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Sample records for abundant extracellular mucin

  1. Extracellular proteins from Lactobacillus plantarum BMCM12 prevent adhesion of enteropathogens to mucin.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Borja; Urdaci, María C

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to study the interference of the extracellular proteins produced by Lactobacillus plantarum BMCM12 with the adhesion of some well-known gut pathogens. The extracellular proteins secreted by L. plantarum BMCM12 in MRS broth were precipitated, resolved by SDS-PAGE, and identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Discordances between the observed and the theoretical molecular masses of several proteins suggested the presence of protein glycosylation, corroborated with specific glycoprotein staining after protein de-glycosylation using trifluoromethanesulfonic acid. Experiments of exclusion, competition, or prevention of the pathogen adhesion to mucin were performed using BMCM12 extracellular proteins, using Escherichia coli LMG2092 and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica LMG15860. Extracellular proteins from BMCM12 reduced significantly the adhesion of the pathogens when they were added prior to adhesion assays. These proteins play thus important roles in preventing pathogen adhesion to the mucin layer.

  2. Adhesive properties, extracellular protein production, and metabolism in the Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG strain when grown in the presence of mucin.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Borja; Saad, Naima; Schmitter, Jean-Marie; Bressollier, Philippe; Urdaci, Maria C

    2010-06-01

    This paper examines the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, and how it reacts to the presence of mucin in its extracellular milieu. Parameters studied included cell clustering, adhesion to mucin, extracellular protein production, and formation of final metabolites. L. rhamnosus GG was found to grow efficiently in the presence of glucose, N-acetylglucosamine, or mucin (partially purified or purified) as sole carbon sources. However, it was unable to grow using other mucin constituents, such as fucose or glucuronic acid. Mucin induced noticeable changes in all the parameters studied when compared with growth using glucose, including in the formation of cell clusters, which were easily disorganized with trypsin. Mucin increased adhesion of the bacterium, and modulated the production of extracellular proteins. SDS-PAGE revealed that mucin was not degraded during L. rhamnosus GG growth, suggesting that this bacterium is able to partially use the glucidic moiety of glycoprotein. This study goes some way towards developing an understanding of the metabolic and physiological changes that L. rhamnosus GG undergoes within the human gastrointestinal tract.

  3. Lactobacillus plantarum extracellular chitin-binding protein and its role in the interaction between chitin, Caco-2 cells, and mucin.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Borja; González-Tejedo, Carmen; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Urdaci, María C; Margolles, Abelardo

    2011-02-01

    In the present work, we describe the adhesion capabilities of a recombinant Lactococcus lactis strain producing an extracellular protein from Lactobacillus plantarum. Our results show that this protein may offer the bacterium a mechanism to bind to N-acetylglucosamine-containing polymers, such as human mucins, present in different environments.

  4. Mucinous Carcinoma with Extensive Signet Ring Cell Differentiation: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Min; Kim, Eun Kyung; Koo, Ja Seung

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancers that present with mucin include mucinous carcinoma and carcinoma with signet ring cell differentiation. The former shows extracellular mucin and the latter shows abundant intracellular mucin. Here, we report a case of breast cancer showing both extracellular mucin and extensive signet ring cell differentiation due to abundant intracellular mucin. Unlike mucinous carcinoma, this case had the features of high-grade nuclear pleomorphism, high mitotic index, estrogen receptor negativity, progesterone receptor negativity, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 positivity, and ductal type with positivity for E-cadherin. In a case with signet ring cell differentiation, differential diagnosis with metastatic signet ring cell carcinoma of the stomach and colon is essential. In this case, the presence of accompanied ductal carcinoma in situ component and mammaglobin and gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 positivity were findings that suggested the breast as the origin. PMID:28316229

  5. Role of Extracellular Transaldolase from Bifidobacterium bifidum in Mucin Adhesion and Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    González-Rodríguez, Irene; Sánchez, Borja; Ruiz, Lorena; Turroni, Francesca; Ventura, Marco; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Gueimonde, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    The ability of bifidobacteria to establish in the intestine of mammals is among the main factors considered to be important for achieving probiotic effects. The role of surface molecules from Bifidobacterium bifidum taxon in mucin adhesion capability and the aggregation phenotype of this bacterial species was analyzed. Adhesion to the human intestinal cell line HT29 was determined for a collection of 12 B. bifidum strains. In four of them—B. bifidum LMG13195, DSM20456, DSM20239, and A8—the involvement of surface-exposed macromolecules in the aggregation phenomenon was determined. The aggregation of B. bifidum A8 and DSM20456 was abolished after treatment with proteinase K, this effect being more pronounced for the strain A8. Furthermore, a mucin binding assay of B. bifidum A8 surface proteins showed a high adhesive capability for its transaldolase (Tal). The localization of this enzyme on the surface of B. bifidum A8 was unequivocally demonstrated by immunogold electron microscopy experiments. The gene encoding Tal from B. bifidum A8 was expressed in Lactococcus lactis, and the protein was purified to homogeneity. The pure protein was able to restore the autoaggregation phenotype of proteinase K-treated B. bifidum A8 cells. A recombinant L. lactis strain, engineered to secrete Tal, displayed a mucin- binding level more than three times higher than the strain not producing the transaldolase. These findings suggest that Tal, when exposed on the cell surface of B. bifidum, could act as an important colonization factor favoring its establishment in the gut. PMID:22447584

  6. Influence of Macrofaunal Burrows on Extracellular Enzyme Activity and Microbial Abundance in Subtropical Mangrove Sediment.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ling; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2016-09-13

    Bioturbation and bioirrigation induced by burrowing macrofauna are recognized as important processes in aquatic sediment since macrofaunal activities lead to the alteration of sediment characteristics. However, there is a lack of information on how macrofauna influence microbial abundance and extracellular enzyme activity in mangrove sediment. In this study, the environmental parameters, extracellular enzyme activities, and microbial abundance were determined and their relationships were explored. Sediment samples were taken from the surface (S) and lower layer (L) without burrow, as well as crab burrow wall (W) and bottom of crab burrow (B) located at the Mai Po Nature Reserve, Hong Kong. The results showed that the burrowing crabs could enhance the activities of oxidase and hydrolases. The highest activities of phenol oxidase and acid phosphatase were generally observed in B sediment, while the highest activity of N-acetyl-glucosaminidase was found in W sediment. The enzymatic stoichiometry indicated that the crab-affected sediment had similar microbial nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) availability relative to carbon (C), lower than S but higher than L sediment. Furthermore, it was found that the highest abundance of both bacteria and fungi was shown in S sediment, and B sediment presented the lowest abundance. Moreover, the concentrations of phosphorus and soluble phenolics in crab-affected sediment were almost higher than the non-affected sediment. The alterations of phenolics, C/P and N/P ratios as well as undetermined environmental factors by the activities of crabs might be the main reasons for the changes of enzyme activity and microbial abundance. Finally, due to the important role of phenol oxidase and hydrolases in sediment organic matter (SOM) decomposition, it is necessary to take macrofaunal activities into consideration when estimating the C budget in mangrove ecosystem in the future.

  7. Mucinous eccrine nevus: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia; Sun, Jian-fang; Zeng, Xue-si; Liu, Yi; Jiang, Yi-qun; Li, A-mei; Song, Ya-li

    2009-06-01

    Mucinous eccrine nevus (MEN) is a rare variant of eccrine nevus, characterized by a proliferation of normal eccrine structure surrounded by mucin deposits. We report herein the eighth case of mucinous eccrine nevus in the literature, with abundant mucin deposits not only in the stroma surrounding the eccrine glands but also in the superficial dermis. The literature is reviewed.

  8. Extracellular DNA is abundant and important for microcolony strength in mixed microbial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Dominiak, Dominik Marek; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Nielsen, Per Halkjaer

    2011-03-01

    A new approach for quantification of extracellular DNA (eDNA) in mixed biofilms at microscale resolution was developed and combined with other staining techniques to assess the origin, abundance and role of eDNA in activated sludge biofilms. Most eDNA was found in close proximity to living cells in microcolonies, suggesting that most of it originated from an active secretion or alternatively, by lysis of a sub-population of cells. When the staining was combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization for identification of the microorganisms, it was found that the eDNA content varied among the different probe-defined species. The highest amount of eDNA was found in and around the microcolonies of denitrifiers belonging to the genera Curvibacter and Thauera, the ammonium-oxidizing Nitrosomonas and the nitrite-oxidizing Nitrospira. Other floc-formers also produced eDNA, although in lower amounts. The total eDNA content in activated sludge varied from 4 to 52 mg per gram volatile suspended solids in different wastewater treatment plants. Very high local concentrations within some microcolonies were found with up to approximately 300 mg of eDNA per g of organic matter. DNase digestion of activated sludge led to general floc disintegration and disruption of the microcolonies with high eDNA content, implying that eDNA was an important structural component in activated sludge biofilms.

  9. Primary Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma of the Breast: Cytologic Finding and Expression of MUC5 Are Different from Mucinous Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Eun; Park, Ji Hye; Hong, Soonwon; Koo, Ja Seung; Jeong, Joon; Jung, Woo-Hee

    2012-12-01

    Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma (MCA) in the breast is a rare neoplasm. There have been 13 cases of primary breast MCA reported. The MCA presents as a large, partially cystic mass in postmenopausal woman with a good prognosis. The microscopic findings resemble those of ovarian, pancreatic, or appendiceal MCA. The aspiration findings showed mucin-containing cell clusters in the background of mucin and necrotic material. The cell clusters had intracytoplasmic mucin displacing atypical nuclei to the periphery. Histologically, the tumor revealed an abundant mucin pool with small floating clusters of mucin-containing tumor cells. There were also small cysts lined by a single layer of tall columnar mucinous cells, resembling those of the uterine endocervix. The cancer cells were positive for mucin (MUC) 5 and negative for MUC2 and MUC6. This mucin profile is different from ordinary mucinous carcinoma and may be a unique characteristic of breast MCA.

  10. Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the breast with a basal-like immunophenotype.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yunte; Xue, Debin; Wang, Xiaoyan; Xu, Sanpeng; Ao, Qilin; Hu, Zhiyong; Wang, Guoping

    2012-06-01

    Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma (MCA) of the breast is extremely rare and was only recently described as a distinct variant of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. A case of MCA is reported in a 41-year-old woman. Mammographic and ultrasonographic examinations showed an irregularly shaped 10.0 × 8.0 × 5.5 cm lesion with patching calcification in the upper outer quadrant of the left breast. The gross examination revealed that the tumor has a well-circumscribed edge with a gelatinous cut surface and hemorrhage and necrosis were also noticed in the mass. Microscopically, the mass resembled mucinous cystic neoplasm of the ovary and pancreas closely, with cystic areas lined by columnar mucinous cells and associated with abundant extracellular and intracellular mucin, which is distinctively different from mucinous carcinoma with typically nests of low grade neoplastic cells floating in the mucin pool. The tumor cells were positive for CK7, CK20 and CDX2 were negative and displayed a typical immunophenotype of basal-like breast cancer (ER, PR, HER2 were negative, CK5/6 and EGFR were positive). Metastatic carcinoma was identified in three of 14 axillary lymph nodes. We describe here a very unusual case of breast MCA with basal-like immunophenotype.

  11. The molecular background of mucinous carcinoma beyond MUC2

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Michiel; Halilović, Altuna; van der Post, Rachel S; Bogers, Anna J; Marijnissen‐van Zanten, Monica AJ; de Wilt, Johannes HW; Nagtegaal, Iris D

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The increasing interest of the oncology community in tumour classification and prediction of outcome to targeted therapies has put emphasis on an improved identification of tumour types. Colorectal mucinous adenocarcinoma (MC) is a subtype that is characterized by the presence of abundant extracellular mucin that comprises at least 50% of the tumour volume and is found in 10–15% of colorectal cancer patients. MC development is poorly understood, however, the distinct clinical and pathological presentation of MC suggests a deviant development and molecular background. In this review we identify common molecular and genetic alterations in colorectal MC. MC is characterized by a high rate of MUC2 expression. Mutation rates in the therapeutically important RAS/RAF/MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathways are significantly higher in MC compared with non‐mucinous adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, mucinous adenocarcinoma shows higher rates of microsatellite instability and is more frequently of the CpG island methylator phenotype. Although the majority of MCs arise from the large intestine, this subtype also develops in other organs, such as the stomach, pancreas, biliary tract, ovary, breast and lung. We compared findings from colorectal MC with tumour characteristics of MCs from other organs. In these organs, MCs show different mutation rates in the RAS/RAF/MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathways as well, but a common mucinous pathway cannot be identified. Identification of conditions and molecular aberrations that are associated with MC generates insight into the aetiology of this subtype and improves understanding of resistance to therapies. PMID:27499889

  12. Quantitative microscopic evaluation of mucin areas and its percentage in mucinous carcinoma of the breast using tissue histological images.

    PubMed

    Saha, Monjoy; Arun, Indu; Basak, Bijan; Agarwal, Sanjit; Ahmed, Rosina; Chatterjee, Sanjoy; Bhargava, Rohit; Chakraborty, Chandan

    2016-06-01

    Mucinous carcinoma (MC) of the breast is very rare (∼1-7% of all breast cancers), invasive ductal carcinoma. Presence of pools of extracellular mucin is one of the most important histological features for MC. This paper aims at developing a quantitative computer-aided methodology for automated identification of mucin areas and its percentage using tissue histological images. The proposed method includes pre-processing (i.e., colour space transformation and colour normalization), mucin regions segmentation, post-processing, and performance evaluation. The proposed algorithm achieved 97.74% segmentation accuracy in comparison to ground truths. In addition, the percentage of mucin present in the tissue regions is calculated by the mucin index (MI) for grading MC (pure, moderately, minimally mucinous).

  13. Mucinous metaplasia of breast carcinoma with macrocystic transformation resembling ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma in a case of synchronous bilateral infiltrating ductal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sheng-Huang; Chaung, Chen-Rong

    2008-09-01

    Mammary mucinous cystadenocarcinoma (MCA) is a rare, invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast that is virtually identical morphologically to MCA of the ovary, pancreas or appendix. Synchronous bilateral breast tumors, not uncommonly encountered in fibroadenoma and lobular carcinoma, are unusual in IDC. Reported herein is a primary MCA of the right breast coexisting with a bilateral ordinary IDC in a 55-year-old Taiwanese woman who underwent modified radical mastectomy of both breasts with bilateral axillary level I and II lymph node dissection. In the right breast a 2.5 cm unilocular mucus-filled cyst was found. It had complex papillae, some of which were supported by delicate fibrovascular stroma, lined by simple to slightly stratified columnar neoplastic epithelial cells with intracellular mucin and an abundance of intracystic extracellular mucin, coexisting with a low-grade ordinary IDC. In the left breast a high-grade ordinary IDC was discovered. The patient had undergone simple abdominal total hysterectomy for myoma uteri along with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy 10 years previously. Based on pathological studies and a literature review, it is suggested that mammary MCA arises from mucinous metaplasia and macrocystic transformation of ordinary breast carcinoma. A brief discussion of bilateral breast cancers is also given.

  14. [Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of pancreas].

    PubMed

    Davies, Nestor R; Kasparian, Andres C; Viotto, Lucas E; Moreno, Walter A; Gramática, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the pancreas represents around 6-36% of mucinous cystic neoplasm. The lesions are usually found in the body and tail of the pancreas and are generally solitary with a size range of 6-36 cm. We present a clinical case of a 63 years old patient with abdominal pain and weight loss. We used radiographic imaging studies. It was treated with surgery by distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy and transverse colectomy. Patient was not post operative complications.

  15. Pulmonary mucinous adenocarcinomas: architectural patterns in correlation with genetic changes, prognosis and survival.

    PubMed

    Geles, Abidin; Gruber-Moesenbacher, Ulrike; Quehenberger, Franz; Manzl, Claudia; Al Effah, Mohamed; Grygar, Elisabeth; Juettner-Smolle, Freyja; Popper, Helmut H

    2015-12-01

    Of pulmonary adenocarcinomas, about 25-30 % of cases is of a mucinous type. Mucinous adenocarcinomas are regarded as more aggressive compared to their non-mucinous counterparts. Invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma, colloid, and enteric adenocarcinomas are variants within adenocarcinomas. We investigated 76 invasive mucinous adenocarcinomas, including colloid variants, for predominant and secondary patterns, their different form of mucin storage and release, expression of cytokeratin 7 and 20, TTF1 and CDX2, MUC1, 2, and 5AC proteins, p14 and p16 proteins, possible rearrangements for EML4ALK and ROS1, as well as KRAS mutational status, and correlated this with survival. For comparison, 259 non-mucinous adenocarcinomas were selected. Overall survival for invasive mucinous adenocarcinomas corrected for T and N stage was not different from their non-mucinous counterpart. Most were of an acinar pattern. Neither pattern, nor type of mucin storage and release, such as luminal, extracellular, or goblet cell type had any influence on survival. Of adenocarcinomas expressing CK20, all but one expressed TTF1 either strongly or at least focally, and 8 co-expressed CDX2 focally. Most mucinous adenocarcinomas expressed either MUC1 or MUC5AC proteins, but rarely MUC2, while a few cases co-expressed both or all three. Loss of p16 expression correlated with worse outcome. KRAS mutation was found in 56 % of mucinous adenocarcinomas. Mutational status was neither correlated with architectural pattern nor survival. Codon 12 mutations were most frequent, and one case presented with KRAS mutations in codon 12 and 61. Goblet cell variants of mucinous adenocarcinomas presented predominantly with codon 12 mutations, while all colloid variants had KRAS mutation. Two cases had EML4 and ALK1 rearranged; ROS1 rearrangement was not found. Mucinous adenocarcinomas behave similar to non-mucinous variants. TNM stage is the most important factor followed by p16 loss predicting overall survival.

  16. Vesicular nucleotide transporter regulates the nucleotide content in airway epithelial mucin granules

    PubMed Central

    Sesma, Juliana I.; Kreda, Silvia M.; Okada, Seiko F.; van Heusden, Catharina; Moussa, Lama; Jones, Lisa C.; O'Neal, Wanda K.; Togawa, Natsuko; Hiasa, Miki; Moriyama, Yoshinori

    2013-01-01

    Nucleotides within the airway surface liquid promote fluid secretion via activation of airway epithelial purinergic receptors. ATP is stored within and released from mucin granules as co-cargo with mucins, but the mechanism by which ATP, and potentially other nucleotides, enter the lumen of mucin granules is not known. We assessed the contribution of the recently identified SLC17A9 vesicle nucleotide transporter (VNUT) to the nucleotide availability within isolated mucin granules and further examined the involvement of VNUT in mucin granule secretion-associated nucleotide release. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses indicated that VNUT is abundantly expressed in airway epithelial goblet-like Calu-3 cells, migrating as a duplex with apparent mobility of 55 and 60 kDa. Subcellular fractionation studies indicated that VNUT55 was associated with high-density mucin granules, whereas VNUT60 was associated with low-density organelles. Immunofluorescence studies showed that recombinant VNUT localized to mucin granules and other organelles. Mucin granules isolated from VNUT short hairpin RNA-expressing cells exhibited a marked reduction of ATP, ADP, AMP, and UTP levels within granules. Ca2+-regulated vesicular ATP release was markedly reduced in these cells, but mucin secretion was not affected. These results suggest that VNUT is the relevant nucleotide transporter responsible for the uptake of cytosolic nucleotides into mucin granules. By controlling the entry of nucleotides into mucin granules, VNUT contributes to the release of purinergic signaling molecules necessary for the proper hydration of co-released mucins. PMID:23467297

  17. Vesicular nucleotide transporter regulates the nucleotide content in airway epithelial mucin granules.

    PubMed

    Sesma, Juliana I; Kreda, Silvia M; Okada, Seiko F; van Heusden, Catharina; Moussa, Lama; Jones, Lisa C; O'Neal, Wanda K; Togawa, Natsuko; Hiasa, Miki; Moriyama, Yoshinori; Lazarowski, Eduardo R

    2013-05-15

    Nucleotides within the airway surface liquid promote fluid secretion via activation of airway epithelial purinergic receptors. ATP is stored within and released from mucin granules as co-cargo with mucins, but the mechanism by which ATP, and potentially other nucleotides, enter the lumen of mucin granules is not known. We assessed the contribution of the recently identified SLC17A9 vesicle nucleotide transporter (VNUT) to the nucleotide availability within isolated mucin granules and further examined the involvement of VNUT in mucin granule secretion-associated nucleotide release. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses indicated that VNUT is abundantly expressed in airway epithelial goblet-like Calu-3 cells, migrating as a duplex with apparent mobility of 55 and 60 kDa. Subcellular fractionation studies indicated that VNUT55 was associated with high-density mucin granules, whereas VNUT60 was associated with low-density organelles. Immunofluorescence studies showed that recombinant VNUT localized to mucin granules and other organelles. Mucin granules isolated from VNUT short hairpin RNA-expressing cells exhibited a marked reduction of ATP, ADP, AMP, and UTP levels within granules. Ca(2+)-regulated vesicular ATP release was markedly reduced in these cells, but mucin secretion was not affected. These results suggest that VNUT is the relevant nucleotide transporter responsible for the uptake of cytosolic nucleotides into mucin granules. By controlling the entry of nucleotides into mucin granules, VNUT contributes to the release of purinergic signaling molecules necessary for the proper hydration of co-released mucins.

  18. Enterococcus faecalis Produces Abundant Extracellular Structures Containing DNA in the Absence of Cell Lysis during Early Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Aaron M. T.; Ballering, Katie S.; Leibman, Rachel S.; Wells, Carol L.; Dunny, Gary M.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enterococcus faecalis is a common Gram-positive commensal bacterium of the metazoan gastrointestinal tract capable of biofilm formation and an opportunistic pathogen of increasing clinical concern. Dogma has held that biofilms are slow-growing structures, often taking days to form mature microcolonies. Here we report that extracellular DNA (eDNA) is an integral structural component of early E. faecalis biofilms (≤4 h postinoculation). Combining cationic dye-based biofilm matrix stabilization techniques with correlative immuno-scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescent techniques, we demonstrate that—in early E. faecalis biofilms—eDNA localizes to previously undescribed intercellular filamentous structures, as well as to thick mats of extruded extracellular matrix material. Both of these results are consistent with previous reports that early biofilms are exquisitely sensitive to exogenous DNase treatment. High-resolution SEM demonstrates a punctate labeling pattern in both structures, suggesting the presence of an additional, non-DNA constituent. Notably, the previously described fratricidal or lytic mechanism reported as the source of eDNA in older (≥24 h) E. faecalis biofilms does not appear to be at work under these conditions; extensive visual examination by SEM revealed a striking lack of lysed cells, and bulk biochemical assays also support an absence of significant lysis at these early time points. In addition, some cells demonstrated eDNA labeling localized at the septum, suggesting the possibility of DNA secretion from metabolically active cells. Overall, these data are consistent with a model in which a subpopulation of viable E. faecalis cells secrete or extrude DNA into the extracellular matrix. PMID:22829679

  19. Spectrum of mucin-producing neoplastic conditions of the abdomen and pelvis: cross-sectional imaging evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nam Kyung; Kim, Suk; Kim, Hyun Sung; Jeon, Tae Yong; Kim, Gwang Ha; Kim, Dong Uk; Park, Do Youn; Kim, Tae Un; Kang, Dae Hwan

    2011-11-21

    Various mucin-producing neoplasms originate in different abdominal and pelvic organs. Mucinous neoplasms differ from non-mucinous neoplasms because of the differences in clinical outcome and imaging appearance. Mucinous carcinoma, in which at least 50% of the tumor is composed of large pools of extracellular mucin and columns of malignant cells, is associated with a worse prognosis. Signet ring cell carcinoma is characterized by large intracytoplasmic mucin vacuoles that expand in the malignant cells with the nucleus displaced to the periphery. Its prognosis is also generally poor. In contrast, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the bile duct and pancreas, which is characterized by proliferation of ductal epithelium and variable mucin production, has a better prognosis than other malignancies in the pancreaticobiliary tree. Imaging modalities play a critical role in differentiating mucinous from non-mucinous neoplasms. Due to high water content, mucin has a similar appearance to water on ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging, except when thick and proteinaceous, and then it tends to be hypoechoic with fine internal echoes or have complex echogenicity on US, hyperdense on CT, and hyperintense on T1- and hypointense on T2-weighted images, compared to water. Therefore, knowledge of characteristic mucin imaging features is helpful to diagnose various mucin-producing neoplastic conditions and to facilitate appropriate treatment.

  20. Primary appendiceal mucinous adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Behera, Prativa Kumari; Rath, Pramod Kumar; Panda, Rabiratna; Satpathi, Sanghamitra; Behera, Rajan

    2011-04-01

    Primary Adenocarcinomas of the appendix are extremely rare tumor. We report a case of primary mucinous adenocarcinoma in a 40 year old lady misdiagnosed as having acute appendicitis. All the routine investigations were within normal limit. USG of abdomen showed dilated appendix with little fluid collection adjacent to it and no other abnormality was seen which suggested acute appendicitis. Appendicectomy was done and excised appendix was sent for histopathological examination. Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the appendix was confirmed after histopathological examination. Right hemicolectomy was done as a second stage procedure. As some cases are incidentally discovered, this case emphasizes that histological examination of all appendicectomy specimens is mandatory.

  1. Salivary Mucin 19 Glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Culp, David J.; Robinson, Bently; Cash, Melanie N.; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel; Stewart, Carol; Cuadra-Saenz, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    Saliva functions in innate immunity of the oral cavity, protecting against demineralization of teeth (i.e. dental caries), a highly prevalent infectious disease associated with Streptococcus mutans, a pathogen also linked to endocarditis and atheromatous plaques. Gel-forming mucins are a major constituent of saliva. Because Muc19 is the dominant salivary gel-forming mucin in mice, we studied Muc19−/− mice for changes in innate immune functions of saliva in interactions with S. mutans. When challenged with S. mutans and a cariogenic diet, total smooth and sulcal surface lesions are more than 2- and 1.6-fold higher in Muc19−/− mice compared with wild type, whereas the severity of lesions are up to 6- and 10-fold higher, respectively. Furthermore, the oral microbiota of Muc19−/− mice display higher levels of indigenous streptococci. Results emphasize the importance of a single salivary constituent in the innate immune functions of saliva. In vitro studies of S. mutans and Muc19 interactions (i.e. adherence, aggregation, and biofilm formation) demonstrate Muc19 poorly aggregates S. mutans. Nonetheless, aggregation is enhanced upon adding Muc19 to saliva from Muc19−/− mice, indicating Muc19 assists in bacterial clearance through formation of heterotypic complexes with salivary constituents that bind S. mutans, thus representing a novel innate immune function for salivary gel-forming mucins. In humans, expression of salivary MUC19 is unclear. We find MUC19 transcripts in salivary glands of seven subjects and demonstrate MUC19 glycoproteins in glandular mucous cells and saliva. Similarities and differences between mice and humans in the expression and functions of salivary gel-forming mucins are discussed. PMID:25512380

  2. The O-Linked Glycome and Blood Group Antigens ABO on Mucin-Type Glycoproteins in Mucinous and Serous Epithelial Ovarian Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Vitiazeva, Varvara; Kattla, Jayesh J.; Flowers, Sarah A.; Lindén, Sara K.; Premaratne, Pushpa; Weijdegård, Birgitta; Sundfeldt, Karin; Karlsson, Niclas G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mucins are heavily O-glycosylated proteins where the glycosylation has been shown to play an important role in cancer. Normal epithelial ovarian cells do not express secreted mucins, but their abnormal expression has previously been described in epithelial ovarian cancer and may relate to tumor formation and progression. The cyst fluids were shown to be a rich source for acidic glycoproteins. The study of these proteins can potentially lead to the identification of more effective biomarkers for ovarian cancer. Methods In this study, we analyzed the expression of the MUC5AC and the O-glycosylation of acidic glycoproteins secreted into ovarian cyst fluids. The samples were obtained from patients with serous and mucinous ovarian tumors of different stages (benign, borderline, malignant) and grades. The O-linked oligosaccharides were released and analyzed by negative-ion graphitized carbon Liquid Chromatography (LC) coupled to Electrospray Ionization tandem Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MSn). The LC-ESI-MSn of the oligosaccharides from ovarian cyst fluids displayed differences in expression of fucose containing structures such as blood group ABO antigens and Lewis-type epitopes. Results The obtained data showed that serous and mucinous benign adenomas, mucinous low malignant potential carcinomas (LMPs, borderline) and mucinous low-grade carcinomas have a high level of blood groups and Lewis type epitopes. In contrast, this type of fucosylated structures were low abundant in the high-grade mucinous carcinomas or in serous carcinomas. In addition, the ovarian tumors that showed a high level of expression of blood group antigens also revealed a strong reactivity towards the MUC5AC antibody. To visualize the differences between serous and mucinous ovarian tumors based on the O-glycosylation, a hierarchical cluster analysis was performed using mass spectrometry average compositions (MSAC). Conclusion Mucinous benign and LMPs along with mucinous low-grade carcinomas

  3. Receptor-promoted exocytosis of airway epithelial mucin granules containing a spectrum of adenine nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Kreda, Silvia M; Seminario-Vidal, Lucia; van Heusden, Catharina A; O'Neal, Wanda; Jones, Lisa; Boucher, Richard C; Lazarowski, Eduardo R

    2010-06-15

    Purinergic regulation of airway innate defence activities is in part achieved by the release of nucleotides from epithelial cells. However, the mechanisms of airway epithelial nucleotide release are poorly understood. We have previously demonstrated that ATP is released from ionomycin-stimulated airway epithelial goblet cells coordinately with mucin exocytosis, suggesting that ATP is released as a co-cargo molecule from mucin-containing granules. We now demonstrate that protease-activated-receptor (PAR) agonists also stimulate the simultaneous release of mucins and ATP from airway epithelial cells. PAR-mediated mucin and ATP release were dependent on intracellular Ca(2+) and actin cytoskeleton reorganization since BAPTA AM, cytochalasin D, and inhibitors of Rho and myosin light chain kinases blocked both responses. To test the hypothesis that ATP is co-released with mucin from mucin granules, we measured the nucleotide composition of isolated mucin granules purified based on their MUC5AC and VAMP-8 content by density gradients. Mucin granules contained ATP, but the levels of ADP and AMP within granules exceeded by nearly 10-fold that of ATP. Consistent with this finding, apical secretions from PAR-stimulated cells contained relatively high levels of ADP/AMP, which could not be accounted for solely based on ATP release and hydrolysis. Thus, mucin granules contribute to ATP release and also are a source of extracellular ADP and AMP. Direct release of ADP/AMP from mucin granules is likely to provide a major source of airway surface adenosine to signal in a paracrine faction ciliated cell A(2b) receptors to activate ion/water secretion and appropriately hydrate goblet cell-released mucins.

  4. Receptor-promoted exocytosis of airway epithelial mucin granules containing a spectrum of adenine nucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Kreda, Silvia M; Seminario-Vidal, Lucia; van Heusden, Catharina A; O’Neal, Wanda; Jones, Lisa; Boucher, Richard C; Lazarowski, Eduardo R

    2010-01-01

    Purinergic regulation of airway innate defence activities is in part achieved by the release of nucleotides from epithelial cells. However, the mechanisms of airway epithelial nucleotide release are poorly understood. We have previously demonstrated that ATP is released from ionomycin-stimulated airway epithelial goblet cells coordinately with mucin exocytosis, suggesting that ATP is released as a co-cargo molecule from mucin-containing granules. We now demonstrate that protease-activated-receptor (PAR) agonists also stimulate the simultaneous release of mucins and ATP from airway epithelial cells. PAR-mediated mucin and ATP release were dependent on intracellular Ca2+ and actin cytoskeleton reorganization since BAPTA AM, cytochalasin D, and inhibitors of Rho and myosin light chain kinases blocked both responses. To test the hypothesis that ATP is co-released with mucin from mucin granules, we measured the nucleotide composition of isolated mucin granules purified based on their MUC5AC and VAMP-8 content by density gradients. Mucin granules contained ATP, but the levels of ADP and AMP within granules exceeded by nearly 10-fold that of ATP. Consistent with this finding, apical secretions from PAR-stimulated cells contained relatively high levels of ADP/AMP, which could not be accounted for solely based on ATP release and hydrolysis. Thus, mucin granules contribute to ATP release and also are a source of extracellular ADP and AMP. Direct release of ADP/AMP from mucin granules is likely to provide a major source of airway surface adenosine to signal in a paracrine faction ciliated cell A2b receptors to activate ion/water secretion and appropriately hydrate goblet cell-released mucins. PMID:20421285

  5. Intestinal mucin distribution in the germ-free rat and in the heteroxenic rat harbouring a human bacterial flora: effect of inulin in the diet.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, N; Meslin, J C; Lory, S; Andrieux, C

    1996-06-01

    A colorimetric method was used on water-soluble mucin extracted from mucosal scrapings and contents of the caecum and the colon of five germ-free (GF) rats and five heteroxenic (HE) rats harbouring a human flora (GF rats associated with a human flora). These rats were fed on a diet containing either 100 g sucrose/kg or 100 g inulin/kg. Histological stains, periodic acid-Schiff, alcian blue pH 2.5 and alcian blue pH 0.5 were used to discriminate between neutral, acidic and acidic sulphated mucins respectively. Spectrocolorimetric assays led to a calculated absorbance value for 1 mg of the initial mucin extract. Each mucin type was compared between treatments. The caecal contents of GF rats contained more acidic mucin than sulphomucin, which was present in the same proportion as neutral mucin. Their colonic contents contained more acidic mucins than sulphomucin, which in turn was more abundant than neutral mucin. Their caecal mucosa mucin distribution differed from that of the contents: very little acidic mucin was present and neutral and sulphomucin proportions were of the same order of magnitude. Inulin increased the amount of neutral mucin in the caecal contents and of sulphated mucins in the colonic contents and increased the amounts of neutral and acidic mucins in the caecal mucosa. Mucin distribution in the HE rats was very different from that in the GF rats: the caecal contents contained a high proportion of acidic mucins and very little sulphomucin. The same distribution of mucins was observed in the colonic contents. The caecal mucosa contained less acidic mucin and more sulphomucin than the caecal contents. Inulin decreased acidic mucins and increased sulphated mucins in the caecal contents and increased neutral and sulphated mucins in the colonic contents. Inulin increased sulphomucin in the caecal mucosa and decreased acidic mucin in the caecal and colonic mucosas. The very low amount of mucin that was recovered in the colonic mucosa suggests that, in the

  6. Mucins and inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Shirazi, T.; Longman, R.; Corfield, A.; Probert, C.

    2000-01-01

    There is a layer of mucus lining the gastrointestinal tract, which acts as both a lubricant and as a physical barrier between luminal contents and the mucosal surface. The mucins that make up this layer consist of a protein backbone with oligosaccharides attached to specific areas of the protein core. These areas are called the variable number tandem repeat regions. The degree of glycosylation of the mucins is central to their role in the mucus barrier. The oligosaccharides are variable and complex. It has been demonstrated that the degree of sulphation and sialylation and the length of the oligosaccharide chains all vary in inflammatory bowel disease. These changes can alter the function of the mucins. Mucins are broadly divided into two groups, those that are secreted and those that are membrane bound. The major mucins present in the colorectum are MUC1, MUC2, MUC3, and MUC4.
Trefoils are a group of small peptides that have an important role in the mucus layer. Three trefoils have been demonstrated so far. They seem to play a part in mucosal protection and in mucosal repair. They may help to stabilise the mucus layer by cross linking with mucins to aid formation of stable gels. Trefoils can be expressed in the ulcer associated cell lineage, a glandular structure that can occur in the inflamed mucosa. There seem to be differences in the expression of trefoils in the colon and the small bowel, which may imply different method of mucosal repair.


Keywords: mucins; trefoil; Crohn's disease; colitis PMID:10908374

  7. Cell patterning with mucin biopolymers

    PubMed Central

    Crouzier, T.; Jang, H.; Ahn, J.; Stocker, R.; Ribbeck, K.

    2014-01-01

    The precise spatial control of cell adhesion to surfaces is an endeavor that has enabled discoveries in cell biology and new possibilities in tissue engineering. The generation of cell-repellent surfaces currently requires advanced chemistry techniques and could be simplified. Here we show that mucins, glycoproteins of high structural and chemical complexity, spontaneously adsorb on hydrophobic substrates to form coatings that prevent the surface adhesion of mammalian epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and myoblasts. These mucin coatings can be patterned with micrometer precision using a microfluidic device, and are stable enough to support myoblast differentiation over seven days. Moreover, our data indicate that the cell-repellent effect is dependent on mucin-associated glycans because their removal results in a loss of effective cell-repulsion. Last, we show that a critical surface density of mucins, which is required to achieve cell-repulsion, is efficiently obtained on hydrophobic surfaces, but not on hydrophilic glass surfaces. However, this limitation can be overcome by coating glass with hydrophobic fluorosilane. We conclude that mucin biopolymers are attractive candidates to control cell adhesion on surfaces. PMID:23980712

  8. Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma of the eyelid.

    PubMed

    Collinson, Anne C; Sun, Michelle T; James, Craig; Huilgol, Shyamala C; Selva, Dinesh

    2015-12-01

    An elderly woman was incidentally noted to have a nodular mass on the upper eyelid, whilst under investigation for cataracts. Punch biopsy of this presumed basal cell carcinoma revealed it to be endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma (EMPSGC). The tumour extended to the deep dermal layer and comprised solid nests with foci of cystic and papillary change, and additional cytoplasmic and focal extracellular mucin deposits. Immunohistochemistry confirmed epithelial lineage and neuroendocrine differentiation, and adjacent tissue invasion. The tumour was excised completely with Mohs micrographic surgery with no recurrence after 8 months. EMPSGC is a low-grade sweat gland carcinoma with variable neuroendocrine differentiation, a solid, papillary, or cystic growth pattern, and a predilection for the eyelid of elderly women [Am J Surg Pathol 29:1330-1339, 2005]. There have been 54 previously documented cases of EMPSCG. We report an additional case and review the literature.

  9. Analysis of assembly of secreted mucins.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Malin E V; Hansson, Gunnar C

    2012-01-01

    Studies of assembly and secretion of gel-forming mucins are complex. The pulse-chase methods for mucins described here include metabolic radiolabeling and labeling in animals with azido-GalNAc. The labeled mucins are analyzed by composite agarose-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography or by mucus-preserving tissue fixation and Click-iT(®) chemistry.

  10. Changes in Saliva Rheological Properties and Mucin Glycosylation in Dry Mouth.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, N M A; Shirlaw, P; Pramanik, R; Carpenter, G H; Proctor, G B

    2015-12-01

    Saliva is vital for the maintenance of normal oral physiology and mucosal health. The loss of salivary function can have far-reaching consequences, as observed with dry mouth, which is associated with increased orodental disease, speech impairment, dysphagia, and a significant negative effect on quality of life. The timely diagnosis of oral dryness is vital for the management of orodental disease and any associated often-undiagnosed systemic disease (e.g., Sjögren syndrome). Our aim was to investigate differences in mucin glycoproteins and saliva rheological properties between sufferers and nonsufferers of dry mouth in order to understand the relationship between saliva composition, rheological properties, and dryness perception and provide additional potential diagnostic markers. All patients exhibited objective and subjective oral dryness, irrespective of etiology. Over half of the patients (n = 20, 58.8%) had a saliva secretion rate above the gland dysfunction cutoff of 0.1 mL/min. Mucin (MUC5B and MUC7) concentrations were generally similar or higher in patients. Despite the abundance of these moisture-retaining proteins, patients exhibited reduced mucosal hydration (wetness) and significantly lower saliva spinnbarkeit (stringiness), suggesting a loss of the lubricating and retention/adhesion properties of saliva, which, at least partially, are associated with mucin glycoproteins. Over 90% of patients with dry mouth (DMPs) consistently had unstimulated whole mouth saliva (UWMS) spinnbarkeit below the proposed normal cutoff (10 mm). Further analysis of mucins revealed the reduced glycosylation of mucins in DMPs compared to healthy controls. Our data indicate that UWMS mucin concentrations are not reduced in dry mouth but that the mucin structure (glycosylation) is altered. UWMS from DMPs had reduced spinnbarkeit, the assessment of which, in conjunction with sialometry, could improve sensitivity for the diagnosis of dry mouth. Additionally, it may be useful to

  11. Evidence and Role for Bacterial Mucin Degradation in Cystic Fibrosis Airway Disease

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Jeffrey M.; Niccum, David; Dunitz, Jordan M.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are composed of complex microbial communities that incite persistent inflammation and airway damage. Despite the high density of bacteria that colonize the lower airways, nutrient sources that sustain bacterial growth in vivo, and how those nutrients are derived, are not well characterized. In this study, we examined the possibility that mucins serve as an important carbon reservoir for the CF lung microbiota. While Pseudomonas aeruginosa was unable to efficiently utilize mucins in isolation, we found that anaerobic, mucin-fermenting bacteria could stimulate the robust growth of CF pathogens when provided intact mucins as a sole carbon source. 16S rRNA sequencing and enrichment culturing of sputum also identified that mucin-degrading anaerobes are ubiquitous in the airways of CF patients. The collective fermentative metabolism of these mucin-degrading communities in vitro generated amino acids and short chain fatty acids (propionate and acetate) during growth on mucin, and the same metabolites were also found in abundance within expectorated sputum. The significance of these findings was supported by in vivo P. aeruginosa gene expression, which revealed a heightened expression of genes required for the catabolism of propionate. Given that propionate is exclusively derived from bacterial fermentation, these data provide evidence for an important role of mucin fermenting bacteria in the carbon flux of the lower airways. More specifically, microorganisms typically defined as commensals may contribute to airway disease by degrading mucins, in turn providing nutrients for pathogens otherwise unable to efficiently obtain carbon in the lung. PMID:27548479

  12. "Mucin"-secreting papillary renal cell carcinoma: clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic analysis of seven cases.

    PubMed

    Pivovarcikova, Kristyna; Peckova, Kvetoslava; Martinek, Petr; Montiel, Delia Perez; Kalusova, Kristyna; Pitra, Tomas; Hora, Milan; Skenderi, Faruk; Ulamec, Monika; Daum, Ondrej; Rotterova, Pavla; Ondic, Ondrej; Dubova, Magdalena; Curik, Romuald; Dunatov, Ana; Svoboda, Tomas; Michal, Michal; Hes, Ondrej

    2016-07-01

    Mucin and mucin-like material are features of mucinous tubular and spindle renal cell carcinoma (MTS RCC) but are rarely seen in papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC). We reviewed 1311 PRCC and identified 7 tumors containing extracellular and/or intracellular mucinous/mucin-like material (labeled as PRCCM). We analyzed these using morphological, histochemical, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic methods (arrayCGH, FISH). Clinical data were available for six of the seven patients (five males and one female, age range 61-78 years). Follow-up was available for four patients (2-4 years); one patient died of widespread metastases. Tumor size ranged from 3 to 5 cm (mean 3.8). Of all cases, histological architecture showed a predominantly papillary pattern. Mucin or mucin-like was extracellular in one, intracellular in three, and both intra/extracellular in three cases. All tumors were positive for AMACR, vimentin, and OSCAR, while CK7 was positive in four. Mucicarmine stain was positive in all cases, PAS in six and Alcian blue in three cases. Five tumors were positive for MUC 1, but none were positive for MUC 2, MUC 4, or MUC 6. In only four cases, genetic analysis could be performed. Gain of chromosomes 7 and 17 was found in two cases; gain of 17 only was found in one case. Loss of heterozygosity of 3p was found in one case together with polysomy of chromosomes 7 and 17. No abnormalities of VHL, fumarate dehydrogenase, and TFE3 genes were detected. We conclude that PRCCM is a rare but challenging subtype of RCC that deserves to be further studied. In all the tumors, the mucin-like material was found in those stained with mucicarmin, but other conventional and immunohistochemical stains did not reveal consistent features of a single mucin. The molecular-genetic profile of these tumors was most consistent with that of typical papillary RCC, although one case had mixed genetic features of papillary and clear RCC. PRCCM has metastatic potential, as evidenced by

  13. Hemosuccus pancreaticus caused by a mucinous cystic neoplasm of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yuri; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Fukuya, Akira; Nakamura, Fumika; Goji, Takahiro; Kitamura, Shinji; Kimura, Tetsuo; Okamoto, Koichi; Sogabe, Masahiro; Muguruma, Naoki; Shimada, Mitsuo; Bando, Yoshimi; Takayama, Tetsuji

    2017-04-01

    Hemosuccus pancreaticus is a gastrointestinal hemorrhage through the main pancreatic duct. Here, we report a rare case of hemosuccus pancreaticus due to a mucinous cystic neoplasm of the pancreas. A 62-year-old woman who had been followed for a branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm visited our emergency room due to severe abdominal pain and bloody discharge. Computed tomography revealed that the pancreatic cyst increased the tension of the wall and a high-density area indicative of bleeding into the cyst was observed. Endoscopy showed opening of and hemorrhaging from the papilla of Vater. The patient was diagnosed with hemosuccus pancreaticus caused by hemorrhaging into the cyst from the branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. Based on this diagnosis, elective distal pancreatectomy was performed. The histopathological diagnosis was a mucinous cystic neoplasm with intermediate-grade dysplasia based upon the pathological findings that fibrous ovarian-type stroma existed abundantly and the stroma cells were positive for progesterone receptor and inhibin. Hemosuccus pancreaticus caused by a mucinous cystic neoplasm is extremely rare and there has been only one case reported to date. In conclusion, it should be recognized that pancreatic cystic neoplasms including mucinous cystic neoplasms may cause hemosuccus pancreaticus.

  14. Molecular structure and rheological properties of short-side-chain heavily glycosylated porcine stomach mucin.

    PubMed

    Yakubov, Gleb E; Papagiannopoulos, Aristeidis; Rat, Elodie; Easton, Richard L; Waigh, Thomas A

    2007-11-01

    The current accepted model for high-molecular-weight gastric mucins of the MUC family is that they adopt a polydisperse coil conformation in bulk solutions. We develop this model using well-characterized highly purified porcine gastric mucin Orthana that is genetically close to the human MUC6 type. It has short side chains and low levels of sialic acid residues and includes minute amounts of cysteine residues that, if abundant, can be responsible for the self-polymerization of mucin. We have established that the mucin structure in bulk solutions corresponds to a daisy-chain random coil. Dynamic light scattering experiments probe the internal dynamics of globular subunits (individual daisies) at the approximately 9 nm length scale, whereas viscosity and light scattering measurements indicate that the size of the whole mucin chains is much larger, approximately 50 nm. The bulk viscosity (eta) scales with mucin concentration (c) in a manner similar to that found for short-side-chain synthetic comb polyelectrolytes and is characterized by a transition between semidilute (eta approximately c1/2) and entangled (eta approximately c3/2) regimes.

  15. Evidence for degradation of gastrointestinal mucin by Candida albicans secretory aspartyl proteinase.

    PubMed Central

    Colina, A R; Aumont, F; Deslauriers, N; Belhumeur, P; de Repentigny, L

    1996-01-01

    A zone of extracellular digestion of the mucin layer around Candida albicans blastoconidia was observed by transmission electron microscopy in the jejunum of mice inoculated intragastrically (G. T. Cole, K. R. Seshan, L. M. Pope, and R. J. Yancey, J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 26:173-185, 1988). This observation prompted the hypothesis that a putative mucinolytic enzyme(s) may contribute to the virulence of C. albicans by facilitating penetration of the mucus barrier and subsequent adherence to and invasion of epithelial cells. Mucinolytic activity was observed as zones of clearing around colonies of C. albicans LAM-1 grown on agarose containing yeast nitrogen base, glucose, and hog gastric mucin. In addition, concentrated culture filtrate obtained after growth for 24 h in yeast nitrogen base, supplemented with glucose and mucin as the sole nitrogen source, contained proteolytic activity against biotin-labelled mucin which was inhibited by pepstatin A. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the culture filtrate revealed two components of 42 and 45 kDa, with pIs of 4.1 and 5.3, respectively. A zymogram showed that mucin was degraded only by the 42-kDa component, which was also recognized by immunoblotting with an anti-secretory aspartyl proteinase (anti-Sap) 2p monoclonal antibody. The N-terminal sequence of the first 20 amino acids matched that reported for Sap2p. These results demonstrate that Sap2p is responsible for proteolysis of mucin by C. albicans in vitro and may be involved as a virulence factor in the breakdown of mucus and penetration of the mucin barrier by C. albicans. PMID:8890200

  16. Mucin Binding Reduces Colistin Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Johnny X.; Blaskovich, Mark A. T.; Pelingon, Ruby; Ramu, Soumya; Kavanagh, Angela; Elliott, Alysha G.; Butler, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Colistin has found increasing use in treating drug-resistant bacterial lung infections, but potential interactions with pulmonary biomolecules have not been investigated. We postulated that colistin, like aminoglycoside antibiotics, may bind to secretory mucin in sputum or epithelial mucin that lines airways, reducing free drug levels. To test this hypothesis, we measured binding of colistin and other antibiotics to porcine mucin, a family of densely glycosylated proteins used as a surrogate for human sputum and airway mucin. Antibiotics were incubated in dialysis tubing with or without mucin, and concentrations of unbound antibiotics able to penetrate the dialysis tubing were measured over time using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The percentage of antibiotic measured in the dialysate after 4 h in the presence of mucin, relative to the amount without mucin, was 15% for colistin, 16% for polymyxin B, 19% for tobramycin, 52% for ciprofloxacin, and 78% for daptomycin. Antibiotics with the strongest mucin binding had an overall polybasic positive charge, whereas those with comparatively little binding were less basic. When comparing MICs measured with or without added mucin, colistin and polymyxin B showed >100-fold increases in MICs for multiple Gram-negative bacteria. Preclinical evaluation of mucin binding should become a standard procedure when considering the potential pulmonary use of new or existing antibiotics, particularly those with a polybasic overall charge. In the airways, mucin binding may reduce the antibacterial efficacy of inhaled or intravenously administered colistin, and the presence of sub-MIC effective antibiotic concentrations could result in the development of antibiotic resistance. PMID:26169405

  17. Mucin Binding Reduces Colistin Antimicrobial Activity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Johnny X; Blaskovich, Mark A T; Pelingon, Ruby; Ramu, Soumya; Kavanagh, Angela; Elliott, Alysha G; Butler, Mark S; Montgomery, A Bruce; Cooper, Matthew A

    2015-10-01

    Colistin has found increasing use in treating drug-resistant bacterial lung infections, but potential interactions with pulmonary biomolecules have not been investigated. We postulated that colistin, like aminoglycoside antibiotics, may bind to secretory mucin in sputum or epithelial mucin that lines airways, reducing free drug levels. To test this hypothesis, we measured binding of colistin and other antibiotics to porcine mucin, a family of densely glycosylated proteins used as a surrogate for human sputum and airway mucin. Antibiotics were incubated in dialysis tubing with or without mucin, and concentrations of unbound antibiotics able to penetrate the dialysis tubing were measured over time using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The percentage of antibiotic measured in the dialysate after 4 h in the presence of mucin, relative to the amount without mucin, was 15% for colistin, 16% for polymyxin B, 19% for tobramycin, 52% for ciprofloxacin, and 78% for daptomycin. Antibiotics with the strongest mucin binding had an overall polybasic positive charge, whereas those with comparatively little binding were less basic. When comparing MICs measured with or without added mucin, colistin and polymyxin B showed >100-fold increases in MICs for multiple Gram-negative bacteria. Preclinical evaluation of mucin binding should become a standard procedure when considering the potential pulmonary use of new or existing antibiotics, particularly those with a polybasic overall charge. In the airways, mucin binding may reduce the antibacterial efficacy of inhaled or intravenously administered colistin, and the presence of sub-MIC effective antibiotic concentrations could result in the development of antibiotic resistance.

  18. Particle tracking microrheology of purified gastrointestinal mucins.

    PubMed

    Georgiades, Pantelis; Pudney, Paul D A; Thornton, David J; Waigh, Thomas A

    2014-04-01

    The rheological characteristics of gastric and duodenal mucin solutions, the building blocks of the mucus layer that covers the epithelia of the two organs, were investigated using particle tracking microrheology. We used biochemically well characterized purified porcine mucins (MUC5AC and MUC2) as models for human mucins, to probe their viscoelasticity as a function of mucin concentration and pH. Furthermore, we used both reducing (dithiothreitol, DTT) and chaotropic agents (guanidinium chloride and urea) to probe the mesoscopic forces that mediate the integrity of the polymer network. At neutral pH both gastric and duodenal mucins formed self-assembled semi-dilute networks above a certain critical mucin concentration (c*) with the viscosity (η) scaling as η∼c(0.53±0.08) for MUC5AC and η∼c(0.53±0.06) for MUC2, where c is the mucin concentration. Above an even higher mucin concentration threshold (ce , the entanglement concentration) reptation occurs and there is a dramatic increase in the viscosity scaling, η∼c(3.92±0.38) for MUC5AC and η∼c(5.1±0.8) for MUC2. The dynamics of the self-assembled comb polymers is examined in terms of a scaling model for flexible polyelectrolyte combs. Both duodenum and gastric mucin are found to be pH switchable gels, gelation occurring at low pHs. There is a hundred-fold increase in the elastic shear modulus once the pH is decreased. The addition of DTT, guanidinium chloride and urea disassembles both the semi-dilute and gel structures causing a large increase in the compliance (decrease in their shear moduli). Addition of the polyphenol EGCG has a reverse effect on mucin viscoelasticity, that is, it triggers a sol-gel transition in semi-dilute mucin solutions at neutral pH.

  19. Secondary mucinous carcinoma of the skin.

    PubMed

    Frances, Laura; Cuesta, Laura; Leiva-Salinas, Maria; Bañuls, Jose

    2014-04-16

    We report a case of a woman who presented with a cystic-appearing nodule on her left nipple. After cutaneous biopsy and gynecological staging study, she was diagnosed with skin invasion of mucinous carcinoma of the breast. We describe the main features of this rare tumor and the controversies in its diagnosis because primary and metastatic mucinous carcinomas in skin are histologically indistinguishable.

  20. Mucinous micropapillary carcinoma of the breast: an aggressive counterpart to conventional pure mucinous tumors.

    PubMed

    Barbashina, Violetta; Corben, Adriana D; Akram, Muzaffar; Vallejo, Christina; Tan, Lee K

    2013-08-01

    Mucinous micropapillary carcinoma of the breast, also described as "pure mucinous carcinoma with micropapillary pattern," has recently come to attention as an unusual form of invasive breast cancer exhibiting dual mucinous and micropapillary differentiation. Despite increasing awareness of this morphologic variant, its clinical significance has not yet been elucidated. Here, we present 15 additional examples of these rare tumors to highlight some important differences between mucinous micropapillary carcinoma of the breast and ordinary pure mucinous carcinomas. The key features of mucinous micropapillary carcinoma of the breast included (a) largely or entirely mucinous appearance (>90% mucinous morphology), (b) distinctive micropapillary arrangement of the neoplastic cells, (c) intermediate to high nuclear grade, (d) "hobnail" cells, and (e) frequent psammomatous calcifications. In contrast to ordinary pure mucinous carcinomas, 20% of mucinous micropapillary carcinomas of the breast were characterized by human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positivity, and 23% were p53 positive. More than half of mucinous micropapillary carcinomas of the breast (60%) demonstrated lymphovascular invasion, sometimes extensive. Synchronous axillary lymph node metastases were detected in 33% of patients and, on 2 occasions, involved more than 10 nodes. With a median follow-up of 4.5 years, we identified 1 patient (7%) with chest wall recurrence of mucinous micropapillary carcinoma of the breast after mastectomy. We conclude that mucinous micropapillary carcinomas of the breast constitute a clinically aggressive subset of mucin-producing breast carcinomas characterized by an increased capacity for lymphatic invasion and regional lymph node metastasis, reflective of their dual phenotype. Recognition of the morphologic and biologic heterogeneity within breast cancer subtypes should allow for a more accurate classification of the individual tumors and better patient stratification for

  1. [Appendiceal mucocele due to mucinous cystadenoma: case report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Bronzino, P; Abbo, L; Bagnasco, F; Barisone, P; Dezzani, C; Genovese, A M; Iannucci, P; Ippoliti, M; Sacchi, M; Aimo, I

    2006-03-01

    Mucinous cystadenomas of the appendix are rare tumours. In this article we describe the case of a young woman who presented with abdominal pain and a clinical pattern likely to a chronic appendicitis. At laparotomy we found a dilatation of the appendix which contained an abundant quantity of mucus. Histological examination showed a mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix. This neoplasm requires a surgical treatment, usually only appendectomy and right hemicolectomy in case of involvement of the caecum. During operation, the surgeon must take care in handling the appendix because of the risk of rupture with consequent dissemination of epithelial cells in the peritoneal cavity (pseudomyxoma peritonei).

  2. Searching the Evolutionary Origin of Epithelial Mucus Protein Components—Mucins and FCGBP

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Tiange; Klasson, Sofia; Larsson, Erik; Johansson, Malin E. V.; Hansson, Gunnar C.; Samuelsson, Tore

    2016-01-01

    The gel-forming mucins are large glycosylated proteins that are essential components of the mucus layers covering epithelial cells. Using novel methods of identifying mucins based on profile hidden Markov models, we have found a large number of such proteins in Metazoa, aiding in their classification and allowing evolutionary studies. Most vertebrates have 5–6 gel-forming mucin genes and the genomic arrangement of these genes is well conserved throughout vertebrates. An exception is the frog Xenopus tropicalis with an expanded repertoire of at least 26 mucins of this type. Furthermore, we found that the ovomucin protein, originally identified in chicken, is characteristic of reptiles, birds, and amphibians. Muc6 is absent in teleost fish, but we now show that it is present in animals such as ghost sharks, demonstrating an early origin in vertebrate evolution. Public RNA-Seq data were analyzed with respect to mucins in zebrafish, frog, and chicken, thus allowing comparison in regard of tissue and developmental specificity. Analyses of invertebrate proteins reveal that gel-forming-mucin type of proteins is widely distributed also in this group. Their presence in Cnidaria, Porifera, and in Ctenophora (comb jellies) shows that these proteins were present early in metazoan evolution. Finally, we examined the evolution of the FCGBP protein, abundant in mucus and related to gel-forming mucins in terms of structure and localization. We demonstrate that FCGBP, ubiquitous in vertebrates, has a conserved N-terminal domain. Interestingly, this domain is also present as an N-terminal sequence in a number of bacterial proteins. PMID:27189557

  3. Regulation of Airway Mucin Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Thai, Philip; Loukoianov, Artem; Wachi, Shinichiro; Wu, Reen

    2015-01-01

    Mucins are important components that exert a variety of functions in cell-cell interaction, epidermal growth factor receptor signaling, and airways protection. In the conducting airways of the lungs, mucins are the major contributor to the viscoelastic property of mucous secretion, which is the major barrier to trapping inhaled microbial organism, particulates, and oxidative pollutants. The homeostasis of mucin production is an important feature in conducting airways for the maintenance of mucociliary function. Aberrant mucin secretion and accumulation in airway lumen are clinical hallmarks associated with various lung diseases, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, emphysema, and lung cancer. Among 20 known mucin genes identified, 11 of them have been verified at either the mRNA and/or protein level in airways. The regulation of mucin genes is complicated, as are the mediators and signaling pathways. This review summarizes the current view on the mediators, the signaling pathways, and the transcriptional units that are involved in the regulation of airway mucin gene expression. In addition, we also point out essential features of epigenetic mechanisms for the regulation of these genes. PMID:17961085

  4. Biomimetic oral mucin from polymer micelle networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Authimoolam, Sundar Prasanth

    Mucin networks are formed by the complexation of bottlebrush-like mucin glycoprotein with other small molecule glycoproteins. These glycoproteins create nanoscale strands that then arrange into a nanoporous mesh. These networks play an important role in ensuring surface hydration, lubricity and barrier protection. In order to understand the functional behavior in mucin networks, it is important to decouple their chemical and physical effects responsible for generating the fundamental property-function relationship. To achieve this goal, we propose to develop a synthetic biomimetic mucin using a layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition approach. In this work, a hierarchical 3-dimensional structures resembling natural mucin networks was generated using affinity-based interactions on synthetic and biological surfaces. Unlike conventional polyelectrolyte-based LBL methods, pre-assembled biotin-functionalized filamentous (worm-like) micelles was utilized as the network building block, which from complementary additions of streptavidin generated synthetic networks of desired thickness. The biomimetic nature in those synthetic networks are studied by evaluating its structural and bio-functional properties. Structurally, synthetic networks formed a nanoporous mesh. The networks demonstrated excellent surface hydration property and were able capable of microbial capture. Those functional properties are akin to that of natural mucin networks. Further, the role of synthetic mucin as a drug delivery vehicle, capable of providing localized and tunable release was demonstrated. By incorporating antibacterial curcumin drug loading within synthetic networks, bacterial growth inhibition was also demonstrated. Thus, such bioactive interfaces can serve as a model for independently characterizing mucin network properties and through its role as a drug carrier vehicle it presents exciting future opportunities for localized drug delivery, in regenerative applications and as bio

  5. Giant Mucinous Cystadenoma in Nnewi, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Okafor, CI; Onyegbule, OA; Etigbue, J; Uyoh, IS; Ezenri, U

    2015-01-01

    Mucinous ovarian tumors are the second commonest type of epithelial ovarian tumors. Most of these tumors are benign. Occasionally, these tumors may reach enormous dimensions without being symptomatic. We reported the occurrence of a huge benign ovarian tumor (mucinous cystadenoma) in Nnewi. The data were collected from history taking, clinical examination, laboratory investigation, ultrasonographic examination, operative findings and histopathological examination of the surgical specimen. The case was reported as a massive ovarian mucinous cystadenoma. This case report emphasizes the importance of a thorough evaluation of women who presented with vague abdominal pain. Although the condition is very rare, it is potentially hazardous if early diagnosis and timely intervention is not instituted PMID:26097766

  6. Metastatic chordoma of the breast: an extremely rare lesion mimicking mucinous cancer.

    PubMed

    Tot, Tibor

    2006-10-01

    Metastases in the breast are rare, with metastatic chordoma being one of the rarest. To our knowledge, only one such case has previously been published in the literature. We report a case of a 74-year-old woman who presented with a palpable lump in her right breast. The lump was mammographically suggestive of mucinous breast cancer because it was a solitary, small, circular, and moderately dense lesion yielding abundant mucoid aspirate. The tumor resembled mucinous carcinoma upon histologic and immunohistochemical examination: it had a mucinous stroma, and the tumor cells strongly expressed epithelial markers. However, the patient had previously undergone surgery for a recurrent sacral chordoma. In addition to the clinical history, the presence of typical physaliferous cells expressing neither estrogen receptors nor cytokeratin 7, but staining positively for S-100 protein, allowed the proper diagnosis. Although extremely rare, metastatic chordoma may represent a challenge in the differential diagnosis of breast lesions. Discriminating metastases of mucin-producing tumors in the breast from primary mucinous carcinomas is important with regard to the striking difference in prognosis of these lesions.

  7. Niflumic acid inhibits ATP-stimulated exocytosis in a mucin-secreting epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, C A; Danahay, H; Poll, C T; Laboisse, C; Hopfer, U; Bridges, R J

    2004-02-01

    ATP is an efficacious secretagogue for mucin and chloride in the epithelial cell line HT29-Cl.16E. Mucin release has been measured as [3H]glucosamine-labeled product in extracellular medium and as single-cell membrane capacitance increases indicative of exocytosis-related increases in membrane area. The calcium-activated chloride channel blocker niflumic acid, also reported to modulate secretion, was used to probe for divergence in the purinergic signaling of mucin exocytosis and channel activation. With the use of whole cell patch clamping, ATP stimulated a transient capacitance increase of 15 +/- 4%. Inclusion of niflumic acid significantly reduced the ATP-stimulated capacitance change to 3 +/- 1%, although normalized peak currents were not significantly different. Ratiometric imaging was used to assess intracellular calcium (Cai2+) dynamics during stimulation. In the presence of niflumic acid, the ATP-stimulated peak change in Cai2+ was unaffected, but the initial response and overall time to Cai2+ peak were significantly affected. Excluding external calcium before ATP stimulation or including the capacitative calcium entry blocker LaCl3 during stimulation muted the initial calcium transient similar to that observed with niflumic acid and significantly reduced peak capacitance change, suggesting that a substantial portion of the ATP-stimulated mucin exocytosis in HT29-Cl.16E depends on a rapid, brief calcium influx through the plasma membrane. Niflumic acid interferes with this influx independent of a chloride channel blockade effect.

  8. Physical Properties of the Glycoprotein Mucin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Garrett; Davis, William; Superfine, Richard; Boucher, Richard

    2003-03-01

    Epithelial cell surfaces are covered by a protective gel known as mucus. The physiological function of this gel depends on its rheological properties, and these properties are largely derived from the secreted glycoprotein mucin. The genetic disease Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is characterized by the adhesion of thick, viscous mucus on these tissues. In the lungs, this results in the interruption of mucus transport thus compromising the first line of defense against pathogens in these tissues. In order to restore the flow of tracheobronchial mucus out of the body, knowledge of the molecular and physical properties of mucin and mucin solutions would be greatly beneficial. The present model for these molecules is that of a long linear strand consisting of highly glycosylated regions linked by cystein-rich globular regions. It is thought that the globular regions may interact either through intermolecular disulfide bonds or through hydrophobic interactions. It has also been speculated that the glycosylated regions may have lectin-like interactions. In the present work, single mucin molecules were imaged at high resolution using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Phase mode imaging was used to map the interactions between functionalized AFM tips and the molecular topography. Additionally, using force-distance curves with the AFM, the adhesion between mucin bound tips and cell surface glycocalyx and glycocalyx-like model surfaces, was measured. And, finally, the viscoelastic properties of mucin solutions were measured using the recently developed technique, single particle tracking microrheology. A model is being developed that will incorporate the properties of mucins beginning at the single molecule and ending with the bulk viscoelastic properties.

  9. Characterization and Functional Analysis of Extracellular Vesicles and Muscle-Abundant miRNAs (miR-1, miR-133a, and miR-206) in C2C12 Myocytes and mdx Mice

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaka, Yasunari; Tanihata, Jun; Komaki, Hirofumi; Ishiyama, Akihiko; Oya, Yasushi; Rüegg, Urs; Takeda, Shin-ichi; Hashido, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive neuromuscular disorder. Here, we show that the CD63 antigen, which is located on the surface of extracellular vesicles (EVs), is associated with increased levels of muscle-abundant miRNAs, namely myomiRs miR-1, miR-133a, and miR-206, in the sera of DMD patients and mdx mice. Furthermore, the release of EVs from the murine myoblast C2C12 cell line was found to be modulated by intracellular ceramide levels in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Next, to investigate the effects of EVs on cell survival, C2C12 myoblasts and myotubes were cultured with EVs from the sera of mdx mice or C2C12 cells overexpressing myomiRs in presence of cellular stresses. Both the exposure of C2C12 myoblasts and myotubes to EVs from the serum of mdx mice, and the overexpression of miR-133a in C2C12 cells in presence of cellular stress resulted in a significant decrease in cell death. Finally, to assess whether miRNAs regulate skeletal muscle regeneration in vivo, we intraperitoneally injected GW4869 (an inhibitor of exosome secretion) into mdx mice for 5 and 10 days. Levels of miRNAs and creatine kinase in the serum of GW4869-treated mdx mice were significantly downregulated compared with those of controls. The tibialis anterior muscles of the GW4869-treated mdx mice showed a robust decrease in Evans blue dye uptake. Collectively, these results indicate that EVs and myomiRs might protect the skeletal muscle of mdx mice from degeneration. PMID:27977725

  10. In vitro utilization of mucin by Bacteroides fragilis.

    PubMed Central

    Roberton, A M; Stanley, R A

    1982-01-01

    A method for isolating pig colon mucin in a soluble high-molecular-weight form, suitable for addition to bacterial growth media, is described. This preparation was utilized as a sole carbohydrate energy source by two strains of Bacteroides fragilis. The extent of degradation was compared with that of commercial pig gastric mucin by the same strains. Gas-liquid chromatographic analysis of the mucin carbohydrates and gel chromatography of the preparations were carried out before and after in vitro degradation. The mucin carbohydrates were utilized only to a very limited extent, colon mucin being more resistant to degradation than gastric mucin. Both mucins chromatographed at or near the excluded volume on Sepharose 4B, and only in the case of ATCC 25285 grown on gastric mucin was a significant degradation peak detected. If mucins are degraded in vivo by the sequential action of several bacteria, a pure culture in vitro might be expected to degrade mucins to a limited extent only. Techniques previously used to examine mucin utilization by pure cultures may have overlooked limited mucin degradation demonstrated by the methods used in this work. PMID:6174077

  11. Mucinous carcinoma occurring in the male breast.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Mitsuaki; Umeda, Tomoko; Kawai, Yuki; Mori, Tsuyoshi; Kubota, Yoshihiro; Abe, Hajime; Iwai, Muneo; Yoshida, Keiko; Kagotani, Akiko; Tani, Tohru; Okabe, Hidetoshi

    2014-02-01

    Male breast carcinoma is an uncommon neoplasm, accounting for 0.6% of all breast carcinomas. Invasive ductal carcinoma of no special type is the most common type of male breast carcinoma, and mucinous carcinoma occurring in the male breast is extremely rare. In the present study, we report a case of mucinous carcinoma of the male breast and discuss the clinicopathological features of this type of tumor. A 63-year-old Japanese male presented with a gradually enlarged nodule in the right breast. The resected breast specimen revealed pure mucinous carcinoma and immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that tumor cells were positive for estrogen receptor (ER), but negative for progesterone receptor (PgR). In addition, HER2 expression was not amplified. Pure mucinous carcinoma is generally associated with a low incidence of lymph node or distant metastases, and excellent disease-free survival in females. However, certain cases of this type of tumor with axillary lymph node metastasis in the male breast have been reported. In addition, the immunoprofiles of mucinous carcinoma in males are fundamentally the same as those in females. More than 90% of cases show positive immunoreactivity for ER and/or PgR, and HER2 expression is not amplified. However, it has been reported that breast cancer in males is more frequently positive for ER than in females, and has less HER2 overexpression. The high rate of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in males is considered to be due to similar conditions as those in breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The pathogenesis of male breast carcinoma, including mucinous carcinoma, remains unclear; therefore, additional clinicopathological studies are required.

  12. Caenorhabditis elegans Bacterial Pathogen Resistant bus-4 Mutants Produce Altered Mucins

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Lisa M.; Mizanur, Rahman M.; Jankowska, Ewa; Hodgkin, Jonathan; O′Rourke, Delia; Stroud, Dave; Ghosh, Salil; Cipollo, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Caenorabditis elegans bus-4 glycosyltransferase mutants are resistant to infection by Microbacterium nematophilum, Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and have altered susceptibility to two Leucobacter species Verde1 and Verde2. Our objective in this study was to define the glycosylation changes leading to this phenotype to better understand how these changes lead to pathogen resistance. We performed MALDI-TOF MS, tandem MS and GC/MS experiments to reveal fine structural detail for the bus-4 N- and O-glycan pools. We observed dramatic changes in O-glycans and moderate ones in N-glycan pools compared to the parent strain. Ce core-I glycans, the nematode's mucin glycan equivalent, were doubled in abundance, halved in charge and bore shifts in terminal substitutions. The fucosyl O-glycans, Ce core-II and neutral fucosyl forms, were also increased in abundance as were fucosyl N-glycans. Quantitative expression analysis revealed that two mucins, let-653 and osm-8, were upregulated nearly 40 fold and also revealed was a dramatic increase in GDP-Man 4,6 dehydratease expression. We performed detailed lectin binding studies that showed changes in glycoconjugates in the surface coat, cuticle surface and intestine. The combined changes in cell surface glycoconjugate distribution, increased abundance and altered properties of mucin provide an environment where likely the above pathogens are not exposed to normal glycoconjugate dependent cues leading to barriers to these bacterial infections. PMID:25296196

  13. Do clinical and immunohistochemical findings of pure mucinous breast carcinoma differ from mixed mucinous breast carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Erhan, Y; Ciris, M; Zekioglu, O; Erhan, Y; Kapkac, M; Makay, O; Ozdemir, N

    2009-01-01

    Mucinous carcinoma of the breast is a relatively rare histologic type with two subtypes: pure and mixed. It has a favourable prognosis with a low risk of axillary metastases. The prognosis for pure mucinous carcinoma (PMC) was much better than for the mixed mucinous carcinoma (MMC). The aim of the study is to determine suitable candidates for breast or axillary conservation in mucinous carcinoma subtypes. The slides of 26 pure and 23 mixed mucinous carcinomas of the breast were evaluated. The clinical, pathological and immunohistochemical features between PMCs and MMCs were compared. MMC displayed greater metastatic potential (p < 0.05), p53 positivity (p < 0.05) and c-erbB-2 positivity (p <0.001) than PMCs. PMCs smaller than 2 cm had less metastatic capacity and extranodal invasion compared to MMCs smaller than 2 cm (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively). MMCs smaller than 2 cm displayed weaker ER positivity but greater c-erbB-2 positivity than PMCs smaller than 2 cm (p < 0.01). In conclusion, MMC had worse prognostic factors than PMC with both types of mucinous carcinoma showing similar ER and PR positive status. Even if PMCs and especially smaller PMCs display more favourable prognostic features, including less axillary lymph node involvement, it is appropriate to use sentinel lymph node biopsy to make better axillary assessment.

  14. The Caenorhabditis elegans mucin-like protein OSM-8 negatively regulates osmosensitive physiology via the transmembrane protein PTR-23.

    PubMed

    Rohlfing, Anne-Katrin; Miteva, Yana; Moronetti, Lorenza; He, Liping; Lamitina, Todd

    2011-01-06

    The molecular mechanisms of animal cell osmoregulation are poorly understood. Genetic studies of osmoregulation in yeast have identified mucin-like proteins as critical regulators of osmosensitive signaling and gene expression. Whether mucins play similar roles in higher organisms is not known. Here, we show that mutations in the Caenorhabditis elegans mucin-like gene osm-8 specifically disrupt osmoregulatory physiological processes. In osm-8 mutants, normal physiological responses to hypertonic stress, such as the accumulation of organic osmolytes and activation of osmoresponsive gene expression, are constitutively activated. As a result, osm-8 mutants exhibit resistance to normally lethal levels of hypertonic stress and have an osmotic stress resistance (Osr) phenotype. To identify genes required for Osm-8 phenotypes, we performed a genome-wide RNAi osm-8 suppressor screen. After screening ~18,000 gene knockdowns, we identified 27 suppressors that specifically affect the constitutive osmosensitive gene expression and Osr phenotypes of osm-8 mutants. We found that one suppressor, the transmembrane protein PTR-23, is co-expressed with osm-8 in the hypodermis and strongly suppresses several Osm-8 phenotypes, including the transcriptional activation of many osmosensitive mRNAs, constitutive glycerol accumulation, and osmotic stress resistance. Our studies are the first to show that an extracellular mucin-like protein plays an important role in animal osmoregulation in a manner that requires the activity of a novel transmembrane protein. Given that mucins and transmembrane proteins play similar roles in yeast osmoregulation, our findings suggest a possible evolutionarily conserved role for the mucin-plasma membrane interface in eukaryotic osmoregulation.

  15. Mucinous carcinoma of the thyroid: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bajja, Mohamed Yahya; Benassila, Fatima Zahra; Abada, Radallah Larbi; Mahtar, Mohamed; Chadli, Asma

    2017-02-01

    We report the case of a primary mucinous carcinoma of the thyroid in a man of 74 who had a 4-cm nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid, with a solido-cystic appearance on ultrasound associated with lymph node metastases. On scintigraphy, the nodule was hot and not extinctive. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy with a ipsilateral right lymph node dissection. The immunohistochemical study showed the negativity of CK 7 and CK 20 and the positivity of thyroglobulin and TTF 1. Postoperatively the rate of blood thyroglobulin 3 months after surgery had collapsed to 0.17ng/ml. The evolution was marked by the appearance of pulmonary metastasis and the patient died 4 months after surgery. Histological study showed the presence of almas of neoplastic cells surrounded by large deposits of extracellular mucin. Primitive mucinous carcinoma of the thyroid is a rare tumor which differential diagnosis is established on the positive immunohistochemistry of thyroglobulin and TTF1 but negative for other markers.

  16. Defective postsecretory maturation of MUC5B mucin in cystic fibrosis airways

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Lubna H.; Evans, Jessica R.; Wang, T. Tiffany; Ford, Amina A.; Makhov, Alexander M.; Nguyen, Kristine; Coakley, Raymond D.; Griffith, Jack D.; Davis, C. William; Ballard, Stephen T.

    2017-01-01

    In cystic fibrosis (CF), airway mucus becomes thick and viscous, and its clearance from the airways is impaired. The gel-forming mucins undergo an ordered “unpacking/maturation” process after granular release that requires an optimum postsecretory environment, including hydration and pH. We hypothesized that this unpacking process is compromised in the CF lung due to abnormal transepithelial fluid transport that reduces airway surface hydration and alters ionic composition. Using human tracheobronchial epithelial cells derived from non-CF and CF donors and mucus samples from human subjects and domestic pigs, we investigated the process of postsecretory mucin unfolding/maturation, how these processes are defective in CF airways, and the probable mechanism underlying defective unfolding. First, we found that mucins released into a normal lung environment transform from a compact granular form to a linear form. Second, we demonstrated that this maturation process is defective in the CF airway environment. Finally, we demonstrated that independent of HCO3− and pH levels, airway surface dehydration was the major determinant of this abnormal unfolding process. This defective unfolding/maturation process after granular release suggests that the CF extracellular environment is ion/water depleted and likely contributes to abnormal mucus properties in CF airways prior to infection and inflammation. PMID:28352653

  17. Mapping the Protein Domain Structures of the Respiratory Mucins: a mucin proteome coverage study

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Rui; Wang, T. Tiffany; DeMaria, Genevieve; Sheehan, John K.; Kesimer, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    Mucin genes encode a family of the largest expressed proteins in the human genome. The proteins are highly substituted with O-linked oligosaccharides which greatly restrict access to the peptide backbones. The genomic organization of the N-terminal, O-glycosylated, and C-terminal regions of most of the mucins has been established and is available in the sequence databases. However, much less is known about the fate of their exposed protein regions after translation and secretion, and, to date, detailed proteomic studies complementary to the genomic studies are rather limited. Using mucins isolated from cultured human airway epithelial cell secretions, trypsin digestion and mass spectrometry, we investigated the proteome coverage of the mucins responsible for the maintenance and protection of the airway epithelia. Excluding the heavily glycosylated mucin domains, up to 85% coverage of the N-terminal region of the gel forming mucins MUC5B and MUC5AC was achieved, and up to 60% of the C-terminal regions were covered, suggesting that more N- and sparsely O-glycosylated regions as well as possible other modifications are available at the C-terminus. All possible peptides from the cysteine-rich regions that interrupt the heavily glycosylated mucin domains were identified. Interestingly, 43 cleavage sites from ten different domains of MUC5B and MUC5AC were identified, which possessed a non-tryptic cleavage site on the N-terminal end of the peptide, indicating potential exposure to proteolytic and/or “spontaneous cleavages”. Some of these non-tryptic cleavages may be important for proper maturation of the molecule, before and/or after secretion. Most of the peptides identified from MUC16 were from the SEA region. Surprisingly, three peptides were clearly identified from its heavily glycosylated regions. Up to 25% coverage of MUC4 was achieved covering seven different domains of the molecule. All peptides from the MUC1 cytoplasmic domain were detected along with the

  18. Reversed cellular polarity in primary cutaneous mucinous carcinoma: A study on tight junction protein expression in sweat gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Yusuke; Ishida-Yamamoto, Akemi

    2017-04-01

    Primary cutaneous mucinous carcinoma (PCMC) is a rare sweat gland tumor characterized by the presence of abundant mucin around the tumor islands, but the molecular mechanisms for this structure are not well elucidated. Because mucin is epithelial in nature, it is likely to be produced by epithelial tumor cells, not by surrounding stromal cells. We hypothesized that the abundant mucin is a result of reversed cellular polarity of the tumor. To test this hypothesis, we conducted an immunohistological study to investigate expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins occludin and ZO-1 in PCMC, as well as in normal sweat glands and other sweat gland tumors. Dot-like or linear expression of TJ proteins was observed at ductal structures of sweat glands, and ductal or cystic structures of related tumors. In PCMC, however, TJ protein expression was clearly visible at the edges of tumor cell islands. This study provides evidence to show that the characteristic histological structure of PCMC is caused by inverse polarization of the tumor cells, and that TJ proteins are useful markers of ductal differentiation in sweat gland tumors.

  19. Membrane-bound mucin modular domains: from structure to function.

    PubMed

    Jonckheere, Nicolas; Skrypek, Nicolas; Frénois, Frédéric; Van Seuningen, Isabelle

    2013-06-01

    Mucins belong to a heterogeneous family of large O-glycoproteins composed of a long peptidic chain called apomucin on which are linked hundreds of oligosaccharidic chains. Among mucins, membrane-bound mucins are modular proteins and have a structural organization usually containing Pro/Thr/Ser-rich O-glycosylated domains (PTS), EGF-like and SEA domains. Via these modular domains, the membrane-bound mucins participate in cell signalling and cell interaction with their environment in normal and pathological conditions. Moreover, the recent knowledge of these domains and their biological activities led to the development of new therapeutic approaches involving mucins. In this review, we show 3D structures of EGF and SEA domains. We also describe the functional features of the evolutionary conserved domains of membrane-bound mucins and discuss consequences of splice events.

  20. [Mucinous papillary cystadenoma of the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Ledezma, G; Salloum, S; de Sulbarán, Y; de Armas, L

    1992-01-01

    The case of a 15-years-old female patient is presented, who referred pain and presence of a mass in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen. Diagnostic imaging showed a 9 cm diameter cystic lesion in the tail of the pancreas which was removed surgically. Histology demonstrated a pancreatic mucinous cystadenoma with borderline biological behaviour. A review of the literature related to cystic neoplasms of the pancreas is realized.

  1. Trypanosoma cruzi TcSMUG L-surface Mucins Promote Development and Infectivity in the Triatomine Vector Rhodnius prolixus

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Marcelo S.; Souza, Marcela S.; Garcia, Eloi S.; Nogueira, Nadir F. S.; Mello, Cícero B.; Cánepa, Gaspar E.; Bertotti, Santiago; Durante, Ignacio M.; Azambuja, Patrícia; Buscaglia, Carlos A.

    2013-01-01

    Background TcSMUG L products were recently identified as novel mucin-type glycoconjugates restricted to the surface of insect-dwelling epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. The remarkable conservation of their predicted mature N-terminal region, which is exposed to the extracellular milieu, suggests that TcSMUG L products may be involved in structural and/or functional aspects of the interaction with the insect vector. Methodology and Principal Findings Here, we investigated the putative roles of TcSMUG L mucins in both in vivo development and ex vivo attachment of epimastigotes to the luminal surface of the digestive tract of Rhodnius prolixus. Our results indicate that the exogenous addition of TcSMUG L N-terminal peptide, but not control T. cruzi mucin peptides, to the infected bloodmeal inhibited the development of parasites in R. prolixus in a dose-dependent manner. Pre-incubation of insect midguts with the TcSMUG L peptide impaired the ex vivo attachment of epimastigotes to the luminal surface epithelium, likely by competing out TcSMUG L binding sites on the luminal surface of the posterior midgut, as revealed by fluorescence microscopy. Conclusion and Significance Together, these observations indicate that TcSMUG L mucins are a determinant of both adhesion of T. cruzi epimastigotes to the posterior midgut epithelial cells of the triatomine, and the infection of the insect vector, R. prolixus. PMID:24244781

  2. Viscous fingering of HCI through gastric mucin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskar, K. Ramakrishnan; Garik, Peter; Turner, Bradley S.; Bradley, James Douglas; Bansil, Rama; Stanley, H. Eugene; Lamont, J. Thomas

    1992-12-01

    THE HCI in the mammalian stomach is concentrated enough to digest the stomach itself, yet the gastric epithelium remains undamaged. One protective factor is gastric mucus, which forms a protective layer over the surface epithelium1-4 and acts as a diffusion barrier5,6 Bicarbonate ions secreted by the gastric epithelium7 are trapped in the mucus gel, establishing a gradient from pH 1-2 at the lumen to pH 6-7 at the cell surface8-10. How does HCI, secreted at the base of gastric glands by parietal cells, traverse the mucus layer without acidifying it? Here we demonstrate that injection of HCI through solutions of pig gastric mucin produces viscous fingering patterns11-18 dependent on pH, mucin concentration and acid flow rate. Above pH 4, discrete fingers are observed, whereas below pH 4, HCI neither penetrates the mucin solution nor forms fingers. Our in vitro results suggest that HCI secreted by the gastric gland can penetrate the mucus gel layer (pH 5-7) through narrow fingers, whereas HC1 in the lumen (pH 2) is prevented from diffusing back to the epithelium by the high viscosity of gastric mucus gel on the luminal side.

  3. [A case of multiple breast mucinous carcinomas].

    PubMed

    Maeda, Tetsuyo; Enomoto, Katsuhisa; Sakurai, Kenichi; Amano, Sadao

    2010-11-01

    A case was a 46-year-old woman who presented with the left breast lump confirmed about 30 years ago. In August 2006, the patient came to our hospital for consultation due to her breast lump was enlarged. Mammography revealed a frequent occurrence of the mass shadow of marginal irregularity and we diagnosed it with category 4. Breast echography showed a lot of irregular lesions. Even breast MRI presented a multiple mass-related lesion. The malignancy was possible, and a needle biopsy diagnosed them to be mucinous carcinoma. Pectoralis muscle preservation mastectomy and sentinel lymph node biopsy technique were used for surgery. Histopathology also diagnosed it to be mucinous carcinoma, T2N0 M0, stage IIA, ER (+), PgR (+), HER2 score 0. It has been 4 years since the operation but no sign of recurrence/metastasis was observed at present. There have been few reports of breast cancer with multiple cases, mucinous carcinoma as a case in point. Therefore, we report the invaluable case in addition to some paper consideration with it.

  4. Mucins in contact lens wear and dry eye conditions.

    PubMed

    Ramamoorthy, Padmapriya; Nichols, Jason J

    2008-08-01

    Ocular mucins are thought to play integral roles in ocular surface lubrication, anchoring of the aqueous, stabilizing the lipid components of the tear film, eliminating foreign bodies and pathogens, and with potential involvement in cell cycle mediation and apoptotic activity of ocular surface epithelia. Ocular mucins are of secreted and membrane-associated types. Secreted mucins may be of large gel-forming type or small soluble mucins (e.g., MUC5AC and MUC7). Membrane-associated mucins such as MUCs 1 and 4 are a major component of the glycocalyx. They are thought to render structural support to the microplicae and mediate epithelial cell cycle and apoptotic activity. The alterations in ocular mucins with contact lens wear are unclear. Recent work shows mucin expression may be up-regulated during the early years of contact lens wear, and with long-term lens wear, mucin expression may return to normal levels or sub-normal levels, although this is not well understood. Further, the polar nature of mucins may be associated with their affinity for contact lens surfaces making them a component of contact lens deposition. This has potential implications in the wettability and tolerability of contact lenses, and may be impacted by surface coatings, polymer characteristics, or care solutions. Conjunctival mucin gene expression and secretion may be deficient in several ocular surface disorders associated with dry eye. Deficiency and alterations in glycosylation characteristics of MUC5AC and MUC2 have been reported in both Sjögren and non-Sjögren dry eye types. Decreased binding of the membrane-associated mucin MUC16 to the conjunctival epithelium has been reported in Sjögren dry eye while MUC1 alterations have been reported in Sjögren and non-Sjögren dry eye states. In view of the mucin involvement in dry eye conditions, stimulation of mucus secretion pathways may hold promise in the pharmaceutical treatment of dry eye.

  5. [Intraductal papillary mucinous tumor: diagnostic and therapeutic approach].

    PubMed

    Seijo Ríos, Susana; Lariño Noia, José; Iglesias García, Julio; Lozano León, Antonio; Domínguez Muñoz, Juan Enrique

    2008-02-01

    Primary cystic pancreatic neoplasms are rare tumors, with an approximate prevalence of 10% of cystic pancreatic lesions. Most of these lesions correspond to mucinous cystic neoplasm, serous cystoadenoma and intraductal papillary mucinous tumor (IPMT). IPMT is characterized by diffuse dilatation of the main pancreatic duct and/or side branches with inner defects related to mucin or tumor, or mucin extrusion from a patent ampulla. IPMT has a low potential for malignancy, with a low growth rate, a low rate of metastatic spread and postsurgical recurrence. Over the last few years, major advances have been made in the diagnostic and therapeutic management of this tumor.

  6. Interaction of Eimeria tenella with intestinal mucin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tierney, J B; Matthews, E; Carrington, S D; Mulcahy, G

    2007-06-01

    The mucus gel layer overlying the gastrointestinal epithelium plays an important role in host-pathogen interactions. The initial interaction between the coccidian parasite Eimeria tenella and host cells of the intestinal epithelium must occur across this mucus interface. In this study, we examined the relationship between E. tenella and avian mucin, in particular the effect of purified intestinal regional mucin on parasite adherence and invasion in vitro. Secreted mucin from the chicken duodenum and cecum was purified by density gradient centrifugation and gel chromatography. Parasite invasion studies were performed in the Madin-Darby bovine kidney cell model. Eimeria tenella adherence to chicken duodenal mucin was detected, whereas adherence to cecal or bovine mucin was not shown. Parasite invasion into epithelial cells was not influenced by bovine mucin, whereas chicken mucin purified from the duodenum and cecum significantly inhibited invasion. Inhibition of E. tenella invasion into cells by mucin from the duodenum was marginally greater than that of the cecum, but this was not significant. This study demonstrated E. tenella interaction with native chicken intestinal mucin, which in turn inhibited parasite invasion into epithelial cells in vitro.

  7. Delivery of a mucin domain enriched in cysteine residues strengthens the intestinal mucous barrier

    PubMed Central

    Gouyer, Valérie; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Robbe-Masselot, Catherine; Neut, Christel; Singer, Elisabeth; Plet, Ségolène; Geboes, Karel; Desreumaux, Pierre; Gottrand, Frédéric; Desseyn, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    A weakening of the gut mucous barrier permits an increase in the access of intestinal luminal contents to the epithelial cells, which will trigger the inflammatory response. In inflammatory bowel diseases, there is an inappropriate and ongoing activation of the immune system, possibly because the intestinal mucus is less protective against the endogenous microflora. General strategies aimed at improving the protection of the intestinal epithelium are still missing. We generated a transgenic mouse that secreted a molecule consisting of 12 consecutive copies of a mucin domain into its intestinal mucus, which is believed to modify the mucus layer by establishing reversible interactions. We showed that the mucus gel was more robust and that mucin O-glycosylation was altered. Notably, the gut epithelium of transgenic mice housed a greater abundance of beneficial Lactobacillus spp. These modifications were associated with a reduced susceptibility of transgenic mice to chemically induced colitis. Furthermore, transgenic mice cleared faster Citrobacter rodentium bacteria which were orally given and mice were more protected against bacterial translocation induced by gavage with adherent–invasive Escherichia coli. Our data show that delivering the mucin CYS domain into the gut lumen strengthens the intestinal mucus blanket which is impaired in inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:25974250

  8. Isolated mucinous adrenal metastasis in a breast cancer patient.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Umut; Buyukberber, Suleyman; Cakir, Tansel; Poyraz, Aylar; Baykara, Meltem; Karakus, Esra; Tufan, Gulnihal; Benekli, Mustafa; Coskun, Ugur

    2011-12-01

    Mucinous breast carcinoma (MBC) is a rare histological type of breast cancer and rarely associated with advanced disease. We report a case that had MBC with an isolated adrenal metastasis which was removed by laparoscopic adrenelectomy. This case is unique due to the unexpected metastasis of pure mucinous carcinoma developed after 4 years of hormone therapy.

  9. Heterogeneity and persistence length in human ocular mucins.

    PubMed Central

    Round, A N; Berry, M; McMaster, T J; Stoll, S; Gowers, D; Corfield, A P; Miles, M J

    2002-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to investigate the heterogeneity and flexibility of human ocular mucins and their subunits. We have paid particular attention, in terms of theory and experiment, to the problem of inducing the polymers to assume equilibrium conformations at a surface. Mucins deposited from a buffer containing Ni(2+) ions adopt extended conformations on mica akin to those observed for DNA under similar conditions. The heterogeneity of the intracellular native mucins is evident from a histogram of contour lengths, reflecting, in part, the diversity of mucin gene products expressed. Reduction of the native mucin with dithiothreitol, thereby breaking the S==S bonds between cysteine residues, causes a marked reduction in polymer length. These results reflect the modes of transport and assembly of newly synthesized mucins in vivo. By modifying the worm-like chain model for applicability to two dimensions, we have confirmed that under the conditions employed mucin adsorbs to mica in an equilibrated conformation. The determined persistence length of the native mucin, 36 nm, is consistent with that of an extended, flexible polymer; such characteristics will influence the properties of the gels formed in vivo. PMID:12202389

  10. Human carcinoma-associated and salivary mucins detected by anti-bovine submaxillary mucin antibodies.

    PubMed

    Golubović, S J; Bojić-Trbojević, Z T

    2006-01-01

    Polyclonal rabbit anti-bovine submaxillary mucin antibodies, anti-BSM IgG, were analyzed by autoradiography and densitometry (after SDS electrophoresis and blotting), ELISA, and IRMA assays for reactivity against native antigen BSM, deglycosylated and desialylated BSM, and human salivary and carcinoma-associated mucins. Known human tumor marker CA19-9 antigen reacted with rabbit anti-BSM IgG under different conditions, either soluble or immobilized. As soluble antigen, in IRMA it reacted with anti-BSM antibodies used both as a catcher and a tracer, as well as in combination with monoclonal anti-CA19-9 antibodies as a catcher. MUC1 mucin is a carrier of this carbohydrate antigen, CA19-9, or sialyl-Lewis(a), as well as of CA15-3 antigen, a known breast tumor marker. Autoradiography and densitometry demonstrated binding of anti-BSM IgG to intact MUC1 in a sample of commercial standard preparation of CA19-9 antigen. The same method and analysis demonstrated binding of anti-BSM IgG to MUC1 and to smaller antigens of 85-120 kD in samples containing CA15-3 antigen: commercial standard preparation, human breast tissue, and human milk. In a sample of whole human saliva, reactions of both isoforms of MUC7 were detected by autoradiography, as bands of 85 and 115 kD, and densitogram analysis also demonstrated reaction with MUC5B. Chemical modifications performed as periodate oxidation and desialylation of the BSM demonstrated carbohydrate (i.e., sialic acid) epitope sensitivity for anti-BSM IgG. The results presented in this work indicate that polyclonal anti-BSM antibodies are specific for sialylated carbohydrate structure on mucins and could serve as a tool for investigation of human carcinoma-associated and salivary mucins.

  11. Studies on the binding of amylopectin sulfate with gastric mucin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y S; Bella, A; Whitehead, J S; Isaacs, R; Remer, L

    1975-07-01

    Amylopectin sulfate, a sulfated polysaccharide that has an antipeptic property, was examined for its ability to bind gastric mucins. After chemically cross-linking the amylopectin sulfate into an insoluble gel, its binding with mucins isolated from antral and fundic mucosa of canine stomachs was studied with chromatography. A component present in both mucin fractions bound to the amylopectin sulfate gel below pH 4.5. This binding was reversible, and the complex dissociated above pH 5. Similar binding properties were found with soluble amylopectin sulfate. The component of the mucine which bound to amylopectin sulfate differed from the one which did not bind in its electrophoretic mobility and in its higher proportion of basic amino acids and a lower hexosamine, serine, and threonine content. This study suggests that amylopectin sulfate may bind to gastric mucins only under conditions of low pH.

  12. Tear Film Mucins: Front Line Defenders of the Ocular Surface; Comparison with Airway and Gastrointestinal Tract Mucins

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, Robin R.; Dartt, Darlene A.

    2014-01-01

    The ocular surface including the cornea and conjunctiva and its overlying tear film are the first tissues of the eye to interact with the external environment. The tear film is complex containing multiple layers secreted by different glands and tissues. Each layer contains specific molecules and proteins that not only maintain the health of the cells on the ocular surface by providing nourishment and removal of waste products but also protect these cells from environment. A major protective mechanism that the corneal and conjunctival cells have developed is secretion of the innermost layer of the tear film, the mucous layer. Both the cornea and conjunctiva express membrane spanning mucins, whereas the conjunctiva also produces soluble mucins. The mucins present in the tear film serve to maintain the hydration of the ocular surface and to provide lubrication and anti-adhesive properties between the cells of the ocular surface and conjunctiva during the blink. A third function is to contribute to the epithelial barrier to prevent pathogens from binding to the ocular surface. This review will focus on the different types of mucins produced by the corneal and conjunctival epithelia. Also included in this review will be a presentation of the structure of mucins, regulation of mucin production, role of mucins in ocular surface diseases, and the differences in mucin production by the ocular surface, airways and gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23954166

  13. Selectin-mucin interactions as a probable molecular explanation for the association of Trousseau syndrome with mucinous adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Wahrenbrock, Mark; Borsig, Lubor; Le, Dzung; Varki, Nissi; Varki, Ajit

    2003-01-01

    Trousseau described spontaneous, recurrent superficial migratory thrombophlebitis associated with occult cancers, and this was later correlated with disseminated microangiopathy (platelet-rich clots in small blood vessels). Trousseau syndrome often occurs with mucinous adenocarcinomas, which secrete abnormally glycosylated mucins and mucin fragments into the bloodstream. Since carcinoma mucins can have binding sites for selectins, we hypothesized that selectin-mucin interactions might trigger this syndrome. When highly purified, tissue-factor free carcinoma mucin preparations were intravenously injected into mice, platelet-rich microthrombi were rapidly generated. This pathology was markedly diminished in P- or L-selectin–deficient mice. Heparin (an antithrombin-potentiating agent that can also block P- and L-selectin recognition of ligands) ameliorated this platelet aggregation, but had no additional effect in P- or L-selectin–deficient mice. Inhibition of endogenous thrombin by recombinant hirudin also did not block platelet aggregation. Mucins generated platelet aggregation in vitro in hirudinized whole blood, but not in platelet-rich leukocyte-free plasma nor in whole blood from L-selectin–deficient mice. Thus, Trousseau syndrome is likely triggered by interactions of circulating carcinoma mucins with leukocyte L-selectin and platelet P-selectin without requiring accompanying thrombin generation. These data may also explain why heparin ameliorates Trousseau syndrome, while vitamin K antagonists that merely depress thrombin production do not. PMID:12975470

  14. [Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm and recurrent pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Gálvez, Eduardo; Gálvez, Gustavo; Barboza, Aurelio; Barboza, Eduardo; Combe, Juan Manuel; Combe, Mario R; Combe, Juan; Arias Stella C, Javier; Arias Stella, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Ohashi described for the first time the IPMN on 1982 as a pancreatic neoplasia with mucine cells forming papillae and producing dilatation of the main pancreatic duct or its branches. The IPMN represent the 1% of the pancreatic tumors and 5% of the cystic neoplasias. It is potentially malignant in a period of five years being more frequent in males between 60-70 and clinically these patients' presents as acute, recurrent or chronic pancreatitis, with an incidence of malignancy from 25% to 70%. CT scan and cholangio MRI allows the diagnosis, the variety, localization and possibility of determine malignancy. The treatment is the Whipple resection. We are reporting the case of an obese middle age male, being observed along the last 10 years because of recurrent pancreatitis with a cystic lesion of the head of the pancreas. The CT scan, endoscopic-ultrasound and the analysis of the liquid content suggested a mucinous lesion, reason why the patient underwent a pancreatic-duodenal resection. The histology study confirms the diagnosis of IPMN.

  15. Arabinoxylans and inulin differentially modulate the mucosal and luminal gut microbiota and mucin-degradation in humanized rats.

    PubMed

    Van den Abbeele, Pieter; Gérard, Philippe; Rabot, Sylvie; Bruneau, Aurélia; El Aidy, Sahar; Derrien, Muriel; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Smidt, Hauke; Verstraete, Willy; Van de Wiele, Tom; Possemiers, Sam

    2011-10-01

    The endogenous gut microbiota affects the host in many ways. Prebiotics should favour beneficial intestinal microbes and thus improve host health. In this study, we investigated how a novel class of potential prebiotic long-chain arabinoxylans (LC-AX) and the well-established prebiotic inulin (IN) modulate the gut microbiota of humanized rats. Six weeks after axenic rats were inoculated with a human faecal microbiota, their colonic microbiota was similar to this inoculum (∼ 70%), whereas their caecal microbiota was enriched with Verrucomicrobia and Firmicutes concomitant with lower abundance of Bacteroidetes. Moreover, different Bifidobacterium species colonized the lumen (B. adolescentis) and mucus (B. longum and B. bifidum). Both LC-AX and IN increased SCFA levels and induced a shift from acetate towards health-promoting propionate and butyrate respectively. By applying a high-resolution phylogenetic micro-array (HITChip) at the site of fermentation (caecum), IN and LC-AX were shown to stimulate bacterial groups with known butyrate-producers (Roseburia intestinalis, Eubacterium rectale, Anaerostipes caccae) and bifidobacteria (B. longum) respectively. Prebiotic administration also resulted in lower caecal abundances of the mucin-degrading Akkermansia muciniphila and potentially more mucin production by the host. Both factors might explain the increased caecal mucin levels for LC-AX (threefold) and IN (sixfold). These mucins were degraded along the colon, resulting in high faecal abundances of Akkermansia muciniphila for LC-AX and especially IN-treated rats. Finally, the microbial changes caused an adaptation period for the host with less weight gain, after which the host fine-tuned the interaction with this altered microbiota. Our results demonstrate that next to IN, LC-AX are promising prebiotic compounds by stimulating production of health-promoting metabolites by specific microbes in the proximal regions. Further, prebiotic supplementation shifted mucin

  16. Mucin degradation in the human colon: production of sialidase, sialate O-acetylesterase, N-acetylneuraminate lyase, arylesterase, and glycosulfatase activities by strains of fecal bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Corfield, A P; Wagner, S A; Clamp, J R; Kriaris, M S; Hoskins, L C

    1992-01-01

    Oligosaccharide side chains of human colonic mucins contain O-acetylated sialic acids and glycosulfate esters. Although these substituents are considered to protect the chains against degradation by bacterial glycosidases, sialate O-acetylesterase, N-acetylneuraminate lyase, and glycosulfatase activities have been found in fecal extracts. To better define the source of these activities, we measured extracellular and cell-bound sialidase, sialate O-acetylesterase, N-acetylneuraminate lyase, arylesterase, and glycosulfatase activities produced by 23 isolates of human fecal bacteria grown anaerobically in a hog gastric mucin culture medium; these represented dominant populations of fecal anaerobes, facultative anaerobes, and the subset of mucin oligosaccharide-degrading bacteria. Every strain produced sialidase and high levels of arylesterase, and all but five facultative anaerobes produced sialate O-acetylesterase. Sialic acids containing 2 mol or more of O-acetyl ester per mol of sialic acid were cleaved from mucin glycoproteins more slowly by sialidases of mucin oligosaccharide-degrading stains than were sialic acids containing 1 or 0 mol, and only N-acetyl- and mono-O-acetylated sialic acids were recovered from enzyme digests of a mucin containing di-O-acetylated sialic acids. No detectable N-acetylneuraminate lyase activity was produced by any strain, but low activity was induced by increasing the glycoprotein-bound sialic acid concentration in the culture medium of six Escherichia coli strains. Using lactitol-6-sulfate as a substrate, we found weak glycosulfatase activity in the partially purified, concentrated enzyme mixture in the culture supernatants of four mucin oligosaccharide-degrading strains but in none of the unconcentrated culture fractions. We conclude that the presence of two or more O-acetyl groups on sialic acids inhibits enteric bacterial sialidases but that production of sialate O-acetylesterases by several populations of enteric bacteria

  17. Mucin glycan foraging in the human gut microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Tailford, Louise E.; Crost, Emmanuelle H.; Kavanaugh, Devon; Juge, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The availability of host and dietary carbohydrates in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract plays a key role in shaping the structure-function of the microbiota. In particular, some gut bacteria have the ability to forage on glycans provided by the mucus layer covering the GI tract. The O-glycan structures present in mucin are diverse and complex, consisting predominantly of core 1-4 mucin-type O-glycans containing α- and β- linked N-acetyl-galactosamine, galactose and N-acetyl-glucosamine. These core structures are further elongated and frequently modified by fucose and sialic acid sugar residues via α1,2/3/4 and α2,3/6 linkages, respectively. The ability to metabolize these mucin O-linked oligosaccharides is likely to be a key factor in determining which bacterial species colonize the mucosal surface. Due to their proximity to the immune system, mucin-degrading bacteria are in a prime location to influence the host response. However, despite the growing number of bacterial genome sequences available from mucin degraders, our knowledge on the structural requirements for mucin degradation by gut bacteria remains fragmented. This is largely due to the limited number of functionally characterized enzymes and the lack of studies correlating the specificity of these enzymes with the ability of the strain to degrade and utilize mucin and mucin glycans. This review focuses on recent findings unraveling the molecular strategies used by mucin-degrading bacteria to utilize host glycans, adapt to the mucosal environment, and influence human health. PMID:25852737

  18. Extracellular RNA in aging.

    PubMed

    Dluzen, Douglas F; Noren Hooten, Nicole; Evans, Michele K

    2017-03-01

    Since the discovery of extracellular RNA (exRNA) in circulation and other bodily fluids, there has been considerable effort to catalog and assess whether exRNAs can be used as markers for health and disease. A variety of exRNA species have been identified including messenger RNA and noncoding RNA such as microRNA (miRNA), small nucleolar RNA, transfer RNA, and long noncoding RNA. Age-related changes in exRNA abundance have been observed, and it is likely that some of these transcripts play a role in aging. In this review, we summarize the current state of exRNA profiling in various body fluids and discuss age-related changes in exRNA abundance that have been identified in humans and other model organisms. miRNAs, in particular, are a major focus of current research and we will highlight and discuss the potential role that specific miRNAs might play in age-related phenotypes and disease. We will also review challenges facing this emerging field and various strategies that can be used for the validation and future use of exRNAs as markers of aging and age-related disease. WIREs RNA 2017, 8:e1385. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1385 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  19. Macromolecular properties and polymeric structure of canine tracheal mucins.

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, V; Virmani, A K; Naziruddin, B; Sachdev, G P

    1991-01-01

    Two high-Mr mucus glycoproteins (mucins), CTM-A and CTM-B, were highly purified from canine tracheal pouch secretions, and their macromolecular properties as well as polymeric structure were investigated. On SDS/composite-gel electrophoresis, a diffuse band was observed for each mucin. Polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis using 6% gels also showed the absence of low-Mr contaminants in the mucins. Comparison of chemical and amino acid compositions revealed significant differences between the two mucins. Using a static-laser-light-scattering technique, CTM-A and CTM-B were found to have weight-average Mr values of about 11.0 x 10(6) and 1.4 x 10(6) respectively. Both mucins showed concentration-dependent aggregation in buffer containing 6 M-guanidine hydrochloride. Under similar experimental conditions, reduced-alkylated CTM-A had an Mr of 5.48 x 10(6) and showed no concentration-dependent aggregation. Hydrophobic properties of the mucins, investigated by the fluorescent probe technique using mansylphenylalanine as the probe, showed the presence of a large number of low-affinity (KD approx. 10(5) M) binding sites. These sites appeared to be located on the non-glycosylated regions of the protein core, since Pronase digestion of the mucins almost completely eliminated probe binding. Reduction of disulphide bonds of CTM-A and CTM-B did not significantly alter the probe-binding properties. Also, addition of increasing NaCl concentrations (0.03-1.0 M) to the buffer caused only a small change in the hydrophobic properties of native and reduced-alkylated mucins. CTM-A was deglycosylated, without notable in the hydrophobic properties of native and reduced-alkylated mucins. CTM-A was deglycosylated, without notable degradation, using a combination of chemical and enzymic methods. On SDS/PAGE the protein core was estimated to have an Mr of approx. 60,000. On the basis of the protein and carbohydrate contents of the major mucin CTM-A, the mucin monomer was calculated to have an

  20. Mucin-interacting proteins: from function to therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Senapati, Shantibhusan; Das, Srustidhar; Batra, Surinder K.

    2010-01-01

    Mucins are high molecular weight glycoproteins that are involved in regulating diverse cellular activities both in normal and pathological conditions. Mucin activity and localization is mediated by several molecular mechanisms, including discrete interactions with other proteins. An understanding of the biochemistry behind the known interactions between mucins and other proteins, coupled with an appreciation of their pathophysiological significance, can lend insight into the development of novel therapeutic agents. Indeed, a recent study demonstrated that a cell permeable inhibitor, PMIP, which disrupts the MUC1–EGFR interaction, is effective in killing breast cancer cells in vitro and in tumor models. PMID:19913432

  1. Surgical treatment of mucin-producing cholangiocarcinoma arising from intraductal papillary neoplasm of the intrahepatic bile duct: a report of 2 cases

    PubMed Central

    Baterdene, Namsrai; Lee, Jong-Wook; Jung, Min-Jae; Shin, Heeji; Seo, Hye Kyoung; Kim, Myeong-Hwan; Lee, Sung-Koo

    2016-01-01

    Intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct (IPNB) leads to malignant transformation and mucin production. Herein, we presented two cases of mucin-producing IPNB with obstructive jaundice who underwent resection of the intrahepatic lesions and bypass hepaticojejunostomy. The first case was a 69 year-old male patient with 5-year follow up for gallstone disease. Imaging studies showed mucin-secreting IPNB mainly in the hepatic segment III bile duct (B3) and multiple intrahepatic duct stones for which, segment III resection, intrahepatic stone removal, end-to-side choledochojejunostomy and B3 hepaticojejunostomy were conducted. The second case was a 74 year-old female patient with 11-year follow up for gallstone disease. Imaging studies showed mucin-producing IPNB with dilatation of the segment IV duct (B4) and mural nodules for which, segment IV resection, partial resection of the diaphragm and central hepaticojejunostomy were conducted. Both patients recovered uneventfully from surgery. These cases highlight that in patients with IPNB, abundant production of highly viscous mucin inducing obstructive jaundice may be associated with malignant transformation. PMID:27621752

  2. Influence of microemulsion-mucin interaction on the fate of microemulsions diffusing through pig gastric mucin solutions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianbin; Lv, Yan; Wang, Bing; Zhao, Shan; Tan, Mingqian; Lv, Guojun; Ma, Xiaojun

    2015-03-02

    Mucus layer, a selective diffusion barrier, has an important effect on the fate of drug delivery systems in the gastrointestinal tract. To study the fate of microemulsions in the mucus layer, four microemulsion formulations with different particle sizes and lipid compositions were prepared. The microemulsion-mucin interaction was demonstrated by the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) method. Moreover, the microemulsions were observed aggregated into micron-sized emulsions by laser confocal microscopy. We concluded the microemulsion-mucin interaction not only led to microemulsions closely adhered to mucins but also destroyed the structure of microemulsions. At last, the diffusion of blank microemulsions and microemulsion-carried drugs (resveratrol and hymecromone) through mucin solutions was determined by the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) method and the Franz diffusion cell method. The results demonstrated the diffusion of microemulsions was significantly hindered by mucin solutions. The particle size of microemulsions had a negligible effect on the diffusion coefficients. However, the type of lipid played an important role, which could form hydrophobic interactions with mucins. Interestingly, microemulsion-carried drugs with different core/shell locations seemed to suffer different fates in the mucin solutions. The drug incorporated in the oil core of microemulsions, resveratrol, was transported through the mucus layer by the carriers, while the drug incorporated in the surfactant shell of microemulsions, hymecromone, was separated from the carriers and diffused toward the epithelium in the form of free molecules.

  3. Ultrasensitive detection of mucin 1 biomarker by immuno-loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hongmei; Fang, Xueen; Li, Haipeng; Li, Hua; Kong, Jilie

    2017-03-01

    Mucin 1 (MUC-1), a glycoprotein over-expressed on most malignant epithelial cell surfaces, such as colorectal, lung, prostate, pancreatic, ovarian, and bladder carcinomas, has been confirmed as a useful biomarker for the diagnosis of early cancers. Therefore, it is very important for early cancer diagnoses to develop the sensitive and specific detection approach of MUC-1. In this paper, we report a novel technique of aptamer-based Immuno-Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (Im-LAMP) for the quantitative detection of MUC-1 by MUC-1 aptamer with high affinity for MUC-1. The cycle time is linearly dependent on the logarithm (log) of the concentration of mucin 1 ranging from 1.0 pM to 1.0 aM. We call this technique Im-LAMP, which is a novel method for the detection of low-abundance proteins with high sensitivity (a low detection limit of 120 MUC-1 molecules by calculation)and specificity. Finally, this approach is also successfully applied in the analysis of human blood serum samples. It also lays the foundation for the early diagnosis of different types of low-abundance cancer biomarkers.

  4. Engagement of the Mannose Receptor by Tumoral Mucins Activates an Immune Suppressive Phenotype in Human Tumor-Associated Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Allavena, P.; Chieppa, M.; Bianchi, G.; Solinas, G.; Fabbri, M.; Laskarin, G.; Mantovani, A.

    2010-01-01

    Tumor-Associated Macrophages (TAMs) are abundantly present in the stroma of solid tumors and modulate several important biological processes, such as neoangiogenesis, cancer cell proliferation and invasion, and suppression of adaptive immune responses. Myeloid C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) constitute a large family of transmembrane carbohydrate-binding receptors that recognize pathogens as well as endogenous glycoproteins. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that some CLRs can inhibit the immune response. In this study we investigated TAM-associated molecules potentially involved in their immune suppressive activity. We found that TAMs isolated from human ovarian carcinoma samples predominantly express the CLRs Dectin-1, MDL-1, MGL, DCIR, and most abundantly the Mannose Receptor (MR). Components of carcinomatous ascites and purified tumoral mucins (CA125 and TAG-72) bound the MR and induced its internalization. MR engagement by tumoral mucins and by an agonist anti-MR antibody modulated cytokine production by TAM toward an immune-suppressive profile: increase of IL-10, absence of IL-12, and decrease of the Th1-attracting chemokine CCL3. This study highlights that tumoral mucin-mediated ligation of the MR on infiltrating TAM may contribute to their immune suppressive phenotype. PMID:21331365

  5. Is mucinous carcinoma of the colorectum a distinct genetic entity?

    PubMed Central

    Hanski, C.

    1995-01-01

    Mucinous carcinomas are defined on the basis of the amount of the mucus component in the tumour mass. Apart from this quantitative criterion, a number of clinicopathological parameters (such as localisation, prevalence in different countries and age groups, association with HNPCC and inflammatory processes) and genetic alterations (e.g. frequency of mutation in Ki-ras and p53 genes, level of MUC2 expression) differentiate these tumours from the non-mucinous ones. Since a different set of genetic lesions implies different inducing agents, these observations suggest that there may be a 'mucinous pathway of carcinogenesis'. Further identification of genetic changes characteristic of the mucinous phenotype will help to understand the aetiology of these tumours and possibly establish markers for detection of the high-risk group. PMID:8519644

  6. Absence of microsatellite instability in mucinous carcinomas of the breast.

    PubMed

    Lacroix-Triki, Magali; Lambros, Maryou B; Geyer, Felipe C; Suarez, Paula H; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Weigelt, Britta

    2010-11-27

    Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a form of genetic instability that results from defects in DNA mismatch repair. MSI is reported to be rare in unselected breast cancers, however it is a common feature in subsets of colorectal, ovarian and endometrial cancers. In these anatomical sites, MSI-high carcinomas often display a mucinous histology. The aim of this study was to determine whether mucinous carcinomas of the breast would more frequently display MSI-high than invasive ductal carcinomas of no special type (IDC-NSTs). The expression of four MSI markers (i.e. MSH2, MSH6, MLH1 and PMS2) was immunohistochemically assessed in 35 mucinous breast carcinomas and 35 histological grade- and oestrogen receptor (ER) status-matched IDC-NSTs, and in a series of 245 invasive breast cancers. Cases were considered as potentially MSI-high if tumour cells lacked expression of at least two MSI markers and internal controls displayed nuclear staining. Nine mucinous carcinomas were microdissected and subjected to MSI analysis by PCR using the MSI markers BAT26 and BAT40. No immunohistochemical evidence of MSI-high was found in the 35 mucinous carcinomas and 35 grade- and ER-matched IDC-NSTs, and in the cohort of 245 invasive breast cancers. In addition, no evidence of MSI-high was observed by PCR analysis using the BAT26 and BAT40 markers in the nine mucinous carcinomas tested. Our results demonstrate that MSI-high phenotype is remarkably rare in invasive breast cancer, and that, in contrast to mucinous carcinomas of other anatomical sites, MSI is not a common event in mucinous carcinomas of the breast.

  7. Identification of novel proteins secreted by Lactobacillus plantarum that bind to mucin and fibronectin.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Borja; Schmitter, Jean-Marie; Urdaci, María C

    2009-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is a lactic acid bacterium that can be isolated from a high variety of fermented foods, including dairy products. In the present work, eight novel proteins secreted by three L. plantarum strains have been identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Seven of them were predicted as extracellular proteins containing putative signal peptides. The sixth, identified as glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), is a cytoplasmic protein that has been detected on the surface of several microorganisms. Muramidase and GAPDH were secreted only by the L. plantarum BMCM12 strain. Two other bands present in this strain were not identified, in spite of their yielding good tryptic profiles, suggesting an absence of homolog sequences in the molecular databases. Four of these proteins, including GAPDH, bound to mucin and fibronectin. These proteins might play important roles in the physiology and ecology of this bacterium, notably in the interaction with the human host.

  8. Chemically tunable mucin chimeras assembled on living cells

    DOE PAGES

    Kramer, Jessica R.; Onoa, Bibiana; Bustamante, Carlos; ...

    2015-09-29

    Mucins are a family of secreted and transmembrane glycoproteins characterized by a massive domain of dense O-glycosylation on serine and threonine residues. Mucins are intimately involved in immunity and cancer, yet elucidation of the biological roles of their glycodomains has been complicated by their massive size, domain polymorphisms, and variable glycosylation patterns. Here we developed a synthetic route to a library of compositionally defined, high-molecular weight, dual end-functionalized mucin glycodomain constructs via N-carboxyanhydride polymerization. These glycopolypeptides are the first synthetic analogs to our knowledge to feature the native α-GalNAc linkage to serine with molecular weights similar to native mucins, solvingmore » a nearly 50-year synthetic challenge. Physical characterization of the mimics revealed insights into the structure and properties of mucins. The synthetic glycodomains were end-functionalized with an optical probe and a tetrazine moiety, which allowed site-specific bioorthogonal conjugation to an engineered membrane protein on live mammalian cells. Lastly, this strategy in protein engineering will open avenues to explore the biological roles of cell surface mucins.« less

  9. Genetically engineered mucin mouse models for inflammation and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Suhasini; Kumar, Sushil; Bafna, Sangeeta; Rachagani, Satyanarayana; Wagner, Kay-Uwe; Jain, Maneesh

    2015-01-01

    Mucins are heavily O-glycosylated proteins primarily produced by glandular and ductal epithelial cells, either in membrane-tethered or secretory forms, for providing lubrication and protection from various exogenous and endogenous insults. However, recent studies have linked their aberrant overexpression with infection, inflammation, and cancer that underscores their importance in tissue homeostasis. In this review, we present current status of the existing mouse models that have been developed to gain insights into the functional role(s) of mucins under physiological and pathological conditions. Knockout mouse models for membrane-associated (Muc1 and Muc16) and secretory mucins (Muc2) have helped us to elucidate the role of mucins in providing effective and protective barrier functions against pathological threats, participation in disease progression, and improved our understanding of mucin interaction with biotic and abiotic environmental components. Emphasis is also given to available transgenic mouse models (MUC1 and MUC7), which has been exploited to understand the context-dependent regulation and therapeutic potential of human mucins during inflammation and cancer. PMID:25634251

  10. Chemically tunable mucin chimeras assembled on living cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Jessica R.; Onoa, Bibiana; Bustamante, Carlos; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2015-09-29

    Mucins are a family of secreted and transmembrane glycoproteins characterized by a massive domain of dense O-glycosylation on serine and threonine residues. Mucins are intimately involved in immunity and cancer, yet elucidation of the biological roles of their glycodomains has been complicated by their massive size, domain polymorphisms, and variable glycosylation patterns. Here we developed a synthetic route to a library of compositionally defined, high-molecular weight, dual end-functionalized mucin glycodomain constructs via N-carboxyanhydride polymerization. These glycopolypeptides are the first synthetic analogs to our knowledge to feature the native α-GalNAc linkage to serine with molecular weights similar to native mucins, solving a nearly 50-year synthetic challenge. Physical characterization of the mimics revealed insights into the structure and properties of mucins. The synthetic glycodomains were end-functionalized with an optical probe and a tetrazine moiety, which allowed site-specific bioorthogonal conjugation to an engineered membrane protein on live mammalian cells. Lastly, this strategy in protein engineering will open avenues to explore the biological roles of cell surface mucins.

  11. Salivary mucins promote the coexistence of competing oral bacterial species.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Erica Shapiro; Ribbeck, Katharina

    2017-01-24

    Mucus forms a major ecological niche for microbiota in various locations throughout the human body such as the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract and oral cavity. The primary structural components of mucus are mucin glycoproteins, which crosslink to form a complex polymer network that surrounds microbes. Although the mucin matrix could create constraints that impact inhabiting microbes, little is understood about how this key environmental factor affects interspecies interactions. In this study, we develop an experimental model using gel-forming human salivary mucins to understand the influence of mucin on the viability of two competing species of oral bacteria. We use this dual-species model to show that mucins promote the coexistence of the two competing bacteria and that mucins shift cells from the mixed-species biofilm into the planktonic form. Taken together, these findings indicate that the mucus environment could influence bacterial viability by promoting a less competitive mode of growth.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 24 January 2017; doi:10.1038/ismej.2016.200.

  12. Viscous boundary lubrication of hydrophobic surfaces by mucin.

    PubMed

    Yakubov, Gleb E; McColl, James; Bongaerts, Jeroen H H; Ramsden, Jeremy J

    2009-02-17

    The lubricating behavior of the weakly charged short-side-chain glycoprotein mucin "Orthana" (Mw=0.55 MDa) has been investigated between hydrophobic and hydrophilic PDMS substrates using soft-contact tribometry. It was found that mucin facilitates lubrication between hydrophobic PDMS surfaces, leading to a 10-fold reduction in boundary friction coefficient for rough surfaces. The presence of mucin also results in a shift of the mixed lubrication regime to lower entrainment speeds. The observed boundary lubrication behavior of mucin was found to depend on the bulk concentration, and we linked this to the structure and dynamics of the adsorbed mucin films, which are assessed using optical waveguide light spectroscopy. We observe a composite structure of the adsorbed mucin layer, with its internal structure governed by entanglement. The film thickness of this adsorbed layer increases with concentration, while the boundary friction coefficient for rough surfaces was found to be inversely proportional to the thickness of the adsorbed film. This link between lubrication and structure of the film is consistent with a viscous boundary lubrication mechanism, i.e., a thicker adsorbed film, at a given sliding speed, results in a lower local shear rate and, hence, in a lower local shear stress. The estimated local viscosities of the adsorbed layer, derived from the friction measurements and the polymer layer density, are in agreement with each other.

  13. Clinicopathologic characteristics of mucinous carcinoma of the breast.

    PubMed

    Hanagiri, Takeshi; Ono, Kenji; Baba, Teturo; So, Tetsuya; Yamasaki, Masaharu; Nagata, Yoshika; Uramoto, Hidetaka; Takenoyama, Mitsuhiro; Yasumoto, Kosei

    2010-01-01

    The mucinous carcinoma of breast cancer is a relatively rare malignant tumor. This study investigated the clinical and pathologic features of mucinous carcinoma. The medical records of 237 patients with invasive breast cancer who underwent surgery between 1995 and 2006 were reviewed. These cases included 10 patients (4.2%) with mucinous carcinoma. The age of the patients ranged from 43 to 71 years (mean, 55.5 years). The tumor size was T1 in 5 patients and T2 in 5 patients. Lymph node metastasis was diagnosed as being negative in 9 patients and positive in 1 patient. Six patients (60%) were positive both for estrogen and progesterone receptor. The 10-year survival rates of mucinous carcinoma and other types of invasive breast cancer were 87.5% and 80.7%, respectively. Mucinous carcinoma showed a lower incidence of lymph node metastasis than other types of invasive breast cancer. Mucinous carcinoma tended to have a better prognosis in comparison with other types of invasive breast carcinoma.

  14. Developmental expression of mucin genes in the human gastrointestinal system

    PubMed Central

    Reid, C; Harris, A

    1998-01-01

    Background and aims—Mucin glycoproteins play a key role in the normal function of the epithelium lining the gastrointestinal tract. The expression of mucin genes, MUC 3, 4, 5AC, 5B, 6, 7, and 8 in human fetal tissues was examined to establish the localisation and age of onset of expression of each mucin gene during human development. 
Methods—Mucin gene expression was assayed by mRNA in situ hybridisation. 
Results—Expression of MUC3 was detected in the small intestine and colon from 13 weeks gestation onwards and at low levels in the main pancreatic duct at 13 weeks only. MUC4 expression was seen at a low level in the colonic epithelium from 13 weeks of gestation but not elsewhere in the gastrointestinal tract. MUC5AC mRNA was detected in the colon at 17 weeks and at high levels in the stomach at 23 weeks. MUC6 transcripts were evident in the pancreatic ducts from 13 weeks of gestation and at high levels in the stomach at 23 weeks. MUC5B, MUC7, and MUC8 transcripts were not detected. 
Conclusions—Mucin genes are expressed from the early mid-trimester of gestation in the developing human fetal gastrointestinal tract. 

 Keywords: mucin; developmental expression; gastrointestinal tract PMID:9536947

  15. Human milk mucin 1 and mucin 4 inhibit Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium invasion of human intestinal epithelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Yu, Zhuoteng; Chen, Ceng; Kling, David E; Newburg, David S

    2012-08-01

    Many human milk glycans inhibit pathogen binding to host receptors and their consumption by infants is associated with reduced risk of disease. Salmonella infection is more frequent among infants than among the general population, but the incidence is lower in breast-fed babies, suggesting that human milk could contain components that inhibit Salmonella. This study aimed to test whether human milk per se inhibits Salmonella invasion of human intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and, if so, to identify the milk components responsible for inhibition. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344 (SL1344) invasion of FHs 74 Int and Caco-2 cells were the models of human intestinal epithelium infection. Internalization of fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate-labeled SL1344 into intestinal cells was measured by flow cytometry to quantify infection. Human milk and its fractions inhibited infection; the inhibitory activity localized to the high molecular weight glycans. Mucin 1 and mucin 4 were isolated to homogeneity. At 150 μg/L, a typical concentration in milk, human milk mucin 1 and mucin 4 inhibited SL1344 invasion of both target cell types. These mucins inhibited SL1344 invasion of epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, mucins may prove useful as a basis for developing novel oral prophylactic and therapeutic agents that inhibit infant diseases caused by Salmonella and related pathogens.

  16. Regulation of innate immunity by extracellular nucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Gorini, Stefania; Gatta, Lucia; Pontecorvo, Laura; Vitiello, Laura; la Sala, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular ATP (eATP) is the most abundant among extracellular nucleotides and is commonly considered as a classical danger signal, which stimulates immune responses in the presence of tissue injury. In fact, increased nucleotide concentration in the extracellular space is generally closely associated with tissue stress or damage. However non-lytic nucleotide release may also occur in many cell types under a variety of conditions. Extracellular nucleotides are sensed by a class of plasma membrane receptors called P2 purinergic receptors (P2Rs). P2 receptors are expressed by all immunological cells and their activation elicits different responses. Extracellular ATP can act as an initiator or terminator of immune responses being able to induce different effects on immune cells depending on the pattern of P2 receptors engaged, the duration of the stimulus and its concentration in the extracellular milieu. Millimolar (high) concentrations of extracellular ATP, induce predominantly proinflammatory effects, while micromolar (low) doses exert mainly tolerogenic/immunosuppressive action. Moreover small, but significant differences in the pattern of P2 receptor expression in mice and humans confer diverse capacities of ATP in regulating the immune response. PMID:23358447

  17. Physical and chemical characteristics of mucin secreted by pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP)

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Krishna; Akhter, Javed; Mekkawy, Ahmed; Chua, Terence C; Morris, David L

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a rare disease with excess intraperitoneal mucin secretion. Treatment involves laparotomy, cytoreduction and chemotherapy that is very invasive with patients often acquiring numerous compromises. Hence a mucolytic comprising of bromelain and N-acetyl cystein has been developed to solubilise mucin in situ for removal by catherization. Owing to differences in mucin appearance and hardness, dissolution varies. Therefore the current study investigates the inter-mucin physical and chemical characteristics, in order to reformulate an effective mucolytic for all mucin. Method: PMP mucin, from the three categories (soft, semi hard and hard mucin) was solubilised and then various physical characteristics such as turbidity, density, kinematic viscosity were measured. The water content and the density of solid mucin were also determined. This was followed by the determination of sialic acid, glucose, lipid, Thiol (S-S and S-H) content of the samples. Lastly, the distribution of MUC2, MUC5B and MUC5AC was determined using western blot technique. Results: Both turbidity and kinematic viscosity and sialic acid content increased linearly as the hardness of mucin increased. However, density, hydration, protein, glucose, lipid and sulfhydryl and disulphide content decreased linearly as hardness of mucin increased. The distribution ratio of mucins (MUC2:MUC5B:MUC5AC) in soft mucin is 2.25:1.5:1.0, semi hard mucin is 1:1:1 and hard mucin is 3:2:1. Conclusion: The difference in texture and hardness of mucin may be due to cellular content, hydration, glucose, protein, lipids, thiol and MUC distribution. Soft mucin is solely made of glycoprotein whilst the others contained cellular materials. PMID:28138305

  18. Ocular melanoma and mammary mucinous carcinoma in an African lion

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Reports of neoplasms in Panthera species are increasing, but they are still an uncommon cause of disease and death in captive wild felids. The presence of two or more primary tumor in large felids is rarely reported, and there are no documented cases of ocular melanoma and mammary mucinous carcinoma in African lions. Case presentation An ocular melanoma and a mammary mucinous carcinoma are described in an African lion (Panthera leo). The first tumour was histologically characterized by the presence of epithelioid and fusiform melanocytes, while the latter was composed of mucus-producing cells with an epithelial phenotype that contained periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and Alcian blue staining mucins. Metastases of both tumor were identified in various organs and indirect immunohistochemistry was used to characterize them. Peribiliary cysts were observed in the liver. Conclusions This is the first description of these tumor in African lions. PMID:23009723

  19. Mucin biopolymers as broad-spectrum antiviral agents

    PubMed Central

    Lieleg, Oliver; Lieleg, Corinna; Bloom, Jesse; Buck, Christopher B.; Ribbeck, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    Mucus is a porous biopolymer matrix that coats all wet epithelia in the human body and serves as the first line of defense against many pathogenic bacteria and viruses. However, under certain conditions viruses are able to penetrate this infection barrier, which compromises the protective function of native mucus. Here, we find that isolated porcine gastric mucin polymers, key structural components of native mucus, can protect an underlying cell layer from infection by small viruses such as human papillomavirus (HPV), Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV), or a strain of influenza A virus. Single particle analysis of virus mobility inside the mucin barrier reveals that this shielding effect is in part based on a retardation of virus diffusion inside the biopolymer matrix. Our findings suggest that purified mucins may be used as a broad-range antiviral supplement to personal hygiene products, baby formula or lubricants to support our immune system. PMID:22475261

  20. Gelation of mucin: Protecting the stomach from autodigestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansil, Rama

    2011-03-01

    In this talk I will describe the molecular mechanisms involved in the remarkable ability of the mucus lining of the stomach for protecting the stomach from being digested by the acidic gastric juices that it secretes. These physical properties can be attributed to the presence of a high molecular weight glycoprotein found in mucus, called mucin. Rheology and other measurements show that gastric mucin forms a gel under acidic pH. A model of gelation based on the interplay of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions will be discussed. Molecular Dynamics simulation studies of folding and aggregation of mucin domains provide further support for this model. The relevance of gelation to the motion of the ulcer causing bacterium H. pylori will be discussed.

  1. Mechanical intestinal obstruction secondary to appendiceal mucinous cystadenoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zheng-shui; Xu, Wei; Ying, Jia-qi; Cheng, Hua

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Appendiceal mucinous cystadenoma can present in various ways, and it is most commonly encountered incidentally during appendectomy, but mechanical intestinal obstruction secondary to an appendiceal mucocele has been rarely reported. Methods: We report a case of mechanical intestinal obstruction secondary to appendiceal mucinous cystadenoma. After nasogastric decompression and initial aggressive intravenous fluid resuscitation, an emergency operation was performed under the diagnosis of acute mechanical intestinal obstruction. Results: We performed an appendectomy and intraoperative enteral decompression without anastomoses. The pathologic examination (PE) revealed appendiceal mucinous cystadenoma. After the operation, the patient's recovery went smoothly, and the patient was discharged on the fifth postoperative day. No tumor recurrence was recorded over an 8 month follow-up period. Conclusion: Early operative intervention should be recommended to the patient with acute mechanical complete intestinal obstruction, especially the patient who had no previous abdominal surgery. And it is vital to discriminate benign and malignantappendiceal mucocel in determining the extent of surgery. PMID:28151903

  2. Radiologic findings of urachal mucinous cystadenocarcinoma causing pseudomyxoma peritonei.

    PubMed

    Kebapçı, Mahmut; Saylısoy, Suzan; Can, Cavit; Dündar, Emine

    2012-05-01

    Urachal mucinous cystadenocarcinoma causing pseudomyxoma peritonei is very rare. We report a case of a 59-year-old man with urachal mucinous adenocarcinoma associated with pseudomyxoma peritonei, and our radiologic findings. Ultrasonography revealed a well delineated, large cystic tumor adjacent to the anterior wall of the abdomen. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a tumor of which the left posterior wall was defective. A large amount of ascites was present in the peritoneal cavity. The ascites caused displacement of the intestinal structures toward the dorsal region. The tumor wall and septa in the ascites were well enhanced on contrast-enhanced images. Radiologically, pseudomyxoma peritonei due to rupture of urachal cystic tumor was considered. The pathologic diagnosis was mucinous adenocarcinoma and pseudomyxoma peritonei.

  3. Lactobacillus plantarum Extracellular Chitin-Binding Protein and Its Role in the Interaction between Chitin, Caco-2 Cells, and Mucin▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Borja; González-Tejedo, Carmen; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Urdaci, María C.; Margolles, Abelardo

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, we describe the adhesion capabilities of a recombinant Lactococcus lactis strain producing an extracellular protein from Lactobacillus plantarum. Our results show that this protein may offer the bacterium a mechanism to bind to N-acetylglucosamine-containing polymers, such as human mucins, present in different environments. PMID:21131525

  4. Genome wide analysis of the bovine mucin genes and their gastrointestinal transcription profile

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mucins are large glycoproteins implicated in protection of all mucosal surfaces. In humans and rodents, the mucin gene family has been well described and previous studies have investigated the distribution and function of mucins in the respiratory, urogenital and gastrointestinal (GI) tracts. In con...

  5. Aspergillosis and the role of mucins in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Cowley, Abigail C; Thornton, David J; Denning, David W; Horsley, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    The prevalence of aspergillosis in CF patients has until recently been underestimated, but increasing evidence suggests that it may play an important role in the progression of CF lung disease. In healthy airways, Aspergillus fumigatus can be efficiently removed from the lung by mechanisms such as mucociliary clearance and cough. However, these mechanisms are defective in CF, allowing pathogens such as A. fumigatus to germinate and establish chronic infections within the airways. The precise means by which A. fumigatus contributes to CF lung disease remain largely unclear. As the first point of contact within the lung, and an important component of the innate immune system, it is likely that the mucus barrier plays an important role in this process. Study of the functional interplay between this vital protective barrier, and in particular its principal structural components, the polymeric gel-forming mucins, and CF pathogens such as A. fumigatus, is at an early stage. A. fumigatus protease activity has been shown to upregulate mucus production by inducing mucin mRNA and protein expression, and A. fumigatus proteases and glycosidases are able to degrade mucins. This may allow A. fumigatus to alter mucus barrier properties to promote fungal colonization of the airways and/or utilize mucins as a nutrient source. Moreover, conidial surface lectin binding to mucin glycans is a key aspect of clearance of Aspergillus from the lung in health but may be an important aspect of colonization, where mucociliary clearance is compromised, as in the CF lung. Here we discuss the nature of the mucus barrier and its mucin components in CF, and how they may be implicated in A. fumigatus infection. Pediatr Pulmonol 2017;52:548-555. © 2016 The Authors. Pediatric Pulmonology. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. [Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas, IPMN].

    PubMed

    Sirén, Jukka

    2013-01-01

    With the development and increasing use of imaging techniques, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is being detected with increasing frequency. Two forms of the disease are distinguished, the rare main duct form and the common accessory pancreatic duct form. The former often progresses to malignancy, the latter only seldom. The mixed form of IPMN exhibits features of both forms. In main duct IPMN, mucin production obstructs the pancreatic duct causing its dilatation and often symptoms typical of chronic pancreatitis. Main duct IPMN is always an indication for surgery, whereas monitoring is often sufficient for side duct IPMN.

  7. Mucinous Borderline Ovarian Tumor in Very Old Aged Postmenopausal Woman

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Hee; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Lee, Arum; Kim, Yeon-Suk; Jeon, Dong-Su; Kwak, Jeong Ja; Yang, Yo-Sep

    2015-01-01

    Mucinous borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs) occur most often in women between the ages of 20 and 30. Early-stage detection of the condition has a more favorable prognosis. In this case report, the authors present an elderly 93-year old woman who visited our hospital due to severe abdominal pain after being diagnosed with a pelvic mass 2 years ago and not undergoing any treatment since the diagnosis was made. She underwent emergency left salpingo-oophorectomy and was diagnosed with mucinous BOT according to biopsy results. PMID:26793682

  8. Estrogen switches pure mucinous breast cancer to invasive lobular carcinoma with mucinous features.

    PubMed

    Jambal, Purevsuren; Badtke, Melanie M; Harrell, J Chuck; Borges, Virginia F; Post, Miriam D; Sollender, Grace E; Spillman, Monique A; Horwitz, Kathryn B; Jacobsen, Britta M

    2013-01-01

    Mucinous breast cancer (MBC) is mainly a disease of postmenopausal women. Pure MBC is rare and augurs a good prognosis. In contrast, MBC mixed with other histological subtypes of invasive disease loses the more favorable prognosis. Because of the relative rarity of pure MBC, little is known about its cell and tumor biology and relationship to invasive disease of other subtypes. We have now developed a human breast cancer cell line called BCK4, in which we can control the behavior of MBC. BCK4 cells were derived from a patient whose poorly differentiated primary tumor was treated with chemotherapy, radiation and tamoxifen. Malignant cells from a recurrent pleural effusion were xenografted in mammary glands of a nude mouse. Cells from the solid tumor xenograft were propagated in culture to generate the BCK4 cell line. Multiple marker and chromosome analyses demonstrate that BCK4 cells are human, near diploid and luminal, expressing functional estrogen, androgen, and progesterone receptors. When xenografted back into immunocompromised cycling mice, BCK4 cells grow into small pure MBC. However, if mice are supplemented with continuous estradiol, tumors switch to invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) with mucinous features (mixed MBC), and growth is markedly accelerated. Tamoxifen prevents the expansion of this more invasive component. The unexpected ability of estrogens to convert pure MBC into mixed MBC with ILC may explain the rarity of the pure disease in premenopausal women. These studies show that MBC can be derived from lobular precursors and that BCK4 cells are new, unique models to study the phenotypic plasticity, hormonal regulation, optimal therapeutic interventions, and metastatic patterns of MBC.

  9. Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm of Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Norman Oneil; al Qadhi, Hani; al Wahibi, Khalifa

    2015-01-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas are neoplasms that are characterized by ductal dilation, intraductal papillary growth, and thick mucus secretion. This relatively recently defined pathology is evolving in terms of its etiopathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, management, and treatment guidelines. A PubMed database search was performed. All the relevant abstracts in English language were reviewed and the articles in which cases of IPMN could be identified were further scrutinized. Information of IPMN was derived, and duplication of information in several articles and those with areas of persisting uncertainties were excluded. The recent consensus guidelines were examined. The reported incidence of malignancy varies from 57% to 92% in the main duct-IPMN (MD-IPMN) and from 6% to 46% in the branch duct-IPMN (BD-IPMN). The features of high-risk malignant lesions that raise concern include obstructive jaundice in a patient with a cystic lesion in the pancreatic head, the findings on radiological imaging of a mass lesion of >30 mm, enhanced solid component, and the main pancreatic duct (MPD) of size ≥10 mm; while duct size 5-9 mm and cyst size <3 mm are considered as “worrisome features.” Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) are primary investigations in diagnosing and following up on these patients. The role of pancreatoscopy and the analysis of aspirated cystic fluid for cytology and DNA analysis is still to be established. In general, resection is recommended for most MD-IPMN, mixed variant, and symptomatic BD-IPMN. The 5-year survival of patients after surgical resection for noninvasive IPMN is reported to be at 77-100%, while for those with invasive carcinoma, it is significantly lower at 27-60%. The follow-up of these patients could vary from 6 months to 1 year and would depend on the risk stratification for invasive malignancy and the pathology of the resected specimen. The understanding of

  10. Mucinous Cystadenoma of the Testis: A Case Report with Immunohistochemical Findings

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gilhyang; Kwon, Dohee; Na, Hee Young; Kim, Sehui; Moon, Kyung Chul

    2017-01-01

    Mucinous cystadenoma of the testis is a very rare tumor. Herein, we report a case of mucinous cystadenoma arising in the testis of a 61-year-old man, along with a literature review. Computed tomography showed a 2.5-cm-sized poorly enhancing cystic mass. Grossly, the tumor was a unilocular cystic mass filled with mucinous material and confined to the testicular parenchyma. Histologically, the cyst had a fibrotic wall lined by mucinous columnar epithelium without atypia. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for cytokeratin 20 and CDX2, as well as focally positive for cytokeratin 7. The pathologic diagnosis was mucinous cystadenoma. PMID:28189139

  11. Colonic mucin synthesis is increased by sodium butyrate.

    PubMed

    Finnie, I A; Dwarakanath, A D; Taylor, B A; Rhodes, J M

    1995-01-01

    The effects of sodium butyrate and sodium bromo-octanoate (an inhibitor of beta oxidation) on colonic mucus glycoprotein (mucin) synthesis have been assessed using tissue from colonic resection samples. Epithelial biopsy specimens were incubated for 16 hours in RPMI 1640 with glutamine, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum and N-acetyl-[3H]-glucosamine ([3H]-Glc NAc), and differing concentrations of sodium butyrate. Incorporation of [3H] Glc NAc into mucin by normal epithelium at least 10 cm distant from colonic cancer was increased in the presence of sodium butyrate in a dose dependent manner, with maximum effect (476%) at a concentration of 0.1 mM (number of specimens = 24 from six patients, p < 0.001). The increase in response to butyrate was not seen when specimens were incubated in the presence of the beta oxidation inhibitor sodium bromo-octanoate 0.05 M. The striking increase in mucin synthesis that results when butyrate is added to standard nutrient medium suggests that this may be an important mechanism affecting the rate of mucin synthesis in vivo and may also explain the therapeutic effect of butyrate in colitis.

  12. Adhesion Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria on Intestinal Mucin

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, Keita; Sugiyama, Makoto; Mukai, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are Gram-positive bacteria that are natural inhabitants of the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of mammals, including humans. Since Mechnikov first proposed that yogurt could prevent intestinal putrefaction and aging, the beneficial effects of LAB have been widely demonstrated. The region between the duodenum and the terminal of the ileum is the primary region colonized by LAB, particularly the Lactobacillus species, and this region is covered by a mucus layer composed mainly of mucin-type glycoproteins. The mucus layer plays a role in protecting the intestinal epithelial cells against damage, but is also considered to be critical for the adhesion of Lactobacillus in the GI tract. Consequently, the adhesion exhibited by lactobacilli on mucin has attracted attention as one of the critical factors contributing to the persistent beneficial effects of Lactobacillus in a constantly changing intestinal environment. Thus, understanding the interactions between Lactobacillus and mucin is crucial for elucidating the survival strategies of LAB in the GI tract. This review highlights the properties of the interactions between Lactobacillus and mucin, while concomitantly considering the structure of the GI tract from a histochemical perspective. PMID:27681930

  13. Laparoscopic treatment of mucinous urachal adenocarcinoma with mucocele.

    PubMed

    Oberndoerfer, Marine; Bucher, Pascal; Caviezel, Alessandro; Platon, Alexandra; Ott, Vincent; Egger, Jean-François; Morel, Philippe

    2009-02-01

    We present a case of an asymptomatic 76-year-old woman treated laparoscopically for an urachal mucocele owing to a nonmetastatic urachal mucinous adenocarcinoma. Since laparoscopic en bloc resection of the urachus and partial cystectomy, the patient has been healthy and disease-free for 12 months. Modern surgical treatment of urachal adenocarcinoma is discussed in the light of this case.

  14. Mupirocin-mucin agar for selective enumeration of Bifidobacterium bifidum.

    PubMed

    Pechar, Radko; Rada, Vojtech; Parafati, Lucia; Musilova, Sarka; Bunesova, Vera; Vlkova, Eva; Killer, Jiri; Mrazek, Jakub; Kmet, Vladimir; Svejstil, Roman

    2014-11-17

    Bifidobacterium bifidum is a bacterial species exclusively found in the human intestinal tract. This species is becoming increasingly popular as a probiotic organism added to lyophilized products. In this study, porcine mucin was used as the sole carbon source for the selective enumeration of B. bifidum in probiotic food additives. Thirty-six bifidobacterial strains were cultivated in broth with mucin. Only 13 strains of B. bifidum utilized the mucin to produce acids. B. bifidum was selectively enumerated in eight probiotic food supplements using agar (MM agar) containing mupirocin (100 mg/L) and mucin (20 g/L) as the sole carbon source. MM agar was fully selective if the B. bifidum species was presented together with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, Bifidobacterium breve, and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum species and with lactic acid bacteria (lactobacilli, streptococci). Isolated strains of B. bifidum were identified using biochemical, PCR, MALDI-TOF procedures and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The novel selective medium was also suitable for the isolation of B. bifidum strains from human fecal samples.

  15. Clinical outcomes among women with mucinous adenocarcinoma of the ovary

    PubMed Central

    Massad, L. Stewart; Gao, Feng; Hagemann, Ian; Powell, Mathew

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Patterns of metastasis and clinical behavior of mucinous ovarian cancers are poorly understood because of their rarity. Methods A retrospective review of records of women identified with pure mucinous invasive ovarian/tubal/peritoneal cancer 1992–2012 at one institution. Survival differences were compared using Kaplan-Meier methods with log-rank tests. Results Among 42 women with mucinous adenocarcinomas the median age was 55 years (range 33–83 years). Most cancers were well differentiated (n = 26, 68%) and stage I/II (n = 31, 74%). One of 27 women with sampled nodes had nodal metastasis; one additional woman recurred in a pelvic node. Most had no visible residual tumor after initial surgery, but of 10 women with stage III/IV cancer and documented residual, 8 had >2cm residual. Except for one woman alive with disease at last follow-up, all who recurred died of disease. Five-year survival was 83% for stage I/II cases but 29% among stage III/IV cases. Stage was a strong predictor of survival (hazard ratio of death among women with stage III/IV cancer 7.73, 95% C.I. 2.33–25.66, P<0.001 vs women with stage I/II cancer). Conclusion Mucinous ovarian cancers have a distinct biology, such that lymphadenectomy for staging is unnecessary and metastatic cancers have poor prognosis. PMID:26583769

  16. Physical Properties of Human Whole Salivary Mucin:A Dynamic Light Scattering Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, Manish; Kumar, Vijay; Saraswat, Mayank; Yadav, Savita; Shukla, N. K.; Singh, T. P.

    2008-04-01

    Human salivary mucin, a primary mucous membrane coating glycoprotein forms the first line of defense against adverse environments, attributed to the complex formation between mucin subunits and non mucin species. Aim of the study was to emphasize the effect of pH, denaturants (guanidinum hydrochloride, urea) and detergents (CHAPS, TRITON X -100, SDS on human whole salivary mucin. Hydrodynamic size distribution was measured using DLS. It was observed that aggregation was due to increase in hydrophobic interactions, believed to be accomplished by unfolding of the protein core. Whereas, the detergents which solubilize the proteins by decreasing hydrophobicity lead to disaggregation of mucin into smaller fragments. Mucin subjected to tobacco extract and upon subsequent addition of nicotine was found to have a disaggregating effect on it, suggesting nicotine may be one of the factors responsible for the disaggregating effect of tobacco on mucin, an important carcinogenetic mechanism.

  17. Yeast extracellular proteases.

    PubMed

    Ogrydziak, D M

    1993-01-01

    Many species of yeast secrete significant amounts of protease(s). In this article, results of numerous surveys of yeast extracellular protease production have been compiled and inconsistencies in the data and limitations of the methodology have been examined. Regulation, purification, characterization, and processing of yeast extracellular proteases are reviewed. Results obtained from the sequences of cloned genes, especially the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Bar protease, the Candida albicans acid protease, and the Yarrowia lipolytica alkaline protease, have been emphasized. Biotechnological applications and the medical relevance of yeast extracellular proteases are covered. Yeast extracellular proteases have potential in beer and wine stabilization, and they probably contribute to pathogenicity of Candida spp. Yeast extracellular protease genes also provide secretion and processing signals for yeast expression systems designed for secretion of heterologous proteins. Coverage of the secretion of foreign proteases such as prochymosin, urokinase, and tissue plasminogen activator by yeast in included.

  18. Effect of dexamethasone and ACC on bacteria-induced mucin expression in human airway mucosa.

    PubMed

    Hauber, Hans-Peter; Goldmann, Torsten; Vollmer, Ekkehard; Wollenberg, Barbara; Zabel, Peter

    2007-11-01

    Gram-negative bacteria can stimulate mucin production, but excessive mucus supports bacterial infection and consequently leads to airway obstruction. Therefore, the effect of dexamethasone (DEX) and the antioxidant acetyl-cysteine (ACC) on bacteria-induced mucus expression was investigated. Explanted human airway mucosa and mucoepidermoid cells (Calu-3) were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or PAM3 (a synthetic lipoprotein). DEX or ACC were added to either LPS- or PAM3-stimulated airway mucosa or Calu-3 cells. Mucin mRNA expression (MUC5AC) and total mucus glycoconjugates (mucin protein) were quantified using real-time PCR and periodic acid Schiff staining. LPS and PAM3 significantly increased mucin expression in airway mucosa and Calu-3 cells (P < 0.05). DEX alone had no significant effect on mucin expression in airway mucosa or Calu-3 cells (P > 0.05). In contrast, DEX significantly reduced LPS- and PAM3-induced mucin expression in explanted mucosal tissue and mucin expression in Calu-3 cells (P < 0.05). In explanted human airway mucosa ACC alone significantly increased mucin expression (P < 0.05). In contrast, ACC significantly decreased LPS- and PAM3-induced mucin expression (P < 0.05). In Calu-3 cells ACC alone had no significant effect on mucin expression (P > 0.05). ACC decreased LPS- and PAM3-induced mucin expression, but this effect was not significant (P > 0.05). These data suggest that DEX can effectively reduce bacteria-induced mucin expression in the airways. ACC alone may increase mucin expression in noninfected mucosa, but it decreased bacteria-induced mucin expression. Further studies are warranted to evaluate whether the effect of DEX or ACC is clinically relevant.

  19. The role of the SEA (sea urchin sperm protein, enterokinase and agrin) module in cleavage of membrane-tethered mucins.

    PubMed

    Palmai-Pallag, Timea; Khodabukus, Naila; Kinarsky, Leo; Leir, Shih-Hsing; Sherman, Simon; Hollingsworth, Michael A; Harris, Ann

    2005-06-01

    The membrane-tethered mucins are cell surface-associated dimeric or multimeric molecules with extracellular, transmembrane and cytoplasmic portions, that arise from cleavage of the primary polypeptide chain. Following the first cleavage, which may be cotranslational, the subunits remain closely associated through undefined noncovalent interactions. These mucins all share a common structural motif, the SEA module that is found in many other membrane-associated proteins that are released from the cell surface and has been implicated in both the cleavage events and association of the subunits. Here we examine the SEA modules of three membrane-tethered mucins, MUC1, MUC3 and MUC12, which have significant sequence homology within the SEA domain. We previously identified the primary cleavage site within the MUC1 SEA domain as FRPG/SVVV a sequence that is highly conserved in MUC3 and MUC12. We now show by site-directed mutagenesis that the F, G and S residues are important for the efficiency of the cleavage reaction but not indispensable and that amino acids outside this motif are probably important. These data are consistent with a new model of the MUC1 SEA domain that is based on the solution structure of the MUC16 SEA module, derived by NMR spectroscopy. Further, we demonstrate that cleavage of human MUC3 and MUC12 occurs within the SEA domain. However, the SEA domains of MUC1, MUC3 and MUC12 are not interchangeable, suggesting that either these modules alone are insufficient to mediate efficient cleavage or that the 3D structure of the hybrid molecules does not adequately re-create an accessible cleavage site.

  20. The chitinase-like protein YKL-40 increases mucin5AC production in human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chunyi; Li, Qi; Zhou, Xiangdong; Kolosov, Victor P.; Perelman, Juliy M.

    2013-11-01

    Mucus overproduction is an important feature in patients with chronic inflammatory airway diseases. However, the regulatory mechanisms that mediate excessive mucin production remain elusive. Recently, the level of YKL-40, a chitinase-like protein, has been found to be significantly increased in chronic inflammatory airway diseases and has been shown to be associated with the severity of these diseases. In this study, we sought to explore the effect of YKL-40 on mucin5AC (MUC5AC) production in chronic inflammatory airway diseases and the potential signaling pathways involved in this process. We found that elevated YKL-40 levels increased the mRNA and protein expression of MUC5AC in a dose- and time-dependent manner, in association with the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), reflecting their activation. These responses were significantly suppressed by the knockdown of protease-activating receptor 2 (PAR2) with specific small interfering RNA or the inhibitors of ERK and NF-κB. YKL-40-induced MUC5AC overproduction was also effectively attenuated by the inhibitor of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Taken together, these results imply that YKL-40 can stimulate excessive MUC5AC production through PAR2- and FAK-mediated mechanisms. - Highlights: • MUC5AC is the major secreted mucin in chronic inflammatory airway diseases. • YKL-40 is a prototype of the chitinase-like protein in mammals. • YKL-40 is an active player in chronic inflammatory airway diseases. • YKL-40 can increase MUC5AC production via PAR2-mediated pathway. • FAK is another candidate to mediate YKL-40-induced MUC5AC overexpression.

  1. Protein-carbohydrate interactions between Lactobacillus salivarius and pig mucins.

    PubMed

    Iñiguez-Palomares, C; Jiménez-Flores, R; Vázquez-Moreno, L; Ramos-Clamont-Montfort, G; Acedo-Félix, E

    2011-10-01

    Adherence to the gastrointestinal tract is a key element desirable for many of the proposed beneficial health effects of probiotic bacteria. The aims of this study were to determine the amounts of adhesion of 3 Lactobacillus salivarius strains (Lb6, Lb9, and Lb10) to porcine small intestinal mucins and to determine whether adhesion is a function of lectin-like activities. Dot and Western blot assays were performed to investigate bacterial adhesion. Several carbohydrates and glycoproteins were evaluated to determine whether they interfered with adhesion of the Lactobacillus strains to intestinal mucins and to determine whether they had lectin-like activities. The Lb9 and Lb10 strains had greater association with piglet mucins than did those from 22- to 24-wk-old finishing pigs (P = 0.021 and 0.037, respectively), whereas the Lb6 strain adhered to both (P = 0.138). Western blot assays showed that bacterial adhesion detected piglet mucosa from the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. In finishing pigs, the adhesion was variable throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Galactose and mannose diminished the interaction of the Lb9 and Lb10 strains in intestinal mucosa (P = 0.028 and 0.026, respectively), whereas pig gastric mucin reduced the adhesion of the Lb6 strain (P = 0.013). Adhesion of the Lb9 and Lb10 strains to intestinal mucosa was less after protease treatment (P = 0.023 and 0.018, respectively), which indicates that proteins are needed for the Lb9 and Lb10 strains to recognize mucin. The Lb6 strain also demonstrated diminished adhesion after periodate treatment (P = 0.038). From these results, we suggest that the nature of the bacterial lectin-like substance is a surface protein that loosely binds to the bacterial cell surface. All the tested strains adhered to specific targets in the small intestinal mucosa of piglets, and the bacteria had lectin-like proteins involved in this adhesion.

  2. The extracellular RNA complement of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Ghosal, Anubrata; Upadhyaya, Bimal Babu; Fritz, Joëlle V; Heintz-Buschart, Anna; Desai, Mahesh S; Yusuf, Dilmurat; Huang, David; Baumuratov, Aidos; Wang, Kai; Galas, David; Wilmes, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The secretion of biomolecules into the extracellular milieu is a common and well-conserved phenomenon in biology. In bacteria, secreted biomolecules are not only involved in intra-species communication but they also play roles in inter-kingdom exchanges and pathogenicity. To date, released products, such as small molecules, DNA, peptides, and proteins, have been well studied in bacteria. However, the bacterial extracellular RNA complement has so far not been comprehensively characterized. Here, we have analyzed, using a combination of physical characterization and high-throughput sequencing, the extracellular RNA complement of both outer membrane vesicle (OMV)-associated and OMV-free RNA of the enteric Gram-negative model bacterium Escherichia coli K-12 substrain MG1655 and have compared it to its intracellular RNA complement. Our results demonstrate that a large part of the extracellular RNA complement is in the size range between 15 and 40 nucleotides and is derived from specific intracellular RNAs. Furthermore, RNA is associated with OMVs and the relative abundances of RNA biotypes in the intracellular, OMV and OMV-free fractions are distinct. Apart from rRNA fragments, a significant portion of the extracellular RNA complement is composed of specific cleavage products of functionally important structural noncoding RNAs, including tRNAs, 4.5S RNA, 6S RNA, and tmRNA. In addition, the extracellular RNA pool includes RNA biotypes from cryptic prophages, intergenic, and coding regions, of which some are so far uncharacterised, for example, transcripts mapping to the fimA-fimL and ves-spy intergenic regions. Our study provides the first detailed characterization of the extracellular RNA complement of the enteric model bacterium E. coli. Analogous to findings in eukaryotes, our results suggest the selective export of specific RNA biotypes by E. coli, which in turn indicates a potential role for extracellular bacterial RNAs in intercellular communication. PMID:25611733

  3. Acquisition of species-specific O-linked carbohydrate chains from oviducal mucins in Rana arvalis. A case study.

    PubMed

    Coppin, A; Maes, E; Flahaut, C; Coddeville, B; Strecker, G

    1999-12-01

    The extracellular matrix surrounding amphibian eggs is composed of mucin-type glycoproteins, highly O-glycosylated and plays an important role in the fertilization process. Oligosaccharide-alditols were released from the oviducal mucins of the anuran Rana arvalis by alkali-borohydride treatment in reduced conditions. Neutral and acidic oligosaccharides were fractionated by ion-exchange chromatographies and purified by HPLC. Each compound was identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) spectrometry, NMR spectroscopy, electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS/MS) and permethylation analyses. This paper reports on the structures of 19 oligosaccharide-alditols, 12 of which have novel structures. These structures range in size from disaccharide to octasaccharide. Some of them are acidic, containing either a glucuronic acid or, more frequently, a sulfate group, located either at the 6 position of GlcNAc or the 3 or 4 positions of Gal. This latter sulfation is novel and has only been characterized in the species R. arvalis. This structural analysis led to the establishment of several novel carbohydrate structures, demonstrating the structural diversity and species-specificity of amphibian glycoconjugates.

  4. Muc5ac gastric mucin glycosylation is shaped by FUT2 activity and functionally impacts Helicobacter pylori binding

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Ana; Rossez, Yannick; Robbe-Masselot, Catherine; Maes, Emmanuel; Gomes, Joana; Shevtsova, Anna; Bugaytsova, Jeanna; Borén, Thomas; Reis, Celso A.

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is lined by a thick and complex layer of mucus that protects the mucosal epithelium from biochemical and mechanical aggressions. This mucus barrier confers protection against pathogens but also serves as a binding site that supports a sheltered niche of microbial adherence. The carcinogenic bacteria Helicobacter pylori colonize the stomach through binding to host glycans present in the glycocalyx of epithelial cells and extracellular mucus. The secreted MUC5AC mucin is the main component of the gastric mucus layer, and BabA-mediated binding of H. pylori to MUC5AC confers increased risk for overt disease. In this study we unraveled the O-glycosylation profile of Muc5ac from glycoengineered mice models lacking the FUT2 enzyme and therefore mimicking a non-secretor human phenotype. Our results demonstrated that the FUT2 determines the O-glycosylation pattern of Muc5ac, with Fut2 knock-out leading to a marked decrease in α1,2-fucosylated structures and increased expression of the terminal type 1 glycan structure Lewis-a. Importantly, for the first time, we structurally validated the expression of Lewis-a in murine gastric mucosa. Finally, we demonstrated that loss of mucin FUT2-mediated fucosylation impairs gastric mucosal binding of H. pylori BabA adhesin, which is a recognized feature of pathogenicity. PMID:27161092

  5. Economical evolution: microbes reduce the synthetic cost of extracellular proteins.

    PubMed

    Smith, Daniel R; Chapman, Matthew R

    2010-08-24

    Protein evolution is not simply a race toward improved function. Because organisms compete for limited resources, fitness is also affected by the relative economy of an organism's proteome. Indeed, many abundant proteins contain relatively high percentages of amino acids that are metabolically less taxing for the cell to make, thus reducing cellular cost. However, not all abundant proteins are economical, and many economical proteins are not particularly abundant. Here we examined protein composition and found that the relative synthetic cost of amino acids constrains the composition of microbial extracellular proteins. In Escherichia coli, extracellular proteins contain, on average, fewer energetically expensive amino acids independent of their abundance, length, function, or structure. Economic pressures have strategically shaped the amino acid composition of multicomponent surface appendages, such as flagella, curli, and type I pili, and extracellular enzymes, including type III effector proteins and secreted serine proteases. Furthermore, in silico analysis of Pseudomonas syringae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and over 25 other microbes spanning a wide range of GC content revealed a broad bias toward more economical amino acids in extracellular proteins. The synthesis of any protein, especially those rich in expensive aromatic amino acids, represents a significant investment. Because extracellular proteins are lost to the environment and not recycled like other cellular proteins, they present a greater burden on the cell, as their amino acids cannot be reutilized during translation. We hypothesize that evolution has optimized extracellular proteins to reduce their synthetic burden on the cell.

  6. Rat and human colonic mucins bind to and inhibit adherence lectin of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed Central

    Chadee, K; Petri, W A; Innes, D J; Ravdin, J I

    1987-01-01

    Establishment of adherence by Entamoeba histolytica is mediated by a 170-kD Gal/GalNAc inhibitable lectin and is required for cytolysis and phagocytosis of mammalian target cells. We studied the biochemical mechanisms of the in vitro interaction between rat and human colonic mucins and axenic E. histolytica trophozoites. Crude mucus prevented amebic adherence to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells by up to 70%. Purification of the colonic mucins by Sepharose 4B chromatography, nuclease digestion, and cesium chloride gradient centrifugation resulted in a 1,000-fold enrichment of the inhibitory mucins. Purified rat mucin inhibited amebic adherence to and cytolysis of homologous rat colonic epithelial cells. Oxidation and enzymatic cleavage of rat mucin Gal and GalNAc residues completely abrogated mucin inhibition of amebic adherence. The binding of rat 125I-mucin to amebae was galactose specific, saturable, reversible, and pH dependent. A monoclonal antibody specific for the 170-kD amebic Gal/GalNAc lectin completely inhibited the binding of rat 125I-mucin. Rat mucin bound to Affigel affinity purified the amebic lectin from conditioned medium. Colonic mucin glycoproteins act as an important host defense by binding to the parasite's adherence lectin, thus preventing amebic attachment to and cytolysis of host epithelial cells. Images PMID:2890655

  7. Structural investigation of porcine stomach mucin by X-ray fiber diffraction and homology modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Veluraja, K.; Vennila, K.N.; Umamakeshvari, K.; Jasmine, A.; Velmurugan, D.

    2011-03-25

    Research highlights: {yields} Techniques to get oriented mucin fibre. {yields} X-ray fibre diffraction pattern for mucin. {yields} Molecular modeling of mucin based on X-ray fibre diffraction pattern. -- Abstract: The basic understanding of the three dimensional structure of mucin is essential to understand its physiological function. Technology has been developed to achieve orientated porcine stomach mucin molecules. X-ray fiber diffraction of partially orientated porcine stomach mucin molecules show d-spacing signals at 2.99, 4.06, 4.22, 4.7, 5.37 and 6.5 A. The high intense d-spacing signal at 4.22 A is attributed to the antiparallel {beta}-sheet structure identified in the fraction of the homology modeled mucin molecule (amino acid residues 800-980) using Nidogen-Laminin complex structure as a template. The X-ray fiber diffraction signal at 6.5 A reveals partial organization of oligosaccharides in porcine stomach mucin. This partial structure of mucin will be helpful in establishing a three dimensional structure for the whole mucin molecule.

  8. A procedure for Alcian blue staining of mucins on polyvinylidene difluoride membranes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Weijie; Matsuno, Yu-ki; Kameyama, Akihiko

    2012-10-16

    The isolation and characterization of mucins are critically important for obtaining insight into the molecular pathology of various diseases, including cancers and cystic fibrosis. Recently, we developed a novel membrane electrophoretic method, supported molecular matrix electrophoresis (SMME), which separates mucins on a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane impregnated with a hydrophilic polymer. Alcian blue staining is widely used to visualize mucopolysaccharides and acidic mucins on both blotted membranes and SMME membranes; however, this method cannot be used to stain mucins with a low acidic glycan content. Meanwhile, periodic acid-Schiff staining can selectively visualize glycoproteins, including mucins, but is incompatible with glycan analysis, which is indispensable for mucin characterizations. Here we describe a novel staining method, designated succinylation-Alcian blue staining, for visualizing mucins on a PVDF membrane. This method can visualize mucins regardless of the acidic residue content and shows a sensitivity 2-fold higher than that of Pro-Q Emerald 488, a fluorescent periodate Schiff-base stain. Furthermore, we demonstrate the compatibility of this novel staining procedure with glycan analysis using porcine gastric mucin as a model mucin.

  9. Species variation and spatial differences in mucin expression from corneal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Brian C; Yañez-Soto, Bernardo; Raghunathan, Vijay Krishna; Abbott, Nicholas L; Murphy, Christopher J

    2016-11-01

    Mucins are large glycoproteins expressed by epithelial cells of both the conjunctiva and cornea, and principle components of the glycocalyx. They are thought to play an important role in determining the interactions between the cornea/conjunctiva and the overlying tear film. The purpose of this study was to characterize the membrane-associated corneal mucin expression pattern from multiple species commonly used in ophthalmic research and drug development to better define the biochemical attributes of the ocular surface. Humans, rhesus macaques and dogs were found to have a very similar pattern of mucin expression, with mucin 16 (MUC16) being the most prevalent mucin transcript. In contrast, the rabbit had a unique mucin expression pattern with all mucin transcripts expressed at relatively similar levels. To determine if there were spatial differences in expression, peripheral and central corneal epithelium were individually isolated and evaluated for mucin expression. In all species examined, MUC1, MUC4 and MUC16 had higher peripheral corneal expression when compared with central, which reached statistical significance in MUC1 (rhesus and dog). The data demonstrated variation in corneal epithelial membrane-associated mucin expression between species, with the rabbit having a distinct expression pattern. These differences may be reflective of the environment, pathogen exposure or tear film dynamics of the respective species. The species differences, as well as regional mucin expression patterns, characterized in this study further define the biochemical composition of the ocular surface and may play an important role in tear film stability.

  10. Periadnexal Mucin as an Additional Histopathologic Feature of Chronic Eczematous Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Noo Ri; Kim, Jae-Hong; Park, Hwa-Young; Yoon, Na Young

    2015-01-01

    Background Cutaneous mucinoses are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by an abnormal amount of mucin in the skin. However, the pathomechanism of an excessive mucin deposition in the skin is still unknown. Eczematous dermatitis is sub-classified histologically into acute, subacute, and chronic variants. The characteristic histopathologic findings for chronic eczema are variable. However, periadnexal mucin deposition is not known as a feature of chronic eczema. Objective To evaluate the presence of periadnexal mucin deposition in chronic eczematous dermatitis. Methods We analyzed the skin biopsy specimens from 36 patients who were pathologically diagnosed with chronic eczematous dermatitis. Alcian blue, colloidal iron, and periodic acid-Schiff stains were used to evaluate the mucin deposition in histologic sections. Two dermatologists and two dermatopathologists evaluated the degree of mucin deposition using a 4-point scale. Results Various amounts of mucin deposition were observed in the periadnexal area of patients who were diagnosed with chronic eczema. Mucin deposition was more visible after staining with mucin-specific stains. Evaluation of the staining analysis scores revealed that the staining intensities were significantly higher in patients with chronic eczema than age- and site-matched controls (normal, acute to subacute eczema, and psoriasis vulgaris). Conclusion Periadnexal mucin (secondary mucinoses) may be an additional finding of chronic eczematous dermatitis. PMID:25834351

  11. Overview of the clinical problem: facts and current issues of mucinous cystic neoplasms of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Jeurnink, S M; Vleggaar, F P; Siersema, P D

    2008-11-01

    Pancreatic cystic lesions are uncommon and consist of pseudocysts, congenital cysts and cystic neoplasms including mucinous cystic neoplasms, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms and serous cystic neoplasms. Mucinous cystic neoplasms are large septated cysts without connection to the ductal system, characterised by the presence of thick-walled ovarian-type stroma and mucin. They occur predominantly in women and often are malignant. Therefore, surgical resection is recommended. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms are neoplasms with tall, columnar, mucin-containing epithelium involving the main pancreatic ducts or major side branches. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms occur in men and women in their 60s and 70s and may differentiate into malignant neoplasms. Therefore, surgical resection is mandatory. Serous cystic neoplasms appear as multiple cysts lined with cubic flat epithelium containing glycogen-rich cells with clear cytoplasm. They mainly occur in women in their 50s and are generally benign. Therefore, a conservative approach is recommended. As both mucinous cystic neoplasm and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms have a high malignant potential, it is important to differentiate between the various pancreatic cystic lesions. Several imaging techniques and tumour markers have been evaluated. Nonetheless, definitive guidelines to differentiate between serous cystic neoplasms, mucinous cystic neoplasms and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms are still poorly defined. A number of management issues regarding these neoplasms are still under debate, for example which imaging technique to use, differentiation between malignant or benign lesions and the preferred treatment modality for each pancreatic cystic neoplasm. Further research may lead to a definitive guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of mucinous cystic neoplasms, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms and serous cystic neoplasms.

  12. Purification and structural characterization of a filamentous, mucin-like proteophosphoglycan secreted by Leishmania parasites.

    PubMed

    Ilg, T; Stierhof, Y D; Craik, D; Simpson, R; Handman, E; Bacic, A

    1996-08-30

    Parasitic protozoa of the genus Leishmania secrete a filamentous macromolecule that forms networks and appears to be associated with cell aggregation. We report here the purification of this parasite antigen from Leishmania major culture supernatant and its compositional (75.6% carbohydrate, 20% phosphate, 4.4% amino acids, w/w), structural, and ultrastructural characterization as a highly unusual proteophosphoglycan (PPG). Mild acid hydrolysis, which cleaves preferentially hexose 1-phosphate bonds, releases the PPG glycans. Their structures are Galbeta1-4Man, Manalpha1-2Man, Galbeta1-3Galbeta1-4Man, PO4-6(Galbeta1-3)0-2Galbeta1-4Man, and PO4-6(Arabeta1-2Galbeta1-3)Galbeta1-4Man. These glycans are also components of the parasite glycolipid lipophosphoglycan, but their relative abundance and structural organization in PPG are different. Some of them represent novel forms of protein glycosylation. 31P NMR on native PPG demonstrates that phosphate is exclusively in phosphodiester bonds and that the basic structure R-Manalpha1-PO4-6-Gal-R connects the glycans. A phosphodiester linkage to phosphoserine (most likely R-Manalpha1-PO4-Ser) anchors the PPG oligosaccharides to the polypeptide. PPG has a unique amino acid composition; glycosylated phosphoserine (>43 mol %), serine, alanine, and proline account for more than 87 mol % and appear to be clustered in large proteinase-resistant domains. Electron microscopy of purified PPG reveals cable-like, flexible, long (to 6 microm), and unbranched filaments. The overall structure of PPG shows many similarities to mammalian mucins. Potential functions of this novel mucin-like molecule for the parasites are discussed.

  13. Primary retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenoma with sarcoma-like mural nodule

    PubMed Central

    Bakker, R. F. R.; Stoot, J. H. M. B.; Blok, P.

    2007-01-01

    Primary retroperitoneal cystadenomas are extremely rare. This is the first report in literature to describe a primary retroperitoneal cystadenoma with a sarcoma-like mural nodule. A 45-year-old woman complained of a left-sided abdominal mass. A computed tomography scan revealed a cystic mass with a mural nodule, which seemed to originate from the tail of the pancreas. At laparotomy the cyst was not adhered to the pancreas but localized retroperitoneally. Histologic examination showed a mucinous cystadenoma with only foci of borderline malignancy with a mural “sarcoma-like” nodule. In view of the surgical and histopathological findings, the mucinous cystadenoma was regarded as primary retroperitoneal. This case demonstrates that in the era of radiological preoperative refinement, pathological diagnosis remains of utmost importance, especially for rare cases. PMID:17690906

  14. Enzymatically active biomimetic micropropellers for the penetration of mucin gels

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Debora; Käsdorf, Benjamin T.; Jeong, Hyeon-Ho; Lieleg, Oliver; Fischer, Peer

    2015-01-01

    In the body, mucus provides an important defense mechanism by limiting the penetration of pathogens. It is therefore also a major obstacle for the efficient delivery of particle-based drug carriers. The acidic stomach lining in particular is difficult to overcome because mucin glycoproteins form viscoelastic gels under acidic conditions. The bacterium Helicobacter pylori has developed a strategy to overcome the mucus barrier by producing the enzyme urease, which locally raises the pH and consequently liquefies the mucus. This allows the bacteria to swim through mucus and to reach the epithelial surface. We present an artificial system of reactive magnetic micropropellers that mimic this strategy to move through gastric mucin gels by making use of surface-immobilized urease. The results demonstrate the validity of this biomimetic approach to penetrate biological gels, and show that externally propelled microstructures can actively and reversibly manipulate the physical state of their surroundings, suggesting that such particles could potentially penetrate native mucus. PMID:26824056

  15. Endocrine Mucin-Producing Sweat Gland Carcinoma, a Histological Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Salama, Samih; Gohla, Gabriella; Alowami, Salem

    2017-01-01

    Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma (EMPSGC) is a rare adnexal tumor of the skin with low-grade cytological features and neuroendocrine differentiation. It has a predilection for the skin of the eyelid, but has also been reported in the face and rarely extra-facial locations. The tumor is seen more frequently in women and on average affects the elderly. It is histologically and immunohistochemically analogous to solid papillary carcinoma of the breast/endocrine ductal carcinoma in situ with a nodular, solid, papillary, and/or cribriforming architecture, neuroendocrine differentiation, and mucin production. Since it was first described by Flieder et al. in 1997, less than 60 cases have been reported in literature. We describe the morphological and immunohistochemical features of another case with a review of the common histological differential diagnoses and emphasize the salient features that help distinguish this rare neoplasm. PMID:28299221

  16. Synthetic Oral Mucin Mimic from Polymer Micelle Networks

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Mucin networks are formed in the oral cavity by complexation of glycoproteins with other salivary proteins, yielding a hydrated lubricating barrier. The function of these networks is linked to their structural, chemical, and mechanical properties. Yet, as these properties are interdependent, it is difficult to tease out their relative importance. Here, we demonstrate the ability to recreate the fibrous like network through a series of complementary rinses of polymeric worm-like micelles, resulting in a 3-dimensional (3D) porous network that can be deposited layer-by-layer onto any surface. In this work, stability, structure, and microbial capture capabilities were evaluated as a function of network properties. It was found that network structure alone was sufficient for bacterial capture, even with networks composed of the adhesion-resistant polymer, poly(ethylene glycol). The synthetic networks provide an excellent, yet simple, means of independently characterizing mucin network properties (e.g., surface chemistry, stiffness, and pore size). PMID:24992241

  17. Molecular pathogenesis of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Thosani, Nirav; Dasari, Chandra S; Bhutani, Manoop S; Raimondo, Massimo; Guha, Sushovan

    2010-11-01

    Over the last 3 decades, there have been substantial improvements in diagnostic imaging and sampling techniques to evaluate pancreatic diseases. The modern technology has helped us to recognize premalignant conditions of pancreas including mucinous cystic neoplasms and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs). Differentiation between benign and malignant lesions and early detection of any malignant transformation in premalignant lesion are extremely important for further management decisions. Diagnostic cytology has limited sensitivity to further differentiate between benign, premalignant, and malignant lesions of the pancreas. There is limited information about the epidemiological risk factors and molecular mechanisms leading to development and further progression to malignancy of IPMNs. Several studies have shown that pancreatic juice and pancreatic tissue from the lesion can be tested for molecular markers including K-ras, p53, and p16 to differentiate between cancer and chronic inflammatory process. We review cellular signaling pathways that contribute to pathogenesis of IPMNs of the pancreas to further identify potential biomarkers and molecular targets.

  18. Extracellular calcium sensing and extracellular calcium signaling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, E. M.; MacLeod, R. J.; O'Malley, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    The cloning of a G protein-coupled extracellular Ca(2+) (Ca(o)(2+))-sensing receptor (CaR) has elucidated the molecular basis for many of the previously recognized effects of Ca(o)(2+) on tissues that maintain systemic Ca(o)(2+) homeostasis, especially parathyroid chief cells and several cells in the kidney. The availability of the cloned CaR enabled the development of DNA and antibody probes for identifying the CaR's mRNA and protein, respectively, within these and other tissues. It also permitted the identification of human diseases resulting from inactivating or activating mutations of the CaR gene and the subsequent generation of mice with targeted disruption of the CaR gene. The characteristic alterations in parathyroid and renal function in these patients and in the mice with "knockout" of the CaR gene have provided valuable information on the CaR's physiological roles in these tissues participating in mineral ion homeostasis. Nevertheless, relatively little is known about how the CaR regulates other tissues involved in systemic Ca(o)(2+) homeostasis, particularly bone and intestine. Moreover, there is evidence that additional Ca(o)(2+) sensors may exist in bone cells that mediate some or even all of the known effects of Ca(o)(2+) on these cells. Even more remains to be learned about the CaR's function in the rapidly growing list of cells that express it but are uninvolved in systemic Ca(o)(2+) metabolism. Available data suggest that the receptor serves numerous roles outside of systemic mineral ion homeostasis, ranging from the regulation of hormonal secretion and the activities of various ion channels to the longer term control of gene expression, programmed cell death (apoptosis), and cellular proliferation. In some cases, the CaR on these "nonhomeostatic" cells responds to local changes in Ca(o)(2+) taking place within compartments of the extracellular fluid (ECF) that communicate with the outside environment (e.g., the gastrointestinal tract). In others

  19. CFTR, Mucins, and Mucus Obstruction in Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kreda, Silvia M.; Davis, C. William; Rose, Mary Callaghan

    2012-01-01

    Mucus pathology in cystic fibrosis (CF) has been known for as long as the disease has been recognized and is sometimes called mucoviscidosis. The disease is marked by mucus hyperproduction and plugging in many organs, which are usually most fatal in the airways of CF patients, once the problem of meconium ileus at birth is resolved. After the CF gene, CFTR, was cloned and its protein product identified as a cAMP-regulated Cl− channel, causal mechanisms underlying the strong mucus phenotype of the disease became obscure. Here we focus on mucin genes and polymeric mucin glycoproteins, examining their regulation and potential relationships to a dysfunctional cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Detailed examination of CFTR expression in organs and different cell types indicates that changes in CFTR expression do not always correlate with the severity of CF disease or mucus accumulation. Thus, the mucus hyperproduction that typifies CF does not appear to be a direct cause of a defective CFTR but, rather, to be a downstream consequence. In organs like the lung, up-regulation of mucin gene expression by inflammation results from chronic infection; however, in other instances and organs, the inflammation may have a non-infectious origin. The mucus plugging phenotype of the β-subunit of the epithelial Na+ channel (βENaC)-overexpressing mouse is proving to be an archetypal example of this kind of inflammation, with a dehydrated airway surface/concentrated mucus gel apparently providing the inflammatory stimulus. Data indicate that the luminal HCO3 − deficiency recently described for CF epithelia may also provide such a stimulus, perhaps by causing a mal-maturation of mucins as they are released onto luminal surfaces. In any event, the path between CFTR dysfunction and mucus hyperproduction has proven tortuous, and its unraveling continues to offer its own twists and turns, along with fascinating glimpses into biology. PMID:22951447

  20. R1: Immunohistochemical study of mucins in human intestinal spirochetosis.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Sho; Shimizu, Ken; Tominaga, Susumu; Nakanishi, Kuniaki

    2017-02-08

    Most patients with human intestinal spirochetosis (HIS; a colorectal bacterial infection caused by Brachyspira species) seem asymptomatic, and its pathogenicity remains unclear. Recently, alterations in mucin expression were reported in animal Brachyspira infection. The present question was "Is mucin expression altered in HIS?". Using antibodies for MUCs 1, 2, 4, 5 AC, and 6, we immunohistochemically compared 215 specimens from 83 histology-confirmed HIS cases with 106 specimens from 26 non-HIS cases. Positive staining (which included even focal positive staining) was rated "high (+)" or "low (+)". Results were analysed for four categories of lesions, and associations between MUC expression and spirochetal presence were also analysed. In the "specimens without polyps or adenocarcinoma" category: high (+) MUC2-positivity was more frequent in HIS than in control. In the hyperplasia/serrated polyp category: in HIS (vs. control), the MUC5AC-positivity rate was lower, while high (+) MUC4-positivity was more frequent. In the conventional adenoma category: in HIS (vs. control), the MUC1-positivity rate was lower, while both high (+) MUC2-positivity and high (+) MUC5AC-positivity were less frequent. In the adenocarcinoma category: high (+) MUC2-positivity was more frequent in HIS than in control. Among the above mucins, only MUC1-positivity was significantly associated with an absence of the so-called fringe formation, an absence of spiral organisms within mucus, and an absence of strong immunopositive materials within the epithelial layer and within the subepithelial layer. The results suggest that Brachyspira infection or a related change in the microbiome may alter the large intestine mucin-expression profile in humans.

  1. Mucins help to avoid alloreactivity at the maternal fetal interface.

    PubMed

    Redzovic, Arnela; Laskarin, Gordana; Dominovic, Marin; Haller, Herman; Rukavina, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    During gestation, many different mechanisms act to render the maternal immune system tolerant to semi-allogeneic trophoblast cells of foetal origin, including those mediated via mucins that are expressed during the peri-implantation period in the uterus. Tumour- associated glycoprotein-72 (TAG-72) enhances the already established tolerogenic features of decidual dendritic cells with the inability to progress towards Th1 immune orientation due to lowered interferon (IFN)- γ and interleukin (IL)-15 expression. Mucine 1 (Muc 1) supports alternative activation of decidual macrophages, restricts the proliferation of decidual regulatory CD56(+) bright natural killer (NK) cells, and downregulates their cytotoxic potential, including cytotoxic mediator protein expression. Removing TAG-72 and Muc 1 from the eutopic implantation site likely contributes to better control of trophoblast invasion by T cells and NK cells and appears to have important immunologic advantages for successful implantation, in addition to mechanical advantages. However, these processes may lead to uncontrolled trophoblast growth after implantation, inefficient defence against infection or tumours, and elimination of unwanted immunocompetent cells at the maternal-foetal interface. The use of mucins by tumour cells to affect the local microenvironment in order to avoid the host immune response and to promote local tumour growth, invasion, and metastasis confirms this postulation.

  2. Mucins Help to Avoid Alloreactivity at the Maternal Fetal Interface

    PubMed Central

    Redzovic, Arnela; Laskarin, Gordana; Haller, Herman

    2013-01-01

    During gestation, many different mechanisms act to render the maternal immune system tolerant to semi-allogeneic trophoblast cells of foetal origin, including those mediated via mucins that are expressed during the peri-implantation period in the uterus. Tumour- associated glycoprotein-72 (TAG-72) enhances the already established tolerogenic features of decidual dendritic cells with the inability to progress towards Th1 immune orientation due to lowered interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-15 expression. Mucine 1 (Muc 1) supports alternative activation of decidual macrophages, restricts the proliferation of decidual regulatory CD56+ bright natural killer (NK) cells, and downregulates their cytotoxic potential, including cytotoxic mediator protein expression. Removing TAG-72 and Muc 1 from the eutopic implantation site likely contributes to better control of trophoblast invasion by T cells and NK cells and appears to have important immunologic advantages for successful implantation, in addition to mechanical advantages. However, these processes may lead to uncontrolled trophoblast growth after implantation, inefficient defence against infection or tumours, and elimination of unwanted immunocompetent cells at the maternal-foetal interface. The use of mucins by tumour cells to affect the local microenvironment in order to avoid the host immune response and to promote local tumour growth, invasion, and metastasis confirms this postulation. PMID:23864879

  3. Salivary Mucins Protect Surfaces from Colonization by Cariogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Frenkel, Erica Shapiro

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how the body's natural defenses function to protect the oral cavity from the myriad of bacteria that colonize its surfaces is an ongoing topic of research that can lead to breakthroughs in treatment and prevention. One key defense mechanism on all moist epithelial linings, such as the mouth, gastrointestinal tract, and lungs, is a layer of thick, well-hydrated mucus. The main gel-forming components of mucus are mucins, large glycoproteins that play a key role in host defense. This study focuses on elucidating the connection between MUC5B salivary mucins and dental caries, one of the most common oral diseases. Dental caries is predominantly caused by Streptococcus mutans attachment and biofilm formation on the tooth surface. Once S. mutans attaches to the tooth, it produces organic acids as metabolic by-products that dissolve tooth enamel, leading to cavity formation. We utilize CFU counts and fluorescence microscopy to quantitatively show that S. mutans attachment and biofilm formation are most robust in the presence of sucrose and that aqueous solutions of purified human MUC5B protect surfaces by acting as an antibiofouling agent in the presence of sucrose. In addition, we find that MUC5B does not alter S. mutans growth and decreases surface attachment and biofilm formation by maintaining S. mutans in the planktonic form. These insights point to the importance of salivary mucins in oral health and lead to a better understanding of how MUC5B could play a role in cavity prevention or diagnosis. PMID:25344244

  4. Diffusion through Pig Gastric Mucin: Effect of Relative Humidity

    PubMed Central

    Runnsjö, Anna; Dabkowska, Aleksandra P.; Sparr, Emma; Kocherbitov, Vitaly; Arnebrant, Thomas; Engblom, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Mucus covers the epithelium found in all intestinal tracts, where it serves as an important protecting barrier, and pharmaceutical drugs administrated by the oral, rectal, vaginal, ocular, or nasal route need to penetrate the mucus in order to reach their targets. Furthermore, the diffusion in mucus as well as the viscosity of mucus in the eyes, nose and throat can change depending on the relative humidity of the surrounding air. In this study we have investigated how diffusion through gels of mucin, the main protein in mucus, is affected by changes in ambient relative humidity (i.e. water activity). Already a small decrease in water activity was found to give rise to a significant decrease in penetration rate through the mucin gel of the antibacterial drug metronidazole. We also show that a decrease in water activity leads to decreased diffusion rate in the mucin gel for the fluorophore fluorescein. This study shows that it is possible to alter transport rates of molecules through mucus by changing the water activity in the gel. It furthermore illustrates the importance of considering effects of the water activity in the mucosa during development of potential pharmaceuticals. PMID:27336158

  5. Tea Derived Galloylated Polyphenols Cross-Link Purified Gastrointestinal Mucins

    PubMed Central

    Georgiades, Pantelis; Pudney, Paul D. A.; Rogers, Sarah; Thornton, David J.; Waigh, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenols derived from tea are thought to be important for human health. We show using a combination of particle tracking microrheology and small-angle neutron scattering that polyphenols acts as cross-linkers for purified gastrointestinal mucin, derived from the stomach and the duodenum. Both naturally derived purified polyphenols, and green and black tea extracts are shown to act as cross-linkers. The main active cross-linking component is found to be the galloylated forms of catechins. The viscosity, elasticity and relaxation time of the mucin solutions experience an order of magnitude change in value upon addition of the polyphenol cross-linkers. Similarly small-angle neutron scattering experiments demonstrate a sol-gel transition with the addition of polyphenols, with a large increase in the scattering at low angles, which is attributed to the formation of large scale (>10 nm) heterogeneities during gelation. Cross-linking of mucins by polyphenols is thus expected to have an impact on the physicochemical environment of both the stomach and duodenum; polyphenols are expected to modulate the barrier properties of mucus, nutrient absorption through mucus and the viscoelastic microenvironments of intestinal bacteria. PMID:25162539

  6. Primary mammary mucinous cystadenocarcinoma: cytological and histological findings.

    PubMed

    Sentani, Kazuhiro; Tashiro, Takashi; Uraoka, Naohiro; Aosaki, Yoriyuki; Yano, Satomi; Takaeko, Fumio; Yasui, Wataru

    2012-07-01

    Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma (MCA), commonly encountered in the ovary or pancreas, is rare in the breast and was only recently described as a distinct variant of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. Only 11 cases of primary mammary MCA have been reported. In this article, we report a case of primary mammary MCA with focus on cytological and histological findings. A 65-year-old female noticed right palpable breast mass. Sonography showed an irregularly shaped 2.8 × 2.4 cm lesion in the upper outer quadrant of the right breast. Fine-needle aspiration cytology was performed on the right breast nodule, and cytopathologic examination suggested an adenocarcinoma composed of tall columnar cells with mucin. A partial mastectomy of the right breast and the axillary lymph nodes dissection was performed. The gross examination revealed a well-demarcated and mucus-filled tumor. Histologically, it had complex papillae, some of which were supported by delicate fibrovascular stroma lined by simple to slightly stratified columnar neoplastic epithelial cells with intracellular mucin, coexisting with MCA in situ and ordinary intraductal carcinoma component (ICC). Immunohistochemically, ICC was HER2-negative and estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor-positive, while MCA was triple negative. MCA might be derived from a metaplasia of ordinary ICC, but its pathogenesis and biologic behavior remains unclear. Despite the invasive nature of mammary MCA, these carcinomas appear to be associated with a good prognosis. The patient has remained well and disease-free for 6 months after the operation.

  7. Histochemical profiles of mucins in the tracheal epithelium during the posthatching period of Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Alan, Emel; Liman, Narin

    2010-01-01

    Mucus normally protects the airway epithelium from dehydration and inhaled infectious agents and possibly toxic substances. Two components of mucus, mucin and water play major roles in the elimination of inhaled foreign material. Mucins are large carbohydrates rich glycoprotein. The objective of the present study was to determine the histochemical changes in mucin pattern of the goblet cells and intraepithelial glands of the trachea in quails during the post-hatching period using specific various staining procedures for complex carbohydrates (Periodic acid Schiff, Alcian blue-Periodic acid Schiff (pH 2.5), Aldehyde fuchsin-Alcian blue (pH 2.5), High-iron diamine-Alcian blue (pH 2.5), Periodic acid-Phenylhydrazine-Schiff). The intraepithelial alveolar glands were present at hatching and their numbers increased with the advance of age. In quail of all ages, the histochemical reactions revealed that the goblet cells and mucous cells of intraepithelial glands contained the mucins with vicinal diol groups, neutral mucin, sialomucin and sulphomucin. In all ages studied, the tracheal epithelium contained three distinct types of goblet or mucous cells producing neutral-, acid- and mixture of neutral- and acid mucins. In 1 day old, the majority of the goblet cells and gland cells contained neutral mucin or a mixture of neutral- and acid mucins, while the proportion of only acid mucin-producing cells was few. The majority of acidic mucins consisted of sulphomucin. The sialomucin-containing cells were only a few. After day 14, it was seen that the content of sialomucin in the epithelium became more diffuse toward adulthood. In conclusion, the content of mucin of tracheal epithelium was variable depending on the ages during the post-hatching period. These changes in mucin dynamics could affect the protective functions against pathogens and toxins of the tracheal epithelium.

  8. Palliative Surgical Approach in Advanced Nonresponsive Mucinous Ovarian Cancer: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Manika; Kumar, Ritesh; Topno, Noor; Mishra, Shweta; Dhirasaria, Ashish; Singh, A Santa

    2016-01-01

    Advanced mucinous ovarian cancer is a separate entity and has different biological behaviour. There is a wide range of therapeutic challenges and dilemmas in the management of these patients. The authors present a case of advanced ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma with pseudomyxoma peritonei who had poor response to standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy. This case is highlighted to emphasize the challenges in the decision making for the management of advanced mucinous ovarian cancer. PMID:27162429

  9. A Rare Renal Epithelial Tumor: Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Tepeler, Abdulkadir; Erdem, Mehmet Remzi; Kurt, Omer; Topaktas, Ramazan; Kilicaslan, Isin; Armağan, Abdullah; Önol, Şinasi Yavuz

    2011-01-01

    Primary renal mucinous cystadenocarcinoma is a very rare lesion of kidney which originates from the metaplasia of the renal pelvic uroepithelium. Only one case with primary mucinous cystadenocarcinoma has been reported in the English literature. We report second case of mucinous cystadenocarcinoma which was radiologically classified as type-IIF Bosniak cyst in peripheral localization. We aimed to present this extreme and unusual entity with its radiological, surgical, and pathologic aspects under the light of literature. PMID:22110514

  10. Growth in and breakdown of purified rabbit small intestinal mucin by Yersinia enterocolitica.

    PubMed Central

    Mantle, M; Rombough, C

    1993-01-01

    The mucus lining of the gastrointestinal tract serves as a protective barrier over the epithelial surface that must be crossed by invading bacteria seeking entry into the mucosa. The gel-forming component of mucus is mucin, a large polymeric glycoprotein. The present study examined the growth of Yersinia enterocolitica (with and without its virulence plasmid) in purified rabbit small intestinal mucin and the ability of bacteria to degrade mucin. Both virulent and nonvirulent organisms showed enhanced growth in mucin-supplemented media compared with unsupplemented media, but only at 37 degrees C and not at 25 degrees C. The effects of mucin were not specific because medium supplemented with bovine serum albumin also enhanced bacterial growth at 37 degrees C. Purified mucin was broken down into lower-molecular-weight components (assessed by monitoring its elution profile on a Sepharose CL-2B column) by plasmid-bearing Y. enterocolitica but not by plasmid-cured organisms. Culturing virulent Y. enterocolitica at 25 degrees C completely suppressed its capacity to degrade mucin, suggesting that this activity depends on plasmid expression. These results were confirmed in similar studies with purified rabbit colonic mucin. Mucin-degrading activity could be demonstrated in spent culture media from virulent Y. enterocolitica incubated at 37 degrees C but not in bacterial membrane preparations. Changes in the elution profiles of small intestinal and colonic mucins exposed to plasmid-bearing Y. enterocolitica at 37 degrees C were consistent with proteolytic depolymerization. The ability to grow well in mucin may help Y. enterocolitica to colonize the intestine, while the production of a mucin-degrading enzyme(s) by plasmid-bearing organisms may assist pathogenic strains to solubilize and penetrate the mucus gel layer. PMID:8406802

  11. Mucin Agarose Gel Electrophoresis: Western Blotting for High-molecular-weight Glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Kathryn A; Rushton, Zachary L; Ehre, Camille

    2016-06-14

    Mucins, the heavily-glycosylated proteins lining mucosal surfaces, have evolved as a key component of innate defense by protecting the epithelium against invading pathogens. The main role of these macromolecules is to facilitate particle trapping and clearance while promoting lubrication of the mucosa. During protein synthesis, mucins undergo intense O-glycosylation and multimerization, which dramatically increase the mass and size of these molecules. These post-translational modifications are critical for the viscoelastic properties of mucus. As a result of the complex biochemical and biophysical nature of these molecules, working with mucins provides many challenges that cannot be overcome by conventional protein analysis methods. For instance, their high-molecular-weight prevents electrophoretic migration via regular polyacrylamide gels and their sticky nature causes adhesion to experimental tubing. However, investigating the role of mucins in health (e.g., maintaining mucosal integrity) and disease (e.g., hyperconcentration, mucostasis, cancer) has recently gained interest and mucins are being investigated as a therapeutic target. A better understanding of the production and function of mucin macromolecules may lead to novel pharmaceutical approaches, e.g., inhibitors of mucin granule exocytosis and/or mucolytic agents. Therefore, consistent and reliable protocols to investigate mucin biology are critical for scientific advancement. Here, we describe conventional methods to separate mucin macromolecules by electrophoresis using an agarose gel, transfer protein into nitrocellulose membrane, and detect signal with mucin-specific antibodies as well as infrared fluorescent gel reader. These techniques are widely applicable to determine mucin quantitation, multimerization and to test the effects of pharmacological compounds on mucins.

  12. TRPM5-mediated calcium uptake regulates mucin secretion from human colon goblet cells

    PubMed Central

    Mitrovic, Sandra; Nogueira, Cristina; Cantero-Recasens, Gerard; Kiefer, Kerstin; Fernández-Fernández, José M; Popoff, Jean-François; Casano, Laetitia; Bard, Frederic A; Gomez, Raul; Valverde, Miguel A; Malhotra, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    Mucin 5AC (MUC5AC) is secreted by goblet cells of the respiratory tract and, surprisingly, also expressed de novo in mucus secreting cancer lines. siRNA-mediated knockdown of 7343 human gene products in a human colonic cancer goblet cell line (HT29-18N2) revealed new proteins, including a Ca2+-activated channel TRPM5, for MUC5AC secretion. TRPM5 was required for PMA and ATP-induced secretion of MUC5AC from the post-Golgi secretory granules. Stable knockdown of TRPM5 reduced a TRPM5-like current and ATP-mediated Ca2+ signal. ATP-induced MUC5AC secretion depended strongly on Ca2+ influx, which was markedly reduced in TRPM5 knockdown cells. The difference in ATP-induced Ca2+ entry between control and TRPM5 knockdown cells was abrogated in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ and by inhibition of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX). Accordingly, MUC5AC secretion was reduced by inhibition of NCX. Thus TRPM5 activation by ATP couples TRPM5-mediated Na+ entry to promote Ca2+ uptake via an NCX to trigger MUC5AC secretion. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00658.001 PMID:23741618

  13. The effect of the space flight environment on mucin production in the mouse uterine tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svalina, Gorica; Forsman, Allan D.

    2013-06-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that the microgravity environment of space has harmful effects on several tissues throughout the body. Although this phenomenon is well documented, research in this area is still in its relative infancy. This study investigates the effects of space flight on mucin production of the uterine tubes of mice. This study examined the epithelium of the uterine tubes from female mice that were flown on the space shuttle Endeavour for 13 days in August, 2007 and their concomitant controls. The tissue was qualitatively analyzed for the type of mucin produced, i.e., acidic, neutral, acidic/neutral mixture. Further, the tissue was quantitatively analyzed for the amounts of mucins produced by measuring the thickness of the mucin layer for each region of the uterine tube: isthmus, ampulla, and infundibulum. One way ANOVA tests were used to compare mucin thickness between all three sets of animals. Results indicate similar but not identical results between the three regions of the uterine tube. The Baseline tissue had the thickest mucin layer regardless of treatment group. In the ampulla the mucin layer was the thinnest in the Flight tissue, followed by the Ground Control, with the Baseline being the thickest. Analysis of the mucin layer of the infundibulum of the three treatment groups indicated no difference in its thickness between the three regions of the uterine tube. These results indicate a trend toward thinning of the mucin layer of the uterine tube in space flight, but also indicate an influence by the housing environment.

  14. Methods to Assess the Direct Interaction of C. jejuni with Mucins.

    PubMed

    Clyne, Marguerite; Duggan, Gina; Naughton, Julie; Bourke, Billy

    2017-01-01

    Studies of the interaction of bacteria with mucus-secreting cells can be complemented at a more mechanistic level by exploring the interaction of bacteria with purified mucins. Here we describe a far Western blotting approach to show how C. jejuni proteins separated by SDS PAGE and transferred to a membrane or slot blotted directly onto a membrane can be probed using biotinylated mucin. In addition we describe the use of novel mucin microarrays to assess bacterial interactions with mucins in a high-throughput manner.

  15. Profile of the intermolecular forces governing the interaction of drugs with mucin.

    PubMed

    Caron, Giulia; Visentin, Sonja; Pontremoli, Carlotta; Ermondi, Giuseppe

    2015-07-05

    The study highlights the balance of the intermolecular forces governing the interaction between drugs and mucin. The interaction strength is expressed as a retention factor k (data retrieved from the literature (Gargano et al., 2014)) obtained by a new bio-affinity chromatographic method in which the stationary phase is based on covalently immobilized mucin (porcine gastric mucin, PGM). A quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) between logk and 82 VolSurf+ descriptors was established and mechanistically interpreted. Results evidence that all blocks contribute similarly to the model; moreover, hydrogen bonding donor (HBD) properties of solutes favor the interaction with mucin; and thus, support their detrimental role on drug permeability.

  16. Ocular surface mucins and local inflammation--studies in genetically modified mouse lines.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Kumi; Saika, Shizuya

    2015-12-17

    Mucins locate to the apical surfaces of all wet-surfaced epithelia including ocular surface. The functions of the mucins include anti-adhesive, lubrication, water retention, allergens and pathogen barrier function. Ocular surface pathologies, i.e. dry eye syndrome or allergic conjunctivitis, are reportedly associated with alteration of expression pattern of mucin components. Recent investigations indicated anti-bacterial adhesion or anti-inflammatory effects of members of mucins in non-ocular tissues, i.e., gastrointestinal tracts or airway tissues, by using genetically modified mouse lines that lacks an expression of a mucin member. However, examination of ocular phenotypes of each of mucin gene-ablated mouse lines has not yet fully performed. Muc16-deficient mouse is associated with spontaneous subclinical inflammation in conjunctiva. The article reviews the roles of mucin members in modulation of local inflammation in mucous membrane tissues and phenotype of mouse lines with the loss of a mucin gene. Analysis of ocular surface of mucin-gene related mutant mouse lines are to be further performed.

  17. Mucin-bacterial interactions in the human oral cavity and digestive tract

    PubMed Central

    van Passel, Mark WJ; van de Bovenkamp, Jeroen HB; Schipper, Raymond G; de Vos, Willem M; Dekker, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Mucins are a family of heavily glycosylated proteins that are the major organic components of the mucus layer, the protective layer covering the epithelial cells in many human and animal organs, including the entire gastro-intestinal tract. Microbes that can associate with mucins benefit from this interaction since they can get available nutrients, experience physico-chemical protection and adhere, resulting in increased residence time. Mucin-degrading microorganisms, which often are found in consortia, have not been extensively characterized as mucins are high molecular weight glycoproteins that are hard to study because of their size, complexity and heterogeneity. The purpose of this review is to discuss how advances in mucus and mucin research, and insight in the microbial ecology promoted our understanding of mucin degradation. Recent insight is presented in mucin structure and organization, the microorganisms known to use mucin as growth substrate, with a specific attention on Akkermansia muciniphila, and the molecular basis of microbial mucin degradation owing to availability of genome sequences. PMID:21327032

  18. Emerging Potential of Natural Products for Targeting Mucins for Therapy Against Inflammation and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Macha, Muzafar A.; Krishn, Shiv Ram; Jahan, Rahat; Banerjee, Kasturi; Batra, Surinder K.; Jain, Maneesh

    2015-01-01

    Deregulated mucin expression is a hallmark of several inflammatory and malignant pathologies. Emerging evidence suggests that, apart from biomarkers, these deregulated mucins are functional contributors to pathogenesis in inflammation and cancer. Both overexpression and downregulation of mucins in various organ systems is associated with pathobiology of inflammation and cancer. Restoration of mucin homeostasis has become an important goal for therapy and management of such disorders and has fueled the quest for selective mucomodulators. With improved understanding of mucin regulation and mechanistic insights into their pathobiological roles, there is optimism to find selective non-toxic agents capable of modulating mucin expression and function. Recently, natural compounds derived from dietary sources have drawn attention due to their anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties and low toxicity. Considerable efforts have been directed towards evaluating dietary natural products as chemopreventive and therapeutic agents; identification, characterization and synthesis of their active compounds; and improving their delivery and bioavailability. We describe the current understanding of mucin regulation, rationale for targeting mucins with natural products and discuss some natural products that modulate mucin expression and functions. We further discuss the approaches and parameters that should guide future research to identify and evaluate selective natural mucomodulators for therapy. PMID:25624117

  19. Cystic fibrosis airway secretions exhibit mucin hyperconcentration and increased osmotic pressure.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Ashley G; Ehre, Camille; Button, Brian; Abdullah, Lubna H; Cai, Li-Heng; Leigh, Margaret W; DeMaria, Genevieve C; Matsui, Hiro; Donaldson, Scott H; Davis, C William; Sheehan, John K; Boucher, Richard C; Kesimer, Mehmet

    2014-07-01

    The pathogenesis of mucoinfective lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients likely involves poor mucus clearance. A recent model of mucus clearance predicts that mucus flow depends on the relative mucin concentration of the mucus layer compared with that of the periciliary layer; however, mucin concentrations have been difficult to measure in CF secretions. Here, we have shown that the concentration of mucin in CF sputum is low when measured by immunologically based techniques, and mass spectrometric analyses of CF mucins revealed mucin cleavage at antibody recognition sites. Using physical size exclusion chromatography/differential refractometry (SEC/dRI) techniques, we determined that mucin concentrations in CF secretions were higher than those in normal secretions. Measurements of partial osmotic pressures revealed that the partial osmotic pressure of CF sputum and the retained mucus in excised CF lungs were substantially greater than the partial osmotic pressure of normal secretions. Our data reveal that mucin concentration cannot be accurately measured immunologically in proteolytically active CF secretions; mucins are hyperconcentrated in CF secretions; and CF secretion osmotic pressures predict mucus layer-dependent osmotic compression of the periciliary liquid layer in CF lungs. Consequently, mucin hypersecretion likely produces mucus stasis, which contributes to key infectious and inflammatory components of CF lung disease.

  20. Mucinous carcinoma of breast with psammomatous calcification: report of a rare case with extensive axillary metastases.

    PubMed

    Bahadur, Shalini; Pujani, Mukta; Jetley, Sujata; Raina, Prabhat Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Pure mucinous carcinoma of the breast accounts for about 2% of all breast carcinomas and is associated with a favourable prognosis due to its lower nuclear grade and infrequent axillary or hematogenous metastases. Micropapillary variant of mucinous carcinoma breast has recently received attention as a unique form of invasive carcinoma of the breast exhibiting dual differentiation towards mucinous as well as micropapillary. The characteristic features for labeling a tumor as mucinous micropapillary carcinoma are micropapillary pattern, nuclear pleomorphism, hobnail cells and psammoma bodies in addition to the predominant mucinous component. Micropapillary mucinous carcinoma (MUMPC) when compared to pure mucinous carcinoma tends to have a higher nuclear grade, axillary lymph node metastases, lymphovascular invasion and overexpression of Her 2, p53 and Ki-67, thereby displaying an aggressive clinical behaviour. We present a rare case of micropapillary mucinous carcinoma to highlight the fact that this being a unique and rare variant of mucinous carcinoma should be recognized and reported as a separate category by the pathologists owing to its aggressive clinical behaviour and its influence on the nature of therapy.

  1. Expression of androgen, estrogen and progesterone receptors in mucinous carcinoma of the breast.

    PubMed

    Cho, Li-Chen; Hsu, Yung-Hsiang

    2008-05-01

    Hormone receptors play important roles in breast cancer. We investigated the expression of hormone receptors in breast cancer to evaluate the importance of hormone receptors in the clinicopathology of breast cancer. Androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression characteristics were evaluated using immunohistochemistry stain, comparing patient age, tumor size and axillary lymph node status for 23 pure mucinous and 105 non-mucinous infiltrating ductal carcinomas in the human female breast. Mucinous carcinoma with axillary lymph node metastasis occurred less frequently than non-mucinous carcinoma (11.8% vs. 55.2%; p = 0.01). Compared with the non-mucinous type, mucinous carcinoma specimens showed less AR expression (21.7% vs. 51.4%; p = 0.01) but more ER expression (78.3% vs. 52.4%; p = 0.02). In addition, AR expression was also associated with ER and/or PR coexpression (37/74, 50%) in infiltrating ductal carcinoma. But only three of 20 (15%) mucinous carcinoma specimens with AR expression had associated ER and/or PR coexpression. Our findings revealed that mucinous carcinoma samples from the breast show distinct clinicopathologic and hormone receptor expression features compared to non-mucinous carcinoma.

  2. Cysteamine and prostaglandin F2 beta stimulate rat gastric mucin release

    SciTech Connect

    Lamont, J.T.; Ventola, A.S.; Maull, E.A.; Szabo, S.

    1983-02-01

    Gastric mucin glycoproteins form an adherent gel over the surface epithelium that is thought to protect the stomach against chemical and physical damage. The purpose of this study was to measure the release of mucin glycoproteins from rat stomach after treatment with cysteamine and prostaglandin F2 beta, two structurally unrelated drugs that have been shown to protect the stomach against the noxious effects of alcohol and other damaging agents. Gastric mucin was separated into soluble (washout) and insoluble (adherent) phases before colorimetric quantitation of total mucin, protein-bound hexose, and sialic acid. Cysteamine produced a dose-dependent increase in release of soluble and gel mucin. Prostaglandin F2 beta caused a dose-dependent release of hexose-containing mucin but had no effect on sialic acid-containing glycoproteins. Sepharose 4B chromatography of both the soluble and adherent mucus revealed that greater than 90% was a high molecular weight glycoprotein fraction. N-Ethylmaleimide, a known inhibitor of cytoprotection by cysteamine, had no effect on mucin secretion. Similarly, indomethacin inhibited mucin secretion by cysteamine but did not significantly influence cytoprotection. Thus the secretion of mucin by cytoprotective agents is unlikely by itself to explain the ability of the stomach to resist chemical or physical damage.

  3. Depletion of mucin in mucin-producing human gastrointestinal carcinoma: Results from in vitro and in vivo studies with bromelain and N-acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Amini, Afshin; Masoumi-Moghaddam, Samar; Ehteda, Anahid; Liauw, Winston; Morris, David L

    2015-10-20

    Aberrant expression of membrane-associated and secreted mucins, as evident in epithelial tumors, is known to facilitate tumor growth, progression and metastasis, and to provide protection against adverse growth conditions, chemotherapy and immune surveillance. Emerging evidence provides support for the oncogenic role of MUC1 in gastrointestinal carcinomas and relates its expression to an invasive phenotype. Similarly, mucinous differentiation of gastrointestinal tumors, in particular increased or de novo expression of MUC2 and/or MUC5AC, is widely believed to imply an adverse clinicopathological feature. Through formation of viscous gels, too, MUC2 and MUC5AC significantly contribute to the biology and pathogenesis of mucin-secreting gastrointestinal tumors. Here, we investigated the mucin-depleting effects of bromelain (BR) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), in nine different regimens as single or combination therapy, in in vitro (MKN45, KATOIII and LS174T cell lines) and in vivo (female nude mice bearing intraperitoneal MKN45 and LS174T) settings. The inhibitory effects of the treatment on cancer cell growth and proliferation were also evaluated in vivo. Our results suggest that a combination of BR and NAC with dual effects on growth and mucin products of mucin-expressing tumor cells is a promising candidate towards the development of novel approaches to gastrointestinal malignancies with the involvement of mucin pathology. This capability supports the use of this combination formulation in locoregional approaches for reducing the adverse effects of the aberrantly secreted gel-forming mucins, as in pseudomyxoma peritonei and similar pathologies with ectopic production of mucin.

  4. PAX2, PAX8 and CDX2 Expression in Metastatic Mucinous, Primary Ovarian Mucinous and Seromucinous Tumors and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Ates Ozdemir, D; Usubutun, A

    2016-07-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of gynecologic cancer death. Both morphologically and immunohistochemically, metastatic mucinous tumors are the best mimickers of mucinous ovarian tumors; its pathogenesis still remains a mystery. PAX2 and PAX8 immunohisyochemistries are useful for differentiating numerous primary tumour types from metastatic ones. There are few studies in literature about PAX expressions in mucinous and seromucinous tumors. None of these are takes into account the histologic type (whether it is seromucinous or mucinous) or the metastatic origin. With this purpose hematoxylin and eosine slides of ovarian mucinous and seromucinous tumors were re-evaluated and one block was chosen for each case. The study included 76 ovarian mucinous and seromucinous tumors of the ovary reported in Hacettepe University department of pathology between 2000 and 2013. Tissue microarray (TMA) was designed from the chosen blocks, PAX2, PAX8, CDX2 immunostains was preformed to the TMA slides. As a result, most of the metastatic cases were negative for PAX2 (91.2 %) and PAX8 (86.3 %), many were diffusely and strongly positive for CDX2 (68.2 %). Seromucinous tumors were devoid of CDX2 expression; but all cases (except one) displayed strong and diffuse positivity with PAX8. In other words differing from mucinous tumors, seromucinous tumors show strong PAX8 positivity-similar to serous tumors. This study shows that PAX8 and CDX2 could be useful in differentiating primary mucinous from metastatic tumor. Furthermore unlike the homogeneity in seromucinous tumors for PAX8 and CDX2 mucinous tumors shows heterogeneity with different expression patterns.

  5. Baseline Goblet Cell Mucin Secretion in the Airways Exceeds Stimulated Secretion over Extended Time Periods, and Is Sensitive to Shear Stress and Intracellular Mucin Stores

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Sean P.; Nguyen, Kristine; Ribeiro, Carla M. P.; Vasquez, Paula A.; Forest, M. Gregory; Lethem, Michael I.; Dickey, Burton F.; Davis, C. William

    2015-01-01

    Airway mucin secretion studies have focused on goblet cell responses to exogenous agonists almost to the exclusion of baseline mucin secretion (BLMS). In human bronchial epithelial cell cultures (HBECCs), maximal agonist-stimulated secretion exceeds baseline by ~3-fold as measured over hour-long periods, but mucin stores are discharged completely and require 24 h for full restoration. Hence, over 24 h, total baseline exceeds agonist-induced secretion by several-fold. Studies with HBECCs and mouse tracheas showed that BLMS is highly sensitive to mechanical stresses. Harvesting three consecutive 1 h baseline luminal incubations with HBECCs yielded equal rates of BLMS; however, lengthening the middle period to 72 h decreased the respective rate significantly, suggesting a stimulation of BLMS by the gentle washes of HBECC luminal surfaces. BLMS declined exponentially after washing HBECCs (t1/2 = 2.75 h), to rates approaching zero. HBECCs exposed to low perfusion rates exhibited spike-like increases in BLMS when flow was jumped 5-fold: BLMS increased >4 fold, then decreased within 5 min to a stable plateau at 1.5–2-fold over control. Higher flow jumps induced proportionally higher BLMS increases. Inducing mucous hyperplasia in HBECCs increased mucin production, BLMS and agonist-induced secretion. Mouse tracheal BLMS was ~6-fold higher during perfusion, than when flow was stopped. Munc13-2 null mouse tracheas, with their defect of accumulated cellular mucins, exhibited similar BLMS as WT, contrary to predictions of lower values. Graded mucous metaplasia induced in WT and Munc13-2 null tracheas with IL-13, caused proportional increases in BLMS, suggesting that naïve Munc13-2 mouse BLMS is elevated by increased mucin stores. We conclude that BLMS is, [i] a major component of mucin secretion in the lung, [ii] sustained by the mechanical activity of a dynamic lung, [iii] proportional to levels of mucin stores, and [iv] regulated differentially from agonist-induced mucin

  6. Depletion of mucin in mucin-producing human gastrointestinal carcinoma: Results from in vitro and in vivo studies with bromelain and N-acetylcysteine

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Afshin; Masoumi-Moghaddam, Samar; Ehteda, Anahid; Liauw, Winston; Morris, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant expression of membrane-associated and secreted mucins, as evident in epithelial tumors, is known to facilitate tumor growth, progression and metastasis, and to provide protection against adverse growth conditions, chemotherapy and immune surveillance. Emerging evidence provides support for the oncogenic role of MUC1 in gastrointestinal carcinomas and relates its expression to an invasive phenotype. Similarly, mucinous differentiation of gastrointestinal tumors, in particular increased or de novo expression of MUC2 and/or MUC5AC, is widely believed to imply an adverse clinicopathological feature. Through formation of viscous gels, too, MUC2 and MUC5AC significantly contribute to the biology and pathogenesis of mucin-secreting gastrointestinal tumors. Here, we investigated the mucin-depleting effects of bromelain (BR) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), in nine different regimens as single or combination therapy, in in vitro (MKN45, KATOIII and LS174T cell lines) and in vivo (female nude mice bearing intraperitoneal MKN45 and LS174T) settings. The inhibitory effects of the treatment on cancer cell growth and proliferation were also evaluated in vivo. Our results suggest that a combination of BR and NAC with dual effects on growth and mucin products of mucin-expressing tumor cells is a promising candidate towards the development of novel approaches to gastrointestinal malignancies with the involvement of mucin pathology. This capability supports the use of this combination formulation in locoregional approaches for reducing the adverse effects of the aberrantly secreted gel-forming mucins, as in pseudomyxoma peritonei and similar pathologies with ectopic production of mucin. PMID:26436698

  7. Gastrointestinal gene delivery by cyclodextrins--in vitro quantification of extracellular barriers.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Martin J; O'Mahony, Aoife M; Byrne, Colin; Darcy, Raphael; O'Driscoll, Caitriona M

    2013-11-18

    Local gene delivery represents a promising therapeutic approach for diseases of the intestine. However, the gastrointestinal tract poses significant challenges to successful gene delivery. Cyclodextrins (CDs) have been extensively investigated as non-viral vectors. Here, we assessed the suitability of an amphiphilic cationic CD for intestinal gene transfer, with particular focus on extracellular barriers. Stability and transfection efficiency of CD·DNA complexes were assessed post incubation in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids, bile salts and mucin, or with intestinal enzymes to represent extracellular barriers to intestinal gene delivery. Stability was determined by gel electrophoresis and transfection was measured by luciferase expression in intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2). Transfection efficiency of CD·DNA complexes was enhanced after incubation in bile salts but was reduced after incubation in gastric and intestinal fluids and mucin. CD·DNA complexes were stable after incubation with pancreatic enzymes and with a model lower intestinal enzyme. Furthermore, the CD protected pDNA from degradation by DNase. In summary, physiologically relevant in vitro models were established and used to quantify the barriers posed by the intestinal extracellular environment to gene delivery. This systematic assessment identified the advantages and limitations of the CD vector and facilitated the proposal of formulation strategies to overcome these barriers.

  8. FleA Expression in Aspergillus fumigatus Is Recognized by Fucosylated Structures on Mucins and Macrophages to Prevent Lung Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Meenal; McCabe, Orla; Palmer, Jonathan M.; Choera, Tsokyi; Yun Lim, Fang; Wimmerova, Michaela; Carrington, Stephen D.; Yuan, Shaopeng; Lowell, Clifford A.; Oscarson, Stefan; Keller, Nancy P.; Fahy, John V.

    2016-01-01

    The immune mechanisms that recognize inhaled Aspergillus fumigatus conidia to promote their elimination from the lungs are incompletely understood. FleA is a lectin expressed by Aspergillus fumigatus that has twelve binding sites for fucosylated structures that are abundant in the glycan coats of multiple plant and animal proteins. The role of FleA is unknown: it could bind fucose in decomposed plant matter to allow Aspergillus fumigatus to thrive in soil, or it may be a virulence factor that binds fucose in lung glycoproteins to cause Aspergillus fumigatus pneumonia. Our studies show that FleA protein and Aspergillus fumigatus conidia bind avidly to purified lung mucin glycoproteins in a fucose-dependent manner. In addition, FleA binds strongly to macrophage cell surface proteins, and macrophages bind and phagocytose fleA-deficient (∆fleA) conidia much less efficiently than wild type (WT) conidia. Furthermore, a potent fucopyranoside glycomimetic inhibitor of FleA inhibits binding and phagocytosis of WT conidia by macrophages, confirming the specific role of fucose binding in macrophage recognition of WT conidia. Finally, mice infected with ΔfleA conidia had more severe pneumonia and invasive aspergillosis than mice infected with WT conidia. These findings demonstrate that FleA is not a virulence factor for Aspergillus fumigatus. Instead, host recognition of FleA is a critical step in mechanisms of mucin binding, mucociliary clearance, and macrophage killing that prevent Aspergillus fumigatus pneumonia. PMID:27058347

  9. A case of undifferentiated carcinoma of the pancreas mimicking main-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN).

    PubMed

    Kawai, Yuichi; Nakamichi, Rei; Kamata, Noriko; Miyake, Hideo; Fujino, Masahiko; Itoh, Shigeki

    2015-03-01

    We report here a rare case of undifferentiated carcinoma of the pancreas mimicking main-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. In an 80-year-old woman, an approximately 8-mm papillary mass was incidentally detected at the downstream edge of a dilatated main pancreatic duct lumen on CT and MRI. Main pancreatic duct dilatation in the pancreatic body and tail and parenchymal atrophy were observed in the upstream of the mass. Histopathologically, the tumor protruded into the downstream edge of the dilatated main pancreatic duct lumen in the pancreatic body. The tumor cells had highly atypical nuclei and abundant polymorphic structures, and showed positive staining for granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, which led to the diagnosis of undifferentiated carcinoma. A total of 13 cases of undifferentiated carcinoma with intraductal tumor growth have been reported to date. The case report by Bergmann et al. has been the smallest in histopathological specimen, and the present case is the smallest in size detected by radiological images. Since early undifferentiated carcinoma of the pancreas can resemble those of main-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm in cross-sectional images, we have to consider undifferentiated carcinoma in the differential diagnosis of the solitary and papillary mass with low contrast enhancement in early phase in the main pancreatic duct.

  10. Mucinous carcinoma of the breast is genomically distinct from invasive ductal carcinomas of no special type.

    PubMed

    Lacroix-Triki, Magali; Suarez, Paula H; MacKay, Alan; Lambros, Maryou B; Natrajan, Rachael; Savage, Kay; Geyer, Felipe C; Weigelt, Britta; Ashworth, Alan; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

    2010-11-01

    Mucinous carcinomas are a rare entity accounting for up to 2% of all breast cancers, which have been shown to display a gene expression profile distinct from that of invasive ductal carcinomas of no special type (IDC-NSTs). Here, we have defined the genomic aberrations that are characteristic of this special type of breast cancer and have investigated whether mucinous carcinomas might constitute a genomic entity distinct from IDC-NSTs. Thirty-five pure and 11 mixed mucinous breast carcinomas were assessed by immunohistochemistry using antibodies against oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor, HER2, Ki67, cyclin D1, cortactin, Bcl-2, p53, E-cadherin, basal markers, neuroendocrine markers, and WT1. Fifteen pure mucinous carcinomas and 30 grade- and ER-matched IDC-NSTs were microdissected and subjected to high-resolution microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). In addition, the distinct components of seven mixed mucinous carcinomas were microdissected separately and subjected to aCGH. Pure mucinous carcinomas consistently expressed ER (100%), lacked HER2 expression (97.1%), and showed a relatively low level of genetic instability. Unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that pure mucinous carcinomas were homogeneous and preferentially clustered together, separately from IDC-NSTs. They less frequently harboured gains of 1q and 16p and losses of 16q and 22q than grade- and ER-matched IDC-NSTs, and no pure mucinous carcinoma displayed concurrent 1q gain and 16q loss, a hallmark genetic feature of low-grade IDC-NSTs. Finally, both components of all but one mixed mucinous carcinoma displayed similar patterns of genetic aberrations and preferentially clustered together with pure mucinous carcinomas on unsupervised clustering analysis. Our results demonstrate that mucinous carcinomas are more homogeneous between themselves at the genetic level than IDC-NSTs. Both components of mixed mucinous tumours are remarkably similar at the

  11. K-ras mutations and mucin profile in preneoplastic lesions and colon tumors induced in rats by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine.

    PubMed

    Femia, Angelo Pietro; Tarquini, Elena; Salvadori, Maddalena; Ferri, Stefania; Giannini, Augusto; Dolara, Piero; Caderni, Giovanna

    2008-01-01

    K-ras and mucin profile variations, associated with intestinal carcinogenesis, were studied in the preneoplastic lesions, mucin-depleted foci (MDF) and aberrant crypt foci (ACF), and in colonic tumors induced in rats by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). The frequency of lesions with K-ras mutations was 23% (3/13), 5.5% (1/18) and 100% (14/14) in MDF, tumors and ACF, respectively. Two of three MDF mutated in K-ras also carried a missense mutation in Apc. We also tested the expression of MUC2, a mucin abundantly expressed in normal colon and M1/MUCA5C, up-regulated in colon carcinogenesis, using immunohistochemistry. MDF and tumors showed a dramatic reduction in the expression of MUC2, whereas ACF showed only a slight reduction. The expression of M1/MUC5AC was almost absent in normal mucosa, but was increased in all the lesions (MDF, tumors and ACF). The expression of the intestinal trefoil factor (ITF), a marker of goblet cell lineage, was reduced in MDF and tumors compared to normal mucosa but not in ACF. In conclusion, although K-ras mutations are present in all ACF, they are less frequent in MDF and tumors; M1/MUC5AC is a marker associated with all preneoplastic events while the reduction of MUC2 and ITF expression is selectively associated with more advanced lesions such as MDF and tumors.

  12. HER2 drives Mucin-like 1 to control proliferation in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Conley, S J; Bosco, E E; Tice, D A; Hollingsworth, R E; Herbst, R; Xiao, Z

    2016-01-01

    Mucin-like 1 (MUCL1) was first identified as a breast-specific gene over a decade ago. Based on its highly restricted mRNA expression in breast tissue and continued expression during breast tumorigenesis and progression, MUCL1 is an attractive tumor-associated antigen and a potential therapeutic target. However, very little is known about the cellular location, biological functions and regulation of the MUCL1 protein, which will have a major impact on its druggability. Here we describe our efforts to fully characterize the cellular localization of MUCL1, investigate its regulation by key breast cancer oncogenes such as human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and discover its functional roles in breast cancer. Although some mucins are membrane bound, our data indicate that MUCL1 is secreted by some breast cancer cells, whereas others only express high levels of intracellular MUCL1. MUCL1 expression is highest in HER2-amplified breast tumors and inhibiting HER2 activity in tumor cells resulted in a decreased MUCL1 expression. In-depth investigation demonstrated that phosphoinositide3-kinase/Akt pathway, but not Ras/MEK pathway, controls MUCL1 expression downstream of HER2. Phenotypic assays revealed a strong dependence of HER2-positive cells on MUCL1 for cell proliferation. We further identified the mechanism by which MUCL1 regulates cell growth. Knockdown of MUCL1 induced a G1/S phase arrest concomitant with decreased cyclin D and increased p21 and p27 levels. Finally, we investigated the impact of MUCL1 loss on kinase signaling pathways in breast cancer cells through phospho-kinase array profiling. MUCL1 silencing abrogated phospho-focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and c-Jun signals, but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase or Akt pathway activities, thereby pointing to FAK/JNK pathway as the downstream effector of MUCL1 signaling. We are the first to identify an important role for MUCL1 in the proliferation of breast cancer

  13. Bacterial extracellular lignin peroxidase

    DOEpatents

    Crawford, Donald L.; Ramachandra, Muralidhara

    1993-01-01

    A newly discovered lignin peroxidase enzyme is provided. The enzyme is obtained from a bacterial source and is capable of degrading the lignin portion of lignocellulose in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme is extracellular, oxidative, inducible by lignin, larch wood xylan, or related substrates and capable of attacking certain lignin substructure chemical bonds that are not degradable by fungal lignin peroxidases.

  14. Mixed Mucinous and Infiltrating Carcinoma Occurring in Male Breast- Study of Clinico-Pathological Features: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Kavita; Sharma, Swati; Kudva, Ranjini; Kumar, Sandeep

    2015-06-01

    Mucinous carcinoma is a less common histologic variant of breast cancer. Cases of mucinous carcinomas in male breast are extremely rare. Here, we describe a case of mixed mucinous carcinoma i.e. mucinous carcinoma with infiltrating ductal carcinoma component and showing apocrine differentiation in a 73-year-old man. This uncommon tumour entity has dismal prognosis and treatment depends largely on the tumour type, size, lymph node involvement and hormonal status.

  15. Mucin aggregation from a rod-like meso-scale model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Nicolas; Perilla, Jairo E.; Colina, Coray M.; Lísal, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Dissipative particle dynamics, a meso-scale particle-based model, was used to study the aggregation of mucins in aqueous solutions. Concentration, strength of the mucin-water interactions, as well as the effects of size, shape, and composition of the model molecules were studied. Model proteins were represented as rod-like objects formed by coarse-grained beads. In the first model, only one type of beads formed the mucin. It was found that all the surfaces were available to form aggregates and the conformation of the aggregates was a function of the strength of the mucin-water interaction. With this model, the number of aggregates was unaffected by the initial position of the mucins in the simulation box, except for the lowest mucin concentration. In a more refined mucin model, two kinds of beads were used in the molecule in order to represent the existence of cysteine-like terminal groups in the actual molecule. With this new scheme, aggregation took place by the interaction of the terminal groups between model molecules. The kinetic analysis of the evolution of the number of aggregates with time was also studied for both mucin models.

  16. Inhibition of gastric mucosal mucin receptor by Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide: effect of sulglycotide.

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, J; Majka, J; Murty, V L; Czajkowski, A; Slomiany, A; Slomiany, B L

    1994-09-01

    1. A receptor for mucin was isolated from the solubilized gastric epithelial cell membrane by affinity chromatography on Sepharose-bound wheat germ agglutinin. 2. The receptor protein displayed a molecular weight of 97 kDa and exhibited specific affinity towards mucin-coated surfaces. The optimum for mucin binding occurred at 60-100 micrograms/ml, while the values for the receptor were 2.0-3.1 micrograms/ml. 3. The mucin binding to the receptor was susceptible to Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide which caused maximum inhibition of 91% at 30 mu/ml. This inhibitory effect of the lipopolysaccharide was abolished by a gastroprotective agent, sulglycotide. 4. The effect of sulglycotide was dose dependent and at 50 micrograms/ml produced a 94% restoration in receptor-mucin binding. Furthermore, sulglycotide was also capable of enhancing (97%) the mucin binding to its receptor in the absence of the lipopolysaccharide. 5. The results demonstrate that H. pylori through its lipopolysaccharide interferes in the interaction of mucin with gastric epithelial surfaces and that a gastroprotective agent, sulglycotide, counteracts this effect, and hence is capable of preventing the loss of mucin coat continuity occurring with H. pylori infection.

  17. Effect of reserpine on the histochemical and biochemical properties of rat intestinal mucin

    SciTech Connect

    Forstner, J.; Roomi, N.; Khorasani, R.; Kuhns, W.; Forstner, G. )

    1991-04-01

    Biochemical and histochemical parameters of intestinal mucins were examined in control and reserpine-treated rats. An assay for intestinal mucin sulfotransferase was developed and the activity shown to increase 3.4 times over control levels in rats given intraperitonal reserpine (0.5 mg/kg body wt) daily for 7 days. Histochemical staining of intestinal sections revealed an increase in sulfomucins in goblet cells of reserpine-treated rats. The effects were prominent as early as 1 day following injection, particularly in the distal third of the small intestine, and during the next 6 days these changes spread progressively to the middle and proximal thirds. After 3 days of treatment mucins were purified from each intestinal segment and compared to control mucins with respect to composition and (35S)NaSO{sub 4} incorporation. Although individual amino acid and carbohydrate molar ratios were unchanged, the total carbohydrate and sulfate content of mucins in treated animals was elevated (two to three times above control) in the middle and distal thirds of the intestine. In vivo ({sup 35}S)SO{sub 4} incorporation into these mucins was also proportionaltely elevated, and was targetted to O-linked oligosaccharide side chains. These findings are consistent with an action of reserpine causing an increased production of mucin which is enriched in glycoprotein components bearing sulfated oligosaccharide chains. The relevance of these findings to the production of hypersulfated and hyperglycosylated mucins in cystic fibrosis is discussed.

  18. Mucins and Their Sugars. Critical Mediators of Hyperreactivity and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Raclawska, Dorota S.; Ttofali, Fani; Fletcher, Ashley A.; Harper, Daniel N.; Bochner, Bruce S.; Janssen, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Excessive mucus causes severe airflow obstruction in fatal asthma. It is also present in mild to moderate disease, but is poorly understood and treated. Mucus overproduction is associated with dysregulated expression of the mucins MUC5AC and MUC5B. Whereas increased MUC5AC is a consistent finding, MUC5B varies—remaining stably produced in some patients but strongly repressed in others (>90%). Patients with lower MUC5B display worsened asthma phenotypes including airway hyperreactivity (AHR) to methacholine (MCh) and eosinophilic inflammation. To better understand the roles of mucins in asthma, we generated Muc5ac and Muc5b knockout (−/−) mice. AHR to MCh was abolished in antigen-challenged Muc5ac−/− mice, due to prevention of heterogeneous mucous plugging that occurred in allergic wild-type mice during MCh-induced bronchoconstriction. Thus, in addition to the established role of smooth muscle–mediated airway narrowing, Muc5ac is an essential noncontractile AHR component. We also found that, unlike Muc5ac−/− mice, Muc5b-deficient mice were not protected from asthma phenotypes. Furthermore, whereas inflammation was unaffected by Muc5ac deficiency, it was exaggerated in the absence of Muc5b. On the basis of these differential effects, we are now determining how asthma phenotypes are regulated by mucin isoform specificity. Glycosylation is dramatically different: Muc5ac is heavily fucosylated whereas Muc5b is mainly sialylated. Fucosylation increases mucus viscoelasticity, and FUT2, the enzyme that catalyzes mucin α1,2-fucosylation, is associated with severe asthma exacerbation risk. Sialylation is required for binding to siglec (sialic acid–binding immunoglobulin-like lectin) receptors on leukocytes. Eosinophils express Siglec-F (mouse) or Siglec-8 (human). Engagement by sialoside ligands induces eosinophil apoptosis, and Muc5b via sialylated termini that require the α2,3-sialyltransferase ST3Gal3 for synthesis binds Siglec-F and induces apoptosis

  19. Mucinous subtype of invasive ductal carcinoma arising within a fibroadenoma.

    PubMed

    Monsefi, Nahid; Nikpour, Hossein; Safavi, Moienadin; Lashkarizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Dabiri, Shahriar

    2013-06-01

    Fibroadenoma is a common benign tumor observed during the second and third decades of life. Malignancy transformation in the epithelial component of a fibroadenoma is rare and can occur 20 years after its diagnosis. Mammographic findings in this phenomenon include indistinct margins and microcalcifications. Here we present a 58-year-old woman with a mobile, lateral upper quadrant mass that was rather firm when palpated. The mammography showed a lobulated mass without calcification suggestive of a benign process, most probably fibroadenoma. However the excisional biopsy contained both an intracanalicular fibroadenoma and invasive ductal carcinoma with mucinous components.

  20. Mucin-1 and its relation to grade, stage and survival in ovarian carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mucin-1 is known to be over-expressed by various human carcinomas and is shed into the circulation where it can be detected in patient’s serum by specific anti-Mucin-1 antibodies, such as the tumour marker assays CA 15–3 and CA 27.29. The prognostic value of Mucin-1 expression in ovarian carcinoma remains uncertain. One aim of this study was to compare the concentrations of Mucin-1 in a cohort of patients with either benign or malignant ovarian tumours detected by CA 15–3 and CA 27.29. Another aim of this study was to evaluate Mucin-1 expression by immunohistochemistry in a different cohort of ovarian carcinoma patients with respect to grade, stage and survival. Methods Patients diagnosed with and treated for ovarian tumours were included in the study. Patient characteristics, histology including histological subtype, tumour stage, grading and follow-up data were available from patient records. Serum Mucin-1 concentrations were measured with ELISA technology detecting CA 15–3 and CA 27.29, Mucin-1 tissue expression was determined by immunohistochemistry using the VU4H5 and VU3C6 anti-Mucin-1 antibodies. Statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS 18.0. Results Serum samples of 118 patients with ovarian tumours were obtained to determine levels of Mucin-1. Median CA 15–3 and CA 27.29 concentrations were significantly higher in patients with malignant disease (p< 0.001) than in patients with benign disease. Paraffin-embedded tissue of 154 patients with ovarian carcinoma was available to determine Mucin-1 expression. The majority of patients presented with advanced stage disease at primary diagnosis. Median follow-up time was 11.39 years. Immunohistochemistry results for VU4H5 showed significant differences with respect to tumour grade, FIGO stage and overall survival. Patients with negative expression had a mean overall survival of 9.33 years compared to 6.27 years for patients with positive Mucin-1 expression. Conclusions This study found

  1. Mucin can enhance growth, biofilm formation, and survival of Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Mothey, Deepa; Buttaro, Bettina A; Piggot, Patrick J

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is a member of the dental plaque and is the primary causative agent of dental caries. It can survive extended periods of starvation, which may occur in different niches within the oral cavity. We have found that mucin compensated for the absence of amino acids to promote exponential growth and biofilm formation of S. mutans in minimal medium supplemented with glucose and sucrose, respectively. Mucin extended survival in conditions where there was no net growth provided the operon encoding the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was intact. Mucin extended survival in conditions of amino acid sufficiency provided the tagatose pathway for galactose utilization was intact, suggesting that S. mutans can scavenge sufficient galactose from mucin to enhance survival, although not to serve as a primary carbon and energy source. The results suggest that mucin has a metabolic role in promoting survival of S. mutans.

  2. Repression of flagella motility in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 by mucin components.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Chul; Yoon, Jang W; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Park, Mi-Sun; Cho, Seung-Hak

    2012-07-13

    Whole genome-scale transcriptome analysis of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 EDL933 was performed to investigate the influence of mucin components on the EHEC gene expression. Here we report that the 732 candidate genes were differentially expressed by the presence of 0.5% porcine stomach mucin, including the 8 flagella-related genes. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed that the transcription expression of the flg genes (encoding the structural components for flagella basal body) was down-regulated by the mucin components. Indeed, bacterial swarming motility was drastically reduced when grown on 0.3% trypton agar plates containing the mucin. These results imply that gastrointestinal (GI) mucin is a possible environmental signal which negatively regulates the flagellation of EHEC O157:H7 in the GI tract.

  3. Residual mucin and response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jove, Maria; Verghese, Eldo; Sharma, Nisha; Lane, Sally

    2016-05-06

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is the standard of care for patients with breast cancer with inoperable disease or smaller tumours who might benefit from a conservative surgery after downstaging of their disease. Nevertheless, evidence shows that preoperative and postoperative chemotherapy are equivalent in terms of long-term survival. Response and histological changes after NAC have been widely studied in invasive ductal carcinoma not otherwise specified, but there is a paucity of characterisation of patterns of response to chemotherapy in less frequent histological types. We report extensive residual mucin deposits after chemotherapy in a woman with locally advanced breast cancer and a prominent mucinous component at diagnosis. Interestingly, residual mucin was co-located with the initial tumour, in the breast as well as in the axillary lymph nodes. The distribution of mucin may be a valuable marker of the extent of mucinous carcinomas prior to NAC.

  4. Rectal Cancer: Mucinous Carcinoma on Magnetic Resonance Imaging Indicates Poor Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Oberholzer, Katja; Menig, Matthias; Kreft, Andreas; Schneider, Astrid; Junginger, Theodor; Heintz, Achim; Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich; Hoetker, Andreas M.; Hansen, Torsten; Dueber, Christoph; Schmidberger, Heinz

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To assess response of locally advanced rectal carcinoma to chemoradiation with regard to mucinous status and local tumor invasion found at pretherapeutic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods and Materials: A total of 88 patients were included in this prospective study of patients with advanced mrT3 and mrT4 carcinomas. Carcinomas were categorized by MRI as mucinous (mucin proportion >50% within the tumor volume), and as nonmucinous. Patients received neoadjuvant chemoradiation consisting of 50.4 Gy (1.8 Gy/fraction) and 5-fluorouracil on Days 1 to 5 and Days 29 to 33. Therapy response was assessed by comparing pretherapeutic MRI with histopathology of surgical specimens (minimum distance between outer tumor edge and circumferential resection margin = CRM, T, and N category). Results: A mucinous carcinoma was found in 21 of 88 patients. Pretherapeutic mrCRM was 0 mm (median) in the mucinous and nonmucinous group. Of the 88 patients, 83 underwent surgery with tumor resection. The ypCRM (mm) at histopathology was significantly lower in mucinous carcinomas than in nonmucinous carcinomas (p {<=} 0.001). Positive resection margins (ypCRM {<=} 1 mm) were found more frequently in mucinous carcinomas than in nonmucinous ones (p {<=} 0.001). Treatment had less effect on local tumor stage in mucinous carcinomas than in nonmucinous carcinomas (for T downsizing, p = 0.012; for N downstaging, p = 0.007). Disease progression was observed only in patients with mucinous carcinomas (n = 5). Conclusion: Mucinous status at pretherapeutic MRI was associated with a noticeably worse response to chemoradiation and should be assessed by MRI in addition to local tumor staging to estimate response to treatment before it is initiated.

  5. Regulation of mucous differentiation and mucin gene expression in the tracheobronchial epithelium.

    PubMed

    Gray, T; Koo, J S; Nettesheim, P

    2001-03-07

    The goal of our studies is to elucidate mechanisms that control and modulate mucous differentiation and mucin gene expression in the conducting airways. We used cultures of normal human tracheobronchial epithelial (NHTBE) cells that were shown to secrete two major airway mucins, namely MUC5AC and MUC5B as well as several other secretory products. Mucous differentiation and expression of MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC5B and MUC7, but not MUCi, MUC4, and MUC8 mucin genes, were shown to be retinoic acid- (RA) or retinol-dependent. We found that RA control of mucin genes was mediated by the retinoid acid receptors RAR alpha and, to a lesser extent, by RAR gamma. Our studies also showed that other important bioregulators such as thyroid hormone (T3) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) modulate basal expression of mucin genes, interacting with RA in a concentration-dependent manner. T3, which binds to thyroid receptors (TRs) belonging to the same superfamily of steroid hormone nuclear receptors as the RARs, inhibits mucin gene expression, particularly MUC5AC. One possible mechanism of this T3 effect is downregulation of RAR proteins, which are critical for mucin gene expression. However, we also found that T3 inhibits MUC5AC transcription.EGF, which had previously been shown to stimulate mucin expression and mucin secretion in cultured rat tracheal epithelial (RTE) cells, inhibited mucin secretion in human bronchial epithelial cell cultures. This effect was EGF concentration- and time-dependent and was progressively abolished by increasing the RA concentration. Subsequent studies suggested that the inhibitory effects of high concentrations of EGF may result from selective reduction of MUC5AC expression. These studies thus point to potentially important species differences in the mechanisms regulating mucous production, and they also confirm previous findings indicating differential regulation of MUC5AC and MUC5B gene expression.

  6. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) study of gastric mucin solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Z.; Bansil, R.; Waigh, T.; Turner, B.; Bhaskar, K. R.; Afdhal, N.; Lal, J.

    2002-03-01

    We report the first results from a SANS study of purified porcine gastric mucin solutions in D2O. The ability of this glycoprotein to protect the stomach epithelium from acid damage, may be due to a pH dependent conformational transition which leads to gelation at low pH Cao et. al. (Biophysical. J. 76, 1250, 1999). SANS measurements were made over the concentration range of 1 -15 mg/ml at pH 7, 4 and 2. The data indicate that at pH 7 the excluded volume exponent is 1.7, characteristic of swollen chains whereas at pH 2 this exponent increases to 2, indicating theta or poor solvent conditions, consistent with the hydrophobic interactions increasing at lower pH. From a Guinier analysis of the 1mg/ml data at low q's (0.003- 0.007 Å-1) we estimate the cross section radius of the effective cylinder to be 23nm and its length as 96nm in an unbuffered sample, i.e. close to pH 7. In the intermediate q-range (0.01 -0.1Å-1) at pH 7 a fit to the Debye chain gives radius of gyration Rg of 16nm. Mucin is best modelled as an elongated micelle with a cylindrical or worm-like chain to represent the protein core and the sugar chains forming the corona. Results of such calculations will be presented.

  7. Hepatocellular carcinoma with characteristic mucin production: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Hwa; Kim, Young Bog; Cho, Sung Bum; Lee, Min Cheol; Park, Chang Soo

    2009-01-01

    We present a unique case of hepatocellular carcinoma with mucin-producing gland formation. A 53-year-old man with hepatitis B infection presented with weight loss for the past month. Computed tomography demonstrated a 10 × 9.8 cm mass in the right hepatic lobe accompanied by cirrhotic changes in the hepatic parenchyma. Right hepatectomy was performed, and the tumor cut surface showed a poorly-circumscribed, white to pink tumor with numerous nodules and extensive necrosis. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of thick trabeculae and large, irregularly-shaped islands, both of which were filled with pleomorphic eosinophilic hepatoid cells or gland-forming columnar cells with mucin production. Those cells were immunoreactive for cytokeratin 19 in both the trabeculae and the glands. In some tumor cells, limited immunoreactivity for cytokeratin 7, epithelial membrane antigen and carcinoembryonic antigen was noted. The cells forming thick trabeculae were focally positive for hepatocyte paraffin 1 and alpha-fetoprotein. We suggest that this tumor shows bidirectional differentiation into hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, supporting the concepts that human hepatocarcinogenesis can be based on transformation of progenitor cells which can imply divergent differentiation. PMID:19918544

  8. Viscoelastic Properties and Dynamics of Porcine Gastric Mucin

    SciTech Connect

    Celli,J.; Gregor, B.; Turner, B.; Afdhal, N.; Bansil, R.; Erramilli, S.

    2005-01-01

    Gastric mucin is a glycoprotein known to undergo a pH-dependent sol-gel transition that is crucial to the protective function of the gastric mucus layer in mammalian stomachs. We present microscope-based dynamic light scattering data on porcine gastric mucin at pH 6 (solution) and pH 2 (gel) with and without the presence of tracer particles. The data provide a measurement of the microscale viscosity and the shear elastic modulus as well as an estimate of the mesh size of the gel formed at pH 2. We observe that the microscale viscosity in the gel is about 100-fold lower than its macroscopic viscosity, suggesting that large pores open up in the gel reducing frictional effects. The data presented here help to characterize physiologically relevant viscoelastic properties of an important biological macromolecule and may also serve to shed light on diffusive motion of small particles in the complex heterogeneous environment of a polymer gel network.

  9. Middle ear adenoma. A tumor displaying mucinous and neuroendocrine differentiation.

    PubMed

    Wassef, M; Kanavaros, P; Polivka, M; Nemeth, J; Monteil, J P; Frachet, B; Tran Ba Huy, P

    1989-10-01

    Middle ear adenoma (MEA) is a distinctive, rare entity that appears to be derived from the lining epithelium of the middle ear mucosa. We report four cases of MEA displaying the typical histologic growth pattern. Two distinct tumor cell immunophenotypes were identified in all cases; the first type exhibited positivity with anti-epithelial membrane antigen and anti-keratin antibodies, and the second type showed immunoreactivity with anti-keratin, anti-vimentin, and anti-neuron-specific enolase antibodies. Ultrastructural studies revealed bidirectional mucinous and neuroendocrine differentiation, demonstrated by the presence of two distinct cell types containing apically located mucous granules and basally concentrated neuroendocrine granules, respectively. The presence of neuroendocrine differentiation was supported by the immunohistochemical detection of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the tumor cells in one case and neuron-specific enolase in three cases. These findings suggest that the potential for mixed mucinous/neuroendocrine differentiation described in other endodermally derived tumors also exists in middle ear mucosa. We also believe that the rare lesions diagnosed as primary carcinoid tumors of the middle ear might in fact be MEA with predominant or only neuroendocrine differentiation. The clinical course of our four cases and our review of the pertinent literature confirm the benign nature of MEA and indicate that these tumors should be treated by complete local excision without additional therapy.

  10. Molecular pathology of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Paini, Marina; Crippa, Stefano; Partelli, Stefano; Scopelliti, Filippo; Tamburrino, Domenico; Baldoni, Andrea; Falconi, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Since the first description of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas in the eighties, their identification has dramatically increased in the last decades, hand to hand with the improvements in diagnostic imaging and sampling techniques for the study of pancreatic diseases. However, the heterogeneity of IPMNs and their malignant potential make difficult the management of these lesions. The objective of this review is to identify the molecular characteristics of IPMNs in order to recognize potential markers for the discrimination of more aggressive IPMNs requiring surgical resection from benign IPMNs that could be observed. We briefly summarize recent research findings on the genetics and epigenetics of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, identifying some genes, molecular mechanisms and cellular signaling pathways correlated to the pathogenesis of IPMNs and their progression to malignancy. The knowledge of molecular biology of IPMNs has impressively developed over the last few years. A great amount of genes functioning as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes have been identified, in pancreatic juice or in blood or in the samples from the pancreatic resections, but further researches are required to use these informations for clinical intent, in order to better define the natural history of these diseases and to improve their management. PMID:25110429

  11. Colon cancer molecular subtypes identified by expression profiling and associated to stroma, mucinous type and different clinical behavior

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Colon cancer patients with the same stage show diverse clinical behavior due to tumor heterogeneity. We aimed to discover distinct classes of tumors based on microarray expression patterns, to analyze whether the molecular classification correlated with the histopathological stages or other clinical parameters and to study differences in the survival. Methods Hierarchical clustering was performed for class discovery in 88 colon tumors (stages I to IV). Pathways analysis and correlations between clinical parameters and our classification were analyzed. Tumor subtypes were validated using an external set of 78 patients. A 167 gene signature associated to the main subtype was generated using the 3-Nearest-Neighbor method. Coincidences with other prognostic predictors were assesed. Results Hierarchical clustering identified four robust tumor subtypes with biologically and clinically distinct behavior. Stromal components (p < 0.001), nuclear β-catenin (p = 0.021), mucinous histology (p = 0.001), microsatellite-instability (p = 0.039) and BRAF mutations (p < 0.001) were associated to this classification but it was independent of Dukes stages (p = 0.646). Molecular subtypes were established from stage I. High-stroma-subtype showed increased levels of genes and altered pathways distinctive of tumour-associated-stroma and components of the extracellular matrix in contrast to Low-stroma-subtype. Mucinous-subtype was reflected by the increased expression of trefoil factors and mucins as well as by a higher proportion of MSI and BRAF mutations. Tumor subtypes were validated using an external set of 78 patients. A 167 gene signature associated to the Low-stroma-subtype distinguished low risk patients from high risk patients in the external cohort (Dukes B and C:HR = 8.56(2.53-29.01); Dukes B,C and D:HR = 1.87(1.07-3.25)). Eight different reported survival gene signatures segregated our tumors into two groups the Low-stroma-subtype and

  12. Identification of the mucin-binding adhesin of Pseudomonas cepacia isolated from patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Sajjan, S U; Forstner, J F

    1992-01-01

    In previous experiments, we have shown that isolates of Pseudomonas cepacia from sputa of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), particularly those with severe lung infection, exhibited specific binding to purified respiratory or intestinal mucins (U. Sajjan, M. Corey, M. Karmali, and J. Forstner, J. Clin. Invest. 89:648-656, 1992). The present report describes the identification of the adhesin as a protein located on fimbriae of mucin-binding P. cepacia. From a total of 53 isolates available (from 22 patients with CF), we used three mucin-binding and three non-mucin-binding isolates for our experiments. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of crude P. cepacia homogenates was performed, the separated proteins were blotted onto nitrocellulose and overlaid with purified mucin, and mucin-binding components were detected with an antimucin antibody and then a second-antibody-alkaline phosphatase conjugate system. Only mucin-binding isolates exhibited a positively stained band at an Mr of 22,000. The 22-kDa protein was purified, and a polyclonal antibody specific for it was developed in rabbits. By electron microscopy and immunogold labelling, both the antibody and mucin (separately) were localized to pili present over the entire surface of the bacterial cells. Non-mucin-binding isolates did not have (or had very few) pili and did not stain with either mucin or the antibody to the 22-kDa protein. The purified 22-kDa protein and its antibody were each able to inhibit piliated P. cepacia binding to mucin. The amino acid composition of the 22-kDa protein was dissimilar to those of the major pilin proteins of Escherichia coli (type 1 pilus) and P. aeruginosa (PAK and PAO1 strains). Both the pili of P. aeruginosa PAK and PAO1 and antibodies to these pili failed to inhibit P. cepacia binding to mucin. Thus, P. cepacia adhesion to mucin is mediated by a pilin-associated 22-kDa protein which differs from epithelial-cell-binding pilin proteins of P. aeruginosa

  13. Mucin-positive epithelial mesotheliomas: a histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural comparison with mucin-producing pulmonary adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Hammar, S P; Bockus, D E; Remington, F L; Rohrbach, K A

    1996-01-01

    Pathologists routinely use histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy to differentiate epithelial mesotheliomas from pulmonary adenocarcinomas. Epithelial mesotheliomas are usually mucicarmine-, PAS-diastase, and carcinoembryonic antigen-negative, whereas about 60-75% of pulmonary adenocarcinomas are mucicarmine- and PAS-diastase-positive, and about 90% express polyclonal carcinoembryonic antigen. During a pathologic evaluation of pleural neoplasms between 1975 and 1990, 10 epithelial mesotheliomas were identified that were mucicarmine- and in some instances PAS-diastase-positive (diagnosis of mesothelioma confirmed by ultrastructural examination), with four mesotheliomas focally expressing carcinoembryonic antigen. The mucicarmine, PAS-diastase, and carcinoembryonic antigen staining were usually eradicated or reduced in intensity by pretreatment of the tissue sections with hyaluronidase, suggesting that hyaluronic acid was responsible for the positive mucin reactions. In three cases the epithelial mesotheliomas showed focal regions of mucicarmine, PAS-d-, and Alcian blue-hyaluronidase-resistant staining. In contrast, 10 mucicarmine-, PAS-diastase-, Alcian blue-, and carcinoembryonic antigen-positive pulmonary adenocarcinomas were not affected by hyaluronidase pretreatment of the tissue. Besides the usual ultrastructural features of well- to moderately well-differentiated epithelial mesotheliomas, the mucin-positive epithelial mesotheliomas often showed medium-electron-dense secretory material covering the microvilli, aggregates of medium electron-dense material in association with the microvilli, producing an ultrastructural morphology that has been observed only in epithelial mesotheliomas.

  14. Immune-driven alterations in mucin sulphation is an important mediator of Trichuris muris helminth expulsion

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Paul A.; Lourie, Rohan; Hutson, Peter; Tong, Hui; Grencis, Richard K.

    2017-01-01

    Mucins are heavily glycosylated proteins that give mucus its gel-like properties. Moreover, the glycans decorating the mucin protein core can alter the protective properties of the mucus barrier. To investigate whether these alterations could be parasite-induced we utilized the Trichuris muris (T. muris) infection model, using different infection doses and strains of mice that are resistant (high dose infection in BALB/c and C57BL6 mice) or susceptible (high dose infection in AKR and low dose infection in BALB/c mice) to chronic infection by T. muris. During chronicity, within the immediate vicinity of the T. muris helminth the goblet cell thecae contained mainly sialylated mucins. In contrast, the goblet cells within the epithelial crypts in the resistant models contained mainly sulphated mucins. Maintained mucin sulphation was promoted by TH2-immune responses, in particular IL-13, and contributed to the protective properties of the mucus layer, making it less vulnerable to degradation by T. muris excretory secretory products. Mucin sulphation was markedly reduced in the caecal goblet cells in the sulphate anion transporter-1 (Sat-1) deficient mice. We found that Sat-1 deficient mice were susceptible to chronic infection despite a strong TH2-immune response. Lower sulphation levels lead to decreased efficiency of establishment of T. muris infection, independent of egg hatching. This study highlights the complex process by which immune-regulated alterations in mucin glycosylation occur following T. muris infection, which contributes to clearance of parasitic infection. PMID:28192541

  15. Candida albicans Shed Msb2 and Host Mucins Affect the Candidacidal Activity of Salivary Hst 5

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Sumant; Friedman, Justin; Saraswat, Darpan; Kumar, Rohitashw; Li, Rui; Ruszaj, Donna; Edgerton, Mira

    2015-01-01

    Salivary Histatin 5 (Hst 5) is an antimicrobial peptide that exhibits potent antifungal activity towards Candida albicans, the causative agent of oral candidiasis. However, it exhibits limited activity in vivo, largely due to inactivation by salivary components of both host and pathogen origin. Proteins secreted by C. albicans during infection such as secreted aspartyl proteases (Saps) and shed mucin Msb2 can reduce Hst 5 activity; and human salivary mucins, while suggested to protect Hst 5 from proteolytic degradation, can entrap peptides into mucin gels, thereby reducing bioavailability. We show here that Sap6 that is secreted during hyphal growth reduces Hst 5 activity, most likely a result of proteolytic degradation of Hst 5 since this effect is abrogated with heat inactivated Sap 6. We further show that just like C. albicans shedding Msb2, mammalian mucins, fetuin and porcine gut mucin (that is related to salivary mucins), also reduce Hst 5 activity. However, we identify mucin-like protein-induced changes in C. albicans cell morphology and aggregation patterns, suggesting that the effect of such proteins on Hst 5 cannot be interpreted independently of their effect on yeast cells. PMID:26529023

  16. Differential expression of matrix metalloproteinase-13 in mucinous and nonmucinous colorectal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Foda, Abd Al-Rahman Mohammad; El-Hawary, Amira K; Abdel-Aziz, Azza

    2013-08-01

    Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is a major health problem all over the world. Mucinous CRCs are known to have a peculiar behavior and genetic derangements. This study aimed to investigate matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 expression in mucinous and nonmucinous CRCs. We studied tumor tissue specimens from 150 patients with mucinous and nonmucinous CRC who underwent radical surgery from January 2007 to January 2012. High-density manual tissue microarrays were constructed using a modified mechanical pencil tip technique, and paraffin sections were submitted for immunohistochemistry using MMP-13. Statistical analysis was performed for clinical and pathological data of all studied cases together with MMP-13 expression in mucinous and nonmucinous groups. Mucinous carcinoma was significantly associated with young age, more depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, and less peritumoral and intratumoral neutrophils. Nonmucinous carcinomas showed higher MMP-13 expression compared with mucinous carcinomas. Despite the negative or low expression of MMP-13, mucinous carcinomas had more depth of invasion and more frequency of lymph node metastasis than did nonmucinous carcinomas.

  17. Analysis of mucin composition in gastric juices of chronic rheumatic patients with upper gastrointestinal damage.

    PubMed

    Ikezawa, Tomoaki; Ichikawa, Takafumi; Adachi, Ken; Sugano, Satoshi; Ojima, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Youko; Watanabe, Yukio; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2005-08-01

    Assessment of the mucin subclasses in the gastric juices of severe chronic rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients was compared with non-RA cases which received the eradication treatment of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Gastric juice samples were obtained from 8 RA patients (5 for H. pylori-negative and 3 for H. pylori-positive) and 5 control subjects in which we confirmed the successful eradication of H. pylori. The gastric luminal mucins were extracted and isolated by the ethanol precipitation method. These mucin solutions were digested with chymotrypsin, dialyzed, lyophilized, and redissolved. The obtained specimen was applied to an ion exchange column containing DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B and eluted with a discontinuous salt gradient in three salt steps. The gastric luminal mucins were divided into three fractions based on the distinctive sialic acid content. The proportion of acidic mucin rich in sialic acid from the gastric juice of RA patients without the H. pylori infection was significantly lower than those RA patients with H. pylori or the control subjects. A decrease in the acidic mucin content after eradication of H. pylori was commonly observed in all the control subjects. Our investigation raises the possibility that the gastric mucosae of RA patients have resistance against H. pylori infection. And the analysis of the composition in the gastric luminal mucin may be a very useful tool for the evaluation of gastric homeostasis in RA patients.

  18. A Mucin-type O-Glycosyltransferase Modulates Cell Adhesion during Drosophila Development*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liping; Zhang, Ying; Hagen, Kelly G. Ten

    2008-01-01

    Cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion are crucial during many stages of eukaryotic development. Here, we provide the first example that mucin-type O-linked glycosylation is involved in a developmentally regulated cell adhesion event in Drosophila melanogaster. Mutations in one member of the evolutionarily conserved family of enzymes that initiates O-linked glycosylation alter epithelial cell adhesion in the Drosophila wing blade. A transposon insertion mutation in pgant3 or RNA interference to pgant3 resulted in blistered wings, a phenotype characteristic of genes involved in integrin-mediated cell interactions. Expression of wild type pgant3 in the mutant background rescued the wing blistering phenotype, whereas expression of another family member (pgant35A) did not, revealing a unique requirement for pgant3. pgant3 mutants displayed reduced O-glycosylation along the basal surface of larval wing imaginal discs, which was restored with wild type pgant3 expression, suggesting that reduced glycosylation of basal proteins is responsible for disruption of adhesion in the adult wing blade. Glycosylation reactions demonstrated that PGANT3 glycosylates certain extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that PGANT3 glycosylates tiggrin, an ECM protein known to bind integrin. We propose that this glycosyltransferase is uniquely responsible for glycosylating tiggrin in the wing disc, thus modulating proper cell adhesion through integrin-ECM interactions. This study provides the first evidence for the role of O-glycosylation in a developmentally regulated, integrin-mediated, cell adhesion event and reveals a novel player in wing blade formation during Drosophila development. PMID:18835818

  19. The innate immune properties of airway mucosal surfaces are regulated by dynamic interactions between mucins and interacting proteins: the mucin interactome

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Amina A.; Wang, Tiffany; Li, Lily; Kesimer, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Summary Chronic lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis, chronic bronchitis and asthma, are characterized by hypersecretion and poor clearance of mucus, which are associated with poor prognosis and mortality. Little is known about the relationship between the biophysical properties of mucus and its molecular composition. The mucins MUC5B and MUC5AC are traditionally believed to generate the characteristic biophysical properties of airway mucus. However, the contribution of hundreds of globular proteins to the biophysical properties of mucus is not clear. Approximately one-third of the total mucus proteome comprises distinct, multi-protein complexes centered around airway mucins. These complexes constitute a discrete entity we call the “mucin interactome”. The data suggest that while the majority of these proteins interact with mucins via electrostatic and weak interactions, some interact through very strong hydrophobic and/or covalent interactions. Using reagents that interfere with protein-protein interactions, the complexes can be disassembled, and mucus rheology can be dramatically altered. Using MUC5B-glutathione S-transferase (GST) and MUC5B-galectin-3 as a representative of these interactions, we provide evidence that individual mucin protein interactions can alter the biophysical properties of mucus and modulate the biological function of the protein. We propose that the key mechano- and bio-active functions of mucus depend on the dynamic interactions between mucins and globular proteins. These observations challenge the paradigm that mucins are the only molecules that confer biophysical properties of mucus. These observations may ultimately lead to a greater understanding of the system and guide the development of strategies for more effective interventions using better therapeutic agents. PMID:27072609

  20. A Gastric Glycoform of MUC5AC Is a Biomarker of Mucinous Cysts of the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Jessica; Cao, Zheng; Dai, Jianliang; Tang, Huiyuan; Partyka, Katie; Hostetter, Galen; Simeone, Diane M.; Feng, Ziding; Allen, Peter J.; Brand, Randall E.; Haab, Brian B.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular indicators to specify the risk posed by a pancreatic cyst would benefit patients. Previously we showed that most cancer-precursor cysts, termed mucinous cysts, produce abnormal glycoforms of the proteins MUC5AC and endorepellin. Here we sought to validate the glycoforms as a biomarker of mucinous cysts and to specify the oligosaccharide linkages that characterize MUC5AC. We hypothesized that mucinous cysts secrete MUC5AC displaying terminal N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) in either alpha or beta linkage. We used antibody-lectin sandwich assays to detect glycoforms of MUC5AC and endorepellin in cyst fluid samples from three independent cohorts of 49, 32, and 66 patients, and we used monoclonal antibodies to test for terminal, alpha-linked GlcNAc and the enzyme that produces it. A biomarker panel comprising the previously-identified glycoforms of MUC5AC and endorepellin gave 96%, 96%, and 87% accuracy for identifying mucinous cysts in the three cohorts with an average sensitivity of 92% and an average specificity of 94%. Glycan analysis showed that MUC5AC produced by a subset of mucinous cysts displays terminal alpha-GlcNAc, a motif expressed in stomach glands. The alpha-linked glycoform of MUC5AC was unique to intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN), whereas terminal beta-linked GlcNAc was increased in both IPMNs and mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCN). The enzyme that synthesizes alpha-GlcNAc, A4GNT, was expressed in the epithelia of mucinous cysts that expressed alpha-GlcNAc, especially in regions with high-grade dysplasia. Thus IPMNs secrete a gastric glycoform of MUC5AC that displays terminal alpha-GlcNAc, and the combined alpha-GlcNAc and beta-GlcNAc glycoforms form an accurate biomarker of mucinous cysts. PMID:27992432

  1. AGR2 is induced in asthma and promotes allergen-induced mucin overproduction.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Bradley W; Verhaeghe, Catherine; Park, Sung-Woo; Nguyenvu, Louis T; Huang, Xiaozhu; Zhen, Guohua; Erle, David J

    2012-08-01

    Mucins are gel-forming proteins that are responsible for the characteristic viscoelastic properties of mucus. Mucin overproduction is a hallmark of asthma, but the cellular requirements for airway mucin production are poorly understood. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein anterior gradient homolog 2 (AGR2) is required for production of the intestinal mucin MUC2, but its role in the production of the airway mucins MUC5AC and MUC5B is not established. Microarray data were analyzed to examine the relationship between AGR2 and MUC5AC expression in asthma. Immunofluorescence was used to localize AGR2 in airway cells. Coimmunoprecipitation was used to identify AGR2-immature MUC5AC complexes. Agr2(-/-) mice were used to determine the role of AGR2 in allergic airway disease. AGR2 localized to the ER of MUC5AC- and MUC5B-producing airway cells and formed a complex with immature MUC5AC. AGR2 expression increased together with MUC5AC expression in airway epithelium from "Th2-high" asthmatics. Allergen-challenged Agr2(-/-) mice had greater than 50% reductions in MUC5AC and MUC5B proteins compared with allergen-challenged wild-type mice. Impaired mucin production in Agr2(-/-) mice was accompanied by an increase in the proportion of mucins contained within the ER and by evidence of ER stress in airway epithelium. This study shows that AGR2 increases with mucin overproduction in individuals with asthma and in mouse models of allergic airway disease. AGR2 interacts with immature mucin in the ER and loss of AGR2 impairs allergen-induced MUC5AC and MUC5B overproduction.

  2. Coordinated release of nucleotides and mucin from human airway epithelial Calu-3 cells

    PubMed Central

    Kreda, Silvia M; Okada, Seiko F; van Heusden, Catharina A; O'Neal, Wanda; Gabriel, Sherif; Abdullah, Lubna; Davis, C William; Boucher, Richard C; Lazarowski, Eduardo R

    2007-01-01

    The efficiency of the mucociliary clearance (MCC) process that removes noxious materials from airway surfaces depends on the balance between mucin secretion, airway surface liquid (ASL) volume, and ciliary beating. Effective mucin dispersion into ASL requires salt and water secretion onto the mucosal surface, but how mucin secretion rate is coordinated with ion and, ultimately, water transport rates is poorly understood. Several components of MCC, including electrolyte and water transport, are regulated by nucleotides in the ASL interacting with purinergic receptors. Using polarized monolayers of airway epithelial Calu-3 cells, we investigated whether mucin secretion was accompanied by nucleotide release. Electron microscopic analyses of Calu-3 cells identified subapical granules that resembled goblet cell mucin granules. Real-time confocal microscopic analyses revealed that subapical granules, labelled with FM 1-43 or quinacrine, were competent for Ca2+-regulated exocytosis. Granules containing MUC5AC were apically secreted via Ca2+-regulated exocytosis as demonstrated by combined immunolocalization and slot blot analyses. In addition, Calu-3 cells exhibited Ca2+-regulated apical release of ATP and UDP-glucose, a substrate of glycosylation reactions within the secretory pathway. Neither mucin secretion nor ATP release from Calu-3 cells were affected by activation or inhibition of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator. In SPOC1 cells, an airway goblet cell model, purinergic P2Y2 receptor-stimulated increase of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration resulted in secretion of both mucins and nucleotides. Our data suggest that nucleotide release is a mechanism by which mucin-secreting goblet cells produce paracrine signals for mucin hydration within the ASL. PMID:17656429

  3. Coordinated release of nucleotides and mucin from human airway epithelial Calu-3 cells.

    PubMed

    Kreda, Silvia M; Okada, Seiko F; van Heusden, Catharina A; O'Neal, Wanda; Gabriel, Sherif; Abdullah, Lubna; Davis, C William; Boucher, Richard C; Lazarowski, Eduardo R

    2007-10-01

    The efficiency of the mucociliary clearance (MCC) process that removes noxious materials from airway surfaces depends on the balance between mucin secretion, airway surface liquid (ASL) volume, and ciliary beating. Effective mucin dispersion into ASL requires salt and water secretion onto the mucosal surface, but how mucin secretion rate is coordinated with ion and, ultimately, water transport rates is poorly understood. Several components of MCC, including electrolyte and water transport, are regulated by nucleotides in the ASL interacting with purinergic receptors. Using polarized monolayers of airway epithelial Calu-3 cells, we investigated whether mucin secretion was accompanied by nucleotide release. Electron microscopic analyses of Calu-3 cells identified subapical granules that resembled goblet cell mucin granules. Real-time confocal microscopic analyses revealed that subapical granules, labelled with FM 1-43 or quinacrine, were competent for Ca(2+)-regulated exocytosis. Granules containing MUC5AC were apically secreted via Ca(2+)-regulated exocytosis as demonstrated by combined immunolocalization and slot blot analyses. In addition, Calu-3 cells exhibited Ca(2+)-regulated apical release of ATP and UDP-glucose, a substrate of glycosylation reactions within the secretory pathway. Neither mucin secretion nor ATP release from Calu-3 cells were affected by activation or inhibition of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator. In SPOC1 cells, an airway goblet cell model, purinergic P2Y(2) receptor-stimulated increase of cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration resulted in secretion of both mucins and nucleotides. Our data suggest that nucleotide release is a mechanism by which mucin-secreting goblet cells produce paracrine signals for mucin hydration within the ASL.

  4. Analysis of mucosal mucins separated by SDS-urea agarose polyacrylamide composite gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Issa, Samah M A; Schulz, Benjamin L; Packer, Nicolle H; Karlsson, Niclas G

    2011-12-01

    Efficient separation of mucins (200 kDa-2 MDa) was demonstrated using gradient SDS agarose/polyacrylamide composite gel electrophoresis (SDS-AgPAGE). Inclusion of urea (SDS-UAgPAGE) in the gels casting were shown to have no effect on the migration of mucins in the gel and allowed casting of gel at room temperature. This simplified the procedure for multiple casting of agarose polyacrylamide gradients and increased reproducibility of these gels. Hence, the implementation of urea makes the technique applicable for high throughput isolation and screening of mucin oligosaccharides by LC-MS after releasing the oligosaccharides from isolated, blotted mucin subpopulations. It was also shown that the urea addition had no effect on other supporting applications such as western and lectin blotting. In addition, identification of the mucin protein after tryptic digestion and LC-MS was possible and no protein carbamylation due to the presence of urea in the gel was detected. LC-MS software developed for metabolomic analysis was used for O-linked oligosaccharide detection and differential display of various mucin samples. Using this method, heterogeneous glycosylation of mucins and mucin-type molecules isolated by SDS-AgPAGE and SDS-UAgPAGE was shown to consist of more than 80 different components in a single band, and in the extreme cases, up to 300-500 components (MUC5B/AC from saliva and sputum and). Metabolomic software was also used to show that the migration of mucin isoforms within the gel is due to heterogeneous size distribution of the oligosaccharides, with the slower migrating bands enriched in high-molecular-weight oligosaccharides.

  5. Prevalence and clinical significance of acellular mucin in locally advanced rectal cancer patients showing pathologic complete response to preoperative chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seok-Byung; Hong, Seung-Mo; Yu, Chang Sik; Hong, Yong Sang; Kim, Tae Won; Park, Jin-hong; Kim, Jong Hoon; Kim, Jin Cheon

    2013-01-01

    Occasionally, patients with locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma who receive preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) show acellular mucin in resection specimens that had shown pathologic complete response (pCR), but the clinical and prognostic significance of this finding has been controversial. This study analyzed data from 217 consecutive patients showing pCR to preoperative CRT followed by resection to evaluate the clinicopathologic features and prognostic significance of acellular mucin. Patients were categorized according to the presence of acellular mucin, as identified by pathologic analysis. The clinicopathologic findings and oncologic results were compared. Acellular mucins were identified in 35 (16.1%) of 217 pCR patients. Acellular mucins were found predominantly in male patients (20.8% vs. 9.8%, P=0.039) and in those with mucinous/signet ring cell differentiation (66.7% vs. 15.1%, P=0.008). The presence of acellular mucin was more frequent in patients with a shorter (<42 d) CRT-operation interval (22.6% vs. 10.3%, P=0.017). With a mean follow-up of 41 months (range, 2 to 119 mo), the 3-year overall survival (96.8% with mucin vs. 95.9% without mucin, P=0.314) and the 3-year disease-free survival (97.0% with mucin vs. 93.0% without mucin, P=0.131) did not differ between the groups. The presence of acellular mucin in rectal cancer patients showing pCR to preoperative CRT is associated with male sex and mucinous differentiation and does not have a significant impact on oncologic outcomes. Acellular mucins are also associated with the CRT-operation interval as a phenomenon of time-dependent response to CRT.

  6. The Vibrio cholerae extracellular chitinase ChiA2 is important for survival and pathogenesis in the host intestine.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Moumita; Nag, Dhrubajyoti; Koley, Hemanta; Saha, Dhira Rani; Chatterjee, Nabendu Sekhar

    2014-01-01

    In aquatic environments, Vibrio cholerae colonizes mainly on the chitinous surface of copepods and utilizes chitin as the sole carbon and nitrogen source. Of the two extracellular chitinases essential for chitin utilization, the expression of chiA2 is maximally up-regulated in host intestine. Recent studies indicate that several bacterial chitinases may be involved in host pathogenesis. However, the role of V. cholerae chitinases in host infection is not yet known. In this study, we provide evidence to show that ChiA2 is important for V. cholerae survival in intestine as well as in pathogenesis. We demonstrate that ChiA2 de-glycosylates mucin and releases reducing sugars like GlcNAc and its oligomers. Deglycosylation of mucin corroborated with reduced uptake of alcian blue stain by ChiA2 treated mucin. Next, we show that V. cholerae could utilize mucin as a nutrient source. In comparison to the wild type strain, ΔchiA2 mutant was 60-fold less efficient in growth in mucin supplemented minimal media and was also ∼6-fold less competent to survive when grown in the presence of mucin-secreting human intestinal HT29 epithelial cells. Similar results were also obtained when the strains were infected in mice intestine. Infection with the ΔchiA2 mutant caused ∼50-fold less fluid accumulation in infant mice as well as in rabbit ileal loop compared to the wild type strain. To see if the difference in survival of the ΔchiA2 mutant and wild type V. cholerae was due to reduced adhesion of the mutant, we monitored binding of the strains on HT29 cells. The initial binding of the wild type and mutant strain was similar. Collectively these data suggest that ChiA2 secreted by V. cholerae in the intestine hydrolyzed intestinal mucin to release GlcNAc, and the released sugar is successfully utilized by V. cholerae for growth and survival in the host intestine.

  7. [Mucinous adenocarcinoma of the renal pelvis associated with renal calculi of the inflammatory type].

    PubMed

    Kalafatis, P; Zarifis, I; Sotrillis, T; Stefis, A

    1999-03-01

    A rare case of mucinous adenocarcinoma of the renal pelvis associated with renal staghorn calculosis in a 60-years-old male patient with pyuria and mucin content of the urine is presented. History was significant for recurrent calculosis of the left kidney. A non functioning hydronephrotic left kidney with staghorn calculosis was diagnosed. Laboratory tests were remarkable only for Carcinoembrionic Antigen (CEA). Pathology of the surgical specimen followed by its immunoreactivity revealed an intestinal type metaplasia and papillary, tubular and mucinous adenocarcinoma of the renal pelvis. Pathogenesis of the intestinal metaplasia and the role of chronic irritation of the urothelium are mentioned.

  8. Refractory Jaundice From Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm Treated With Cholangioscopy-Guided Radiofrequency Ablation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Nicholas G; Camilo, Joel; McCarter, Martin; Shah, Raj J

    2016-04-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are epithelial neoplasms treated with surgical resection when appropriate. We present a 79-year-old man with jandice refractory to endoscopic stenting. Biliary radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with cholangioscopy was used as palliation of obstructive jaundice due to a mucin-producing pancreatic IPMN with fistulous biliary communication. Clinical improvement permitted surgery, and he returned to pre-illness status at 17 months. The use of cholangioscopy in the setting of mucinous filling defects can guide over-the-wire RFA for palliation and may be a bridge to surgery.

  9. Extracellular histones inhibit efferocytosis.

    PubMed

    Friggeri, Arnaud; Banerjee, Sami; Xie, Na; Cui, Huachun; De Freitas, Andressa; Zerfaoui, Mourad; Dupont, Hervé; Abraham, Edward; Liu, Gang

    2012-07-18

    The uptake and clearance of apoptotic cells by macrophages and other phagocytic cells, a process called efferocytosis, is a major component in the resolution of inflammation. Increased concentrations of extracellular histones are found during acute inflammatory states and appear to contribute to organ system dysfunction and mortality. In these studies, we examined the potential role of histones in modulating efferocytosis. We found that phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils or thymocytes by macrophages was significantly diminished in the presence of histones H3 or H4, but not histone H1. Histone H3 demonstrated direct binding to macrophages, an effect that was diminished by preincubation of macrophages with the opsonins growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6) and milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor (EGF) 8 (MFG-E8). Incubation of histone H3 with soluble α(v)β₅ integrin and Mer, but not with α(v)β₃, diminished its binding to macrophages. Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by alveolar macrophages in vivo was diminished in the presence of histone H3. Incubation of histone H3 with activated protein C, a treatment that degrades histones, abrogated its inhibitory effects on efferocytosis under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. The present studies demonstrate that histones have inhibitory effects on efferocytosis, suggesting a new mechanism by which extracellular histones contribute to acute inflammatory processes and tissue injury.

  10. Aeromonas salmonicida Binds Differentially to Mucins Isolated from Skin and Intestinal Regions of Atlantic Salmon in an N-Acetylneuraminic Acid-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Padra, János T.; Sundh, Henrik; Jin, Chunsheng; Karlsson, Niclas G.; Sundell, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida infection, also known as furunculosis disease, is associated with high morbidity and mortality in salmonid aquaculture. The first line of defense the pathogen encounters is the mucus layer, which is predominantly comprised of secreted mucins. Here we isolated and characterized mucins from the skin and intestinal tract of healthy Atlantic salmon and studied how A. salmonicida bound to them. The mucins from the skin, pyloric ceca, and proximal and distal intestine mainly consisted of mucins soluble in chaotropic agents. The mucin density and mucin glycan chain length from the skin were lower than were seen with mucin from the intestinal tract. A. salmonicida bound to the mucins isolated from the intestinal tract to a greater extent than to the skin mucins. The mucins from the intestinal regions had higher levels of sialylation than the skin mucins. Desialylating intestinal mucins decreased A. salmonicida binding, whereas desialylation of skin mucins resulted in complete loss of binding. In line with this, A. salmonicida also bound better to mammalian mucins with high levels of sialylation, and N-acetylneuraminic acid appeared to be the sialic acid whose presence was imperative for binding. Thus, sialylated structures are important for A. salmonicida binding, suggesting a pivotal role for sialylation in mucosal defense. The marked differences in sialylation as well as A. salmonicida binding between the skin and intestinal tract suggest interorgan differences in the host-pathogen interaction and in the mucin defense against A. salmonicida. PMID:25287918

  11. Mucin-like peptides from Echinococcus granulosus induce antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Noya, Verónica; Bay, Sylvie; Festari, María Florencia; García, Enrique P; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Chiale, Carolina; Ganneau, Christelle; Baleux, Françoise; Astrada, Soledad; Bollati-Fogolín, Mariela; Osinaga, Eduardo; Freire, Teresa

    2013-09-01

    There is substantial evidence suggesting that certain parasites can have antitumor properties. We evaluated mucin peptides derived from the helminth Echinococcus granulosus (denominated Egmuc) as potential inducers of antitumor activity. We present data showing that Egmuc peptides were capable of inducing an increase of activated NK cells in the spleen of immunized mice, a fact that was correlated with the capacity of splenocytes to mediate killing of tumor cells. We demonstrated that Egmuc peptides enhance LPS-induced maturation of dendritic cells in vitro by increasing the production of IL-12p40p70 and IL-6 and that Egmuc-treated DCs may activate NK cells, as judged by an increased expression of CD69. This evidence may contribute to the design of tumor vaccines and open new horizons in the use of parasite-derived molecules in the fight against cancer.

  12. An unusual radiological presentation of mucinous adenocarcinoma of the colon

    PubMed Central

    Swann, Joanna; Kaczynski, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of an elderly patient presenting with the left iliac fossa mass. The provisional diagnosis included an inflammatory diverticular mass or sigmoid colon cancer. Interestingly, computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis demonstrated the left incarcerated Spigelian hernia containing an inflamed loop of the colon with signs of an early strangulation. However, at operation, a mucinous tumor was found involving the descending and upper sigmoid colon. The tumor eroded through the anterior abdominal wall, which was excised “en bloc.” In the presented case, CT findings suggestive of a benign etiology were misleading. This potentially could have had significant consequences if the patient was treated conservatively. This case highlights that clinical history and examination remain the core components of a safe surgical practice. Clinical judgment cannot be substituted even by the best quality imaging. Therefore, we feel that it is important to share our experience of the successful management of the presented case. PMID:28250979

  13. The Extracellular Matrix of Candida albicans Biofilms Impairs Formation of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps

    PubMed Central

    Cabezas-Olcoz, Jonathan; Wang, Steven X.; Huttenlocher, Anna; Ansari, Hamayail; Nett, Jeniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils release extracellular traps (NETs) in response to planktonic C. albicans. These complexes composed of DNA, histones, and proteins inhibit Candida growth and dissemination. Considering the resilience of Candida biofilms to host defenses, we examined the neutrophil response to C. albicans during biofilm growth. In contrast to planktonic C. albicans, biofilms triggered negligible release of NETs. Time lapse imaging confirmed the impairment in NET release and revealed neutrophils adhering to hyphae and migrating on the biofilm. NET inhibition depended on an intact extracellular biofilm matrix as physical or genetic disruption of this component resulted in NET release. Biofilm inhibition of NETosis could not be overcome by protein kinase C activation via phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and was associated with suppression of neutrophil reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The degree of impaired NET release correlated with resistance to neutrophil attack. The clinical relevance of the role for extracellular matrix in diminishing NET production was corroborated in vivo using a rat catheter model. The C. albicans pmr1Δ/Δ, defective in production of matrix mannan, appeared to elicit a greater abundance of NETs by scanning electron microscopy imaging, which correlated with a decreased fungal burden. Together, these findings show that C. albicans biofilms impair neutrophil response through an inhibitory pathway induced by the extracellular matrix. PMID:27622514

  14. Optimal design for studying mucoadhesive polymers interaction with gastric mucin using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D): Comparison of two different mucin origins.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sejin; Wilcox, Matthew; Pearson, Jeffrey P; Borrós, Salvador

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this present study was to develop an efficient and simple method, based on the use of a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), to evaluate the mucoadhesive characteristics of cationic polymers; chitosan, thiolated chitosan (chitosan-SH), and polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH), and anionic polymers; hyaluronic acid (HA) and thiolated hyaluronic acid (HA-SH). The experiments were carried out at pH 4 to assess the interaction between mucoadhesive polymers and a mucin-coated gold surface. A key point in the QCM-D protocol development was to evaluate two sources of mucin: native porcine gastric mucin (NPGM) and commercially available porcine gastric mucin (CPGM). QCM-D has shown its potential as a highly sensitive technique that provides information about the interaction of mucoadhesive polymers with gastric mucin. The technique would allow the classification of these polymers in order to further assess their application as base materials for nanocarriers, designed to interact with the mucosal barrier which represents a stumbling block for drug adsorption.

  15. Structures of sulfated oligosaccharides in human trachea mucin glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Sangadala, S; Bhat, U R; Mendicino, J

    1993-09-08

    The structures of high molecular weight sulfated oligosaccharide chains in mucins purified from the sputum of a patient with cystic fibrosis and blood group H determinant were established. Reduced oligosaccharides released by treatment with alkaline borohydride were separated by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Agarose and a fraction containing multisulfated chains was further purified by lectin affinity chromatography to completely remove small amounts of sialylated chains. A major sulfated oligosaccharide fraction containing chains with an average of 160 to 200 sugar residues was isolated by gel filtration on BioGel P-10 columns and individual subfractions were characterized by methylation analysis, periodate oxidation and sequential glycosidase digestion before and after desulfation. Carbohydrate analysis yielded Fuc, Gal and GldNAc in a ratio of 1:2:2.1 and only one galactosaminitol residue for every 160- to 200 sugar residues. The average molecular weight of oligosaccharide chains in these fractions was between 27,000 and 40,000 daltons. Structural analysis showed that these high molecular weight chains contained varying amounts of the repeating unit shown in the following oligosaccharide. Only one in about every 10 repeating units contained sulfate esters. Several shorter chains which contain 2 to 3 sulfate esters were also isolated from this multisulfated oligosaccharide fraction. The structures proposed for these oligosaccharides indicate that they are lower molecular weight chains with the same general structure as those found in the high molecular weight sulfated oligosaccharides. Taken collectively, the results of these studies show that a major sulfated oligosaccharide fraction in respiratory mucin purified from the mucus of patients with cystic fibrosis contains high molecular weight branched chains that consist of a repeating oligosaccharide sequence with sulfate linked to the 6 positions of galactose and possibly GlcNAc residues in the side chains.

  16. Extracellular matrix structure.

    PubMed

    Theocharis, Achilleas D; Skandalis, Spyros S; Gialeli, Chrysostomi; Karamanos, Nikos K

    2016-02-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a non-cellular three-dimensional macromolecular network composed of collagens, proteoglycans/glycosaminoglycans, elastin, fibronectin, laminins, and several other glycoproteins. Matrix components bind each other as well as cell adhesion receptors forming a complex network into which cells reside in all tissues and organs. Cell surface receptors transduce signals into cells from ECM, which regulate diverse cellular functions, such as survival, growth, migration, and differentiation, and are vital for maintaining normal homeostasis. ECM is a highly dynamic structural network that continuously undergoes remodeling mediated by several matrix-degrading enzymes during normal and pathological conditions. Deregulation of ECM composition and structure is associated with the development and progression of several pathologic conditions. This article emphasizes in the complex ECM structure as to provide a better understanding of its dynamic structural and functional multipotency. Where relevant, the implication of the various families of ECM macromolecules in health and disease is also presented.

  17. Nanomaterial-protein interactions: the case of pristine and functionalized carbon nanotubes and porcine gastric mucin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero, Nadia; Marenchino, Marco; Campos-Olivas, Ramón; Oliaro-Bosso, Simonetta; Bonandini, Luca; Boskovic, Jasminka; Viscardi, Guido; Visentin, Sonja

    2016-04-01

    Mucus represents a serious obstacle that prevents the penetration of drug carrier's transport across the mucus barrier. This study highlights the interaction between mucin glycoprotein, mucin from porcine stomach Type III (PGM) and different pristine and functionalized single-wall and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs), under physiological conditions, in order to investigate the affinity of different CNTs to mucin. This aspect could be of the utmost importance for the use of CNTs for biomedical purposes. The interaction between CNTs and PGM was investigated by using different techniques like fluorescence steady-state spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamic light scattering (DLS), circular dichroism (CD), electrophoresis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We demonstrated that mucin has impressive capabilities for binding CNTs in physiological solutions. Moreover, we proved that the nanomaterial-protein interaction is influenced by the different natures of the tubes (SW and MW) and by their different functionalizations (pristine and oxidized CNTs).

  18. Subunit structure of deglycosylated human and swine trachea and Cowper's gland mucin glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Sangadala, S; Kim, D; Brewer, J M; Mendicino, J

    1991-03-27

    The oligosaccharide chains in human and swine trachea and Cowper's gland mucin glycoproteins were completely removed in order to examine the subunit structure and properties of the polypeptide chains of these glycoproteins. The carbohydrate, which constitutes more than 70% of these glycoproteins, was removed by two treatments with trifluoromethanesulfonic acid for 3 h at 3 degrees and periodate oxidation by a modified Smith degradation. All of the sialic acid, fucose, galactose, N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine present in these glycoproteins was removed by these procedures. The deglycosylated polypeptide chains were purified and characterized. The size of the monomeric forms of all three polypeptide chains were very similar. Data obtained by gel filtration, release of amino acids during hydrolysis with carboxypeptidase B and gel electrophoresis in the presence of 0.1% dodecyl sulfate showed that a major fraction from each of the three mucin glycoproteins had a molecular size of about 67 kDa. All of the deglycosylated chains had a tendency to aggregate. Digestion with carboxypeptidases showed that human and swine trachea mucin glycoproteins had identical carboxyl terminal sequences, -Val-Ala-Phe-Tyr-Leu-Lys-Arg-COOH. Cowper's gland mucin glycoprotein had a similar carboxyl terminal sequence, -Val-Ala-Tyr-Leu-Phe-Arg-Arg-COOH. The yield of amino acids after long periods of hydrolysis with carboxypeptidases showed that at least 85% of the polypeptide chains in each of the deglycosylated preparations have these sequences. These results suggested that the polypeptide chains in these deglycosylated mucin glycoprotein preparations were relatively homogeneous. The deglycosylated polypeptide chains as well as the intact mucin glycoproteins had blocked amino terminii. The purified polypeptide chains were digested with trypsin-TCPK, and S. aureus V8 protease and the resulting peptides were isolated by gel electrophoresis in the presence of 0.1% dodecyl sulfate

  19. Precursor lesions of mucinous carcinoma of the breast: analysis of 130 cases.

    PubMed

    Kryvenko, Oleksandr N; Chitale, Dhananjay A; Yoon, Jiyoon; Arias-Stella, Javier; Meier, Frederick A; Lee, Min W

    2013-07-01

    Mucinous mammary carcinoma (MC) is a tumor type with relatively favorable prognosis. Unlike the circumstances surrounding conventional invasive duct carcinoma, data are limited regarding precursor lesions for MC. This study characterizes patterns of mucinous ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) as a precursor lesion for MC. All slides from 130 cases of MC encountered between 2000 and 2011 at Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI were reviewed to subclassify MC, identify DCIS, and explore transition patterns from DCIS to MC. Calponin, p63, chromogranin, synaptophysin, CD56, and MIB-1 immunostaining analyses were performed in 65 cases. Among 106 cases of pure (71 type A, 35 type B) and 24 cases of mixed MC, DCIS appeared in 88 (68%) specimens, with all but 4 showing luminal mucin accumulation. Dominant patterns of mucinous DCIS were cribriform/solid (66), cribriform and papillary (7), papillary (5), micropapillary (3), and flat (3). Fifty-seven (68%) cases of mucinous DCIS demonstrated transitions from DCIS to MC. Luminal mucinous distention, focal flattening and attenuation of the epithelium, and disruption of the duct wall resulting in a mucocele-like extravasation of malignant epithelia with escaping mucin was a transition pattern seen with all architectures of DCIS and in all types of MC. This was the only pattern of transition to type A MC. The epithelial outpouching, formation of a cleft with accumulation of mucin around the epithelium, and transition into mucin pools with floating tumor cell clusters was the second transition pattern that went from cribriform/solid DCIS to type B and mixed MC. DCIS preceding aggressive phenotypes of MC (type B and mixed) more often had a cribriform/solid architecture, higher nuclear grade, and higher Ki-67-labeling index (all P<0.05). In summary, mucinous DCIS is a precursor to MC with distinctive features that link patterns of DCIS with aggressive MC phenotypes. The 2 observed transitions between mucinous DCIS and MC suggest that

  20. A huge ovarian mucinous cystadenoma causing virilization, preterm labor, and persistent supine hypotensive syndrome during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Acar, Canan; Temizkan, Osman; Ozagari, Aysim; Gozukara, Ilay; Akyol, Atif

    2016-01-01

    Mucinous cystadenoma (MC) of the ovary is an unilateral, multilocular cystic benign epithelial tumor. Supposed to be hormone responsive, MC reaches huge sizes during pregnancy. Aortocaval compression is common during pregnancy, especially when the pregnant woman is in the supine position. However, the compression recovers with a change in position. The authors report the first case of a huge mucinous cystadenoma of the ovary complicating pregnancy and causing virilization, premature labor, and persistent supine hypotensive syndrome. PMID:27547742

  1. Single molecule study of heterotypic interactions between mucins possessing the Tn cancer antigen

    PubMed Central

    Haugstad, Kristin E; Stokke, Bjørn T; Brewer, C Fred; Gerken, Thomas A; Sletmoen, Marit

    2015-01-01

    Mucins are linear, heavily O-glycosylated proteins with physiological roles that include cell signaling, cell adhesion, inflammation, immune response and tumorgenesis. Cancer-associated mucins often differ from normal mucins by presenting truncated carbohydrate chains. Characterization of the binding properties of mucins with truncated carbohydrate side chains could thus prove relevant for understanding their role in cancer mechanisms such as metastasis and recognition by the immune system. In this work, heterotypic interactions of model mucins that possess the Tn (GalNAcαThr/Ser) and T (Galβ1–3GalNAcαThr/Ser) cancer antigens derived from porcine submaxillary mucin (PSM) were studied using atomic force microscopy. PSM possessing only the Tn antigen (Tn-PSM) was found to bind to PSM analogs possessing a combination of T, Tn and STn antigens as well as biosynthetic analogs of the core 1 blood group A tetrasaccharide (GalNAcα1–3[Fucα1–2] Galβ1–3GalNAcαSer/Thr). The rupture forces for the heterotypic interactions ranged from 18– to 31 pN at a force-loading rate of ∼0.5 nN/s. The thermally averaged distance from the bound complex to the transition state (xβ) was estimated to be in the range 0.37–0.87 nm for the first barrier of the Bell Evans analysis and within 0.34–0.64 nm based on a lifetime analysis. These findings reveal that the binding strength and energy landscape for heterotypic interactions of Tn-PSM with the above mucins, resemble homotypic interactions of Tn-PSM. This suggests common carbohydrate epitope interactions for the Tn cancer antigen with the above mucin analogs, a finding that may be important to the role of the Tn antigen in cancer cells. PMID:25527429

  2. Abundances in Przybylski's star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowley, C. R.; Ryabchikova, T.; Kupka, F.; Bord, D. J.; Mathys, G.; Bidelman, W. P.

    2000-09-01

    We have derived abundances for 54 elements in the extreme roAp star HD101065. ESO spectra with a resolution of about 80000, and S/N of 200 or more were employed. The adopted model has Teff=6600K, and log(g)=4.2. Because of the increased line opacity and consequent low gas pressure, convection plays no significant role in the temperature structure. Lighter elemental abundances through the iron group scatter about standard abundance distribution (SAD) (solar) values. Iron and nickel are about one order of magnitude deficient while cobalt is enhanced by 1.5dex. Heavier elements, including the lanthanides, generally follow the solar pattern but enhanced by 3 to 4dex. Odd-Z elements are generally less abundant than their even-Z neighbours. With a few exceptions (e.g. Yb), the abundance pattern among the heavy elements is remarkably coherent, and resembles a displaced solar distribution.

  3. Characterization of mucin-type core-1 beta1-3 galactosyltransferase homologous enzymes in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Müller, Reto; Hülsmeier, Andreas J; Altmann, Friedrich; Ten Hagen, Kelly; Tiemeyer, Michael; Hennet, Thierry

    2005-09-01

    Mucin type O-glycosylation is a widespread modification of eukaryotic proteins. The transfer of N-acetylgalactosamine to selected serine or threonine residues is catalyzed by a family of polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases localized in the Golgi apparatus. The most abundant elongation of O-glycans is the addition of a beta1-3 linked galactose by the core-1 beta1-3 galactosyltransferase (core-1 beta3GalT), thereby building the T-antigen or core-1 structure Gal(beta1-3)GalNAc(alpha1-O). We have isolated four Drosophila melanogaster cDNAs encoding proteins structurally similar to the human core-1 beta3GalT enzyme and expressed them as FLAG-tagged proteins in Sf9 insect cells. The identity of these D. melanogasterbeta3GalT enzymes with a core-1 beta3GalT activity was confirmed by utilization of MUC5AC mucin derived O-glycopeptide acceptors. In addition to the core-1 beta3GalT activity toward O-glycoprotein substrates, one member of this enzyme family showed a strong activity towards glycolipid acceptors, thereby building the core-1 terminated Nz6 glycosphingolipid. Transcripts of the embryonically expressed core-1 beta3GalTs were found in the maternally deposited mRNA, in salivary glands and in the amnioserosa. The presence of multiple core-1 beta3GalT genes in D. melanogaster suggests an increased complexity of core-1 O-glycan expression, which is possibly related to multiple developmental and physiological functions attributable to this class of glycans.

  4. Biochemical characterization of rat colonic mucins secreted in response to Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Tse, S K; Chadee, K

    1992-04-01

    Invasion of the colonic mucosa by Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites is preceded by colonic mucus depletion. The aim of our studies was to determine whether E. histolytica caused a differential secretion of mucin species in a rat colonic loop model. Mucus secretion in response to amoebae was followed by release of acid-precipitable 3H-glucosamine metabolically labelled glycoproteins and in vitro labelling of glycoprotein secretion with NaB3H4. The secretory response consisted of high-Mr goblet cell mucins and an increase in the secretion of low-Mr nonmucin glycoproteins as determined by Sepharose 4B column chromatography. High-Mr mucins subfractionated by Cellex-E (ECTEOLA) ion-exchange chromatography demonstrated a minor neutral and a major acidic mucin (greater than 98%) species. Marked differences between the neutral and acidic mucin species were indicated by immunogenicity and amino acid compositions. Thin-section histochemistry of rat colons confirmed secretion of neutral and acidic mucins in response to E. histolytica and demonstrated secretory activity from goblet cells from both the crypts and interglandular epithelium. E. histolytica mucus secretagogue activity was generalized and may function to deplete the host's protective mucus layer, facilitating invasion by the parasites.

  5. Tensile bond strength of a polymeric intra-buccal bioadhesive: the mucin role.

    PubMed

    Pedrazzi, V; Lara, E H; Dal Ciampo, J O; Panzeri, H

    2001-01-01

    The intra-bucal polymeric bioadhesive systems that can stay adhered to the oral soft tissues for drug programmed release, with the preventive and/or therapeutic purpose have been employed for large clinical situations. A system based on hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose/Carbopol 934TM/magnesium stearate (HPMC/Cp/StMg), was developed with the sodium fluoride as an active principle. This kind of system was evaluated according to its resistance to the removal by means of physical test of tensile strength. Swine buccal mucosa extracted immediately after animals' sacrifice was employed as a substrate for the physical trials to obtain 16 test bodies. Artificial saliva with or without mucin was used to involve the substrate/bioadhesive system sets during the trials. Artificial salivas viscosity were determined by means of Brookfield viscometer, and they showed 10.0 cP artificial saliva with mucin, and 7.5 cP artificial saliva without mucin. The tensile strength assays showed the following averages: 12.89 Pa for the group "artificial saliva with mucin", and 12.35 Pa for the group "without mucin". Statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the assays for both artificial salivas, and we can conclude that the variable mucin did not interfere with the bioadhesion process for the polymeric devices.

  6. Analysis of the Distribution of Mucins in Adult Human Gastric Mucosa and Its Functional Significance

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mucins are complex composition of carbohydrates seen in the epithelial cells lining the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Normal distribution of such mucins in different part of the GIT and its alteration in various inflammatory, benign and malignant lesions of GIT has aroused interest in the field of histochemistry. Aim By applying variety of histochemical techniques an attempt has been made to draw a map of mucin secretion by the different epithelial cell types in different parts of the stomach. Materials and Methods Fifty samples were taken each from different parts of the stomach like fundus, body and pylorus, from dissected fresh specimens (total of 150 specimens). Tissue samples were subjected for routine process and studied for histological and different histochemical staining. Results Mucin pattern in adult predominantly secretes neutral mucosubstances. Surface epithelium shows predominant neutral mucin while cardiac and gastric glands with foveolar cells show moderate amount. Sialomucin is present in a few cells of the surface epithelium, foveolar cells and in most of the mucous neck cells. Small amount of sialomucin and sulphomucin are found in surface epithelial foveolar cells while traces of sulphomucin are found in deep foveolar cells. Mucous neck cells secrete both sulphomucin and sialomucin. Conclusion Normal gastric mucosa adjacent to gastric ulcers and malignant tumours of stomach secretes mucins which differ histochemically and biochemically from that of normal. Early recognition of such changes could be useful in recognizing the different type of carcinomas and their prognosis. PMID:27042436

  7. Effect of hydration on structural and thermodynamic properties of pig gastric and bovine submaxillary gland mucins.

    PubMed

    Znamenskaya, Yana; Sotres, Javier; Engblom, Johan; Arnebrant, Thomas; Kocherbitov, Vitaly

    2012-04-26

    One of the essential functions of mucous gel is protection of tissues against dehydration. The effect of hydration on the structural and thermodynamic properties of pig gastric mucin (PGM) and bovine submaxillary gland mucin (BSM) have been studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM), sorption, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The analysis of sorption isotherms shows the higher water sorption capacity of PGM compared to BSM at RH levels lower than about 78%. The value of the hydration enthalpy at zero water content at 25 °C for both biopolymers is about -20 kJ/mol. Glass transitions of BSM and PGM occur at RH levels between 60 and 70% for both mucins. AFM indicates the presence of a dumbbell structure as well as a fiber-like structure in PGM samples. The experimental volume of the dry dumbbell molecule obtained by AFM is 3140 ± 340 nm(3). Using DSC data, the amount of nonfreezing water was calculated to be about 0.51 g/g of PGM. The phase diagram of PGM demonstrates two regions of different Tg: dependent and independent of hydration levels. In particular, at mucin concentrations from 0 to 67 wt %, the glass transition occurs at a constant temperature of about -15 °C. At higher concentrations of mucin, Tg is increasing with increasing mucin concentrations.

  8. Secreted and membrane-bound mucins and idiopathic peptic ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    Niv, Yaron; Boltin, Doron

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of Helicobacter pylori and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-negative peptic ulcer disease has increased over the last two decades, especially in the Western world and in countries with low H. pylori infection rates. Idiopathic peptic ulcer disease is a recently described entity which relates to peptic ulcers not caused by H. pylori, NSAID/aspirin therapy, other ulcerogenic organisms and drugs, or other rare malignant and benign diseases. Structural and secreted mucins create the unstirred gastric mucus layer and maintain a stable pH above the gastric mucosa. This mucous layer prevents enzymatic attack by acid and pepsin. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase by NSAID and aspirin inhibits prostaglandin production, inhibits mucin and bicarbonate secretion, and exposes the mucosa to the toxic effects of acid and intragastric enzymes. There is also a complex relationship between H. pylori and different mucin subtypes which on one hand facilitates mucin invasion but on the other hand protects the gastric mucosa. Genetic and epigenetic changes in the mucin molecule may be responsible for idiopathic peptic ulcer disease, but this hypothesis must be further investigated. Herein, the mucin hypothesis of idiopathic peptic ulcer disease is explored.

  9. RNF43 is a tumour suppressor gene mutated in mucinous tumours of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Ryland, Georgina L; Hunter, Sally M; Doyle, Maria A; Rowley, Simone M; Christie, Michael; Allan, Prue E; Bowtell, David D L; Gorringe, Kylie L; Campbell, Ian G

    2013-02-01

    Mucinous carcinomas represent a distinct morphological subtype which can arise from several organ sites, including the ovary, and their genetic characteristics are largely under-described. Exome sequencing of 12 primary mucinous ovarian tumours identified RNF43 as the most frequently somatically mutated novel gene, secondary to KRAS and mutated at a frequency equal to that of TP53 and BRAF. Further screening of RNF43 in a larger cohort of ovarian tumours identified additional mutations, with a total frequency of 2/22 (9%) in mucinous ovarian borderline tumours and 6/29 (21%) in mucinous ovarian carcinomas. Seven mutations were predicted to truncate the protein and one missense mutation was predicted to be deleterious by in silico analysis. Six tumours had allelic imbalance at the RNF43 locus, with loss of the wild-type allele. The mutation spectrum strongly suggests that RNF43 is an important tumour suppressor gene in mucinous ovarian tumours, similar to its reported role in mucinous pancreatic precancerous cysts.

  10. Non-pancreatic retroperitoneal mucinous neoplasms and a discussion of the differential diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, Camilla; Raza, Anwar Sultana

    2016-01-01

    Retroperitoneal mucinous neoplasms are common and have a wide range of differential diagnoses to consider. It is of utmost importance to maintain a multidisciplinary approach when evaluating these lesions. Clinical history, surgical impression and radiographic studies should be obtained and used in conjunction with morphology and immunohistochemistry to help guide the pathologist to the correct diagnosis. We recently encountered a case of a 51-year-old man who presented with an 11.5 cm left-sided retroperitoneal mucinous neoplasm. This lesion was initially diagnosed as a low-grade mucinous carcinoma of probable pancreatic origin at an outside facility, and he was subsequently treated with chemotherapy. One year later he presented to our institution and underwent retroperitoneal en bloc resection of the 7-cm residual multiloculated mucinous neoplasm. When discussed at tumor board additional medical history was obtained, and review of the patient’s chart revealed a remote history of left orchiectomy for a mixed malignant germ cell tumor and metastatic embryonal carcinoma in 2 of 34 retroperitoneal/para-aortic lymph nodes. With no clinical evidence of tumor in the pancreas or extension from it, the predominately para-aortic location of the tumor favors a mucinous carcinoma arising from a rest of mature metastatic/proliferating teratoma that persisted after chemotherapy. This case illustrates the importance of a thorough history, however remote, and correlation with imaging in the development of differential diagnoses, as well as, the need to consider non-pancreaticobiliary sources of retroperitoneal mucinous tumors. PMID:27034817

  11. Mucinous versus nonmucinous solitary pulmonary nodular bronchioloalveolar carcinoma: CT and FDG PET findings and pathologic comparisons.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho Yun; Lee, Kyung Soo; Han, Joungho; Kim, Byung-Tae; Cho, Young-Seok; Shim, Young Mog; Kim, Jhingook

    2009-08-01

    We aimed to evaluate the CT, PET, and pathologic findings of solitary pulmonary nodular mucinous and nonmucinous bronchioloalveolar carcinomas (BACs). From August 2003 to March 2008, we saw 24 patients with solitary pulmonary nodular mucinous (n=6) or nonmucinous (n=18) BACs that were resected. CT and PET findings of the lesions were assessed in terms of size, solidity, morphologic characteristics, attenuation and maximum standardized uptake value (mSUV). All nonmucinous BACs appeared as a pure ground-glass opacity (GGO) nodule, whereas mucinous BACs appeared as solid (n=4) or part-solid (n=2) nodules. CT attenuation values were significantly higher for mucinous BACs (-21.0 HU+/-4.9) than for nonmucinous BACs (-491.8 HU+/-172.5) (P<.001). Mean mSUVs were 2.3+/-1.9 for mucinous BACs and 0.5+/-0.8 for nonmucinous BACs (P=.007), but mSUVs were not statistically different after size adjustment (r=0.371, P=.081). Mucinous BACs appear as solid or part-solid nodules at CT, whereas nonmucinous BACs present as pure GGO nodules. Both subtypes of tumors show scant FDG uptake at PET.

  12. Interfacial Interaction between Transmembrane Ocular Mucins and Adhesive Polymers and Dendrimers Analyzed by Surface Plasmon Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Noiray, M.; Briand, E.; Woodward, A. M.; Argüeso, P.; Molina Martínez, I. T.; Herrero-Vanrell, R.; Ponchel, G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Development of the first in vitro method based on biosensor chip technology designed for probing the interfacial interaction phenomena between transmembrane ocular mucins and adhesive polymers and dendrimers intended for ophthalmic administration. Methods The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique was used. A transmembrane ocular mucin surface was prepared on the chip surface and characterized by QCM-D (Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation) and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy). The mucoadhesive molecules tested were: hyaluronic acid (HA), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC), chitosan (Ch) and polyamidoamine dendrimers (PAMAM). Results While Ch originated interfacial interaction with ocular transmembrane mucins, for HA, CMC and HPMC, chain interdiffusion seemed to be mandatory for bioadherence at the concentrations used in ophthalmic clinical practise. Interestingly, PAMAM dendrimers developed permanent interfacial interactions with transmembrane ocular mucins whatever their surface chemical groups, showing a relevant importance of co-operative effect of these multivalent systems. Polymers developed interfacial interactions with ocular membrane-associated mucins in the following order: Ch(1 %) > G4PAMAM-NH2(2 %) = G4PAMAM-OH(2 %) > G3.5PAMAM-COOH(2 %)≫ CMC(0.5 %) = HA(0.2 %) = HPMC(0.3 %). Conclusions The method proposed is useful to discern between the mucin-polymer chemical interactions at molecular scale. Results reinforce the usefulness of chitosan and den-drimers as polymers able to increase the retention time of drugs on the ocular surface and hence their bioavailability. PMID:22565639

  13. Making recombinant extracellular matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Florence; Koch, Manuel

    2008-05-01

    A variety of approaches to understand extracellular matrix protein structure and function require production of recombinant proteins. Moreover, the expression of heterologous extracellular matrix proteins, in particular collagens, using the recombinant technology is of major interest to the biomedical industry. Although extracellular matrix proteins are large, modular and often multimeric, most of them have been successfully produced in various expression systems. This review provides important factors, including the design of the construct, the cloning strategies, the expression vectors, the transfection method and the host cell systems, to consider in choosing a reliable and cost-effective way to make recombinant extracellular matrix proteins. Advantages and drawbacks of each system have been appraised. Protocols that may ease efficient recombinant production of extracellular matrix are described. Emphasis is placed on the recombinant collagen production. Members of the collagen superfamily exhibit specific structural features and generally require complex post-translational modifications to retain full biological activity that make more arduous their recombinant production.

  14. Secreted mucins in pseudomyxoma peritonei: pathophysiological significance and potential therapeutic prospects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP, ORPHA26790) is a clinical syndrome characterized by progressive dissemination of mucinous tumors and mucinous ascites in the abdomen and pelvis. PMP is a rare disease with an estimated incidence of 1–2 out of a million. Clinically, PMP usually presents with a variety of unspecific signs and symptoms, including abdominal pain and distention, ascites or even bowel obstruction. It is also diagnosed incidentally at surgical or non-surgical investigations of the abdominopelvic viscera. PMP is a neoplastic disease originating from a primary mucinous tumor of the appendix with a distinctive pattern of the peritoneal spread. Computed tomography and histopathology are the most reliable diagnostic modalities. The differential diagnosis of the disease includes secondary peritoneal carcinomatoses and some rare peritoneal conditions. Optimal elimination of mucin and the mucin-secreting tumor comprises the current standard of care for PMP offered in specialized centers as visceral resections and peritonectomy combined with intraperitoneal chemotherapy. This multidisciplinary approach has reportedly provided a median survival rate of 16.3 years, a median progression-free survival rate of 8.2 years and 10- and 15-year survival rates of 63% and 59%, respectively. Despite its indolent, bland nature as a neoplasm, PMP is a debilitating condition that severely impacts quality of life. It tends to be diagnosed at advanced stages and frequently recurs after treatment. Being ignored in research, however, PMP remains a challenging, enigmatic entity. Clinicopathological features of the PMP syndrome and its morbid complications closely correspond with the multifocal distribution of the secreted mucin collections and mucin-secreting implants. Novel strategies are thus required to facilitate macroscopic, as well as microscopic, elimination of mucin and its source as the key components of the disease. In this regard, MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC5B have been found as

  15. Transcriptome analysis reveals mucin 4 to be highly associated with periodontitis and identifies pleckstrin as a link to systemic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lundmark, Anna; Davanian, Haleh; Båge, Tove; Johannsen, Gunnar; Koro, Catalin; Lundeberg, Joakim; Yucel-Lindberg, Tülay

    2015-01-01

    The multifactorial chronic inflammatory disease periodontitis, which is characterized by destruction of tooth-supporting tissues, has also been implicated as a risk factor for various systemic diseases. Although periodontitis has been studied extensively, neither disease-specific biomarkers nor therapeutic targets have been identified, nor its link with systemic diseases. Here, we analyzed the global transcriptome of periodontitis and compared its gene expression profile with those of other inflammatory conditions, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and ulcerative colitis (UC). Gingival biopsies from 62 patients with periodontitis and 62 healthy subjects were subjected to RNA sequencing. The up-regulated genes in periodontitis were related to inflammation, wounding and defense response, and apoptosis, whereas down-regulated genes were related to extracellular matrix organization and structural support. The most highly up-regulated gene was mucin 4 (MUC4), and its protein product was confirmed to be over-expressed in periodontitis. When comparing the expression profile of periodontitis with other inflammatory diseases, several gene ontology categories, including inflammatory response, cell death, cell motion, and homeostatic processes, were identified as common to all diseases. Only one gene, pleckstrin (PLEK), was significantly overexpressed in periodontitis, CVD, RA, and UC, implicating this gene as an important networking link between these chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:26686060

  16. Transcriptome analysis reveals mucin 4 to be highly associated with periodontitis and identifies pleckstrin as a link to systemic diseases.

    PubMed

    Lundmark, Anna; Davanian, Haleh; Båge, Tove; Johannsen, Gunnar; Koro, Catalin; Lundeberg, Joakim; Yucel-Lindberg, Tülay

    2015-12-21

    The multifactorial chronic inflammatory disease periodontitis, which is characterized by destruction of tooth-supporting tissues, has also been implicated as a risk factor for various systemic diseases. Although periodontitis has been studied extensively, neither disease-specific biomarkers nor therapeutic targets have been identified, nor its link with systemic diseases. Here, we analyzed the global transcriptome of periodontitis and compared its gene expression profile with those of other inflammatory conditions, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and ulcerative colitis (UC). Gingival biopsies from 62 patients with periodontitis and 62 healthy subjects were subjected to RNA sequencing. The up-regulated genes in periodontitis were related to inflammation, wounding and defense response, and apoptosis, whereas down-regulated genes were related to extracellular matrix organization and structural support. The most highly up-regulated gene was mucin 4 (MUC4), and its protein product was confirmed to be over-expressed in periodontitis. When comparing the expression profile of periodontitis with other inflammatory diseases, several gene ontology categories, including inflammatory response, cell death, cell motion, and homeostatic processes, were identified as common to all diseases. Only one gene, pleckstrin (PLEK), was significantly overexpressed in periodontitis, CVD, RA, and UC, implicating this gene as an important networking link between these chronic inflammatory diseases.

  17. Virulent Shigella flexneri Affects Secretion, Expression, and Glycosylation of Gel-Forming Mucins in Mucus-Producing Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sperandio, Brice; Fischer, Natalie; Chevalier-Curt, Marie Joncquel; Rossez, Yannick; Roux, Pascal; Robbe Masselot, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Mucin glycoproteins are secreted in large amounts by the intestinal epithelium and constitute an efficient component of innate immune defenses to promote homeostasis and protect against enteric pathogens. In this study, our objective was to investigate how the bacterial enteropathogen Shigella flexneri, which causes bacillary dysentery, copes with the mucin defense barrier. We report that upon in vitro infection of mucin-producing polarized human intestinal epithelial cells, virulent S. flexneri manipulates the secretion of gel-forming mucins. This phenomenon, which is triggered only by virulent strains, results in accumulation of mucins at the cell apical surface, leading to the appearance of a gel-like structure that favors access of bacteria to the cell surface and the subsequent invasion process. We identify MUC5AC, a gel-forming mucin, as a component of this structure. Formation of this gel does not depend on modifications of electrolyte concentrations, induction of trefoil factor expression, endoplasmic reticulum stress, or response to unfolded proteins. In addition, transcriptional and biochemical analyses of infected cells reveal modulations of mucin gene expression and modifications of mucin glycosylation patterns, both of which are induced by virulent bacteria in a type III secretion system-dependent manner. Thus, S. flexneri has developed a dedicated strategy to alter the mucus barrier by targeting key elements of the gel-forming capacity of mucins: gene transcription, protein glycosylation, and secretion. PMID:23876800

  18. OXYGEN ABUNDANCES IN CEPHEIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Luck, R. E.; Andrievsky, S. M.; Korotin, S. N.; Kovtyukh, V. V. E-mail: serkor@skyline.od.ua E-mail: scan@deneb1.odessa.ua

    2013-07-01

    Oxygen abundances in later-type stars, and intermediate-mass stars in particular, are usually determined from the [O I] line at 630.0 nm, and to a lesser extent, from the O I triplet at 615.7 nm. The near-IR triplets at 777.4 nm and 844.6 nm are strong in these stars and generally do not suffer from severe blending with other species. However, these latter two triplets suffer from strong non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects and thus see limited use in abundance analyses. In this paper, we derive oxygen abundances in a large sample of Cepheids using the near-IR triplets from an NLTE analysis, and compare those abundances to values derived from a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of the [O I] 630.0 nm line and the O I 615.7 nm triplet as well as LTE abundances for the 777.4 nm triplet. All of these lines suffer from line strength problems making them sensitive to either measurement complications (weak lines) or to line saturation difficulties (strong lines). Upon this realization, the LTE results for the [O I] lines and the O I 615.7 nm triplet are in adequate agreement with the abundance from the NLTE analysis of the near-IR triplets.

  19. Mucin biosynthesis and secretion in tracheal epithelial cells in primary culture.

    PubMed Central

    Svitacheva, N; Davies, J R

    2001-01-01

    Density-gradient centrifugation of bovine tracheal epithelial cell extracts revealed a 'high-density' (1.48 g/ml) sialic-acid-rich population as well as a 'low-density' (1.42 g/ml) one that reacted more strongly with a periodate-Schiff (PAS) assay. The sialic-acid-rich mucins were oligomeric molecules containing disulphide- bond-linked subunits and large glycosylated domains, whereas the PAS-reactive component seemed to be smaller and 'monomeric'. Only the 'high-density' population was secreted from cells cultured for 5 days on plastic or a collagen type 1, Matrigel or Vitrogen substrate. Release was less from cells grown on plastic than from those on a substrate and the amount was unaffected by increasing the thickness of the collagen layer. For cells grown on collagen, the amount of the sialic-acid-rich mucin increased over 10 days, whereas the PAS-reactive component was largely absent after 24 h, which was consistent with an initial release of stored PAS-reactive molecules and synthesis of the sialic-acid-rich mucins de novo. Both [(3)H]proline and [(35)S]sulphate were poorly incorporated into mucins detected with the chemical assays but molecules with a higher buoyant density than that of either of the previously identified species were labelled with [(35)S]sulphate. The [(35)S]sulphate-labelled material yielded large trypsin-resistant fragments and contained O-linked glycans but was not affected by digestion with chondroitin ABC lyase or heparan sulphate lyase, suggesting that it is a mucin rather than a proteoglycan. [(35)S]Sulphate is thus a poor marker for the major oligomeric mucins produced by bovine tracheal epithelial cells but the radiolabel is incorporated into a heavily labelled mucin-like component. PMID:11115395

  20. Characterization of mucin glycoprotein-specific translation products from swine and human trachea, pancreas and colon.

    PubMed

    Sangadala, S; Wallace, P; Mendicino, J

    1991-07-24

    RNA was isolated from cultured swine trachea epithelial cells and mucus-secreting tumor cell lines from human pancreas, lung and colon by extraction with guanidine isothiocyanate. Poly(A)+mRNA rich fractions were purified by repeated chromatography on oligo (dT)-cellulose columns and they were translated in a cell-free rabbit reticulocyte system. Translation products labelled with 35S-methionine were isolated by immunoprecipitation with specific antibodies to the polypeptide chains of mucin glycoproteins and they were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and fluorography. A single principal polypeptide band of 67 kDa was found in all cases when the immunoprecipitates were washed with buffer containing bovine serum albumin and unlabeled deglycosylated mucin glycoprotein. The intensity of the 67 kDa band decreased when unlabeled deglycosylated mucin glycoprotein was added to the translation mixture before immunoprecipitation. Affinity purified monospecific antibodies elicited against chemically deglycosylated polypeptide chains of purified mucin glycoproteins from human and swine trachea and Cowper's gland were all equally effective in immunoprecipitating the 67 kDa translation product. Monospecific antibodies directed against the glycosylated and unglycosylated regions of the polypeptide chain yielded single bands with a molecular size of 67 kDa in each case. Peptide profiles obtained by digestion of the 67 kDa translation product with S. aureus V-8 protease were identical to those obtained with deglycosylated human and swine trachea mucin glycoproteins. These studies clearly demonstrate that the translation product of swine trachea and human lung, colon and pancreatic mucin glycoprotein gene is a single polypeptide chain of 67 kDa. The relative size and properties of the translation products synthesized with poly (A)+RNA isolated from mucus-secreting cells derived from three different tissues are similar to those of mucin glycoproteins purified directly from mucus secretions of

  1. The tyrosine phosphatase, SHP-1, is involved in bronchial mucin production during oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Jang, Min Kyoung; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Lee, Ki-Young; Kim, Tae-Bum; Moon, Keun Ae; Park, Chan Sun; Bae, Yun Jeong; Zhu, Zhou; Moon, Hee-Bom; Cho, You Sook

    2010-02-26

    Mucus hypersecretion is a clinically important manifestation of chronic inflammatory airway diseases, such as asthma and Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Mucin production in airway epithelia is increased under conditions of oxidative stress. Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP)-1 suppression is related to the development of airway inflammation and increased ROS levels. In this study, we investigated the role of SHP-1 in mucin secretion triggered by oxidative stress. Human lung mucoepidermoid H292 carcinoma cells were transfected with specific siRNA to eliminate SHP-1 gene expression. Cultured cells were treated with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), and Mucin 5AC(MUC5AC) gene expression and mucin production were determined. Activation of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) in association with MUC5AC production was evaluated. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was employed to determine whether antioxidants could block MUC5AC production. To establish the precise role of p38, mucin expression was observed after pre-treatment of SHP-1-depleted H292 cells with the p38 chemical blocker. We investigated the in vivo effects of oxidative stress on airway mucus production in SHP-1-deficient heterozygous (mev/+) mice. MUC5AC expression was enhanced in SHP-1 knockdown H292 cells exposed to H(2)O(2), compared to that in control cells. The ratio between phosphorylated and total p38 was significantly increased in SHP-1-deficient cells under oxidative stress. Pre-treatment with NAC suppressed both MUC5AC production and p38 activation. Blockage of p38 MAPK led to suppression of MUC5AC mRNA expression. Notably, mucin production was enhanced in the airway epithelia of mev/+ mice exposed to oxidative stress. Our results clearly indicate that SHP-1 plays an important role in airway mucin production through regulating oxidative stress.

  2. Pancreatic endometrial cyst mimics mucinous cystic neoplasm of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Mederos, Michael A; Villafañe, Nicole; Dhingra, Sadhna; Farinas, Carlos; McElhany, Amy; Fisher, William E; Van Buren II, George

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic cysts include a variety of benign, premalignant, and malignant lesions. Endometrial cysts in the pancreas are exceedingly rare lesions that are difficult to diagnose pre-operatively. This report describes the findings in a 43-year-old patient with a recent episode of acute pancreatitis who presented with a large cyst in the tail of the pancreas. Imaging demonstrated a loculated pancreatic cyst, and cyst fluid aspiration revealed an elevated amylase and carcinoembryonic antigen. The patient experienced an interval worsening of abdominal pain, fatigue, diarrhea, and a 15-pound weight loss 3 mo after the initial episode of pancreatitis. With concern for a possible pre-malignant lesion, the patient underwent a laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy, which revealed a 16 cm × 12 cm × 4 cm lesion. Final histopathology was consistent with an intra-pancreatic endometrial cyst. Here we discuss the overlapping imaging and laboratory features of pancreatic endometrial cysts and mucinous cystic neoplasms of the pancreas. PMID:28246486

  3. Dynamic force spectroscopy of parallel individual mucin1-antibody bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Sulchek, T A; Friddle, R W; Langry, K; Lau, E; Albrecht, H; Ratto, T; DeNardo, S; Colvin, M E; Noy, A

    2005-05-02

    We used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to measure the binding forces between Mucin1 (MUC1) peptide and a single chain antibody fragment (scFv) selected from a scFv library screened against MUC1. This binding interaction is central to the design of the molecules for targeted delivery of radioimmunotherapeutic agents for prostate and breast cancer treatment. Our experiments separated the specific binding interaction from non-specific interactions by tethering the antibody and MUC1 molecules to the AFM tip and sample surface with flexible polymer spacers. Rupture force magnitude and elastic characteristics of the spacers allowed identification of the bond rupture events corresponding to different number of interacting proteins. We used dynamic force spectroscopy to estimate the intermolecular potential widths and equivalent thermodynamic off rates for mono-, bi-, and tri-valent interactions. Measured interaction potential parameters agree with the results of molecular docking simulation. Our results demonstrate that an increase of the interaction valency leads to a precipitous decline in the dissociation rate. Binding forces measured for mono and multivalent interactions match the predictions of a Markovian model for the strength of multiple uncorrelated bonds in parallel configuration. Our approach is promising for comparison of the specific effects of molecular modifications as well as for determination of the best configuration of antibody-based multivalent targeting agents.

  4. Genome-wide significant risk associations for mucinous ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kelemen, Linda E.; Lawrenson, Kate; Tyrer, Jonathan; Li, Qiyuan; M. Lee, Janet; Seo, Ji-Heui; Phelan, Catherine M.; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqin; Spindler, Tassja J.; Aben, Katja K.H.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Baker, Helen; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bean, Yukie; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise A.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bruinsma, Fiona; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian G.; Carty, Karen; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chen, Y. Ann; Chen, Zhihua; Cook, Linda S.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Dörk, Thilo; du Bois, Andreas; Dürst, Matthias; Eccles, Diana; Easton, Douglas T.; Edwards, Robert P.; Eilber, Ursula; Ekici, Arif B.; Engelholm, Svend Aage; Fasching, Peter A.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G.; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goode, Ellen L.; Goodman, Marc T.; Grownwald, Jacek; Harrington, Patricia; Harter, Philipp; Hasmad, Hanis Nazihah; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A.T.; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Estrid; Hogdall, Claus; Hosono, Satoyo; Iversen, Edwin S.; Jakubowska, Anna; Jensen, Allan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Karlan, Beth Y; Kellar, Melissa; Kelley, Joseph L.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Krakstad, Camilla; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D.; Lee, Alice W.; Lele, Shashi; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A.; Liang, Dong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon F.A.G.; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R.; McNeish, Iain; Menon, Usha; Modugno, Francesmary; Moes-Sosnowska, Joanna; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Narod, Steven A.; Nedergaard, Lotte; Ness, Roberta B.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Azmi, Mat Adenan Noor; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Paul, James; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Pike, Malcolm C.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Ramus, Susan J.; Risch, Harvey A.; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H.; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Rzepecka, Iwona K.; Salvesen, Helga B.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Schwaab, Ira; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sieh, Weiva; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C.; Sucheston, Lara; Tangen, Ingvild L.; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L.; Thompson, Pamela J; Tworoger, Shelley S.; van Altena, Anne M.; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; Vergote, Ignace; Vierkant, Robert A.; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Walsh, Christine; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wicklund, Kristine G.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Wlodzimierz, Sawicki; Woo, Yin-Ling; Wu, Xifeng; Wu, Anna H.; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Sellers, Thomas A.; Freedman, Matthew L.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Pharoah, Paul D.; Gayther, Simon A.; Berchuck, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified several risk associations for ovarian carcinomas (OC) but not for mucinous ovarian carcinomas (MOC). Genotypes from OC cases and controls were imputed into the 1000 Genomes Project reference panel. Analysis of 1,644 MOC cases and 21,693 controls identified three novel risk associations: rs752590 at 2q13 (P = 3.3 × 10−8), rs711830 at 2q31.1 (P = 7.5 × 10−12) and rs688187 at 19q13.2 (P = 6.8 × 10−13). Expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL) analysis in ovarian and colorectal tumors (which are histologically similar to MOC) identified significant eQTL associations for HOXD9 at 2q31.1 in ovarian (P = 4.95 × 10−4, FDR = 0.003) and colorectal (P = 0.01, FDR = 0.09) tumors, and for PAX8 at 2q13 in colorectal tumors (P = 0.03, FDR = 0.09). Chromosome conformation capture analysis identified interactions between the HOXD9 promoter and risk SNPs at 2q31.1. Overexpressing HOXD9 in MOC cells augmented the neoplastic phenotype. These findings provide the first evidence for MOC susceptibility variants and insights into the underlying biology of the disease. PMID:26075790

  5. L-carbocisteine reduces neutrophil elastase-induced mucin production.

    PubMed

    Yasuo, Masanori; Fujimoto, Keisaku; Imamura, Hitomi; Ushiki, Atsuhito; Kanda, Shintaro; Tsushima, Kenji; Kubo, Hiroshi; Yamaya, Mutsuo; Kubo, Keishi

    2009-06-30

    Human neutrophil elastase (HNE) exists in high concentrations in airway secretions and produces mucus hypersecretion in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). L-carbocisteine improves the quality of life and reduces exacerbation in COPD patients. However the precise mechanism is uncertain. We examined the effects of L-carbocisteine on HNE-induced mucus hypersecretion and on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which is associated with mucin production induced by HNE. NCI-H292, a human lung mucoepidermoid carcinoma cell line, was treated with or without HNE and L-carbocisteine. MUC5AC mRNA expression and ROS production in the cells, and MUC5AC protein concentration in supernatants were measured. HNE increased MUC5AC mRNA expression and MUC5AC protein concentration in supernatants in the cells. L-carbocisteine reduces HNE-induced mRNA expression and protein secretion of MUC5AC. L-carbocisteine also reduced ROS production in the cells induced by HNE. Reduction of HNE-induced mucus secretion by L-carbocisteine in the pulmonary epithelial cells may partly relate to the reduction of ROS.

  6. Mucin-Type O-Glycosylation in Invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Staudacher, Erika

    2015-06-09

    O-Glycosylation is one of the most important posttranslational modifications of proteins. It takes part in protein conformation, protein sorting, developmental processes and the modulation of enzymatic activities. In vertebrates, the basics of the biosynthetic pathway of O-glycans are already well understood. However, the regulation of the processes and the molecular aspects of defects, especially in correlation with cancer or developmental abnormalities, are still under investigation. The knowledge of the correlating invertebrate systems and evolutionary aspects of these highly conserved biosynthetic events may help improve the understanding of the regulatory factors of this pathway. Invertebrates display a broad spectrum of glycosylation varieties, providing an enormous potential for glycan modifications which may be used for the design of new pharmaceutically active substances. Here, overviews of the present knowledge of invertebrate mucin-type O-glycan structures and the currently identified enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of these oligosaccharides are presented, and the few data dealing with functional aspects of O-glycans are summarised.

  7. Conjunctival mucin deficiency in complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS).

    PubMed

    Mantelli, Flavio; Moretti, Costanzo; Micera, Alessandra; Bonini, Stefano

    2007-06-01

    Sex steroid hormones are essential for a healthy ocular surface and the androgen receptor impairment found in patients with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) has been described to cause meibomian gland dysfunction and functional dry eye for lipid tear film layer instability. However, it has not been reported if the mucous layer is also affected. A 37-year-old CAIS patient with persistent symptoms of dry eye underwent ophthalmological examination and was evaluated for qualitative and quantitative tear function tests and conjunctival cytology. Samples obtained from the conjunctival epithelium were stained for histology and immunohistochemistry and compared with three age-matched female controls. Western blot and relative real-time RT-PCR for MUC1 and MUC5AC were also performed on these samples. Immunohistochemistry, Western blot and relative real-time RT-PCR showed a decrease in the expression of MUC1 and MUC5AC in CAIS. Changes in the tear film mucous layer were accompanied by a reduction in the tear film break up time test. This is the first report describing mucous layer alteration associated with androgen receptor impairment. Decreased mucin levels contribute in explaining the tear film instability in CAIS and should be considered an additional cause of dry eye in sex steroid hormone pathology.

  8. Characterization of the human mucin gene MUC5AC: a consensus cysteine-rich domain for 11p15 mucin genes?

    PubMed Central

    Guyonnet Duperat, V; Audie, J P; Debailleul, V; Laine, A; Buisine, M P; Galiegue-Zouitina, S; Pigny, P; Degand, P; Aubert, J P; Porchet, N

    1995-01-01

    To date five human mucin cDNAs (MUC2, 5A, 5B, 5C and 6) mapped to 11p15.3-15.5, so it appears that this chromosome region might contain several distinct gene loci for mucins. Three of these cDNAs, MUC5A, B and C, were cloned in our laboratory and previously published. A common number, 5, was recommended by the Human Gene Mapping Nomenclature Committee to designate them because of their common provenance from human tracheobronchial mucosa. In order to define whether they are products of the same gene locus or distinct loci, we describe in this paper physical mapping of these cDNAs using the strategy of analysis of CpG islands by pulse-field gel electrophoresis. The data suggest that MUC5A and MUC5C are part of the same gene (called MUC5AC) which is distinct from MUC5B. In the second part of this work, complete sequences of the inserts corresponding to previously described (JER47, JER58) and novel (JER62, JUL32, MAR2, MAR10 and MAR11) cDNAs of the so-called MUC5AC gene are presented and analysed. The data show that in this mucin gene, the tandem repeat domain is interrupted several times with a subdomain encoding a 130 amino acid cysteine-rich peptide in which the TR3A and TR3B peptides previously isolated by Rose et al. [Rose, Kaufman and Martin (1989) J. Biol. Chem., 264, 8193-8199] from airway mucins are found. A consensus peptide sequence for these subdomains involving invariant positions of most of the cysteines is proposed. The consensus nucleotide sequence of this subdomain is also found in the MUC2 gene and in the MUC5B gene, two other mucin genes mapped to 11p15. The functional significance for secreted mucins of these cysteine-rich subdomains and the modular organization of mucin peptides are discussed. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 8 PMID:7826332

  9. Achondrogenesis type II, abnormalities of extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Horton, W A; Machado, M A; Chou, J W; Campbell, D

    1987-09-01

    Immune and lectin histochemical and microchemical methods were employed to study growth cartilage from seven cases of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino). The normal architecture of the epiphyseal and growth plate cartilage was replaced by a morphologically heterogeneous tissue. Some areas were comprised of vascular canals surrounded by extensive fibrous tissue and enlarged cells that had the appearance and histochemical characteristics of hypertrophic chondrocytes. Other areas contained a mixture of cells ranging from small to the enlarged chondrocytes. The extracellular matrix in the latter areas was more abundant and had characteristics of both precartilage mesenchymal matrix and typical cartilage matrix; it contained types I and II collagen, cartilage proteoglycan, fibronectin, and peanut agglutinin binding glycoconjugate(s). Peptide mapping of cyanogen bromide cartilage collagen peptides revealed the presence of types I and II collagen. These observations could be explained by a defect in the biosynthesis of type II collagen or in chondrocyte differentiation.

  10. Electrochemical aptasensor for mucin 1 based on dual signal amplification of poly(o-phenylenediamine) carrier and functionalized carbon nanotubes tracing tag.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojun; Zhang, Qi; Qian, Chunhua; Hao, Ning; Xu, Lin; Yao, Cheng

    2015-02-15

    Mucin 1 (MUC 1), as a most studied mucin, has become a useful marker for identifying breast cancer in the early stages. In this work, a novel method for the determination of MUC 1 in serum was developed based on a sandwich-type electrochemical aptasensor, which combined a dual signal amplification strategy of poly(o-phenylenediamine)-Au nanoparticles (PoPD-AuNPs) hybrid film as carrier and AuNPs functionalized silica/multiwalled carbon nanotubes core-shell nanocomposites (AuNPs/SiO2@MWCNTs) as tracing tag. The PoPD-AuNPs film provides a suitable microenvironment for stabilizing the primary aptamer (Apt) assembly, and the AuNPs/SiO2@MWCNTs enhances the surface area for immobilizing abundant secondary Apts as well as load large amounts of electrochemical probe thionine (Thi). In the presence of MUC 1, the sandwich-type recognition reacted on the aptasensor surface, and the Thi-AuNPs/SiO2@MWCNTs nanoprobes were captured onto the electrode surface to form biocomplex. AuNPs and MWCNTs could facilitate the electron transfer from Thi to the electrode, thus amplifying the detection response. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the proposed sensing strategy provided a wider linear dynamic range over three orders of magnitude with the detection limit down to 1 pM. Moreover, the aptasensor demonstrated good precision, acceptable stability and reproducibility.

  11. Decreased colonization of fecal Clostridium coccoides/Eubacterium rectale species from ulcerative colitis patients in an in vitro dynamic gut model with mucin environment.

    PubMed

    Vermeiren, Joan; Van den Abbeele, Pieter; Laukens, Debby; Vigsnaes, Louise Kristine; De Vos, Martine; Boon, Nico; Van de Wiele, Tom

    2012-03-01

    The mucus layer in the colon, acting as a barrier to prevent invasion of pathogens, is thinner and discontinuous in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). A recent developed in vitro dynamic gut model, the M-SHIME, was used to compare long-term colonization of the mucin layer by the microbiota from six healthy volunteers (HV) and six UC patients and thus distinguish the mucin adhered from the luminal microbiota. Although under the same nutritional conditions, short-chain fatty acid production by the luminal communities from UC patients showed a tendency toward a lower butyrate production. A more in-depth community analysis of those microbial groups known to produce butyrate revealed that the diversity of the Clostridium coccoides/Eubacterium rectale and Clostridium leptum group, and counts of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii were lower in the luminal fractions of the UC samples. Counts of Roseburia spp. were lower in the mucosal fractions of the UC samples. qPCR analysis for butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA transferase, responsible for butyrate production, displayed a lower abundance in both the luminal and mucosal fractions of the UC samples. The M-SHIME model revealed depletion in butyrate producing microbial communities not restricted to the luminal but also in the mucosal samples from UC patients compared to HV.

  12. Extracellular matrix and wound healing.

    PubMed

    Maquart, F X; Monboisse, J C

    2014-04-01

    Extracellular matrix has been known for a long time as an architectural support for the tissues. Many recent data, however, have shown that extracellular matrix macromolecules (collagens, elastin, glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans and connective tissue glycoproteins) are able to regulate many important cell functions, such as proliferation, migration, protein synthesis or degradation, apoptosis, etc., making them able to play an important role in the wound repair process. Not only the intact macromolecules but some of their specific domains, that we called "Matrikines", are also able to regulate many cell activities. In this article, we will summarize main findings showing the effects of extracellular matrix macromolecules and matrikines on connective tissue and epithelial cells, particularly in skin, and their potential implication in the wound healing process. These examples show that extracellular matrix macromolecules or some of their specific domains may play a major role in wound healing. Better knowledge of these interactions may suggest new therapeutic targets in wound healing defects.

  13. Mucin secretion is modulated by luminal factors in the isolated vascularly perfused rat colon

    PubMed Central

    Barcelo, A; Claustre, J; Moro, F; Chayvialle, J; Cuber, J; Plaisancie, P

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Mucins play an important protective role in the colonic mucosa. Luminal factors modulating colonic mucus release have been not fully identified.
AIM—To determine the effect of some dietary compounds on mucus discharge in rat colon.
METHODS—An isolated vascularly perfused rat colon model was used. Mucus secretion was induced by a variety of luminal factors administered as a bolus of 1 ml for 30 minutes in the colonic loop. Mucin release was evaluated using a sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay supported by histological analysis.
RESULTS—The three dietary fibres tested in this study (pectin, gum arabic, and cellulose) did not provoke mucus secretion. Luminal administration of sodium alginate (an algal polysaccharide used as a food additive) or ulvan (a sulphated algal polymer) induced a dose dependent increase in mucin discharge over the concentration range 1-25 mg/l (p<0.05 for 25 mg/l alginate and p<0.05 for 10 and 25 mg/l ulvan). Glucuronic acid and galacturonic acid, which are major constituents of a variety of fibres, produced significant mucin secretion (p<0.05). Hydrogen sulphide and mercaptoacetate, two sulphides produced in the colonic lumen by microbial fermentation of sulphated polysaccharides, did not modify mucin secretion. Among the short chain fatty acids, acetate (5-100 mM) induced a dose dependent release of mucus (p<0.05 for 100 mM acetate). Interestingly, butyrate at a concentration of 5 mM produced colonic mucin secretion (p<0.05), but increasing its concentration to 100 mM provoked a gradual decrease in mucus discharge. Propionate (5-100 mM) did not induce mucin release. Several dietary phenolic compounds (quercetin, epicatechin, resveratrol) did not provoke mucus discharge.
CONCLUSIONS—Two algal polysaccharides (alginate and ulvan), two uronic acids (glucuronic acid and galacturonic acid), and the short chain fatty acids acetate and butyrate induce mucin secretion in rat colon. Taken together, these

  14. Salivary mucins inhibit antibacterial activity of the cathelicidin-derived LL-37 peptide but not the cationic steroid CSA-13

    PubMed Central

    Bucki, Robert; Namiot, Dorota B.; Namiot, Zbigniew; Savage, Paul B.; Janmey, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) are the effector molecules of innate immunity, similar in potency to classic antibiotics that function in the first-line of defence against infectious agents. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of negatively charged mucins on the antibacterial activity of the positively charged cathelicidin LL-37 peptide, its synthetic analogue WLBU2 and the antimicrobial cationic steroid CSA-13. Methods Mucin, DNA, F-actin and hCAP-18/LL-37 in saliva samples were evaluated by microscopy or immunoblotting. Bacterial killing assays and determination of MICs were used to determine bactericidal activity. Binding of rhodamine-B-labelled LL-37 peptide to mucin was fluorimetrically assessed. Results Microscopic evaluation of saliva after addition of rhodamine-B-labelled LL-37 showed localization similar to that observed after the addition of a specific mucin-binding lectin. Immunoblotting confirmed the presence of hCAP-18/LL-37 in saliva samples and LL-37 peptide bound to isolated submaxillary gland mucin-coated plates. Mucin/LL-37 binding was partially prevented by treatment of mucin with neuraminidase, indicating involvement of sialic acid moieties. Decreased LL-37 and WLBU2 antibacterial activity was observed in the presence of mucin or dialysed human saliva, whereas CSA-13 antibacterial activity was significantly resistant to inhibition by mucins. Conclusions This study shows that the antibacterial LL-37 peptide and its synthetic analogue WLBU2 are inhibited by salivary mucin and that the cationic steroid CSA-13 retains most of its function in the presence of an equal amount of mucin or saliva. PMID:18456648

  15. Mucin-producing bile duct carcinoma arising from primary sclerosing cholangitis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yokomuro, Shigeki; Arima, Yasuo; Mizuguchi, Yoshiaki; Shimizu, Tetsuya; Kawahigashi, Yutaka; Kannda, Tomohiro; Arai, Masao; Uchida, Eiji; Akimaru, Koho; Tajiri, Takashi

    2007-02-01

    A 60-year-old woman with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and high levels of ALP, gamma-GTP, and DUPAN-2 was admitted to our institution for examination. The patient did not have ulcerative colitis or pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. Imaging studies revealed atypical dilation of bile ducts in the left lobe of the liver. Repeated cytologic examinations of the bile showed atypical cells consistent with adenocarcinoma. The patient underwent extended resection of the left lobe of the liver and was found to have intraductal papillary carcinoma with associated mucin-producing bile duct carcinoma. This carcinoma fills dilated bile duct lumens with mucin. This tumor differs morphologically from typical cholangiocarcinoma, which is usually seen in the late stages of PSC. Just one case of mucin-producing bile duct carcinoma arising from PSC has been reported worldwide. The patient has had no signs of recurrence after 27 months. Patients with mucin-producing bile duct carcinoma, as in the case of its pancreatic counterpart, may have a better prognosis and a higher survival rate than patients with typical cholangiocarcinomas.

  16. Utilisation of Mucin Glycans by the Human Gut Symbiont Ruminococcus gnavus Is Strain-Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Crost, Emmanuelle H.; Tailford, Louise E.; Le Gall, Gwenaelle; Fons, Michel; Henrissat, Bernard; Juge, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Commensal bacteria often have an especially rich source of glycan-degrading enzymes which allow them to utilize undigested carbohydrates from the food or the host. The species Ruminococcus gnavus is present in the digestive tract of ≥90% of humans and has been implicated in gut-related diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Here we analysed the ability of two R. gnavus human strains, E1 and ATCC 29149, to utilize host glycans. We showed that although both strains could assimilate mucin monosaccharides, only R. gnavus ATCC 29149 was able to grow on mucin as a sole carbon source. Comparative genomic analysis of the two R. gnavus strains highlighted potential clusters and glycoside hydrolases (GHs) responsible for the breakdown and utilization of mucin-derived glycans. Transcriptomic and functional activity assays confirmed the importance of specific GH33 sialidase, and GH29 and GH95 fucosidases in the mucin utilisation pathway. Notably, we uncovered a novel pathway by which R. gnavus ATCC 29149 utilises sialic acid from sialylated substrates. Our results also demonstrated the ability of R. gnavus ATCC 29149 to produce propanol and propionate as the end products of metabolism when grown on mucin and fucosylated glycans. These new findings provide molecular insights into the strain-specificity of R. gnavus adaptation to the gut environment advancing our understanding of the role of gut commensals in health and disease. PMID:24204617

  17. Immunochemical characterization of mucins. Polypeptide (M1) and polysaccharide (A and Leb) antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Bara, J; Gautier, R; Le Pendu, J; Oriol, R

    1988-01-01

    Seven monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) reacting with high-molecular-mass components (greater than 20,000 kDa) isolated from an ovarian mucinous cyst of an A Le(a-b+) patient are described. By the use of immunoradiometric methods, these MAbs characterized seven different epitopes associated with components having a density of 1.45 g/ml by CsCl-density-gradient ultracentrifugation, like mucins. Two MAbs reacted with A and Lewis blood-group antigens respectively (polysaccharide epitopes). The five other MAbs characterized five M1 epitopes (called a, b, c, d and e), mainly associated with components of more than 20,000 kDa and 2000 kDa. They were completely destroyed by papain and 2-mercaptoethanol treatment (polypeptide epitopes). Moreover, timed trypsin digestion of native mucin resulted in a progressive loss of M1 activity and degraded these mucins into smaller M1-positive fragments. The a and c epitopes were partially degraded from relatively high-molecular-mass fragments (2000 kDa to 500 kDa) into a 100 kDa fragment. The b and d epitopes were completely degraded into smaller fragments ranging from 100 kDa to 40 kDa. The e epitope was completely destroyed by trypsin. These different pathways of M1 antigen degradation suggest the occurrence of different epitopes located in separate regions of the mucin molecules. Images Fig. 5. Fig. 7. PMID:2460087

  18. Immunological characterization of deglycosylated human and swine trachea and Cowper's gland mucin glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Sangadala, S; Brewer, J M; Mendicino, J

    1991-04-01

    Antibodies were raised in rabbits against purified swine and human trachea and Cowper's gland mucin glycoproteins and their deglycosylated polypeptide chains. Three monospecific antibody fractions that recognize the carbohydrate, the deglycosylated or unglycosylated regions of the polypeptide chains in these glycoproteins, were isolated by immunoaffinity chromatography. The human and swine trachea mucin glycoproteins showed extensive immunological homology in both their carbohydrate and polypeptide chains. The carbohydrate chains and unglycosylated region of the polypeptide chain in Cowper's gland mucin glycoprotein showed little or no cross-reaction with comparable regions in respiratory mucin glycoproteins. However, the polypeptide chains in the deglycosylated regions of all three mucin glycoproteins showed extensive homology. Five bands with molecular masses ranging from 40 to 46 kDa that differed by a constant molecular mass of approximately 1.5 kDa were detected in hydrolysates of all of the polypeptide chains after treatment with S. aureus V8 protease. Monospecific antibodies to the deglycosylated region of these chains reacted with the peptides, whereas those directed against the unglycosylated region did not. The results suggest that these chains contain tandem repeating sequences of amino acids.

  19. A formulation for in situ lysis of mucin secreted in pseudomyxoma peritonei.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Krishna; Akhter, Javed; Chua, Terence C; Morris, David L

    2014-01-15

    Although numerous clinical attempts have been made to disintegrate mucin secreted by pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP), none are clinically recommended. Through examination of the pharmacologic characteristics of two novel agents, we titrated an optimized combination of bromelain and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) that demonstrates in vitro and in vivo efficacy in the dissolution of mucinous ascites from PMP. In the in vitro experiments, 1 g of mucin was incubated in varying concentrations of bromelain (0-400 µg/ml) and NAC (0-5%) individually followed by a combination before arriving at a therapeutic combination dose of 300 µg/ml bromelain+4% NAC. This established an effective dose of bromelain 300 µg/ml+4% NAC at pH 7.0, when tested in a rat model implanted with 3 g of mucin intraperitoneally (IP). IP administration of the drug in a rat model of PMP was shown to result in mucin disintegration within 72 hr with no toxicity observed.

  20. Phytic acid increases mucin and endogenous amino acid losses from the gastrointestinal tract of chickens.

    PubMed

    Onyango, Edward M; Asem, Elikplimi K; Adeola, Olayiwola

    2009-03-01

    The influence of the form of phytic acid on the regulation of mucin and endogenous losses of amino acids, nitrogen and energy in chickens was investigated. Forty-eight 10-week-old male broilers were grouped by weight into eight blocks of six cages with one bird per cage. Birds received by intubation six dextrose-based combinations of phytic acid and phytase arranged in a 3 x 2 factorial consisting of phytic acid form (no phytic acid, 1.0 g free phytic acid or 1.3 g magnesium-potassium phytate) and phytase (0 or 1000 units). Each bird received the assigned combination added to 25 g dextrose at each of the two feedings on the first day of experimentation. All excreta were collected continuously for 54 h following feeding and frozen until analysed. Frozen excreta were thawed, pooled for each bird, lyophilised, ground, and analysed for DM, energy, nitrogen, amino acids, mucin, and sialic and uric acids. Chickens fed either magnesium-potassium phytate or free phytic acid showed increased (P < 0.05) loss of crude mucin and sialic acid. The amount of crude mucin lost was significantly greater (P < 0.05) with magnesium-potassium phytate than with free phytic acid treatment. Both phytic acid treatments also increased (P < 0.05) endogenous loss of threonine, proline and serine. In conclusion, the form of phytic acid fed to chickens affects the extent of mucin and endogenous amino acid losses from the gastrointestinal tract.

  1. Early colonic dysplasia: comparison of differential mucin staining and tritiated thymidine labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Chabot, J.A.; Colacchio, T.A.

    1985-01-01

    Controversy has arisen regarding the interpretation and significance of histochemical changes in the mucin produced by the globlet cells in colonic mucosa. The shift from sulfomucin to sialomucin, which is readily identified utilizing high iron diamine-alcian blue staining techniques, has been alternately interpreted as a specific, early dysplastic and premalignant change or a nonspecific generalized response to trauma and inflammation, among others. An attempt to clarify this issue was made by comparing mucin changes identified by high iron diamine-alcian blue staining techniques with increases in DNA synthetic activity identified utilizing autoradiographic analysis of tritiated thymidine uptake. Male Holtzman rats were treated with 15 weekly subcutaneous injections of dimethylhydrazine (30 mg/kg per week) (10 rats) or placebo (10 rats). The colons were prepared and fixed, sequential sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin or high iron diamine-alcian blue, autoradiography was performed. Analyses of labeling index showed no difference in normal background crypts between the control and treatment groups nor in crypts adjacent to those displaying abnormal mucin staining. Crypts with abnormal mucin production (sialomucin dominant) had significantly higher labeling indexes when compared with those of control animals (p less than 0.005). These findings indicate that the shifts in mucin production identified with high iron diamine-alcian blue staining represent crypts with increased and abnormally distributed mitotic activity that is an early dysplastic response to the carcinogenic stimulus.

  2. Probing the interaction of nanoparticles with mucin for drug delivery applications using dynamic light scattering.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Peter Charles; Cattoz, Beatrice; Ibrahim, Mervat Shafik; Anuonye, Josephine Chibuzor

    2015-11-01

    Drug delivery via the eye, nose, gastrointestinal tract and lung is of great interest as they represent patient-compliant and facile methods to administer drugs. However, for a drug to reach the systemic circulation it must penetrate the "mucus barrier". An understanding of the characteristics of the mucus barrier is therefore important in the design of mucus penetrating drug delivery vehicles e.g. nanoparticles. Here, a range of nanoparticles - silica, aluminium coated silica, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and PEGylated PLGA - each with known but different physicochemical characteristics were examined in the presence of mucin to identify those characteristics that engender nanoparticle/mucin interactions and thus, to define "design rules" for mucus penetrating (nano)particles (MPP), at least in terms of the surface characteristics of charge and hydrophilicity. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and rheology have been used to assess the interaction between such nanoparticles and mucin. It was found that negatively charged and hydrophilic nanoparticles do not exhibit an interaction with mucin whereas positively charged and hydrophobic nanoparticles show a strong interaction. Surface grafted poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains significantly reduced this interaction. This study clearly demonstrates that the established colloid science techniques of DLS and rheology are very powerful screening tools to probe nanoparticle/mucin interactions.

  3. Mucin1 expression in focal epidermal dysplasia of actinic keratosis

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, Luz Marina; Rojas, Héctor; Ramírez, Richard; Reyes, Oscar; Suárez, Ambar; Ortega, Fabiana

    2015-01-01

    Background Actinic keratoses (AKs) are generally considered as premalignant skin lesions that can progress into squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in situ and invasive SCC. However, its progression to SCC is still matter of debate. A transmembrane glycoprotein that contributes to the progression of certain premalignant and malignant lesions is mucin1 (MUC1). Nevertheless, their functions in the skin lesions are not yet fully clear. Therefore, the aim of this study is to ascertain whether MUC1 is present in the focal epidermal dysplasia of AK. Methods Fourteen skin biopsies from patients diagnosed with AK were selected. They were classified according to the degree of dysplasia in keratinocyte intraepidermal neoplasia (KIN) I, KIN II, and KIN III. In five biopsies the three degrees were present, in two biopsies both KIN I and KIN II, in four biopsies only KIN I, and in three biopsies only KIN III. The presence of MUC1 was assessed by immunofluorescence staining using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Results Immunostaining revealed that MUC1 was present over the entire cell surface of only a few atypical basal keratinocytes confined to the lower third of the epidermis (KIN I). While in KIN II where atypical keratinocytes occupy the lower two thirds, MUC1 was localized at the apical surface of some atypical keratinocytes and over the entire cell surface of some of them. Interestingly, in KIN III where the atypical keratinocytes extend throughout the full thickness, MUC1 was localized at the apical surface and over the entire cell surface of many of these cells. Conversely, MUC1 expression was not detected in the epidermis of normal skin. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the expression of MUC1 in AK would be induced by alteration of keratinocyte stratification and differentiation and associated to the degree of dysplasia rather than the thickness of the epidermis. PMID:26605291

  4. Mining the “glycocode”—exploring the spatial distribution of glycans in gastrointestinal mucin using force spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Gunning, A. Patrick; Kirby, Andrew R.; Fuell, Christine; Pin, Carmen; Tailford, Louise E.; Juge, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Mucins are the main components of the gastrointestinal mucus layer. Mucin glycosylation is critical to most intermolecular and intercellular interactions. However, due to the highly complex and heterogeneous mucin glycan structures, the encoded biological information remains largely encrypted. Here we have developed a methodology based on force spectroscopy to identify biologically accessible glycoepitopes in purified porcine gastric mucin (pPGM) and purified porcine jejunal mucin (pPJM). The binding specificity of lectins Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA), peanut (Arachis hypogaea) agglutinin (PNA), Maackia amurensis lectin II (MALII), and Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA) was utilized in force spectroscopy measurements to quantify the affinity and spatial distribution of their cognate sugars at the molecular scale. Binding energy of 4, 1.6, and 26 aJ was determined on pPGM for RCA, PNA, and UEA. Binding was abolished by competition with free ligands, demonstrating the validity of the affinity data. The distributions of the nearest binding site separations estimated the number of binding sites in a 200-nm mucin segment to be 4 for RCA, PNA, and UEA, and 1.8 for MALII. Binding site separations were affected by partial defucosylation of pPGM. Furthermore, we showed that this new approach can resolve differences between gastric and jejunum mucins.—Gunning, A. P., Kirby, A. R., Fuell, C., Pin, C., Tailford L. E., Juge, N. Mining the “glycocode”—exploring the spatial distribution of glycans in gastrointestinal mucin using force spectroscopy. PMID:23493619

  5. Bacillus cereus NVH 0500/00 Can Adhere to Mucin but Cannot Produce Enterotoxins during Gastrointestinal Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Tsilia, Varvara; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Heyndrickx, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Adhesion to the intestinal epithelium could constitute an essential mechanism of Bacillus cereus pathogenesis. However, the enterocytes are protected by mucus, a secretion composed mainly of mucin glycoproteins. These may serve as nutrients and sites of adhesion for intestinal bacteria. In this study, the food poisoning bacterium B. cereus NVH 0500/00 was exposed in vitro to gastrointestinal hurdles prior to evaluation of its attachment to mucin microcosms and its ability to produce nonhemolytic enterotoxin (Nhe). The persistence of mucin-adherent B. cereus after simulated gut emptying was determined using a mucin adhesion assay. The stability of Nhe toward bile and pancreatin (intestinal components) in the presence of mucin agar was also investigated. B. cereus could grow and simultaneously adhere to mucin during in vitro ileal incubation, despite the adverse effect of prior exposure to a low pH or intestinal components. The final concentration of B. cereus in the simulated lumen at 8 h of incubation was 6.62 ± 0.87 log CFU ml−1. At that point, the percentage of adhesion was approximately 6%. No enterotoxin was detected in the ileum, due to either insufficient bacterial concentrations or Nhe degradation. Nevertheless, mucin appears to retain B. cereus and to supply it to the small intestine after simulated gut emptying. Additionally, mucin may play a role in the protection of enterotoxins from degradation by intestinal components. PMID:26497468

  6. Bacillus cereus NVH 0500/00 Can Adhere to Mucin but Cannot Produce Enterotoxins during Gastrointestinal Simulation.

    PubMed

    Tsilia, Varvara; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Rajkovic, Andreja; Heyndrickx, Marc; Van de Wiele, Tom

    2015-10-23

    Adhesion to the intestinal epithelium could constitute an essential mechanism of Bacillus cereus pathogenesis. However, the enterocytes are protected by mucus, a secretion composed mainly of mucin glycoproteins. These may serve as nutrients and sites of adhesion for intestinal bacteria. In this study, the food poisoning bacterium B. cereus NVH 0500/00 was exposed in vitro to gastrointestinal hurdles prior to evaluation of its attachment to mucin microcosms and its ability to produce nonhemolytic enterotoxin (Nhe). The persistence of mucin-adherent B. cereus after simulated gut emptying was determined using a mucin adhesion assay. The stability of Nhe toward bile and pancreatin (intestinal components) in the presence of mucin agar was also investigated. B. cereus could grow and simultaneously adhere to mucin during in vitro ileal incubation, despite the adverse effect of prior exposure to a low pH or intestinal components. The final concentration of B. cereus in the simulated lumen at 8 h of incubation was 6.62 ± 0.87 log CFU ml(-1). At that point, the percentage of adhesion was approximately 6%. No enterotoxin was detected in the ileum, due to either insufficient bacterial concentrations or Nhe degradation. Nevertheless, mucin appears to retain B. cereus and to supply it to the small intestine after simulated gut emptying. Additionally, mucin may play a role in the protection of enterotoxins from degradation by intestinal components.

  7. Chemotherapy-induced mucositis: the role of mucin secretion and regulation, and the enteric nervous system.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Daniel; Stringer, Andrea; Butler, Ross

    2013-09-01

    Alimentary mucositis is a severe, dose-limiting, toxic side effect of cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Patients with mucositis often have reductions or breaks imposed on cytotoxic therapy, which may lead to reduced survival. Furthermore, there is an increased risk of infection and hospitalization, compounding the cost of treatment. There are currently limited therapeutic options for mucositis, and no effective prevention available. Mucin expression and secretion have been shown to be associated with mucositis. Furthermore, mucins exhibit protective effects on the alimentary tract through reducing mechanical and chemical stress, preventing bacterial overgrowth and penetration, and digestion of the mucosa. Additionally, a number of studies have implicated some key neurotransmitters in both mucositis and mucin secretion, suggesting that the enteric nervous system may also play a key role in the development of mucositis.

  8. Comparative permeability of some acyclovir derivatives through native mucus and crude mucin dispersions.

    PubMed

    Legen; Kristl, A

    2001-08-01

    The permeability of some guanine derivatives (acyclovir [ACV], deoxyacyclovir [DCV], and their N-acetyl congeners) through native porcine mucus and crude porcine mucin dispersions (30% and 50% w/v) was investigated in two-compartment dialysis cells. High correlation between apparent permeability coefficients Papp of tested substances determined in these two models was observed, although the examined compounds permeated faster through the native mucus. It was also established that Papp values decrease with increasing hydrophilicity and molecular mass of the tested substances. Furthermore, the influence of some substances that affect mucus structure (cysteine, N-acetylcysteine [NCY], sodium taurocholate [ST], and sodium chloride) on the permeation rate of the examined compounds through mucus and mucin dispersions was examined. It was shown that the Papp values of guanine derivatives were generally lower after the addition of these substances to the native mucus and mucin dispersions, although the lowering effect was more pronounced in the case of native mucus.

  9. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas (IPMNs): epidemiology, diagnosis and future aspects.

    PubMed

    Konstantinou, Froso; Syrigos, Konstantinos N; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2013-03-10

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas (IPMNs) are potentially malignant intraductal epithelial neoplasms which consist of columnar, mucin-containing cells and arise from the epithelium of the main pancreatic duct or its branches. IPMNs as well as pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs) and mucinous cystic neoplasms represent noninvasive precursors of invasive ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. The diagnosis of IPMNs includes radiographic (CT scanning, MRI, MRCP) and endoscopic evaluation (ERCP, EUS), PET, as well as serum tumor markers and molecular markers. The Sendai Consensus Guidelines help guide surgical resection for patients with IPMN. The follow-up of these patients, as well as of those who do not undergo surgical resection, is of great importance, since patients with IPMN appear to be at risk for other malignancies. Herein, the authors summarize the data presented at the 2013 ASCO Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium regarding incidence and clinicopathological characteristics of IPMN (Abstracts #324, #187 and #179).

  10. Probing the Mucoadhesive Interactions Between Porcine Gastric Mucin and Some Water-Soluble Polymers.

    PubMed

    Albarkah, Yasser A; Green, Rebecca J; Khutoryanskiy, Vitaliy V

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates the structural features of porcine gastric mucin (PGM) in aqueous dispersions and its interactions with water-soluble polymers (poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA), poly(ethylene oxide), and poly(ethylene glycol)) using isothermal titration calorimetry, turbidimetric titration, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. It is established that PAA (450 kDa) and PMAA (100 kDa) exhibit strong specific interactions with PGM causing further aggregation of its particles, while PAA (2 kDa), poly(ethylene oxide) (1 000 kDa), and poly(ethylene glycol) (10 kDa) do not show any detectable effects on mucin. Sonication of mucin dispersions prior to their mixing with PAA (450 kDa) and PMAA (100 kDa) leads to more pronounced intensity of interactions.

  11. Toxin Synthesis and Mucin Breakdown Are Related to Swarming Phenomenon in Clostridium septicum

    PubMed Central

    Macfarlane, Sandra; Hopkins, Mark J.; Macfarlane, George T.

    2001-01-01

    Clostridium septicum is responsible for several diseases in humans and animals. The bacterium is capable of a simple kind of multicellular behavior known as swarming. In this investigation, environmental and physiologic factors affecting growth and swarm cell formation in C. septicum were studied over a range of dilution rates (D = 0.02 to 0.65 h−1) in glucose-limited, glucose-excess, and mucin-limited chemostats. Cellular differentiation was observed at low specific growth rates, irrespective of the carbon and energy source, showing that swarming occurred in response to nutrient depletion. Differential expression of virulence determinants was detected in swarm cells. Hemolysin was secreted by short motile rods but not swarm cells, whereas in cultures grown with glucose, only swarm cells formed DNase, hyaluronidase, and neuraminidase. However, neuraminidase and, to a lesser degree, hyaluronidase were induced in short motile rods in mucin-limited cultures. Both swarm cells and short rods were cytotoxic to Vero cells. Mucin was chemotaxic to C. septicum, and large amounts of mucin-degrading enzymes (β-galactosidase, N-acetyl β-glucosaminidase, glycosulfatase, and neuraminidase) were produced. Synthesis of these enzymes was catabolite regulated. In chemostat experiments, glycosulfatase secretion occurred only in swarm cells at low dilution rates in mucin-limited cultures. Determinations of oligosaccharide utilization demonstrated that N-acetylglucosamine, galactose, and N-acetylgalactosamine were the main carbon sources for C. septicum in mucin. Neuraminic acid was not assimilated, showing that neuraminidase does not have a direct nutritional function in this pathogen. PMID:11160009

  12. Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) induced mucin production by airway epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Dongfang; Walters, Dianne M.; Zhu, Lingxiang; Lee, Pak-Kei

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to environmental pollutants has been linked to various airway diseases and disease exacerbations. Almost all chronic airway diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma are caused by complicated interactions between gene and environment. One of the major hallmarks of those diseases is airway mucus overproduction (MO). Excessive mucus causes airway obstruction and significantly increases morbidity and mortality. Metals are major components of environmental particulate matters (PM). Among them, vanadium has been suggested to play an important role in PM-induced mucin production. Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) is the most common commercial source of vanadium, and it has been associated with occupational chronic bronchitis and asthma, both of which are MO diseases. However, the underlying mechanism is not entirely clear. In this study, we used both in vitro and in vivo models to demonstrate the robust inductions of mucin production by V2O5. Furthermore, the follow-up mechanistic study revealed a novel v-raf-1 murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1-IKK-NF-κB pathway that mediated V2O5-induced mucin production. Most interestingly, the reactive oxygen species and the classical mucin-inducing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-MAPK pathway appeared not to be involved in this process. Thus the V2O5-induced mucin production may represent a novel EGFR-MAPK-independent and environmental toxicant-associated MO model. Complete elucidation of the signaling pathway in this model will not only facilitate the development of the treatment for V2O5-associated occupational diseases but also advance our understanding on the EGFR-independent mucin production in other chronic airway diseases. PMID:21531775

  13. Cervical mucins carry alpha(1,2)fucosylated glycans that partly protect from experimental vaginal candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Domino, Steven E; Hurd, Elizabeth A; Thomsson, Kristina A; Karnak, David M; Holmén Larsson, Jessica M; Thomsson, Elisabeth; Bäckström, Malin; Hansson, Gunnar C

    2009-12-01

    Cervical mucins are glycosylated proteins that form a protective cervical mucus. To understand the role of mucin glycans in Candida albicans infection, oligosaccharides from mouse cervical mucins were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Cervical mucins carry multiple alpha(1-2)fucosylated glycans, but alpha(1,2)fucosyltransferase Fut2-null mice are devoid of these epitopes. Epithelial cells in vaginal lavages from Fut2-null mice lacked Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-I) staining for alpha(1-2)fucosylated glycans. Hysterectomy to remove cervical mucus eliminated UEA-I and acid mucin staining in vaginal epithelial cells from wild type mice indicating the cervix as the source of UEA-I positive epithelial cells. To assess binding of alpha(1-2) fucosylated glycans on C. albicans infection, an in vitro adhesion assay was performed with vaginal epithelial cells from wild type and Fut2-null mice. Vaginal epithelial cells from Fut2-null mice were found to bind increased numbers of C. albicans compared to vaginal epithelial cells obtained from wild type mice. Hysterectomy lessened the difference between Fut2-null and wild type mice in binding of C. ablicans in vitro and susceptibility to experimental C. albicans vaginitis in vivo. We generated a recombinant fucosylated MUC1 glycanpolymer to test whether the relative protection of wild type mice compared to Fut2-null mice could be mimicked with exogenous mucin. While a small portion of the recombinant MUC1 epitopes displayed alpha(1-2)fucosylated glycans, the predominant epitopes were sialylated due to endogenous sialyltransferases in the cultured cells. Intravaginal instillation of recombinant MUC1 glycanpolymer partially reduced experimental yeast vaginitis suggesting that a large glycanpolymer, with different glycan epitopes, may affect fungal burden.

  14. Increased luminal mucin does not disturb glucose or ovalbumin absorption in rats fed insoluble dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tatsuya; Tanabe, Hiroki; Ito, Hiroyuki; Yuto, Shunsuke; Matsubara, Takeshi; Matsuda, Tsukasa; Sugiyama, Kimio; Kiriyama, Shuhachi

    2006-10-01

    We tested whether increased mucin secretion due to ingestion of insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) affects small intestinal nutrient absorption in rats. Polystyrene foam (PSF) with a true expansion ratio of 54.9 was used as a model for IDF with high bulk-forming properties. In Expt. 1, rats were fed a control diet or diet containing 50 g PSF/kg for 1, 3, 5, or 7 d. Small intestinal mucin fractions were isolated, and O-linked oligosaccharide chains were measured. The luminal mucin content reached a maximum within 5 d after PSF ingestion. In Expt. 2, rats were fed a control diet or diet containing 50 g PSF/kg for 7 d, and then all rats were switched to the control diet for 1, 3, or 5 d. The increased capacity for luminal mucin secretion disappeared within 5 d after ceasing PSF ingestion. In Expt. 3, rats were fed a control diet or diet containing 70 g PSF/kg for 7 d. Glucose (1g/kg) was administered orally after 12 h of food deprivation. The blood glucose concentrations did not differ between the groups. In Expt. 4, rats were fed a control diet or diet containing 90 g PSF/kg for 14 d. At d 7, portal cannulae were installed. A mixed solution of glucose (1g/kg) and ovalbumin (OVA, 250 mg/kg) was orally administered after 12 h of food deprivation, and responses of portal glucose and OVA concentrations were monitored for 120 min. Although luminal mucin contents were almost doubled in the 9% PSF group compared with the control group, neither portal glucose nor OVA concentration differed at any time point. The results suggest that the short-term ingestion of IDF significantly increases the luminal mucin content, but that this does not disturb nutrient absorption.

  15. Recurrent pure mucinous carcinoma of the breast with mediastinal great vessel invasion: HER-2/neu confers aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    Adair, Jamie D; Harvey, Kyle P; Mahmood, Ali; Caralis, James; Gordon, William; Yanish, Gregory

    2008-02-01

    Mucinous carcinoma of the breast, also known as colloid carcinoma, is a less common variant of breast cancer constituting less than five per cent of breast cancers. We report the case of a 42-year-old premenopausal female who presented with a palpable chest wall recurrence 4 years after simple mastectomy, axillary node dissection, and TRAM flap reconstruction for pure mucinous carcinoma. The recurrent neoplasm was a pure mucinous carcinoma and was found to be invading the mediastinum into the great vessels. The tumor was estrogen receptor positive, progesterone receptor negative, and HER-2/neu positive, which is an unusual finding for mucinous carcinoma. The fact that this tumor demonstrated HER-2/neu positivity may explain the uncharacteristic aggressive nature of this normally indolent type of breast tumor. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of any mucinous breast cancer invading the mediastinal great vessels and its subsequent en-bloc resection.

  16. Glycoprotein mucin molecular brush on cancer cell surface acting as mechanical barrier against drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Shah, Aalok A.; Campbell, Robert B.; Wan, Kai-tak

    2010-12-01

    Uptake of cytotoxic drugs by typical tumor cells is limited by the dense dendritic network of oligosaccharide mucin chains that forms a mechanical barrier. Atomic force microscopy is used to directly measure the force needed to pierce the mucin layer to reach the cell surface. Measurements are analyzed by de Gennes' steric reptation theory. Multidrug resistant ovarian tumor cells shows significantly larger penetration load compared to the wide type. A pool of pancreatic, lung, colorectal, and breast cells are also characterized. The chemotherapeutic agent, benzyl-α-GalNac, for inhibiting glycosylation is shown to be effective in reducing the mechanical barrier.

  17. Primary enteric-type mucinous adenocarcinoma of the urethra in a patient with ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Dimitroulis, Dimitrios; Patsouras, Dimitrios; Katsargyris, Athanasios; Charalampoudis, Petros; Anastasiou, Ioannis; Kouraklis, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Primary carcinoma of the male urethra accounts for less than 1% of malignancies in men. Mucinous adenocarcinoma of the urethra is extremely rare, and its biologic behavior is poorly understood. We present herein a rare case of mucinous urethral adenocarcinoma in a male patient with longstanding ulcerative colitis and multiple sclerosis. The patient presented with a voluminous pelvic mass; core biopsy of the lesion demonstrated a mucus-producing adenocarcinoma. Given the patient's history of subtotal colectomy, preoperative diagnosis was oriented towards a rectal stump adenocarcinoma. The patient underwent a pelvic exenteration: surprisingly, histology marked the prostatic urethra as the primary lesion site.

  18. Glycoprotein Mucin Molecular Brush on Cancer Cells and its Correlation with Resistance Against Drug Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Shah, Aalok; Campbell, Robert; Wan, Kai-Tak

    2012-02-01

    Uptake of cytotoxic drugs by typical tumor cells is limited by the dense dendritic network of oligosaccharide mucin chains that forms a mechanical barrier. Atomic force microscopy is used to directly measure the force needed to pierce the mucin layer to reach the cell surface. Measurements are analyzed by deGennes' steric reputation theory. Multi-drug resistant ovarian tumor cells shows significantly larger penetration load compared to the wide type. A pool of pancreatic, lung, colorectal, and breast cells are also characterized. The chemotherapeutic agent, benzyl-α-GalNac, for inhibiting glycosylation is shown to be effective in reducing the mechanical barrier.

  19. Rheology of gastric mucin exhibits a pH-dependent sol-gel transition.

    PubMed

    Celli, Jonathan P; Turner, Bradley S; Afdhal, Nezam H; Ewoldt, Randy H; McKinley, Gareth H; Bansil, Rama; Erramilli, Shyamsunder

    2007-05-01

    Gastric mucin, a high molecular weight glycoprotein, is responsible for providing the gel-forming properties and protective function of the gastric mucus layer. Bulk rheology measurements in the linear viscoelastic regime show that gastric mucin undergoes a pH-dependent sol-gel transition from a viscoelastic solution at neutral pH to a soft viscoelastic gel in acidic conditions, with the transition occurring near pH 4. In addition to pH-dependent gelation behavior in this system, further rheological studies under nonlinear deformations reveal shear thinning and an apparent yield stress in this material which are also highly influenced by pH.

  20. Diarrhea Concealing a Duodenal-Cecal Fistula Secondary to Appendiceal Mucinous Neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Amanda; Prather, Charlene; Lai, Jinping

    2017-01-01

    Primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the appendix is a rare gastrointestinal malignancy. Fistulous tract formation is a complication that is cited in literature. An 85-year-old man with multiple comorbidities presented with several weeks of persistent non-bloody diarrhea. Laboratory work-up was non-diagnostic. Abdominal imaging with barium contrast showed an enterocolonic fistulous tract extending from the duodenum to the cecum involving an enlarged appendiceal mass. Subsequent biopsy confirmed mucinous appendiceal neoplasm with peritoneal spread to the liver and mesentery. This is the first report describing an enterocolonic fistula formation resulting from this malignancy. PMID:28138447

  1. Mucin (Muc) expression during pancreatic cancer progression in spontaneous mouse model: potential implications for diagnosis and therapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a lethal malignancy primarily driven by activated Kras mutations and characterized by the deregulation of several genes including mucins. Previous studies on mucins have identified their significant role in both benign and malignant human diseases including PC progression and metastasis. However, the initiation of MUC expression during PC remains unknown because of lack of early stage tumor tissues from PC patients. Methods In the present study, we have evaluated stage specific expression patterns of mucins during mouse PC progression in (KrasG12D;Pdx1-Cre (KC)) murine PC model from pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR. Results In agreement with previous studies on human PC, we observed a progressive increase in the expression of mucins particularly Muc1, Muc4 and Muc5AC in the pancreas of KC (as early as PanIN I) mice with advancement of PanIN lesions and PDAC both at mRNA and protein levels. Additionally, mucin expression correlated with the increased expression of inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ (p < 0.0062), CXCL1 (p < 0.00014) and CXCL2 (p < 0.08) in the pancreas of KC mice, which are known to induce mucin expression. Further, we also observed progressive increase in inflammation in pancreas of KC mice from 10 to 50 weeks of age as indicated by the increase in the macrophage infiltration. Overall, this study corroborates with previous human studies that indicated the aberrant overexpression of MUC1, MUC4 and MUC5AC mucins during the progression of PC. Conclusions Our study reinforces the potential utility of the KC murine model for determining the functional role of mucins in PC pathogenesis by crossing KC mice with corresponding mucin knockout mice and evaluating mucin based diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for lethal PC. PMID:23102107

  2. Ammonia abundances in comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyckoff, S.; Tegler, S.; Engel, L.

    The emission band strengths of the NH2 bands of Comets Halley, Hartley-Good, Thiele, and Borrelly were measured to determine the NH2 column densities for the comets. Production rates obtained using the Haser and vectorial models are in agreement within the observational errors, suggesting that a simple two-step decay model may be used to approximate the NH2 distribution in a comet's coma. Ammonia-to-water abundance ratios from 0.01 to 0.4 percent were found for the four comets. The ratio in Comet Halley is found to be Q(NH3)/Q(H2O) = 0.002 + or - 0.001. No significant difference in the ammonia abundance was found before or after perihelion in Comet Halley.

  3. SEA (sea-urchin sperm protein, enterokinase and agrin)-module cleavage, association of fragments and membrane targeting of rat intestinal mucin Muc3.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Ismat A; Wang, Rongquan; Forstner, Janet F

    2003-05-15

    In a previous study we showed, by transient expression studies in COS-1 cells, that the C-terminal domain of rat intestinal membrane mucin Muc3 was cleaved between glycine and serine within a GSIVV (one-letter) amino acid sequence during its residence in the endoplasmic reticulum. The extracellular domain fragment remained linked to the membrane-associated fragment by non-covalent interactions. The present study demonstrates that cleavage depends not only on the presence of the G/SIVV site (where G/S is the glycine downward arrow serine cleavage site), but also on more distant C-terminal sequences in the SEA (sea-urchin sperm protein, enterokinase and agrin) module. Inhibition of N-glycosylation by tunicamycin treatment of transfected cells did not prevent re-association of fragments, although cleavage was partially impaired, as some of the non-glycosylated, non-cleaved products were seen to accumulate in cells. Membrane targeting of the Muc3 domain and its cleavage products occurred in transfected cells and was not impaired in mutants in which the cleavage site was mutated. Targeting was also not impaired for products devoid of N-linked oligosaccharides. Our studies thus indicate that (a) cleavage within the SEA module of rat Muc3 requires participation of peptide sequences located C-terminal of and distant from the cleavage site, (b) re-association of the fragments requires the SEA module, but is independent of N-linked oligosaccharides, and (c) membrane targeting of the mucin is independent of the SEA-module-cleavage reaction.

  4. The mucin epiglycanin on TA3/Ha carcinoma cells prevents alpha 6 beta 4- mediated adhesion to laminin and kalinin and E-cadherin-mediated cell- cell interaction

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    TA3/Ha murine mammary carcinoma cells grow in suspension, do not adhere to extracellular matrix molecules, but do adhere to hepatocytes and form liver metastases upon intraportal injection. Recently we showed that the integrin alpha 6 beta 4 on the TA3/Ha cells is involved in adhesion to hepatocytes. However, despite high cell surface levels of alpha 6 beta 4, TA3/Ha cells do not adhere to the alpha 6 beta 4 ligands laminin and kalinin. Here we show that this is due to the mucin epiglycanin that is highly expressed on TA3/Ha cells. Some monoclonal antibodies generated against epiglycanin induced capping of most of the epiglycanin molecules. TA3/Ha cells treated with these mAb did adhere to laminin and kalinin, and an epithelial monolayer was formed on kalinin, with alpha 6 beta 4 localized in HD1-containing hemidesmosome- like structures and E-cadherin at the cell-cell contact sites. Similar results were obtained after treatment of TA3/Ha cells with O- sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase which removes all epiglycanin. In addition, the enzyme induced E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell aggregation. Both treatments also enhanced the adhesion to hepatocytes, but given the potent antiadhesive effect of epiglycanin it is remarkable that nontreated TA3/Ha cells adhere to hepatocytes at all. We found that during this interaction, epiglycanin was redistributed. We conclude that epiglycanin can completely prevent both intercellular and matrix adhesion, but that this effect can be overcome in certain intercellular interactions because of the induced redistribution of the mucin. PMID:7528749

  5. The Pic protease of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli promotes intestinal colonization and growth in the presence of mucin.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Susan M; Sheikh, Jalaluddin; Henderson, Ian R; Ruiz-Perez, Fernando; Cohen, Paul S; Nataro, James P

    2009-06-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is increasingly being recognized as a cause of diarrheal disease in diverse populations. No small animal model is currently available to study this pathogen. We report here that conventional mice orally inoculated with prototype EAEC strain 042 generally became colonized, though the abundance of organisms cultured from their stool varied substantially among individual animals. In contrast, mice whose water contained 5 g/liter streptomycin consistently became colonized at high levels (ca. 10(8) CFU/g of stool). Neither conventional nor streptomycin-treated mice developed clinical signs or histopathologic abnormalities. Using specific mutants in competition with the wild-type strain, we evaluated the contribution of several putative EAEC virulence factors to colonization of streptomycin-treated mice. Our data suggest that the dispersin surface protein and Pic, a serine protease autotransporter secreted by EAEC and Shigella flexneri, promote colonization of the mouse. In contrast, we found no role for the aggregative adherence fimbriae, the transcriptional activator AggR, or the surface factor termed Air (enteroaggregative immunoglobulin repeat protein). To study Pic further, we constructed a single nucleotide mutation in strain 042 which altered only the Pic catalytic serine (strain 042PicS258A). Fractionation of the tissue at 24 h and 3 days demonstrated an approximate 3-log(10) difference between 042 and 042PicS258A in the lumen and mucus layer and adherent to tissue. Strains 042 and 042PicS258A adhered similarly to mouse tissue ex vivo. While no growth differences were observed in a continuous-flow anaerobic intestinal simulator system, the wild-type strain exhibited a growth advantage over 042PicS258A in a culture of cecal mucus and in cecal contents in vitro; this difference was manifest only after 6 h of growth. Moreover, enhanced growth of the wild type was observed in comparison with that of the mutant in minimal

  6. Comparative proteomic label-free analysis of Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168 cultured with porcine mucin.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sahyun; Cha, Injun; Kim, Nan-Ok; Seo, Jong-Bok; Kim, Soo-Young; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Chung, Gyung Tae; Jeon, Byeonghwa; Kang, Yeon-Ho

    2014-03-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major gastrointestinal pathogen in humans. Poultry is a primary reservoir for C. jejuni, and C. jejuni appears to be highly adapted to the gastrointestinal tracts of avian species. We determined the protein expression profiles of C. jejuni NCTC 11168 cultured in medium containing porcine mucin. Differentially expressed proteins in the presence and absence of porcine mucin were identified using the label-free method. We identified 52 proteins with expression that was either upregulated (32 proteins) or downregulated (20 proteins) by porcine mucin. These proteins are involved in diverse cellular functions, such as motility, cell wall synthesis, iron transport, energy production, and amino acid metabolism. In particular, the upregulated proteins were involved in chemotaxis (CheV and CetA), motility (FlaA), colonization and adherence (CadF, FrdA, CfrA, MapA, and HydA), and stress tolerance (TrxB and ClpB). These results suggest that C. jejuni changes its protein expression in response to porcine mucin and that this change in expression may contribute to host adaptation of C. jejuni NCTC 11168.

  7. Prebiotic galactooligosaccharides activate mucin and pectic galactan utilization pathways in the human gut symbiont Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron

    PubMed Central

    Lammerts van Bueren, Alicia; Mulder, Marieke; Leeuwen, Sander van; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2017-01-01

    Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are prebiotic carbohydrates that impart changes in the gut bacterial composition of formula-fed infants to more closely resemble that of breast-fed infants. Consuming human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) provides specific bacterial strains with an advantage for colonizing the infant intestine. These same effects are seen in infants after GOS consumption, however GOS are very complex mixtures and the underlying molecular mechanisms of how GOS mimic HMOs are relatively unknown. Here we studied the effects of GOS utilization on a prominent gut symbiont, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, which has been previously shown to consume HMOs via mucin O-glycan degradation pathways. We show that several pathways for targeting O-mucin glycans are activated in B. thetaiotaomicron by GOS, as well as the galactan utilization sytem. Characterization of the endo-galactanase from this system identified activity on various longer GOS substrates while a subset of GOS compounds were identified as potential activators of mucin glycan metabolism in B. thetaiotaomicron. Our results show that GOS functions as an inducer of mucin-glycan pathways while providing a nutrient source in the form of β-(1 → 4)-galactan. These metabolic features of GOS mixtures may serve to explain the beneficial effects that are seen for GOS supplemented infant formula. PMID:28091546

  8. Specific Glycoforms of MUC5AC and Endorepellin Accurately Distinguish Mucinous from Nonmucinous Pancreatic Cysts*

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zheng; Maupin, Kevin; Curnutte, Bryan; Fallon, Brian; Feasley, Christa L.; Brouhard, Elizabeth; Kwon, Richard; West, Christopher M.; Cunningham, John; Brand, Randall; Castelli, Paola; Crippa, Stefano; Feng, Ziding; Allen, Peter; Simeone, Diane M.; Haab, Brian B.

    2013-01-01

    Specific protein glycoforms may be uniquely informative about the pathological state of a cyst and may serve as accurate biomarkers. Here we tested that hypothesis using antibody-lectin sandwich arrays in broad screens of protein glycoforms and in targeted studies of candidate markers. We profiled 16 different glycoforms of proteins captured by 72 different antibodies in cyst fluid from mucinous and nonmucinous cysts (n = 22), and we then tested a three-marker panel in 22 addition samples and 22 blinded samples. Glycan alterations were not widespread among the proteins and were mainly confined to MUC5AC and endorepellin. Specific glycoforms of these proteins, defined by reactivity with wheat germ agglutinin and a blood group H antibody, were significantly elevated in mucinous cysts, whereas the core protein levels were not significantly elevated. A three-marker panel based on these glycoforms distinguished mucinous from nonmucinous cysts with 93% accuracy (89% sensitivity, 100% specificity) in a prevalidation sample set (n = 44) and with 91% accuracy (87% sensitivity, 100% specificity) in independent, blinded samples (n = 22). Targeted lectin measurements and mass spectrometry analyses indicated that the higher wheat germ agglutinin and blood group H reactivity was due to oligosaccharides terminating in GlcNAc or N-acetyl-lactosamine with occasional α1,2-linked fucose. The results show that MUC5AC and endorepellin glycoforms may be highly specific and sensitive biomarkers for the differentiation of mucinous from nonmucinous pancreatic cysts. PMID:23836919

  9. Hagfish slime and mucin flow properties and their implications for defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böni, Lukas; Fischer, Peter; Böcker, Lukas; Kuster, Simon; Rühs, Patrick A.

    2016-07-01

    When hagfish (Myxinidae) are attacked by predators, they form a dilute, elastic, and cohesive defensive slime made of mucins and protein threads. In this study we propose a link between flow behavior and defense mechanism of hagfish slime. Oscillatory rheological measurements reveal that hagfish slime forms viscoelastic networks at low concentrations. Mucins alone did not contribute viscoelasticity, however in shear flow, viscosity was observed. The unidirectional flow, experienced by hagfish slime during suction feeding by predators, was mimicked with extensional rheology. Elongational stresses were found to increase mucin viscosity. The resulting higher resistance to flow could support clogging of the attacker’s gills. Shear flow in contrast decreases the slime viscosity by mucin aggregation and leads to a collapse of the slime network. Hagfish may benefit from this collapse when trapped in their own slime and facing suffocation by tying a sliding knot with their body to shear off the slime. This removal could be facilitated by the apparent shear thinning behavior of the slime. Therefore hagfish slime, thickening in elongation and thinning in shear, presents a sophisticated natural high water content gel with flow properties that may be beneficial for both, defense and escape.

  10. Intestinal metaplasia of appendiceal endometriosis is not uncommon and may mimic appendiceal mucinous neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Monika; Wong, Serena; Zhang, Xuchen

    2017-01-01

    Endometriosis of the appendix can be an incidental finding or a cause of appendicitis, intussusception, perforation or retention mucocele. Intestinal metaplasia of appendiceal endometriosis may occur, which can lead to a misdiagnosis of low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm. On a retrospective search of the pathology database from 2001 to 2015, we identified 78 appendiceal endometriosis cases and intestinal metaplasia was present in 10/78 (13%) cases. In most of the cases (90%), the foci of intestinal metaplasia were mainly localized close to the mucosa. Intestinal and endometrial hybrid glands were present in 9/10 (90%) cases. These cases were often associated with marked appendiceal distortion, luminal obliteration and mass formation, causing concern for a mucinous neoplasm clinically and pathologically. Our findings indicate that intestinal metaplasia in appendiceal endometriosis is not an uncommon phenomenon, which can be mistaken for a mucinous neoplasm. Endometriosis should be kept in mind when a diagnosis of appendiceal mucinous neoplasm is made, especially in a young woman with a clinical history of endometriosis.

  11. Formulation and in vitro release studies of pegylated mucin based matrix tablets.

    PubMed

    Eraga, Sylvester Okhuelegbe; Arhewoh, Matthew Ikhuoria; Iwuagwu, Magnus Amara; Ukponahiusi, Oyenmwen Enoma

    2015-01-01

    The effects of polymer concentration on the flow properties of granules and in-vitro release profiles from matrix tablets of three model drugs formulated from pegylated mucin base was investigated. Mucin was extracted from the African giant snail and in combination with PEG was used to produce a copolymer matrix base, which was mixed with the model drugs using wet granulation method. The granules and tablets were evaluated according to official and unofficial requirements. Results showed best flow with Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and Chloroquine Phosphate (CQ) granules with Hausner ratio of 1.04-1.2, Carr's index of 4.2-17.5% and angle of repose between 19°-26°. The tablets met B.P specifications with respect to tablet weights, friability and drug content. The release profiles showed faster release of the drug with high content of PEG and a slower release with high concentration of mucin. Pegylated mucin base will find useful application in the development of a wide range of formulations.

  12. Pilus-Mediated Adherence of Haemophilus influenzae to Human Respiratory Mucins

    PubMed Central

    Kubiet, Martin; Ramphal, Reuben; Weber, Allan; Smith, Arnold

    2000-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae, especially the nontypeable strains, are among the most common pathogens encountered in patients with chronic lung disease and otitis media. We and others have demonstrated that respiratory isolates of nontypeable H. influenzae bind to human mucins, but the mechanism of binding is not entirely clear. We have therefore examined the role of pili in the adherence of both type b and nontypeable H. influenzae to human respiratory mucins. We used isogenic H. influenzae strains with a mutation in the structural gene for pilin (hifA), a laboratory H. influenzae strain transformed with a type b pilus gene cluster (from strain C54), antibodies raised against H. influenzae HifA, and Escherichia coli strains carrying a cloned type b pilus gene cluster (from strain AM30) in these studies. All bacteria lacking HifA or the pilus gene cluster had decreased adherence of piliated H. influenzae to mucins, and Fab fragments of anti-HifA antibodies inhibited the adherence. E. coli strains carrying the cloned type b pilus gene cluster were six to seven times more adhesive than strains carrying the vector. The role of other putative adhesins was not examined and thus cannot be excluded, but these studies support a role for pili in the binding of H. influenzae to human respiratory mucins. PMID:10816486

  13. Cleaning of Filtering Facepiece Respirators Contaminated with Mucin and Staphylococcus aureus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    two of which contain antimicrobial agents (hypochlorite and benzalkonium chloride (BAC)). Prior to extraction and quantification of the...aerosols of mucin or viable Staphylococcus aureus then cleaned with hypochlorite, benzalkonium chloride , or nonantimicrobial wipes. After cleaning, FFRs...which contain benzalkonium chloride (BAC); Hype Wipes (Current Technologies, Inc, Crawfordsville, IN),16 which contain 0.9% hypochlorite (OCL); and

  14. Hagfish slime and mucin flow properties and their implications for defense

    PubMed Central

    Böni, Lukas; Fischer, Peter; Böcker, Lukas; Kuster, Simon; Rühs, Patrick A.

    2016-01-01

    When hagfish (Myxinidae) are attacked by predators, they form a dilute, elastic, and cohesive defensive slime made of mucins and protein threads. In this study we propose a link between flow behavior and defense mechanism of hagfish slime. Oscillatory rheological measurements reveal that hagfish slime forms viscoelastic networks at low concentrations. Mucins alone did not contribute viscoelasticity, however in shear flow, viscosity was observed. The unidirectional flow, experienced by hagfish slime during suction feeding by predators, was mimicked with extensional rheology. Elongational stresses were found to increase mucin viscosity. The resulting higher resistance to flow could support clogging of the attacker’s gills. Shear flow in contrast decreases the slime viscosity by mucin aggregation and leads to a collapse of the slime network. Hagfish may benefit from this collapse when trapped in their own slime and facing suffocation by tying a sliding knot with their body to shear off the slime. This removal could be facilitated by the apparent shear thinning behavior of the slime. Therefore hagfish slime, thickening in elongation and thinning in shear, presents a sophisticated natural high water content gel with flow properties that may be beneficial for both, defense and escape. PMID:27460842

  15. Histology and mucin histochemistry of the digestive tract of yellow catfish, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco.

    PubMed

    Cao, X J; Wang, W M

    2009-08-01

    The histology and characteristics of mucins secreted by epithelial mucous cells of the digestive tract in yellow catfish, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco were investigated using light microscope and transmission electron microscope. The digestive tract was divided into a pharynx, oesophagus, U-shaped stomach (with a cardiac, fundic and pyloric part) and intestine, composed of anterior intestine, middle intestine and posterior intestine, which consisted of a mucosa (epithelial layer), lamina propria-submucosa, muscularis and serosa. A large number of isolated longitudinal striated muscular bundles were present in the lamina propria-submucosa of pharynx. Goblet cells were observed throughout the digestive tract, except in the stomach. In the cardiac and fundic stomach, a plenty of gastric glands were observed, whereas they were absent in the pyloric part. Numerous mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum were observed in the columnar epithelial cells of the intestine, especially of the anterior part. The epithelial mucous cells contained neutral or other two mixtures of acid and neutral mucins, the first being the most common. The neutral mucin was the only type of mucins in the stomach, anterior intestine and middle intestine. The results of this study will be helpful for understanding the digestive physiology and diagnosing some gastrointestinal diseases in yellow catfish.

  16. Mucin biosynthesis in the bovine goblet cell induced by Cooperia oncophora infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mucin hypersecretion is considered to be one of the most common components of the immune response to gastrointestinal nematode infection. However, investigations have not been conducted in the Cattle-Cooperia oncophora system to verify the findings largely derived from murine models. In this study, ...

  17. Malonic acid suppresses mucin-type O-glycan degradation during hydrazine treatment of glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Goso, Yukinobu

    2016-03-01

    Hydrazine treatment is frequently used for releasing mucin-type O-glycans (O-glycans) from glycoproteins because the method provides O-glycans that retain a reducible GalNAc at their reducing end, which is available for fluorescent labeling. However, many O-glycans are degraded by "peeling" during this treatment. In the current study, it was found that malonic acid suppressed O-glycan degradation during hydrazine treatment of bovine fetuin or porcine gastric mucin in both the gas and liquid phases. This is paradoxical because the release of O-glycans from glycoproteins occurs under alkaline conditions. However, malonic acid seems to prevent the degradation through its acidic property given that other weak acids also prevented the degradation. Accordingly, disodium malonate did not suppress O-glycan degradation. Application of this method to rat gastric mucin demonstrated that the majority of the major O-glycans obtained in the presence of malonic acid were intact, whereas those obtained in the absence of malonic acid were degraded. These results suggest that hydrazine treatment in the presence of malonic acid would allow glycomic analysis of native mucin glycoproteins.

  18. Synthesis of oxime-linked mucin mimics containing thetumor-related TN and sialyl TN antigens

    SciTech Connect

    Marcaurelle, Lisa A.; Shin, Youngsook; Goon, Scarlett; Bertozzi,Carolyn R.

    2001-08-21

    The synthesis of oxime-linked mucin mimics was accomplished via the incorporation of multiple ketone residues into a peptide followed by reaction with aminooxy sugars corresponding to the tumor-related T{sub N} and sialyl T{sub N} (ST{sub N}) antigens.

  19. [A Case of Pure Type Mucinous Carcinoma Recurrence after Local Control].

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Katsuhisa; Sakurai, Kenichi; Amano, Sadao

    2015-11-01

    The patient was a 44-year-old woman. Mastectomy and sentinel lymph node biopsy had been performed for carcinoma of the left breast approximately 1 year previously. The diagnosis was mucinous carcinoma, T3N0M0, stage ⅡB, ER(+), PgR(+), HER2 score 0, Ki-67 20%. Hormone therapy was administered postoperatively. Four months after the surgery, left axilla lymphadenopathy was observed. Chemotherapy with EC and nab-PTX was started for the postoperative lymph node recurrence. To achieve local control, axillary lymphadenectomy was performed within 1 year postoperatively, and 1 metastatic lesion in the lymph nodes was observed. Hormone therapy was started sequentially, with no subsequent recurrence or metastasis. Mucinous carcinomas are classified as a breast cancer subtype. Mixed type, including breast ductal carcinoma, form a large proportion of mucinous carcinomas and the therapy for breast ductal carcinoma is usually administered in such cases. Conversely, pure type mucinous carcinomas rarely show metastasis and have a good prognosis. In this case, however, metastasis was noted and chemotherapy was not completely effective, and local control was achieved with surgical resection.

  20. Sonographic and pathologic image analysis of pure mucinous carcinoma of the breast.

    PubMed

    Kaoku, Setsuko; Konishi, Eiichi; Fujimoto, Yasuhisa; Tohno, Eriko; Shiina, Tsuyoshi; Kondo, Kengo; Yamazaki, Sanae; Kajihara, Mariko; Shinkura, Nobuhiko; Yanagisawa, Akio

    2013-07-01

    The aims of this study were to elucidate sonographic and histologic features of pure mucinous carcinoma (P-MC) of the breast using quantitative analysis and to evaluate the relationship between quantitative analysis and visual qualitative assessment. Eleven P-MCs (nine patients) were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. Three experts assessed these sonographic images using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon. For assessment of internal echoes and posterior echoes, quantitative measures were determined using ImageJ software. Histologic thin sections were stained for classification into separate parts of the tumor (stroma, mucin and cancer cells) and were digitized. Internal echoes were isoechoic in 7 of 11 (63.6%) tumors and hypoechoic in 4 of 11 (36.4%); all P-MCs were "enhanced" in qualitative evaluation. As internal echoes increased, the proportion of stroma increased and that of mucin decreased. The high level of internal echoes is correlated with reflection and back-scattering, which are caused mainly by the interface between mucin and stroma.

  1. Pure mucinous carcinoma with axillary lymph node metastasis in a male breast.

    PubMed

    Dragoumis, Dimitrios M; Assimaki, Anthoula S; Tsiftsoglou, Aris P

    2012-10-01

    Pure mucinous carcinoma of the male breast is an extremely uncommon malignant breast neoplasm and usually occurs at advanced age. It is characterized by a higher degree of mucus production, a more benign behavior, a lower incidence of metastatic nodal involvement, and a subsequent higher survival rate. We describe such a case of a 59-year-old male, who displayed a gradually growing retroareolar tumor of the right breast. The tumor was well demarcated and had a soft consistency with a gelatinous appearance. Based on the preoperative clinical identification of right axillary lymphadenopathy, the patient eventually underwent right modified radical mastectomy and right axillary nodal dissection. Regarding histological findings, the neoplasm corresponded to a pure mucinous carcinoma with axillary lymph node metastasis. Although lymph node metastasis of pure mucinous carcinoma of the breast is rare, it is essential to perform careful clinical examination when the primary breast mass is suspicious for mucinous carcinoma, because the presence of axillary lymphadenopathy will subsequently define the proper choice of therapeutic strategy.

  2. Nuclear staining of fgfr-2/stat-5 and runx-2 in mucinous breast cancer.

    PubMed

    May, María; Mosto, Julián; Vazquez, Paula Martinez; Gonzalez, Pedro; Rojas, Paola; Gass, Hugo; Lanari, Claudia; Molinolo, Alfredo A

    2016-02-01

    Mucinous carcinoma (MBC) is a rare subtype of breast cancer characterized by the production of variable amounts of mucin, with a prognosis better than that of non-mucinous carcinomas (NMBC). The aim of this project was to evaluate the expression of STAT-5, RUNX-2, and FGFR-2 in a cohort of MBC and compare it with that of NMBC using standard immunohistochemistry. STAT-5 and RUNX-2 are two transcription factors with cytoplasmic and/or nuclear localization that have been related to FGFR-2, a tyrosine kinase growth factor receptor that can interact with STAT-5 and with PR in the nuclei of breast cancer cells. Membranous, cytoplasmic, and nuclear staining were evaluated and expressed as the percentage of stained cells (0-100%) multiplied by the staining intensity (0-3), thus obtaining an index ranging from 0 to 300. Nuclear and/or cytoplasmic immunoreactivity of the three proteins were detected in a high number of NMBC. Nuclear FGFR-2 staining correlated with nuclear STAT-5 (p<0.05) and nuclear RUNX-2 (p<0.01) in both tumor types; however MBC had a significant higher expression of nuclear FGFR-2 (p<0.01) and RUNX-2 (p<0.05) than that of NMBC, and displayed positive immunoreactivity of the 3 proteins in 70.8% of the cases. These results suggest that these proteins may have a role in the progression of the mucinous phenotype, in which nuclear STAT-5 may inhibit RUNX-2 prometastatic effect.

  3. Inhibition of mucin glycosylation by aryl-N-acetyl-alpha-galactosaminides in human colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kuan, S.F.; Byrd, J.C.; Basbaum, C.; Kim, Y.S. )

    1989-11-15

    Specific inhibitors of the glycosylation of O-glycosidically linked glycoproteins have not previously been described. When tested for their effects on mucin glycosylation in a mucin-producing colon cancer cell line, LS174T, benzyl-, phenyl-, and p-nitrophenyl-N-acetyl-alpha-galactosaminide inhibited the formation of fully glycosylated mucin in a dose-dependent manner. Free aryl-oligosaccharides were found in the medium of treated cells labeled with ({sup 3}H)glucosamine, ({sup 3}H)galactose, ({sup 3}H)fucose, ({sup 3}H)mannosamine, or phenyl-alpha-(6-{sup 3}H) N-acetylgalactosamine. UDP-Gal:GalNAc-beta 1,3-galactosyltransferase was inhibited by aryl-N-acetyl-alpha-galactosaminides but not by a number of other aryl-glycosides. Treatment with these inhibitors also causes reversible morphologic changes including formation of intercellular cysts. Aryl-N-acetyl-alpha-galactosaminides can be useful for the structural and functional studies of mucin macromolecules and other O-linked glycoproteins.

  4. Histological and mucin histochemical study of the small intestine of the Persian squirrel (Sciurus anomalus).

    PubMed

    Tootian, Zahra; Sadeghinezhad, Javad; Sheibani, Mohammad Taghi; Fazelipour, Simin; De Sordi, Nadia; Chiocchetti, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the histological and mucin histochemical properties of the small intestine of the Persian squirrel (Sciurus anomalus). This species is widely distributed in the Middle East and can be found as a companion animal. The histological studies revealed that the plicae circulares were not visible in the tunica mucosa. The maximum height and width of the villi were observed in the duodenum, which then decreased toward the ileum. The muscularis mucosa was scattered, whereas the tunica submucosa was composed of dense connective tissue. The lymphatic nodules were seen in the submucosa of the distal part of the jejunum and ileum, and Brunner's glands were embedded in the initial portion of the duodenum. The tunica muscularis was significantly thicker in the ileum, and the circular muscle layer was thicker than the longitudinal muscle layer throughout the entire length of the small intestine. The mucin histochemistry, which was examined using the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and alcian blue (AB) (pH 1.0 and 2.5) and also PAS-AB (pH 2.5) and aldehyde fuchsin-AB (pH 2.5) techniques coupled with methylation and saponification reaction for some sections, showed that the small intestine mucous content included both carboxylated and sulfated acidic mucins with few neutral mucins. The results of this study contribute to the knowledge of the histological and histochemical characteristics of the gastrointestinal tracts of exotic mammals and provide data for comparison with other mammals.

  5. The Role of Mucin-type O-glycans in Eukaryotic Development

    PubMed Central

    Tabak, Lawrence A.

    2010-01-01

    Newly emerging genetic studies have revealed that a subset of the family of glycosyltransferases responsible for the formation of mucin-type O glycans is essential for normal development. As additional genetic, biochemical and physical tools are developed to interrogate the complex structure and surface location of this under-studied class of carbohydrate, no doubt additional roles will be elucidated. PMID:20144722

  6. Improved method for immunostaining of mucin separated by supported molecular matrix electrophoresis by optimizing the matrix composition and fixation procedure.

    PubMed

    Matsuno, Yu-Ki; Dong, Weijie; Yokoyama, Seiya; Yonezawa, Suguru; Saito, Takuro; Gotoh, Mitsukazu; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Kameyama, Akihiko

    2011-07-01

    Mucins are a family of heavily glycosylated high molecular mass proteins that have great potential as novel clinical biomarkers for the diagnosis of various malignant tumors. Supported molecular matrix electrophoresis (SMME) is a new type of membrane electrophoresis that can be used to characterize mucins. In SMME, mucins migrate in a molecular matrix supported by membrane materials. Here, we have developed an immunostaining method for the identification of SMME-separated mucins. The novel method involves stably fixing the mucins onto the SMME membrane and optimizing the molecular matrix for the fixation process. We applied this technique for the detection of MUC1 produced from three cancer cell lines (T47D, HPAF-II and BxPC3) and also analyzed their O-linked glycans by mass spectrometry. Our results revealed that properties of the MUC1 molecules from the three cell lines are different in terms of migrating position in SMME and glycan profile. The present method allows simple and rapid characterization of mucins in terms of both glycans and core proteins. The method will be a useful tool for the exploration of mucin alterations associated with various diseases such as cancer.

  7. MUC4 mucin-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition: a novel mechanism for metastasis of human ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ponnusamy, MP; Lakshmanan, I; Jain, M; Das, S; Chakraborty, S; Dey, P; Batra, SK

    2010-01-01

    The acquisition of invasiveness in ovarian cancer (OC) is accompanied by the process of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The MUC4 mucin is overexpressed in ovarian tumors and has a role in the invasiveness of OC cells. The present study was aimed at evaluating the potential involvement of MUC4 in the metastasis of OC cells by inducing EMT. Ectopic overexpression of MUC4 in OC cells (SKOV3-MUC4) resulted in morphological alterations along with a decreased expression of epithelial markers (E-cadherin and cytokeratin (CK)-18) and an increased expression of mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin and vimentin) compared with the control cells (SKOV3-vector). Also, pro-EMT transcription factors TWIST1, TWIST2 and SNAIL showed an upregulation in SKOV3-MUC4 cells. We further investigated the pathways upstream of N-cadherin, such as focal adhesion kinase (FAK), MKK7, JNK1/2 and c-Jun, which were also activated in the SKOV3-MUC4 cells compared with SKOV3-vector cells. Inhibition of phospho-FAK (pFAK) and pJNK1/2 decreased N-cadherin expression in the MUC4-overexpressing cells, which further led to a significant decrease in cellular motility. Knockdown of N-cadherin decreased the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2), AKT and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), and inhibited the motility in the SKOV3-MUC4 cells. Upon in vivo tumorigenesis and metastasis analysis, the SKOV3-MUC4 cells produced significantly larger tumors and demonstrated a higher incidence of metastasis to distance organs (peritoneal wall, colon, intestine, stomach, lymph nodes, liver and diaphragm). Taken together, our study reveals a novel role for MUC4 in inducing EMT through the upregulation of N-cadherin and promoting metastasis of OC cells. PMID:20697346

  8. Osteopontin Modulates Inflammation, Mucin Production, and Gene Expression Signatures After Inhalation of Asbestos in a Murine Model of Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Ramos-Nino, Maria E.; Eugenia-Ariza, Maria; MacPherson, Maximilian B.; Butnor, Kelly J.; Vacek, Pamela C.; McGee, Sean P.; Clark, Jessica C.; Steele, Chad; Mossman, Brooke T.

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation and lung remodeling are hallmarks of asbestos-induced fibrosis, but the molecular mechanisms that control these events are unclear. Using laser capture microdissection (LCM) of distal bronchioles in a murine asbestos inhalation model, we show that osteopontin (OPN) is up-regulated by bronchiolar epithelial cells after chrysotile asbestos exposures. In contrast to OPN wild-type mice (OPN+/+) inhaling asbestos, OPN null mice (OPN−/−) exposed to asbestos showed less eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, diminished lung inflammation, and decreased mucin production. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid concentrations of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-12 subunit p40, MIP1α, MIP1β, and eotaxin) also were significantly less in asbestos-exposed OPN−/− mice. Microarrays performed on lung tissues from asbestos-exposed OPN+/+ and OPN−/− mice showed that OPN modulated the expression of a number of genes (Col1a2, Timp1, Tnc, Eln, and Col3a1) linked to fibrosis via initiation and cross talk between IL-1β and epidermal growth factor receptor-related signaling pathways. Novel targets of OPN identified include genes involved in cell signaling, immune system/defense, extracellular matrix remodeling, and cell cycle regulation. Although it is unclear whether the present findings are specific to chrysotile asbestos or would be observed after inhalation of other fibers in general, these results highlight new potential mechanisms and therapeutic targets for asbestosis and other diseases (asthma, smoking-related interstitial lung diseases) linked to OPN overexpression. PMID:21514415

  9. Role of GP82 in the selective binding to gastric mucin during oral infection with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Staquicini, Daniela I; Martins, Rafael M; Macedo, Silene; Sasso, Gisela R S; Atayde, Vanessa D; Juliano, Maria A; Yoshida, Nobuko

    2010-03-02

    Oral infection by Trypanosoma cruzi has been the primary cause of recent outbreaks of acute Chagas' diseases. This route of infection may involve selective binding of the metacyclic trypomastigote surface molecule gp82 to gastric mucin as a first step towards invasion of the gastric mucosal epithelium and subsequent systemic infection. Here we addressed that question by performing in vitro and in vivo experiments. A recombinant protein containing the complete gp82 sequence (J18), a construct lacking the gp82 central domain (J18*), and 20-mer synthetic peptides based on the gp82 central domain, were used for gastric mucin binding and HeLa cell invasion assays, or for in vivo experiments. Metacyclic trypomastigotes and J18 bound to gastric mucin whereas J18* failed to bind. Parasite or J18 binding to submaxillary mucin was negligible. HeLa cell invasion by metacyclic forms was not affected by gastric mucin but was inhibited in the presence of submaxillary mucin. Of peptides tested for inhibition of J18 binding to gastric mucin, the inhibitory peptide p7 markedly reduced parasite invasion of HeLa cells in the presence of gastric mucin. Peptide p7*, with the same composition as p7 but with a scrambled sequence, had no effect. Mice fed with peptide p7 before oral infection with metacyclic forms developed lower parasitemias than mice fed with peptide p7*. Our results indicate that selective binding of gp82 to gastric mucin may direct T. cruzi metacyclic trypomastigotes to stomach mucosal epithelium in oral infection.

  10. Pattern of HER-2 Gene Amplification and Protein Expression in Benign, Borderline, and Malignant Ovarian Serous and Mucinous Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Rabab A A; Makboul, Rania; Elsers, Dalia A H; Elsaba, Tarek M A M; Thalab, Abeer M A B; Shaaban, Omar M

    2016-06-15

    Amplification of HER-2 gene and overexpression of HER-2 receptor play a significant role in the progression of a number of malignancies such as breast cancer. Trastuzumab (anti-HER-2 therapeutic agent) has been used successfully in treatment of breast cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of HER-2 gene amplification and of HER-2 receptor expression in a spectrum of serous and mucinous ovarian tumors to determine whether HER-2 is altered in these neoplasms similar to that occurring in breast cancer. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded microarray tissue sections from 212 specimens were stained with HER-2 antibody using immunohistochemistry and with anti-HER-2 DNA probe using chromogenic in situ hybridization. Specimens consisted of 65 benign tumors (50 serous and 15 mucinous), 26 borderline (13 serous and 13 mucinous), 73 malignant (53 serous carcinoma and 20 mucinous carcinoma), 18 metastatic deposits (13 serous and 5 mucinous), in addition to 30 normal tissues (16 ovarian surface and 14 normal fallopian tube). HER-2 protein-positive expression was not detected in the normal or the benign tissues. Borderline neoplasms showed positive staining, but no overexpression. HER-2 overexpression was seen only in 4 carcinoma specimens: 1/53 (1.8%) primary serous carcinomas and 3/20 (15%) primary mucinous carcinomas. HER-2 gene amplification was seen in 4 specimens: 2 primary mucinous carcinomas and 2 malignant deposits of these 2 mucinous carcinomas. In conclusion, alteration of HER-2 was not detected in ovarian serous neoplasms; however, in mucinous carcinoma, HER-2 amplification and overexpression occur more frequently.

  11. Response of Nodularia spumigena to pCO2 - Part 2: Exudation and extracellular enzyme activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endres, S.; Unger, J.; Wannicke, N.; Nausch, M.; Voss, M.; Engel, A.

    2013-01-01

    The filamentous and diazotrophic cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena plays a major role in the productivity of the Baltic Sea as it forms extensive blooms regularly. Under phosphorus limiting conditions Nodularia spumigena have a high enzyme affinity for dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) by production and release of alkaline phosphatase. Additionally, they are able to degrade proteinaceous compounds by expressing the extracellular enzyme leucine aminopeptidase. As atmospheric CO2 concentrations are increasing, we expect marine phytoplankton to experience changes in several environmental parameters, including pH, temperature, and nutrient availability. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effect of CO2-induced changes in seawater carbonate chemistry and of phosphate deficiency on the exudation of organic matter, and its subsequent recycling by extracellular enzymes in a Nodularia spumigena culture. Batch cultures of Nodularia spumigena were grown for 15 days under aeration with low (180 μatm), medium (380 μatm), and high (780 μatm) CO2 concentrations. Obtained pCO2 levels in the treatments were on median 315, 353, and 548 μatm CO2, respectively. Extracellular enzyme activities as well as changes in organic and inorganic compound concentrations were monitored. CO2 treatment-related effects were identified for cyanobacterial growth, which in turn influenced the concentration of mucinous substances and the recycling of organic matter by extracellular enzymes. Biomass production was increased by 56.5% and 90.7% in the medium and high pCO2 treatment, respectively, compared to the low pCO2 treatment. In total, significantly more mucinous substances accumulated in the high pCO2 treatment, reaching 363 μg Xeq L-1 compared to 269 μg Xeq L-1 in the low pCO2 treatment. However, cell-specific rates did not change. After phosphate depletion, the acquisition of P from DOP by alkaline phosphatase was significantly enhanced. Alkaline phosphatase activities

  12. Flare Plasma Iron Abundance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Dan, Chau; Jain, Rajmal; Schwartz, Richard A.; Tolbert, Anne K.

    2008-01-01

    The equivalent width of the iron-line complex at 6.7 keV seen in flare X-ray spectra suggests that the iron abundance of the hottest plasma at temperatures >approx.10 MK may sometimes be significantly lower than the nominal coronal abundance of four times the photospheric value that is commonly assumed. This conclusion is based on X-ray spectral observations of several flares seen in common with the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) and the Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) on the second Indian geostationary satellite, GSAT-2. The implications of this will be discussed as it relates to the origin of the hot flare plasma - either plasma already in the corona that is directly heated during the flare energy release process or chromospheric plasma that is heated by flare-accelerated particles and driven up into the corona. Other possible explanations of lower-than-expected equivalent widths of the iron-line complex will also be discussed.

  13. Mucinous breast carcinomas lack PIK3CA and AKT1 mutations.

    PubMed

    Kehr, Elizabeth L; Jorns, Julie M; Ang, Daphne; Warrick, Andrea; Neff, Tanaya; Degnin, Michelle; Lewis, Rebecca; Beadling, Carol; Corless, Christopher L; Troxell, Megan L

    2012-12-01

    Activating point mutations in the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase catalytic subunit (PIK3CA) are among the most common molecular defects in invasive breast cancer. Point mutations in the downstream kinase AKT1 are seen in a minority of carcinomas. These mutations are found preferentially in estrogen receptor-positive and Her2-positive breast carcinomas; however, special morphologic types of breast cancer have not been well studied. Twenty-nine cases of pure invasive mucinous carcinoma and 9 cases of ductal carcinoma with mucinous differentiation were screened for a panel of point mutations (>321 mutations in 30 genes) using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction panel with mass spectroscopy readout. In addition, associated ductal carcinoma in situ, hyperplasia, or columnar cell lesions were separately tested where available (25 lesions). In 3 invasive cases and 15 ductal carcinoma in situ/proliferative lesions, PIK3CA hotspot mutations were, instead, tested by direct sequencing. No point mutations were identified in invasive mucinous breast carcinoma. This contrasts with the 35% frequency of PIK3CA mutations in a comparative group of invasive ductal carcinomas of no special type. Interestingly, PIK3CA hotspot point mutations were identified in associated ductal carcinoma in situ (3/14) and hyperplasia (atypical ductal hyperplasia [2/3], usual ductal hyperplasia [2/3], columnar cell change [1/5]), suggesting that PIK3CA mutations may play a role in breast epithelial proliferation. This series represents the largest study, to date, of PIK3CA genotyping in mucinous carcinoma and supports the unique pathogenetics of invasive mucinous breast carcinoma.

  14. Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) impact on deep vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Tobias A; Brill, Alexander; Wagner, Denisa D

    2012-08-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a major health problem that requires improved prophylaxis and treatment. Inflammatory conditions such as infection, cancer, and autoimmune diseases are risk factors for DVT. We and others have recently shown that extracellular DNA fibers produced in inflammation and known as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) contribute to experimental DVT. NETs stimulate thrombus formation and coagulation and are abundant in thrombi in animal models of DVT. It appears that, in addition to fibrin and von Willebrand factor, NETs represent a third thrombus scaffold. Here, we review how NETs stimulate thrombosis and discuss known and potential interactions of NETs with endothelium, platelets, red blood cells, and coagulation factors and how NETs could influence thrombolysis. We propose that drugs that inhibit NET formation or facilitate NET degradation may prevent or treat DVT.

  15. Oxygen abundance and convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van't Veer, C.; Cayrel, R.

    The triplet IR lines of O I near 777 nm are computed with the Kurucz's code, modified to accept several convection models. The program has been run with the MLT algorithm, with l/H = 1.25 and 0.5, and with the Canuto-Mazzitelli and Canuto-Goldman-Mazzitelli approaches, on a metal-poor turnoff-star model atmosphere with Teff=6200 K, log g = 4.3, [Fe/H]= -1.5. The results show that the differences in equivalent widths for the 4 cases do not exceed 2 per cent (0.3 mA). The convection treatment is therefore not an issue for the oxygen abundance derived from the permitted lines.

  16. Extracellular enzyme kinetics scale with resource availability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial community metabolism relies on external digestion, mediated by extracellular enzymes that break down complex organic matter into molecules small enough for cells to assimilate. We analyzed the kinetics of 40 extracellular enzymes that mediate the degradation and assimi...

  17. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps and Microcrystals

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps represent a fascinating mechanism by which PMNs entrap extracellular microbes. The primary purpose of this innate immune mechanism is thought to localize the infection at an early stage. Interestingly, the ability of different microcrystals to induce NET formation has been recently described. Microcrystals are insoluble crystals with a size of 1–100 micrometers that have different composition and shape. Microcrystals have it in common that they irritate phagocytes including PMNs and typically trigger an inflammatory response. This review is the first to summarize observations with regard to PMN activation and NET release induced by microcrystals. Gout-causing monosodium urate crystals, pseudogout-causing calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate crystals, cholesterol crystals associated with atherosclerosis, silicosis-causing silica crystals, and adjuvant alum crystals are discussed. PMID:28373994

  18. Analysis of Yeast Extracellular Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Marcio L; Oliveira, Debora L; Vargas, Gabriele; Girard-Dias, Wendell; Franzen, Anderson J; Frasés, Susana; Miranda, Kildare; Nimrichter, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EV) are important carriers of biologically active components in a number of organisms, including fungal cells. Experimental characterization of fungal EVs suggested that these membranous compartments are likely involved in the regulation of several biological events. In fungal pathogens, these events include mechanisms of disease progression and/or control, suggesting potential targets for therapeutic intervention or disease prophylaxis. In this manuscript we describe methods that have been used in the last 10 years for the characterization of EVs produced by yeast forms of several fungal species. Experimental approaches detailed in this chapter include ultracentrifugation methods for EV fractionation, chromatographic approaches for analysis of EV lipids, microscopy techniques for analysis of both intracellular and extracellular vesicular compartments, interaction of EVs with host cells, and physical chemical analysis of EVs by dynamic light scattering.

  19. Extracellular secretion of recombinant proteins

    DOEpatents

    Linger, Jeffrey G.; Darzins, Aldis

    2014-07-22

    Nucleic acids encoding secretion signals, expression vectors containing the nucleic acids, and host cells containing the expression vectors are disclosed. Also disclosed are polypeptides that contain the secretion signals and methods of producing polypeptides, including methods of directing the extracellular secretion of the polypeptides. Exemplary embodiments include cellulase proteins fused to secretion signals, methods to produce and isolate these polypeptides, and methods to degrade lignocellulosic biomass.

  20. Diffusion in Brain Extracellular Space

    PubMed Central

    Syková, Eva; Nicholson, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Diffusion in the extracellular space (ECS) of the brain is constrained by the volume fraction and the tortuosity and a modified diffusion equation represents the transport behavior of many molecules in the brain. Deviations from the equation reveal loss of molecules across the blood-brain barrier, through cellular uptake, binding or other mechanisms. Early diffusion measurements used radiolabeled sucrose and other tracers. Presently, the real-time iontophoresis (RTI) method is employed for small ions and the integrative optical imaging (IOI) method for fluorescent macromolecules, including dextrans or proteins. Theoretical models and simulations of the ECS have explored the influence of ECS geometry, effects of dead-space microdomains, extracellular matrix and interaction of macromolecules with ECS channels. Extensive experimental studies with the RTI method employing the cation tetramethylammonium (TMA) in normal brain tissue show that the volume fraction of the ECS typically is about 20% and the tortuosity about 1.6 (i.e. free diffusion coefficient of TMA is reduced by 2.6), although there are regional variations. These parameters change during development and aging. Diffusion properties have been characterized in several interventions, including brain stimulation, osmotic challenge and knockout of extracellular matrix components. Measurements have also been made during ischemia, in models of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases and in human gliomas. Overall, these studies improve our conception of ECS structure and the roles of glia and extracellular matrix in modulating the ECS microenvironment. Knowledge of ECS diffusion properties are valuable in contexts ranging from understanding extrasynaptic volume transmission to the development of paradigms for drug delivery to the brain. PMID:18923183

  1. BabA dependent binding of Helicobacter pylori to human gastric mucins cause aggregation that inhibits proliferation and is regulated via ArsS

    PubMed Central

    Skoog, Emma C.; Padra, Médea; Åberg, Anna; Gideonsson, Pär; Obi, Ikenna; Quintana-Hayashi, Macarena P.; Arnqvist, Anna; Lindén, Sara K.

    2017-01-01

    Mucins in the gastric mucus layer carry a range of glycan structures, which vary between individuals, can have antimicrobial effect or act as ligands for Helicobacter pylori. Mucins from various individuals and disease states modulate H. pylori proliferation and adhesin gene expression differently. Here we investigate the relationship between adhesin mediated binding, aggregation, proliferation and adhesin gene expression using human gastric mucins and synthetic adhesin ligand conjugates. By combining measurements of optical density, bacterial metabolic activity and live/dead stains, we could distinguish bacterial aggregation from viability changes, enabling elucidation of mechanisms behind the anti-prolific effects that mucins can have. Binding of H. pylori to Leb-glycoconjugates inhibited the proliferation of the bacteria in a BabA dependent manner, similarly to the effect of mucins carrying Leb. Furthermore, deletion of arsS lead to a decrease in binding to Leb-glycoconjugates and Leb-decorated mucins, accompanied by decreased aggregation and absence of anti-prolific effect of mucins and Leb-glycoconjugates. Inhibition of proliferation caused by adhesin dependent binding to mucins, and the subsequent aggregation suggests a new role of mucins in the host defense against H. pylori. This aggregating trait of mucins may be useful to incorporate into the design of adhesin inhibitors and other disease intervention molecules. PMID:28106125

  2. Hierarchical Assembly of Model Cell Surfaces: Synthesis of Mucin Mimetic Polymers and their Display on Supported Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Rabuka, David; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer; Lee, Goo Soo; Chen, Xing; Groves, Jay T.; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2008-01-01

    Molecular level analysis of cell surface phenomena could benefit from model systems comprising structurally-defined components. Here we present the first step toward bottom-up assembly of model cell surfaces – the synthesis of mucin mimetics and their incorporation into artificial membranes. Natural mucins are densely glycosylated O-linked glycoproteins that serve numerous functions on cell surfaces. Their large size and extensive glycosylation makes the synthesis of these biopolymers impractical. We designed synthetically tractable glycosylated polymers that possess rod-like extended conformations similar to natural mucins. The glycosylated polymers were end-functionalized with lipid groups and embedded into supported lipid bilayers where they interact with protein receptors in a structure-dependent manner. Furthermore, their dynamic behavior in synthetic membranes mirrored that of natural biomolecules. This system provides a unique framework with which to study the behavior of mucin-like macromolecules in a controlled, cell surface-mimetic environment. PMID:17425309

  3. Extracellular Galectin-3 in Tumor Progression and Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Fortuna-Costa, Anneliese; Gomes, Angélica M.; Kozlowski, Eliene O.; Stelling, Mariana P.; Pavão, Mauro S. G.

    2014-01-01

    Galectin-3, the only chimera galectin found in vertebrates, is one of the best-studied galectins. It is expressed in several cell types and is involved in a broad range of physiological and pathological processes, such as cell adhesion, cell activation and chemoattraction, cell cycle, apoptosis, and cell growth and differentiation. However, this molecule raises special interest due to its role in regulating cancer cell activities. Galectin-3 has high affinity for β-1,6-N-acetylglucosamine branched glycans, which are formed by the action of the β1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V (Mgat5). Mgat5-related changes in protein/lipid glycosylation on cell surface lead to alterations in the clustering of membrane proteins through lattice formation, resulting in functional advantages for tumor cells. Galectin-3 presence enhances migration and/or invasion of many tumors. Galectin-3-dependent clustering of integrins promotes ligand-induced integrin activation, leading to cell motility. Galectin-3 binding to mucin-1 increases transendothelial invasion, decreasing metastasis-free survival in an experimental metastasis model. Galectin-3 also affects endothelial cell behavior by regulating capillary tube formation. This lectin is found in the tumor stroma, suggesting a role for microenvironmental galectin-3 in tumor progression. Galectin-3 also seems to be involved in the recruitment of tumor-associated macrophages, possibly contributing to angiogenesis and tumor growth. This lectin can be a relevant factor in turning bone marrow in a sanctuary for leukemia cells, favoring resistance to therapy. Finally, galectin-3 seems to play a relevant role in orchestrating distinct cell events in tumor microenvironment and for this reason, it can be considered a target in tumor therapies. In conclusion, this review aims to describe the processes of tumor progression and metastasis involving extracellular galectin-3 and its expression and regulation. PMID:24982845

  4. Tetraspanins in extracellular vesicle formation and function.

    PubMed

    Andreu, Zoraida; Yáñez-Mó, María

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) represent a novel mechanism of intercellular communication as vehicles for intercellular transfer of functional membrane and cytosolic proteins, lipids, and RNAs. Microvesicles, ectosomes, shedding vesicles, microparticles, and exosomes are the most common terms to refer to the different kinds of EVs based on their origin, composition, size, and density. Exosomes have an endosomal origin and are released by many different cell types, participating in different physiological and/or pathological processes. Depending on their origin, they can alter the fate of recipient cells according to the information transferred. In the last two decades, EVs have become the focus of many studies because of their putative use as non-invasive biomarkers and their potential in bioengineering and clinical applications. In order to exploit this ability of EVs many aspects of their biology should be deciphered. Here, we review the mechanisms involved in EV biogenesis, assembly, recruitment of selected proteins, and genetic material as well as the uptake mechanisms by target cells in an effort to understand EV functions and their utility in clinical applications. In these contexts, the role of proteins from the tetraspanin superfamily, which are among the most abundant membrane proteins of EVs, will be highlighted.

  5. Quantitation and structures of oligosaccharide chains in human trachea mucin glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Sangadala, S; Bhat, U R; Mendicino, J

    1992-12-02

    Human respiratory mucin glycoproteins from patients with cystic fibrosis were purified and oligosaccharide chains were released by treatment with alkaline borohydride. A neutral oligosaccharide alditol fraction was isolated from mucin obtained from a patient with A blood group determinant by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and individual oligosaccharide chains were then isolated by gel filtration on BioGel P-6 columns and high performance liquid chromatography with gradient and isocratic solvent systems. The structures of the purified oligosaccharides were determined by methylation analysis, sequential glycosidase digestion and 'H-NMR spectroscopy. The amount of each chain was determined by compositional analysis. A wide array of discrete branched oligosaccharide structures that contain from 3 to 22 sugar residues were found. Many of the oligosaccharides are related and appear to be precursors of larger chains. The predominant branched oligosaccharides which accumulate contain terminal blood group H (Fuc alpha 2Ga1 beta 4) or blood group A (Fuc alpha 2(Ga1NAc alpha 3) (Ga1 beta 4) determinants which stop further branching and chain elongation. The elongation of oligosaccharide chains in respiratory mucins occurs on the beta 3-linked G1cNAc at branch points, whereas the beta 6-linked G1cNAc residue ultimately forms short side chains with a Fuc alpha 2(Ga1NAc alpha 3) Ga1 beta 4 G1cNAc beta 6 structure in individuals with A blood group determinant. The results obtained in the current studies further suggest that even higher molecular weight oligosaccharide chains with analogous branched structures are present in some human respiratory mucin glycoproteins. Increasing numbers of the repeating sequence shown in the oligosaccharide below is present in the higher molecular weight chains. [formula: see text] This data in conjunction with our earlier observations on the extensive branching of these oligosaccharide chains helps to define and explain the enormous range of

  6. Capella: Structure and Abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickhouse, Nancy S.

    1999-01-01

    This grant covers the analysis of EUVE spectra of the cool star binary system Capella. This project has also required the analysis of simultaneous Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) data. The ASCA spectrum of Capella could not be fit with standard models; by imposing models based on strong lines observed with EUVE, a problem wavelength region was identified. Correcting the problem required calculations of atomic collision strengths of higher principal quantum number than had ever been calculated. With these new models applied to the ASCA spectrum, better fits were obtained. Findings are that: (1) ASCA and EUVE spectra are both dominated by a region at 6 x 10(exp 6) K. (2) The high energy cut-off of the ASCA spectrum is consistent with emission from the highest ionization stages of EUVE, namely Fe XXIV. (3) EUVE requires a continuous emission measure distribution with more than two temperatures. (4) The ASCA spectra are of such high statistical significance that systematic uncertainties dominate, including atomic physics issues and calibration issues. (5) While the ASCA spectral fits achieve lower Chi(exp 2 with two-temperature fits, the EUVE-derived emission measure distribution models are also consistent with the spectra. (6) The Fe/H ratio obtained from the ASCA fit is within 20 % of the Fe/H abundance obtained from the summed spectra of Capella over 5 EUVE pointings, as well as the 1996 EUVE data. This result confirms our claims that quasi-continua composed of weak emission lines in the short wavelength spectrometer of EUVE are not major contributors to the measured Capella continuum. Other abundance ratios are also determined from the ASCA data, using models derived with EUVE. Si, Si, and Mg appear to be close to solar photospheric values, while the ratio of Ne/Fe is three to four times lower than solar photospheric values. Whether there is a general First Ionization Potential (FIP) effect or a specific neon anomaly cannot be determined

  7. Actinide abundances in ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagee, B.; Bernatowicz, T. J.; Podosek, F. A.; Johnson, M. L.; Burnett, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of actinide and light REE (LREE) abundances and of phosphate abundances in equilibrated ordinary chondrites were obtained and were used to define the Pu abundance in the solar system and to determine the degree of variation of actinide and LREE abundances. The results were also used to compare directly the Pu/U ratio with the earlier obtained ratio determined indirectly, as (Pu/Nd)x(Nd/U), assuming that Pu behaves chemically as a LREE. The data, combined with high-accuracy isotope-dilution data from the literature, show that the degree of gram-scale variability of the Th, U, and LREE abundances for equilibrated ordinary chondrites is a factor of 2-3 for absolute abundances and up to 50 percent for relative abundances. The observed variations are interpreted as reflecting the differences in the compositions and/or proportions of solar nebula components accreted to ordinary chondrite parent bodies.

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Akkermansia glycaniphila Strain PytT, a Mucin-Degrading Specialist of the Reticulated Python Gut.

    PubMed

    Ouwerkerk, Janneke P; Koehorst, Jasper J; Schaap, Peter J; Ritari, Jarmo; Paulin, Lars; Belzer, Clara; de Vos, Willem M

    2017-01-05

    Akkermansia glycaniphila is a novel Akkermansia species that was isolated from the intestine of the reticulated python and shares the capacity to degrade mucin with the human strain Akkermansia muciniphila Muc(T) Here, we report the complete genome sequence of strain Pyt(T) of 3,074,121 bp. The genomic analysis reveals genes for mucin degradation and aerobic respiration.

  9. Goblet cells carcinoid with mucinous adenocarcinoma of the vermiform appendix: a step towards the unitary intestinal stem cell theory?

    PubMed

    Gravante, G; Yahia, S; Gopalakrishnan, K; Mathew, G

    2014-06-01

    Associations of various histotypes in appendiceal neoplasms may help elucidate the histogenesis of such uncommon tumors. We present the fourth published case of Goblet Cell Carcinoid (GCC) associated with mucinous adenocarcinoma of the appendix. This association has been described only for GCC and not for classic appendix carcinoids which are thought to originate from neuroendocrine-committed cells. The GCC-mucinous association adds more towards the theory of a pluripotent intestinal stem cell with amphicrine possibilities of differentiation.

  10. Activation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mediates Mucin Production Stimulated by p40, a Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-derived Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lihong; Cao, Hailong; Liu, Liping; Wang, Bangmao; Walker, W. Allan; Acra, Sari A.; Yan, Fang

    2014-01-01

    The mucus layer coating the gastrointestinal tract serves as the first line of intestinal defense against infection and injury. Probiotics promote mucin production by goblet cells in the intestine. p40, a Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-derived soluble protein, has been shown to transactivate the EGF receptor (EGFR) in intestinal epithelial cells, which is required for inhibition of apoptosis and preservation of barrier function in the colon, thereby ameliorating intestinal injury and colitis. Because activation of EGFR has been shown to up-regulate mucin production in goblet cells, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of p40 regulation of mucin production. p40 activated EGFR and its downstream target, Akt, in a concentration-dependent manner in LS174T cells. p40 stimulated Muc2 gene expression and mucin production in LS174T cells, which were abolished by inhibition of EGFR kinase activity, down-regulation of EGFR expression by EGFR siRNA transfection, or suppression of Akt activation. Treatment with p40 increased mucin production in the colonic epithelium, thus thickening the mucus layer in the colon of wild type, but not of Egfrwa5 mice, which have a dominant negative mutation in the EGFR kinase domain. Furthermore, inhibition of mucin-type O-linked glycosylation suppressed the effect of p40 on increasing mucin production and protecting intestinal epithelial cells from TNF-induced apoptosis in colon organ culture. Thus, these results suggest that p40-stimulated activation of EGFR mediates up-regulation of mucin production, which may contribute to the mechanisms by which p40 protects the intestinal epithelium from injury. PMID:24895124

  11. NCOA3-mediated upregulation of mucin expression via transcriptional and post-translational changes during the development of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, S; Das, S; Rachagani, S; Kaur, S; Joshi, S; Johansson, SL; Ponnusamy, MP; Jain, M; Batra, SK

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is characterized by aberrant overexpression of mucins that contribute to its pathogenesis. Although the inflammatory cytokines contribute to mucin overexpression, the mucin profile of PC is markedly distinct from that of normal or inflamed pancreas. We postulated that de novo expression of various mucins in PC involves chromatin modifications. Analysis of chromatin modifying enzymes by PCR array identified differential expression of NCOA3 in MUC4-expressing PC cell lines. Immunohistochemistry analysis in tumor tissues from patients and spontaneous mouse models, and microarray analysis following the knockdown of NCOA3 were performed to elucidate its role in mucin regulation and overall impact on PC. Silencing of NCOA3 in PC cell lines resulted in significant downregulation of two most differentially expressed mucins in PC, MUC4 and MUC1 (P<0.01). Immunohistochemistry analysis in PC tissues and metastatic lesions established an association between NCOA3 and mucin (MUC1 and MUC4) expression. Spontaneous mouse model of PC (K-rasG12D; Pdx-1cre) showed early expression of Ncoa3 during preneoplastic lesions. Mechanistically, NCOA3 knockdown abrogated retinoic acid-mediated MUC4 upregulation by restricting MUC4 promoter accessibility as demonstrated by micrococcus nuclease digestion (P<0.05) and chromatin immuno-precipitation analysis. NCOA3 also created pro-inflammatory conditions by upregulating chemokines like CXCL1, 2, 5 and CCL20 (P<0.001). AKT, ubiquitin C, ERK1/2 and NF-κB occupied dominant nodes in the networks significantly modulated after NCOA3 silencing. In addition, NCOA3 stabilized mucins post translationally through fucosylation by FUT8, as the knockdown of FUT8 resulted in the downregulation of MUC4 and MUC1 at protein levels. PMID:25531332

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of Akkermansia glycaniphila Strain PytT, a Mucin-Degrading Specialist of the Reticulated Python Gut

    PubMed Central

    Ouwerkerk, Janneke P.; Schaap, Peter J.; Ritari, Jarmo; Paulin, Lars; Belzer, Clara

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Akkermansia glycaniphila is a novel Akkermansia species that was isolated from the intestine of the reticulated python and shares the capacity to degrade mucin with the human strain Akkermansia muciniphila MucT. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of strain PytT of 3,074,121 bp. The genomic analysis reveals genes for mucin degradation and aerobic respiration. PMID:28057747

  13. Post-traumatic rapidly enlarging mucinous carcinoma of the breast with intratumoural haemorrhage: MRI appearances with pathological correlation.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, K; Goto, M; Yuen, S; Nishimura, T

    2011-06-01

    Pure mucinous carcinoma of the breast is a histological type of invasive carcinoma and generally shows a slow growth pattern. Rapid growth and intratumoural haemorrhage are rare and there have been no reports presenting such a clinical course and associated radiographic findings. We report a case with atypical rapidly enlarging mucinous carcinoma of the breast after trauma, in which MRI closely reflected the histopathological background and was thought to be useful for differential diagnosis from other highly malignant breast tumours.

  14. Recent evolution of the salivary mucin MUC7

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Duo; Pavlidis, Pavlos; Thamadilok, Supaporn; Redwood, Emilie; Fox, Sara; Blekhman, Ran; Ruhl, Stefan; Gokcumen, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Genomic structural variants constitute the majority of variable base pairs in primate genomes and affect gene function in multiple ways. While whole gene duplications and deletions are relatively well-studied, the biology of subexonic (i.e., within coding exon sequences), copy number variation remains elusive. The salivary MUC7 gene provides an opportunity for studying such variation, as it harbors copy number variable subexonic repeat sequences that encode for densely O-glycosylated domains (PTS-repeats) with microbe-binding properties. To understand the evolution of this gene, we analyzed mammalian and primate genomes within a comparative framework. Our analyses revealed that (i) MUC7 has emerged in the placental mammal ancestor and rapidly gained multiple sites for O-glycosylation; (ii) MUC7 has retained its extracellular activity in saliva in placental mammals; (iii) the anti-fungal domain of the protein was remodified under positive selection in the primate lineage; and (iv) MUC7 PTS-repeats have evolved recurrently and under adaptive constraints. Our results establish MUC7 as a major player in salivary adaptation, likely as a response to diverse pathogenic exposure in primates. On a broader scale, our study highlights variable subexonic repeats as a primary source for modular evolutionary innovation that lead to rapid functional adaptation. PMID:27558399

  15. Unusual finding of endocervical-like mucinous epithelium in continuity with urothelium in endocervicosis of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Phaik-Leng; Looi, Lai-Meng; Lee, George Eng-Geap; Teoh, Kean-Hooi; Mun, Kein-Seong; Nazarina, Abdul Rahman

    2011-06-23

    Endocervicosis in the urinary bladder is a rare benign condition. We present a case in a 37-year-old woman with classical clinical and pathological features of endocervicosis. The unusual observation of endocervical-like mucinous epithelium in continuity with the urothelium in addition to fully developed endocervicosis prompted immunohistochemical profiling of the case using antibodies to cytokeratins (AE1/AE3, CK19, CK7, CK5/6, CK20), HBME-1, estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) to assess the relationship of the surface mucinous and endocervicosis glandular epithelia. The surface mucinous epithelium, urothelium and endocervicosis glands were immunopositive for AE1/AE3, CK7 and CK19 while CK20 was only expressed by few urothelial umbrella cells. The surface mucinous epithelium was CK5/6 and HBME-1 immunonegative but showed presence of ER and PR. This was in contrast to the urothelium's expression of CK5/6 but not ER and PR. In comparison, endocervicosis glands expressed HBME-1, unlike the surface mucinous epithelium. The endocervicosis epithelium also demonstrated the expected presence of ER and PR and CK5/6 immunonegativity. The slightly differing immunohistochemical phenotypes of the surface mucinous and morphologically similar endocervicosis glandular epithelium is interesting and requires further clarification to its actual nature. The patient has remained well and without evidence of disease 18-months following transurethral resection of the lesion.

  16. The use of xanthan gum in an ophthalmic liquid dosage form: rheological characterization of the interaction with mucin.

    PubMed

    Ceulemans, Jens; Vinckier, Inge; Ludwig, Annick

    2002-04-01

    The development of an ocular dosage form containing xanthan gum and capable of interacting with mucin in the precorneal area is a challenge. The polymer concentration that can be applied is restricted because of the limited patient acceptability of highly viscous preparations. The precorneal mucin concentration is low and the high ionic strength of the lachrymal fluid forces xanthan gum in an ordered structure, less capable of interacting through heterotypic junctions. Intrinsic viscosity measurements and shear rheometry are used to investigate the effect of several factors (polymer concentration, additional boiling or sonication step to the preparation procedure) on the physicochemical properties of xanthan gum and the degree of interaction with a low (8%, w/v) and high (16.0%, w/v) concentrated mucin dispersion. Independent of the preparation procedure applied, a xanthan gum concentration of 1.0% (w/v) is required to obtain a measurable interaction with mucin. If an extra boiling or sonication step is added to the standard preparation procedure, the minimum mucin concentration necessary to achieve formation of heterotypic junctions is decreased. Only by sonication of the highly concentrated xanthan gum dispersion is the viscosity decreased to a level that is tolerable and comfortable to the patient. The findings of the present study clearly demonstrate that a significant interaction between a tolerable and comfortable ocular dosage form containing xanthan gum, and mucin 8% (w/v), is feasible after sonication of a highly concentrated polymer dispersion.

  17. A flagellin-producing Lactococcus strain: interactions with mucin and enteropathogens.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Borja; López, Patricia; González-Rodríguez, Irene; Suárez, Ana; Margolles, Abelardo; Urdaci, María C

    2011-05-01

    Bacillus cereus CH is a probiotic strain used in human nutrition whose adhesion to mucin is dependent on its surface-associated flagellin. Flagellins from the surface of several probiotic Bacillus strains were efficiently extracted with 5 M LiCl and identified by peptide fingerprinting. Based on the proteomic analysis, cloning of the gene coding for the flagellin of B. cereus CH was performed in the lactococcal vector pNZ8110 under the control of a nisin-inducible promoter. The resulting strain, Lactococcus lactis CH, produced a surface-associated flagellin after 6 h of induction with nisin. The recombinant Lactococcus strain adhered strongly to mucin-coated polystyrene plates, whilst inhibiting competitively the adhesion of the pathogens Escherichia coli LMG2092 and Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica LMG15860 to the same molecule. Strain CH could be used in further experimentation for the characterization of the molecular mechanism of action of this probiotic B. cereus CH flagellin.

  18. The status of Her2 amplification and Kras mutations in mucinous ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kuang-Leei; Lee, Ming-Yung; Chao, Wan-Ru; Han, Chih-Ping

    2016-12-28

    Jayson GC et al. remarked in Lancet that nearly 100% of mucinous ovarian cancer cases have Kras mutation as well as a high frequency of Her2 amplification. Using the Abbott PathVysion Her2 DNA Probe Kit and Kras mutant-enriched PCR Kits (FemtoPath®), 21 samples of primary ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinomas from Taiwanese patients were examined to determine the status of Her2 amplification and Kras mutations. Our results showed the Her2 amplification rates were 33.33%, while the Kras mutation rates were 61.90%. We present here our results in order to enlighten the readership that the ~100% Kras mutant frequency and the high Her2 amplification rate reported by Jayson et al. may be too exaggerated to be applicable into all populations. Additionally, we report another 2 novel Kras mutations (A11V, V14I).

  19. Retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix mimicking hydatid cyst: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Sikar, Hasan Ediz; Çetin, Kenan; Gündoğan, Ersin; Gündoğan, Gökçen Alinak; Kaptanoğlu, Levent

    2016-01-01

    Appendiceal mucocele is a cystic dilatation of the appendix due to abnormal appendiceal mucinous secretion. Cystadenoma of the appendix is one of the most common causes and is encountered in 0.6% of all appendectomy specimens. The diagnosis may be difficult due to the asymptomatic nature of the disease; pain in the right lower quadrant may be the only symptom. Complex ovarian cyst, urolithiasis or cystic hydatid disease of the liver have been reported as mimicking appendiceal mucocele in the literature. In this study, we present a case of mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix mimicking retroperitoneal hydatid cyst in a 59-year-old woman. The patient was treated with laparoscopic appendectomy with partial resection of the caecum following laparoscopic exploration. PMID:27446577

  20. [Carcinoma of the pancreas at the site of an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia].

    PubMed

    Fieger, A J; Demmel, N; Mündel, D F-X; Schenck, R M; Harnisch, T; Nüssler, N C

    2009-04-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas are intraductally located, mucin-producing cystic neoplasms of the pancreas with a malignant potential. We report about a 54-year-old female who underwent segmental resection of the pancreas for non-invasive IPMN. The surgical margins were tumour-negative. Three years later a highly suspicious tumour of the pancreatic tail was detected during routine follow-up. Resection of the pancreatic tail was performed. The histological analysis revealed an adenocarcinoma. This case suggests the development of a pancreatic carcinoma from a non-invasive IPMN and raises the question about the extent of surgery of non-invasive IPMNs of the pancreas.

  1. Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of ovary with metastasis in 14-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Prerna; Khurana, Nita; Tempe, Anjali

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian mucinous tumors in <15 years old are rare with <50 cases reported till date in the literature. Majority of them are benign or borderline epithelial ovarian tumors with only 12 cases of cystadenocarcinomas reported at a young age. We report a case of mucinous cystadenocarcinoma in 14-year-old girl with metastasis to omentum at the time of presentation. Management of such cases is tricky as conservative approach sparing fertility of the patient is adopted. This case is presented for its rarity and unique presentation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the thirteenth case of ovarian cystadenocarcinoma being reported at a very young age and the first case being reported from Indian subcontinent. Extensive review of the previously published cases in the literature has been done in this study. PMID:28344967

  2. Transcriptional Activation of Mucin by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lipopolysaccharide in the Pathogenesis of Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian-Dong; Dohrman, Austin F.; Gallup, Marianne; Miyata, Susumu; Gum, James R.; Kim, Young S.; Nadel, Jay A.; Prince, Alice; Basbaum, Carol B.

    1997-02-01

    An unresolved question in cystic fibrosis (CF) research is how mutations of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator, a CI ion channel, cause airway mucus obstruction leading to fatal lung disease. Recent evidence has linked the CF transmembrane conductance regulator mutation to the onset and persistence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in the airways, and here we provide evidence directly linking P. aeruginosa infection to mucus overproduction. We show that P. aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide profoundly upregulates transcription of the mucin gene MUC 2 in epithelial cells via inducible enhancer elements and that this effect is blocked by the tyrosine kinase inhibitors genistein and tyrphostin AG 126. These findings improve our understanding of CF pathogenesis and suggest that the attenuation of mucin production by lipopolysaccharide antagonists and tyrosine kinase inhibitors could reduce morbidity and mortality in this disease.

  3. Surface-associated MUC5B mucins promote protease activity in Lactobacillus fermentum biofilms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mucosal surfaces are coated with layers of mucus gel that protect the underlying tissues and promote colonization by members of the commensal microflora. Lactobacillus fermentum is a common inhabitant of the oral cavity, gastrointestinal and reproductive tracts and is one of the most important lactic acid bacteria contributing to the formation of a healthy intestinal microflora. We have investigated the proteolytic activity in L. fermentum in response to interactions with the MUC5B mucin, which is a major component of mucus gels at sites colonized by this micro-organism. Methods Biofilms of Lactobacillus fermentum were established in mini-flow cells in the presence or absence of human salivary MUC5B. The proteolytic activity of biofilm cells was examined in a confocal scanning laser microscope with a fluorescent protease substrate. Degradation of MUC5B by L. fermentum was analysed using SDS-PAGE followed by Western blotting with antisera raised against the MUC5B peptide. Cell surface proteins differentialy expressed in a MUC5B-rich environment were identified with the aid of comparative two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by LC-MS/MS. Results Lactobacillus fermentum adhered well to surfaces coated with MUC5B mucin and in biofilms of L. fermentum formed in a MUC5B environment, the proportion of proteolytically-active cells (47 ± 0.6% of the population), as shown by cleavage of a fluorescent casein substrate, was significantly greater (p < 0.01) than that in biofilms formed in nutrient broth (0.4 ± 0.04% of the population). Thus, the presence of MUC5B mucins enhanced bacterial protease activity. This effect was mainly attributable to contact with surface-associated mucins rather than those present in the fluid phase. Biofilms of L. fermentum were capable of degrading MUC5B mucins suggesting that this complex glycoprotein can be exploited as a nutrient source by the bacteria. Comparison of the surface proteomes of biofilm cells of L

  4. Pure and Mixed Mucinous Carcinoma of the Breast: A Comparison of Clinical Outcomes and Treatment Results.

    PubMed

    Skotnicki, Piotr; Sas-Korczynska, Beata; Strzepek, Lukasz; Jakubowicz, Jerzy; Blecharz, Pawel; Reinfuss, Marian; Walasek, Tomasz

    2016-09-01

    Mucinous breast carcinoma (MBC) carcinoma represents approximately 1-6% of all malignant breast carcinoma and is divided into pure (PMBC) and mixed (MMBC) subtypes. This study presents the comparison of clinical characteristics and treatment results in 70 patients with PMBC and 40 patients with MMBC, treated at a single institution during 25 years. Performed analyses showed that only nodal status was different in both subtypes. Patients with MMBC showed a significantly higher incidence of axillary nodal metastases in comparison to PMBC (25% versus 10%, respectively). Instead, the 10-year disease-free survival rate was significant higher in PMBC than MMBC (85.7% versus 65%, p < 0.02, test log rank). Authors own observations and data from literature proved that MMBC should be considered as subtypes of mucinous breast cancer.

  5. Invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma mimicking organizing pneumonia associated with Mycobacterium fortuitum infection.

    PubMed

    Morichika, Daisuke; Miyahara, Nobuaki; Hotta, Katsuyuki; Okamoto, Yoshiko; Minami, Daisuke; Irie, Masahiro; Tanimoto, Yasushi; Kanehiro, Arihiko; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Kiura, Katsuyuki

    2014-01-01

    We herein report the case of a 68-year-old man diagnosed with invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma of the lungs. Chest computed tomography showed subpleural ground-glass opacity and small nodules with cavitation. A culture of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid resulted in the detection of Mycobacterium fortuitum. The patient's lung consolidation rapidly progressed; however, repeated bronchoscopy showed no atypical cells, thus suggesting a diagnosis of organizing pneumonia associated with M. fortuitum infection. However, the surgical biopsy specimen was diagnostic for adenocarcinoma, with no mycobacterial infection. Invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma should not be excluded in the differential diagnosis of patients with clinical features of organizing pneumonia and nontuberculous mycobacterium infection, even if a transbronchial biopsy confirms the absence of malignancy.

  6. Glycosylation of mucins present in gastric juice: the effect of helicobacter pylori eradication treatment.

    PubMed

    Radziejewska, Iwona; Borzym-Kluczyk, Małgorzata; Namiot, Zbigniew; Stefańska, Ewa

    2011-06-01

    It is suggested that gastric mucins, and in particular some specific glycan structures that can act as carbohydrate receptors, are involved in the interactions with Helicobacter pylori adhesins. The main aim of our study was to evaluate glycosylation pattern of glycoproteins of gastric juice before and at the end of eradication therapy. Gastric juices were taken from 13 clinical patients and subjected to analysis. Pooled fractions of the void volume obtained after gel filtration were subjected to ELISA tests. To assess the relative amounts of carbohydrate structures, lectins and monoclonal antibodies were used. Changes in the level of MUC 1 and MUC 5AC mucins and of carbohydrate structures, which are suggested to be receptors for Helicobacter pylori adhesins, were observed by the end of the eradication treatment. Our results support the idea about the involvement of MUC 5AC and MUC 1 with some specific sugar structures in the mechanism of Helicobacter pylori infection.

  7. Dual Roles of Gastric Gland Mucin-specific O-glycans in Prevention of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Gastric gland mucin is secreted from gland mucous cells, including pyloric gland cells and mucous neck cells located in the lower layer of the gastric mucosa. These mucins typically contain O-glycans carrying terminal α1,4-linked N-acetylglucosamine residues (αGlcNAc) attached to the scaffold protein MUC6, and biosynthesis of the O-glycans is catalyzed by the glycosyltransferase, α1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (α4GnT). We previously used expression cloning to isolate cDNA encoding α4GnT, and then demonstrated that αGlcNAc functions as natural antibiotic against Helicobacter pylori, a microbe causing various gastric diseases including gastric cancer. More recently, it was shown that αGlcNAc serves as a tumor suppressor for differentiated-type adenocarcinoma. This review summarizes these findings and identifies dual roles for αGlcNAc in gastric cancer. PMID:24761044

  8. Capella: Structure and Abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickhouse, Nancy S.

    1999-01-01

    This grant covers the analysis of ASCA spectra of the cool star binary system Capella. This project has also required the analysis of simultaneous EUVE data. The ASCA spectrum of Capella could not be fit with standard models; by imposing models based on strong lines observed with EUVE, a problem wavelength region was identified. Correcting the problem required calculations of atomic collision strengths of higher principal quantum number than had ever been calculated, resulting in a paper in process by Liedahl and Brickhouse. With these new models applied to the ASCA spectrum, better fits were obtained. While solar abundance ratios are generally consistent with the ASCA data, the ratio of Ne/Fe is three to four times lower than solar photospheric values. Whether there is a general First Ionization Potential (FIP) effect or a specific neon anomaly cannot be determined from these data. Detailed discussion has been provided to NASA in the most recent annual report (1997). Two poster presentations have been made regarding modeling requirements. A substantial paper is in the final revision form, following review by six co-authors. The results of this work have wide implications, since the newly calculated emission lines almost certainly contribute to other problems in fitting not only other stellar spectra, but also composite supernova remnants, galaxies, and cooling flow clusters of galaxies. Furthermore, Liedahl and Brickhouse have identified other species for which lines of a similar nature (high principal quantum number) will contribute significant flux. For moderate resolution X-ray spectra, lines left out of the models in relatively isolated bands, will be attributed to continuum flux by spectral fitting engines, causing errors in line-to-continuum ratios. Thus addressing the general theoretical problem is of crucial importance.

  9. Episialin (MUC1) overexpression inhibits integrin-mediated cell adhesion to extracellular matrix components

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Episialin (MUC1) is a transmembrane molecule with a large mucin-like extracellular domain protruding high above the cell surface. The molecule is located at the apical side of most glandular epithelial cells, whereas in carcinoma cells it is often present at the entire surface and it is frequently expressed in abnormally large quantities. We have previously shown that overexpression of episialin reduces cell- cell interactions. Here we show that the integrin-mediated adhesion to extracellular matrix of transfectants of a melanoma cell line (A375), a transformed epithelial cell line (MDCK-ras-e) and a human breast epithelial cell line (HBL-100) is reduced by high levels of episialin. This reduction can be reversed by inducing high avidity of the beta 1 integrins by mAb TS2/16 (at least for beta 1-mediated adhesion). The adhesion can also be restored by redistribution of episialin on the cell surface by monoclonal antibodies into patches or caps. Similarly, capping of episialin on ZR-75-1 breast carcinoma cells, growing in suspension, caused adherence and spreading of these cells. We propose that there is a delicate balance between adhesion and anti-adhesion forces in episialin expressing cells, which can be shifted towards adhesion by strengthening the integrin-mediated adhesion, or towards anti-adhesion by increasing the level of expression of episialin. PMID:7698991

  10. Pathological features and diagnosis of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Castellano-Megías, Víctor M; Andrés, Carolina Ibarrola-de; López-Alonso, Guadalupe; Colina-Ruizdelgado, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas is a noninvasive epithelial neoplasm of mucin-producing cells arising in the main duct (MD) and/or branch ducts (BD) of the pancreas. Involved ducts are dilated and filled with neoplastic papillae and mucus in variable intensity. IPMN lacks ovarian-type stroma, unlike mucinous cystic neoplasm, and is defined as a grossly visible entity (≥ 5 mm), unlike pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasm. With the use of high-resolution imaging techniques, very small IPMNs are increasingly being identified. Most IPMNs are solitary and located in the pancreatic head, although 20%-40% are multifocal. Macroscopic classification in MD type, BD type and mixed or combined type reflects biological differences with important prognostic and preoperative clinical management implications. Based on cytoarchitectural atypia, IPMN is classified into low-grade, intermediate-grade and high-grade dysplasia. Based on histological features and mucin (MUC) immunophenotype, IPMNs are classified into gastric, intestinal, pancreatobiliary and oncocytic types. These different phenotypes can be observed together, with the IPMN classified according to the predominant type. Two pathways have been suggested: gastric phenotype corresponds to less aggressive uncommitted cells (MUC1 -, MUC2 -, MUC5AC +, MUC6 +) with the capacity to evolve to intestinal phenotype (intestinal pathway) (MUC1 -, MUC2 +, MUC5AC +, MUC6 - or weak +) or pancreatobiliary /oncocytic phenotypes (pyloropancreatic pathway) (MUC1 +, MUC 2-, MUC5AC +, MUC 6 +) becoming more aggressive. Prognosis of IPMN is excellent but critically worsens when invasive carcinoma arises (about 40% of IPMNs), except in some cases of minimal invasion. The clinical challenge is to establish which IPMNs should be removed because of their higher risk of developing invasive cancer. Once resected, they must be extensively sampled or, much better, submitted in its entirety for microscopic study to

  11. Primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the female urethra: a contemporary clinicopathologic analysis.

    PubMed

    Harari, Saul E; Cheng, Liang; Osunkoya, Adeboye O

    2016-01-01

    Primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the female urethra is very rare and may lead to both diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Although primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the prostate and prostatic urethra has been well characterized in men, this is the largest clinicopathologic study to date of primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the female urethra. A search was made through the files of 2 major academic institutions for cases of confirmed primary mucinous adenocarcinoma arising from the female urethra. Tumors arising from adjacent organs were excluded both clinically and pathologically in all cases. Five cases were identified. The mean patient age was 67 years (range, 54-74 years). All patients presented with a polypoid/papillary mass arising from the urethra. Pathologic stages were as follows: pT4 3 (60%) of 5 cases; pT3 1 (20%) of 5 cases, and pT2 1 (20%) of 5 cases. Immunohistochemical stains for GATA3, p63, CK7, CK20, CDX2, ER, PAX8, and β-catenin were performed on all cases. Immunohistochemical stains were positive in the tumor cells for CDX2 in 4/5 (80%) cases; focally positive for CK20 in 4/5 (80%) cases; focally positive for CK7 in 4/5 cases (80%); and negative for p63, GATA3, ER, PAX8 and β-catenin in all cases. In the 4 patients with available follow-up data, mean follow-up was 25 months (range, 4-54 months). It is critical for pathologists to be aware of this entity in light of potential diagnostic pitfalls and therapeutic implications.

  12. Akkermansia muciniphila gen. nov., sp. nov., a human intestinal mucin-degrading bacterium.

    PubMed

    Derrien, Muriel; Vaughan, Elaine E; Plugge, Caroline M; de Vos, Willem M

    2004-09-01

    The diversity of mucin-degrading bacteria in the human intestine was investigated by combining culture and 16S rRNA-dependent approaches. A dominant bacterium, strain MucT, was isolated by dilution to extinction of faeces in anaerobic medium containing gastric mucin as the sole carbon and nitrogen source. A pure culture was obtained using the anaerobic soft agar technique. Strain MucT was a Gram-negative, strictly anaerobic, non-motile, non-spore-forming, oval-shaped bacterium that could grow singly and in pairs. When grown on mucin medium, cells produced a capsule and were found to aggregate. Strain MucT could grow on a limited number of sugars, including N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylgalactosamine and glucose, but only when a protein source was provided and with a lower growth rate and final density than on mucin. The G + C content of DNA from strain MucT was 47.6 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the isolate was part of the division Verrucomicrobia. The closest described relative of strain MucT was Verrucomicrobium spinosum (92 % sequence similarity). Remarkably, the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain MucT showed 99 % similarity to three uncultured colonic bacteria. According to the data obtained in this work, strain MucT represents a novel bacterium belonging to a new genus in subdivision 1 of the Verrucomicrobia; the name Akkermansia muciniphila gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is MucT (= ATCC BAA-835T = CIP 107961T).

  13. The value of KRAS mutation testing with CEA for the diagnosis of pancreatic mucinous cysts

    PubMed Central

    Kadayifci, Abdurrahman; Al-Haddad, Mohammad; Atar, Mustafa; Dewitt, John M.; Forcione, David G.; Sherman, Stuart; Casey, Brenna W.; Fernandez-del Castillo, Carlos; Schmidt, C. Max; Pitman, Martha B.; Brugge, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Pancreatic cyst fluid (PCF) CEA has been shown to be the most accurate preoperative test for detection of cystic mucinous neoplasms (CMNs). This study aimed to assess the added value of PCF KRAS mutational analysis to CEA for diagnosis of CMNs. Patients and methods: This is a retrospective study of prospectively collected endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) fine-needle aspiration (FNA) data. KRAS mutation was determined by direct sequencing or equivalent methods. Cysts were classified histologically (surgical cohort) or by clinical (EUS or FNA) findings (clinical cohort). Performance characteristics of KRAS, CEA and their combination for detection of a cystic mucinous neoplasm (CMN) and malignancy were calculated. Results: The study cohort consisted of 943 patients: 147 in the surgical cohort and 796 in the clinical cohort. Overall, KRAS and CEA each had high specificity (100 % and 93.2 %), but low sensitivity (48.3 % and 56.3 %) for the diagnosis of a CMN. The positivity of KRAS or CEA increased the diagnostic accuracy (80.8 %) and AUC (0.84) significantly compared to KRAS (65.3 % and 0.74) or CEA (65.8 % and 0.74) alone, but only in the clinical cohort (P < 0.0001 for both). KRAS mutation was significantly more frequent in malignant CMNs compared to histologically confirmed non-malignant CMNs (73 % vs. 37 %, P = 0.001). The negative predictive value of KRAS mutation was 77.6 % in differentiating non-malignant cysts. Conclusions: The detection of a KRAS mutation in PCF is a highly specific test for mucinous cysts. It outperforms CEA for sensitivity in mucinous cyst diagnosis, but the data does not support its routine use. PMID:27092317

  14. Pathological features and diagnosis of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Castellano-Megías, Víctor M; Andrés, Carolina Ibarrola-de; López-Alonso, Guadalupe; Colina-Ruizdelgado, Francisco

    2014-09-15

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas is a noninvasive epithelial neoplasm of mucin-producing cells arising in the main duct (MD) and/or branch ducts (BD) of the pancreas. Involved ducts are dilated and filled with neoplastic papillae and mucus in variable intensity. IPMN lacks ovarian-type stroma, unlike mucinous cystic neoplasm, and is defined as a grossly visible entity (≥ 5 mm), unlike pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasm. With the use of high-resolution imaging techniques, very small IPMNs are increasingly being identified. Most IPMNs are solitary and located in the pancreatic head, although 20%-40% are multifocal. Macroscopic classification in MD type, BD type and mixed or combined type reflects biological differences with important prognostic and preoperative clinical management implications. Based on cytoarchitectural atypia, IPMN is classified into low-grade, intermediate-grade and high-grade dysplasia. Based on histological features and mucin (MUC) immunophenotype, IPMNs are classified into gastric, intestinal, pancreatobiliary and oncocytic types. These different phenotypes can be observed together, with the IPMN classified according to the predominant type. Two pathways have been suggested: gastric phenotype corresponds to less aggressive uncommitted cells (MUC1 -, MUC2 -, MUC5AC +, MUC6 +) with the capacity to evolve to intestinal phenotype (intestinal pathway) (MUC1 -, MUC2 +, MUC5AC +, MUC6 - or weak +) or pancreatobiliary /oncocytic phenotypes (pyloropancreatic pathway) (MUC1 +, MUC 2-, MUC5AC +, MUC 6 +) becoming more aggressive. Prognosis of IPMN is excellent but critically worsens when invasive carcinoma arises (about 40% of IPMNs), except in some cases of minimal invasion. The clinical challenge is to establish which IPMNs should be removed because of their higher risk of developing invasive cancer. Once resected, they must be extensively sampled or, much better, submitted in its entirety for microscopic study to

  15. Endogenous airway mucins carry glycans that bind Siglec-F and induce eosinophil apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Christopher M.; Janssen, William J.; Brummet, Mary E.; Hudson, Sherry A.; Zhu, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Background Siglec-F is a glycan binding protein selectively expressed on mouse eosinophils. Its engagement induces apoptosis, suggesting a pathway for ameliorating eosinophilia in asthma and other eosinophil-associated diseases. Siglec-F recognizes sialylated, sulfated glycans in glycan binding assays, but the identities of endogenous sialoside ligands and their glycoprotein carriers in vivo are unknown. Methods Lungs from normal and mucin-deficient mice, as well as mouse tracheal epithelial cells from mice, were interrogated in vitro and in vivo for the expression of Siglec-F ligands. Western blotting and immunocytochemistry used Siglec-F-Fc as a probe for directed purification, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric analysis of recognized glycoproteins. Purified components were tested in mouse eosinophil binding assays and flow cytometry-based cell death assays. Results We detected mouse lung glycoproteins that bound to Siglec-F; binding was sialic-acid dependent. Proteomic analysis of Siglec-F binding material identified Muc5b and Muc4. Cross-affinity enrichment and histochemical analysis of lungs from mucin-deficient mice assigned and validated the identity of Muc5b as one glycoprotein ligand for Siglec-F. Purified mucin preparations carried sialylated and sulfated glycans, bound to eosinophils and induced their death in vitro. Mice conditionally deficient in Muc5b displayed exaggerated eosinophilic inflammation in response to intratracheal installation of IL-13. Conclusions These data identify a previously unrecognized endogenous anti-inflammatory property of airway mucins by which their glycans can control lung eosinophilia through engagement of Siglec-F. PMID:25497369

  16. A rare case of carcinosarcoma of breast: Coexistence of mucinous carcinoma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Liu, Bailong; Song, Yanqiu; Dong, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Carcinosarcoma (CS) of breast is a rare disease. Published reports provided little consensus about its clinical characteristics and optimal treatment protocols. Here we present a patient with CS of breast (mucinous carcinoma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma) and review related literature. Combined modality treatment (CMT) brings at least 2 year disease-free survival (DFS). Our case highlights the possibility of breast CS and helps to expand our understanding of this distinct breast malignancy.

  17. Unusual nonrefractile eosinophilic crystal in breast ducts in a patient with invasive mucinous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Quddus, M Ruhul; Simon, Rochelle A; Begum, S M K Nahar; Lomme, Michelle; Hansen, Katrine

    2014-01-01

    A 72-year-old, G4P2 white woman presented with a recent abnormal mammogram showing a nodule at 8 o'clock of her right breast and indeterminate calcification in the subareolar region. An initial stereotactic core followed by wide local excision and sentinel node biopsy showed a pT1aN0(sn)M(na) low-grade invasive mucinous carcinoma. In dilated benign ducts, adjacent to the carcinoma, numerous eosinophilic, nonrefractile crystals were identified.

  18. MARCKS and HSP70 interactions regulate mucin secretion by human airway epithelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shijing; Crews, Anne L; Chen, Wei; Park, Joungjoa; Yin, Qi; Ren, Xiu-Rong; Adler, Kenneth B

    2013-04-15

    Myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) protein has been recognized as a key regulatory molecule controlling mucin secretion by airway epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. We recently showed that two intracellular chaperones, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and cysteine string protein (CSP), associate with MARCKS in the secretory mechanism. To elucidate more fully MARCKS-HSP70 interactions in this process, studies were performed in well-differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells maintained in air-liquid interface culture utilizing specific pharmacological inhibition of HSP70 with pyrimidinone MAL3-101 and siRNA approaches. The results indicate that HSP70 interaction with MARCKS is enhanced after exposure of the cells to the protein kinase C activator/mucin secretagogue, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Pretreatment of NHBEs with MAL3-101 attenuated in a concentration-dependent manner PMA-stimulated mucin secretion and interactions among HSP70, MARCKS, and CSP. In additional studies, trafficking of MARCKS in living NHBE cells was investigated after transfecting cells with fluorescently tagged DNA constructs: MARCKS-yellow fluorescent protein, and/or HSP70-cyan fluorescent protein. Cells were treated with PMA 48 h posttransfection, and trafficking of the constructs was examined by confocal microscopy. MARCKS translocated rapidly from plasma membrane to cytoplasm, whereas HSP70 was observed in the cytoplasm and appeared to associate with MARCKS after PMA exposure. Pretreatment of cells with either MAL3-101 or HSP70 siRNA inhibited translocation of MARCKS. These results provide evidence of a role for HSP70 in mediating mucin secretion via interactions with MARCKS and that these interactions are critical for the cytoplasmic translocation of MARCKS upon its phosphorylation.

  19. MARCKS and HSP70 interactions regulate mucin secretion by human airway epithelial cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Shijing; Crews, Anne L.; Chen, Wei; Park, Joungjoa; Yin, Qi; Ren, Xiu-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) protein has been recognized as a key regulatory molecule controlling mucin secretion by airway epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. We recently showed that two intracellular chaperones, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and cysteine string protein (CSP), associate with MARCKS in the secretory mechanism. To elucidate more fully MARCKS-HSP70 interactions in this process, studies were performed in well-differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells maintained in air-liquid interface culture utilizing specific pharmacological inhibition of HSP70 with pyrimidinone MAL3-101 and siRNA approaches. The results indicate that HSP70 interaction with MARCKS is enhanced after exposure of the cells to the protein kinase C activator/mucin secretagogue, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Pretreatment of NHBEs with MAL3-101 attenuated in a concentration-dependent manner PMA-stimulated mucin secretion and interactions among HSP70, MARCKS, and CSP. In additional studies, trafficking of MARCKS in living NHBE cells was investigated after transfecting cells with fluorescently tagged DNA constructs: MARCKS-yellow fluorescent protein, and/or HSP70-cyan fluorescent protein. Cells were treated with PMA 48 h posttransfection, and trafficking of the constructs was examined by confocal microscopy. MARCKS translocated rapidly from plasma membrane to cytoplasm, whereas HSP70 was observed in the cytoplasm and appeared to associate with MARCKS after PMA exposure. Pretreatment of cells with either MAL3-101 or HSP70 siRNA inhibited translocation of MARCKS. These results provide evidence of a role for HSP70 in mediating mucin secretion via interactions with MARCKS and that these interactions are critical for the cytoplasmic translocation of MARCKS upon its phosphorylation. PMID:23377348

  20. Mechanotransduction and extracellular matrix homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, Jay D.; Dufresne, Eric R.; Schwartz, Martin A.

    2015-01-01

    Preface Soft connective tissues at steady state are yet dynamic; resident cells continually read environmental cues and respond to promote homeostasis, including maintenance of the mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix that are fundamental to cellular and tissue health. The mechanosensing process involves assessment of the mechanics of the matrix by the cells through integrins and the actomyosin cytoskeleton, and is followed by a mechano-regulation process that includes the deposition, rearrangement, or removal of matrix to maintain overall form and function. Progress toward understanding the molecular, cellular, and tissue scale effects that promote mechanical homeostasis has helped identify key questions for future research. PMID:25355505

  1. A synthetic peptide from Trypanosoma cruzi mucin-like associated surface protein as candidate for a vaccine against Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Serna, Carylinda; Lara, Joshua A; Rodrigues, Silas P; Marques, Alexandre F; Almeida, Igor C; Maldonado, Rosa A

    2014-06-12

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is responsible for producing significant morbidity and mortality throughout Latin America. The disease has recently become a public health concern to nonendemic regions like the U.S. and Europe. Currently there are no fully effective drugs or vaccine available to treat the disease. The mucin-associated surface proteins (MASPs) are glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored glycoproteins encoded by a multigene family with hundreds of members. MASPs are among the most abundant antigens found on the surface of the infective trypomastigote stage of T. cruzi, thus representing an attractive target for vaccine development. Here we used immunoinformatics to select a 20-mer peptide with several predicted overlapping B-cell, MHC-I, and MHC-II epitopes, from a MASP family member expressed on mammal-dwelling stages of T. cruzi. The synthetic MASP peptide conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (MASPpep-KLH) was tested in presence or not of an adjuvant (alum, Al) as a vaccine candidate in the C3H/HeNsd murine model of T. cruzi infection. In considerable contrast to the control groups receiving placebo, Al, or KLH alone or the group immunized with MASPpep-KLH/Al, the group immunized with MASPpep-KLH showed 86% survival rate after challenge with a highly lethal dose of trypomastigotes. As evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, MASPpep-KLH-immunized animals had much lower parasite load in the heart, liver, and spleen than control animals. Moreover, protected animals produced trypanolytic, protective antibodies, and a cytokine profile conducive to resistance against parasite infection. Finally, in vivo depletion of either CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells indicated that the latter are critical for protection in mice immunized with MASPpep-KLH. In summary, this new peptide-based vaccine with overlapping B- and T-cell epitopes is able to control T. cruzi infection in mice by priming both humoral and cellular immunity.

  2. Mucinous adenocarcinoma of perianal region: an uncommon disease treated with neo-adjuvant chemo-radiation.

    PubMed

    Purkayastha, Abhishek; Sharma, Neelam; Dutta, Vibha; Bisht, Niharika; Pandya, Tejas

    2016-01-01

    Mucinous adenocarcinoma of the perianal region is an oncologic rarity posing a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for treating oncologists due to very few reported cases without definite therapeutic guidelines. It accounts for 2% to 3% of all gastrointestinal malignancies and are historically known to arise from chronic anal fistulas and ischiorectal or perianal abscesses. We hereby report a sporadic and interesting case of perianal mucinous adenocarcinoma in a 56-year-old male initially treated with alternative medicines and local surgery for recurrent fistula in ano of 2 years duration. He presented with complaints of discharging growth in perianal region, painful defecation associated with occasional blood mixed stools of 6 months duration. Incisional biopsy from the ulcer revealed mucinous adenocarcinoma. Contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan and whole body positron emission tomography (PET) scan showed a localized perianal growth which was further confirmed with colonoscopy. With no pre-set treatment protocol for this rare entity, he was managed with neo-adjuvant concurrent chemo-radiation (CCRT) followed by abdominoperineal resection (APR) and adjuvant chemotherapy. Presently he is on 3 monthly follow-up since last 1 year post APR and adjuvant chemotherapy without any evidence of recurrence or distant metastasis. To the best of knowledge, our report may be one of the rarest cases of this disease entity where the duration of anal fistula was merely 2 years in contrast to the established criteria that the fistula precedes carcinoma by at least 10 years.

  3. Application of immobilized bovine enterokinase in repetitive fusion protein cleavage for the production of mucin 1.

    PubMed

    Kubitzki, Tina; Minör, Daniel; Mackfeld, Ursula; Oldiges, Marco; Noll, Thomas; Lütz, Stephan

    2009-11-01

    Bovine enterokinase is a serine protease that catalyzes the hydrolysis of peptide bonds and plays a key role in mammalian metabolism. Because of its high specificity towards the amino acid sequence (Asp)(4)-Lys, enterokinase is a potential tool for the cleavage of fusion proteins, which are gaining more importance in biopharmaceutical production. A candidate for adaptive cancer immunotherapy is mucin 1, which is produced recombinantly as a fusion protein in CHO cells. Here, we present the first repetitive application of immobilized enterokinase for the cleavage of the mucin fusion protein. The immobilization enables a facile biocatalytic process due to simplified separation of the biocatalyst and the target protein. Immobilized enterokinase was applied in a maximum of 18 repetitive reactions. The enzyme utilization (total turnover number) was increased significantly 419-fold compared to unbound enzyme by both immobilization and optimization of process conditions. Slight enzyme inactivation throughout the reaction cycles was observed, but was compensated by adjusting the process time accordingly. Thus, complete fusion protein cleavage was achieved. Furthermore, we obtained isolated mucin 1 with a purity of more than 90% by applying a simple and efficient purification process. The presented results demonstrate enterokinase to be an attractive tool for fusion protein cleavage.

  4. Protein and mucin retention on oral mucosal surfaces in dry mouth patients.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Rashida; Osailan, Samira M; Challacombe, Stephen J; Urquhart, David; Proctor, Gordon B

    2010-06-01

    Oral homeostasis depends largely on proteins and mucins present in saliva that coat all oral surfaces. The present study compared the protein composition of residual fluid on mucosal surfaces in subjects with normal salivary flow with that of patients with dry mouth caused by salivary hypofunction. Samples of residual mucosal fluid were collected using paper strips and then analysed by protein electrophoresis and immunoblotting. In both patients and controls, residual fluids on mucosal surfaces (except the anterior tongue in control subjects) had higher protein concentrations than unstimulated whole-mouth saliva. High-molecular-weight mucin (MUC5B) was present in greater amounts on the anterior tongue than on other surfaces in control subjects. In dry mouth patients who were unable to provide a measurable saliva sample, MUC5B was often still present on all mucosal surfaces but in reduced amounts on the anterior tongue. The membrane-bound mucin, MUC1, was prominent on buccal and labial surfaces in patients and controls. Statherin was still present on surfaces that were dried to remove salivary fluid, suggesting that it may be adsorbed as a protein pellicle. It is concluded that oral mucosal surfaces in dry mouth patients can retain MUC5B and other salivary proteins, although the functional integrity of these proteins is uncertain.

  5. Control of Lung Defense by Mucins and Macrophages: Ancient defense mechanisms with modern functions

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, William J.; Stefanski, Adrianne L.; Bochner, Bruce S.; Evans, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Due to the need to balance the requirement for efficient respiration in the face of tremendous levels of exposure to endogenous and environmental challenges, it is crucial for the lungs to maintain sustainable defense that minimizes damage caused by exposures and the detrimental effects of inflammation to delicate gas exchange surfaces. Accordingly, epithelial and macrophage defenses constitute essential 1st and 2nd lines of protection that prevent the accumulation of potentially harmful agents in the lungs, and under homeostatic conditions do so effectively without inducing inflammation. Though seemingly distinct, recent data show that epithelial and macrophage mediated defenses are linked through their shared reliance on airway mucins, in particular the polymeric mucin MUC5B. This review highlights our understanding of novel mechanisms that link mucus and macrophage defenses. The roles of phagocytosis and the effects of factors that are contained within mucus on phagocytosis, as well as newly identified roles for mucin glycoproteins in the direct regulation of leukocyte functions are discussed. The emergence of this nascent field of glycoimmunobiology sets forth a new paradigm for considering how homeostasis is maintained under healthy conditions and how it is restored in disease. PMID:27587549

  6. Lung mucin production is stimulated by the air pollutant residual oil fly ash.

    PubMed

    Longphre, M; Li, D; Li, J; Matovinovic, E; Gallup, M; Samet, J M; Basbaum, C B

    2000-01-15

    Human and animal exposure to particulate air pollution is correlated with airway mucus hypersecretion and increased susceptibility to infection. Seeking clues to the mechanisms underlying this pathology, we examined the effect of the particulate air pollutant residual oil fly ash (ROFA) on production of the major component of mucus, mucin, and the major antibacterial protein of the respiratory tract, lysozyme. We found that following in vitro exposure to ROFA, epithelial cells showed an increase in mucin (MUC5AC) and lysozyme (LYS) steady state mRNA. This upregulation was controlled at least partly at the level of transcription as shown by reporter assays. Experiments testing the ability of the major components of ROFA to mimic these effects showed that vanadium, a metal making up 18.8% by weight, accounted for the bulk of the response. A screen of signaling inhibitors showed that MUC5AC and LYS induction by ROFA are mediated by dissimilar signaling pathways, both of which are, however, phosphotyrosine dependent. Recognizing that the ROFA constituent vanadium is a potent tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor and that mucin induction by pathogens is phophotyrosine dependent, we suggest that vanadium-containing air pollutants trigger disease-like conditions by unmasking phosphorylation-dependent pathogen resistance pathways.

  7. Diagnosis and Treatment of Mucinous Appendiceal Neoplasm Presented as Acute Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Kehagias, Ioannis; Markopoulos, Georgios; Papandreou, Thanasis; Kraniotis, Pantelis

    2016-01-01

    Appendiceal mucocele is a rare cause of acute abdomen. Mucinous appendiceal neoplasms represent 0.2–0.7% of all appendix specimens. The aim of this study is to report a case of a mucinous appendiceal neoplasm presented as acute appendicitis, discussing the clinical and surgical approach in the emergency setting. A 72-year-old female patient was admitted to the emergency department with a clinical examination indicative of acute abdomen. The patient underwent abdominal computed tomography scan which revealed a cystic lesion in the right iliac fossa measuring 8.3 × 5.2 × 4.1 cm, with calcified walls, and a mean density indicative of high protein content. The patient was taken to the operating room and a right hemicolectomy was performed. The postoperative course was unremarkable. The histopathological examination revealed a low-grade mucinous appendiceal neoplasm with negative regional lymph nodes. Ultrasound and CT are useful in diagnosing appendiceal mucocele and synchronous cancers in the emergency setting. The initial operation should include appendectomy and resection of the appendicular mesenteric fat along with any fluid collection for cytologic examination. During urgent appendectomy it is important to consider every mucocele as malignant in order to avoid iatrogenic perforation causing pseudomyxoma peritonei. Although laparotomy is recommended, the laparoscopic approach is not contraindicated. PMID:27066284

  8. Gold Nanotheranostics: Photothermal Therapy and Imaging of Mucin 7 Conjugated Antibody Nanoparticles for Urothelial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yi-Jhen; Chen, Jia-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To kill urothelial cancer cells while preserving healthy cells, this study used photothermal therapy (PTT). PTT techniques target urothelial cancer cells using gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and a green light laser. Materials and Methods. The GNPs were conjugated with anti-Mucin 7 antibodies, which acted as a probe for targeting tumor cells. Conjugated GNPs were exposed to a green light laser (532 nm) with sufficient thermal energy to kill the transitional cell carcinomas (TCCs). Results. According to our results, nanoparticles conjugated with Mucin 7 antibodies damaged all types of cancer cells (MBT2, T24, 9202, and 8301) at relatively low energy levels (i.e., 500 laser shots at 10 W/cm2 in power, 1.6 Hz in frequency, and 300 ms in duration). Nonconjugated nanoparticles required 30 W/cm2 or more to achieve the same effect. Cell damage was directly related to irradiation time and applied laser energy. Conclusions. The minimally invasive PTT procedure combined with Mucin 7 targeted GNPs is able to kill cancer cells and preserve healthy cells. The success of this treatment technique can likely be attributed to the lower amount of energy required to kill targeted cancer cells compared with that required to kill nontargeted cancer cells. Our in vitro pilot study yielded promising results; however, additional animal studies are required to confirm these findings. PMID:25834826

  9. Oxidation increases mucin polymer cross-links to stiffen airway mucus gels.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shaopeng; Hollinger, Martin; Lachowicz-Scroggins, Marrah E; Kerr, Sheena C; Dunican, Eleanor M; Daniel, Brian M; Ghosh, Sudakshina; Erzurum, Serpel C; Willard, Belinda; Hazen, Stanley L; Huang, Xiaozhu; Carrington, Stephen D; Oscarson, Stefan; Fahy, John V

    2015-02-25

    Airway mucus in cystic fibrosis (CF) is highly elastic, but the mechanism behind this pathology is unclear. We hypothesized that the biophysical properties of CF mucus are altered because of neutrophilic oxidative stress. Using confocal imaging, rheology, and biochemical measures of inflammation and oxidation, we found that CF airway mucus gels have a molecular architecture characterized by a core of mucin covered by a web of DNA and a rheological profile characterized by high elasticity that can be normalized by chemical reduction. We also found that high levels of reactive oxygen species in CF mucus correlated positively and significantly with high concentrations of the oxidized products of cysteine (disulfide cross-links). To directly determine whether oxidation can cross-link mucins to increase mucus elasticity, we exposed induced sputum from healthy subjects to oxidizing stimuli and found a marked and thiol-dependent increase in sputum elasticity. Targeting mucin disulfide cross-links using current thiol-amino structures such as N-acetylcysteine (NAC) requires high drug concentrations to have mucolytic effects. We therefore synthesized a thiol-carbohydrate structure (methyl 6-thio-6-deoxy-α-D-galactopyranoside) and found that it had stronger reducing activity than NAC and more potent and fast-acting mucolytic activity in CF sputum. Thus, oxidation arising from airway inflammation or environmental exposure contributes to pathologic mucus gel formation in the lung, which suggests that it can be targeted by thiol-modified carbohydrates.

  10. The role of intratumoral lymphovascular density in distinguishing primary from secondary mucinous ovarian tumors

    PubMed Central

    de Lacerda Almeida, Bernardo Gomes; Bacchi, Carlos E; Carvalho, Jesus P; Ferreira, Cristiane R; Carvalho, Filomena M

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Ovarian mucinous metastases commonly present as the first sign of the disease and are capable of simulating primary tumors. Our aim was to investigate the role of intratumoral lymphatic vascular density together with other surgical-pathological features in distinguishing primary from secondary mucinous ovarian tumors. METHODS: A total of 124 cases of mucinous tumors in the ovary (63 primary and 61 metastatic) were compared according to their clinicopathological features and immunohistochemical profiles. The intratumoral lymphatic vascular density was quantified by counting the number of vessels stained by the D2-40 antibody. RESULTS: Metastases occurred in older patients and were associated with a higher proportion of tumors smaller than 10.0 cm; bilaterality; extensive necrosis; extraovarian extension; increased expression of cytokeratin 20, CDX2, CA19.9 and MUC2; and decreased expression of cytokeratin 7, CA125 and MUC5AC. The lymphatic vascular density was increased among primary tumors. However, after multivariate analysis, the best predictors of a secondary tumor were a size of 10.0 cm or less, bilaterality and cytokeratin 7 negativity. Lack of MUC2 expression was an important factor excluding metastasis. CONCLUSIONS: The higher intratumoral lymphatic vascular density in primary tumors when compared with secondary lesions suggests differences in the microenvironment. However, considering the differential diagnosis, the best discriminator of a secondary tumor is the combination of tumor size, laterality and the pattern of expression of cytokeratin 7 and MUC2. PMID:25518016

  11. Effect of Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy on Locally Advanced Rectal Mucinous Adenocarcinoma: A Propensity Score-Matched Study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan-wu; Lin, Hui-ming; Lu, Xing-rong; Huang, Ying; Xu, Zong-bin; Huang, Sheng-hui; Wang, Xiao-jie

    2017-01-01

    Aims. To compare the surgical and oncological outcomes of rectal mucinous adenocarcinomas treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy versus surgery alone. Methods. A total of 167 locally advanced rectal mucinous adenocarcinoma patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery alone between 2008 and 2014 were matched using propensity score; the surgical and oncological outcomes were compared. Results. Ninety-six patients were matched. Postoperative morbidity was similar between groups. Sphincter preservation rate was higher in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (79.2% versus 60.4%, P = 0.045), especially for tumors ≥ 3 cm but ≤5 cm from the anal verge (75.0% versus 44.0%, P = 0.036). With a median follow-up of 54.8 months, the 5-year overall survival rate (neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy versus surgery alone: 79.6% versus 67.1%; P = 0.599) and disease-free survival rate (75.6% versus 64.2%; P = 0.888) were similar. The 5-year local recurrence rate was lower in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (7.7% versus 26.0%, P = 0.036), while no difference was observed in distant metastasis. A poor response to chemoradiation was associated with higher local recurrence (P = 0.037). Conclusions. Compared with surgery alone, neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy was found to increase the sphincter preservation rate and reduce local recurrence, thus being beneficial for locally advanced rectal mucinous adenocarcinoma patients.

  12. Analysis of an ethanol precipitate from ileal digesta: evaluation of a method to determine mucin.

    PubMed

    Miner-Williams, Warren M; Moughan, Paul J; Fuller, Malcolm F

    2013-11-06

    The precipitation of mucin using high concentrations of ethanol has been used by many researchers while others have questioned the validity of the technique. In this study, analysis of an ethanol precipitate, from the soluble fraction of ileal digesta from pigs was undertaken using molecular weight profiling and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The precipitate contained 201 mg·g⁻¹ protein, 87% of which had a molecular weight >20 KDa. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis stained with Coomassie blue and periodic acid/Schiff, revealed that most glycoprotein had a molecular weight between 37-100 KDa. The molecular weight of glycoprotein in the precipitate was therefore lower than that of intact mucin. These observations indicated that the glycoprotein in the ethanol precipitate was significantly degraded. The large amount of protein and carbohydrate in the supernatant from ethanol precipitation indicated that the precipitation of glycoprotein was incomplete. As a method for determining the concentration of mucin in digesta, ethanol precipitation is unreliable.

  13. [Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas (IPMN)--standards and new aspects].

    PubMed

    Distler, M; Welsch, T; Aust, D; Weitz, J; Grützmann, R

    2014-06-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) of the pancreas belong to the heterogeneous group of cystic pancreatic lesions and have been diagnosed more frequently in recent years. Diagnosis and differentiation from other cystic lesions (pseudocysts, serous-cystic neoplasias [SCN], mucinous-cystic neoplasias [MCN], intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasias [IPMN] and solid pseudopapillary neoplasias [SPN]) is often challenging. IPMN of the pancreas are considered as precursor lesions for the development of invasive pancreatic cancer. However, depending on the morphological (MD-IPMN, BD-IPMN) and histological subtype (intestinal, pancreatobiliary, oncocytic or gastric) the malignant potential of IPMNs varies significantly. Hence, early diagnosis and selection of the appropriate therapeutic strategy is necessary for optimal outcome and cure. There is a strong consensus for the resection of all MD-IPMN. Small BD-IPMN without signs of malignancy can be followed by observation. The increasing understanding of the histopathology and tumour biology of IPMN has led to an amendment of the 2006 International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) guidelines for the treatment of cystic pancreatic tumours. In consideration of recent data, recommendations for observation and/or follow-up of IPMN cannot be given definitely.

  14. Mucinous adenocarcinoma of perianal region: an uncommon disease treated with neo-adjuvant chemo-radiation

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Neelam; Dutta, Vibha; Bisht, Niharika; Pandya, Tejas

    2016-01-01

    Mucinous adenocarcinoma of the perianal region is an oncologic rarity posing a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for treating oncologists due to very few reported cases without definite therapeutic guidelines. It accounts for 2% to 3% of all gastrointestinal malignancies and are historically known to arise from chronic anal fistulas and ischiorectal or perianal abscesses. We hereby report a sporadic and interesting case of perianal mucinous adenocarcinoma in a 56-year-old male initially treated with alternative medicines and local surgery for recurrent fistula in ano of 2 years duration. He presented with complaints of discharging growth in perianal region, painful defecation associated with occasional blood mixed stools of 6 months duration. Incisional biopsy from the ulcer revealed mucinous adenocarcinoma. Contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan and whole body positron emission tomography (PET) scan showed a localized perianal growth which was further confirmed with colonoscopy. With no pre-set treatment protocol for this rare entity, he was managed with neo-adjuvant concurrent chemo-radiation (CCRT) followed by abdominoperineal resection (APR) and adjuvant chemotherapy. Presently he is on 3 monthly follow-up since last 1 year post APR and adjuvant chemotherapy without any evidence of recurrence or distant metastasis. To the best of knowledge, our report may be one of the rarest cases of this disease entity where the duration of anal fistula was merely 2 years in contrast to the established criteria that the fistula precedes carcinoma by at least 10 years. PMID:28138619

  15. Non-Mucinous Lepidic Predominant Adenocarcinoma Presenting with Extensive Aerogenous Spread

    PubMed Central

    Takanashi, Yusuke; Tsukui, Masaru; Shinmura, Kazuya; Hayakawa, Takamitsu; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Neyatani, Hiroshi; Funai, Kazuhito

    2016-01-01

    An extremely rare case of non-mucinous lepidic-predominant invasive adenocarcinoma (LPA) showing extensive aerogenous spread with a pneumonic presentation is reported. A 73-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of an infiltrative shadow on chest xray. Chest computed tomography revealed extensive ground glass opacities in the right lower lobe, which was accompanied by infiltrative shadow with a pneumonic presentation. Invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma was presumed, and a partial resection of the right lower lobe was done. Histopathological examination revealed lepidic growth-predominant invasive adenocarcinoma with Clara type tumor cells, and there were innumerable aerogenous metastases also consisting of Clara cells. Because Alcian Blue and periodic acid-Schiff staining disclosed no mucus, the tumor was diagnosed as a non-mucinous LPA. The patient showed a poor response to 5 courses of pemetrexed, and she died one year after the diagnosis due to cancer progression. Nonmucinous LPA showed a rare presentation characterized by extensive aerogenous spread followed by a poor prognosis. PMID:28058100

  16. O-glycan variability of egg-jelly mucins from Xenopus laevis: characterization of four phenotypes that differ by the terminal glycosylation of their mucins.

    PubMed

    Guerardel, Y; Kol, O; Maes, E; Lefebvre, T; Boilly, B; Davril, M; Strecker, G

    2000-12-01

    Eggs from Xenopus laevis are surrounded by several layers of jelly that are needed for proper fertilization. Jelly coat is composed of high-molecular-mass glycoconjugates to which are bound many globular proteins. O-glycans released from the jelly coat of X. laevis have been partially described in previous studies. In this study, we compared the glycosylation pattern of the egg jelly coat isolated from six specimens of X. laevis. The O-glycans were released from jelly coats by alkali/borohydride treatment. Structural characterization was performed through a combination of one- and two-dimensional (1)H-NMR and methylation analysis. This allowed the description of a new family of sulphated O-glycans present in jelly coats of all X. laevis. However, the jelly O-glycans showed a low extent of polymorphism between specimens. This intra-specific variability was restricted to the terminal substitution of O-linked oligosaccharides. The differential expression of two glycosyltransferase [an alpha-(1-->4) galactosyltransferase and an alpha-(1-->3) fucosyltransferase] activities resulted in the characterization of four phenotypes of X. laevis. Furthermore, electrophoretic analysis suggested that the high-molecular-mass fraction of jelly coat was mostly composed of mucin-type glycoproteins. Blot analysis with lectins confirmed that the glycan variability was borne by these mucin-type components. However, fertilization assays suggested that the glycan polymorphism had no repercussion on egg fertilizability.

  17. O-glycan variability of egg-jelly mucins from Xenopus laevis: characterization of four phenotypes that differ by the terminal glycosylation of their mucins.

    PubMed Central

    Guerardel, Y; Kol, O; Maes, E; Lefebvre, T; Boilly, B; Davril, M; Strecker, G

    2000-01-01

    Eggs from Xenopus laevis are surrounded by several layers of jelly that are needed for proper fertilization. Jelly coat is composed of high-molecular-mass glycoconjugates to which are bound many globular proteins. O-glycans released from the jelly coat of X. laevis have been partially described in previous studies. In this study, we compared the glycosylation pattern of the egg jelly coat isolated from six specimens of X. laevis. The O-glycans were released from jelly coats by alkali/borohydride treatment. Structural characterization was performed through a combination of one- and two-dimensional (1)H-NMR and methylation analysis. This allowed the description of a new family of sulphated O-glycans present in jelly coats of all X. laevis. However, the jelly O-glycans showed a low extent of polymorphism between specimens. This intra-specific variability was restricted to the terminal substitution of O-linked oligosaccharides. The differential expression of two glycosyltransferase [an alpha-(1-->4) galactosyltransferase and an alpha-(1-->3) fucosyltransferase] activities resulted in the characterization of four phenotypes of X. laevis. Furthermore, electrophoretic analysis suggested that the high-molecular-mass fraction of jelly coat was mostly composed of mucin-type glycoproteins. Blot analysis with lectins confirmed that the glycan variability was borne by these mucin-type components. However, fertilization assays suggested that the glycan polymorphism had no repercussion on egg fertilizability. PMID:11085939

  18. Mucin-like glycoprotein secretion is mediated by cyclic-AMP and protein kinase C signal transduction pathways in rat corneal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, M; Endo, K; Nakata, K

    1998-05-01

    Ocular surface mucin is secreted from both goblet cells in the conjunctival epithelium and corneal epithelial cells. To clarify its mechanism of secretion in corneal epithelial cells, a rat cornea organ culture system was used to evaluate the second messenger roles of cyclic-AMP (cAMP), cyclic-GMP (cGMP) and protein kinase C (PKC) in modulating mucin-like glycoprotein secretion. Rat cornea sections (3 mm diameter) were cultured in TC-199 medium, and radiolabeled with sodium sulfate for 18 hr. After washing, the corneas were treated with various second messenger modulating agents for 30 min. The culture media were reacted with Dolichos biflorus (DBA)-lectin, and mucin-like glycoprotein was isolated. Then the radioactivity of DBA-binding mucin-like glycoprotein was isolated. Then the radioactivity of DBA-binding mucin-like glycoprotein was measured. There was a time-dependent increase in mucin-like glycoprotein was measured. There was a time-dependent increase in mucin-like glycoprotein secretion, whereas after corneal epithelial debridement the secretion was markedly inhibited by 81%. Mucin-like glycoprotein secretion was stimulated in a dose-dependent manner following elevation of cAMP levels by exposure to either forskolin, dibutyryl cAMP or 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine. Concomitant exposure to the cAMP dependent protein kinase inhibitor, KT5720 completely inhibited their stimulatory effects. Neither exposure to dibutyryl cGMP nor nitroprusside affected mucin-like glycoprotein secretion. Stimulation by PKC, phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate (PDBu) also increased mucin-like glycoprotein secretion in a dose-dependent fashion. The PKC inhibitor, calphostin C completely inhibited the stimulation by PDBu of mucine-like glycoprotein secretion. These results demonstrate that corneal epithelial cells secrete mucin-like glycoprotein, which is mediated by cAMP and PKC signal transduction pathways.

  19. Measuring Solar Abundances with Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mussack, K.; Gough, D.

    2009-12-01

    The revision of the photospheric abundances proferred by Asplund et al. (2005) has rendered opacity theory inconsistent with the seismologically determined opacity through the Sun. This highlights the need for a direct seismological measurement of solar abundances. Here we describe the technique used to measure abundances with seismology, examine our ability to detect differences between solar models using this technique, and discuss its application in the Sun.

  20. Concomitant neoplasms in the skin and stomach unveil the role of type IV collagen and E-cadherin in mucin core protein 5AC expression in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hata, H; Natsuga, K; Kitamura, S; Imafuku, K; Yamaguchi, Y; Ebihara, Y; Shichinohe, T; Hirano, S; Shimizu, H

    2016-02-01

    Mucin core protein (MUC) 5AC is a gel-forming glycoprotein that is expressed in different types of tumour cells. MUC5AC expression in cultured cells is regulated through the extracellular matrix and through remodelling by other membranous proteins such as type IV collagen (COL4) and E-cadherin. However, it has not been elucidated whether COL4 and E-cadherin affect MUC5AC expression in tumours in vivo. Here, by analysing a single individual with concomitant neoplasms in the skin [extramammary Paget disease (EMPD)] and the stomach (gastric cancer), we show that MUC5AC expression is reduced in COL4 and membranous E-cadherin-expressing EMPD specimens whereas MUC5AC is not abolished in gastric cancer with COL4 negativity and E-cadherin cytoplasmic localization. As the EMPD and gastric cancer specimens were derived from a single patient, each specimen had the same genetic background. These in vivo results support previous in vitro studies which showed that COL4 and E-cadherin downregulated MUC5AC expression. Our study suggests that concomitant neoplasms in different organs of the same individual can serve as a strong tool for uncovering functional diversity in tumour markers in distinct cancer cells.

  1. A Cell ELISA for the quantification of MUC1 mucin (CD227) expressed by cancer cells of epithelial and neuroectodermal origin.

    PubMed

    Falahat, Rana; Wiranowska, Marzenna; Gallant, Nathan D; Toomey, Ryan; Hill, Robert; Alcantar, Norma

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of MUC1, a cell membrane associated mucin, expressed by intact cells of epithelial origin previously has been limited to flow cytometry, which requires using large quantities of cells and antibodies. Here, for the first time, we report the development of a novel Cellular-based Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (Cell ELISA) to quantify the expression of MUC1 by cell lines of epithelial and neuroectodermal origin using an antibody recognizing a specific tandem repeat found in the extracellular domain of MUC1. In contrast to flow cytometry, this method requires a much lower number of cells. We report here the results obtained from two variants of this Cell ELISA in live and fixed cells. We found that the Cell ELISA in live cells was not sensitive enough to detect a difference in MUC1 levels between the normal cells and tumor cells. However, we found that Cell ELISA in fixed cells followed by whole cell staining was a dependable method of MUC1 level detection in the normal and tumor cells showing significantly higher levels of MUC1 receptor in the tumor cells when compared to the normal controls. Therefore, we conclude that the Cell ELISA in fixed cells is an efficient method for quantifying the expression of MUC1 by epithelial and neuroectodermal cancer cell lines.

  2. The evolution of extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Ozbek, Suat; Balasubramanian, Prakash G; Chiquet-Ehrismann, Ruth; Tucker, Richard P; Adams, Josephine C

    2010-12-01

    We present a perspective on the molecular evolution of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in metazoa that draws on research publications and data from sequenced genomes and expressed sequence tag libraries. ECM components do not function in isolation, and the biological ECM system or "adhesome" also depends on posttranslational processing enzymes, cell surface receptors, and extracellular proteases. We focus principally on the adhesome of internal tissues and discuss its origins at the dawn of the metazoa and the expansion of complexity that occurred in the chordate lineage. The analyses demonstrate very high conservation of a core adhesome that apparently evolved in a major wave of innovation in conjunction with the origin of metazoa. Integrin, CD36, and certain domains predate the metazoa, and some ECM-related proteins are identified in choanoflagellates as predicted sequences. Modern deuterostomes and vertebrates have many novelties and elaborations of ECM as a result of domain shuffling, domain innovations and gene family expansions. Knowledge of the evolution of metazoan ECM is important for understanding how it is built as a system, its roles in normal tissues and disease processes, and has relevance for tissue engineering, the development of artificial organs, and the goals of synthetic biology.

  3. Extracellular nucleotide signaling in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, Gary

    2016-09-08

    Over the life of this funded project, our research group identified and characterized two key receptor proteins in plants; one mediating the innate immunity response to chitin and the other elucidating the key receptor for extracellular ATP. In the case of chitin recognition, we recently described the quaternary structure of this receptor, shedding light on how the receptor functions. Perhaps more importantly, we demonstrated that all plants have the ability to recognize both chitin oligomers and lipochitooligosacchardes, fundamentally changing how the community views the evolution of these systems and strategies that might be used, for example, to extend symbiotic nitrogen fixation to non-legumes. Our discovery of DORN1 opens a new chapter in plant physiology documenting conclusively that eATP is an important extracellular signal in plants, as it is in animals. At this point, we cannot predict just how far reaching this discovery may prove to be but we are convinced that eATP signaling is fundamental to plant growth and development and, hence, we believe that the future will be very exciting for the study of DORN1 and its overall function in plants.

  4. HER2 overexpression and amplification is present in a subset of ovarian mucinous carcinomas and can be targeted with trastuzumab therapy

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The response rate of ovarian mucinous carcinomas to paclitaxel/carboplatin is low, prompting interest in targeted molecular therapies. We investigated HER2 expression and amplification, and the potential for trastuzumab therapy in this histologic subtype of ovarian cancer. Methods HER2 status was tested in 33 mucinous carcinomas and 16 mucinous borderline ovarian tumors (BOT)). Five cases with documented recurrence and with tissue from the recurrence available for testing were analyzed to determine whether HER2 amplification status changed over time. Three prospectively identified recurrent mucinous ovarian carcinomas were assessed for HER2 amplification and patients received trastuzumab therapy with conventional chemotherapy. Results Amplification of HER2 was observed in 6/33 (18.2%) mucinous carcinomas and 3/16 (18.8%) BOT. HER2 amplification in primary mucinous carcinomas was not associated with an increased likelihood of recurrence. The prospectively identified recurrent mucinous carcinomas showed overexpression and amplification of HER2; one patient's tumor responded dramatically to trastuzumab in combination with conventional chemotherapy, while another patient experienced an isolated central nervous system recurrence after trastuzumab therapy. Conclusion HER2 amplification is relatively common in ovarian mucinous carcinomas (6/33, 18.2%), although not of prognostic significance. Trastuzumab therapy is a treatment option for patients with mucinous carcinoma when the tumor has HER2 amplification and overexpression. PMID:20003286

  5. Folding of pig gastric mucin non-glycosylated domains: a discrete molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Barz, Bogdan; Turner, Bradley S; Bansil, Rama; Urbanc, Brigita

    2012-09-01

    Mucin glycoproteins consist of tandem-repeating glycosylated regions flanked by non-repetitive protein domains with little glycosylation. These non-repetitive domains are involved in polymerization of mucin and play an important role in the pH-dependent gelation of gastric mucin, which is essential for protecting the stomach from autodigestion. We examine folding of the non-repetitive sequence of PGM-2X (242 amino acids) and the von Willebrand factor vWF-C1 domain (67 amino acids) at neutral and low pH using discrete molecular dynamics (DMD) in an implicit solvent combined with a four-bead peptide model. Using the same implicit solvent parameters, folding of both domains is simulated at neutral and low pH. In contrast to vWF-C1, PGM-2X folding is strongly affected by pH as indicated by changes in the contact order, radius of gyration, free-energy landscape, and the secondary structure. Whereas the free-energy landscape of vWF-C1 shows a single minimum at both neutral and low pH, the free-energy landscape of PGM-2X is characterized by multiple minima that are more numerous and shallower at low pH. Detailed structural analysis shows that PGM-2X partially unfolds at low pH. This partial unfolding is facilitated by the C-terminal region GLU236-PRO242, which loses contact with the rest of the domain due to effective "mean-field" repulsion among highly positively charged N- and C-terminal regions. Consequently, at low pH, hydrophobic amino acids are more exposed to the solvent. In vWF-C1, low pH induces some structural changes, including an increased exposure of CYS at position 67, but these changes are small compared to those found in PGM-2X. For PGM-2X, the DMD-derived average β-strand propensity increases from 0.26 ± 0.01 at neutral pH to 0.38 ± 0.01 at low pH. For vWF-C1, the DMD-derived average β-strand propensity is 0.32 ± 0.02 at neutral pH and 0.35 ± 0.02 at low pH. The DMD-derived structural information provides insight into pH-induced changes in the

  6. Improved in vitro assay for determining the mucin adherence of bacteria sensitive to Triton X-100 treatment.

    PubMed

    Tsilia, Varvara; Van den Abbeele, Pieter; Van de Wiele, Tom

    2015-09-01

    Mucin-associated microbiota are in relatively close contact with the intestinal epithelium and may thus have a more pronounced effect on host health. We have previously developed a simple mucin agar assay to simulate initial mucus colonization by intestinal microbial communities. Adherence of microbiota was estimated using flow cytometry after detachment with Triton X-100. In this study, the effect of this detergent on the cultivability of both virulent and commensal strains was investigated. Mucin attachment of selected strains was evaluated using the mucin adhesion assay. Bacteria were dislodged from the mucin surface by incubation with Triton or from the whole mucin agar layer using a stomacher. Mechanical extraction resulted in 1.24 ± 0.42, 2.69 ± 0.44, and 1.56 ± 0.85 log CFU/mL higher plate counts of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bacillus cereus, and Escherichia coli strains, respectively, than the chemical method. The sensitivity of bacteria to Triton varied among microbial species and strains. Among others, Triton inhibited the growth of Salmonella enterica LMG 10396 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa LMG 8029 on laboratory media, although these bacteria maintained their viability during this treatment. Only Gram-positive strains, Enterococcus hirae LMG 6399 and L. rhamnosus GG, were not affected by this detergent. Therefore, the mechanical method is recommended for the extraction of mucin-adhered bacteria that are sensitive to Triton, especially when followed by traditional cultivation techniques. However, this approach can also be recommended for strains that are not affected by this detergent, because it resulted in higher recovery of adhered L. rhamnosus GG compared to the chemical extraction.

  7. Bacillus cereus Adhesion to Simulated Intestinal Mucus Is Determined by Its Growth on Mucin, Rather Than Intestinal Environmental Parameters.

    PubMed

    Tsilia, Varvara; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Rajkovic, Andreja; Heyndrickx, Marc; Van de Wiele, Tom

    2015-11-01

    Adhesion of pathogenic bacteria to intestinal mucus, the protective layer of the gastrointestinal epithelium, is often considered a virulence factor. The ability of food-poisoning Bacillus cereus strains to attach to mucus and the factors affecting this interaction have not yet been investigated. Therefore, the role of adhesion in pathogenesis of B. cereus still remains unknown. In the present study, an in vitro assay based on mucin agar was used to simulate adhesion of B. cereus to mucus. Bacterial-associated factors (e.g., strain specificity and microbial competition) known to influence adhesion to different surfaces and a variety of environmental conditions (e.g., pH and oxygen) encountered in the gastrointestinal tract were investigated. The effect of these parameters on B. cereus NVH 0500/00 mucin adhesion was generally limited even in the presence of microbial competition. This suggests that B. cereus NVH 0500/00 is a versatile pathogen. Inoculation of 4 to 5 log colony-forming units (CFU) per milliliter. B. cereus NVH 0500/00 resulted in 5-6 log CFU/mL mucin-associated bacteria after a short incubation period. This indicates that this pathogenic strain could grow in the presence of mucin agar. This growth may potentially mask the effect of the studied conditions. Yet, extensive attachment of B. cereus to mucin is not necessarily a prerequisite for virulence, because other pathogenic strains do not adhere with the same efficiency to mucin. Nevertheless, adhesion may contribute to the disease by providing close contact to nutrient sources, such as mucin, which would not only result in bacterial proliferation, but also in disruption of the protective host mucus surface.

  8. Metabolic requirements for neutrophil extracellular traps formation

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Espinosa, Oscar; Rojas-Espinosa, Oscar; Moreno-Altamirano, María Maximina Bertha; López-Villegas, Edgar Oliver; Sánchez-García, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    As part of the innate immune response, neutrophils are at the forefront of defence against infection, resolution of inflammation and wound healing. They are the most abundant leucocytes in the peripheral blood, have a short lifespan and an estimated turnover of 1010 to 1011 cells per day. Neutrophils efficiently clear microbial infections by phagocytosis and by oxygen-dependent and oxygen-independent mechanisms. In 2004, a new neutrophil anti-microbial mechanism was described, the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) composed of DNA, histones and anti-microbial peptides. Several microorganisms, bacterial products, as well as pharmacological stimuli such as PMA, were shown to induce NETs. Neutrophils contain relatively few mitochondria, and derive most of their energy from glycolysis. In this scenario we aimed to analyse some of the metabolic requirements for NET formation. Here it is shown that NETs formation is strictly dependent on glucose and to a lesser extent on glutamine, that Glut-1, glucose uptake, and glycolysis rate increase upon PMA stimulation, and that NET formation is inhibited by the glycolysis inhibitor, 2-deoxy-glucose, and to a lesser extent by the ATP synthase inhibitor oligomycin. Moreover, when neutrophils were exposed to PMA in glucose-free medium for 3 hr, they lost their characteristic polymorphic nuclei but did not release NETs. However, if glucose (but not pyruvate) was added at this time, NET release took place within minutes, suggesting that NET formation could be metabolically divided into two phases; the first, independent from exogenous glucose (chromatin decondensation) and, the second (NET release), strictly dependent on exogenous glucose and glycolysis. PMID:25545227

  9. [Extracellular ribonuclease from Bacillus thuringiensis].

    PubMed

    Chepurnova, N K; Liakhov, D L; Rechinskiĭ, V O; Karpeĭskiĭ, M Ia

    1988-04-01

    The ability of the strain Bacillus thuringiensis var. subtoxicus to produce extracellular ribonuclease (ribonuclease Bt) was studied. It was found that the culture medium possesses a RNA-depolymerizing activity whose maximum is observed 4-5 hours after the beginning of the linear growth phase. A three-step chromatography of the culture extract on phosphocellulose resulted in a homogeneous enzyme with a molecular mass of 12000 Da. The enzyme showed the maximum activity towards RNA at pH 8.5, catalyzed the hydrolysis of polyribonucleotides and guanosine-2',3'-cyclophosphate. Hence, the enzyme can be related to base-nonspecific cyclizing ribonucleases showing the guanylic specificity towards nucleoside-2',3'-cyclophosphates.

  10. Synthesis of the O-linked hexasaccharide containing β-D-Galp-(1→2)-D-Galf in Trypanosoma cruzi mucins. Differences on sialylation by trans-sialidase of the two constituent hexasaccharides.

    PubMed

    Agustí, Rosalía; Giorgi, M Eugenia; Mendoza, Verónica M; Kashiwagi, Gustavo A; de Lederkremer, Rosa M; Gallo-Rodriguez, Carola

    2015-03-15

    The hexasaccharide β-D-Galp-(1→2)-[β-D-Galp-(1→3)]-β-D-Galp-(1→6)-[β-D-Galp(1→2)-β-D-Galf(1→4)]-D-GlcNAc (10) and its β-D-Galf-(1→2)-β-D-Galf containing isomer (7) are the largest carbohydrates in mucins of some strains of Trypanosoma cruzi. The terminal β-D-Galp units are sites of sialylation by the parasite trans-sialidase. Hexasaccharide 10 was chemically synthesized for the first time by a [3+3] nitrilium based convergent approach, using the trichloroacetimidate method of glycosylation. The (1)H NMR spectrum of its alditol was identical to the spectrum of the product released by β-elimination from the parasite mucin. The trans-sialylation reaction studied on the benzyl glycoside of 10 showed two monosialylated products whose relative abundance changed with time. On the other hand, only one product was produced by sialylation of the benzyl glycoside of 7. A preparative synthesis of the latter and spectroscopic analysis of the product unequivocally established the sialylation site at the less hindered (1→3)-linked galactopyranose.

  11. Effect of a Semi-Purified Oligosaccharide-Enriched Fraction from Caprine Milk on Barrier Integrity and Mucin Production of Co-Culture Models of the Small and Large Intestinal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Alicia M.; Roy, Nicole C.; McNabb, Warren C.; Cookson, Adrian L.

    2016-01-01

    Caprine milk contains the highest amount of oligosaccharides among domestic animals, which are structurally similar to human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). This suggests caprine milk oligosaccharides may offer similar protective and developmental effects to that of HMOs. However, to date, studies using oligosaccharides from caprine milk have been limited. Thus, this study aimed to examine the impact of a caprine milk oligosaccharide-enriched fraction (CMOF) on barrier function of epithelial cell co-cultures of absorptive enterocytes (Caco-2 cells) and mucus-secreting goblet cells (HT29-MTX cells), that more closely simulate the cell proportions found in the small (90:10) and large intestine (75:25). Treatment of epithelial co-cultures with 0.4, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg/mL of CMOF was shown to have no effect on metabolic activity but did enhance cell epithelial barrier integrity as measured by trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER), in a dose-dependent manner. The CMOF at the maximum concentration tested (4.0 mg/mL) enhanced TEER, mucin gene expression and mucin protein abundance of epithelial co-cultures, all of which are essential components of intestinal barrier function. PMID:27164134

  12. Actions of adenosine A1 and A2 receptor antagonists on CFTR antibody-inhibited β-adrenergic mucin secretion response

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, M M C; Lloyd Mills, C; Dormer, R L; McPherson, M A

    1998-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis gene protein, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) acts as a chloride channel and is a key regulator of mucin secretion. The mechanism by which 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) corrects the defect in CFTR mediated β-adrenergic stimulation of mucin secretion has not been determined. The present study has investigated the actions of adenosine A1 and A2 receptor antagonists to determine whether ability to stimulate mucin secretion correlates with correction of CFTR antibody inhibited β-adrenergic response and whether excessive cyclic AMP rise is required.CFTR antibodies were introduced into living rat submandibular acini by hypotonic swelling. Following recovery, mucin secretion in response to isoproterenol was measured.The adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, 8 cyclopentyltheophylline (CPT) was a less potent stimulator of mucin secretion than was the A2 receptor antagonist dimethylpropargylxanthine (DMPX). A concentration of CPT close to the Ki for A1 receptor antagonism (10 nM) did not stimulate mucin secretion.DMPX, although a potent stimulator of mucin secretion, did not correct CFTR antibody inhibited mucin secretion.CPT corrected defective CFTR antibody inhibited mucin secretion at a high (1 mM) concentration, suggesting a mechanism other than adenosine receptor antagonism.DMPX potentiated the isoproterenol induced cyclic AMP rise, whereas CPT did not.Correction of the defective CFTR mucin secretion response did not correlate with ability to stimulate mucin secretion and did not require potentiation of β-adrenergic induced increases in cyclic AMP. This affords real promise for the development of a selective drug treatment for cystic fibrosis. PMID:9831904

  13. Mucin (MUC) expression in EUS-FNA specimens is a useful prognostic factor in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Higashi, Michiyo; Yokoyama, Seiya; Yamamoto, Takafumi; Goto, Yuko; Kitazono, Ikumi; Hiraki, Tsubasa; Taguchi, Hiroki; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Fukukura, Yoshihiko; Koriyama, Chihaya; Mataki, Yuko; Maemura, Kosei; Shinchi, Hiroyuki; Jain, Maneesh; Batra, Surinder K.; Yonezawa, Suguru

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to further examine the utility of mucin expression profiles as prognostic factors in PDAC. Methods Mucin (MUC) expression was examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis in endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) specimens obtained from 114 patients with PDAC. The rate of expression of each mucin was compared with clinicopathologic features. Results The expression rates of mucins in cancer lesions were MUC1, 87.7%; MUC2, 0.8%; MUC4, 93.0%; MUC5AC, 78.9%; MUC6, 24.6%; and MUC16, 67.5%. MUC1 and MUC4 were positive and MUC2 was negative in most PDACs. Patients with advanced stage of PDAC with MUC5AC expression had a significantly better outcome than those who were MUC5AC-negative (P=0.002).With increasing clinical stage, total MUC6 expression decreased (P for trend=0.001) and MUC16 cytoplasmic expression increased (P for trend=0.02). The prognosis of patients with MUC16 cytoplasmic expression was significantly poorer than those without this expression. Multivariate survival analysis revealed that MUC16 cytoplasmic expression was a significant independent predictor of a poor prognosis after adjusting for the effects of other prognostic factors (P=0.002). Conclusion Mucin expression profiles in EUS-FNA specimens have excellent diagnostic utility and are useful predictors of outcome in patients with PDAC. PMID:25906442

  14. Carbocisteine normalizes the viscous property of mucus through regulation of fucosylated and sialylated sugar chain on airway mucins.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Yuji; Takayama, Goh; Inouye, Yoshio; Taniguchi, Akiyoshi

    2010-09-01

    Almost all of fucose and sialic acid in mucus are found on the mucus glycoproteins (mucins), and these sugar components on mucins are known to be associated with the viscous property of mucus. We have reported some aspects of carbocisteine, a mucoregulatory drug, correcting fucose and sialic acid contents in mucus. At present, carbocisteine's expectorant action of airway mucus is postulated to involve - the regulation of fucose and sialic acid contents on mucins. However little information is available about the relationship between the viscosity and sugar contents on mucins when treated with carbocisteine. To investigate further the mechanism behind the action of carbocisteine, the present study prepared MUC5AC fusion protein which has tandem repeat regions associated with MUC5AC, and evaluated the effects of carbocisteine on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced increases of mucus viscosity and sialyl-Lewis x-epitopes antigen, an antigen which consists of fucosylated and sialylated sugar chains on the MUC5AC fusion proteins. Carbocisteine inhibited the TNF-alpha-induced increases of the viscosity and sialyl-Lewis x-epitopes on MUC5AC fusion protein. These findings suggest that carbocisteine may normalize the viscosity of mucus through "balancing" of fucose and sialic acid contents on airway mucins.

  15. Mucins in the host defence against Naegleria fowleri and mucinolytic activity as a possible means of evasion.

    PubMed

    Cervantes-Sandoval, Isaac; Serrano-Luna, José de Jesús; García-Latorre, Ethel; Tsutsumi, Víctor; Shibayama, Mineko

    2008-12-01

    Naegleria fowleri is the aetiological agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). This parasite invades its host by penetrating the olfactory mucosa. During the initial stages of infection, the host response is initiated by the secretion of mucus that traps the trophozoites. Despite this response, some trophozoites are able to reach, adhere to and penetrate the epithelium. In the present work, we evaluated the effect of mucins on amoebic adherence and cytotoxicity to Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and the MUC5AC-inducing cell line NCI-H292. We showed that mucins inhibited the adhesion of amoebae to both cell lines; however, this inhibition was overcome in a time-dependent manner. N. fowleri re-established the capacity to adhere faster than N. gruberi. Moreover, mucins reduced the cytotoxicity to target cells and the progression of the illness in mice. In addition, we demonstrated mucinolytic activity in both Naegleria strains and identified a 37 kDa protein with mucinolytic activity. The activity of this protein was inhibited by cysteine protease inhibitors. Based on these results, we suggest that mucus, including its major mucin component, may act as an effective protective barrier that prevents most cases of PAM; however, when the number of amoebae is sufficient to overwhelm the innate immune response, the parasites may evade the mucus by degrading mucins via a proteolytic mechanism.

  16. "Bio-glues" to enhance slipperiness of mucins: improved lubricity and wear resistance of porcine gastric mucin (PGM) layers assisted by mucoadhesion with chitosan.

    PubMed

    Nikogeorgos, Nikolaos; Efler, Petr; Kayitmazer, A Basak; Lee, Seunghwan

    2015-01-21

    A synergetic lubricating effect between porcine gastric mucin (PGM) and chitosan based on their mucoadhesive interaction is reported at a hydrophobic interface comprised of self-mated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces. In acidic solution (pH 3.2) and low concentrations (0.1 mg mL(-1)), the interaction of PGM with chitosan led to surface recharge and size shrinkage of their aggregates. This resulted in higher mass adsorption on the PDMS surface with an increasing weight ratio of [chitosan]/[PGM + chitosan] up to 0.50. While neither PGM nor chitosan exhibited slippery characteristics, the coefficient of friction being close to 1, their mixture improved considerably the lubricating efficiency (the coefficient of friction is 0.011 at an optimum mixing ratio) and wear resistance of the adsorbed layers. These findings are explained by the role of chitosan as a physical crosslinker within the adsorbed PGM layers, resulting in higher cohesion and lower interlayer chain interpenetration and bridging.

  17. Aberrant Expression of Calretinin, D2-40 and Mesothelin in Mucinous and Non-Mucinous Colorectal Carcinomas and Relation to Clinicopathological Features and Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Foda, Abd AlRahman Mohammad; El-Hawary, Amira Kamal; Hamed, Hazem

    2016-10-01

    CRC is a heterogeneous disease in terms of morphology, invasive behavior, metastatic capacity, and clinical outcome. Recently, many so-called mesothelial markers, including calretinin, D2-40, WT1, thrombomodulin, mesothelin, and others, have been certified. The aim of this study was to assess the immunohistochemical expression of calretinin and other mesothelial markers (D2-40 and mesothelin) in colorectal mucinous adenocarcinoma (MA) and non mucinous adenocarcinoma (NMA) specimens and relation to clinicopathological features and prognosis using manual tissue microarray technique. We studied tumor tissue specimens from 150 patients with colorectal MA and NMA who underwent radical surgery from January 2007 to January 2012. High-density manual tissue microarrays were constructed using a modified mechanical pencil tip technique, and paraffin sections were submitted for immunohistochemistry using Calretinin, D2-40 and mesothelin expressions. We found that NMA showed significantly more calretinin and D2-40 expression than MA In contrast, no statistically significant difference between NMA and MA was detected in mesothelin expression. There were no statistically significant relations between any of the clinicopathological or histological parameters and any of the three markers. In a univariate analysis, neither calretinin nor D2-40 expressions showed any significant relations to DFS or OS. However, mesothelin luminal expression was significantly associated with worse DFS. Multivariate Cox regression analysis proved that luminal mesothelin expression was an independent negative prognostic factor in NMA. In conclusion, Calretinin, D2-40 and mesothelin are aberrantly expressed in a proportion of CRC cases with more expression in NMA than MA. Aberrant expression of these mesothelial markers was not associated with clinicopathological or histological features of CRCs. Only mesothelin expression appears to be a strong predictor of adverse prognosis.

  18. Relation of glypican-3 and E-cadherin expressions to clinicopathological features and prognosis of mucinous and non-mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Foda, Abd Al-Rahman Mohammad; Mohammad, Mie Ali; Abdel-Aziz, Azza; El-Hawary, Amira Kamal

    2015-06-01

    Glypican-3 (GPC3) is a member of the membrane-bound heparin sulfate proteoglycans. E-cadherin is an adhesive receptor that is believed to act as a tumor suppressor gene. Many studies had investigated E-cadherin expressions in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) while only one study had investigated GPC3 expression in CRC. This study aims to investigate expression of GCP3 and E-cadherin in colorectal mucinous carcinoma (MA) and non-mucinous adenocarcinoma (NMA) using manual tissue microarray technique. Tumor tissue specimens are collected from 75 cases of MC and 75 cases of NMA who underwent radical surgery from Jan 2007 to Jan 2012 at the Gastroenterology Centre, Mansoura University, Egypt. Their clinicopathological parameters and survival data were revised and analyzed using established statistical methodologies. High-density manual tissue microarrays were constructed using modified mechanical pencil tip technique and immunohistochemistry for GPC3 and E-cadherin was done. NMA showed higher expression of GPC3 than MA with no statistically significant relation. NMA showed a significantly higher E-cadherin expression than MA. GPC3 and E-cadherin positivity rates were significantly interrelated in NMA, but not in MA, group. In NMA group, there was no significant relation between either GPC3 or E-cadherin expression and the clinicopathological features. In a univariate analysis, neither GPC3 nor E-cadherin expression showed a significant impact on disease-free survival (DFS) or overall survival (OS). GPC3 and E-cadherin expressions are not independent prognostic factors in CRC. However, expressions of both are significantly interrelated in NMA patients, suggesting an excellent interplay between both, in contrast to MA. Further molecular studies are needed to further explore the relationship between GCP3 and E-cadherin in colorectal carcinogenesis.

  19. Detection and quantification of extracellular microRNAs in murine biofluids

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short RNA molecules which regulate gene expression in eukaryotic cells, and are abundant and stable in biofluids such as blood serum and plasma. As such, there has been heightened interest in the utility of extracellular miRNAs as minimally invasive biomarkers for diagnosis and monitoring of a wide range of human pathologies. However, quantification of extracellular miRNAs is subject to a number of specific challenges, including the relatively low RNA content of biofluids, the possibility of contamination with serum proteins (including RNases and PCR inhibitors), hemolysis, platelet contamination/activation, a lack of well-established reference miRNAs and the biochemical properties of miRNAs themselves. Protocols for the detection and quantification of miRNAs in biofluids are therefore of high interest. Results The following protocol was validated by quantifying miRNA abundance in C57 (wild-type) and dystrophin-deficient (mdx) mice. Important differences in miRNA abundance were observed depending on whether blood was taken from the jugular or tail vein. Furthermore, efficiency of miRNA recovery was reduced when sample volumes greater than 50 μl were used. Conclusions Here we describe robust and novel procedures to harvest murine serum/plasma, extract biofluid RNA, amplify specific miRNAs by RT-qPCR and analyze the resulting data, enabling the determination of relative and absolute miRNA abundance in extracellular biofluids with high accuracy, specificity and sensitivity. PMID:24629058

  20. Extracellular adenosine triphosphate and adenosine in cancer.

    PubMed

    Stagg, J; Smyth, M J

    2010-09-30

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is actively released in the extracellular environment in response to tissue damage and cellular stress. Through the activation of P2X and P2Y receptors, extracellular ATP enhances tissue repair, promotes the recruitment of immune phagocytes and dendritic cells, and acts as a co-activator of NLR family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes. The conversion of extracellular ATP to adenosine, in contrast, essentially through the enzymatic activity of the ecto-nucleotidases CD39 and CD73, acts as a negative-feedback mechanism to prevent excessive immune responses. Here we review the effects of extracellular ATP and adenosine on tumorigenesis. First, we summarize the functions of extracellular ATP and adenosine in the context of tumor immunity. Second, we present an overview of the immunosuppressive and pro-angiogenic effects of extracellular adenosine. Third, we present experimental evidence that extracellular ATP and adenosine receptors are expressed by tumor cells and enhance tumor growth. Finally, we discuss recent studies, including our own work, which suggest that therapeutic approaches that promote ATP-mediated activation of inflammasomes, or inhibit the accumulation of tumor-derived extracellular adenosine, may constitute effective new means to induce anticancer activity.

  1. The boron abundance of Procyon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemke, Michael; Lambert, David L.; Edvardsson, Bengt

    1993-01-01

    The B I 2496.8 A resonance line and HST/GHRS echelle spectra are used with model atmospheres and synthetic spectra to derive the B abundance of the F dwarfs Procyon (Alpha Canis Minoris), Theta Ursae Majoris, and Iota Pegasi. The B abundance of Theta UMa and Iota Peg is similar to that derived by Boesgaard and Heacox (1978) from the B II resonance line in spectra of A- and B-type stars. These two dwarfs show normal abundances of Li, Be, and B. Procyon, which is highly depleted in Li and Be, is depleted in B by a factor of at least 3. Comparison of the spectra of Procyon and the halo dwarf HD 140283 shows that the B abundance assigned by Duncan et al. (1992) to three halo dwarfs is not greatly overestimated as a result of contamination of the B I line by an unidentified line.

  2. Ammonia abundances in four comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyckoff, S.; Tegler, S. C.; Engel, L.

    1991-02-01

    NH2 emission band strengths were measured in four comets and the NH2 column densities were determined in order to measure the ammonia content of the comets. The mean ammonia/water abundance ratio derived for the four comets is found to be 0.13 + or - 0.06 percent, with no significant variation among the comets. The uniformity of this abundance attests to a remarkable degree of chemical homogeneity over large scales in the comet-forming region of the primordial solar nebula, and contrasts with the CO abundance variations found previously in comets. The N2 and NH3 abundances indicate a condensation temperature in the range 20-160 K, consistent with virtually all comet formation hypotheses.

  3. The boron abundance of Procyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, Michael; Lambert, David L.; Edvardsson, Bengt

    1993-05-01

    The B I 2496.8 A resonance line and HST/GHRS echelle spectra are used with model atmospheres and synthetic spectra to derive the B abundance of the F dwarfs Procyon (Alpha Canis Minoris), Theta Ursae Majoris, and Iota Pegasi. The B abundance of Theta UMa and Iota Peg is similar to that derived by Boesgaard and Heacox (1978) from the B II resonance line in spectra of A- and B-type stars. These two dwarfs show normal abundances of Li, Be, and B. Procyon, which is highly depleted in Li and Be, is depleted in B by a factor of at least 3. Comparison of the spectra of Procyon and the halo dwarf HD 140283 shows that the B abundance assigned by Duncan et al. (1992) to three halo dwarfs is not greatly overestimated as a result of contamination of the B I line by an unidentified line.

  4. Ovarian mucinous epithelial neoplasm showing immunohistochemical pattern of lower gastrointestinal origin with stromal minor sex-cord elements: A case report.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Taeko; Nakagawa, Hitomi; Hachisuga, Toru

    2014-12-01

    •We report a case of an ovarian mucinous cystadenoma that exhibited extensive sex-cord differentiation.•The ovarian tumor coincided with a uterine endometrial carcinoma.•The immunohistochemical pattern of mucinous epithelium of the ovarian tumor was suggestive of lower gastrointestinal origin.

  5. Comparative study on the development of intestinal mucin 2, IgA and polymeric Ig receptor expressions between broiler chickens and Pekin ducks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intestinal mucin2 (MUC2), a major gel-forming mucin, represents a primary barrier component of mucus layers and target site for secretory IgA. Polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR) expressed on the basolateral surface of epithelium, is used to transport polymeric IgA from the lamina propria into luminal muci...

  6. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound improves accurate identification of appendiceal mucinous adenocarcinoma in an old patient

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Jing; Ruan, Li-tao; Dang, Ying; Wang, Yun-yue; Song, Yan; Lian, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Adenocarcinoma of appendiceal origin is far rarer than other colorectal carcinomas and its preoperative diagnosis is challenging. To our knowledge, utility of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) to diagnose it is much less. Method: A 61-year-old man presented with abdominal pain in the right lower quadrant for 20 days. In order to fulfill an accurately preoperative diagnosis, he received laboratory and imaging tests such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), computer tomography (CT), CEUS and endoscope. Diagnosis and Intervention: He was initially suspected of suffering appendicitis, while his white blood cell count was normal and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in serum was remarkably increased. Both routine ultrasound and computer tomography (CT) examinations supported suppurative appendicitis. The overall data, however, failed to excluded neoplastic pathology thoroughly. Therefore, CEUS was carried out and showed an inhomogeneous enhancement intra the lesion located in the body of the appendix, which made our consideration of neoplasm. The result of the follow-up biopsy guided by endoscope was consistent with appendiceal tumor. The patient received laparoscopic right hemicolectomy. Histopathology confirmed as well differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma of appendix origin. His postoperative course was uneventful, and he had a regular diet again without any complaint. Result: Serum CEA was remarkably increased (12.00 ng/mL). Both routine ultrasound and CT examinations supported suppurative appendicitis. However, CEUS examination showed an inhomogeneous enhancement intra the lesion located in the body of the appendix, which made our consideration of neoplasm. The follow-up biopsy guided by endoscope and surgical specimens confirmed as well differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma of appendix origin. Conclusion: Most mucinous adenocarcinoma mimicking appendicitis results in difficult diagnosis preoperatively. Clinician and radiologist should be

  7. Poorer Prognosis of Primary Signet-Ring Cell Carcinoma of the Breast Compared with Mucinous Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qingzhong; Chen, Gang; Lu, Jianping; Zeng, Yi; Hu, Dan; Huang, Kai; Lin, Zhiwu; Yan, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Primary signet-ring cell carcinoma (PSRCC) of the breast is a rare entity and classified under mucin producing tumors in the WHO classification. However, little is known about the clinicopathological characteristics and clinical outcomes of PSRCC as opposed to mucinous carcinoma. Eleven patients with PSRCC in our center from 1995 to 2010 were evaluated in this study, as compared to 50 cases of mucinous breast cancer (MBC) during the same period. The clinicopathologic features of PSRCC compared to MBC were assessed. Furthermore, overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were calculated at 5 years of follow up. Patients with PSRCC showed more frequent lymphatic metastasis, higher Ki67 labeling index and more advanced stage disease than that of MBC (P = 0.018, p = 0.023, P = 0.000, respectively), although there was no difference in age, tumor size, and ER, PR expression between PSRCC and MBC. In addition, PSRCC was associated with simultaneous vimentin upregulation and E-cadherin downregulation. The 5-year OS of PSRCC (54.5%) was significantly lower than that of MBC (88%) (P = 0.004). Similarly, the DFS of PSRCC was poorer than that of MBC significantly (5-year DFS: 27.3% vs. 80%, P = 0.000). Conclusions Our results confirmed the more aggressive behavior of PSRCC compared to MBC. This tumor is frequently associated with more frequent lymphatic metastasis, higher Ki67 labeling index, more advanced stage disease as well as simultaneous vimentin upregulation and E-cadherin downregulation. Different management guidelines should be considered for the two types. PMID:27583684

  8. Isolation and characterization of cDNA clones encoding pig gastric mucin.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, B S; Bhaskar, K R; Hadzopoulou-Cladaras, M; Specian, R D; LaMont, J T

    1995-01-01

    Polyclonal antibodies raised to deglycosylated pig gastric mucin were used to screen a cDNA library constructed with pig stomach mucosal mRNA. Immunocytochemistry indicated that the antibody recognizes intracellular and secreted mucin in surface mucous cells of pig gastric epithelium. A total of 70 clones producing proteins immunoreactive to this antibody were identified, two of which (PGM-2A,9B) were fully sequenced from both ends. Clone PGM-9B hybridized to a polydisperse mRNA (3-9 kb) from pig stomach, but not liver, intestine or spleen, nor to mRNA from human, mouse, rabbit or rat stomach. Sequence analysis indicated that PGM-9B encodes 33 tandem repeats of a 16-amino-acid consensus sequence rich in serine (46%) and threonine (17%). Using the restriction enzyme MwoI, which has a single target site in the repeat, it was demonstrated that PGM-9B consists entirely of this tandem repeat. Southern-blot analysis indicated that the repeat region is contained in a 20 kb HindIII-EcoRI fragment, and BamHI digestion suggested that most of the repeats are contained in a 10 kb fragment. In situ hybridization with an antisense probe to PGM-9B showed an intense signal in the entire gastric gland. Clone PGM-2A also contains the same repeat sequence as 9B, but, in addition, has a 64-amino-acid-long non-repeat region at its 5' end. Interestingly the non-repeat region of PGM-2A has five cysteine residues, the arrangement of which is identical with that reported for human intestinal mucin gene MUC2. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7755593

  9. Appendiceal mucinous neoplasms: an uncertain nosological entity. Report of a case

    PubMed Central

    AGRUSA, A.; ROMANO, G.; GALIA, M.; CUCINELLA, G.; SORCE, V.; DI BUONO, G.; GULOTTA, L.; AGNELLO, F.; AMATO, G.; GULOTTA, G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Appendiceal mucocele is a relatively rare condition characterized by progressive dilation of the appendix caused by intra-luminal accumulation of mucoid substance. Its incidence is 0.07 – 0,63% of all appendectomies performed. Case report We report the case of a 70-year-old man who came to our observation with gravative pain in right lower abdominal region. A computed tomography abdominal scan revealed a cystic/tubular structure like an appendicular mass with wall enhancement but without calcifications suggestive of a mucocele. Into peritoneal cavity we found profuse mucinous material with a 1,5 cm size parietal nodule. We also identified a free perforation of the cecum with consensual spillage of gelatinous material mimicking a pseudomyxoma peritonei. We decided to perform a right hemicolectomy with excision of peritoneal lesion. Discussion The controversy in the pathologic terminology can give rise to a clinical dilemma in terms of the management and follow-up plans. For mucosal hyperplasia and cystadenoma simple appendectomy is curative. Only in case of large base of implantation it may be necessary the resection of the ileum and caecum or right hemicolectomy. In case of mucinous cystoadenocarcinoma authors perform a right hemicolectomy. Conclusion Appendiceal mucinous neoplasms are different pathological entities. The correct surgical management depends on size and location of lesion. A preoperative diagnosis is obviously needed in order to perform the correct treatment. CT abdominal scan is the better diagnostic tool, but different authors show their inability to reach a preoperative diagnosis in the larger majority of cases. PMID:27381696

  10. IL-13 Stimulates Proliferation and Expression of Mucin and Immunomodulatory Genes in Cultured Conjunctival Goblet Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tukler Henriksson, Johanna; Coursey, Terry G.; Corry, David B.; De Paiva, Cintia S.; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the effects of IL-13 on goblet cell proliferation, differentiation, and expression of mucin and immunomodulatory genes. Methods. Explants were excised from the conjunctiva of young C57BL/6 mice. Cultures received 200 μL per week of either Keratinocyte media (KSFM) or KSFM supplemented with 10 ng/mL IL-13 and were incubated for 3 (D3), 7 (D7), or 14 (D14) days. Subsequently, cell proliferation was assessed or cultures were immunostained, collected for dot blot, or for reverse transcription (RT) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) or for RT-PCR gene array. Results. The cultured conjunctival epithelium expressed goblet cell associated keratin 7 and mucins MUC5AC and MUC2 and when stimulated with IL-13 showed increased proliferation at D3 and D7 (P < 0.05) compared with control. MUC5AC expression was increased in the IL-13–treated group at D3 and D14 (P < 0.05). IL-13–treated cultures showed increased chemokine ligand 26 (CCL26), chloride channel calcium activated channel 3 (CLCA3), fas ligand (FasL), and Relm-β at D7. All conjunctival cultures expressed MUC2, and its expression was decreased at D3 (P < 0.05) and increased at D14 (P < 0.05) with IL-13 treatment. Conclusions. This study demonstrated that conjunctival goblet cells are IL-13 responsive cells that produce factors known to maintain epithelial barrier, stimulate mucin production, and modulate immune response in nonocular mucosa when treated with IL-13. The functional significance of IL-13–stimulated factors remains to be determined. PMID:26132778

  11. Deficiency of intestinal mucin-2 ameliorates experimental alcoholic liver disease in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Phillipp; Chen, Peng; Wang, Hui J.; Wang, Lirui; McCole, Declan F.; Brandl, Katharina; Stärkel, Peter; Belzer, Clara; Hellerbrand, Claus; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Ho, Samuel B.; Schnabl, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    The intestinal mucus layer protects the epithelium from noxious agents, viruses, and pathogenic bacteria present in the gastrointestinal tract. It is composed of mucins, predominantly mucin-2 (Muc2), secreted by goblet cells of the intestine. Experimental alcoholic liver disease requires translocation of bacterial products across the intestinal barrier into the systemic circulation, which induces an inflammatory response in the liver and contributes to steatohepatitis. We investigated the roles of the intestinal mucus layer, and in particular Muc2, in development of experimental alcohol-associated liver disease in mice. We studied experimental alcohol-induced liver disease, induced by the Tsukamoto-French method (which involves continuous intragastric feeding of an isocaloric diet or alcohol) in wild-type and Muc2−/− mice. Muc2−/− mice showed less alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis that developed in wild-type mice. Most notably, Muc2−/− mice had significantly lower plasma levels of lipopolysaccharide than wild-type mice after alcohol feeding. In contrast to wild-type mice, Muc2−/− mice were protected from alcohol-associated microbiome changes that are dependent on intestinal mucins. The anti-microbial proteins Reg3b and Reg3g were expressed at significantly higher levels in the jejunum of Muc2−/− mice fed the isocaloric diet or alcohol, compared with wild-type mice. Consequently, Muc2−/− mice showed increased killing of commensal bacteria and prevented intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Conclusion: Muc2−/− mice are protected from intestinal bacterial overgrowth and dysbiosis in response to alcohol feeding. Subsequently, lower amounts of bacterial products such as endotoxin translocate into the systemic circulation, decreasing liver disease. PMID:23408358

  12. Role of TGFBIp in Wound Healing and Mucin Expression in Corneal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Maeng, Yong-Sun; Lee, Ga-Hyun; Lee, Boram; Choi, Seung-Il; Kim, Tae-im

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Transforming growth factor-β-induced protein (TGFBIp) is highly expressed in the cornea, and mutant TGFBIp induces corneal diseases. However, the function of TGFBIp in cornea epithelium is not fully investigated. Here, we tested the importance of TGFBIp in regulation of gene expression and corneal epithelial cell (CEC) activity. Materials and Methods The effect of TGFBIp on CEC activity was analyzed by cell migration, adhesion, proliferation and wound healing assay. Analysis of gene expression was examined by western blot and quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Results The results demonstrated that TGFBIp increased adhesion, migration, proliferation, and wound healing of CECs. Analysis of gene expression presented that TGFBIp-stimulated CECs exhibited increased expression of mucin family genes, such as MUC1, -4, -5AC, and -16. Furthermore, TGFBIp treatment increased the expression of MUC1, -4, -5AC, -7, and -16 in conjunctival epithelial cells. TGFBIp also increased the activity of intracellular signaling molecules ERK and AKT in CECs. Using pharmacologic inhibitors of ERK and AKT, we showed that the expression of mucin genes by TGFBIp is mediated by the activation of ERK and AKT signaling. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that the locally generated TGFBIp in the cornea may contribute to wound healing of CECs by enhancing the migration, adhesion, and proliferation of CECs. In addition, our results suggest that TGFBIp has a protective effect on ocular surfaces by inducing the expression of mucin genes in corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells. These data suggest that TGFBIp is a useful therapeutic target for patients with corneal wounds. PMID:28120575

  13. HER2 amplification and overexpression are significantly correlated in mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Chao, Wan-Ru; Lee, Ming-Yung; Lin, Wea-Long; Chen, Chi-Kuan; Lin, Jau-Chen; Koo, Chiew-Loon; Sheu, Gwo-Tarng; Han, Chih-Ping

    2014-04-01

    HER2 gene amplification and protein over-expression are important factors in predicting clinical sensitivity to anti-HER2 therapies in breast, gastric or gastroesophageal junction cancer patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between HER2 gene copy numbers and HER2 protein expressions in mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Of the 49 tissue microarray samples of mucinous EOC, we applied 2010 ToGA trial (Trastuzumab for Gastric Cancer) surgical specimen scoring criteria to analyze the HER2 protein expression by an immunohistochemistry (IHC) test with Dako (Carpenteria, CA), c-erb-B2 antibody, and the HER2 gene amplification by the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) test with Abbott/Vysis PathVysion HER2 DNA Probe Kit (Abbott Molecular Inc., Des Plaines, IA). We achieved a high overall concordance of 97.56% between nonequivocal HER2 results by IHC and FISH tests. In addition, HER2 gene copies before chromosome-17 correction increased significantly in a stepwise order through the negative, equivocal and positive IHC result categories (P<.001), as did the HER2 gene copies after chromosome-17 correction (P<.001). On the other hand, HER2 IHC results correlated significantly with both chromosome-17-uncorrected HER2 gene copy numbers (ρ=0.630, P<.001) and chromosome-17 corrected HER2 gene copy numbers (ρ=0.558, P<.001). We concluded that both chromosome-17 corrected and uncorrected HER2 gene copies correlated significantly with HER2 IHC results. Tests for the HER2 gene copies per tumor cell either before or after correction of chromosome-17 can be applied as a potentially valuable tool to analyze the HER2 status in mucinous EOC.

  14. High Throughput Sequencing of Extracellular RNA from Human Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Danielson, Kirsty M.; Rubio, Renee; Abderazzaq, Fieda; Das, Saumya; Wang, Yaoyu E.

    2017-01-01

    The presence and relative stability of extracellular RNAs (exRNAs) in biofluids has led to an emerging recognition of their promise as ‘liquid biopsies’ for diseases. Most prior studies on discovery of exRNAs as disease-specific biomarkers have focused on microRNAs (miRNAs) using technologies such as qRT-PCR and microarrays. The recent application of next-generation sequencing to discovery of exRNA biomarkers has revealed the presence of potential novel miRNAs as well as other RNA species such as tRNAs, snoRNAs, piRNAs and lncRNAs in biofluids. At the same time, the use of RNA sequencing for biofluids poses unique challenges, including low amounts of input RNAs, the presence of exRNAs in different compartments with varying degrees of vulnerability to isolation techniques, and the high abundance of specific RNA species (thereby limiting the sensitivity of detection of less abundant species). Moreover, discovery in human diseases often relies on archival biospecimens of varying age and limiting amounts of samples. In this study, we have tested RNA isolation methods to optimize profiling exRNAs by RNA sequencing in individuals without any known diseases. Our findings are consistent with other recent studies that detect microRNAs and ribosomal RNAs as the major exRNA species in plasma. Similar to other recent studies, we found that the landscape of biofluid microRNA transcriptome is dominated by several abundant microRNAs that appear to comprise conserved extracellular miRNAs. There is reasonable correlation of sets of conserved miRNAs across biological replicates, and even across other data sets obtained at different investigative sites. Conversely, the detection of less abundant miRNAs is far more dependent on the exact methodology of RNA isolation and profiling. This study highlights the challenges in detecting and quantifying less abundant plasma miRNAs in health and disease using RNA sequencing platforms. PMID:28060806

  15. Temporal and spatial expression of Muc2 and Muc5ac mucins during rat respiratory and digestive tracts development.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, V A; Segal-Eiras, A; Barbeito, C G; Croce, M V

    2016-02-01

    Secreted mucins constitute a crucial part of the gel that protects respiratory and digestive epithelia, being MUC2/Muc2 the predominant gel-forming mucin of the intestine while MUC5AC/Muc5ac is one of the gel-forming mucins most expressed at the airways. In this study, we have analyzed Muc2 and Muc5ac during rat development by using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and RT-PCR. We demonstrated that rat Muc2 was expressed in fetal intestinal goblet cells of surface epithelium of villi and developing Lieberkühn crypts. In neonates and adults, Muc2 was expressed at luminal goblet cells of small and large intestine and at gastric mucous and glandular cells. Muc5ac protein was observed in embryonic gastric and lung samples; expression increased during development and postnatal and adult life. After birth, a low reaction was detected at the tracheal surface epithelium and glands, which increased in adults.

  16. Addition of mucin to the growth medium triggers mucus-binding activity in different strains of Lactobacillus reuteri in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, H; Ström, E; Roos, S

    2001-10-16

    We have examined the ability of a number of Lactobacillus reuteri strains to bind immobilised mucus material. After growth in MRS broth, some strains showed high binding activity towards mucus whilst many strains exhibited a very low binding activity. In order to simulate the intestinal milieu, we grew the bacteria in MRS supplemented with the glycoprotein mucin, the main component of mucus. Growth under these conditions dramatically improved the mucus-binding activity of most strains that initially showed very poor binding when grown in MRS broth. In addition, there was a strong induction of mucus binding in some strains after growth on solid substrate as compared to growth in liquid culture. Protease treatment of bacteria grown in the presence of mucin eliminated the adhesion, suggesting that mucin induces the production of cell surface proteins that possess mucus-binding properties.

  17. F18-FDG-PET/CT for evaluation of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN): a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bertagna, Francesco; Treglia, Giorgio; Baiocchi, Gian Luca; Giubbini, Raffaele

    2013-04-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) are intraductal mucin-producing neoplasms with tall columnar, mucin-containing epithelium, with or without papillary projections, involving the main pancreatic duct and/or major side branches. They account for approximately 25 % of all cystic neoplasms and can be subdivided into benign lesions, borderline lesions, and carcinoma. In this clinical scenario accurate preoperative diagnosis can eliminate unnecessary surgery, which is risky and potentially harmful, yet enable effective selection of patients who are candidates for surgery. In this review we try to provide a complete evaluation of the use of F18-FDG-PET/CT for diagnosis of this neoplasm on the basis of published papers. F18-FDG-PET/CT seems to be an useful technique for preoperative work-up of patients with suspected IPMN and is an improvement over conventional imaging in distinguishing benign from malignant lesions, especially for selecting patients for surgical treatment or for long-term follow-up.

  18. Chlorine Abundances in Cool Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maas, Z. G.; Pilachowski, C. A.; Hinkle, K.

    2016-12-01

    Chlorine abundances are reported in 15 evolved giants and 1 M dwarf in the solar neighborhood. The Cl abundance was measured using the vibration-rotation 1-0 P8 line of H35Cl at 3.69851 μm. The high-resolution L-band spectra were observed using the Phoenix infrared spectrometer on the Kitt Peak Mayall 4 m telescope. The average [35Cl/Fe] abundance in stars with -0.72 < [Fe/H] < 0.20 is [35Cl/Fe] = (-0.10 ± 0.15) dex. The mean difference between the [35Cl/Fe] ratios measured in our stars and chemical evolution model values is (0.16 ± 0.15) dex. The [35Cl/Ca] ratio has an offset of ˜0.35 dex above model predictions, suggesting that chemical evolution models are underproducing Cl at the high metallicity range. Abundances of C, N, O, Si, and Ca were also measured in our spectral region and are consistent with F and G dwarfs. The Cl versus O abundances from our sample match Cl abundances measured in planetary nebula and H ii regions. In one star where both H35Cl and H37Cl could be measured, a 35Cl/37Cl isotope ratio of 2.2 ± 0.4 was found, consistent with values found in the Galactic ISM and predicted chemical evolution models.

  19. Reduplication cyst of appendix with mucinous carcinoma and Müllerian metaplasia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sington, J D; Warren, B F; Manek, S

    2002-07-01

    This report describes a case of mucinous carcinoma and Müllerian metaplasia arising within an appendiceal duplication cyst found incidentally during an emergency Caesarian section. Intestinal duplication cysts are rare and although there are occasional reports of malignant transformation, this is the first case where Müllerian metaplasia was found concurrently with a malignancy. There was no previous history of endometriosis and no other abnormalities were found at surgery. Treatment included surgical excision. The patient is alive and well two years after removal of the cyst.

  20. Aberrant Mucin Assembly in Mice Causes Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Spontaneous Inflammation Resembling Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Price, Gareth R; Tauro, Sharyn B; Taupin, Douglas; Thornton, David J; Png, Chin Wen; Crockford, Tanya L; Cornall, Richard J; Adams, Rachel; Kato, Masato; Nelms, Keats A; Hong, Nancy A; Florin, Timothy H. J; Goodnow, Christopher C; McGuckin, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    Background MUC2 mucin produced by intestinal goblet cells is the major component of the intestinal mucus barrier. The inflammatory bowel disease ulcerative colitis is characterized by depleted goblet cells and a reduced mucus layer, but the aetiology remains obscure. In this study we used random mutagenesis to produce two murine models of inflammatory bowel disease, characterised the basis and nature of the inflammation in these mice, and compared the pathology with human ulcerative colitis. Methods and Findings By murine N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis we identified two distinct noncomplementing missense mutations in Muc2 causing an ulcerative colitis-like phenotype. 100% of mice of both strains developed mild spontaneous distal intestinal inflammation by 6 wk (histological colitis scores versus wild-type mice, p < 0.01) and chronic diarrhoea. Monitoring over 300 mice of each strain demonstrated that 25% and 40% of each strain, respectively, developed severe clinical signs of colitis by age 1 y. Mutant mice showed aberrant Muc2 biosynthesis, less stored mucin in goblet cells, a diminished mucus barrier, and increased susceptibility to colitis induced by a luminal toxin. Enhanced local production of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-γ was seen in the distal colon, and intestinal permeability increased 2-fold. The number of leukocytes within mesenteric lymph nodes increased 5-fold and leukocytes cultured in vitro produced more Th1 and Th2 cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-13). This pathology was accompanied by accumulation of the Muc2 precursor and ultrastructural and biochemical evidence of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in goblet cells, activation of the unfolded protein response, and altered intestinal expression of genes involved in ER stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and wound repair. Expression of mutated Muc2 oligomerisation domains in vitro demonstrated that aberrant Muc2 oligomerisation underlies the ER stress. In human ulcerative colitis we demonstrate similar

  1. Reorganisation of the salivary mucin network by dietary components: insights from green tea polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Davies, Heather S; Pudney, Paul D A; Georgiades, Pantelis; Waigh, Thomas A; Hodson, Nigel W; Ridley, Caroline E; Blanch, Ewan W; Thornton, David J

    2014-01-01

    The salivary mucins that include MUC5B (gel-forming) and MUC7 (non-gel-forming) are major contributors to the protective mucus barrier in the oral cavity, and it is possible that dietary components may influence barrier properties. We show how one dietary compound, the green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), can substantially alter the properties of both the polymeric MUC5B network and monomeric MUC7. Using rate-zonal centrifugation, MUC5B in human whole saliva and MUC5B purified from saliva sedimented faster in the presence of EGCG. The faster sedimentation by EGCG was shown to be greater with increasing MUC5B concentration. Particle tracking microrheology was employed to determine the viscosity of purified MUC5B solutions and showed that for MUC5B solutions of 200-1600 µg/mL, EGCG caused a significant increase in mucin viscosity, which was greater at higher MUC5B concentrations. Visualisation of the changes to the MUC5B network by EGCG was performed using atomic force microscopy, which demonstrated increased aggregation of MUC5B in a heterogeneous manner by EGCG. Using trypsin-resistant, high-molecular weight oligosaccharide-rich regions of MUC5B and recombinant N-terminal and C-terminal MUC5B proteins, we showed that EGCG causes aggregation at the protein domains of MUC5B, but not at the oligosaccharide-rich regions of the mucin. We also demonstrated that EGCG caused the majority of MUC7 in human whole saliva to aggregate. Furthermore, purified MUC7 also underwent a large increase in sedimentation rate in the presence of EGCG. In contrast, the green tea polyphenol epicatechin caused no change in the sedimentation rate of either MUC5B or MUC7 in human whole saliva. These findings have demonstrated how the properties of the mucin barrier can be influenced by dietary components. In the case of EGCG, these interactions may alter the function of MUC5B as a lubricant, contributing to the astringency (dry puckering sensation) of green tea.

  2. Dysplastic intestinal-type metaplasia of appendiceal endometriosis: a mimic of low grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We report an example of dysplastic intestinal-type metaplasia involving endometriosis of the appendix in a 45 year old woman. One other example of this phenomenon has been reported. As it occurs within the muscular wall of the appendix, confusion with low grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm (LAMN) may occur. Evidence supporting the metaplastic nature of the intestinal epithelium is offered. As the initial pathological diagnosis was of invasive cancer with perforation of the appendix treatment consisted of peritonectomy and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). Virtual slides The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1068246472111756. PMID:24559059

  3. Primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the larynx in female patient: a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Ebru, Tastekin; Omer, Yalcin; Fulya, Oz Puyan; Ufuk, Usta; Kemal, Kutlu

    2012-10-01

    Laryngeal malignant tumors are mainly composed of squamous cell carcinomas. Glandular carcinomas of the larynx are rare tumors that constitute less than 1% of all laryngeal malignancies where "adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified" is the most common histologic subtype. Here we report a case of a 70-year-old female patient with primary laryngeal mucinous adenocarcinoma. The rarity of the tumor type and the differential diagnosis of this tumor before reporting it as a primary adenocarcinoma of the larynx are discussed here with literature findings.

  4. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas: reporting clinically relevant features.

    PubMed

    Del Chiaro, Marco; Verbeke, Caroline

    2016-11-22

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas can exhibit a wide spectrum of macroscopic and microscopic appearances. This not only causes occasional difficulties for the reporting pathologist in distinguishing these tumours from other lesions, but is also relevant clinically. As evidence accumulates, it becomes clear that multiple macroscopic and histological features of these neoplasms are relevant to the risk for malignant transformation and, consequently, of prime importance for clinical patient management. The need for detailed reporting is therefore increasing. This review discusses the panoply of gross and microscopic features of IPMN as well as the recommendations from recent consensus meetings regarding the pathology reporting on this tumour entity.

  5. Low-Grade Appendiceal Mucinous Neoplasm Presenting as an Adnexal Mass

    PubMed Central

    Panagopoulos, P.; Domi, V.; Christodoulaki, C.; Sioutis, D.; Papantoniou, N.

    2017-01-01

    Appendiceal tumors are rare, late diagnosed neoplasms that may not be differentiated from adnexal masses even by advanced imaging methods and other diagnostic procedures. They may be asymptomatic and remain undiagnosed until surgery. We report a case of an 80-year-old postmenopausal woman presenting with a pelvic mass and a history of weight loss. The patient underwent laparotomy which revealed an appendiceal mucocele, for which she received a full oncological procedure. The histology report showed a low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm, and the patient underwent six cycles of chemotherapy. Appendiceal tumors should be kept in mind in patients with adnexal mass. PMID:28286683

  6. Signet-ring cell (mucin-producing) adenocarcinomas of minor salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Ghannoum, Julien E; Freedman, Paul D

    2004-01-01

    We report seven cases of minor salivary gland carcinomas characterized by the marked presence of mucin-containing signet-ring cells. These tumors were distinctive in their microscopic appearance and displayed features not seen in any other type of salivary gland malignancy. They typically exhibited invasive growth by narrow parallel strands, randomly scattered small nests, or individually infiltrating cells. Solid, cribriform, or targetoid areas were absent, as well as papillary components. Ductal differentiation was minimal, and seen in only four cases. Degrees of cellularity varied from one area to another. The tumors were cytologically bland. We think that these tumors represent a unique subset of intraoral minor salivary gland carcinomas.

  7. A Rare Case of Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Colon Presenting as Ileoileal Intussusception in an Adult

    PubMed Central

    Chand, Prakash; Patel, Avani A.; Cervellione, Kelly L.; Sulh, Muhammed

    2012-01-01

    Intussusception is the cause of around 1% of all bowel obstructions in adults. Unlike in children, where intussusception is most often idiopathic in nature, cases in adults usually have an identifiable etiology, most commonly malignancy. Symptoms are usually non-specific, but timely identification and management is crucial due to high rates of carcinoma as the lead point of intussusception. Here we present a rare case of mucinous adenocarcinoma of the colon that presented as ileoileal intussusception. Diagnostic and treatment issues are also discussed. PMID:22454643

  8. Toll-like receptor signaling for the induction of mucin expression by lipopolysaccharide in the hen vagina.

    PubMed

    Ariyadi, B; Isobe, N; Yoshimura, Y

    2014-03-01

    We previously reported that bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a ligand of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), induced mucin mRNA to enhance the mucosal barrier in the hen vagina. The aim of this study was to determine the intracellular signaling molecules for that mucin induction, and the effect of molting and estrogen on their expression. The expression of TLR4, its adaptor molecules, and transcriptional factors in the vaginal mucosa of laying and molting hens treated with or without estradiol was examined by reverse-transcription PCR. The expression of mucin in the cultured mucosal tissue stimulated by LPS together with inhibitors of transcriptional factors was analyzed by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. The expression of TLR4, its adaptor molecule, namely, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) or Toll-interleukin 1 receptor domain-containing adaptor-inducing IFN-β (TRIF), and transcriptional factors, namely, cFos and cJun, declined in molting hens compared with that in laying hens, and were upregulated by estradiol. In vagina of laying hens, mucin expression was upregulated by LPS, whereas it was suppressed by inhibitors of transcriptional factors, namely, ALLN (an inhibitor of IκB proteolysis), BAY-117085 (an NFκB inhibitor), U0126 [a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor], and transhinone IIA [an activated protein 1 (AP-1) inhibitor]. These results suggest that a MyD88-dependent pathway downstream of TLR4 and transcriptional factors of NFκB and AP-1 participate in the induction of mucin expression by LPS in the vaginal mucosa. These signaling functions may decline during molting owing to the decline in the level of circulating estrogen. Such mucin expression system may play a role in the mucosal barrier against infection in the vaginal mucosa.

  9. Comparison of acid mucin goblet cell distribution and Hox13 expression patterns in the developing vertebrate digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Theodosiou, Nicole A; Hall, Daniel A; Jowdry, Andrea L

    2007-07-15

    The digestive tract of vertebrates is a complex organ system required for the digestion of food and the absorption of nutrients. The colon evolved as a water absorption organ essential for vertebrates to survive on land. In contrast to land vertebrates, the Chondrichthyes (sharks, skates and rays) are nearly iso-osmotic with their ocean environment and do not reabsorb water from food waste. To understand the origin of the vertebrate colon, we examined the distribution of sulfated and sialyated mucus-producing cells in the little skate, Raja erinacea, as an indication of water absorption function in the chondrichthian digestive tract. The percentage of acid mucin producing goblet cells was analyzed in the spiral valve and hindgut of little skate and the small intestine and colon of mouse embryos. Levels of acid mucins in the hindgut of the little skate was comparable to that of the small intestines of terrestrial vertebrates, whereas the distal region of the spiral valve contained high levels of acid mucin producing cells similar to the colon of mouse and chick. The low numbers of acid mucins in the little skate hindgut confirms that a functional colon for water absorption is absent in the Chondrichthyes. Interestingly, the presence of high levels of acid mucins in the posterior spiral valve provides evidence for a possible primordial water-absorbing organ in the elasmobranchs. Hoxd13 patterns acid mucins in the colons of terrestrial vertebrates. Expression of Hoxd13 and Hoxa13 in R. erinacea suggests conserved roles for Hox genes in patterning the early hindgut.

  10. The role of crude saliva and purified salivary mucins in the inhibition of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sub-Saharan Africa is the world’s worst HIV-AIDS affected region. More interventions to manage this pandemic are urgently required. Transmission of the virus through an exchange of saliva is rarely known to occur. This project sought to verify statistically previous findings in our laboratory, that crude saliva from uninfected individuals together with its purified mucin components inhibited HIV-1, whilst mucins from infected saliva did not show this inhibition, in an in vitro assay. Methods Saliva was extracted in 4 M guanidinium hydrochloride and proteolytic inhibitors at pH 6.5, followed by the isolation of MUC5B and MUC7 by Sepharose 4B gel filtration and further purification of these mucins by density-gradient ultra-centrifugation in caesium chloride. Agarose gel electrophoresis, Western blotting and amino acid compositional analysis determined the size, purity and identity of the mucins. The inhibitory activity of crude saliva and purified MUC5B and MUC7, from HIV negative (n=20) and HIV positive (n=20) donors, was tested by their incubation with subtype C HIV-1 and subsequent infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). PCR was done on tandem repeat regions of MUC5B and MUC7 DNA to investigate whether any association existed between gene polymorphism and susceptibility to infection. Results There was an inter-individual variation in the amounts of MUC5B and MUC7 in saliva. In contrast to previous studies, crude saliva and purified mucins from both HIV negative and HIV positive individuals inhibited the infection of HIV-1 in an in vitro assay. DNA analysis of the tandem repeat regions of MUC5B and MUC7 revealed no difference between groups. Conclusions Crude saliva and its mucins, MUC5B and MUC7, from both uninfected controls and HIV positive individuals inhibited HIV-1 in an in vitro assay. PMID:22929306

  11. The degree of polymerization of inulin-like fructans affects cecal mucin and immunoglobulin A in rats.

    PubMed

    Ito, H; Wada, T; Ohguchi, M; Sugiyama, K; Kiriyama, S; Morita, T

    2008-04-01

    Cecal amounts of mucin and immunoglobulin A (IgA) were examined through the cecal fermentation pattern in Wistar (WS) or Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats fed inulin-type fructans differing in their degree of polymerization (DP). The animals were fed a control diet or a diet containing one of the fructans with an average DP of 4, 8, 16, or 23, at 60 g/kg diet for 10 d. Cecal fermentation products substantially differed between WS and SD rats fed DP8 fructan, with short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) as the major organic acids in the former but lactate predominating in the latter. Cecal fermentability of fructans in both strains generally decreased with increasing DP of fructans, and this was especially manifest in reduction of the amounts of lactate in DP16 and 23. In WS rats, cecal mucin and IgA were greater in all fructan groups than in the control group. In SD rats, cecal mucin was greater only in the DP8, 16, and 23 groups as compared to the control group, while IgA was greater in the DP4 and 8 groups. In both strains, cecal mucin correlated with the sum of cecal SCFAs, but not with lactate, succinate, or total organic acids. In contrast, only cecal lactate correlated with cecal IgA in both strains. The present study shows that the different fermentation patterns of fructans affect cecal mucin and IgA; mucin is likely to respond to cecal SCFA production, whereas IgA increases when fermentation occurs rapidly and lactate is a major fermentation product.

  12. Effect of Dietary Exogenous Enzyme Supplementation on Enteric Mucosal Morphological Development and Adherent Mucin Thickness in Turkeys

    PubMed Central

    Ayoola, Ayuub A.; Malheiros, Ramon D.; Grimes, Jesse L.; Ferket, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    Anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) in feed ingredients can challenge gut health and reduce nutrient utilization. Birds typically activate their innate immune system as a protective response against the adverse effects of ANF, which often involves the secretion of mucin. Although dietary supplementation of exogenous enzymes are commonly used to alleviate the adverse effects of ANF on apparent nutrient digestibility, little is known about how they affect gut health, particularly in relation to the morphological development and mucin secretion of enteric mucosa. We carried out two trials to examine the effect of dietary supplementation of different types of exogenous enzymes on gut health of by accessing the effect of jejunum morphological development and ileal enteric adherent mucin thickness layer in turkeys. Dietary β-mannanase supplementation reduced ileal adherent mucin thickness layer (804 vs 823 μg/g; p < 0.05), while a commercial blend of xylanase, amylase, and protease (XAP) reduced ileal adherent mucin layer thickness (589 vs 740 μg/g; p < 0.05); thus reducing the apparent endogenous loss of nutrients. Both enzyme supplements also affected gut morphological characteristics. In comparison to the control treatment, dietary β-mannanase supplementation improved the jejunum tip width (219 vs 161; p < 0.05), base width (367 vs 300; p < 0.05), surface area (509,870 vs 380, 157; p < 0.05) and villi height/crypt depth ratio (7.49 vs 5.70; p < 0.05), and XAP improved the crypt depth (p < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary supplementation of exogenous enzymes may help alleviate the adverse effects of ANF on nutrient utilization by directly or indirectly removing the mucosal irritation that stimulates enteric mucin secretion. PMID:26664972

  13. Whey protein mucoadhesive properties for oral drug delivery: Mucin-whey protein interaction and mucoadhesive bond strength.

    PubMed

    Hsein, Hassana; Garrait, Ghislain; Beyssac, Eric; Hoffart, Valérie

    2015-12-01

    Whey protein is a natural polymer recently used as an excipient in buccoadhesive tablets but its mucoadhesive properties were barely studied. In this work, we characterize mucoadhesion of whey protein in order to determine the mechanisms and optimal conditions for use as excipient in oral drug delivery. Thus, native and denatured whey protein (NWP and DWP) were investigated and the effect of concentration and pH were also studied. Many methods of characterization were selected to allow the study of chemical and physical interactions with mucin and then the results were bound with an ex vivo experiments. Turbidity of WP-mucin mixture increased at acidic pH 1.2 till 4.5 indicating interaction with mucin but not at pH 6.8. No interaction with mucin was also found by ITC method at pH 6.8 for native and denatured whey protein used at 1% (w/w). Forces of bioadhesion evaluated by viscosity measurements were the best for high concentrated (10.8%) DWP solutions at pH 6.8 and were low at pH 1.2 for NWP and DWP solutions. Addition of chemical blockers indicated that hydrogen bondings and disulfide bridges were the main mechanisms of interactions with mucin. Reticulation of DWP with calcium ions to obtain microparticles (MP) did not influence the ability of interaction with mucin as shown by FTIR analysis. These results correlated with ex vivo study on rat tissue demonstrating important adhesion (75%) of WP MP on the intestine and null on the stomach after 2h of deposit.

  14. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Go Viral

    PubMed Central

    Schönrich, Günther; Raftery, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils are the most numerous immune cells. Their importance as the first line of defense against bacterial and fungal pathogens is well described. In contrast, the role of neutrophils in controlling viral infections is less clear. Bacterial and fungal pathogens can stimulate neutrophils extracellular traps (NETs) in a process called NETosis. Although NETosis has previously been described as a special form of programmed cell death, there are forms of NET production that do not end with the demise of neutrophils. As an end result of NETosis, genomic DNA complexed with microbicidal proteins is expelled from neutrophils. These structures can kill pathogens or at least prevent their local spread within host tissue. On the other hand, disproportionate NET formation can cause local or systemic damage. Only recently, it was recognized that viruses can also induce NETosis. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms by which NETs are produced in the context of viral infection and how this may contribute to both antiviral immunity and immunopathology. Finally, we shed light on viral immune evasion mechanisms targeting NETs. PMID:27698656

  15. Extracellular Matrix and Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Arriazu, Elena; Ruiz de Galarreta, Marina; Cubero, Francisco Javier; Varela-Rey, Marta; Pérez de Obanos, María Pilar; Leung, Tung Ming; Lopategi, Aritz; Benedicto, Aitor; Abraham-Enachescu, Ioana

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a dynamic microenvironment that undergoes continuous remodeling, particularly during injury and wound healing. Chronic liver injury of many different etiologies such as viral hepatitis, alcohol abuse, drug-induced liver injury, obesity and insulin resistance, metabolic disorders, and autoimmune disease is characterized by excessive deposition of ECM proteins in response to persistent liver damage. Critical Issues: This review describes the main collagenous and noncollagenous components from the ECM that play a significant role in pathological matrix deposition during liver disease. We define how increased myofibroblasts (MF) from different origins are at the forefront of liver fibrosis and how liver cell-specific regulation of the complex scarring process occurs. Recent Advances: Particular attention is paid to the role of cytokines, growth factors, reactive oxygen species, and newly identified matricellular proteins in the regulation of fibrillar type I collagen, a field to which our laboratory has significantly contributed over the years. We compile data from recent literature on the potential mechanisms driving fibrosis resolution such as MF’ apoptosis, senescence, and reversal to quiescence. Future Directions: We conclude with a brief description of how epigenetics, an evolving field, can regulate the behavior of MF and of how new “omics” tools may advance our understanding of the mechanisms by which the fibrogenic response to liver injury occurs. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 1078–1097. PMID:24219114

  16. Extracellular Control of Limb Regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calve, S.; Simon, H.-G.

    Adult newts possess the ability to completely regenerate organs and appendages. Immediately after limb loss, the extracellular matrix (ECM) undergoes dramatic changes that may provide mechanical and biochemical cues to guide the formation of the blastema, which is comprised of uncommitted stem-like cells that proliferate to replace the lost structure. Skeletal muscle is a known reservoir for blastema cells but the mechanism by which it contributes progenitor cells is still unclear. To create physiologically relevant culture conditions for the testing of primary newt muscle cells in vitro, the spatio-temporal distribution of ECM components and the mechanical properties of newt muscle were analyzed. Tenascin-C and hyaluronic acid (HA) were found to be dramatically upregulated in the amputated limb and were co-expressed around regenerating skeletal muscle. The transverse stiffness of muscle measured in situ was used as a guide to generate silicone-based substrates of physiological stiffness. Culturing newt muscle cells under different conditions revealed that the cells are sensitive to both matrix coating and substrate stiffness: Myoblasts on HA-coated soft substrates display a rounded morphology and become more elongated as the stiffness of the substrate increases. Coating of soft substrates with matrigel or fibronectin enhanced cell spreading and eventual cell fusion.

  17. Extracellular vesicles in parasitic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Marcilla, Antonio; Martin-Jaular, Lorena; Trelis, Maria; de Menezes-Neto, Armando; Osuna, Antonio; Bernal, Dolores; Fernandez-Becerra, Carmen; Almeida, Igor C.; del Portillo, Hernando A.

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic diseases affect billions of people and are considered a major public health issue. Close to 400 species are estimated to parasitize humans, of which around 90 are responsible for great clinical burden and mortality rates. Unfortunately, they are largely neglected as they are mainly endemic to poor regions. Of relevance to this review, there is accumulating evidence of the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in parasitic diseases, acting both in parasite–parasite inter-communication as well as in parasite–host interactions. EVs participate in the dissemination of the pathogen and play a role in the regulation of the host immune systems. Production of EVs from parasites or parasitized cells has been described for a number of parasitic infections. In this review, we provide the most relevant findings of the involvement of EVs in intercellular communication, modulation of immune responses, involvement in pathology, and their potential as new diagnostic tools and therapeutic agents in some of the major human parasitic pathogens. PMID:25536932

  18. Small intestinal goblet cell proliferation induced by ingestion of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber is characterized by an increase in sialylated mucins in rats.

    PubMed

    Hino, Shingo; Takemura, Naoki; Sonoyama, Kei; Morita, Akio; Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Aoe, Seiichiro; Morita, Tatsuya

    2012-08-01

    The study aimed to examine the effects of insoluble and soluble fibers on mucin sialylation and sulfation in the small intestine. First, diets containing soluble [konjac mannan (KM), psyllium, or guar gum; 50 g/kg) or insoluble (polystyrene foam, wheat bran, or cornhusk; 80 g/kg) fiber were fed to rats for 13 d. The fiber-fed groups had more goblet cells in the ileum than the fiber-free control group. High-iron diamine/alcian blue staining showed more sialylated mucin-producing cells in the fiber-fed groups than in the control, whereas sulfated mucin-producing cells were fewer (insoluble fibers) or unchanged (soluble fibers). Second, feeding KM (50 g/kg) and beet fiber (BF) (80 g/kg) diets for 7 d yielded a higher ileum Siat4C expression than the control, but Gal3ST2 and Gal3ST4 expression was comparable. Luminal mucin content correlated with sialic acid (r = 0.96; P < 0.001) or sulfate (r = 0.62; P < 0.01), but the slope of the sialic acid-derived equation was greater than that of the sulfate-derived equation, indicating a preferred increase in sialylated mucins. Third, rats were fed the control diet for 10 d while receiving antibiotic treatment. Analysis of the luminal mucin showed that sialylated mucins were more vulnerable to bacterial degradation than sulfated mucins. Finally, a study of bromo-deoxyuridine incorporation in rats fed a BF diet indicated that goblet cell proliferation accompanied by increased sialylated mucin appeared to be related to accelerated ileal epithelial cell migration. We conclude that intestinal goblet cell responses to insoluble and soluble fibers are characterized by increases in sialylated mucin production.

  19. Potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus (HN001), Lactobacillus acidophilus (HN017) and Bifidobacterium lactis (HN019) do not degrade gastric mucin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J S; Gopal, P K; Gill, H S

    2001-01-22

    The mucus layer (mucin) coating the surface of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) plays an important role in the mucosal barrier system. Any damage or disturbance of this mucin layer will compromise the host's mucosal defence function. In the present study, the ability of three potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains (Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001, Lactobacillus acidophilus HN017, Bifidobacterium lactis HN019) to degrade mucin in vitro was evaluated, in order to assess their potential pathogenicity and local toxicity. The LAB strains were incubated in medium containing hog gastric mucin (HGM, 0.3%) at 37 degrees C for 48 h, following which any decrease in carbohydrate and protein concentration in the ethanol-precipitated portion of the culture medium was determined, using phenol-sulphuric acid and bicinchonic acid (BCA) protein assays, respectively. The change in molecular weight of mucin glycoproteins, following incubation with the test strains, was monitored by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). In order to expose any ability of the test strains to degrade mucin visually and more directly, the test strains were also cultured on agarose containing 0.3% HGM and incubated anaerobically for 72 h at 37 degrees C. No significant change in the carbohydrate or protein concentration in mucin substrates was found following incubation with the test strains. No mucin fragments were derived from the mucin suspension incubated with test strains, and no mucinolysis zone was identified on agarose. These results demonstrate that the potential probiotic LAB strains tested here were unable to degrade gastrointestinal mucin in vitro, which suggests that these novel probiotic candidates are likely to be non-invasive and non-toxic at the mucosal interface.

  20. Extracellular vesicles in coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Boulanger, Chantal M; Loyer, Xavier; Rautou, Pierre-Emmanuel; Amabile, Nicolas

    2017-02-02

    Membrane vesicles released in the extracellular space are composed of a lipid bilayer enclosing soluble cytosolic material and nuclear components. Extracellular vesicles include apoptotic bodies, exosomes, and microvesicles (also known previously as microparticles). Originating from different subcellular compartments, the role of extracellular vesicles as regulators of transfer of biological information, acting locally and remotely, is now acknowledged. Circulating vesicles released from platelets, erythrocytes, leukocytes, and endothelial cells contain potential valuable biological information for biomarker discovery in primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease. Extracellular vesicles also accumulate in human atherosclerotic plaques, where they affect major biological pathways, including inflammation, proliferation, thrombosis, calcification, and vasoactive responses. Extracellular vesicles also recapitulate the beneficial effect of stem cells to treat cardiac consequences of acute myocardial infarction, and now emerge as an attractive alternative to cell therapy, opening new avenues to vectorize biological information to target tissues. Although interest in microvesicles in the cardiovascular field emerged about 2 decades ago, that for extracellular vesicles, in particular exosomes, started to unfold a decade ago, opening new research and therapeutic avenues. This Review summarizes current knowledge on the role of extracellular vesicles in coronary artery disease, and their emerging potential as biomarkers and therapeutic agents.

  1. Macromolecularly crowded in vitro microenvironments accelerate the production of extracellular matrix-rich supramolecular assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pramod; Satyam, Abhigyan; Fan, Xingliang; Collin, Estelle; Rochev, Yury; Rodriguez, Brian J.; Gorelov, Alexander; Dillon, Simon; Joshi, Lokesh; Raghunath, Michael; Pandit, Abhay; Zeugolis, Dimitrios I.

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic strategies based on the principles of tissue engineering by self-assembly put forward the notion that functional regeneration can be achieved by utilising the inherent capacity of cells to create highly sophisticated supramolecular assemblies. However, in dilute ex vivo microenvironments, prolonged culture time is required to develop an extracellular matrix-rich implantable device. Herein, we assessed the influence of macromolecular crowding, a biophysical phenomenon that regulates intra- and extra-cellular activities in multicellular organisms, in human corneal fibroblast culture. In the presence of macromolecules, abundant extracellular matrix deposition was evidenced as fast as 48 h in culture, even at low serum concentration. Temperature responsive copolymers allowed the detachment of dense and cohesive supramolecularly assembled living substitutes within 6 days in culture. Morphological, histological, gene and protein analysis assays demonstrated maintenance of tissue-specific function. Macromolecular crowding opens new avenues for a more rational design in engineering of clinically relevant tissue modules in vitro. PMID:25736020

  2. Proteomics of extracellular vesicles: Exosomes and ectosomes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong-Sic; Kim, Dae-Kyum; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Gho, Yong Song

    2015-01-01

    Almost all bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotic cells shed extracellular vesicles either constitutively or in a regulated manner. These nanosized membrane vesicles are spherical, bilayered proteolipids that harbor specific subsets of proteins, DNAs, RNAs, and lipids. Recent research has facilitated conceptual advancements in this emerging field that indicate that extracellular vesicles act as intercellular communicasomes by transferring signals to their target cell via surface ligands and delivering receptors and functional molecules. Recent progress in mass spectrometry-based proteomic analyses of mammalian extracellular vesicles derived from diverse cell types and body fluids has resulted in the identification of several thousand vesicular proteins that provide us with essential clues to the molecular mechanisms involved in vesicle cargo sorting and biogenesis. Furthermore, cell-type- or disease-specific vesicular proteins help us to understand the pathophysiological functions of extracellular vesicles and contribute to the discovery of diagnostic and therapeutic target proteins. This review focuses on the high-throughput mass spectrometry-based proteomic analyses of mammalian extracellular vesicles (i.e., exosomes and ectosomes), EVpedia (a free web-based integrated database of high-throughput data for systematic analyses of extracellular vesicles; http://evpedia.info), and the intravesicular protein-protein interaction network analyses of mammalian extracellular vesicles. The goal of this article is to encourage further studies to construct a comprehensive proteome database for extracellular vesicles that will help us to not only decode the biogenesis and cargo-sorting mechanisms during vesicle formation but also elucidate the pathophysiological roles of these complex extracellular organelles.

  3. Electrochemiluminescence Biosensor Based on 3-D DNA Nanomachine Signal Probe Powered by Protein-Aptamer Binding Complex for Ultrasensitive Mucin 1 Detection.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xinya; Wang, Haijun; Wang, Huijun; Zhuo, Ying; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin

    2017-04-04

    Herein, we fabricated a novel electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor for ultrasensitive detection of mucin 1 (MUC1) based on a three-dimensional (3-D) DNA nanomachine signal probe powered by protein-aptamer binding complex. The assembly of 3-D DNA nanomachine signal probe achieved the cyclic reuse of target protein based on the protein-aptamer binding complex induced catalyzed hairpin assembly (CHA), which overcame the shortcoming of protein conversion with enzyme cleavage or polymerization in the traditional examination of protein. In addition, CoFe2O4, a mimic peroxidase, was used as the nanocarrier of the 3-D DNA nanomachine signal probe to catalyze the decomposition of coreactant H2O2 to generate numerous reactive hydroxyl radical OH(•) as the efficient accelerator of N-(aminobutyl)-N-(ethylisoluminol) (ABEI) ECL reaction to amplify the luminescence signal. Simultaneously, the assembly of 3-D DNA nanomachine signal probe was executed in solution, which led to abundant luminophore ABEI be immobilized around the CoFe2O4 surface with amplified ECL signal output since the CHA reaction was occurred unencumberedly in all directions under homogeneous environment. The prepared ECL biosensor showed a favorable linear response for MUC1 detection with a relatively low detection limit of 0.62 fg mL(-1). With excellent sensitivity, the strategy may provide an efficient method for clinical application, especially in trace protein determination.

  4. Identification of a polymorphic mucin-like gene expressed in the midgut of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti, using an integrated bulked segregant and differential display analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Morlais, I; Severson, D W

    2001-01-01

    The identification of putative differentially expressed genes within genome regions containing QTL determining susceptibility of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti, to the malarial parasite, Plasmodium gallinaceum, was investigated using an integrated, targeted approach based on bulked segregant and differential display analysis. A mosquito F2 population was obtained from pairwise matings between the parasite-susceptible RED strain and the resistant MOYO-R substrain. DNA from female carcasses was used to genotype individuals at RFLP markers of known chromosomal position around the major QTL (pgs 1). Midguts, dissected 48 hr after an infected blood meal, were used to prepare two RNA bulks, each representing one of the parental genotypes at the QTL interval. The RNA bulks were compared by differential display PCR. A mucin-like protein gene (AeIMUC1) was isolated and characterized. The gene maps within the pgs 1 QTL interval and is expressed in the adult female midgut. AeIMUC1 RNA abundance decreased with time after blood meal ingestion. No differential expression was observed between the two mosquito strains but three different alleles with inter- and intrastrain allelic polymorphisms including indels and SNPs were characterized. The AeIMUC1 gene chromosome location and allelic polymorphisms raise the possibility that the protein might be involved in parasite-mosquito interactions. PMID:11454761

  5. Relic DNA is abundant in soil and obscures estimates of soil microbial diversity.

    PubMed

    Carini, Paul; Marsden, Patrick J; Leff, Jonathan W; Morgan, Emily E; Strickland, Michael S; Fierer, Noah

    2016-12-19

    Extracellular DNA from dead microorganisms can persist in soil for weeks to years(1-3). Although it is implicitly assumed that the microbial DNA recovered from soil predominantly represents intact cells, it is unclear how extracellular DNA affects molecular analyses of microbial diversity. We examined a wide range of soils using viability PCR based on the photoreactive DNA-intercalating dye propidium monoazide(4). We found that, on average, 40% of both prokaryotic and fungal DNA was extracellular or from cells that were no longer intact. Extracellular DNA inflated the observed prokaryotic and fungal richness by up to 55% and caused significant misestimation of taxon relative abundances, including the relative abundances of taxa integral to key ecosystem processes. Extracellular DNA was not found in measurable amounts in all soils; it was more likely to be present in soils with low exchangeable base cation concentrations, and the effect of its removal on microbial community structure was more profound in high-pH soils. Together, these findings imply that this 'relic DNA' remaining in soil after cell death can obscure treatment effects, spatiotemporal patterns and relationships between microbial taxa and environmental conditions.

  6. Mitogenic properties of major extracellular proteins.

    PubMed

    Lévesque, J P; Hatzfeld, A; Hatzfeld, J

    1991-08-01

    The major plasma and extracellular matrix proteins are multifunctional molecules. Some, such as fibrinogen or C3, have one domain that binds adhesion receptors and another that specifically binds and activates a separate, mitogenic receptor. In this review, Jean-Pierre Lévesque, Antoinette Hatzfeld and Jacques Hatzfeld describe adhesion and mitogenic receptors that bind to distinct domains of the same extracellular matrix protein and discuss the possibility of common ancestral genes for cell adhesion molecules, extracellular matrix proteins, integrins, immunoglobulins, growth factors and their receptors.

  7. Irinotecan-induced mucositis manifesting as diarrhoea corresponds with an amended intestinal flora and mucin profile

    PubMed Central

    Stringer, Andrea M; Gibson, Rachel J; Bowen, Joanne M; Logan, Richard M; Ashton, Kimberly; Yeoh, Ann SJ; Al-Dasooqi, Noor; Keefe, Dorothy MK

    2009-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced diarrhoea is a major oncological problem, caused by the cytotoxic effects of cancer chemotherapy. Irinotecan is linked with severe mucositis and diarrhoea, the mechanisms of which remain poorly understood. Bacterial β-glucuronidase is thought to be involved in the metabolism of irinotecan, implicating the intestinal flora. Intestinal mucins may also be implicated in the development of chemotherapy-induced diarrhoea. Rats were treated with 200 mg/kg of irinotecan and killed at 96, 120 and 144 h. The rats were monitored for diarrhoea. Pathology and immunohistochemical staining was performed. The samples were cultured and faecal DNA was analysed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Severe diarrhoea was observed from 72 to 96 h. A decrease in body mass was also observed after treatment. Significant changes in goblet cell numbers (both complete and cavitated cells) were observed in the small and large intestines. Changes in MUC gene expression were observed in the small intestine only. Modifications were observed to the intestinal flora profile, especially Escherichia coli, and an increase in the expression of β-glucuronidase was detected. In conclusion, irinotecan-induced diarrhoea may be caused by an increase in some β-glucuronidase-producing bacteria, especially E. coli, exacerbating the toxicity of active metabolites. Accelerated mucous secretion and mucin release may also contribute to the delayed onset of diarrhoea. PMID:19765103

  8. Bile Salts Modulate the Mucin-Activated Type VI Secretion System of Pandemic Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Unterweger, Daniel; Diaz-Satizabal, Laura; Ogg, Stephen; Pukatzki, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The causative agent of cholera, Vibrio cholerae, regulates its diverse virulence factors to thrive in the human small intestine and environmental reservoirs. Among this pathogen’s arsenal of virulence factors is the tightly regulated type VI secretion system (T6SS). This system acts as an inverted bacteriophage to inject toxins into competing bacteria and eukaryotic phagocytes. V. cholerae strains responsible for the current 7th pandemic activate their T6SS within the host. We established that T6SS-mediated competition occurs upon T6SS activation in the infant mouse, and that this system is functional under anaerobic conditions. When investigating the intestinal host factors mucins (a glycoprotein component of mucus) and bile for potential regulatory roles in controlling the T6SS, we discovered that once mucins activate the T6SS, bile acids can further modulate T6SS activity. Microbiota modify bile acids to inhibit T6SS-mediated killing of commensal bacteria. This interplay is a novel interaction between commensal bacteria, host factors, and the V. cholerae T6SS, showing an active host role in infection. PMID:26317760

  9. Function of the CysD domain of the gel-forming MUC2 mucin

    PubMed Central

    Ambort, Daniel; van der Post, Sjoerd; Johansson, Malin E. V.; MacKenzie, Jenny; Thomsson, Elisabeth; Krengel, Ute; Hansson, Gunnar C.

    2011-01-01

    The colonic human MUC2 mucin forms a polymeric gel by covalent disulfide bonds in its N- and C-termini. The middle part of MUC2 is largely composed of two highly O-glycosylated mucin domains that are interrupted by a CysD domain of unknown function. We studied its function as recombinant proteins fused to a removable immunoglobulin Fc domain. Analysis of affinity-purified fusion proteins by native gel electrophoresis and gel filtration showed that they formed oligomeric complexes. Analysis of the individual isolated CysD parts showed that they formed dimers both when flanked by two MUC2 tandem repeats and without these. Cleavages of the two non-reduced CysD fusion proteins and analysis by MS revealed the localization of all five CysD disulfide bonds and that the predicted C-mannosylated site was not glycosylated. All disulfide bonds were within individual peptides showing that the domain was stabilized by intramolecular disulfide bonds and that CysD dimers were of non-covalent nature. These observations suggest that CysD domains act as non-covalent cross-links in the MUC2 gel, thereby determining the pore sizes of the mucus. PMID:21338337

  10. Irinotecan-induced mucositis manifesting as diarrhoea corresponds with an amended intestinal flora and mucin profile.

    PubMed

    Stringer, Andrea M; Gibson, Rachel J; Bowen, Joanne M; Logan, Richard M; Ashton, Kimberly; Yeoh, Ann S J; Al-Dasooqi, Noor; Keefe, Dorothy M K

    2009-10-01

    Chemotherapy-induced diarrhoea is a major oncological problem, caused by the cytotoxic effects of cancer chemotherapy. Irinotecan is linked with severe mucositis and diarrhoea, the mechanisms of which remain poorly understood. Bacterial beta-glucuronidase is thought to be involved in the metabolism of irinotecan, implicating the intestinal flora. Intestinal mucins may also be implicated in the development of chemotherapy-induced diarrhoea. Rats were treated with 200 mg/kg of irinotecan and killed at 96, 120 and 144 h. The rats were monitored for diarrhoea. Pathology and immunohistochemical staining was performed. The samples were cultured and faecal DNA was analysed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Severe diarrhoea was observed from 72 to 96 h. A decrease in body mass was also observed after treatment. Significant changes in goblet cell numbers (both complete and cavitated cells) were observed in the small and large intestines. Changes in MUC gene expression were observed in the small intestine only. Modifications were observed to the intestinal flora profile, especially Escherichia coli, and an increase in the expression of beta-glucuronidase was detected. In conclusion, irinotecan-induced diarrhoea may be caused by an increase in some beta-glucuronidase-producing bacteria, especially E. coli, exacerbating the toxicity of active metabolites. Accelerated mucous secretion and mucin release may also contribute to the delayed onset of diarrhoea.

  11. In vivo imaging of the Muc5b gel-forming mucin

    PubMed Central

    Portal, Céline; Gouyer, Valérie; Magnien, Mylène; Plet, Ségolène; Gottrand, Frédéric; Desseyn, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-01

    Gel-forming mucins are macromolecules produced by goblet cells and responsible for the mucus gel formation. Changes in goblet cell density and in gel-forming mucin production have emerged as sensitive indicators for mucosal diseases. A Muc5b-GFP tagged reporter mouse was used to assess Muc5b production in mouse tissues by immunofluorescence microscopy and fluorescent activity using stereromicroscopy and probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy. Muc5b production was followed longitudinally by recording the fluorescent activity in vagina and in embryonic lung explants under stimulation by interleukin 13. We show that the GFP is easily visualized in the mouse adult ear, nose, trachea, gallbladder, and cervix. Live Muc5b is also easily monitored in the nasal cavity, trachea and vagina where its production varies during the estrus cycle with a peak at the proestrus phase and in pregnant mice. Explant culture of reporter mouse embryonic whole lung shows that interleukin 13 stimulates Muc5b production. The transgenic Muc5b-GFP mouse is unique and suitable to study the mechanisms that regulate Muc5b production/secretion and mucous cell differentiation by live imaging and can be applied to test drug efficacy in mucosal disease models. PMID:28294161

  12. Capillary thinning and breakup of saliva threads and rheological aging of mucin solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Caroline; Bourouiba, Lydia; McKinley, Gareth

    2014-11-01

    The elasticity of saliva, which is essential for many of its primary functions such as lubrication, arises largely as a result of the presence of MUC5B mucins. These are large glycoproteins composed of numerous repeated polymeric subunits forming a weakly crosslinked network. It has been noted for nearly a century that once removed from the mouth, saliva quickly loses its elasticity, which can be quantified by a decrease in its capillary breakup time. We model saliva as a dilute finitely extensible nonlinear elastic (FENE-P) fluid with polymer chains composed of dispersed Hookean dumbbells of maximum extensibility b related to the number of MUC5B subunits. We show that under conditions of simple elongational flow, an analytic prediction of the time evolution of the radius and the filament breakup time can be derived. Furthermore, our model shows that decreasing the maximum extensibility b leads to a decrease in the breakup time, which suggests that the aging process of saliva outside the mouth involves a shortening of the MUC5B mucin chains into smaller groupings. Finally, we compare the analytic breakup times from the model with experimental results obtained using a capillary breakup extensional rheometer and human whole saliva.

  13. Detection of the tumor marker mucine with a diode-laser-based evanescent wave sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Daniel; Kaul, Sepp; Loescher, Frank; Ruckstuhl, Thomas; Schulz, V.; Ueberfeld, J.; Seeger, Stefan

    1996-11-01

    Optical sensors based on the utilization of the evanescent field arising at the interface between two media in the case of total internal reflection are an excellent tool for the reduction of time consuming and complex chemical analysis. We developed a fiber-optic based set-up with visible diode lasers as excitation sources. As recognition element an optical fiber covered with a photopolymerized antibody monolayer was used. Beside the commercially available cyanine fluorescent dye Cy 5, newly developed fluorescent dyes in the red spectral region were coupled to antibodies. In order to test the set-up in a clinically relevant system the antibodies BM-2 and BM-7 were chosen. With this antibody system the tumor marker mucine in a sandwich immunoassay was investigated. This protein shows increased concentrations in serum and ascites in the case of breast cancer. The combination of semiconductor devices and ultrathin antibody layers together with an antibody system directed against mucine offers the possibility of an on-line detection of the tumor marker.

  14. [Perianal mucinous adenocarcinoma. A further reason for histological study of anal fistula or anorectal abscess].

    PubMed

    Marti, L; Nussbaumer, P; Breitbach, T; Hollinger, A

    2001-05-01

    A 39-year-old man came to us for surgical treatment of a hidradenitis suppurativa. Upon excision of a perianal abscess, the diagnosis of a rare tumor, a perianal mucinous adenocarcinoma (pT4, pN 1, MO), was made. An abdominoperineal resection was performed, followed by a combination of adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy. A year after the operation, the patient is doing well without any signs of recurrence. This carcinoma probably arises in the anal glands. It often presents as a perirectal abscess and/or an anal fistula. Therefore, the diagnosis is often delayed. At presentation, the tumor is bigger than 5 cm in diameter in 80% of the cases, and the prognosis is poor. It metastasizes mostly to the superficial inguinal or to the retrorectal lymph nodes. There are only case reports and no comparative studies in the literature. In the last 10 years, the carcinoma has mostly been treated by neoadjuvant radiation and chemotherapy, followed by abdominoperineal resection. Since then, the median survival has increased to 3 years. This is the first case report of a combination of a perianal mucinous adenocarcinoma with a hidradenitis suppurativa.

  15. Mucin-Inspired Thermoresponsive Synthetic Hydrogels Induce Stasis in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells and Human Embryos

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs; both embryonic and induced pluripotent) rapidly proliferate in adherent culture to maintain their undifferentiated state. However, for mammals exhibiting delayed gestation (diapause), mucin-coated embryos can remain dormant for days or months in utero, with their constituent PSCs remaining pluripotent under these conditions. Here we report cellular stasis for both hPSC colonies and preimplantation embryos immersed in a wholly synthetic thermoresponsive gel comprising poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)-poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) [PGMA55-PHPMA135] diblock copolymer worms. This hydroxyl-rich mucin-mimicking nonadherent 3D gel maintained PSC viability and pluripotency in the quiescent G0 state without passaging for at least 14 days. Similarly, gel-coated human embryos remain in a state of suspended animation (diapause) for up to 8 days. The discovery of a cryptic cell arrest mechanism for both hPSCs and embryos suggests an important connection between the cellular mechanisms that evoke embryonic diapause and pluripotency. Moreover, such synthetic worm gels offer considerable utility for the short-term (weeks) storage of either pluripotent stem cells or human embryos without cryopreservation. PMID:27163030

  16. Identification of preneoplastic lesions as mucin-depleted foci in patients with sporadic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Eiji; Morioka, Takamitsu; Yamada, Eiji; Ohkubo, Hidenori; Higurashi, Takuma; Hosono, Kunihiro; Endo, Hiroki; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Takamatsu, Reika; Cui, Changxu; Shiozawa, Manabu; Akaike, Makoto; Samura, Hironori; Nishimaki, Tadashi; Nakajima, Atsushi; Yoshimi, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    In experimental models, mucin-depleted foci (MDF), formed by dysplastic crypts devoid of mucin production have been recognized to be correlated with colorectal carcinogenesis and to serve as preneoplastic lesions of colorectal cancer (CRC). In humans, there is only one report of identification of MDF in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis and CRC; however, the histological characteristics of human MDF are not discussed extensively in the report. In the present study, colonic samples from 53 patients with sporadic CRC were stained with Alcian blue and examined for the presence of MDF. Subsequently, the samples were examined for the presence of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) by methylene blue staining. We classified MDF into two categories: flat-MDF and protruded-MDF (having the characteristics of both ACF and MDF). We found a total of 354, 41 and 19 colonic mucosal lesions with a mean multiplicity of 44, 38.9 and 66.9 crypts (ACF, flat-MDF and protruded-MDF, respectively). The density of MDF was 0.0082 lesions/cm(2) . The ACF identified in sporadic CRC patients corresponded to hyperplastic or non-dysplasic lesions. However, MDF identified in these patients corresponded to low-grade dysplasia. In addition, we found that Paneth cell metaplasia and inflammatory cell infiltration were specific histological features of MDF. These histological characteristics are reported to be associated with the development of CRC. Therefore, our results indicate that MDF might represent preneoplastic lesions in human colorectal carcinogenesis.

  17. Mucin-Inspired Thermoresponsive Synthetic Hydrogels Induce Stasis in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells and Human Embryos.

    PubMed

    Canton, Irene; Warren, Nicholas J; Chahal, Aman; Amps, Katherine; Wood, Andrew; Weightman, Richard; Wang, Eugenia; Moore, Harry; Armes, Steven P

    2016-02-24

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs; both embryonic and induced pluripotent) rapidly proliferate in adherent culture to maintain their undifferentiated state. However, for mammals exhibiting delayed gestation (diapause), mucin-coated embryos can remain dormant for days or months in utero, with their constituent PSCs remaining pluripotent under these conditions. Here we report cellular stasis for both hPSC colonies and preimplantation embryos immersed in a wholly synthetic thermoresponsive gel comprising poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)-poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) [PGMA55-PHPMA135] diblock copolymer worms. This hydroxyl-rich mucin-mimicking nonadherent 3D gel maintained PSC viability and pluripotency in the quiescent G0 state without passaging for at least 14 days. Similarly, gel-coated human embryos remain in a state of suspended animation (diapause) for up to 8 days. The discovery of a cryptic cell arrest mechanism for both hPSCs and embryos suggests an important connection between the cellular mechanisms that evoke embryonic diapause and pluripotency. Moreover, such synthetic worm gels offer considerable utility for the short-term (weeks) storage of either pluripotent stem cells or human embryos without cryopreservation.

  18. A Case of Atypical Mucin Balls Wearing Extended Wear of Silicone Hydrogel Lens for Therapeutic Use

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, Yusuke; Ohta, Toshihiko; Murakami, Akira

    2013-01-01

    A 25-year-old man visited our hospital showing atopic conjunctivitis and corneal shield ulcer on his left eye. Although eye drops of 0.1% of betamethasone sodium phosphate and 0.1% of hyaluronic acid ophthalmic solution were prescribed, calcific corneal opacities developed. The corrected visual acuity decreased to 6/20 in Snellen chart. After corneal epithelial exfoliation, removal of calcific corneal opacity was scrubbed with MQA soaked in 0.05 M of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). After washing the eye with 200 mL of physiological saline, a silicon hydrogel lens, PureVision (balafilcon A), was inserted to obtain pain relief for the therapeutic use. At postoperative day 11, mucin balls were found between cornea and contact lens and stained by rose bengal dye. One of them was atypically larger than usual, and the major axis was approximately 1.5 mm. Wearing lens was stopped, and all of mucin balls and corneal staining were disappeared at postoperative day. Little corneal opacity remained, and visual acuity after surgery recovered to 14/20 at five months. PMID:23710394

  19. A case of atypical mucin balls wearing extended wear of silicone hydrogel lens for therapeutic use.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Yusuke; Toshida, Hiroshi; Ohta, Toshihiko; Murakami, Akira

    2013-01-01

    A 25-year-old man visited our hospital showing atopic conjunctivitis and corneal shield ulcer on his left eye. Although eye drops of 0.1% of betamethasone sodium phosphate and 0.1% of hyaluronic acid ophthalmic solution were prescribed, calcific corneal opacities developed. The corrected visual acuity decreased to 6/20 in Snellen chart. After corneal epithelial exfoliation, removal of calcific corneal opacity was scrubbed with MQA soaked in 0.05 M of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). After washing the eye with 200 mL of physiological saline, a silicon hydrogel lens, PureVision (balafilcon A), was inserted to obtain pain relief for the therapeutic use. At postoperative day 11, mucin balls were found between cornea and contact lens and stained by rose bengal dye. One of them was atypically larger than usual, and the major axis was approximately 1.5 mm. Wearing lens was stopped, and all of mucin balls and corneal staining were disappeared at postoperative day. Little corneal opacity remained, and visual acuity after surgery recovered to 14/20 at five months.

  20. Intraductal papillary mucinous tumors of the pancreas: biology, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Grützmann, Robert; Niedergethmann, Marco; Pilarsky, Christian; Klöppel, Günter; Saeger, Hans D

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) rank among the most common cystic tumors of the pancreas. For a long time they were misdiagnosed as mucinous cystadenocarcinoma, ductal adenocarcinoma in situ, or chronic pancreatitis. Only in recent years have IPMNs been fully recognized as clinical and pathological entities, although their origin and molecular pathogenesis remain poorly understood. IPMNs are precursors of invasive carcinomas. When resected in a preinvasive state patient prognosis is excellent, and even when they are already invasive, patient prognosis is more favorable than with ductal adenocarcinomas. Subdivision into macroscopic and microscopic subtypes facilitates further patient risk stratification and directly impacts treatment. There are main duct and branch duct IPMNs, with the main duct type including the intestinal, pancreatobiliary, and oncocytic types and the branch duct type solely harboring the gastric type. Whereas main duct IPMNs have a high risk for malignant progression, demanding their resection, branch duct IPMNs have a much lower risk for harboring malignancy. Patients with small branch duct/gastric-type IPMNs (<2 cm) without symptoms or mural nodules can be managed by periodic surveillance.

  1. Unusual Case of Coexisting Renal Malignancies: Mucinous Tubular and Spindle Cell Carcinoma Kidney With Sarcomatoid Dedifferentiation

    PubMed Central

    Agnihotri, Pragati; Alam, Kiran; Raza, Kashif

    2016-01-01

    Mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma (MTSCC) is a recent entity introduced in the World Health Organization 2004 Classification. It is a tumour of low malignant potential. MTSCC is a subtype of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), which is characterized by a polymorphous histology, wherein the spindled epithelial cell is an inherent carcinomatous component. We report the case of a 57-year-old man presenting with loin pain and dragging sensation. Imaging revealed a large mass arising from the left kidney. Radical nephrectomy was performed, and histopathology revealed spindle cell elements of MTSCC with low-grade cytology, which occasionally blended with tubular structures in v