Waals complexes M-Hsb2 (M = Li, Be, B, C, Na, Mg, Al, Si) that can play an important role in improvement of energetic properties of hydrogen based rocket fuels; (5) mapping of the potential energy surface for AlHsb2 compound in the region of crossing between sp2Bsb2 and sp2Asb1 electronic states and predicting the kinetic stability of Al complex, which suggests that Al may be among the promising candidates for inclusion into solid hydrogen for the purpose of energy storage.

  6. Energy sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. [Carcinogenicity of PAHs

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M. R.

    1977-01-01

    Combustion is the predominant end-process by which fossil fuels are converted to energy. Combustion, particularly when inefficient, is also the primary technological source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) released into the environment. The need for liquid fuels to supply the transportation industry and for nonpolluting fuels for heat and power generation provide the incentive to commercialize processes to convert coal to substitute natural gas and oil. These processes represent a potentially massive new source of environmental PAHs. Insuring an adequate supply of energy with minimum impact on the environment and on health is one of the most important, urgent, andmore » challenging goals currently facing science and technology. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon related carcinogenesis is among the most important of possible occupational- and environmental-health impacts of much of the current and projected national energy base. An understanding of the relationship of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to human cancer and a continued surveillance of energy sources for PAH content are necessary to minimize this impact.« less

  7. Hydrogen Gas from Serpentinite, Ophiolites and the Modern Ocean Floor as a Source of Green Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coveney, R. M.

    2008-12-01

    Hydrogen gas is emitted by springs associated with serpentinites and extensive carbonate deposits in Oman, The Philippines, the USA and other continental locations. The hydrogen springs contain unusually alkaline fluids with pH values between 11 and 12.5. Other workers have described off-ridge submarine springs with comparably alkaline fluid compositions, serpentinite, abundant free hydrogen gas, and associated carbonate edifices such as Lost City on the Atlantis Massif 15 km west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (D.S. Kelley and associates, Science 2005). The association of hydrogen gas with ultramafites is a consistent one that has been attributed to a redox couple involving oxidation of divalent iron to the trivalent state during serpentinization, although other possibilities exist. Some of the hydrogen springs on land are widespread. For example in Oman dozens of alkaline springs (Neal and Stanger, EPSL 1983) can be found over thousands of sq km of outcropping ophiolite. While the deposits in Oman and the Philippines are well-known to much of the geochemical community, little interest seems to have been displayed toward either the ophiolitic occurrences or the submarine deposits for energy production. This may be a mistake as the showings because they could lead to an important source of green energy. Widespread skepticism currently exists about hydrogen as a primary energy source. It is commonly said that free hydrogen does not occur on earth and that it is therefore necessary to use other sources of energy to produce hydrogen, obviating the general environmental benefit. However the existence of numerous occurrences of hydrogen gas associated with ophiolites and submarine occurrences of hydrogen suggests the likelihood that natural hydrogen gas may be an important source of clean energy for modern society remaining to be tapped. Calculations in progress should establish whether or not this is likely to be the case.

  8. Spatial Autocorrelation, Source Water and the Distribution of Total and Viable Microbial Abundances within a Crystalline Formation to a Depth of 800 m

    PubMed Central

    Beaton, E. D.; Stuart, Marilyne; Stroes-Gascoyne, Sim; King-Sharp, Karen J.; Gurban, Ioana; Festarini, Amy; Chen, Hui Q.

    2017-01-01

    Proposed radioactive waste repositories require long residence times within deep geological settings for which we have little knowledge of local or regional subsurface dynamics that could affect the transport of hazardous species over the period of radioactive decay. Given the role of microbial processes on element speciation and transport, knowledge and understanding of local microbial ecology within geological formations being considered as host formations can aid predictions for long term safety. In this relatively unexplored environment, sampling opportunities are few and opportunistic. We combined the data collected for geochemistry and microbial abundances from multiple sampling opportunities from within a proposed host formation and performed multivariate mixing and mass balance (M3) modeling, spatial analysis and generalized linear modeling to address whether recharge can explain how subsurface communities assemble within fracture water obtained from multiple saturated fractures accessed by boreholes drilled into the crystalline formation underlying the Chalk River Laboratories site (Deep River, ON, Canada). We found that three possible source waters, each of meteoric origin, explained 97% of the samples, these are: modern recharge, recharge from the period of the Laurentide ice sheet retreat (ca. ∼12000 years before present) and a putative saline source assigned as Champlain Sea (also ca. 12000 years before present). The distributed microbial abundances and geochemistry provide a conceptual model of two distinct regions within the subsurface associated with bicarbonate – used as a proxy for modern recharge – and manganese; these regions occur at depths relevant to a proposed repository within the formation. At the scale of sampling, the associated spatial autocorrelation means that abundances linked with geochemistry were not unambiguously discerned, although fine scale Moran’s eigenvector map (MEM) coefficients were correlated with the abundance

  9. New Insights on Tsunami Genesis and Energy Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y. T.; Mohtat, A.; Yim, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    Conventional tsunami theories suggest that earthquakes with significant vertical motions are more likely to generate tsunamis. In tsunami models, the vertical seafloor elevation is directly transferred to the sea-surface as the only initial condition. However, evidence from the 2011 Tohoku earthquake indicates otherwise; the vertical seafloor uplift was only 3 5 meters, too small to account for the resultant tsunami. Surprisingly, the horizontal displacement was undeniably larger than anyone's expectation; about 60 meters at the frontal wedge of the fault plate, the largest slip ever recorded by in-situ instruments. The question is whether the horizontal motion of seafloor slopes had enhanced the tsunami to become as destructive as observed. In this study, we provide proof: (1) Combining various measurements from the 2011 Tohoku event, we show that the earthquake transferred a total energy of 3.1e+15 joule to the ocean, in which the potential energy (PE) due to the vertical seafloor elevation (including seafloor uplift/subsidence plus the contribution from the horizontal displacement) was less than a half, while the kinetic energy (KE) due to the horizontal displacement velocity of the continental slope contributed a majority portion; (2) Using two modern state-of-the-art wave flumes and a three-dimensional tsunami model, we have reproduced the source energy and tsunamis consistent with observations, including the 2004 Sumatra event. Based on the unified source energy formulation, we offer a competing theory to explain why some earthquakes generate destructive tsunamis, while others do not.

  10. A study of an advanced confined linear energy source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, M. C.; Heidemann, W. B.

    1971-01-01

    A literature survey and a test program to develop and evaluate an advanced confined linear energy source were conducted. The advanced confined linear energy source is an explosive or pyrotechnic X-Cord (mild detonating fuse) supported inside a confining tube capable of being hermetically sealed and retaining all products of combustion. The energy released by initiation of the X-Cord is transmitted through the support material to the walls of the confining tube causing an appreciable change in cross sectional configuration and expansion of the tube. When located in an assembly that can accept and use the energy of the tube expansion, useful work is accomplished through fracture of a structure, movement of a load, reposition of a pin, release of a restraint, or similar action. The tube assembly imparts that energy without release of debris or gases from the device itself. This facet of the function is important to the protection of men or equipment located in close proximity to the system during the time of function.

  11. Training on women and renewable sources of energy.

    PubMed

    Duenas Loza, M

    1997-01-01

    The training package developed by the International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women in 1989 focuses on women and energy. The Institute conducts training activities using collected, analyzed and disseminated information and documentation, as well as identification of critical research and training activities and promotion of integrated issues on women and energy policies, programs and projects. Previous training experiences identified the inefficient quality of training offered to community members, technical staff and technical agencies, with more emphasis on the technical skills instead on the managerial, socio-organizational and environmental aspects. The creation of a multimedia modular training material provides an association between the issues of women, New and Renewable Sources of Energy (NRSE) and environmental aspects necessary for the strengthening of national institutions, promotion of socioeconomical and technically feasible renewable technologies, and awareness building, information and communication enhancement. The package covers 1) overview of the UN activities on NRSE; 2) Women's Position in the Energy Sector; 3) NRSE Project and Program design and implementation; 4) relevant NRSE characteristics and technology systems; 5) education and training activities in NRSE projects. This training package is designed to contribute a new approach in the organization and management of NRSE through integration of women's needs and increase awareness and capabilities of planners, officials and experts. In addition, several training seminars were conducted during 1989-91, which focused on the relationship between women and renewable energy sources through the application of participatory and self-reliant techniques.

  12. Assessment of Renewable Energy Sources & Municipal Solid Waste for Sustainable Power Generation in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aderoju, Olaide M.; Dias, Guerner A.; Echakraoui, Zhour

    2017-12-01

    The demand for Energy in most Sub-Saharan African countries has become unimaginable despite its high potential of natural and renewable resources. The deficit has impeded the regions’ economic growth and sustainability. Nigeria as a nation is blessed with fossil fuels, abundant sunlight, hydro, wind and many among others, but the energy output to its population (185 million) still remains less than 4000MW. Currently, the clamour for an alternative but renewable energy source is the demand of the globe but it is quite expensive to achieve the yield that meets the Nigeria demand. Hence, this study aims at identifying and mapping out various regions with renewable energy potentials. The study also considers municipal solid waste as a consistent and available resource for power generation. Furthermore, this study examines the drawbacks inhibiting the inability to harness these renewable, energy generating potentials in full capacity. The study will enable the authorities and other stakeholders to invest and plan on providing a sustainable energy for the people.

  13. Directory of financing sources for foreign energy projects

    SciTech Connect

    La Ferla, L.

    1995-09-01

    The Office of National Security Policy has produced this Directory of Financing Sources for Foreign Energy Projects. The Directory reviews programs that offer financing from US government agencies, multilateral organizations, public, private, and quasi-private investment funds, and local commercial and state development banks. The main US government agencies covered are the US Agency for International Development (USAID), the Export-Import Bank of the US (EXIM Bank), Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC), US Department of Energy, US Department of Defense, and the US Trade and Development Agency (TDA). Other US Government Sources includes market funds that have been in part capitalized usingmore » US government agency funds. Multilateral organizations include the World Bank, International Finance Corporation (IFC), Asian Development Bank (ADB), European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), and various organizations of the United Nations. The Directory lists available public, private, and quasi-private sources of financing in key emerging markets in the Newly Independent States and other developing countries of strategic interest to the US Department of Energy. The sources of financing listed in this directory should be considered indicative rather than inclusive of all potential sources of financing. Initial focus is on the Russian Federation, Ukraine, india, China, and Pakistan. Separate self-contained sections have been developed for each of the countries to enable the user to readily access market-specific information and to support country-specific Departmental initiatives. For each country, the directory is organized to follow the project life cycle--from prefeasibility, feasibility, project finance, cofinancing, and trade finance, through to technical assistance and training. Programs on investment and export insurance are excluded.« less

  14. Surgical Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation Using Energy Sources.

    PubMed

    Brick, Alexandre Visconti; Braile, Domingo Marcolino

    2015-01-01

    Surgical ablation, concomitant with other operations, is an option for treatment in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation. The aim of this study is to present a literature review on surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing cardiac surgery, considering energy sources and return to sinus rhythm. A comprehensive survey was performed in the literature on surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation considering energy sources, sample size, study type, outcome (early and late), and return to sinus rhythm. Analyzing studies with immediate results (n=5), the percentage of return to sinus rhythm ranged from 73% to 96%, while those with long-term results (n=20) (from 12 months on) ranged from 62% to 97.7%. In both of them, there was subsequent clinical improvement of patients who underwent ablation, regardless of the energy source used. Surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation is essential for the treatment of this arrhythmia. With current technology, it may be minimally invasive, making it mandatory to perform a procedure in an attempt to revert to sinus rhythm in patients requiring heart surgery.

  15. Evidence for Seismogenic Hydrogen Gas, a Potential Microbial Energy Source on Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, Sean; Parnell, John; Blamey, Nigel J. F.

    2016-09-01

    The oxidation of molecular hydrogen (H2) is thought to be a major source of metabolic energy for life in the deep subsurface on Earth, and it could likewise support any extant biosphere on Mars, where stable habitable environments are probably limited to the subsurface. Faulting and fracturing may stimulate the supply of H2 from several sources. We report the H2 content of fluids present in terrestrial rocks formed by brittle fracturing on fault planes (pseudotachylites and cataclasites), along with protolith control samples. The fluids are dominated by water and include H2 at abundances sufficient to support hydrogenotrophic microorganisms, with strong H2 enrichments in the pseudotachylites compared to the controls. Weaker and less consistent H2 enrichments are observed in the cataclasites, which represent less intense seismic friction than the pseudotachylites. The enrichments agree quantitatively with previous experimental measurements of frictionally driven H2 formation during rock fracturing. We find that conservative estimates of current martian global seismicity predict episodic H2 generation by Marsquakes in quantities useful to hydrogenotrophs over a range of scales and recurrence times. On both Earth and Mars, secondary release of H2 may also accompany the breakdown of ancient fault rocks, which are particularly abundant in the pervasively fractured martian crust. This study strengthens the case for the astrobiological investigation of ancient martian fracture systems.

  16. Evidence for Seismogenic Hydrogen Gas, a Potential Microbial Energy Source on Earth and Mars.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Sean; Parnell, John; Blamey, Nigel J F

    2016-09-01

    The oxidation of molecular hydrogen (H2) is thought to be a major source of metabolic energy for life in the deep subsurface on Earth, and it could likewise support any extant biosphere on Mars, where stable habitable environments are probably limited to the subsurface. Faulting and fracturing may stimulate the supply of H2 from several sources. We report the H2 content of fluids present in terrestrial rocks formed by brittle fracturing on fault planes (pseudotachylites and cataclasites), along with protolith control samples. The fluids are dominated by water and include H2 at abundances sufficient to support hydrogenotrophic microorganisms, with strong H2 enrichments in the pseudotachylites compared to the controls. Weaker and less consistent H2 enrichments are observed in the cataclasites, which represent less intense seismic friction than the pseudotachylites. The enrichments agree quantitatively with previous experimental measurements of frictionally driven H2 formation during rock fracturing. We find that conservative estimates of current martian global seismicity predict episodic H2 generation by Marsquakes in quantities useful to hydrogenotrophs over a range of scales and recurrence times. On both Earth and Mars, secondary release of H2 may also accompany the breakdown of ancient fault rocks, which are particularly abundant in the pervasively fractured martian crust. This study strengthens the case for the astrobiological investigation of ancient martian fracture systems. Deep biosphere-Faults-Fault rocks-Seismic activity-Hydrogen-Mars. Astrobiology 16, 690-702.

  17. Meeting China's electricity needs through clean energy sources: A 2030 low-carbon energy roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zheng

    China is undergoing rapid economic development that generates significant increase in energy demand, primarily for electricity. Energy supply in China is heavily relying on coal, which leads to high carbon emissions. This dissertation explores opportunities for meeting China's growing power demand through clean energy sources. The utilization of China's clean energy sources as well as demand-side management is still at the initial phase. Therefore, development of clean energy sources would require substantial government support in order to be competitive in the market. One of the widely used means to consider clean energy in power sector supplying is Integrated Resource Strategic Planning, which aims to minimize the long term electricity costs while screening various power supply options for the power supply and demand analysis. The IRSP tool tackles the energy problem from the perspective of power sector regulators, and provides different policy scenarios to quantify the impacts of combined incentives. Through three scenario studies, Business as Usual, High Renewable, and Renewable and Demand Side Management, this dissertation identifies the optimized scenario for China to achieve the clean energy target of 2030. The scenarios are assessed through energy, economics, environment, and equity dimensions.

  18. Dietary sources of energy and macronutrient intakes among Flemish preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to identify major food sources of energy and macronutrients among Flemish preschoolers as a basis for evaluating dietary guidelines. Three-day estimated diet records were collected from a representative sample of 696 Flemish preschoolers (2.5-6.5 years old; participation response rate: 50%). For 11 dietary constituents, the contribution of 57 food groups was computed by summing the amount provided by the food group for all individuals divided by the total intake of the respective nutrient for all individuals. Bread (12%), sweet snacks (12%), milk (6%), flavoured milk drinks (9%), and meat products (6%) were the top five energy contributors. Sweet snacks were among the top contributors to energy, total fat, all fatty acids, cholesterol, and complex and simple carbohydrates. Fruit juices and flavoured milk drinks are the main contributors to simple carbohydrates (respectively 14% and 18%). All principal food groups like water, bread and cereals, vegetables, fruit, milk and spreadable fats were under-consumed by more than 30% of the population, while the food groups that were over-consumed consisted only of low nutritious and high energy dense foods (sweet snacks, sugared drinks, fried potatoes, sauces and sweet spreads). From the major food sources and gaps in nutrient and food intakes, some recommendations to pursue the nutritional goals could be drawn: the intake of sweet snacks and sugar-rich drinks (incl. fruit juices) should be discouraged, while consumption of fruits, vegetables, water, bread and margarine on bread should be encouraged. PMID:22958525

  19. Search for point sources of high energy neutrinos with Amanda

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, J.

    2002-08-01

    Report of search for likely point sources for neutrinos observed by the Amanda detector. Places intensity limits on observable point sources. This paper describes the search for astronomical sources of high-energy neutrinos using the AMANDA-B10 detector, an array of 302 photomultiplier tubes, used for the detection of Cherenkov light from upward traveling neutrino-induced muons, buried deep in ice at the South Pole. The absolute pointing accuracy and angular resolution were studied by using coincident events between the AMANDA detector and two independent telescopes on the surface, the GASP air Cherenkov telescope and the SPASE extensive air shower array. Using datamore » collected from April to October of 1997 (130.1 days of livetime), a general survey of the northern hemisphere revealed no statistically significant excess of events from any direction. The sensitivity for a flux of muon neutrinos is based on the effective detection area for through-going muons. Averaged over the Northern sky, the effective detection area exceeds 10,000 m{sup 2} for E{sub {mu}} {approx} 10 TeV. Neutrinos generated in the atmosphere by cosmic ray interactions were used to verify the predicted performance of the detector. For a source with a differential energy spectrum proportional to E{sub {nu}}{sup -2} and declination larger than +40{sup o}, we obtain E{sup 2} (dN{sub {nu}}/dE) {le} 10{sup -6} GeV cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for an energy threshold of 10 GeV.« less

  20. Evaluating the sustainability of an energy supply system using renewable energy sources: An energy demand assessment of South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Cedric Fitzgerald

    Sustainable energy is defined as a dynamic harmony between the equitable availability of energy-intensive goods and services to all people and the preservation of the earth for future generations. Sustainable energy development continues to be a major focus within the government and regulatory governing bodies in the electric utility industry. This is as a result of continued demand for electricity and the impact of greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generating plants on the environment by way of the greenhouse effect. A culmination of increasing concerns about climate change, the nuclear incident in Fukushima four years ago, and discussions on energy security in a world with growing energy demand have led to a movement for increasing the share of power generation from renewable energy sources. This work studies demand for electricity from primarily residential, commercial, agricultural, and industrial customers in South Carolina (SC) and its effect on the environment from coal-fired electricity generating plants. Moreover, this work studies sustainable renewable energy source-options based on the renewable resources available in the state of SC, as viable options to supplement generation from coal-fired electricity generating plants. In addition, greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants from primarily coal-fired plants will be defined and quantified. Fundamental renewable energy source options will be defined and quantified based on availability and sustainability of SC's natural resources. This work studies the environmental, economic, and technical aspects of each renewable energy source as a sustainable energy option to replace power generation from coal-fired plants. Additionally, social aspect implications will be incorporated into each of the three aspects listed above, as these aspects are explored during the research and analysis. Electricity demand data and alternative energy source-supply data in SC are carried out and are used to develop and

  1. Cyanate - An overlooked energy and nitrogen source in soils?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooshammer, Maria; Palatinszky, Márton; Herbold, Craig; Han, Ping; Daims, Holger; Richter, Andreas; Wagner, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Cyanate (NCO-) is a reduced nitrogen compound that is toxic to organisms due to its reactivity with nucleophilic groups in proteins. To lower cyanate concentrations within cells, a wide range of microorganisms possess a cyanase, which catalyzes the conversion of cyanate to ammonium and carbon dioxide. However, cyanate can also be useful for microbes by serving as a nitrogen source for cyanase-encoding microorganism, such as marine cyanobacteria (Kamennaya et al., 2008). Unexpectedly, we could recently demonstrate that at least one ammonia-oxidizing thaumarchaeote as well as nitrite-oxidizers thriving in consortia with ammonia-oxidizers can grow aerobically on cyanate as only energy and nitrogen source (Palatinszky et al., 2015). Furthermore, published metagenomes revealed that cyanase-encoding genes closely related to those of nitrifiers (ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizers) are widespread in the environment and encompass also cyanases affiliated with anammox organisms. Therefore, cyanate presumably presents an alternative nitrogen and also energy source for many microorganisms in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Surprisingly, cyanate concentrations and fluxes in natural environments are largely unknown, and environmental cyanate concentrations have only been studied in seawater so far, where it occurs in the nanomolar-range (Widner et al. 2013). No information about the importance of cyanate in soils is available, although urea that spontaneously decomposes to cyanate is the most used agricultural fertilizer on a global scale. Cyanate can have many fates in soils - it can be (1) used as nitrogen and/or energy source by cyanase-encoding microorganisms, (2) abiotically hydrolysed to ammonium and carbon dioxide, (3) adsorbed to soil particles, or (4) complexed with other compounds. Here we present the first measurements of cyanate concentrations in natural soils and results of experiments designed to differentiate between biotic and abiotic degradation of cyanate in

  2. Power conversion and control methods for renewable energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Dachuan

    2005-07-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in the use of renewable energy due to the growing concern over the pollution caused by fossil-fuel-based energy. Renewable energy sources, such as photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cell, can be used to enhance the safety, reliability, sustainability, and transmission efficiency of a power system. This dissertation focuses on the power conversion and control for two major renewable-energy sources: PV and fuel cell. Firstly, a current-based, maximum power-point tracking (MPPT) algorithm is proposed for PV energy. An economical converter system using the above scheme for converting the output from PV panels into 60 Hz AC voltage is developed and built. Secondly, a novel circuit model for the Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel-cell stack that is useful in the design and analysis of fuel-cell-based power systems is proposed. This Pspice-based model uses elements available in the Pspice library with some modifications to represent both the static and dynamic responses of a PEM fuel-cell module. The accuracy of the model is verified by comparing the simulation and experimental results. Thirdly, a DSP-controlled three-phase induction-motor drive using constant voltage over frequency is built and can be used in a fuel-cell automobile. A hydrogen sensor is used in the drive to both sound an alarm and shut down the inverter trigger pulses through the DSP. Finally, a hybrid power system consisting of PV panels and fuel cell is proposed and built. In the proposed system, PV panels can supply most of the power when the sunlight is available, and the excess power required by the load is supplied by a fuel cell. Load sharing between a fuel cell (FC) and the PV panel is investigated by both simulation and experiments.

  3. The relative abundance and seasonal distribution correspond with the sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the surface sediments of Chenab River, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Imran; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Kamal, Atif; Iqbal, Mehreen; Eqani, Syed-Ali-Mustjab-Akbar-Shah; Bong, Chui Wei; Taqi, Malik Mumtaz; Reichenauer, Thomas G; Zhang, Gan; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-06-01

    Chenab River is one of the most important rivers of Punjab Province (Pakistan) that receives huge input of industrial effluents and municipal sewage from major cities in the Central Punjab, Pakistan. The current study was designed to evaluate the concentration levels and associated ecological risks of USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the surface sediments of Chenab River. Sampling was performed from eight (n = 24) sampling stations of Chenab River and its tributaries. We observed a relatively high abundance of ∑16PAHs during the summer season (i.e. 554 ng g(-1)) versus that in the winter season (i.e. 361 ng g(-1)), with an overall abundance of two-, five- and six-ring PAH congeners. Results also revealed that the nitrate and phosphate contents in the sediments were closely associated with low molecular weight (LMW) and high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs, respectively. Source apportionment results showed that the combustion of fossil fuels appears to be the key source of PAHs in the study area. The risk quotient (RQ) values indicated that seven PAH congeners (i.e. phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)pyrene, chrysene and benzo(a)anthracene) could pose serious threats to the aquatic life of the riverine ecosystem in Pakistan.

  4. Variable energy, high flux, ground-state atomic oxygen source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Orient, Otto J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A variable energy, high flux atomic oxygen source is described which is comprised of a means for producing a high density beam of molecules which will emit O(-) ions when bombarded with electrons; a means of producing a high current stream of electrons at a low energy level passing through the high density beam of molecules to produce a combined stream of electrons and O(-) ions; means for accelerating the combined stream to a desired energy level; means for producing an intense magnetic field to confine the electrons and O(-) ions; means for directing a multiple pass laser beam through the combined stream to strip off the excess electrons from a plurality of the O(-) ions to produce ground-state O atoms within the combined stream; electrostatic deflection means for deflecting the path of the O(-) ions and the electrons in the combined stream; and, means for stopping the O(-) ions and the electrons and for allowing only the ground-state O atoms to continue as the source of the atoms of interest. The method and apparatus are also adaptable for producing other ground-state atoms and/or molecules.

  5. Electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, William K.; Stirling, William L.

    1982-01-01

    An electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources is provided. The system, employs crossed electric and magnetic fields to separate the electrons from ions as they are extracted from a negative ion source plasma generator and before the ions are accelerated to their full kinetic energy. With the electric and magnetic fields oriented 90.degree. to each other, the electrons are separated from the plasma and remain at approximately the electrical potential of the generator in which they were generated. The electrons migrate from the ion beam path in a precessing motion out of the ion accelerating field region into an electron recovery region provided by a specially designed electron collector electrode. The electron collector electrode is uniformly spaced from a surface of the ion generator which is transverse to the direction of migration of the electrons and the two surfaces are contoured in a matching relationship which departs from a planar configuration to provide an electric field component in the recovery region which is parallel to the magnetic field thereby forcing the electrons to be directed into and collected by the electron collector electrode. The collector electrode is maintained at a potential slightly positive with respect to the ion generator so that the electrons are collected at a small fraction of the full accelerating supply voltage energy.

  6. Energy-Environment Source Book. Volume 1: Energy, Society, and the Environment. Volume 2: Energy, Its Extraction, Conversion and Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, John W.

    This source book, one part of a three-part NSTA series on energy-environment, is written for teachers who wish to incorporate material on the complex subject of energy into their teaching. This work is divided into two volumes, each with numerous tables and figures, along with appendices containing a glossary, mathematics primer, heat engine…

  7. Multiwavelength observations of unidentified high energy gamma ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules P.

    1993-01-01

    As was the case for COS B, the majority of high-energy (greater than 100 MeV) gamma-ray sources detected by the EGRET instrument on GRO are not immediately identifiable with cataloged objects at other wavelengths. These persistent gamma-ray sources are, next to the gamma-ray bursts, the least understood objects in the universe. Even a rudimentary understanding of their nature awaits identifications and follow-up work at other wavelengths to tell us what they are. The as yet unidentified sources are potentially the most interesting, since they may represent unrecognized new classes of astronomical objects, such as radio-quiet pulsars or new types of active galactic nuclei (AGN's). This two-year investigation is intended to support the analysis, correlation, and theoretical interpretation of data that we are obtaining at x ray, optical, and radio wavelengths in order to render the gamma-ray data interpretable. According to plan, in the first year concentration was on the identification and study of Geminga. The second year will be devoted to studies of similar unidentified gamma-ray sources which will become available in the first EGRET catalogs. The results obtained so far are presented in the two papers which are reproduced in the Appendix. In these papers, we discuss the pulse profiles of Geminga, the geometry and efficiency of the magnetospheric accelerator, the distance to Geminga, the implications for theories of polar cap heating, the effect of the magnetic field on the surface emission and environment of the neutron star, and possible interpretations of a radio-quiet Geminga. The implications of the other gamma-ray pulsars which were discovered to have high gamma-ray efficiency are also discussed, and the remaining unidentified COS B sources are attributed to a population of efficient gamma-ray sources, some of which may be radio quiet.

  8. Large microplastic particles in sediments of tributaries of the River Thames, UK - Abundance, sources and methods for effective quantification.

    PubMed

    Horton, Alice A; Svendsen, Claus; Williams, Richard J; Spurgeon, David J; Lahive, Elma

    2017-01-15

    Sewage effluent input and population were chosen as predictors of microplastic presence in sediments at four sites in the River Thames basin (UK). Large microplastic particles (1mm-4mm) were extracted using a stepwise approach to include visual extraction, flotation and identification using Raman spectroscopy. Microplastics were found at all four sites. One site had significantly higher numbers of microplastics than other sites, average 66 particles 100g -1 , 91% of which were fragments. This site was downstream of a storm drain outfall receiving urban runoff; many of the fragments at this site were determined to be derived of thermoplastic road-surface marking paints. At the remaining three sites, fibres were the dominant particle type. The most common polymers identified included polypropylene, polyester and polyarylsulphone. This study describes two major new findings: presence of microplastic particles in a UK freshwater system and identification of road marking paints as a source of microplastics. This study is the first to quantify microplastics of any size in river sediments in the UK and links their presence to terrestrial sources including sewage and road marking paints. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Radioistopes to Solar to High Energy Accelerators - Chip-Scale Energy Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, Amit

    2013-12-01

    This talk will present MEMS based power sources that utilize radioisotopes, solar energy, and potentially nuclear energy through advancements in integration of new structures and materials within MEMS. Micro power harvesters can harness power from vibration, radioisotopes, light, sound, and biology may provide pathways to minimize or even eliminate batteries in sensor nodes. In this talk work on radioisotope thin films for MEMS will be include the self-reciprocating cantilever, betavoltaic cells, and high DC voltages. The self-reciprocating cantilever energy harvester allows small commercially viable amounts of radioisotopes to generate mW to Watts of power so that very reliable power sources that last 100s of years are possible. The tradeoffs between reliability and potential stigma with radioisotopes allow one to span a useful design space with reliability as a key parameter. These power sources provide pulsed power at three different time scales using mechanical, RF, and static extraction of energy from collected charge. Multi-use capability, both harvesting radioisotope power and local vibration energy extends the reliability of micro-power sources further.

  10. Designing and Testing Energy Harvesters Suitable for Renewable Power Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Synkiewicz, B.; Guzdek, P.; Piekarski, J.; Zaraska, K.

    2016-01-01

    Energy harvesters convert waste power (heat, light and vibration) directly to electric power . Fast progress in their technology, design and areas of application (e.g. “Internet of Things”) has been observed recently. Their effectiveness is steadily growing which makes their application to powering sensor networks with wireless data transfer reasonable. The main advantage is the independence from wired power sources, which is especially important for monitoring state of environmental parameters. In this paper we describe the design and realization of a gas sensor monitoring CO level (powered by TEG) and two, designed an constructed in ITE, autonomous power supply modules powered by modern photovoltaic cells.

  11. Electrochemical Energy Storage and Power Sources for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Richard S.

    2007-01-01

    An overview of NASA s electrochemical energy storage programs for NASA Exploration missions is being presented at the 10th Electrochemical Power Sources R&D Symposium, which is being held in Williamsburg, VA on August 20-23, 2007. This public domain venue, which is sponsored by the U.S. Navy and held every two years, serves as a forum for the dissemination of research and development results related to electrochemical energy storage technology programs that are currently being supported and managed within governmental agencies. Technology areas of primary interest include batteries, fuel cells, and both overview and focused presentations on such are given by both governmental and contractual researchers. The forum also provides an opportunity to assess technology areas of mutual interest with respect to establishing collaborative and/or complementary programmatic interactions.

  12. Energy scaling of terahertz-wave parametric sources.

    PubMed

    Tang, Guanqi; Cong, Zhenhua; Qin, Zengguang; Zhang, Xingyu; Wang, Weitao; Wu, Dong; Li, Ning; Fu, Qiang; Lu, Qingming; Zhang, Shaojun

    2015-02-23

    Terahertz-wave parametric oscillators (TPOs) have advantages of room temperature operation, wide tunable range, narrow line-width, good coherence. They have also disadvantage of small pulse energy. In this paper, several factors preventing TPOs from generating high-energy THz pulses and the corresponding solutions are analyzed. A scheme to generate high-energy THz pulses by using the combination of a TPO and a Stokes-pulse-injected terahertz-wave parametric generator (spi-TPG) is proposed and demonstrated. A TPO is used as a source to generate a seed pulse for the surface-emitted spi-TPG. The time delay between the pump and Stokes pulses is adjusted to guarantee they have good temporal overlap. The pump pulses have a large pulse energy and a large beam size. The Stokes beam is enlarged to make its size be larger than the pump beam size to have a large effective interaction volume. The experimental results show that the generated THz pulse energy from the spi-TPG is 1.8 times as large as that obtained from the TPO for the same pumping pulse energy density of 0.90 J/cm(2) and the same pumping beam size of 3.0 mm. When the pumping beam sizes are 5.0 and 7.0 mm, the enhancement times are 3.7 and 7.5, respectively. The spi-TPG here is similar to a difference frequency generator; it can also be used as a Stokes pulse amplifier.

  13. Effects of disturbance on contribution of energy sources to growth of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in boreal streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, R.W.; Bradford, M.J.; Grout, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    We used stable isotopes of carbon in a growth-dependent tissue-turnover model to quantify the relative contribution of autochthonous and terrestrial energy sources to juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in five small boreal streams tributary to the upper Yukon River. We used a tissue-turnover model because fish did not grow enough to come into isotopic equilibrium with their diet. In two streams, autochthonous energy sources contributed 23 and 41% to the growth of juvenile salmon. In the other three, fish growth was largely due to terrestrial (i.e., allochthonous) energy sources. This low contribution of autochthonous energy appeared to be related to stream-specific disturbances: a recent forest fire impacted two of the streams and the third was affected by a large midsummer spate during the study. These disturbances reduced the relative abundance of herbivorous macroinvertebrates, the contribution of autochthonous material to other invertebrates, and ultimately, the energy flow between stream algae and fish. Our findings suggest that disturbances to streams can be an important mechanism affecting transfer of primary energy sources to higher trophic levels.

  14. Estimating abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sutherland, Chris; Royle, Andy

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides a non-technical overview of ‘closed population capture–recapture’ models, a class of well-established models that are widely applied in ecology, such as removal sampling, covariate models, and distance sampling. These methods are regularly adopted for studies of reptiles, in order to estimate abundance from counts of marked individuals while accounting for imperfect detection. Thus, the chapter describes some classic closed population models for estimating abundance, with considerations for some recent extensions that provide a spatial context for the estimation of abundance, and therefore density. Finally, the chapter suggests some software for use in data analysis, such as the Windows-based program MARK, and provides an example of estimating abundance and density of reptiles using an artificial cover object survey of Slow Worms (Anguis fragilis).

  15. Laticiferous taxa as a source of energy and hydrocarbon

    SciTech Connect

    Marimuthu, S.; Subramanian, R.B.; Kothari, I.L.

    Twenty-nine laticiferous taxa of Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae, and Sapotaceae were screened for suitability as alternative sources of renewable energy, rubber, and phytochemicals and to select the most promising ones for large-scale cultivation. Of these, Allamanda violacea (14.9% protein, 13.8% polyphenol, 8.6% oil, 3.2% hydrocarbon), Catharanthus roseus (15.4% protein, 10.4% polyphenol, 11.5% oil, 1.9% hydrocarbon), and Holarrhena antidysenterica (14.2% protein, 16.4% polyphenol, 5,4% oil, 4.8% hydrocarbon) of Apocynaceae; Asclepias curassavica (19.3% protein, 6.5% polyphenol, 3.9% oil, 2.0% hydrocarbon), Calotropis gigantea (18.5% protein, 6.8% polyphenol, 7.0% oil, 2.8% hydrocarbon) of Asclepiadaceae; Mimusops elengi (11.3% protein, 9.7% polyphenol, 7.2% oil, 4.0% hydrocarbon) of Sapotaceaemore » show promising potential for future petrochemical plantations; of all these taxa, Holarrhena antidysenterica yielded an unusually high percentage (4.8%) of hydrocarbon fraction followed by Mimusops elengi (4.0%). NMR spectra confirmed the presence of cis-polyisoprene in all species studied except Nerium indicum (white-flowered var.). These data indicate that the majority of the species under investigation may be considered for large-scale cultivation as an alternative source of rubber, intermediate energy, and other phytochemicals.« less

  16. XII Multifrequency Behaviour of High Energy Cosmic Sources Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2017-06-01

    This is the twelfth edition of the series of Frascati Workshops on "Multifrequency Behaviour of High Energy Cosmic Sources" which is undoubtedly a largely accepted biennial meeting in which an updated experimental and theoretical panorama will be depicted. This edition comes at the 33rd anniversary of the first historical "multifrequency" workshop about "Multifrequency Behaviour of GalacticAccreting Sources", held in Vulcano in September 1984. This surely renders the Frascati Workshop Series the oldest among the many devoted to "Multifrequency Studies of Cosmic Sources". The study of the physics governing the cosmic sources will be the main goal of the workshop. A session devoted to the ongoing and next generation ground- and space-based experiments will give the actual prospects for the first decades of this millennium. The following items will be reviewed: Cosmology: Cosmic Background, Clusters of Galaxies Extragalactic Sources: Active Galaxies, Normal Galaxies Gamma-Rays Burst: Experiments versus Theories Galactic Sources: Pre-Main-Sequence and Main-Sequence Stars, Cataclysmic Variables and Novae, Supernovae and SNRs, X-Ray Binary Systems, Pulsars, Black Holes, Gamma-Ray Sources,Nucleosynthesis. The Astrophysics with the Ongoing and Future Experiments: Space-Based Experiments,Ground-Based Experiments. The workshop will include few 30-minute general review talks to introduce the current problems, and typically 20-minute talks discussing new experimental and theoretical results. A series of 20-minute talks will discuss the ongoing and planned ground- and space- based experiments. The cadence of the workshop is biennial. The participation will be only by invitation. All participants are kindly invited to attend the whole workshop. However, to keep alive the workshop it was decided that all presentations should be compulsorily given to the LOC, so that they can be inserted into the web page of the workshop. These presentations will form the basis for writing the

  17. Synergistic microbial consortium for bioenergy generation from complex natural energy sources.

    PubMed

    Wang, Victor Bochuan; Yam, Joey Kuok Hoong; Chua, Song-Lin; Zhang, Qichun; Cao, Bin; Chye, Joachim Loo Say; Yang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Microbial species have evolved diverse mechanisms for utilization of complex carbon sources. Proper combination of targeted species can affect bioenergy production from natural waste products. Here, we established a stable microbial consortium with Escherichia coli and Shewanella oneidensis in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to produce bioenergy from an abundant natural energy source, in the form of the sarcocarp harvested from coconuts. This component is mostly discarded as waste. However, through its usage as a feedstock for MFCs to produce useful energy in this study, the sarcocarp can be utilized meaningfully. The monospecies S. oneidensis system was able to generate bioenergy in a short experimental time frame while the monospecies E. coli system generated significantly less bioenergy. A combination of E. coli and S. oneidensis in the ratio of 1:9 (v:v) significantly enhanced the experimental time frame and magnitude of bioenergy generation. The synergistic effect is suggested to arise from E. coli and S. oneidensis utilizing different nutrients as electron donors and effect of flavins secreted by S. oneidensis. Confocal images confirmed the presence of biofilms and point towards their importance in generating bioenergy in MFCs.

  18. Synergistic Microbial Consortium for Bioenergy Generation from Complex Natural Energy Sources

    PubMed Central

    Yam, Joey Kuok Hoong; Chua, Song-Lin; Zhang, Qichun; Cao, Bin; Chye, Joachim Loo Say

    2014-01-01

    Microbial species have evolved diverse mechanisms for utilization of complex carbon sources. Proper combination of targeted species can affect bioenergy production from natural waste products. Here, we established a stable microbial consortium with Escherichia coli and Shewanella oneidensis in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to produce bioenergy from an abundant natural energy source, in the form of the sarcocarp harvested from coconuts. This component is mostly discarded as waste. However, through its usage as a feedstock for MFCs to produce useful energy in this study, the sarcocarp can be utilized meaningfully. The monospecies S. oneidensis system was able to generate bioenergy in a short experimental time frame while the monospecies E. coli system generated significantly less bioenergy. A combination of E. coli and S. oneidensis in the ratio of 1 : 9 (v : v) significantly enhanced the experimental time frame and magnitude of bioenergy generation. The synergistic effect is suggested to arise from E. coli and S. oneidensis utilizing different nutrients as electron donors and effect of flavins secreted by S. oneidensis. Confocal images confirmed the presence of biofilms and point towards their importance in generating bioenergy in MFCs. PMID:25097866

  19. Biologically Produced Methane as a Renewable Energy Source.

    PubMed

    Holmes, D E; Smith, J A

    2016-01-01

    Methanogens are a unique group of strictly anaerobic archaea that are more metabolically diverse than previously thought. Traditionally, it was thought that methanogens could only generate methane by coupling the oxidation of products formed by fermentative bacteria with the reduction of CO 2 . However, it has recently been observed that many methanogens can also use electrons extruded from metal-respiring bacteria, biocathodes, or insoluble electron shuttles as energy sources. Methanogens are found in both human-made and natural environments and are responsible for the production of ∼71% of the global atmospheric methane. Their habitats range from the human digestive tract to hydrothermal vents. Although biologically produced methane can negatively impact the environment if released into the atmosphere, when captured, it can serve as a potent fuel source. The anaerobic digestion of wastes such as animal manure, human sewage, or food waste produces biogas which is composed of ∼60% methane. Methane from biogas can be cleaned to yield purified methane (biomethane) that can be readily incorporated into natural gas pipelines making it a promising renewable energy source. Conventional anaerobic digestion is limited by long retention times, low organics removal efficiencies, and low biogas production rates. Therefore, many studies are being conducted to improve the anaerobic digestion process. Researchers have found that addition of conductive materials and/or electrically active cathodes to anaerobic digesters can stimulate the digestion process and increase methane content of biogas. It is hoped that optimization of anaerobic digesters will make biogas more readily accessible to the average person. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Low energy ion beam dynamics of NANOGAN ECR ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sarvesh; Mandal, A.

    2016-04-01

    A new low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) has been developed for providing the mass analyzed highly charged intense ion beams of energy ranging from a few tens of keV to a few MeV for atomic, molecular and materials sciences research. The new facility consists of an all permanent magnet 10 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source (NANOGAN) installed on a high voltage platform (400 kV) which provides large currents of multiply charged ion beams. Higher emittance at low energy of intense ion beam puts a tremendous challenge to the beam optical design of this facility. The beam line consists of mainly the electrostatic quadrupoles, an accelerating section, analyzing cum switching magnet and suitable beam diagnostics including vacuum components. The accelerated ion beam is analyzed for a particular mass to charge (m/q) ratio as well as guided to three different lines along 75°, 90° and 105° using a large acceptance analyzing cum switching magnet. The details of transverse beam optics to all the beam lines with TRANSPORT and GICOSY beam optics codes are being described. Field computation code, OPERA 3D has been utilized to design the magnets and electrostatic quadrupoles. A theoretical estimation of emittance for optimized geometry of ion source is given so as to form the basis of beam optics calculations. The method of quadrupole scan of the beam is used to characterize the emittance of the final beam on the target. The measured beam emittance increases with m/q ratios of various ion beams similar to the trend observed theoretically.

  1. Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Neri, L., E-mail: neri@lns.infn.it; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.

    2014-02-15

    The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). Themore » design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here.« less

  2. An Analysis of the Use of Energy Audits, Solar Panels, and Wind Turbines to Reduce Energy Consumption from Non Renewable Energy Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-15

    the Use of Energy Audits, Solar Panels, and Wind Turbines to Reduce Energy Consumption from Non Renewable Energy Sources Energy is a National...Park, NC 27709-2211 Energy Audits, Energy Conservation, Renewable Energy, Solar Energy, Wind Turbine Use, Energy Consumption REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11...in non peer-reviewed journals: An Analysis of the Use of Energy Audits, Solar Panels, and Wind Turbines to Reduce Energy Consumption from Non

  3. Trimode Power Converter optimizes PV, diesel and battery energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osullivan, George; Bonn, Russell; Bower, Ward

    1994-12-01

    Conservatively, there are 100,000 localities in the world waiting for the benefits that electricity can provide, and many of these are in climates where sunshine is plentiful. With these locations in mind a prototype 30 kW hybrid system has been assembled at Sandia to prove the reliability and economics of photovoltaic, diesel and battery energy sources managed by an autonomous power converter. In the Trimode Power Converter the same power parts, four IGBT's with an isolation transformer and filter components, serve as rectifier and charger to charge the battery from the diesel; as a stand-alone inverter to convert PV and battery energy to AC; and, as a parallel inverter with the diesel-generator to accommodate loads larger than the rating of the diesel. Whenever the diesel is supplying the load, an algorithm assures that the diesel is running at maximum efficiency by regulating the battery charger operating point. Given the profile of anticipated solar energy, the cost of transporting diesel fuel to a remote location and a five year projection of load demand, a method to size the PV array, battery and diesel for least cost is developed.

  4. High Relative Abundance of Biofuel Sourced Ethanol in Precipitation in the US and Brazil Determined Using Compound Specific Stable Carbon Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, M. S.; Felix, J. D. D.; Casas, M.; Avery, G. B., Jr.; Kieber, R. J.; Mead, R. N.; Willey, J. D.; Lane, C.

    2017-12-01

    Ethanol biofuel production and consumption have increased exponentially over the last two decades to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, 85% of global ethanol production and consumption occurs in the US and Brazil. Increasing biofuel ethanol usage in these two countries enhances emissions of uncombusted ethanol to the atmosphere contributing to poor air quality. Although measurements of ethanol in the air and the precipitation reveal elevated ethanol concentrations in densely populated cities, other sources such as natural vegetation can contribute to emission to the atmosphere. Previous modeling studies indicated up to 12% of atmospheric ethanol is from anthropogenic emissions. Only one gas phase study in southern Florida attempted to constrain the two sources through direct isotopic measurements. The current study used a stable carbon isotope method to constrain sources of ethanol in rainwater from the US and Brazil. A method was developed using solid phase microextraction (SPME) with subsequent analysis by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). Stable carbon isotope signatures (δ13C) of vehicle ethanol emission sources for both the US (-9.8‰) and Brazil (-12.7‰) represented C4 plants as feedstock (corn and sugarcane) for biofuel production. An isotope mixing model using biofuel from vehicles (C4 plants) and biogenic (C3 plants) end-members was implemented to estimate ethanol source apportionment in the rain. We found that stable carbon isotope ratio of ethanol in the rain ranged between -22.6‰ and -12.7‰. Our results suggest that the contribution of biofuel to atmospheric ethanol can be higher than previously estimated. As biofuel usage increasing globally, it is essential to determine the relative abundance of anthropogenic ethanol in other areas of the world.

  5. Detecting Tsunami Source Energy and Scales from GNSS & Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y. T.; Yim, S. C.; Mohtat, A.

    2016-12-01

    Historically, tsunami warnings based on the earthquake magnitude have not been very accurate. According to the 2006 U.S. Government Accountability Office report, an unacceptable 75% false alarm rate has prevailed in the Pacific Ocean (GAO-06-519). One of the main reasons for those inaccurate warnings is that an earthquake's magnitude is not the scale or power of the resulting tsunami. For the last 10 years, we have been developing both theories and algorithms to detect tsunami source energy and scales, instead of earthquake magnitudes per se, directly from real-time Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) stations along coastlines for early warnings [Song 2007; Song et al., 2008; Song et al., 2012; Xu and Song 2013; Titov et al, 2016]. Here we will report recent progress on two fronts: 1) Examples of using GNSS in detecting the tsunami energy scales for the 2004 Sumatra M9.1 earthquake, the 2005 Nias M8.7 earthquake, the 2010 M8.8 Chilean earthquake, the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, and the 2015 M8.3 Illapel earthquake. 2) New results from recent state-of-the-art wave-maker experiments and comparisons with GNSS data will also be presented. Related reference: Titov, V., Y. T. Song, L. Tang, E. N. Bernard, Y. Bar-Sever, and Y. Wei (2016), Consistent estimates of tsunami energy show promise for improved early warning, Pur Appl. Geophs., DOI: 10.1007/s00024-016-1312-1. Xu, Z. and Y. T. Song (2013), Combining the all-source Green's functions and the GPS-derived source for fast tsunami prediction - illustrated by the March 2011 Japan tsunami, J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech., jtechD1200201. Song, Y. T., I. Fukumori, C. K. Shum, and Y. Yi (2012), Merging tsunamis of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake detected over the open ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1029/2011GL050767. Song, Y. T., L.-L. Fu, V. Zlotnicki, C. Ji, V. Hjorleifsdottir, C.K. Shum, and Y. Yi, 2008: The role of horizontal impulses of the faulting continental slope in generating the 26 December 2004 Tsunami (2007

  6. Determination of microbial carbon sources and cycling during remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon impacted soil using natural abundance (14)C analysis of PLFA.

    PubMed

    Cowie, Benjamin R; Greenberg, Bruce M; Slater, Gregory F

    2010-04-01

    In a petroleum impacted land-farm soil in Sarnia, Ontario, compound-specific natural abundance radiocarbon analysis identified biodegradation by the soil microbial community as a major pathway for hydrocarbon removal in a novel remediation system. During remediation of contaminated soils by a plant growth promoting rhizobacteria enhanced phytoremediation system (PEPS), the measured Delta(14)C of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) biomarkers ranged from -793 per thousand to -897 per thousand, directly demonstrating microbial uptake and utilization of petroleum hydrocarbons (Delta(14)C(PHC) = -1000 per thousand). Isotopic mass balance indicated that more than 80% of microbial PLFA carbon was derived from petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) and a maximum of 20% was obtained from metabolism of more modern carbon sources. These PLFA from the contaminated soils were the most (14)C-depleted biomarkers ever measured for an in situ environmental system, and this study demonstrated that the microbial community in this soil was subsisting primarily on petroleum hydrocarbons. In contrast, the microbial community in a nearby uncontaminated control soil maintained a more modern Delta(14)C signature than total organic carbon (Delta(14)C(PLFA) = +36 per thousand to -147 per thousand, Delta(14)C(TOC) = -148 per thousand), indicating preferential consumption of the most modern plant-derived fraction of soil organic carbon. Measurements of delta(13)C and Delta(14)C of soil CO(2) additionally demonstrated that mineralization of PHC contributed to soil CO(2) at the contaminated site. The CO(2) in the uncontaminated control soil exhibited substantially more modern Delta(14)C values, and lower soil CO(2) concentrations than the contaminated soils, suggesting increased rates of soil respiration in the contaminated soils. In combination, these results demonstrated that biodegradation in the soil microbial community was a primary pathway of petroleum hydrocarbon removal in the PEPS system. This study

  7. Secondary Electrons as an Energy Source for Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelmach, Kamil B.; Neveu, Marc; Vick-Majors, Trista J.; Mickol, Rebecca L.; Chou, Luoth; Webster, Kevin D.; Tilley, Matt; Zacchei, Federica; Escudero, Cristina; Flores Martinez, Claudio L.; Labrado, Amanda; Fernández, Enrique J. G.

    2018-01-01

    Life on Earth is found in a wide range of environments as long as the basic requirements of a liquid solvent, a nutrient source, and free energy are met. Previous hypotheses have speculated how extraterrestrial microbial life may function, among them that particle radiation might power living cells indirectly through radiolytic products. On Earth, so-called electrophilic organisms can harness electron flow from an extracellular cathode to build biomolecules. Here, we describe two hypothetical mechanisms, termed "direct electrophy" and "indirect electrophy" or "fluorosynthesis," by which organisms could harness extracellular free electrons to synthesize organic matter, thus expanding the ensemble of potential habitats in which extraterrestrial organisms might be found in the Solar System and beyond. The first mechanism involves the direct flow of secondary electrons from particle radiation to a microbial cell to power the organism. The second involves the indirect utilization of impinging secondary electrons and a fluorescing molecule, either biotic or abiotic in origin, to drive photosynthesis. Both mechanisms involve the attenuation of an incoming particle's energy to create low-energy secondary electrons. The validity of the hypotheses is assessed through simple calculations showing the biomass density attainable from the energy supplied. Also discussed are potential survival strategies that could be used by organisms living in possible habitats with a plentiful supply of secondary electrons, such as near the surface of an icy moon. While we acknowledge that the only definitive test for the hypothesis is to collect specimens, we also describe experiments or terrestrial observations that could support or nullify the hypotheses.

  8. Organic Acids as Hetrotrophic Energy Sources in Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windman, T. O.; Zolotova, N.; Shock, E.

    2004-12-01

    minerals, sulfide, carbon monoxide or methane in Yellowstone hot springs. This difference suggests that small organic compounds in hydrothermal fluids can be major sources of metabolic energy for microbes, and may explain why so many heterotrophs are found in themophilic microbial culture experiments.

  9. Helium and Carbon Isotope and Relative Abundance Relationships in Lau Basin Basalts: Resolving Mantle Source Composition from Degassing and Contamination Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukajlovich, D. J.; Hilton, D. R.; Castillo, P. R.; Hawkins, J. W.

    2005-12-01

    The Lau Basin has multiple mantle source components including contributions from the Indian and Pacific MORB sources, Tonga-Kermadec Arc and Samoan plume. In order to characterize the volatile systematics of these various sources and to map their spatial distribution, we have sampled basaltic glasses from over 50 dredge sites covering all known spreading centers in the basin as well as many off-axis seamounts. Here, we report He abundance and isotope results obtained by crushing, in addition to CO2 released through stepped heating, from sites at the Mangatolu Triple Junction (MTJ), Rochambeau Bank (RB), Peggy Ridge, and the Northern, Eastern and Central Lau Spreading Centers. High 3He/4He ratios from RB (up to 23 RA, where RA = air 3He/4He) confirm the presence of a plume component in the northwestern Lau Basin (Poreda, EPSL, 1985). Central and Eastern Lau Spreading Center basalts have 3He/4He ratios between 8.3 and 9.4 RA, consistent with a depleted, MORB-like mantle source with little influence from slab or crustal helium. In contrast, the large range in helium isotope ratios of MTJ samples (0.85 to 7.9 RA) and the correlation between low He abundances (~2 - 3 × 10-9 cm3/g) and low helium isotope ratios suggests the volatiles in this region have been severely affected by degassing and additions of radiogenic (crustal) He. CO2 abundances and carbon isotopes for samples from RB vary from 70 to 119 ppm ([CO2]total) with δ13Cvesicle falling between -12.3 to -14.8 ‰ and δ13Cdissolved lying between -9.3 to -10.7 ‰. In the MTJ, low helium concentration samples have δ13C as low as -27.4 ‰ and [CO2]total as low as 7.6ppm; interestingly, this region also has samples with the highest measured values (up to -6.3 ‰ and 132ppm total C). Combining the carbon and helium data, CO2/3He ratios in the MTJ range from arc-like values (~1010) to sediment or crustal values (~1013) showing the superimposition of degassing and/or contamination effects on a predominant slab

  10. Hybrid Design of Electric Power Generation Systems Including Renewable Sources of Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lingfeng; Singh, Chanan

    2008-01-01

    With the stricter environmental regulations and diminishing fossil-fuel reserves, there is now higher emphasis on exploiting various renewable sources of energy. These alternative sources of energy are usually environmentally friendly and emit no pollutants. However, the capital investments for those renewable sources of energy are normally high,…

  11. Energy spectrum of extragalactic gamma-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Protheroe, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    The result of Monte Carlo electron photon cascade calculations for propagation of gamma rays through regions of extragalactic space containing no magnetic field are given. These calculations then provide upper limits to the expected flux from extragalactic sources. Since gamma rays in the 10 to the 14th power eV to 10 to the 17th power eV energy range are of interest, interactions of electrons and photons with the 3 K microwave background radiation are considered. To obtain an upper limit to the expected gamma ray flux from sources, the intergalactic field is assumed to be so low that it can be ignored. Interactions with photons of the near-infrared background radiation are not considered here although these will have important implications for gamma rays below 10 to the 14th power eV if the near infrared background radiation is universal. Interaction lengths of electrons and photons in the microwave background radiation at a temperature of 2.96 K were calculated and are given.

  12. Hydrogen in rocks: an energy source for deep microbial communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Friedemann; Dickinson, J. Thomas; Cash, Michele

    2002-01-01

    To survive in deep subsurface environments, lithotrophic microbial communities require a sustainable energy source such as hydrogen. Though H2 can be produced when water reacts with fresh mineral surfaces and oxidizes ferrous iron, this reaction is unreliable since it depends upon the exposure of fresh rock surfaces via the episodic opening of cracks and fissures. A more reliable and potentially more voluminous H2 source exists in nominally anhydrous minerals of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Our experimental results indicate that H2 molecules can be derived from small amounts of H2O dissolved in minerals in the form of hydroxyl, OH- or O3Si-OH, whenever such minerals crystallized in an H2O-laden environment. Two types of experiments were conducted. Single crystal fracture experiments indicated that hydroxyl pairs undergo an in situ redox conversion to H2 molecules plus peroxy links, O3Si/OO\\SiO3. While the peroxy links become part of the mineral structure, the H2 molecules diffused out of the freshly fractured mineral surfaces. If such a mechanism occurred in natural settings, the entire rock column would become a volume source of H2. Crushing experiments to facilitate the outdiffusion of H2 were conducted with common crustal igneous rocks such as granite, andesite, and labradorite. At least 70 nmol of H2/g diffused out of coarsely crushed andesite, equivalent at standard pressure and temperature to 5,000 cm3 of H2/m3 of rock. In the water-saturated, biologically relevant upper portion of the rock column, the diffusion of H2 out of the minerals will be buffered by H2 saturation of the intergranular water film.

  13. Source Energy Spectrum of the 17 May 2012 GLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Peraza, Jorge; Márquez-Adame, Juan C.; Miroshnichenko, Leonty; Velasco-Herrera, Victor

    2018-05-01

    Among the several GLEs (ground level enhancements) that have presumptuously occurred in the period 2012-2015, the 17 May 2012 is that which is more widely accepted to be a GLE, in view of the high number of high-latitude neutron monitor stations that have registered it. In spite of the small amplitude, it was more prominent of the predicted GLE's of the present decade (Pérez-Peraza & Juárez-Zuñiga, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/803/1/27). However, the lack of latitude effect makes it difficult to study the characteristics of this event in the high-energy extreme of the spectrum. Nevertheless, several outstanding works have been able to derive observational spectra at the top of the Earth atmosphere for this peculiar GLE. Some of these works find that the flow of protons is characterized by two components. Quite a great number of works have been published in relation with observational features obtained with different instrumentation, but the source phenomena, regarding the generation processes and source physical parameters, have not been scrutinized. The main goal of this work is to look at such aspects by means of the confrontation of the different approaches of the observational spectra with our analytical theoretical spectra based on stochastic acceleration and electric field acceleration from reconnection processes. In this way, we derive a set of parameters which characterize the sources of these two GLE components, leading us to propose possible scenarios for the generation of particles in this particular GLE event.

  14. Energy-based dosimetry of low-energy, photon-emitting brachytherapy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malin, Martha J.

    Model-based dose calculation algorithms (MBDCAs) for low-energy, photon-emitting brachytherapy sources have advanced to the point where the algorithms may be used in clinical practice. Before these algorithms can be used, a methodology must be established to verify the accuracy of the source models used by the algorithms. Additionally, the source strength metric for these algorithms must be established. This work explored the feasibility of verifying the source models used by MBDCAs by measuring the differential photon fluence emitted from the encapsulation of the source. The measured fluence could be compared to that modeled by the algorithm to validate the source model. This work examined how the differential photon fluence varied with position and angle of emission from the source, and the resolution that these measurements would require for dose computations to be accurate to within 1.5%. Both the spatial and angular resolution requirements were determined. The techniques used to determine the resolution required for measurements of the differential photon fluence were applied to determine why dose-rate constants determined using a spectroscopic technique disagreed with those computed using Monte Carlo techniques. The discrepancy between the two techniques had been previously published, but the cause of the discrepancy was not known. This work determined the impact that some of the assumptions used by the spectroscopic technique had on the accuracy of the calculation. The assumption of isotropic emission was found to cause the largest discrepancy in the spectroscopic dose-rate constant. Finally, this work improved the instrumentation used to measure the rate at which energy leaves the encapsulation of a brachytherapy source. This quantity is called emitted power (EP), and is presented as a possible source strength metric for MBDCAs. A calorimeter that measured EP was designed and built. The theoretical framework that the calorimeter relied upon to measure EP

  15. The digestible energy, metabolizable energy, and net energy content of dietary fat sources in thirteen- and fifty-kilogram pigs.

    PubMed

    Kellner, T A; Patience, J F

    2017-09-01

    The objective was to determine the energy concentration of a diverse array of dietary fat sources and, from these data, develop regression equations that explain differences based on chemical composition. A total of 120 Genetiporc 6.0 × Genetiporc F25 (PIC, Inc., Hendersonville, TN) individually housed barrows were studied for 56 d. These barrows (initial BW of 9.9 ± 0.6 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 15 dietary treatments. Each experimental diet included 95% of a corn-soybean meal basal diet plus 5% either corn starch or 1 of 14 dietary fat sources. The 14 dietary fat sources (animal-vegetable blend, canola oil, choice white grease source A, choice white grease source B, coconut oil, corn oil source A, corn oil source B, fish oil, flaxseed oil, palm oil, poultry fat, soybean oil source A, soybean oil source B, and tallow) were selected to provide a diverse and robust range of unsaturated fatty acid:SFA ratios (U:S). Pigs were limit-fed experimental diets from d 0 to 10 and from d 46 to 56, providing a 7-d adaption for fecal collection on d 7 to 10 (13 kg BW) and d 53 to 56 (50 kg BW). At 13 kg BW, the average energy content of the 14 sources was 8.42 Mcal DE/kg, 8.26 Mcal ME/kg, and 7.27 Mcal NE/kg. At 50 kg BW, the average energy content was 8.45 Mcal DE/kg, 8.28 Mcal ME/kg, and 7.29 Mcal NE/kg. At 13 kg BW, the variation of dietary fat DE content was explained by DE (Mcal/kg) = 9.363 + [0.097 × (FFA, %)] - [0.016 × omega-6:omega-3 fatty acids ratio] - [1.240 × (arachidic acid, %)] - [5.054 × (insoluble impurities, %)] + [0.014 × (palmitic acid, %)] ( = 0.008, = 0.82). At 50 kg BW, the variation of dietary fat DE content was explained by DE (Mcal/kg) = 8.357 + [0.189 × U:S] - [0.195 × (FFA, %)] - [6.768 × (behenic acid, %)] + [0.024 × (PUFA, %)] ( = 0.002, = 0.81). In summary, the chemical composition of dietary fat explained a large degree of the variation observed in the energy content of dietary fat sources at both 13 and 50 kg BW.

  16. TEA: A Code Calculating Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver

    2016-07-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature-pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows & Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows & Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA.

  17. TEA: A CODE CALCULATING THERMOCHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM ABUNDANCES

    SciTech Connect

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver, E-mail: jasmina@physics.ucf.edu

    2016-07-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature–pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows and Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows and Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but withmore » higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA.« less

  18. Geochemical constraints on sources of metabolic energy for chemolithoautotrophy in ultramafic-hosted deep-sea hydrothermal systems.

    PubMed

    McCollom, Thomas M

    2007-12-01

    Numerical models are employed to investigate sources of chemical energy for autotrophic microbial metabolism that develop during mixing of oxidized seawater with strongly reduced fluids discharged from ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal systems on the seafloor. Hydrothermal fluids in these systems are highly enriched in H(2) and CH(4) as a result of alteration of ultramafic rocks (serpentinization) in the subsurface. Based on the availability of chemical energy sources, inferences are made about the likely metabolic diversity, relative abundance, and spatial distribution of microorganisms within ultramafic-hosted systems. Metabolic reactions involving H(2) and CH(4), particularly hydrogen oxidation, methanotrophy, sulfate reduction, and methanogenesis, represent the predominant sources of chemical energy during fluid mixing. Owing to chemical gradients that develop from fluid mixing, aerobic metabolisms are likely to predominate in low-temperature environments (<20-30 degrees C), while anaerobes will dominate higher-temperature environments. Overall, aerobic metabolic reactions can supply up to approximately 7 kJ of energy per kilogram of hydrothermal fluid, while anaerobic metabolic reactions can supply about 1 kJ, which is sufficient to support a maximum of approximately 120 mg (dry weight) of primary biomass production by aerobic organisms and approximately 20-30 mg biomass by anaerobes. The results indicate that ultramafic-hosted systems are capable of supplying about twice as much chemical energy as analogous deep-sea hydrothermal systems hosted in basaltic rocks.

  19. Utilization of rapeseed pellet from fatty acid methyl esters production as an energy source.

    PubMed

    Ciunel, Krzysztof; Klugmann-Radziemska, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Rapeseed pellet - crushed seed residue from oil extraction is a by-product of fatty acid methyl esters production process. As other types of biomass, it can either be burned directly in furnaces or processed to increase its energetic value. Biomass is renewable, abundant and has domestic usage; the sources ofbiomass can help the world reduce its dependence on petroleum products, fossil coal and natural gas. Energetically effective utilization of rapeseed pellet could substantially improve the economic balance of an individual household in which biodiesel for fulfilling the producer's own energetic demand is obtained. In this article, the experimental results of combusting rapeseed pellet in a calorimeter, combustion in a boiler heater and the analysis of the emissions level of different pollutants in exhaust fumes during different stages of biomass boiler operation are presented. It has been proved that the pellet, a by-product of biodiesel production, is not only a valuable substitute of animal fodder, but also an excellent renewable and environmentally friendly energy source, viable for use in household tap water heating installations.

  20. 3rd Miami international conference on alternative energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Nejat Veziroglu, T.

    1980-01-01

    The conference includes sessions on solar energy, ocean thermal energy, wind energy, hydro power, nuclear breeders and nuclear fusion, synthetic fuels from coal or wastes, hydrogen production and uses, formulation of workable policies on energy use and energy conservation, heat and energy storage, and energy education. The volume of the proceedings presents the papers and lectures in condensed format grouped by subject under forty-two sessions for 319 presentations.

  1. Space-based measurements of elemental abundances and their relation to solar abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coplan, M. A.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Bochsler, P.; Geiss, J.

    1990-01-01

    The Ion Composition Instrument (ICI) aboard the ISEE-3/ICE spacecraft was in the solar wind continuously from August 1978 to December 1982. The results made it possible to establish long-term average solar wind abundance values for helium, oxygen, neon, silicon, and iron. The Charge-Energy-Mass instrument aboard the CCE spacecraft of the AMPTE mission has measured the abundance of these elements in the magnetosheath and has also added carbon, nitrogen, magnesium, and sulfur to the list. There is strong evidence that these magnetosheath abundances are representative of the solar wind. Other sources of solar wind abundances are Solar Energetic Particle experiments and Apollo lunar foils. When comparing the abundances from all of these sources with photospheric abundances, it is clear that helium is depleted in the solar wind while silicon and iron are enhanced. Solar wind abundances for carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and neon correlate well with the photospheric values. The incorporation of minor ions into the solar wind appears to depend upon both the ionization times for the elements and the Coulomb drag exerted by the outflowing proton flux.

  2. Complex carbohydrates as a possible source of high energy to formulate functional feeds.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Leonel; Paniagua Michel, José de Jesús; Olmos-Soto, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Carbohydrates (CHOs) are the most abundant organic compounds found in living organisms and are a great source of metabolic energy, both for plants and animals. Besides of CHOs great potential to solve animal's energy requirements and diminishing high feed cost, we first must to understand its digestibility and assimilation to avoid several inconvenients. Today, CHOs feed animal inclusions are of great concern about cost-benefits, animal's health status, and environmental pollution. In this chapter, we make a brief description about sugars (DP1-2), oligosaccharides (DP3-9), polysaccharides (DP ≥10), and their essential characteristics to understand the role of marine and terrestrial CHOs in animal nutrition. Subsequently, we talk about basic concepts, CHOs functional benefits, suggestions about their application and successful cases. This information will contribute to produce a new generation of high-quality and energetic functional feed formulations for livestock and aquaculture farms; which must be of low cost, healthy, and environmentally friendly, with the inclusion of prebiotics and probiotics. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Feeding a subsurface biosphere: radiolysis and abiogenic energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onstott, T.

    Noble gas analyses of ground water collected from the deep, fractured, basaltic andesite and quartzite Archean strata in South Africa suggest subsurface residence times ranging from tens to hundreds of millions of years. Hydraulically isolated compartments of highly saline water contain hundreds of μM concentrations of gas comprised primarily of C1-4 hydrocarbons, H2 and He, with minor Ar and N .2 Carbon and hydrogen isotopic analyses of the hydrocarbons suggest an abiogenic origin com atible with surface catalysed reductive assimilation (i.e. Fischer-Tropschp synthesis). H2 and He data suggest that the H2 is generated by subsurface radiolysis of water. One sample of a saline, isolated water/gas pocket agrees exactly with that predicted by radioactive decay of U, Th, K in the host rock and indicates a subsurface H2 production rate of 0.1 to 1 nM/yr. Other samples yielded less H2 than predicted and require a sink for this H2 . Possible sinks include microbial H2 oxidation and abiotic formation of hydrocarbons at rates slightly less than the H2 production rate. Highly diffusive H2 is essential for life in deep subsurface environments where only trace amounts of organic carbon exist. Lithoautotrophic microbes can acquire energy from the redox reactions involving H2 with other electron acceptors (Fe3 +, SO4 2 - or CO2 ), to synthesis organic carbon and can be fully independent of solar-driven photosynthesis. The microbial abundance in many of these ground water samples, however, is below our detection limit (<5000 cells/ml). This contrasts with shallow sedimentary aquifers where H2 levels of tens of nM are regulated by the coexistence of autotrophs/lithotrophs and heterotrophs for maximum efficiency of H2 utilization. The excessive H2 found in deep crustal environments implies that these microbial ecosystems are electron-acceptor and or substrate limited. The oxidants generated by water radiolysis interact with the reduced solid phases in the rock matrix, e.g. pyrite

  4. Coorbital Collision as the Energy Source for Enceladus' Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peale, Stanton J.; Greenberg, R.

    2009-09-01

    A collision of a coorbiting satellite with Enceladus is proposed as the source of energy to power the observed plumes emanating from the south pole of the satellite. A coorbital would have impacted at a velocity only slightly above the escape velocity of Enceladus, which would likely be necessary to keep the collision gentle enough not to disrupt the old cratered terrain nearby. If the mass were 1% of Enceladus', the energy deposited can sustain the plumes for approximately 80,000 to 200,000 years at the estimated observed power of 6 to 15 GW, so the impact would have been quite recent. The collision at an arbitrary point would leave Enceladus with non-synchronous, non-principal-axis rotation and a significant obliquity. After subsuming the impactor's volume, the region around the impact point will have expanded in a manner consistent with the observed tectonic pattern. The ring-like expansion implied by the radial cracks suggests that the new principal axis of maximum moment of inertia could have passed through the impact point. Internal dissipation from precession of the spin axis about the axis of maximum moment of inertia in the body frame of reference and from tides raised on Enceladus cause the axes of spin and of maximum moment to converge as the spin is brought to a zero obliquity and synchronous rotation on a time scale that is extremely short compared to the lifetime of the plumes. Hence, the region of collision, which is hot, ends up at one of the poles where we find the plumes.

  5. Potential Ambient Energy-Harvesting Sources and Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildiz, Faruk

    2009-01-01

    Ambient energy harvesting is also known as energy scavenging or power harvesting, and it is the process where energy is obtained from the environment. A variety of techniques are available for energy scavenging, including solar and wind powers, ocean waves, piezoelectricity, thermoelectricity, and physical motions. For example, some systems…

  6. 16 CFR Table 4 to Part 1512 - Relative Energy Distribution of Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Relative Energy Distribution of Sources 4... SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Table 4 Table 4 to Part 1512—Relative Energy Distribution of Sources Wave length (nanometers) Relative energy 380 9.79 390 12.09 400 14.71 410 17.68 420 21...

  7. 16 CFR Table 4 to Part 1512 - Relative Energy Distribution of Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Relative Energy Distribution of Sources 4... SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Table 4 Table 4 to Part 1512—Relative Energy Distribution of Sources Wave length (nanometers) Relative energy 380 9.79 390 12.09 400 14.71 410 17.68 420 21...

  8. 16 CFR Table 4 to Part 1512 - Relative Energy Distribution of Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Relative Energy Distribution of Sources 4... SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Table 4 Table 4 to Part 1512—Relative Energy Distribution of Sources Wave length (nanometers) Relative energy 380 9.79 390 12.09 400 14.71 410 17.68 420 21...

  9. 16 CFR Table 4 to Part 1512 - Relative Energy Distribution of Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Relative Energy Distribution of Sources 4... SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Table 4 Table 4 to Part 1512—Relative Energy Distribution of Sources Wave length (nanometers) Relative energy 380 9.79 390 12.09 400 14.71 410 17.68 420 21...

  10. 16 CFR Table 4 to Part 1512 - Relative Energy Distribution of Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relative Energy Distribution of Sources 4... SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Table 4 Table 4 to Part 1512—Relative Energy Distribution of Sources Wave length (nanometers) Relative energy 380 9.79 390 12.09 400 14.71 410 17.68 420 21...

  11. High-Energy Electron Shell in ECR Ion Source:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niimura, M. G.; Goto, A.; Yano, Y.

    1997-05-01

    As an injector of cyclotrons and RFQ linacs, ECR ion source (ECRIS) is expected to deliver highly charged ions (HCI) at high beam-current (HBC). Injections of light gases and supplementary electrons have been employed for enhancement of HCI and HBC, respectively. Further amelioration of the performance may be feasible by investigating the hot-electron ring inside an ECRIS. Its existence has been granted because of the MeV of Te observable via X-ray diagnostics. However, its location, acceleration mechanism, and effects on the performance are not well known.We found them by deriving the radially negative potential distribution for an ECRIS from measured endloss-current data. It was evidenced from a hole-burning on the parabolic potential profile (by uniformly distributed warm-electron space charges of 9.5x10^5cm-3) and from a local minimum of the electrostatically-trapped ion distribution. A high-energy electron shell (HEES) was located right on the ECR-radius of 6 cm with shell-halfwidth of 1 cm. Such a thin shell around core plasma can only be generated by the Sadeev-Shapiro or v_phxBz acceleration mechanism that can raise Te up to a relativistic value. Here, v_ph is the phase velocity of ES Bernstein waves propagating backwards against incident microwave and Bz the axial mirror magnetic field. The HEES carries diamagnetic current which reduces the core magnetic pressure, thereby stabilizing the ECR surface against driftwave instabilities similarly to gas-mixing.

  12. Opportunities of energy supply of farm holdings on the basis of small-scale renewable energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efendiev, A. M.; Nikolaev, Yu. E.; Evstaf'ev, D. P.

    2016-02-01

    One of the major national economic problems of Russia is raising of agricultural production, which will provide strategic security and sustainable supply of the population with provisions. Creation of subsidiary small holdings, farm holdings, and peasant farm holdings will require addressing issues of energy supply. At considerable distance of small farms from centralized energy systems (by fuel, electricity and thermal energy) it is proposed to create a system of local energy networks on the basis of low-powered power plants using renewable energy sources (RES). There is economic unreasonableness of use of imported components of small power plants. Creation of new combined small power plants on renewable energy sources produced by domestic manufacturers is recommended. Schemes of arrangements of small power plants based on renewable energy sources are proposed, variants and characteristics of a basic source are provided—biogas plants developed by the authors. Calculations revealed that heat and power supply of self-contained farms distant from small power plants based on renewable energy sources is 2.5-2.6 times cheaper than from centralized networks. Production of biogas through anaerobic fermentation of organic waste of cattle complexes is considered as the basis. The analysis of biowaste output in various cattle farms is carried out, and the volume of biogas is determined to meet the requirements of these farms in electrical and thermal energy. The objective of the present article is to study the possibility of creating small combined power plants in Russia based on renewable sources of energy for independent consumers.

  13. Alternate Funding Sources for the International Atomic Energy Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Toomey, Christopher; Wyse, Evan T.; Kurzrok, Andrew J.

    Since 1957, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has worked to ensure the safe and responsible promotion of nuclear technology throughout the world. The IAEA operates at the intersection of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty’s (NPT) fourth and third articles, which guarantee Parties to the Treaty the right to peaceful uses of nuclear technology, provided those activities are placed under safeguards verified by the IAEA. However, while the IAEA has enjoyed substantial success and prestige in the international community, there is a concern that its resources are being stretched to a point where it may no longer be possible to executemore » its multifaceted mission in its entirety. As noted by the Director General (DG) in 2008, demographics suggest that every aspect of the IAEA’s operations will be in higher demand due to increasing reliance on non-carbon-based energy and the concomitant nonproliferation, safety, and security risks that growth entails. In addition to these nuclear energy concerns, the demand for technical developmental assistance in the fields of food security, resource conservation, and human health is also predicted to increase as the rest of the world develops. Even with a 100% value-for-money rating by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and being described as an “extraordinary bargain” by the United Nations Secretary-General’s High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change, real budget growth at the Agency has been limited to zero-real growth for a better part of the last two decades. Although the 2012 regular budget (RB) received a small increase for most programs, the 2013 RB has been set at zero-real growth. As a result, the IAEA has had to defer infrastructure investments, which has hindered its ability to provide the public goods its Members seek, decreased global security and development opportunities, and functionally transformed the IAEA into a charity, dependent on extrabudgetary (EB) contributions to

  14. Special electrical machines: Sources and converters of energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertinov, A. I.; But, D. A.; Miziurin, S. R.; Alievskii, B. L.; Sineva, N. V.

    The principles underlying the operation of electromechanical and dynamic energy converters are discussed, along with those for the direct conversion of solar, thermal, and chemical energy into electrical energy. The theory for electromechanical and dynamic converters is formulated using a generalized model for the electromechanical conversion of energy. Particular attention is given to electrical machinery designed for special purposes. Features of superconductor electrical machines are discussed.

  15. Relative abundances of elements (20 or = Z or = 28) at energies up to 70 GeV/amu using relativistic rise in ion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelmy, S. D.; Israel, M. H.; Klarmann, J.

    1985-01-01

    The results of a new balloon borne cosmic ray detector flown from Palestine, TX in Sept., 1982 are discussed. The exposure of 62 square meter-ster-hr is sufficient to prove the concept of using gas ionization chambers as energy measuring devices in the relativistic rise region. The abundances, relative Fe-26, of the pure secondaries Cr-22 and Ti-24, the pure primary Ni26, and the mixed primary and secondary Ca-20 between 6 and 70GeV/amu were measured.

  16. Peptostreptococcus productus strain that grows rapidly with CO as the energy source.

    PubMed Central

    Lorowitz, W H; Bryant, M P

    1984-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria were enriched with a sewage digestor sludge inoculum and a mineral medium supplemented with B-vitamins and 0.05% yeast extract and with a 50% CO-30% N2-20% CO2 (2 atm [202 kPa]) gas phase. Microscopic observation revealed an abundance of gram-positive cocci, 1.0 by 1.4 micron, which occurred in pairs or chains. The coccus, strain U-1, was isolated by using roll tubes with CO as the energy source. Based on morphology, sugars fermented, fermentation products from glucose (H2, acetate, lactate, and succinate), and other features, strain U-1 was identified as Peptostreptococcus productus IIb (similar to the type strain). The doubling time with up to 50% CO was 1.5 h; acetate and CO2 were the major products. In addition, no significant change in the doubling time was observed with 90% CO. Some stock strains were also able to use CO, although not as well. Strain U-1 produced acetate during growth with H2-CO2. Other C1 compounds did not support growth. Most probable numbers of CO utilizers morphologically identical with strain U-1 were 7.5 X 10(6) and 1.1 X 10(5) cells per g for anaerobic digestor sludge and human feces, respectively. PMID:6430231

  17. A logistic regression approach to model the willingness of consumers to adopt renewable energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulkhaq, M. M.; Widodo, A. K.; Yulianto, M. F. A.; Widhiyaningrum; Mustikasari, A.; Akshinta, P. Y.

    2018-03-01

    The implementation of renewable energy in this globalization era is inevitable since the non-renewable energy leads to climate change and global warming; hence, it does harm the environment and human life. However, in the developing countries, such as Indonesia, the implementation of the renewable energy sources does face technical and social problems. For the latter, renewable energy sources implementation is only effective if the public is aware of its benefits. This research tried to identify the determinants that influence consumers’ intention in adopting renewable energy sources. In addition, this research also tried to predict the consumers who are willing to apply the renewable energy sources in their houses using a logistic regression approach. A case study was conducted in Semarang, Indonesia. The result showed that only eight variables (from fifteen) that are significant statistically, i.e., educational background, employment status, income per month, average electricity cost per month, certainty about the efficiency of renewable energy project, relatives’ influence to adopt the renewable energy sources, energy tax deduction, and the condition of the price of the non-renewable energy sources. The finding of this study could be used as a basis for the government to set up a policy towards an implementation of the renewable energy sources.

  18. Proceedings of condensed papers on alternate energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Veziroglu, T.N.

    1979-01-01

    The conference covers the results of research and developments which have taken place during the last 2 years. It includes sessions on solar energy, ocean thermal energy, wind energy, hydro power, nuclear breeders and nuclear fusion, synthetic fuels from coal or waste, hydrogen production and uses. The volume of the Proceedings presents the papers and lectures in condensed format grouped by their subjects under 40 technical sessions. Condensed papers are presented for the 336 presentations; abstracts have previously appeared in the DOE Energy Data Base for 33 of the full-length papers.

  19. Biological Systems, Energy Sources, and Biology Teaching. Biology and Human Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tribe, Michael; Pritchard, Alan J.

    This five-chapter document (part of a series on biology and human welfare) focuses on biological systems as energy sources and on the teaching of this subject area. Chapter 1 discusses various topics related to energy and ecology, including biomass, photosynthesis and world energy balances, energy flow through ecosystems, and others. Chapter 2…

  20. Gravitational potential as a source of earthquake energy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrows, L.; Langer, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    Some degree of tectonic stress within the earth originates from gravity acting upon density structures. The work performed by this "gravitational tectonics stress" must have formerly existed as gravitational potential energy contained in the stress-causing density structure. According to the elastic rebound theory (Reid, 1910), the energy of earthquakes comes from an elastic strain field built up by fairly continuous elastic deformation in the period between events. For earthquakes resulting from gravitational tectonic stress, the elastic rebound theory requires the transfer of energy from the gravitational potential of the density structures into an elastic strain field prior to the event. An alternate theory involves partial gravitational collapse of the stress-causing density structures. The earthquake energy comes directly from a net decrease in gravitational potential energy. The gravitational potential energy released at the time of the earthquake is split between the energy released by the earthquake, including work done in the fault zone and an increase in stored elastic strain energy. The stress associated with this elastic strain field should oppose further fault slip. ?? 1981.

  1. Alternate energy source usage for in situ heat treatment processes

    DOEpatents

    Stone, Jr., Francis Marion; Goodwin, Charles R [League City, TX; Richard, Jr., James

    2011-03-22

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one system for providing power to one or more subsurface heaters is described herein. The system may include an intermittent power source; a transformer coupled to the intermittent power source, and a tap controller coupled to the transformer. The transformer may be configured to transform power from the intermittent power source to power with appropriate operating parameters for the heaters. The tap controller may be configured to monitor and control the transformer so that a constant voltage is provided to the heaters from the transformer regardless of the load of the heaters and the power output provided by the intermittent power source.

  2. Impact of novel energy sources: OTEC, wind, goethermal, biomass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, A. S., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Alternate energy conversion methods such as ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), wind power, geothermal wells and biomass conversion are being explored, and re-examined in some cases, for commercial viability. At a time when United States fossil fuel and uranium resources are found to be insufficient to supply national needs into the twenty-first century, it is essential to broaden the base of feasible energy conversion technologies. The motivations for development of these four alternative energy forms are established. Primary technical aspects of OTEC, wind, geothermal and biomass energy conversion systems are described along with a discussion of relative advantages and disadvantages of the concepts. Finally, the sentiment is voiced that each of the four systems should be developed to the prototype stage and employed in the region of the country and in the sector of economy which is complimentary to the form of system output.

  3. Cornstalk as a source of fiber and energy

    Treesearch

    Aziz Ahmed; J. Y. Zhu

    2006-01-01

    Wood is the major source of fiber supply. Non-wood fibers are mainly used in papermaking where there is a lack of forest resource such as in China and India. Cornstalk, among the agricultural residues and other non-wood fiber, is the most promising source of fiber. However, The usage of cornstalks is very limited in pulp and paper industry, although nearly 284 million...

  4. Accounting Methodology for Source Energy of Non-Combustible Renewable Electricity Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Donohoo-Vallett, Paul

    As non-combustible sources of renewable power (wind, solar, hydro, and geothermal) do not consume fuel, the “source” (or “primary”) energy from these sources cannot be accounted for in the same manner as it is for fossil fuel sources. The methodology chosen for these technologies is important as it affects the perception of the relative size of renewable source energy to fossil energy, affects estimates of source-based building energy use, and overall source energy based metrics such as energy productivity. This memo reviews the methodological choices, outlines implications of each choice, summarizes responses to a request for information on this topic,more » and presents guiding principles for the U.S. Department of Energy, (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) to use to determine where modifying the current renewable source energy accounting method used in EERE products and analyses would be appropriate to address the issues raised above.« less

  5. Metagenomic Analyses Reveal That Energy Transfer Gene Abundances Can Predict the Syntrophic Potential of Environmental Microbial Communities.

    PubMed

    Oberding, Lisa; Gieg, Lisa M

    2016-01-05

    Hydrocarbon compounds can be biodegraded by anaerobic microorganisms to form methane through an energetically interdependent metabolic process known as syntrophy. The microorganisms that perform this process as well as the energy transfer mechanisms involved are difficult to study and thus are still poorly understood, especially on an environmental scale. Here, metagenomic data was analyzed for specific clusters of orthologous groups (COGs) related to key energy transfer genes thus far identified in syntrophic bacteria, and principal component analysis was used in order to determine whether potentially syntrophic environments could be distinguished using these syntroph related COGs as opposed to universally present COGs. We found that COGs related to hydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase genes were able to distinguish known syntrophic consortia and environments with the potential for syntrophy from non-syntrophic environments, indicating that these COGs could be used as a tool to identify syntrophic hydrocarbon biodegrading environments using metagenomic data.

  6. Metagenomic Analyses Reveal That Energy Transfer Gene Abundances Can Predict the Syntrophic Potential of Environmental Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Oberding, Lisa; Gieg, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrocarbon compounds can be biodegraded by anaerobic microorganisms to form methane through an energetically interdependent metabolic process known as syntrophy. The microorganisms that perform this process as well as the energy transfer mechanisms involved are difficult to study and thus are still poorly understood, especially on an environmental scale. Here, metagenomic data was analyzed for specific clusters of orthologous groups (COGs) related to key energy transfer genes thus far identified in syntrophic bacteria, and principal component analysis was used in order to determine whether potentially syntrophic environments could be distinguished using these syntroph related COGs as opposed to universally present COGs. We found that COGs related to hydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase genes were able to distinguish known syntrophic consortia and environments with the potential for syntrophy from non-syntrophic environments, indicating that these COGs could be used as a tool to identify syntrophic hydrocarbon biodegrading environments using metagenomic data. PMID:27681901

  7. Energy balance in the solar transition region. III - Helium emission in hydrostatic, constant-abundance models with diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontenla, J. M.; Avrett, E. H.; Loeser, R.

    1993-01-01

    In our previous papers we described the mathematical formalism and the computed results for energy-balance hydrostatic models of the solar transition region. In this paper we discuss in some detail the limitations of the hydrostatic and one-dimensional assumptions used. Then we analyze the determination of helium emission when diffusion is included. We use transport coefficients estimated from kinetic theory to determine the helium departures from local ionization balance. We calculate the helium spectra for each of our models and evaluate the role of helium in the energy transport. Also, we investigate the effects of coronal illumination on the structure of the transition region and upper chromosphere, and show how coronal illumination affects various EUV lines and the He I 10830 A line. Comparing with both absolute intensities and detailed line profiles, we show that our models are consistent not only with the observed hydrogen spectra but also with the available helium spectra.

  8. The assessment of global thermo-energy performances of existing district heating systems optimized by harnessing renewable energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şoimoşan, Teodora M.; Danku, Gelu; Felseghi, Raluca A.

    2017-12-01

    Within the thermo-energy optimization process of an existing heating system, the increase of the system's energy efficiency and speeding-up the transition to green energy use are pursued. The concept of multi-energy district heating system, with high harnessing levels of the renewable energy sources (RES) in order to produce heat, is expected to be the key-element in the future urban energy infrastructure, due to the important role it can have in the strategies of optimizing and decarbonizing the existing district heating systems. The issues that arise are related to the efficient integration of different technologies of harnessing renewable energy sources in the energy mix and to the increase of the participation levels of RES, respectively. For the holistic modeling of the district heating system, the concept of the energy hub was used, where the synergy of different primary forms of entered energy provides the system a high degree energy security and flexibility in operation. The optimization of energy flows within the energy hub allows the optimization of the thermo-energy district system in order to approach the dual concept of smart city & smart energy.

  9. The impacts of renewable energy policies on renewable energy sources for electricity generating capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Bryan Bonsuk

    Electricity generation from non-hydro renewable sources has increased rapidly in the last decade. For example, Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity (RES-E) generating capacity in the U.S. almost doubled for the last three year from 2009 to 2012. Multiple papers point out that RES-E policies implemented by state governments play a crucial role in increasing RES-E generation or capacity. This study examines the effects of state RES-E policies on state RES-E generating capacity, using a fixed effects model. The research employs panel data from the 50 states and the District of Columbia, for the period 1990 to 2011, and uses a two-stage approach to control endogeneity embedded in the policies adopted by state governments, and a Prais-Winsten estimator to fix any autocorrelation in the panel data. The analysis finds that Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) and Net-metering are significantly and positively associated with RES-E generating capacity, but neither Public Benefit Funds nor the Mandatory Green Power Option has a statistically significant relation to RES-E generating capacity. Results of the two-stage model are quite different from models which do not employ predicted policy variables. Analysis using non-predicted variables finds that RPS and Net-metering policy are statistically insignificant and negatively associated with RES-E generating capacity. On the other hand, Green Energy Purchasing policy is insignificant in the two-stage model, but significant in the model without predicted values.

  10. Can Airports be a Green Source of Energy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solus, Daniel; Archer, Charysse; Malone, Brandi; Chesterfield, Norrisha; Jackson, Lateria; Erenso, Daniel

    2008-04-01

    When Boeing 747 lands its energy (896MJ) is dissipated by friction. Our statistical analysis for commercial aircrafts landing at the Nashville International Airport (BNA) have discovered that nearly 30 average single family households can be powered by the dissipated energy on a monthly basis. It may be possible to land an airplane on a frictionless surface and transform its energy into electrical energy. To demonstrate this we have conducted theoretical and experimental studies using a conducting rod attached to a toy car sliding on a U-shaped conducting wire placed in a uniform magnetic field track. The results concluded that this technique requires a very strong magnetic field. We then used a cylindrical magnet mounted on toy trucks and set to roll on a track inside a solenoid and been able to generate an ac voltage (4-10 volts).

  11. Higgs seesaw mechanism as a source for dark energy.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Lawrence M; Dent, James B

    2013-08-09

    Motivated by the seesaw mechanism for neutrinos which naturally generates small neutrino masses, we explore how a small grand-unified-theory-scale mixing between the standard model Higgs boson and an otherwise massless hidden sector scalar can naturally generate a small mass and vacuum expectation value for the new scalar which produces a false vacuum energy density contribution comparable to that of the observed dark energy dominating the current expansion of the Universe. This provides a simple and natural mechanism for producing the correct scale for dark energy, even if it does not address the long-standing question of why much larger dark energy contributions are not produced from the visible sector. The new scalar produces no discernible signatures in existing terrestrial experiments so that one may have to rely on other cosmological tests of this idea.

  12. 77 FR 41873 - In the Matter of Alternative Energy Sources, Inc., Arlington Hospitality, Inc., Consolidated Oil...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] In the Matter of Alternative Energy Sources, Inc., Arlington Hospitality, Inc., Consolidated Oil & Gas, Inc., CSMG Technologies, Inc., Dakotah... Alternative Energy Sources, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period ended...

  13. Energy sources for gynecologic laparoscopic surgery: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Law, Kenneth S K; Abbott, Jason A; Lyons, Stephen D

    2014-12-01

    A range of energy sources are used in gynecologic laparoscopy. These energy sources include monopolar electrosurgery, bipolar electrosurgery (including "advanced bipolar" devices that incorporate tissue feedback monitoring), and various types of laser and ultrasonic technologies. Gynecologists using these tools should be aware of the potential benefits and potential dangers of these instruments. This review provides an overview of the biophysics of these energy sources, their tissue effects, and the complications that may arise. It aims to highlight any potential advantages or disadvantages of various energy sources, as reported by clinical and laboratory studies. Literature relating to energy sources used in gynecologic laparoscopy was reviewed. While laboratory-based studies have reported differences between various energy sources, these differences may not be clinically significant. The choice of instrumentation may depend on the nature of the surgical task being performed, but other factors, such as the surgeon's training/experience, cost, and industry marketing, may also influence the decision. TAn awareness of the pros and cons of each energy modality and their relative efficacy profiles is paramount. It is important that surgeons have an understanding of the biophysics of these technologies in order to understand their limitations and potential dangers and to utilize the most appropriate energy source(s) in the appropriate clinical setting, in order to both minimize the risk of inadvertent injuries during gynecologic laparoscopy and to maximize cost-efficient delivery of health care.

  14. 48 CFR 217.174 - Multiyear contracts for electricity from renewable energy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... electricity from renewable energy sources. 217.174 Section 217.174 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Mulityear Contracting 217.174 Multiyear contracts for electricity from... not to exceed 10 years for the purchase of electricity from sources of renewable energy, as that term...

  15. 48 CFR 217.174 - Multiyear contracts for electricity from renewable energy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... electricity from renewable energy sources. 217.174 Section 217.174 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Mulityear Contracting 217.174 Multiyear contracts for electricity from... not to exceed 10 years for the purchase of electricity from sources of renewable energy, as that term...

  16. 48 CFR 217.174 - Multiyear contracts for electricity from renewable energy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... electricity from renewable energy sources. 217.174 Section 217.174 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Mulityear Contracting 217.174 Multiyear contracts for electricity from... not to exceed 10 years for the purchase of electricity from sources of renewable energy, as that term...

  17. 48 CFR 217.174 - Multiyear contracts for electricity from renewable energy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... electricity from renewable energy sources. 217.174 Section 217.174 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Mulityear Contracting 217.174 Multiyear contracts for electricity from... not to exceed 10 years for the purchase of electricity from sources of renewable energy, as that term...

  18. 48 CFR 217.175 - Multiyear contracts for electricity from renewable energy sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... electricity from renewable energy sources. 217.175 Section 217.175 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Mulityear Contracting 217.175 Multiyear contracts for electricity from... not to exceed 10 years for the purchase of electricity from sources of renewable energy, as that term...

  19. Alternative Energy Sources for United States Air Force Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-08-01

    easy to maintain, and have a relatively long life expectancy. b. Linear Focus Parabolic trough collectors have been fabricated by two primary methods...engineered and economically manufactured and dis- tributed solar collectors . Development, optimization, production design, and manufacture of these units is...193 and domestic hnt water heating. These systems function by converting the solar energy incident on a collector surface to thermal energy in a working

  20. Ionic and electronic behaviors of earth-abundant semiconductor materials and their applications toward solar energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Matthew T.

    Semiconductor devices offer promise for efficient conversion of sunlight into other useful forms of energy, in either photovoltaic or photoelectrochemical cell configurations to produce electrical power or chemical energy, respectively. This dissertation examines ionic and electronic phenomena in some candidate semiconductors and seeks to understand their implications toward solar energy conversion applications. First, copper sulfide (Cu2S) was examined as a candidate photovoltaic material. It was discovered that its unique property of cation diffusion allows the room-temperature synthesis of vertically-aligned nanowire arrays, a morphology which facilitates study of the diffusion processes. This diffusivity was found to induce hysteresis in the electronic behavior, leading to the phenomena of resistive switching and negative differential resistance. The Cu2S were then demonstrated as morphological templates for solid-state conversion into different types of heterostructures, including segmented and rod-in-tube morphologies. Near-complete conversion to ZnS, enabled by the out-diffusion of Cu back into the substrate, was also achieved. While the ion diffusion property likely hinders the reliability of Cu 2S in photovoltaic applications, it was shown to enable useful electronic and ionic behaviors. Secondly, iron oxide (Fe2O3, hematite) was examined as a photoanode for photoelectrochemical water splitting. Its energetic limitations toward the water electrolysis reactions were addressed using two approaches aimed at achieving greater photovoltages and thereby improved water splitting efficiencies. In the first, a built-in n-p junction produced an internal field to drive charge separation and generate photovoltage. In the second, Fe 2O3 was deposited onto a smaller band gap material, silicon, to form a device capable of producing enhanced total photovoltage by a dual-absorber Z-scheme mechanism. Both approaches resulted in a cathodic shift of the photocurrent onset

  1. The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) Earth Occultation Catalog of Low-Energy Gamma-Ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, B. A.; Wilson, C. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Connaughton, V.; Henze, W.; Paciesas, W. S.; Finger, M. H.; McCollough, M. L.; Sahi, M.; Peterson, B.

    2004-01-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), aboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), provided a record of the low-energy gamma-ray sky (approx. 20-1000 keV) between 1991 April and 2000 May (9.1 yr). BATSE monitored the high-energy sky using the Earth occultation technique (EOT) for point sources whose emission extended for times on the order of the CGRO orbital period (approx. 92 min) or greater. Using the EOT to extract flux information, a catalog of sources using data from the BATSE Large Area Detectors has been prepared. The first part of the catalog consists of results from the all-sky monitoring of 58 sources, mostly Galactic, with intrinsic variability on timescales of hours to years. For these sources, we have included tables of flux and spectral data, and outburst times for transients. Light curves (or flux histories) have been placed on the World Wide Web. We then performed a deep sampling of these 58 objects, plus a selection of 121 more objects, combining data from the entire 9.1 yr BATSE data set. Source types considered were primarily accreting binaries, but a small number of representative active galaxies, X-ray-emitting stars, and supernova remnants were also included. The sample represents a compilation of sources monitored and/or discovered with BATSE and other high-energy instruments between 1991 and 2000, known sources taken from the HEAO 1 A-4 and Macomb & Gehrels catalogs. The deep sample results include definite detections of 83 objects and possible detections of 36 additional objects. The definite detections spanned three classes of sources: accreting black hole and neutron star binaries, active galaxies, and Supernova remnants. The average fluxes measured for the fourth class, the X-ray emitting stars, were below the confidence limit for definite detection.

  2. Relative abundances of sub-iron to iron nuclei in low energy (50-250 MeV/N) cosmic rays as observed in the SKYLAB experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durgaprasad, N.; Yadav, J. S.; Biswas, S.

    1985-08-01

    A Lexan polycarbonate detector exposed on the exterior of Skylab-3 for 73 days during a solar quiet period was used to study the relative abundances of calcium to nickel ions in low energy cosmic rays of 50 to 250 MeV/N. The method of charge identification is based on the measurement of conelength (L) and residual range (R) of these particles in various Lexan sheets. Since more than one cone (sometimes as many as five) is observed and is measured, the charge accuracy becomes precise and accurate. The ratio of (calcium to manganese) to (iron and cobalt) obtained at three energy intervals of 50 to 80, 80 to 150, 150 to 250 and 50 to 250 MeV/N are 7.6 plus or minus 3.8, 2.7 plus or minus 0.8, 1.4 plus or minus 0.6 and 3.3 plus or minus 0.7 respectively. These data thus indicate a large increase of this ratio with decreasing energy. The origin of this strong energy dependence is not understood at present.

  3. Mono-Energy Coronary Angiography with a Compact Synchrotron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggl, Elena; Mechlem, Korbinian; Braig, Eva; Kulpe, Stephanie; Dierolf, Martin; Günther, Benedikt; Achterhold, Klaus; Herzen, Julia; Gleich, Bernhard; Rummeny, Ernst; Noёl, Peter B.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Muenzel, Daniela

    2017-02-01

    X-ray coronary angiography is an invaluable tool for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. However, the use of iodine-based contrast media can be contraindicated for patients who present with chronic renal insufficiency or with severe iodine allergy. These patients could benefit from a reduced contrast agent concentration, possibly achieved through application of a mono-energetic x-ray beam. While large-scale synchrotrons are impractical for daily clinical use, the technology of compact synchrotron sources strongly advanced during the last decade. Here we present a quantitative analysis of the benefits a compact synchrotron source can offer in coronary angiography. Simulated projection data from quasi-mono-energetic and conventional x-ray tube spectra is used for a CNR comparison. Results show that compact synchrotron spectra would allow for a significant reduction of contrast media. Experimentally, we demonstrate the feasibility of coronary angiography at the Munich Compact Light Source, the first commercial installation of a compact synchrotron source.

  4. Photovoltaics as a terrestrial energy source. Volume 3: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems were evaluated in terms of their potential for terrestrial application A comprehensive overview of important issues which bear on photovoltaic (PV) systems development is presented. Studies of PV system costs, the societal implications of PV system development, and strategies in PV research and development in relationship to current energy policies are summarized.

  5. Method for enhancing low frequency output of impulsive type seismic energy sources and its application to a seismic energy source for use while drilling

    DOEpatents

    Radtke, Robert P; Stokes, Robert H; Glowka, David A

    2014-12-02

    A method for operating an impulsive type seismic energy source in a firing sequence having at least two actuations for each seismic impulse to be generated by the source. The actuations have a time delay between them related to a selected energy frequency peak of the source output. One example of the method is used for generating seismic signals in a wellbore and includes discharging electric current through a spark gap disposed in the wellbore in at least one firing sequence. The sequence includes at least two actuations of the spark gap separated by an amount of time selected to cause acoustic energy resulting from the actuations to have peak amplitude at a selected frequency.

  6. Inverter for interfacing advanced energy sources to a utility grid

    DOEpatents

    Steigerwald, Robert L.

    1984-01-01

    A transistor is operated in the PWM mode such that a hlaf sine wave of current is delivered first to one-half of a distribution transformer and then the other as determined by steering thyristors operated at the fundamental sinusoidal frequency. Power to the transistor is supplied by a dc source such as a solar array and the power is converted such that a sinusoidal current is injected into a utility at near unity power factor.

  7. A Multiagent Energy Management System for a Small Microgrid Equipped with Power Sources and Energy Storage Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radziszewska, Weronika; Nahorski, Zbigniew

    An Energy Management System (EMS) for a small microgrid is presented, with both demand and production side management. The microgrid is equipped with renewable and controllable power sources (like a micro gas turbine), energy storage units (batteries and flywheels). Energy load is partially scheduled to avoid extreme peaks of power demand and to possibly match forecasted energy supply from the renewable power sources. To balance the energy in the network on line, a multiagent system is used. Intelligent agents of each device are proactively acting towards balancing the energy in the network, and at the same time optimizing the cost of operation of the whole system. A semi-market mechanism is used to match a demand and a production of the energy. Simulations show that the time of reaching a balanced state does not exceed 1 s, which is fast enough to let execute proper balancing actions, e.g. change an operating point of a controllable energy source. Simulators of sources and consumption devices were implemented in order to carry out exhaustive tests.

  8. Energy Sources (Energy/Power). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Allen; And Others

    This course guide for an energy sources course is one of four developed for the energy/power area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--graphic communications and production.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  9. The Decline of the Atom and the Rise of the Sun as Future Energy Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockris, J. O'M.

    1973-01-01

    Examines the various energy sources likely to be developed in the near future, and suggests that the only satisfactory solution lies in the development of solar energy and an associated non-polluting "hydrogen economy." Concludes that Australia has ideal conditions and the technical expertise to lead in solar energy research. (JR)

  10. Microbial fuel cells as an alternative energy source: current status.

    PubMed

    Javed, Muhammad Mohsin; Nisar, Muhammad Azhar; Ahmad, Muhammad Usman; Yasmeen, Nighat; Zahoor, Sana

    2018-06-22

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology is an emerging area for alternative renewable energy generation and it offers additional opportunities for environmental bioremediation. Recent scientific studies have focused on MFC reactor design as well as reactor operations to increase energy output. The advancement in alternative MFC models and their performance in recent years reflect the interests of scientific community to exploit this technology for wider practical applications and environmental benefit. This is reflected in the diversity of the substrates available for use in MFCs at an economically viable level. This review provides an overview of the commonly used MFC designs and materials along with the basic operating parameters that have been developed in recent years. Still, many limitations and challenges exist for MFC development that needs to be further addressed to make them economically feasible for general use. These include continued improvements in fuel cell design and efficiency as well scale-up with economically practical applications tailored to local needs.

  11. Energy sources for triton's geyser-like plumes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.H.; Kirk, R.L.; Johnson, T.V.; Soderblom, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    Four geyser-like plumes were discovered near Triton's south pole in areas now in permanent sunlight. Because Triton's southern hemisphere is nearing a maximum summer solstice, insolation as a driver or a trigger for Triton's geyser-like plumes is an attractive hypothesis. Trapping of solar radiation in a translucent, low-conductivity surface layer (in a solid-state greenhouse), which is subsequently released in the form of latent heat of sublimation, could provide the required energy. Both the classical solid-state greenhouse consisting of exponentially absorbed insolation in a gray, translucent layer of solid nitrogen, and the "super" greenhouse consisting of a relatively transparent solid-nitrogen layer over an opaque, absorbing layer are plausible candidates. Geothermal heat may also play a part if assisted by the added energy input of seasonal cycles of insolation.

  12. Electrical energy sources for organic synthesis on the early earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chyba, Christopher; Sagan, Carl

    1991-01-01

    It is pointed out that much of the contemporary origin-of-life research uses the original estimates of Miller and Urey (1959) for terrestrial energy dissipation by lightning and coronal discharges being equal to 2 x 10 to the 19th J/yr and 6 x 10 to the 19th J/yr, respectively. However, data from experiments that provide analogues to naturally-occurring lightning and coronal discharges indicate that lightning energy yields for organic synthesis (nmole/J) are about one order of magnitude higher than the coronal discharge yields. This suggests that, on early earth, organic production by lightning may have dominated that due to coronal emission. New values are recommended for lightning and coronal discharge dissipation rates on the early earth, 1 x 10 to the 18th J/yr and 5 x 10 to the 17th J/yr, respectively.

  13. Renewable energy sources and the realities of setting an energy agenda.

    PubMed

    Potocnik, Janez

    2007-02-09

    The European Commission has been devoting considerable attention to energy issues. This Perspective describes recent progress in Europe toward achieving goals for renewable energy use, and the role that technology can play, as well as the new Strategic Energy Package.

  14. Chasing Down Gravitational Wave Sources with the Dark Energy Camera

    SciTech Connect

    Annis, Jim; Soares-Santos, Marcelle

    On August 17, 2017, scientists using the Dark Energy Camera tracked down the first visible counterpart to a gravitational wave signal ever spotted by astronomers. Using data provided by the LIGO and Virgo collaborations, scientists embarked on a quest for the unknown, and discovered a new wonder of the universe. Includes interviews with Fermilab’s Jim Annis and Brandeis University’s Marcelle Soares-Santos.

  15. Source Code Analysis Laboratory (SCALe) for Energy Delivery Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    the software for reevaluation. Once the ree- valuation process is completed, CERT provides the client a report detailing the software’s con - formance...Flagged Nonconformities (FNC) Software System TP/FNC Ratio Mozilla Firefox version 2.0 6/12 50% Linux kernel version 2.6.15 10/126 8% Wine...inappropriately tuned for analysis of the Linux kernel, which has anomalous results. Customizing SCALe to work with energy system software will help

  16. Nitriding of Polymer by Low Energy Nitrogen Neutral Beam Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Yasuhiro; Takeda, Keigo; Yamakawa, Koji; Den, Shoji; Toyoda, Hirotaka; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2012-03-01

    Nitriding of polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) has been carried out at room temperature using a nitrogen neutral beam with kinetic energy of less than 100 eV. The surface hardness of nitrided samples increased to two times that of the untreated sample, when the acceleration voltage was between 30 and 50 V. The thickness of the hardened polymer layer was estimated to be 1 µm. It was concluded that the hardness enhancement was caused by the diffusion of nitrogen atoms into the polymer.

  17. Photovoltaics as a terrestrial energy source. Volume 1: An introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems were examined their potential for terrestrial application and future development. Photovoltaic technology, existing and potential photovoltaic applications, and the National Photovoltaics Program are reviewed. The competitive environment for this electrical source, affected by the presence or absence of utility supplied power is evaluated in term of systems prices. The roles of technological breakthroughs, directed research and technology development, learning curves, and commercial demonstrations in the National Program are discussed. The potential for photovoltaics to displace oil consumption is examined, as are the potential benefits of employing PV in either central-station or non-utility owned, small, distributed systems.

  18. Dose heterogeneity correction for low-energy brachytherapy sources using dual-energy CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashouf, S.; Lechtman, E.; Lai, P.; Keller, B. M.; Karotki, A.; Beachey, D. J.; Pignol, J. P.

    2014-09-01

    Permanent seed implant brachytherapy is currently used for adjuvant radiotherapy of early stage prostate and breast cancer patients. The current standard for calculation of dose around brachytherapy sources is based on the AAPM TG-43 formalism, which generates the dose in a homogeneous water medium. Recently, AAPM TG-186 emphasized the importance of accounting for tissue heterogeneities. We have previously reported on a methodology where the absorbed dose in tissue can be obtained by multiplying the dose, calculated by the TG-43 formalism, by an inhomogeneity correction factor (ICF). In this work we make use of dual energy CT (DECT) images to extract ICF parameters. The advantage of DECT over conventional CT is that it eliminates the need for tissue segmentation as well as assignment of population based atomic compositions. DECT images of a heterogeneous phantom were acquired and the dose was calculated using both TG-43 and TG-43 × \\text{ICF} formalisms. The results were compared to experimental measurements using Gafchromic films in the mid-plane of the phantom. For a seed implant configuration of 8 seeds spaced 1.5 cm apart in a cubic structure, the gamma passing score for 2%/2 mm criteria improved from 40.8% to 90.5% when ICF was applied to TG-43 dose distributions.

  19. A strategy to unveil transient sources of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takami, Hajime

    2013-06-01

    Transient generation of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) has been motivated from promising candidates of UHECR sources such as gamma-ray bursts, flares of active galactic nuclei, and newly born neutron stars and magnetars. Here we propose a strategy to unveil transient sources of UHECRs from UHECR experiments. We demonstrate that the rate of UHECR bursts and/or flares is related to the apparent number density of UHECR sources, which is the number density estimated on the assumption of steady sources, and the time-profile spread of the bursts produced by cosmic magnetic fields. The apparent number density strongly depends on UHECR energies under a given rate of the bursts, which becomes observational evidence of transient sources. It is saturated at the number density of host galaxies of UHECR sources. We also derive constraints on the UHECR burst rate and/or energy budget of UHECRs per source as a function of the apparent source number density by using models of cosmic magnetic fields. In order to obtain a precise constraint of the UHECR burst rate, high event statistics above ˜ 1020 eV for evaluating the apparent source number density at the highest energies and better knowledge on cosmic magnetic fields by future observations and/or simulations to better estimate the time-profile spread of UHECR bursts are required. The estimated rate allows us to constrain transient UHECR sources by being compared with the occurrence rates of known energetic transient phenomena.

  20. Wind Power: A Renewable Energy Source for Mars Transit Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael; Kohout, Lisa; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Martian environment presents significant design challenges for the development of power generation systems. Nuclear-based systems may not be available due to political and safety concerns. The output of photovoltaics are limited by a solar intensity of 580 W/sqm as compared to 1353 W/sqm on Earth. The presence of dust particles in the Mars atmosphere will further reduce the photovoltaic output. Also, energy storage for a 12-hour night period must be provided. In this challenging environment, wind power generation capabilities may provide a viable option as a Martian power generation system. This paper provides an analysis of the feasibility of such a system.

  1. Space and man. [planetary exploration and energy sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolman, E.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of man's entry into space on changes in economics and technology, politics and law, science, philosophy, and art are considered. A single world economy, extracting from the natural resources of the moon and other cosmic bodies raw materials and energy, will avoid terrestrial limitations and improve society by eliminating the inequalities of economic and social status. However, a spacecraft for interplanetary travel require thermonuclear engines that achieve an escape velocity of 0.1 times the speed of light in order to allow an astronaut stellar expedition corresponding to the active life of a single generation.

  2. Missile impacts as sources of seismic energy on the moon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Latham, G.V.; McDonald, W.G.; Moore, H.J.

    1970-01-01

    Seismic signals recorded from impacts of missiles at the White Sands Missile Range are radically different from the signal recorded from the Apollo 12 lunar module impact. This implies that lunar structure to depths of at least 10 to 20 kilometers is quite different from the typical structure of the earth's crust. Results obtained from this study can be used to predict seismic wave amplitudes from future man-made lunar impacts. Seismic energy and crater dimensions from impacts are compared with measurements from chemical explosions.

  3. Hydropower, an energy source whose time has come again

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-01-01

    Recent price increases in imported oil demonstrate the urgency for the U.S. to rapidly develop its renewable resources. One such renewable resource for which technology is available now is hydropower. Studies indicate that hydropower potential, particularly at existing dam sites, can save the county hundreds of thousands of barrels of oil per day. But problems and constraints-economic, environmental, institutional, and operational-limit is full potential. Federal programs have had little impact on helping to bring hydro projects on line. Specifically, the Department of Energy's Small Hydro Program could do more to overcome hydro constraints and problems through an effective outreach program and more emphasis on demonstration projects.

  4. Contribution from individual nearby sources to the spectrum of high-energy cosmic-ray electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedrati, R.; Attallah, R.

    2014-04-01

    In the last few years, very important data on high-energy cosmic-ray electrons and positrons from high-precision space-born and ground-based experiments have attracted a great deal of interest. These particles represent a unique probe for studying local comic-ray accelerators because they lose energy very rapidly. These energy losses reduce the lifetime so drastically that high-energy cosmic-ray electrons can attain the Earth only from rather local astrophysical sources. This work aims at calculating, by means of Monte Carlo simulation, the contribution from some known nearby astrophysical sources to the cosmic-ray electron/positron spectra at high energy (≥ 10 GeV). The background to the electron energy spectrum from distant sources is determined with the help of the GALPROP code. The obtained numerical results are compared with a set of experimental data.

  5. Turbulence generation through intense localized sources of energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maqui, Agustin; Donzis, Diego

    2015-11-01

    Mechanisms to generate turbulence in controlled conditions have been studied for nearly a century. Most common methods include passive and active grids with a focus on incompressible turbulence. However, little attention has been given to compressible flows, and even less to hypersonic flows, where phenomena such as thermal non-equilibrium can be present. Using intense energy from lasers, extreme molecule velocities can be generated from photo-dissociation. This creates strong localized changes in both the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of the flow, which may perturb the flow in a way similar to an active grid to generate turbulence in hypersonic flows. A large database of direct numerical simulations (DNS) are used to study the feasibility of such an approach. An extensive analysis of single and two point statistics, as well as spectral dynamics is used to characterize the evolution of the flow towards realistic turbulence. Local measures of enstrophy and dissipation are studied to diagnose the main mechanisms for energy exchange. As commonly done in compressible flows, dilatational and solenoidal components are separated to understand the effect of acoustics on the development of turbulence. Further results for cases that assimilate laboratory conditions will be discussed. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of AFOSR.

  6. Discretized energy minimization in a wave guide with point sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Propst, G.

    1994-01-01

    An anti-noise problem on a finite time interval is solved by minimization of a quadratic functional on the Hilbert space of square integrable controls. To this end, the one-dimensional wave equation with point sources and pointwise reflecting boundary conditions is decomposed into a system for the two propagating components of waves. Wellposedness of this system is proved for a class of data that includes piecewise linear initial conditions and piecewise constant forcing functions. It is shown that for such data the optimal piecewise constant control is the solution of a sparse linear system. Methods for its computational treatment are presented as well as examples of their applicability. The convergence of discrete approximations to the general optimization problem is demonstrated by finite element methods.

  7. Misconceptions and biases in German students' perception of multiple energy sources: implications for science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Roh Pin

    2016-04-01

    Misconceptions and biases in energy perception could influence people's support for developments integral to the success of restructuring a nation's energy system. Science education, in equipping young adults with the cognitive skills and knowledge necessary to navigate in the confusing energy environment, could play a key role in paving the way for informed decision-making. This study examined German students' knowledge of the contribution of diverse energy sources to their nation's energy mix as well as their affective energy responses so as to identify implications for science education. Specifically, the study investigated whether and to what extent students hold mistaken beliefs about the role of multiple energy sources in their nation's energy mix, and assessed how misconceptions could act as self-generated reference points to underpin support/resistance of proposed developments. An in-depth analysis of spontaneous affective associations with five key energy sources also enabled the identification of underlying concerns driving people's energy responses and facilitated an examination of how affective perception, in acting as a heuristic, could lead to biases in energy judgment and decision-making. Finally, subgroup analysis differentiated by education and gender supported insights into a 'two culture' effect on energy perception and the challenge it poses to science education.

  8. A comparison study on various low energy sources in interstitial prostate brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshabadi, Mahdi; Ghorbani, Mahdi; Knaup, Courtney; Meigooni, Ali S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Low energy sources are routinely used in prostate brachytherapy. 125I is one of the most commonly used sources. Low energy 131Cs source was introduced recently as a brachytherapy source. The aim of this study is to compare dose distributions of 125I, 103Pd, and 131Cs sources in interstitial brachytherapy of prostate. Material and methods ProstaSeed 125I brachytherapy source was simulated using MCNPX Monte Carlo code. Additionally, two hypothetical sources of 103Pd and 131Cs were simulated with the same geometry as the ProstaSeed 125I source, while having their specific emitted gamma spectra. These brachytherapy sources were simulated with distribution of forty-eight seeds in a phantom including prostate. The prostate was considered as a sphere with radius of 1.5 cm. Absolute and relative dose rates were obtained in various distances from the source along the transverse and longitudinal axes inside and outside the tumor. Furthermore, isodose curves were plotted around the sources. Results Analyzing the initial dose profiles for various sources indicated that with the same time duration and air kerma strength, 131Cs delivers higher dose to tumor. However, relative dose rate inside the tumor is higher and outside the tumor is lower for the 103Pd source. Conclusions The higher initial absolute dose in cGy/(h.U) of 131Cs brachytherapy source is an advantage of this source over the others. The higher relative dose inside the tumor and lower relative dose outside the tumor for the 103Pd source are advantages of this later brachytherapy source. Based on the total dose the 125I source has advantage over the others due to its longer half-life. PMID:26985200

  9. A comparison study on various low energy sources in interstitial prostate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Bakhshabadi, Mahdi; Ghorbani, Mahdi; Khosroabadi, Mohsen; Knaup, Courtney; Meigooni, Ali S

    2016-02-01

    Low energy sources are routinely used in prostate brachytherapy. (125)I is one of the most commonly used sources. Low energy (131)Cs source was introduced recently as a brachytherapy source. The aim of this study is to compare dose distributions of (125)I, (103)Pd, and (131)Cs sources in interstitial brachytherapy of prostate. ProstaSeed (125)I brachytherapy source was simulated using MCNPX Monte Carlo code. Additionally, two hypothetical sources of (103)Pd and (131)Cs were simulated with the same geometry as the ProstaSeed (125)I source, while having their specific emitted gamma spectra. These brachytherapy sources were simulated with distribution of forty-eight seeds in a phantom including prostate. The prostate was considered as a sphere with radius of 1.5 cm. Absolute and relative dose rates were obtained in various distances from the source along the transverse and longitudinal axes inside and outside the tumor. Furthermore, isodose curves were plotted around the sources. Analyzing the initial dose profiles for various sources indicated that with the same time duration and air kerma strength, (131)Cs delivers higher dose to tumor. However, relative dose rate inside the tumor is higher and outside the tumor is lower for the (103)Pd source. The higher initial absolute dose in cGy/(h.U) of (131)Cs brachytherapy source is an advantage of this source over the others. The higher relative dose inside the tumor and lower relative dose outside the tumor for the (103)Pd source are advantages of this later brachytherapy source. Based on the total dose the (125)I source has advantage over the others due to its longer half-life.

  10. Energy and Macronutrient Intakes and Food Sources in Preschool Children: Thai NHES IV.

    PubMed

    Satheannoppakao, Warapone; Kasemsup, Rachada; Nontarak, Jiraluck; Kessomboon, Pattapong; Putwatana, Panwadee; Taneepanichskul, Surasak; Sangthong, Rassamee; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Aekplakorn, Wichai

    2015-10-01

    Examine intakes of energy and macronutrients, and identify their food sources, in Thai preschool children. Data from the Thai National Health Examination Survey (NHES) IV were used. Mothers/caregivers were interviewed regarding their children's 24-hour-dietary intake. Dietary data were analyzed for energy and macronutrients, and their food sources were investigated. Due to skewed data, Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare energy and macronutrient intake between sexes and age groups. Among 256 preschool children, more than 90% had protein intakes higher than the recommended level. Only 12.7 to 29.0% met the recommended intake for energy. Amounts of carbohydrate and fat consumed varied from below to above the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) recommendation. Intakes of carbohydrate in boys and fat in girls were statistically different between age groups (p < 0.05). Fifty to 60% of energy came from dairy products, grains and starchy products. The major carbohydrate contributors were grains and starchy products. Dairy products were the main source of protein. Important food sources of fat were dairy products for one- to three-year-old children and fat and oils for four- to five-year-old children. Thai preschool children have inappropriate intakes of energy and macronutrients. Dairy products and grains and/or starchy products were the main sources of energy, carbohydrate, and protein. Dietary fat sources varied by age group.

  11. Spent coffee grounds as a versatile source of green energy.

    PubMed

    Kondamudi, Narasimharao; Mohapatra, Susanta K; Misra, Mano

    2008-12-24

    The production of energy from renewable and waste materials is an attractive alternative to the conventional agricultural feed stocks such as corn and soybean. This paper describes an approach to extract oil from spent coffee grounds and to further transesterify the processed oil to convert it into biodiesel. This process yields 10-15% oil depending on the coffee species (Arabica or Robusta). The biodiesel derived from the coffee grounds (100% conversion of oil to biodiesel) was found to be stable for more than 1 month under ambient conditions. It is projected that 340 million gallons of biodiesel can be produced from the waste coffee grounds around the world. The coffee grounds after oil extraction are ideal materials for garden fertilizer, feedstock for ethanol, and as fuel pellets.

  12. Photovoltaics as a terrestrial energy source. Volume 2: System value

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Assumptions and techniques employed by the electric utility industry and other electricity planners to make estimates of the future value of photovoltaic (PV) systems interconnected with U.S. electric utilities were examined. Existing estimates of PV value and their interpretation and limitations are discussed. PV value is defined as the marginal private savings accruing to potential PV owners. For utility-owned PV systems, these values are shown to be the after-tax savings in conventional fuel and capacity displaced by the PV output. For non-utility-owned (distributed) systems, the utility's savings in fuel and capacity must first be translated through the electric rate structure (prices) to the potential PV system owner. Base-case estimates of the average value of PV systems to U.S. utilities are presented. The relationship of these results to the PV Program price goals and current energy policy is discussed; the usefulness of PV output quantity goals is also reviewed.

  13. Evaluation of 107 legumes for renewable sources of energy

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, W.B.; Carr, M.E.; Cull, I.M.

    One hundred and seven species of randomly-collected Leguminosae were evaluated for their potential as energy-producing crops. Whole plants, excluding roots, were chemically analyzed, and 11 species were identified as the more promising for future considerations based on a numerical rating system developed at this Center. Of the 11 species, one contained principally rubber (polyisoprene) in the hydrocarbon fraction and 7 contained principally wax. Hydrocarbon fractions of 3 species with less than 0.4% were not examined. The oils of species with at least 3.0% oil were examined by thin layer chromatography (TLC) to determine classes of components and were given amore » saponification treatment to determine yields of unsaponifiable matter and fatty acids. The oil of one species was quantitatively analyzed for classes of compounds by TLC-flame ionization detection. Selected species with ratings greater than 10 are briefly discussed. 16 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.« less

  14. Tennessee plant species screened for renewable energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, M.E.; Bagby, M.O.

    The USDA Northern Regional Research Center (NRRC) has previously studied chemical and botanical characteristics of about 1000 plant species in efforts to identify potential new plant sources for industrial raw materials. For this report, an additional 51 species were collected from Tennessee and studied. Above-ground plant samples were analyzed for yields of oils, polyphenols, hydrocarbons, protein, and ash. Oils were examined for the presence of seven classes of lipids and analyzed for yields of fatty acids and unsaponifiable matter. Hydrocarbons were examined for the presence of rubber, gutta, and waxes. Rubber and gutta were analyzed for average molecular weight (MW)more » and MW distribution. Chemical and botanical data are presented for eight of the 51 species. A checklist of the 43 other species is given; data on these are available from NRRC. Lapsana communis yielded the most oil (6.1%; dry, ash-free, plant sample basis). Ilex montana yielded the most polyphenol (21.5%) plus 4.5% oil. Agrimonia parviflora and Catalpa bignonioides gave substantial yields of polyphenol (20.0% and 17.9%, respectively), and Passiflora incarnata contained the most apparent protein (19.8%). Chrysopsis graminifolia, Solidago erecta, and Verbesina alternifolia were identified as rubber-producing species with 0.4-0.7% hydrocarbon.« less

  15. Summary of Energy Assessment Requirements under the Area Source Boiler Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document provides an overview of the energy assessment requirements for the national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for area sources: industrial, commercial and Institutional boilers, 40 CFR Part 63, Subpart JJJJJJ.

  16. Evaluation of 107 legumes for renewable source of energy

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, W.B.; Carr, M.E.; Cull, I.M.

    One hundred and seven species of randomly-collected Leguminosae were evaluated for their potential as energy-producing crops. Whole plants, excluding roots, were chemically analyzed, and 11 species were identified as the more promising for future considerations based on a numerical rating system developed at this Center. Botanical, fiber, and protein characteristics of the more promising species that had rating of less than 11 were considered excellent. Other characteristics, including contents of oil (1.7-3.2%; dry, ash-free, sample basis), polyphenol (5.4-16.5%), and hydrocarbon (0.3-0.6% for 10 species and 2.6% for one), were generally lower than those of promising species in other families previouslymore » analyzed. Of the 11 species, one contained principally rubber (polyisoprene) in the hydrocarbon fraction and 7 contained principally wax. Hydrocarbon fractions of 3 species with less than 0.4% were not examined. The oils of species with at least 3.0% oil were examined by thin layer chromatography (TLC) to determine classes of components and were given a saponification treatment to determine yields of unsaponifiable matter and fatty acids. The oil of one species was quantitatively analyzed for classes of compounds by TLC-flame ionization detection. Selected species with ratings greater than 10 are briefly discussed.« less

  17. Sourcing dark matter and dark energy from α-attractors

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Swagat S.; Sahni, Varun; Shtanov, Yuri, E-mail: swagat@iucaa.in, E-mail: varun@iucaa.in, E-mail: shtanov@bitp.kiev.ua

    In [1], Kallosh and Linde drew attention to a new family of superconformal inflationary potentials, subsequently called α-attractors [2]. The α-attractor family can interpolate between a large class of inflationary models. It also has an important theoretical underpinning within the framework of supergravity. We demonstrate that the α-attractors have an even wider appeal since they may describe dark matter and perhaps even dark energy. The dark matter associated with the α-attractors, which we call α-dark matter (αDM), shares many of the attractive features of fuzzy dark matter, with V (φ) = ½ m {sup 2}φ{sup 2}, while having none ofmore » its drawbacks. Like fuzzy dark matter, αDM can have a large Jeans length which could resolve the cusp-core and substructure problems faced by standard cold dark matter. αDM also has an appealing tracker property which enables it to converge to the late-time dark matter asymptote, ( w ) ≅ 0, from a wide range of initial conditions. It thus avoids the enormous fine-tuning problems faced by the m {sup 2}φ{sup 2} potential in describing dark matter.« less

  18. Characterization of the Energy Spectrum at the Indiana University Neutron Source

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ENERGY SPECTRUM AT THE INDIANA UNIVERSITY NREP NEUTRON SOURCE THESIS Matthew R. Halstead, Civilian AFIT/GNE/ENP/11-M08...subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT/GNE/ENP/11-M08 CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ENERGY SPECTRUM AT THE INDIANA UNIVERSITY NREP NEUTRON...The neutron source at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility produces neu- trons via proton bombardment of a natural beryllium (100% 9Be) target

  19. Research on Matching Method of Power Supply Parameters for Dual Energy Source Electric Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Q.; Luo, M. J.; Zhang, S. K.; Liao, M. W.

    2018-03-01

    A new type of power source is proposed, which is based on the traffic signal matching method of the dual energy source power supply composed of the batteries and the supercapacitors. First, analyzing the power characteristics is required to meet the excellent dynamic characteristics of EV, studying the energy characteristics is required to meet the mileage requirements and researching the physical boundary characteristics is required to meet the physical conditions of the power supply. Secondly, the parameter matching design with the highest energy efficiency is adopted to select the optimal parameter group with the method of matching deviation. Finally, the simulation analysis of the vehicle is carried out in MATLABSimulink, The mileage and energy efficiency of dual energy sources are analyzed in different parameter models, and the rationality of the matching method is verified.

  20. Development, Integration and Utilization of Surface Nuclear Energy Sources for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Schmidt, George R.; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Hickman, Robert; Hissam, Andy; Houston, Vance; Martin, Jim; Mireles, Omar; Reid, Bob; Schneider, Todd

    2005-01-01

    Throughout the past five decades numerous studies have identified nuclear energy as an enhancing or enabling technology for human surface exploration missions. Nuclear energy sources were used to provide electricity on Apollo missions 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17, and on the Mars Viking landers. Nuclear energy sources were used to provide heat on the Pathfinder; Spirit, and Discovery rovers. Scenarios have been proposed that utilize -1 kWe radioisotope systems for early missions, followed by fission systems in the 10 - 30 kWe range when energy requirements increase. A fission energy source unit size of approximately 150 kWt has been proposed based on previous lunar and Mars base architecture studies. Such a unit could support both early and advanced bases through a building block approach.

  1. Alternative Sources of Energy - An Introduction to Fuel Cells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merewether, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    Fuel cells are important future sources of electrical power and could contribute to a reduction in the amount of petroleum imported by the United States. They are electrochemical devices similar to a battery and consist of a container, an anode, a cathode, catalysts, an intervening electrolyte, and an attached electrical circuit. In most fuel cell systems, hydrogen is supplied to the anode and oxygen to the cathode which results in the production of electricity, water, and heat. Fuel cells are comparatively efficient and reliable, have no moving parts, operate without combustion, and are modular and scale-able. Their size and shape are flexible and adaptable. In operation, they are nearly silent, are relatively safe, and generally do not pollute the environment. During recent years, scientists and engineers have developed and refined technologies relevant to a variety of fuel cells. Types of fuel cells are commonly identified by the composition of their electrolyte, which could be either phosphoric acid, an alkaline solution, a molten carbonate, a solid metal oxide, or a solid polymer membrane. The electrolyte in stationary power plants could be phosphoric acid, molten carbonates, or solid metal oxides. For vehicles and smaller devices, the electrolyte could be an alkaline solution or a solid polymer membrane. For most fuel cell systems, the fuel is hydrogen, which can be extracted by several procedures from many hydrogen-bearing substances, including alcohols, natural gas (mainly methane), gasoline, and water. There are important and perhaps unresolved technical problems associated with using fuel cells to power vehicles. The catalysts required in several systems are expensive metals of the platinum group. Moreover, fuel cells can freeze and not work in cold weather and can be damaged by impacts. Storage tanks for the fuels, particularly hydrogen, must be safe, inexpensive, of a reasonable size, and contain a supply sufficient for a trip of several hundred miles

  2. Current Research on Molasses as an Alternative Energy Source for Organic Dairy Herds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As organic grain prices have increased and organic milk prices have decreased, dairy farmers are seeking lower-cost supplementation strategies. Sugarcane molasses, a rich source of sucrose, seems to be a viable option as a source of energy. Molasses frequently costs less per pound of dry matter than...

  3. Recovery Act: Tennessee Energy Efficient Schools Initiative Ground Source Heat Pump Program

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, Terry; Slusher, Scott

    The Tennessee Energy Efficient Schools Initiative (EESI) Hybrid-Water Source Heat Pump (HY-GSHP) Program sought to provide installation costs and operation costs for different Hybrid water source heat pump systems’ configurations so that other State of Tennessee School Districts will have a resource for comparison purposes if considering a geothermal system.

  4. Stellar Oxygen Abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Jeremy

    1994-04-01

    younger clusters. The O abundances in the younger clusters are significantly larger than those seen in H II regions, planetary nebulae, and supergiants. It is suggested, and supported with observational evidence, that this may be due to incomplete stellar models and the possibility that a significant fraction of O in gaseous nebulae is locked up in dust grains. Examining our results in a broader sense, we suggest that: a) the formation of the Galactic halo was a slow process but b) did not involve the merger of independent "fragments" c) Type Ia supernovae are dominated by CO-He white dwarf systems having Fe production timescales of a few Gyr d) The hiatus between the end of halo formation and the beginning of star formation in the disk, possibly required if CO-He white dwarfs are the dominant source of Type Ia supernovae, may be confirmed as the observed gap in the [O/H] distribution e) The long timescale (10^9 - 10^10 yr) of Fe production by CO-He white dwarf systems is also seen to be consistent with the lack of any correlation between age and [Fe/H] in our open cluster sample and the large scatter present in the [Fe/H] vs. age relations for field stars. (SECTION: Dissertation Summaries)

  5. Green Power Grids: How Energy from Renewable Sources Affects Networks and Markets.

    PubMed

    Mureddu, Mario; Caldarelli, Guido; Chessa, Alessandro; Scala, Antonio; Damiano, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The increasing attention to environmental issues is forcing the implementation of novel energy models based on renewable sources. This is fundamentally changing the configuration of energy management and is introducing new problems that are only partly understood. In particular, renewable energies introduce fluctuations which cause an increased request for conventional energy sources to balance energy requests at short notice. In order to develop an effective usage of low-carbon sources, such fluctuations must be understood and tamed. In this paper we present a microscopic model for the description and for the forecast of short time fluctuations related to renewable sources in order to estimate their effects on the electricity market. To account for the inter-dependencies in the energy market and the physical power dispatch network, we use a statistical mechanics approach to sample stochastic perturbations in the power system and an agent based approach for the prediction of the market players' behavior. Our model is data-driven; it builds on one-day-ahead real market transactions in order to train agents' behaviour and allows us to deduce the market share of different energy sources. We benchmarked our approach on the Italian market, finding a good accordance with real data.

  6. Green Power Grids: How Energy from Renewable Sources Affects Networks and Markets

    PubMed Central

    Mureddu, Mario; Caldarelli, Guido; Chessa, Alessandro; Scala, Antonio; Damiano, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The increasing attention to environmental issues is forcing the implementation of novel energy models based on renewable sources. This is fundamentally changing the configuration of energy management and is introducing new problems that are only partly understood. In particular, renewable energies introduce fluctuations which cause an increased request for conventional energy sources to balance energy requests at short notice. In order to develop an effective usage of low-carbon sources, such fluctuations must be understood and tamed. In this paper we present a microscopic model for the description and for the forecast of short time fluctuations related to renewable sources in order to estimate their effects on the electricity market. To account for the inter-dependencies in the energy market and the physical power dispatch network, we use a statistical mechanics approach to sample stochastic perturbations in the power system and an agent based approach for the prediction of the market players’ behavior. Our model is data-driven; it builds on one-day-ahead real market transactions in order to train agents’ behaviour and allows us to deduce the market share of different energy sources. We benchmarked our approach on the Italian market, finding a good accordance with real data. PMID:26335705

  7. High energy supercontinuum sources using tapered photonic crystal fibers for multispectral photoacoustic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bondu, Magalie; Brooks, Christopher; Jakobsen, Christian; Oakes, Keith; Moselund, Peter Morten; Leick, Lasse; Bang, Ole; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate a record bandwidth high energy supercontinuum source suitable for multispectral photoacoustic microscopy. The source has more than 150  nJ/10  nm bandwidth over a spectral range of 500 to 1600 nm. This performance is achieved using a carefully designed fiber taper with large-core input for improved power handling and small-core output that provides the desired spectral range of the supercontinuum source.

  8. Analysis of renewable energy sources and electric vehicle penetration into energy systems predominantly based on lignite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedinec, A.; Jovanovski, B.; Gajduk, A.; Markovska, N.; Kocarev, L.

    2016-05-01

    We consider an integration of renewable energy into transport and electricity sectors through vehicle to grid (V2G) technologies for an energy system that is predominantly based on lignite. The national energy system of Macedonia is modeled using EnergyPLAN which integrates energy for electricity, transport and heat, and includes hourly fluctuations in human needs and the environment. We show that electric-vehicles can provide the necessary storage enabling a fully renewable energy profile for Macedonia that can match the country's growing demand for energy. Furthermore, a large penetration of electric vehicles leads to a dramatic reduction of 47% of small particles and other air pollutants generated by car traffic in 2050.

  9. Physical and non-physical energy in scattered wave source-receiver interferometry.

    PubMed

    Meles, Giovanni Angelo; Curtis, Andrew

    2013-06-01

    Source-receiver interferometry allows Green's functions between sources and receivers to be estimated by means of convolution and cross-correlation of other wavefields. Source-receiver interferometry has been observed to work surprisingly well in practical applications when theoretical requirements (e.g., complete enclosing boundaries of other sources and receivers) are contravened: this paper contributes to explain why this may be true. Commonly used inter-receiver interferometry requires wavefields to be generated around specific stationary points in space which are controlled purely by medium heterogeneity and receiver locations. By contrast, application of source-receiver interferometry constructs at least kinematic information about physically scattered waves between a source and a receiver by cross-convolution of scattered waves propagating from and to any points on the boundary. This reduces the ambiguity in interpreting wavefields generated using source-receiver interferometry with only partial boundaries (as is standard in practical applications), as it allows spurious or non-physical energy in the constructed Green's function to be identified and ignored. Further, source-receiver interferometry (which includes a step of inter-receiver interferometry) turns all types of non-physical or spurious energy deriving from inter-receiver interferometry into what appears to be physical energy. This explains in part why source-receiver interferometry may perform relatively well compared to inter-receiver interferometry when constructing scattered wavefields.

  10. Energy Sources, Costs and Availability. Technical Report No. 1 of a Study of School Calendars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Research.

    The first in a series of reports consolidates data about energy sources and extrapolates that information to the problems and expenses that New York has and will experience in heating public schools. A presentation of national energy consumption is followed by an examination of the availability of potential alternatives to petroleum and natural…

  11. Biomass as a Sustainable Energy Source: An Illustration of Chemical Engineering Thermodynamic Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohan, Marguerite A.; May, Nicole; Assaf-Anid, Nada M.; Castaldi, Marco J.

    2006-01-01

    The ever-increasing global demand for energy has sparked renewed interest within the engineering community in the study of sustainable alternative energy sources. This paper discusses a power generation system which uses biomass as "fuel" to illustrate the concepts taught to students taking a graduate level chemical engineering process…

  12. Biomass: An Alternative Source of Energy for Eighth or Ninth Grade Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyward, Lillie; Murff, Marye

    This teaching unit develops the possibility of using biomass as an alternative source of energy. The concept of biomass is explained and the processes associated with its conversion to energy are stated. Suggestions for development of biomass technology in different geographic areas are indicated. Lessons for 6 days are presented for use with…

  13. Case study: molasses as the primary energy source on an organic grazing dairy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Organic dairies face many challenges, one of which is the high cost of purchased organic grains. Molasses may be a less expensive energy alternative. However, anecdotal results have been mixed for farms that used molasses as the sole energy source. This research project quantified animal performance...

  14. Integration and Optimization of Alternative Sources of Energy in a Remote Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berberi, Pellumb; Inodnorjani, Spiro; Aleti, Riza

    2010-01-01

    In a remote coastal region supply of energy from national grid is insufficient for a sustainable development. Integration and optimization of local alternative renewable energy sources is an optional solution of the problem. In this paper we have studied the energetic potential of local sources of renewable energy (water, solar, wind and biomass). A bottom-up energy system optimization model is proposed in order to support planning policies for promoting the use of renewable energy sources. A software, based on multiple factors and constrains analysis for optimization energy flow is proposed, which provides detailed information for exploitation each source of energy, power and heat generation, GHG emissions and end-use sectors. Economical analysis shows that with existing technologies both stand alone and regional facilities may be feasible. Improving specific legislation will foster investments from Central or Local Governments and also from individuals, private companies or small families. The study is carried on the frame work of a FP6 project "Integrated Renewable Energy System."

  15. The Environmental Risks of Using Combustion as a Source of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Dana M.

    Burning things like wood, fossil fuels, and gasoline are the easy way of capturing energy in today's society. In this paper, the risks of using combustion as an energy source are discussed and acid rain, air pollution, and greenhouse effects are described. Additional student activities and resources are included. In addition to being informative,…

  16. Modelling surface energy fluxes over a Dehesa ecosystem using a two-source energy balance model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreu, Ana; Kustas, William. P.; Anderson, Martha C.; Carrara, Arnaud; Patrocinio Gonzalez-Dugo, Maria

    2013-04-01

    The Dehesa is the most widespread agroforestry land-use system in Europe, covering more than 3 million hectares in the Iberian Peninsula and Greece (Grove and Rackham, 2001; Papanastasis, 2004). It is an agro-silvo-pastural ecosystem consisting of widely-spaced oak trees (mostly Quercus ilex L.), combined with crops, pasture and Mediterranean shrubs, and it is recognized as an example of sustainable land use and for his importance in the rural economy (Diaz et al., 1997; Plieninger and Wilbrand, 2001). The ecosystem is influenced by a Mediterranean climate, with recurrent and severe droughts. Over the last decades the Dehesa has faced multiple environmental threats, derived from intensive agricultural use and socio-economic changes, which have caused environmental degradation of the area, namely reduction in tree density and stocking rates, changes in soil properties and hydrological processes and an increase of soil erosion (Coelho et al. 2004; Schnabel and Ferreira, 2004; Montoya 1998; Pulido and Díaz, 2005). Understanding the hydrological, atmospheric and physiological processes that affect the functioning of the ecosystem will improve the management and conservation of the Dehesa. One of the key metrics in assessing ecosystem health, particularly in this water-limited environment, is the capability of monitoring evaporation (ET). To make large area assessments requires the use of remote sensing. Thermal-based energy balance techniques that distinguish soil/substrate and vegetation contributions to the radiative temperature and radiation/turbulent fluxes have proven to be reliable in such semi-arid sparse canopy-cover landscapes. In particular, the two-source energy balance (TSEB) model of Norman et al. (1995) and Kustas and Norman (1999) has shown to be robust for a wide range of partially-vegetated landscapes. The TSEB formulation is evaluated at a flux tower site located in center Spain (Majadas del Tietar, Caceres). Its application in this environment is

  17. Biological energy sources: the surface energy and the physical chemistry of water. Examples from studies on muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Widdas, W F; Baker, G F

    2004-01-01

    The physical chemistry of water at nanometre dimensions was used to explain the conformational changes and water breaking properties of the glucose transporter protein (GLUTI) in human erythrocytes more than ten years ago. The energy for this hidden work arises from cycles of evaporation and condensation of water within the cells but was several times larger than resting metabolism. Physical chemical principles can quantify the hidden work done and demonstrate that a significant source of energy is available, which is free of the metabolic energy derived from the hydrolysis of ATP. Therefore, a more widespread biological use of this "free" energy source was probable and a working hypothesis, which applied this energy to supplement the work derived from ATP hydrolysis in muscle, was proposed. The scheme gives a complete explanation for the unexpected and novel findings in skeletal muscle reported from Italy. The problem of using two energy sources and the novel properties of water at nanometer dimensions as they would apply in muscle are briefly discussed but they merit further interdisciplinary studies.

  18. Renewable Energy Sources in Formation of South Urals Modern Urban Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khudyakov, A. Ju; Shabiev, S. G.

    2017-11-01

    The article considers the vital problems of renewable energy sources using by the example of the South Urals as a part of a general energy system of the Russian Federation, makes a forecast and gives recommendations on the application of specific technologies: solar energy, wind energy, deep heat energy and geothermal energy. It also considers the influence of the climatology on selection of the development pattern for the alternative energy industry. The article contains an example of wind energy used as a driver of the Karabash company town development in the Chelyabinsk region. The development of the economic energy sector is extremely important for the Russian Federation, both from the point of view of strategic security and from the point of view of integration into a modern development on the principles of Sustainable Development. To provide a full understanding of the role of alternative energy in the energy sector of the country, the article presents the materials illustrating the regional potential in terms of alternative energy sources use. This article is a part of the global research on the settlement system evolution in the South Urals. The authors studied the historical, geographical, demographic, economic characteristics of the region. Finally, a forecast for development at the regional level was made. Some of the aforementioned results were obtained due to the testing research in the learning process of the students from the South Ural State University (national research university).

  19. Search for ultra high energy gamma-rays from various sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dzikowski, T.; Gawin, J.; Grochalska, B.; Korejwo, J.; Wdowczyk, J.

    1985-01-01

    The hypothesis that there exists an excess of showers from the Galactic plane on the level 1 to 2% at energies just above 10 to the 16th power eV is explored. The excess shower from the Galactic plane seems to be very similar in properties to excess showers from the point sources/flat spectrum, deficit of low energy muons. Those facts suggest that the excess from the Galactic plane are probably due to summing up of the contribution from individual point sources. That in turn suggest that those sources are rather numerous.

  20. Predicting materials for sustainable energy sources: The key role of density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, Giulia

    Climate change and the related need for sustainable energy sources replacing fossil fuels are pressing societal problems. The development of advanced materials is widely recognized as one of the key elements for new technologies that are required to achieve a sustainable environment and provide clean and adequate energy for our planet. We discuss the key role played by Density Functional Theory, and its implementations in high performance computer codes, in understanding, predicting and designing materials for energy applications.

  1. A new population of very high energy gamma-ray sources in the Milky Way.

    PubMed

    Aharonian, F; Akhperjanian, A G; Aye, K-M; Bazer-Bachi, A R; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Berge, D; Berghaus, P; Bernlöhr, K; Boisson, C; Bolz, O; Borgmeier, C; Braun, I; Breitling, F; Brown, A M; Gordo, J Bussons; Chadwick, P M; Chounet, L-M; Cornils, R; Costamante, L; Degrange, B; Djannati-Ataï, A; Drury, L O'C; Dubus, G; Ergin, T; Espigat, P; Feinstein, F; Fleury, P; Fontaine, G; Funk, S; Gallant, Y A; Giebels, B; Gillessen, S; Goret, P; Hadjichristidis, C; Hauser, M; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hinton, J A; Hofmann, W; Holleran, M; Horns, D; de Jager, O C; Jung, I; Khélifi, B; Komin, Nu; Konopelko, A; Latham, I J; Le Gallou, R; Lemière, A; Lemoine, M; Leroy, N; Lohse, T; Marcowith, A; Masterson, C; McComb, T J L; de Naurois, M; Nolan, S J; Noutsos, A; Orford, K J; Osborne, J L; Ouchrif, M; Panter, M; Pelletier, G; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Raubenheimer, B C; Raue, M; Raux, J; Rayner, S M; Redondo, I; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rolland, L; Rowell, G; Sahakian, V; Saugé, L; Schlenker, S; Schlickeiser, R; Schuster, C; Schwanke, U; Siewert, M; Sol, H; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Tavernet, J-P; Terrier, R; Théoret, C G; Tluczykont, M; van der Walt, D J; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Vincent, P; Visser, B; Völk, H J; Wagner, S J

    2005-03-25

    Very high energy gamma-rays probe the long-standing mystery of the origin of cosmic rays. Produced in the interactions of accelerated particles in astrophysical objects, they can be used to image cosmic particle accelerators. A first sensitive survey of the inner part of the Milky Way with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) reveals a population of eight previously unknown firmly detected sources of very high energy gamma-rays. At least two have no known radio or x-ray counterpart and may be representative of a new class of "dark" nucleonic cosmic ray sources.

  2. 40 CFR 74.47 - Transfer of allowances from the replacement of thermal energy-combustion sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... replacement of thermal energy-combustion sources. 74.47 Section 74.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...—combustion sources. (a) Thermal energy plan—(1) General provisions. The designated representative of an opt... quarter the replacement unit(s) will replace thermal energy of the opt-in source; (ii) The name...

  3. Effect of photon energy spectrum on dosimetric parameters of brachytherapy sources.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, Mahdi; Mehrpouyan, Mohammad; Davenport, David; Ahmadi Moghaddas, Toktam

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the influence of the photon energy spectrum of brachytherapy sources on task group No. 43 (TG-43) dosimetric parameters. Different photon spectra are used for a specific radionuclide in Monte Carlo simulations of brachytherapy sources. MCNPX code was used to simulate 125I, 103Pd, 169Yb, and 192Ir brachytherapy sources. Air kerma strength per activity, dose rate constant, radial dose function, and two dimensional (2D) anisotropy functions were calculated and isodose curves were plotted for three different photon energy spectra. The references for photon energy spectra were: published papers, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC). The data calculated by these photon energy spectra were compared. Dose rate constant values showed a maximum difference of 24.07% for 103Pd source with different photon energy spectra. Radial dose function values based on different spectra were relatively the same. 2D anisotropy function values showed minor differences in most of distances and angles. There was not any detectable difference between the isodose contours. Dosimetric parameters obtained with different photon spectra were relatively the same, however it is suggested that more accurate and updated photon energy spectra be used in Monte Carlo simulations. This would allow for calculation of reliable dosimetric data for source modeling and calculation in brachytherapy treatment planning systems.

  4. Effect of photon energy spectrum on dosimetric parameters of brachytherapy sources

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbani, Mahdi; Davenport, David

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aim The aim of this study is to quantify the influence of the photon energy spectrum of brachytherapy sources on task group No. 43 (TG-43) dosimetric parameters. Background Different photon spectra are used for a specific radionuclide in Monte Carlo simulations of brachytherapy sources. Materials and methods MCNPX code was used to simulate 125I, 103Pd, 169Yb, and 192Ir brachytherapy sources. Air kerma strength per activity, dose rate constant, radial dose function, and two dimensional (2D) anisotropy functions were calculated and isodose curves were plotted for three different photon energy spectra. The references for photon energy spectra were: published papers, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC). The data calculated by these photon energy spectra were compared. Results Dose rate constant values showed a maximum difference of 24.07% for 103Pd source with different photon energy spectra. Radial dose function values based on different spectra were relatively the same. 2D anisotropy function values showed minor differences in most of distances and angles. There was not any detectable difference between the isodose contours. Conclusions Dosimetric parameters obtained with different photon spectra were relatively the same, however it is suggested that more accurate and updated photon energy spectra be used in Monte Carlo simulations. This would allow for calculation of reliable dosimetric data for source modeling and calculation in brachytherapy treatment planning systems. PMID:27247558

  5. Combined heat and power (cogeneration) plant based on renewable energy sources and electrochemical hydrogen systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigor'ev, S. A.; Grigor'ev, A. S.; Kuleshov, N. V.; Fateev, V. N.; Kuleshov, V. N.

    2015-02-01

    The layout of a combined heat and power (cogeneration) plant based on renewable energy sources (RESs) and hydrogen electrochemical systems for the accumulation of energy via the direct and inverse conversion of the electrical energy from RESs into the chemical energy of hydrogen with the storage of the latter is described. Some efficient technical solutions on the use of electrochemical hydrogen systems in power engineering for the storage of energy with a cyclic energy conversion efficiency of more than 40% are proposed. It is shown that the storage of energy in the form of hydrogen is environmentally safe and considerably surpasses traditional accumulator batteries by its capacitance characteristics, being especially topical in the prolonged absence of energy supply from RESs, e.g., under the conditions of polar night and breathless weather. To provide the required heat consumption of an object during the peak period, it is proposed to burn some hydrogen in a boiler house.

  6. Food sources of energy and nutrients among adults in the US: NHANES 2003–2006.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Carol E; Keast, Debra R; Fulgoni, Victor L; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2012-12-19

    Identification of current food sources of energy and nutrients among US adults is needed to help with public health efforts to implement feasible and appropriate dietary recommendations. To determine the food sources of energy and 26 nutrients consumed by US adults the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 24-h recall (Day 1) dietary intake data from a nationally representative sample of adults 19+ years of age (y) (n = 9490) were analyzed. An updated USDA Dietary Source Nutrient Database was developed for NHANES 2003-2006 using current food composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from food sources were sample-weighted. Percentages of total dietary intake contributed from food sources were ranked. The highest ranked sources of energy and nutrients among adults more than 19 years old were: energy - yeast bread/rolls (7.2%) and cake/cookies/quick bread/pastry/pie (7.2%); protein-poultry (14.4%) and beef (14.0%); total fat - other fats and oils (9.8%); saturated fatty acids - cheese (16.5%) and beef (9.1%); carbohydrate - soft drinks/soda (11.4%) and yeast breads/rolls (10.9%); dietary fiber - yeast breads/rolls (10.9%) and fruit (10.2%); calcium - milk (22.5%) and cheese (21.6%); vitamin D - milk (45.1%) and fish/shellfish (14.4%); and potassium - milk (9.6%) and coffee/tea/other non-alcoholic beverages (8.4%). Knowledge of primary food sources of energy and nutrients can help health professionals design effective strategies to reduce excess energy consumed by US adults and increase the nutrient adequacy of their diets.

  7. An investigation of techniques for the measurement and interpretation of cosmic ray isotopic abundances. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    1977-01-01

    An instrument, the Caltech High Energy Isotope Spectrometer Telescope was developed to measure isotopic abundances of cosmic ray nuclei by employing an energy loss - residual energy technique. A detailed analysis was made of the mass resolution capabilities of this instrument. A formalism, based on the leaky box model of cosmic ray propagation, was developed for obtaining isotopic abundance ratios at the cosmic ray sources from abundances measured in local interstellar space for elements having three or more stable isotopes, one of which is believed to be absent at the cosmic ray sources. It was shown that the dominant sources of uncertainty in the derived source ratios are uncorrelated errors in the fragmentation cross sections and statistical uncertainties in measuring local interstellar abundances. These results were applied to estimate the extent to which uncertainties must be reduced in order to distinguish between cosmic ray production in a solar-like environment and in various environments with greater neutron enrichments.

  8. Ion energy spread and current measurements of the rf-driven multicusp ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y.; Gough, R. A.; Kunkel, W. B.; Leung, K. N.; Perkins, L. T.; Pickard, D. S.; Sun, L.; Vujic, J.; Williams, M. D.; Wutte, D.

    1997-03-01

    Axial energy spread and useful beam current of positive ion beams have been carried out using a radio frequency (rf)-driven multicusp ion source. Operating the source with a 13.56 MHz induction discharge, the axial energy spread is found to be approximately 3.2 eV. The extractable beam current of the rf-driven source is found to be comparable to that of filament-discharge sources. With a 0.6 mm diameter extraction aperture, a positive hydrogen ion beam current density of 80 mA/cm2 can be obtained at a rf input power of 2.5 kW. The expected source lifetime is much longer than that of filament discharges.

  9. Powering embedded electronics for wind turbine monitoring using multi-source energy harvesting techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, S. R.; Taylor, S. G.; Raby, E. Y.; Farinholt, K. M.

    2013-03-01

    With a global interest in the development of clean, renewable energy, wind energy has seen steady growth over the past several years. Advances in wind turbine technology bring larger, more complex turbines and wind farms. An important issue in the development of these complex systems is the ability to monitor the state of each turbine in an effort to improve the efficiency and power generation. Wireless sensor nodes can be used to interrogate the current state and health of wind turbine structures; however, a drawback of most current wireless sensor technology is their reliance on batteries for power. Energy harvesting solutions present the ability to create autonomous power sources for small, low-power electronics through the scavenging of ambient energy; however, most conventional energy harvesting systems employ a single mode of energy conversion, and thus are highly susceptible to variations in the ambient energy. In this work, a multi-source energy harvesting system is developed to power embedded electronics for wind turbine applications in which energy can be scavenged simultaneously from several ambient energy sources. Field testing is performed on a full-size, residential scale wind turbine where both vibration and solar energy harvesting systems are utilized to power wireless sensing systems. Two wireless sensors are investigated, including the wireless impedance device (WID) sensor node, developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and an ultra-low power RF system-on-chip board that is the basis for an embedded wireless accelerometer node currently under development at LANL. Results indicate the ability of the multi-source harvester to successfully power both sensors.

  10. Dense Plasma Focus - From Alternative Fusion Source to Versatile High Energy Density Plasma Source for Plasma Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, R. S.

    2015-03-01

    The dense plasma focus (DPF), a coaxial plasma gun, utilizes pulsed high current electrical discharge to heat and compress the plasma to very high density and temperature with energy densities in the range of 1-10 × 1010 J/m3. The DPF device has always been in the company of several alternative magnetic fusion devices as it produces intense fusion neutrons. Several experiments conducted on many different DPF devices ranging over several order of storage energy have demonstrated that at higher storage energy the neutron production does not follow I4 scaling laws and deteriorate significantly raising concern about the device's capability and relevance for fusion energy. On the other hand, the high energy density pinch plasma in DPF device makes it a multiple radiation source of ions, electron, soft and hard x-rays, and neutrons, making it useful for several applications in many different fields such as lithography, radiography, imaging, activation analysis, radioisotopes production etc. Being a source of hot dense plasma, strong shockwave, intense energetic beams and radiation, etc, the DPF device, additionally, shows tremendous potential for applications in plasma nanoscience and plasma nanotechnology. In the present paper, the key features of plasma focus device are critically discussed to understand the novelties and opportunities that this device offers in processing and synthesis of nanophase materials using, both, the top-down and bottom-up approach. The results of recent key experimental investigations performed on (i) the processing and modification of bulk target substrates for phase change, surface reconstruction and nanostructurization, (ii) the nanostructurization of PLD grown magnetic thin films, and (iii) direct synthesis of nanostructured (nanowire, nanosheets and nanoflowers) materials using anode target material ablation, ablated plasma and background reactive gas based synthesis and purely gas phase synthesis of various different types of

  11. Trends in energy intake among US children by eating location and food source, 1977-2006.

    PubMed

    Poti, Jennifer M; Popkin, Barry M

    2011-08-01

    Little is known about the influence of location of food consumption and preparation upon daily energy intake of children. To examine trends in daily energy intake by children for foods eaten at home or away from home, by source of preparation, and for combined categories of eating location and food source. The analysis uses data from 29,217 children aged 2 to 18 years from the 1977-1978 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey, 1989-1991 and 1994-1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals, and 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Nationally representative weighted percentages and means of daily energy intake by eating location were analyzed for trends from 1977 to 2006. Comparisons by food source were examined from 1994 to 2006. Analyses were repeated for three age groups: 2 to 6 years, 7 to 12 years, and 13 to 18 years. Difference testing was conducted using a t test. Increased energy intake (+179 kcal/day) by children from 1977-2006 was associated with a major increase in energy eaten away from home (+255 kcal/day). The percentage of daily energy eaten away from home increased from 23.4% to 33.9% from 1977-2006. No further increase was observed from 1994-2006, but the sources of energy shifted. The percentage of energy from fast food increased to surpass intake from schools and become the largest contributor to foods prepared away from home for all age groups. For foods eaten away from home, the percentage of daily energy from stores increased to become the largest source of energy eaten away from home. Fast food eaten at home and store-bought food eaten away from home increased significantly. Eating location and food source significantly influence daily energy intake for children. Foods prepared away from home, including fast food eaten at home and store-prepared food eaten away from home, are fueling the increase in total energy intake. However, further research using alternative data sources is necessary to verify that store

  12. Abundance of Pseudallescheria/Scedosporium species in the Australian urban environment suggests a possible source for scedosporiosis including the colonization of airways in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Harun, Azian; Gilgado, Felix; Chen, Sharon C-A; Meyer, Wieland

    2010-11-01

    Members of the Pseudallescheria/Scedosporium species complex are emerging opportunistic fungal pathogens which have the capacity to colonize patients with damaged airways, including those with cystic fibrosis (CF). Assuming human infection is acquired via inhalation of fungal spores from the environment, we performed a qualitative environmental survey encompassing 25 urban, semirural and rural sites in the greater Sydney region to determine the prevalence of Pseudallescheria/Scedosporium species. Soil sampling revealed an abundance of Pseudallescheria/Scedosporium, particularly in locations associated with high human activity. No variation was noted during repeated sampling at different times of the year. Strains of Scedosporium aurantiacum were most frequently isolated (54.6%), followed by Scedosporium prolificans (43%), P. boydii (2.1%) and S. dehoogii (0.3%). The findings coincide with the relatively high prevalence of Scedosporium infections in Australia and their presence as colonizers in CF patients. They emphasize the importance of environmental studies to assess the clinical risk of infection.

  13. Abundance, Natural Infection with Trypanosomes, and Food Source of an Endemic Species of Triatomine, Panstrongylus howardi (Neiva 1911), on the Ecuadorian Central Coast

    PubMed Central

    Villacís, Anita G.; Ocaña-Mayorga, Sofía; Lascano, Mauricio S.; Yumiseva, César A.; Baus, Esteban G.; Grijalva, Mario J.

    2015-01-01

    The elimination of domestic triatomines is the foundation of Chagas disease control. Regional initiatives are eliminating introduced triatomine species. In this scenario, endemic triatomines can occupy the ecological niches left open and become a threat to long-term Chagas disease control efforts. This study determined the abundance, colonization, and Trypanosoma cruzi infection rate of the endemic Panstrongylus howardi in 10 rural communities located in Ecuador's Manabí Province. In total, 518 individuals of P. howardi were collected. Infestation indices of 1.4% and 6.6% were found in the domestic and peridomestic environments, respectively. We determined a T. cruzi infection rate of 53.2% (N = 47) in this species. P. howardi has a high capacity to adapt to different habitats, especially in the peridomicile. This implies a considerable risk of transmission because of the frequency of intradomicile invasion. Therefore, this species needs to be taken into account in Chagas control and surveillance efforts in the region. PMID:25385867

  14. Identifying across‐system sources of variation in a generalist freshwater fish: Correlates of total and size‐specific abundance of yellow perch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carey, Michael P.; Mather, M. E.

    2009-01-01

    Variation in fish abundance across systems presents a challenge to our understanding of fish populations because it limits our ability to predict and transfer basic ecological principles to applied problems. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) is an ideal species for exploring environmental and biotic correlates across system because it is widely distributed and physiologically tolerant. In 16 small, adjacent systems that span a wide range of environmental and biotic conditions, yellow perch were sampled with a standard suite of gear. Water quality, morphometry, vegetation, invertebrates and fish communities were concurrently measured. Multimodel inference was used to prioritise regressors for the entire yellow perch sample and three size groups (35-80, 81-180, ≥181 mm TL). Across systems, pH and fish richness were identified as the key drivers of yellow perch abundance. At very low pH (<4.0), few fish species and few yellow perch individuals were found. At ponds with moderately low pH (4.0–4.8), numbers of yellow perch increased. Ponds with high pH (>4.8) had many other species and few yellow perch. Similar patterns for pH and fish community were observed for the two largest‐size classes. Negative interactions were observed between the medium‐ and large‐sized yellow perch and between the largest and smallest yellow perch, although interspecific interactions were weaker than expected. This examination of variability for an indicator species and its component‐size classes provides ecological understanding that can help frame the larger‐scale sampling programs needed for the conservation of freshwater fish.

  15. Energy transfer from a pulsed thermal source to He II below 0.3 K.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfeifer, C. D.; Luszczynski, K.

    1973-01-01

    Results of measurements of the angular distribution of the energy flux radiated from a pulsed heater immersed in He II at low temperatures (around 230 mK). It is shown that the energy transfer from a pulsed carbon heater at a relatively high temperature to ambient liquid helium maintained at low temperature cannot be adequately described by the phonon-coupling models. The experimental data on the velocity and angular distribution of the energy flux radiated from the plane of the heater indicate that the energy from the heater is transferred to a layer of hot helium adjacent to the surface of the heater and that this layer acts as the effective source of excitations radiated into the ambient liquid helium. The extent and shape of this source depend on the total energy flux produced by the heater.

  16. Dependence with air density of the response of the PTW SourceCheck ionization chamber for low energy brachytherapy sources.

    PubMed

    Tornero-López, Ana M; Guirado, Damián; Perez-Calatayud, Jose; Ruiz-Arrebola, Samuel; Simancas, Fernando; Gazdic-Santic, Maja; Lallena, Antonio M

    2013-12-01

    Air-communicating well ionization chambers are commonly used to assess air kerma strength of sources used in brachytherapy. The signal produced is supposed to be proportional to the air density within the chamber and, therefore, a density-independent air kerma strength is obtained when the measurement is corrected to standard atmospheric conditions using the usual temperature and pressure correction factor. Nevertheless, when assessing low energy sources, the ionization chambers may not fulfill that condition and a residual density dependence still remains after correction. In this work, the authors examined the behavior of the PTW 34051 SourceCheck ionization chamber when measuring the air kerma strength of (125)I seeds. Four different SourceCheck chambers were analyzed. With each one of them, two series of measurements of the air kerma strength for (125)I selectSeed(TM) brachytherapy sources were performed inside a pressure chamber and varying the pressure in a range from 747 to 1040 hPa (560 to 780 mm Hg). The temperature and relative humidity were kept basically constant. An analogous experiment was performed by taking measurements at different altitudes above sea level. Contrary to other well-known ionization chambers, like the HDR1000 PLUS, in which the temperature-pressure correction factor overcorrects the measurements, in the SourceCheck ionization chamber they are undercorrected. At a typical atmospheric situation of 933 hPa (700 mm Hg) and 20 °C, this undercorrection turns out to be 1.5%. Corrected measurements show a residual linear dependence on the density and, as a consequence, an additional density dependent correction must be applied. The slope of this residual linear density dependence is different for each SourceCheck chamber investigated. The results obtained by taking measurements at different altitudes are compatible with those obtained with the pressure chamber. Variations of the altitude and changes in the weather conditions may produce

  17. Source energy spectra from demodulation of solar particle data by interplanetary and coronal transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Peraza, J.; Alvarez-Madrigal, M.; Rivero, F.; Miroshnichenko, L. I.

    1985-01-01

    The data on source energy spectra of solar cosmic rays (SCR), i.e. the data on the spectrum form and on the absolute SCR are of interest for three reasons: (1) the SCR contain the energy comparable to the total energy of electromagnetic flare radiation (less than or equal to 10 to the 32nd power ergs); (2) the source spectrum form indicates a possible acceleration mechanism (or mechanism); and (3) the accelerated particles are efficiently involved in nuclear electromagnetic and plasma processes in the solar atmosphere. Therefore, the data on SCR source spectra are necessary for a theoretical description of the processes mentioned and for the formulation of the consistent flare model. Below it is attempted to sound solar particle sources by means of SCR energy spectrum obtained near the Sun, at the level of the roots of the interplanetary field lines in the upper solar corona. Data from approx. 60 solar proton events (SPE) between 1956-1981. These data were obtained mainly by the interplanetary demodulation of observed fluxes near the Earth. Further, a model of coronal azimuthal transport is used to demodulate those spectra, and to obtain the source energy spectra.

  18. Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients among Adults in the US: NHANES 2003–2006

    PubMed Central

    O’Neil, Carol E.; Keast, Debra R.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Nicklas, Theresa A.

    2012-01-01

    Identification of current food sources of energy and nutrients among US adults is needed to help with public health efforts to implement feasible and appropriate dietary recommendations. To determine the food sources of energy and 26 nutrients consumed by US adults the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 24-h recall (Day 1) dietary intake data from a nationally representative sample of adults 19+ years of age (y) (n = 9490) were analyzed. An updated USDA Dietary Source Nutrient Database was developed for NHANES 2003–2006 using current food composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from food sources were sample-weighted. Percentages of total dietary intake contributed from food sources were ranked. The highest ranked sources of energy and nutrients among adults more than 19 years old were: energy—yeast bread/rolls (7.2%) and cake/cookies/quick bread/pastry/pie (7.2%); protein—poultry (14.4%) and beef (14.0%); total fat—other fats and oils (9.8%); saturated fatty acids—cheese (16.5%) and beef (9.1%); carbohydrate—soft drinks/soda (11.4%) and yeast breads/rolls (10.9%); dietary fiber—yeast breads/rolls (10.9%) and fruit (10.2%); calcium—milk (22.5%) and cheese (21.6%); vitamin D—milk (45.1%) and fish/shellfish (14.4%); and potassium—milk (9.6%) and coffee/tea/other non-alcoholic beverages (8.4%). Knowledge of primary food sources of energy and nutrients can help health professionals design effective strategies to reduce excess energy consumed by US adults and increase the nutrient adequacy of their diets. PMID:23363999

  19. Angular correlation between IceCube high-energy starting events and starburst sources

    SciTech Connect

    Moharana, Reetanjali; Razzaque, Soebur, E-mail: moharana.reetanjali@mail.huji.ac.il, E-mail: srazzaque@uj.ac.za

    Starburst galaxies and star-forming regions in the Milkyway, with high rate of supernova activities, are candidate sources of high-energy neutrinos. Using a gamma-ray selected sample of these sources we perform statistical analysis of their angular correlation with the four-year sample of high-energy starting events (HESE), detected by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. We find that the two samples (starburst galaxies and local star-forming regions) are correlated with cosmic neutrinos at ∼ (2–3)σ (pre-trial) significance level, when the full HESE sample with deposited energy ∼> 20 TeV is considered. However when we consider the HESE sample with deposited energy ∼> 60 TeV,more » which is almost free of atmospheric neutrino and muon backgrounds, the significance of correlation decreased drastically. We perform a similar study for Galactic sources in the 2nd Catalog of Hard Fermi -LAT Sources (2FHL, >50 GeV) catalog as well, obtaining ∼ (2–3)σ (pre-trial) correlation, however the significance of correlation increases with higher cutoff energy in the HESE sample for this case. We also fit available gamma-ray data from these sources using a pp interaction model and calculate expected neutrino fluxes. We find that the expected neutrino fluxes for most of the sources are at least an order of magnitude lower than the fluxes required to produce the HESE neutrinos from these sources. This puts the starburst sources being the origin of the IceCube HESE neutrinos in question.« less

  20. Matching of renewable source of energy generation graphs and electrical load in local energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lezhniuk, Petro; Komar, Vyacheslav; Sobchuk, Dmytro; Kravchuk, Sergiy; Kacejko, Piotr; Zavidsky, Vladislav

    2017-08-01

    The paper contains the method of matching generation graph of photovoltaic electric stations and consumers. Characteristic feature of this method is the application of morphometric analysis for assessment of non-uniformity of the integrated graph of energy supply, optimal coefficients of current distribution, that enables by mean of refining the powers, transferring in accordance with the graph , to provide the decrease of electric energy losses in the grid and transport task, as the optimization tool.

  1. Number of hummingbird visits determines flower mite abundance on hummingbird feeders.

    PubMed

    Márquez-Luna, Ubaldo; Vázquez González, María Magdalena; Castellanos, Ignacio; Ortiz-Pulido, Raúl

    2016-08-01

    Members of several genera of mites from the family Melicharidae (Mesostigmata) use hummingbirds as transport host to move from flower to flower, where they feed on pollen and nectar. The factors that influence hummingbird flower mite abundance on host plant flowers are not currently known. Here we tested whether hummingbird flower mite abundance on an artificial nectar source is determined by number of hummingbird visits, nectar energy content or species richness of visiting hummingbirds. We conducted experiments employing hummingbird feeders with sucrose solutions of low, medium, and high energy concentrations, placed in a xeric shrubland. In the first experiment, we recorded the number of visiting hummingbirds and the number of visiting hummingbird species, as well as the abundance of hummingbird flower mites on each feeder. Feeders with the highest sucrose concentration had the most hummingbird visits and the highest flower mite abundances; however, there was no significant effect of hummingbird species richness on mite abundance. In the second experiment, we recorded flower mite abundance on feeders after we standardized the number of hummingbird visits to them. Abundance of flower mites did not differ significantly between feeders when we controlled for hummingbird visits. Our results suggest that nectar energy concentration determines hummingbird visits, which in turn determines flower mite abundance in our feeders. Our results do not support the hypothesis that mites descend from hummingbird nostrils more on richer nectar sources; however, it does not preclude the possibility that flower mites select for nectar concentration at other spatial and temporal scales.

  2. High-energy astrophysics and the search for sources of gravitational waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, P. T.; Evans, P.

    2018-05-01

    The dawn of the gravitational-wave (GW) era has sparked a greatly renewed interest into possible links between sources of high-energy radiation and GWs. The most luminous high-energy sources-gamma-ray bursts (GRBs)-have long been considered as very likely sources of GWs, particularly from short-duration GRBs, which are thought to originate from the merger of two compact objects such as binary neutron stars and a neutron star-black hole binary. In this paper, we discuss: (i) the high-energy emission from short-duration GRBs; (ii) what other sources of high-energy radiation may be observed from binary mergers; and (iii) how searches for high-energy electromagnetic counterparts to GW events are performed with current space facilities. While current high-energy facilities, such as Swift and Fermi, play a crucial role in the search for electromagnetic counterparts, new space missions will greatly enhance our capabilities for joint observations. We discuss why such facilities, which incorporate new technology that enables very wide-field X-ray imaging, are required if we are to truly exploit the multi-messenger era. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue `The promises of gravitational-wave astronomy'.

  3. Multi-source energy harvester to power sensing hardware on rotating structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichting, Alexander; Ouellette, Scott; Carlson, Clinton; Farinholt, Kevin M.; Park, Gyuhae; Farrar, Charles R.

    2010-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to meet 20% of the nation's energy needs through wind power by the year 2030. To accomplish this goal, the industry will need to produce larger (>100m diameter) turbines to increase efficiency and maximize energy production. It will be imperative to instrument the large composite structures with onboard sensing to provide structural health monitoring capabilities to understand the global response and integrity of these systems as they age. A critical component in the deployment of such a system will be a robust power source that can operate for the lifespan of the wind turbine. In this paper we consider the use of discrete, localized power sources that derive energy from the ambient (solar, thermal) or operational (kinetic) environment. This approach will rely on a multi-source configuration that scavenges energy from photovoltaic and piezoelectric transducers. Each harvester is first characterized individually in the laboratory and then they are combined through a multi-source power conditioner that is designed to combine the output of each harvester in series to power a small wireless sensor node that has active-sensing capabilities. The advantages/disadvantages of each approach are discussed, along with the proposed design for a field ready energy harvester that will be deployed on a small-scale 19.8m diameter wind turbine.

  4. High-energy astrophysics and the search for sources of gravitational waves.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, P T; Evans, P

    2018-05-28

    The dawn of the gravitational-wave (GW) era has sparked a greatly renewed interest into possible links between sources of high-energy radiation and GWs. The most luminous high-energy sources-gamma-ray bursts (GRBs)-have long been considered as very likely sources of GWs, particularly from short-duration GRBs, which are thought to originate from the merger of two compact objects such as binary neutron stars and a neutron star-black hole binary. In this paper, we discuss: (i) the high-energy emission from short-duration GRBs; (ii) what other sources of high-energy radiation may be observed from binary mergers; and (iii) how searches for high-energy electromagnetic counterparts to GW events are performed with current space facilities. While current high-energy facilities, such as Swift and Fermi, play a crucial role in the search for electromagnetic counterparts, new space missions will greatly enhance our capabilities for joint observations. We discuss why such facilities, which incorporate new technology that enables very wide-field X-ray imaging, are required if we are to truly exploit the multi-messenger era.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The promises of gravitational-wave astronomy'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  5. Invasive Mussels Alter the Littoral Food Web of a Large Lake: Stable Isotopes Reveal Drastic Shifts in Sources and Flow of Energy

    PubMed Central

    Ozersky, Ted; Evans, David O.; Barton, David R.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated how establishment of invasive dreissenid mussels impacted the structure and energy sources of the littoral benthic food web of a large temperate lake. We combined information about pre- and postdreissenid abundance, biomass, and secondary production of the littoral benthos with results of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis of archival (predreissenid) and recent (postdreissenid) samples of all common benthic taxa. This approach enabled us to determine the importance of benthic and sestonic carbon to the littoral food web before, and more than a decade after dreissenid establishment. Long term dreissenid presence was associated with a 32-fold increase in abundance, 6-fold increase in biomass, and 14-fold increase in secondary production of the littoral benthos. Dreissenids comprised a large portion of the post-invasion benthos, making up 13, 38, and 56% of total abundance, biomass, and secondary production, respectively. The predreissenid food web was supported primarily by benthic primary production, while sestonic material was relatively more important to the postdreissenid food web. The absolute importance of both sestonic material and benthic primary production to the littoral benthos increased considerably following dreissenid establishment. Our results show drastic alterations to food web structure and suggest that dreissenid mussels redirect energy and material from the water column to the littoral benthos both through biodeposition of sestonic material as well as stimulation of benthic primary production. PMID:23284673

  6. Relationships between muscular strength and the level of energy sources in the muscle.

    PubMed

    Wit, A; Juskiak, R; Wit, B; Zieliński, J R

    1978-01-01

    Relationships between muscular strength and the level of energy sources in the muscle. Acta Physiol. Pol., 1978, 29 (2): 139--151. An attempt was made to establish a relationship between the post-excercise changes in the level of anaerobic energy sources and changes in the muscular strength. The gastrocnemius muscle of Wistar rats was examined. The muscle strength was measured by the resistance tensometry. In muscle specimens ATP, CP and glycogen contents were determined. It was demonstrated that changes in the post-excersise muscle response to electric stimulus have a phasic character resembling the overcompensation curve. The percent changes in the content of anaerobic energy sources in the muscle after contractions varying in duration suggests also overcompensation the muscle content of these substances. The parallelity between the time of appearance of peak overcompensation phase in the muscle strength and in the post-exercise level of musclar ATP, CP and glycogen contents suggest a casual relationship between these changes.

  7. AUTOMATED DECONVOLUTION OF COMPOSITE MASS SPECTRA OBTAINED WITH AN OPEN-AIR IONIZATIONS SOURCE BASED ON EXACT MASSES AND RELATIVE ISOTIPIC ABUNDANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemicals dispersed by accidental, deliberate, or weather-related events must be rapidly identified to assess health risks. Mass spectra from high levels of analytes obtained using rapid, open-air ionization by a Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART®) ion source often contain

  8. Municipal solid waste (MSW) as a renewable source of energy: current and future practices in China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hefa; Hu, Yuanan

    2010-06-01

    With rapid economic growth and massive urbanization, China faces the problem of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal and the pressing need for development of alternative energy. Waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration, which recovers energy from discarded MSW and produces electricity and/or steam for heating, is recognized as a renewable source of energy and is playing an increasingly important role in MSW management in China. This article provides an overview of the WTE industry, discusses the major challenges in expanding WTE incineration in China, namely, high capital and operational costs, equipment corrosion, air pollutant emissions, and fly ash disposal. A perspective on MSW as a renewable energy source in China is also presented. Currently, only approximately 13% of MSW generated in China is disposed in WTE facilities. With the significant benefits of environmental quality, the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and government policies and financial incentives as a renewable energy source, WTE incineration industry is expected to experience significant growth in the coming decade and make greater contribution to supplying renewable energy in China. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characteristics of Ampel bamboo as a biomass energy source potential in Bali

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sucipta, M.; Putra Negara, D. N. K.; Tirta Nindhia, T. G.; Surata, I. W.

    2017-05-01

    Currently, non-renewable fossil energy dominates utilization of the world energy need for many applications. Efforts has been developed to find alternative renewable energy sources, due to fossil energy availability is diminishing. And one of renewable energy source is from biomass. The aim of this research is to determine characteristics of the Ampel bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) as an energy potential of biomass. The Ampel bamboo’s characteristics possessed are evaluated based on its chemical composition; moisture, volatile, ash, and fixed carbon through proximate analysis; and also carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen content through ultimate analysis. From the Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) indicates that Ampel bamboo contains of about 18.10% hemicelluloses, 47.75% cellulose and 18.86% lignin. While from the ultimate analysis results in the content of carbon, hydrogen, and Nitrogen of Ampel bamboo are 39.75%, 5.75% and 0% respectively. With such characteristics, it indicates that Ampel bamboo has an attractive potential as a renewable energy source.

  10. THE HIGHEST-ENERGY COSMIC RAYS CANNOT BE DOMINANTLY PROTONS FROM STEADY SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Ke; Kotera, Kumiko

    The bulk of observed ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays could be light or heavier elements and originate from an either steady or transient population of sources. This leaves us with four general categories of sources. Energetic requirements set a lower limit on single-source luminosities, while the distribution of particle arrival directions in the sky sets a lower limit on the source number density. The latter constraint depends on the angular smearing in the skymap due to the magnetic deflections of the charged particles during their propagation from the source to the Earth. We contrast these limits with the luminosity functions from surveysmore » of existing luminous steady objects in the nearby universe and strongly constrain one of the four categories of source models, namely, steady proton sources. The possibility that cosmic rays with energy >8 × 10{sup 19} eV are dominantly pure protons coming from steady sources is excluded at 95% confidence level, under the safe assumption that protons experience less than 30° magnetic deflection on flight.« less

  11. Observed source parameters for dynamic rupture with non-uniform initial stressand relatively high fracture energy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeler, Nicholas M.; Kilgore, Brian D.; McGarr, Arthur F.; Fletcher, Jon Peter B.; Evans, John R.; Steven R. Baker,

    2012-01-01

    We have conducted dynamic rupture propagation experiments to establish the relations between in-source stress drop, fracture energy and the resulting particle velocity during slip of an unconfined 2 m long laboratory fault at normal stresses between 4 and 8 MPa. To produce high fracture energy in the source we use a rough fault that has a large slip weakening distance. An artifact of the high fracture energy is that the nucleation zone is large such that precursory slip reduces fault strength over a large fraction of the total fault length prior to dynamic rupture, making the initial stress non-uniform. Shear stress, particle velocity, fault slip and acceleration were recorded coseismically at multiple locations along strike and at small fault-normal distances. Stress drop increases weakly with normal stress. Average slip rate depends linearly on the fault strength loss and on static stress drop, both with a nonzero intercept. A minimum fracture energy of 1.8 J/m2 and a linear slip weakening distance of 33 μm are inferred from the intercept. The large slip weakening distance also affects the average slip rate which is reduced by in-source energy dissipation from on-fault fracture energy.Because of the low normal stress and small per event slip (∼86 μm), no thermal weakening such as melting or pore fluid pressurization occurs in these experiments. Despite the relatively high fracture energy, and the very low heat production, energy partitioning during these laboratory earthquakes is very similar to typical earthquake source properties. The product of fracture energy and fault area is larger than the radiated energy. Seismic efficiency is low at ∼2%. The ratio of apparent stress to static stress drop is ∼27%, consistent with measured overshoot. The fracture efficiency is ∼33%. The static and dynamic stress drops when extrapolated to crustal stresses are 2–7.3 MPa and in the range of typical earthquake stress drops. As the relatively high fracture

  12. Sustainable energy development of bio briquettes based on rice husk blended materials: an alternative energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryaningsih, S.; Nurhilal, O.

    2018-05-01

    Rice husk as an abundant waste of biomass up to 21 million tons/year, it is unfortunate if it is not utilized. By converting it into bio briquettes, the value of rice husk bio briquettes in some studies before obtaining a relatively low value of 3,221-3,350 cal/g. The purpose of this research is to increase the calorific value of rice husk bio briquettes by mixing with coconut shell charcoal or corncob charcoal at various composition ratios of 50:50 and 80:20, to reach the optimal value that the industrial sector needed. Carbonization process was carried out at a temperature of 250-350 °C for 1.5 hours. From the results of the proximate analysis test using selected carbonization temperature at 300 °C, it can be seen that the best briquette value is made by mixing rice husk and coconut shell charcoal at composition ratio of 50:50, resulting 47.92% fixed carbon, 8.52% moisture content, 23.40% volatile matter and 20.16% ash content. The highest calorific value of 4,886 cal/g at ratio composition of 50:50, is slightly higher than the East Kalimantan coal standard of 4,828 cal/g. Hence, this bio briquettes are suitable for small scale industry application and household community use.

  13. Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Metocean Data-use, Sources, and Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Sirnivas, Senu

    Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Metocean Data-use, Sources, and Instrumentation presentation from Water Power Technologies Office Peer Review, FY14-FY16. This project aims to accelerate deployment of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) technology by establishing: 1) relevant existing and evolving standards and guidelines, 2) meteorological and oceanic (metocean) data use 3) data sources, and 4) instrumentation guidance for siting, design, and operation of MHK devices along the U.S coastline.

  14. Statistical Measurement of the Gamma-Ray Source-count Distribution as a Function of Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zechlin, Hannes-S.; Cuoco, Alessandro; Donato, Fiorenza; Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco

    2016-08-01

    Statistical properties of photon count maps have recently been proven as a new tool to study the composition of the gamma-ray sky with high precision. We employ the 1-point probability distribution function of six years of Fermi-LAT data to measure the source-count distribution dN/dS and the diffuse components of the high-latitude gamma-ray sky as a function of energy. To that aim, we analyze the gamma-ray emission in five adjacent energy bands between 1 and 171 GeV. It is demonstrated that the source-count distribution as a function of flux is compatible with a broken power law up to energies of ˜50 GeV. The index below the break is between 1.95 and 2.0. For higher energies, a simple power-law fits the data, with an index of {2.2}-0.3+0.7 in the energy band between 50 and 171 GeV. Upper limits on further possible breaks as well as the angular power of unresolved sources are derived. We find that point-source populations probed by this method can explain {83}-13+7% ({81}-19+52%) of the extragalactic gamma-ray background between 1.04 and 1.99 GeV (50 and 171 GeV). The method has excellent capabilities for constraining the gamma-ray luminosity function and the spectra of unresolved blazars.

  15. Cultured Cortical Neurons Can Perform Blind Source Separation According to the Free-Energy Principle

    PubMed Central

    Isomura, Takuya; Kotani, Kiyoshi; Jimbo, Yasuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Blind source separation is the computation underlying the cocktail party effect––a partygoer can distinguish a particular talker’s voice from the ambient noise. Early studies indicated that the brain might use blind source separation as a signal processing strategy for sensory perception and numerous mathematical models have been proposed; however, it remains unclear how the neural networks extract particular sources from a complex mixture of inputs. We discovered that neurons in cultures of dissociated rat cortical cells could learn to represent particular sources while filtering out other signals. Specifically, the distinct classes of neurons in the culture learned to respond to the distinct sources after repeating training stimulation. Moreover, the neural network structures changed to reduce free energy, as predicted by the free-energy principle, a candidate unified theory of learning and memory, and by Jaynes’ principle of maximum entropy. This implicit learning can only be explained by some form of Hebbian plasticity. These results are the first in vitro (as opposed to in silico) demonstration of neural networks performing blind source separation, and the first formal demonstration of neuronal self-organization under the free energy principle. PMID:26690814

  16. A Can of Bull? Do Energy Drinks Really Provide a Source of Energy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidemann, Merle; Urquhart, Gerald R.

    2005-01-01

    This case study involves the biochemical analysis of the components of commonly available energy drinks, which many students purchase at fairly high prices. Students research the ingredients in each product and their physiological role in the human body, and then attempt to match what they learn with the product manufacturers' marketing claims.…

  17. Recycled Thermal Energy from High Power Light Emitting Diode Light Source.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jae-Hoon; Jo, GaeHun; Ha, Jae-Geun; Koo, Sang-Mo; Kamiko, Masao; Hong, JunHee; Koh, Jung-Hyuk

    2018-09-01

    In this research, the recycled electrical energy from wasted thermal energy in high power Light Emitting Diode (LED) system will be investigated. The luminous efficiency of lights has been improved in recent years by employing the high power LED system, therefore energy efficiency was improved compared with that of typical lighting sources. To increase energy efficiency of high power LED system further, wasted thermal energy should be re-considered. Therefore, wasted thermal energy was collected and re-used them as electrical energy. The increased electrical efficiency of high power LED devices was accomplished by considering the recycled heat energy, which is wasted thermal energy from the LED. In this work, increased electrical efficiency will be considered and investigated by employing the high power LED system, which has high thermal loss during the operating time. For this research, well designed thermoelement with heat radiation system was employed to enhance the collecting thermal energy from the LED system, and then convert it as recycled electrical energy.

  18. Source of nitrous oxide emissions during the cow manure composting process as revealed by isotopomer analysis of and amoA abundance in betaproteobacterial ammonia-oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Koki; Toyoda, Sakae; Shimojima, Ryosuke; Osada, Takashi; Hanajima, Dai; Morioka, Riki; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2010-03-01

    A molecular analysis of betaproteobacterial ammonia oxidizers and a N(2)O isotopomer analysis were conducted to study the sources of N(2)O emissions during the cow manure composting process. Much NO(2)(-)-N and NO(3)(-)-N and the Nitrosomonas europaea-like amoA gene were detected at the surface, especially at the top of the composting pile, suggesting that these ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) significantly contribute to the nitrification which occurs at the surface layer of compost piles. However, the (15)N site preference within the asymmetric N(2)O molecule (SP = delta(15)N(alpha) - delta(15)N(beta), where (15)N(alpha) and (15)N(beta) represent the (15)N/(14)N ratios at the center and end sites of the nitrogen atoms, respectively) indicated that the source of N(2)O emissions just after the compost was turned originated mainly from the denitrification process. Based on these results, the reduction of accumulated NO(2)(-)-N or NO(3)(-)-N after turning was identified as the main source of N(2)O emissions. The site preference and bulk delta(15)N results also indicate that the rate of N(2)O reduction was relatively low, and an increased value for the site preference indicates that the nitrification which occurred mainly in the surface layer of the pile partially contributed to N(2)O emissions between the turnings.

  19. Dual-Source Linear Energy Prediction (LINE-P) Model in the Context of WSNs

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Faisal

    2017-01-01

    Energy harvesting technologies such as miniature power solar panels and micro wind turbines are increasingly used to help power wireless sensor network nodes. However, a major drawback of energy harvesting is its varying and intermittent characteristic, which can negatively affect the quality of service. This calls for careful design and operation of the nodes, possibly by means of, e.g., dynamic duty cycling and/or dynamic frequency and voltage scaling. In this context, various energy prediction models have been proposed in the literature; however, they are typically compute-intensive or only suitable for a single type of energy source. In this paper, we propose Linear Energy Prediction “LINE-P”, a lightweight, yet relatively accurate model based on approximation and sampling theory; LINE-P is suitable for dual-source energy harvesting. Simulations and comparisons against existing similar models have been conducted with low and medium resolutions (i.e., 60 and 22 min intervals/24 h) for the solar energy source (low variations) and with high resolutions (15 min intervals/24 h) for the wind energy source. The results show that the accuracy of the solar-based and wind-based predictions is up to approximately 98% and 96%, respectively, while requiring a lower complexity and memory than the other models. For the cases where LINE-P’s accuracy is lower than that of other approaches, it still has the advantage of lower computing requirements, making it more suitable for embedded implementation, e.g., in wireless sensor network coordinator nodes or gateways. PMID:28726745

  20. Dual-Source Linear Energy Prediction (LINE-P) Model in the Context of WSNs.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Faisal; Tamberg, Gert; Le Moullec, Yannick; Annus, Paul

    2017-07-20

    Energy harvesting technologies such as miniature power solar panels and micro wind turbines are increasingly used to help power wireless sensor network nodes. However, a major drawback of energy harvesting is its varying and intermittent characteristic, which can negatively affect the quality of service. This calls for careful design and operation of the nodes, possibly by means of, e.g., dynamic duty cycling and/or dynamic frequency and voltage scaling. In this context, various energy prediction models have been proposed in the literature; however, they are typically compute-intensive or only suitable for a single type of energy source. In this paper, we propose Linear Energy Prediction "LINE-P", a lightweight, yet relatively accurate model based on approximation and sampling theory; LINE-P is suitable for dual-source energy harvesting. Simulations and comparisons against existing similar models have been conducted with low and medium resolutions (i.e., 60 and 22 min intervals/24 h) for the solar energy source (low variations) and with high resolutions (15 min intervals/24 h) for the wind energy source. The results show that the accuracy of the solar-based and wind-based predictions is up to approximately 98% and 96%, respectively, while requiring a lower complexity and memory than the other models. For the cases where LINE-P's accuracy is lower than that of other approaches, it still has the advantage of lower computing requirements, making it more suitable for embedded implementation, e.g., in wireless sensor network coordinator nodes or gateways.

  1. Transition to a Source with Modified Physical Parameters by Energy Supply or Using an External Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucherov, A. N.

    2017-11-01

    A study has been made of the possibility for the physical parameters of a source/sink, i.e., for the enthalpy, temperature, total pressure, maximum velocity, and minimum dimension, at a constant radial Mach number to be changed by energy or force action on the gas in a bounded zone. It has been shown that the parameters can be controlled at a subsonic, supersonic, and transonic (sonic in the limit) radial Mach number. In the updated source/sink, all versions of a vortex-source combination can be implemented: into a vacuum, out of a vacuum, into a submerged space, and out of a submerged space, partially or fully.

  2. Opportunities and challenges of a low-energy positron source in the LERF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Stephen; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Vlahovic, Branislav; Golge, Serkan

    2018-05-01

    Though there are many applications of low energy positrons, many experiments are source limited. Using the LERF accelerator at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, it is possible to build a high brightness source of very low-energy positrons. The accelerator requirements are well within the capabilities of the installed hardware. The accelerator can produce 120 kW of beam with a beam energy of up to 170 MeV. For these experiments, we only need run at up to 120 MeV. The gamma-to-positron converter must be able to absorb 20% of the beam power that the linac delivers. At this low an energy the converter, though challenging, is possible. The transport of the low energy positrons from the production target to the next stage, where the energy is reduced even further, must have a very large acceptance to be able to efficiently transport the flux of positrons from the positron production target to the moderator. We propose to accomplish such a transport by means of a guiding solenoidal field with a novel endcap design. In this presentation, we will present the proposed schemes necessary to realize such a high brightness positron source.

  3. Preview of the BATSE Earth Occultation Catalog of Low Energy Gamma Ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, B. A.; Wilson, C. A.; Fishman, G. J.; McCollough, M. L.; Robinson, C. R.; Sahi, M.; Paciesas, W. S.; Zhang, S. N.

    1999-01-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) aboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) has been detecting and monitoring point sources in the high energy sky since 1991. Although BATSE is best known for gamma ray bursts, it also monitors the sky for longer-lived sources of radiation. Using the Earth occultation technique to extract flux information, a catalog is being prepared of about 150 sources potential emission in the large area detectors (20-1000 keV). The catalog will contain light curves, representative spectra, and parametric data for black hole and neutron star binaries, active galaxies, and super-nova remnants. In this preview, we present light curves for persistent and transient sources, and also show examples of what type of information can be obtained from the BATSE Earth occultation database. Options for making the data easily accessible as an "on line" WWW document are being explored.

  4. Performance of the LANSCE H^- Source and Low Energy Transport at Higher Peak Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillai, Chandra; Stevens, Ralph; Fitzgerald, Daniel; Garnett, Robert; Ingllas, William; Merrill, Frank; Rybarcyk, Larry; Sander, Oscar

    1997-05-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) 800 MeV linac facility uses a multicusp field, surface ion source to produce H^- beam for delivery to the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) and to the Weapon Neutron Research (WNR) areas. The source typically operates at a duty factor of 9.4% delivering a peak current of about 14 mA into the 750 keV LEBT. Each beam macropulse is chopped to create a sequence of 360 ns pulse, each with a 100 ns ``extraction notch'' for injection into PSR. The average current delivered to the short-pulse spallation target is nominally 70μA. One goal of the present PSR upgrade projects is an increase in the average beam current to 200μA. This will be accomplished by a combination of increased repetition rate (to 30 Hz), upgraded PSR bunchers, and a brighter H^- ion source that will produce higher peak current with lower beam emittance. The present ion source and injector system was studied to investigate the beam qualities of the source and the performance of the low energy transpot. The performance of the ion source at higher currents and the change in beam parameters in the low energy transport compared to those in the standard source conditions will be presented.

  5. The BATSE Earth Occultation Catalog of Low Energy Gamma Ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, B. A.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Paciesas, W. S.; Zhang, S. N.; Finger, M. H.; Connaughton, V.; Koshut, T. M.; Henze, W.; McCollough, M. L.; hide

    2002-01-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), aboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), provided a record of the hard X-ray/low energy gamma ray sky between April 1991 and June 2000. During that time, a catalog of known sources was derived from existing catalogs such as HEAO A-4 (Levine et al. 1984), as well as new transient sources discovered with BATSE and other X-ray monitors operating in the CGRO era. The Earth Occultation Technique (Harmon et al. 2001, astro-ph/0109069) was used to monitor a combination of these sources, mostly galactic, totaling to about 175 objects. The catalog will present the global properties of these sources and their probability of detection (greater than 10 mCrab, 20-100 keV) with BATSE. Systematic errors due to unknown sources or background components are included. Cursory analyses to search for new transients (35-80 mCrab in the 20-100 keV band) and super-orbital periods in known binary sources are also presented. Whole mission light curves and associated data production/analysis tools are being delivered to the High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC) for public use.

  6. Statistical measurement of the gamma-ray source-count distribution as a function of energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zechlin, H.-S.; Cuoco, A.; Donato, F.; Fornengo, N.; Regis, M.

    2017-01-01

    Photon counts statistics have recently been proven to provide a sensitive observable for characterizing gamma-ray source populations and for measuring the composition of the gamma-ray sky. In this work, we generalize the use of the standard 1-point probability distribution function (1pPDF) to decompose the high-latitude gamma-ray emission observed with Fermi-LAT into: (i) point-source contributions, (ii) the Galactic foreground contribution, and (iii) a diffuse isotropic background contribution. We analyze gamma-ray data in five adjacent energy bands between 1 and 171 GeV. We measure the source-count distribution dN/dS as a function of energy, and demonstrate that our results extend current measurements from source catalogs to the regime of so far undetected sources. Our method improves the sensitivity for resolving point-source populations by about one order of magnitude in flux. The dN/dS distribution as a function of flux is found to be compatible with a broken power law. We derive upper limits on further possible breaks as well as the angular power of unresolved sources. We discuss the composition of the gamma-ray sky and capabilities of the 1pPDF method.

  7. Energy and Resource-Saving Sources of Energy in Small Power Engineering of Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranova, Marina

    2017-11-01

    The sustainable development of distant areas of Siberia is associated with the structures of energy demand and supply, the implementation and promotion of the process of environmentally safe restructuring of the energy supply system. It has been established that suspension coal fuels derived from brown coal, coal mining, coal processing wastes can be used as fuel. The results of experimental and industrial boilers on suspension water coal fuel are presented. The designs of vortex combustion chambers of various powers are developed and tested. The possibility of using coal-enrichment wastes and substandard coals for the production of manure-coal fuel briquettes was studied. It is shown that the strength and thermal power characteristics of briquettes depend on the moisture content and degree of metamorphism of the raw materials. The most effective percentage of the solid phase and manure, as a binder, was determined.

  8. Hard X-Ray Flare Source Sizes Measured with the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Pernak, Rick L.

    2009-01-01

    Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) observations of 18 double hard X-ray sources seen at energies above 25 keV are analyzed to determine the spatial extent of the most compact structures evident in each case. The following four image reconstruction algorithms were used: Clean, Pixon, and two routines using visibilities maximum entropy and forward fit (VFF). All have been adapted for this study to optimize their ability to provide reliable estimates of the sizes of the more compact sources. The source fluxes, sizes, and morphologies obtained with each method are cross-correlated and the similarities and disagreements are discussed. The full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the major axes of the sources with assumed elliptical Gaussian shapes are generally well correlated between the four image reconstruction routines and vary between the RHESSI resolution limit of approximately 2" up to approximately 20" with most below 10". The FWHM of the minor axes are generally at or just above the RHESSI limit and hence should be considered as unresolved in most cases. The orientation angles of the elliptical sources are also well correlated. These results suggest that the elongated sources are generally aligned along a flare ribbon with the minor axis perpendicular to the ribbon. This is verified for the one flare in our list with coincident Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) images. There is evidence for significant extra flux in many of the flares in addition to the two identified compact sources, thus rendering the VFF assumption of just two Gaussians inadequate. A more realistic approximation in many cases would be of two line sources with unresolved widths. Recommendations are given for optimizing the RHESSI imaging reconstruction process to ensure that the finest possible details of the source morphology become evident and that reliable estimates can be made of the source dimensions.

  9. Energy management of fuel cell/solar cell/supercapacitor hybrid power source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thounthong, Phatiphat; Chunkag, Viboon; Sethakul, Panarit; Sikkabut, Suwat; Pierfederici, Serge; Davat, Bernard

    This study presents an original control algorithm for a hybrid energy system with a renewable energy source, namely, a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and a photovoltaic (PV) array. A single storage device, i.e., a supercapacitor (ultracapacitor) module, is in the proposed structure. The main weak point of fuel cells (FCs) is slow dynamics because the power slope is limited to prevent fuel starvation problems, improve performance and increase lifetime. The very fast power response and high specific power of a supercapacitor complements the slower power output of the main source to produce the compatibility and performance characteristics needed in a load. The energy in the system is balanced by d.c.-bus energy regulation (or indirect voltage regulation). A supercapacitor module functions by supplying energy to regulate the d.c.-bus energy. The fuel cell, as a slow dynamic source in this system, supplies energy to the supercapacitor module in order to keep it charged. The photovoltaic array assists the fuel cell during daytime. To verify the proposed principle, a hardware system is realized with analog circuits for the fuel cell, solar cell and supercapacitor current control loops, and with numerical calculation (dSPACE) for the energy control loops. Experimental results with small-scale devices, namely, a PEMFC (1200 W, 46 A) manufactured by the Ballard Power System Company, a photovoltaic array (800 W, 31 A) manufactured by the Ekarat Solar Company and a supercapacitor module (100 F, 32 V) manufactured by the Maxwell Technologies Company, illustrate the excellent energy-management scheme during load cycles.

  10. National Synchrotron Light Source II

    ScienceCinema

    Hill, John; Dooryhee, Eric; Wilkins, Stuart; Miller, Lisa; Chu, Yong

    2018-01-16

    NSLS-II is a synchrotron light source helping researchers explore solutions to the grand energy challenges faced by the nation, and open up new regimes of scientific discovery that will pave the way to discoveries in physics, chemistry, and biology — advances that will ultimately enhance national security and help drive the development of abundant, safe, and clean energy technologies.

  11. Potential for small-scale, decentralized energy sources and the Federal role in their development

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, D.

    1978-02-01

    The idea that the solution to our energy problems is to be found in an expanded role for small-scale, decentralized energy sources, particularly solar energy, has gained considerable attention and increasing respectability in recent years. One of the most articulate spokesmen for this point of view is Denis Hayes. Mr. Hayes explained his perspective on the energy problem to an invited audience of about 85 professionals and students in the energy policy field. This paper is an edited version of Mr. Hayes' presentation. In his presentation, Mr. Hayes discussed the prospects for fossil and nuclear energy, stressing the potential limitationsmore » on coal use due to the problem of CO/sub 2/ and the greenhouse effect, and highlighting the hazards of the plutonium economy. He described the role conservation can play in dealing with the energy problem, but declared that conservation alone is not enough. There is still a need, he indicated, to replace declining energy sources with some alternative. In his view, the most promising alternative is solar energy, and Mr. Hayes discussed the various ways in which it can be utilized. The presentation concluded with a number of suggestions regarding Federal actions and policy initiatives that Mr. Hayes feels are needed to encourage solar energy development. These ideas served as the focus for the question and answer session which followed the presentation. Questions dealt with many issues, including priorities in solar R and D, the role of the Federal government vis a vis the private sector, the timing of solar energy implementation, and the strategy and tactics of the solar movement.« less

  12. High-energy sources at low radio frequency: the Murchison Widefield Array view of Fermi blazars

    DOE PAGES

    Giroletti, M.; Massaro, F.; D’Abrusco, R.; ...

    2016-04-01

    Low-frequency radio arrays are opening a new window for the study of the sky, both to study new phenomena and to better characterize known source classes. Being flat-spectrum sources, blazars are so far poorly studied at low radio frequencies. In this paper, we characterize the spectral properties of the blazar population at low radio frequency, compare the radio and high-energy properties of the gamma-ray blazar population, and search for radio counterparts of unidentified gamma-ray sources. We cross-correlated the 6100 deg 2 Murchison Widefield Array Commissioning Survey catalogue with the Roma blazar catalogue, the third catalogue of active galactic nuclei detectedmore » by Fermi-LAT, and the unidentified members of the entire third catalogue of gamma-ray sources detected by Fermi-LAT. When available, we also added high-frequency radio data from the Australia Telescope 20 GHz catalogue. We find low-frequency counterparts for 186 out of 517 (36%) blazars, 79 out of 174 (45%) gamma-ray blazars, and 8 out of 73 (11%) gamma-ray blazar candidates. The mean low-frequency (120–180 MHz) blazar spectral index is (α low) = 0.57 ± 0.02: blazar spectra are flatter than the rest of the population of low-frequency sources, but are steeper than at ~GHz frequencies. Low-frequency radio flux density and gamma-ray energy flux display a mildly significant and broadly scattered correlation. Ten unidentified gamma-ray sources have a (probably fortuitous) positional match with low radio frequency sources. Low-frequency radio astronomy provides important information about sources with a flat radio spectrum and high energy. However, the relatively low sensitivity of the present surveys still misses a significant fraction of these objects. Finally, upcoming deeper surveys, such as the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-Sky MWA (GLEAM) survey, will provide further insight into this population.« less

  13. High-energy sources at low radio frequency: the Murchison Widefield Array view of Fermi blazars

    SciTech Connect

    Giroletti, M.; Massaro, F.; D’Abrusco, R.

    Low-frequency radio arrays are opening a new window for the study of the sky, both to study new phenomena and to better characterize known source classes. Being flat-spectrum sources, blazars are so far poorly studied at low radio frequencies. In this paper, we characterize the spectral properties of the blazar population at low radio frequency, compare the radio and high-energy properties of the gamma-ray blazar population, and search for radio counterparts of unidentified gamma-ray sources. We cross-correlated the 6100 deg 2 Murchison Widefield Array Commissioning Survey catalogue with the Roma blazar catalogue, the third catalogue of active galactic nuclei detectedmore » by Fermi-LAT, and the unidentified members of the entire third catalogue of gamma-ray sources detected by Fermi-LAT. When available, we also added high-frequency radio data from the Australia Telescope 20 GHz catalogue. We find low-frequency counterparts for 186 out of 517 (36%) blazars, 79 out of 174 (45%) gamma-ray blazars, and 8 out of 73 (11%) gamma-ray blazar candidates. The mean low-frequency (120–180 MHz) blazar spectral index is (α low) = 0.57 ± 0.02: blazar spectra are flatter than the rest of the population of low-frequency sources, but are steeper than at ~GHz frequencies. Low-frequency radio flux density and gamma-ray energy flux display a mildly significant and broadly scattered correlation. Ten unidentified gamma-ray sources have a (probably fortuitous) positional match with low radio frequency sources. Low-frequency radio astronomy provides important information about sources with a flat radio spectrum and high energy. However, the relatively low sensitivity of the present surveys still misses a significant fraction of these objects. Finally, upcoming deeper surveys, such as the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-Sky MWA (GLEAM) survey, will provide further insight into this population.« less

  14. THE HIGH-ENERGY, ARCMINUTE-SCALE GALACTIC CENTER GAMMA-RAY SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Chernyakova, M.; Malyshev, D.; Aharonian, F. A.

    2011-01-10

    Employing data collected during the first 25 months of observations by the Fermi-LAT, we describe and subsequently seek to model the very high energy (>300 MeV) emission from the central few parsecs of our Galaxy. We analyze the morphological, spectral, and temporal characteristics of the central source, 1FGL J1745.6-2900. The data show a clear, statistically significant signal at energies above 10 GeV, where the Fermi-LAT has angular resolution comparable to that of HESS at TeV energies. This makes a meaningful joint analysis of the data possible. Our analysis of the Fermi data (alone) does not uncover any statistically significant variabilitymore » of 1FGL J1745.6-2900 at GeV energies on the month timescale. Using the combination of Fermi data on 1FGL J1745.6-2900 and HESS data on the coincident, TeV source HESS J1745-290, we show that the spectrum of the central gamma-ray source is inflected with a relatively steep spectral region matching between the flatter spectrum found at both low and high energies. We model the gamma-ray production in the inner 10 pc of the Galaxy and examine cosmic ray (CR) proton propagation scenarios that reproduce the observed spectrum of the central source. We show that a model that instantiates a transition from diffusive propagation of the CR protons at low energy to almost rectilinear propagation at high energies can explain well the spectral phenomenology. We find considerable degeneracy between different parameter choices which will only be broken with the addition of morphological information that gamma-ray telescopes cannot deliver given current angular resolution limits. We argue that a future analysis performed in combination with higher-resolution radio continuum data holds out the promise of breaking this degeneracy.« less

  15. 18 CFR 2.400 - Statement of interpretation of waste concerning natural gas as the primary energy source for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... interpretation of waste concerning natural gas as the primary energy source for qualifying small power production facilities. 2.400 Section 2.400 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... purposes of deciding whether natural gas may be considered as waste as the primary energy source pursuant...

  16. Buyer's Guide to Environmental Media: A Directory of Books, Magazines, Films and Information Sources. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Michael, Ed.

    This directory is designed to help locate energy and environmental resource materials, print and nonprint. The directory lists private and government information sources and provides an annotated guide to periodical literature. Citations of selected book titles published in 1973 include the topics of air pollution, chemical and biological…

  17. Microwave implementation of two-source energy balance approach for estimating evapotranspiration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A newly developed microwave (MW) land surface temperature (LST) product is used to effectively substitute thermal infrared (TIR) based LST in the two-source energy balance approach (TSEB) for estimating ET from space. This TSEB land surface scheme, used in the Atmosphere Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI...

  18. A plausible energy source and structure for quasi-stellar objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daltabuit, E.; Cox, D.

    1972-01-01

    If a collision of two large, massive, fast gas clouds occurs, their kinetic energy is converted to radiation in a pair of shock fronts at their interface. The resulting structure is described, and the relevance of this as a radiation source for quasi-stellar objects is considered.

  19. Accelerating the commercialization on new technologies. [free market operation of federal alternate energy sources programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuehn, T. J.; Nawrocki, P. M.

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that federal programs for hastening the adoption of alternative energy sources must operate within the free market structure. Five phases of the free market commercialization process are described. Federal role possibilities include information dissemination and funding to stimulate private sector activities within these five phases, and federally sponsored procedures for accelerating commercialization of solar thermal small power systems are considered.

  20. High Energy Cosmic Electrons: Messengers from Nearby Cosmic Ray Sources or Dark Matter?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moiseev, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the recent discoveries by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Telescope in reference to high energy cosmic electrons, and whether their source is cosmic rays or dark matter. Specific interest is devoted to Cosmic Ray electrons anisotropy,

  1. Contribution of electric energy to the process of elimination of low emission sources in Cracow

    SciTech Connect

    Lach, J.; Mejer, T.; Wybranski, A.

    1995-12-31

    At present energy supply belongs to the most important global problems. A significant part of energy is consumed for residential heating purposes. Depending on climatic conditions, fuel distribution and the level of technological development, the contribution of these purposes ranges between ca. 50% (Poland) and ca. 12% (Spain). The power engineering structure in Poland is based almost exclusively upon solid fuels, i.e. hard and brown coal. Chemical compounds (carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) produced in combustion process influence negatively the natural environment. The contribution of residential heating in this negative effect is rather significant. Because of the fact,more » that the resources of fossil fuels (the most important source of energy at present) are limited and their influence on natural environment is negative, efforts are made to find out more effective ways of energy consumption and to reduce the pollutant emission from heating sources. This problem is a topical issue in Cracow, especially during the heating season because the coal-fired stoves situated in the central part of the town remain the most important source of pollutant emission. These sources cause serious menace to the health of inhabitants; furthermore the pollutants destroy Cracow monuments entered in the UNESCO world list of human heritage.« less

  2. Microsecond Electron Beam Source with Electron Energy Up to 400 Kev and Plasma Anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullin, É. N.; Basov, G. F.; Shershnev, S.

    2017-12-01

    A new high-power source of electrons with plasma anode for producing high-current microsecond electron beams with electron energy up to 400 keV has been developed, manufactured, and put in operation. To increase the cross section and pulse current duration of the beam, a multipoint explosive emission cathode is used in the electron beam source, and the beam is formed in an applied external guiding magnetic field. The Marx generator with vacuum insulation is used as a high-voltage source. Electron beams with electron energy up to 300-400 keV, current of 5-15 kA, duration of 1.5-3 μs, energy up to 4 kJ, and cross section up to 150 cm2 have been produced. The operating modes of the electron beam source are realized in which the applied voltage is influenced weakly on the current. The possibility of source application for melting of metal surfaces is demonstrated.

  3. High-Energy Cosmic Ray Self-Confinement Close to Extra-Galactic Sources.

    PubMed

    Blasi, Pasquale; Amato, Elena; D'Angelo, Marta

    2015-09-18

    The ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays observed on the Earth are most likely accelerated in extra-Galactic sources. For the typical luminosities invoked for such sources, the electric current associated to the flux of cosmic rays that leave them is large. The associated plasma instabilities create magnetic fluctuations that can efficiently scatter particles. We argue that this phenomenon forces cosmic rays to be self-confined in the source proximity for energies Esources for energies Esource luminosity in units of 10^{44} erg/s.

  4. Indications of negative evolution for the sources of the highest energy cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Andrew M.; Ahlers, Markus; Hooper, Dan

    2015-09-14

    Using recent measurements of the spectrum and chemical composition of the highest energy cosmic rays, we consider the sources of these particles. We find that these data strongly prefer models in which the sources of the ultra-high-energy cosmic rays inject predominantly intermediate mass nuclei, with comparatively few protons or heavy nuclei, such as iron or silicon. If the number density of sources per comoving volume does not evolve with redshift, the injected spectrum must be very hard (α≃1) in order to fit the spectrum observed from Earth. Such a hard spectral index would be surprising and difficult to accommodate theoretically.more » In contrast, much softer spectral indices, consistent with the predictions of Fermi acceleration (α≃2), are favored in models with negative source evolution. Furthermore with this theoretical bias, these observations thus favor models in which the sources of the highest energy cosmic rays are preferentially located within the low-redshift universe.« less

  5. CENTAURUS A: THE EXTRAGALACTIC SOURCE OF COSMIC RAYS WITH ENERGIES ABOVE THE KNEE

    SciTech Connect

    Biermann, Peter L.; De Souza, Vitor, E-mail: plbiermann@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de, E-mail: vitor@ifsc.usp.br

    2012-02-10

    The origin of cosmic rays at all energies is still uncertain. In this paper, we present and explore an astrophysical scenario to produce cosmic rays with energy ranging from below 10{sup 15} to 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} eV. We show here that just our Galaxy and the radio galaxy Cen A, each with their own galactic cosmic-ray particles but with those from the radio galaxy pushed up in energy by a relativistic shock in the jet emanating from the active black hole, are sufficient to describe the most recent data in the PeV to near ZeV energy range. Data aremore » available over this entire energy range from the KASCADE, KASCADE-Grande, and Pierre Auger Observatory experiments. The energy spectrum calculated here correctly reproduces the measured spectrum beyond the knee and, contrary to widely held expectations, no other extragalactic source population is required to explain the data even at energies far below the general cutoff expected at 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} eV, the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min turnoff due to interaction with the cosmological microwave background. We present several predictions for the source population, the cosmic-ray composition, and the propagation to Earth which can be tested in the near future.« less

  6. Air source integrated heat pump simulation model for EnergyPlus

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo; New, Joshua; Baxter, Van

    An Air Source Integrated Heat Pump (AS-IHP) is an air source, multi-functional spacing conditioning unit with water heating function (WH), which can lead to great energy savings by recovering the condensing waste heat for domestic water heating. This paper summarizes development of the EnergyPlus AS-IHP model, introducing the physics, sub-models, working modes, and control logic. Based on the model, building energy simulations were conducted to demonstrate greater than 50% annual energy savings, in comparison to a baseline heat pump with electric water heater, over 10 US cities, using the EnergyPlus quick-service restaurant template building. We assessed water heating energy savingmore » potentials using AS-IHP versus both gas and electric baseline systems, and pointed out climate zones where AS-IHPs are promising. In addition, a grid integration strategy was investigated to reveal further energy saving and electricity cost reduction potentials, via increasing the water heating set point temperature during off-peak hours and using larger water tanks.« less

  7. Kinetic energy offsets for multicharged ions from an electron beam ion source.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, D D; Ahl, C D; Shore, A M; Miller, A J; Harriss, J E; Sosolik, C E; Marler, J P

    2017-08-01

    Using a retarding field analyzer, we have measured offsets between the nominal and measured kinetic energy of multicharged ions extracted from an electron beam ion source (EBIS). By varying source parameters, a shift in ion kinetic energy was attributed to the trapping potential produced by the space charge of the electron beam within the EBIS. The space charge of the electron beam depends on its charge density, which in turn depends on the amount of negative charge (electron beam current) and its velocity (electron beam energy). The electron beam current and electron beam energy were both varied to obtain electron beams of varying space charge and these were related to the observed kinetic energy offsets for Ar 4+ and Ar 8+ ion beams. Knowledge of these offsets is important for studies that seek to utilize slow, i.e., low kinetic energy, multicharged ions to exploit their high potential energies for processes such as surface modification. In addition, we show that these offsets can be utilized to estimate the effective radius of the electron beam inside the trap.

  8. High-flux source of low-energy neutral beams using reflection of ions from metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuthbertson, John W.; Motley, Robert W.; Langer, William D.

    1992-01-01

    Reflection of low-energy ions from surfaces can be applied as a method of producing high-flux beams of low-energy neutral particles, and is an important effect in several areas of plasma technology, such as in the edge region of fusion devices. We have developed a beam source based on acceleration and reflection of ions from a magnetically confined coaxial RF plasma source. The beam provides a large enough flux to allow the energy distribution of the reflected neutrals to be measured despite the inefficiency of detection, by means of an electrostatic cylindrical mirror analyzer coupled with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Energy distributions have been measured for oxygen, nitrogen, and inert gas ions incident with from 15 to 70 eV reflected from amorphous metal surfaces of several compositions. For ions of lighter atomic mass than the reflecting metal, reflected beams have peaked energy distributions; beams with the peak at 4-32 eV have been measured. The energy and mass dependences of the energy distributions as well as measurements of absolute flux, and angular distribution and divergence are reported. Applications of the neutral beams produced are described.

  9. Electrostatic energy analyzer measurements of low energy zirconium beam parameters in a plasma sputter-type negative ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Malapit, Giovanni M.; Department of Physical Sciences, University of the Philippines Baguio, Baguio City 2600; Mahinay, Christian Lorenz S.

    2012-02-15

    A plasma sputter-type negative ion source is utilized to produce and detect negative Zr ions with energies between 150 and 450 eV via a retarding potential-type electrostatic energy analyzer. Traditional and modified semi-cylindrical Faraday cups (FC) inside the analyzer are employed to sample negative Zr ions and measure corresponding ion currents. The traditional FC registered indistinct ion current readings which are attributed to backscattering of ions and secondary electron emissions. The modified Faraday cup with biased repeller guard ring, cut out these signal distortions leaving only ringings as issues which are theoretically compensated by fitting a sigmoidal function into themore » data. The mean energy and energy spread are calculated using the ion current versus retarding potential data while the beam width values are determined from the data of the transverse measurement of ion current. The most energetic negative Zr ions yield tighter energy spread at 4.11 eV compared to the least energetic negative Zr ions at 4.79 eV. The smallest calculated beam width is 1.04 cm for the negative Zr ions with the highest mean energy indicating a more focused beam in contrast to the less energetic negative Zr ions due to space charge forces.« less

  10. New Source Review (NSR) Air Permitting and Energy Efficiency for Industrial Projects, IECA Manufacturers for Energy Efficiency Coalition Meeting (Presentation) – April 18, 2012

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation provides information about major new source review (NSR), including recent improvement changes and court rulings, flexible air permits rule, significant deterioration rules, and energy efficiency considerations.

  11. Dependence with air density of the response of the PTW SourceCheck ionization chamber for low energy brachytherapy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Tornero-López, Ana M.; Guirado, Damián; Ruiz-Arrebola, Samuel

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Air-communicating well ionization chambers are commonly used to assess air kerma strength of sources used in brachytherapy. The signal produced is supposed to be proportional to the air density within the chamber and, therefore, a density-independent air kerma strength is obtained when the measurement is corrected to standard atmospheric conditions using the usual temperature and pressure correction factor. Nevertheless, when assessing low energy sources, the ionization chambers may not fulfill that condition and a residual density dependence still remains after correction. In this work, the authors examined the behavior of the PTW 34051 SourceCheck ionization chamber when measuring themore » air kerma strength of {sup 125}I seeds.Methods: Four different SourceCheck chambers were analyzed. With each one of them, two series of measurements of the air kerma strength for {sup 125}I selectSeed{sup TM} brachytherapy sources were performed inside a pressure chamber and varying the pressure in a range from 747 to 1040 hPa (560 to 780 mm Hg). The temperature and relative humidity were kept basically constant. An analogous experiment was performed by taking measurements at different altitudes above sea level.Results: Contrary to other well-known ionization chambers, like the HDR1000 PLUS, in which the temperature-pressure correction factor overcorrects the measurements, in the SourceCheck ionization chamber they are undercorrected. At a typical atmospheric situation of 933 hPa (700 mm Hg) and 20 °C, this undercorrection turns out to be 1.5%. Corrected measurements show a residual linear dependence on the density and, as a consequence, an additional density dependent correction must be applied. The slope of this residual linear density dependence is different for each SourceCheck chamber investigated. The results obtained by taking measurements at different altitudes are compatible with those obtained with the pressure chamber.Conclusions: Variations of the

  12. Models of glycolysis: Glyceraldehyde as a source of energy and monomers for prebiotic condensation reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, A. L.

    1986-01-01

    All organisms require energy in a chemical form for maintenance and growth. In contemporary life this chemical energy is obtained by the synthesis of the phosphoanhydride bonds of ATP. Among the biological processes that yield ATP, fermentation is generally considered primitive, because it operates under anaerobic conditions by substrate-level phosphorylation which does not require compartmentation by membranes. Fermentation by the glycolytic pathway, which is found in almost every living cell, is an especially attractive energy source for primitive life. Glycolysis not only produces useful chemical energy (ATP), but intermediates of this pathway are also involved in amino acid synthesis and photosynthetic carbon-fixation. It is believed that energy and substrates needed for the origin of life were provided by nonenzymatic chemical reactions that resemble the enzyme-mediated reactions of glycolysis. These nonenzymatic reactions would have provided a starting point for the evolutionary development of glycolysis.

  13. The random energy model in a magnetic field and joint source channel coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merhav, Neri

    2008-09-01

    We demonstrate that there is an intimate relationship between the magnetic properties of Derrida’s random energy model (REM) of spin glasses and the problem of joint source-channel coding in Information Theory. In particular, typical patterns of erroneously decoded messages in the coding problem have “magnetization” properties that are analogous to those of the REM in certain phases, where the non-uniformity of the distribution of the source in the coding problem plays the role of an external magnetic field applied to the REM. We also relate the ensemble performance (random coding exponents) of joint source-channel codes to the free energy of the REM in its different phases.

  14. Low-energy beam transport studies supporting the spallation neutron source 1-MW beam operation.

    PubMed

    Han, B X; Kalvas, T; Tarvainen, O; Welton, R F; Murray, S N; Pennisi, T R; Santana, M; Stockli, M P

    2012-02-01

    The H(-) injector consisting of a cesium enhanced RF-driven ion source and a 2-lens electrostatic low-energy beam transport (LEBT) system supports the spallation neutron source 1 MW beam operation with ∼38 mA beam current in the linac at 60 Hz with a pulse length of up to ∼1.0 ms. In this work, two important issues associated with the low-energy beam transport are discussed: (1) inconsistent dependence of the post-radio frequency quadrupole accelerator beam current on the ion source tilt angle and (2) high power beam losses on the LEBT electrodes under some off-nominal conditions compromising their reliability.

  15. Current State and Future Perspectives of Energy Sources for Totally Implantable Cardiac Devices.

    PubMed

    Bleszynski, Peter A; Luc, Jessica G Y; Schade, Peter; PhilLips, Steven J; Tchantchaleishvili, Vakhtang

    There is a large population of patients with end-stage congestive heart failure who cannot be treated by means of conventional cardiac surgery, cardiac transplantation, or chronic catecholamine infusions. Implantable cardiac devices, many designated as destination therapy, have revolutionized patient care and outcomes, although infection and complications related to external power sources or routine battery exchange remain a substantial risk. Complications from repeat battery replacement, power failure, and infections ultimately endanger the original objectives of implantable biomedical device therapy - eliminating the intended patient autonomy, affecting patient quality of life and survival. We sought to review the limitations of current cardiac biomedical device energy sources and discuss the current state and trends of future potential energy sources in pursuit of a lifelong fully implantable biomedical device.

  16. A hot wire radiant energy source for mapping the field of view of a radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, S. F.; Stewart, W. F.; Vann, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    The design and performance of a calibration device that allows the measurement of a radiometer's field of view are described. The heart of the device is a heated 0.0254-mm (0.001-inch) diameter filament that provides a variable, isothermal line source of radiant energy against a cold background. By moving this discrete line source across the field of view of a radiometer, the radiometer's spatial response can be completely mapped. The use of a platinum filament provides a durable radiation source whose temperature is stable and repeatable to 10 K over the range of 600 to 1200 K. By varying the energy emitted by the filament, the field of view of radiometers with different sensitivities (or multiple channel radiometers) can be totally mapped.

  17. A NEW METHOD FOR FINDING POINT SOURCES IN HIGH-ENERGY NEUTRINO DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Ke; Miller, M. Coleman

    The IceCube collaboration has reported the first detection of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos, including ∼50 high-energy starting events, but no individual sources have been identified. It is therefore important to develop the most sensitive and efficient possible algorithms to identify the point sources of these neutrinos. The most popular current method works by exploring a dense grid of possible directions to individual sources, and identifying the single direction with the maximum probability of having produced multiple detected neutrinos. This method has numerous strengths, but it is computationally intensive and because it focuses on the single best location for a point source,more » additional point sources are not included in the evidence. We propose a new maximum likelihood method that uses the angular separations between all pairs of neutrinos in the data. Unlike existing autocorrelation methods for this type of analysis, which also use angular separations between neutrino pairs, our method incorporates information about the point-spread function and can identify individual point sources. We find that if the angular resolution is a few degrees or better, then this approach reduces both false positive and false negative errors compared to the current method, and is also more computationally efficient up to, potentially, hundreds of thousands of detected neutrinos.« less

  18. Technology Learning Activities. Design Brief--Measuring Inaccessible Distances. Alternative Energy Sources: Designing a Wind Powered Generator. Alternative Energy Sources: Designing a Hot Dog Heater Using Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    These three learning activities are on measuring accessible distances, designing a wind powered generator, and designing a hot dog heater using solar energy. Each activity includes description of context, objectives, list of materials and equipment, challenge to students, and evaluation questions. (SK)

  19. Nonthermal processes around collapsed objects: High energy gamma ray sources in the radio sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfand, David J.; Ruderman, Malvin; Applegate, James H.; Becker, Robert H.

    1993-01-01

    In our proposal responding to the initial Guest Observer NRA for the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, 'Nonthermal Processes Around Collapsed Objects: High Energy Gamma Ray Sources in the Radio Sky', we stated that 'At high energies - the identity of the principal Galactic source population remains unknown' although the 'one certain source of high energy emission is young radio pulsars'. These two statements remain true, although at this writing, eighteen months after the beginning of the Compton allsky survey, much of the gamma-ray data required to greatly extend our knowledge of the Galaxy's high energy emission has been collected. The thrust of the program supported by our grant was to collect and analyze a complementary set of data on the Milky Way at radio wavelengths in order to help identify the dominant Pop 1 component of the Galaxy's gamma ray sources, and to pursue theoretical investigations on the origins and emission mechanisms of young pulsars, the one component of this population identified to date. We summarize here our accomplishments under the grant. In Section 2, we describe our VLA surveys of the Galactic Plane along with the current status of the radio source catalogs derived therefrom; unfortunately, owing to the TDRSS antenna problem and subsequent extension of the Sky Survey, we were not able to carry out a comparison with the EGRET data directly, although everything is now in place to do so as soon as it becomes available. In Section 2, we summarize our progress on the theoretical side, including the substantial completion of a dissertation on pulsar origins and work on the high energy emission mechanisms of isolated pulsars. We list the personnel supported by the grant in section 4 and provide a complete bibliography of publications supported in whole or in part by the grant in the final section.

  20. Terrestrial black holes as sources of super-high energy radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimenko, A. P.; Gurin, V. S.

    1993-04-01

    The study proposes small black holes which can be located in the earth's interior as sources of superhigh energy radiation; their origin is not constrained to the big bang. The intensity and spectrum of massless and massive particle radiation due to the Hawking effect for black holes with masses of 10 exp 8 to 10 exp 16 are estimated. The possibility of their detection according to a number of features (high particle energies, thermal energetic spectrum, transientness or an explicit trend to intensity and energy increase, and some expressed direction of emission associated with source localization) is explored. The rates of the radiation of massless particles with spin-1/2 and with spin-1 are illustrated in graphic form.

  1. Light as an Energy Source in Continuous Cultures of Bacteriorhodopsin-Containing Halobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Valera, F.; Nieto, J. J.; Ruiz-Berraquero, F.

    1983-01-01

    The role of light as an energy source for slightly aereated cultures of halobacteria was studied, using continuous cultures with low nutrient concentrations and a low oxygen supply. A series of experiments were carried out with non-illuminated and differently illuminated cultures and with different oxygen transfer rates. Under low oxygen availability, light proved to be a decisively important energy source that allowed the populations to reach higher growth rates and much higher population densities. Oxygen influenced the growth over only a minimal level, below which neither the illuminated nor the dark cultures were affected by the oxygen transfer rate. From these results, it appears that the bacteriorhodopsin-mediated energy supply could have a very important role for the ecology of halobacteria in their microaerophilic habitats. In the illuminated cultures, cells that originated purple colonies on plates appeared. These cells, which could be bacteriorhodopsin-constitutive mutants, are now being studied. PMID:16346250

  2. Policies for Enabling Corporate Sourcing of Renewable Energy Internationally: A 21st Century Power Partnership Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, Lori; Heeter, Jenny; O'Shaughnessy, Eric

    This paper explores the policy and regulatory enabling environment for corporate sourcing of renewables. The paper has been developed in support of the Corporate Sourcing of Renewables Campaign, which was launched at the Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM) meeting in June 2016. Through the campaign, a subset of CEM member governments is collaborating with corporate and nongovernmental organization partners to facilitate increased corporate procurement of renewables and pursue supportive policies for corporate procurement. This paper finds that policy certainty is essential to creating vibrant markets for renewable energy. While policymakers may need to adjust policy mechanisms over time as markets gomore » through different stages of maturity, they must also consider the economic decisions that end-users make in evaluating projects. Policy interaction is also important to consider because buyers seek assurances that their investments in renewables have impact and wish to make clear claims about their renewable energy purchases.« less

  3. Energy transmission and power sources for mechanical circulatory support devices to achieve total implantability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jake X; Smith, Joshua R; Bonde, Pramod

    2014-04-01

    Left ventricular assist device therapy has radically improved congestive heart failure survival with smaller rotary pumps. The driveline used to power today's left ventricular assist devices, however, continues to be a source of infection, traumatic damage, and rehospitalization. Previous attempts to wirelessly power left ventricular assist devices using transcutaneous energy transfer systems have been limited by restrictions on separation distance and alignment between the transmit and receive coils. Resonant electrical energy transfer allows power delivery at larger distances without compromising safety and efficiency. This review covers the efforts to wirelessly power mechanical circulatory assist devices and the progress made in enhancing their energy sources. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Potential of Solar as Alternative Energy Source for Socio-Economic Wellbeing in Rural Areas, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Rashidah Zainal; Siwar, Chamhuri; Ludin, Norasikin Ahmad

    Malaysia's energy sector is highly dependent on fossil fuels as a primary energy source. Economic growth and socio-economic wellbeing also rely on the utilization of energy in daily life routine. Nevertheless, the increasing cost for electricity and declining fossil fuels resources causes various negative impacts to the people and environment especially in rural areas. This prompted Malaysia to shift towards alternative energy sources such as solar energy to ensure social, economic and environmental benefits. The solar energy is one of the potential renewable energy sources in tropical countries particularly in Malaysia. The paper attempts to analyze the benefits and advantages related to energy efficiency of solar for sustainable energy use and socio economic wellbeing in rural areas, Malaysia. The paper uses secondary sources of data such as policies, regulations and research reports from relevant ministries and agencies to attain the objectives. As a signatory country to the UN Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, Malaysia has taken initiatives for decreasing energy dependence on oil to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) for sustainable development. The paper shows solar energy becomes one of the promising alternative energy sources to alleviate energy poverty in Malaysia for rural areas. Finally, solar energy has increased socio-economic wellbeing and develops green potential and toward achieving energy efficiency in energy sector of Malaysia by preserving environment as well as reducing carbon emission.

  5. Isotropy Constraints on Powerful Sources of Ultrahigh-energy Cosmic Rays at 1019 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takami, Hajime; Murase, Kohta; Dermer, Charles D.

    2016-01-01

    Anisotropy in the arrival direction distribution of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) produced by powerful sources is numerically evaluated. We show that nondetection of significant anisotropy at ≈ {10}19 eV at present and in future experiments imposes general upper limits on UHECR proton luminosity of steady sources as a function of source redshifts. The upper limits constrain the existence of typical steady {10}19 eV UHECR sources in the local universe and limit their local density to ≳ {10}-3 Mpc {}-3, assuming average intergalactic magnetic fields less than {10}-9 G. This isotropy, being stronger than that measured at the highest energies, may indicate the transient generation of UHECRs. Our calculations are applied for extreme high-frequency-peaked BL Lacertae objects 1ES 0229+200, 1ES 1101-232, and 1ES 0347-121, to test the UHECR-induced cascade model, in which beamed UHECR protons generate TeV radiation in transit from sources. While the magnetic-field structure surrounding the sources affects the required absolute cosmic-ray luminosity of the blazars, the magnetic-field structure surrounding the Milky Way directly affects the observed anisotropy. If these magnetic fields are weak enough, significant UHECR anisotropy from these blazars is detectable by the Pierre Auger Observatory unless the maximum energy of UHECR protons is below 1019 eV. Furthermore, if these are the sources of UHECRs above 1019 eV, a local magnetic structure surrounding the Milky Way is needed to explain the observed isotropy at ˜ {10}19 eV, which may be incompatible with large magnetic structures around all galaxies for the UHECR-induced cascade model to work with reasonable jet powers.

  6. Measuring Dust Emission from the Mojave Desert (USA) by Daily Remote-Camera Observations and Wind-Erosion Measurements: Bearing on "Unseen" Sources and Global Dust Abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, R. L.; Urban, F.; Goldstein, H. L.; Fulton, R.

    2017-12-01

    A large gap in understanding the effects of atmospheric dust at all spatial scales is uncertainty about how much and whence dust is emitted annually. Digital recording of dust emission at high spatial and temporal resolution would, together with periodic flux measurements, support improved estimates of local-scale dust flux where infrastructure could support remote internet enabled cameras. Such recording would also elucidate wind-erosion dynamics when combined with meteorological data. Remote camera recording of dust-emitting settings on and around Soda Lake (Mojave Desert) was conducted every 15 minutes during daylight between 10 Nov. 2010 and 31 Dec. 2016 and images uploaded to a web server. Examination of 135,000 images revealed frequent dust events, termed "dust days" when plumes obscured mountains beyond source areas. Such days averaged 68 (sd=10) per year (2011 through 2016). We examined satellite retrievals (MODIS, GOES) for dust events during six cloudless days of highest and longest duration dust emission but none were observed. From Apr. 2000 through May 2013, aeolian sediments collected at three sites were sampled and weighed. Estimates of the emitted mass of silt- and clay-size fractions were made on the basis of measured horizontal mass flux, particle sizes of sediment in collectors, and roughly determined areas of dust generation. Over this period, nearly 4 Tg yr-1 of dust (as particulate matter <63 micrometers) were emitted across the study area. Much higher rates (about 7 Tg yr-1) were estimated for a subset period from Jan. 2011 through May 2013 following a major Mojave River flood in the basin in late Dec. 2010 that deposited flood sediment across the lake basin. Increased emission was likely related to the availability of fresh, unanchored flood sediment. Within the Mojave and Great Basin deserts of North America, many settings akin to those at Soda Lake similarly emit dust that is rarely detected in satellite retrievals. These findings strongly

  7. Angular correlation of cosmic neutrinos with ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays and implications for their sources

    SciTech Connect

    Moharana, Reetanjali; Razzaque, Soebur, E-mail: reetanjalim@uj.ac.za, E-mail: srazzaque@uj.ac.za

    2015-08-01

    Cosmic neutrino events detected by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory with energy 0∼> 3 TeV have poor angular resolutions to reveal their origin. Ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), with better angular resolutions at 0>6 EeV energies, can be used to check if the same astrophysical sources are responsible for producing both neutrinos and UHECRs. We test this hypothesis, with statistical methods which emphasize invariant quantities, by using data from the Pierre Auger Observatory, Telescope Array and past cosmic-ray experiments. We find that the arrival directions of the cosmic neutrinos are correlated with 0≥ 10 EeV UHECR arrival directions at confidence level ≈ 90%. The strengthmore » of the correlation decreases with decreasing UHECR energy and no correlation exists at energy 0∼ 6 EeV . A search in astrophysical databases within 3{sup o} of the arrival directions of UHECRs with energy 0≥ 10 EeV, that are correlated with the IceCube cosmic neutrinos, resulted in 18 sources from the Swift-BAT X-ray catalog with redshift z≤ 0.06. We also found 3 objects in the Kühr catalog of radio sources using the same criteria. The sources are dominantly Seyfert galaxies with Cygnus A being the most prominent member. We calculate the required neutrino and UHECR fluxes to produce the observed correlated events, and estimate the corresponding neutrino luminosity (25 TeV–2.2 PeV) and cosmic-ray luminosity (500 TeV–180 EeV), assuming the sources are the ones we found in the Swift-BAT and Kühr catalogs. We compare these luminosities with the X-ray luminosity of the corresponding sources and discuss possibilities of accelerating protons to 0∼> 10 EeV and produce neutrinos in these sources.« less

  8. Time correlations between low and high energy gamma rays from discrete sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellsworth, R. W.

    1995-01-01

    Activities covered the following areas: (1) continuing analysis of the Cygnus Experiment data on the shadowing of cosmic rays by the moon and sun, which led to a direct confirmation of the angular resolution of the CYGNUS EAS array; and (2) development of analysis methods for the daily search overlapping with EGRET targets. To date, no steady emission of ultrahigh energy (UHE) gamma rays from any source has been detected by the Cygnus Experiment, but some evidence for sporadic emission had been found. Upper limits on steady fluxes from 49 sources in the northern hemisphere have been published. In addition, a daily search of 51 possible sources over the interval April 1986 to June 1992 found no evidence for emission. From these source lists, four candidates were selected for comparison with EGRET data.

  9. [Principles of energy sources of totally implantable hearing aids for inner ear hearing loss].

    PubMed

    Baumann, J W; Leysieffer, H

    1998-02-01

    A fully implantable hearing aid consists of a sound receptor (microphone), an electronic amplifier including active audio-signal processing, an electromechanical transducer (actuator) for stimulating the ear by vibration, and an energy source. The energy source may be either a primary cell or a rechargeable (secondary) cell. As the energy requirements of an implantable hearing aid are dependent on the operating principle of the actuator, the operating principles of electromagnetic and piezoelectric transducers were examined with respect to their relative power consumption. The analysis showed that the energy requirements of an implantable hearing aid are significantly increased when an electromagnetic transducer is used. The power consumption of a piezoelectric transducer was found to be less than that of the electronic components alone. The energy needed to run a fully implantable hearing aid under these conditions would be 38 mWH per day. Primary cells cannot provide the energy needed for a minimum operation time of 5 years (70 WH), and therefore rechargeable cells must be used. A theoretical appraisal was carried out on nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, and lithium-ion cells to determine their suitability as well as to assess the risks associated with their use in an implant. Safety measures were drawn up from the results. Ni-MH cells were found to be the most suitable for use as an energy source for implantable hearing-aids because they are more robust than Li ion cells and their storage capacity is double that of Ni-Cd cells of similar size.

  10. Dietary energy source and density modulate the expression of immunologic stress in chicks.

    PubMed

    Benson, B N; Calvert, C C; Roura, E; Klasing, K C

    1993-10-01

    To determine how dietary energy level and source influence feed intake, growth and energy partitioning drug immunologic stress, growing chicks were fed diets based on cornstarch and casein with varying energy densities and injected every other day for 6 d with either saline (control), Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide or heat-killed Staphylococcus aureus. Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide decreased growth and feed consumption at low energy densities. When the dietary energy density was increased above 13.4 kJ/g using cornstarch, but not corn oil, the growth depressing effect of immunogens was eliminated. Immunologically stressed chicks had a greater proportion of gain in visceral organs and less in the carcass, regardless of the nutrient density of the diet. Immunologic stress decreased intake of metabolizable energy of chicks fed a diet with low nutrient density and increased it for those fed a diet with high nutrient density. Chicks injected with S. typhimurium lipopolysaccharide lost more energy as heat than controls when differences in metabolizable energy intakes were accounted for and modified their preference between two diets differing in metabolizable energy density and fat content as a result of the challenge. Control chicks selected between the 11.7 and 14.2 kJ/g diets to obtain an energy density of 13.2 kJ/g compared with 12.5 kJ/g in the S. typhimurium lipopolysaccharide-challenged chicks. The S. typhimurium lipopolysaccharide-challenged chicks consumed similar amounts of the low energy diet but decreased intake of the high energy diet.

  11. Multicriteria analysis for sources of renewable energy using data from remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matejicek, L.

    2015-04-01

    Renewable energy sources are major components of the strategy to reduce harmful emissions and to replace depleting fossil energy resources. Data from remote sensing can provide information for multicriteria analysis for sources of renewable energy. Advanced land cover quantification makes it possible to search for suitable sites. Multicriteria analysis, together with other data, is used to determine the energy potential and socially acceptability of suggested locations. The described case study is focused on an area of surface coal mines in the northwestern region of the Czech Republic, where the impacts of surface mining and reclamation constitute a dominant force in land cover changes. High resolution satellite images represent the main input datasets for identification of suitable sites. Solar mapping, wind predictions, the location of weirs in watersheds, road maps and demographic information complement the data from remote sensing for multicriteria analysis, which is implemented in a geographic information system (GIS). The input spatial datasets for multicriteria analysis in GIS are reclassified to a common scale and processed with raster algebra tools to identify suitable sites for sources of renewable energy. The selection of suitable sites is limited by the CORINE land cover database to mining and agricultural areas. The case study is focused on long term land cover changes in the 1985-2015 period. Multicriteria analysis based on CORINE data shows moderate changes in mapping of suitable sites for utilization of selected sources of renewable energy in 1990, 2000, 2006 and 2012. The results represent map layers showing the energy potential on a scale of a few preference classes (1-7), where the first class is linked to minimum preference and the last class to maximum preference. The attached histograms show the moderate variability of preference classes due to land cover changes caused by mining activities. The results also show a slight increase in the more

  12. Energy and Man's Environment Activity Guide: An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities, Section One - Sources of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication presents the activities pertaining to the first goal of this activity guide series. The activities in this publication focus primarily on the availability of resources, forms of energy, natural laws, and socioeconomic considerations. These materials are appropriate for middle school and junior high school students. These…

  13. Plasma instability control toward high fluence, high energy x-ray continuum source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poole, Patrick; Kirkwood, Robert; Wilks, Scott; Blue, Brent

    2017-10-01

    X-ray source development at Omega and NIF seeks to produce powerful radiation with high conversion efficiency for material effects studies in extreme fluence environments. While current K-shell emission sources can achieve tens of kJ on NIF up to 22 keV, the conversion efficiency drops rapidly for higher Z K-alpha energies. Pulsed power devices are efficient generators of MeV bremsstrahlung x-rays but are unable to produce lower energy photons in isolation, and so a capability gap exists for high fluence x-rays in the 30 - 100 keV range. A continuum source under development utilizes instabilities like Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) to generate plasma waves that accelerate electrons into high-Z converter walls. Optimizing instabilities using existing knowledge on their elimination will allow sufficiently hot and high yield electron distributions to create a superior bremsstrahlung x-ray source. An Omega experiment has been performed to investigate the optimization of SRS and high energy x-rays using Au hohlraums with parylene inner lining and foam fills, producing 10× greater x-ray yield at 50 keV than conventional direct drive experiments on the facility. Experiment and simulation details on this campaign will be presented. This work was performed under the auspices of the US DoE by LLNL under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. The Third EGRET Catalog of High-Energy Gamma-Ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, R. C.; Bertsch, D. L.; Bloom, S. D.; Chen, A. W.; Deines-Jones, P.; Esposito, J. A.; Fichtel, C. E.; Friedlander, D. P.; Hunter, S. D.; McDonald, L. M.; hide

    1998-01-01

    The third catalog of high-energy gamma-ray sources detected by the EGRET telescope on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory includes data from 1991 April 22 to 1995 October 3 (Cycles 1, 2, 3, and 4 of the mission). In addition to including more data than the second EGRET catalog (Thompson et al. 1995) and its supplement (Thompson et al. 1996), this catalog uses completely reprocessed data (to correct a number of mostly minimal errors and problems). The 271 sources (E greater than 100 MeV) in the catalog include the single 1991 solar flare bright enough to be detected as a source, the Large Magellanic Cloud, five pulsars, one probable radio galaxy detection (Cen A), and 66 high-confidence identifications of blazars (BL Lac objects, flat-spectrum radio quasars, or unidentified flat-spectrum radio sources). In addition, 27 lower-confidence potential blazar identifications are noted. Finally, the catalog contains 170 sources not yet identified firmly with known objects, although potential identifications have been suggested for a number of those. A figure is presented that gives approximate upper limits for gamma-ray sources at any point in the sky, as well as information about sources listed in the second catalog and its supplement which do not appear in this catalog.

  15. The Third EGRET Catalog of High-Energy Gamma-Ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, R. C.; Bertsch, D. L.; Bloom, S. D.; Chen, A. W.; Deines-Jones, P.; Esposito, J. A.; Fichtel, C. E.; Friedlander, D. P.; Hunter, S. D.; McDonald, L. M.; hide

    1998-01-01

    The third catalog of high-energy gamma-ray sources detected by the EGRET telescope on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory includes data from 1991 April 22 to 1995 October 3 (Cycles 1, 2, 3, and 4 of the mission). In addition to including more data than the second EGRET catalog and its supplement, this catalog uses completely reprocessed data (to correct a number of mostly minimal errors and problems). The 271 sources (E greater than 100 MeV) in the catalog include the single 1991 solar flare bright enough to be detected as a source, the Large Magellanic Cloud, five pulsars, one probable radio galaxy detection (Cen A), and 66 high-confidence identifications of blazars (BL Lac objects, flat-spectrum radio quasars, or unidentified flat-spectrum radio sources). In addition, 27 lower-confidence potential blazar identifications are noted. Finally, the catalog contains 170 sources not yet identified firmly with known objects, although potential identifications have been suggested for a number of those. A figure is presented that gives approximate upper limits for gamma-ray sources at any point in the sky, as well as information about sources listed in the second catalog and its supplement which do not appear in this catalog.

  16. The BATSE Earth Occultation Catalog of Low Energy Gamma Ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, B. A.; WilsonHodge, C. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Paciesas, W.

    2002-01-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), aboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), provided a record of the hard X-ray/low energy gamma ray sky between April 1991 and June 2000. During that time, a catalog of known sources was derived from existing catalogs such as HEAO A-4, as well as new transient sources discovered with BATSE and other X-ray monitors operating in the CGRO era. The Earth Occultation Technique was used to monitor a combination of these sources, mostly galactic, totaling to about 175 objects. The catalog will present the global properties of these sources and their probability of detection (> 10 mCrab, 20-100 keV) with BATSE. Systematic errors due to unknown sources or background components are included. Cursory analyses to search for new transients (35-80 mCrab in the 20-100 keV band) and super-orbital periods in known binary sources are also presented. Whole mission light curves and associated data production/analysis tools are being delivered to the HEASARC for public use.

  17. The BATSE Earth Occultation Catalog of Low Energy Gamma-Ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, B. A.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Paciesas, W. S.; Zhang, S. N.; Finger, M. H.; Connaughton, V.; Koshut, T. M.; Henze, W.; McCollough, M. L.

    2004-01-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE),aboard the COmptOn Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), provided a record of the hard X-ray/low energy gamma ray sky between April 1991 and June 2000. During that time, a catalog of known sources was derived from existing catalogs such as HEAO A-4 (Levine et al. 19841, as well as new transient sources discovered with RATSE and other X-ray monitors operating in the CGRO era. The Earth Occultation Technique (Harmon et al. 2001, astro-ph/0109069) was used to monitor a combination of these sources, mostly galactic, totaling about 175 objects. The catalog will present the global properties of these sources and their probability of detection (>lO mCrab, 20-100 keV) with BATSE. Systematic errors due to unknown sources or background components are included. Cursory analyses to search for new transients (35-80 mCrab in the 20-100 keV band) and super-orbital periods in known binary sources are also presented. Whole mission light curves and associated data production/analysis tools are being delivered to the HEASARC for public use.

  18. Ion collector design for an energy recovery test proposal with the negative ion source NIO1

    SciTech Connect

    Variale, V., E-mail: vincenzo.variale@ba.infn.it; Cavenago, M.; Agostinetti, P.

    2016-02-15

    Commercial viability of thermonuclear fusion power plants depends also on minimizing the recirculation power used to operate the reactor. The neutral beam injector (NBI) remains one of the most important method for plasma heating and control. For the future fusion power plant project DEMO, a NBI wall plug efficiency at least of 0.45 is required, while efficiency of present NBI project is about 0.25. The D{sup −} beam from a negative ion source is partially neutralized by a gas cell, which leaves more than 40% of energy in residual beams (D{sup −} and D{sup +}), so that an ion beammore » energy recovery system can significantly contribute to optimize efficiency. Recently, the test negative ion source NIO1 (60 keV, 9 beamlets with 15 mA H{sup −} each) has been designed and built at RFX (Padua) for negative ion production efficiency and the beam quality optimization. In this paper, a study proposal to use the NIO1 source also for a beam energy recovery test experiment is presented and a preliminary design of a negative ion beam collector with simulations of beam energy recovery is discussed.« less

  19. Complementarity among climate related energy sources: Sensitivity study to climate characteristics across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francois, Baptiste; Hingray, Benoit; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Raynaud, Damien; Borga, Marco; Vautard, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Climate related energy sources like solar-power, wind-power and hydro-power are important contributors to the transitions to a low-carbon economy. Past studies, mainly based on solar and wind powers, showed that the power from such energy sources fluctuates in time and space following their driving climatic variables. However, when combining different energy sources together, their intermittent feature is smoothed, resulting to lower time variability of the produced power and to lower storage capacity required for balancing. In this study, we consider solar, wind and hydro energy sources in a 100% renewable Europe using a set of 12 regions following two climate transects, the first one going from the Northern regions (Norway, Finland) to the Southern ones (Greece, Andalucía, Tunisia) and the second one going from the oceanic climate (West of France, Galicia) to the continental one (Romania, Belorussia). For each of those regions, we combine wind and solar irradiance data from the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (Vautard et al., 2014), temperature data from the European Climate Assessment & Dataset (Haylock et al., 2008) and runoff from the Global Runoff Data Center (GRDC, 1999) for estimating solar-power, wind-power, run-of-the-river hydro-power and the electricity demand over a time period of 30 years. The use of this set of 12 regions across Europe allows integrating knowledge about time and space variability for each different energy sources. We then assess the optimal share of each energy sources, aiming to decrease the time variability of the regional energy balance at different time scales as well as the energy storage required for balancing within each region. We also evaluate how energy transport among regions contributes for smoothing out both the energy balance and the storage requirement. The strengths of this study are i) to handle with run-of-the-river hydro power in addition to wind and solar energy sources and ii) to carry out this analysis

  20. Statistical measurement of the gamma-ray source-count distribution as a function of energy

    DOE PAGES

    Zechlin, Hannes-S.; Cuoco, Alessandro; Donato, Fiorenza; ...

    2016-07-29

    Statistical properties of photon count maps have recently been proven as a new tool to study the composition of the gamma-ray sky with high precision. Here, we employ the 1-point probability distribution function of six years of Fermi-LAT data to measure the source-count distribution dN/dS and the diffuse components of the high-latitude gamma-ray sky as a function of energy. To that aim, we analyze the gamma-ray emission in five adjacent energy bands between 1 and 171 GeV. It is demonstrated that the source-count distribution as a function of flux is compatible with a broken power law up to energies of ~50 GeV. Furthermore, the index below the break is between 1.95 and 2.0. For higher energies, a simple power-law fits the data, with an index ofmore » $${2.2}_{-0.3}^{+0.7}$$ in the energy band between 50 and 171 GeV. Upper limits on further possible breaks as well as the angular power of unresolved sources are derived. We find that point-source populations probed by this method can explain $${83}_{-13}^{+7}$$% ($${81}_{-19}^{+52}$$%) of the extragalactic gamma-ray background between 1.04 and 1.99 GeV (50 and 171 GeV). Our method has excellent capabilities for constraining the gamma-ray luminosity function and the spectra of unresolved blazars.« less

  1. Statistical measurement of the gamma-ray source-count distribution as a function of energy

    SciTech Connect

    Zechlin, Hannes-S.; Cuoco, Alessandro; Donato, Fiorenza

    Statistical properties of photon count maps have recently been proven as a new tool to study the composition of the gamma-ray sky with high precision. Here, we employ the 1-point probability distribution function of six years of Fermi-LAT data to measure the source-count distribution dN/dS and the diffuse components of the high-latitude gamma-ray sky as a function of energy. To that aim, we analyze the gamma-ray emission in five adjacent energy bands between 1 and 171 GeV. It is demonstrated that the source-count distribution as a function of flux is compatible with a broken power law up to energies of ~50 GeV. Furthermore, the index below the break is between 1.95 and 2.0. For higher energies, a simple power-law fits the data, with an index ofmore » $${2.2}_{-0.3}^{+0.7}$$ in the energy band between 50 and 171 GeV. Upper limits on further possible breaks as well as the angular power of unresolved sources are derived. We find that point-source populations probed by this method can explain $${83}_{-13}^{+7}$$% ($${81}_{-19}^{+52}$$%) of the extragalactic gamma-ray background between 1.04 and 1.99 GeV (50 and 171 GeV). Our method has excellent capabilities for constraining the gamma-ray luminosity function and the spectra of unresolved blazars.« less

  2. ENERGY STAR Certified Non-AHRI Central Air Conditioner Equipment and Air Source Heat Pump

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 5.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Air Source Heat Pump and Central Air Conditioner Equipment that are effective as of September 15, 2015. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=airsrc_heat.pr_crit_as_heat_pumps Listed products have been submitted to EPA by ENERGY STAR partners that do not participate in the AHRI certification program. EPA will continue to update this list with products that are certified by EPA-recognized certification bodies other than AHRI. The majority of ENERGY STAR products, certified by AHRI, can be found on the CEE/AHRI Verified Directory at http://www.ceedirectory.org/

  3. Opportunities for utilization of non-conventional energy sources for biomass pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rawel; Krishna, Bhavya B; Kumar, Jitendra; Bhaskar, Thallada

    2016-01-01

    The increasing concerns over the depletion of fossil resources and its associated geo-political issues have driven the entire world to move toward sustainable forms of energy. Pretreatment is the first step in any biochemical conversion process for the production of valuable fuels/chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass to eliminate the lignin and produce fermentable sugars by hydrolysis. Conventional techniques have several limitations which can be addressed by using them in tandem with non-conventional methods for biomass pretreatment. Electron beam and γ (gamma)-irradiation, microwave and ultrasound energies have certain advantages over conventional source of energy and there is an opportunity that these energies can be exploited for biomass pretreatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Trends in energy intake among US children by eating location and food source, 1977–2006

    PubMed Central

    Poti, Jennifer M.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Little is known about the impact of location of food consumption and preparation upon daily energy intake for children. Objective To examine trends in daily energy intake by children for foods eaten at home or away-from-home, by source of preparation, and for combined categories of eating location and food source. Subjects The analysis uses data from 29,217 children aged 2–18 years from the 1977–1978 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey, 1989–1991 and 1994–1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals, and 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Methods Nationally representative weighted percentages and means of daily energy intake by eating location were analyzed for trends from 1977 to 2006. Comparisons by food source were examined from 1994 to 2006. Analyses were repeated for 3 age groups: 2–6, 7–12, and 13–18 year olds. Difference testing was conducted using a t test. Results Increased energy intake (+179 kcal/d) by children from 1977–2006 was associated with a major increase in calories eaten away-from-home (+255 kcal/d). The percentage of kcal/d eaten away-from-home increased from 23.4% to 33.9% from 1977–2006. No further increase was observed from 1994–2006, but the sources of calories shifted. The percentage of calories from fast food increased to surpass intake from schools and become the largest contributor to foods prepared away-from-home for all age groups. For foods eaten away-from-home, the percentage of kcal/d from stores increased to become the largest source of calories eaten away-from-home. Fast food eaten at home and store-bought food eaten away-from-home increased significantly. Conclusion Eating location and food source significantly impact daily energy intake for children. Foods prepared away-from-home, including fast food eaten at home and store-prepared food eaten away-from-home, are fueling the increase in total calorie intake. However, further research using alternative data

  5. 10 CFR 40.11 - Persons using source material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Persons using source material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracts. 40.11 Section 40.11 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracts. Except to the extent that...

  6. 10 CFR 40.11 - Persons using source material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Persons using source material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracts. 40.11 Section 40.11 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracts. Except to the extent that...

  7. 10 CFR 40.11 - Persons using source material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Persons using source material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracts. 40.11 Section 40.11 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracts. Except to the extent that...

  8. 10 CFR 40.11 - Persons using source material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Persons using source material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracts. 40.11 Section 40.11 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracts. Except to the extent that...

  9. 10 CFR 40.11 - Persons using source material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Persons using source material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracts. 40.11 Section 40.11 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracts. Except to the extent that...

  10. Solar Power Satellites: Reconsideration as Renewable Energy Source Based on Novel Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellery, Alex

    2017-04-01

    Solar power satellites (SPS) are a solar energy generation mechanism that captures solar energy in space and converts this energy into microwave for transmission to Earth-based rectenna arrays. They offer a constant, high integrated energy density of 200 W/m2 compared to <10 W/m2 for other renewable energy sources. Despite this promise as a clean energy source, SPS have been relegated out of consideration due to their enormous cost and technological challenge. It has been suggested that for solar power satellites to become economically feasible, launch costs must decrease from their current 20,000/kg to <200/kg. Even with the advent of single-stage-to-orbit launchers which propose launch costs dropping to 2,000/kg, this will not be realized. Yet, the advantages of solar power satellites are many including the provision of stable baseload power. Here, I present a novel approach to reduce the specific cost of solar power satellites to 1/kg by leveraging two enabling technologies - in-situ resource utilization of lunar material and 3D printing of this material. Specifically, we demonstrate that electric motors may be constructed from lunar material through 3D printing representing a major step towards the development of self-replicating machines. Such machines have the capacity to build solar power satellites on the Moon, thereby bypassing the launch cost problem. The productive capacity of self-replicating machines favours the adoption of large constellations of small solar power satellites. This opens up additional clean energy options for combating climate change by meeting the demands for future global energy.

  11. Metagenomic evidence for sulfur lithotrophy by Epsilonproteobacteria as the major energy source for primary productivity in a sub-aerial arctic glacial deposit, Borup Fiord Pass.

    PubMed

    Wright, Katherine E; Williamson, Charles; Grasby, Stephen E; Spear, John R; Templeton, Alexis S

    2013-01-01

    We combined free enenergy calculations and metagenomic analyses of an elemental sulfur (S(0)) deposit on the surface of Borup Fiord Pass Glacier in the Canadian High Arctic to investigate whether the energy available from different redox reactions in an environment predicts microbial metabolism. Many S, C, Fe, As, Mn, and [Formula: see text] oxidation reactions were predicted to be energetically feasible in the deposit, and aerobic oxidation of S(0) was the most abundant chemical energy source. Small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequence data showed that the dominant phylotypes were Sulfurovum and Sulfuricurvum, both Epsilonproteobacteria known to be capable of sulfur lithotrophy. Sulfur redox genes were abundant in the metagenome, but sox genes were significantly more abundant than reverse dsr (dissimilatory sulfite reductase)genes. Interestingly, there appeared to be habitable niches that were unoccupied at the depth of genome coverage obtained. Photosynthesis and [Formula: see text] oxidation should both be energetically favorable, but we found few or no functional genes for oxygenic or anoxygenic photosynthesis, or for [Formula: see text] oxidation by either oxygen (nitrification) or nitrite (anammox). The free energy, SSU rRNA gene and quantitative functional gene data are all consistent with the hypothesis that sulfur-based chemolithoautotrophy by Epsilonproteobacteria (Sulfurovum and Sulfuricurvum) is the main form of primary productivity at this site, instead of photosynthesis. This is despite the presence of 24-h sunlight, and the fact that photosynthesis is not known to be inhibited by any of the environmental conditions present. This is the first time that Sulfurovum and Sulfuricurvum have been shown to dominate a sub-aerial environment, rather than anoxic or sulfidic settings. We also found that Flavobacteria dominate the surface of the sulfur deposits. We hypothesize that this aerobic heterotroph uses enough oxygen to create a microoxic

  12. Metagenomic evidence for sulfur lithotrophy by Epsilonproteobacteria as the major energy source for primary productivity in a sub-aerial arctic glacial deposit, Borup Fiord Pass

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Katherine E.; Williamson, Charles; Grasby, Stephen E.; Spear, John R.; Templeton, Alexis S.

    2013-01-01

    We combined free enenergy calculations and metagenomic analyses of an elemental sulfur (S0) deposit on the surface of Borup Fiord Pass Glacier in the Canadian High Arctic to investigate whether the energy available from different redox reactions in an environment predicts microbial metabolism. Many S, C, Fe, As, Mn, and NH4+ oxidation reactions were predicted to be energetically feasible in the deposit, and aerobic oxidation of S0 was the most abundant chemical energy source. Small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequence data showed that the dominant phylotypes were Sulfurovum and Sulfuricurvum, both Epsilonproteobacteria known to be capable of sulfur lithotrophy. Sulfur redox genes were abundant in the metagenome, but sox genes were significantly more abundant than reverse dsr (dissimilatory sulfite reductase)genes. Interestingly, there appeared to be habitable niches that were unoccupied at the depth of genome coverage obtained. Photosynthesis and NH4+ oxidation should both be energetically favorable, but we found few or no functional genes for oxygenic or anoxygenic photosynthesis, or for NH4+ oxidation by either oxygen (nitrification) or nitrite (anammox). The free energy, SSU rRNA gene and quantitative functional gene data are all consistent with the hypothesis that sulfur-based chemolithoautotrophy by Epsilonproteobacteria (Sulfurovum and Sulfuricurvum) is the main form of primary productivity at this site, instead of photosynthesis. This is despite the presence of 24-h sunlight, and the fact that photosynthesis is not known to be inhibited by any of the environmental conditions present. This is the first time that Sulfurovum and Sulfuricurvum have been shown to dominate a sub-aerial environment, rather than anoxic or sulfidic settings. We also found that Flavobacteria dominate the surface of the sulfur deposits. We hypothesize that this aerobic heterotroph uses enough oxygen to create a microoxic environment in the sulfur below, where the

  13. Particle damage sources for fused silica optics and their mitigation on high energy laser systems.

    PubMed

    Bude, J; Carr, C W; Miller, P E; Parham, T; Whitman, P; Monticelli, M; Raman, R; Cross, D; Welday, B; Ravizza, F; Suratwala, T; Davis, J; Fischer, M; Hawley, R; Lee, H; Matthews, M; Norton, M; Nostrand, M; VanBlarcom, D; Sommer, S

    2017-05-15

    High energy laser systems are ultimately limited by laser-induced damage to their critical components. This is especially true of damage to critical fused silica optics, which grows rapidly upon exposure to additional laser pulses. Much progress has been made in eliminating damage precursors in as-processed fused silica optics (the advanced mitigation process, AMP3), and very high damage resistance has been demonstrated in laboratory studies. However, the full potential of these improvements has not yet been realized in actual laser systems. In this work, we explore the importance of additional damage sources-in particular, particle contamination-for fused silica optics fielded in a high-performance laser environment, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser system. We demonstrate that the most dangerous sources of particle contamination in a system-level environment are laser-driven particle sources. In the specific case of the NIF laser, we have identified the two important particle sources which account for nearly all the damage observed on AMP3 optics during full laser operation and present mitigations for these particle sources. Finally, with the elimination of these laser-driven particle sources, we demonstrate essentially damage free operation of AMP3 fused silica for ten large optics (a total of 12,000 cm 2 of beam area) for shots from 8.6 J/cm 2 to 9.5 J/cm 2 of 351 nm light (3 ns Gaussian pulse shapes). Potentially many other pulsed high energy laser systems have similar particle sources, and given the insight provided by this study, their identification and elimination should be possible. The mitigations demonstrated here are currently being employed for all large UV silica optics on the National Ignition Facility.

  14. Energy-Water Nexus Relevant to Baseload Electricity Source Including Mini/Micro Hydropower Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, M.; Tanabe, S.; Yamada, M.

    2014-12-01

    Water, food and energy is three sacred treasures that are necessary for human beings. However, recent factors such as population growth and rapid increase in energy consumption have generated conflicting cases between water and energy. For example, there exist conflicts caused by enhanced energy use, such as between hydropower generation and riverine ecosystems and service water, between shale gas and ground water, between geothermal and hot spring water. This study aims to provide quantitative guidelines necessary for capacity building among various stakeholders to minimize water-energy conflicts in enhancing energy use. Among various kinds of renewable energy sources, we target baseload sources, especially focusing on renewable energy of which installation is required socially not only to reduce CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions but to stimulate local economy. Such renewable energy sources include micro/mini hydropower and geothermal. Three municipalities in Japan, Beppu City, Obama City and Otsuchi Town are selected as primary sites of this study. Based on the calculated potential supply and demand of micro/mini hydropower generation in Beppu City, for example, we estimate the electricity of tens through hundreds of households is covered by installing new micro/mini hydropower generation plants along each river. However, the result is based on the existing infrastructures such as roads and electric lines. This means that more potentials are expected if the local society chooses options that enhance the infrastructures to increase micro/mini hydropower generation plants. In addition, further capacity building in the local society is necessary. In Japan, for example, regulations by the river law and irrigation right restrict new entry by actors to the river. Possible influences to riverine ecosystems in installing new micro/mini hydropower generation plants should also be well taken into account. Deregulation of the existing laws relevant to rivers and

  15. On the high energy cut-off of accreting sources: Is general relativity relevant?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamborra, Francesco; Papadakis, Iossif; Dovčiak, Michal; Svoboda, Jiři

    2018-04-01

    The hard X-ray emission observed in accreting compact sources is believed to be produced by inverse Compton scattering of soft photons arising from the accretion disc by energetic electrons thermally distributed above the disc, the so-called X-ray corona. Many independent observations suggest that such coronae should be compact and located very close to the black hole. In this case, general relativistic (GR) effects should play an important role to the continuum X-ray emission from these sources, and, in particular, in the observed high energy cut-off, which is a measure of the intrinsic temperature of the corona. Our results show that the energy shift between the observed and intrinsic high energy cut-off due to GR effects can be as large as two to eight times, depending on the geometry and size of the corona as well as its inclination. We provide estimates of this energy shift in the case of a lamp-post and a flat, rotating corona, around a Kerr and a Schwartzschild black hole, for various inclinations, and coronal sizes. These values could be useful to correct the observed high energy cut-off and/or coronal temperatures, either in the case of individual or large sample of objects.

  16. Cosmic PeV neutrinos and the sources of ultrahigh energy protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistler, Matthew D.; Stanev, Todor; Yüksel, Hasan

    2014-12-01

    The IceCube experiment recently detected the first flux of high-energy neutrinos in excess of atmospheric backgrounds. We examine whether these neutrinos originate from within the same extragalactic sources as ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. Starting from rather general assumptions about spectra and flavors, we find that producing a neutrino flux at the requisite level through pion photoproduction leads to a flux of protons well below the cosmic-ray data at ˜1 018 eV , where the composition is light, unless pions/muons cool before decaying. This suggests a dominant class of accelerator that allows for cosmic rays to escape without significant neutrino yields.

  17. A New Energy Source for Organic Synthesis in Europa's Surface Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, Jerome G.; Khare, Bishun; Cruikshank, Dale P.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Colored regions on Jupiter's satellite Europa and other icy bodies in the outer Solar System may be contaminated by organic macromolecular solid material that is produced when surface ices are exposed to electrical energy. Hypervelocity meteorite impacts and fracture release tidal and tectonic stresses in icy crusts in the form of electrical discharges, which provide the energy for in situ synthesis of the organic solids. We report measurements of electrical discharge, light emission, and magnetic phenomena in hypervelocity impacts into ice with projectiles with V approx. 5 km/s. Part of the projectile's kinetic energy is converted into electrical potential, while the mechanical disruption of the impact also releases stress energy as light, heat, electrical, and magnetic fields as secondary emissions. These newly recognized energy sources suggest that the dark material in the area of impact craters are tholins generated from the energy of the impacts and that well up from the fracture zone. Large pools of liquid water would persist under the meteorite crater for thousands of years, with the potential for prebiotic chemistry to take place at an accelerated rate due to energy pumped in from the secondary emissions.

  18. Biofuels as an Alternative Energy Source for Aviation-A Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDowellBomani, Bilal M.; Bulzan, Dan L.; Centeno-Gomez, Diana I.; Hendricks, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    The use of biofuels has been gaining in popularity over the past few years because of their ability to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels. As a renewable energy source, biofuels can be a viable option for sustaining long-term energy needs if they are managed efficiently. We investigate past, present, and possible future biofuel alternatives currently being researched and applied around the world. More specifically, we investigate the use of ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel (palm oil, algae, and halophytes), and synthetic fuel blends that can potentially be used as fuels for aviation and nonaerospace applications. We also investigate the processing of biomass via gasification, hydrolysis, and anaerobic digestion as a way to extract fuel oil from alternative biofuels sources.

  19. The synoptic setting and possible energy sources for mesoscale wave disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uccellini, Louis W.; Koch, Steven E.

    1987-01-01

    Published data on 13 cases of mesoscale wave disturbances and their environment were examined to isolate common features for these cases and to determine possible energy sources for the waves. These events are characterized by either a singular wave of depression or wave packets with periods of 1-4 h, horizontal wavelengths of 50-500 km, and surface-pressure perturbation amplitudes of 0.2-7.0 mb. These wave events are shown to be associated with a distinct synoptic pattern (including the existence of a strong inversion in the lower troposphere and the propagation of a jet streak toward a ridge axis in the upper troposphere) while displaying little correlation with the presence of convective storm cells. The observed development of the waves is consistent with the hypothesis that the energy source needed to initiate and sustain the wave disturbances may be related to a geostrophic adjustment process associated with upper-tropospheric jet streaks.

  20. New National Air-Kerma Standard for Low-Energy Electronic Brachytherapy Sources

    PubMed Central

    Seltzer, Stephen M; O’Brien, Michelle; Mitch, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    The new primary standard for low-energy electronic brachytherapy sources for the United States is described. These miniature x-ray tubes are inserted in catheters for interstitial radiation therapy and operate at tube potentials of up to about 50 kV. The standard is based on the realization of the air kerma produced by the x-ray beam at a reference distance in air of 50 cm. PMID:26601044

  1. Analysis of the Appropriateness of the Use of Peltier Cells as Energy Sources.

    PubMed

    Hájovský, Radovan; Pieš, Martin; Richtár, Lukáš

    2016-05-25

    The article describes the possibilities of using Peltier cells as an energy source to power the telemetry units, which are used in large-scale monitoring systems as central units, ensuring the collection of data from sensors, processing, and sending to the database server. The article describes the various experiments that were carried out, their progress and results. Based on experiments evaluated, the paper also discusses the possibilities of using various types depending on the temperature difference of the cold and hot sides.

  2. Consequences of different dietary energy sources during follicular development on subsequent fertility of cyclic gilts.

    PubMed

    Almeida, F R C L; Machado, G S; Borges, A L C C; Rosa, B O; Fontes, D O

    2014-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary-induced insulin enhancement during the late luteal phase on subsequent fertility of gilts. Fifty-two littermate cyclic gilts were subjected to dietary treatments where two energy sources were tested: corn starch (T1) and soybean oil (T2). The experimental diets were supposed to provide similar amounts of dietary energy, but from different sources. Gilts were fed ad libitum, starting day 8 of the estrous cycle, until the next standing heat. Blood sampling was performed in a subgroup of 20 gilts on days 14 and 21 of the cycle for analyses of glucose and insulin, and after ovulation detection until 18 h after ovulation for progesterone. All gilts were slaughtered on day 28 of pregnancy and the reproductive tracts recovered for further analysis. T1 gilts showed higher postprandial insulin peak on days 14 and 21 and lower glucose levels 4 h after feeding on day 14 (P<0.05), however, there were no treatment effects on plasma progesterone concentrations. Dietary energy sources did not affect average daily feed intake, body weight and backfat on day 28 of pregnancy. Estrous cycle length, estrus duration and time of ovulation were not affected by previous nutritional treatments either. T1 gilts showed higher ovulation rates, number of embryos, embryo weight and placental weight (P<0.05). There were no treatment effects on pregnancy rate, embryo survival rate and volume of amniotic fluid. A positive correlation between progesterone concentration 18 h after ovulation and ovulation rate was observed (r=0.75; P<0.01). These results suggest that it is possible to manipulate dietary insulin response in cyclic gilts and, thus, improve reproductive efficiency when feeding starch as the main energy source during the late luteal and follicular phases of the cycle.

  3. Energy recovery during expansion of compressed gas using power plant low-quality heat sources

    DOEpatents

    Ochs, Thomas L [Albany, OR; O'Connor, William K [Lebanon, OR

    2006-03-07

    A method of recovering energy from a cool compressed gas, compressed liquid, vapor, or supercritical fluid is disclosed which includes incrementally expanding the compressed gas, compressed liquid, vapor, or supercritical fluid through a plurality of expansion engines and heating the gas, vapor, compressed liquid, or supercritical fluid entering at least one of the expansion engines with a low quality heat source. Expansion engines such as turbines and multiple expansions with heating are disclosed.

  4. Diagnosing the Fine Structure of Electron Energy Within the ECRIT Ion Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yizhou; Yang, Juan; Tang, Mingjie; Luo, Litao; Feng, Bingbing

    2016-07-01

    The ion source of the electron cyclotron resonance ion thruster (ECRIT) extracts ions from its ECR plasma to generate thrust, and has the property of low gas consumption (2 sccm, standard-state cubic centimeter per minute) and high durability. Due to the indispensable effects of the primary electron in gas discharge, it is important to experimentally clarify the electron energy structure within the ion source of the ECRIT through analyzing the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) of the plasma inside the thruster. In this article the Langmuir probe diagnosing method was used to diagnose the EEDF, from which the effective electron temperature, plasma density and the electron energy probability function (EEPF) were deduced. The experimental results show that the magnetic field influences the curves of EEDF and EEPF and make the effective plasma parameter nonuniform. The diagnosed electron temperature and density from sample points increased from 4 eV/2×1016 m-3 to 10 eV/4×1016 m-3 with increasing distances from both the axis and the screen grid of the ion source. Electron temperature and density peaking near the wall coincided with the discharge process. However, a double Maxwellian electron distribution was unexpectedly observed at the position near the axis of the ion source and about 30 mm from the screen grid. Besides, the double Maxwellian electron distribution was more likely to emerge at high power and a low gas flow rate. These phenomena were believed to relate to the arrangements of the gas inlets and the magnetic field where the double Maxwellian electron distribution exits. The results of this research may enhance the understanding of the plasma generation process in the ion source of this type and help to improve its performance. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11475137)

  5. Beyond mitochondria, what would be the energy source of the cell?

    PubMed

    Herrera, Arturo S; Del C A Esparza, Maria; Md Ashraf, Ghulam; Zamyatnin, Andrey A; Aliev, Gjumrakch

    2015-01-01

    Currently, cell biology is based on glucose as the main source of energy. Cellular bioenergetic pathways have become unnecessarily complex in their eagerness to explain that how the cell is able to generate and use energy from the oxidation of glucose, where mitochondria play an important role through oxidative phosphorylation. During a descriptive study about the three leading causes of blindness in the world, the ability of melanin to transform light energy into chemical energy through the dissociation of water molecule was unraveled. Initially, during 2 or 3 years; we tried to link together our findings with the widely accepted metabolic pathways already described in metabolic pathway databases, which have been developed to collect and organize the current knowledge on metabolism scattered across a multitude of scientific articles. However, firstly, the literature on metabolism is extensive but rarely conclusive evidence is available, and secondly, one would expect these databases to contain largely the same information, but the contrary is true. For the apparently well studied metabolic process Krebs cycle, which was described as early as 1937 and is found in nearly every biology and chemistry curriculum, there is a considerable disagreement between at least five databases. Of the nearly 7000 reactions contained jointly by these five databases, only 199 are described in the same way in all the five databases. Thus to try to integrate chemical energy from melanin with the supposedly well-known bioenergetic pathways is easier said than done; and the lack of consensus about metabolic network constitutes an insurmountable barrier. After years of unsuccessful results, we finally realized that the chemical energy released through the dissociation of water molecule by melanin represents over 90% of cell energy requirements. These findings reveal a new aspect of cell biology, as glucose and ATP have biological functions related mainly to biomass and not so much with

  6. Design of the low energy beam transport line for the China spallation neutron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jin-Hai; Ouyang, Hua-Fu; Fu, Shi-Nian; Zhang, Hua-Shun; He, Wei

    2008-03-01

    The design of the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) low-energy beam transport (LEBT) line, which locates between the ion source and the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ), has been completed with the TRACE3D code. The design aims at perfect matching, primary chopping, a small emittance growth and sufficient space for beam diagnostics. The line consists of three solenoids, three vacuum chambers, two steering magnets and a pre-chopper. The total length of LEBT is about 1.74 m. This LEBT is designed to transfer 20 mA of H-pulsed beam from the ion source to the RFQ. An induction cavity is adopted as the pre-chopper. The electrostatic octupole steerer is discussed as a candidate. A four-quadrant aperture for beam scraping and beam position monitoring is designed.

  7. Self-phase modulation enabled, wavelength-tunable ultrafast fiber laser sources: an energy scalable approach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Li, Chen; Zhang, Zhigang; Kärtner, Franz X; Chang, Guoqing

    2016-07-11

    We propose and demonstrate a new approach to implement a wavelength-tunable ultrafast fiber laser source suitable for multiphoton microscopy. We employ fiber-optic nonlinearities to broaden a narrowband optical spectrum generated by an Yb-fiber laser system and then use optical bandpass filters to select the leftmost or rightmost spectral lobes from the broadened spectrum. Detailed numerical modeling shows that self-phase modulation dominates the spectral broadening, self-steepening tends to blue shift the broadened spectrum, and stimulated Raman scattering is minimal. We also find that optical wave breaking caused by fiber dispersion slows down the shift of the leftmost/rightmost spectral lobes and therefore limits the wavelength tuning range of the filtered spectra. We show both numerically and experimentally that shortening the fiber used for spectral broadening while increasing the input pulse energy can overcome this dispersion-induced limitation; as a result, the filtered spectral lobes have higher power, constituting a powerful and practical approach for energy scaling the resulting femtosecond sources. We use two commercially available photonic crystal fibers to verify the simulation results. More specific, use of 20-mm fiber NL-1050-ZERO-2 enables us to implement an Yb-fiber laser based ultrafast source, delivering femtosecond (70-120 fs) pulses tunable from 825 nm to 1210 nm with >1 nJ pulse energy.

  8. Metabolic engineering of Pseudomonas putida for the utilization of parathion as a carbon and energy source.

    PubMed

    Walker, Andy W; Keasling, Jay D

    2002-06-30

    Pseudomonas putida KT2442 was engineered to use the organophosphate pesticide parathion, a compound similar to other organophosphate pesticides and chemical warfare agents, as a source of carbon and energy. The initial step in the engineered degradation pathway was parathion hydrolysis by organophosphate hydrolase (OPH) to p-nitrophenol (PNP) and diethyl thiophosphate, compounds that cannot be metabolized by P. putida KT2442. The gene encoding the native OPH (opd), with and without the secretory leader sequence, was cloned into broad-host-range plasmids under the control of tac and taclac promoters. Expression of opd from the tac promoter resulted in high OPH activity, whereas expression from the taclac promoter resulted in low activity. A plasmid-harboring operons encoding enzymes for p-nitrophenol transformation to beta-ketoadipate was transformed into P. putida allowing the organism to use 0.5 mM PNP as a carbon and energy source. Transformation of P. putida with the plasmids harboring opd and the PNP operons allowed the organism to utilize 0.8 mM parathion as a source of carbon and energy. Degradation studies showed that parathion formed a separate dense, non-aqueous phase liquid phase but was still bioavailable. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Serpentinization as a source of energy at the origin of life.

    PubMed

    Russell, M J; Hall, A J; Martin, W

    2010-12-01

    For life to have emerged from CO₂, rocks, and water on the early Earth, a sustained source of chemically transducible energy was essential. The serpentinization process is emerging as an increasingly likely source of that energy. Serpentinization of ultramafic crust would have continuously supplied hydrogen, methane, minor formate, and ammonia, as well as calcium and traces of acetate, molybdenum and tungsten, to off-ridge alkaline hydrothermal springs that interfaced with the metal-rich carbonic Hadean Ocean. Silica and bisulfide were also delivered to these springs where cherts and sulfides were intersected by the alkaline solutions. The proton and redox gradients so generated represent a rich source of naturally produced chemiosmotic energy, stemming from geochemistry that merely had to be tapped, rather than induced, by the earliest biochemical systems. Hydrothermal mounds accumulating at similar sites in today's oceans offer conceptual and experimental models for the chemistry germane to the emergence of life, although the ubiquity of microbial communities at such sites in addition to our oxygenated atmosphere preclude an exact analogy. Published 2010. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Correlates of dietary energy sources with cardiovascular disease risk markers in Mexican school-age children.

    PubMed

    Perichart-Perera, Otilia; Balas-Nakash, Margie; Rodríguez-Cano, Ameyalli; Muñoz-Manrique, Cinthya; Monge-Urrea, Adriana; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe

    2010-02-01

    Dietary and lifestyle changes in Mexico have been linked to an increase in chronic diseases such as obesity and cardiovascular disease. Important dietary changes such as an increase in the consumption of energy-dense foods (high in oils, animal or processed fats, and sugars) have been recently reported. The objective of this study was to identify how key dietary energy sources correlated with other indexes of cardiovascular disease in a Mexican school-age population. From 2004 to 2006, a convenience sample (n=228) of 9- to 13-year-olds, 48.2% girls and 51.8% boys, from three public urban schools were included. Anthropometric, blood pressure, and dietary assessment (two multiple pass 24-hour recalls) were done. More than half of children did not meet the fruit and vegetable recommended intake. High-fat dairy foods (14% of total energy intake), refined carbohydrates (13.5%), red/processed meat (8.5%), added sugars/desserts (7%), corn tortilla (6.5%), and soft drinks/sweetened beverages (5%) were the highest dietary energy sources consumed. In a subgroup of children (n=185), a fasting blood sample was collected for biochemical analysis. A positive association was observed between glucose and diastolic blood pressure with the intake of soft drinks/sweetened beverages, insulin concentrations and the intake of white bread, and triglyceride concentrations with the intake of added fats. Unhealthful dietary energy sources are frequently consumed by these children. Culturally competent nutrition counseling should be offered to Mexican-American children and their families with a significant risk of cardiovascular disease. Efforts should be made to design and implement nutrition education and health promotion strategies in schools. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Stable High-Energy Electron Source from Laser Wakefield Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ping; Zhao, Baozhen; Liu, Cheng; Yan, Wenchao; Golovin, Grigory; Banerjee, Sudeep; Chen, Shouyuan; Haden, Daniel; Fruhling, Colton; Umstadter, Donald

    2016-10-01

    The stability of the electron source from laser wake-field acceleration (LWFA) is essential for applications, such as novel x-ray sources and fundamental experiments in high field physics. To obtain such a stable source, we used an optimal laser pulse and a novel gas nozzle. The high-power laser pulse on target was focused to a diffraction-limited spot by the use of adaptive wavefront correction and the pulse duration was transform limited by the use of spectral feedback control. An innovative design for the nozzle led to a stable, flat-top profile with diameters of 4 mm and 8 mm with a high Mach-number ( 6). In experiments to generate high-energy electron beams by LWFA, we were able to obtain reproducible results with beam energy of 800 MeV and charge >10 pC. Higher charge but broader energy spectrum resulted when the plasma density was increased. These developments have resulted in a laser-driven wakefield accelerator that is stable and robust. With this device, we show that narrowband high-energy x-rays beams can be generated by the inverse-Compton scattering process. This accelerator has also been used in recent experiments to study nonlinear effects in the interaction of high-energy electron beams with ultraintense laser pulses. This material is based upon work supported by NSF No. PHY-153700; US DOE, Office of Science, BES, # DE-FG02-05ER15663; AFOSR # FA9550-11-1-0157; and DHS DNDO # HSHQDC-13-C-B0036.

  12. 40 CFR 74.47 - Transfer of allowances from the replacement of thermal energy-combustion sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transfer of allowances from the replacement of thermal energy-combustion sources. 74.47 Section 74.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...—combustion sources. (a) Thermal energy plan—(1) General provisions. The designated representative of an opt...

  13. 40 CFR 74.47 - Transfer of allowances from the replacement of thermal energy-combustion sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transfer of allowances from the replacement of thermal energy-combustion sources. 74.47 Section 74.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...—combustion sources. (a) Thermal energy plan—(1) General provisions. The designated representative of an opt...

  14. 40 CFR 74.47 - Transfer of allowances from the replacement of thermal energy-combustion sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transfer of allowances from the replacement of thermal energy-combustion sources. 74.47 Section 74.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...—combustion sources. (a) Thermal energy plan—(1) General provisions. The designated representative of an opt...

  15. 40 CFR 74.47 - Transfer of allowances from the replacement of thermal energy-combustion sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transfer of allowances from the replacement of thermal energy-combustion sources. 74.47 Section 74.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...—combustion sources. (a) Thermal energy plan—(1) General provisions. The designated representative of an opt...

  16. On fundamentally new sources of energy for rockets in the early works of the pioneers of astronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melkumov, T. M.

    1977-01-01

    The research for more efficient methods of propelling a spacecraft, than can be achieved with chemical energy, was studied. During a time when rockets for space flight had not actually been built pioneers in rocket technology were already concerned with this problem. Alternative sources proposed at that time, were nuclear and solar energy. Basic engineering problems of each source were investigated.

  17. Climate change mitigation: the potential of agriculture as a renewable energy source in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Elum, Z A; Modise, D M; Nhamo, G

    2017-02-01

    Energy is pivotal to the economic development of every nation. However, its production and utilization leads to undesirable carbon emissions that aggravate global warming which results in climate change. The agriculture sector is a significant user of energy. However, it has the potential to be a major contributor to Nigeria's energy supply mix in meeting its energy deficit. More so, in the light of current and impending adverse effects of climate change, there is a need to contain GHG's emissions. This paper focuses on bioenergy utilization as a climate change mitigation strategy and one that can, through effective waste management, enhance sustainable economic development in Nigeria. The paper employed a critical discourse analysis to examine the potential of the agricultural sector to provide biofuels from energy crops and other biomass sources. We conclude that Nigeria can reduce its GHG emissions and greatly contribute to global climate change mitigation while also alleviating its energy supply deficit if the agricultural and municipal wastes readily available in its towns and cities are converted to bioenergy. Such engagements will not only promote a clean and healthy environment but also create jobs for economic empowerment and a better standard of living for the people.

  18. Low-energy plasma focus device as an electron beam source.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Zubair; Ling, Yap Seong; Yaqoob, Ibrar; Kumar, Nitturi Naresh; Kuang, Lim Lian; San, Wong Chiow

    2014-01-01

    A low-energy plasma focus device was used as an electron beam source. A technique was developed to simultaneously measure the electron beam intensity and energy. The system was operated in Argon filling at an optimum pressure of 1.7 mbar. A Faraday cup was used together with an array of filtered PIN diodes. The beam-target X-rays were registered through X-ray spectrometry. Copper and lead line radiations were registered upon usage as targets. The maximum electron beam charge and density were estimated to be 0.31 μC and 13.5 × 10(16)/m(3), respectively. The average energy of the electron beam was 500 keV. The high flux of the electron beam can be potentially applicable in material sciences.

  19. Low-Energy Plasma Focus Device as an Electron Beam Source

    PubMed Central

    Seong Ling, Yap; Naresh Kumar, Nitturi; Lian Kuang, Lim; Chiow San, Wong

    2014-01-01

    A low-energy plasma focus device was used as an electron beam source. A technique was developed to simultaneously measure the electron beam intensity and energy. The system was operated in Argon filling at an optimum pressure of 1.7 mbar. A Faraday cup was used together with an array of filtered PIN diodes. The beam-target X-rays were registered through X-ray spectrometry. Copper and lead line radiations were registered upon usage as targets. The maximum electron beam charge and density were estimated to be 0.31 μC and 13.5 × 1016/m3, respectively. The average energy of the electron beam was 500 keV. The high flux of the electron beam can be potentially applicable in material sciences. PMID:25544952

  20. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Ultrahigh-energy neutrinos from astrophysical sources and superheavy particle decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabov, Vladimir A.

    2006-09-01

    Problems in the fields of neutrino astronomy and ultrahigh-energy astrophysics are reviewed. Neutrino fluxes produced in various astrophysical sources (bottom-up acceleration scenarios) and resulting from the decay of superheavy particles (top-down scenarios) are considered. Neutrino oscillation processes and the absorption and regeneration of neutrinos inside the earth are analyzed and some other factors affecting the intensity and flavor composition of astrophysical neutrino fluxes are discussed. Details of ultrahigh-energy neutrino interactions are discussed within the Standard Model, as well as using nonstandard scenarios predicting an anomalous increase in the inelastic neutrino-nucleon cross section. Ultrahigh-energy neutrino detection techniques currently in use in new-generation neutrino telescopes and cosmic ray detectors are also discussed.

  1. The Changing Energy Sources of Soil Respiration Seasonally and with Experimental Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks Pries, C.; Angert, A.; Castanha, C.; Hilman, B.; Torn, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Due to its importance in the global carbon cycle, soil respiration has been intensively measured. However, measurements are almost exclusively of CO2, which has limited our understanding of soil respiration's sources and its responses to climate change. Here, we show how dual CO2 and O2 measurements within the soil profile of a temperate forest can indicate how the energy sources driving soil respiration can change seasonally and with experimental warming. We calculated the apparent respiration quotient (ARQ), defined as CO2 produced/O2 consumed, calculated from gas soil concentrations and adjusted for differences in diffusion rates. The ARQ changes depending on the stoichiometry of the organic compounds utilized for energy by microbes and roots. Oxidation of carbohydrates and organic acids results in respiration quotients ≥1 while oxidation of lipids results in respiration quotients ≈0.7 with oxidation of proteins falling in between. We observed clear seasonal patterns in ARQ, with values ≈0.9 during the late spring and summer decreasing to 0.6-0.7 during the winter. These changes in ARQ imply carbohydrates are a more important energy source during the summer when trees are photosynthesizing and providing fresh substrate to both roots and microbes. During the winter, lipids, likely recycled within microbial biomass, are a more important energy source. Furthermore, winter ARQ was higher in heated plots (+4° relative to control) than in control plots, but only at 30 cm, possibly due to increased root activity with heating. These interpretations are supported by δ13CO2 values, which were relatively depleted in the winter and more enriched in the summer—lipids are more depleted in δ13C than are sugars. Consistent with the heating effect, there were strong correlations between temperature and ARQ and temperature and δ13C. Given the large differences in ARQ in this forest soil, we are looking into using ARQ to partition soil respiration fluxes based on

  2. LOCALIZING INTEGRAL SOURCES WITH CHANDRA: X-RAY AND MULTI-WAVELENGTH IDENTIFICATIONS AND ENERGY SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Tomsick, John A.; Bodaghee, Arash; Chaty, Sylvain

    2012-08-01

    We report on Chandra observations of 18 hard X-ray (>20 keV) sources discovered with the INTEGRAL satellite near the Galactic plane. For 14 of the INTEGRAL sources, we have uncovered one or two potential Chandra counterparts per source. These provide soft X-ray (0.3-10 keV) spectra and subarcsecond localizations, which we use to identify counterparts at other wavelengths, providing information about the nature of each source. Despite the fact that all of the sources are within 5 Degree-Sign of the plane, four of the IGR sources are active galactic nuclei (AGNs; IGR J01545+6437, IGR J15391-5307, IGR J15415-5029, and IGR J21565+5948) andmore » four others are likely AGNs (IGR J03103+5706, IGR J09189-4418, IGR J16413-4046, and IGR J16560-4958) based on each of them having a strong IR excess and/or extended optical or near-IR emission. We compare the X-ray and near-IR fluxes of this group of sources to those of AGNs selected by their 2-10 keV emission in previous studies and find that these IGR AGNs are in the range of typical values. There is evidence in favor of four of the sources being Galactic (IGR J12489-6243, IGR J15293-5609, IGR J16173-5023, and IGR J16206-5253), but only IGR J15293-5609 is confirmed as a Galactic source as it has a unique Chandra counterpart and a parallax measurement from previous optical observations that puts its distance at 1.56 {+-} 0.12 kpc. The 0.3-10 keV luminosity for this source is (1.4{sup +1.0}{sub -0.4}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 32} erg s{sup -1}, and its optical/IR spectral energy distribution is well described by a blackbody with a temperature of 4200-7000 K and a radius of 12.0-16.4 R{sub Sun }. These values suggest that IGR J15293-5609 is a symbiotic binary with an early K-type giant and a white dwarf accretor. We also obtained likely Chandra identifications for IGR J13402-6428 and IGR J15368-5102, but follow-up observations are required to constrain their source types.« less

  3. Chapter 2: International Requirements for Large Integration of Renewable Energy Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Molina-Garcia, A.; Hansen, A. D.; Muljadi, Eduard

    Most European countries have concerns about the integration of large amounts of renewable energy sources (RES) into electric power systems, and this is currently a topic of growing interest. In January 2008, the European Commission published the 2020 package, which proposes committing the European Union to a 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, to achieve a target of deriving 20% of the European Union's final energy consumption from renewable sources, and to achieve 20% improvement in energy efficiency both by the year 2020 [1]. Member states have different individual goals to meet these overall objectives, and they each need tomore » provide a detailed roadmap describing how they will meet these legally binding targets [2]. At this time, RES are an indispensable part of the global energy mix, which has been partially motivated by the continuous increases in hydropower as well as the rapid expansion of wind and solar photovoltaic (PV). The International Energy Agency's 2012 edition of the World Energy Outlook stated that the rapid increases in RES integration are underpinned by falling technology costs as well as rising fossilfuel prices and carbon pricing, but RES integration is also encouraged by continued subsidies: from $88 billion globally in 2011 (compared to $523 billion in fossil-fuel subsidies in 2012 [3], with a share of $131 billion for electricity generation) to an estimated $240 billion in 2035 [4]. According to [3], in 2015 RES accounted for 22% of electricity generation, which was approximately the same level as gas and about one-half the level of coal.« less

  4. [Feasibility of Developing Post High School Technician Programs for Emerging Energy Sources in Southwestern United States.] Policies and Manpower Needs Related to Emerging Energy Sources in Arizona and New Mexico. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edington, Everett; And Others

    The energy manpower research project was established to review the process used to identify skills needed in emerging energy sources and to discover any new occupations for which additional post-high school, vocational/technical training would be needed. A supplemental part of the project was the development of a solar energy instructional module.…

  5. Twilight of Abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archibald, David

    2014-03-01

    Baby boomers enjoyed the most benign period in human history: fifty years of relative peace, cheap energy, plentiful grain supply, and a warming climate due to the highest solar activity for 8,000 years. The party is over - prepare for the twilight of abundance. David Archibald reveals the grim future the world faces on its current trajectory: massive fuel shortages, the bloodiest warfare in human history, a global starvation crisis, and a rapidly cooling planet. Archibald combines pioneering science with keen economic knowledge to predict the global disasters that could destroy civilization as we know it - disasters that are waiting just around the corner. But there's good news, too: We can have a good future if we prepare for it. Advanced, civilized countries can have a permanently high standard of living if they choose to invest in the technologies that will get them there. Archibald, a climate scientist as well as an inventor and a financial specialist, explains which scientific breakthroughs can save civilization in the coming crisis - if we can cut through the special interest opposition to these innovations and allow free markets to flourish.

  6. Cassava chip (Manihot esculenta Crantz) as an energy source for ruminant feeding.

    PubMed

    Wanapat, Metha; Kang, Sungchhang

    2015-12-01

    Cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) is widely grown in sub-tropical and tropical areas, producing roots as an energy source while the top biomass including leaves and immature stems can be sun-dried and used as cassava hay. Cassava roots can be processed as dried chip or pellet. It is rich in soluble carbohydrate (75 to 85%) but low in crude protein (2 to 3%). Its energy value is comparable to corn meal but has a relatively higher rate of rumen degradation. Higher levels of non-protein nitrogen especially urea (1 to 4%) can be successfully incorporated in concentrates containing cassava chip as an energy source. Cassava chip can also be processed with urea and other ingredients (tallow, sulfur, raw banana meal, cassava hay, and soybean meal) to make products such as cassarea, cassa-ban, and cassaya. Various studies have been conducted in ruminants using cassava chip to replace corn meal in the concentrate mixtures and have revealed satisfactory results in rumen fermentation efficiency and the subsequent production of meat and milk. In addition, it was advantageous when used in combination with rice bran in the concentrate supplement. Practical home-made-concentrate using cassava chip can be easily prepared for use on farms. A recent development has involved enriching protein in cassava chips, yielding yeast fermented cassava chip protein (YEFECAP) of up to 47.5% crude protein, which can be used to replace soybean meal. It is therefore, recommended to use cassava chip as an alternative source of energy to corn meal when the price is economical and it is locally available.

  7. Energy efficiency of growing ram lambs fed concentrate-based diets with different roughage sources.

    PubMed

    Galvani, D B; Pires, A V; Susin, I; Gouvêa, V N; Berndt, A; Chagas, L J; Dórea, J R R; Abdalla, A L; Tedeschi, L O

    2014-01-01

    Poor-quality roughages are widely used as fiber sources in concentrate-based diets for ruminants. Because roughage quality is associated with the efficiency of energy use in forage-based diets, the objective of this study was to determine whether differing the roughage source in concentrate-based diets could change the energy requirements of growing lambs. Eighty-four 1/2 Dorper × 1/2 Santa Inês ram lambs (18.0 ± 3.3 kg BW) were individually penned and divided into 2 groups according to primary source of dietary roughage: low-quality roughage (LQR; sugarcane bagasse) or medium-quality roughage (MQR; coastcross hay). Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (2.6% N) and to meet 20% of physically effective NDF. After a 10-d ad libitum adaptation period, 7 lambs from each group were randomly selected and slaughtered (baseline). Twenty-one lambs in each diet group were fed ad libitum and slaughtered at 25, 35, or 45 kg BW. The remaining 28 lambs (14 from each diet group) were submitted to 1 of 2 levels of feed restriction: 70% or 50% of the ad libitum intake. Retentions of body fat, N, and energy were determined. Additionally, 6 ram lambs (44.3 ± 5.6 kg BW) were kept in metabolic cages and used in a 6 × 6 Latin square experiment designed to establish the ME content of the 2 diets at the 3 levels of DM intake. There was no effect of intake level on diet ME content, but it was greater in the diet with LQR than in the diet with MQR (3.18 vs. 2.94 Mcal/kg, respectively; P < 0.01). Lambs fed the diet with LQR had greater body fat (g/kg of empty BW) and energy concentrations (kcal/kg of empty BW) because of a larger visceral fat deposition (P < 0.05). Using a low-quality roughage as a primary source of forage in a concentrate-based diet for growing lambs did not change NEm and the efficiency of ME use for maintenance, which averaged 71.6 kcal/kg(0.75) of shrunk BW and 0.63, respectively. On the other hand, the greater nonfibrous carbohydrate content of the diet with

  8. An Indian scenario on renewable and sustainable energy sources with emphasis on algae.

    PubMed

    Hemaiswarya, S; Raja, Rathinam; Carvalho, Isabel S; Ravikumar, R; Zambare, Vasudeo; Barh, Debmalya

    2012-12-01

    India is the fifth largest primary energy consumer and fourth largest petroleum consumer after USA, China, and Japan. Despite the global economic crisis, India's economy is expected to grow at 6 to 8 %/year. There is an extreme dependence on petroleum products with considerable risks and environmental issues. Petroleum-derived transport fuels are of limited availability and contribute to global warming, making renewable biofuel as the best alternative. The focus on biogas and biomass-based energy, such as bioethanol and biohydrogen, will enhance cost-effectiveness and provide an opportunity for the rural community. Among all energy sources, microalgae have received, so far, more attention due to their facile adaptability to grow in the photobioreactors or open ponds, high yields, and multiple applications. Microalgae can produce a substantial amount of triacylglycerols as a storage lipid under photooxidative stress or other adverse environmental conditions. In addition to renewable biofuels, they can provide different types of high-value bioproducts added to their advantages, such as higher photosynthetic efficiency, higher biomass production, and faster growth compared to any other energy crops. The viability of first-generation biofuels production is, however, questionable because of the conflict with food supply. In the future, biofuels should ideally create the environmental, economic, and social benefits to the communities and reflect energy efficiency so as to plan a road map for the industry to produce third-generation biofuels.

  9. Glycogen serves as an energy source that maintains astrocyte cell proliferation in the neonatal telencephalon.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Hitoshi; Nomura, Tadashi; Ono, Katsuhiko

    2017-06-01

    Large amounts of energy are required when cells undergo cell proliferation and differentiation for mammalian neuronal development. Early neonatal mice face transient starvation and use stored energy for survival or to support development. Glycogen is a branched polysaccharide that is formed by glucose, and serves as an astrocytic energy store for rapid energy requirements. Although it is present in radial glial cells and astrocytes, the role of glycogen during development remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that glycogen accumulated in glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST)+ astrocytes in the subventricular zone and rostral migratory stream. Glycogen levels markedly decreased after birth due to the increase of glycogen phosphorylase, an essential enzyme for glycogen metabolism. In primary cultures and in vivo, the inhibition of glycogen phosphorylase decreased the proliferation of astrocytic cells. The number of cells in the G1 phase increased in combination with the up-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors or down-regulation of the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (pRB), a determinant for cell cycle progression. These results suggest that glycogen accumulates in astrocytes located in specific areas during the prenatal stage and is used as an energy source to maintain normal development in the early postnatal stage.

  10. Studies of cluster X-ray sources, energy spectra for the Perseus, Virgo, and Coma clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellogg, E.; Baldwin, J. R.; Koch, D.

    1975-01-01

    Final Uhuru X-ray differential-energy spectra are presented for the Perseus, Virgo, and Coma clusters. Power-law and isothermal bremsstrahlung model spectra with low-energy cutoffs are given, and the energy-dependent Gaunt factor is calculated for the bremsstrahlung. The spectra, which are best fits to the Uhuru data between 2 and 10 keV, are compared with previous observations of these sources in the energy range from 0.1 to 100 keV. The problem of parameter estimation is discussed, error bars with 68% confidence are given for the independently determined slope and cutoff parameters, and the 68% confidence limits are plotted for the fitted spectral functions. The data for Perseus above 20 keV marginally favor the bremsstrahlung fit, those for Virgo between 0.25 and 1.0 keV clearly favor that curve, and those for Coma indicate a low-energy turnover or cutoff. Implications of such a cutoff are briefly discussed.

  11. Carbohydrates as a source of energy and matter for the origin of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, A. L.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, we proposed a new model of early glycolysis in which the oxidation of glyceraldehyde self-hemiacetals yielded energy rich polyglyceric acid instead of energy rich thioesters. In this model, polyglyceric acid not only acts as an energy source for phosphoanhydride synthesis, but also as an autocatalyst that can replicate the sequence of D and L residues in its structure. We began our investigation of this new hypothesis - the triose model - by developing a thermal method for the racemization-free synthesis of polyglyceric acid. The hydrolytic stability and the role of chirality in interactions of polyglyceric acid were studied using this thermal polymer. Next, we established that the 2- and 3-glycerol esters of polyglyceric acid are energy rich by measuring the Gibbs free energy change of hydrolysis of the 2- and 3-glycerol esters of 2 and 3-O-L glyceroyl-glyceric acid methyl ester - a model of polyglyceric acid. Recently, we discovered that glyceraldehyde is bound and oxidized to glyceric acid on the surface of ferric hydroxide and that soluble ferric ion catalyzes the rearrangement of glyceraldehyde to lactic acid. We are exploring the possibility that these reactions could yield polyglyceric acid and polylactic acid under plausible prebiotic conditions.

  12. The high-energy x-ray diffraction and scattering beamline at the Canadian Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, A.; Dina, G.; Kycia, S.

    2018-06-01

    The optical design for the high-energy x-ray diffraction and scattering beamline of the Brockhouse sector at the Canadian Light Source is described. The design is based on a single side-bounce silicon focusing monochromator that steers the central part of a high-field permanent magnet wiggler beam into the experimental station. Two different configurations are proposed: a higher energy resolution with vertical focusing and a lower energy resolution with horizontal and vertical focusing. The monochromator will have the possibility of mounting three crystals: one crystal optimized for 35 keV that focuses in the horizontal and vertical directions using reflection (1,1,1) and two other crystals both covering the energies above 40 keV: one with only vertical focusing and another one with horizontal and vertical focusing. The geometry of the last two monochromator crystals was optimized to use reflections (4,2,2) and (5,3,3) to cover the broad energy range from 40 to 95 keV.

  13. Characterisation of an accelerator-based neutron source for BNCT versus beam energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agosteo, S.; Curzio, G.; d'Errico, F.; Nath, R.; Tinti, R.

    2002-01-01

    Neutron capture in 10B produces energetic alpha particles that have a high linear energy transfer in tissue. This results in higher cell killing and a higher relative biological effectiveness compared to photons. Using suitably designed boron compounds which preferentially localize in cancerous cells instead of healthy tissues, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has the potential of providing a higher tumor cure rate within minimal toxicity to normal tissues. This clinical approach requires a thermal neutron source, generally a nuclear reactor, with a fluence rate sufficient to deliver tumorcidal doses within a reasonable treatment time (minutes). Thermal neutrons do not penetrate deeply in tissue, therefore BNCT is limited to lesions which are either superficial or otherwise accessible. In this work, we investigate the feasibility of an accelerator-based thermal neutron source for the BNCT of skin melanomas. The source was designed via MCNP Monte Carlo simulations of the thermalization of a fast neutron beam, generated by 7 MeV deuterons impinging on a thick target of beryllium. The neutron field was characterized at several deuteron energies (3.0-6.5 MeV) in an experimental structure installed at the Van De Graaff accelerator of the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, in Italy. Thermal and epithermal neutron fluences were measured with activation techniques and fast neutron spectra were determined with superheated drop detectors (SDD). These neutron spectrometry and dosimetry studies indicated that the fast neutron dose is unacceptably high in the current design. Modifications to the current design to overcome this problem are presented.

  14. Planck Early Results. XV. Spectral Energy Distributions and Radio Continuum Spectra of Northern Extragalactic Radio Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aatrokoski, J.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Angelakis, E.; Amaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and radio continuum spectra are presented for a northern sample of 104 extragalactic radio sources. based on the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) and simultaneous multi frequency data. The nine Planck frequencies, from 30 to 857 GHz, are complemented by a set of simultaneous observations ranging from radio to gamma-rays. This is the first extensive frequency coverage in the radio and millimetre domains for an essentially complete sample of extragalactic radio sources, and it shows how the individual shocks, each in their own phase of development, shape the radio spectra as they move in the relativistic jet. The SEDs presented in this paper were fitted with second and third degree polynomials to estimate the frequencies of the synchrotron and inverse Compton (IC) peaks, and the spectral indices of low and high frequency radio data, including the Planck ERCSC data, were calculated. SED modelling methods are discussed, with an emphasis on proper. physical modelling of the synchrotron bump using multiple components. Planck ERCSC data also suggest that the original accelerated electron energy spectrum could be much harder than commonly thought, with power-law index around 1.5 instead of the canonical 2.5. The implications of this are discussed for the acceleration mechanisms effective in blazar shock. Furthermore in many cases the Planck data indicate that gamma-ray emission must originate in the same shocks that produce the radio emission.

  15. A New Type of Transient High-Energy Source in the Direction of the Galactic Centre

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouveliotou, C.; VanParadijs, J.; Fishman, G. J.; Briggs, M. S.; Kommers, J.; Harmon, B. A.; Meegan, C. A.; Lewin, W. H. G.

    1996-01-01

    Sources of high-energy (greater than 20 keV) bursts fall into two distinct types: the non-repeating gamma-ray bursters, several thousand of which have been detected but whose origin remains unknown, and the soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs), of which there are only three. The SGRs are known to be associated with supernova remnants, suggesting that the burst events most probably originate from young neutron stars. Here we report the detection of a third type of transient high-energy source. On 2 December 1995, we observed the onset of a sequence of hard X-ray bursts from a direction close to that of the Galactic Center. The interval between bursts was initially several minutes, but after two days, the burst rate had dropped to about one per hour and has been largely unchanged since then. More than 1,000 bursts have now been detected, with remarkably similar light curves and intensities; this behaviour is unprecendented among transient X-ray and gamma-ray sources. We suggest that the origin of these bursts might be related to the spasmodic accretion of material onto a neutron star.

  16. Radiation resistant PIDECα cell using photon intermediate direct energy conversion and a 210Po source.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Charles L; Schott, Robert J; Prelas, Mark A; Wisniewski, Denis A; Rothenberger, Jason B; Lukosi, Eric D; Oh, Kyuhak

    2018-02-01

    Radiation damage is a significant concern with both alphavoltaic and betavoltaic cells because their performance degrades, especially with high-energy - (>200keV) beta and alpha particles. Indirect excitation methods, such as the Photon Intermediate Direct Energy Conversion (PIDEC) framework, can protect the transducer from radiation. A nuclear battery using a 90 Sr beta source was constructed by the author's research group, which demonstrated the radiation resistance of a PIDEC cell driven by beta particles (PIDECβ cell). Use of alpha sources to drive nuclear batteries would appear to be much more attractive than beta sources due to higher potential power density. However, they are also subject to higher rates of radiation damage. This paper describes the successful incorporation of alpha particles into the PIDEC framework using the alpha emitter 210 Po to form a PIDECα cell. The PIDECα cell transducer was exposed to alpha particles for over one year without experiencing adverse effects from radiation damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Energy & mass-charge distribution peculiarities of ion emitted from penning source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamedov, N. V.; Kolodko, D. V.; Sorokin, I. A.; Kanshin, I. A.; Sinelnikov, D. N.

    2017-05-01

    The optimization of hydrogen Penning sources used, in particular, in plasma chemical processing of materials and DLC deposition, is still very important. Investigations of mass-charge composition of these ion source emitted beams are particular relevant for miniature linear accelerators (neutron flux generators) nowadays. The Penning ion source energy and mass-charge ion distributions are presented. The relation between the discharge current abrupt jumps with increasing plasma density in the discharge center and increasing potential whipping (up to 50% of the anode voltage) is shown. Also the energy spectra in the discharge different modes as the pressure and anode potential functions are presented. It has been revealed that the atomic hydrogen ion concentration is about 5-10%, and it weakly depends on the pressure and the discharge current (in the investigated range from 1 to 10 mTorr and from 50 to 1000 μA) and increases with the anode voltage (up 1 to 3,5 kV).

  18. Planck early results. XV. Spectral energy distributions and radio continuum spectra of northern extragalactic radio sources

    DOE PAGES

    Aatrokoski, J.

    2011-12-01

    Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and radio continuum spectra are presented for a northern sample of 104 extragalactic radio sources, based on the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) and simultaneous multifrequency data. The nine Planck frequencies, from 30 to 857GHz, are complemented by a set of simultaneous observations ranging from radio to gamma-rays. This is the first extensive frequency coverage in the radio and millimetre domains for an essentially complete sample of extragalactic radio sources, and it shows how the individual shocks, each in their own phase of development, shape the radio spectra as they move in the relativisticmore » jet. The SEDs presented in this paper were fitted with second and third degree polynomials to estimate the frequencies of the synchrotron and inverse Compton (IC) peaks, and the spectral indices of low and high frequency radio data, including the Planck ERCSC data, were calculated. SED modelling methods are discussed, with an emphasis on proper, physical modelling of the synchrotron bump using multiple components. Planck ERCSC data also suggest that the original accelerated electron energy spectrum could be much harder than commonly thought, with power-law index around 1.5 instead of the canonical 2.5. The implications of this are discussed for the acceleration mechanisms effective in blazar shock. Furthermore in many cases the Planck data indicate that gamma-ray emission must originate in the same shocks that produce the radio emission.« less

  19. Renewable energy sources, the internet of things and the third industrial revolution: Smart grid and contemporary information and communication technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitsios, Aristidis; Bousakas, Konstantinos; Salame, Takla; Bogno, Bachirou; Papageorgas, Panagiotis; Vokas, Georgios A.; Mauffay, Fabrice; Petit, Pierre; Aillerie, Michel; Charles, Jean-Pierre

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the energy efficiency of a contemporary Smart Grid that is based on Distributed Renewable Energy Sources (DRES) is examined under the scope of the communication systems utilized between the energy loads and the energy sources. What is evident is that the Internet of Things (IoT) technologies that are based on the existing Web infrastructure can be heavily introduced in this direction especially when combined with long range low bandwidth networking technologies, power line communication technologies and optimization methodologies for renewable energy generation. The renewable energy generation optimization will be based on devices embedded in the PV panels and the wind power generators, which will rely on bidirectional communications with local gateways and remote control stations for achieving energy efficiency. Smart meters and DRES combined with IoT communications will be the enabling technologies for the ultimate fusion of Internet technology and renewable energy generation realizing the Energy Internet.

  20. Hydrogen may be an energy source for endosymbiotic bacteria of the vent mussel Bathymodiolus puteoserpentis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, F.; Pape, T.; Wenzhöfer, F.; Seifert, R.; Dubilier, N.

    2005-12-01

    The ultramafic hosted Logatchev hydrothermal vent field at the slow spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) exhibits unusually high hydrogen concentrations due to serpentinization of ultramafic rocks. Endmember H2-concentrations here have been calculated to be as high as 12 mM which is significantly higher than at most other vent sites along the MAR. Hydrogen is a potential energy source for bacteria providing an energy yield of roughly 240 kJ/mol if oxidized with oxygen. Hence, the energy yield is even higher than for conventional aerobic respiration which liberates 220 kJ/mol. The ability to use H2 as an energy source has been shown for a variety of free-living bacteria. However, to date no other energy sources besides methane and sulfide have been identified for vent (or seep) symbionts. Here we show that H2 is consumed by endosymbiotic bacteria of the Logatchev vent mussel Bathymodiolus puteoserpentis. B. puteoserpentis is known to live in dual symbiosis with methane- and sulfide-oxidizing bacteria that occur intracellularly in specialized gill cells called bacteriocytes. The methanotrophic symbionts use methane as both an energy and carbon source whereas the thiotrophic symbionts use H2S as an energy and dissolved CO2 as a carbon source. Hydrothermal fluids carrying methane and sulfide provide the energy for the bacteria and the bacteria in turn provide the mussel with carbon compounds. The mussel on the other hand supplies its symbionts with a constant fluid flow and, by hosting them offers an ideal ecological niche. Freshly dissected gill pieces of B. puteoserpentis incubated in chilled sea water containing hydrogen gas readily consumed H2. The consumption of H2 over time was significantly higher in gill tissues than in symbiont-free mussel tissue indicating that the symbiotic bacteria are responsible for the observed activity. H2-consumption rates were similar in mussels from two different sampling sites, Irina II: 37 nmol h-1 (ml gill)-1 and Quest: 31 nmol h-1