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Sample records for abundant food resources

  1. The effects of colony structure and resource abundance on food dispersal in Tapinoma sessile (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    VanWeelden, M T; Bennett, G; Buczkowski, G

    2015-01-01

    The odorous house ant, Tapinoma sessile (Say) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), exhibits a high degree of variation in colony spatial structure which may have direct and indirect effects on foraging. Protein marking and mark-release-recapture techniques were utilized to examine the effect of colony spatial structure on food dispersal. Sucrose water spiked with rabbit IgG protein was presented to colonies with varying spatial configurations in laboratory and field experiments. In monodomous lab colonies, the rate and extent of food dispersal was rapid due to a decrease in foraging area. In polydomous colonies, food dispersal was slower because conspecifics were forced to forage and share food over longer distances. However, over time, food was present in all extremities of the colony. Experiments conducted in the field produced similar results, with nests in close proximity to food yielding higher percentages of workers scoring positive for the marker. However, the percentage of workers possessing the marker decreased over time. Results from this study provide experimental data on mechanisms of food dispersal in monodomous and polydomous colonies of ants, and may be important for increasing the efficacy of management strategies against T. sessile and other pest ant species. PMID:25688088

  2. The Effects of Colony Structure and Resource Abundance on Food Dispersal in Tapinoma sessile (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    PubMed Central

    VanWeelden, M. T.; Bennett, G.; Buczkowski, G.

    2015-01-01

    The odorous house ant, Tapinoma sessile (Say) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), exhibits a high degree of variation in colony spatial structure which may have direct and indirect effects on foraging. Protein marking and mark–release–recapture techniques were utilized to examine the effect of colony spatial structure on food dispersal. Sucrose water spiked with rabbit IgG protein was presented to colonies with varying spatial configurations in laboratory and field experiments. In monodomous lab colonies, the rate and extent of food dispersal was rapid due to a decrease in foraging area. In polydomous colonies, food dispersal was slower because conspecifics were forced to forage and share food over longer distances. However, over time, food was present in all extremities of the colony. Experiments conducted in the field produced similar results, with nests in close proximity to food yielding higher percentages of workers scoring positive for the marker. However, the percentage of workers possessing the marker decreased over time. Results from this study provide experimental data on mechanisms of food dispersal in monodomous and polydomous colonies of ants, and may be important for increasing the efficacy of management strategies against T. sessile and other pest ant species. PMID:25688088

  3. The effects of colony structure and resource abundance on food dispersal in Tapinoma sessile (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Van Weelden, M T; Bennett, G; Buczkowski, G

    2015-01-01

    The odorous house ant, Tapinoma sessile (Say) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), exhibits a high degree of variation in colony spatial structure, which may have direct and indirect effects on foraging. Protein marking and mark-release-recapture techniques were utilized to examine the effect of colony spatial structure on food dispersal. Sucrose water spiked with rabbit IgG protein was presented to colonies with varying spatial configurations in laboratory and field experiments. In monodomous laboratory colonies, the rate and extent of food dispersal was rapid due to a decrease in foraging area. In polydomous colonies, food dispersal was slower because conspecifics were forced to forage and share food over longer distances. However, over time, food was present in all extremities of the colony. Experiments conducted in the field produced similar results, with nests in close proximity to food yielding higher percentages of workers scoring positive for the marker. However, the percentage of workers possessing the marker decreased over time. Results from this study provide experimental data on mechanisms of food dispersal in monodomous and polydomous colonies of ants and may be important for increasing the efficacy of management strategies against T. sessile and other pest ant species. PMID:25881634

  4. Food Resources of Stream Macronivertebrates Determined by Natural-Abundance stable C and N Isotopes and a 15N Tracer Addition

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, P. J.

    2000-01-01

    Trophic relationships were examined using natural-abundance {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N analyses and a {sup 15}N-tracer addition experiment in Walker Branch, a 1st-order forested stream in eastern Tennessee. In the {sup 15}N-tracer addition experiment, we added {sup 15}NH{sub 4} to stream water over a 6-wk period in early spring, and measured {sup 15}N:{sup 14}N ratios in different taxa and biomass compartments over distance and time. Samples collected from a station upstream from the {sup 15}N addition provided data on natural-abundance {sup 13}C:{sup 12}C and {sup 15}N:{sup 14}N ratios. The natural-abundance {sup 15}N analysis proved to be of limited value in identifying food resources of macroinvertebrates because {sup 15}N values were not greatly different among food resources. In general, the natural-abundance stable isotope approach was most useful for determining whether epilithon or detritus were important food resources for organisms that may use both (e.g., the snail Elimia clavaeformis), and to provide corroborative evidence of food resources of taxa for which the {sup 15}N tracer results were not definitive. The {sup 15}N tracer results showed that the mayflies Stenonema spp. and Baetis spp. assimilated primarily epilithon, although Baetis appeared to assimilate a portion of the epilithon (e.g., algal cells) with more rapid N turnover than the bulk pool sampled. Although Elimia did not reach isotopic equilibrium during the tracer experiment, application of a N-turnover model to the field data suggested that it assimilated a combination of epilithon and detritus. The amphipod Gammarus minus appeared to depend mostly on fine benthic organic matter (FBOM), and the coleopteran Anchytarsus bicolor on epixylon. The caddisfly Diplectrona modesta appeared to assimilate primarily a fast N-turnover portion of the FBOM pool, and Simuliidae a fast N-turnover component of the suspended particulate organic matter pool rather than the bulk pool sampled. Together, the

  5. Fluctuating food resources influence developmental plasticity in wild boar

    PubMed Central

    Gamelon, Marlène; Douhard, Mathieu; Baubet, Eric; Gimenez, Olivier; Brandt, Serge; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    To maximize long-term average reproductive success, individuals can diversify the phenotypes of offspring produced within a reproductive event by displaying the ‘coin-flipping’ tactic. Wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) females have been reported to adopt this tactic. However, whether the magnitude of developmental plasticity within a litter depends on stochasticity in food resources has not been yet investigated. From long-term monitoring, we found that juvenile females produced similar-sized fetuses within a litter independent of food availability. By contrast, adult females adjusted their relative allocation to littermates to the amount of food resources, by providing a similar allocation to all littermates in years of poor food resources but producing highly diversified offspring phenotypes within a litter in years of abundant food resources. By minimizing sibling rivalry, such a plastic reproductive tactic allows adult wild boar females to maximize the number of littermates for a given breeding event. PMID:23904566

  6. Fluctuating food resources influence developmental plasticity in wild boar.

    PubMed

    Gamelon, Marlène; Douhard, Mathieu; Baubet, Eric; Gimenez, Olivier; Brandt, Serge; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2013-10-23

    To maximize long-term average reproductive success, individuals can diversify the phenotypes of offspring produced within a reproductive event by displaying the 'coin-flipping' tactic. Wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) females have been reported to adopt this tactic. However, whether the magnitude of developmental plasticity within a litter depends on stochasticity in food resources has not been yet investigated. From long-term monitoring, we found that juvenile females produced similar-sized fetuses within a litter independent of food availability. By contrast, adult females adjusted their relative allocation to littermates to the amount of food resources, by providing a similar allocation to all littermates in years of poor food resources but producing highly diversified offspring phenotypes within a litter in years of abundant food resources. By minimizing sibling rivalry, such a plastic reproductive tactic allows adult wild boar females to maximize the number of littermates for a given breeding event. PMID:23904566

  7. Abundance models improve spatial and temporal prioritization of conservation resources.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Alison; Fink, Daniel; Reynolds, Mark D; Hochachka, Wesley M; Sullivan, Brian L; Bruns, Nicholas E; Hallstein, Eric; Merrifield, Matt S; Matsumoto, Sandi; Kelling, Steve

    2015-10-01

    Conservation prioritization requires knowledge about organism distribution and density. This information is often inferred from models that estimate the probability of species occurrence rather than from models that estimate species abundance, because abundance data are harder to obtain and model. However, occurrence and abundance may not display similar patterns and therefore development of robust, scalable, abundance models is critical to ensuring that scarce conservation resources are applied where they can have the greatest benefits. Motivated by a dynamic land conservation program, we develop and assess a general method for modeling relative abundance using citizen science monitoring data. Weekly estimates of relative abundance and occurrence were compared for prioritizing times and locations of conservation actions for migratory waterbird species in California, USA. We found that abundance estimates consistently provided better rankings of observed counts than occurrence estimates. Additionally, the relationship between abundance and occurrence was nonlinear and varied by species and season. Across species, locations prioritized by occurrence models had only 10-58% overlap with locations prioritized by abundance models, highlighting that occurrence models will not typically identify the locations of highest abundance that are vital for conservation of populations. PMID:26591443

  8. Relative resource abundance explains butterfly biodiversity in island communities

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Naoaki; Yokoyama, Jun; Kawata, Masakado

    2007-01-01

    Ecologists have long been intrigued by the factors that control the pattern of biodiversity, i.e., the distribution and abundance of species. Previous studies have demonstrated that coexisting species partition their resources and/or that the compositional similarity between communities is determined by environmental factors, lending support to the niche-assembly model. However, no attempt has been made to test whether the relative amount of resources that reflects relative niche space controls relative species abundance in communities. Here, we demonstrate that the relative abundance of butterfly species in island communities is significantly related to the relative biomasses of their host plants but not to the geographic distance between communities. In the studied communities, the biomass of particular host plant species positively affected the abundance of the butterfly species that used them, and consequently, influenced the relative abundance of the butterfly communities. This indicated that the niche space of butterflies (i.e., the amount of resources) strongly influences butterfly biodiversity patterns. We present this field evidence of the niche-apportionment model that propose that the relative amount of niche space explains the pattern of the relative abundance of the species in communities. PMID:17553963

  9. Foods and Nutrition Resource Unit. Entertaining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gantt, Sara

    This resource unit, a supplement to the foods and nutrition curriculum guide (see related note), was designed to help secondary education home economics teachers provide students with additional food study and plan for learning experiences in the art of entertaining. The unit covers four principle topics regarding the art of entertaining in a…

  10. Contextualizing Embodied Resources in Global Food Trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, G. K.; Brauman, K. A.; Sun, S.; West, P. C.; Carlson, K. M.; Cassidy, E. S.; Gerber, J. S.; Ray, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    Trade in agricultural commodities has created increasingly complex linkages between resource use and food supplies across national borders. Understanding the degree to which food production and consumption relies on trade is vital to understanding how to sustainably meet growing food demands across scales. We use detailed bilateral trade statistics and data on agricultural management to examine the land use and water consumption embodied in agricultural trade, which we relate to basic nutritional indicators to show how trade contributes to food availability worldwide. Agricultural trade carries enough calories to provide >1.7 billion people a basic diet each year. We identify key commodities and producer-consumer relationships that disproportionately contribute to embodied resource use and flows of food nutrition at the global scale. For example, just 15 disproportionately large soybean trades comprised ~10% the total harvested area embodied in export production. We conclude by framing these results in terms of the fraction of each country's food production and consumption that is linked to international trade. These findings help to characterize how countries allocate resources to domestic versus foreign food demand.

  11. Food security and sustainable resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, Dennis; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang

    2015-07-01

    The projected growth in global food demand until mid-century will challenge our ability to continue recent increases in crop yield and will have a significant impact on natural resources. The water and land requirements of current agriculture are significantly less than global reserves but local shortages are common and have serious impacts on food security. Recent increases in global trade have mitigated some of the effects of spatial and temporal variability. However, trade has a limited impact on low-income populations who remain dependent on subsistence agriculture and local resources. Potential adverse environmental impacts of increased agricultural production include unsustainable depletion of water and soil resources, major changes in the global nitrogen and phosphorous cycles, human health problems related to excessive nutrient and pesticide use, and loss of habitats that contribute to agricultural productivity. Some typical case studies from China illustrate the connections between the need for increased food production and environmental stress. Sustainable options for decreasing food demand and for increasing production include reduction of food losses on both the producer and consumer ends, elimination of unsustainable practices such as prolonged groundwater overdraft, closing of yield gaps with controlled expansions of fertilizer application, increases in crop yield and pest resistance through advances in biotechnology, and moderate expansion of rain fed and irrigated cropland. Calculations based on reasonable assumptions suggest that such measures could meet the food needs of an increasing global population while protecting the environment.

  12. Food Abundance Determines Distribution and Density of A Frugivorous Bird Across Seasons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although food abundance is a principal determinant of distribution and abundance of many animals, most previous studies have not quantitatively assessed its importance relative to other factors that can determine species distributions. We estimated frugivorous phainopepla (Phainopepla nitens) occupa...

  13. Food Cravings Consume Limited Cognitive Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika; Grigg, Megan

    2008-01-01

    Using Tiffany's (1990) cognitive model of drug use and craving as a theoretical basis, the present experiments investigated whether cravings for food expend limited cognitive resources. Cognitive performance was assessed by simple reaction time (Experiment 1) and an established measure of working memory capacity, the operation span task…

  14. Food Processing Curriculum Material and Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge.

    Intended for secondary vocational agriculture teachers, this curriculum guide contains a course outline and a resource manual for a seven-unit food processing course on meats. Within the course outline, units are divided into separate lessons. Materials provided for each lesson include preparation for instruction (student objectives, review of…

  15. Food abundance does not determine bird use of early-successional habitat.

    SciTech Connect

    Champlin, Tracey B.; Kilgo, John C.; Moorman, Christopher E.

    2009-06-01

    Abstract. Few attempts have been made to experimentally address the extent to which temporal or spatial variation in food availability influences avian habitat use. We used an experimental approach to investigate whether bird use differed between treated (arthropods reduced through insecticide application) and control (untreated) forest canopy gaps within a bottomland hardwood forest in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA. Gaps were two- to three-year-old group selection timber harvest openings of three sizes (0.13, 0.26, and 0.50 ha). Our study was conducted during four bird use periods (spring migration, breeding, post-breeding, and fall migration) in 2002 and 2003. Arthropods were reduced in treated gaps by 68% in 2002 and 73% in 2003. We used mist-netting captures and foraging attack rates to assess the influence of arthropod abundance on avian habitat use. Evidence that birds responded to arthropod abundance was limited and inconsistent. In 2002, we generally captured more birds in treated gaps of the smallest size (0.13 ha) and fewer birds in treated gaps of the larger sizes. In 2003, we recorded few differences in the number of captures in treated and control gaps. Foraging attack rates generally were lower in treated than in control gaps, indicating that birds were able to adapt to the reduced food availability and remain in treated gaps. We conclude that arthropod abundance was not a proximate factor controlling whether forest birds used our gaps. The abundance of food resources may not be as important in determining avian habitat selection as previous research has indicated, at least for passerines in temperate subtropical regions.

  16. From the Cover: Ecological community description using the food web, species abundance, and body size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Joel E.; Jonsson, Tomas; Carpenter, Stephen R.

    2003-02-01

    Measuring the numerical abundance and average body size of individuals of each species in an ecological community's food web reveals new patterns and illuminates old ones. This approach is illustrated using data from the pelagic community of a small lake: Tuesday Lake, Michigan, United States. Body mass varies almost 12 orders of magnitude. Numerical abundance varies almost 10 orders of magnitude. Biomass abundance (average body mass times numerical abundance) varies only 5 orders of magnitude. A new food web graph, which plots species and trophic links in the plane spanned by body mass and numerical abundance, illustrates the nearly inverse relationship between body mass and numerical abundance, as well as the pattern of energy flow in the community. Species with small average body mass occur low in the food web of Tuesday Lake and are numerically abundant. Larger-bodied species occur higher in the food web and are numerically rarer. Average body size explains more of the variation in numerical abundance than does trophic height. The trivariate description of an ecological community by using the food web, average body sizes, and numerical abundance includes many well studied bivariate and univariate relationships based on subsets of these three variables. We are not aware of any single community for which all of these relationships have been analyzed simultaneously. Our approach demonstrates the connectedness of ecological patterns traditionally treated as independent. Moreover, knowing the food web gives new insight into the disputed form of the allometric relationship between body mass and abundance.

  17. Meiobenthos provides a food resource for young cyprinids.

    PubMed

    Spieth, H R; Möller, T; Ptatscheck, Ch; Kazemi-Dinan, A; Traunspurger, W

    2011-01-01

    Young individuals of the bottom-biting (i.e. sediment-ingesting) common carp Cyprinus carpio and gudgeon Gobio gobio consumed significant amounts of nematodes in laboratory experiments, whereas the selective-feeding roach Rutilus rutilus did not. In mesocosm enclosure experiments in the field, C. carpio strongly decreased the nematode abundance within 4 days, whereas the bottom-biting bream Abramis brama did not affect the abundance until after 14 days. In controlled experiments with a known number of prey, C. carpio but not A. brama significantly reduced the number of nematodes, and G. gobio reduced the nematode abundance dependent on the size of the fish, with smaller fish causing a greater reduction. Cyprinus carpio consumed the nematodes and did not just mechanically kill them in the sediment, as shown by dissection of the fish intestine. Morphometric analysis of the branchial baskets indicated that the mesh width of C. carpio, but not of A. brama, is suitable for consuming meiobenthos. The results indicate that the meiobenthos is a food resource for certain bottom-feeding freshwater fishes. PMID:21235551

  18. U.S. Food and Fiber - Abundance or Austerity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resources for the Future, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Examines the future of United States agriculture, with primary reference to the next two decades and a more general assessment to the year 2020. Major areas considered include population and economic growth, food and agricultural policies, and the long-term productive capacity of U.S. agriculture. (JN)

  19. Negative scaling relationship between molecular diversity and resource abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamimura, Atsushi; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2016-06-01

    Cell reproduction involves replication of diverse molecule species, in contrast to a simple replication system with fewer components. To address this question of diversity, we study theoretically a cell system with catalytic reaction dynamics that grows by uptake of environmental resources. It is shown that limited resources lead to increased diversity of components within the system, and the number of coexisting species increases with a negative power of the resource uptake. The relationship is explained from the optimum growth speed of the cell, determined by a tradeoff between the utility of diverse resources and the concentration onto fewer components to increase the reaction rate.

  20. Excessive abundance of common resources deters social responsibility

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaojie; Perc, Matjaž

    2014-01-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in the collective-risk social dilemma game, where the risk is determined by a collective target that must be reached with individual contributions. All players initially receive endowments from the available amount of common resources. While cooperators contribute part of their endowment to the collective target, defectors do not. If the target is not reached, the endowments of all players are lost. In our model, we introduce a feedback between the amount of common resources and the contributions of cooperators. We show that cooperation can be sustained only if the common resources are preserved but never excessively abound. This, however, requires a delicate balance between the amount of common resources that initially exist, and the amount cooperators contribute to the collective target. Exceeding critical thresholds in either of the two amounts leads to loss of cooperation, and consequently to the depletion of common resources. PMID:24561876

  1. Excessive abundance of common resources deters social responsibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaojie; Perc, Matjaž

    2014-02-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in the collective-risk social dilemma game, where the risk is determined by a collective target that must be reached with individual contributions. All players initially receive endowments from the available amount of common resources. While cooperators contribute part of their endowment to the collective target, defectors do not. If the target is not reached, the endowments of all players are lost. In our model, we introduce a feedback between the amount of common resources and the contributions of cooperators. We show that cooperation can be sustained only if the common resources are preserved but never excessively abound. This, however, requires a delicate balance between the amount of common resources that initially exist, and the amount cooperators contribute to the collective target. Exceeding critical thresholds in either of the two amounts leads to loss of cooperation, and consequently to the depletion of common resources.

  2. Excessive abundance of common resources deters social responsibility.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojie; Perc, Matjaž

    2014-01-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in the collective-risk social dilemma game, where the risk is determined by a collective target that must be reached with individual contributions. All players initially receive endowments from the available amount of common resources. While cooperators contribute part of their endowment to the collective target, defectors do not. If the target is not reached, the endowments of all players are lost. In our model, we introduce a feedback between the amount of common resources and the contributions of cooperators. We show that cooperation can be sustained only if the common resources are preserved but never excessively abound. This, however, requires a delicate balance between the amount of common resources that initially exist, and the amount cooperators contribute to the collective target. Exceeding critical thresholds in either of the two amounts leads to loss of cooperation, and consequently to the depletion of common resources. PMID:24561876

  3. How does abundance scale with body size in coupled size-structured food webs?

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Julia L; Jennings, Simon; Law, Richard; Castle, Matthew D; McCloghrie, Paul; Rochet, Marie-Joëlle; Benoît, Eric

    2009-01-01

    1. Widely observed macro-ecological patterns in log abundance vs. log body mass of organisms can be explained by simple scaling theory based on food (energy) availability across a spectrum of body sizes. The theory predicts that when food availability falls with body size (as in most aquatic food webs where larger predators eat smaller prey), the scaling between log N vs. log m is steeper than when organisms of different sizes compete for a shared unstructured resource (e.g. autotrophs, herbivores and detritivores; hereafter dubbed 'detritivores'). 2. In real communities, the mix of feeding characteristics gives rise to complex food webs. Such complexities make empirical tests of scaling predictions prone to error if: (i) the data are not disaggregated in accordance with the assumptions of the theory being tested, or (ii) the theory does not account for all of the trophic interactions within and across the communities sampled. 3. We disaggregated whole community data collected in the North Sea into predator and detritivore components and report slopes of log abundance vs. log body mass relationships. Observed slopes for fish and epifaunal predator communities (-1.2 to -2.25) were significantly steeper than those for infaunal detritivore communities (-0.56 to -0.87). 4. We present a model describing the dynamics of coupled size spectra, to explain how coupling of predator and detritivore communities affects the scaling of log N vs. log m. The model captures the trophic interactions and recycling of material that occur in many aquatic ecosystems. 5. Our simulations demonstrate that the biological processes underlying growth and mortality in the two distinct size spectra lead to patterns consistent with data. Slopes of log N vs. log m were steeper and growth rates faster for predators compared to detritivores. Size spectra were truncated when primary production was too low for predators and when detritivores experienced predation pressure. 6. The approach also allows

  4. Assessing gull abundance and food availability in urban parking lots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Daniel E.; Whitney, Jillian J.; MacKenzie, Kenneth G.; Koenen, Kiana K. G.; DeStefano, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Feeding birds is a common activity throughout the world; yet, little is known about the extent of feeding gulls in urban areas. We monitored 8 parking lots in central Massachusetts, USA, during the fall and winter of 2011 to 2013 in 4 monitoring sessions to document the number of gulls present, the frequency of human–gull feeding interactions, and the effectiveness of signage and direct interaction in reducing human-provisioned food. Parking lots were divided between “education” and “no-education” lots. In education lots, we erected signs about problems caused when people feed birds and also asked people to stop feeding birds. We did not erect signs or ask people to stop feeding birds at no-education lots. We spent >1,200 hours in parking lots (range = 136 to 200 hours per parking lot), and gulls were counted every 20 minutes. We conducted >4,000 counts, and ring-billed gulls (Lorus delawarensis) accounted for 98% of all gulls. Our educational efforts were minimally effective. There were fewer feedings (P = 0.01) in education lots during one of the monitoring sessions but significantly more gulls (P = 0.008) in education lots during 2 monitoring sessions. While there was a marginal decrease (P = 0.055) in the number of feedings after no-education lots were transformed into education lots, there was no difference in gull numbers in these lots (P = 0.16). Education appears to have some influence in reducing the number of people feeding gulls, but our efforts were not able to reduce the number of human feeders or the amount of food enough to influence the number of gulls using parking lots.

  5. Water resources transfers through Chinese interprovincial and foreign food trade

    PubMed Central

    Dalin, Carole; Hanasaki, Naota; Qiu, Huanguang; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    China’s water resources are under increasing pressure from socioeconomic development, diet shifts, and climate change. Agriculture still concentrates most of the national water withdrawal. Moreover, a spatial mismatch in water and arable land availability—with abundant agricultural land and little water resources in the north—increases water scarcity and results in virtual water transfers from drier to wetter regions through agricultural trade. We use a general equilibrium welfare model and linear programming optimization to model interprovincial food trade in China. We combine these trade flows with province-level estimates of commodities’ virtual water content to build China’s domestic and foreign virtual water trade network. We observe large variations in agricultural water-use efficiency among provinces. In addition, some provinces particularly rely on irrigation vs. rainwater. We analyze the virtual water flow patterns and the corresponding water savings. We find that this interprovincial network is highly connected and the flow distribution is relatively homogeneous. A significant share of water flows is from international imports (20%), which are dominated by soy (93%). We find that China’s domestic food trade is efficient in terms of rainwater but inefficient regarding irrigation, meaning that dry, irrigation-intensive provinces tend to export to wetter, less irrigation-intensive ones. Importantly, when incorporating foreign imports, China’s soy trade switches from an inefficient system to a particularly efficient one for saving water resources (20 km3/y irrigation water savings, 41 km3/y total). Finally, we identify specific provinces (e.g., Inner Mongolia) and products (e.g., corn) that show high potential for irrigation productivity improvements. PMID:24958864

  6. Water resources transfers through Chinese interprovincial and foreign food trade.

    PubMed

    Dalin, Carole; Hanasaki, Naota; Qiu, Huanguang; Mauzerall, Denise L; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2014-07-01

    China's water resources are under increasing pressure from socioeconomic development, diet shifts, and climate change. Agriculture still concentrates most of the national water withdrawal. Moreover, a spatial mismatch in water and arable land availability--with abundant agricultural land and little water resources in the north--increases water scarcity and results in virtual water transfers from drier to wetter regions through agricultural trade. We use a general equilibrium welfare model and linear programming optimization to model interprovincial food trade in China. We combine these trade flows with province-level estimates of commodities' virtual water content to build China's domestic and foreign virtual water trade network. We observe large variations in agricultural water-use efficiency among provinces. In addition, some provinces particularly rely on irrigation vs. rainwater. We analyze the virtual water flow patterns and the corresponding water savings. We find that this interprovincial network is highly connected and the flow distribution is relatively homogeneous. A significant share of water flows is from international imports (20%), which are dominated by soy (93%). We find that China's domestic food trade is efficient in terms of rainwater but inefficient regarding irrigation, meaning that dry, irrigation-intensive provinces tend to export to wetter, less irrigation-intensive ones. Importantly, when incorporating foreign imports, China's soy trade switches from an inefficient system to a particularly efficient one for saving water resources (20 km(3)/y irrigation water savings, 41 km(3)/y total). Finally, we identify specific provinces (e.g., Inner Mongolia) and products (e.g., corn) that show high potential for irrigation productivity improvements. PMID:24958864

  7. Limiting resources in sessile systems: food enhances diversity and growth of suspension feeders despite available space.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Robin J; Marshall, Dustin J

    2015-03-01

    Much of our understanding of competition comes trom onservations in sessue systems, such as rainforests and marine invertebrate communities. In terrestrial systems, sessile species often compete for multiple limiting resources (i.e., space, light, and nutrients), but in marine systems, space is viewed as the primary or sole limiting resource. Competition theory, on the other hand, suggests that competition for a single limiting resource is unlikely to maintain high species diversity, but manipulative tests of competition for other resources in marine benthic systems are exceedingly rare. Here, we manipulate the availability of food for a classic system, marine sessile invertebrate communities, and investigate the effects on species diversity, abundance, and composition during early succession as well as on the growth of bryozoan populations in the field. We found the number of species to be greater, available space to be lower, and the community composition to be different in assemblages subjected to increased food availability compared to controls. Similarly, laboratory-settled bryozoans deployed into the field grew more in the presence of enhanced food. Our results suggest that food can act as a limiting resource, affecting both diversity and abundance, even when bare space is still available in hard-substratum communities. Consequently, broadening the view of resource limitation beyond solely space may increase our understanding and predictability of marine sessile systems. PMID:26236877

  8. Resources for Teaching HERO: Food Service Occupations in Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Angelina O.; Harris, Pamela R.

    This resource guide is designed to help home economics teachers in Montana to develop occupational programs for food service. It provides resources that can be used with the "Food Service Occupations in Montana: Scope and Sequence in Wage-Earning Home Economics." The guide contains 13 sections. The first section explains the core concepts for HERO…

  9. Fitness Effects of Food Resources on the Polyphagous Aphid Parasitoid, Aphidius colemani Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae)

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Jennifer J.; Paine, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation biological control involving the polyphagous aphid parasitoid, Aphidius colemani Viereck, may include provisioning resources from a variety of plant sources. The fitness of adult A. colemani was enhanced with the provision of food resources such as floral nectar from a range of both native and introduced plant species and aphid honeydew under laboratory conditions. However, enhanced fitness appeared to be species specific rather than associated with the whether the plant was a native or an introduced species. Parasitoid survival and fecundity were enhanced significantly in response to the availability of floral nectar and honeydew compared to the response to available extrafloral nectar. These positive effects on the parasitoid’s reproductive activity can improve the effectiveness of conservation biological control in nursery production systems because of the abundance and diversity of floral resources within typical production areas. Additionally, surrounding areas of invasive weeds and native vegetation could serve as both floral resources and honeydew food resources for A. colemani. PMID:26808191

  10. Fitness Effects of Food Resources on the Polyphagous Aphid Parasitoid, Aphidius colemani Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae).

    PubMed

    Charles, Jennifer J; Paine, Timothy D

    2016-01-01

    Conservation biological control involving the polyphagous aphid parasitoid, Aphidius colemani Viereck, may include provisioning resources from a variety of plant sources. The fitness of adult A. colemani was enhanced with the provision of food resources such as floral nectar from a range of both native and introduced plant species and aphid honeydew under laboratory conditions. However, enhanced fitness appeared to be species specific rather than associated with the whether the plant was a native or an introduced species. Parasitoid survival and fecundity were enhanced significantly in response to the availability of floral nectar and honeydew compared to the response to available extrafloral nectar. These positive effects on the parasitoid's reproductive activity can improve the effectiveness of conservation biological control in nursery production systems because of the abundance and diversity of floral resources within typical production areas. Additionally, surrounding areas of invasive weeds and native vegetation could serve as both floral resources and honeydew food resources for A. colemani. PMID:26808191

  11. Space: A non-limiting resource in the niches of some abundant coral reef gastropods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichelt, R. E.

    1982-06-01

    Given the importance attributed to the occupation of space in benthic coral reef communities, this study asks the question: are any particular microhabitat types limiting resources for an assemblage of worm-eating gastropods on Heron reef (Great Barrier Reef). Microhabitat resource use was measured on three occasions, separated by 12 and 20-month periods. The gastropod populations were typical of those of other Indo-Pacific sites with respect to mean shell size and density. Fluctuations in species' size and density are assumed to have not significantly influenced availability of microhabitat resources. Gastropods occurred mainly in the structurally complex “refuge” microhabitats during the day and showed an increased abundance in smooth, exposed, “foraging” microhabitat nocturnally. Nassarius gaudiosus is the most extreme microhabitat specialist diurnally and the most extreme microhabitat generalist nocturnally. A similar, although less pronounced trend was exhibited by other gastropod species. Microhabitat niche overlap was high for Conus coronatus, C. miliaris, C. flavidus, Vasum turbinellus and N. gaudiosus at night and was also high during the day for all these species except N. gaudiosus, which showed little overlap with other gastropod species diurnally. Using gastropod abundance data from all samples, and independently derived microhabitat abundance data, multiple regression analysis demonstrated: 1) A significant relationship between the abundances of N. gaudiosus, C. coronatus, and C. flavidus and the abundance of microhabitat 2 (sand under rocks=“refuge”). 2) No positive association between gastropod abundance and the abundance of microhabitat 7a (thin layer of algal-bound sand on reef limestone). Only N. gaudiosus is abundant in microhabitat 2. Therefore it is concluded that, with some exceptions, microhabitat abundance does not have a significant influence, directly or indirectly, on gastropod abundance. It is possible that density

  12. Resources on Food, Nutrition and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Donna, Comp.

    The materials listed in this booklet provide background information on theories of the interrelationships of food, nutrition, and culture; the social history of food and culture; and ethnic cuisine. Also included are citations for basic nutrition information and sources of translated teaching aids for use in group settings. The first section…

  13. Effects of Habitat Fragmentation on Abundance, Larval Food and Parasitism of a Spider-Hunting Wasp

    PubMed Central

    Coudrain, Valérie; Herzog, Felix; Entling, Martin H.

    2013-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation strongly affects species distribution and abundance. However, mechanisms underlying fragmentation effects often remain unresolved. Potential mechanisms are (1) reduced dispersal of a species or (2) altered species interactions in fragmented landscapes. We studied if abundance of the spider-hunting and cavity-nesting wasp Trypoxylon figulus Linnaeus (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) is affected by fragmentation, and then tested for any effect of larval food (bottom up regulation) and parasitism (top down regulation). Trap nests of T. figulus were studied in 30 agricultural landscapes of the Swiss Plateau. The sites varied in the level of isolation from forest (adjacent, in the open landscape but connected, isolated) and in the amount of woody habitat (from 4 % to 74 %). We recorded wasp abundance (number of occupied reed tubes), determined parasitism of brood cells and analysed the diversity and abundance of spiders that were deposited as larval food. Abundances of T. figulus were negatively related to forest cover in the landscape. In addition, T. figulus abundances were highest at forest edges, reduced by 33.1% in connected sites and by 79.4% in isolated sites. The mean number of spiders per brood cell was lowest in isolated sites. Nevertheless, structural equation modelling revealed that this did not directly determine wasp abundance. Parasitism was neither related to the amount of woody habitat nor to isolation and did not change with host density. Therefore, our study showed that the abundance of T. figulus cannot be fully explained by the studied trophic interactions. Further factors, such as dispersal and habitat preference, seem to play a role in the population dynamics of this widespread secondary carnivore in agricultural landscapes. PMID:23516622

  14. Food resources of the California condor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilbur, S.R.

    1972-01-01

    Conclusions and Recommendations: Although much of the above information is imprecise and inconclusive, it is evident that the condors foraging habitat is diminishing. Food supply probably is still adequate for free-ranging nonbreeding birds, but could become limited if current land use trends continue. Congregating condors on fewer and fewer acres could be detrimental in other ways. It seems the needs of condors can best be met by maintaining a continuous band of :foraging country throughout the species' horseshoe-shaped range. Public needs for open space and livestock agriculture can also be served by land use zoning, cooperative agreements, easements or other land controls implemented with consideration :for the condors' welfare. Of immediate concern is the declining food situation in the general vicinity of the active condor nests in the Sespe-Piru region. Reproduction is definitely depressed, and the reduced local food supply is the only apparent cause. Predicted future developments can only worsen the situation. A concerted effort should be made immediately to slow the loss of food and foraging area closest to the Sespe Condor Sanctuary including: (1) the Big Mountain-Newhall Ranch regions of southern Ventura County; (2) the arc of grassland around the southern and eastern boundaries of the Sespe Sanctuary; and (3) the Tejon Ranch. Within these areas efforts should be made to increase the amount of condor food by: (1) increasing the amount of livestock, if compatible with proper land use; (2) modifying procedures for disposal of dead livestock, so that more are available to condors; (3) encouraging (subsidizing) ranchers to sacrifice livestock for condor food at certain times o:f the year; and (4) developing a state or Federal supplemental feeding program utilizing cattle, deer or other carrion regularly distributed at close, protected feeding sites. If a convenient food supply is as important to reproduction as it appears, those nest sites closest to the best

  15. Patterns of food abundance for breeding waterbirds in the san luis valley of Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gammonley, J.H.; Laubhan, M.K.

    2002-01-01

    We measured the amount and distribution of macroinvertebrates and seeds in four wetland habitats (short emergent, seasonal open water, semipermanent/permanent open water, and saltgrass [Distichlis spicata]) used by breeding ducks and shorebirds at a wetland complex in the San Luis Valley, Colorado, USA. Density of macroinvertebrates did not differ among habitats or sampling periods (P = 0.45), but dry mass, crude protein, and gross energy production were greater (P < 0.05) in short emergent than in other habitats. These differences were largely due to the greater dry mass of gastropods in short emergent than in other habitats. Total seed density, dry mass, crude protein, and gross energy differed among habitats and periods with interaction effects (P <0.01). Although seed abundance varied among habitats and sampling periods, abundance was greatest in short emergent during all sampling periods. Breeding waterbirds consumed a variety of macroinvertebrates and seeds on the study area. Patterns of abundance among habitats of macroinvertebrates and seeds consumed by six waterbird species were not consistent with patterns of foraging habitat use by most ducks and shorebirds at this wetland complex. Our results indicate that estimates of food or nutrient abundance are useful in assessing the functional role of broad habitat types, but factors other than food abundance also influence avian selection of wetland foraging habitats. ?? 2002, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  16. Linking water resources to food security through virtual water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamea, Stefania

    2014-05-01

    The largest use of global freshwater resources is related to food production. While each day we drink about 2 liters of water, we consume (eating) about 4000 liters of ''virtual water'', which represents the freshwater used to produce crop-based and livestock-based food. Considering human water consumption as a whole, most part originates from agriculture (85.8%), and only minor parts come from industry (9.6%) or households (4.6%). These numbers shed light on the great pressure of humanity on global freshwater resources and justify the increasing interest towards this form of environmental impact, usually known as ''water footprint''. Virtual water is a key variable in establishing the nexus between water and food. In fact, water resources used for agricultural production determine local food availability, and impact the international trade of agricultural goods. Trade, in turn, makes food commodities available to nations which are not otherwise self-sufficient, in terms of water resources or food, and it establishes an equilibrium between food demand and production at the global scale. Therefore, food security strongly relies on international food trade, but also on the use of distant and foreign water resources, which need to be acknowledged and investigated. Virtual water embedded in production and international trade follows the fate of food on the trade network, generating virtual flows of great magnitude (e.g., 2800 km3 in 2010) and defining local and global virtual water balances worldwide. The resulting water-food nexus is critical for the societal and economic development, and it has several implications ranging from population dynamics to the competing use of freshwater resources, from dietary guidelines to globalization of trade, from externalization of pollution to policy making and to socio-economic wealth. All these implications represent a great challenge for future research, not only in hydrology but in the many fields related to this

  17. The food-insecurity obesity paradox: A resource scarcity hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Dhurandhar, Emily J

    2016-08-01

    Food insecurity is paradoxically associated with obesity in the United States. Current hypotheses to explain this phenomenon are descriptive regarding the low food security population's dietary and physical activity habits, but are not mechanistic. Herein it is proposed that a resource scarcity hypothesis may explain this paradox, such that fattening is a physiologically regulated response to threatened food supply that occurs specifically in low social status individuals. Evidence that this may be occurring, the implications for addressing the food insecurity-obesity paradox, and future areas of research, are reviewed and discussed. PMID:27126969

  18. Food for Thought: Resourcing Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standish, Paul

    2009-01-01

    J.M. Coetzee's "Elizabeth Costello" is an overtly philosophical novel, at the heart of which are questions concerning the relation of human beings to animals and the discussion of animal rights. The nature of its subject matter and the prominence it gives to dialogue, sometimes of an almost Platonic kind, make it a rich potential resource for…

  19. Balancing water resource conservation and food security in China.

    PubMed

    Dalin, Carole; Qiu, Huanguang; Hanasaki, Naota; Mauzerall, Denise L; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2015-04-14

    China's economic growth is expected to continue into the next decades, accompanied by sustained urbanization and industrialization. The associated increase in demand for land, water resources, and rich foods will deepen the challenge of sustainably feeding the population and balancing agricultural and environmental policies. We combine a hydrologic model with an economic model to project China's future food trade patterns and embedded water resources by 2030 and to analyze the effects of targeted irrigation reductions on this system, notably on national agricultural water consumption and food self-sufficiency. We simulate interprovincial and international food trade with a general equilibrium welfare model and a linear programming optimization, and we obtain province-level estimates of commodities' virtual water content with a hydrologic model. We find that reducing irrigated land in regions highly dependent on scarce river flow and nonrenewable groundwater resources, such as Inner Mongolia and the greater Beijing area, can improve the efficiency of agriculture and trade regarding water resources. It can also avoid significant consumption of irrigation water across China (up to 14.8 km(3)/y, reduction by 14%), while incurring relatively small decreases in national food self-sufficiency (e.g., by 3% for wheat). Other researchers found that a national, rather than local, water policy would have similar effects on food production but would only reduce irrigation water consumption by 5%. PMID:25825748

  20. Balancing water resource conservation and food security in China

    PubMed Central

    Dalin, Carole; Qiu, Huanguang; Hanasaki, Naota; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    China’s economic growth is expected to continue into the next decades, accompanied by sustained urbanization and industrialization. The associated increase in demand for land, water resources, and rich foods will deepen the challenge of sustainably feeding the population and balancing agricultural and environmental policies. We combine a hydrologic model with an economic model to project China’s future food trade patterns and embedded water resources by 2030 and to analyze the effects of targeted irrigation reductions on this system, notably on national agricultural water consumption and food self-sufficiency. We simulate interprovincial and international food trade with a general equilibrium welfare model and a linear programming optimization, and we obtain province-level estimates of commodities’ virtual water content with a hydrologic model. We find that reducing irrigated land in regions highly dependent on scarce river flow and nonrenewable groundwater resources, such as Inner Mongolia and the greater Beijing area, can improve the efficiency of agriculture and trade regarding water resources. It can also avoid significant consumption of irrigation water across China (up to 14.8 km3/y, reduction by 14%), while incurring relatively small decreases in national food self-sufficiency (e.g., by 3% for wheat). Other researchers found that a national, rather than local, water policy would have similar effects on food production but would only reduce irrigation water consumption by 5%. PMID:25825748

  1. Competing pressures on populations: long-term dynamics of food availability, food quality, disease, stress and animal abundance

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Colin A.; Schoof, Valérie A. M.; Bonnell, Tyler R.; Gogarten, Jan F.; Calmé, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Despite strong links between sociality and fitness that ultimately affect the size of animal populations, the particular social and ecological factors that lead to endangerment are not well understood. Here, we synthesize approximately 25 years of data and present new analyses that highlight dynamics in forest composition, food availability, the nutritional quality of food, disease, physiological stress and population size of endangered folivorous red colobus monkeys (Procolobus rufomitratus). There is a decline in the quality of leaves 15 and 30 years following two previous studies in an undisturbed area of forest. The consumption of a low-quality diet in one month was associated with higher glucocorticoid levels in the subsequent month and stress levels in groups living in degraded forest fragments where diet was poor was more than twice those in forest groups. In contrast, forest composition has changed and when red colobus food availability was weighted by the protein-to-fibre ratio, which we have shown positively predicts folivore biomass, there was an increase in the availability of high-quality trees. Despite these changing social and ecological factors, the abundance of red colobus has remained stable, possibly through a combination of increasing group size and behavioural flexibility. PMID:25870398

  2. Competing pressures on populations: long-term dynamics of food availability, food quality, disease, stress and animal abundance.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Colin A; Schoof, Valérie A M; Bonnell, Tyler R; Gogarten, Jan F; Calmé, Sophie

    2015-05-26

    Despite strong links between sociality and fitness that ultimately affect the size of animal populations, the particular social and ecological factors that lead to endangerment are not well understood. Here, we synthesize approximately 25 years of data and present new analyses that highlight dynamics in forest composition, food availability, the nutritional quality of food, disease, physiological stress and population size of endangered folivorous red colobus monkeys (Procolobus rufomitratus). There is a decline in the quality of leaves 15 and 30 years following two previous studies in an undisturbed area of forest. The consumption of a low-quality diet in one month was associated with higher glucocorticoid levels in the subsequent month and stress levels in groups living in degraded forest fragments where diet was poor was more than twice those in forest groups. In contrast, forest composition has changed and when red colobus food availability was weighted by the protein-to-fibre ratio, which we have shown positively predicts folivore biomass, there was an increase in the availability of high-quality trees. Despite these changing social and ecological factors, the abundance of red colobus has remained stable, possibly through a combination of increasing group size and behavioural flexibility. PMID:25870398

  3. Feed, Need, Greed: Food Resources & Population. A High School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science for the People, Cambridge, MA. Boston Chapter.

    Four units, teacher's notes, and a comprehensive glossary provide background information and activities aimed at raising the awareness of high school students and teachers regarding the nature of the food system and its relationship to nutrition, population, and resources. These non-sequential units analyze the economic and political factors…

  4. Increased energy expenditure by a seabird in response to higher food abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jodice, P.G.R.; Roby, D.D.; Suryan, R.M.; Irons, D.B.; Turco, K.R.; Brown, E.D.; Thedinga, J.F.; Visser, G.H.

    2006-01-01

    Variability in forage fish abundance strongly affects seabird behavior and reproductive success, although details of this relationship are unclear. During 1997 and 1998, we measured (1) daily energy expenditure (DEE) of 80 parent black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla at 2 colonies in Prince William Sound, Alaska (North Icy Bay and Shoup Bay), (2) abundance of surface-schooling forage fishes within the foraging range of each colony, and (3) diet composition, energy delivery rates to nestlings, and reproductive success of kittiwakes at these same colonies. Female DEE was highest at North Icy Bay in 1998, while male DEE did not differ by colony year. Abundances of Pacific herring Clupea pallasi and sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus were highest near North Icy Bay in 1998 and nearly egual in density, although Age 1+ herring comprised the majority of the diet there. Energy delivery rates to nestlings, nestling growth rates, and productivity were also highest at North Icy Bay in 1998. We suggest that female kittiwakes responded to the increased abundance of Age 1+ herring near North Icy Bay in 1998 by increasing their DEE, which in turn positively affected reproductive success. Given that adult kittiwakes have been shown to suffer decreased survival as a response to increased energy expenditure during brood rearing, the positive correlation we observed between increased abundance of a high quality food source, parental effort, and productivity is consistent with maximizing lifetime reproductive success. The lack of a response in male DEE suggests that brood-rearing roles in kittiwakes differ between genders. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  5. Food allergy information resources for consumers, industry and regulators.

    PubMed

    Mills, E N Clare; Jenkins, John A; Sancho, Ana I; Miles, Susan; Madsen, Charlotte; Valovirta, Errka; Frewer, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Through the EU-funded InformAll project a stakeholder consultation was conducted to solicit the views of different stakeholders (allergic consumers, health professionals, retailers, manufacturers, caterers, regulators and risk assessors, and the general public) regarding what information about food allergy is required by these stakeholders. The outcomes of this consultation are presented both generally and specifically from the potential perspectives of different stakeholders. The development of reliable credible resources aimed to begin to meet the needs identified is described, including a database of allergenic food materials which uniquely combines refereed information on the clinical aspects of food allergies with details of individual allergens and web portal with other credible internet resources. PMID:17393719

  6. Easing food waste could reduce pressure on natural resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-09-01

    Calls to reduce food waste and enhance agricultural water efficiency were among the points raised during the 27 August opening session of World Water Week in Stockholm, Sweden. “More than one fourth of all the water we use worldwide is taken to grow over one billion tons of food that nobody eats. That water, together with the billions of dollars spent to grow, ship, package, and purchase the food, is sent down the drain,” said Torgny Holmgren, executive director of the Stockholm International Water Institute, which organizes World Water Week. “Reducing the waste of food is the smartest and most direct route to relieve pressure on water and land resources. It's an opportunity we cannot afford to overlook,” he added.

  7. Natural resources - food nexus: food-related environmental footprints in the mediterranean countries.

    PubMed

    Lacirignola, Cosimo; Capone, Roberto; Debs, Philipp; El Bilali, Hamid; Bottalico, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Immediate action is required in the Mediterranean to address environmental degradation that is mainly driven by consumption patterns. Increasing stress on biological and social systems is put by unsustainable consumption patterns. Food consumption patterns are important drivers of environment degradation. The objective of this review paper is to explore natural resources-food nexus in the Mediterranean region by highlighting the environmental footprints of the current consumption and production patterns. Secondary data from different sources such as FAOSTAT, the World Bank, Water Footprint Network (WFN), and Global Footprint Network were used to analyze the situation in 21 Mediterranean countries. The region faces many environmental challenges, e.g., land degradation, water scarcity, environment pollution, biodiversity loss, and climate change. The current consumption patterns imply high ecological, carbon, and water footprints of consumption and unfavorable national virtual-water balances. Food Balance Sheets data show that the contribution of vegetal and animal-based food product groups to food supply is variable among the Mediterranean countries. This has implications also in terms of the WF of food supply, which was calculated for Bosnia, Egypt, Italy, Morocco, and Turkey. The WF of the current diet resulted lower than that of the proposed Mediterranean one in the case of Italy. There is a strong scientific evidence supporting assumption that it is so also for other Mediterranean countries. The Mediterranean is characterized by a high resource use intensity that is further exacerbated by food losses and waste (FLW). In fact, FLW implies the loss of precious resources (water, land, energy) and inputs (fertilizers). Therefore, it is crucial to increase adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet and to reduce FLW in order to foster transition to more sustainable food consumption patterns thus reducing pressure on the scarce resources of the Mediterranean

  8. Natural ResourcesFood Nexus: Food-Related Environmental Footprints in the Mediterranean Countries

    PubMed Central

    Lacirignola, Cosimo; Capone, Roberto; Debs, Philipp; El Bilali, Hamid; Bottalico, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Immediate action is required in the Mediterranean to address environmental degradation that is mainly driven by consumption patterns. Increasing stress on biological and social systems is put by unsustainable consumption patterns. Food consumption patterns are important drivers of environment degradation. The objective of this review paper is to explore natural resources-food nexus in the Mediterranean region by highlighting the environmental footprints of the current consumption and production patterns. Secondary data from different sources such as FAOSTAT, the World Bank, Water Footprint Network (WFN), and Global Footprint Network were used to analyze the situation in 21 Mediterranean countries. The region faces many environmental challenges, e.g., land degradation, water scarcity, environment pollution, biodiversity loss, and climate change. The current consumption patterns imply high ecological, carbon, and water footprints of consumption and unfavorable national virtual-water balances. Food Balance Sheets data show that the contribution of vegetal and animal-based food product groups to food supply is variable among the Mediterranean countries. This has implications also in terms of the WF of food supply, which was calculated for Bosnia, Egypt, Italy, Morocco, and Turkey. The WF of the current diet resulted lower than that of the proposed Mediterranean one in the case of Italy. There is a strong scientific evidence supporting assumption that it is so also for other Mediterranean countries. The Mediterranean is characterized by a high resource use intensity that is further exacerbated by food losses and waste (FLW). In fact, FLW implies the loss of precious resources (water, land, energy) and inputs (fertilizers). Therefore, it is crucial to increase adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet and to reduce FLW in order to foster transition to more sustainable food consumption patterns thus reducing pressure on the scarce resources of the Mediterranean

  9. Lost food, wasted resources: global food supply chain losses and their impacts on freshwater, cropland, and fertiliser use.

    PubMed

    Kummu, M; de Moel, H; Porkka, M; Siebert, S; Varis, O; Ward, P J

    2012-11-01

    Reducing food losses and waste is considered to be one of the most promising measures to improve food security in the coming decades. Food losses also affect our use of resources, such as freshwater, cropland, and fertilisers. In this paper we estimate the global food supply losses due to lost and wasted food crops, and the resources used to produce them. We also quantify the potential food supply and resource savings that could be made by reducing food losses and waste. We used publically available global databases to conduct the study at the country level. We found that around one quarter of the produced food supply (614 kcal/cap/day) is lost within the food supply chain (FSC). The production of these lost and wasted food crops accounts for 24% of total freshwater resources used in food crop production (27 m(3)/cap/yr), 23% of total global cropland area (31 × 10(-3)ha/cap/yr), and 23% of total global fertiliser use (4.3 kg/cap/yr). The per capita use of resources for food losses is largest in North Africa & West-Central Asia (freshwater and cropland) and North America & Oceania (fertilisers). The smallest per capita use of resources for food losses is found in Sub-Saharan Africa (freshwater and fertilisers) and in Industrialised Asia (cropland). Relative to total food production, the smallest food supply and resource losses occur in South & Southeast Asia. If the lowest loss and waste percentages achieved in any region in each step of the FSC could be reached globally, food supply losses could be halved. By doing this, there would be enough food for approximately one billion extra people. Reducing the food losses and waste would thus be an important step towards increased food security, and would also increase the efficiency of resource use in food production. PMID:23032564

  10. Landscape context mediates influence of local food abundance on wetland use by wintering shorebirds in an agricultural valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taft, Oriane W.; Haig, Susan M.

    2006-01-01

    While it is widely understood that local abundance of benthic invertebrates can greatly influence the distribution and abundance of wetland birds, no studies have examined if wetland landscape context can mediate this relationship. We studied the influence of wetland food abundance and landscape context on use of agricultural wetlands by wintering dunlin (Calidris alpina) and killdeer (Charadrius vociferus) in the Willamette Valley of Oregon, USA, over two winters (1999a??2000, 2000a??2001) of differing rainfall and subsequent habitat distribution. We monitored bird use (frequency of occurrence and abundance) at a sample of wetlands differing in local food abundance (density and biomass) and landscape context [adjacent shorebird habitat (defined as ha of wet habitat with less than 50% vegetative cover and within a 2-km radius) and nearest neighbor distance]. We evaluated predictive models for bird use using linear regression and the Cp criterion to select the most parsimonious model. During the dry winter (2000a??2001), dunlin exhibited greater use of sites with higher invertebrate density and biomass but also with more adjacent shorebird habitat and closest to a wetland neighbor. However, neither landscape context nor food abundance were important predictors of dunlin use during the wet winter (1999a??2000). Use of sites by killdeer was unrelated to either local food abundance or landscape context measures during both winters. Our findings contribute to a growing recognition of the importance of landscape structure to wetland birds and highlight a number of implications for the spatial planning and enhancement of wetlands using a landscape approach.

  11. [Cassava evaluation as a non conventional resource for food industry].

    PubMed

    Pardio Sedas, V T; Waliszewski Kubiak, K N

    1994-03-01

    Mean results of the chemical composition of cassava cultivated in the different regions of Mexico are presented and the most important ingredient is starch which permits that this natural resource is employed as a no-conventional ingredient in food industry, for dextrins, glucose and fructose syrups production. Cassava starch is used for baby foods, salsa and mayonnaise manufacture. Because of its physico-chemical properties, modified starches are employed in bakery for pies, refills and frozen foodstuffs production and have been considered as stabilizers, yielding a final product which is maintained fresh and of excellent texture. PMID:7717802

  12. Mimecan, a Hormone Abundantly Expressed in Adipose Tissue, Reduced Food Intake Independently of Leptin Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Huang-Ming; Ye, Xiao-Ping; Ma, Jun-Hua; Jiang, He; Li, Sheng-Xian; Li, Rong-Ying; Li, Xue-Song; Guo, Cui-Cui; Wang, Zhi-Quan; Zhan, Ming; Zuo, Chun-Lin; Pan, Chun-Ming; Zhao, Shuang-Xia; Zheng, Cui-Xia; Song, Huai-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Adipokines such as leptin play important roles in the regulation of energy metabolism, particularly in the control of appetite. Here, we describe a hormone, mimecan, which is abundantly expressed in adipose tissue. Mimecan was observed to inhibit food intake and reduce body weight in mice. Intraperitoneal injection of a mimecan-maltose binding protein (-MBP) complex inhibited food intake in C57BL/6J mice, which was attenuated by pretreatment with polyclonal antibody against mimecan. Notably, mimecan-MBP also induced anorexia in Ay/a and db/db mice. Furthermore, the expression of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 was up-regulated in the hypothalamus by mimecan-MBP, as well as in N9 microglia cells by recombinant mouse mimecan. Taken together, the results suggest that mimecan is a satiety hormone in adipose tissue, and that mimecan inhibits food intake independently of leptin signaling by inducing IL-1β and IL-6 expression in the hypothalamus. PMID:26870797

  13. Effects of predator hunger and food abundance on prey selection by Chaoborus larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Pastorok, R.A.

    1980-09-01

    Laboratory experiments on prey selection by Chaoborus larvae show that predator choice as well as differential encounter rates with prey determine the composition of the diet. As the larvae crop and midgut become filled with food during a feeding bout, the predator avoids eating some available Daphnia and specializes on Diaptomus. After 3 days of starvation at 15/sup 0/C, the gut system is empty and Chaoborus attacks prey indiscriminately. Then, daphnids are overrepresented in the diet because the predator encounters them more frequently than copepods of equal size. Daphnia swims about twice as fast as Diaptomus and encounters a stationary electric eye at twice the rate measured for copepods. The strike efficiency of larvae for encountered prey is the same for both species. Since feeding selectivity is inversely proportional to larval hunger state, prey selection varies with the abundance of prey and season. In general, larvae collected during autumn have lower feeding rates and are more selective than larvae collected during summer. When food increases, previously opportunistic larvae may become selective within a few hours; but satiated larvae take several days to relax their preferences under a lowered food regime.

  14. Marine macrophytes directly enhance abundances of sandy beach fauna through provision of food and habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ince, Rebecca; Hyndes, Glenn A.; Lavery, Paul S.; Vanderklift, Mathew A.

    2007-08-01

    Beach-cast wrack is a prominent feature of beaches of south-western Australia. We examined the fauna of these beaches to explore the generalisation [Polis, G.A., Hurd, S.D., 1995. Extraordinarily high spider densities on islands: flow of energy from the marine to terrestrial food webs and the absence of predation. Ecology 92, 4382-4386] that beach-cast wrack from highly productive marine ecosystems subsidises low productivity of terrestrial ecosystems, to establish whether this generalisation is relevant to oligotrophic marine systems. We sampled three beaches with high and three beaches with low volumes of beach-cast wrack to determine if: (1) the presence of wrack influences the abundance of macroinvertebrates; (2) wrack acts as a food source for beach macroinvertebrates; and (3) the influence of wrack varies between zones above the high water mark. We measured wrack volume and composition, sediment characteristics, the abundance of different epibenthic and infaunal macroinvertebrates taxa, and δ13C and δ15N of macrophytes and macroinvertebrates. The mean volume of wrack on high-wrack beaches was 0.27-1.07 m 3 wrack m -2 compared to 0.00-0.09 m 3 wrack m -2 on low-wrack beaches. There were no significant differences in sediment grain size, moisture content or loss on ignition between the two types of beaches or zones. Epibenthic fauna and infauna were consistently abundant on high-wrack beaches (20-291 and 0.5-3.5 individuals 0.64 m -2, respectively), but either absent or extremely rare in low-wrack beaches (0-3 and 0-0.1 individuals 0.64 m -2, respectively). Within high-wrack beaches, there were no significant differences in the abundance of epifauna or infauna among beaches or between zones. The δ13C values of macroinvertebrates at all sites were most similar to red and brown algae, with the exception of beetles from two beaches, which were closest to seagrasses. Mixing model (Isosource) results for mesograzing amphipods and dipteran flies suggested carbon

  15. Usage and Recall of the Food Stamp Office Resource Kit (FSORK) by Food Stamp Applicants in 4 California Counties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghirardelli, Alyssa; Linares, Amanda; Fong, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate recall and usage of the Food Stamp Office Resource Kit (FSORK), a set of nutrition education materials designed for use in food stamp offices. Design: Client intercept exit surveys, an environmental scan, and individual observations of clients in the food stamp office. Setting: Four food stamp offices in California.…

  16. Aggression and Food Resource Competition between Sympatric Hermit Crab Species

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Mark V.; O’Grady, Matthew; Colborn, Jeremiah; Van Ness, Kimberly; Hill, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    The vertical zonation patterns of intertidal organisms have been topics of interest to marine ecologists for many years, with interspecific food competition being implicated as a contributing factor to intertidal community organization. In this study, we used behavioral bioassays to examine the potential roles that interspecific aggression and food competition have on the structuring of intertidal hermit crab assemblages. We studied two ecologically similar, sympatric hermit crab species, Clibanarius digueti [1] and Paguristes perrieri [2], which occupy adjacent zones within the intertidal region of the Gulf of California. During the search phase of foraging, C. digueti showed higher frequencies of aggressive behaviors than P. perrieri. In competition assays, C. digueti gained increased access to food resources compared to P. perrieri. The results suggest that food competition may play an important role in structuring intertidal hermit crab assemblages, and that the zonation patterns of Gulf of California hermit crab species may be the result of geographical displacement by the dominant food competitor (C. digueti). PMID:24632897

  17. Do Birds Select Habitat or Food Resources? Nearctic-Neotropic Migrants in Northeastern Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Jared D.; Johnson, Matthew D.; Ralph, C. John

    2014-01-01

    Nearctic-neotropic migrant birds need to replenish energy reserves during stopover periods to successfully complete their semiannual movements. In this study we used linear models to examine the habitat use of 11 migrant species in northeastern Costa Rica to better understand the influence of food and structural resources on the presence of birds during stopover periods. Our models indicated that frugivorous migrants primarily used food abundance, while insectivorous migrants chiefly used vegetation structure as cues for habitat use during stopover. In addition to habitat use models, we documented fruiting plant phenology and found a general relationship between migrant arrival and the timing of ripe fruit availability. Our results suggest that insectivorous migrants probably rely on structural features when using habitat because it may be inherently difficult to assess cryptic-arthropod availability during a short period of time in a novel habitat, such as stopover periods. PMID:24489701

  18. Piscivorous birds on the saline lake Grevelingen, The Netherlands: Abundance, prey selection and annual food consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doornbos, G.

    Since 1971, when the Grevelingen estuary was turned into a 108 km 2 saline lake, the number of foraging piscivorous birds has increased significantly. Up to 7000 to 10 000 Great Crested Grebes may be present on the lake, representing about half of the northwestern European breeding population. In the winter 1000 to 3000 Red-breasted Mergansers also forage here, while in summer and early autumn 500 to 800 Cormorants can be found on the lake. From December 1981 through March 1982 the food habits of the grebes and mergansers were studied by means of stomach analyses. Total annual consumption of the two fish-eating birds was estimated at 46.6 and 39.2 tons fresh weight, respectively. Gobiidae proved to be the main food source, accounting for 60% of the total intake (by weight). In addition, the grebes consumed 9.9 tons of Clupea harengus and the mergansers 11.0 tons of brown shrimps Crangon crangon. The birds tended to select the larger specimens of Gobiidae and C. crangon. The estimated amount of food consumed by these two bird species represents about 28 to 36% of the standing stocks of Gobiidae, C. harengus and Sprattus sprattus present at the arrival of the birds in September/October. Total annual consumption by all major piscivorous birds, including the populations of Cormorant and Grey Heron, was estimated at 115 tons (1.1 g FW·m -2·a -1). Over the last 10-year period the number of wintering grebes showed a positive correlation ( p < 0.01) with the density of Pomatoschistus microps during the preceding (summer) season ( i.e. the most abundant gobiid species in the lake).

  19. Costs of Foraging Predispose Animals to Obesity-Related Mortality when Food Is Constantly Abundant

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, John M.; Houston, Alasdair I.; Higginson, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is an important medical problem affecting humans and animals in the developed world, but the evolutionary origins of the behaviours that cause obesity are poorly understood. The potential role of occasional gluts of food in determining fat-storage strategies for avoiding mortality have been overlooked, even though animals experienced such conditions in the recent evolutionary past and may follow the same strategies in the modern environment. Humans, domestic, and captive animals in the developed world are exposed to a surplus of calorie-rich food, conditions characterised as ‘constant-glut’. Here, we use a mathematical model to demonstrate that obesity-related mortality from poor health in a constant-glut environment should equal the average mortality rate in the ‘pre-modern’ environment when predation risk was more closely linked with foraging. It should therefore not be surprising that animals exposed to abundant food often over-eat to the point of ill-health. Our work suggests that individuals tend to defend a given excessive level of reserves because this level was adaptive when gluts were short-lived. The model predicts that mortality rate in constant-glut conditions can increase as the assumed health cost of being overweight decreases, meaning that any adaptation that reduced such health costs would have counter-intuitively led to an increase in mortality in the modern environment. Taken together, these results imply that efforts to reduce the incidence of obesity that are focussed on altering individual behaviour are likely to be ineffective because modern, constant-glut conditions trigger previously adaptive behavioural responses. PMID:26545121

  20. Soil resource supply influences faunal size-specific distributions in natural food webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulder, Christian; den Hollander, Henri A.; Vonk, J. Arie; Rossberg, Axel G.; Jagers Op Akkerhuis, Gerard A. J. M.; Yeates, Gregor W.

    2009-07-01

    The large range of body-mass values of soil organisms provides a tool to assess the ecological organization of soil communities. The goal of this paper is to identify graphical and quantitative indicators of soil community composition and ecosystem functioning, and to illustrate their application to real soil food webs. The relationships between log-transformed mass and abundance of soil organisms in 20 Dutch meadows and heathlands were investigated. Using principles of allometry, maximal use can be made of ecological theory to build and explain food webs. The aggregate contribution of small invertebrates such as nematodes to the entire community is high under low soil phosphorus content and causes shifts in the mass-abundance relationships and in the trophic structures. We show for the first time that the average of the trophic link lengths is a reliable predictor for assessing soil fertility responses. Ordered trophic link pairs suggest a self-organizing structure of food webs according to resource availability and can predict environmental shifts in ecologically meaningful ways.

  1. Integrated Resources Management Approach to Ensuring Sustainable Food Security in Nigeria-The Nexus of Rice Production in Niger State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omotoso, T.

    2015-12-01

    By 2050, the world will need to feed 9 billion people. This will require a 60% increase in agricultural production and subsequently a 6% increase in water use by the agricultural sector alone. By 2030, global water demand is expected to increase by 40%, mostly in developing countries like Nigeria (Addams, Boccaletti, Kerlin, & Stuchtey, 2009) and global energy demand is expected to increase by 33% in 2035, also, mostly in emerging economies (IEA, 2013). These resources have to be managed efficiently in preparation for these future demands. Population growth leads to increased demand for water, energy and food. More food production will lead to more water-for-food and energy-for-food usage; and more demand for energy will lead to more water-for-energy needs. This nexus between water, energy and food is poorly understood and furthermore, complicated by external drivers such as climate change. Niger State Nigeria, which is blessed with abundant water and arable land resources, houses the three hydropower dams in Nigeria and one of the governments' proposed Staple Crops Processing Zones (SCPZ) for rice production. Both of these capital intensive investments depend heavily on water resources and are all highly vulnerable to changes in climate. Thus, it is essential to know how the local climate in this state will likely change and its impacts on water, energy and food security, so that policy makers can make informed mitigation/adaptation plans; operational and investment decisions. The objective of this project is to provide information, using an integrated resources management approach, on the effects of future climate changes on water, energy (hydropower) and food resources in Niger State, Nigeria and improve knowledge on the interlinkages between water, energy and food at a local scale.

  2. Specialty food safety concerns and multilingual resource needs: an online survey of public health inspectors.

    PubMed

    Pham, Mai T; Jones, Andria Q; Sargeant, Jan M; Marshall, Barbara J; Dewey, Catherine E

    2010-12-01

    The province of Ontario, Canada, has a highly diverse and multicultural population. Specialty foods (i.e., foods from different cultures) are becoming increasingly available at retail food outlets and foods service establishments across the province; as a result, public health inspectors (PHIs) are increasingly required to assess the safety of foods with which they may be unfamiliar. The aim of this study was to investigate the concerns, perceptions, and self-identified needs of PHIs in Ontario with regard to specialty foods and food safety information resources in languages other than English. A cross-sectional online survey of 239 PHIs was conducted between April and June 2009. The study found that while some food safety information resources were available in languages other than English, fewer than 25% of respondents (56/239) were satisfied with the current availability of these resources. With regard to specialty foods, 60% of respondents (143/239) reported at least one specialty food with which they were not confident about their current food safety knowledge, and 64% of respondents (153/239) reported at least one specialty food with which they were dissatisfied with the current availability of food safety information. Therefore, the development of additional food safety information resources for specialty foods, and food safety resources in additional languages may provide enhanced support to PHIs involved in protecting and promoting a safe food supply. PMID:20704506

  3. Habitat and food resources of otters (Mustelidae) in Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Patah, P.; Nur-Syuhada, N.; Md-Nor, S.; Sasaki, H.; Md-Zain, B. M.

    2014-09-01

    Habitat and food resources of otters were studied in several locations in Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 210 fecal samples were collected from April 2010 to March 2011 believed to be of otter's were analyzed for their diet composition and their habitat preferences. The DNA testing conducted revealed that only 126 samples were identified as Lultrogale perspicillata and Aonyx cinereus with 105 and 21 samples, respectively. Habitat analyses revealed that these two species preferred paddy fields and mangroves as their main habitats but L. perspicillata preferred to hunt near habitat with large water bodies, such as mangroves, rivers, ponds, and lakes. A. cinereus on the other hand, were mainly found near land-based habitat, such as paddy fields, casuarinas forest and oil palms near mangroves. Habitats chosen were influenced by their food preferences where L. perspicillata consumed a variety of fish species with a supplementary diet of prawns, small mammals, and amphibians, compared to A. cinereus which consumed less fish and more non-fish food items, such as insects, crabs, and snails. Since, the most of the otter habitats in this study are not located within the protected areas, conservation effort involving administrations, landowners, private organizations and public are necessary.

  4. A Sushi Science Module in Food Production Systems and Aquatic Resource Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livengood, Elisa J.; Chapman, Frank A.

    2009-01-01

    No other food industry depends so heavily on a wild caught resource than those associated with aquatic food products. Domestication of fish, shellfish, and other aquatic resources production has lagged behind other terrestrial livestock products; however, demand for these aquatic natural resources has continued to increase dramatically. Teaching…

  5. Water resources transfers through southern African food trade: resource efficiency and climate adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalin, Carole; Conway, Declan

    2015-04-01

    The connections between climate and the water-food nexus are strong and economically significant in southern Africa, yet the role of observed climate variability as a driver of production fluctuations is poorly understood. In addition, as regional collaboration strengthens through the SADC (Southern Africa Development Community) and trade with other regions increases, it is important to understand both how climate variability affects productivity and how intra- and extra-regional trade can contribute to the region's capacity to deal with climate-related productivity shocks. We use international food trade data (FAOSTAT) and a global hydrological model (H08) to quantify the water resources embedded in international food trade across southern Africa and with the rest of the world, from 1986-2011. We analyze the impacts of socio-economic, political and climatic changes on agricultural trade and embedded water resources during that period. In particular, the effects of climate variability on trade flows and crop yields are estimated, to provide insights on the potential of trade as a collaborative adaptation mechanism.

  6. Influence of Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) on the Use of the Most Abundant and Attractive Floral Resources in a Plant Community.

    PubMed

    Polatto, L P; Chaud-Netto, J

    2013-12-01

    Some factors influence the distribution of abundance of floral visitors, especially the amount and quality of the floral resources available, the size of the area occupied by the visitor, habitat heterogeneity, and the impact caused by natural enemies and introduced species. The objective of this research was to evaluate the distribution of abundance of the foraging activity of native floral visitors and Apis mellifera L. in the most abundant and attractive food sources in a secondary forest fragment with features of Cerrado-Atlantic Forest. Some plant species were selected and the frequency of foraging made by floral visitors was recorded. A high abundance of visits in flowers was performed by A. mellifera. Two factors may have influenced this result: (1) the occupation of the forest fragment predominantly by vines and shrubs at the expenses of vegetation with arboreal characteristics that favored the encounter of the flowering plants by A. mellifera; (2) rational beekeeping of A. mellifera, causing the number of natural swarms which originate annually from colonies of commercial apiaries and colonies previously established in the environment to be very high, thus leading to an increase in the population size of this bee species in the study site. The frequent occurrence of human-induced fire and deforestation within the forest fragment may have reduced the population size of the bee species, including A. mellifera. As the populations of A. mellifera have the capacity to quickly occupy the environment, this species possibly became dominant after successive disturbances made in the forest fragment. PMID:27193275

  7. Global warming, population growth, and natural resources for food production.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, D

    1991-01-01

    Destruction of forests and the considerable burning of fossil fuels is directly causing the level of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases including methane, carbon monoxide, and nitrous oxide in the atmosphere to rise. Population growth in the US and the world indirectly contributes to this global warming. This has led the majority of scientists interested in weather and climate to predict that the planet's temperature will increase from 1.5 to 4.5 degrees Celsius by 2050. These forecasted climactic changes will most likely strongly affect crop production. Specifically these scientists expect the potential changes in temperature, moisture, carbon dioxide, and pests to decrease food production in North America. The degree of changes hinges on each crop and its environmental needs. If farmers begin using improved agricultural technology, the fall in crop yields can be somewhat counterbalanced. Even without global warming, however, agriculture in North America must embrace sensible ecological resource management practices such as conserving soil, water, energy, and biological resources. These sustainable agricultural practices would serve agriculture, farmers, the environment, and society. Agriculturalists, farmers, and society are already interested in sustainable agriculture. Still scientists must conduct more research on the multiple effects of potential global climate change on many different crops under various environmental conditions and on new technologies that farmers might use in agricultural production. We must cut down our consumption of fossil fuel, reduce deforestation, erase poverty, and protect our soil, water, and biological resources. The most important action we need to take, however, is to check population growth. PMID:12344889

  8. The Water-Energy-Food Nexus in a Rapidly Developing Resource Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, D. M.; Kirste, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Technological advances and access to global markets have changed the rate at which resource exploitation takes place. The environmental impact of the rapid development and distribution of resources such as minerals and hydrocarbons has led to a greater potential for significant stress on water resources both in terms of quality and quantity. How and where those impacts manifest is crucial to determining appropriate risk management strategies. North East British Columbia has an abundance of shale gas reserves that are anticipated to be exploited at a large scale in coming years, primarily for export as liquefied natural gas (LNG). However, there is growing concern that fracking and other activities related to shale gas development pose risks to water quality and quantity in the region. Water lies at the center of the water-energy-food nexus, with an accelerating water demand for fracking and industrial operations as well as for domestic, environmental and agricultural uses. Climate change is also anticipated to alter the hydrologic regime, posing added stress to the water resource. This case study examines the water-energy-food nexus in the context of a region that is impacted by a rapidly developing resource sector, encompassing water demand/supply, climate change, interaction between deep aquifers and shallow aquifers/surface waters, water quality concerns related to fracking, land use disturbance, and community impacts. Due to the rapid rate of development, there are significant knowledge gaps in our understanding of the water resource. Currently agencies are undertaking water resource assessments and establishing monitoring sites. This research aims to assess water security in North East British Columbia in a coordinated fashion through various partnerships. In addition to collecting baseline knowledge and data, the study will evaluate risk and resilience indicators in relation to water security. A risk assessment framework specific to the shale gas development

  9. Resource partitioning among top predators in a Miocene food web

    PubMed Central

    Domingo, M. Soledad; Domingo, Laura; Badgley, Catherine; Sanisidro, Oscar; Morales, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The exceptional fossil sites of Cerro de los Batallones (Madrid Basin, Spain) contain abundant remains of Late Miocene mammals. From these fossil assemblages, we have inferred diet, resource partitioning and habitat of three sympatric carnivorous mammals based on stable isotopes. The carnivorans include three apex predators: two sabre-toothed cats (Felidae) and a bear dog (Amphicyonidae). Herbivore and carnivore carbon isotope (δ13C) values from tooth enamel imply the presence of a woodland ecosystem dominated by C3 plants. δ13C values and mixing-model analyses suggest that the two sabre-toothed cats, one the size of a leopard and the other the size of a tiger, consumed herbivores with similar δ13C values from a more wooded portion of the ecosystem. The two sabre-toothed cats probably hunted prey of different body sizes, and the smaller species could have used tree cover to avoid encounters with the larger felid. For the bear dog, δ13C values are higher and differ significantly from those of the sabre-toothed cats, suggesting a diet that includes prey from more open woodland. Coexistence of the sabre-toothed cats and the bear dog was likely facilitated by prey capture in different portions of the habitat. This study demonstrates the utility of stable isotope analysis for investigating the behaviour and ecology of members of past carnivoran guilds. PMID:23135673

  10. Resource partitioning among top predators in a Miocene food web.

    PubMed

    Domingo, M Soledad; Domingo, Laura; Badgley, Catherine; Sanisidro, Oscar; Morales, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The exceptional fossil sites of Cerro de los Batallones (Madrid Basin, Spain) contain abundant remains of Late Miocene mammals. From these fossil assemblages, we have inferred diet, resource partitioning and habitat of three sympatric carnivorous mammals based on stable isotopes. The carnivorans include three apex predators: two sabre-toothed cats (Felidae) and a bear dog (Amphicyonidae). Herbivore and carnivore carbon isotope (δ(13)C) values from tooth enamel imply the presence of a woodland ecosystem dominated by C(3) plants. δ(13)C values and mixing-model analyses suggest that the two sabre-toothed cats, one the size of a leopard and the other the size of a tiger, consumed herbivores with similar δ(13)C values from a more wooded portion of the ecosystem. The two sabre-toothed cats probably hunted prey of different body sizes, and the smaller species could have used tree cover to avoid encounters with the larger felid. For the bear dog, δ(13)C values are higher and differ significantly from those of the sabre-toothed cats, suggesting a diet that includes prey from more open woodland. Coexistence of the sabre-toothed cats and the bear dog was likely facilitated by prey capture in different portions of the habitat. This study demonstrates the utility of stable isotope analysis for investigating the behaviour and ecology of members of past carnivoran guilds. PMID:23135673

  11. Using the Food Guide Pyramid: A Resource for Nutrition Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Anne; Fulton, Lois; Davis, Carole; Hogbin, Myrtle

    This booklet provides information to assist nutrition educators in helping their audiences use the Food Guide Pyramid to plan and prepare foods for a healthy diet. It reviews the objectives set in developing the Food Guide Pyramid and illustrates their impact on the application of the Food Guide Pyramid to planning menus. In particular, the…

  12. Application of the WHO Keys of Safer Food to Improve Food Handling Practices of Food Vendors in a Poor Resource Community in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Donkor, Eric S.; Kayang, Boniface B.; Quaye, Jonathan; Akyeh, Moses L.

    2009-01-01

    Data was collected from food vendors in a poor resource community in Ghana, which showed that the vendors constituted an important source of oro-faecal transmission. Following this, the WHO five keys of safer food were utilized in an evidence based training programme for the vendors to improve their food handling practices. Impact assessment of the food safety training showed that 67.6% of the vendors had acquired some knowledge from the workshop and were putting it into practice. Lack of food safety equipment was a major hinderance to behavioral change among the vendors as far food handling practices are concerned. PMID:20049228

  13. Distribution, abundance, and seasonal patterns of stored product beetles in a commercial food storage facility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three-year monitoring study was performed using pitfall traps baited with pheromone lures and food oil to assess seasonal prevalence of stored product beetles inside a large community food storage warehouse located in the Midwestern US. The four primary species captured were Tribolium castaneum (H...

  14. From gelatinous to muscle food chain: rock cod Patagonotothen ramsayi recycles coelenterate and tunicate resources on the Patagonian Shelf.

    PubMed

    Arkhipkin, A; Laptikhovsky, V

    2013-11-01

    Stomach contents of 4808 fishes of 20 species caught in the eastern part of the Patagonian Shelf between 1999 and 2012 were analysed to assess dietary contributions of gelatinous plankton resources. Gelatinous plankton occurred in diets of seven species with two species, Patagonotothen ramsayi and Squalus acanthias, having >10% ctenophores in their diet. Consumption of gelatinous plankton was important in P. ramsayi and was strikingly seasonal, with maximum occurrence (up to 46% of non-empty stomachs) in late summer to autumn. Ctenophores were most abundant in P. ramsayi of 25-34 cm total length, L(T) whereas salps were more frequent in larger >35 cm L(T) individuals. In winter to spring, occurrence of gelatinous plankton in diets was minimal, reflecting their overall seasonal abundance in the ocean. The recent increase in abundance of P. ramsayi has enabled the species to recycle a significant proportion of the ecosystem production from gelatinous dead end to the main muscular food chain via seasonal reliance on ctenophores, jellyfish and tunicates. This additional influx of production that has been diverted from the gelatinous food chain favours the increase in abundance of several piscivorous top predators and affects the trophic web structure of the Patagonian Shelf ecosystem. PMID:24580663

  15. The Baltic Macoma: abundance and distribution of an important winter food of diving ducks in Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorde, D.G.; Haramis, G.M.

    1997-01-01

    Poor water quality and widespread depletion of wild celery (Vallisneria americana) and other submerged aquatic plants important as waterfowl foods has resulted in the continued dependence of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) on Baltic clams (Macoma balthica) as their primary winter food. Despite this dependence, no information exists regarding the distribution and abundance of Baltic clams, and changes that occur in Baltic clam populations over time. We conducted benthic surveys to determine the distribution and abundance of Macoma balthica and M. mitchelli in major tributaries of the upper and middle Chesapeake Bay. Tributaries sampled included the Chester River south to Monie Bay on the Eastern Shore, and Middle River to the Potomac River on the western shore of Maryland. Data on depth, bottom type, shellfish, and submerged aquatic vegetation were recorded. The Baltic clam had the highest frequency of occurrence (50%), followed by M. mitchelli (36%). Other species of clams occurred in less than 14% of the 2995 sites sampled. In addition, every third month since June 1991, we have studied seasonal changes in Baltic clam abundance and recruitment at 13 high abundance sites. Recruitment was recorded at only one high density site (97% increase) between June and September transect surveys. Clam length histograms clearly indicated a new year class and depletion of older cohorts. Average summer decline in Baltic clam abundance at the other 12 sites was 59% and ranged from -11% to -97%. Based on clam length, younger cohorts were depleted at a higher rate. More than half of the Baltic clam population was depleted during the summer and spring recruitment was low.

  16. Hawaiian spinner dolphins aggregate midwater food resources through cooperative foraging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit-Bird, Kelly; Au, Whitlow

    2003-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that spinner dolphins in Hawaii may actively aggregate their prey through cooperative foraging, a 200-kHz multi-beam sonar (Simrad MS2000) was used to observe 323 groups of spinner dolphins foraging within a midwater, micronekton sound-scattering layer off Oahu. Strong cooperation was observed in groups of 8-14 pairs of spinner dolphins. The dolphin group size was highest at midnight when the density of prey was highest and was significantly higher in Makua Beach, where the prey density was higher, than Electric Beach, where the prey density was lower. Cooperative groups of dolphins aggregated their food resources, apparently using their preys' avoidance behavior to create distinct, high-density patches in the prey. Prey aggregation was strongly stereo-typed, regardless of the distribution of the scattering layer. Dolphins swam around the edge of a 28-40 m diameter circle at least 5 times, concentrating prey within this area before pairs of dolphins on opposite sides of the circle swapped positions in the circle, swimming through the high density prey 'donut' they had formed. The hypothesis that nocturnal animals aggregate prey in midwater could not have been tested without the three-dimensional information on prey distribution and dolphin geometry provided by the multi-beam.

  17. Availability of food resources, distribution of invasive species, and conservation of a Hawaiian bird along a gradient of elevation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banko, P.C.; Oboyski, P.T.; Slotterback, J.W.; Dougill, Steve J.; Goltz, Dan M.; Johnson, L.; Laut, M.E.; Murray, T.C.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: We evaluated how an elevation gradient affects: (1) the availability of food required by a specialist seed-eater, Loxioides bailleui Oustalet (Drepanidinae), or pallia, and hence the distribution of this endangered Hawaiian bird, and (2) the distribution of alien threats to Loxioides populations, their primary foods, and their dry-forest habitat, and hence strategies for their conservation. Location: We worked throughout the subalpine forest that encircles Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawai'i Island, but we focused our studies mainly on the western slope between 2000 and 3000 m elevation, where the gradient of elevation was greatest and palila were most abundant. Methods: We determined phenology and productivity patterns of the endemic dry-forest tree species, Sophora chrysophylla (Salisb.) Seem. (Fabaceae), or ma??mane, which provides Loxioides with most of their food, and another common endemic tree, Myoporum sandwicense A. Gray (Myoporaceae), or naio, which provides some resources, along a 786-m elevation gradient at monthly intervals for 10 years (Sophora only). We also determined the availability each month of moth larvae (Lepidoptera) for that were important in the diet of nestling and adult palila. In addition, we documented the incidence of parasitism on moth larvae by several wasp (Hymenoptera) and fly (Diptera) species, and we determined the distribution of predatory wasps and ants (Hymenoptera), which potentially threaten insect prey of birds. Percentage cover of alien grass species that pose fire threats in palila habitat and other weeds were assessed during one survey. Small mammal abundance and distribution were determined by trapping during three (rodent) or five (carnivore) surveys. Results: Sophora flower and seed (pod) availability varied predictably along the elevation gradient, with about 4 months separating peaks in reproduction at high and low elevations. This, together with highly variable production of flowers and pods within elevation strata

  18. Habitable Noachian Environments and Abundant Resources in the Mawrth Vallis Exploration Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horgan, B.; Loizeau, D.; Poulet, F.; Bishop, J.; Noe Dobrea, E. Z.; Farrand, W.; Michalski, J.; Gross, C.; Kleinhenz, J.; Linne, D.

    2015-10-01

    The Mawrth Vallis EZ contains the most extensive exposed outcrop of clay-rich rocks on Mars, offer substantial and accessible resources for water extraction, as well as Fe, Al, and Si feedstock, and have high biosignature preservation potential.

  19. Asymptotic stability of tri-trophic food chains sharing a common resource.

    PubMed

    Vrkoč, Ivo; Křivan, Vlastimil

    2015-12-01

    One of the key results of the food web theory states that the interior equilibrium of a tri-trophic food chain described by the Lotka-Volterra type dynamics is globally asymptotically stable whenever it exists. This article extends this result to food webs consisting of several food chains sharing a common resource. A Lyapunov function for such food webs is constructed and asymptotic stability of the interior equilibrium is proved. Numerical simulations show that as the number of food chains increases, the real part of the leading eigenvalue, while still negative, approaches zero. Thus the resilience of such food webs decreases with the number of food chains in the web. PMID:26498384

  20. Food webs in Mongolian grasslands: the analysis of 13C and 15N natural abundances.

    PubMed

    Kohzu, Ayato; Iwata, T; Kato, M; Nishikawa, J; Wada, Eitaro; Amartuvshin, N; Namkhaidorj, B; Fujita, N

    2009-09-01

    Overgrazing often lowers species richness and productivity of grassland communities. For Mongolian grassland ecosystems, a lack of detailed information about food-web structures makes it difficult to predict the effects of overgrazing on species diversity and community composition. We analysed the delta13C and delta15N signatures of herbaceous plants, arthropods (grouped by feeding habit), wild and domestic mammals, and humans in central Mongolia to understand the predominant food-web pathways in this grassland ecosystem. The delta13C and delta15N values of mammals showed little variation within species, but varied considerably with slope position for arthropods. The apparent isotopic discrimination between body tissue and hair of mammals was estimated as 2.0 per thousand for delta13C and 2.1 per thousand for delta15N, which was large enough to cause overestimation of the trophic level of mammals if not taken into account when using hair samples to measure isotopic enrichment. PMID:19507080

  1. Water resources transfers through southern African food trade: water efficiency and climate signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalin, C.; Conway, D.

    2015-12-01

    Temporal and spatial variability of precipitation in Southern Africa is particularly high. The associated drought and flood risks, combined with a largely rainfed agriculture, pose a challenge for water and food security in this region. It is thus important to understand both how climate variability affects agricultural productivity and how intra- and extra-regional trade can contribute to the region's capacity to deal with climate-related shocks. We combine international food trade data and a global hydrological model to quantify the water resources embedded in international food trade in southern Africa and with the rest of the world, from 1986-2011. We analyze the impacts of socio-economic, political and climatic changes on agricultural trade and embedded water resources during that period. We find that regional food trade is efficient in terms of water resources but may be unsustainable because water-productive exporters, like South Africa, rely on increasingly scarce water resources. The role of imports from the rest of the world in the region's food supply is important, in particular during severe droughts. This reflects how trade can efficiently redistribute water resources across continents in response to a sudden gap in food production and water productivity. As regional collaboration strengthens through the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) and trade with other regions increases, our results point out opportunities for improved water-efficiency and sustainability of the region's food production via trade.

  2. Food First Resource Guide: Documentation on the Roots of World Hunger and Rural Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Food and Development Policy, San Francisco, CA.

    This guide reviews resources used to develop the analysis of world hunger in "Food First: Beyond the Myth of Scarcity," Houghton Mifflin, 1977. The objectives are to help people understand the economic and political factors that contribute to food deprivation, document this analysis with credible sources, and inform high school, college, and…

  3. Assessing Student Attitudes toward Animal Welfare, Resource Use, and Food Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordstrom, Patricia A.; Richards, Martha J.; Wilson, Lowell L.; Coe, Brenda L.; Fivek, Marianne L.; Brown, Michele B.

    2000-01-01

    Students participating in the Pennsylvania Governor's School for Agricultural Sciences (n=192) studied animal welfare, resource use, and food safety. They ranked food safety as a primary concern. Students with and without agricultural backgrounds showed positive changes in knowledge and perception of issues after the course. (SK)

  4. Water resources transfers through southern African food trade: water efficiency and climate signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalin, Carole; Conway, Declan

    2016-01-01

    Temporal and spatial variability of precipitation in southern Africa is particularly high. The associated drought and flood risks, combined with a largely rain-fed agriculture, pose a challenge for water and food security in the region. As regional collaboration strengthens through the Southern Africa Development Community and trade with other regions increases, it is thus important to understand both how climate variability affects agricultural productivity and how food trade (regional and extra-regional) can contribute to the region's capacity to deal with climate-related shocks. We combine global hydrological model simulations with international food trade data to quantify the water resources embedded in international food trade in southern Africa and with the rest of the world, from 1986-2011. We analyze the impacts of socio-economic changes and climatic variability on agricultural trade and embedded water resources during this period. We find that regional food trade is efficient in terms of water use but may be unsustainable because water-productive exporters, like South Africa, rely on increasingly stressed water resources. The role of imports from the rest of the world in the region's food supply is important, in particular during severe droughts. This reflects how trade can efficiently redistribute water resources across continents in response to a sudden gap in food production. In a context of regional and global integration, our results highlight opportunities for improved water-efficiency and sustainability of the region's food supply via trade.

  5. Married Women's Resource Position and Household Food Expenditures in Cebu, Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmeer, Kammi K

    2005-01-01

    This study analyzes how married women use their access to and control over economic resources to increase household spending on food. Using data from Cebu, Philippines, where child malnutrition is high, this study finds that the more income women earn and control, the more households spend on food. Women's control over their income is particularly…

  6. Linking killer whale survival and prey abundance: food limitation in the oceans' apex predator?

    PubMed

    Ford, John K B; Ellis, Graeme M; Olesiuk, Peter F; Balcomb, Kenneth C

    2010-02-23

    Killer whales (Orcinus orca) are large predators that occupy the top trophic position in the world's oceans and as such may have important roles in marine ecosystem dynamics. Although the possible top-down effects of killer whale predation on populations of their prey have received much recent attention, little is known of how the abundance of these predators may be limited by bottom-up processes. Here we show, using 25 years of demographic data from two populations of fish-eating killer whales in the northeastern Pacific Ocean, that population trends are driven largely by changes in survival, and that survival rates are strongly correlated with the availability of their principal prey species, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Our results suggest that, although these killer whales may consume a variety of fish species, they are highly specialized and dependent on this single salmonid species to an extent that it is a limiting factor in their population dynamics. Other ecologically specialized killer whale populations may be similarly constrained to a narrow range of prey species by culturally inherited foraging strategies, and thus are limited in their ability to adapt rapidly to changing prey availability. PMID:19755531

  7. Implications of Postharvest Food Loss/Waste Prevention to Energy and Resources Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, X.; Shafiee-Jood, M.

    2015-12-01

    World's growing demand for food is driven by population and income growth, dietary changes, and the ever-increasing competition between food, feed and bioenergy challenges food security; meanwhile agricultural expansion and intensification threats the environment by the various detrimental impacts. Researchers have attempted to explore strategies to overcome this grand challenge. One of the promising solutions that have attracted considerable attention recently is to increase the efficiency of food supply chain by reducing food loss and waste (FLW). According to recent studies conducted by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), United Nation, almost one third of the food produced for human consumption globally is lost or wasted along the food supply chain. This amount of food discarded manifests a missing, yet potential, opportunity to sustainably enhance both food security and environmental sustainability. However, implementing the strategies and technologies for tackling FLW does not come up as an easy solution since it requires economic incentives, benefit and cost analysis, infrastructure development, and appropriate market mechanism. In this presentation I will provide a synthesis of knowledge on the implications of postharvest food loss/waste prevention to energy and resource conservation, environmental protection, as well as food security. I will also discuss how traditional civil and environmental engineering can contribute to the reduction of postharvest food loss, an important issue of sustainable agriculture.

  8. Unravelling the role of allochthonous aquatic resources to food web structure in a tropical riparian forest.

    PubMed

    Recalde, Fátima C; Postali, Thaís C; Romero, Gustavo Q

    2016-03-01

    The role of matter and energy flow across ecosystem boundaries for the subsidized consumer populations is well known. However, little is known on the effects of allochthonous subsidies on food web structure and trophic niche dimensions of consumers in the tropics. We excluded allochthonous aquatic insects from tropical streams using greenhouse-type exclosures to test the influence of aquatic allochthonous subsidies on the trophic structure and niche dimensions of terrestrial predators using stable isotope methods. In exclosure treatments, abundance and biomass of terrestrial predators, and biomass of phytophages decreased and increased, respectively. Vegetation-living predators were more responsive to allochthonous inputs than those living on the ground. Overall, lower availability of allochthonous inputs did not affect community-wide metrics and niche width of predators. However, the niche width of some spider families had very low overlap between treatments, and others had wider isotopic niches in the control than in the exclusion treatment. Most of the C and N in predators living in control stretches came from aquatic subsidies, and those predators living in the exclusion treatments switched their diets to terrestrial sources, showing a preference of predators for allochthonous subsidies. Our results suggest that allochthonous subsidies are also relevant to tropical fauna living upon vegetation. Moreover, allochthonous resources may amplify the niche dimension of certain predators or considerably change the trophic niche of others. Our study highlights the importance of including modern isotopic tools in elucidating the role of allochthonous resources on the patterns of trophic structure and niche dimensions of consumers from donor ecosystems. PMID:26590144

  9. Online Resources for Teaching Units on: Ecological Footprint of Human Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrocco, Aldo T.

    2011-01-01

    The modern food system involves high consumption of natural resources and other forms of environmental degradation. This paper is a presentation of internet resources such as scientific contributions, graphics, tables, images, animations and interactive atlases that can help to teach this subject. The discussion contains some subjects considered…

  10. Food Security: Selected Global and U.S. Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocher, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Food security is researched and dealt with on local, regional, national, and global levels with solutions ranging from local farmers' market initiatives to increasing crop yields through genetically modified plants to streamlining global supply chains. Because of its broad, interdisciplinary nature, it is necessary to narrow the focus of this…

  11. World Food Resources and Population: The Narrowing Margin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.

    1981-01-01

    This bulletin examines the narrowing margin between global food production and population growth. Between 1950 and 1971, world grain production nearly doubled and per capita production increased 31 percent. During the 1970s, gains in output barely kept pace with population growth, consumption per person declined in sub-Saharan Africa and parts of…

  12. Goldeye, Hiodon alosoides, in Lake Oahe: abundance, age, growth, maturity, food, and the fishery, 1963-69

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Grant L.; Nelson, William R.

    1974-01-01

    Reproductive success was relatively consistent, and adequate to maintain species abundance at a nearly constant level, during 1963-69. Both abundance and growth in length increased from the lower to the upper portion of the reservoir. In most characteristics -- growth in length, length-weight relation, age at maturity, and food -- goldeye in Lake Oahe were similar to those from other Missouri River impoundments. Experimental gill nets samples all lengths (range 80-460 mm; median, 320 mm) of goldeye, bottom trawls sampled mostly small fish, (median, 215 mm) and trap nets large ones (median, 345 mm). Commercial gill nets were highly size selective (median, 375 mm); fish of ages IV-VII made up 90% of the catch. Survival rates were 57 to 52% for ages II-X. Estimated survival rates for ages V-IX declined from 44 to 35% after the inception of the commercial fishery in 1966. The peak commercial catch was 151,432 kg (1.2 kg/hectare) in 1969. Unless recruitment declines, the population can support a fishery of that magnitude.

  13. Assimilation of trace elements ingested by the mussel Mytilus edulis: effects of algal food abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, W.-X.; Fisher, N.S.; Luoma, S. N.

    1995-01-01

    Pulse-chase feeding and multi-labeled radiotracer techniques were employed to measure the assimilation of 6 trace elements (110mAg, 241Am, 109Cd, 57Co, 75Se and 65Zn) from ingested diatoms in the mussel Mytilus edulis feeding at different rates (0.1, 0.49 and 1.5 mg dry wt h-1). Uniformly radiolabeled diatoms Thalassiosira pseudonana were fed to mussels for 0.5 h, and the behavior of the radiotracers in individual mussels was followed for 96 h in a depuration seawater system. Assimilation efficiency (AE) of each element declined with increasing ingestion rate and increased with gut passage time. The importance of extracellular digestion relative to intracellular digestion increased with ingestion activity, which, when coupled with a decline in AE, suggested that extracellular digestion is less efficient in metal absorption. Zn assimilation was most affected by ingestion rate, suggesting that AE may play a role in the physiological regulation of this metal in M. edulis. In an experiment to simulate the effects of an acidic gut, lowered pH (5.5) enhanced the release of elements from intact diatom cells, especially at low particle concentration. These results indicate that both feeding components of the mussel (i.e. gut passage time, digestive partitioning) and metal chemistry (i.e. metal release at lowered pH within the bivalve gut) are responsible for the difference in the assimilation of trace metals at different food quantities observed in mussels.

  14. Abundance, diversity, and resource use in an assemblage of Conus species in Enewetak lagoon

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, A.J.

    1980-10-01

    Eight species of the gastropod genus Conus co-occur in sand substrate and an adjacent meadow of Halimeda stuposa in Enewetak lagoon, an unusually diverse assemblage for this type of habitat. Population density is high, and large species predominate; they represent all major feeding groups in the genus: predators on polychaetes, enteropneusts, gastropods, and fishes. Although the two most common Conus species eat primarily the same prey species, they mainly take prey of different sizes in different microhabitats. The results suggest that sufficient microhabitat heterogeneity and prey diversity exist to permit spatial segregation and specialization on different prey resources by the different Conus species present. Between-species dissimilarity in resource use thus agrees with previous observations on more diverse Conus assemblages of subtidal coral reef platforms. Prey species diversity is inversely related to body size, confirming and extending a previously identified pattern among Conus species that prey on sedentary polychaetes.

  15. Reduction of potential food interference in two sympatric carnivores by sequential use of shared resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrientos, Rafael; Virgós, Emilio

    2006-07-01

    The common genet ( Genetta genetta) and the stone marten ( Martes foina) are two species that overlap extensively in their distribution ranges in southwest Europe. Available diet data from these species allow us to predict some interference competition for food resources in sympatric populations. We checked the food interference hypothesis in a sympatric population. The diet of both predators was analyzed through scat collection. Seasonal differences in biomass consumption were compared between both species in those items considered as key resources according to biomass consumption. Strawberry tree fruits can be considered as key resource exclusively for genets whereas fungi, blackberries and rabbits are keys for stone martens only. For other key resources consumed by both species (wood mouse and figs) we suggest that a possible mechanism to reduce diet overlap could be the sequential use of these resources: no intensive exploitation by both species of the same key resource during the same season was detected. Figs and wood mouse were used alternatively. Although strawberry tree fruits and blackberry are exclusive key resources of one of the species, their consumptions showed the same pattern. Diet niche overlap in our study is low compared with other carnivore communities suggesting that exclusive use of some key resources and sequential use of shared ones is an optimal scenario to reduce overall competition for food resources.

  16. Lost water and nitrogen resources due to EU consumer food waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanham, D.; Bouraoui, F.; Leip, A.; Grizzetti, B.; Bidoglio, G.

    2015-08-01

    The European Parliament recently called for urgent measures to halve food waste in the EU, where consumers are responsible for a major part of total waste along the food supply chain. Due to a lack of data on national food waste statistics, uncertainty in (consumer) waste quantities (and the resulting associated quantities of natural resources) is very high, but has never been previously assessed in studies for the EU. Here we quantify: (1) EU consumer food waste, and (2) associated natural resources required for its production, in term of water and nitrogen, as well as estimating the uncertainty of these values. Total EU consumer food waste averages 123 (min 55-max 190) kg/capita annually (kg/cap/yr), i.e. 16% (min 7-max 24%) of all food reaching consumers. Almost 80%, i.e. 97 (min 45-max 153) kg/cap/yr is avoidable food waste, which is edible food not consumed. We have calculated the water and nitrogen (N) resources associated with avoidable food waste. The associated blue water footprint (WF) (the consumption of surface and groundwater resources) averages 27 litre per capita per day (min 13-max 40 l/cap/d), which slightly exceeds the total blue consumptive EU municipal water use. The associated green WF (consumptive rainwater use) is 294 (min 127-max 449) l/cap/d, equivalent to the total green consumptive water use for crop production in Spain. The nitrogen (N) contained in avoidable food waste averages 0.68 (min 0.29-max 1.08) kg/cap/yr. The food production N footprint (any remaining N used in the food production process) averages 2.74 (min 1.02-max 4.65) kg/cap/yr, equivalent to the use of mineral fertiliser by the UK and Germany combined. Among all the food product groups wasted, meat accounts for the highest amounts of water and N resources, followed by wasted cereals. The results of this study provide essential insights and information on sustainable consumption and resource efficiency for both EU policies and EU consumers.

  17. Variations in the abundance of fisheries resources and ecosystem structure in the Japan/East Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chang Ik; Lee, Jae Bong; Seo, Young Il; Yoon, Sang Cheol; Kim, Suam

    2004-05-01

    Evidence supports the hypothesis that two climatic regime shifts in the North Pacific and the Japan/East Sea, have affected the dynamics of the marine ecosystem and fisheries resources from 1960 to 2000. Changes in both mixed layer depth (MLD) and primary production were detected in the Japan/East Sea after 1976. The 1976 regime shift appears to have caused the biomass replacement with changes in catch production of major exploited fisheries resources, including Pacific saury, Pacific sardine and filefish. Both fisheries yield and fish distribution are reflected in these decadal fluctuations. In the 1960s and 1990s, common squid dominated the catches whereas in the 1970s and 1980s, it was replaced by walleye pollock. In the post-1988 regime shift, the distribution of horse mackerel shifted westward and southward and its distributional overlap with common mackerel decreased. The habitat of Pacific sardine also shifted away from mackerel habitats during this period. To evaluate changes in the organization and structure of the ecosystem in the Japan/East Sea, a mass-balanced model, Ecopath, was employed. Based on two mass-balanced models, representing before (1970-75) and after (1978-84) the 1976 regime shift, the weighted mean trophic level of catch increased from 3.09 before to 3.28 after. Total biomass of species groups in the Japan/East Sea ecosystem increased by 15% and total catch production increased by 48% due to the 1976 regime shift. The largest changes occurred at mid-trophic levels, occupied by fishes and cephalopods. The dominant predatory species shifted from cephalopods to walleye pollock due to the 1976 regime shift. It is concluded that the climatic regime shifts caused changes in the structure of the ecosystem and the roles of major species, as well as, large variations in biomass and production of fisheries resources.

  18. Mental imagery interventions reduce subsequent food intake only when self-regulatory resources are available

    PubMed Central

    Missbach, Benjamin; Florack, Arnd; Weissmann, Lukas; König, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that imagining food consumption leads to food-specific habituation effects. In the present research, we replicated these effects and further examined whether the depletion of self-regulatory resources would reduce the habituation effects of imagined food consumption. Since self-regulatory resources have been shown to reduce habituation effects during the perception of emotional stimuli, we expected a reduction in habituation effects from imagined food consumption when self-regulatory resources were depleted. In Study 1, we replicated habituation effects as a response to imagining gummy bear consumption with a high (36) and medium number (18) of repetitions in a camouflaged taste test. Participants imagining gummy bear intake showed decreased food intake compared with participants who imagined putting a coin into a laundry machine. The number of repetitions did not significantly moderate the observed habituation effect. In Study 2, we investigated whether self-regulatory depletion would impede habituation effects evoked by the imagination of walnut consumption. Participants in a depleted state did not show a reduction in food intake after imagining walnut intake compared with participants in a non-depleted state. We discuss directions for future research and processes that might underlie the observed moderating effect of self-regulatory resources. PMID:25506337

  19. Closing the cycle on food and energy resource flows in order to create a more sustainable rural economy in Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casillas, C. E.

    2009-12-01

    The ecologically sustainable development of economies is often discussed at the urban scale and framed in terms of the environmental threats that accompany rapid growth. The dynamics of rural economies are less complex and provide valuable insights into how resource flows may be better utilized, as well what are the critical roles and relationships of government and society. This paper will present a case study of economic and ecologically appropriate innovations that can be made to the production and consumption behavior within a community on the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua. Orinoco is a small Garifuna community situated on the Pearl Lagoon basin. It has a population of over 1000 people and its economy is primarily based on the exploitation of declining shrimp and fish resources. This paper will quantify the monetary and material resource flows comprising the current economy, and present technically viable alternatives that would utilize the abundant natural resources in a more ecologically sustainable manner, while decreasing the dependence on imported food and fuels. Specifically, the paper will describe how recently implemented projects of energy conservation can be coupled with improved agricultural and fishing practices in order to meet local and external market demands for fish and vegetable oil. Secondary products can be utilized to eliminate the dependence on imported liquid and gas fossil fuels for cooking and electricity generation.

  20. Internest food sharing within wood ant colonies: resource redistribution behavior in a complex system

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Elva J.H.

    2016-01-01

    Resource sharing is an important cooperative behavior in many animals. Sharing resources is particularly important in social insect societies, as division of labor often results in most individuals including, importantly, the reproductives, relying on other members of the colony to provide resources. Sharing resources between individuals is therefore fundamental to the success of social insects. Resource sharing is complicated if a colony inhabits several spatially separated nests, a nesting strategy common in many ant species. Resources must be shared not only between individuals in a single nest but also between nests. We investigated the behaviors facilitating resource redistribution between nests in a dispersed-nesting population of wood ant Formica lugubris. We marked ants, in the field, as they transported resources along the trails between nests of a colony, to investigate how the behavior of individual workers relates to colony-level resource exchange. We found that workers from a particular nest “forage” to other nests in the colony, treating them as food sources. Workers treating other nests as food sources means that simple, pre-existing foraging behaviors are used to move resources through a distributed system. It may be that this simple behavioral mechanism facilitates the evolution of this complex life-history strategy. PMID:27004016

  1. Renewable-energy-resource options for the food-processing industry

    SciTech Connect

    Eakin, D.E.; Clark, M.A.; Inaba, L.K.

    1981-09-01

    The food processing industry generates significant quantities of organic process wastes which often require treatment prior to disposal or result in additional expenses for disposal. The food processing industry also requires fuel and electricity to provide the process energy to convert raw materials into finished food products. Depending on the particular process, organic wastes can represent a potential resource for conversion to energy products that can be used for providing process energy or other energy products. This document reports the results of an evaluation of renewable energy resource options for the food processing industry. The options evaluated were direct combustion for providing process heat, fermentation for ethanol production and anaerobic digestion for generation of methane.

  2. The potential for indirect effects between co-flowering plants via shared pollinators depends on resource abundance, accessibility and relatedness.

    PubMed

    Carvalheiro, Luísa Gigante; Biesmeijer, Jacobus Christiaan; Benadi, Gita; Fründ, Jochen; Stang, Martina; Bartomeus, Ignasi; Kaiser-Bunbury, Christopher N; Baude, Mathilde; Gomes, Sofia I F; Merckx, Vincent; Baldock, Katherine C R; Bennett, Andrew T D; Boada, Ruth; Bommarco, Riccardo; Cartar, Ralph; Chacoff, Natacha; Dänhardt, Juliana; Dicks, Lynn V; Dormann, Carsten F; Ekroos, Johan; Henson, Kate S E; Holzschuh, Andrea; Junker, Robert R; Lopezaraiza-Mikel, Martha; Memmott, Jane; Montero-Castaño, Ana; Nelson, Isabel L; Petanidou, Theodora; Power, Eileen F; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G; Stout, Jane C; Temitope, Kehinde; Tscharntke, Teja; Tscheulin, Thomas; Vilà, Montserrat; Kunin, William E

    2014-11-01

    Co-flowering plant species commonly share flower visitors, and thus have the potential to influence each other's pollination. In this study we analysed 750 quantitative plant-pollinator networks from 28 studies representing diverse biomes worldwide. We show that the potential for one plant species to influence another indirectly via shared pollinators was greater for plants whose resources were more abundant (higher floral unit number and nectar sugar content) and more accessible. The potential indirect influence was also stronger between phylogenetically closer plant species and was independent of plant geographic origin (native vs. non-native). The positive effect of nectar sugar content and phylogenetic proximity was much more accentuated for bees than for other groups. Consequently, the impact of these factors depends on the pollination mode of plants, e.g. bee or fly pollinated. Our findings may help predict which plant species have the greatest importance in the functioning of plant-pollination networks. PMID:25167890

  3. FESTERING FOOD: CHYTRIDIOMYCETE PATHOGEN REDUCES QUALITY OF DAPHNIA HOST AS A FOOD RESOURCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    When parasitic infections are severe or highly prevalent among prey, a significant component of the predator’s diet may consist of parasitized hosts. However, despite the ubiquity of parasites in most food webs, comparisons of the nutritional quality of prey as a function of inf...

  4. Festering food: chytridiomycete pathogen reduces quality of Daphnia host as a food resource.

    PubMed

    Forshay, Kenneth J; Johnson, Pieter T J; Stock, Melanie; Peñalva, Carolina; Dodson, Stanley I

    2008-10-01

    When parasitic infections are severe or highly prevalent among prey, a significant component of the predator's diet may consist of parasitized hosts. However, despite the ubiquity of parasites in most food webs, comparisons of the nutritional quality of prey as a function of infection status are largely absent. We measured the nutritional consequences of chytridiomycete infections in Daphnia, which achieve high prevalence in lake ecosystems (>80%), and tested the hypothesis that Daphnia pulicaria infected with Polycaryum laeve are diminished in food quality relative to uninfected hosts. Compared with uninfected adults, infected individuals were smaller, contained less nitrogen and phosphorus, and were lower in several important fatty acids. Infected zooplankton had significantly shorter carapace lengths (8%) and lower mass (8-20%) than uninfected individuals. Parasitized animals contained significantly less phosphorus (16-18% less by dry mass) and nitrogen (4-6% less) than did healthy individuals. Infected individuals also contained 26-34% less saturated fatty acid and 31-42% less docosahexaenoic acid, an essential fatty acid that is typically low in cladocera, but critical to fish growth. Our results suggest that naturally occurring levels of chytrid infections in D. pulicaria populations reduce the quality of food available to secondary consumers, including planktivorous fishes, with potentially important effects for lake food webs. PMID:18959307

  5. Theme--Achieving 2020. Goal 3: All Students Are Conversationally Literate in Agriculture, Food, Fiber, and Natural Resource Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trexler, Cary, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Nine theme articles focus on the need for students to be conversationally literate about agriculture, food, fiber, and natural resources systems. Discusses the definition of conversational literacy, the human and institutional resources needed, and exemplary models for promoting literacy. (JOW)

  6. Food Web Architecture and Basal Resources Interact to Determine Biomass and Stoichiometric Cascades along a Benthic Food Web

    PubMed Central

    Guariento, Rafael D.; Carneiro, Luciana S.; Caliman, Adriano; Leal, João J. F.; Bozelli, Reinaldo L.; Esteves, Francisco A.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the effects of predators and resources on primary producers has been a major focus of interest in ecology. Within this context, the trophic cascade concept especially concerning the pelagic zone of lakes has been the focus of the majority of these studies. However, littoral food webs could be especially interesting because base trophic levels may be strongly regulated by consumers and prone to be light limited. In this study, the availability of nutrients and light and the presence of an omnivorous fish (Hyphessobrycon bifasciatus) were manipulated in enclosures placed in a humic coastal lagoon (Cabiúnas Lagoon, Macaé – RJ) to evaluate the individual and interactive effects of resource availability (nutrients and light) and food web configuration on the biomass and stoichiometry of periphyton and benthic grazers. Our findings suggest that light and nutrients interact to determine periphyton biomass and stoichiometry, which propagates to the consumer level. We observed a positive effect of the availability of nutrients on periphytic biomass and grazers' biomass, as well as a reduction of periphytic C∶N∶P ratios and an increase of grazers' N and P content. Low light availability constrained the propagation of nutrient effects on periphyton biomass and induced higher periphytic C∶N∶P ratios. The effects of fish presence strongly interacted with resource availability. In general, a positive effect of fish presence was observed for the total biomass of periphyton and grazer's biomass, especially with high resource availability, but the opposite was found for periphytic autotrophic biomass. Fish also had a significant effect on periphyton stoichiometry, but no effect was observed on grazers' stoichiometric ratios. In summary, we observed that the indirect effect of fish predation on periphyton biomass might be dependent on multiple resources and periphyton nutrient stoichiometric variation can affect consumers' stoichiometry. PMID:21789234

  7. Resources

    MedlinePlus

    ... palate - resources Colon cancer - resources Cystic fibrosis - resources Depression - resources Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - resources Eating disorders - resources Elder care - resources Epilepsy - resources Family troubles - ...

  8. Environmental impacts of food trade via resource use and greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalin, Carole; Rodríguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2016-03-01

    Agriculture will need to significantly intensify in the next decades to continue providing essential nutritive food to a growing global population. However, it can have harmful environmental impacts, due to the use of natural and synthetic resources and the emission of greenhouse gases, which alter the water, carbon and nitrogen cycles, and threaten the fertility, health and biodiversity of landscapes. Because of the spatial heterogeneity of resource productivity, farming practices, climate, and land and water availability, the environmental impact of producing food is highly dependent on its origin. For this reason, food trade can either increase or reduce the overall environmental impacts of agriculture, depending on whether or not the impact is greater in the exporting region. Here, we review current scientific understanding of the environmental impacts of food trade, focusing on water and land use, pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. In the case of water, these impacts are mainly beneficial. However, in the cases of pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, this conclusion is not as clear. Overall, there is an urgent need for a more comprehensive, integrated approach to estimate the global impacts of food trade on the environment. Second, research is needed to improve the evaluation of some key aspects of the relative value of each resource depending on the local and regional biophysical and socio-economic context. Finally, to enhance the impact of such evaluations and their applicability in decision-making, scenario analyses and accounting of key issues like deforestation and groundwater exhaustion will be required.

  9. Honeydew and insecticide-bait as competing food resources for a fruit fly and common parasitoids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honeydew from phloem-feeding insects and fruit fly insecticidal baits may both serve as adult food resources for some insect species. In California olive orchards the black scale, Saissetia oleae (Olivier), is a common honeydew-producer, while spinosad-based fruit fly bait (GF-120) is used to contro...

  10. Food resources influence spatial ecology, habitat selection, and foraging behavior in an ambush-hunting snake (Viperidae: Bothrops asper): an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Wasko, Dennis K; Sasa, Mahmood

    2012-06-01

    Prey availability affects many aspects of predators' life history and is considered a primary factor influencing individuals' decisions regarding spatial ecology and behavior, but few experimental data are currently available. Snakes may represent ideal model organisms relative to other animal groups for addressing such resource dependency, due to a presumably more direct link between food resources and many aspects of behavior and natural history. We experimentally investigated the relationship between food intake and spatial behavior in a population of the snake Bothrops asper in a Costa Rican lowland rainforest. Six adult snakes were allowed to forage naturally while six were offered supplemental food in the field, with both groups monitored using radiotelemetry. Mean home range size did not differ between groups presumably due to small sample size, but supplementally fed snakes demonstrated altered patterns of macro- and microhabitat selection, shorter and less frequent movements, and increased mass acquisition. Fed snakes also devoted less time to foraging efforts, instead more frequently remaining inactive and utilizing shelter. Because snakes were always fed in situ and not at designated feeding stations, observed shifts in habitat selection are not explained by animals simply moving to areas of higher food availability. Rather, B. asper may have moved to swamps in order to feed on amphibians when necessary, but remained in preferred forest habitat when food was otherwise abundant. The strong behavioral and spatiotemporal responses of snakes in this population may have been influenced by an overall scarcity of mammalian prey during the study period. PMID:22440190

  11. Idiosyncratic responses of grizzly bear habitat to climate change based on projected food resource changes.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David R; Nielsen, Scott E; Stenhouse, Gordon B

    2014-07-01

    Climate change vulnerability assessments for species of conservation concern often use species distribution and ecological niche modeling to project changes in habitat. One of many assumptions of these approaches is that food web dependencies are consistent in time and environmental space. Species at higher trophic levels that rely on the availability of species at lower trophic levels as food may be sensitive to extinction cascades initiated by changes in the habitat of key food resources. Here we assess climate change vulnerability for Ursus arctos (grizzly bears) in the southern Canadian Rocky Mountains using projected changes to 17 of the most commonly consumed plant food items. We used presence-absence information from 7088 field plots to estimate ecological niches and to project changes in future distributions of each species. Model projections indicated idiosyncratic responses among food items. Many food items persisted or even increased, although several species were found to be vulnerable based on declines or geographic shifts in suitable habitat. These included Hedysarum alpinum (alpine sweet vetch), a critical spring and autumn root-digging resource when little else is available. Potential habitat loss was also identified for three fruiting species of lower importance to bears: Empetrum nigrum (crowberry), Vaccinium scoparium (grouseberry), and Fragaria virginiana (strawberry). A general trend towards uphill migration of bear foods may result in higher vulnerability to bear populations at low elevations, which are also those that are most likely to have human-bear conflict problems. Regardless, a wide diet breadth of grizzly bears, as well as wide environmental niches of most food items, make climate change a much lower threat to grizzly bears than other bear species such as polar bears and panda bears. We cannot exclude, however, future alterations in human behavior and land use resulting from climate change that may reduce survival rates. PMID:25154102

  12. Resources

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - resources Eating disorders - resources Elder care - resources Epilepsy - resources Family troubles - resources Gastrointestinal disorders - resources Hearing impairment - resources ...

  13. Development of a food allergy education resource for primary care physicians

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Joyce E; Kumar, Arvind; Bruhn, Christine; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sicherer, Scott H

    2008-01-01

    Background Food allergy is estimated to affect 3–4% of adults in the US, but there are limited educational resources for primary care physicians. The goal of this study was to develop and pilot a food allergy educational resource based upon a needs survey of non-allergist healthcare providers. Methods A survey was undertaken to identify educational needs and preferences for providers, with a focus on physicians caring for adults and teenagers, including emergency medicine providers. The results of the survey were used to develop a teaching program that was subsequently piloted on primary care and emergency medicine physicians. Knowledge base tests and satisfaction surveys were administered to determine the effectiveness of the educational program. Results Eighty-two physicians (response rate, 65%) completed the needs assessment survey. Areas of deficiency and educational needs identified included: identification of potentially life-threatening food allergies, food allergy diagnosis, and education of patients about treatment (food avoidance and epinephrine use). Small group, on-site training was the most requested mode of education. A slide set and narrative were developed to address the identified needs. Twenty-six separately enrolled participants were administered the teaching set. Pre-post knowledge base scores increased from a mean of 38% correct to 64% correct (p < 0.001). Ability to correctly demonstrate the use of epinephrine self injectors increased significantly. Nearly all participants (>95%) indicated that the teaching module increased their comfort with recognition and management of food allergy. Conclusion Our pilot food allergy program, developed based upon needs assessments, showed strong participant satisfaction and educational value. PMID:18826650

  14. The Neighborhood Food Resource Environment and the Health of Residents with Chronic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Roberto B.; Ang, Alfonso; Pebley, Anne R.

    2008-01-01

    Background Residence in disadvantaged neighborhoods is associated with poorer access to healthy foods. Objective To understand associations between the neighborhood food resource environment and residents’ health status and body mass index (BMI) for adults with and without chronic conditions. Design Cross-sectional multilevel analysis. Participants 2,536 adults from the 2000–2001 Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey. Measurements The food resource environment was defined as the number of chain supermarkets, independent supermarkets, small markets, or convenience stores per roadway miles in the census tract. The main dependent variables were self-rated health, dichotomized as excellent or fair/poor, and body mass index (BMI). Multilevel regression models examined the association between the food resource environment and both BMI and the odds of reporting excellent health after adjustment for neighborhood SES and individual characteristics. Results More chain supermarkets per roadway mile in a census tract was associated with higher adjusted rates of reporting excellent health (33%, 38%, and 43% for those in the lowest, middle, and highest tertiles of chain supermarkets) and lower adjusted mean BMI (27, 26, and 25 kg/m2) for residents without a chronic condition, but not those with a chronic condition. In contrast, having more convenience stores per roadway mile was associated with lower health ratings only among adults with a chronic condition (39%, 32%, and 27% for the lowest to highest tertile of convenience stores). Conclusion Health status and BMI are associated with the local food environment, but the associations differ by type of market and presence of a chronic condition. PMID:18483833

  15. What balance do countries exhibit between the central human resources: water, energy and food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossak, Julian; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2013-04-01

    Sufficient water, food and energy is a precondition for human activities. The water, energy and food nexus states that to some extend, these resources can replace each another: land can be used to produce food or energy crops; water can be used as direct water supply, to produce energy or for irrigation; and energy supports water treatment and agricultural yield. We present an overview of the major components of the trade-off together with a set of indicators and data sources to assess these components. The different indicators of the trade-off are summarized and plotted in a novel way on a triangle, which we discuss in view of the resource availability of different countries. Comparing different countries in view of their balance between water, food and energy will inform the discussion about the transition towards more sustainable societies and highlighting alternative strategies for development. This is important in view of possible synergies between the different sectors and as a tool for better coordinated governance approaches.

  16. Urban food consumption and associated water resources: The example of Dutch cities.

    PubMed

    Vanham, D; Mak, T N; Gawlik, B M

    2016-09-15

    Full self-sufficiency in cities is a major concern. Cities import resources for food, water and energy security. They are however key to global sustainability, as they concentrate a rapidly increasing and urbanising population (or number of consumers). In this paper, we analysed the dependency of urban inhabitants on the resource water for food consumption, by means of Dutch cities. We found that in extremely urbanised municipalities like Amsterdam and Rotterdam, people eat more meat and cereals and less potatoes than in other Dutch municipalities. Their current water footprint (WF) related to food consumption is therefore higher (3245l/cap/day) than in strongly urbanised cities (3126l/cap/day). Dutch urban citizens who eat too many animal products, crop oils and sugar can reduce their WF (with 29 to 32%) by shifting to a healthier diet. Recommended less meat consumption has the largest impact on the total WF reduction. A shift to a pesco-vegetarian or vegetarian diet would require even less water resources, where the WF can be reduced by 36 to 39% and 40 to 42% respectively. Dutch cities such as Amsterdam have always scored very high in international sustainability rankings for cities, partly due to a long history in integrated (urban) water management in the Netherlands. We argue that such existing rankings only show a certain - undoubtedly very important - part of urban environmental sustainability. To communicate the full picture to citizens, stakeholders and policy makers, indicators on external resource usage need to be employed. The fact that external resource dependency can be altered through changing dietary behaviour should be communicated. PMID:27173841

  17. Impacts of variation in planktivorous fish on abundance of daphnids: A simulation model of the Lake Mendota food web: Chapter 20

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luecke, Chris; Lunte, Cynthia C.; Wright, Russell A.; Robertson, Dale M.; McLain, Ann S.

    1992-01-01

    Previous chapters in this volume have outlined the goals of the Lake Mendota food web manipulation study (Rudstam et al., Ch. 12) and have reported on variations in phytoplankton and zooplankton abundances during the past 15 years (Lathrop and Carpenter, Ch. 7 and 8). Because of the long time scales inherent in such a lake management manipulation, it became imperative to attempt to predict how the lake would respond to changes in planktivorous fish abundance over time scales of several decades. We know from the past 15 years of study (Lathrop and Carpenter, Ch. 7 and 8; Magnuson and Lathrop, Ch. 11) that substantial variation of planktivorous fish, zooplankton, and phytoplankton abundances can occur the lake. Given the current stocking of piscivores, we have the potential to substantially modify the abundance of planktivorous fish and possibly shift the assemblages of phytoplankton and zooplankton beyond the ranges of those which occurred previously. In this chapter we describe the construction and use of a simulation model designed to examine how variation in plantivore abundance might impact zooplankton biomass and species composition.

  18. Deficit irrigation and sustainable water-resource strategies in agriculture for China's food security.

    PubMed

    Du, Taisheng; Kang, Shaozhong; Zhang, Jianhua; Davies, William J

    2015-04-01

    More than 70% of fresh water is used in agriculture in many parts of the world, but competition for domestic and industrial water use is intense. For future global food security, water use in agriculture must become sustainable. Agricultural water-use efficiency and water productivity can be improved at different points from the stomatal to the regional scale. A promising approach is the use of deficit irrigation, which can both save water and induce plant physiological regulations such as stomatal opening and reproductive and vegetative growth. At the scales of the irrigation district, the catchment, and the region, there can be many other components to a sustainable water-resources strategy. There is much interest in whether crop water use can be regulated as a function of understanding of physiological responses. If this is the case, then agricultural water resources can be reallocated to the benefit of the broader community. We summarize the extent of use and impact of deficit irrigation within China. A sustainable strategy for allocation of agricultural water resources for food security is proposed. Our intention is to build an integrative system to control crop water use during different cropping stages and actively regulate the plant's growth, productivity, and development based on physiological responses. This is done with a view to improving the allocation of limited agricultural water resources. PMID:25873664

  19. Deficit irrigation and sustainable water-resource strategies in agriculture for China’s food security

    PubMed Central

    Du, Taisheng; Kang, Shaozhong; Zhang, Jianhua; Davies, William J.

    2015-01-01

    More than 70% of fresh water is used in agriculture in many parts of the world, but competition for domestic and industrial water use is intense. For future global food security, water use in agriculture must become sustainable. Agricultural water-use efficiency and water productivity can be improved at different points from the stomatal to the regional scale. A promising approach is the use of deficit irrigation, which can both save water and induce plant physiological regulations such as stomatal opening and reproductive and vegetative growth. At the scales of the irrigation district, the catchment, and the region, there can be many other components to a sustainable water-resources strategy. There is much interest in whether crop water use can be regulated as a function of understanding of physiological responses. If this is the case, then agricultural water resources can be reallocated to the benefit of the broader community. We summarize the extent of use and impact of deficit irrigation within China. A sustainable strategy for allocation of agricultural water resources for food security is proposed. Our intention is to build an integrative system to control crop water use during different cropping stages and actively regulate the plant’s growth, productivity, and development based on physiological responses. This is done with a view to improving the allocation of limited agricultural water resources. PMID:25873664

  20. How to use the world's scarce selenium resources efficiently to increase the selenium concentration in food.

    PubMed

    Haug, Anna; Graham, Robin D; Christophersen, Olav A; Lyons, Graham H

    2007-12-01

    The world's rare selenium resources need to be managed carefully. Selenium is extracted as a by-product of copper mining and there are no deposits that can be mined for selenium alone. Selenium has unique properties as a semi-conductor, making it of special value to industry, but it is also an essential nutrient for humans and animals and may promote plant growth and quality. Selenium deficiency is regarded as a major health problem for 0.5 to 1 billion people worldwide, while an even larger number may consume less selenium than required for optimal protection against cancer, cardiovascular diseases and severe infectious diseases including HIV disease. Efficient recycling of selenium is difficult. Selenium is added in some commercial fertilizers, but only a small proportion is taken up by plants and much of the remainder is lost for future utilization. Large biofortification programmes with selenium added to commercial fertilizers may therefore be a fortification method that is too wasteful to be applied to large areas of our planet. Direct addition of selenium compounds to food (process fortification) can be undertaken by the food industry. If selenomethionine is added directly to food, however, oxidation due to heat processing needs to be avoided. New ways to biofortify food products are needed, and it is generally observed that there is less wastage if selenium is added late in the production chain rather than early. On these bases we have proposed adding selenium-enriched, sprouted cereal grain during food processing as an efficient way to introduce this nutrient into deficient diets. Selenium is a non-renewable resource. There is now an enormous wastage of selenium associated with large-scale mining and industrial processing. We recommend that this must be changed and that much of the selenium that is extracted should be stockpiled for use as a nutrient by future generations. PMID:18833333

  1. How to use the world's scarce selenium resources efficiently to increase the selenium concentration in food

    PubMed Central

    Haug, Anna; Graham, Robin D.; Christophersen, Olav A.; Lyons, Graham H.

    2007-01-01

    The world's rare selenium resources need to be managed carefully. Selenium is extracted as a by-product of copper mining and there are no deposits that can be mined for selenium alone. Selenium has unique properties as a semi-conductor, making it of special value to industry, but it is also an essential nutrient for humans and animals and may promote plant growth and quality. Selenium deficiency is regarded as a major health problem for 0.5 to 1 billion people worldwide, while an even larger number may consume less selenium than required for optimal protection against cancer, cardiovascular diseases and severe infectious diseases including HIV disease. Efficient recycling of selenium is difficult. Selenium is added in some commercial fertilizers, but only a small proportion is taken up by plants and much of the remainder is lost for future utilization. Large biofortification programmes with selenium added to commercial fertilizers may therefore be a fortification method that is too wasteful to be applied to large areas of our planet. Direct addition of selenium compounds to food (process fortification) can be undertaken by the food industry. If selenomethionine is added directly to food, however, oxidation due to heat processing needs to be avoided. New ways to biofortify food products are needed, and it is generally observed that there is less wastage if selenium is added late in the production chain rather than early. On these bases we have proposed adding selenium-enriched, sprouted cereal grain during food processing as an efficient way to introduce this nutrient into deficient diets. Selenium is a non-renewable resource. There is now an enormous wastage of selenium associated with large-scale mining and industrial processing. We recommend that this must be changed and that much of the selenium that is extracted should be stockpiled for use as a nutrient by future generations. PMID:18833333

  2. Optimizing Virtual Land and Water Resources Flow Through Global Trade to Meet World Food and Biofuel Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Cai, X.; Zhu, T.

    2013-12-01

    Biofuels is booming in recent years due to its potential contributions to energy sustainability, environmental improvement and economic opportunities. Production of biofuels not only competes for land and water with food production, but also directly pushes up food prices when crops such as maize and sugarcane are used as biofuels feedstock. Meanwhile, international trade of agricultural commodities exports and imports water and land resources in a virtual form among different regions, balances overall water and land demands and resource endowment, and provides a promising solution to the increasingly severe food-energy competition. This study investigates how to optimize water and land resources uses for overall welfare at global scale in the framework of 'virtual resources'. In contrast to partial equilibrium models that usually simulate trades year-by-year, this optimization model explores the ideal world where malnourishment is minimized with optimal resources uses and trade flows. Comparing the optimal production and trade patterns with historical data can provide meaningful implications regarding how to utilize water and land resources more efficiently and how the trade flows would be changed for overall welfare at global scale. Valuable insights are obtained in terms of the interactions among food, water and bioenergy systems. A global hydro-economic optimization model is developed, integrating agricultural production, market demands (food, feed, fuel and other), and resource and environmental constraints. Preliminary results show that with the 'free market' mechanism and land as well as water resources use optimization, the malnourished population can be reduced by as much as 65%, compared to the 2000 historical value. Expected results include: 1) optimal trade paths to achieve global malnourishment minimization, 2) how water and land resources constrain local supply, 3) how policy affects the trade pattern as well as resource uses. Furthermore, impacts of

  3. An abundant small sized fish as keystone species? The effect of Pomatoschistus microps on food webs and its trophic role in two intertidal benthic communities: A modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pockberger, Moritz; Kellnreitner, Florian; Ahnelt, Harald; Asmus, Ragnhild; Asmus, Harald

    2014-02-01

    Ecological network analysis (ENA) was used to study the effects of Pomatoschistus microps on energy transport through the food web, its impact on other compartments and its possible role as a keystone species in the trophic webs of an Arenicola tidal flat ecosystem and a sparse Zostera noltii bed ecosystem. Three ENA models were constructed: (a) model 1 contains data of the original food web from prior research in the investigated area by Baird et al. (2007), (b) an updated model 2 which included biomass and diet data of P. microps from recent sampling, and (c) model 3 simulating a food web without P. microps. A comparison of energy transport between the different models revealed that more energy is transported from lower trophic levels up the food chain, in the presence of P. microps (models 1 and 2) than in its absence (model 3). Calculations of the keystone index (KSi) revealed the high overall impact (measured as εi) of this fish species on food webs. In model 1, P. microps was assigned a low KSi in the Arenicola flat and in the sparse Z. noltii bed. Calculations in model 2 ranked P. microps first for keystoneness and εi in both communities, the Arenicola flat and the sparse Z. noltii bed. Taken together, our results give insight into the role of P. microps when considering a whole food web and reveal direct and indirect trophic interactions of this small-sized fish species. These results might illustrate the impact and importance of abundant, widespread species in food webs and facilitate further investigations.

  4. Environmentally sustainable production of food, feed and fuel from natural resources in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Preston, T Reg

    2009-10-01

    Responding to the challenges posed by global warming, peak oil and biofuels will require a paradigm shift in the practice of agriculture and in the role of live stock within the farming system. Farming systems should aim at maximizing plant biomass production from locally available diversified resources, processing of the biomass on farm to provide food, feed and energy and recycling of all waste materials. The approach that is the subject of this paper is that the generation of electricity can be a by-product of food/feed production. The concept is the fractionation of biomass into inedible cell wall material that can be converted to an inflammable gas by gasification, the gas in turn being the source of fuel for internal combustion engines driving electrical generators. The cell contents and related structures such as tree leaves are used as human food or animal feed. As well as providing food and feed the model is highly appropriate for decentralized small scale production of electricity in rural areas. It also offers opportunities for sequestration of carbon in the form of biochar the solid residue remaining after gasification of the biomass. PMID:19728132

  5. Environmentally sustainable production of food, feed and fuel from natural resources in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Preston, T Reg

    2009-08-01

    Responding to the challenges posed by global warming, peak oil and biofuels will require a paradigm shift in the practice of agriculture and in the role of live stock within the farming system. Farming systems should aim at maximizing plant biomass production from locally available diversified resources, processing of the biomass on farm to provide food, feed and energy and recycling of all waste materials. The approach that is the subject of this paper is that the generation of electricity can be a by-product of food/feed production. The concept is the fractionation of biomass into inedible cell wall material that can be converted to an inflammable gas by gasification, the gas in turn being the source of fuel for internal combustion engines driving electrical generators. The cell contents and related structures such as tree leaves are used as human food or animal feed. As well as providing food and feed the model is highly appropriate for decentralized small scale production of electricity in rural areas. It also offers opportunities for sequestration of carbon in the form of biochar the solid residue remaining after gasification of the biomass. PMID:19011987

  6. Assessing future risks to agricultural productivity, water resources and food security: How can remote sensing help?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Knox, Jerry W.; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Gumma, Murali Krishna; Congalton, Russell G.; Wu, Zhuoting; Milesi, Cristina; Finkral, Alex; Marshall, Mike; Mariotto, Isabella; You, Songcai; Giri, Chandra; Nagler, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    of changing dietary consumption patterns, a changing climate and the growing scarcity of water and land (Beddington, 2010). The impact from these changes wi ll affect the viability of both dryland subsistence and irrigated commodity food production (Knox, et al., 2010a). Since climate is a primary determinant of agricultural productivity, any changes will influence not only crop yields, but also the hydrologic balances, and supplies of inputs to managed farming systems as well as potentially shifting the geographic location for specific crops . Unless concerted and collective action is taken, society risks worldwide food shortages, scarcity of water resources and insufficient energy. This has the potential to unleash public unrest, cross-border conflicts and migration as people flee the worst-affected regions to seck refuge in "safe havens", a situation that Beddington described as the "perfect storm" (2010).

  7. The World Food Situation: Resource and Environmental Issues in the Developing Countries and the United States. Research Paper R-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosson, Pierre R.; Frederick, Kenneth D.

    The book provides an overview of the food situation in developing nations and in the United States as it will be until the end of the 20th century. Specifically, the research focuses on interrelationships among world food needs, resources, and environmental issues. The document is presented in seven chapters. Chapter I presents background on the…

  8. Increasing of Food and Bioenergy Potato Resources by Microbial Influence on Tubers Phytohormonal Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiprushkina, Elena I.; Baranenko, Denis A.

    2014-12-01

    Potato and its by-products became a promising both food and bioenergy resource. The determination of the bacteriaantagonists influence on phytohormone status and productivity of potato tubers was studied. The indole-3-acetic acid content during the dormancy end and germinating in the tubers treated with Bacillus subtilis Ch-13 was fewer than in the control samples. L-tryptophan significant quantity compared to the control was found in the treated tubers in a state of physiological dormancy (more than 2-fold) and especially during active germination (43 times greater). Average potato yield increase at treated fields was of 18.8 %.

  9. Role of Anaerobic Ciliates in Planktonic Food Webs: Abundance, Feeding, and Impact on Bacteria in the Field

    PubMed Central

    Massana, Ramon; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

    1994-01-01

    We studied the dynamics of two populations of anaerobic ciliates, Plagiopyla sp. and Metopus sp., and of their potential prey, heterotrophic and phototrophic purple bacteria, in Lake Cisó throughout a 1-year cycle. The abundance of both ciliates was very low (less than 2 individuals per ml). During mixing, Plagiopyla ciliates exhibited high clearance rates (about 100 nl ciliate-1 h-1), its integrated abundance increased with a net doubling time of 47 days, and its potential doubling times, as calculated from the number of bacteria consumed, ranged between 5 and 8 days. During stratification, the activity of Plagiopyla ciliates was reduced and the population decreased; this was related to the higher amounts of sulfide present. The impact of predation by the Plagiopyla population on bacterioplankton was found to be insignificant, less than 0.1% of bacterial biomass consumed per day. Thus, anaerobic ciliates cannot control the bacterioplankton in Lake Cisó because of both the low abundance over the period studied and the low feeding rates during certain periods. A review of available field studies suggests that this conclusion can be extrapolated to most other anoxic systems. PMID:16349239

  10. Physiological ecology of Mediterranean blue tits (Parus caeruleus L.): effects of ectoparasites (Protocalliphora spp.) and food abundance on metabolic capacity of nestlings.

    PubMed

    Simon, Aurélie; Thomas, Don; Blondel, Jacques; Perret, Philippe; Lambrechts, Marcel M

    2004-01-01

    The consequences of nest ectoparasites, such as Protocalliphora larvae, on nestling birds have been the subject of numerous studies. Despite observed reductions in mass and hematocrit of chicks from parasitized nests, no studies have found any effect of Protocalliphora on nestling survival, suggesting that fitness consequences of Protocalliphora are either weak or occur after fledging. From experiments on the metabolic performance of chicks, we found that parasitized chicks suffer from reduced thermogenic and metabolic capacities as a result of decreased mass and hematocrit. Hence, Protocalliphora may potentially affect nestling survival after fledging, when energetically costly activities such as flight and moult are undertaken. Previous studies have demonstrated an increase in parental feeding rate to compensate for the detrimental consequences of parasite infestation. We tested whether parasite effects on nestling aerobic capacity were dependent on food availability during the feeding period. Measures of caterpillar densities and experimental manipulations of parasite loads allowed us to investigate relationships among host, parasite, and environment. A positive relationship between chick aerobic and thermogenic performances and caterpillar density suggests that negative effects of parasitism may be offset by increased food availability. This study provides the first measurement of the effects of an ectoparasite on metabolic competence in wild birds and documentation of the effect of food availability on ectoparasite virulence using a quantitative measure of food abundance. PMID:15286922

  11. Identification of an abundant 56 kDa protein implicated in food allergy as granule-bound starch synthase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice, the staple food of South and East Asian counties, is considered to be hypoallergenic. However, several clinical studies have documented rice-induced allergy in sensitive patients. Rice proteins with molecular weights of 14-16 kDa, 26 kDa, 33 kDa and 56 kDa have been identified as allergens. Re...

  12. Distribution, abundance, and seasonal patterns of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) in a commercial food storage facility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Populations of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), the Indianmeal moth, were monitored inside a 105,000 m3 food warehouse in the central United States for a 3-year period, using pheromone-baited traps for males. A total of 52 traps were placed in the warehouse, which was roughly divided into four main a...

  13. The effects of food presentation and microhabitat upon resource monopoly in a ground-foraging ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) community.

    PubMed

    McGlynn, T P; Kirksey, S E

    2000-01-01

    In Neotropical wet forests several species of omnivorous, resource-defending ants, live and forage in close proximity to one another. Although the forest floor is heterogeneous in microhabitat and food quantity, little is known about the impact of microhabitat and food variation upon resource monopoly among ants. We investigated how food type and microhabitat influence food monopoly in resource-defending ants in old-growth tropical wet forest in the Caribbean lowlands of Costa Rica. We measured several microhabitat characteristics at 66 points in a 0.5 hectare plot, and baited each point with two categories of tuna bait. These baits were presented in "split" and "clumped" arrangements. We measured the frequency of bait monopoly by a single species, as well as the number of recruited ant foragers at a bait. Out of five common species, two (Wasmannia auropunctata and Pheidole simonsi) more frequently monopolized one bait type over the other, and one (P. simonsi) recruited more ants to the split baits. We then considered the recruitment response by all ant species in the community. We found that the frequency of monopoly, sharing, and the absence of ants at a given point in the rainforest differed with bait type. The frequency of monopoly was associated with microhabitat type in two out of eight microhabitat variables (leaf litter depth and palms); variation in two other types (canopy tree distance and leafcutter ant trails) was associated with changes in forager number. In at least two ant species, food presentation affected monopoly at baits; among all resource-defending ants, the microhabitats where ants foraged for food and the type of food located determined in part the frequency of monopoly and the number of foragers at the food item. These results suggest that the location and presentation of food items determines in part which ant species will utilize the resource. PMID:11354970

  14. Illinois biomass resources: annual crops and residues; canning and food-processing wastes. Preliminary assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Antonopoulos, A A

    1980-06-01

    Illinois, a major agricultural and food-processing state, produces vast amounts of renewable plant material having potential for energy production. This biomass, in the form of annual crops, crop residues, and food-processing wastes, can be converted to alternative fuels (such as ethanol) and industrial chemicals (such as furfural, ethylene, and xylene). The present study provides a preliminary assessment of these Illinois biomass resources, including (a) an appraisal of the effects of their use on both agriculture and industry; (b) an analysis of biomass conversion systems; and (c) an environmental and economic evaluation of products that could be generated from biomass. It is estimated that, of the 39 x 10/sup 6/ tons of residues generated in 1978 in Illinois from seven main crops, about 85% was collectible. The thermal energy equivalent of this material is 658 x 10/sup 6/ Btu, or 0.66 quad. And by fermenting 10% of the corn grain grown in Illinois, some 323 million gallons of ethanol could have been produced in 1978. Another 3 million gallons of ethanol could have been produced in the same year from wastes generated by the state's food-processing establishments. Clearly, Illinois can strengthen its economy substantially by the development of industries that produce biomass-derived fuels and chemicals. In addition, a thorough evaluation should be made of the potential for using the state's less-exploitable land for the growing of additional biomass.

  15. Food-Based Strategies for Depression Management From Iranian Traditional Medicine Resources

    PubMed Central

    Tavakkoli-Kakhki, Mandana; Motavasselian, Malihe; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Esfahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Nematy, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Considering the increasing prevalence of depression in contemporary societies, general tendency for safer treatments with fewer side effects has recently been a subject of interest. Objectives: Food-based strategies, which are one of the outstanding medical solutions in Complementary and Alternative Medicine including Iranian Traditional Medicine have been investigated. Materials and Methods: In this review study, firstly some important sources of Iranian Traditional Medicine including Kamel al-Sanaat al-Tibbyyah, Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb and Zakhireh Kharazmshahi were reviewed. Next, a literature search was performed on PubMed and Magiran databases with the keywords “depression”, “depressive”, “mood”, “antidepressant”, “antidepressive”, “nutrition”, “nutritional”, “diet”, “meal”, “food”, “functional food”, “healthy food”, “healthy diet”, “medicinal food” and scientific and English terms of all singular foodstuff and some combined foodstuff which are introduced in this paper. Results: Food-based strategies for depression management in Iranian Traditional Medicine resources involving both prevention and treatment parts have been classified under three headings singular foodstuffs, combined foodstuffs, and nutrition rules with the separation of prohibition and prescription items. Among the prescribed or the prohibited singular and combined foodstuffs in Iranian Traditional Medicine manuscripts, only the effectiveness of fish, garlic, milk, oregano, mint, and spinach on depression has been examined by modern medicine methods. Conclusions: The presented food-based strategies in this study introduce a precise management for depression benefiting from Iranian Traditional Medicine Resources. PMID:24719737

  16. Prey abundance and food habits of San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training site, California

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, C.G.; Berry, W.H.; Standley, W.G.; Kato, T.T.

    1992-09-01

    Prey abundance and food habits of the San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) were investigated at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training site, California, from November 1988 through September 1991. The sampling methods initially used to assess abundance of prey species resulted in indices too low to be of value. Because of this, the relationship between relative abundance and frequency of occurrence of prey species could not be examined. Six hundred forty-nine fecal samples (scats) were analyzed to determine the frequency of occurrence of prey items. California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) and lagomorphs primarily desert cottontails (Sylvilagus audubonii) and black-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus californicus) were the most frequently occurring mammalian prey items found in scats (35.0% and 12.2%, respectively). The frequency of occurrence of ground squirrel (but not lagomorph) remains in scats collected from juveniles was significantly higher than in scats collected from adults. The frequency of occurrence of ground squirrel and lagomorph remains in scats collected from males was not significant different than in scats collected from females. There were significant variations in the frequency of ground squirrel remains among the years 1989--1991 and during the June--November periods between 1989 and 1990 and between 1990 and 1991. The frequency of lagomorph remains collected during the June--November period differed significantly among the years 1989--1991 and between 1990 and 1991.

  17. Developing a Contemporary Dairy Foods Extension Program: A Training and Technical Resource Needs Assessment of Pennsylvania Dairy Foods Processors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syrko, Joseph; Kaylegian, Kerry E.

    2015-01-01

    Growth in the dairy industry and the passage of the Food Safety Modernization Act have renewed interest in dairy foods processing extension positions. A needs assessment survey was sent to Pennsylvania dairy processors and raw milk providers to guide priorities for a dairy foods extension program. The successful development and delivery of…

  18. Food deprivation causes rapid changes in the abundance and glucidic composition of the cutaneous mucous cells of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L.

    PubMed

    Landeira-Dabarca, A; Álvarez, M; Molist, P

    2014-10-01

    Cutaneous mucus is the first physical and chemical barrier of fish. This slime layer is secreted by mucous cells located in the epidermis and is mainly composed of glycoproteins that have their origin in the diet. Therefore, food deprivation can potentially change the abundance and glucidic nature of skin mucous cells, thus changing the mucus properties. To test this hypothesis, we conducted an experiment with Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Changes in the number and glucidic nature of epidermal mucus cells were analysed using standard techniques. The outcome of this study shows that food deprivation caused a rapid decrease in the density of epidermal mucous cells in Atlantic salmon. Lectin histochemistry revealed a change in the presence and stainability of some sugar residues in the mucous cells of unfed fish compared with fed fish. Given that the primary reason for mucus secretion in fish is for protection against infections, we speculate that the changes in the mucus properties caused by nutritional stress may affect their disease resistance. This fact is particularly important for fish that spend a period of time deprived of food, either as a part of their natural life cycle, or as part of farming practices. PMID:24117614

  19. The role of Latin America's land and water resources for global food security: environmental trade-offs of future food production pathways.

    PubMed

    Flachsbarth, Insa; Willaarts, Bárbara; Xie, Hua; Pitois, Gauthier; Mueller, Nathaniel D; Ringler, Claudia; Garrido, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    One of humanity's major challenges of the 21st century will be meeting future food demands on an increasingly resource constrained-planet. Global food production will have to rise by 70 percent between 2000 and 2050 to meet effective demand which poses major challenges to food production systems. Doing so without compromising environmental integrity is an even greater challenge. This study looks at the interdependencies between land and water resources, agricultural production and environmental outcomes in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), an area of growing importance in international agricultural markets. Special emphasis is given to the role of LAC's agriculture for (a) global food security and (b) environmental sustainability. We use the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT)-a global dynamic partial equilibrium model of the agricultural sector-to run different future production scenarios, and agricultural trade regimes out to 2050, and assess changes in related environmental indicators. Results indicate that further trade liberalization is crucial for improving food security globally, but that it would also lead to more environmental pressures in some regions across Latin America. Contrasting land expansion versus more intensified agriculture shows that productivity improvements are generally superior to agricultural land expansion, from an economic and environmental point of view. Finally, our analysis shows that there are trade-offs between environmental and food security goals for all agricultural development paths. PMID:25617621

  20. The Role of Latin America’s Land and Water Resources for Global Food Security: Environmental Trade-Offs of Future Food Production Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Flachsbarth, Insa; Willaarts, Bárbara; Xie, Hua; Pitois, Gauthier; Mueller, Nathaniel D.; Ringler, Claudia; Garrido, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    One of humanity’s major challenges of the 21st century will be meeting future food demands on an increasingly resource constrained-planet. Global food production will have to rise by 70 percent between 2000 and 2050 to meet effective demand which poses major challenges to food production systems. Doing so without compromising environmental integrity is an even greater challenge. This study looks at the interdependencies between land and water resources, agricultural production and environmental outcomes in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), an area of growing importance in international agricultural markets. Special emphasis is given to the role of LAC’s agriculture for (a) global food security and (b) environmental sustainability. We use the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT)—a global dynamic partial equilibrium model of the agricultural sector—to run different future production scenarios, and agricultural trade regimes out to 2050, and assess changes in related environmental indicators. Results indicate that further trade liberalization is crucial for improving food security globally, but that it would also lead to more environmental pressures in some regions across Latin America. Contrasting land expansion versus more intensified agriculture shows that productivity improvements are generally superior to agricultural land expansion, from an economic and environmental point of view. Finally, our analysis shows that there are trade-offs between environmental and food security goals for all agricultural development paths. PMID:25617621

  1. Reexamining Sample Size Requirements for Multivariate, Abundance-Based Community Research: When Resources are Limited, the Research Does Not Have to Be

    PubMed Central

    Forcino, Frank L.; Leighton, Lindsey R.; Twerdy, Pamela; Cahill, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Community ecologists commonly perform multivariate techniques (e.g., ordination, cluster analysis) to assess patterns and gradients of taxonomic variation. A critical requirement for a meaningful statistical analysis is accurate information on the taxa found within an ecological sample. However, oversampling (too many individuals counted per sample) also comes at a cost, particularly for ecological systems in which identification and quantification is substantially more resource consuming than the field expedition itself. In such systems, an increasingly larger sample size will eventually result in diminishing returns in improving any pattern or gradient revealed by the data, but will also lead to continually increasing costs. Here, we examine 396 datasets: 44 previously published and 352 created datasets. Using meta-analytic and simulation-based approaches, the research within the present paper seeks (1) to determine minimal sample sizes required to produce robust multivariate statistical results when conducting abundance-based, community ecology research. Furthermore, we seek (2) to determine the dataset parameters (i.e., evenness, number of taxa, number of samples) that require larger sample sizes, regardless of resource availability. We found that in the 44 previously published and the 220 created datasets with randomly chosen abundances, a conservative estimate of a sample size of 58 produced the same multivariate results as all larger sample sizes. However, this minimal number varies as a function of evenness, where increased evenness resulted in increased minimal sample sizes. Sample sizes as small as 58 individuals are sufficient for a broad range of multivariate abundance-based research. In cases when resource availability is the limiting factor for conducting a project (e.g., small university, time to conduct the research project), statistically viable results can still be obtained with less of an investment. PMID:26058066

  2. Nutrient composition and nutritional importance of green leaves and wild food resources in an agricultural district, Koutiala, in southern Mali.

    PubMed

    Nordeide, M B; Hatløy, A; Følling, M; Lied, E; Oshaug, A

    1996-11-01

    This paper discusses the nutrient composition and the nutritional importance of green leaves and wild gathered foods in an area with surplus food production in Mali. In this West African country, there is little information about the nutrient composition and the nutritional quality of foods in general, and of wild gathered foods in particular. Food frequency was collected in two cross-sectional surveys. Focus group discussions with women in the area were used to collect information about seasonality, availability and preparation of various foods. Selected food samples were collected for chemical analysis of nutrient composition. The food samples of green leaves (Adansonia digitata, Amaranthus viridis, Tamarindus indica, Allium cepa), seeds and flour (Parkia biglobosa) and fruits (Tamarindus indica) were analysed for water, energy, fat, protein, minerals, amino acids and carotenoids. Availability and use of the foods varied with seasons. In the rainy season, wild gathered foods (e.g. A. digitata) were used as much as fresh cultivated foods (e.g., A. viridis and A. cepa). The wild food resources were more frequently used in rural than in urban areas, with A. digitata as the dominating green leaves. Green leaves were rich in energy, protein and minerals (calcium, iron). Leaves of A. viridis were, in particular, rich in beta-carotene (3290 micrograms/100 g). Chemical score in dried green leaves varied from 47 (A. cepa) to 81 (A. digitata), with lysine as the first limiting amino acid. P. biglobosa fermented seeds, with 35% fat and 37% protein were a complementary source of lysine in the diet. Based on the seasonality, the frequency of use and the nutrient contents of selected green leaves and wild gathered foods in Koutiala district, it is concluded that these traditional and locally produced foods are valuable and important nutrient contributors in the diet both in rural and urban areas, but most important in rural areas. PMID:8933199

  3. Hericium erinaceus (Yamabushitake): a unique resource for developing functional foods and medicines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingxing; Gao, Yang; Xu, Duoduo; Konishi, Tetsuya; Gao, Qipin

    2014-12-01

    Hericium erinaceus (HE) is a fungus inhabiting the mountainous areas of the northeast territories in Asia. HE has been used in traditional folk medicine and medicinal cuisine in China, Korea and Japan. Evidence has been adduced for a variety of physiological effects, including anti-aging, anti-cancer, anti-gastritis, and anti-metabolic disease properties. Hence, HE is an attractive target resource for developing not only medicines, but also functional foods. Basic studies on the physiological functions of HE and on the chemical identification of its active ingredients have progressed in recent decades. In this article, we provide an overview of the biochemical and pharmacological studies on HE, especially of its antitumor and neuroprotective functions, together with a survey of recent developments in the chemical analysis of its polysaccharides, which comprise its major active components. PMID:25317734

  4. Impacts of large solar installations on water resources and food security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi, S.; Dale, M.; Lobell, D. B.; Field, C. B.

    2013-12-01

    Low carbon emission technologies such as solar energy may provide alternative pathways for sustainable energy production to meet the current and future energy requirements. Solar energy installations in arid and semi arid regions are increasing, due to technological advances and policy support. Solar power generation, however, uses large amounts of water for construction and operation. A major challenge for the future is how to meet expanding energy demand with limited water resources in arid and semiarid regions. This must be achieved in the context of increasing demand for alternative uses (e.g. agricultural and domestic consumption). Here, we investigate case studies of the land use and water consumption for solar electricity generation in the southwestern United States and northwest India under current and future energy demand scenarios, and the potential impacts on local and regional food security. We use a systems dynamic model to estimate current and projected water use compared with agricultural and domestic water use. We simulate the land and water use under scenarios involving a moratorium on or expansion of water intensive wet cooled concentrated solar technologies. This is compared with estimates of water consumption to produce the equivalent amount of electricity using the current grid mix. Finally, we explore, using detailed life cycle assessments, opportunities for co-locating solar infrastructure and agricultural crops/biofuels to maximize efficiency of land and water use. This investigation helps in understanding the energy-water-land tradeoffs associated with rapid expansion of solar infrastructure and implications for food security.

  5. Vultures of the seas: hyperacidic stomachs in wandering albatrosses as an adaptation to dispersed food resources, including fishery wastes.

    PubMed

    Grémillet, David; Prudor, Aurélien; le Maho, Yvon; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2012-01-01

    Animals are primarily limited by their capacity to acquire food, yet digestive performance also conditions energy acquisition, and ultimately fitness. Optimal foraging theory predicts that organisms feeding on patchy resources should maximize their food loads within each patch, and should digest these loads quickly to minimize travelling costs between food patches. We tested the prediction of high digestive performance in wandering albatrosses, which can ingest prey of up to 3 kg, and feed on highly dispersed food resources across the southern ocean. GPS-tracking of 40 wandering albatrosses from the Crozet archipelago during the incubation phase confirmed foraging movements of between 475-4705 km, which give birds access to a variety of prey, including fishery wastes. Moreover, using miniaturized, autonomous data recorders placed in the stomach of three birds, we performed the first-ever measurements of gastric pH and temperature in procellariformes. These revealed surprisingly low pH levels (average 1.50±0.13), markedly lower than in other seabirds, and comparable to those of vultures feeding on carrion. Such low stomach pH gives wandering albatrosses a strategic advantage since it allows them a rapid chemical breakdown of ingested food and therefore a rapid digestion. This is useful for feeding on patchy, natural prey, but also on fishery wastes, which might be an important additional food resource for wandering albatrosses. PMID:22701581

  6. The water-energy-food-climate-economics nexus: solving hunger and resource scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lall, U.

    2011-12-01

    A nexus refers to the core or to interconnectivity across issues. Addressing the boundary interactions of traditional sectors in an interconnected world as human activities change the physical boundaries of land and climate is an emerging academic and governance discourse. Through contrasting examples from the US and India, I shed light on the descriptive aspects of these connections and feedbacks that define potential impacts or traps for societies, and ponder whether a massive conceptual or numerical Earth System Model can help inform outcomes, or whether there are dominant links at particular scales (physical, social, economic or biological) that characterize the emergent dynamics and define critical equilibrium or transient solutions in certain places. However, the real question is what next given the definition of the nexus? Here, I argue that given the current valuation and management structure of different resource sectors and the associated information flows and sensitivities, the interlinked energy-climate issues can emerge as useful drivers of improved productivity in water-food systems, thus promoting resource and environmental sustainability while promoting economic development. Thus, levers can be found that help steer the course of these complex interacting systems towards desirable sectoral outcomes.

  7. Position of the American Dietetic Association: food and nutrition professionals can implement practices to conserve natural resources and support ecological sustainability.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Alison H; Gerald, Bonnie L

    2007-06-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association to encourage environmentally responsible practices that conserve natural resources, minimize the quantity of waste generated, and support the ecological sustainability of the food system-the process of food production, transformation, distribution, access, and consumption. Registered dietitians and dietetic technicians, registered, play various roles in the food system and work in settings where efforts to conserve can have significant effects. Natural resources that provide the foundation for the food system include biodiversity, soil, land, energy, water, and air. A food system that degrades or depletes its resource base is not sustainable. Making wise food purchases and food management decisions entails understanding the external costs of food production and foodservice and how these external costs affect food system sustainability. This position paper provides information, specific action-oriented strategies, and resources to guide registered dietitians and dietetic technicians, registered, in food decision making and professional practice. Food and nutrition professionals also can participate in policy making at the local, state, and national levels, and can support policies that encourage the development of local sustainable food systems. Our actions today have global consequences. Conserving and protecting resources will contribute to the sustainability of the global food system now and in the future. PMID:17571455

  8. Episodic sucrose intake during food restriction increases synaptic abundance of AMPA receptors in nucleus accumbens and augments intake of sucrose following restoration of ad libitum feeding.

    PubMed

    Peng, X-X; Lister, A; Rabinowitsch, A; Kolaric, R; Cabeza de Vaca, S; Ziff, E B; Carr, K D

    2015-06-01

    Weight-loss dieting often leads to loss of control, rebound weight gain, and is a risk factor for binge pathology. Based on findings that food restriction (FR) upregulates sucrose-induced trafficking of glutamatergic AMPA receptors to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) postsynaptic density (PSD), this study was an initial test of the hypothesis that episodic "breakthrough" intake of forbidden food during dieting interacts with upregulated mechanisms of synaptic plasticity to increase reward-driven feeding. Ad libitum (AL) fed and FR subjects consumed a limited amount of 10% sucrose, or had access to water, every other day for 10 occasions. Beginning three weeks after return of FR rats to AL feeding, when 24-h chow intake and rate of body weight gain had normalized, subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR consumed more sucrose during a four week intermittent access protocol than the two AL groups and the group that had access to water during FR. In an experiment that substituted noncontingent administration of d-amphetamine for sucrose, FR subjects displayed an enhanced locomotor response during active FR but a blunted response, relative to AL subjects, during recovery from FR. This result suggests that the enduring increase in sucrose consumption is unlikely to be explained by residual enhancing effects of FR on dopamine signaling. In a biochemical experiment which paralleled the sucrose behavioral experiment, rats with a history of sucrose intake during FR displayed increased abundance of pSer845-GluA1, GluA2, and GluA3 in the NAc PSD relative to rats with a history of FR without sucrose access and rats that had been AL throughout, whether they had a history of episodic sucrose intake or not. A history of FR, with or without a history of sucrose intake, was associated with increased abundance of GluA1. A terminal 15-min bout of sucrose intake produced a further increase in pSer845-GluA1 and GluA2 in subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR

  9. The phosphorus footprint of China's food chain: implications for food security, natural resource management, and environmental quality.

    PubMed

    Wang, F; Sims, J T; Ma, L; Ma, W; Dou, Z; Zhang, F

    2011-01-01

    Efficient use of phosphorus (P) for producing food, preventing water pollution, and managing a dwindling rock P reserve are major challenges for China. We analyzed P stocks and flows in the Chinese food chain to identify where P use efficiency can be improved, where P leaks to the environment, and the research, technologies, and policies needed to improve P use. We found a high degree of inefficiency; of 6652 Gg P entering the food chain, only 1102 Gg P (18%) exit as food for humans. The greatest inefficiencies were a large build-up of soil P (3670 Gg P yr; 52% of P inputs) and high P losses to the environment from animal production (1582 Gg P yr; 60% of excreted P). Improving P use in China must focus on national-scale nutrient management strategies, better animal nutrition, and adoption of technologies and policies to reduce P discharges from the animal sector and recycle P as manures in agriculture. PMID:21712576

  10. Pohnpei, FSM case study in a global health project documents its local food resources and successfully promotes local food for health.

    PubMed

    Englberger, L; Kuhnlein, H V; Lorens, A; Pedrus, P; Albert, K; Currie, J; Pretrick, M; Jim, R; Kaufer, L

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a summary of Pohnpei, Federated States Micronesia's involvement in a global health study focused on documenting traditional food systems in different parts of the world and providing evidence that local resources are critical for food security, nutrition and health. The Pohnpei study was based in Mand Community, Madolenihmw. The study found that there was a great diversity of foods locally available (381 food items documented), but these were underused. Overweight, obesity, diabetes, and vitamin A deficiency were identified as serious problems. Interventions included community meetings, school activities, and agriculture workshops, cooking classes, charcoal oven development, weight loss and planting competitions, poster campaigns and other relevant mass media. Significant dietary improvements were achieved following the intervention efforts, as well as positive changes in attitude towards local food including: decrease in average daily rice consumption from 846 g/person in 2005 to 544 g/person in 2007 (p = 0.0002); increase in provitamin A carotenoid intake from 227 microg/person in 2005 to 475 microg/person in 2007 (p = 0.02); increased frequency of consumption of local banana (53%), giant swamp taro (476%), local vegetables (130%); and increased dietary diversity (4.8 local food groups consumed in 2005 to 5.5 in 2007). Another positive outcome in Pohnpei was the popularization of the slogan "Let's Go Local." PMID:20968245

  11. Association between Food Insecurity and Procurement Methods among People Living with HIV in a High Resource Setting

    PubMed Central

    Anema, Aranka; Fielden, Sarah J.; Shurgold, Susan; Ding, Erin; Messina, Jennifer; Jones, Jennifer E.; Chittock, Brian; Monteith, Ken; Globerman, Jason; Rourke, Sean B.; Hogg, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective People living with HIV in high-resource settings suffer severe levels of food insecurity; however, limited evidence exists regarding dietary intake and sub-components that characterize food insecurity (i.e. food quantity, quality, safety or procurement) in this population. We examined the prevalence and characteristics of food insecurity among people living with HIV across British Columbia, Canada. Design This cross-sectional analysis was conducted within a national community-based research initiative. Methods Food security was measured using the Health Canada Household Food Security Scale Module. Logistic regression was used to determine key independent predictors of food insecurity, controlling for potential confounders. Results Of 262 participants, 192 (73%) reported food insecurity. Sub-components associated with food insecurity in bivariate analysis included: < RDI consumption of protein (p = 0.046); being sick from spoiled/unsafe food in the past six months (p = 0.010); and procurement of food using non-traditional methods (p <0.05). In multivariable analyses, factors significantly associated with food insecurity included: procurement of food using non-traditional methods [AOR = 11.11, 95% CI: 4.79–25.68, p = <0.001]; younger age [AOR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.86–0.96, p = <0.001]; unstable housing [AOR = 4.46, 95% CI: 1.15–17.36, p = 0.031]; household gross annual income [AOR = 4.49, 95% CI: 1.74–11.60, p = 0.002]; and symptoms of depression [AOR = 2.73, 95% CI: 1.25–5.96, p = 0.012]. Conclusions Food insecurity among people living with HIV in British Columbia is characterized by poor dietary quality and food procurement methods. Notably, participants who reported procuring in non-traditional manners were over 10 times more likely to be food insecure. These findings suggest a need for tailored food security and social support interventions in this setting. PMID:27487041

  12. NutriChem: a systems chemical biology resource to explore the medicinal value of plant-based foods.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kasper; Panagiotou, Gianni; Kouskoumvekaki, Irene

    2015-01-01

    There is rising evidence of an inverse association between chronic diseases and diets characterized by rich fruit and vegetable consumption. Dietary components may act directly or indirectly on the human genome and modulate multiple processes involved in disease risk and disease progression. However, there is currently no exhaustive resource on the health benefits associated to specific dietary interventions, or a resource covering the broad molecular content of food. Here we present the first release of NutriChem, available at http://cbs.dtu.dk/services/NutriChem-1.0, a database generated by text mining of 21 million MEDLINE abstracts for information that links plant-based foods with their small molecule components and human disease phenotypes. NutriChem contains text-mined data for 18478 pairs of 1772 plant-based foods and 7898 phytochemicals, and 6242 pairs of 1066 plant-based foods and 751 diseases. In addition, it includes predicted associations for 548 phytochemicals and 252 diseases. To the best of our knowledge this database is the only resource linking the chemical space of plant-based foods with human disease phenotypes and provides a foundation for understanding mechanistically the consequences of eating behaviors on health. PMID:25106869

  13. Conservation biological control of spirea aphid, Aphis spiraecolia (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on apple by providing natural altervative food resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enhancing biological control in orchards is an efficient way to control insect pests when effective. This study investigates the possibility of increasing biological control of spirea aphid by providing alternate food resources, in the form of peach extrafloral nectar, to adult Harmonia axyridis, t...

  14. Limited Financial Resources Constrain Families' Food Choices. Nutrition, Health and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Nutrition and Policy Promotion

    1997-01-01

    Personal income is a key factor affecting not only the amount American families spend for food but also the types of food they buy. This article presents results from an analysis of U.S. Department of Agriculture's 1987-88 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey, the latest data available on household food consumption for the entire population and for…

  15. Using Personal Water Footprints to Identify Consumer Food Choices that Influence the Conservation of Local Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrin, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    As the global demand for water and food escalates, the emphasis is on supply side factors rather than demand side factors such as consumers, whose personal water footprints are dominated (>90%) by food. Personal footprints include the water embedded in foods that are produced locally as well as those imported, raising the question of whether local shifts in people's food choices and habits could assist in addressing local water shortages. The current situation in California is interesting in that drought has affected an agriculturally productive region where a substantial portion of its food products are consumed by the state's large population. Unlike most agricultural regions where green water is the primary source of water for crops, California's arid climate demands an enormous volume of blue water as irrigation from its dwindling surface and ground water resources. Although California exports many of its food products, enough is consumed in-state so that residents making relatively minor shifts their food choices could save as much local blue water as their implementing more drastic reductions in household water use (comprising <5% of their personal footprint). One of those shifts is reducing the intake of meat and dairy products that account for just under half of a Californian's blue-green water footprint and that require the most water of any food group on both a caloric and gravimetric basis. Another change is wasting less food, which is a shared responsibility among consumers, producers and retailers; however, consumers' actions and preferences ultimately drive much of the waste. Personal water footprints suggest a role for individuals in conserving local water resources that is neither readily obvious nor a major focus of most conservation programs.

  16. Improving crop productivity and resource use efficiency to ensure food security and environmental quality in China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Mingsheng; Shen, Jianbo; Yuan, Lixing; Jiang, Rongfeng; Chen, Xinping; Davies, William J; Zhang, Fusuo

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, agricultural growth in China has accelerated remarkably, but most of this growth has been driven by increased yield per unit area rather than by expansion of the cultivated area. Looking towards 2030, to meet the demand for grain and to feed a growing population on the available arable land, it is suggested that annual crop production should be increased to around 580 Mt and that yield should increase by at least 2% annually. Crop production will become more difficult with climate change, resource scarcity (e.g. land, water, energy, and nutrients) and environmental degradation (e.g. declining soil quality, increased greenhouse gas emissions, and surface water eutrophication). To pursue the fastest and most practical route to improved yield, the near-term strategy is application and extension of existing agricultural technologies. This would lead to substantial improvement in crop and soil management practices, which are currently suboptimal. Two pivotal components are required if we are to follow new trajectories. First, the disciplines of soil management and agronomy need to be given increased emphasis in research and teaching, as part of a grand food security challenge. Second, continued genetic improvement in crop varieties will be vital. However, our view is that the biggest gains from improved technology will come most immediately from combinations of improved crops and improved agronomical practices. The objectives of this paper are to summarize the historical trend of crop production in China and to examine the main constraints to the further increase of crop productivity. The paper provides a perspective on the challenge faced by science and technology in agriculture which must be met both in terms of increased crop productivity but also in increased resource use efficiency and the protection of environmental quality. PMID:21963614

  17. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extract as an antifungal food preservative through the catalytic activity of a highly abundant class I chitinase.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Hans Peter; Madsen, Lone Søvad; Petersen, Jørgen; Andersen, Jesper Tapdrup; Hansen, Anne Maria; Beck, Hans Christian

    2010-03-01

    Extracts from different higher plants were screened for the ability to inhibit the growth of Penicillium roqueforti, a major contaminating species in industrial food processing. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extracts exhibited a high degree of antifungal activity and could be used directly on rye bread to prevent the formation of P. roqueforti colonies. Proteins in the oat seed extracts were fractionated by column chromatography and proteins in fractions containing antifungal activity were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and database searches. Identified antifungal candidates included thaumatin-like proteins, 1,3-beta-glucanase, permatin precursor, pathogenesis-related protein type 1, and chitinases of class I and II. Class I chitinase could be specifically removed from the extracts and was found to be indispensable for 50% of the P. roqueforti inhibiting activity. The purified class I chitinase has a molecular weight of approximately 34 kDa, optimal chitinase activity at pH 7, and exists as at least two basic isoforms (pI values of 7.6 and 8.0). Partial sequencing of the class I chitinase isoforms by LC-MS/MS revealed a primary structure with high similarity to class I chitinases of wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and rye (Secale cereale). Oat, wheat, barley, and rye seed extracts were compared with respect to the abundance of the class I chitinase and decrease in antifungal activity when class I chitinase is removed. We found that the oat seed class I chitinase is at least ten times more abundant than the wheat, barley, and rye homologs and that oat seed extracts are highly active toward P. roqueforti as opposed to extracts of other cereal seeds. PMID:19224400

  18. Children's traditional ecological knowledge of wild food resources: a case study in a rural village in Northeast Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Setalaphruk, Chantita; Price, Lisa Leimar

    2007-01-01

    Consuming wild foods is part of the food ways of people in many societies, including farming populations throughout the world. Knowledge of non-domesticated food resources is part of traditional and tacit ecological knowledge, and is largely transmitted through socialization within cultural and household contexts. The context of this study, a small village in Northeast Thailand, is one where the community has experienced changes due to the migration of the parental generation, with the children being left behind in the village to be raised by their grandparents. A case study approach was used in order to gain holistic in-depth insight into children's traditional ecological knowledge as well as patterns of how children acquire their knowledge regarding wild food resources. Techniques used during field data collection are free-listing conducted with 30 village children and the use of a sub-sample of children for more in-depth research. For the sub-sample part of the study, wild food items consisted of a selection of 20 wild food species consisting of 10 species of plants and 10 species of animals. Semi-structured interviews with photo identification, informal interviews and participatory observation were utilized, and both theoretical and practical knowledge scored. The sub-sample covers eight households with boys and girls aged between 10–12 years old from both migrant families and non-migrant families. The knowledge of children was compared and the transmission process was observed. The result of our study shows that there is no observable difference among children who are being raised by grandparents and those being raised by their parents, as there are different channels of knowledge transmission to be taken into consideration, particularly grandparents and peers. The basic ability (knowledge) for naming wild food species remains among village children. However, the practical in-depth knowledge, especially about wild food plants, shows some potential eroding

  19. Influence of environmental factors on abundance and temporal variation of benthic fauna resources in the eutrophic Tha Chin estuary, Samut Sakhon province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ritnim, Nittaya; Meksumpun, Charumas

    2011-01-01

    The influence of environmental factors on the abundance and temporal variation of benthic fauna resources was studied in the eutrophic Tha Chin estuary located in Samut Sakhon province. The objectives were to analyze the status of abundance and temporal variation of the benthic fauna and to clarify the impacts from environmental factors (water and sediment quality). Field surveys were conducted monthly from August 2007 to March 2008 at 11 sampling stations in the estuary. Based on freshwater runoff volumes, the high-, medium-, and low-loading periods were categorized to be from August to October 2007, November to December 2007, and January to March 2008, respectively. The benthic fauna resources were composed of 57 species in eight phyla. Annelids were the dominant species (with the maximum density being 19,885 individuals/m2), followed by the mollusks. Both densities decreased during the low-loading period in 2008. Water quality deteriorated during the high-loading period. Land-based wastewater discharges decreased the levels of salinity and dissolved oxygen but dramatically increased various nutrients. Consequently, the sediment quality deteriorated during the medium-loading period. Bottom deposits during this time depicted high accumulation of acid volatile sulfides (more than 0.76 mg/g dry weight). Analyzing the environmental relationships, deposit feeders (for example, Nereis sp. and Prionospio sp.) and a clam (Arcuatula sp.) showed potential as bio-indicators for environmental monitoring. The overall results revealed the importance of changes in the water and sediment qualities that had an influence on related benthic resources. The increase in the level of NH4(+)-N had a negative impact on the economic clam species, while the sedimentary TOM showed positive correlation (P < 0.05) with this increase. The succession of groups based on feeding behavior seemed to correspond with stress in eutrophication along the salinity gradient and in different estuarine

  20. Potential effects of changes in temperature and food resources on life history trajectories of juvenile Oncorhynchus mykiss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benjamin, Joseph R.; Connolly, Patrick J.; Romine, Jason G.; Perry, Russell W.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing temperatures and changes in food resources owing to climate change may alter the growth and migratory behavior of organisms. This is particularly important for salmonid species like Oncorhynchus mykiss, where some individuals remain in freshwater to mature (nonanadromous Rainbow Trout) and others migrate to sea (anadromous Steelhead). Whether one strategy is adopted over the other may depend on the individual's growth and size. In this study, we explored (1) how water temperature in Beaver Creek, a tributary to the Methow River, Washington, may increase under four climate scenarios, (2) how these thermal changes may alter the life history trajectory followed by O. mykiss (i.e., when and if to smolt), and (3) how changes in food quality or quantity might interact with increasing temperatures. We combined bioenergetic and state-dependent life history models parameterized for O. mykiss in Beaver Creek to mimic baseline life history trajectories. Based on our simulations, when mean water temperature was increased by 0.6°C there was a reduction in life history diversity and a 57% increase in the number of individuals becoming smolts. When mean temperature was increased by 2.7°C, it resulted in 87% fewer smolts than in the baseline and fewer life history trajectories expressed. A reduction in food resources led to slower growth, more life history trajectories, and a greater proportion of smolts. In contrast, when food resources were increased, fish grew faster, which reduced the proportion of smolts and life history diversity. Our modeling suggests that warmer water temperatures associated with climate change could decrease the life history diversity of O. mykiss in the central portion of their range and thereby reduce resiliency to other disturbances. In addition, changes in food resources could mediate or exacerbate the effect of water temperature on the life history trajectories of O. mykiss.

  1. Direct utilization of geothermal energy resources in food processing. Final report, May 17, 1978-May 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, J.C.

    1982-05-01

    In early 1978 financial assistance was granted for a project to utilize geothermal energy at Ore-Ida Foods, Inc.'s food processing plant in Ontario, Oregon. Specifically, the project included exploring, testing, and developing the potential geothermal resource; retrofitting the existing gas/oil-fired steam system; utilizing the geothermal resource for food processing, space heating, and hot potable water; and injecting the spent geothermal water back into a disposal well. Based on preliminary investigations which indicated the presence of a local geothermal resource, drilling began in August 1979. Although the anticipated resource temperature of 380/sup 0/F was reached at total well depth (10,054 feet), adequate flow to meet processing requirements could not be obtained. Subsequent well testing and stimulation techniques also failed to produce the necessary flow, and the project was eventually abandoned. However, throughout the duration of the project, all activities were carefully monitored and recorded to ensure the program's value for future evaluation. This report presents a culmination of data collected during the Ore-Ida project.

  2. Food intake inhibition in rainbow trout induced by activation of serotonin 5-HT2C receptors is associated with increases in POMC, CART and CRF mRNA abundance in hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Maceira, Jorge J; Otero-Rodiño, Cristina; Mancebo, María J; Soengas, José L; Aldegunde, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    In rainbow trout, the food intake inhibition induced by serotonin occurs through 5-HT2C and 5-HT1A receptors, though the mechanisms involved are still unknown. Therefore, we assessed if a direct stimulation of 5-HT2C and 5-HT1A serotonin receptors (resulting in decreased food intake in rainbow trout), affects gene expression of neuropeptides involved in the control of food intake, such as pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF), and agouti-related peptide (AgRP). In a first set of experiments, the injection of the 5-HT2C receptor agonists MK212 (60 μg kg(-1) icv) and WAY 161503 (1 mg kg(-1) ip), and of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT (1 mg kg(-1) ip and 30 μg kg(-1) icv) induced food intake inhibition. In a second set of experiments, we observed that the injection of MK212 or WAY 161503 (1 and 3 mg kg(-1)) significantly increased hypothalamic POMC mRNA abundance. CART mRNA abundance in hypothalamus was enhanced by treatment with MK212 and unaffected by WAY 161503. The administration of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT did not induce any significant variation in the hypothalamic POMC or CART mRNA levels. CRF mRNA abundance was only affected by MK212 that increased hypothalamic values. Finally, hypothalamic AgRP mRNA abundance was only evaluated with the agonist 5-HT2C MK212 resulting in no significant effects. The results show that the reduction in food intake mediated by 5-HT2C receptors is associated with increases in hypothalamic POMC, CART and CRF mRNA abundance. PMID:26832922

  3. Another unique river: a consideration of some of the characteristics of the trunk tributaries of the Nile River in northwestern Ethiopia in relationship to their aquatic food resources.

    PubMed

    Kappelman, John; Tewabe, Dereje; Todd, Lawrence; Feseha, Mulugeta; Kay, Marvin; Kocurek, Gary; Nachman, Brett; Tabor, Neil; Yadeta, Meklit

    2014-12-01

    Aquatic food resources are important components of many modern human hunter-gatherer diets and yet evidence attesting to the widespread exploitation of this food type appears rather late in the archaeological record. While there are times when, for example, the capture of fish and shellfish requires sophisticated technology, there are other cases when the exact ecological attributes of an individual species and the particulars of its environment make it possible for these foods to be incorporated into the human diet with little or no tool use and only a minimal time investment. In order to better understand the full set of variables that are considered in these sorts of foraging decisions, it is necessary to detail the attributes of each particular aquatic environment. We discuss here some of the characteristics of the trunk tributaries of the Nile and Blue Rivers in the Horn of Africa. Unlike typical perennial rivers, these 'temporary' rivers flow only during a brief but intense wet season; during the much longer dry season, the rivers are reduced to a series of increasingly disconnected waterholes, and the abundant and diverse fish and mollusk populations are trapped in ever smaller evaporating pools. The local human population today utilizes a number of diverse capture methods that range from simple to complex, and vary according to the size and depth of the waterhole and the time of the year. When we view the particular characteristics of an individual river system, we find that each river is 'unique' in its individual attributes. The Horn of Africa is believed to be along the route that modern humans followed on their migration out of Africa, and it is likely that the riverine-based foraging behaviors of these populations accompanied our species on its movement into the rest of the Old World. PMID:25017504

  4. Amphipod-supported food web: Themisto gaudichaudii, a key food resource for fishes in the southern Patagonian Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padovani, Luciano N.; Viñas, María Delia; Sánchez, Felisa; Mianzan, Hermes

    2012-01-01

    The trophic role of the hyperiid amphipod Themisto gaudichaudii in the southern Patagonian shelf food web was assessed from the analysis of stomach contents of the local fish assemblage. A total of 461 trawl samples were collected during seven seasonal cruises. A total of 17 out of 38 fish species were found to ingest T. gaudichaudii. This amphipod was a main prey item in five of these species, showing high values of alimentary index: Seriolella porosa (99.9%), Macruronus magellanicus (68.8%), Micromesistius australis (59.1%), Patagonotothen ramsayi (48.6%), and Merluccius hubbsi (10.9%). The contribution of T. gaudichaudii, in weight, to their summer diet was 60%, on average. This contribution was minimal in winter and maximal in summer. Fisheries studies have indicated that these five species, mainly M. magellanicus, account for almost 85% of the fish biomass in the area. Although the remaining 15% did not feed heavily on T. gaudichaudii, they are known to prey on the main hyperiid predators. Our study shows that T. gaudichaudii contributes greatly, both directly and indirectly, to supporting the fish community. We thus proposed that T. gaudichaudii plays a key role as a "wasp-waist" species in the sub-Antarctic region, similar to that of krill in Antarctic waters, channeling the energy flow and enabling a short and efficient food chain.

  5. Successive sheep grazing reduces population density of Brandt's voles in steppe grassland by altering food resources: a large manipulative experiment.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoliang; Yin, Baofa; Wan, Xinrong; Wei, Wanhong; Wang, Guiming; Krebs, Charles J; Zhang, Zhibin

    2016-01-01

    Livestock grazing has shaped grassland ecosystems around the world. Previous studies indicated grazing showed various impacts on small rodents; however, most studies were conducted over 1-2 years without controlling for confounding factors such as immigration/emigration and predation in rodents. Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii) are generally recognized as pests because of food overlap with domestic herbivores, but are also important for biodiversity conservation because they provide nests or food to many birds. Fully understanding the ecological relationship between domestic herbivores and small mammals is essential to making ecosystem management decisions. To address these needs, we carried out a field experiment during the period 2010-2013 to assess the effects of sheep grazing on vegetation and the population density of Brandt's voles along a gradient of three grazing intensities by using 12 large-scale enclosures. Responses of Brandt's voles to livestock grazing varied with grazing intensity and year. As compared to the control group, sheep grazing had no effect on vole abundance in the first year but an overall negative effect on vole abundance in the following 3 years. Successive grazing caused decreases in survival and male body mass of voles, but had no significant effect on fecundity. Negative effects of grazing were associated with a grazing-induced deterioration in both food quantity (reflected by biomass and cover of less-preferred plants), and food quality (measured by tannin and total phenol content). Our findings highlight the urgent need for more flexible management of yearly rotational grazing to optimize livestock production while maintaining species diversity and ecosystem health. PMID:26446568

  6. Diversity is maintained by seasonal variation in species abundance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Some of the most marked temporal fluctuations in species abundances are linked to seasons. In theory, multispecies assemblages can persist if species use shared resources at different times, thereby minimizing interspecific competition. However, there is scant empirical evidence supporting these predictions and, to the best of our knowledge, seasonal variation has never been explored in the context of fluctuation-mediated coexistence. Results Using an exceptionally well-documented estuarine fish assemblage, sampled monthly for over 30 years, we show that temporal shifts in species abundances underpin species coexistence. Species fall into distinct seasonal groups, within which spatial resource use is more heterogeneous than would be expected by chance at those times when competition for food is most intense. We also detect seasonal variation in the richness and evenness of the community, again linked to shifts in resource availability. Conclusions These results reveal that spatiotemporal shifts in community composition minimize competitive interactions and help stabilize total abundance. PMID:24007204

  7. Niche shifts and energetic condition of songbirds in response to phenology of food-resource availability in a high-elevation sagebrush ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cutting, Kyle A.; Anderson, Michelle L.; Beever, Erik; Schroff, Sean; Korb, Nathan; Klaphake, Eric; McWilliams, Scott R.

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal fluctuations in food availability can affect diets of consumers, which in turn may influence the physiological state of individuals and shape intra- and inter-specific patterns of resource use. High-elevation ecosystems often exhibit a pronounced seasonal “pulse” in productivity, although few studies document how resource use and energetic condition by avian consumers change in relation to food-resource availability in these ecosystems. We tested the hypothesis that seasonal increases (pulses) in food resources in high-elevation sagebrush ecosystems result in 2 changes after the pulse, relative to the before-pulse period: (1) reduced diet breadth of, and overlap between, 2 sympatric sparrow species; and (2) enhanced energetic condition in both species. We tracked breeding-season diets using stable isotopes and energetic condition using plasma metabolites of Brewer's Sparrows (Spizella breweri), Vesper Sparrows (Pooecetes gramineus), and their food resources during 2011, and of only Brewer's Sparrows and their food resources during 2013. We quantify diet breadth and overlap between both species, along with coincident physiological consequences of temporal changes in resource use. After invertebrate biomass increased following periods of rainfall in 2011, dietary breadth decreased by 35% in Brewer's Sparrows and by 48% in Vesper Sparrows, while dietary overlap decreased by 88%. Energetic condition of both species increased when dietary overlap was lower and diet breadth decreased, after the rapid rise of food-resource availability. However, energetic condition of Brewer's Sparrows remained constant in 2013, a year with low precipitation and lack of a strong pulse in food resources, even though the species' dietary breadth again decreased that year. Our results indicate that diet breadth and overlap in these sparrow species inhabiting sagebrush ecosystems generally varied as predicted in relation to intra- and interannual changes in food resources, and

  8. ENSO, Nest Predation Risk, Food Abundance, and Male Status Fail to Explain Annual Variations in the Apparent Survival Rate of a Migratory Songbird

    PubMed Central

    Vernouillet, Alizée; Villard, Marc-André; Haché, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Adult mortality can be a major driver of population decline in species whose productivity is relatively low. Yet, little is known about the factors influencing adult survival rates in migratory bird species, nor do we know much about the longer-term effects of habitat disturbance on the fitness of individuals. The Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla) is one of the vertebrate species most sensitive to forest management, yet it is still common and widespread. We monitored the fate of 330 colour-banded Ovenbird males in four pairs of 25-ha plots during 9 successive breeding seasons. One plot of each pair was treated through selection harvesting (30–40% basal area removed) during the first winter. We tested the following hypotheses: (1) higher physiological costs in harvested plots as a result of lower food abundance will reduce apparent survival rate (ASR) relative to controls; (2) lower ASR following years with low nest survival and higher probability of renesting; (3) fluctuations in ASR reflecting El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO); and (4) higher ASR in returning males than in recruits (unbanded immigrants) owing to greater site familiarity in the former. We tested the relative importance of these hypotheses, or combinations thereof, by generating 23 models explaining variation in ASR. The year-dependent model received the most support, showing a 41% decrease in ASR from 2007 to 2014. The important year-to-year variation we observed in ASR (Σwi = 0.99) was not explained by variation in nest predation risk nor by ENSO. There was also little evidence for an effect of selection harvesting on ASR of Ovenbird males, despite a slight reduction in lifespan relative to males from control plots (2.7 vs 2.9 years). An avenue worth exploring to explain this intriguing pattern would be to determine whether conditions at migratory stopover sites or in the wintering area of our focal population have gradually worsened over the past decade. PMID:25419839

  9. 78 FR 79567 - Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations: Income Deductions and Resource Eligibility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... Register on August 27, 2013, at 78 FR 52827, was approved by OMB on September 26, 2013, under OMB Control... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Part 253 RIN 0584-AE05 Food Distribution Program on...

  10. Triumph or Triage? The World Food Problem in Geographical Perspective. Resource Paper No. 75-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, C. Gregory; Wilcox, R. Paul

    Emphasizing a problem-solving perspective, the document investigates the world food scene. Simply defined, the world food problem is the apparent inability of the world's people to feed themselves adequately and consistently. Intended for use by college level geography instructors as they develop courses on human uses of the environment, the…

  11. An experimental test of the effects of food resources and hydraulic refuge on patch colonization by stream macroinvertebrates during spates.

    PubMed

    Negishi, Junjiro N; Richardson, John S

    2006-01-01

    1. The passive or active movement of organisms between habitat patches plays important roles in achieving ecosystem resilience to disturbance and long-term control of population levels. However, causal mechanisms of disturbance-induced movements of mobile biota across heterogeneous habitat patches at a relatively short time-scale are little understood. 2. We experimentally tested the effects of food resource values on macroinvertebrate colonization of hydraulic refugia from spates in a second-order creek. Experimental cages were colonized by macroinvertebrates with combinations of resource types (natural or polyester leaves), and extent of exposure to stream flow (exposed to or sheltered from current); one half of each set was collected before and after a spate. This experiment was repeated over three spates of varying magnitude and seasonal contexts. 3. Pre-spate colonization was consistently greater for the cages with natural leaves relative to artificial leaves regardless of the extent of flow exposure. Two autumn spates with relatively low and stable antecedent flow conditions caused large movements of organic matter and macroinvertebrates across the stream, showing community-level accumulations into hydraulically sheltered patches independent of food treatment. The smallest spate with high and variable antecedent flows during winter resulted in negligible responses, which we interpret to be a result of depletion of easily transportable organic matter and organisms. 4. Two detritivorous taxa, the mayfly Paraleptophlebia spp. and stonefly Despaxia augusta (Banks) were the most responsive to autumn spates, and had disproportionately higher colonization rates of cages when provided with natural leaves during the largest autumn spate. Preferential settlement in food-enriched hydraulic refugia was attributable to taxon-specific mobility related to efficient acquisition of detritus resource, whose availability varies spatially and temporally. 5. Our findings suggest

  12. [Assessing the relative strength of the effects of food resources and predators on a population: a review of methods].

    PubMed

    Kasparon, A A

    2015-01-01

    Understanding mechanisms that underlie species' distribution and abundance is one of the key problems in population ecology. Inorder to tackle this problem, it is important to assess the relative strength of the effects of food and predator (consumer) on a focal population. In this study we have analysed advantages and disadvantages of the basic methods that are used to quantify the relative strength of the two types of effects. These methods can be divided into two groups. In the first group we put the search for examples that are consistent with a proposed hypothesis, assessment of correlations of abundance on adjacent trophic levels and biomanipulations. Common for these methods is that they assume the existence of only one type of effects--either bottom-up or top-down. Methods of the second group assume simultaneous presence of both types of effects and are aimed at quantifying their relative strength. In this group we put factorial design experiments and population-dynamics approach (analysis of population growth, death and birth rates). It is shown that due to the constraints of each of the methods of the second group none of them can be considered universal. However, their joint application can be a promising approach to the assessment of the mechanisms that drive population abundance variability both in experimental and field studies. PMID:25985486

  13. Variation in active and passive resource inputs to experimental pools: mechanisms and possible consequences for food webs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraus, Johanna M.; Pletcher, Leanna T.; Vonesh, James R.

    2010-01-01

    1. Cross-ecosystem movements of resources, including detritus, nutrients and living prey, can strongly influence food web dynamics in recipient habitats. Variation in resource inputs is thought to be driven by factors external to the recipient habitat (e.g. donor habitat productivity and boundary conditions). However, inputs of or by ‘active’ living resources may be strongly influenced by recipient habitat quality when organisms exhibit behavioural habitat selection when crossing ecosystem boundaries. 2. To examine whether behavioural responses to recipient habitat quality alter the relative inputs of ‘active’ living and ‘passive’ detrital resources to recipient food webs, we manipulated the presence of caged predatory fish and measured biomass, energy and organic content of inputs to outdoor experimental pools of adult aquatic insects, frog eggs, terrestrial plant matter and terrestrial arthropods. 3. Caged fish reduced the biomass, energy and organic matter donated to pools by tree frog eggs by ∼70%, but did not alter insect colonisation or passive allochthonous inputs of terrestrial arthropods and plant material. Terrestrial plant matter and adult aquatic insects provided the most energy and organic matter inputs to the pools (40–50%), while terrestrial arthropods provided the least (7%). Inputs of frog egg were relatively small but varied considerably among pools and over time (3%, range = 0–20%). Absolute and proportional amounts varied by input type. 4. Aquatic predators can strongly affect the magnitude of active, but not passive, inputs and that the effect of recipient habitat quality on active inputs is variable. Furthermore, some active inputs (i.e. aquatic insect colonists) can provide similar amounts of energy and organic matter as passive inputs of terrestrial plant matter, which are well known to be important. Because inputs differ in quality and the trophic level they subsidise, proportional changes in input type could have

  14. Are neighbourhood food resources distributed inequitably by income and race in the USA? Epidemiological findings across the urban spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Andrea S; Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Popkin, Barry M

    2012-01-01

    Objective Many recent policies focus on socioeconomic inequities in availability of healthy food stores and restaurants. Yet understanding of how socioeconomic inequities vary across neighbourhood racial composition and across the range from rural to urban settings is limited, largely due to lack of large, geographically and socio-demographically diverse study populations. Using a national sample, the authors examined differences in neighbourhood food resource availability according to neighbourhood-level poverty and racial/ethnic population in non-urban, low-density urban and high-density urban areas. Design Cross-sectional data from an observational cohort study representative of the US middle and high school-aged population in 1994 followed into young adulthood. Participants Using neighbourhood characteristics of participants in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Wave III, 2001–2002; n=13 995 young adults aged 18–28 years representing 7588 US block groups), the authors examined associations between neighbourhood poverty and race/ethnicity with neighbourhood food resource availability in urbanicity-stratified multivariable linear regression. Primary and secondary outcome measures Neighbourhood availability of grocery/supermarkets, convenience stores and fast-food restaurants (measured as number of outlets per 100 km roadway). Results Neighbourhood race and income disparities were most pronounced in low-density urban areas, where high-poverty/high-minority areas had lower availability of grocery/supermarkets (β coefficient (β)=–1.91, 95% CI –2.73 to –1.09) and convenience stores (β=–2.38, 95% CI –3.62 to –1.14) and greater availability of fast-food restaurants (β=4.87, 95% CI 2.26 to 7.48) than low-poverty/low-minority areas. However, in high-density urban areas, high-poverty/low-minority neighbourhoods had comparatively greater availability of grocery/supermarkets (β=8.05, 95% CI 2.52 to 13.57), convenience stores (

  15. The ethnobotanical study of local Mediterranean food plants as medicinal resources in Southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Rivera, D; Obon, C; Inocencio, C; Heinrich, M; Verde, A; Fajardo, J; Llorach, R

    2005-03-01

    We studied medicinal and food plant species, recording an extraordinary number of species and uses in Castilla-La Mancha, Murcia and Valencia in Spain. Focusing on two demographically distinct regions - Castilla-La Mancha and Lower Segura Valley. A high proportion of the flora (20 to 30 %) is known for its medicinal properties, and, interestingly, a high number of medicinal-food plants (5 to 7 %) is recorded. The concept of "Local Food" involves the whole repertory of species that characterises the local diet (incl. local cultivars and non-cultivated gathered food plants). The number of food plant species varies between 15 and 25 % of the vascular flora, and for the gathered food plants (GFP) this decreases to a 3 to 8 %. Those GFP that are also used for medicinal purposes are only 2 to 4 % of the total vascular flora. The relevant plant families are very similar in relative numbers along the different areas: Compositae, Rosaceae and Umbelliferae, followed of Boraginaceae, Liliaceae, Cruciferae, and Caryophyllaceae. Chenopodiaceae, Polygonaceae and Gramineae are less uniformly represented or in lesser numbers. The high species diversity does not imply a general dietary relevance of this particular plant family. For instance Caryophyllaceae with a relatively low number of species comprises the "collejas" (Silene vulgaris) that have shown to be the more widely consumed species. Information regarding 145 species has been recorded. Among the Gathered Food Plant Species 81 are used in medicine, in double proportion than the cultivated food plants. 61 are orally administered, in the same form as food. PMID:15800388

  16. Food resource use by two territorial damselfish (Pomacentridae: Stegastes) on South-Western Atlantic algal-dominated reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feitosa, João Lucas L.; Concentino, Adilma M.; Teixeira, Simone F.; Ferreira, Beatrice P.

    2012-05-01

    Damselfishes are a highly abundant group of reef fishes that are considered keystone species for structuring benthic communities on coral-dominated reefs. To assess how food is utilized by the damselfish species Stegastes fuscus and Stegastes variabilis living on algae-dominated coastal reefs, we evaluated the compositions of algal communities inside their territories and investigated their diets by analyzing their stomach contents. Jointed-calcareous algae were the most abundant morphological group inside the territories of both damselfish species (> 80%), and the biomass of these algae showed a positive linear relationship to all the other non-calcareous algae when grouped together (R² = 0.674; p < 0.001), suggesting that the former exerts a positive influence on the biomasses of species of non-calcareous algae by creating surfaces on which they can grow. Most of the diet of Stegastes spp. consisted of algal material (> 70%), but they also fed on invertebrates and detritus as accessory items (~ 15%). Algal material composed a consistent proportion of the items ingested by adults and juveniles of both damselfish species with diatoms being the most frequent item, followed by filamentous algae. A positive food selection for all macroalgae morphological groups was observed, except for jointed-calcareous algae (Ivlev's index). The most preferred macroalgae types were filamentous, with values close to + 1 for both damselfish species. Pianka's food overlap index was extremely high regardless of the damselfish species or their life phase and ANOSIM analyses also confirmed that there were essentially no differences between their diets. The present work is the first indication that damselfish may maintain territories dominated by highly unpalatable calcareous macroalgae that have herbivore-deterrent life strategies, although the complex branching structures of these macroalgae create suitable microhabitats for the growth of epiphytic species consumed by the damselfish.

  17. Assessment of community food resources: A Latino neighborhood study in upstate New York

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Class, Maria; Hosler, Akiko S.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to assess availability, affordability, and accessibility of food items in a low-income Latino neighborhood within a small city using an on-site food store survey. Store locations were identified by on-site GPS. Results showed the Latino neighborhood had limited availability and above average cost of high-fiber bread. Fresh vegetables were more expensive compared to the non-Latino neighborhood, and more stores in the Latino neighborhood participated in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Food Program. The lack of supermarkets, fewer stores with disability access, and the lack of public transportation left Latino residents without a vehicle or with physical disabilities with few food shopping options. PMID:22065468

  18. Rural food insecurity and poverty mappings and their linkage with water resources in the Limpopo River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magombeyi, M. S.; Taigbenu, A. E.; Barron, J.

    2016-04-01

    The mappings of poverty and food insecurity were carried out for the rural districts of the four riparian countries (Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe) of the Limpopo river basin using the results of national surveys that were conducted between 2003 and 2013. The analysis shows lower range of food insecure persons (0-40%) than poverty stricken persons (0-95%) that is attributable to enhanced government and non-government food safety networks in the basin countries, the dynamic and transitory nature of food insecurity which depends on the timings of the surveys in relation to harvests, markets and food prices, and the limited dimension of food insecurity in relation to poverty which tends to be a more structural and pervasive socio-economic condition. The usefulness of this study in influencing policies and strategies targeted at alleviating poverty and improving rural livelihoods lies with using food insecurity mappings to address short-term socio-economic conditions and poverty mappings to address more structural and long-term deprivations. Using the poverty line of 1.25/day per person (2008-2013) in the basin, Zimbabwe had the highest percentage of 68.7% of its rural population classified as poor, followed by Mozambique with 68.2%, South Africa with 56.1% and Botswana with 20%. While average poverty reduction of 6.4% was observed between 2003 and 2009 in Botswana, its population growth of 20.1% indicated no real poverty reduction. Similar observations are made about Mozambique and Zimbabwe where population growth outstripped poverty reductions. In contrast, both average poverty levels and population increased by 4.3% and 11%, respectively, in South Africa from 2007 to 2010. While areas of high food insecurity and poverty consistently coincide with low water availability, it does not indicate a simple cause-effect relationship between water, poverty and food insecurity. With limited water resources, rural folks in the basin require stronger

  19. Food resources, distribution and seasonal variations in ranging in lion-tailed macaques, Macaca silenus in the Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Erinjery, Joseph J; Kavana, T S; Singh, Mewa

    2015-01-01

    The distribution and availability of food was examined to see how it influenced ranging patterns and sleeping site selection in a group of lion-tailed macaques. The home range and core area were 130.48 ha (95% kernel) and 26.68 ha (50% kernel) respectively. The lion-tailed macaques had a longer day range, had a greater number of sleeping sites and used more core areas in the summer as compared to the monsoon and the post-monsoon seasons. The ranging patterns and sleeping site use were influenced by the major food resources used in a particular season. The ranging was mainly influenced by Artocarpus heterophyllus in monsoon, Cullenia exarillata and Toona ciliata in post- monsoon, and Artocarpus heterophyllus and Ficus amplissima in summer. The distribution of these four plant species is, therefore, critical to ranging, and thus to conservation of the lion-tailed macaque. PMID:25217980

  20. Information Communication and Technology for Water Resource Management and Food Security in Kenya: A Case Study of Kericho and Uasin Gishu Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omboto, P. I.; Macharia, J.; Mbagaya, Grace; Standa, F. N.

    2011-01-01

    Recent reports on Kenya have indicated food insecurity and destruction of water catchments as serious problems facing the country. Despite the tremendous strides in Information and Communication Technology (ICT), the country has not taken advantage of the technology to improve food security by effectively managing her water resources. A survey on…

  1. Do abyssal scavengers use phytodetritus as a food resource? Video and biochemical evidence from the Atlantic and Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffreys, Rachel M.; Lavaleye, Marc S. S.; Bergman, Magda J. N.; Duineveld, Gerard C. A.; Witbaard, Rob

    2011-04-01

    Deep-sea benthic communities derive their energetic requirements from overlying surface water production, which is deposited at the seafloor as phytodetritus. Benthic invertebrates are the primary consumers of this food source, with deep-sea fish at the top of the trophic hierarchy. Recently, we demonstrated with the use of baited cameras that macrourid fish rapidly respond to and feed vigorously on large plant food falls mimicked by spinach ( Jeffreys et al., 2010). Since higher plant remains are scarce in the deep-sea, with the exception of canyons, where terrestrial material has been observed, these results led us to ask if a more commonly documented plant material i.e. phytodetritus might form a food source for deep-sea fish and mobile scavenging megafauna. We simulated a phytodetritus dump at the seafloor in two contrasting environments (1) the NE Atlantic where carpets of phytodetritus have been previously observed and (2) the oligotrophic western Mediterranean, where the deposition of phytodetritus at the seafloor is a rare occurrence. We recorded the response of the scavenging fauna using an in situ benthic lander equipped with baited time-lapse cameras. In the NE Atlantic at 3000 m, abyssal macrourids and cusk-eels were observed ingesting the phytodetritus. The phytodetrital patch was significantly diminished within 2 h. Abundance estimates calculated from first arrival times of macrourids at the phytodetrital patch in the Atlantic corresponded with abundance estimates from video-transect indicating that fish were attracted to the scent of phytodetrital bait. In contrast to this, in the western Mediterranean at 2800 m a single macrourid was observed investigating the phytodetrital patch but did not feed from it. The phytodetrital patch was significantly diminished within 6.5 h as a result of mainly invertebrate activity. At 1900 m, Lepidion lepidion was observed near the lander and the bait, but did not feed. The phytodetrital patch remained intact until

  2. Future water resources for food production in five South Asian river basins and potential for adaptation--a modeling study.

    PubMed

    Biemans, H; Speelman, L H; Ludwig, F; Moors, E J; Wiltshire, A J; Kumar, P; Gerten, D; Kabat, P

    2013-12-01

    The Indian subcontinent faces a population increase from 1.6 billion in 2000 towards 2 billion around 2050. Therefore, expansion of agricultural area combined with increases in productivity will be necessary to produce the food needed in the future. However, with pressure on water resources already being high, and potential effects of climate change still uncertain, the question rises whether there will be enough water resources available to sustain this production. The objective of this study is to make a spatially explicit quantitative analysis of water requirements and availability for current and future food production in five South Asian basins (Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra, Godavari and Krishna), in the absence or presence of two different adaptation strategies: an overall improvement in irrigation efficiency, and an increase of reservoir storage capacity. The analysis is performed by using the coupled hydrology and crop production model LPJmL. It is found that the Godavari and Krishna basins will benefit most from an increased storage capacity, whereas in the Ganges and the Indus water scarcity mainly takes place in areas where this additional storage would not provide additional utility. Increasing the irrigation efficiency will be beneficial in all basins, but most in the Indus and Ganges, as it decreases the pressure on groundwater resources and decreases the fraction of food production that would become at risk because of water shortage. A combination of both options seems to be the best strategy in all basins. The large-scale model used in this study is suitable to identify hotspot areas and support the first step in the policy process, but the final design and implementation of adaptation options requires supporting studies at finer scales. PMID:23928370

  3. Dietary and paleoenvironmental reconstruction using stable isotopes of herbivore tooth enamel from middle Pliocene Dikika, Ethiopia: implication for Australopithecus afarensis habitat and food resources.

    PubMed

    Bedaso, Zelalem K; Wynn, Jonathan G; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Geraads, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Carbon and oxygen isotopes of mammalian tooth enamel were used to reconstruct paleoenvironments of Australopithecus afarensis from the middle Pliocene locality of Dikika, Ethiopia. Isotopic analyses were conducted on 210 mammalian herbivore teeth from 15 different taxa collected from the Basal Member (~3.8-3.42 Ma) and Sidi Hakoma Member (3.42-3.24 Ma) of the Hadar Formation. The isotopic analyses aim specifically at reconstructing shifts in the relative abundance of C(4) grasses in mammalian diets, and more generally at paleoclimate factors such as aridity and seasonality, as well as habitat structure. Carbon isotopic data suggest a wide range of foraging strategies, characterized by mixed C(3)/C(4) to C(4)-dominated diets in wooded grasslands to open woodlands. Weighted average C(4) dietary proportions range between 60% and 86% in the Basal Member and 49% and 74% in the Sidi Hakoma Member. Paleoclimatic conditions based on the reconstructed mean annual water deficit from the δ(18)O(enamel) values indicate a wetter climate as compared to either the early Pliocene or the Pleistocene nearby. The middle Pliocene habitat structure at Dikika could be as diverse as open grassland and wooded grassland, and woodland to forest in the Sidi Hakoma Member while wooded grassland, woodland to grassland are evident in the Basal Member. All habitats except closed woodland and forest are persistent through both members; however, the relative proportion of individual habitats changed through time. These changes could have put the fauna in competition for preferred habitats and food resources, which could have forced migration, adaptation to other resources and/or extinction. Thus, the existence of A. afarensis throughout the middle Pliocene indicates either this species might have adapted to a wide range of habitats, or its preferred habitat was not affected by the observed environmental changes. PMID:23199576

  4. A geographic information system on the potential distribution and abundance of Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica in east Africa based on Food and Agriculture Organization databases.

    PubMed

    Malone, J B; Gommes, R; Hansen, J; Yilma, J M; Slingenberg, J; Snijders, F; Nachtergaele, F; Ataman, E

    1998-07-31

    An adaptation of a previously developed climate forecast computer model and digital agroecologic database resources available from FAO for developing countries were used to develop a geographic information system risk assessment model for fasciolosis in East Africa, a region where both F. hepatica and F. gigantica occur as a cause of major economic losses in livestock. Regional F. hepatica and F. gigantica forecast index maps were created. Results were compared to environmental data parameters, known life cycle micro-environment requirements and to available Fasciola prevalence survey data and distribution patterns reported in the literature for each species (F. hepatica above 1200 m elevation, F. gigantica below 1800 m, both at 1200-1800 m). The greatest risk, for both species, occurred in areas of extended high annual rainfall associated with high soil moisture and surplus water, with risk diminishing in areas of shorter wet season and/or lower temperatures. Arid areas were generally unsuitable (except where irrigation, water bodies or floods occur) due to soil moisture deficit and/or, in the case of F. hepatica, high average annual mean temperature >23 degrees C. Regions in the highlands of Ethiopia and Kenya were identified as unsuitable for F. gigantica due to inadequate thermal regime, below the 600 growing degree days required for completion of the life cycle in a single year. The combined forecast index (F. hepatica+F. gigantica) was significantly correlated to prevalence data available for 260 of the 1220 agroecologic crop production system zones (CPSZ) and to average monthly normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values derived from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) sensor on board the NOAA polar-orbiting satellites. For use in Fasciola control programs, results indicate that monthly forecast parameters, developed in a GIS with digital agroecologic zone databases and monthly climate databases, can be used to define the

  5. Eating on impulse: Implicit attitudes, self-regulatory resources, and trait self-control as determinants of food consumption.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Lei; Cui, Xianghua; Fang, Yuan; Chen, Qianqiu; Wang, Ya; Qiang, Yao

    2015-12-01

    Self-regulatory resources and trait self-control have been found to moderate the impulse-behavior relationship. The current study investigated whether the interaction of self-regulatory resources and trait self-control moderates the association between implicit attitudes and food consumption. One hundred twenty female participants were randomly assigned to either a depletion condition in which their self-regulatory resources were reduced or a no-depletion condition. Participants' implicit attitudes for chocolate were measured with the Single Category Implicit Association Test and self-report measures of trait self-control were collected. The dependent variable was chocolate consumption in an ostensible taste and rate task. Implicit attitudes predicted chocolate consumption in depleted participants but not in non-depleted participants. However, this predictive power of implicit attitudes on eating in depleted condition disappeared in participants with high trait self-control. Thus, trait self-control and self-regulatory resources interact to moderate the prediction of implicit attitude on eating behavior. Results suggest that high trait self-control buffers the effect of self-regulatory depletion on impulsive eating. PMID:26402043

  6. 75 FR 4469 - Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations: Resource Limits and Exclusions, and Extended...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... alternative to Food Stamp Program benefits'' (43 FR 57798). Moreover, Congress funds FDPIR through annual... CFR part 3015, subpart V and related Notice published at 48 FR 29114, June 24, 1983, the donation of... published a proposed rule in the Federal Register (73 FR 38155) to amend the regulations for FDPIR at 7...

  7. Access and use of information resources in assessing health risks from chemicals in food

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.A.

    1990-12-31

    The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is responsible for the wholesomeness, safety, and adulteration-free status of meat and poultry. The agency developed the National Residue Program (NRP) to monitor these products for residue of drugs, pesticides, and environmental contaminants. Today, few chemical residues are detected in meat and poultry because of the success of the NRP. 3 figs.

  8. 77 FR 1642 - Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations: Income Deductions and Resource Eligibility

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... rulemaking published in the Federal Register on April 27, 2010 (75 FR 22027), which proposed to amend FDPIR... published at 48 FR 29114, June 24, 1983, the donation of foods in such programs is included in the scope of...); electricity or fuel used for purposes other than heating or cooling; water; sewerage; well installation...

  9. Food for Pollinators: Quantifying the Nectar and Pollen Resources of Urban Flower Meadows.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Damien M; Ouvrard, Pierre; Baldock, Katherine C R; Baude, Mathilde; Goddard, Mark A; Kunin, William E; Mitschunas, Nadine; Memmott, Jane; Morse, Helen; Nikolitsi, Maria; Osgathorpe, Lynne M; Potts, Simon G; Robertson, Kirsty M; Scott, Anna V; Sinclair, Frazer; Westbury, Duncan B; Stone, Graham N

    2016-01-01

    Planted meadows are increasingly used to improve the biodiversity and aesthetic amenity value of urban areas. Although many 'pollinator-friendly' seed mixes are available, the floral resources these provide to flower-visiting insects, and how these change through time, are largely unknown. Such data are necessary to compare the resources provided by alternative meadow seed mixes to each other and to other flowering habitats. We used quantitative surveys of over 2 million flowers to estimate the nectar and pollen resources offered by two exemplar commercial seed mixes (one annual, one perennial) and associated weeds grown as 300m2 meadows across four UK cities, sampled at six time points between May and September 2013. Nectar sugar and pollen rewards per flower varied widely across 65 species surveyed, with native British weed species (including dandelion, Taraxacum agg.) contributing the top five nectar producers and two of the top ten pollen producers. Seed mix species yielding the highest rewards per flower included Leontodon hispidus, Centaurea cyanus and C. nigra for nectar, and Papaver rhoeas, Eschscholzia californica and Malva moschata for pollen. Perennial meadows produced up to 20x more nectar and up to 6x more pollen than annual meadows, which in turn produced far more than amenity grassland controls. Perennial meadows produced resources earlier in the year than annual meadows, but both seed mixes delivered very low resource levels early in the year and these were provided almost entirely by native weeds. Pollen volume per flower is well predicted statistically by floral morphology, and nectar sugar mass and pollen volume per unit area are correlated with flower counts, raising the possibility that resource levels can be estimated for species or habitats where they cannot be measured directly. Our approach does not incorporate resource quality information (for example, pollen protein or essential amino acid content), but can easily do so when suitable data

  10. Food for Pollinators: Quantifying the Nectar and Pollen Resources of Urban Flower Meadows

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Damien M.; Ouvrard, Pierre; Baldock, Katherine C. R.; Baude, Mathilde; Goddard, Mark A.; Kunin, William E.; Mitschunas, Nadine; Memmott, Jane; Morse, Helen; Nikolitsi, Maria; Osgathorpe, Lynne M.; Potts, Simon G.; Robertson, Kirsty M.; Scott, Anna V.; Sinclair, Frazer; Westbury, Duncan B.; Stone, Graham N.

    2016-01-01

    Planted meadows are increasingly used to improve the biodiversity and aesthetic amenity value of urban areas. Although many ‘pollinator-friendly’ seed mixes are available, the floral resources these provide to flower-visiting insects, and how these change through time, are largely unknown. Such data are necessary to compare the resources provided by alternative meadow seed mixes to each other and to other flowering habitats. We used quantitative surveys of over 2 million flowers to estimate the nectar and pollen resources offered by two exemplar commercial seed mixes (one annual, one perennial) and associated weeds grown as 300m2 meadows across four UK cities, sampled at six time points between May and September 2013. Nectar sugar and pollen rewards per flower varied widely across 65 species surveyed, with native British weed species (including dandelion, Taraxacum agg.) contributing the top five nectar producers and two of the top ten pollen producers. Seed mix species yielding the highest rewards per flower included Leontodon hispidus, Centaurea cyanus and C. nigra for nectar, and Papaver rhoeas, Eschscholzia californica and Malva moschata for pollen. Perennial meadows produced up to 20x more nectar and up to 6x more pollen than annual meadows, which in turn produced far more than amenity grassland controls. Perennial meadows produced resources earlier in the year than annual meadows, but both seed mixes delivered very low resource levels early in the year and these were provided almost entirely by native weeds. Pollen volume per flower is well predicted statistically by floral morphology, and nectar sugar mass and pollen volume per unit area are correlated with flower counts, raising the possibility that resource levels can be estimated for species or habitats where they cannot be measured directly. Our approach does not incorporate resource quality information (for example, pollen protein or essential amino acid content), but can easily do so when suitable

  11. Food for Humanity. (Student Resource Book III in the Investigating Your Environment Program).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Boulder, CO.

    These resource papers encourage the student to discover for himself the contributions to a problem made through original literature. Since some of the papers are controversial or contradict others, the student will need to evaluate these papers to determine his correct approach or position. It is hoped that these papers will also foster an…

  12. Childhood Obesity: A Food and Nutrition Resource List for Educators and Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellechia, Kathleen M.; Akobundu, Ucheoma O.; Naslund, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    This publication is a collection of resources on the topic of childhood obesity for educators and researchers. It is comprised of articles from professional journals (published 2000 to present), information available on the World Wide Web, consumer educational materials and contact information of related organizations. Items with a public health…

  13. EX SITU PRESERVATION OF PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES FOR FOOD AND AGRICULTURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US National Plant Germplasm System, (NPGS) a group within the Agricultural Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture, is comprised of over 20 field stations spread throughout the US and is responsible for the preservation and distribution of genetic resources important for ...

  14. Gene banks a mechanism for harnessing animal genetic resources for food security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased productivity for livestock is needed to sustainably meet growing consumer demands. Climate change places another layer of complexity on the raising animal productivity. To meet these challenges a wide variety of genetic resources is needed. But maintaining this variety in-situ can be costl...

  15. Comparative analysis of forest lands cadastral appraisal estimated with regards to wood and food resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovyazin, V.; Romanchikov, A.; Pasko, O.

    2015-11-01

    Cadastral appraisal of forest fund is one of the topical challenges of modern natural resource management. The paper delivers comparison of different approaches to cadastral appraisal of forest lands. The authors suggest a uniformed model to compare objectively and choose the most effective use of parcels.

  16. Food and Environment. A Teachers' Resource Guide to California Valley Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Railton, Esther, Comp.

    Presented is a compilation of teaching resources prepared by teachers enrolled in a graduate-level environmental education course at California State University, Hayward. The emphasis of these materials is upon agriculture and related environmental practices in California's San Joaquin Valley. Following a description of course logistics are six…

  17. Free-living plathelminthes in sheep-grazed and ungrazed supralittoral salt marshes of the North Sea: Abundance, biomass, and their significance in food chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armonies, W.

    The supralittoral salt marshes of the North Sea are marked by high halophyte primary productivity. The environmental factors are strongly fluctuating. Despite these features the metazoan meiofaunal abundance is equal to that found in other littoral habitats. On average 1250 marine metazoans are found per 10 cm 2 in ungrazed and 770 per 10 cm 2 in sheep-grazed supralittoral salt marshes. Nematoda dominate in numerical abundance, Oligochaeta in biomass. Plathelminthes account for 15% of marine metazoans in ungrazed and 5% in grazed salt marshes. Total plathelminth abundance increases with halophyte density, whereas the abundance of diatom-feeding Plathelminthes decreases. In ungrazed marshes on average 104 Plathelminthes are found per 10 cm 2, accounting for a biomass of 0.65 g DW·m -2. In sheep-grazed marshes the average abundance is only 32 individuals per 10 cm 2, accounting for a biomass of 0.1 g DW·m -2. Average individual weight is 3.2 μg DW or 2.5 μg AFDW. In grazed salt marshes, 30% of plathelminthes feed on diatoms, 66% are predators, and 4% feed on bacteria (gut analysis). In ungrazed salt marshes only 3% are diatom-feeders, and 90% are predators feeding on Nematoda, Copepoda, Oligochaeta, and smaller Plathelminthes. Presumably plathelminthes are top predators on the salt marsh meiofauna.

  18. Global forest cover mapping for the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization forest resources assessment 2000 program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhu, Z.; Waller, E.

    2003-01-01

    Many countries periodically produce national reports on the status and changes of forest resources, using statistical surveys and spatial mapping of remotely sensed data. At the global level, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has conducted a Forest Resources Assessment (FRA) program every 10 yr since 1980, producing statistics and analysis that give a global synopsis of forest resources in the world. For the year 2000 of the FRA program (FRA2000), a global forest cover map was produced to provide spatial context to the extensive survey. The forest cover map, produced at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) EROS Data Center (EDC), has five classes: closed forest, open or fragmented forest, other wooded land, other land cover, and water. The first two forested classes at the global scale were delineated using combinations of temporal compositing, modified mixture analysis, geographic stratification, and other classification techniques. The remaining three FAO classes were derived primarily from the USGS global land cover characteristics database (Loveland et al. 1999). Validated on the basis of existing reference data sets, the map is estimated to be 77% accurate for the first four classes (no reference data were available for water), and 86% accurate for the forest and nonforest classification. The final map will be published as an insert to the FAO FRA2000 report.

  19. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Seagull Chicks Is Related to the Consumption of Freshwater Food Resources.

    PubMed

    Cabezón, Oscar; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta; Morera, Virginia; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; González-Solís, Jacob; Napp, Sebastian; Ribas, Maria P; Blanch-Lázaro, Berta; Fernández-Aguilar, Xavier; Antilles, Noelia; López-Soria, Sergio; Lorca-Oró, Cristina; Dubey, Jitender P; Almería, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the spread of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) in wild birds, particularly in those with opportunistic feeding behavior, is of interest for elucidating the epidemiological involvement of these birds in the maintenance and dissemination of the parasite. Overall, from 2009 to 2011, we collected sera from 525 seagull chicks (Yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) and Audouin's gull (L. audouinii)) from 6 breeding colonies in Spain and tested them using the modified agglutination test (MAT) for the presence of antibodies against T. gondii. Chick age was estimated from bill length. Main food source of seagull chicks was evaluated using stable isotope analyses from growing scapular feathers. Overall T. gondii seroprevalence was 21.0% (IC95% 17.5-24.4). A generalized linear mixed-effects model indicated that year (2009) and food source (freshwater) were risk factors associated to the individual risk of infection by T. gondii, while age (days) was close to significance. Freshwater food origin was related to the highest seroprevalence levels, followed by marine origin, supporting freshwater and sewages as important routes of dispersion of T. gondii. Year differences could indicate fluctuating rates of exposure of seagull chicks to T. gondii. Age ranged from 4 to 30 days and seropositivity tended to increase with age (P = 0.07), supporting that seropositivity is related to T. gondii infection rather than to maternal transfer of antibodies, which in gulls is known to sharply decrease with chick age. This study is the first to report T. gondii antibodies in Yellow-legged and Audouin's gulls, thereby extending the range of intermediate hosts for this parasite and underscoring the complexity of its epidemiology. PMID:26974667

  20. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Seagull Chicks Is Related to the Consumption of Freshwater Food Resources

    PubMed Central

    Cabezón, Oscar; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta; Morera, Virginia; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; González-Solís, Jacob; Napp, Sebastian; Ribas, Maria P.; Blanch-Lázaro, Berta; Fernández-Aguilar, Xavier; Antilles, Noelia; López-Soria, Sergio; Lorca-Oró, Cristina; Dubey, Jitender P.; Almería, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the spread of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) in wild birds, particularly in those with opportunistic feeding behavior, is of interest for elucidating the epidemiological involvement of these birds in the maintenance and dissemination of the parasite. Overall, from 2009 to 2011, we collected sera from 525 seagull chicks (Yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) and Audouin’s gull (L. audouinii)) from 6 breeding colonies in Spain and tested them using the modified agglutination test (MAT) for the presence of antibodies against T. gondii. Chick age was estimated from bill length. Main food source of seagull chicks was evaluated using stable isotope analyses from growing scapular feathers. Overall T. gondii seroprevalence was 21.0% (IC95% 17.5–24.4). A generalized linear mixed-effects model indicated that year (2009) and food source (freshwater) were risk factors associated to the individual risk of infection by T. gondii, while age (days) was close to significance. Freshwater food origin was related to the highest seroprevalence levels, followed by marine origin, supporting freshwater and sewages as important routes of dispersion of T. gondii. Year differences could indicate fluctuating rates of exposure of seagull chicks to T. gondii. Age ranged from 4 to 30 days and seropositivity tended to increase with age (P = 0.07), supporting that seropositivity is related to T. gondii infection rather than to maternal transfer of antibodies, which in gulls is known to sharply decrease with chick age. This study is the first to report T. gondii antibodies in Yellow-legged and Audouin’s gulls, thereby extending the range of intermediate hosts for this parasite and underscoring the complexity of its epidemiology. PMID:26974667

  1. Optimizing Land and Water Use at the Local Level to Enhance Global Food Security through Virtual Resources Trade in the World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, X.; Zhang, X.; Zhu, T.

    2014-12-01

    Global food security is constrained by local and regional land and water availability, as well as other agricultural input limitations and inappropriate national and global regulations. In a theoretical context, this study assumes that optimal water and land uses in local food production to maximize food security and social welfare at the global level can be driven by global trade. It follows the context of "virtual resources trade", i.e., utilizing international trade of agricultural commodities to reduce dependency on local resources, and achieves land and water savings in the world. An optimization model based on the partial equilibrium of agriculture is developed for the analysis, including local commodity production and land and water resources constraints, demand by country, and global food market. Through the model, the marginal values (MVs) of social welfare for water and land at the level of so-called food production units (i.e., sub-basins with similar agricultural production conditions) are derived and mapped in the world. In this personation, we will introduce the model structure, explain the meaning of MVs at the local level and their distribution around the world, and discuss the policy implications for global communities to enhance global food security. In particular, we will examine the economic values of water and land under different world targets of food security (e.g., number of malnourished population or children in a future year). In addition, we will also discuss the opportunities on data to improve such global modeling exercises.

  2. Wild mushroom- an underutilized healthy food resource and income generator: experience from Tanzania rural areas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study documents the use of a wild edible mushroom (WEM) in Tanzania rural areas and assesses its significance as a source of healthy food and income for the disadvantaged rural dwellers. Methodology The data was gathered through local market surveys in order to conventionally identify different common WEM taxa using a semi-structured interview and it involved 160 people comprised of WEM hunters, traders and consumers. The collected data covered the information on where, how, when and who was the principal transmitter of the mycological knowledge learned and the general information on their market and values. Results Results show that mushroom gathering is gender oriented, dominated by women (76.25%) whereas men account for 23.75%. Women possess vast knowledge of mushroom folk taxonomy, biology and ecology and are therefore the principal knowledge transmitters. It was also found that learning about WEM began at an early age and is family tradition based. The knowledge is acquired and imparted by practices and is mostly transmitted vertically through family dissemination. The results also revealed that 75 WEM species belong to 14 families sold in fresh or dry form. The common sold species belonged to the family Cantharellaceae (19) followed by Rusullaceae (16) and Lyophyllaceae (13), respectively. Collectors residing near miombo woodland may harvest 20–30 buckets (capacity 20 liters) and the business may earn a person about $400–900 annually. Conclusion This finding envisages the purposeful strengthening of WEM exploitation, which would contribute significantly in boosting the rural income/economy and reduce conflicts between community and forest conservers. The activity would also provide alternative employment, improve food security to rural disadvantaged groups especially women and old people hence improve their livelihood. PMID:23841964

  3. Meio- and Macrofaunal Communities in Artificial Water-Filled Tree Holes: Effects of Seasonality, Physical and Chemical Parameters, and Availability of Food Resources

    PubMed Central

    Ptatscheck, Christoph; Traunspurger, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In this study we investigated the dynamics of meiofaunal and macrofaunal communities in artificial water-filled tree holes. The abundances and, for the first time, biomasses and secondary production rates of these communities were examined. The experimental set-up consisted of 300 brown plastic cups placed in temperate mixed forests and sampled five times over a period of 16 months to determine the impact of (i) seasonal events, (ii) physicochemical parameters, and (iii) food resources on the tree hole metazoans. Outcomes Metazoan organisms, especially the meiofauna (rotifers and nematodes) occupied nearly all of the cups (> 99%) throughout the year. Between 55% and 99% of the metazoan community was represented by rotifers (max. 557,000 individuals 100 cm-2) and nematodes (max. 58,000 individuals 100 cm-2). Diptera taxa, particularly Dasyhelea sp. (max. 256 individuals 100 cm-2) dominated the macrofaunal community. Macrofauna accounted for the majority of the metazoan biomass, with a mean dry weight of 5,800 μg 100 cm-2 and an annual production rate of 20,400 μg C 100 cm-2, whereas for meiofauna mean biomass and annual production were 100 μg 100 cm-2 and 5,300 μg C 100 cm-2, respectively. The macrofaunal taxa tended to show more fluctuating population dynamic while the meiofaunal dynamic was rather low with partly asynchronous development. Seasonality (average temperature and rain intervals) had a significant impact on both meiofauna and macrofauna. Furthermore, bottom-up control (chlorophyll-a and organic carbon), mainly attributable to algae, was a significant factor that shaped the metazoan communities. In contrast, physicochemical water parameters had no evident influence. 23.7% of organism density distribution was explained by redundancy analysis (RDA) indicating a high dynamic and asynchrony of the systems. PMID:26284811

  4. Automated image analysis and in situ hybridization as tools to study bacterial populations in food resources, gut and cast of Lumbricus terrestris L.

    PubMed

    Schönholzer, Frank; Hahn, Dittmar; Zarda, Boris; Zeyer, Josef

    2002-01-01

    An image analysis procedure was developed for bacterial cells after staining with the DNA-intercalating dye 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), and after in situ hybridization with Cy3-labeled, rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. DAPI- and Cy3-images were captured separately from the same scenery with a cooled digital video camera with three CCD chips for the basic colors red (R), green (G) and blue (B). Using the appropriate filter sets, images of DAPI-stained cells were captured with the red channel shut down, while Cy3-stained cells were captured with the green and blue channels shut down. DAPI images and Cy3 images were subsequently merged to produce virtual color (RGB)-images. Processing of all color channels allowed to specifically enumerate DAPI-stained and hybridized bacteria, to measure their cell sizes, to subsequently calculate their biovolumes and to estimate their biomass. Using this procedure, significant differences were detected in bacterial populations in food resources, digestive tract and cast of the earthworm L. terrestris L. In leaves, bacteria were on average ten times more abundant and two times larger than in soil. In the digestive tract of L. terrestris, however, numbers and volumes of bacteria were comparable to those in soil indicating the disruption of cells originating from leaves before arriving in the foregut. Passage through the digestive tract of L. terrestris significantly reduced bacterial populations belonging to the alpha-, beta- and gamma-subdivisions of Proteobacteria. While these populations did not recover during incubation of cast, populations of the delta-subdivision of Proteobacteria and the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium cluster of the CFB phylum increased in cast. These results suggest a large impact of passage through the digestive tract of L. terrestris on bacterial community structure and demonstrate the usefulness of our image analysis procedure for the determination of cell sizes and biovolumes and thus biomass of

  5. Impacts of Community-Based Natural Resource Management on Wealth, Food Security and Child Health in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Pailler, Sharon; Naidoo, Robin; Burgess, Neil D; Freeman, Olivia E; Fisher, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) is a major global strategy for enhancing conservation outcomes while also seeking to improve rural livelihoods; however, little evidence of socioeconomic outcomes exists. We present a national-level analysis that empirically estimates socioeconomic impacts of CBNRM across Tanzania, while systematically controlling for potential sources of bias. Specifically, we apply a difference-in-differences model to national-scale, cross-sectional data to estimate the impact of three different CBNRM governance regimes on wealth, food security and child health, considering differential impacts of CBNRM on wealthy and poor populations. We also explore whether or not longer-standing CBNRM efforts provide more benefits than recently-established CBNRM areas. Our results show significant improvements in household food security in CBNRM areas compared with non-CBNRM areas, but household wealth and health outcomes in children are generally not significantly different. No one CBNRM governance regime demonstrates consistently different welfare outcomes than the others. Wealthy households benefit more from CBNRM than poor households and CBNRM benefits appear to increase with longer periods of implementation. Perhaps evidence of CBNRM benefits is limited because CBNRM hasn't been around long enough to yield demonstrable outcomes. Nonetheless, achieving demonstrable benefits to rural populations will be crucial for CBNRM's future success in Tanzania. PMID:26186210

  6. Impacts of Community-Based Natural Resource Management on Wealth, Food Security and Child Health in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Pailler, Sharon; Naidoo, Robin; Burgess, Neil D.; Freeman, Olivia E.; Fisher, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) is a major global strategy for enhancing conservation outcomes while also seeking to improve rural livelihoods; however, little evidence of socioeconomic outcomes exists. We present a national-level analysis that empirically estimates socioeconomic impacts of CBNRM across Tanzania, while systematically controlling for potential sources of bias. Specifically, we apply a difference-in-differences model to national-scale, cross-sectional data to estimate the impact of three different CBNRM governance regimes on wealth, food security and child health, considering differential impacts of CBNRM on wealthy and poor populations. We also explore whether or not longer-standing CBNRM efforts provide more benefits than recently-established CBNRM areas. Our results show significant improvements in household food security in CBNRM areas compared with non-CBNRM areas, but household wealth and health outcomes in children are generally not significantly different. No one CBNRM governance regime demonstrates consistently different welfare outcomes than the others. Wealthy households benefit more from CBNRM than poor households and CBNRM benefits appear to increase with longer periods of implementation. Perhaps evidence of CBNRM benefits is limited because CBNRM hasn’t been around long enough to yield demonstrable outcomes. Nonetheless, achieving demonstrable benefits to rural populations will be crucial for CBNRM’s future success in Tanzania. PMID:26186210

  7. Nutrient-rich versus nutrient-poor foods for depressed patients based on Iranian Traditional Medicine resources

    PubMed Central

    Tavakkoli-Kakhki, Mandana; Eslami, Saeid; Motavasselian, Malihe

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Considering the positive effects of certain nutrients on depression, increasingly prevalent in the contemporary societies, we investigated the nutritional content of prescribed and prohibited foodstuffs for depressed patients in Iranian Traditional Medicine resources. Materials and Methods: In order to conduct the study, credible sources of Iranian Traditional Medicine were primarily reviewed for the prescribed and prohibited foodstuffs for depressed patients. USDA database, as a well-known and valuable source, was then visited to determine the amount of effective nutrients in each foodstuff. Finally, the obtained amounts were compared with each other in three food groups, namely vegetables, fruits and nuts and also high protein products. Results: In Iranian Traditional Medicine texts, the following are prescribed for depression management: basil, coriander, spinach, lettuce, squash, peppermint, dill, chicory, celery, chard, quince, cucumber, watermelon, grape, peach, pomegranate, banana, apple, currant, pistachio, dried fig, almond, egg, chicken, lamb, and trout; cabbage, eggplant, onion, garlic, broad beans, lentils, and beef, meanwhile, are prohibited. In this regard, the effective nutritional content of these foodstuffs was obtained and then compared in the three food groups. Conclusion: This study revealed that spinach, lettuce, chicory, and squash (vegetables), pomegranate and almond (fruits and nuts) and ultimately trout (high protein products) are the best effective foodstuffs on depressed patients from nutritional content aspect. PMID:26445711

  8. Experiences with food insecurity and risky sex among low-income people living with HIV/AIDS in a resource-rich setting

    PubMed Central

    Whittle, Henry J; Palar, Kartika; Napoles, Tessa; Hufstedler, Lee Lemus; Ching, Irene; Hecht, Frederick M; Frongillo, Edward A; Weiser, Sheri D

    2015-01-01

    Background Forty-nine million individuals are food insecure in the United States, where food insecurity and HIV/AIDS are prevalent among the urban poor. Food insecurity is associated with risky sexual behaviours among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). No qualitative studies, however, have investigated the mechanisms underlying this relationship either in a resource-rich setting or among populations that include men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 34 low-income PLHIV receiving food assistance in the San Francisco Bay Area. The interviews explored experiences with food insecurity and perceived associations with sexual risk behaviours. Interviews were conducted in English, audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded and analyzed according to content analysis methods using an inductive-deductive approach. Results Food insecurity was reported to be a strong contributor to risky sexual practices among MSM and female participants. Individuals described engaging in transactional sex for food or money to buy food, often during times of destitution. Participants also explained how food insecurity could lead to condomless sex despite knowledge of and desire to use safe sexual practices, largely because the need to obtain food in the short term was prioritized over the desire to use barrier protection. Conclusions Our data extend previous research by demonstrating that food insecurity contributes to transactional and unprotected sex among urban poor individuals in a resource-rich setting, including among MSM. These findings underscore the importance of public health and social intervention efforts focused on structural inequalities. PMID:26546789

  9. Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, John; MacDonald, Ian

    1980-01-01

    Presents a guide to resources on television drama available to teachers for classroom use in television curriculum. Lists American and British television drama videorecordings of both series and individual presentations and offers a bibliography of "one-off" single fiction plays produced for British television. (JMF)

  10. Influence of cover and food resource variation on postbreeding bird use of timber harvests with residual canopy trees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDermott, Molly E.; Wood, Petra

    2010-01-01

    We investigated avian use of clearcuts and two-age harvests during the post-breeding period in 2006 in the central Appalachians, West Virginia, USA with an information-theoretic approach to model selection. Cover variables appeared to be most important; e.g., vegetative vertical complexity had a strong positive relation with capture rates of mature forest birds and molting adults, as well as physical condition which supports a predator-avoidance hypothesis for habitat use. Basal area was a poor predictor of captures; residual trees near nets tended to depress capture rates. Food variables best explained capture rates for some species groups (e.g., early-successional insectivores and granivores, mature forest nesting adults, molting birds), but post-breeding habitat quality was based primarily on vegetative cover. Habitat use may depend on the bird's physical condition and molt status, and we found evidence for age-specific differences which may impact survival. Our study suggests important links between post-breeding habitat quality, molt status, physical condition, and bird age, and indicates a variety of response variables (relative abundance, survival, body condition) should be measured to assess avian habitat quality during the post-breeding period.

  11. Assessing Face Validity of a Food Behavior Checklist for Limited-resource Filipinos.

    PubMed

    Banna, Jinan C; Buchthal, Opal Vanessa; Tauyan, Socorro

    2015-10-01

    Diet-related chronic health conditions are prevalent in the Filipino American community; however, there is a lack of rigorously validated nutrition education evaluation tools in Tagalog for use in this population. This study aimed to develop and evaluate the face validity of a Tagalog-language food behavior checklist (FBC). A multi-step method was used, involving translation of questionnaire text from English to Tagalog by a team of professionals, creation of accompanying color photographs, cognitive testing with the target population, final review by the team of professionals, and assessment of readability. Subjects for cognitive testing were men (n=6) and women (n=14) 18 years or older in Hawai'i who received or were eligible to receive Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits, self-identified as Filipino, and preferred Tagalog rather than English. Participants were recruited from churches, the Filipino Center, and other community sites. Cognitive interviews revealed several issues with text and photographs, such as preferences for specific terms, and images that did not adequately illustrate the text. Image changes were made to reflect items most commonly consumed. The team of professionals agreed with participant suggestions. Assessment of readability revealed a reading level appropriate for a low-literacy population of grade 5.9. The multi-step process, which allowed members of the target audience to reveal the appropriateness of the questionnaire, yielded a Tagalog-language FBC found to have adequate face validity. After further evaluation of validity and reliability, this tool may be used to evaluate behavior change resulting from the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) nutrition education programs. PMID:26535163

  12. Assessing Face Validity of a Food Behavior Checklist for Limited-resource Filipinos

    PubMed Central

    Buchthal, Opal Vanessa; Tauyan, Socorro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Diet-related chronic health conditions are prevalent in the Filipino American community; however, there is a lack of rigorously validated nutrition education evaluation tools in Tagalog for use in this population. This study aimed to develop and evaluate the face validity of a Tagalog-language food behavior checklist (FBC). A multi-step method was used, involving translation of questionnaire text from English to Tagalog by a team of professionals, creation of accompanying color photographs, cognitive testing with the target population, final review by the team of professionals, and assessment of readability. Subjects for cognitive testing were men (n=6) and women (n=14) 18 years or older in Hawai‘i who received or were eligible to receive Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits, self-identified as Filipino, and preferred Tagalog rather than English. Participants were recruited from churches, the Filipino Center, and other community sites. Cognitive interviews revealed several issues with text and photographs, such as preferences for specific terms, and images that did not adequately illustrate the text. Image changes were made to reflect items most commonly consumed. The team of professionals agreed with participant suggestions. Assessment of readability revealed a reading level appropriate for a low-literacy population of grade 5.9. The multi-step process, which allowed members of the target audience to reveal the appropriateness of the questionnaire, yielded a Tagalog-language FBC found to have adequate face validity. After further evaluation of validity and reliability, this tool may be used to evaluate behavior change resulting from the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) nutrition education programs. PMID:26535163

  13. Exploring Pacific Climate Variability and Its Impacts on East African Water Resources and Food Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funk, C. C.; Hoerling, M. P.; Hoell, A.; Liebmann, B.; Verdin, J. P.; Eilerts, G.

    2014-12-01

    In 8 out the past 15 boreal springs (1999, 2000, 2004, 2008, 2009, 2011, 2012, and 2013), substantial parts of eastern East Africa experienced very low boreal spring rains. These rainfall deficits have triggered widespread food insecurity, and even contributed to the outbreak of famine conditions in Somalia in 2011. At both seasonal and decadal time scales, new science supported by the USAID Famine Early Warning Systems Network seeks to understand the mechanisms producing these droughts. We present research suggesting that the ultimate and proximate causes of these increases in aridity are i) stronger equatorial Pacific SST gradients and ii) associated increases in the strength of the Indo-Pacific Walker circulation. Using observations and new modeling ensembles, we explore the relative contributions of Pacific Decadal Variability (PDV) and global warming under warm and cold east Pacific Ocean states. This question is addressed in two ways: by using atmospheric GCMs forced with full and ENSO-only SSTs, and ii) by decomposing coupled ocean-atmosphere climate simulations into PDV and non-PDV components. These analyses allow us to explore the Walker circulation's sensitivity to climate change under various PDV states, and inform a tentative bracketing of 2030 climate conditions. We conclude by discussing links to East African development. Regions of high rainfall sensitivity are delineated and intersected with recent changes in population and land cover/land use. The interaction of elevation and climate is shown to create climatically secure regions that are likely to remain viable even under drier and warmer conditions; such regions may be logical targets for agricultural intensification. Conversely, arid low elevation regions are likely to experience substantial temperature impacts. Continued expansion into these areas may effectively create more 'drought' even if rainfall increases.

  14. The water, energy and food (WEF) nexus project: A basis for strategic planning for natural resources sustainability-Challenges for application in the MENA region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohtar, Rabi; Daher, Bassel; Mekki, Insaf; Chaibi, Thameur; Zitouna Chebbi, Rim; Salaymeh, Ahmed Al

    2014-05-01

    Water, energy, and food (WEF) are viewed as main systems forming a nexus, which itself is threatened by defined external factors mainly characterized by growing population, changing economies, governance, climate change, and international trade. Integrative thinking in strategic planning for natural resources comes through recognizing the intimate level of interconnectedness between these systems and the entities that govern them. Providing sustainable solutions to overcome present challenges pose the need to study the existent inter-linkages and tradeoffs between resources. In this context, the present communication is to present the WEF-nexus project, a Tunisian - Jordanian - Qatari - USA project which is funded by the USAID - FABRI PR&D Grants program. WEF-nexus project seeks to explore the inextricable link between water resources and food security in both its geophysical and socio-economic dimensions. The project proposes to design, implement and test integrated resource management tool based on the water-energy-food nexus framework that i) includes the evaluation of the tool over a wide range of climatic and socio-economic zones represented by different countries in the MENA region, and ii) develop scenarios with variations of resources, demands, constraints, and management strategies for the chosen countries, which would be used as a foundation for guiding decision making. The approach is implemented and tested within Tunisia, Jordan, and Qatar. Beyond the obtaining of significant advances in the aforementioned methodological domains, and the understanding of the problems and challenges related to water and food that societies are experiencing or will experience in the future, outcomes are expected to :i) engage decision makers in the process of improving current policies, and strengthening relevant public- private collaboration through the use of the proposed tool, and ii) help in revisiting former recommendations at the levels of resource governance, and

  15. Resource utilization by desert quail: time and energy, food and water

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, D.L.; Nagy, K.A.

    1985-04-01

    Time-energy budgets (TEB) of Gambel's Quail (Callipepla gambelii) were compiled during two summers in the Colorado Desert of California. Quail spent 6.77 h/d foraging, 6.2 h/d inactive during daylight hours, and 11.02 h/d inactive at night. Field metabolic rate (FMR) calculated from this activity budget was 81.8 kJ/d. Of this, 47.3 kJ/d was expended during foraging, 12.6 kJ/d in daytime inactivity, and 20.4 kJ/d in nighttime inactivity. Despite the extremely hot thermal environment (maximum ambient temperature approx. =45/sup 0/C), there was no energy cost above resting levels for thermoregulation. FMR was also measured simultaneously with doubly labeled water (DLW), and averaged 90.8 kJ/d. The FMR of C. gambelii was only 40% of that predicted for a bird of its body mass. Energy assimilation efficiency, measured in laboratory feeding experiments with a mixed seed and arthropod diet, was 60.3%. An individual quail in the field thus required 150.3 kJ/d in its diet, representing a dry matter intake of 8.1 g/d. It was calculated that over the course of a year, a population of Gambel's Quail consumes seeds with a total energy content approx. =15% as great as that in seeds consumed by a population of desert rodents or harvester ants in the same area. Gambel's Quail thus may be important factors in the competition for resources among desert granivores, particularly because they can eat one of their competitors (harvester ants). 44 references, 2 figures, 7 tables.

  16. The parasitoids of the asparagus miner (Diptera: Agromyzidae): field parasitism and the influence of food resources on life history.

    PubMed

    Morrison, William R; Gibson, Gary A P; Szendrei, Zsofia

    2014-12-01

    The goals of this study were to identify pupal parasitoids of the asparagus miner, Ophiomyia simplex Loew (Diptera: Agromyzidae), and examine the effect of different diets and floral resources on the lifespan of adult asparagus miners and their parasitoids. We also measured the effect of parasitism on stem damage caused by the asparagus miner. The identity and abundance of the parasitoids of the asparagus miner were determined in asparagus fields in Michigan from weekly asparagus miner pupal collections during the 2010-2013 seasons. Twelve species of hymenopterous parasitoids were reared from asparagus miner pupae, including Chorebus rondanii (Giard) (Ichneumonoidea: Braconidae), 10 species in three families of Chalcidoidea, and one species of Bethylidae (Chrysidoidea), that represent new host records for the asparagus miner. C. rondanii and Thinodytes cephalon (Walker) (Pteromalidae) were the most common parasitoids. The effects of different diets and flowers on the lifespan of the pest and parasitoid adults were also evaluated. Buckwheat resulted in the shortest life span for the asparagus miner, whereas Riddell's goldenrod significantly increased its lifespan relative to the control. Parasitoid lifespan was doubled when individuals were fed sugar-rich diets. In the field, parasitoids preferred stems that contained more pupae and damage. The two most commonly reared parasitoids should be considered as targets for future conservation biological control efforts of the asparagus miner. PMID:25313948

  17. Abundance, Natural Infection with Trypanosomes, and Food Source of an Endemic Species of Triatomine, Panstrongylus howardi (Neiva 1911), on the Ecuadorian Central Coast

    PubMed Central

    Villacís, Anita G.; Ocaña-Mayorga, Sofía; Lascano, Mauricio S.; Yumiseva, César A.; Baus, Esteban G.; Grijalva, Mario J.

    2015-01-01

    The elimination of domestic triatomines is the foundation of Chagas disease control. Regional initiatives are eliminating introduced triatomine species. In this scenario, endemic triatomines can occupy the ecological niches left open and become a threat to long-term Chagas disease control efforts. This study determined the abundance, colonization, and Trypanosoma cruzi infection rate of the endemic Panstrongylus howardi in 10 rural communities located in Ecuador's Manabí Province. In total, 518 individuals of P. howardi were collected. Infestation indices of 1.4% and 6.6% were found in the domestic and peridomestic environments, respectively. We determined a T. cruzi infection rate of 53.2% (N = 47) in this species. P. howardi has a high capacity to adapt to different habitats, especially in the peridomicile. This implies a considerable risk of transmission because of the frequency of intradomicile invasion. Therefore, this species needs to be taken into account in Chagas control and surveillance efforts in the region. PMID:25385867

  18. Abundance, natural infection with trypanosomes, and food source of an endemic species of triatomine, Panstrongylus howardi (Neiva 1911), on the Ecuadorian Central Coast.

    PubMed

    Villacís, Anita G; Ocaña-Mayorga, Sofía; Lascano, Mauricio S; Yumiseva, César A; Baus, Esteban G; Grijalva, Mario J

    2015-01-01

    The elimination of domestic triatomines is the foundation of Chagas disease control. Regional initiatives are eliminating introduced triatomine species. In this scenario, endemic triatomines can occupy the ecological niches left open and become a threat to long-term Chagas disease control efforts. This study determined the abundance, colonization, and Trypanosoma cruzi infection rate of the endemic Panstrongylus howardi in 10 rural communities located in Ecuador's Manabí Province. In total, 518 individuals of P. howardi were collected. Infestation indices of 1.4% and 6.6% were found in the domestic and peridomestic environments, respectively. We determined a T. cruzi infection rate of 53.2% (N = 47) in this species. P. howardi has a high capacity to adapt to different habitats, especially in the peridomicile. This implies a considerable risk of transmission because of the frequency of intradomicile invasion. Therefore, this species needs to be taken into account in Chagas control and surveillance efforts in the region. PMID:25385867

  19. Our living resources: a report to the nation on the distribution, abundance, and health of U.S. plants, animals, and ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1995-01-01

    Another purpose of this report is to help identify gaps in existing resource inventory and monitoring programs. It contains information collected by a variety of existing research and monitoring efforts by scientists in the National Biological Service, other federal and state agencies, academia, and the private sector. The programs that produced the information in this document were not developed in a coordinated fashion to produce an integrated, comprehensive picture of the status and trends of our nation’s resources; rather, each was developed for its own particular purpose, usually to help manage a specific resource. Thus, even though articles vary greatly in scope, design, and purpose, this report has identified and attempted to combine many of the existing information sources into a broad picture of the condition of our resources. In the future, these sources will be complemented by additional information from other sources—such as state agencies and other inventory and monitoring studies—to fill in the gaps of knowledge and to provide a more complete understanding of the status of our living resources.

  20. Seasonal abundance of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from American oysters harvested in the Mandinga Lagoon System, Veracruz, Mexico: implications for food safety.

    PubMed

    Flores-Primo, Argel; Pardío-Sedas, Violeta; Lizárraga-Partida, Leonardo; López-Hernández, Karla; Uscanga-Serrano, Roxana; Flores-Hernández, Reyna

    2014-07-01

    The abundance of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) strains in American oysters (Crassostrea virginica) harvested in two different harvest sites from the Mandinga lagoon System was evaluated monthly for 1 year (January through December 2012). Frequencies of species-specific genes and pathogenic genes exhibited a seasonal distribution. The annual occurrence of Vp with the species-specific tlh gene (tlh(+)) was significantly higher during the winter windy season (32.50%) and spring dry season (15.0%), with the highest densities observed during spring dry season at 283.50 most probable number (MPN)/g (lagoon bank A, near human settlements), indicating the highest risk of infection during warmer months. Pathogenic Vp tlh(+)/tdh(+) frequency was significantly higher during the winter windy and the spring dry seasons at 22.50 and 10.00%, respectively, with highest densities of 16.22 and 41.05 MPN/g (bank A), respectively. The tlh/trh and tdh/trh gene combinations were also found in Vp isolates during the spring dry season at 1.25 and 1.3%, respectively, with densities of 1.79 and 0.4 MPN/g (bank A), respectively. The orf8 genes were detected during the winter windy season (1.25%) with highest densities of 5.96 MPN/g (bank A) and 3.21 MPN/g (bank B, near mangrove islands and a heron nesting area). Densities of Vp tdh(+) were correlated (R(2) = 0.245, P < 0.015) with those of Vp orf8(+). The seasonal dynamics of Vp harboring pathogenic genes varied with seasonal changes, with very high proportions of Vp tdh(+) and Vp orf8(+) isolates in the winter windy season at 46.2 and 17.0%, respectively, which suggests that environmental factors may differentially affect the abundance of pathogenic subpopulations. Although all densities of total Vp (Vp tlh(+)) were lower than 10(4) MPN/g, thus complying with Mexican regulations, the presence of pathogenic strains is a public health concern. Our results suggest that total Vp densities may not be appropriate for assessing

  1. How Ants Drop Out: Ant Abundance on Tropical Mountains

    PubMed Central

    Longino, John T.; Branstetter, Michael G.; Colwell, Robert K.

    2014-01-01

    In tropical wet forests, ants are a large proportion of the animal biomass, but the factors determining abundance are not well understood. We characterized ant abundance in the litter layer of 41 mature wet forest sites spread throughout Central America (Chiapas, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica) and examined the impact of elevation (as a proxy for temperature) and community species richness. Sites were intentionally chosen to minimize variation in precipitation and seasonality. From sea level to 1500 m ant abundance very gradually declined, community richness declined more rapidly than abundance, and the local frequency of the locally most common species increased. These results suggest that within this elevational zone, density compensation is acting, maintaining high ant abundance as richness declines. In contrast, in sites above 1500 m, ant abundance dropped abruptly to much lower levels. Among these high montane sites, community richness explained much more of the variation in abundance than elevation, and there was no evidence of density compensation. The relative stability of abundance below 1500 m may be caused by opposing effects of temperature on productivity and metabolism. Lower temperatures may decrease productivity and thus the amount of food available for consumers, but slower metabolisms of consumers may allow maintenance of higher biomass at lower resource supply rates. Ant communities at these lower elevations may be highly interactive, the result of continuous habitat presence over geological time. High montane sites may be ephemeral in geological time, resulting in non-interactive communities dominated by historical and stochastic processes. Abundance in these sites may be determined by the number of species that manage to colonize and/or avoid extinction on mountaintops. PMID:25098722

  2. The Pathogen-annotated Tracking Resource Network (PATRN) system: a web-based resource to aid food safety, regulatory science, and investigations of foodborne pathogens and disease.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, G; Hari, K; Jain, R; Mammel, M K; Kothary, M H; Franco, A A; Grim, C J; Jarvis, K G; Sathyamoorthy, V; Hu, L; Datta, A R; Patel, I R; Jackson, S A; Gangiredla, J; Kotewicz, M L; LeClerc, J E; Wekell, M; McCardell, B A; Solomotis, M D; Tall, B D

    2013-06-01

    Investigation of foodborne diseases requires the capture and analysis of time-sensitive information on microbial pathogens that is derived from multiple analytical methods and sources. The web-based Pathogen-annotated Tracking Resource Network (PATRN) system (www.patrn.net) was developed to address the data aggregation, analysis, and communication needs important to the global food safety community for the investigation of foodborne disease. PATRN incorporates a standard vocabulary for describing isolate metadata and provides a representational schema for a prototypic data exchange standard using a novel data loading wizard for aggregation of assay and attribution information. PATRN currently houses expert-curated, high-quality "foundational datasets" consisting of published experimental results from conventional assays and next generation analysis platforms for isolates of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio and Cronobacter species. A suite of computational tools for data mining, clustering, and graphical representation is available. Within PATRN, the public curated data repository is complemented by a secure private workspace for user-driven analyses, and for sharing data among collaborators. To demonstrate the data curation, loading wizard features, and analytical capabilities of PATRN, three use-case scenarios are presented. Use-case scenario one is a comparison of the distribution and prevalence of plasmid-encoded virulence factor genes among 249 Cronobacter strains with similar attributes to that of nine Cronobacter isolates from recent cases obtained between March and October, 2010-2011. To highlight PATRN's data management and trend finding tools, analysis of datasets, stored in PATRN as part of an ongoing surveillance project to identify the predominant molecular serogroups among Cronobacter sakazakii isolates observed in the USA is shown. Use-case scenario two demonstrates the secure workspace available for private

  3. Unconventional oil and gas development and its stresses on water resources in the context of Water-Energy-Food Nexus: The case of Weld County, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikonomou, P. D.; Waskom, R.; Boone, K.; Ryan, J. N.

    2015-12-01

    The development of unconventional oil and gas resources in Colorado started to rapidly increase since the early 2000's. The recent oil price plunge resulted in a decline of well starts' rate in the US, but in Weld County, Colorado, it is currently at the 2013-levels. The additional water demand, despite its insignificant percentage in overall state's demand (0.1% in 2012), it competes with traditional ones, since Colorado's water is almost fully appropriated. Presently, the state has 53,597 active producing oil and gas wells. More than 40% of these are located in Weld County, which happens also to be one of top food production U.S. counties. The competition for land and water resources between the energy and agricultural sectors in water stressed areas, like the western U.S., is further intensified if recycle and reuse practices are not preferred to water disposal by the energy industry. Satisfying the multiple objectives of the Water-Energy-Food Nexus in order to achieve sustainable economic development requires balanced management of these resources. Identifying pressures on key areas that food and energy sectors are competing for water, is essential for prudent water management and developing appropriate policies. Weld County, as a water stressed and fossil fuel producing area, was selected for investigating current stresses on local water resources alongside with future climatic and water demand scenarios for exploring probable long-term effects.

  4. From autochthonous to allochthonous resources: seasonal shifts in food use by stream-dwelling YOY Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus through the ice-free season.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Hernández, J; Gabler, H-M; Amundsen, P-A

    2016-02-01

    Substantial seasonal changes in resource use associated with enhanced water-column use were revealed in stream-living YOY Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus during the ice-free season. In July, YOY individuals showed a diet dominated by aquatic invertebrates (mainly Chironomidae larvae), but despite the small size of the fish, the abundance of terrestrial insects in their diet increased markedly from July to September (from 1·9 to 62·8%). Similarly, the frequency of surface drifting foragers, i.e. individuals feeding on allochthonous resources, increased from July to September (from 20·6 to 80%); allochthonous resources thus constituting an important energy subsidy for YOY S. alpinus during the late sub-Arctic summer. PMID:26577804

  5. Anti-diabetic activity of peony seed oil, a new resource food in STZ-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Su, Jianhui; Wang, Hongxin; Ma, Caoyang; Lou, Zaixiang; Liu, Chengxiang; Tanver Rahman, MdRamim; Gao, Chuanzhong; Nie, Rongjing

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the components of a new resource food in China, peony seed oil (PSO) by GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry), its inhibitory effects on carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes in vitro and its anti-diabetic effects on mice induced by streptozotocin (STZ). The results showed that peony seed oil showed weak anti-α-amylase activity; however, strong anti-α-glucosidase activity was noted. The GC-MS analysis of the oil showed 9 constituents of which α-linolenic acid was found to be the major component (38.66%), followed by linoleic acid (26.34%) and oleic acid (23.65%). The anti-diabetic potential of peony seed oil was tested in STZ induced diabetic mice. Administration of peony seed oil and glibenclamide reduced the blood glucose level and the area under curve (AUC) in STZ induced diabetic mice. There were significant increases in body weight, liver glycogen content, serum insulin level, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and decreases in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C), total serum cholesterol (TC), and triglyceride (TG) in test groups as compared to the untreated diabetic groups. In vivo antioxidant studies on STZ induced diabetic mice revealed the reduction of malondialdehyde (MDA) and increase of glutathione peroxides (GSH-px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione (GSH). The results provided a sound rationale for future clinical trials of oral administration of peony seed oil to alleviate postprandial hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. PMID:26245697

  6. Ecological correlates of abundance in the Tana mangabey (Cercocebus galeritus).

    PubMed

    Wieczkowski, Julie

    2004-07-01

    I investigated the ecological correlates of abundance in the Tana mangabey (Cercocebus galeritus), one of the world's most endangered primates, with the goal of recommending management strategies. I systematically selected 31 forest fragments throughout the mangabey's 60-km distribution along the lower Tana River in southeastern Kenya. Within the 31 fragments, I measured vegetation structure, food abundance, and human forest product use in 107 belt transects, and conducted 370 mangabey surveys. I used a weighted multiple regression analysis to determine whether there was a dependence between the selected forest attributes and the mean number of mangabey groups per fragment. Fragment area and density of trees > or =10 cm diameter at breast height (DBH) were the only variables that significantly correlated with the variation in mangabey abundance. No additional variables were significant when the analysis was limited to forest fragments inside the Tana River Primate National Reserve (TRPNR) or to fragments outside the TRPNR. When I estimated the resources available before recent human forest product use by adding nonharvested and harvested variables, the total basal area of the top 15 food species became significant. This was only within the TRPNR, however. Management, therefore, should focus on increasing forest area, density of trees > or =10 cm DBH, and coverage of food trees throughout the mangabey's distribution. Solutions must be found for the problem of forest clearing, and forest product use must be better managed to protect the habitat of this critically endangered primate. The significance of food abundance only within the TRPNR suggests a need to collect dietary data from mangabey groups in fragments toward the southern limit of the mangabey's distribution, where plant species composition differs from that in fragments in which dietary data have been previously collected. PMID:15258957

  7. Correlates of Food Security among Low-Resource Young People: An Assessment of Community Protective Factors within Public Housing Neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Nebbitt, Von E; Lombe, Margaret; Chu, Yoosun; Sinha, Aakanksha; Tirmazi, Tagi

    2016-01-01

    This paper assesses how and/or whether household and community factors are associated with self-reported food security among young people living in public housing (N=151). Results suggest that food security was negatively related to age, particularly to older youth. Also, household size-have many people in the household, household hardships, and household conflict were negatively related to food security. On the contrary, food security was positively related to community cohesion and the presence of the extended family within the public housing neighborhood. Findings seem to suggest that non-specialty food previsions (e.g., community cohesion and family networks) may be important in understanding food security among families living in public housing. A number of program and policy implications are presented. PMID:27524756

  8. Food and Nutrition Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find A Report SNAP WIC Food Distribution Programs Food Security Nutrition Education Program Integrity Child Nutrition Programs Demos/Grant Projects FNS Strategic Plan Other Resources Food & Nutrition Information Center National Agriculture Library National Collaborative ...

  9. Norovirus: Food Handlers

    MedlinePlus

    ... sector alimentario Norovirus and Working With Food CDC Vital Signs Report Preventing Norovirus Outbreaks, Food Service has a ... norovirus Overview Symptoms Transmission Prevention Treatment Resources CDC Vital Signs — Preventing Norovirus Outbreaks, Food Service has a ...

  10. Coping with increasing water and land resources limitation for meeting world's food needs: the role of virtual water and virtual land trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soriano, Barbara; Garrido, Alberto; Novo, Paula

    2013-04-01

    Increasing pressure to expand agriculture production is giving rise to renewed interest to obtain access to land and water resources in the world. Water footprint evaluations show the importance of green water in global food trade and production. Green water and land are almost inseparable resources. In this work we analyse the role of foreign direct investment and cooperation programmes from developed countries in developing counties, focusing on virtual water trade and associated resources. We develop econometric models with the aim to explain observed trends in virtual water exports from developing countries as explained by the inverse flow of investments and cooperation programmes. We analyse the main 19 emerging food exporters, from Africa, Asia and America, using 15 years of data. Results show that land per capita availability and foreign direct investments explain observed flows of virtual water exports. However, there is no causality with these and flows cooperation investments. Our analysis sheds light on the underlying forces explaining the phenomenon of land grab, which is the appropriation of land access in developing countries by food-importers.

  11. Robust Abundance Estimation in Animal Abundance Surveys with Imperfect Detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surveys of animal abundance are central to the conservation and management of living natural resources. However, detection uncertainty complicates the sampling process of many species. One sampling method employed to deal with this problem is depletion (or removal) surveys in whi...

  12. Increasing homogeneity in global food supplies and the implications for food security

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Colin K.; Bjorkman, Anne D.; Dempewolf, Hannes; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian; Guarino, Luigi; Jarvis, Andy; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Struik, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    The narrowing of diversity in crop species contributing to the world’s food supplies has been considered a potential threat to food security. However, changes in this diversity have not been quantified globally. We assess trends over the past 50 y in the richness, abundance, and composition of crop species in national food supplies worldwide. Over this period, national per capita food supplies expanded in total quantities of food calories, protein, fat, and weight, with increased proportions of those quantities sourcing from energy-dense foods. At the same time the number of measured crop commodities contributing to national food supplies increased, the relative contribution of these commodities within these supplies became more even, and the dominance of the most significant commodities decreased. As a consequence, national food supplies worldwide became more similar in composition, correlated particularly with an increased supply of a number of globally important cereal and oil crops, and a decline of other cereal, oil, and starchy root species. The increase in homogeneity worldwide portends the establishment of a global standard food supply, which is relatively species-rich in regard to measured crops at the national level, but species-poor globally. These changes in food supplies heighten interdependence among countries in regard to availability and access to these food sources and the genetic resources supporting their production, and give further urgency to nutrition development priorities aimed at bolstering food security. PMID:24591623

  13. The significance of fibrous foods for Kibale Forest chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Wrangham, R W; Conklin, N L; Chapman, C A; Hunt, K D

    1991-11-29

    Four categories of plant food dominated the diet of chimpanzees in Kibale Forest, Uganda: non-fig tree fruits, fig tree fruits, herbaceous piths and terrestrial leaves. Fruit abundance varied unpredictably, more among non-figs than figs. Pith intake was correlated negatively with fruit abundance and positively with rainfall, whereas leaf intake was not influenced by fruit abundance. Piths typically have low sugar and protein levels. Compared with fruits and leaves they are consistently high in hemicellulose and cellulose, which are insoluble fibres partly digestible by chimpanzees. Herbaceous piths appear to be a vital resource for African forest apes, offering an alternative energy supply when fruits are scarce. PMID:1685575

  14. Plant food resources exploited by Blue-and-Yellow Macaws (Ara ararauna, Linnaeus 1758) at an urban area in Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, A A; Ragusa-Netto, J

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we described the food plants available to Blue-and-Yellow Macaws (Ara ararauna), its feeding habits and the relationship between these parameters with feeding niche breadth. We established four transects, each one 12 km long, to sample fruiting plants and the feeding habits of this macaw (monthly 40 h, of observations), at the urban areas of Três Lagoas (Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil). During all studied months, macaws foraged for palm fruits, mainly Syagrus oleracea and Acrocomia aculeata fruit pulp, both available all year, as well as Caryocar brasiliense and Anacardium occidentale seeds, in the wet season. The year-round feeding activity of macaws suggests Três Lagoas city as an adequate feeding area. The permanent availability of plant food resources, potentially, resulted from the diverse fruiting patterns of exotic and, mainly, native plant species, which provided a variety of suitable fruit patches. PMID:25166327

  15. Can UV radiation affect benthic deposit-feeders through biochemical alteration of food resources? An experimental study with juveniles of the benthic polychaete Eupolymnia nebulosa.

    PubMed

    Nahon, Sarah; Pruski, Audrey M; Duchêne, Jean-Claude; Méjanelle, Laurence; Vétion, Gilles; Desmalades, Martin; Charles, François

    2011-05-01

    The growth, tentacle development and feeding activity of the benthic polychaete Eupolymnia nebulosa were examined to determine whether UV might affect marine deposit-feeders indirectly through the modification of the nutritional quality of their resources. Since marine invertebrates have higher nutritional requirements during the period following settlement, we tested the effect of UV-altered phytodetritus on freshly settled juveniles of E. nebulosa. Phytodetritus was prepared from cultures of the diatom Skeletonema costatum either grown under or sheltered from UVB radiation. Sterol content of phytodetritus was unmodified by UV radiation. Conversely, phytodetritus was noticeably depleted in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Growth and tentacle development of juveniles fed on altered phytodetritus were reduced by 35% and 15% respectively, suggesting potential deficiencies in essential nutrients. In response to the lower quality of the phytodetritus, juveniles explored a wider area as they search for food, a strategy that could compensate for low food quality. PMID:21388674

  16. Ever Stop to Think Man's Survival Is Dependent on His Use of Food Resources? [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Nelson Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Judy

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit is designed for senior high school students who have a basic knowledge of nutrition and some experience in menu planning. The five lessons provide experiences in selecting, preparing, and storing foods to attain maximum nutrition with a…

  17. Food consumption as an indicator of the conservation of natural resources in riverine communities of the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Victoria J; Almeida, Morgana C; Giarrizzo, Tommaso; Deus, Claudia P; Vale, Rozeilza; Klein, Gilmar; Begossi, Alpina

    2015-01-01

    The present study analyzed and compared the daily consumption of foods of animal origin in eleven communities of the Lower Amazon, Trombetas and Purus Rivers, representing three different management systems and levels of conservation in the Brazilian Amazon. All food items of animal origin were weighed by at least 10% of the families in the study communities during a week in each period of the flood cycle between 2006 and 2008. Fish was the most important food, and was consumed during six days of the week, with an average rate of 169 kg.person(-1).year(-1). Game was second in importance, with 37 kg.person(-1).year-(1). This yearly rate of fish consumption is one of the highest in the world and is almost double the minimum recommended by the World Health Organization. The dietary patterns reflect both the isolation of the communities from large urban centers and the better preservation of the local environments due to the existence of protected areas. Environmental degradation may thus have effects on the health and food security of local populations. The study emphasizes the need for the implementation of public policies and participative management initiatives. PMID:26628023

  18. Avian foods, foraging and habitat conservation in world rice fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stafford, J.D.; Kaminski, R.M.; Reinecke, K.J.

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, rice (Oryza sativa) agriculture typically involves seasonal flooding and soil tillage, which provides a variety of microhabitats and potential food for birds. Water management in rice fields creates conditions ranging from saturated mud flats to shallow (<30 cm) water, thereby attracting different guilds of birds. Grain not collected during harvest (i.e. waste rice) is typically the most abundant potential food of birds in rice fields, with estimates of seed mass from North America ranging from 66672 kg/ha. Although initially abundant after harvest, waste rice availability can be temporally limited. Few abundance estimates for other foods, such as vertebrate prey or forage vegetation, exist for rice fields. Outside North America, Europe and Japan, little is known about abundance and importance of any avian food in rice fields. Currently, flooding rice fields after harvest is the best known management practice to attract and benefit birds. Studies from North America indicate specific agricultural practices (e.g. burning stubble) may increase use and improve access to food resources. Evaluating and implementing management practices that are ecologically sustainable, increase food for birds and are agronomically beneficial should be global priorities to integrate rice production and avian conservation. Finally, land area devoted to rice agriculture appears to be stable in the USA, declining in China, and largely unquantified in many regions. Monitoring trends in riceland area may provide information to guide avian conservation planning in rice-agriculture ecosystems.

  19. Failure to Respond to Food Resource Decline Has Catastrophic Consequences for Koalas in a High-Density Population in Southern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Whisson, Desley A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the ability of koalas to respond to changes in their environment is critical for conservation of the species and their habitat. We monitored the behavioural response of koalas to declining food resources in manna gum (Eucalyptus viminalis) woodland at Cape Otway, Victoria, Australia, from September 2011 to November 2013. Over this period, koala population density increased from 10.1 to 18.4 koalas.ha-1. As a result of the high browsing pressure of this population, manna gum canopy condition declined with 71.4% manna gum being completely or highly defoliated in September 2013. Despite declining food resources, radio collared koalas (N = 30) exhibited high fidelity to small ranges (0.4–1.2 ha). When trees became severely defoliated in September 2013, koalas moved relatively short distances from their former ranges (mean predicted change in range centroid = 144 m) and remained in areas of 0.9 to 1.0 ha. This was despite the high connectivity of most manna gum woodland, and close proximity of the study site (< 3 km) to the contiguous mixed forest of the Great Otway National Park. Limited movement had catastrophic consequences for koalas with 71% (15/21) of radio collared koalas dying from starvation or being euthanased due to their poor condition between September and November 2013. PMID:26735846

  20. Failure to Respond to Food Resource Decline Has Catastrophic Consequences for Koalas in a High-Density Population in Southern Australia.

    PubMed

    Whisson, Desley A; Dixon, Victoria; Taylor, Megan L; Melzer, Alistair

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the ability of koalas to respond to changes in their environment is critical for conservation of the species and their habitat. We monitored the behavioural response of koalas to declining food resources in manna gum (Eucalyptus viminalis) woodland at Cape Otway, Victoria, Australia, from September 2011 to November 2013. Over this period, koala population density increased from 10.1 to 18.4 koalas.ha-1. As a result of the high browsing pressure of this population, manna gum canopy condition declined with 71.4% manna gum being completely or highly defoliated in September 2013. Despite declining food resources, radio collared koalas (N = 30) exhibited high fidelity to small ranges (0.4-1.2 ha). When trees became severely defoliated in September 2013, koalas moved relatively short distances from their former ranges (mean predicted change in range centroid = 144 m) and remained in areas of 0.9 to 1.0 ha. This was despite the high connectivity of most manna gum woodland, and close proximity of the study site (< 3 km) to the contiguous mixed forest of the Great Otway National Park. Limited movement had catastrophic consequences for koalas with 71% (15/21) of radio collared koalas dying from starvation or being euthanased due to their poor condition between September and November 2013. PMID:26735846

  1. Zooplankton taxonomic and size diversity in Mediterranean coastal lagoons (NE Iberian Peninsula): Influence of hydrology, nutrient composition, food resource availability and predation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badosa, Anna; Boix, Dani; Brucet, Sandra; López-Flores, Rocío; Gascón, Stéphanie; Quintana, Xavier D.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of hydrology, nutrient composition, food resource availability and predation on zooplankton taxonomic and size diversity was analyzed in several shallow lagoons of a Mediterranean salt marsh (Baix Ter Wetlands, NE Iberian Peninsula). Taxonomic diversity correlated better with variables related to the trophic state, such as nutrient concentrations, whereas size diversity was more sensitive to fish predation. However, the fish predation influence on the size diversity was only significant when fishes reached high densities. Under low fish densities no predation effects were observed and the food resource availability (FR a) appeared to be more important in structuring the zooplankton community. Nevertheless, the two diversity indexes showed opposite responses to this factor. With increasing FR a the taxonomic diversity increased and the size diversity decreased. Neither taxonomic nor size diversity of the zooplankton community correlated with other physical or biotic factors such as hydrological variability or macroinvertebrate predation. The relationships found suggest that the size diversity is mainly related to biotic interactions, such as fish predation or inter/intraspecific competition, while the taxonomic diversity appears to be more sensitive to abiotic factors such as the nutrient composition.

  2. Maintenance of brucellosis in Yellowstone bison: linking seasonal food resources, host-pathogen interaction, and life-history trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Treanor, John J; Geremia, Chris; Ballou, Michael A; Keisler, Duane H; White, Patrick J; Cox, John J; Crowley, Philip H

    2015-09-01

    The seasonal availability of food resources is an important factor shaping the life-history strategies of organisms. During times of nutritional restriction, physiological trade-offs can induce periods of immune suppression, thereby increasing susceptibility to infectious disease. Our goal was to provide a conceptual framework describing how the endemic level bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus) may be maintained in Yellowstone bison based on the seasonality of food resources and the life-history strategies of the host and pathogen. Our analysis was based on active B. abortus infection (measured via bacterial culture), nutritional indicators (measured as metabolites and hormones in plasma), and carcass measurements of 402 slaughtered bison. Data from Yellowstone bison were used to investigate (1) whether seasonal changes in diet quality affect nutritional condition and coincide with the reproductive needs of female bison; (2) whether active B. abortus infection and infection intensities vary with host nutrition and nutritional condition; and (3) the evidence for seasonal changes in immune responses, which may offer protection against B. abortus, in relation to nutritional condition. Female bison experienced a decline in nutritional condition during winter as reproductive demands of late gestation increased while forage quality and availability declined. Active B. abortus infection was negatively associated with bison age and nutritional condition, with the intensity of infection negatively associated with indicators of nutrition (e.g., dietary protein and energy) and body weight. Data suggest that protective cell-mediated immune responses may be reduced during the B. abortus transmission period, which coincides with nutritional insufficiencies and elevated reproductive demands during spring. Our results illustrate how seasonal food restriction can drive physiological trade-offs that suppress immune function and create infection and transmission opportunities

  3. Maintenance of brucellosis in Yellowstone bison: linking seasonal food resources, host–pathogen interaction, and life-history trade-offs

    PubMed Central

    Treanor, John J; Geremia, Chris; Ballou, Michael A; Keisler, Duane H; White, Patrick J; Cox, John J; Crowley, Philip H

    2015-01-01

    The seasonal availability of food resources is an important factor shaping the life-history strategies of organisms. During times of nutritional restriction, physiological trade-offs can induce periods of immune suppression, thereby increasing susceptibility to infectious disease. Our goal was to provide a conceptual framework describing how the endemic level bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus) may be maintained in Yellowstone bison based on the seasonality of food resources and the life-history strategies of the host and pathogen. Our analysis was based on active B. abortus infection (measured via bacterial culture), nutritional indicators (measured as metabolites and hormones in plasma), and carcass measurements of 402 slaughtered bison. Data from Yellowstone bison were used to investigate (1) whether seasonal changes in diet quality affect nutritional condition and coincide with the reproductive needs of female bison; (2) whether active B. abortus infection and infection intensities vary with host nutrition and nutritional condition; and (3) the evidence for seasonal changes in immune responses, which may offer protection against B. abortus, in relation to nutritional condition. Female bison experienced a decline in nutritional condition during winter as reproductive demands of late gestation increased while forage quality and availability declined. Active B. abortus infection was negatively associated with bison age and nutritional condition, with the intensity of infection negatively associated with indicators of nutrition (e.g., dietary protein and energy) and body weight. Data suggest that protective cell-mediated immune responses may be reduced during the B. abortus transmission period, which coincides with nutritional insufficiencies and elevated reproductive demands during spring. Our results illustrate how seasonal food restriction can drive physiological trade-offs that suppress immune function and create infection and transmission opportunities

  4. Characterization of typical household food wastes from disposers: fractionation of constituents and implications for resource recovery at wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, M; Chowdhury, M M I; Nakhla, G; Keleman, M

    2015-05-01

    Food wastes with typical US food composition were analyzed to characterize different constituents in both particulate and soluble phases i.e., solids, chemical oxygen demand (COD), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P). Relationships between various pollutants were also investigated using 50 samples. One gram of dry food waste generated 1.21 g COD, 0.58 g BOD5, 0.36 g Total SS, 0.025 g Total N, and 0.013 g Total P. Distribution of constituents between particulate and aqueous phases indicated that 40% of COD and 30% of nitrogen were present in soluble form. Relative mass ratios of COD and nitrogen to solids were three to five times higher in particulates than in aqueous phase. However, COD/N ratios were higher in aqueous form than particulates at 63:1 versus 42:1. Detailed relationships between parameters showed that COD, nitrogen, and phosphorus in particulates are 200%, 3.6%, and 3.5% of the volatile suspended solids. PMID:25723128

  5. Food Waste to Energy: How Six Water Resource Recovery Facilities are Boosting Biogas Production and the Bottom Line

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water Resource Recovery Facilities (WRRFs) with anaerobic digestion have been harnessing biogas for heat and power since at least the 1920’s. A few are approaching “energy neutrality” and some are becoming “energy positive” through a combination of energy efficiency measures and...

  6. Informing Food Protection Education: A Project to Define and Classify Resources for a Cross-Disciplinary Expert Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenck-Hamlin, Donna; Pierquet, Jennifer; McClellan, Chuck

    2011-01-01

    In the wake of the September 2001 attacks, the U.S. government founded the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) with responsibility to develop a National Infrastructure Protection Plan for securing critical infrastructures and key resources. DHS established interdisciplinary networks of academic expertise administered through Centers of…

  7. Aboriginal Consumption of Estuarine Food Resources and Potential Implications for Health through Trace Metal Exposure; A Study in Gumbaynggirr Country, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Shaina; Sullivan, Caroline A.; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J.

    2015-01-01

    Fishing and resource use continues to be an essential aspect of life for many Aboriginal communities throughout Australia. It is important for dietary sustenance, and also retains deep social, cultural and economic significance, playing a fundamental role in maintaining group cohesion, transferring cultural knowledge and affirming Indigenous identities. We surveyed approximately 20% of the Gumbaynggirr Aboriginal community of Nambucca Heads, New South Wales, Australia. This paper explores Gumbaynggirr Connection to Country and engagement in cultural practice. It quantifies fishing efforts and consumption of seafood within the community. We found 95% of the sample group fish, with the highest rate of fishing being 2-3 times a week (27%). Furthermore, 98% of participants eat seafood weekly or more frequently, up to more than once a day (24%). Survey results revealed that Myxus elongatus (Sand mullet) and naturally recruited Saccostrea glomerata (Sydney rock oysters) continue to be important wild resources to the Gumbaynggirr community. Trace metals were measured in M. elongatus and S. glomerata samples collected by community participants in this study. Maximum levels prescribed in the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code were not exceeded in the edible tissue for either species, however both species exceeded the generally expected levels for zinc and copper and S. glomerata samples exceeded the generally expected level for selenium. Furthermore the average dietary exposure to trace metals from consuming seafood was calculated for the surveyed population. Trace metal intake was then compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake prescribed by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives. This process revealed that copper and selenium intake were both within the provisional tolerable weekly intake, while there is no guideline for zinc. Furthermore, participants relying heavily on wild resources from the Nambucca River estuary may exceed the provisional

  8. Aboriginal Consumption of Estuarine Food Resources and Potential Implications for Health through Trace Metal Exposure; A Study in Gumbaynggirr Country, Australia.

    PubMed

    Russell, Shaina; Sullivan, Caroline A; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J

    2015-01-01

    Fishing and resource use continues to be an essential aspect of life for many Aboriginal communities throughout Australia. It is important for dietary sustenance, and also retains deep social, cultural and economic significance, playing a fundamental role in maintaining group cohesion, transferring cultural knowledge and affirming Indigenous identities. We surveyed approximately 20% of the Gumbaynggirr Aboriginal community of Nambucca Heads, New South Wales, Australia. This paper explores Gumbaynggirr Connection to Country and engagement in cultural practice. It quantifies fishing efforts and consumption of seafood within the community. We found 95% of the sample group fish, with the highest rate of fishing being 2-3 times a week (27%). Furthermore, 98% of participants eat seafood weekly or more frequently, up to more than once a day (24%). Survey results revealed that Myxus elongatus (Sand mullet) and naturally recruited Saccostrea glomerata (Sydney rock oysters) continue to be important wild resources to the Gumbaynggirr community. Trace metals were measured in M. elongatus and S. glomerata samples collected by community participants in this study. Maximum levels prescribed in the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code were not exceeded in the edible tissue for either species, however both species exceeded the generally expected levels for zinc and copper and S. glomerata samples exceeded the generally expected level for selenium. Furthermore the average dietary exposure to trace metals from consuming seafood was calculated for the surveyed population. Trace metal intake was then compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake prescribed by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives. This process revealed that copper and selenium intake were both within the provisional tolerable weekly intake, while there is no guideline for zinc. Furthermore, participants relying heavily on wild resources from the Nambucca River estuary may exceed the provisional

  9. Extractable resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The use of information from space systems in the operation of extractive industries, particularly in exploration for mineral and fuel resources was reviewed. Conclusions and recommendations reported are based on the fundamental premise that survival of modern industrial society requires a continuing secure flow of resources for energy, construction and manufacturing, and for use as plant foods.

  10. Eating Healthy Ethnic Food

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Tipsheet: Eating Healthy Ethnic Food Trying different ethnic cuisines to give yourself a ... Looking for tips on how to order healthy foods when dining out? The Aim for a Healthy ...

  11. Estuarine Food for Thought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M�ller-Solger, A. B.; M�ller-Navarra, D. B.

    2002-12-01

    Recent research in animal and human nutrition has shown the importance of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) such as the n-3 LC-PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These LC-PUFA are needed for healthy development and functioning of the nervous and vascular systems. De novo synthesis or elongation to LC-PUFA in animals is inefficient at best; thus sufficient amounts of these PUFA must be supplied by food sources. Algae, especially diatoms, dinoflagellates, and cryptophytes, are the quantitatively most important producers of EPA and DHA. These types of algae often dominate estuarine producer communities. The upper San Francisco Estuary is no exception, and we found its LC-PUFA-rich phytoplankton biomass, but not the quantitatively prevalent terrestrial plant detritus, to be highly predictive of zooplankton (Daphnia) growth. In contrast, in freshwater lakes dominated by relatively LC-PUFA-poor phytoplankton, EPA, not total phytoplankton biomass, best predicted Daphnia growth. The commonly high abundance of LC-PUFA-rich algae in estuaries may help explain the high trophic efficiencies in these systems and resulting high consumer production. Moreover, LC-PUFA-rich estuarine food resources may also provide essential nutrition and associated health and evolutionary benefits to land-dwelling consumers of such foods, including humans. Ensuring LC-PUFA-rich, uncontaminated estuarine production is thus an important goal for estuarine restoration and a convincing argument for estuarine conservation.

  12. Why eat extra floral nectar? Understanding food selection by Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential of omnivorous arthropods to stabilize ecosystems makes them an invaluable resource in biological control efforts. Methods of increasing predator abundance throughout agroecoystems include the incorporation of non-prey food items, yet the influence of this on predation rates remains un...

  13. Bacillus licheniformis Isolated from Traditional Korean Food Resources Enhances the Longevity of Caenorhabditis elegans through Serotonin Signaling.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi Ri; Oh, Sangnam; Son, Seok Jun; Park, Dong-June; Oh, Sejong; Kim, Sae Hun; Jeong, Do-Youn; Oh, Nam Su; Lee, Youngbok; Song, Minho; Kim, Younghoon

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigated potentially probiotic Bacillus licheniformis strains isolated from traditional Korean food sources for ability to enhance longevity using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a simple in vivo animal model. We first investigated whether B. licheniformis strains were capable of modulating the lifespan of C. elegans. Among the tested strains, preconditioning with four B. licheniformis strains significantly enhanced the longevity of C. elegans. Unexpectedly, plate counting and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results indicated that B. licheniformis strains were not more highly attached to the C. elegans intestine compared with Escherichia coli OP50 or Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG controls. In addition, qRT-PCR and an aging assay with mutant worms showed that the conditioning of B. licheniformis strain 141 directly influenced genes associated with serotonin signaling in nematodes, including tph-1 (tryptophan hydroxylase), bas-1 (serotonin- and dopamine-synthetic aromatic amino acid decarboxylase), mod-1 (serotonin-gated chloride channel), ser-1, and ser-7 (serotonin receptors) during C. elegans aging. Our findings suggest that B. licheniformis strain 141, which is isolated from traditional Korean foods, is a probiotic generally recognized as safe (GRAS) strain that enhances the lifespan of C. elegans via host serotonin signaling. PMID:26541069

  14. Regional scenario building as a tool to support vulnerability assessment of food & water security and livelihood conditions under varying natural resources managements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, Julia; Liersch, Stefan; Dickens, Chris; Kabaseke, Clovis; Mulugeta Lemenih, Kassaye; Sghaier, Mongi; Hattermann, Fred

    2013-04-01

    state and availability of natural resources. Major concerns in all CS are the fast growing populations and natural resources degradation because of unsustainable natural resource management. Land use and resource competition are a consequence of unclear land tenure systems and limited resources availability. Scarce rainfall with high annual variability causes food insecurity if yield failures cannot be compensated, e.g. because of lacking financial resources. In all case studies critical uncertainties were identified to be more or less related to "poor governance". Missing governmental and political stability and effectiveness as well as corruption hamper the implementation of laws and policies related to natural resource management. Other critical uncertainties lie in the social domain. They are either related to demographic patterns like emigration or immigration varying the pressure on natural resources use or to the society in general like the evolvement of people's environmental awareness or voice and accountability. Methodological outcomes of the scenario building were that the complexity of the process requires the use of reliable and powerful tools to support the communication process. Concept maps were found to be a useful tool in this regard.

  15. From the USDA: Educating the Next Generation: Funding Opportunities in Food, Agricultural, Natural Resources, and Social Sciences Education.

    PubMed

    Parker, Joyce E; Wagner, David J

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute of Food and Agriculture within the U.S. Department of Agriculture provides leadership, capacity, and funds to support the continuing development of a safe and competitive agricultural system. Many of the agency's educational programs are led by the Division of Community and Education (DOCE). These programs span agricultural education, enhancing agricultural literacy through both formal and nonformal education. Here, we have highlighted funding opportunities within DOCE that enhance agricultural education and literacy by supporting the improvement of students' critical communication, leadership skills, and experiential learning opportunities. Some of these programs include opportunities for which students can apply, while others focus on faculty applications. Opportunities faculty can apply for may support student-recruitment and student-retention techniques, curriculum development, innovative teaching methods, and institutional capacity-building programs. Overall, these programs foster a diverse workforce in agricultural science that matches the increasing diversity of the country. PMID:27587851

  16. From the USDA: Educating the Next Generation: Funding Opportunities in Food, Agricultural, Natural Resources, and Social Sciences Education

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Joyce E.; Wagner, David J.

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute of Food and Agriculture within the U.S. Department of Agriculture provides leadership, capacity, and funds to support the continuing development of a safe and competitive agricultural system. Many of the agency’s educational programs are led by the Division of Community and Education (DOCE). These programs span agricultural education, enhancing agricultural literacy through both formal and nonformal education. Here, we have highlighted funding opportunities within DOCE that enhance agricultural education and literacy by supporting the improvement of students’ critical communication, leadership skills, and experiential learning opportunities. Some of these programs include opportunities for which students can apply, while others focus on faculty applications. Opportunities faculty can apply for may support student-recruitment and student-retention techniques, curriculum development, innovative teaching methods, and institutional capacity-building programs. Overall, these programs foster a diverse workforce in agricultural science that matches the increasing diversity of the country. PMID:27587851

  17. Spring stopover food resources and land use patterns of Rocky Mountain population Sandhill Carnes in the San Luis Valley, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laubhan, M.K.; Gammonley, J.H.

    2001-01-01

    Virtually the entire Rocky Mountain population (RMP) of greater sandhill cranes uses the San Luis Valley (SLV) of Colorado as a spring stopover area. RMP cranes in the SLV depend on unharvested grain provided on Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge, and on waste grain in privately owned fields. In recent years, however, fall tillage and irrigation of grain fields has become increasingly widespread in the SLV. These changes in farming practices have resulted in an unmeasured reduction in waste grain availability for RMP cranes during spring and have prompted concern over whether current or projected foods are adequate to meet spring demands of the target population size of 18,000-20,000 RMP cranesa?|

  18. Response of Yellowstone grizzly bears to changes in food resources: A synthesis. Final report to the Interagency Grizzly Bear Committee and Yellowstone Ecosystem Subcommittee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Interagency Grizzly Bear Study Team; van Manen, Frank T.; Cecily M, Costello; Haroldson, Mark A.; Daniel D, Bjornlie; Michael R, Ebinger; Kerry A, Gunther; Mary Frances, Mahalovich; Daniel J, Thompson; Megan D, Higgs; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Kristin, Legg; Daniel, Tyers; Landenburger, Lisa; Steven L, Cain; Frey, Kevin L.; Aber, Bryan C.; Schwartz, Charles C.

    2013-01-01

    The Yellowstone grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) was listed as a threatened species in 1975 (Federal Register 40 FR:31734-31736). Since listing, recovery efforts have focused on increasing population size, improving habitat security, managing bear mortalities, and reducing bear-human conflicts. The Interagency Grizzly Bear Committee (IGBC; partnership of federal and state agencies responsible for grizzly bear recovery in the lower 48 states) and its Yellowstone Ecosystem Subcommitte (YES; federal, state, county, and tribal partners charged with recovery of grizzly bears in the Greater Yelowston Ecosystem [GYE]) tasked the Interagency Grizzly Bear Study Team to provide information and further research relevant to three concerns arising from the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals November 2011 decision: 1) the ability of grizzly bears as omnivores to find alternative foods to whitebark pine seeds; 2) literature to support their conclusions; and 3) the non-intuitive biological reality that impacts can occur to individuals without causing the overall population to decline. Specifically, the IGBC and YES requested a comprehensive synthesis of the current state of knowledge regarding whitebark pinbe decline and individual and population-level responses of grizzly bears to changing food resources in the GYE. This research was particularly relevant to grizzly bear conservation given changes in the population trajectory observed during the last decade.

  19. Resource waves: phenological diversity enhances foraging opportunities for mobile consumers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, Jonathan B.; Takimoto, Gaku; Schindler, Daniel E.; Hayes, Matthew M.; Kauffman, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Time can be a limiting constraint for consumers, particularly when resource phenology mediates foraging opportunity. Though a large body of research has explored how resource phenology influences trophic interactions, this work has focused on the topics of trophic mismatch or predator swamping, which typically occur over short periods, at small spatial extents or coarse resolutions. In contrast many consumers integrate across landscape heterogeneity in resource phenology, moving to track ephemeral food sources that propagate across space as resource waves. Here we provide a conceptual framework to advance the study of phenological diversity and resource waves. We define resource waves, review evidence of their importance in recent case studies, and demonstrate their broader ecological significance with a simulation model. We found that consumers ranging from fig wasps (Chalcidoidea) to grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) exploit resource waves, integrating across phenological diversity to make resource aggregates available for much longer than their component parts. In model simulations, phenological diversity was often more important to consumer energy gain than resource abundance per se. Current ecosystem-based management assumes that species abundance mediates the strength of trophic interactions. Our results challenge this assumption and highlight new opportunities for conservation and management. Resource waves are an emergent property of consumer–resource interactions and are broadly significant in ecology and conservation.

  20. Resource waves: phenological diversity enhances foraging opportunities for mobile consumers.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Jonathan B; Takimoto, Gaku; Schindler, Daniel E; Hayes, Matthew M; Kauffman, Matthew J

    2016-05-01

    Time can be a limiting constraint for consumers, particularly when resource phenology mediates foraging opportunity. Though a large body of research has explored how resource phenology influences trophic interactions, this work has focused on the topics of trophic mismatch or predator swamping, which typically occur over short periods, at small spatial extents or coarse resolutions. In contrast many consumers integrate across landscape heterogeneity in resource phenology, moving to track ephemeral food sources that propagate across space as resource waves. Here we provide a conceptual framework to advance the study of phenological diversity and resource waves. We define resource waves, review evidence of their importance in recent case studies, and demonstrate their broader ecological significance with a simulation model. We found that consumers ranging from fig wasps (Chalcidoidea) to grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) exploit resource waves, integrating across phenological diversity to make resource aggregates available for much longer than their component parts. In model simulations, phenological diversity was often more important to consumer energy gain than resource abundance per se. Current ecosystem-based management assumes that species abundance mediates the strength of trophic interactions. Our results challenge this assumption and highlight new opportunities for conservation and management. Resource waves are an emergent property of consumer-resource interactions and are broadly significant in ecology and conservation. PMID:27349088

  1. Wastewater infrastructure for small cities in an urbanizing world: integrating protection of human health and the environment with resource recovery and food security.

    PubMed

    Verbyla, Matthew E; Oakley, Stewart M; Mihelcic, James R

    2013-04-16

    The majority of population growth in developing countries will occur in small cities closely linked to agricultural zones, with poor access to water and sanitation. Wastewater management priorities in these regions will be different from those in larger cities and developed countries. Two wastewater treatment systems in Bolivia, one with an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and polishing ponds, the other with three stabilization ponds, are assessed to determine their resource recovery potential. The UASB reactor produces biogas with 500-650 MJ per day. In six months, both systems discharge wastewater with the same mass of nutrients as fertilizers used to produce crops containing 10-75 days' worth of the recommended food energy intake for each person using the system. Both systems also discharge detectable levels of helminth eggs, Giardia cysts, and Cryptosporidium oocysts, but the UASB reactor system discharges higher concentrations, implying limited reuse potential. From a regional management standpoint, small cities should not expend resources to treat wastewater to levels suitable for discharge into surface waters. Rather, they should focus on removing pathogens to reclaim water and nutrients. Biogas recovery may be a priority that should be subservient to water and nutrient recovery in these settings. PMID:23473097

  2. Who are we feeding? Asymmetric individual use of surplus food resources in an insular population of the endangered Egyptian vulture Neophron percnopterus.

    PubMed

    García-Heras, Marie-Sophie; Cortés-Avizanda, Ainara; Donázar, José-Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Supplementary feeding stations, or "vulture restaurants", are common conservation management tools. While a number of studies have investigated the consequences of surplus food on the population dynamics of scavengers, relatively little is known about the effects of such practices at the individual level. Within the long-term monitored breeding population of Canarian Egyptian vultures (Neophron percnopterus majorensis) we investigated individual bird's patterns of use of a supplementary feeding station at Fuerteventura (Canary Islands), over the course of breeding (2001, 2002; 2004-2011) and non-breeding seasons (2000-2010). Our results show that during the breeding season the individual use of the supplementary feeding station was inversely related to the distance to the breeding territory, which suggests the existence of central-place foraging constraints. In addition, larger birds of poor body-condition and individuals that ultimately failed to fledge young were detected more frequently at the feeding station. During the non-breeding season, and because most breeding birds abandoned the breeding territories, the overall abundance of Egyptian vultures at the feeding station grew. Moreover, the only variable increasing the probability of presence of individuals was poor body condition so that birds with lower wing residual visited the feeding station more frequently. Supplementary feeding may benefit individuals who would otherwise have been subject to selective pressures. From our results it follows that this conservation strategy must be used with caution because it can have consequences on an individual level and thus potentially affect the viability of endangered populations. PMID:24244695

  3. How climate warming impacts the distribution and abundance of two small flatfish species in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hal, Ralf; Smits, Kalle; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.

    2010-07-01

    Climate change, specifically temperature, affects the distribution and densities of species in marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we looked at the effect of temperature during winter and spawning period on latitudinal range shifts and changes in abundance of two non-commercial North Sea fish species, solenette ( Buglossidium luteum) and scaldfish ( Arnoglossus laterna). Both species have increased in abundance and moved to the north since the late 1980s, coinciding with a series of mild winters. In 1996, following a very cold winter, the abundance of both species temporarily decreased as they retracted to the south. The shift in temperature affected adult habitat conditions, allowing them to immigrate into new areas where they subsequently reproduced successfully. We can conclude this because recruitment improved following the increase in abundance. The recruitment relates significantly to the higher adult stock and higher temperatures. The predictions of higher average temperatures and milder winters in the North Sea make it likely that these species will increase further in abundance and move northward. The observed increase in abundance of these small flatfish species will affect the North Sea food web and therefore commercial species, e.g. plaice, by predation on juveniles and competition for benthic food resources.

  4. Resources, resources, resources....

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    Several resources provided by different types of organizations are available to transgender people in the New York area. Some of these organizations include the Gender Identity Project, Harlem United Community AIDS Center, Hetrick Martin Institute, SafeSpace and Youth Enrichment Services (YES). Organization telephone numbers, addresses, and their targeted audiences are provided. PMID:11364801

  5. Ant Abundance along a Productivity Gradient: Addressing Two Conflicting Hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Segev, Udi; Kigel, Jaime; Lubin, Yael; Tielbörger, Katja

    2015-01-01

    The number of individuals within a population or community and their body size can be associated with changes in resource supply. While these relationships may provide a key to better understand the role of abiotic vs. biotic constraints in animal communities, little is known about the way size and abundance of organisms change along resource gradients. Here, we studied this interplay in ants, addressing two hypotheses with opposite predictions regarding variation in population densities along resource gradients- the 'productivity hypothesis' and the 'productivity-based thinning hypothesis'. The hypotheses were tested in two functional groups of ground-dwelling ants that are directly primary consumers feeding on seeds: specialized seed-eaters and generalist species. We examined variations in colony density and foraging activity (a size measurement of the forager caste) in six ant assemblages along a steep productivity gradient in a semi-arid region, where precipitation and plant biomass vary 6-fold over a distance of 250km. An increase in the density or foraging activity of ant colonies along productivity gradients is also likely to affect competitive interactions among colonies, and consequently clinal changes in competition intensity were also examined. Ant foraging activity increased with productivity for both functional groups. However, colony density revealed opposing patterns: it increased with productivity for the specialized seed-eaters, but decreased for the generalist species. Competition intensity, evaluated by spatial partitioning of species at food baits and distribution of colonies, was uncorrelated with productivity in the specialized seed-eaters, but decreased with increasing productivity in the generalists. Our results provide support for two contrasting hypotheses regarding the effect of resource availability on the abundance of colonial organisms- the 'productivity hypothesis' for specialized seed-eaters and the 'productivity-based thinning

  6. Ant Abundance along a Productivity Gradient: Addressing Two Conflicting Hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    Segev, Udi; Kigel, Jaime; Lubin, Yael; Tielbörger, Katja

    2015-01-01

    The number of individuals within a population or community and their body size can be associated with changes in resource supply. While these relationships may provide a key to better understand the role of abiotic vs. biotic constraints in animal communities, little is known about the way size and abundance of organisms change along resource gradients. Here, we studied this interplay in ants, addressing two hypotheses with opposite predictions regarding variation in population densities along resource gradients- the ‘productivity hypothesis’ and the ‘productivity-based thinning hypothesis’. The hypotheses were tested in two functional groups of ground-dwelling ants that are directly primary consumers feeding on seeds: specialized seed-eaters and generalist species. We examined variations in colony density and foraging activity (a size measurement of the forager caste) in six ant assemblages along a steep productivity gradient in a semi-arid region, where precipitation and plant biomass vary 6-fold over a distance of 250km. An increase in the density or foraging activity of ant colonies along productivity gradients is also likely to affect competitive interactions among colonies, and consequently clinal changes in competition intensity were also examined. Ant foraging activity increased with productivity for both functional groups. However, colony density revealed opposing patterns: it increased with productivity for the specialized seed-eaters, but decreased for the generalist species. Competition intensity, evaluated by spatial partitioning of species at food baits and distribution of colonies, was uncorrelated with productivity in the specialized seed-eaters, but decreased with increasing productivity in the generalists. Our results provide support for two contrasting hypotheses regarding the effect of resource availability on the abundance of colonial organisms- the ‘productivity hypothesis’ for specialized seed-eaters and the

  7. Solar abundance of osmium

    PubMed Central

    Jacoby, George; Aller, Lawrence H.

    1976-01-01

    The abundance parameter, log gfA, where g is the statistical weight of the lower level, f is the oscillator strength, and A is the abundance (by numbers of atoms with respect to hydrogen), has been derived for three lines of osmium by a method of spectrum synthesis. An apparent discordance of the derived abundance with that found from the carbonaceous chondrites is probably to be attributed primarily to errors in the f-values, and blending with unknown contributors. PMID:16592314

  8. Application of information theory methods to food web reconstruction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moniz, L.J.; Cooch, E.G.; Ellner, S.P.; Nichols, J.D.; Nichols, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we use information theory techniques on time series of abundances to determine the topology of a food web. At the outset, the food web participants (two consumers, two resources) are known; in addition we know that each consumer prefers one of the resources over the other. However, we do not know which consumer prefers which resource, and if this preference is absolute (i.e., whether or not the consumer will consume the non-preferred resource). Although the consumers and resources are identified at the beginning of the experiment, we also provide evidence that the consumers are not resources for each other, and the resources do not consume each other. We do show that there is significant mutual information between resources; the model is seasonally forced and some shared information between resources is expected. Similarly, because the model is seasonally forced, we expect shared information between consumers as they respond to the forcing of the resources. The model that we consider does include noise, and in an effort to demonstrate that these methods may be of some use in other than model data, we show the efficacy of our methods with decreasing time series size; in this particular case we obtain reasonably clear results with a time series length of 400 points. This approaches ecological time series lengths from real systems.

  9. Who Are We Feeding? Asymmetric Individual Use of Surplus Food Resources in an Insular Population of the Endangered Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus

    PubMed Central

    García-Heras, Marie-Sophie; Cortés-Avizanda, Ainara; Donázar, José-Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Supplementary feeding stations, or “vulture restaurants”, are common conservation management tools. While a number of studies have investigated the consequences of surplus food on the population dynamics of scavengers, relatively little is known about the effects of such practices at the individual level. Within the long-term monitored breeding population of Canarian Egyptian vultures (Neophron percnopterus majorensis) we investigated individual bird’s patterns of use of a supplementary feeding station at Fuerteventura (Canary Islands), over the course of breeding (2001, 2002; 2004-2011) and non-breeding seasons (2000-2010). Our results show that during the breeding season the individual use of the supplementary feeding station was inversely related to the distance to the breeding territory, which suggests the existence of central-place foraging constraints. In addition, larger birds of poor body-condition and individuals that ultimately failed to fledge young were detected more frequently at the feeding station. During the non-breeding season, and because most breeding birds abandoned the breeding territories, the overall abundance of Egyptian vultures at the feeding station grew. Moreover, the only variable increasing the probability of presence of individuals was poor body condition so that birds with lower wing residual visited the feeding station more frequently. Supplementary feeding may benefit individuals who would otherwise have been subject to selective pressures. From our results it follows that this conservation strategy must be used with caution because it can have consequences on an individual level and thus potentially affect the viability of endangered populations. PMID:24244695

  10. Food Safety and Nutrition Information for Kids and Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Food Home Food Resources for You Consumers Kids & Teens Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Print Food Safety & Nutrition Information for Kids and Teens Fun & Games Food Safety Word Match Food Safety ...

  11. OXYGEN ABUNDANCES IN CEPHEIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Luck, R. E.; Andrievsky, S. M.; Korotin, S. N.; Kovtyukh, V. V. E-mail: serkor@skyline.od.ua E-mail: scan@deneb1.odessa.ua

    2013-07-01

    Oxygen abundances in later-type stars, and intermediate-mass stars in particular, are usually determined from the [O I] line at 630.0 nm, and to a lesser extent, from the O I triplet at 615.7 nm. The near-IR triplets at 777.4 nm and 844.6 nm are strong in these stars and generally do not suffer from severe blending with other species. However, these latter two triplets suffer from strong non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects and thus see limited use in abundance analyses. In this paper, we derive oxygen abundances in a large sample of Cepheids using the near-IR triplets from an NLTE analysis, and compare those abundances to values derived from a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of the [O I] 630.0 nm line and the O I 615.7 nm triplet as well as LTE abundances for the 777.4 nm triplet. All of these lines suffer from line strength problems making them sensitive to either measurement complications (weak lines) or to line saturation difficulties (strong lines). Upon this realization, the LTE results for the [O I] lines and the O I 615.7 nm triplet are in adequate agreement with the abundance from the NLTE analysis of the near-IR triplets.

  12. Monitoring Butterfly Abundance: Beyond Pollard Walks

    PubMed Central

    Pellet, Jérôme; Bried, Jason T.; Parietti, David; Gander, Antoine; Heer, Patrick O.; Cherix, Daniel; Arlettaz, Raphaël

    2012-01-01

    Most butterfly monitoring protocols rely on counts along transects (Pollard walks) to generate species abundance indices and track population trends. It is still too often ignored that a population count results from two processes: the biological process (true abundance) and the statistical process (our ability to properly quantify abundance). Because individual detectability tends to vary in space (e.g., among sites) and time (e.g., among years), it remains unclear whether index counts truly reflect population sizes and trends. This study compares capture-mark-recapture (absolute abundance) and count-index (relative abundance) monitoring methods in three species (Maculinea nausithous and Iolana iolas: Lycaenidae; Minois dryas: Satyridae) in contrasted habitat types. We demonstrate that intraspecific variability in individual detectability under standard monitoring conditions is probably the rule rather than the exception, which questions the reliability of count-based indices to estimate and compare specific population abundance. Our results suggest that the accuracy of count-based methods depends heavily on the ecology and behavior of the target species, as well as on the type of habitat in which surveys take place. Monitoring programs designed to assess the abundance and trends in butterfly populations should incorporate a measure of detectability. We discuss the relative advantages and inconveniences of current monitoring methods and analytical approaches with respect to the characteristics of the species under scrutiny and resources availability. PMID:22859980

  13. Solar abundance of platinum

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Harry; Aller, Lawrence H.

    1975-01-01

    Three lines of neutral platinum, located at λ 2997.98 Å, λ 3064.71 Å, and λ 3301.86 Å have been used to determine the solar platinum abundance by the method of spectral synthesis. On the scale, log A(H) = 12.00, the thus-derived solar platinum abundance is 1.75 ± 0.10, in fair accord with Cameron's value of log A(Pt) = 1.69 derived by Mason from carbonaceous chondrites and calculated on the assumption that log A(Si) = 7.55 in the sun. PMID:16592278

  14. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... navigation Home ▸ Conditions & Treatments ▸ Allergies ▸ Food Allergy Share | Food Allergy Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment & Management Food Allergy Overview If you have a food allergy, ...

  15. Stellar Oxygen Abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Jeremy

    1994-04-01

    This dissertation addresses several issues concerning stellar oxygen abundances. The 7774 {\\AA} O I triplet equivalent widths of Abia & Rebolo [1989, AJ, 347, 186] for metal-poor dwarfs are found to be systematically too high. I also argue that current effective temperatures used in halo star abundance studies may be ~150 K too low. New color-Teff relations are derived for metal-poor stars. Using the revised Teff values and improved equivalent widths for the 7774A O I triplet, the mean [O/Fe] ratio for a handful of halo stars is found to be +0.52 with no dependence on Teff or [Fe/H]. Possible cosmological implications of the hotter Teff scale are discussed along with additional evidence supporting the need for a higher temperature scale for metal-poor stars. Our Teff scale leads to a Spite Li plateau value of N(Li)=2.28 +/- 0.09. A conservative minimal primordial value of N(Li)=2.35 is inferred. If errors in the observations and models are considered, consistency with standard models of Big Bang nucleosynthesis is still achieved with this larger Li abundance. The revised Teff scale raises the observed B/Be ratio of HD 140283 from 10 to 12, making its value more comfortably consistent with the production of the observed B and Be by ordinary spallation. Our Teff values are found to be in good agreement with values predicted from both the Victoria and Yale isochrone color-Teff relations. Thus, it appears likely that no changes in globular cluster ages would result. Next, we examine the location of the break in the [O/Fe] versus [Fe/H] plane in a quantitative fashion. Analysis of a relatively homogeneous data set does not favor any unique break point in the range -1.7 /= -3), in agreement with the new results for halo dwarfs. We find that the gap in the observed [O/H] distribution, noted by Wheeler et al

  16. Abundances of light elements.

    PubMed Central

    Pagel, B E

    1993-01-01

    Recent developments in the study of abundances of light elements and their relevance to cosmological nucleosynthesis are briefly reviewed. The simplest model, based on standard cosmology and particle physics and assuming homogeneous baryon density at the relevant times, continues to stand up well. PMID:11607388

  17. Bringing abundance into environmental politics: Constructing a Zionist network of water abundance, immigration, and colonization.

    PubMed

    Alatout, Samer

    2009-06-01

    For more than five decades, resource scarcity has been the lead story in debates over environmental politics. More importantly, and whenever environmental politics implies conflict, resource scarcity is constructed as the culprit. Abundance of resources, if at all visited in the literature, holds less importance. Resource abundance is seen, at best, as the other side of scarcity--maybe the successful conclusion of multiple interventions that may turn scarcity into abundance. This paper reinstates abundance as a politico-environmental category in its own right. Rather than relegating abundance to a second-order environmental actor that matters only on occasion, this paper foregrounds it as a crucial element in modern environmental politics. On the substantive level, and using insights from science and technology studies, especially a slightly modified actor-network framework, I describe the emergence and consolidation of a Zionist network of abundance, immigration, and colonization in Palestine between 1918 and 1948. The essential argument here is that water abundance was constructed as fact, and became a political rallying point around which a techno-political network emerged that included a great number of elements. To name just a few, the following were enrolled in the service of such a network: geologists, geophysicists, Zionist settlement experts, Zionist organizations, political and technical categories of all sorts, Palestinians as the negated others, Palestinian revolts in search of political rights, the British Mandate authorities, the hydrological system of Palestine, and the absorptive capacity of Palestine, among others. The point was to successfully articulate these disparate elements into a network that seeks opening Palestine for Jewish immigration, redefining Palestinian geography and history through Judeo-Christian Biblical narratives, and, in the process, de-legitimizing political Palestinian presence in historic Palestine. PMID:19848183

  18. Genetic resources of the functional food, teramnus labialis (L.f.) spreng for improving seed number, flavonol content, oil %, and fatty acid compositions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Teramnus labialis is used as food in India and has potential to be used as a functional food vegetable in the U.S.A. Photoperiod-sensitive T. labialis accessions were grown in the greenhouse from 2010 to 2011 and evaluated for flavonol content, oil %, and fatty acid compositions. Significant variati...

  19. Penguin tissue as a proxy for relative krill abundance in East Antarctica during the Holocene.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Sun, Liguang; Long, Nanye; Wang, Yuhong; Huang, Wen

    2013-01-01

    Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is a key component of the Southern Ocean food web. It supports a large number of upper trophic-level predators, and is also a major fishery resource. Understanding changes in krill abundance has long been a priority for research and conservation in the Southern Ocean. In this study, we performed stable isotope analyses on ancient Adélie penguin tissues and inferred relative krill abundance during the Holocene epoch from paleodiets of Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae), using inverse of δ¹⁵N (ratio of ¹⁵N/¹⁴N) value as a proxy. We find that variations in krill abundance during the Holocene are in accord with episodes of regional climate changes, showing greater krill abundance in cold periods. Moreover, the low δ¹⁵N values found in modern Adélie penguins indicate relatively high krill availability, which supports the hypothesis of krill surplus in modern ages due to recent hunt for krill-eating seals and whales by humans. PMID:24076768

  20. Penguin tissue as a proxy for relative krill abundance in East Antarctica during the Holocene

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tao; Sun, Liguang; Long, Nanye; Wang, Yuhong; Huang, Wen

    2013-01-01

    Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is a key component of the Southern Ocean food web. It supports a large number of upper trophic-level predators, and is also a major fishery resource. Understanding changes in krill abundance has long been a priority for research and conservation in the Southern Ocean. In this study, we performed stable isotope analyses on ancient Adélie penguin tissues and inferred relative krill abundance during the Holocene epoch from paleodiets of Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae), using inverse of δ15N (ratio of 15N/14N) value as a proxy. We find that variations in krill abundance during the Holocene are in accord with episodes of regional climate changes, showing greater krill abundance in cold periods. Moreover, the low δ15N values found in modern Adélie penguins indicate relatively high krill availability, which supports the hypothesis of krill surplus in modern ages due to recent hunt for krill-eating seals and whales by humans. PMID:24076768

  1. Solar abundance of iridium

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Stephen; Aller, Lawrence H.

    1976-01-01

    By a method of spectrum synthesis, which yields log gfA, where g is the statistical weight of the lower level, f is the oscillator strength, and A is the abundance, an attempt is made to deduce the solar iridium abundance from one relatively unblended, but fairly weak IrI line, λ 3220.78 Å. If the Corliss-Bozman f-value for this line is adopted, we find log A(Ir) = 0.82 on the scale log A(H) = 12.00. The discordance with the value found from carbonaceous chondrites may arise from faulty f-values or from difficulties arising from line blending in this far ultraviolet domain of the solar spectrum. PMID:16578735

  2. Mass-flowering crops enhance wild bee abundance.

    PubMed

    Holzschuh, Andrea; Dormann, Carsten F; Tscharntke, Teja; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2013-06-01

    Although agricultural habitats can provide enormous amounts of food resources for pollinator species, links between agricultural and (semi-)natural habitats through dispersal and foraging movements have hardly been studied. In 67 study sites, we assessed the interactions between mass-flowering oilseed rape fields and semi-natural grasslands at different spatial scales, and their effects on the number of brood cells of a solitary cavity-nesting bee. The probability that the bee Osmia bicornis colonized trap nests in oilseed rape fields increased from 12 to 59 % when grassland was nearby, compared to fields isolated from grassland. In grasslands, the number of brood cells of O. bicornis in trap nests was 55 % higher when adjacent to oilseed rape compared to isolated grasslands. The percentage of oilseed rape pollen in the larval food was higher in oilseed rape fields and grasslands adjacent to oilseed rape than in isolated grasslands. In both oilseed rape fields and grasslands, the number of brood cells was positively correlated with the percentage of oilseed rape pollen in the larval food. We show that mass-flowering agricultural habitats--even when they are intensively managed--can strongly enhance the abundance of a solitary bee species nesting in nearby semi-natural habitats. Our results suggest that positive effects of agricultural habitats have been underestimated and might be very common (at least) for generalist species in landscapes consisting of a mixture of agricultural and semi-natural habitats. These effects might also have--so far overlooked--implications for interspecific competition and mutualistic interactions in semi-natural habitats. PMID:23114428

  3. Food limitation leads to behavioral diversification and dietary specialization in sea otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tinker, M.T.; Bentall, G.; Estes, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Dietary diversity often varies inversely with prey resource abundance. This pattern, although typically measured at the population level, is usually assumed to also characterize the behavior of individual animals within the population. However, the pattern might also be produced by changes in the degree of variation among individuals. Here we report on dietary and associated behavioral changes that occurred with the experimental translocation of sea otters from a food-poor to a food-rich environment. Although the diets of all individuals were broadly similar in the food-rich environment, a behaviorally based dietary polymorphism existed in the food-poor environment. Higher dietary diversity under low resource abundance was largely driven by greater variation among individuals. We further show that the dietary polymorphism in the food-poor environment included a broad suite of correlated behavioral variables and that the individuals that comprised specific behavioral clusters benefited from improved foraging efficiency on their individually preferred prey. Our findings add to the growing list of examples of extreme individuality in behavior and prey choice within populations and suggest that this phenomenon can emerge as a behavioral manifestation of increased population density. Individuality in foraging behavior adds complexity to both the fitness consequences of prey selection and food web dynamics, and it may figure prominently as a diversifying process over evolutionary timescales. ?? 2008 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  4. Linking ecosystems, food webs, and fish production: subsidies in salmonid watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wipfli, Mark S.; Baxter, Colden V.

    2010-01-01

    Physical characteristics of riverine habitats, such as large wood abundance, pool geometry and abundance, riparian vegetation cover, and surface flow conditions, have traditionally been thought to constrain fish production in these ecosystems. Conversely, the role of food resources (quantity and quality) in controlling fish production has received far less attention and consideration, though they can also be key productivity drivers. Traditional freshwater food web illustrations have typically conveyed the notion that most fish food is produced within the local aquatic habitat itself, but the concepts and model we synthesize in this article show that most fish food comes from external or very distant sources—including subsidies from marine systems borne from adult returns of anadromous fishes, from fishless headwater tributaries that transport prey to downstream fish, and from adjacent streamside vegetation and associated habitats. The model we propose further illustrates how key trophic pathways and food sources vary through time and space throughout watersheds. Insights into how food supplies affect fishes can help guide how we view riverine ecosystems, their structure and function, their interactions with marine and terrestrial systems, and how we manage natural resources, including fish, riparian habitats, and forests.

  5. Attenuation of species abundance distributions by sampling.

    PubMed

    Shimadzu, Hideyasu; Darnell, Ross

    2015-04-01

    Quantifying biodiversity aspects such as species presence/ absence, richness and abundance is an important challenge to answer scientific and resource management questions. In practice, biodiversity can only be assessed from biological material taken by surveys, a difficult task given limited time and resources. A type of random sampling, or often called sub-sampling, is a commonly used technique to reduce the amount of time and effort for investigating large quantities of biological samples. However, it is not immediately clear how (sub-)sampling affects the estimate of biodiversity aspects from a quantitative perspective. This paper specifies the effect of (sub-)sampling as attenuation of the species abundance distribution (SAD), and articulates how the sampling bias is induced to the SAD by random sampling. The framework presented also reveals some confusion in previous theoretical studies. PMID:26064626

  6. Attenuation of species abundance distributions by sampling

    PubMed Central

    Shimadzu, Hideyasu; Darnell, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying biodiversity aspects such as species presence/ absence, richness and abundance is an important challenge to answer scientific and resource management questions. In practice, biodiversity can only be assessed from biological material taken by surveys, a difficult task given limited time and resources. A type of random sampling, or often called sub-sampling, is a commonly used technique to reduce the amount of time and effort for investigating large quantities of biological samples. However, it is not immediately clear how (sub-)sampling affects the estimate of biodiversity aspects from a quantitative perspective. This paper specifies the effect of (sub-)sampling as attenuation of the species abundance distribution (SAD), and articulates how the sampling bias is induced to the SAD by random sampling. The framework presented also reveals some confusion in previous theoretical studies. PMID:26064626

  7. Consequences of Food Restriction for Immune Defense, Parasite Infection, and Fitness in Monarch Butterflies.

    PubMed

    McKay, Alexa Fritzsche; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Altizer, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Organisms have a finite pool of resources to allocate toward multiple competing needs, such as development, reproduction, and enemy defense. Abundant resources can support investment in multiple traits simultaneously, but limited resources might promote trade-offs between fitness-related traits and immune defenses. We asked how food restriction at both larval and adult life stages of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) affected measures of immunity, fitness, and immune-fitness interactions. We experimentally infected a subset of monarchs with a specialist protozoan parasite to determine whether parasitism further affected these relationships and whether food restriction influenced the outcome of infection. Larval food restriction reduced monarch fitness measures both within the same life stage (e.g., pupal mass) as well as later in life (e.g., adult lifespan); adult food restriction further reduced adult lifespan. Larval food restriction lowered both hemocyte concentration and phenoloxidase activity at the larval stage, and the effects of larval food restriction on phenoloxidase activity persisted when immunity was sampled at the adult stage. Adult food restriction reduced only adult phenoloxidase activity but not hemocyte concentration. Parasite spore load decreased with one measure of larval immunity, but food restriction did not increase the probability of parasite infection. Across monarchs, we found a negative relationship between larval hemocyte concentration and pupal mass, and a trade-off between adult hemocyte concentration and adult life span was evident in parasitized female monarchs. Adult life span increased with phenoloxidase activity in some subsets of monarchs. Our results emphasize that food restriction can alter fitness and immunity across multiple life stages. Understanding the consequences of resource limitation for immune defense is therefore important for predicting how increasing constraints on wildlife resources will affect fitness and

  8. Will Abundant Natural Gas Solve Climate Change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McJeon, H. C.; Edmonds, J.; Bauer, N.; Leon, C.; Fisher, B.; Flannery, B.; Hilaire, J.; Krey, V.; Marangoni, G.; Mi, R.; Riahi, K.; Rogner, H.; Tavoni, M.

    2015-12-01

    The rapid deployment of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling technologies enabled the production of previously uneconomic shale gas resources in North America. Global deployment of these advanced gas production technologies could bring large influx of economically competitive unconventional gas resources to the energy system. It has been hoped that abundant natural gas substituting for coal could reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, which in turn could reduce climate forcing. Other researchers countered that the non-CO2 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with shale gas production make its lifecycle emissions higher than those of coal. In this study, we employ five state-of-the-art integrated assessment models (IAMs) of energy-economy-climate systems to assess the full impact of abundant gas on climate change. The models show large additional natural gas consumption up to +170% by 2050. The impact on CO2 emissions, however, is found to be much smaller (from -2% to +11%), and a majority of the models reported a small increase in climate forcing (from -0.3% to +7%) associated with the increased use of abundant gas. Our results show that while globally abundant gas may substantially change the future energy market equilibrium, it will not significantly mitigate climate change on its own in the absence of climate policies.

  9. Abundance of field galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klypin, Anatoly; Karachentsev, Igor; Makarov, Dmitry; Nasonova, Olga

    2015-12-01

    We present new measurements of the abundance of galaxies with a given circular velocity in the Local Volume: a region centred on the Milky Way Galaxy and extending to distance ˜10 Mpc. The sample of ˜750 mostly dwarf galaxies provides a unique opportunity to study the abundance and properties of galaxies down to absolute magnitudes MB ≈ -10 and virial masses M_vir= 109{ M_{⊙}}. We find that the standard Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model gives remarkably accurate estimates for the velocity function of galaxies with circular velocities V ≳ 70 kms-1 and corresponding virial masses M_vir≳ 5× 10^{10}{ M_{⊙}}, but it badly fails by overpredicting ˜5 times the abundance of large dwarfs with velocities V = 30-40 kms-1. The warm dark matter (WDM) models cannot explain the data either, regardless of mass of WDM particle. Just as in previous observational studies, we find a shallow asymptotic slope dN/dlog V ∝ Vα, α ≈ -1 of the velocity function, which is inconsistent with the standard ΛCDM model that predicts the slope α = -3. Though reminiscent to the known overabundance of satellite problem, the overabundance of field galaxies is a much more difficult problem. For the standard ΛCDM model to survive, in the 10 Mpc radius of the Milky Way there should be 1000 not yet detected galaxies with virial mass M_vir≈ 10^{10}{ M_{⊙}}, extremely low surface brightness and no detectable H I gas. So far none of this type of galaxies have been discovered.

  10. Late embryogenesis abundant proteins

    PubMed Central

    Olvera-Carrillo, Yadira; Reyes, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins accumulate at the onset of seed desiccation and in response to water deficit in vegetative plant tissues. The typical LEA proteins are highly hydrophilic and intrinsically unstructured. They have been classified in different families, each one showing distinctive conserved motifs. In this manuscript we present and discuss some of the recent findings regarding their role in plant adaptation to water deficit, as well as those concerning to their possible function, and how it can be related to their intrinsic structural flexibility. PMID:21447997

  11. Climate warming increases biodiversity of small rodents by favoring rare or less abundant species in a grassland ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guangshun; Liu, Jun; Xu, Lei; Yu, Guirui; He, Honglin; Zhang, Zhibin

    2013-06-01

    Our Earth is facing the challenge of accelerating climate change, which imposes a great threat to biodiversity. Many published studies suggest that climate warming may cause a dramatic decline in biodiversity, especially in colder and drier regions. In this study, we investigated the effects of temperature, precipitation and a normalized difference vegetation index on biodiversity indices of rodent communities in the current or previous year for both detrended and nondetrended data in semi-arid grassland of Inner Mongolia during 1982-2006. Our results demonstrate that temperature showed predominantly positive effects on the biodiversity of small rodents; precipitation showed both positive and negative effects; a normalized difference vegetation index showed positive effects; and cross-correlation function values between rodent abundance and temperature were negatively correlated with rodent abundance. Our results suggest that recent climate warming increased the biodiversity of small rodents by providing more benefits to population growth of rare or less abundant species than that of more abundant species in Inner Mongolia grassland, which does not support the popular view that global warming would decrease biodiversity in colder and drier regions. We hypothesized that higher temperatures might benefit rare or less abundant species (with smaller populations and more folivorous diets) by reducing the probability of local extinction and/or by increasing herbaceous food resources. PMID:23731812

  12. Abundance Is Not Enough: The Need for Multiple Lines of Evidence in Testing for Ecological Stability in the Fossil Record

    PubMed Central

    Handley, John C.; Brett, Carlton E.

    2013-01-01

    The fossil record is the only source of information on the long-term dynamics of species assemblages. Here we assess the degree of ecological stability of the epifaunal pterioid bivalve assemblage (EPBA), which is part of the Middle Devonian Hamilton fauna of New York—the type example of the pattern of coordinated stasis, in which long intervals of faunal persistence are terminated by turnover events induced by environmental change. Previous studies have used changes in abundance structure within specific biofacies as evidence for a lack of ecological stability of the Hamilton fauna. By comparing data on relative abundance, body size, and predation, indexed as the frequency of unsuccessful shell-crushing attacks, of the EPBA, we show that abundance structure varied through time, but body-size structure and predation pressure remained relatively stable. We suggest that the energetic set-up of the Hamilton fauna's food web was able to accommodate changes in species attributes, such as fluctuating prey abundances. Ecological redundancy in prey resources, adaptive foraging of shell-crushing predators (arising from predator behavioral or adaptive switching in prey selection in response to changing prey abundances), and allometric scaling of predator-prey interactions are discussed as potential stabilizing factors contributing to the persistence of the Hamilton fauna's EPBA. Our study underscores the value and importance of multiple lines of evidence in tests of ecological stability in the fossil record. PMID:23690981

  13. How do frugivores track resources? Insights from spatial analyses of bird foraging in a tropical forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saracco, J.F.; Collazo, J.A.; Groom, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Frugivores often track ripe fruit abundance closely across local areas despite the ephemeral and typically patchy distributions of this resource. We use spatial auto- and cross-correlation analyses to quantify spatial patterns of fruit abundance and avian frugivory across a 4-month period within a forested 4.05-ha study grid in Puerto Rico. Analyses focused on two tanager species, Spindalis portoricensis and Nesospingus speculiferus, and their principal food plants. Three broad questions are addressed: (1) at what spatial scales is fruit abundance and frugivory patchy; (2) at what spatial scales do frugivores respond to fruit abundance; and (3) to what extent do spatial patterns of frugivory overlap between bird species? Fruit patch size, species composition, and heterogeneity was variable among months, despite fruit patch locations remaining relatively consistent between months. Positive correlations between frugivory and fruit abundance suggested tanagers successfully tracked fruit abundance. Frugivory was, however, more localized than fruit abundance. Scales of spatial overlap in frugivory and monthly variation in the foraging locations of the two tanager species suggested that interspecific facilitation may have been important in determining bird foraging locations. In particular, S. portoricensis, a specialist frugivore, may have relied on the loud calls of the gregarious generalist, N. speculiferus, to find new foraging areas. Such a mechanism could help explain the formation of mixed species feeding flocks and highlights the potential importance of facilitation between species that share resources. ?? Springer-Verlag 2004.

  14. Flare Plasma Iron Abundance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Dan, Chau; Jain, Rajmal; Schwartz, Richard A.; Tolbert, Anne K.

    2008-01-01

    The equivalent width of the iron-line complex at 6.7 keV seen in flare X-ray spectra suggests that the iron abundance of the hottest plasma at temperatures >approx.10 MK may sometimes be significantly lower than the nominal coronal abundance of four times the photospheric value that is commonly assumed. This conclusion is based on X-ray spectral observations of several flares seen in common with the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) and the Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) on the second Indian geostationary satellite, GSAT-2. The implications of this will be discussed as it relates to the origin of the hot flare plasma - either plasma already in the corona that is directly heated during the flare energy release process or chromospheric plasma that is heated by flare-accelerated particles and driven up into the corona. Other possible explanations of lower-than-expected equivalent widths of the iron-line complex will also be discussed.

  15. Response of Red-Tailed Hawks and Golden Eagles to Topographical Features, Weather, and Abundance of a Dominant Prey Species at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California: April 1999-December 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, S.

    2002-06-01

    Studies have shown that raptors flying within the Altamont Pass WRA are vulnerable to fatal turbine collisions, possibly because of their specific foraging and flight behavior. Between June 1999 and June 2000, I conducted 346.5 hours of raptor observations within the Atlamont Pass WRA. Behavior was recorded in relation to characteristics of the topography (slope aspect, elevation, and inclination), the weather, and ground squirrel abundance, as determined by active burrow entrances. The most significant finding of this study revealed that red-tailed hawks and golden eagles flew more in strong winds than in weak winds, particularly along hillsides facing into prevailing winds (as opposed to hillsides shielded from the wind). This is likely a result of the birds' use of declivity currents for lift during flights. These results suggest that certain combinations of topography and weather produce wind currents that are sought out by foraging red-tailed hawks and golden eagles within the Altamont Pass WRA. To decrease raptor mortality, mitigation measures can be targeted to specific areas likely to attract foraging raptors because of their capacity to create particularly favorable wind currents.

  16. When Food Is a Foe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Patricia L.

    1998-01-01

    Although only 5% of the population has severe food allergies, school business officials must be prepared for the worst-case scenario. Banning foods and segregating allergic children are harmful practices. Education and sensible behavior are the best medicine when food allergies and intolerances are involved. Resources are listed. (MLH)

  17. Pulsed resources at tundra breeding sites affect winter irruptions at temperate latitudes of a top predator, the snowy owl.

    PubMed

    Robillard, A; Therrien, J F; Gauthier, G; Clark, K M; Bêty, J

    2016-06-01

    Irruptive migration is mostly observed in species specialized on pulsed resources and is thought to be a response to unpredictable changes in food supply. We assessed two alternative hypotheses to explain the periodic winter irruptions of snowy owls Bubo scandiacus every 3-5 years in temperate North America: (a) the lack-of-food hypothesis, which states that a crash in small mammal abundance on the Arctic breeding grounds forces owls to move out of the tundra massively to search for food in winter; (b) the breeding-success hypothesis, which states that high abundance of tundra small mammals during the summer allows for high production of young, thus increasing the pool of migrants moving south the following winter. We modeled winter irruptions of snowy owls in relation to summer food resources and geographic location. Winter abundance of owls was obtained from citizen-based surveys from 1994 to 2011 and summer abundance of small mammals was collected in summer at two distant sites in Canada: Bylot Island, NU (eastern High Arctic) and Daring Lake, NWT (central Low Arctic). Winter owl abundance was positively related to prey abundance during the previous summer at both sites and tended to decrease from western to eastern temperate North America. Irruptive migration of snowy owls was therefore best explained by the breeding success hypothesis and was apparently caused by large-scale summer variations in food. Our results, combined with previous findings, suggest that the main determinants of irruptive migration may be species specific even in a guild of apparently similar species. PMID:26920901

  18. Oxygen abundance and convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van't Veer, C.; Cayrel, R.

    The triplet IR lines of O I near 777 nm are computed with the Kurucz's code, modified to accept several convection models. The program has been run with the MLT algorithm, with l/H = 1.25 and 0.5, and with the Canuto-Mazzitelli and Canuto-Goldman-Mazzitelli approaches, on a metal-poor turnoff-star model atmosphere with Teff=6200 K, log g = 4.3, [Fe/H]= -1.5. The results show that the differences in equivalent widths for the 4 cases do not exceed 2 per cent (0.3 mA). The convection treatment is therefore not an issue for the oxygen abundance derived from the permitted lines.

  19. Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Food Allergies KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Allergies Print A ... cow's milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system ...

  20. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  1. Food safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... become contaminated. Higher risk foods include red meats, poultry, eggs, cheese, dairy products, raw sprouts, and raw ... food. Avoid cross-contaminating food items. Separate meat, poultry, and seafood from other foods during preparation. Always ...

  2. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

  3. Need to Foster Optimal Use of Resources in the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Report to the Secretary of Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    The Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) for fiscal year 1984 provided services to 3 million persons who met income criteria and were judged to be at nutritional risk. Because WIC has to operate within congressional funding levels--$1.36 billion in 1984--only about 1/3 of those eligible can be served. In this…

  4. Graduates of Higher Education in the Food and Agricultural Sciences: An Analysis of Supply/Demand Relationships. Volume I--Agriculture, Natural Resources, and Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Kyle Jane, Ed.; Stanton, Marge, Ed.

    Information on the current and projected supply of and demand for graduates of higher education in the food and agricultural sciences is presented, based on federal data bases. The supply data are aggregated by 11 educational clusters, and employment demand data are aggregated by eight occupational clusters. Analysis reveals imbalances in the…

  5. Actinide abundances in ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagee, B.; Bernatowicz, T. J.; Podosek, F. A.; Johnson, M. L.; Burnett, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of actinide and light REE (LREE) abundances and of phosphate abundances in equilibrated ordinary chondrites were obtained and were used to define the Pu abundance in the solar system and to determine the degree of variation of actinide and LREE abundances. The results were also used to compare directly the Pu/U ratio with the earlier obtained ratio determined indirectly, as (Pu/Nd)x(Nd/U), assuming that Pu behaves chemically as a LREE. The data, combined with high-accuracy isotope-dilution data from the literature, show that the degree of gram-scale variability of the Th, U, and LREE abundances for equilibrated ordinary chondrites is a factor of 2-3 for absolute abundances and up to 50 percent for relative abundances. The observed variations are interpreted as reflecting the differences in the compositions and/or proportions of solar nebula components accreted to ordinary chondrite parent bodies.

  6. Concurrent effects of resource pulse amount, type, and frequency on community and population properties of consumers in detritus-based systems

    PubMed Central

    Juliano, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    Episodic resource inputs (i.e., pulses) can affect food web properties and community dynamics, but detailed mechanistic understanding of such effects remain elusive. Natural aquatic microsystems (e.g., tree holes, human-made containers) are colonized by invertebrates that form complex food webs dependent on episodic and sometimes sizeable inputs of allochthonous detritus from adjacent terrestrial environments. We investigated how variation in pulse frequency, amount, and resource type interacted to affect richness, abundance, composition, and population sizes of colonizing invertebrates in water-filled tires and tree hole analogs in a forest habitat. Different container types were used to assess the generality of effects across two environmental contexts. Containers received large infrequent or small frequent pulses of animal or leaf detritus of different cumulative amounts distributed over the same period. Invertebrates were sampled in June and September when cumulative detritus input was equal for the two pulse frequencies. Pulse frequency and detritus type interacted to affect the responses of richness and abundance in both months; pulse frequency alone in June affected the relationship between richness and abundance. Richness and abundance were also greater with more detritus regardless of detritus type. One group, the filter feeders, were most important in driving the response of abundance and richness to pulses, especially in June. This work highlights the potential complex nature of responses of communities and populations to resource pulses and implicates the ability of certain groups to exploit pulses of detrital resources as a key to understanding community-level responses to pulses. PMID:22134863

  7. Hunting behaviour and breeding performance of northern goshawks Accipiter gentilis, in relation to resource availability, sex, age and morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penteriani, Vincenzo; Rutz, Christian; Kenward, Robert

    2013-10-01

    Animal territories that differ in the availability of food resources will require (all other things being equal) different levels of effort for successful reproduction. As a consequence, breeding performance may become most strongly dependent on factors that affect individual foraging where resources are poor. We investigated potential links between foraging behaviour, reproductive performance and morphology in a goshawk Accipiter gentilis population, which experienced markedly different resource levels in two different parts of the study area (rabbit-rich vs. rabbit-poor areas). Our analyses revealed (1) that rabbit abundance positively affected male reproductive output; (2) that age, size and rabbit abundance (during winter) positively affected different components of female reproductive output; (3) that foraging movements were inversely affected by rabbit abundance for both sexes (for females, this may mainly have reflected poor provisioning by males in the rabbit-poor area); (4) that younger breeders (both in males and females) tended to move over larger distances than older individuals (which may have reflected both a lack of hunting experience and mate searching); and (5) that male body size (wing length) showed some covariation with resource conditions (suggesting possible adaptations to hunting agile avian prey in the rabbit-poor area). Although we are unable to establish firm causal relationships with our observational data set, our results provide an example of how territory quality (here, food abundance) and individual features (here, age and morphology) may combine to shape a predator's foraging behaviour and, ultimately, its breeding performance.

  8. Modeling the water-satisfied degree for production of the main food crops in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guangming; Yang, Yumeng; Tu, Zhenfa; Jie, Yi; Yu, Qiwu; Hu, Xiaoyan; Yu, Hailong; Zhou, Ruirui; Chen, Xiaoxu; Wang, Hongzhi

    2016-03-15

    Water resources are one of the important factors that influence regional crop production and the food security of humans. Most traditional models of crop water demand analysis are built on the basis of a certain crop or macroscopic analysis, which neglect regional crop allocation and the difference of water demand in different crop growing periods. In this paper, a new assessing model, the satisfied degree of crop water requirement, is developed to assess the impacts of water resources on production of six main food crops in China. The six main food crops are spring wheat, winter wheat, corn, early season rice, middle-season rice and late rice. The results show that: (1) there are serious risks of water shortage in China, even in south China with its abundant precipitation; (2) the satisfied degree of crop water demand represents great temporal-spatial changes. On spatial distribution the risks are high in major bases of food production due to influences of cropping system and crop-combinations. Northwest China is a special interesting case. In seasonal fluctuation water shortage is severe in March and September. These risks seriously restrict food production in China. The results also show that the strategic measures of water resources management must be chosen carefully to deal with food security and regional sustainable development in China. PMID:26789359

  9. Capella: Structure and Abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickhouse, Nancy S.

    1999-01-01

    This grant covers the analysis of EUVE spectra of the cool star binary system Capella. This project has also required the analysis of simultaneous Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) data. The ASCA spectrum of Capella could not be fit with standard models; by imposing models based on strong lines observed with EUVE, a problem wavelength region was identified. Correcting the problem required calculations of atomic collision strengths of higher principal quantum number than had ever been calculated. With these new models applied to the ASCA spectrum, better fits were obtained. Findings are that: (1) ASCA and EUVE spectra are both dominated by a region at 6 x 10(exp 6) K. (2) The high energy cut-off of the ASCA spectrum is consistent with emission from the highest ionization stages of EUVE, namely Fe XXIV. (3) EUVE requires a continuous emission measure distribution with more than two temperatures. (4) The ASCA spectra are of such high statistical significance that systematic uncertainties dominate, including atomic physics issues and calibration issues. (5) While the ASCA spectral fits achieve lower Chi(exp 2 with two-temperature fits, the EUVE-derived emission measure distribution models are also consistent with the spectra. (6) The Fe/H ratio obtained from the ASCA fit is within 20 % of the Fe/H abundance obtained from the summed spectra of Capella over 5 EUVE pointings, as well as the 1996 EUVE data. This result confirms our claims that quasi-continua composed of weak emission lines in the short wavelength spectrometer of EUVE are not major contributors to the measured Capella continuum. Other abundance ratios are also determined from the ASCA data, using models derived with EUVE. Si, Si, and Mg appear to be close to solar photospheric values, while the ratio of Ne/Fe is three to four times lower than solar photospheric values. Whether there is a general First Ionization Potential (FIP) effect or a specific neon anomaly cannot be determined

  10. Space resources. Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Mary Fae; McKay, David S.; Duke, Michael B.

    Space resources must be used to support life on the Moon and in the exploration of Mars. Just as the pioneers applied the tools they brought with them to resources they found along the way rather than trying to haul all their needs over a long supply line, so too must space travelers apply their high technology tools to local resources. This overview describes the findings of a study on the use of space resources in the development of future space activities and defines the necessary research and development that must precede the practical utilization of these resources. Space resources considered included lunar soil, oxygen derived from lunar soil, material retrieved from near-Earth asteroids, abundant sunlight, low gravity, and high vacuum. The study participants analyzed the direct use of these resources, the potential demand for products from them, the techniques for retrieving and processing space resources, the necessary infrastructure, and the economic tradeoffs.

  11. Space resources. Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Mary Fae (Editor); Mckay, David S. (Editor); Duke, Michael B. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Space resources must be used to support life on the Moon and in the exploration of Mars. Just as the pioneers applied the tools they brought with them to resources they found along the way rather than trying to haul all their needs over a long supply line, so too must space travelers apply their high technology tools to local resources. This overview describes the findings of a study on the use of space resources in the development of future space activities and defines the necessary research and development that must precede the practical utilization of these resources. Space resources considered included lunar soil, oxygen derived from lunar soil, material retrieved from near-Earth asteroids, abundant sunlight, low gravity, and high vacuum. The study participants analyzed the direct use of these resources, the potential demand for products from them, the techniques for retrieving and processing space resources, the necessary infrastructure, and the economic tradeoffs.

  12. WINTERING YELLOW-RUMPED WARBLERS (DENDROICA CORONATA) TRACK MANIPULATED ABUNDANCE OF MYRICA CERIFERA FRUITS

    SciTech Connect

    K.L. Borgmann; S.F. Pearson; D.J. Levey; C.H. Greenberg

    2004-01-01

    Borgmann, K.L., S.F. Pearson, D.J. Levey, and C.H. Greenberg. 2004. Wintering yellow-rumped warblers (Dendroica coronata) track manipulated abundance of Myrica cerifera fruits. The Auk 121(1):74-87. Abstract: Food availability during winter may determine habitat use and limit populations of overwintering birds, yet its importance is difficult to judge because few studies have experimentally tested the response of nonbreeding birds to changes in resource abundance. We experimentally examined the link between fruit availability and habitat use by manipulating winter abundance of Myrica cerifera L. (Myricaceae) fruits in managed longleaf (Pinus palustris) and loblolly (P. taeda) pine stands in South Carolina. Myrica cerifera is a common understory shrub in the southeastern United States and provides lipid-rich fruit in late winter (February and March), when insects and other fruits are scarce. On treatment plots, we covered fruiting M. cerifera shrubs with netting in early winter to prevent birds from eating their fruits. In late February, when M. cerifera fruit crops were largely depleted elsewhere on our study site, we uncovered the shrubs and documented the response of the bird community to those patches of high fruit availability. Relative to control plots, total bird abundance (excluding the most common species, Yellow-rumped Warbler [Dendroica coronata]) and species richness did not change after net removal. Yellow-rumped Warblers, however, became significantly more abundant on treatment plots after net removal, which suggests that they track M. cerifera fruit abundance. We suggest that M. cerifera plays a role in determining the local distribution of wintering Yellow-rumped Warblers at our study site. To put these results into a management context, we also examined the effect of prescribed fire frequencies on M. cerifera fruit production. Across pine stands with different fire regimes, M. cerifera fruit abundance increased with the number of years since burning

  13. Arthropod abundance and seasonal bird use of bottomland forest harvest gaps.

    SciTech Connect

    Moorman, Christopher, E.; Bowen, Liessa T.; Kilgo, John, C.; Hanula, James, L.; Horn, Scott; Ulyshen, Michael, D.

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the influence of arthropod abundance and vegetation structure on shifts in avian use of canopy gap, gap edge, and surrounding forest understory in a bottomland hardwood forest in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. We compared captures of foliage-gleaning birds among locations during four periods (spring migration, breeding, post-breeding, and fall migration). Foliage arthropod densities were greatest in the forest understory in all four seasons, but understory vegetation density was greatest in gaps. Foliage-gleaning bird abundance was positively associated with foliage-dwelling arthropods during the breeding (F = 18.5, P < 0.001) and post-breeding periods (F = 9.4, P = 0.004), and negatively associated with foliage-dwelling arthropods during fall migration (F = 5.4, P = 0.03). Relationships between birds and arthropods were inconsistent, but the arthropod prey base seemed to be least important during migratory periods. Conversely, bird captures were positively correlated with understory vegetation density during all four periods (P < 0.001). Our study suggests high bird abundance associated with canopy gaps during the non-breeding period resulted less from high arthropod food resource availability than from complex understory and midstory vegetation structure.

  14. Floral resources and habitat affect the composition of hummingbirds at the local scale in tropical mountaintops.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, L C; Rodrigues, M

    2015-01-01

    Hummingbird communities tend to respond to variation in resources, having a positive relationship between abundance and diversity of food resources and the abundance and/or diversity of hummingbirds. Here we examined the influence of floral resource availability, as well as seasonality and type of habitat on the composition of hummingbird species. The study was carried out in two habitats of eastern Brazilian mountaintops. A gradient representative of the structure of hummingbird community, based on species composition, was obtained by the ordination of samples using the method of non-metric multidimensional scaling. The composition of hummingbird species was influenced by the type of habitat and floral resource availability, but not by seasonality. Hummingbird communities differ between habitats mainly due to the relative abundance of hummingbird species. The variation in composition of hummingbird species with the variation in floral resource availability may be related to differences in feeding habits of hummingbirds. Hummingbird species with the longest bills visited higher proportions of ornithophilous species, while hummingbirds with shorter bills visited higher proportions of non-ornithophilous species. The results demonstrate that at local-scale the composition of hummingbird species is affected by the type of habitat and floral resources availability, but not by seasonality. PMID:25945619

  15. Capella: Structure and Abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickhouse, Nancy S.

    1999-01-01

    This grant covers the analysis of ASCA spectra of the cool star binary system Capella. This project has also required the analysis of simultaneous EUVE data. The ASCA spectrum of Capella could not be fit with standard models; by imposing models based on strong lines observed with EUVE, a problem wavelength region was identified. Correcting the problem required calculations of atomic collision strengths of higher principal quantum number than had ever been calculated, resulting in a paper in process by Liedahl and Brickhouse. With these new models applied to the ASCA spectrum, better fits were obtained. While solar abundance ratios are generally consistent with the ASCA data, the ratio of Ne/Fe is three to four times lower than solar photospheric values. Whether there is a general First Ionization Potential (FIP) effect or a specific neon anomaly cannot be determined from these data. Detailed discussion has been provided to NASA in the most recent annual report (1997). Two poster presentations have been made regarding modeling requirements. A substantial paper is in the final revision form, following review by six co-authors. The results of this work have wide implications, since the newly calculated emission lines almost certainly contribute to other problems in fitting not only other stellar spectra, but also composite supernova remnants, galaxies, and cooling flow clusters of galaxies. Furthermore, Liedahl and Brickhouse have identified other species for which lines of a similar nature (high principal quantum number) will contribute significant flux. For moderate resolution X-ray spectra, lines left out of the models in relatively isolated bands, will be attributed to continuum flux by spectral fitting engines, causing errors in line-to-continuum ratios. Thus addressing the general theoretical problem is of crucial importance.

  16. Abundances in dwarf irregular galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufour, Reginald J.

    1986-01-01

    The results of abundance studies of dwarf irregular galaxies and similar objects are reviewed with special attention to variations in the CNO element group. Observations of the forbidden N II and semiforbidden C III lines in the most metal-poor galaxy known, IZw 18, are presented for the first time and CNO abundances are derived via a photoionization model and discussed in the context of the abundances found in other metal-poor H II regions and galaxies.

  17. Fallback foods and dietary partitioning among Pan and Gorilla.

    PubMed

    Yamagiwa, Juichi; Basabose, Augustin Kanyunyi

    2009-12-01

    Recent findings on the strong preference of gorillas for fruits and the large dietary overlap between sympatric gorillas and chimpanzees has led to a debate over the folivorous/frugivorous dichotomy and resource partitioning. To add insight to these arguments, we analyze the diets of sympatric gorillas and chimpanzees inhabiting the montane forest of Kahuzi-Biega National Park (DRC) using a new definition of fallback foods (Marshall and Wrangham: Int J Primatol 28 [2007] 1219-1235). We determined the preferred fruits of Kahuzi chimpanzees and gorillas from direct feeding observations and fecal analyses conducted over an 8-year period. Although there was extensive overlap in the preferred fruits of these two species, gorillas tended to consume fewer fruits with prolonged availability while chimpanzees consumed fruits with large seasonal fluctuations. Fig fruit was defined as a preferred food of chimpanzees, although it may also play a role as the staple fallback food. Animal foods, such as honey bees and ants, appear to constitute filler fallback foods of chimpanzees. Tool use allows chimpanzees to obtain such high-quality fallback foods during periods of fruit scarcity. Among filler fallback foods, terrestrial herbs may enable chimpanzees to live in small home ranges in the montane forest, whereas the availability of animal foods may permit them to expand their home range in arid areas. Staple fallback foods including barks enable gorillas to form cohesive groups with similar home range across habitats irrespective of fruit abundance. These differences in fallback strategies seem to have shaped different social features between sympatric gorillas and chimpanzees. PMID:19890854

  18. Relationship of weed shiner and young-of-year bluegill and largemouth bass abundance to submersed aquatic vegetation in Navigation Pools 4, 8, and 13 of the Upper Mississippi River, 1998-2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLain, Steven A.; Popp, Walter A.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic vegetation provides food resources and shelter for many species of fish. This study found a significant relationship between increases in submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) in four study reaches of the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) and increases in catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) of weed shiners (Notropis texanus) and age-0 bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) when all of the study reaches were treated collectively using Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) vegetation and fish data for 1998–2012. The selected fishes were more abundant in study reaches with higher SAV frequencies (Pool 8 and Lower Pool 4) and less abundant in reaches with lower SAV frequencies (Pool 13 and Upper Pool 4). When each study reach was examined independently, the relationship between SAV frequency and CPUE of the three species was not significant in most cases, the primary exception being weed shiners in Lower Pool 4. Results of this study indicate that the prevalence of SAV does affect relative abundance of these vegetation-associated fish species. However, the poor annual relationship between SAV frequency and age-0 relative abundance in individual study reaches indicates that several other factors also govern age-0 abundance. The data indicate that there may be a SAV frequency threshold in backwaters above which there is not a strong relationship with abundance of these fish species. This is indicated by the high annual CPUE variability of the three selected fishes in backwaters of Pool 8 and Lower Pool 4 when SAV exceeded certain frequencies.

  19. Wildlife distribution and abundance on the Utah oil shale tracts 1975-1984

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, C.V.

    1986-07-01

    Distribution and abundance of 215 amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals were monitored for 10 years on Utah's Oil Shale Tracts using line transects, mist netting, and live trapping. Wildlife monitoring was conducted in four major vegetation types and during all seasons to establish a quantitative baseline for use in impact identification during oil shale mining. Habitat preferences were established for many species in cold desert vegetation of two types of desert shrub, and juniper and riparian woodlands. Seasonal, annual, and habitat distribution of each class demonstrated a variety of adaptive responses to environmental variables. The most important environmental variables, that is, those factors resulting in a predictable change in wildlife populations, were, in descending order: weather, food resource, shelter, and competition. 31 references, 14 figures, 10 tables.

  20. Abundance coefficients, a new method for measuring microorganism relative abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forester, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    A new method of measuring the relative abundance of microorganisms by using a set of interrelated coefficients, termed 'abundance coefficients' or 'AC', is proposed. These coefficients provide a means of recording abundance for geometric density categories, and each density measurement represents an approximation of the Poisson parameter ??t. The AC is the natural logarithm of a 'characteristic value,' which is a particular number for each geometric density category. The 'characteristic values' are based upon a probabilistic error statement derived from the Poisson formula, and they present evidence for separation of the geometric category boundaries by e = 2.71828. The proposed AC provide a means for recording species abundance in a manner suitable for arithmetic manipulation, for population structure studies, and for the determination of practical limits for defining the presence or absence of a species. Further, these coefficients provide for both intrasample and intersample abundance comparisons. ?? 1977 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

  1. Your Food Dollar. Money Management. [Revised].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Nancy H., Ed.

    This student/teacher resource booklet provides information on conserving food dollars while providing nutritious meals. The guide shows how to set up a food budget and explains how scanning the weekly food ads, planning meals around the specials, and compiling a list accordingly can also help consumers get more for their food dollars. Numerous…

  2. Terminologie alimentaire (Food Terminology).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Jean-Francois

    1980-01-01

    Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fast foods, fast foods industry, fast foods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)

  3. Population densities and density-area relationships in a community with advective dispersal and variable mosaics of resource patches.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Jill; Downes, Barbara J

    2014-12-01

    Many communities comprise species that select resources that are patchily distributed in an environment that is otherwise unsuitable or suboptimal. Effects of this patchiness can depend on the characteristics of patch arrays and animal movements, and produce non-intuitive outcomes in which population densities are unrelated to resource abundance. Resource mosaics are predicted to have only weak effects, however, where patches are ephemeral or organisms are transported advectively. The running waters of streams and benthic invertebrates epitomize such systems, but empirical tests of resource mosaics are scarce. We sampled 15 common macroinvertebrates inhabiting distinct detritus patches at four sites within a sand-bed stream, where detritus formed a major resource of food and living space. At each site, environmental variables were measured for 100 leaf packs; invertebrates were counted in 50 leaf packs. Sites differed in total abundance of detritus, leaf pack sizes and invertebrate densities. Multivariate analysis indicated that patch size was the dominant environmental variable, but invertebrate densities differed significantly between sites even after accounting for patch size. Leaf specialists showed positive and strong density-area relationships, except where the patch size range was small and patches were aggregated. In contrast, generalist species had weaker and variable responses to patch sizes. Population densities were not associated with total resource abundance, with the highest densities of leaf specialists in sites with the least detritus. Our results demonstrate that patchy resources can affect species even in communities where species are mobile, have advective dispersal, and patches are relatively ephemeral. PMID:25190216

  4. Erratum: Interstellar Abundance Standards Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofia, U. J.; Meyer, D. M.

    2001-09-01

    In the Letter ``Interstellar Abundance Standards Revisited'' by U. J. Sofia and D. M. Meyer (ApJ, 554, L221 [2001]), Table 2 and its footnotes contain several typographical errors. The corrected table is shown below. We note that the solar reference standard now implies a positive abundance of nitrogen in halo dust.

  5. Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... are four basic steps to food safety at home: Clean - always wash your fruits and vegetables, hands, counters, and cooking utensils. Separate - keep raw foods to themselves. Germs can spread from one food ...

  6. Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... of food, most food allergies are caused by tree nuts, peanuts, milk, eggs, soy, wheat, fish and ... all do. People rarely outgrow allergies to peanuts, tree nuts, fish and shellfish Other Organizations Food Allergy ...

  7. Food Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Check the date. Lots of packaged foods have expiration dates or "sell by" (which means that the food ... a food if today's date is after the expiration date. Use it before it expires. Ask an adult ...

  8. Advances in food systems for space flight.

    PubMed

    Bourland, C T

    1998-01-01

    Food for space has evolved from cubes and tubes to normal Earth-like food consumed with common utensils. U.S. space food systems have traditionally been based upon the water supply. When on-board water was abundant (e.g., Apollo and Shuttle fuel cells produced water) then dehydrated food was used extensively. The International Space Station will have limited water available for food rehydration so there is little advantage for using dehydrated foods. Experience from Skylab and the Russian Mir space station emphasizes that food variety and quality are important elements in the design of food for closed systems. The evolution of space food has accentuated Earth-like foods, which should be a model for closed environment food systems. PMID:11540467

  9. 7 CFR 210.14 - Resource management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Resource management. 210.14 Section 210.14 Agriculture... Participation § 210.14 Resource management. (a) Nonprofit school food service. School food authorities shall.... Expenditures of nonprofit school food service revenues shall be in accordance with the financial...

  10. 7 CFR 210.14 - Resource management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Resource management. 210.14 Section 210.14 Agriculture... Participation § 210.14 Resource management. (a) Nonprofit school food service. School food authorities shall.... Expenditures of nonprofit school food service revenues shall be in accordance with the financial...

  11. The effects of resource type and ratio on competition with Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens (Diptera:Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Costanzo, K S; Muturi, E J; Lampman, R L; Alto, B W

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in the United States has been associated with declines in abundance of resident mosquito species, presumably because of resource competition, as larvae of Ae. albopictus have been illustrated as superior competitors under certain resource conditions. We evaluated the hypothesis that varying the type and ratio of two food resources (Foxtail grass: American elm) alters the competitive outcome of Ae. albopictus and Culex pipiens (L.). We measured survivorship, development time, size, and adult longevity, and estimated the population growth index (A') of populations raised both alone and in equal number with the interspecific competitor, across five ratios of the two food resources. Competition was asymmetric with Ae. albopictus, the superior competitor across all resource treatments; however, the competitive advantage Ae. albopictus had over Cx. pipiens was reduced as grass became the predominant resource. With elm as the predominant resource, the population growth index (A') for both Ae. albopictus and Cx. pipiens was lower in intraspecific and interspecific competition treatments, respectively. The treatments also impacted adult life history, as life spans of both Ae. albopictus and Cx. pipiens varied when they emerged from larval conditions with different resource and competition treatments. We discuss the possible differences in the two species' efficiencies in exploiting the two resource types. Despite some resource conditions alleviating the competitive effects of Ae. albopictus on Cx. pipiens, competition remained asymmetric; thus, additional mechanisms are likely operating under field conditions when the two species coexist. PMID:21337945

  12. The role of water in unconventional in situ energy resource extraction technologies: Chapter 7 in Food, energy, and water: The chemistry connection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallegos, Tanya J.; Bern, Carleton R.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Haines, Seth S.; Engle, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Global trends toward developing new energy resources from lower grade, larger tonnage deposits that are not generally accessible using “conventional” extraction methods involve variations of subsurface in situ extraction techniques including in situ oil-shale retorting, hydraulic fracturing of petroleum reservoirs, and in situ recovery (ISR) of uranium. Although these methods are economically feasible and perhaps result in a smaller above-ground land-use footprint, there remain uncertainties regarding potential subsurface impacts to groundwater. This chapter provides an overview of the role of water in these technologies and the opportunities and challenges for water reuse and recycling.

  13. Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Sathe, Shridhar K; Liu, Changqi; Zaffran, Valerie D

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is receiving increased attention in recent years. Because there is currently no known cure for food allergy, avoiding the offending food is the best defense for sensitive individuals. Type I food allergy is mediated by food proteins, and thus, theoretically, any food protein is a potential allergen. Variability of an individual's immune system further complicates attempts to understand allergen-antibody interaction. In this article, we briefly review food allergy occurrence, prevalence, mechanisms, and detection. Efforts aimed at reducing/eliminating allergens through food processing are discussed. Future research needs are addressed. PMID:26934173

  14. FRUIT ABUNDANCE AND LOCAL DISTRIBUTION OF WINTERING HERMIT THRUSHES (CATHARUS GUTTATUS) AND YELLOW-RUMPED WARBLERS (DENDROICA CORONATA) IN SOUTH CAROLINA.

    SciTech Connect

    KWIT, CHARLES; LEVEY, DOUGLAS, J.; GREENBERG, CATHRYN, H.; PEARSON, SCOTT, F.; MCCARTY, JOHN, P.; SARGENT, SARAH; MUMME, RONALD, L.

    2004-01-01

    The Auk 121(1):46-57, 2004 We conducted winter censuses of two short-distance migrants, Hermit Thrushes (Catharus guttatus) and Yellow-rumped Warblers (Dendroica coronata), over seven years in five different habitats to determine whether their local abundances could be predicted by fruit pulp biomass. Sampled habitats were stands of upland and bottomland hardwood, loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), longleaf pine (P. palustris), and young «10 years) longleaf pine. Hermit Thrush abundance, which was highest in bottomland hardwood habitats, was positively related to total dry mass of fruit pulp. Those results are consistent with the hypothesis that resource availability affects the local distribution of migrant passerines on their wintering grounds. Our results also indicate that bottomland hardwood habitats in the southeastern United States may be especially important to wintering Hermit Thrushes. Yellow-rumped Warbler abundance was correlated with ripe-fruit pulp dry mass of Myrica cerifera, a major source of winter food for that species. However, because M. cerifera pulp dry mass was confounded with habitat type, we could not distinguish the relative importance of fruit resources and habitat for Yellow- rumped Warblers. Our results underscore the importance of fruit to wintering birds. However, the overall percentage of variation in winter bird abundance explained by differences in ripe-fruit biomass was modest, indicating that other factors are also important.

  15. ICON: food allergy.

    PubMed

    Burks, A Wesley; Tang, Mimi; Sicherer, Scott; Muraro, Antonella; Eigenmann, Philippe A; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Chiang, Wen; Beyer, Kirsten; Wood, Robert; Hourihane, Jonathan; Jones, Stacie M; Lack, Gideon; Sampson, Hugh A

    2012-04-01

    Food allergies can result in life-threatening reactions and diminish quality of life. In the last several decades, the prevalence of food allergies has increased in several regions throughout the world. Although more than 170 foods have been identified as being potentially allergenic, a minority of these foods cause the majority of reactions, and common food allergens vary between geographic regions. Treatment of food allergy involves strict avoidance of the trigger food. Medications manage symptoms of disease, but currently, there is no cure for food allergy. In light of the increasing burden of allergic diseases, the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; World Allergy Organization; and American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology have come together to increase the communication of information about allergies and asthma at a global level. Within the framework of this collaboration, termed the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology, a series of consensus documents called International Consensus ON (ICON) are being developed to serve as an important resource and support physicians in managing different allergic diseases. An author group was formed to describe the natural history, prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of food allergies in the context of the global community. PMID:22365653

  16. How are your berries? Perspectives of Alaska's environmental managers on trends in wild berry abundance

    PubMed Central

    Hupp, Jerry; Brubaker, Michael; Wilkinson, Kira; Williamson, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Background Wild berries are a valued traditional food in Alaska. Phytochemicals in wild berries may contribute to the prevention of vascular disease, cancer and cognitive decline, making berry consumption important to community health in rural areas. Little was known regarding which species of berries were important to Alaskan communities, the number of species typically picked in communities and whether recent environmental change has affected berry abundance or quality. Objective To identify species of wild berries that were consumed by people in different ecological regions of Alaska and to determine if perceived berry abundance was changing for some species or in some regions. Design We asked tribal environmental managers throughout Alaska for their views on which among 12 types of wild berries were important to their communities and whether berry harvests over the past decade were different than in previous years. We received responses from 96 individuals in 73 communities. Results Berries that were considered very important to communities differed among ecological regions of Alaska. Low-bush blueberry (Vaccinium uliginosum and V. caespitosum), cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus) and salmonberry (Rubus spectabilis) were most frequently identified as very important berries for communities in the boreal, polar and maritime ecoregions, respectively. For 7 of the 12 berries on the survey, a majority of respondents indicated that in the past decade abundance had either declined or become more variable. Conclusions Our study is an example of how environmental managers and participants in local observer networks can report on the status of wild resources in rural Alaska. Their observations suggest that there have been changes in the productivity of some wild berries in the past decade, resulting in greater uncertainty among communities regarding the security of berry harvests. Monitoring and experimental studies are needed to determine how environmental change may affect

  17. The shape of terrestrial abundance distributions.

    PubMed

    Alroy, John

    2015-09-01

    Ecologists widely accept that the distribution of abundances in most communities is fairly flat but heavily dominated by a few species. The reason for this is that species abundances are thought to follow certain theoretical distributions that predict such a pattern. However, previous studies have focused on either a few theoretical distributions or a few empirical distributions. I illustrate abundance patterns in 1055 samples of trees, bats, small terrestrial mammals, birds, lizards, frogs, ants, dung beetles, butterflies, and odonates. Five existing theoretical distributions make inaccurate predictions about the frequencies of the most common species and of the average species, and most of them fit the overall patterns poorly, according to the maximum likelihood-related Kullback-Leibler divergence statistic. Instead, the data support a low-dominance distribution here called the "double geometric." Depending on the value of its two governing parameters, it may resemble either the geometric series distribution or the lognormal series distribution. However, unlike any other model, it assumes both that richness is finite and that species compete unequally for resources in a two-dimensional niche landscape, which implies that niche breadths are variable and that trait distributions are neither arrayed along a single dimension nor randomly associated. The hypothesis that niche space is multidimensional helps to explain how numerous species can coexist despite interacting strongly. PMID:26601249

  18. The shape of terrestrial abundance distributions

    PubMed Central

    Alroy, John

    2015-01-01

    Ecologists widely accept that the distribution of abundances in most communities is fairly flat but heavily dominated by a few species. The reason for this is that species abundances are thought to follow certain theoretical distributions that predict such a pattern. However, previous studies have focused on either a few theoretical distributions or a few empirical distributions. I illustrate abundance patterns in 1055 samples of trees, bats, small terrestrial mammals, birds, lizards, frogs, ants, dung beetles, butterflies, and odonates. Five existing theoretical distributions make inaccurate predictions about the frequencies of the most common species and of the average species, and most of them fit the overall patterns poorly, according to the maximum likelihood–related Kullback-Leibler divergence statistic. Instead, the data support a low-dominance distribution here called the “double geometric.” Depending on the value of its two governing parameters, it may resemble either the geometric series distribution or the lognormal series distribution. However, unlike any other model, it assumes both that richness is finite and that species compete unequally for resources in a two-dimensional niche landscape, which implies that niche breadths are variable and that trait distributions are neither arrayed along a single dimension nor randomly associated. The hypothesis that niche space is multidimensional helps to explain how numerous species can coexist despite interacting strongly. PMID:26601249

  19. How selection structures species abundance distributions

    PubMed Central

    Magurran, Anne E.; Henderson, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    How do species divide resources to produce the characteristic species abundance distributions seen in nature? One way to resolve this problem is to examine how the biomass (or capacity) of the spatial guilds that combine to produce an abundance distribution is allocated among species. Here we argue that selection on body size varies across guilds occupying spatially distinct habitats. Using an exceptionally well-characterized estuarine fish community, we show that biomass is concentrated in large bodied species in guilds where habitat structure provides protection from predators, but not in those guilds associated with open habitats and where safety in numbers is a mechanism for reducing predation risk. We further demonstrate that while there is temporal turnover in the abundances and identities of species that comprise these guilds, guild rank order is conserved across our 30-year time series. These results demonstrate that ecological communities are not randomly assembled but can be decomposed into guilds where capacity is predictably allocated among species. PMID:22787020

  20. Nematode abundance at the oxygen minimum zone in the Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Adam A.; Lambshead, P. John D.; Hawkins, Lawrence E.; Mitchell, Nicola; Levin, Lisa A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper supports the hypothesis that low oxygen does not influence deep-sea nematode abundance by investigating an oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) on the Oman slope in the Arabian Sea. Correlation with a number of environmental variables indicated that food quality (measured as the hydrogen index) rather than oxygen was the major predictor of nematode abundance. Nematode abundance was also positively correlated with abundance of total macrofauna, annelids, spionid polychaetes and macrofaunal tube builders. Comparison with published data showed Arabian Sea nematode abundance to be similar to that of the Porcupine Seabight and Bay of Biscay regions of the northeast Atlantic, which also receive significant quantities of phytodetritus but have no OMZ.

  1. Density- and trait-mediated effects of a parasite and a predator in a tri-trophic food web.

    PubMed

    Banerji, Aabir; Duncan, Alison B; Griffin, Joanne S; Humphries, Stuart; Petchey, Owen L; Kaltz, Oliver

    2015-05-01

    Despite growing interest in ecological consequences of parasitism in food webs, relatively little is known about effects of parasites on long-term population dynamics of non-host species or about whether such effects are density or trait mediated. We studied a tri-trophic food chain comprised of (i) a bacterial basal resource (Serratia fonticola), (ii) an intermediate consumer (Paramecium caudatum), (iii) a top predator (Didinium nasutum) and (iv) a parasite of the intermediate consumer (Holospora undulata). A fully factorial experimental manipulation of predator and parasite presence/absence was combined with analyses of population dynamics, modelling and analyses of host (Paramecium) morphology and behaviour. Predation and parasitism each reduced the abundance of the intermediate consumer (Paramecium), and parasitism indirectly reduced the abundance of the basal resource (Serratia). However, in combination, predation and parasitism had non-additive effects on the abundance of the intermediate consumer, as well as on that of the basal resource. In both cases, the negative effect of parasitism seemed to be effaced by predation. Infection of the intermediate consumer reduced predator abundance. Modelling and additional experimentation revealed that this was most likely due to parasite reduction of intermediate host abundance (a density-mediated effect), as opposed to changes in predator functional or numerical response. Parasitism altered morphological and behavioural traits, by reducing host cell length and increasing the swimming speed of cells with moderate parasite loads. Additional tests showed no significant difference in Didinium feeding rate on infected and uninfected hosts, suggesting that the combination of these modifications does not affect host vulnerability to predation. However, estimated rates of encounter with Serratia based on these modifications were higher for infected Paramecium than for uninfected Paramecium. A mixture of density-mediated and

  2. Effect of food restriction on the energy metabolism of the Chinese bulbul (Pycnonotus sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    LIANG, Qing-Jian; ZHAO, Lei; WANG, Jia-Qi; CHEN, Qian; ZHENG, Wei-Hong; LIU, Jin-Song

    2015-01-01

    Food resources play an important role in the regulation of animals’ physiology and behavior. We investigated the effect of short-term food restriction on metabolic thermogenesis of Chinese bulbuls (Pycnonotus sinensis) by measuring changes in body mass, body fat, basic metabolic rate (BMR), and organ mass of wild-caught Chinese bulbuls from Wenzhou, China. Short-term food restriction induced a significant decrease in body mass and body fat but body mass returned to normal levels soon after food was no longer restricted. Food restriction caused a significant reduction in BMR after 7 days (P<0.05), which returned to normal levels after food restriction ceased. Log total BMR was positively correlated with log body mass (r2=0.126, P<0.05). The dry masses of livers and the digestive tract were higher in birds that had been subject to temporary food restriction than in control birds and those subject to continual food restriction (P<0.001 and P<0.05, respectively). There was also significant differences in the dry mass of the lungs (P<0.05), heart (P<0.01), and spleen (P<0.05) in birds subject to short-term food restriction compared to control birds and those subject to continual food restriction. BMR was positively correlated with body and organ (heart, kidney and stomach) mass. These results suggest that the Chinese bulbul adjusts to restricted food availability by utilizing its energy reserves, lowering its BMR and changing the weight of various internal organs so as to balance total energy requirements. These may all be survival strategies that allow birds to cope with unpredictable variation in food abundance. PMID:25855226

  3. Evaluation of the proximate, fatty acid and mineral composition of representative green, brown and red seaweeds from the Persian Gulf of Iran as potential food and feed resources.

    PubMed

    Rohani-Ghadikolaei, Kiuomars; Abdulalian, Eessa; Ng, Wing-Keong

    2012-12-01

    The proximate, fatty acid and mineral composition were determined for green (Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha intestinalis), brown (Sargassum ilicifolium and Colpomenia sinuosa) and red (Hypnea valentiae and Gracilaria corticata) seaweeds collected from the Persian Gulf of Iran. Results showed that the seaweeds were high in carbohydrate (31.8-59.1%, dry weight) and ash (12.4-29.9%) but low in lipid content (1.5-3.6%). The protein content of red or green seaweeds was significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared to brown seaweeds. The fatty acid composition of various seaweed lipids varied considerably with 51.9-67.4% of saturates, 22.0-32.9% of monoenes and 9.2-19.1% of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). E. intestinalis contained the highest total n-3 PUFA content with the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio. Persian Gulf seaweeds contained higher concentrations of all the minerals examined (K, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Co) compared to terrestrial vegetables. Seaweeds could potentially be used as a food or feed additive in Iran. PMID:24293698

  4. The boron abundance of Procyon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemke, Michael; Lambert, David L.; Edvardsson, Bengt

    1993-01-01

    The B I 2496.8 A resonance line and HST/GHRS echelle spectra are used with model atmospheres and synthetic spectra to derive the B abundance of the F dwarfs Procyon (Alpha Canis Minoris), Theta Ursae Majoris, and Iota Pegasi. The B abundance of Theta UMa and Iota Peg is similar to that derived by Boesgaard and Heacox (1978) from the B II resonance line in spectra of A- and B-type stars. These two dwarfs show normal abundances of Li, Be, and B. Procyon, which is highly depleted in Li and Be, is depleted in B by a factor of at least 3. Comparison of the spectra of Procyon and the halo dwarf HD 140283 shows that the B abundance assigned by Duncan et al. (1992) to three halo dwarfs is not greatly overestimated as a result of contamination of the B I line by an unidentified line.

  5. Influence of species, size and relative abundance on the outcomes of competitive interactions between brook trout and juvenile coho salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thornton, Emily J; Duda, Jeff; Quinn, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    Resource competition between animals is influenced by a number of factors including the species, size and relative abundance of competing individuals. Stream-dwelling animals often experience variably available food resources, and some employ territorial behaviors to increase their access to food. We investigated the factors that affect dominance between resident, non-native brook trout and recolonizing juvenile coho salmon in the Elwha River, WA, USA, to see if brook trout are likely to disrupt coho salmon recolonization via interference competition. During dyadic laboratory feeding trials, we hypothesized that fish size, not species, would determine which individuals consumed the most food items, and that species would have no effect. We found that species, not size, played a significant role in dominance; coho salmon won 95% of trials, even when only 52% the length of their brook trout competitors. As the pairs of competing fish spent more time together during a trial sequence, coho salmon began to consume more food, and brook trout began to lose more, suggesting that the results of early trials influenced fish performance later. In group trials, we hypothesized that group composition and species would not influence fish foraging success. In single species groups, coho salmon consumed more than brook trout, but the ranges overlapped. Brook trout consumption remained constant through all treatments, but coho salmon consumed more food in treatments with fewer coho salmon, suggesting that coho salmon experienced more intra- than inter-specific competition and that brook trout do not pose a substantial challenge. Based on our results, we think it is unlikely that competition from brook trout will disrupt Elwha River recolonization by coho salmon.

  6. Resource reliability, accessibility and governance: pillars for managing water resources to achieve water security in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, E. M.; Duncan, J.; Atkinson, P.; Dash, J.

    2013-12-01

    As one of the world's most water-abundant countries, Nepal has plenty of water yet resources are both spatially and temporally unevenly distributed. With a population heavily engaged in subsistence farming, whereby livelihoods are entirely dependent on rain-fed agriculture, changes in freshwater resources can substantially impact upon survival. The two main sources of water in Nepal come from monsoon precipitation and glacial runoff. The former is essential for sustaining livelihoods where communities have little or no access to perennial water resources. Much of Nepal's population live in the southern Mid-Hills and Terai regions where dependency on the monsoon system is high and climate-environment interactions are intricate. Any fluctuations in precipitation can severely affect essential potable resources and food security. As the population continues to expand in Nepal, and pressures build on access to adequate and clean water resources, there is a need for institutions to cooperate and increase the effectiveness of water management policies. This research presents a framework detailing three fundamental pillars for managing water resources to achieve sustainable water security in Nepal. These are (i) resource reliability; (ii) adequate accessibility; and (iii) effective governance. Evidence is presented which indicates that water resources are adequate in Nepal to sustain the population. In addition, aspects of climate change are having less impact than previously perceived e.g. results from trend analysis of precipitation time-series indicate a decrease in monsoon extremes and interannual variation over the last half-century. However, accessibility to clean water resources and the potential for water storage is limiting the use of these resources. This issue is particularly prevalent given the heterogeneity in spatial and temporal distributions of water. Water governance is also ineffective due to government instability and a lack of continuity in policy

  7. Robust Abundance Estimation in Animal Surveys with Imperfect Detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surveys of animal abundance are central to the conservation and management of living natural resources. However, detection uncertainty complicates the sampling process of many species. One sampling method employed to deal with this problem is depletion (or removal) surveys in whi...

  8. [Comparison of potential yield and resource utilization efficiency of main food crops in three provinces of Northeast China under climate change].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-yu; Yang, Xiao-guang; Sun, Shuang; Xie, Wen-juan

    2015-10-01

    Based on the daily data of 65 meteorological stations from 1961 to 2010 and the crop phenology data in the potential cultivation zones of thermophilic and chimonophilous crops in Northeast China, the crop potential yields were calculated through step-by-step correction method. The spatio-temporal distribution of the crop potential yields at different levels was analyzed. And then we quantified the limitations of temperature and precipitation on the crop potential yields and compared the differences in the climatic resource utilization efficiency. The results showed that the thermal potential yields of six crops (including maize, rice, spring wheat, sorghum, millet and soybean) during the period 1961-2010 deceased from west to east. The climatic potential yields of the five crops (spring wheat not included) were higher in the south than in the north. The potential yield loss rate due to temperature limitations of the six crops presented a spatial distribution pattern and was higher in the east than in the west. Among the six main crops, the yield potential loss rate due to temperature limitation of the soybean was the highest (51%), and those of the other crops fluctuated within the range of 33%-41%. The potential yield loss rate due to water limitation had an obvious regional difference, and was high in Songnen Plain and Changbai Mountains. The potential yield loss rate of spring wheat was the highest (50%), and those of the other four rainfed crops fluctuated within the range of 8%-10%. The solar energy utilization efficiency of the six main crops ranged from 0.9% to 2.7%, in the order of maize> sorghum>rice>millet>spring wheat>soybean. The precipitation utilization efficiency of the maize, sorghum, spring wheat, millet and soybean under rainfed conditions ranged from 8 to 35 kg . hm-2 . mm-1, in the order of maize>sorghum>spring wheat>millet>soybean. In those areas with lower efficiency of solar energy utilization and precipitation utilization, such as Changbai

  9. Influence of edge on predator prey distribution and abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Steven H.

    2004-03-01

    I investigated the effect of spatial configuration on distribution and abundance of invertebrate trophic groups by counting soil arthropods under boxes (21 × 9.5 cm) arranged in six different patterns that varied in the amount of edge (137-305 cm). I predicted fewer individuals from the consumer trophic group (Collembola) in box groups with greater amount of edge. This prediction was based on the assumption that predators (mites, ants, spiders, centipedes) select edge during foraging and thereby reduce abundance of the less mobile consumer group under box patterns with greater edge. Consumer abundance (Collembola) was not correlated with amount of edge. Among the predator groups, mite, ant and centipede abundance related to the amount of edge of box groups. However, in contrast to predictions, abundance of these predators was negatively correlated with amount of edge in box patterns. All Collembola predators, with the exception of ants, were less clumped in distribution than Collembola. The results are inconsistent with the view that predators used box edges to predate the less mobile consumer trophic group. Alternative explanations for the spatial patterns other than predator-prey relations include (1) a negative relationship between edge and moisture, (2) a positive relationship between edge and detritus decomposition (i.e. mycelium as food for the consumer group), and (3) a negative relationship between edge and the interstices between adjacent boxes. Landscape patterns likely affect microclimate, food, and predator-prey relations and, therefore, future experimental designs need to control these factors individually to distinguish among alternative hypotheses.

  10. Habitat, not resource availability, limits consumer production in lake ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craig, Nicola; Jones, Stuart E.; Weidel, Brian C.; Solomon, Christopher T.

    2015-01-01

    Food web productivity in lakes can be limited by dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which reduces fish production by limiting the abundance of their zoobenthic prey. We demonstrate that in a set of 10 small, north temperate lakes spanning a wide DOC gradient, these negative effects of high DOC concentrations on zoobenthos production are driven primarily by availability of warm, well-oxygenated habitat, rather than by light limitation of benthic primary production as previously proposed. There was no significant effect of benthic primary production on zoobenthos production after controlling for oxygen, even though stable isotope analysis indicated that zoobenthos do use this resource. Mean whole-lake zoobenthos production was lower in high-DOC lakes with reduced availability of oxygenated habitat, as was fish biomass. These insights improve understanding of lake food webs and inform management in the face of spatial variability and ongoing temporal change in lake DOC concentrations.

  11. Food Preferences of the Rubber Plantation Litter Beetle, Luprops tristis, a Nuisance Pest in Rubber Tree Plantations

    PubMed Central

    Sabu, Thomas K.; Vinod, K.V.

    2009-01-01

    Massive invasion of the litter dwelling beetle, Luprops tristis Fabricius (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), numbering about 0.5 to 4 million per residential building following summer showers, and their prolonged stay in a state of dormancy, make them an extreme nuisance in rubber tree plantation belts of the Western Ghats in south India. Food preference of post-dormancy adults, larvae and teneral adults stages towards tender, mature and senescent leaves were assessed in three choice and no choice leaf disc tests. All stages have strong preference towards fallen tender leaves and lowest preference towards senescent leaves indicating that leaf age is a major attribute determining food selection and food preference of L. tristis. Ready availability of the preferred, prematurely fallen, tender rubber tree leaves as a food resource is suggested as being responsible for the exceptionally high abundance of L. tristis in rubber tree plantation belts. PMID:20050783

  12. Using Geographic Information Systems and Local Food Store Data in California's Low-Income Neighborhoods to Inform Community Initiatives and Resources

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Valerie; Foerster, Susan B.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We examined conditions in California low-income neighborhoods that affect obesity to inform program planning, nutrition education, community participation, investment of resources, and involvement of stakeholders. Methods. Staff members in 18 local health departments were trained to use an online geographic information system (GIS) and conduct field surveys. GIS data were aggregated from 68 low-income neighborhoods of 1 or more census tracts. Data were collected in 2007 to 2009 from 473 grocery stores in 62 neighborhoods. Results. Thirty-one percent of neighborhoods mapped had no supermarket within any of their census tract boundaries, but health department staff members estimated that 74.2% of residents had access to a large grocery store within 1 mile. Eighty-one percent of small markets sold produce, and 67.6% offered 4 or more types of fresh vegetables. Conclusions. Small markets and corner stores in California's low-income neighborhoods often have fresh produce available for sale. Stores providing healthy options in typically underserved areas can be part of community efforts to promote healthy eating behaviors. PMID:20864701

  13. Resource partitioning in two heterochronic populations of Greek Alpine newts, Triturus alpestris veluchiensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denoël, Mathieu; Schabetsberger, Robert

    2003-04-01

    Current ecological models suggest that the maintenance of trophic polymorphisms is favoured by a different resource use in alternative morphs. Facultative paedomorphosis in newts is an example of phenotypic variation as paedomorphs retain morphological larval traits, such as gills and gill slits. The aim of this study was to find out whether heterochronic morphs occupy particular micro-habitats and focus on specific prey items. Resource partitioning was found between morphs. It concerns mainly food selection with paedomorphs preying more on plankton and less on terrestrial invertebrates than metamorphs. Some habitat specializations were also found with metamorphs being more abundant at the water surface than paedomorphs. Diel variation in habitat use of the two different morphs was minimal. Polymorphism allows Alpine newts to exploit the different resources in the lakes in order to minimize intraspecific competition, but the extent of resource partitioning depends on habitat characteristics.

  14. Relating river geomorphology to the abundance of periphyton in New Zealand rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, Jo; Hicks, Murray; Kilroy, Cathy

    2013-04-01

    Aquatic plants (including both periphyton and macrophytes) are a natural component of stream and river systems. However, abundant growth of instream plants can have detrimental impacts on the values of rivers. For example, periphyton in rivers provides basal resources for food webs and provides an important ecological service by removing dissolved nutrients and contaminants from the water column. However, high abundance of periphyton can have negative effects on habitat quality, water chemistry and biodiversity, and can reduce recreation and aesthetic values. The abundance of periphyton in rivers is influenced by a number of factors, but two key factors can be directly influenced by human activities: flow regimes and nutrient concentrations. Establishing quantitative relationships between periphyton abundance and these factors has proven to be difficult but remains an urgent priority due to the need to manage the ecological impacts of water abstraction and eutrophication of rivers worldwide. This need is particularly strong in New Zealand, where there is increasing demand for water for industry, power generation and agriculture. However, we currently have limited ability to predict the effects of changes in the mid-range flow regime on the presence/absence, abundance and composition of aquatic plants. Current water allocation limits are based on simple flow statistics, such as multiples of the median flow, but these are regional averages and can be quite unreliable on a site-specific basis. This stems largely from our limited ability to transform flow data into ecologically meaningful physical processes that directly affect plants (e.g., drag, abrasion, bed movement). The research we will present examines whether geomorphic variables, such as frequency of bed movement, are useful co-predictors in periphyton abundance-flow relationships. We collected topographic survey data and bed sediment data for 20 study reaches in the Manawatu-Wanganui region of New Zealand

  15. Niche partitioning among frugivorous fishes in response to fluctuating resources in the Amazonian floodplain forest.

    PubMed

    Correa, Sandra Bibiana; Winemiller, Kirk O

    2014-01-01

    In response to temporal changes in the quality and availability of food resources, consumers should adjust their foraging behavior in a manner that maximizes energy and nutrient intake and, when resources are limiting, minimizes dietary overlap with other consumers. Floodplains of the Amazon and its lowland tributaries are characterized by strong, yet predictable, hydrological seasonality, seasonal availability of fruits, seeds, and other food resources of terrestrial origin, and diverse assemblages of frugivorous fishes, including morphologically similar species of several characiform families. Here, we investigated how diets of frugivorous fishes in the Amazon change in response to fluctuations in food availability, and how this influences patterns of interspecific dietary overlap. We tested predictions from classical theories of foraging and resource competition by estimating changes in diet breadth and overlap across seasons. We monitored fruiting phenology to assess food availability, and surveyed local fish populations during three hydrological seasons in an oligotrophic river and an adjacent oxbow lake in the Colombian Amazon. We analyzed stomach contents and stable isotope data to evaluate temporal and interspecific relationships for dietary composition, breadth, and overlap. Diets of six species of characiform fishes representing three genera changed according to seasonal fluctuations in food availability, and patterns of diet breadth and interspecific overlap during the peak flood pulse were consistent with predictions of optimal foraging theory. During times of high fruit abundance, fishes consumed items to which their functional morphological traits seemed best adapted, potentially enhancing net energy and nutritional gains. As the annual flood pulse subsided and availability of forest food resources in aquatic habitats changed, there was not a consistent pattern of diet breadth expansion or compression. Nonetheless, shifts in both diet composition and

  16. Parasite predators exhibit a rapid numerical response to increased parasite abundance and reduce transmission to hosts

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Skylar R; Wyderko, Jennie A; Sheehy, Robert R; Belden, Lisa K; Wojdak, Jeremy M

    2013-01-01

    Predators of parasites have recently gained attention as important parts of food webs and ecosystems. In aquatic systems, many taxa consume free-living stages of parasites, and can thus reduce parasite transmission to hosts. However, the importance of the functional and numerical responses of parasite predators to disease dynamics is not well understood. We collected host–parasite–predator cooccurrence data from the field, and then experimentally manipulated predator abundance, parasite abundance, and the presence of alternative prey to determine the consequences for parasite transmission. The parasite predator of interest was a ubiquitous symbiotic oligochaete of mollusks, Chaetogaster limnaei limnaei, which inhabits host shells and consumes larval trematode parasites. Predators exhibited a rapid numerical response, where predator populations increased or decreased by as much as 60% in just 5 days, depending on the parasite:predator ratio. Furthermore, snail infection decreased substantially with increasing parasite predator densities, where the highest predator densities reduced infection by up to 89%. Predators of parasites can play an important role in regulating parasite transmission, even when infection risk is high, and especially when predators can rapidly respond numerically to resource pulses. We suggest that these types of interactions might have cascading effects on entire disease systems, and emphasize the importance of considering disease dynamics at the community level. PMID:24340184

  17. Effect of Leaf Type and Pesticide Exposure on Abundance of Bacterial Taxa in Mosquito Larval Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Muturi, Ephantus J.; Orindi, Benedict O.; Kim, Chang-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Lentic freshwater systems including those inhabited by aquatic stages of mosquitoes derive most of their carbon inputs from terrestrial organic matter mainly leaf litter. The leaf litter is colonized by microbial communities that provide the resource base for mosquito larvae. While the microbial biomass associated with different leaf species in container aquatic habitats is well documented, the taxonomic composition of these microbes and their response to common environmental stressors is poorly understood. We used indoor aquatic microcosms to determine the abundances of major taxonomic groups of bacteria in leaf litters from seven plant species and their responses to low concentrations of four pesticides with different modes of action on the target organisms; permethrin, malathion, atrazine and glyphosate. We tested the hypotheses that leaf species support different quantities of major taxonomic groups of bacteria and that exposure to pesticides at environmentally relevant concentrations alters bacterial abundance and community structure in mosquito larval habitats. We found support for both hypotheses suggesting that leaf litter identity and chemical contamination may alter the quality and quantity of mosquito food base (microbial communities) in larval habitats. The effect of pesticides on microbial communities varied significantly among leaf types, suggesting that the impact of pesticides on natural microbial communities may be highly complex and difficult to predict. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the potential for detritus composition within mosquito larval habitats and exposure to pesticides to influence the quality of mosquito larval habitats. PMID:23940789

  18. Identifying consumer-resource population dynamics using paleoecological data.

    PubMed

    Einarsson, Árni; Hauptfleisch, Ulf; Leavitt, Peter R; Ives, Anthony R

    2016-02-01

    Ecologists have long been fascinated by cyclic population fluctuations, because they suggest strong interactions between exploiter and victim species. Nonetheless, even for populations showing high-amplitude fluctuations, it is often hard to identify which species are the key drivers of the dynamics, because data are generally only available for a single species. Here, we use a paleoecological approach to investigate fluctuations in the midge population in Lake Mývatn, Iceland, which ranges over several orders of magnitude in irregular, multigeneration cycles. Previous circumstantial evidence points to consumer-resource interactions between midges and their primary food, diatoms, as the cause of these high-amplitude fluctuations. Using a pair of sediment cores from the lake, we reconstructed 26 years of dynamics of midges using egg remains and of algal groups using diagnostic pigments. We analyzed these data using statistical methods that account for both the autocorrelated nature of paleoecological data and measurement error caused by the mixing of sediment layers. The analyses revealed a signature of consumer-resource interactions in the fluctuations of midges and diatoms: diatom abundance (as inferred from biomarker pigment diatoxanthin) increased when midge abundance was low, and midge abundance (inferred from egg capsules) decreased when diatom abundance was low. Similar patterns were not found for pigments characterizing the other dominant primary producer group in the lake (cyanobacteria), subdominant algae (cryptophytes), or ubiquitous but chemically unstable biomarkers of total algal abundance (chlorophyll a); however, a significant but weaker pattern was found for the chemically stable indicator of total algal populations (β-carotene) to which diatoms are the dominant contributor. These analyses provide the first paleoecological evaluation of specific trophic interactions underlying high amplitude population fluctuations in lakes. PMID:27145611

  19. Community change in the variable resource habitat of the abyssal northeast Pacific.

    PubMed

    Ruhl, Henry A

    2008-04-01

    Research capable of differentiating resource-related community-level change from random ecological drift in natural systems has been limited. Evidence for nonrandom, resource-driven change is presented here for an epibenthic megafauna community in the abyssal northeast Pacific Ocean from 1989 to 2004. The sinking particulate organic carbon food supply is linked not only to species-specific abundances, but also to species composition and equitability. Shifts in rank abundance distributions (RADs) and evenness, from more to less equitable, correlated to increased food supply during La Niña phases of the El Niño Southern Oscillation. The results suggest that each taxon exhibited a differential response to a sufficiently low dimension resource, which led to changes in community composition and equitability. Thus the shifts were not likely due to random ecological drift. Although the community can undergo population-level variations of one or more orders of magnitude, and the shape of the RADs was variable, the organization retained a significant consistency, providing evidence of limits for such changes. The growing evidence for limited resource-driven changes in RADs and evenness further emphasizes the potential importance of temporally variable disequilibria in understanding why communities have certain basic attributes. PMID:18481524

  20. Food provisioning alters infection dynamics in populations of a wild rodent.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Kristian M; Henttonen, Heikki; Hirvelä-Koski, Varpu; Kipar, Anja; Mappes, Tapio; Stuart, Peter; Huitu, Otso

    2015-10-01

    While pathogens are often assumed to limit the growth of wildlife populations, experimental evidence for their effects is rare. A lack of food resources has been suggested to enhance the negative effects of pathogen infection on host populations, but this theory has received little investigation. We conducted a replicated two-factor enclosure experiment, with introduction of the bacterium Bordetella bronchiseptica and food supplementation, to evaluate the individual and interactive effects of pathogen infection and food availability on vole populations during a boreal winter. We show that prior to bacteria introduction, vole populations were limited by food availability. Bordetella bronchiseptica introduction then reduced population growth and abundance, but contrary to predictions, primarily in food supplemented populations. Infection prevalence and pathological changes in vole lungs were most common in food supplemented populations, and are likely to have resulted from increased congregation and bacteria transmission around feeding stations. Bordetella bronchiseptica-infected lungs often showed protozoan co-infection (consistent with Hepatozoon erhardovae), together with more severe inflammatory changes. Using a multidisciplinary approach, this study demonstrates a complex picture of interactions and underlying mechanisms, leading to population-level effects. Our results highlight the potential for food provisioning to markedly influence disease processes in wildlife mammal populations. PMID:26446813

  1. Herpes - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/pregnancy/complications- ...

  2. Abandoned pastoral settlements provide concentrations of resources for savanna birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söderström, Bo; Reid, Robin S.

    2010-03-01

    Knowledge is poor of how fertilization affects birds in grasslands. We investigated the impact on birds of abandoned pastoral settlements that historically received very high levels of livestock dung. A total of 28 abandoned settlements and 74 landscape controls - in Koyake Group Ranch and Maasai Mara National Reserve in Kenya - were surveyed for birds during the wet and/or dry season. Our results showed that bird species richness and total abundance increased within 200 m of abandoned pastoral settlements, particularly during the dry season when foraging resources on the savanna are limited. The high concentrations of nutrients inside abandoned settlements favoured the abundance of Diptera and Coleoptera, as shown by invertebrate surveys performed during the dry season on a subset of 32 sites. Both total numbers and dry biomass of these two invertebrate orders were higher on abandoned settlements in comparison with the surrounding landscape. We conclude that higher fertilization levels cause a temporal and spatial redistribution of birds on the savanna. Livestock fertilization and bird abundance are probably linked through an increase in abundance of invertebrate food upon which birds feed in an opportunistic fashion.

  3. Space Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Mary Fae (Editor); McKay, David S. (Editor); Duke, Michael S. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    ) Social Concerns. Although many of the included papers got their impetus from workshop discussions, most have been written since then, thus allowing the authors to base new applications on established information and tested technology. All these papers have been updated to include the authors' current work. This overview, drafted by faculty fellow Jim Burke, describes the findings of the summer study, as participants explored the use of space resources in the development of future space activities and defined the necessary research and development that must precede the practical utilization of these resources. Space resources considered included lunar soil, oxygen derived from lunar soil, material retrieved from near-Earth asteroids, abundant sunlight, low gravity, and high vacuum. The study participants analyzed the direct use of these resources, the potential demand for products from them, the techniques for retrieving and processing space resources, the necessary infrastructure, and the economic tradeoffs. This is certainly not the first report to urge the utilization of space resources in the development of space activities. In fact, Space Resources may be seen as the third of a trilogy of NASA Special Publications reporting such ideas arising from similar studies. It has been preceded by Space Settlements: A Design Study (NASA SP-413) and Space Resources and Space Settlements (NASA SP-428). And other, contemporaneous reports have responded to the same themes. The National Commission on Space, led by Thomas Paine, in Pioneering the Space Frontier, and the NASA task force led by astronaut Sally Ride, in Leadership and America's Future in Space, also emphasize expansion of the space Infrastructure; more detailed exploration of the Moon, Mars, and asteroids; an early start on the development of the technology necessary for using space resources; and systematic development of the skills necessary for long-term human presence in space. Our report does not represent any

  4. Global abundance of planktonic heterotrophic protists in the deep ocean.

    PubMed

    Pernice, Massimo C; Forn, Irene; Gomes, Ana; Lara, Elena; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Arrieta, Jesus M; del Carmen Garcia, Francisca; Hernando-Morales, Victor; MacKenzie, Roy; Mestre, Mireia; Sintes, Eva; Teira, Eva; Valencia, Joaquin; Varela, Marta M; Vaqué, Dolors; Duarte, Carlos M; Gasol, Josep M; Massana, Ramon

    2015-03-01

    The dark ocean is one of the largest biomes on Earth, with critical roles in organic matter remineralization and global carbon sequestration. Despite its recognized importance, little is known about some key microbial players, such as the community of heterotrophic protists (HP), which are likely the main consumers of prokaryotic biomass. To investigate this microbial component at a global scale, we determined their abundance and biomass in deepwater column samples from the Malaspina 2010 circumnavigation using a combination of epifluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. HP were ubiquitously found at all depths investigated down to 4000 m. HP abundances decreased with depth, from an average of 72±19 cells ml(-1) in mesopelagic waters down to 11±1 cells ml(-1) in bathypelagic waters, whereas their total biomass decreased from 280±46 to 50±14 pg C ml(-1). The parameters that better explained the variance of HP abundance were depth and prokaryote abundance, and to lesser extent oxygen concentration. The generally good correlation with prokaryotic abundance suggested active grazing of HP on prokaryotes. On a finer scale, the prokaryote:HP abundance ratio varied at a regional scale, and sites with the highest ratios exhibited a larger contribution of fungi molecular signal. Our study is a step forward towards determining the relationship between HP and their environment, unveiling their importance as players in the dark ocean's microbial food web. PMID:25290506

  5. Anthropogenic resource subsidies determine space use by Australian arid zone dingoes: an improved resource selection modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Newsome, Thomas M; Ballard, Guy-Anthony; Dickman, Christopher R; Fleming, Peter J S; Howden, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) were introduced to Australia and became feral at least 4,000 years ago. We hypothesized that dingoes, being of domestic origin, would be adaptable to anthropogenic resource subsidies and that their space use would be affected by the dispersion of those resources. We tested this by analyzing Resource Selection Functions (RSFs) developed from GPS fixes (locations) of dingoes in arid central Australia. Using Generalized Linear Mixed-effect Models (GLMMs), we investigated resource relationships for dingoes that had access to abundant food near mine facilities, and for those that did not. From these models, we predicted the probability of dingo occurrence in relation to anthropogenic resource subsidies and other habitat characteristics over ∼ 18,000 km(2). Very small standard errors and subsequent pervasively high P-values of results will become more important as the size of data sets, such as our GPS tracking logs, increases. Therefore, we also investigated methods to minimize the effects of serial and spatio-temporal correlation among samples and unbalanced study designs. Using GLMMs, we accounted for some of the correlation structure of GPS animal tracking data; however, parameter standard errors remained very small and all predictors were highly significant. Consequently, we developed an alternative approach that allowed us to review effect sizes at different spatial scales and determine which predictors were sufficiently ecologically meaningful to include in final RSF models. We determined that the most important predictor for dingo occurrence around mine sites was distance to the refuse facility. Away from mine sites, close proximity to human-provided watering points was predictive of dingo dispersion as were other landscape factors including palaeochannels, rocky rises and elevated drainage depressions. Our models demonstrate that anthropogenically supplemented food and water can alter dingo-resource relationships. The spatial

  6. Anthropogenic Resource Subsidies Determine Space Use by Australian Arid Zone Dingoes: An Improved Resource Selection Modelling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Newsome, Thomas M.; Ballard, Guy-Anthony; Dickman, Christopher R.; Fleming, Peter J. S.; Howden, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) were introduced to Australia and became feral at least 4,000 years ago. We hypothesized that dingoes, being of domestic origin, would be adaptable to anthropogenic resource subsidies and that their space use would be affected by the dispersion of those resources. We tested this by analyzing Resource Selection Functions (RSFs) developed from GPS fixes (locations) of dingoes in arid central Australia. Using Generalized Linear Mixed-effect Models (GLMMs), we investigated resource relationships for dingoes that had access to abundant food near mine facilities, and for those that did not. From these models, we predicted the probability of dingo occurrence in relation to anthropogenic resource subsidies and other habitat characteristics over ∼ 18,000 km2. Very small standard errors and subsequent pervasively high P-values of results will become more important as the size of data sets, such as our GPS tracking logs, increases. Therefore, we also investigated methods to minimize the effects of serial and spatio-temporal correlation among samples and unbalanced study designs. Using GLMMs, we accounted for some of the correlation structure of GPS animal tracking data; however, parameter standard errors remained very small and all predictors were highly significant. Consequently, we developed an alternative approach that allowed us to review effect sizes at different spatial scales and determine which predictors were sufficiently ecologically meaningful to include in final RSF models. We determined that the most important predictor for dingo occurrence around mine sites was distance to the refuse facility. Away from mine sites, close proximity to human-provided watering points was predictive of dingo dispersion as were other landscape factors including palaeochannels, rocky rises and elevated drainage depressions. Our models demonstrate that anthropogenically supplemented food and water can alter dingo-resource relationships. The spatial

  7. Solar and stellar photospheric abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allende Prieto, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    The determination of photospheric abundances in late-type stars from spectroscopic observations is a well-established field, built on solid theoretical foundations. Improving those foundations to refine the accuracy of the inferred abundances has proven challenging, but progress has been made. In parallel, developments on instrumentation, chiefly regarding multi-object spectroscopy, have been spectacular, and a number of projects are collecting large numbers of observations for stars across the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, promising important advances in our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. After providing a brief description of the basic physics and input data involved in the analysis of stellar spectra, a review is made of the analysis steps, and the available tools to cope with large observational efforts. The paper closes with a quick overview of relevant ongoing and planned spectroscopic surveys, and highlights of recent research on photospheric abundances.

  8. Resources and energetics determined dinosaur maximal size

    PubMed Central

    McNab, Brian K.

    2009-01-01

    Some dinosaurs reached masses that were ≈8 times those of the largest, ecologically equivalent terrestrial mammals. The factors most responsible for setting the maximal body size of vertebrates are resource quality and quantity, as modified by the mobility of the consumer, and the vertebrate's rate of energy expenditure. If the food intake of the largest herbivorous mammals defines the maximal rate at which plant resources can be consumed in terrestrial environments and if that limit applied to dinosaurs, then the large size of sauropods occurred because they expended energy in the field at rates extrapolated from those of varanid lizards, which are ≈22% of the rates in mammals and 3.6 times the rates of other lizards of equal size. Of 2 species having the same energy income, the species that uses the most energy for mass-independent maintenance of necessity has a smaller size. The larger mass found in some marine mammals reflects a greater resource abundance in marine environments. The presumptively low energy expenditures of dinosaurs potentially permitted Mesozoic communities to support dinosaur biomasses that were up to 5 times those found in mammalian herbivores in Africa today. The maximal size of predatory theropods was ≈8 tons, which if it reflected the maximal capacity to consume vertebrates in terrestrial environments, corresponds in predatory mammals to a maximal mass less than a ton, which is what is observed. Some coelurosaurs may have evolved endothermy in association with the evolution of feathered insulation and a small mass. PMID:19581600

  9. Foraging and refuge use by a pond snail: Effects of physiological state, predators, and resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojdak, Jeremy M.

    2009-09-01

    The costs and benefits of anti-predator behavioral responses should be functions of the actual risk of predation, the availability of the prey's resources, and the physiological state of the prey. For example, a food-stressed individual risks starvation when hiding from predators, while a well-fed organism can better afford to hide (and pay the cost of not foraging). Similarly, the benefits of resource acquisition are probably highest for the prey in the poorest state, while there may be diminishing returns for prey nearing satiation. Empirical studies of state-dependent behavior are only beginning, however, and few studies have investigated interactions between all three potentially important factors. Here I present the results of a laboratory experiment where I manipulated the physiological state of pond snails ( Physa gyrina), the abundance of algal resources, and predation cues ( Belostoma flumineum waterbugs consuming snails) in a full factorial design to assess their direct effects on snail behavior and indirect effects on algal biomass. On average, snails foraged more when resources were abundant, and when predators were absent. Snails also foraged more when previously exposed to physiological stress. Snails spent more time at the water's surface (a refuging behavior) in the presence of predation cues on average, but predation, resource levels, and prey state had interactive effects on refuge use. There was a consistent positive trait-mediated indirect effect of predators on algal biomass, across all resource levels and prey states.

  10. Food poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... growing or shipping can contain animal or human waste. Food may be handled in an unsafe way during preparation in grocery stores, restaurants, or homes. Food poisoning can occur after eating or drinking: ...

  11. Food labeling

    MedlinePlus

    ... foods that claim to be nondairy (such as coffee whiteners) FDA-approved color additives Sources of protein ... contain no significant amounts of any nutrients Plain coffee and tea Ready-to-eat food prepared mostly ...

  12. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling foods Salt, to preserve meats "Indirect" ... this list are: guar gum, sugar, salt, and vinegar. The list is reviewed regularly. Some substances that ...

  13. Food poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... germs get into the food, it is called contamination. This can happen in different ways: Meat or ... means the food has been treated to prevent contamination) Undercooked meats or eggs Water from a well ...

  14. Coronal abundances and their variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saba, Julia L. R.

    1995-01-01

    This contract supports the investigation of elemental abundances in the solar corona, principally through analysis of high-resolution soft X-ray spectra from the Flat Crystal Spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission. The goals of the study are a characterization of the mean values of relative abundances of elements accessible in the FCS data, and information on the extent and circumstances of their variability. This report is a summation of the data analysis and reporting activities which occurred during the period of 15 April 1994 to 15 April 1995.

  15. The solar abundance of beryllium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, J. E.; Aller, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    The solar abundance of beryllium is deduced from high-resolution Kitt Peak observations of the 3130.43- and 3131.08-A lines of Be II interpreted by the method of spectrum synthesis. The results are in good agreement with those previously obtained by Grevesse (1968) and by Hauge and Engvold (1968) and indicate that in the photospheric layers, beryllium is depleted below the chondritic value by a factor of about two. It is found that the beryllium abundance is equal to logN(Be)/N(H) + 12 = 1.08 plus or minus 0.05.

  16. Chemical Abundances of Symbiotic Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gałan, C.; Mikołajewska, J.; Hinkle, K. H.; Joyce, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    High resolution (R ˜ 50000), near-IR spectra were used to measure photospheric abundances of CNO and elements around the iron peak for 24 symbiotic giants. Spectrum synthesis was employed using local thermal equilibrium and hydrostatic model atmospheres. The metallicities are distributed in a wide range with maximum around [Fe/H] ˜-0.4 - - 0.3 dex. Enrichment in 14N indicates that all the sample giants have experienced the first dredge-up. The relative abundance of [Ti/Fe] is generally large in red symbiotic systems.

  17. Coronal Abundances and Their Variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saba, Julia L. R.

    1996-01-01

    This contract supported the investigation of elemental abundances in the solar corona, principally through analysis of high-resolution soft X-ray spectra from the Flat Crystal Spectrometer on NASA's Solar Maximum Mission. The goals of the study were a characterization of the mean values of relative abundances of elements accessible in the FCS data, and information on the extent and circumstances of their variability. This is the Final Report, summarizing the data analysis and reporting activities which occurred during the period of performance, June 1993 - December 1996.

  18. SOLAR MODELS WITH REVISED ABUNDANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, S. L.; Li, T. D.; Yang, W. M.; Li, L. H.

    2011-04-20

    We present new solar models in which we use the latest low abundances and further include the effects of rotation, magnetic fields, and extra-mixing processes. We assume that the extra-element mixing can be treated as a diffusion process, with the diffusion coefficient depending mainly on the solar internal configuration of rotation and magnetic fields. We find that such models can well reproduce the observed solar rotation profile in the radiative region. Furthermore, the proposed models can match the seismic constraints better than the standard solar models, also when these include the latest abundances, but neglect the effects of rotation and magnetic fields.

  19. [Population dynamics of thrushes and seasonal resource partition].

    PubMed

    Burskiĭ, O V; Demidova, E Iu; Morkovin, A A

    2014-01-01

    We studied seasonal population dynamics in birds using four thrush species from the Yenisei middle taiga region as an example. Long-term data on bird route censuses, capture-mark-recapture, and nest observa- tions were incorporated in the analysis. Particularly, methodological problems that complicate a direct comparison between assessed numbers at different phases of the annual cycle are considered. The integrated analysis of the results allowed comparing changes in numbers, energy expenditure, age structure, migrating status, and density distribution of selected populations during the snowless period and relating them to seasonal changes in food resource abundance. Thrush population numbers within the breeding range, and their energy consumption in the Yenisei middle taiga proportionately reflect the seasonal change in abundance of food resources. The compliance between resource intake and carrying capacity of the environment is attained by: timing of arrival and departure regarding to the species' range of tolerance; change in numbers as a result of reproduction and mortality; change in numbers due to habitat changes and long-distance movements; increasing energetic expenditures during reproduction and molt; timing, intensity and replication of nesting attempts; timing of molt and proportion of molting individuals in a population; individual variations of the annual cycle. Reproductive growth of local bird populations is not fast enough to catch up with seasonal growth of ecosystems productivity. Superabundance of invertebrates at the peak of the season offers a temporal niche which, on the one hand, is suitable for species capable of diet switching, while, on the other hand, may be used by specialized consumers, namely tropical migrants for whom, at high resource level, a shortened breeding period suffices. PMID:25786310

  20. Packaged Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    After studies found that many elderly persons don't eat adequately because they can't afford to, they have limited mobility, or they just don't bother, Innovated Foods, Inc. and JSC developed shelf-stable foods processed and packaged for home preparation with minimum effort. Various food-processing techniques and delivery systems are under study and freeze dried foods originally used for space flight are being marketed. (See 77N76140)

  1. Food jags

    MedlinePlus

    Refusal to eat; Fear of new foods ... caregiver, it is your role to provide healthy food and drink choices. You can also help your ... are full. Children should be allowed to choose foods based on their likes and dislikes and their ...

  2. Food Scorecard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Michael; Wilson, Wendy

    The importance of establishing good eating habits in youth as a means for laying the foundation of health in later life is discussed. This booklet contains charts that list nutritional scores for many common foods. These scores are measures of the overall nutritional content and value of the foods. Foods receive points for protein; vitamins A, B-2…

  3. Modeling trophic resource availability for the first human settlers of Europe: the case of Atapuerca TD6.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gómez, Guillermo; Rodríguez, Jesús; Martín-González, Jesús Ángel; Goikoetxea, Idoia; Mateos, Ana

    2013-06-01

    Food resource availability strongly influences the survival opportunities of all organisms. The effect of animal food resource availability on the survival and dispersal of hominin populations is hotly debated. In this article, we present a mathematical model that provides estimations of the maximum and minimum available resources for secondary consumers in a palaeocommunity. This model provides insights into the intensity of competition and the available niche space for hominins in Europe during the early Galerian (1.2-0.8 Ma). Published data from the Atapuerca TD6 assemblage were used in combination with the model to investigate trophic dynamics and resource availability for a Homo antecessor population 800,000 years ago. The effect on our results of the possible presence at Atapuerca of some large carnivores not recorded in the fossil assemblage is also evaluated. Results indicate the existence of a rich ecosystem at Atapuerca at the end of the Early Pleistocene. Secondary production was abundant enough to maintain a hunter-gatherer population and a rich carnivore guild more diverse than that recorded in the TD6 assemblage. Based on these results, the practice of cannibalism by H. antecessor cannot be explained by a long-term scarcity of resources. High food availability at TD6 implies a low to moderate level of competition for resources between carnivores and humans. According to this interpretation, an empty niche for a highly carnivorous omnivore existed in Europe during the early Galerian, and it was successfully exploited by Homo. PMID:23541385

  4. [Food allergies].

    PubMed

    Fuchs, M

    1998-09-21

    Food allergy must have an immunological background. Till recently it was restricted only to the IgE mechanism, today we include also non-atopical reactions (in particular type III and IV according to Coombs and Gell). We speak of probable and possible food allergies. By differential diagnosis we must differentiate food allergies from food intolerance (e.g. enzyme deficiencies), food aversions (psychic factor) as well as toxic and pharmacological effects. There are more than 10% undesirable reactions in humans after ingestion of food but only every fifth (some 2% of the population have food allergies. The diagnosis is based above all on the case-history, subsequent elimination and exposure tests and examination by allergological tests, or examination of specific immunoglobulins E (IgE). The diagnosis is not always unequivocal--it is influenced among others by a different specificity and sensitivity of food antigens (allergens). The manifestations of food allergy are found at the site of action (mouth, GIT) or are systemic (respiration, cardiovascular system, skin etc.). A special type of food allergy is the oral alimentary syndrome, i.e. food allergy crossed with pollen hypersensitivity, described in the great majority of subjects sensitive to pollen. Food allergy has its specific age-conditioned and geographical features. In childhood sensitivity to the protein of cows milk, egg white but also soya or flour predominates, with advancing age allergies to nuts, fruit, vegetables, spices, cheese, sea foods increase. Food allergy can be a very early allergy (manifested already in infant age) but it is one of the few allergies which can also recede (incl. laboratory tests). Treatment is dietetic, the period of dietetic treatment depends on the type of food and the patient's age, not infrequently it must be lifelong. If diet does not suffice, preventive medication is used (sodium cromoglycate) or symptomatic (antihistamine preparations, corticosteroids, external agents

  5. Local and latitudinal variation in abundance: the mechanisms shaping the distribution of an ecosystem engineer

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Angélica L.; Crawford, Kerri M.; Sanders, Nathan J.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological processes that determine the abundance of species within ecological communities vary across space and time. These scale-dependent processes are especially important when they affect key members of a community, such as ecosystem engineers that create shelter and food resources for other species. Yet, few studies have examined the suite of processes that shape the abundance of ecosystem engineers. Here, we evaluated the relative influence of temporal variation, local processes, and latitude on the abundance of an engineering insect—a rosette-galling midge, Rhopalomyia solidaginis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Over a period of 3–5 years, we studied the density and size of galls across a suite of local experiments that manipulated genetic variation, soil nutrient availability, and the removal of other insects from the host plant, Solidago altissima (tall goldenrod). We also surveyed gall density within a single growing season across a 2,300 km latitudinal transect of goldenrod populations in the eastern United States. At the local scale, we found that host-plant genotypic variation was the best predictor of rosette gall density and size within a single year. We found that the removal of other insect herbivores resulted in an increase in gall density and size. The amendment of soil nutrients for four years had no effect on gall density, but galls were smaller in carbon-added plots compared to control and nitrogen additions. Finally, we observed that gall density varied several fold across years. At the biogeographic scale, we observed that the density of rosette gallers peaked at mid-latitudes. Using meta-analytic approaches, we found that the effect size of time, followed by host-plant genetic variation and latitude were the best predictors of gall density. Taken together, our study provides a unique comparison of multiple factors across different spatial and temporal scales that govern engineering insect herbivore density. PMID:23862102

  6. Home Food Preservation Training for Extension Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goard, Linnette Mizer; Hill, Melinda; Shumaker, Katharine; Warrix, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    During times of economic downturn, there has been an increased interest in home food preservation. As the primary resource for current research-based recommendations, a team of Extension Family and Consumer Sciences educators with specialization in food safety and food preservation responded to this demand by developing a standardized food…

  7. Food Stamps. Learning Packet No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Bar Association, Washington, DC. Clearinghouse for Offender Literacy Programs.

    This package of instructional materials is designed to aid adults in prison to perform the functional skill of applying for food stamps. The materials consist of instructions for teachers, a sample application for food stamps, a student's work sheet and answer sheet, vocabulary flash cards, and resource materials on food stamps. (MKM)

  8. The Early Years: Food for Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    Children may not be aware of the origin of much of their food, especially if they eat mostly processed foods. Schools that operate a garden are able to teach children how common foods are parts of plants. This column discusses resources and science topics related to students in grades preK to 2. In this month's issue students focus on…

  9. Medication Interactions: Food, Supplements and Other Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Medication Interactions: Food, Supplements and Other Drugs Updated:Oct 15,2014 ... celebrations when eating habits tend to change. Common Medication Interactions Drugs with Food and Beverages Food and drinks don’t mix ...

  10. THE SOLAR FLARE IRON ABUNDANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, K. J. H.; Dennis, B. R. E-mail: Brian.R.Dennis@nasa.gov

    2012-03-20

    The abundance of iron is measured from emission line complexes at 6.65 keV (Fe line) and 8 keV (Fe/Ni line) in RHESSI X-ray spectra during solar flares. Spectra during long-duration flares with steady declines were selected, with an isothermal assumption and improved data analysis methods over previous work. Two spectral fitting models give comparable results, viz., an iron abundance that is lower than previous coronal values but higher than photospheric values. In the preferred method, the estimated Fe abundance is A(Fe) = 7.91 {+-} 0.10 (on a logarithmic scale, with A(H) = 12) or 2.6 {+-} 0.6 times the photospheric Fe abundance. Our estimate is based on a detailed analysis of 1898 spectra taken during 20 flares. No variation from flare to flare is indicated. This argues for a fractionation mechanism similar to quiet-Sun plasma. The new value of A(Fe) has important implications for radiation loss curves, which are estimated.

  11. Actinide abundances in ordinary chondrites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagee, B.; Bernatowicz, T.J.; Podosek, F.A.; Johnson, M.L.; Burnett, D.S.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of 244Pu fission Xe, U, Th, and light REE (LREE) abundances, along with modal petrographic determinations of phosphate abundances, were carried out on equilibrated ordinary chondrites in order to define better the solar system Pu abundance and to determine the degree of variation of actinide and LREE abundances. Our data permit comparison of the directly measured Pu/ U ratio with that determined indirectly as (Pu/Nd) ?? (Nd/U) assuming that Pu behaves chemically as a LREE. Except for Guaren??a, and perhaps H chondrites in general, Pu concentrations are similar to that determined previously for St. Se??verin, although less precise because of higher trapped Xe contents. Trapped 130Xe 136Xe ratios appear to vary from meteorite to meteorite, but, relative to AVCC, all are similar in the sense of having less of the interstellar heavy Xe found in carbonaceous chondrite acid residues. The Pu/U and Pu/Nd ratios are consistent with previous data for St. Se??verin, but both tend to be slightly higher than those inferred from previous data on Angra dos Reis. Although significant variations exist, the distribution of our Th/U ratios, along with other precise isotope dilution data for ordinary chondrites, is rather symmetric about the CI chondrite value; however, actinide/(LREE) ratios are systematically lower than the CI value. Variations in actinide or LREE absolute and relative abundances are interpreted as reflecting differences in the proportions and/or compositions of more primitive components (chondrules and CAI materials?) incorporated into different regions of the ordinary chondrite parent bodies. The observed variations of Th/U, Nd/U, or Ce/U suggest that measurements of Pu/U on any single equilibrated ordinary chondrite specimen, such as St. Se??verin, should statistically be within ??20-30% of the average solar system value, although it is also clear that anomalous samples exist. ?? 1990.

  12. Natural Resources Education Notebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Eldon C.

    This notebook was developed cooperatively by the United States Soil Conservation Service and Iowa State University to be used by teachers in providing instruction regarding certain aspects of natural resources. It includes four sections which provide: (1) an instructional plan about the conservation provisions of the 1985 Food Security Act; (2) an…

  13. Course Resource Lists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    England, Robert G.

    The Mountain-Plains Course Resource List is presented by job title for 26 curriculum areas. For each area the printed materials, audiovisual aids, and equipment needed for the course are listed. The 26 curriculum areas are: mathematics skills, communication skills, office education, lodging services, food services, marketing and distribution,…

  14. Can Individual and Social Patterns of Resource Use Buffer Animal Populations against Resource Decline?

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Sam C.; Lindenmayer, David B.; Wood, Jeff T.; McBurney, Lachlan; Blair, David; Blyton, Michaela D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Species in many ecosystems are facing declines of key resources. If we are to understand and predict the effects of resource loss on natural populations, we need to understand whether and how the way animals use resources changes under resource decline. We investigated how the abundance of arboreal marsupials varies in response to a critical resource, hollow-bearing trees. Principally, we asked what mechanisms mediate the relationship between resources and abundance? Do animals use a greater or smaller proportion of the remaining resource, and is there a change in cooperative resource use (den sharing), as the availability of hollow trees declines? Analyses of data from 160 sites surveyed from 1997 to 2007 showed that hollow tree availability was positively associated with abundance of the mountain brushtail possum, the agile antechinus and the greater glider. The abundance of Leadbeater’s possum was primarily influenced by forest age. Notably, the relationship between abundance and hollow tree availability was significantly less than 1∶1 for all species. This was due primarily to a significant increase by all species in the proportional use of hollow-bearing trees where the abundance of this resource was low. The resource-sharing response was weaker and inconsistent among species. Two species, the mountain brushtail possum and the agile antechinus, showed significant but contrasting relationships between the number of animals per occupied tree and hollow tree abundance. The discrepancies between the species can be explained partly by differences in several aspects of the species’ biology, including body size, types of hollows used and social behaviour as it relates to hollow use. Our results show that individual and social aspects of resource use are not always static in response to resource availability and support the need to account for dynamic resource use patterns in predictive models of animal distribution and abundance. PMID:23320100

  15. Can individual and social patterns of resource use buffer animal populations against resource decline?

    PubMed

    Banks, Sam C; Lindenmayer, David B; Wood, Jeff T; McBurney, Lachlan; Blair, David; Blyton, Michaela D J

    2013-01-01

    Species in many ecosystems are facing declines of key resources. If we are to understand and predict the effects of resource loss on natural populations, we need to understand whether and how the way animals use resources changes under resource decline. We investigated how the abundance of arboreal marsupials varies in response to a critical resource, hollow-bearing trees. Principally, we asked what mechanisms mediate the relationship between resources and abundance? Do animals use a greater or smaller proportion of the remaining resource, and is there a change in cooperative resource use (den sharing), as the availability of hollow trees declines? Analyses of data from 160 sites surveyed from 1997 to 2007 showed that hollow tree availability was positively associated with abundance of the mountain brushtail possum, the agile antechinus and the greater glider. The abundance of Leadbeater's possum was primarily influenced by forest age. Notably, the relationship between abundance and hollow tree availability was significantly less than 1:1 for all species. This was due primarily to a significant increase by all species in the proportional use of hollow-bearing trees where the abundance of this resource was low. The resource-sharing response was weaker and inconsistent among species. Two species, the mountain brushtail possum and the agile antechinus, showed significant but contrasting relationships between the number of animals per occupied tree and hollow tree abundance. The discrepancies between the species can be explained partly by differences in several aspects of the species' biology, including body size, types of hollows used and social behaviour as it relates to hollow use. Our results show that individual and social aspects of resource use are not always static in response to resource availability and support the need to account for dynamic resource use patterns in predictive models of animal distribution and abundance. PMID:23320100

  16. Shorebird migration in the face of climate change: potential shifts in migration phenology and resource availability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stutzman, Ryan J.; Fontaine, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    Changes in temperature and seasonality resulting from climate change are heterogeneous, potentially altering important sources of natural selection acting on species phenology. Some species have apparently adapted to climate change but the ability of most species to adapt remains unknown. The life history strategies of migratory animals are dictated by seasonal factors, which makes these species particularly vulnerable to heterogeneous changes in climate and phenology. Here, we examine the phenology of migratory shorebirds, their habitats, and primary food resources, and we hypothesize how climate change may affect migrants through predicted changes in phenology. Daily abundance of shorebirds at stopover sites was correlated with local phenology and peaked immediately prior to peaks in invertebrate food resources. A close relationship between migrant and invertebrate phenology indicates that shorebirds may be vulnerable to changes in seasonality driven by climate change. It is possible that shifts in migrant and invertebrate phenology will be congruent in magnitude and direction, but because migration phenology is dependent on a suite of ecological factors, any response is likely to occur at a larger temporal scale and may lag behind the response of invertebrate food resources. The resulting lack of sufficient access to food at stopover habitats may cause migrants to extend migration and have cascading effects throughout their life cycle. If the heterogeneous nature of climate change results in uneven changes in phenology between migrants and their prey, it may threaten the long-term viability of migratory populations

  17. Consumer-Resource Dynamics: Quantity, Quality, and Allocation

    PubMed Central

    Getz, Wayne M.; Owen-Smith, Norman

    2011-01-01

    Background The dominant paradigm for modeling the complexities of interacting populations and food webs is a system of coupled ordinary differential equations in which the state of each species, population, or functional trophic group is represented by an aggregated numbers-density or biomass-density variable. Here, using the metaphysiological approach to model consumer-resource interactions, we formulate a two-state paradigm that represents each population or group in a food web in terms of both its quantity and quality. Methodology and Principal Findings The formulation includes an allocation function controlling the relative proportion of extracted resources to increasing quantity versus elevating quality. Since lower quality individuals senesce more rapidly than higher quality individuals, an optimal allocation proportion exists and we derive an expression for how this proportion depends on population parameters that determine the senescence rate, the per-capita mortality rate, and the effects of these rates on the dynamics of the quality variable. We demonstrate that oscillations do not arise in our model from quantity-quality interactions alone, but require consumer-resource interactions across trophic levels that can be stabilized through judicious resource allocation strategies. Analysis and simulations provide compelling arguments for the necessity of populations to evolve quality-related dynamics in the form of maternal effects, storage or other appropriate structures. They also indicate that resource allocation switching between investments in abundance versus quality provide a powerful mechanism for promoting the stability of consumer-resource interactions in seasonally forcing environments. Conclusions/Significance Our simulations show that physiological inefficiencies associated with this switching can be favored by selection due to the diminished exposure of inefficient consumers to strong oscillations associated with the well-known paradox of

  18. Quantifying food waste in Hawaii's food supply chain.

    PubMed

    Loke, Matthew K; Leung, PingSun

    2015-12-01

    Food waste highlights a considerable loss of resources invested in the food supply chain. While it receives a lot of attention in the global context, the assessment of food waste is deficient at the sub-national level, owing primarily to an absence of quality data. This article serves to explore that gap and aims to quantify the edible weight, economic value, and calorie equivalent of food waste in Hawaii. The estimates are based on available food supply data for Hawaii and the US Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) loss-adjusted food availability data for defined food groups at three stages of the food supply chain. At its highest aggregated level, we estimate Hawaii's food waste generation at 237,122 t or 26% of available food supply in 2010. This is equivalent to food waste of 161.5 kg per person, per annum. Additionally, this food waste is valued at US$1.025 billion annually or the equivalent of 502.6 billion calories. It is further evident that the occurrence of food waste by all three measures is highest at the consumer stage, followed by the distribution and retail stage, and is lowest at the post-harvest and packing stage. The findings suggest that any meaningful intervention to reduce food waste in Hawaii should target the consumer, and distribution and retail stages of the food supply chain. Interventions at the consumer stage should focus on the two protein groups, as well as fresh fruits and fresh vegetables. PMID:26446198

  19. Coronal abundances and their variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saba, Julia L. R.

    1994-01-01

    This contract supports the investigation of elemental abundances in the solar corona, principally through analysis of high-resolution software X-ray spectra from the Flat Crystal Spectrometer on NASA's Solar Maximum Mission. The goals of the study are a characterization of the mean values of relative abundances of elements accessible in the FCS data, and information on the extent and circumstances of their variability. This report is a summation of the data analysis and reporting activities which occurred since the last report, submitted two months early, in April 1994, to facilitate evaluation of the first year's progress for contract renewal. Hence this report covers the period 15 April 1994 - 15 December 1994. A list of publications resulting from this research is included.

  20. Chironomidae feeding habits in different habitats from a Neotropical floodplain: exploring patterns in aquatic food webs.

    PubMed

    Butakka, C M M; Ragonha, F H; Train, S; Pinha, G D; Takeda, A M

    2016-02-01

    Ecological studies on food webs have considerably increased in recent decades, especially in aquatic communities. Because Chironomidae family are highly specious, occurring in almost all aquatic habitats is considered organisms-key to initiate studies on ecological relationships and trophic webs. We tested the hypothesis that the diversity of the morphospecies diet reflects differences on both the food items available among habitats and the preferences of larval feeding. We analyzed the gut content of the seven most abundant Chironomidae morphospecies of the different habitats from the Upper Paraná River. We categorized the food items found into algae, fungal spores, fragments of plants, algae and animal fragments and sponge spicules. We observed the algae predominance in the gut content of morphospecies from lakes. Considering the different regions from each lake, we registered the highest food abundance in the littoral regions in relation to the central regions. From the variety of feeding habits (number of item kinds), we classified Chironomus strenzkei, Tanytarsus sp.1, Procladius sp.1 as generalist morphospecies. We found a nested pattern between food items and Chironomidae morphospecies, where some items were common to all taxa (e.g., Bacillariophyceae algae, especially), while others were found in specific morphospecies (e.g., animals fragments found in Procladius sp.1). The algae represented the most percentage of gut contents of Chironomidae larvae. This was especially true for the individuals from littoral regions, which is probably due to the major densities of algae associated to macrophytes, which are abundant in these regions. Therefore, the feeding behavior of these morphospecies was generalist and not selective, depending only of the available resources. PMID:26909630

  1. Challenges and Responses to Asian Food Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Paul P. S.; Oliveros, Jurise A. P.

    2015-10-01

    Food security is a complex phenomenon made up of multiple dimensions — food availability, physical access to food, economic access to food, food utilization — each of which has a stability dimension which underpins it. This review provides details on these dimensions and links them to two published indices which provide assessments of the state of food security in a country. The paper further provides analyses of the main supply and demand factors in the food security equation. Food security faces natural and anthropogenic threats such as loss of productive land and water, climate change and declining crop productivity, all of which are potentially amenable to solutions provided by science and technology. Demographic and accompanying diet changes further exacerbate the demands made on the natural resource base for food production. Finally, possible responses to the challenges confronting a secured food future are discussed from technological, policy and system level perspectives.

  2. The solar abundance of thulium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, J. E.; Aller, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    Consideration of one relatively unblended line of the solar spectrum, namely, the 3131.258-A line of Tm II, which yields a thulium abundance of 0.80 plus or minus 0.10 with the Corliss and Bozman (1962) f-value. The uncertainty of this figure is discussed in conjunction with the contradictory findings of some other investigators. The need for further detailed study of the lanthanides by the method of spectrum synthesis is pointed out.

  3. Organic food.

    PubMed

    Jukes, T H

    1977-01-01

    "Organic" or "organically grown" foods are commonly represented as "food grown without pesticides; grown without artificial fertilizers; grown in soil whose humus content is increased by the additions of organic matter; grown in soil whose mineral content is increased with applications of natural mineral fertilizers; has not been treated with preservatives, hormones, antibiotics etc." The substitution of "organic" for "chemical" fertilizers during the growth of plants produces no change in the nutritional or chemical properties of foods. All foods are made of "chemicals." Traces of pesticides have been reported to be present in about 20 to 30% of both "organic" and conventional foods. These traces are usually within the official tolerance levels. Such levels are set low enough to protect consumers adequately. Indeed, there is no record of a single case of injury to a consumer resulting from the application of pesticides to food crops at permitted levels. PMID:336290

  4. Chlorine Abundances in Martian Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, D.D.; Garrison, D.H.; Park, J.

    2009-01-01

    Chlorine measurements made in martian surface rocks by robotic spacecraft typically give Chlorine (Cl) abundances of approximately 0.1-0.8%. In contrast, Cl abundances in martian meteorites appear lower, although data is limited, and martian nakhlites were also subjected to Cl contamination by Mars surface brines. Chlorine abundances reported by one lab for whole rock (WR) samples of Shergotty, ALH77005, and EET79001 range 108-14 ppm, whereas Cl in nakhlites range 73-1900 ppm. Measurements of Cl in various martian weathering phases of nakhlites varied 0.04-4.7% and reveal significant concentration of Cl by martian brines Martian meteorites contain much lower Chlorine than those measured in martian surface rocks and give further confirmation that Cl in these surface rocks was introduced by brines and weathering. It has been argued that Cl is twice as effective as water in lowering the melting point and promoting melting at shallower martian depths, and that significant Cl in the shergottite source region would negate any need for significant water. However, this conclusion was based on experiments that utilized Cl concentrations more analogous to martian surface rocks than to shergottite meteorites, and may not be applicable to shergottites.

  5. Surface abundances of OC supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, F.; Foschino, S.; Bouret, J.-C.; Barbá, R.; Howarth, I.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Some O and B stars show unusually strong or weak lines of carbon and/or nitrogen. These objects are classified as OBN or OBC stars. It has recently been shown that nitrogen enrichment and carbon depletion are the most likely explanations for the existence of the ON class. Aims: We investigate OC stars (all being supergiants) to check that surface abundances are responsible for the observed anomalous line strengths. Methods: We perform a spectroscopic analysis of three OC supergiants using atmosphere models. A fourth star was previously studied by us. Our sample thus comprises all OC stars known to date in the Galaxy. We determine the stellar parameters and He, C, N, and O surface abundances. Results: We show that all stars have effective temperatures and surface gravities fully consistent with morphologically normal O supergiants. However, OC stars show little, if any, nitrogen enrichment and carbon surface abundances consistent with the initial composition. OC supergiants are thus barely chemically evolved, unlike morphologically normal O supergiants. Based on observations obtained at the ESO/La Silla Observatory under programs 081.D-2008, 083.D-0589, 089.D-0975.

  6. The influence of food supply on the response of Olympia oyster larvae to ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hettinger, A.; Sanford, E.; Hill, T. M.; Hosfelt, J. D.; Russell, A. D.; Gaylord, B.

    2013-10-01

    Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide drive accompanying changes in the marine carbonate system as carbon dioxide (CO2) enters seawater and alters ocean pH (termed "ocean acidification"). However, such changes do not occur in isolation, and other environmental factors have the potential to modulate the consequences of altered ocean chemistry. Given that physiological mechanisms used by organisms to confront acidification can be energetically costly, we explored the potential for food supply to influence the response of Olympia oyster (Ostrea lurida) larvae to ocean acidification. In laboratory experiments, we reared oyster larvae under a factorial combination of pCO2 and food level. Elevated pCO2 had negative effects on larval growth, total dry weight, and metamorphic success, but high food availability partially offset these influences. The combination of elevated pCO2 and low food availability led to the greatest reduction in larval performance. However, the effects of food and pCO2 interacted additively rather than synergistically, indicating that they operated independently. Despite the potential for abundant resources to counteract the consequences of ocean acidification, impacts were never completely negated, suggesting that even under conditions of enhanced primary production and elevated food availability, impacts of ocean acidification may still accrue in some consumers.

  7. The influence of food supply on the response of Olympia oyster larvae to ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hettinger, A.; Sanford, E.; Hill, T. M.; Hosfelt, J. D.; Russell, A. D.; Gaylord, B.

    2013-03-01

    Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide drive accompanying changes in the marine carbonate system as carbon dioxide (CO2) enters seawater and alters its pH (termed "ocean acidification"). However, such changes do not occur in isolation, and other environmental factors have the potential to modulate the consequences of altered ocean chemistry. Given that physiological mechanisms used by organisms to confront acidification can be energetically costly, we explored the potential for food supply to influence the response of Olympia oyster (Ostrea lurida) larvae to ocean acidification. In laboratory experiments, we reared oyster larvae under a factorial combination of pCO2 and food level. High food availability offset the negative consequences of elevated pCO2 on larval shell growth and total dry weight. Low food availability, in contrast, exacerbated these impacts. In both cases, effects of food and pCO2 interacted additively rather than synergistically, indicating that they operated independently. Despite the potential for abundant resources to counteract the consequences of ocean acidification, impacts were never completely negated, suggesting that even under conditions of enhanced primary production and elevated food availability, impacts of ocean acidification may still accrue in some consumers.

  8. 7 CFR 210.14 - Resource management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... competition with lunches or with breakfasts offered under the School Breakfast Program authorized in 7 CFR... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Resource management. 210.14 Section 210.14 Agriculture... Participation § 210.14 Resource management. (a) Nonprofit school food service. School food authorities...

  9. 7 CFR 210.14 - Resource management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... competition with lunches or with breakfasts offered under the School Breakfast Program authorized in 7 CFR... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Resource management. 210.14 Section 210.14 Agriculture... Participation § 210.14 Resource management. (a) Nonprofit school food service. School food authorities...

  10. Food Allergies.

    PubMed

    Grief, Samuel N

    2016-09-01

    Food allergies are common and seem to be increasing in prevalence. Preventive measures have become far more evident in the public arena (schools, camps, sports venues, and so forth). Evaluation and management of food allergies has evolved such that primary care practitioners may choose to provide initial diagnostic and treatment care or refer to allergists for similar care. Food allergies, once considered incurable, are now being diminished in intensity by new strategies. PMID:27545729

  11. Food supply reliance on groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalin, Carole; Puma, Michael; Wada, Yoshihide; Kastner, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Water resources, essential to sustain human life, livelihoods and ecosystems, are under increasing pressure from population growth, socio-economic development and global climate change. As the largest freshwater resource on Earth, groundwater is key for human development and food security. Yet, excessive abstraction of groundwater for irrigation, driven by an increasing demand for food in recent decades, is leading to fast exhaustion of groundwater reserves in major agricultural areas of the world. Some of the highest depletion rates are observed in Pakistan, India, California Central Valley and the North China Plain aquifers. In addition, the growing economy and population of several countries, such as India and China, makes prospects of future available water and food worrisome. In this context, it is becoming particularly challenging to sustainably feed the world population, without exhausting our water resources. Besides, food production and consumption across the globe have become increasingly interconnected, with many areas' agricultural production destined to remote consumers. In this globalisation era, trade is crucial to the world's food system. As a transfer of water-intensive goods, across regions with varying levels of water productivity, food trade can save significant volumes of water resources globally. This situation makes it essential to address the issue of groundwater overuse for global food supply, accounting for international food trade. To do so, we quantify the current, global use of non-renewable groundwater for major crops, accounting for various water productivity and trade flows. This will highlight areas requiring quickest attention, exposing major exporters and importers of non-renewable groundwater, and thus help explore solutions to improve the sustainability of global food supply.

  12. Influence of gender roles and rising food prices on poor, pregnant women’s eating and food provisioning practices in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal malnutrition in Bangladesh is a persistent health issue and is the product of a number of complex factors, including adherence to food 'taboos’ and a patriarchal gender order that limits women’s mobility and decision-making. The recent global food price crisis is also negatively impacting poor pregnant women’s access to food. It is believed that those who are most acutely affected by rising food prices are the urban poor. While there is an abundance of useful quantitative research centered on maternal nutrition and food insecurity measurements in Bangladesh, missing is an understanding of how food insecurity is experienced by people who are most vulnerable, the urban ultra-poor. In particular, little is known of the lived experience of food insecurity among pregnant women in this context. This research investigated these lived experiences by exploring food provisioning strategies of urban, ultra-poor, pregnant women. This knowledge is important as discussions surrounding the creation of new development goals are currently underway. Methods Using a focused-ethnographic approach, household food provisioning experiences were explored. Data from participant observation, a focus group discussion and semi-structured interviews were collected in an urban slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Interviews were undertaken with 28 participants including 12 pregnant women and new mothers, two husbands, nine non-pregnant women, and five health care workers. Results The key findings are: 1) women were aware of the importance of good nutrition and demonstrated accurate, biomedically-based knowledge of healthy eating practices during pregnancy; 2) the normative gender rules that have traditionally constrained women’s access to nutritional resources are relaxing in the urban setting; however 3) women are challenged in accessing adequate quality and quantities of food due to the increase in food prices at the market. Conclusions Rising food prices and resultant food

  13. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  14. Food retailing and food service.

    PubMed

    Capps, Oral; Park, John L

    2003-07-01

    The food retailing and food service sector is not only an important component of the food marketing channel but is also vital to the United States economy, accounting for more than 7% of the United States gross domestic product in 2001. The business of food retailing and food service is undergoing salient change. The authors argue that the singular force driving this change is the consumer. To understand the linkages in the food marketing channel, this article provides information on the farm-to-retail price spread and the economic forces that influence their magnitude. Examples are given of farm-to-retail price spreads for red meat and dairy industries. In addition, the economics behind the provision of retail services and the growth of the food service industry are discussed. Further, the authors demonstrate that the structure of the food market channel is consumer driven, and present three characteristics of convenience (preparation, delivery, and service) and identify four food distribution channels in terms of convenience (complete convenience, traditional food service, consumer direct, and traditional retail). PMID:12951742

  15. The Abundance of Interstellar Fluorine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauroesch, James T.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this program was to obtain FUSE observations of the interstellar absorption lines of F I at 951 and 954 Angstroms to derive the abundance of fluorine toward the star HD 164816. The nucleosynthetic source(s) of fluorine are still a matter of debate - the present day abundance of fluorine can potentially constrain models for pulsationally driven dredge-up in asymptotic giant branch stars. An accurate measure for the depletion behavior of fluorine will determine whether it may be detectable in QSO absorption line systems - an unambiguous detection of fluorine at suitably high redshifts would provide the best evidence to date for the neutrino process in massive stars. Furthermore, due to its extreme reactivity, measurement of the gas-phase interstellar fluorine abundance is important for models of grain chemistry. Despite the importance of measuring the interstellar fluorine abundance, at the time of our proposal only one previous detection has been made due to the low relative abundance of fluorine, the lack of lines outside the far-UV, and the blending of the available F I transitions with lines of Hz. The star HD 164816 is associated with the Lagoon nebula (M8), and at a distance of approximately 1.5 kpc probes both distant and local gas. Beginning April 8th, 2004 FUSE FP-Split observations of the star HD 164816 were obtained for this program. This data became available in the FUSE data archive May 21, 2004, and these observations were then downloaded and we began our analysis. Our analysis procedure has involved (1) fitting stellar models to the FUSE spectra, (2) using the multiple lines of Hz and N I at other wavelengths in the FUSE bandpass to derive column densities for the lines of H2 and N I which are blended with the F I features at 951 and 954 angstroms (3) the measurement of the column densities of F I and the species O I and C1 I which are important species for the dis-entangling of dust and nucleosynthetic effects. As discussed in

  16. On the Water-Food Nexus: an Optimization Approach for Water and Food Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortada, Sarah; Abou Najm, Majdi; Yassine, Ali; Alameddine, Ibrahim; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2016-04-01

    Water and food security is facing increased challenges with population increase, climate and land use change, as well as resource depletion coupled with pollution and unsustainable practices. Coordinated and effective management of limited natural resources have become an imperative to meet these challenges by optimizing the usage of resources under various constraints. In this study, an optimization model is developed for optimal resource allocation towards sustainable water and food security under nutritional, socio-economic, agricultural, environmental, and natural resources constraints. The core objective of this model is to maximize the composite water-food security status by recommending an optimal water and agricultural strategy. The model balances between the healthy nutritional demand side and the constrained supply side while considering the supply chain in between. It equally ensures that the population achieves recommended nutritional guidelines and population food-preferences by quantifying an optimum agricultural and water policy through transforming optimum food demands into optimum cropping policy given the water and land footprints of each crop or agricultural product. Through this process, water and food security are optimized considering factors that include crop-food transformation (food processing), water footprints, crop yields, climate, blue and green water resources, irrigation efficiency, arable land resources, soil texture, and economic policies. The model performance regarding agricultural practices and sustainable food and water security was successfully tested and verified both at a hypothetical and pilot scale levels.

  17. Where to nest? Ecological determinants of chimpanzee nest abundance and distribution at the habitat and tree species scale.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Joana S; Meyer, Christoph F J; Vicente, Luis; Marques, Tiago A

    2015-02-01

    Conversion of forests to anthropogenic land-uses increasingly subjects chimpanzee populations to habitat changes and concomitant alterations in the plant resources available to them for nesting and feeding. Based on nest count surveys conducted during the dry season, we investigated nest tree species selection and the effect of vegetation attributes on nest abundance of the western chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes verus, at Lagoas de Cufada Natural Park (LCNP), Guinea-Bissau, a forest-savannah mosaic widely disturbed by humans. Further, we assessed patterns of nest height distribution to determine support for the anti-predator hypothesis. A zero-altered generalized linear mixed model showed that nest abundance was negatively related to floristic diversity (exponential form of the Shannon index) and positively with the availability of smaller-sized trees, reflecting characteristics of dense-canopy forest. A positive correlation between nest abundance and floristic richness (number of plant species) and composition indicated that species-rich open habitats are also important in nest site selection. Restricting this analysis to feeding trees, nest abundance was again positively associated with the availability of smaller-sized trees, further supporting the preference for nesting in food tree species from dense forest. Nest tree species selection was non-random, and oil palms were used at a much lower proportion (10%) than previously reported from other study sites in forest-savannah mosaics. While this study suggests that human disturbance may underlie the exclusive arboreal nesting at LCNP, better quantitative data are needed to determine to what extent the construction of elevated nests is in fact a response to predators able to climb trees. Given the importance of LCNP as refuge for Pan t. verus our findings can improve conservation decisions for the management of this important umbrella species as well as its remaining suitable habitats. PMID:25224379

  18. 7 CFR 210.14 - Resource management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... competition with lunches or with breakfasts offered under the School Breakfast Program authorized in 7 CFR... CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NATIONAL SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAM Requirements for School Food Authority Participation § 210.14 Resource management. (a) Nonprofit school food service. School food authorities...

  19. Herpes - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... The following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/pregnancy/complications-herpes National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease -- ...

  20. Food habits of fishes on an exposed sandy beach at Fukiagehama, South-West Kyushu Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakane, Yukinori; Suda, Yusuke; Sano, Mitsuhiko

    2011-06-01

    To clarify the feeding habits and major food sources of sandy beach fishes, the gut contents of 55 fish species collected on a sandy beach at Fukiagehama, South-West Kyushu Island, Japan, were examined. Ontogenetic changes in food preference were recognized in nine species ( Hypoatherina valenciennei, Lateolabrax japonicus, Trachurus japonicus, Sillago japonica, Sphyraena japonica, Paralichthys olivaceus, Heteromycteris japonica, Paraplagusia japonica, and Takifugu niphobles). A cluster analysis based on dietary overlaps showed that the sandy beach fish assemblage comprised six trophic groups (mysid, amphipod, zooplankton, juvenile fish, terrestrial insect, and mollusk feeders). Of these, the first three groups were the most abundantly represented, whereas the last two were represented by only a single species. These results indicated that epibenthic macrofauna, such as mysids and gammaridean amphipods, and zooplankton, were important food resources for the fish assemblage at the study site, but infaunal macrobenthos, such as polychaetes and bivalves, being relatively unimportant.

  1. [Food irradiation].

    PubMed

    Migdał, W

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by Codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and the World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19MeV, 1 kW) and an industrial unit Elektronika (10MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permission for irradiation for: spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables. PMID:8619113

  2. Food Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwenk, Nancy E.

    1991-01-01

    An overall perspective on trends in food consumption is presented. Nutrition awareness is at an all-time high; consumption is influenced by changes in disposable income, availability of convenience foods, smaller household size, and an increasing proportion of ethnic minorities in the population. (18 references) (LB)

  3. Food Allergy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of food allergy appears to be increasing, as is our understanding of the underlying mechanisms, treatment options, identifying, and characterizing allergenic proteins within food sources. The aim of this book is to translate how this vast array of information may fit into development o...

  4. Food jags

    MedlinePlus

    ... experiment. Try not to label your child's eating habits. Food preferences change with time, so a child may ... Allowing your child to be in control of food intake may seem hard at first. However, it will help promote healthy eating habits for a lifetime.

  5. Irradiated foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... it reduces the risk of food poisoning . Food irradiation is used in many countries. It was first approved in the U.S. to prevent sprouts on white potatoes, and to control insects on wheat and in certain spices and seasonings.

  6. Summer and fall ants have different physiological responses to food macronutrient content.

    PubMed

    Cook, Steven C; Eubanks, Micky D; Gold, Roger E; Behmer, Spencer T

    2016-04-01

    Seasonally, long-lived animals exhibit changes in behavior and physiology in response to shifts in environmental conditions, including food abundance and nutritional quality. Ants are long-lived arthropods that, at the colony level, experience such seasonal shifts in their food resources. Previously we reported summer- and fall-collected ants practiced distinct food collection behavior and nutrient intake regulation strategies in response to variable food protein and carbohydrate content, despite being reared in the lab under identical environmental conditions and dietary regimes. Seasonally distinct responses were observed for both no-choice and choice dietary experiments. Using data from these same experiments, our objective here is to examine colony and individual-level physiological traits, colony mortality and growth, food processing, and worker lipid mass, and how these traits change in response to variable food protein-carbohydrate content. For both experiments we found that seasonality per se exerted strong effects on colony and individual level traits. Colonies collected in the summer maintained total worker mass despite high mortality. In contrast, colonies collected in the fall lived longer, and accumulated lipids, including when reared on protein-biased diets. Food macronutrient content had mainly transient effects on physiological responses. Extremes in food carbohydrate content however, elicited a compensatory response in summer worker ants, which processed more protein-biased foods and contained elevated lipid levels. Our study, combined with our previously published work, strongly suggests that underlying physiological phenotypes driving behaviors of summer and fall ants are likely fixed seasonally, and change circannually. PMID:26860359

  7. Competition for food in a solitarily foraging folivorous primate (Lepilemur leucopus)?

    PubMed Central

    Dröscher, Iris; Kappeler, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    Group-living folivorous primates can experience competition for food, and feeding competition has also been documented for solitarily foraging gummivorous and omnivorous primates. However, little is known about the types and consequences of feeding competition in solitary folivorous foragers. We conducted this study in the spiny forest of Berenty Reserve, southern Madagascar, to characterize the competitive regime of the nocturnal solitarily foraging white-footed sportive lemur (Lepilemur leucopus), a species that lives in dispersed pairs. We analyzed 1,213 hr of behavioral observations recorded simultaneously for the male and female of each of seven social units and recorded seasonal changes in food availability over a complete annual cycle. Lepilemur leucopus exhibited low selectivity in its dietary choice and mainly included the most abundant plant species in its diet. Contrary to our predictions, we did not find evidence for increased rates of contest (i.e., displacement from food trees) or scramble competition (i.e., shared use of food patches) during the lean season, neither within nor between social units. Instead, conflict rates were low throughout the year, and, during these observations, any feeding stress may have been more related to food quality than quantity. The resource defense hypotheses may not explain pair-living in this species as there was no indication that males defend food resources for their female pair-partners. The observed lack of feeding competition may indicate that a cryptic anti-predator strategy is a better predictor of spatial avoidance of pair-partners than conflict over food. While anti-predator benefits of crypsis may explain, at least partly, female-female avoidance, studies on the relationship between territory size/quality and reproductive success are required to understand whether feeding competition reduces the potential for female association in L. leucopus. PMID:24677259

  8. Re-feeding evokes reproductive overcompensation of food-restricted Brandt's voles.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xuehui; Wen, Yilei; Niu, Hongxing; Shi, Dazhao; Zhang, Zhibin

    2012-02-01

    In natural conditions, animals have to cope with fluctuations of food resources. Animals having experienced prolonged decrease in feeding opportunities may increase their reproductive success when meeting abundant food. Though food restriction is well known to reduce reproductive success of animals, it is not clear whether re-feeding can restore or even overcompensate the reproductive success. In this study, we investigated the differences in reproductive parameters between food-restricted and refed (FR-RF) group and control group of Brandt's vole (Lasiopodomys brandtii). For 4 weeks, FR-RF voles were provided with 70% of their normal daily food intake and then they were fed ad libitum for the next 4 weeks. Voles of control group were fed ad libitum for 8 weeks. Females (FR-RF or control) were mated to non-littermate males of the same group (FR-RF or control), and we found that the mean litter size and survival rate of F1 pups of FR-RF group were significantly higher than those of control group. We also provided a field example showing that the litter size of Brandt's voles tended to be higher if they experienced two consecutive dry and wet months than that of voles didn't have this experience. Our results suggest that re-feeding may have evoked an overcompensatory mechanism of food-restricted voles in reproductive success. This may be an adaptive strategy for Brandt's voles (with oscillating populations) to cope with the fluctuating food resources in natural conditions by adjusting their reproductive success. PMID:22019786

  9. Food porn.

    PubMed

    McBride, Anne E

    2010-01-01

    Since the term first appeared, food porn has typically referred to watching others cook on television or gazing at unattainable dishes in glossy magazines without actually cooking oneself. This forum seeks to revisit this notion of food porn that is mostly taken for granted in both popular and scholarly literature. It offers a brief perspective of the appearance and use of the term food porn to examine how it came to be a term used mostly by commentators rather than by people actively engaged in the world of cooking. Practitioners (chefs and a food television producer) and academics address whether or not food porn exists, what shape it might take, what purpose it might serve, and/or what usefulness it might have, showing that these contentious issues are more complex than the ease with which the term is used might let on. PMID:21539050

  10. Finding food

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Ann; Lytle, Leslie; Riper, David Van

    2011-01-01

    A significant amount of travel is undertaken to find food. This paper examines challenges in measuring access to food using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), important in studies of both travel and eating behavior. It compares different sources of data available including fieldwork, land use and parcel data, licensing information, commercial listings, taxation data, and online street-level photographs. It proposes methods to classify different kinds of food sales places in a way that says something about their potential for delivering healthy food options. In assessing the relationship between food access and travel behavior, analysts must clearly conceptualize key variables, document measurement processes, and be clear about the strengths and weaknesses of data. PMID:21837264

  11. Origin of cosmic chemical abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maio, Umberto; Tescari, Edoardo

    2015-11-01

    Cosmological N-body hydrodynamic computations following atomic and molecular chemistry (e-, H, H+, H-, He, He+, He++, D, D+, H2, H_2^+, HD, HeH+), gas cooling, star formation and production of heavy elements (C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ca, Fe, etc.) from stars covering a range of mass and metallicity are used to explore the origin of several chemical abundance patterns and to study both the metal and molecular content during simulated galaxy assembly. The resulting trends show a remarkable similarity to up-to-date observations of the most metal-poor damped Lyman α absorbers at redshift z ≳ 2. These exhibit a transient nature and represent collapsing gaseous structures captured while cooling is becoming effective in lowering the temperature below ˜ 104 K, before they are disrupted by episodes of star formation or tidal effects. Our theoretical results agree with the available data for typical elemental ratios, such as [C/O], [Si/Fe], [O/Fe], [Si/O], [Fe/H], [O/H] at redshifts z ˜ 2-7. Correlations between H I and H2 abundances show temporal and local variations and large spreads as a result of the increasing cosmic star formation activity from z ˜ 6 to 3. The scatter we find in the abundance ratios is compatible with the observational data and is explained by simultaneous enrichment by sources from different stellar phases or belonging to different stellar populations. Simulated synthetic spectra support the existence of metal-poor cold clumps with large optical depth at z ˜ 6 that could be potential Population III sites at low or intermediate redshift. The expected dust content is in line with recent determinations.

  12. Element abundances of classical novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrea, J.; Drechsel, H.; Starrfield, S.

    1994-11-01

    Physical conditions and element abundances in the optically thin shells of 11 classical novae with outbursts between 1978 and 1989 were determined from an analysis of UV and optical spectra obtained during the nebular stage. Eight novae were studied on the basis of new optical and UV spectra. The accuracy of the element abundances depends on whether or not simultaneous UV spectra were available to determine individual ionization stage dependent gas temperatures. Generally, slightly higher than solar abundances of helium and pronounced overabundances of the heavier elements were found. QU Vul turned out to be an ONeMg nova, while the other objects belong to the class of CO novae. The nature of V2214 Oph could not be completely clarified. The novae V1668 Cyg (1978), V693 CrA (1981), and V1370 Aql (1982), for which published element abundances exist, were reanalyzed to check the consistency of our spectral analysis approach. Satisfactory agreement of the results was found. Photoionization calculations were carried out for PW Vul using the code of Aldrovandi, Pequignot, and Stasinska. A synthetic spectrum was generated for the parameters derived from the analysis of the UV and optical spectra, which is in very good agreement with the observations. The spectral analysis technique was then applied to the model spectrum and reproduced the model parameters well. Electron temperatures for the C(2+) and C(3+) ions between 7 500 and 12,000 K and for N(4+) betwen 12,000 and 16,000 K were derived. For PW Vul these temperatures remained relatively constant over several months. The decline in density of the ejected shells with time could be investigated for V842 Cen, QV Vul, V977 Sco, and V443 Sct, and was found to deviate from the relation Ne proportional to t-2 for free expansion of a shell in a different way for each object. A possible explanation may be the complex density structure of the shells. This suspicion is supported by high resolution spectra (ESO 3.6m telescope

  13. Abundance measurements in stellar environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, F.

    2014-05-01

    Most of what we know about stars, and systems of stars, is derived from the analysis of their electromagnetic radiation. This lesson is an attempt to describe to Physicists, without any Astrophysical background, the framework to understand the present status of abundance determination in stellar environments and its limit. These notes are dedicated to the recently passed, November 21, 2013, Prof. Dimitri Mihalas who spent his life confuting the 19th century positivist philosopher Auguste Comte who stated that we shall not at all be able to determine the chemical composition of stars.

  14. Abundance measurements in stellar environments

    SciTech Connect

    Leone, F.

    2014-05-09

    Most of what we know about stars, and systems of stars, is derived from the analysis of their electromagnetic radiation. This lesson is an attempt to describe to Physicists, without any Astrophysical background, the framework to understand the present status of abundance determination in stellar environments and its limit. These notes are dedicated to the recently passed, November 21, 2013, Prof. Dimitri Mihalas who spent his life confuting the 19th century positivist philosopher Auguste Comte who stated that we shall not at all be able to determine the chemical composition of stars.

  15. The solar abundance of Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grevesse, N.

    2009-07-01

    With Martin Asplund (Max Planck Institute of Astrophysics, Garching) and Jacques Sauval (Observatoire Royal de Belgique, Brussels) I recently published detailed reviews on the solar chemical composition ({Asplund et al. 2005}, {Grevesse et al. 2007}). A new one, with Pat Scott (Stockholm University) as additional co-author, will appear in Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics ({Asplund et al. 2009}). Here we briefly analyze recent works on the solar abundance of Oxygen and recommend a value of 8.70 in the usual astronomical scale.

  16. Lunar Resources: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Ian A.

    2015-04-01

    There is growing interest in the possibility that the resource base of the Solar System might in future be used to supplement the economic resources of our own planet. As the Earth's closest celestial neighbour, the Moon is sure to feature prominently in these developments. In this paper I review what is currently known about economically exploitable resources on the Moon, while also stressing the need for continued lunar exploration. I find that, although it is difficult to identify any single lunar resource that will be sufficiently valuable to drive a lunar resource extraction industry on its own (notwithstanding claims sometimes made for the 3He isotope, which are found to be exaggerated), the Moon nevertheless does possess abundant raw materials that are of potential economic interest. These are relevant to a hierarchy of future applications, beginning with the use of lunar materials to facilitate human activities on the Moon itself, and progressing to the use of lunar resources to underpin a future industrial capability within the Earth-Moon system. In this way, gradually increasing access to lunar resources may help 'bootstrap' a space-based economy from which the world economy, and possibly also the world's environment, will ultimately benefit.

  17. Determination of lunar ilmenite abundances from remotely sensed data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Stephen M.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Singer, Robert B.

    1991-04-01

    The mineral ilmenite (FeTiO3) was found in abundance in lunar mare soils returned during the Apollo project. Lunar ilmenite often contains greater than 50 weight-percent titanium dioxide (TiO2), and is a primary potential resource for oxygen and other raw materials to supply future lunar bases. Chemical and spectroscopic analysis of the returned lunar soils produced an empirical function that relates the spectral reflectance ratio at 400 and 560 nm to the weight percent abundance of TiO2. This allowed mapping of the lunar TiO2 distribution using telescopic vidicon multispectral imaging from the ground; however, the time variant photometric response of the vidicon detectors produced abundance uncertainties of at least 2 to 5 percent. Since that time, solid-state charge-coupled device (CCD) detector technology capable of much improved photometric response has become available. An investigation of the lunar TiO2 distribution was carried out utilizing groundbased telescopic CCD multispectral imagery and spectroscopy. The work was approached in phases to develop optimum technique based upon initial results. The goal is to achieve the best possible TiO2 abundance maps from the ground as a precursor to lunar orbiter and robotic sample return missions, and to produce a better idea of the peak abundances of TiO2 for benefaction studies. These phases and the results are summarized.

  18. Determination of lunar ilmenite abundances from remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Stephen M.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Singer, Robert B.

    1991-01-01

    The mineral ilmenite (FeTiO3) was found in abundance in lunar mare soils returned during the Apollo project. Lunar ilmenite often contains greater than 50 weight-percent titanium dioxide (TiO2), and is a primary potential resource for oxygen and other raw materials to supply future lunar bases. Chemical and spectroscopic analysis of the returned lunar soils produced an empirical function that relates the spectral reflectance ratio at 400 and 560 nm to the weight percent abundance of TiO2. This allowed mapping of the lunar TiO2 distribution using telescopic vidicon multispectral imaging from the ground; however, the time variant photometric response of the vidicon detectors produced abundance uncertainties of at least 2 to 5 percent. Since that time, solid-state charge-coupled device (CCD) detector technology capable of much improved photometric response has become available. An investigation of the lunar TiO2 distribution was carried out utilizing groundbased telescopic CCD multispectral imagery and spectroscopy. The work was approached in phases to develop optimum technique based upon initial results. The goal is to achieve the best possible TiO2 abundance maps from the ground as a precursor to lunar orbiter and robotic sample return missions, and to produce a better idea of the peak abundances of TiO2 for benefaction studies. These phases and the results are summarized.

  19. Food availability determines the response to pond desiccation in anuran tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Enriquez-Urzelai, Urtzi; San Sebastián, Olatz; Garriga, Núria; Llorente, Gustavo A

    2013-09-01

    Food availability and pond desiccation are two of the most studied factors that condition amphibian metamorphosis. It is well known that, when food is abundant, organisms undergo metamorphosis early and when they are relatively large. The capability of anurans to accelerate their developmental rate in response to desiccation is also common knowledge. These two variables must act together in nature, since we know that, as a pond dries, the per capita resources decrease. We conduct an experiment to evaluate the effects of desiccation and food availability separately and in combination in tadpoles of the painted frog (Discoglossus pictus). We demonstrate that food deprivation leads to slow growth rates, which delay metamorphosis and produce smaller size and weight. The capability to accelerate metamorphosis when facing a drying pond is also confirmed, but, nevertheless, with factor interaction (when the pool is drying and resources are scarce) the capacity to respond to desiccation is lost. In addition, slow drying rates are shown to be stressful situations, but not enough to provoke a shortening of the larval period; in fact, the larval period becomes longer. We also demonstrate that the interaction of these factors changes the allometric relationship of different parts of the hind limb, which has implications for the biomechanics of jumping. Due to low mortality rates and an adequate response to both environmental factors, we expect D. pictus to have a great invasive potential in its new Mediterranean distribution area, where lots of temporary and ephemeral ponds are present. PMID:23344427

  20. Role of social interactions in dynamic patterns of resource patches and forager aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Tania, Nessy; Vanderlei, Ben; Heath, Joel P.; Edelstein-Keshet, Leah

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of resource patches and species that exploit such patches are of interest to ecologists, conservation biologists, modelers, and mathematicians. Here we consider how social interactions can create unique, evolving patterns in space and time. Whereas simple prey taxis (with consumable prey) promotes spatial uniform distributions, here we show that taxis in producer–scrounger groups can lead to pattern formation. We consider two types of foragers: those that search directly (“producers”) and those that exploit other foragers to find food (“scroungers” or exploiters). We show that such groups can sustain fluctuating spatiotemporal patterns, akin to “waves of pursuit.” Investigating the relative benefits to the individuals, we observed conditions under which either strategy leads to enhanced success, defined as net food consumption. Foragers that search for food directly have an advantage when food patches are localized. Those that seek aggregations of group mates do better when their ability to track group mates exceeds the foragers’ food-sensing acuity. When behavioral switching or reproductive success of the strategies is included, the relative abundance of foragers and exploiters is dynamic over time, in contrast with classic models that predict stable frequencies. Our work shows the importance of considering two-way interaction—i.e., how food distribution both influences and is influenced by social foraging and aggregation of predators. PMID:22745167

  1. Role of social interactions in dynamic patterns of resource patches and forager aggregation.

    PubMed

    Tania, Nessy; Vanderlei, Ben; Heath, Joel P; Edelstein-Keshet, Leah

    2012-07-10

    The dynamics of resource patches and species that exploit such patches are of interest to ecologists, conservation biologists, modelers, and mathematicians. Here we consider how social interactions can create unique, evolving patterns in space and time. Whereas simple prey taxis (with consumable prey) promotes spatial uniform distributions, here we show that taxis in producer-scrounger groups can lead to pattern formation. We consider two types of foragers: those that search directly ("producers") and those that exploit other foragers to find food ("scroungers" or exploiters). We show that such groups can sustain fluctuating spatiotemporal patterns, akin to "waves of pursuit." Investigating the relative benefits to the individuals, we observed conditions under which either strategy leads to enhanced success, defined as net food consumption. Foragers that search for food directly have an advantage when food patches are localized. Those that seek aggregations of group mates do better when their ability to track group mates exceeds the foragers' food-sensing acuity. When behavioral switching or reproductive success of the strategies is included, the relative abundance of foragers and exploiters is dynamic over time, in contrast with classic models that predict stable frequencies. Our work shows the importance of considering two-way interaction--i.e., how food distribution both influences and is influenced by social foraging and aggregation of predators. PMID:22745167

  2. Transformation of high-carbohydrate food wastes into degradable plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Bonsignore, P.V.; Tsai, S.P.; Tsai, T.S.; Coleman, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    An abundant and little-used resource that is available for bioconversion to higher value products is our own agricultural waste streams. Billions of pounds of carbohydrates in food waste can be readily bioconverted to products such as lactic acid. Argonne is developing a process to rapidly convert starch in potato waste to D- and L-lactic acid. Prime considerations are the cost of production and end used for lactic acid such as degradable materials, mostly for agricultural applications in mulch films, sustained-release systems for fertilizers and pesticides, etc. This paper reports other applications for polylactic acid and plastics and also discusses the prototype process being developed at Argonne to make low-cost lactic acid. 1 tab.

  3. Principles of Food Science Class Sheds Light on Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Janet

    2004-01-01

    Many students are curious about the steps in food preparation. As a result of such experiences, the author of this article began to incorporate science demonstrations into food preparation classes. She conducted research, developed resources, and piloted the "Principles of Food Science" class over the next 6 years. "Principles of Food Science"…

  4. Elemental Abundances in NGC 3516

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, T. J.; Kraemer, S. B.; Mushotzky, R. F.; George, I. M.; Gabel, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    We present Reflection Grating Spectrometer data from an XMM-Newton observation of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 3516, taken while the continuum source was in an extremely low flux state. This observation offers a rare opportunity for a detailed study of emission from a Seyfert 1 galaxy as these are usually dominated by high nuclear continuum levels and heavy absorption. The spectrum shows numerous narrow emission lines (FWHM approximately less than 1300 kilometers per second) in the 0.3 - 2 keV range, including the H-like lines of C, N, and O and the He-like lines of N, O and Ne. The emission-line ratios and the narrow width of the radiative recombination continuum of CVI indicate that the gas is photoionized and of fairly low temperature (kT approximately less than 0.01 keV). The availability of emission lines from different elements for two iso-electronic sequences allows us to constrain the element abundances. These data show that the N lines are far stronger than would be expected from gas of solar abundances. Based on our photoionization models we find that nitrogen is overabundant in the central regions of the galaxy, compared to carbon, oxygen and neon by at least a factor of 2.5. We suggest that this is the result of secondary production of nitrogen in intermediate mass stars, and indicative of the history of star formation in NGC 3516.

  5. Asynchronous hatching and food limitation: a test of Lack's hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skagen, Susan Knight

    1988-01-01

    Lack’s (1954, 1968) hypothesis that asynchronous hatching of altricial birds is an adaptive response to unpredictable food shortages during the breeding season was examined in the highly granivorous Zebra Finch (Poephila guttata). I compared growth and survival of nestlings in asynchronous and artificially created synchronous brood reared under food-limited and food-abundant conditions in an aviary. I also examined the role of parental experience on survival and growth of nestlings. There was no differential mortality of Zebra Finch nestlings due to either asynchrony or food abundance. Young in abundant food treatments grew more rapidly, however, than those in food restricted treatments. Heaviest Zebra Finch nestlings in a brood grew more quickly than their lightest siblings when food was limited, supporting Lack’s hypothesis. Further, differential survival of light and heavy siblings occurred when food was abundant, suggesting that asynchronous hatching can be maladaptive under some ecological conditions. Nestlings reared by inexperienced parents suffered greater mortality and slower growth when food was abundant than nestlings raised by experienced parents. Prefledging mass was correlated with size at adulthood.

  6. Summer food habits of juvenile Arctic foxes in northern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Garrott, R.A.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Hanson, W.C.

    1983-01-01

    The absence of garbage in fox scats collected in the Colville Delta area was expected because garbage was unavailable to these foxes. Foxes from Prudhoe Bay, however, had access to quantities of garbage as a result of petroleum development activities. Most occupied dens in the Prudhoe Bay area were littered with garbage. Telemetry investigations conducted in conjunction with our study of food habits indicated that foxes frequented areas of human activity to solicit handouts and forage garbage disposal sites. The reason for the low occurrence of garbage in Prudhoe Bay scats is undoubtedly related to the lack of undigestible matter in most forms of garbage. The small number of scats that were classified as containing garbage typically contained only packaging materials associated with processed food such as plastic wrap and aluminum foil. The highly digestible nature of most forms of garbage made it impossible to quantify its importance in the diet of foxes. Prudhoe Bay foxes undoubtedly use garbage; however, the diversity and abundance of natural prey in the scat indicates that these foxes only supplement their summer diet with garbage. Dependence on this food resource may increase during the winter when foxes must rely almost exclusively on the fluctuating lemming poulations for sustenance. 11 references, 2 tables.

  7. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  8. Space Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    In planning for the long duration Apollo missions, NASA conducted extensive research into space food. One of the techniques developed was freeze drying. Action Products commercialized this technique, concentrating on snack food including the first freeze-dried ice cream. The foods are cooked, quickly frozen and then slowly heated in a vacuum chamber to remove the ice crystals formed by the freezing process. The final product retains 98 percent of its nutrition and weighs only 20 percent of its original weight. Action snacks are sold at museums, NASA facilities and are exported to a number of foreign countries. Sales run to several million dollars annually.

  9. Resource Utilization and Site Selection for a Self-Sufficient Martian Outpost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, Donald; Chamitoff, Gregory; James, George

    1998-01-01

    As a planet with striking similarities to Earth, Mars is an important focus for scientific research aimed at understanding the processes of planetary evolution and the formation of our solar system. Fortunately, Mars is also a planet with abundant natural resources, including assessible materials that can be used to support human life and to sustain a self-sufficient martian outpost. Resources required include water, breathable air, food, shelter, energy, and fuel. Through a mission design based on in situ resource development, we can establish a permanent outpost on Mars beginning with the first manned mission. This paper examines the potential for supporting the first manned mission with the objective of achieving self-sufficiency through well-understood resource development and a program of rigorous scientific research aimed at extending that capability. We examine the potential for initially extracting critical resources from the martian environment, and discuss the scientific investigations required to identify additional resources in the atmosphere, on the surface, and within the subsurface. We also discuss our current state of knowledge of Mars, technical considerations of resource utilization, and using unmanned missions' data for selecting an optimal site. The primary goal of achieving self-sufficiency on Mars would accelerate the development of human colonization beyond Earth, while providing a robust and permanent martian base from which humans can explore and conduct long-term research on planetary evolution, the solar system, and life itself.

  10. Intraspecific competition and high food availability are associated with insular gigantism in a lizard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pafilis, Panayiotis; Meiri, Shai; Foufopoulos, Johannes; Valakos, Efstratios

    2009-09-01

    Resource availability, competition, and predation commonly drive body size evolution. We assess the impact of high food availability and the consequent increased intraspecific competition, as expressed by tail injuries and cannibalism, on body size in Skyros wall lizards ( Podarcis gaigeae). Lizard populations on islets surrounding Skyros (Aegean Sea) all have fewer predators and competitors than on Skyros but differ in the numbers of nesting seabirds. We predicted the following: (1) the presence of breeding seabirds (providing nutrients) will increase lizard population densities; (2) dense lizard populations will experience stronger intraspecific competition; and (3) such aggression, will be associated with larger average body size. We found a positive correlation between seabird and lizard densities. Cannibalism and tail injuries were considerably higher in dense populations. Increases in cannibalism and tail loss were associated with large body sizes. Adult cannibalism on juveniles may select for rapid growth, fuelled by high food abundance, setting thus the stage for the evolution of gigantism.

  11. Oceanic heterotrophic dinoflagellates: distribution, abundance, and role as microzooplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Lessard, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    The primary objectives of this thesis were to determine the distribution and abundance of heterotrophic dinoflagellates across the Gulf Stream system off Cape Hatteras and to assess the potential grazing impact of these microheterotrophs in plankton communities. A list of species encountered in this study and their trophic status based on epifluorescence is presented, as well as observations on the presence of external or internal symbionts. The abundance of heterotrophic dinoflagellates across the Gulf Stream region off Cape Hatteras was determined from bimonthly net tow samples over a year and from whole water samples in March. Their average abundance was twice that of net ciliates in the net plankton and ten times that of ciliates in the nanoplankton. An isotope technique was developed to measure grazing rates of individual dinoflaggellates and other microzooplankton which cannot be separated in natural populations on the basis of size. /sup 3/H-thymidine and /sup 14/C-bicarbonate were used to label natural heterotrophic (bacteria and bacterivores) and autotrophic (phytoplankton and herbivores) food, respectively. Estimates of the grazing impact of heterotrophic kinoflagellates relative to other groups of heterotrophs on phytoplankton and bacteria were made by combining abundance data and clearance rates. Such calculations suggested that heterotrophic dinoflagellates may be an important group of grazers in oceanic waters.

  12. Food waste and food processing waste for biohydrogen production: a review.

    PubMed

    Yasin, Nazlina Haiza Mohd; Mumtaz, Tabassum; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Abd Rahman, Nor'Aini

    2013-11-30

    Food waste and food processing wastes which are abundant in nature and rich in carbon content can be attractive renewable substrates for sustainable biohydrogen production due to wide economic prospects in industries. Many studies utilizing common food wastes such as dining hall or restaurant waste and wastes generated from food processing industries have shown good percentages of hydrogen in gas composition, production yield and rate. The carbon composition in food waste also plays a crucial role in determining high biohydrogen yield. Physicochemical factors such as pre-treatment to seed culture, pH, temperature (mesophilic/thermophilic) and etc. are also important to ensure the dominance of hydrogen-producing bacteria in dark fermentation. This review demonstrates the potential of food waste and food processing waste for biohydrogen production and provides a brief overview of several physicochemical factors that affect biohydrogen production in dark fermentation. The economic viability of biohydrogen production from food waste is also discussed. PMID:24121591

  13. Food safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... most common cause of botulism . Alternative Names Food - hygiene and sanitation References U.S. Department of Health and ... Didactic Curriculum, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, Department of Family Medicine, UW Medicine, School of ...

  14. Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... containing raw eggs. Raw or undercooked meat, poultry, fish, and shellfish. Cook foods to safe minimum internal ... seafood* may contain unhealthy chemicals, like mercury. Choose fish lower in mercury to make sure what your ...

  15. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... trigger allergic reactions include fish, shellfish, peanuts, and tree nuts, such as walnuts. Problem foods for children can include eggs, milk, peanuts, tree nuts, soy, and wheat. The allergic reaction may ...

  16. Food safety.

    PubMed

    Borchers, Andrea; Teuber, Suzanne S; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric

    2010-10-01

    Food can never be entirely safe. Food safety is threatened by numerous pathogens that cause a variety of foodborne diseases, algal toxins that cause mostly acute disease, and fungal toxins that may be acutely toxic but may also have chronic sequelae, such as teratogenic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, and estrogenic effects. Perhaps more worrisome, the industrial activities of the last century and more have resulted in massive increases in our exposure to toxic metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic, which now are present in the entire food chain and exhibit various toxicities. Industrial processes also released chemicals that, although banned a long time ago, persist in the environment and contaminate our food. These include organochlorine compounds, such as 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene) (DDT), other pesticides, dioxins, and dioxin-like compounds. DDT and its breakdown product dichlorophenyl dichloroethylene affect the developing male and female reproductive organs. In addition, there is increasing evidence that they exhibit neurodevelopmental toxicities in human infants and children. They share this characteristic with the dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Other food contaminants can arise from the treatment of animals with veterinary drugs or the spraying of food crops, which may leave residues. Among the pesticides applied to food crops, the organophosphates have been the focus of much regulatory attention because there is growing evidence that they, too, affect the developing brain. Numerous chemical contaminants are formed during the processing and cooking of foods. Many of them are known or suspected carcinogens. Other food contaminants leach from the packaging or storage containers. Examples that have garnered increasing attention in recent years are phthalates, which have been shown to induce malformations in the male reproductive system in laboratory animals, and bisphenol A, which negatively

  17. Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the refrigerator or microwave, never at room temperature. For best results, use a food thermometer when ... cooking when chicken is cooked to an internal temperature of 165°F (74°C). So washing doesn' ...

  18. Food allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... products Cow's milk and dairy products ( lactose intolerance ) Wheat and other grains that contain gluten ( celiac disease ) ... in children) Tree nuts (people of all ages) Wheat (people of all ages) In rare cases, food ...

  19. Food allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... people of all ages) Soy (mostly in children) Tree nuts (people of all ages) Wheat (people of ... food when they are young. Allergies to peanuts, tree nuts, and shellfish tend to last a lifetime. ...

  20. Abundance patterns in planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Richard B. C.

    1990-06-01

    Abundances of He, N, O, and Ne have been uniformly calculated for 192 planetary nebulas residing in the Galactic disk and halo, the LMC, the SMC, and M31. Direct correlations appear to exist for type I as well as non-type I objects for the following pairs of parameters: N/O-He/H, N/O-N/H, and Ne/H-O/H. Separately, type I planetaries show a weak anticorrelation between N/O and O/H, while non-type I's exhibit direct correlations between N/H and O/H and between N/O and O/H. From these patterns, it is inferred that non-type I's synthesize N via the CN cycle. Type I planetaries, on the other hand, manufacture N at least partially via the ON cycle, destroying O in the process. Neither type appears to synthesize O or Ne.

  1. 76 FR 79151 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Forest Resource Committee Meeting will meet in Washington, DC on January 20, 2012... closed to the public. The Forest Resource Committee is authorized under the Food, Conservation,...

  2. Food extrusion.

    PubMed

    Harper, J M

    1978-01-01

    Extrusion processing has become an important food process in the manufacture of pasta, ready-to-eat cereals, snacks, pet foods, and textured vegetable protein (TVP). An extruder consists of tightly fitting screw rotating within a stationary barrel. Preground and conditioned ingredients enter the screw where they are conveyed, mixed, and heated by a variety of processes. The product exits the extruder through a die where it usually puffs and changes texture from the release of steam and normal forces. Mathematical models for extruder flow and torque have been found useful in describing exclusion operations. Scale-up can be facilitated by the application of these models. A variety of food extruder designs have developed. The differences and similarity of design are discussed. Pertinent literature on the extrusion of cereal/snack products, full-fat soy, TVP, pet foods (dry and semi-moist), pasta, and beverage or other food bases are discussed. In many of these applications, the extruder is a high temperature, short time process which minimizes losses in vitamins and amino acids. Color, flavor, and product shape and texture are also affected by the extrusion process. Extrusion has been widely applied in the production of nutritious foods. Emphasis is placed on the use of extrusion to denature antinutritional factors and the improvement of protein quality and digestibility. PMID:378548

  3. Altered parasite assemblages in raccoons in response to manipulated resource availability.

    PubMed

    Wright, Amber N; Gompper, Matthew E

    2005-06-01

    The role that host aggregation plays in structuring parasite assemblages was examined by experimentally increasing the contact rates of raccoons, Procyon lotor. Two populations of raccoons in southern New York were monitored for 2 years to determine baseline levels of host interaction and to identify the parasite assemblage. In the third year of the study, one population was provisioned with the addition of clumped food resources, while the other was provisioned with equal quantities of dispersed food resources. Remote photography showed that raccoons aggregated at clumped resources but not at dispersed resources, and therefore contact rates between individuals were higher in the site with clumped resources. There were no differences in parasitism between the sites prior to resource augmentation. Among ectoparasites, there were no significant changes in the prevalence or abundance of any species in response to the perturbation. In contrast, across the endoparasite assemblage within and across hosts, the prevalence of infection increased as a result of increased host contact. Strong increases in the prevalence of a few directly transmitted species and slight increases among most species lead to increased evenness in parasite prevalence, suggesting that parasites in this system are transmission limited. In addition, the number of parasite species per host (the parasite infracommunity) was higher in the clumped-resource population. These endoparasite results suggest that intraspecific variation in the species richness of parasite communities of individual hosts, and the prevalence of parasitic species in host populations as assessed across entire parasitic assemblages, is robustly influenced by intraspecific variation in the degree of host contact. Further, these results suggest that anthropogenic changes which alter resource availability may have important consequences for disease transmission in wildlife. PMID:15891856

  4. The Role of Food Banks in Addressing Food Insecurity: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Bazerghi, Chantelle; McKay, Fiona H; Dunn, Matthew

    2016-08-01

    Food banks play a major role in the food aid sector by distributing donated and purchased groceries directly to food insecure families. The public health implications of food insecurity are significant, particularly as food insecurity has a higher prevalence among certain population groups. This review consolidates current knowledge about the function and efficacy of food banks to address food insecurity. A systematic review was conducted. Thirty-five publications were reviewed, of which 14 examined food security status, 13 analysed nutritional quality of food provided, and 24 considered clients' needs in relation to food bank use. This review found that while food banks have an important role to play in providing immediate solutions to severe food deprivation, they are limited in their capacity to improve overall food security outcomes due to the limited provision of nutrient-dense foods in insufficient amounts, especially from dairy, vegetables and fruits. Food banks have the potential to improve food security outcomes when operational resources are adequate, provisions of perishable food groups are available, and client needs are identified and addressed. PMID:26728281

  5. Role of supplemental foods and habitat structural complexity in persistence and coexistence of generalist predatory mites

    PubMed Central

    Pozzebon, Alberto; Loeb, Gregory M.; Duso, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Plant traits can influence the interactions between herbivore arthropods and their natural enemies. In these interactions generalist predators are often present, preying on herbivores and also on other arthropods in the same trophic guild. Variation in the strength of intraguild predation (IGP) may be related to habitat structural complexity and to additional resources outside the narrow predator-prey relationship. In this paper we study the food web interactions on grape, which involves two generalist predatory mites. We evaluated the effects of grape powdery mildew (GPM) as supplemental food, and habitat structural complexity provided by domatia. The inoculation of GPM resulted in higher predatory mite densities and reduced the negative impact of unfavorable leaf structure for one species. Access to domatia was the main factor in promoting population abundance and persistence of predatory mites. Access to domatia and GPM availability favored the coexistence of predatory mites at a low density of the intraguild prey. Our findings suggest that structural and nutritional diversity/complexity promote predatory mite abundance and can help to maintain the beneficial mites - plants association. The effect of these factors on coexistence between predators is influenced by the supplemental food quality and relative differences in body size of interacting species. PMID:26450810

  6. Determination of lunar ilmenite abundance from remotely sensed data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, S. M.; Melendrez, D. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Singer, R. B.

    Of fundamental importance in the utilization of indigenous resources for a future permanently manned lunar base is the identification and mapping of the abundance distribution of the mineral ilmenite, which is currently considered the most readily identifiable and most easily accessible source of oxygen needed for human consumables and spacecraft propellant. Solid state detector array technology now permits the use of ground based multispectral remote sensing techniques to produce maps with better than one kilometer spatial resolution and uncertainties of about two weight-percent TiO2 abundance. An empirical relationship between the weight-percent abundance of titanium dioxide and the 400/560 nm spectral ratio measured in returned lunar samples was used. Because this abundance correlation is valid only for mature lunar mare regolith, the distribution of immature mafic minerals which were found to be correlated primarily with steep slopes exposing bedrock was qualitatively mapped. The first mapping phase focused on the entire lunar nearside at 5.3 km per pixel, and on experiments with more sensitive spectral ratios. Relative spectrophotometry was employed to aid in identifying wavelengths that provide greater spectral contrast. It was found that the 400/730 nm ratio improved the abundance sensitivity by 37 percent, while the 950/730 nm ratio improved mafic mineral contrast about 100 percent. The second mapping phase utilized a large experimental CCD at 280 m per pixel to map the high titanium regions identified in the phase one mapping. The high resolution maps provide data on the small scale (500 m) variations in abundance and their relationship to morphological units.

  7. The economics of food production.

    PubMed

    Upton, M

    1993-01-01

    Although world average food production per person is increasing there are many countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, where production has fallen in recent decades. The economic analysis of the world food problem concerns the dynamics of production, income, growth, demand and trade. The 'law of diminishing returns' suggests that labour incomes fall as population density increases. Capital investment and technological change, particularly with a land-saving bias, can overcome this effect. Such land-saving innovations are less appropriate where population densities are lower, as in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Innovations which reduce risk, such as stress- and disease-resistant crop varieties, may be more attractive to farmers. Communal or government action is required to ensure sustainability of food production; to reduce risk, through price stabilization, possibly crop insurance and contingency plans for famine relief; to promote equity and to ensure competitive market conditions. Public funding of agricultural research is necessary to promote growth in food supplies. If increases in supply do not keep pace with growth in demand, food prices rise, attracting resources into food production. If supply grows faster, food prices and farm incomes fall, driving resources out of agriculture. Resources may not move fast enough to correct imbalances. Primary producers are likely to face deteriorating terms of trade. Linkages between food production and other sectors are weak, so primary exports are not a good basis for economic development. Import substitution strategies may damage agriculture. Structural adjustment regimes have been adopted in some countries to correct imbalances and provide an incentive for farmers to increase production. Associated reductions in public expenditure may have a contrary impact. PMID:8149829

  8. Food Shopping: "Food for Your Brood". Health and the Consumer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Elementary and Secondary Education.

    The purpose of this learning activity package, which is one of a series, is to acquaint secondary level students with options and money saving buying habits when shopping for food. The package includes instructions for the teacher, suggestions for activities, lists of resource materials, film guides, student activity worksheets, a student resource…

  9. Lithium Abundance in Planet Search Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myles, Justin; Yale Exoplanets

    2016-01-01

    Since most lithium in the universe is primordial and is destroyed in stars, lithium abundance can be used as a stellar age indicator. Some research seems to show that planet formation may also affect lithium abundance in exoplanet host stars (EHS). However, small and heterogenous samples have made both of these phenomena unclear. Further study of lithium abundance in EHS is needed to better understand possible physical roles of lithium in planet formation theory. We use a large homogenous sample with accurate stellar parameters on which we will use equivalent width analysis to determine precise lithium abundances. From these abundance values we determine an age vs. abundance relation. Additionally, we aim to explore correlation between lithium abundance and planet formation.

  10. Surface abundances of ON stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, F.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Palacios, A.; Howarth, I.; Georgy, C.; Walborn, N. R.; Bouret, J.-C.; Barbá, R.

    2015-06-01

    Context. Massive stars burn hydrogen through the CNO cycle during most of their evolution. When mixing is efficient or when mass transfer in binary systems occurs, chemically processed material is observed at the surface of O and B stars. Aims: ON stars show stronger lines of nitrogen than morphologically normal counterparts. Whether this corresponds to the presence of material processed through the CNO cycle is not known. Our goal is to answer this question. Methods: We performed a spectroscopic analysis of a sample of ON stars with atmosphere models. We determined the fundamental parameters as well as the He, C, N, and O surface abundances. We also measured the projected rotational velocities. We compared the properties of the ON stars to those of normal O stars. Results: We show that ON stars are usually rich in helium. Their CNO surface abundances are fully consistent with predictions of nucleosynthesis. ON stars are more chemically evolved and rotate - on average - faster than normal O stars. Evolutionary models including rotation cannot account for the extreme enrichment observed among ON main sequence stars. Some ON stars are members of binary systems, but others are single stars as indicated by stable radial velocities. Mass transfer is therefore not a simple explanation for the observed chemical properties. Conclusions: We conclude that ON stars show extreme chemical enrichment at their surface, consistent with nucleosynthesis through the CNO cycle. Its origin is not clear at present. Based on observations obtained 1) at the Anglo-Australian Telescope; 2) at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Science de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii; 3) at the ESO/La Silla Observatory under programs 081.D-2008, 083.D-0589, 086.D-0997; 4) the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La

  11. Effects of conifer release with glyphosate on summer forage abundance for deer in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vreeland, J.K.; Servello, F.A.; Griffith, B.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of conifer release with glyphosate on summer forage availability for large herbivores in northern forests have received relatively little study. We determined effects of glyphosate treatment of clearcuts on abundance of summer foods for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) at 1 and 7-10 years posttreatment. We measured the abundance (percent cover in a 0- to 1.8-m height stratum) of five forage classes for deer (leaves of deciduous trees, leaves of deciduous shrubs, forbs, grasses, ferns) on 12 clearcuts (six treated, six untreated) to determine 1-year effects and on 10 clearcuts (five treated, five untreated) to determine 7- to 10-year effects. Abundance of leaves of deciduous trees was greater on untreated sites (38 versus 11%) at 1 year posttreatment, but the difference was less (18 versus 12%) at 7-10 years posttreatment (age x treatment interaction, P = 0.005). Leaves of deciduous shrubs exhibited a similar pattern. Abundance of forbs was similar (13-14%) at 1 year posttreatment but greater on treated sites (29 versus 15%) at 7-10 years posttreatment (P = 0.03). Grasses and ferns were less abundant than other forage classes. Overall, glyphosate application initially decreased the abundance of leaves of deciduous trees and shrubs used as food in summer, but the longer term positive effects on forb abundance may result in little net change in overall habitat value.

  12. Trends in abundance of collared lemmings near Cape Churchill, Manitoba, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reiter, M.E.; Andersen, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Regular, multiannual cycles observed in the population abundance of small mammals in many arctic and subarctic ecosystems have stimulated substantial research, particularly among population ecologists. Hypotheses of mechanisms generating regular cycles include predator-prey interactions, limitation of food resources, and migration or dispersal, as well as abiotic factors such as cyclic climatic variation and environmental stochasticity. In 2004 and 2005, we used indirect methods to estimate trends in population size of Richardson's collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx richardsoni) retrospectively, and evaluated the extent of synchrony between lemming populations at 2 coastal tundra study areas separated by approximately 60 km near Cape Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. We collected scars on willow plants (Salix) resulting from lemming feeding. Ages of scars ranged from 0 to 13 years at both study areas. Scar-age frequency appeared cyclic and we used nonlinear Poisson regression to model the observed scar-age frequency. Lemming populations cycled with 2.8-year periodicity and the phase of the cycle was synchronous between the 2 study areas. We suggest that our approach could be applied in multiple settings and may provide the most efficient way to gather data on small mammals across both space and time in a diversity of landscapes. ?? 2008 American Society of Mammalogists.

  13. The nexus between integrated natural resources management and integrated water resources management in southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twomlow, Stephen; Love, David; Walker, Sue

    The low productivity of smallholder farming systems and enterprises in the drier areas of the developing world can be attributed mainly to the limited resources of farming households and the application of inappropriate skills and practices that can lead to the degradation of the natural resource base. This lack of development, particularly in southern Africa, is of growing concern from both an agricultural and environmental perspective. To address this lack of progress, two development paradigms that improve land and water productivity have evolved, somewhat independently, from different scientific constituencies. One championed by the International Agricultural Research constituency is Integrated Natural Resource Management (INRM), whilst the second championed predominantly by Environmental and Civil Engineering constituencies is Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). As a result of similar objectives of working towards the millennium development goals of improved food security and environmental sustainability, there exists a nexus between the constituencies of the two paradigms, particularly in terms of appreciating the lessons learned. In this paper lessons are drawn from past INRM research that may have particular relevance to IWRM scientists as they re-direct their focus from blue water issues to green water issues, and vice-versa. Case studies are drawn from the management of water quality for irrigation, green water productivity and a convergence of INRM and IWRM in the management of gold panning in southern Zimbabwe. One point that is abundantly clear from both constituencies is that ‘one-size-fits-all’ or silver bullet solutions that are generally applicable for the enhancement of blue water management/formal irrigation simply do not exist for the smallholder rainfed systems.

  14. Resource requirements of the Pacific leatherback turtle population.

    PubMed

    Jones, T Todd; Bostrom, Brian L; Hastings, Mervin D; Van Houtan, Kyle S; Pauly, Daniel; Jones, David R

    2012-01-01

    The Pacific population of leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) has drastically declined in the last 25 years. This decline has been linked to incidental capture by fisheries, egg and meat harvesting, and recently, to climate variability and resource limitation. Here we couple growth rates with feeding experiments and food intake functions to estimate daily energy requirements of leatherbacks throughout their development. We then estimate mortality rates from available data, enabling us to raise food intake (energy requirements) of the individual to the population level. We place energy requirements in context of available resources (i.e., gelatinous zooplankton abundance). Estimated consumption rates suggest that a single leatherback will eat upward of 1000 metric tonnes (t) of jellyfish in its lifetime (range 924-1112) with the Pacific population consuming 2.1×10(6) t of jellyfish annually (range 1.0-3.7×10(6)) equivalent to 4.2×10(8) megajoules (MJ) (range 2.0-7.4×10(8)). Model estimates suggest 2-7 yr-old juveniles comprise the majority of the Pacific leatherback population biomass and account for most of the jellyfish consumption (1.1×10(6) t of jellyfish or 2.2×10(8) MJ per year). Leatherbacks are large gelatinous zooplanktivores with consumption to biomass ratios of 96 (up to 192 if feeding strictly on low energy density Cnidarians); they, therefore, have a large capacity to impact gelatinous zooplankton landscapes. Understanding the leatherback's needs for gelatinous zooplankton, versus the availability of these resources, can help us better assess population trends and the influence of climate induced resource limitations to reproductive output. PMID:23071518

  15. Resource Requirements of the Pacific Leatherback Turtle Population

    PubMed Central

    Jones, T. Todd; Bostrom, Brian L.; Hastings, Mervin D.; Van Houtan, Kyle S.; Pauly, Daniel; Jones, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The Pacific population of leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) has drastically declined in the last 25 years. This decline has been linked to incidental capture by fisheries, egg and meat harvesting, and recently, to climate variability and resource limitation. Here we couple growth rates with feeding experiments and food intake functions to estimate daily energy requirements of leatherbacks throughout their development. We then estimate mortality rates from available data, enabling us to raise food intake (energy requirements) of the individual to the population level. We place energy requirements in context of available resources (i.e., gelatinous zooplankton abundance). Estimated consumption rates suggest that a single leatherback will eat upward of 1000 metric tonnes (t) of jellyfish in its lifetime (range 924–1112) with the Pacific population consuming 2.1×106 t of jellyfish annually (range 1.0–3.7×106) equivalent to 4.2×108 megajoules (MJ) (range 2.0–7.4×108). Model estimates suggest 2–7 yr-old juveniles comprise the majority of the Pacific leatherback population biomass and account for most of the jellyfish consumption (1.1×106 t of jellyfish or 2.2×108 MJ per year). Leatherbacks are large gelatinous zooplanktivores with consumption to biomass ratios of 96 (up to 192 if feeding strictly on low energy density Cnidarians); they, therefore, have a large capacity to impact gelatinous zooplankton landscapes. Understanding the leatherback's needs for gelatinous zooplankton, versus the availability of these resources, can help us better assess population trends and the influence of climate induced resource limitations to reproductive output. PMID:23071518

  16. A novel interference behaviour: invasive wasps remove ants from resources and drop them from a height

    PubMed Central

    Grangier, Julien; Lester, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports a novel form of interference behaviour between the invasive wasp Vespula vulgaris and the New Zealand native ant Prolasius advenus. By videotaping interactions at bait stations, we found that wasps commonly remove ant competitors from food resources by picking up the workers in their mandibles, flying backward and dropping them unharmed some distance from the food. Both the frequency and the efficiency of the wasp behaviour significantly increased with the abundance of ant competitors. Ant removals were the most common interference events initiated by wasps when ants were numerous, while intraspecific conflicts among wasps were prominent when few ants were present. The ‘ant-dropping’ behaviour emphasizes how asymmetry in body sizes between competitors can lead to a pronounced form of interference, related to asymmetric locomotion modes. PMID:21450726

  17. A novel interference behaviour: invasive wasps remove ants from resources and drop them from a height.

    PubMed

    Grangier, Julien; Lester, Philip J

    2011-10-23

    This study reports a novel form of interference behaviour between the invasive wasp Vespula vulgaris and the New Zealand native ant Prolasius advenus. By videotaping interactions at bait stations, we found that wasps commonly remove ant competitors from food resources by picking up the workers in their mandibles, flying backward and dropping them unharmed some distance from the food. Both the frequency and the efficiency of the wasp behaviour significantly increased with the abundance of ant competitors. Ant removals were the most common interference events initiated by wasps when ants were numerous, while intraspecific conflicts among wasps were prominent when few ants were present. The 'ant-dropping' behaviour emphasizes how asymmetry in body sizes between competitors can lead to a pronounced form of interference, related to asymmetric locomotion modes. PMID:21450726

  18. Earth Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Tom

    1970-01-01

    Reviews some of the more concerted, large-scale efforts in the earth resources areas" in order to help the computer community obtain insights into the activities it can jointly particpate in withthe earth resources community." (Author)

  19. Breastfeeding - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - breastfeeding ... The following organizations are good resources for information on breastfeeding and breastfeeding problems : La Leche League International Inc. -- www.lalecheleague.org March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/ ...

  20. SIDS - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - SIDS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on SIDS : American SIDS Institute -- www.sids.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/sids National ...

  1. Scoliosis - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - scoliosis ... The following organizations are good resources for information on scoliosis : American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00626 National Institute of Arthritis and ...

  2. Infertility - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - infertility ... The following organizations are good resources for information on infertility : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc/gov/reproductivehealth/infertility March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/ ...

  3. Alzheimer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - Alzheimer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on Alzheimer disease : Alzheimer's Association -- www.alz.org Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center -- www.nia.nih.gov/alzheimers ...

  4. Psoriasis - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - psoriasis ... The following organizations are good resources for information about psoriasis : American Academy of Dermatology -- www.aad.org/skin-conditions/dermatology-a-to-z/psoriasis National Institute of ...

  5. Epilepsy - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - epilepsy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on epilepsy : Epilepsy Foundation -- www.efa.org National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and Stroke -- www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/ ...

  6. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  7. Incontinence - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - incontinence ... The following organizations are good resources for information on incontinence. Fecal incontinence : The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists -- www.acog.org/~/media/for%20patients/faq139.ashx ...

  8. Cancer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org Cancer Care -- www.cancercare.org National Cancer Institute -- www.cancer.gov

  9. Lupus - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - lupus ... The following organizations are good resources for information on systemic lupus erythematosus : The Lupus Foundation of America -- www.lupus.org The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal ...

  10. ALS - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - ALS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : Muscular Dystrophy Association -- mda.org/disease/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis National Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Registry -- ...

  11. Blindness - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - blindness ... The following organizations are good resources for information on blindness : American Foundation for the Blind -- www.afb.org Foundation Fighting Blindness -- www.blindness.org National Eye Institute -- ...

  12. Scleroderma - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - scleroderma ... The following organizations are good resources for information on scleroderma : American College of Rheumatology -- www.rheumatology.org/practice/clinical/patients/diseases_and_conditions/scleroderma.asp National Institute ...

  13. Migraine - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - migraine ... The following organizations are good resources for information on migraines : American Migraine Foundation -- www.americanmigrainefoundation.org National Headache Foundation -- www.headaches.org National Institute of Neurological Disorders ...

  14. Ostomy - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - ostomy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on ostomies: American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons -- www.fascrs.org/patients/treatments-screening and www.fascrs.org/ ...

  15. Cross-Scale Interactions and the Distribution-Abundance Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Earl E.; Davis, Christopher J.; Skelly, David K.; Relyea, Rick A.; Benard, Michael F.; McCauley, Shannon J.

    2014-01-01

    Positive interspecific relationships between local abundance and extent of regional distribution are among the most ubiquitous patterns in ecology. Although multiple hypotheses have been proposed, the mechanisms underlying distribution-abundance (d-a) relationships remain poorly understood. We examined the intra- and interspecific distribution-abundance relationships for a metacommunity of 13 amphibian species sampled for 15 consecutive years. Mean density of larvae in occupied ponds was positively related to number of ponds occupied by species; employing the fraction of ponds uniquely available to each species this same relationship sharply decelerates. The latter relationship suggested that more abundant species inhabited most available habitats annually, whereas rarer species were dispersal limited. We inferred the mechanisms responsible for this pattern based on the dynamics of one species, Pseudacris triseriata, which transitioned between a rare, narrowly distributed species to a common, widely distributed species and then back again. Both transitions were presaged by marked changes in mean local densities driven by climatic effects on habitat quality. We identified threshold densities separating these population regime shifts that differed with landscape configuration. Our data suggest that these transitions were caused by strong cross-scale interactions between local resource/niche processes and larger scale metapopulation processes. The patterns we observed have relevance for understanding the mechanisms of interspecific d-a relationships and critical thresholds associated with habitat fragmentation. PMID:24875899

  16. Cross-scale interactions and the distribution-abundance relationship.

    PubMed

    Werner, Earl E; Davis, Christopher J; Skelly, David K; Relyea, Rick A; Benard, Michael F; McCauley, Shannon J

    2014-01-01

    Positive interspecific relationships between local abundance and extent of regional distribution are among the most ubiquitous patterns in ecology. Although multiple hypotheses have been proposed, the mechanisms underlying distribution-abundance (d-a) relationships remain poorly understood. We examined the intra- and interspecific distribution-abundance relationships for a metacommunity of 13 amphibian species sampled for 15 consecutive years. Mean density of larvae in occupied ponds was positively related to number of ponds occupied by species; employing the fraction of ponds uniquely available to each species this same relationship sharply decelerates. The latter relationship suggested that more abundant species inhabited most available habitats annually, whereas rarer species were dispersal limited. We inferred the mechanisms responsible for this pattern based on the dynamics of one species, Pseudacris triseriata, which transitioned between a rare, narrowly distributed species to a common, widely distributed species and then back again. Both transitions were presaged by marked changes in mean local densities driven by climatic effects on habitat quality. We identified threshold densities separating these population regime shifts that differed with landscape configuration. Our data suggest that these transitions were caused by strong cross-scale interactions between local resource/niche processes and larger scale metapopulation processes. The patterns we observed have relevance for understanding the mechanisms of interspecific d-a relationships and critical thresholds associated with habitat fragmentation. PMID:24875899

  17. A collaborative approach for estimating terrestrial wildlife abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ransom, Jason I.; Kaczensky, Petra; Lubow, Bruce C.; Ganbaatar, Oyunsaikhan; Altansukh, Nanjid

    2012-01-01

    Accurately estimating abundance of wildlife is critical for establishing effective conservation and management strategies. Aerial methodologies for estimating abundance are common in developed countries, but they are often impractical for remote areas of developing countries where many of the world's endangered and threatened fauna exist. The alternative terrestrial methodologies can be constrained by limitations on access, technology, and human resources, and have rarely been comprehensively conducted for large terrestrial mammals at landscape scales. We attempted to overcome these problems by incorporating local peoples into a simultaneous point count of Asiatic wild ass (Equus hemionus) and goitered gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa) across the Great Gobi B Strictly Protected Area, Mongolia. Paired observers collected abundance and covariate metrics at 50 observation points and we estimated population sizes using distance sampling theory, but also assessed individual observer error to examine potential bias introduced by the large number of minimally trained observers. We estimated 5671 (95% CI = 3611–8907) wild asses and 5909 (95% CI = 3762–9279) gazelle inhabited the 11,027 km2 study area at the time of our survey and found that the methodology developed was robust at absorbing the logistical challenges and wide range of observer abilities. This initiative serves as a functional model for estimating terrestrial wildlife abundance while integrating local people into scientific and conservation projects. This, in turn, creates vested interest in conservation by the people who are most influential in, and most affected by, the outcomes.

  18. Food Science 7075. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education Services.

    This curriculum guide was developed as a resource for teachers to use in planning and implementing a competency-based instructional program on food science in the 11th and 12th grades. It contains materials for a 2-semester course, based on the North Carolina Program of Studies (revised 1992); it is designed to help students learn about the…

  19. Risk control and food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 11th International Symposium on Toxic Microorganisms of the Joint Panel on Toxic Microorganisms, US-Japan Cooperative Program on Development and Utilization of Natural Resources (UJNR), was held March 4-9, 2012 in Tokyo, Japan. Having the theme "Risk Control and Food Safety," it was the most re...

  20. Daily Food Plan for Moms

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Challenge Get Involved Eating on a Budget Create a Grocery Game Plan Shop Smart to Fill Your Cart Prepare Healthy Meals Sample 2-Week Menus Resources for Professionals 10 Tips Series Print Materials MyPlate Videos Recipes & Menus Seasonal Winter Spring Summer Fall Food ...