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Sample records for abundant food resources

  1. Partitioning of food resources amongst 18 abundant benthic carnivorous fish species in marine waters on the lower west coast of Australia.

    PubMed

    Platell, M E.; Potter, I C.

    2001-06-15

    The volumetric contributions made by prey and plant material to the diets of 4 elasmobranch and 14 teleost species, collected seasonally by trawling from waters along ca. 200 km of the lower west coast of Australia, have been compared. These benthic carnivores, which were all abundant and collectively contributed 83% to the total number of fish caught, represented nine families (Urolophidae, Scorpaenidae, Triglidae, Platycephalidae, Sillaginidae, Carangidae, Gerreidae, Mullidae and Pempherididae). Some species were numerous in both shallow (5-15 m) and deeper (20-35 m) waters and in both northern and southern regions, whereas others were largely confined to one of these water depths or regions. Comparisons between the diets of the different species, which utilised data collected from individuals throughout the study area, demonstrated that the dietary composition of any given species was almost invariably significantly different from that of every other species. This partly reflected the fact that, while errant polychaetes, gammarid amphipods and tanaids were ingested by all species, their contributions to the diets of the different species varied. Furthermore, echinoderms contributed to the diets of just nine species, and this was substantial only in the case of two sillaginid species, while teleosts were never consumed by six species and only made a marked contribution to the diets of the single species of platycephalid. The diet of each species underwent size-related changes, reflecting a shift from the consumption by smaller fish of prey such as amphipods, mysids and copepods, to the ingestion by larger fish of prey such as polychaetes, carid decapods, isopods and small teleosts. The interspecific and intraspecific differences in dietary compositions would spread the food resources amongst and within species, thereby reducing the potential for competition for those resources within the fish community. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) ordination plots

  2. Abundance models improve spatial and temporal prioritization of conservation resources.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Alison; Fink, Daniel; Reynolds, Mark D; Hochachka, Wesley M; Sullivan, Brian L; Bruns, Nicholas E; Hallstein, Eric; Merrifield, Matt S; Matsumoto, Sandi; Kelling, Steve

    2015-10-01

    Conservation prioritization requires knowledge about organism distribution and density. This information is often inferred from models that estimate the probability of species occurrence rather than from models that estimate species abundance, because abundance data are harder to obtain and model. However, occurrence and abundance may not display similar patterns and therefore development of robust, scalable, abundance models is critical to ensuring that scarce conservation resources are applied where they can have the greatest benefits. Motivated by a dynamic land conservation program, we develop and assess a general method for modeling relative abundance using citizen science monitoring data. Weekly estimates of relative abundance and occurrence were compared for prioritizing times and locations of conservation actions for migratory waterbird species in California, USA. We found that abundance estimates consistently provided better rankings of observed counts than occurrence estimates. Additionally, the relationship between abundance and occurrence was nonlinear and varied by species and season. Across species, locations prioritized by occurrence models had only 10-58% overlap with locations prioritized by abundance models, highlighting that occurrence models will not typically identify the locations of highest abundance that are vital for conservation of populations.

  3. Relative resource abundance explains butterfly biodiversity in island communities.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Naoaki; Yokoyama, Jun; Kawata, Masakado

    2007-06-19

    Ecologists have long been intrigued by the factors that control the pattern of biodiversity, i.e., the distribution and abundance of species. Previous studies have demonstrated that coexisting species partition their resources and/or that the compositional similarity between communities is determined by environmental factors, lending support to the niche-assembly model. However, no attempt has been made to test whether the relative amount of resources that reflects relative niche space controls relative species abundance in communities. Here, we demonstrate that the relative abundance of butterfly species in island communities is significantly related to the relative biomasses of their host plants but not to the geographic distance between communities. In the studied communities, the biomass of particular host plant species positively affected the abundance of the butterfly species that used them, and consequently, influenced the relative abundance of the butterfly communities. This indicated that the niche space of butterflies (i.e., the amount of resources) strongly influences butterfly biodiversity patterns. We present this field evidence of the niche-apportionment model that propose that the relative amount of niche space explains the pattern of the relative abundance of the species in communities.

  4. Relating trophic resources to community structure: a predictive index of food availability

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, Graham J.

    2017-01-01

    The abundance and the distribution of trophic resources available for consumers influence the productivity and the diversity of natural communities. Nevertheless, assessment of the actual abundance of food items available for individual trophic groups has been constrained by differences in methods and metrics used by various authors. Here we develop an index of food abundance, the framework of which can be adapted for different ecosystems. The relative available food index (RAFI) is computed by considering standard resource conditions of a habitat and the influence of various generalized anthropogenic and natural factors. RAFI was developed using published literature on food abundance and validated by comparison of predictions versus observed trophic resources across various marine sites. RAFI tables here proposed can be applied to a range of marine ecosystems for predictions of the potential abundance of food available for each trophic group, hence permitting exploration of ecological theories by focusing on the deviation from the observed to the expected. PMID:28386417

  5. Resource abundance and the critical transition to cooperation.

    PubMed

    Connelly, B D; Bruger, E L; McKinley, P K; Waters, C M

    2017-04-01

    Cooperation is abundant in nature, occurring at all levels of biological complexity. Yet cooperation is continually threatened by subversion from noncooperating cheaters. Previous studies have shown that cooperation can nevertheless be maintained when the benefits that cooperation provides to relatives outweigh the associated costs. These fitness costs and benefits are not fixed properties, but can be affected by the environment in which populations reside. Here, we describe how one environmental factor, resource abundance, decisively affects the evolution of cooperative public goods production in two independent evolving systems. In the Avida digital evolution platform, populations evolved in environments with different levels of a required resource, whereas populations of Vibrio cholerae evolved in the presence of different nutrient concentrations. In both systems, cooperators and cheaters co-existed stably in resource-rich environments, whereas cheaters dominated in resource-poor environments. These two outcomes were separated by a sharp transition that occurred at a critical level of resource. These results offer new insights into how the environment affects the evolution of cooperation and highlight the challenges that populations of cooperators face when they experience environmental change.

  6. Juvenile Salmonid and Baitfish Distribution, Abundance and Prey Resources in Selected Areas of Grays Harbor, Washington

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    size. 14i 188 The density-size distributions of the two species in freshwater also affect the degree of interspecific competition and pressure for...that physiological changes associated with smoltification, changes in population abundance or avail- = ability of food resources, or interspecific ... competition could have 52 depressed growth, but he was unable to offer direct evidence to support or refute any of these alternative hypotheses

  7. Foods and Nutrition Resource Unit. Entertaining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gantt, Sara

    This resource unit, a supplement to the foods and nutrition curriculum guide (see related note), was designed to help secondary education home economics teachers provide students with additional food study and plan for learning experiences in the art of entertaining. The unit covers four principle topics regarding the art of entertaining in a…

  8. Contextualizing Embodied Resources in Global Food Trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, G. K.; Brauman, K. A.; Sun, S.; West, P. C.; Carlson, K. M.; Cassidy, E. S.; Gerber, J. S.; Ray, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    Trade in agricultural commodities has created increasingly complex linkages between resource use and food supplies across national borders. Understanding the degree to which food production and consumption relies on trade is vital to understanding how to sustainably meet growing food demands across scales. We use detailed bilateral trade statistics and data on agricultural management to examine the land use and water consumption embodied in agricultural trade, which we relate to basic nutritional indicators to show how trade contributes to food availability worldwide. Agricultural trade carries enough calories to provide >1.7 billion people a basic diet each year. We identify key commodities and producer-consumer relationships that disproportionately contribute to embodied resource use and flows of food nutrition at the global scale. For example, just 15 disproportionately large soybean trades comprised ~10% the total harvested area embodied in export production. We conclude by framing these results in terms of the fraction of each country's food production and consumption that is linked to international trade. These findings help to characterize how countries allocate resources to domestic versus foreign food demand.

  9. Food security and sustainable resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, Dennis; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang

    2015-07-01

    The projected growth in global food demand until mid-century will challenge our ability to continue recent increases in crop yield and will have a significant impact on natural resources. The water and land requirements of current agriculture are significantly less than global reserves but local shortages are common and have serious impacts on food security. Recent increases in global trade have mitigated some of the effects of spatial and temporal variability. However, trade has a limited impact on low-income populations who remain dependent on subsistence agriculture and local resources. Potential adverse environmental impacts of increased agricultural production include unsustainable depletion of water and soil resources, major changes in the global nitrogen and phosphorous cycles, human health problems related to excessive nutrient and pesticide use, and loss of habitats that contribute to agricultural productivity. Some typical case studies from China illustrate the connections between the need for increased food production and environmental stress. Sustainable options for decreasing food demand and for increasing production include reduction of food losses on both the producer and consumer ends, elimination of unsustainable practices such as prolonged groundwater overdraft, closing of yield gaps with controlled expansions of fertilizer application, increases in crop yield and pest resistance through advances in biotechnology, and moderate expansion of rain fed and irrigated cropland. Calculations based on reasonable assumptions suggest that such measures could meet the food needs of an increasing global population while protecting the environment.

  10. Fast food in ant communities: how competing species find resources.

    PubMed

    Pearce-Duvet, Jessica M C; Moyano, Martin; Adler, Frederick R; Feener, Donald H

    2011-09-01

    An understanding of foraging behavior is crucial to understanding higher level community dynamics; in particular, there is a lack of information about how different species discover food resources. We examined the effect of forager number and forager discovery capacity on food discovery in two disparate temperate ant communities, located in Texas and Arizona. We defined forager discovery capacity as the per capita rate of resource discovery, or how quickly individual ants arrived at resources. In general, resources were discovered more quickly when more foragers were present; this was true both within communities, where species identity was ignored, as well as within species. This pattern suggests that resource discovery is a matter of random processes, with ants essentially bumping into resources at a rate mediated by their abundance. In contrast, species that were better discoverers, as defined by the proportion of resources discovered first, did not have higher numbers of mean foragers. Instead, both mean forager number and mean forager discovery capacity determined discovery success. The Texas species used both forager number and capacity, whereas the Arizona species used only forager capacity. There was a negative correlation between a species' prevalence in the environment and the discovery capacity of its foragers, suggesting that a given species cannot exploit both high numbers and high discovery capacity as a strategy. These results highlight that while forager number is crucial to determining time to discovery at the community level and within species, individual forager characteristics influence the outcome of exploitative competition in ant communities.

  11. Food Cravings Consume Limited Cognitive Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika; Grigg, Megan

    2008-01-01

    Using Tiffany's (1990) cognitive model of drug use and craving as a theoretical basis, the present experiments investigated whether cravings for food expend limited cognitive resources. Cognitive performance was assessed by simple reaction time (Experiment 1) and an established measure of working memory capacity, the operation span task…

  12. Food Processing Curriculum Material and Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge.

    Intended for secondary vocational agriculture teachers, this curriculum guide contains a course outline and a resource manual for a seven-unit food processing course on meats. Within the course outline, units are divided into separate lessons. Materials provided for each lesson include preparation for instruction (student objectives, review of…

  13. Food abundance does not determine bird use of early-successional habitat.

    PubMed

    Champlin, Tracey B; Kilgo, John C; Moorman, Christopher E

    2009-06-01

    Few attempts have been made to experimentally address the extent to which temporal or spatial variation in food availability influences avian habitat use. We used an experimental approach to investigate whether bird use differed between treated (arthropods reduced through insecticide application) and control (untreated) forest canopy gaps within a bottomland hardwood forest in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA. Gaps were two- to three-year-old group selection timber harvest openings of three sizes (0.13, 0.26, and 0.50 ha). Our study was conducted during four bird use periods (spring migration, breeding, post-breeding, and fall migration) in 2002 and 2003. Arthropods were reduced in treated gaps by 68% in 2002 and 73% in 2003. We used mist-netting captures and foraging attack rates to assess the influence of arthropod abundance on avian habitat use. Evidence that birds responded to arthropod abundance was limited and inconsistent. In 2002, we generally captured more birds in treated gaps of the smallest size (0.13 ha) and fewer birds in treated gaps of the larger sizes. In 2003, we recorded few differences in the number of captures in treated and control gaps. Foraging attack rates generally were lower in treated than in control gaps, indicating that birds were able to adapt to the reduced food availability and remain in treated gaps. We conclude that arthropod abundance was not a proximate factor controlling whether forest birds used our gaps. The abundance of food resources may not be as important in determining avian habitat selection as previous research has indicated, at least for passerines in temperate subtropical regions.

  14. Food abundance does not determine bird use of early-successional habitat.

    SciTech Connect

    Champlin, Tracey B.; Kilgo, John C.; Moorman, Christopher E.

    2009-06-01

    Abstract. Few attempts have been made to experimentally address the extent to which temporal or spatial variation in food availability influences avian habitat use. We used an experimental approach to investigate whether bird use differed between treated (arthropods reduced through insecticide application) and control (untreated) forest canopy gaps within a bottomland hardwood forest in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA. Gaps were two- to three-year-old group selection timber harvest openings of three sizes (0.13, 0.26, and 0.50 ha). Our study was conducted during four bird use periods (spring migration, breeding, post-breeding, and fall migration) in 2002 and 2003. Arthropods were reduced in treated gaps by 68% in 2002 and 73% in 2003. We used mist-netting captures and foraging attack rates to assess the influence of arthropod abundance on avian habitat use. Evidence that birds responded to arthropod abundance was limited and inconsistent. In 2002, we generally captured more birds in treated gaps of the smallest size (0.13 ha) and fewer birds in treated gaps of the larger sizes. In 2003, we recorded few differences in the number of captures in treated and control gaps. Foraging attack rates generally were lower in treated than in control gaps, indicating that birds were able to adapt to the reduced food availability and remain in treated gaps. We conclude that arthropod abundance was not a proximate factor controlling whether forest birds used our gaps. The abundance of food resources may not be as important in determining avian habitat selection as previous research has indicated, at least for passerines in temperate subtropical regions.

  15. Food cravings consume limited cognitive resources.

    PubMed

    Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika; Grigg, Megan

    2008-09-01

    Using Tiffany's (1990) cognitive model of drug use and craving as a theoretical basis, the present experiments investigated whether cravings for food expend limited cognitive resources. Cognitive performance was assessed by simple reaction time (Experiment 1) and an established measure of working memory capacity, the operation span task (Experiment 2). In each experiment, female undergraduate students were randomly assigned to a craving or control condition. Participants in the craving condition abstained from eating chocolate for 24 hours prior to testing and performed the cognitive task in the presence of chocolate, a manipulation that successfully elicited chocolate cravings. In both experiments, there was no main effect of craving condition on cognition, but there was a significant interaction between condition and trait chocolate craving. In support of Tiffany's model, our results show that habitual food cravers direct limited cognitive resources to craving-related cues, at the cost of competing cognitive demands.

  16. Human milk: an invisible food resource.

    PubMed

    Hatløy, A; Oshaug, A

    1997-12-01

    Human milk is an invaluable food resource for infants and young children in Sub-Saharan Africa. Statistics on production of human milk at local and national levels are lacking. In this article, estimates of the quantity of human milk production in Mali, Senegal, Nigeria, and Zimbabwe were calculated. Annual production in the urban and rural areas in Mali was 13 and 17 kg per capita, respectively. National annual median production ranged from 93,000 (Zimbabwe) to 1.3 million metric tons (Nigeria), and from 9 (Zimbabwe) to 15 kg per capita (Mali). Given a value of (US)$1 per liter, inclusion of human milk in calculations of the gross national product (GNP) for these countries would increase this value by more than 5% for Mali, and nearly 2% for Senegal. Human milk is a significant food source to children in this region and should be included in national food statistics due to its nutritional and economic importance.

  17. Temporal differences in food abundance promote coexistence between two congeneric passerines.

    PubMed

    Veen, Thor; Sheldon, Ben C; Weissing, Franz J; Visser, Marcel E; Qvarnström, Anna; Saetre, Glenn-Peter

    2010-04-01

    Many related species share the same environment and utilize similar resources. This is surprising because based on the principle of competitive exclusion one would predict that the superior competitor would drive the other species to extinction; coexistence is only predicted if interspecific competition is weaker than intraspecific competition. Interspecific competition is frequently reduced by differential resource use, resulting in habitat segregation. In this paper, we use the closely related collared and pied flycatcher to assess the potential of habitat differences to affect interspecific competition through a different mechanism, namely by generating temporal differences in availability of similar food resources between the two species. We found that the tree species composition of the breeding territories of the two species differed, mainly by a higher abundance of coniferous species around nest-boxes occupied by pied flycatchers. The temporal availability of caterpillars was measured using frass traps under four deciduous and two coniferous tree species. Deciduous tree species showed an early and narrow peak in abundance, which contrasted with the steady increase in caterpillar abundance in the coniferous tree species through the season. We subsequently calculated the predicted total caterpillar biomass available in each flycatcher territory. This differed between the species, with biomass decreasing more slowly in pied flycatcher territories. Caterpillar biomass is strongly correlated with the reproductive success of collared flycatchers, but much less so with pied flycatchers. However, caterpillar availability can only partly explain the differences in seasonal decline of reproductive success between the two species; we discuss additional factors that may contribute to this species difference. Overall, our results are consistent with the suggestion that minor habitat differences between these two species may contribute to promoting their coexistence.

  18. Food resource partitioning by nine sympatric darter species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Snik, Gray E.; Boltz, J.M.; Kellogg, K.A.; Stauffer, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    We compared the diets among members of the diverse darter community of French Creek, Pennsylvania, in relation to seasonal prey availability, feeding ontogeny, and sex. Prey taxa and size attributes were characterized for nine syntopic darter species; taxon, size, and availability of macroinvertebrate prey were also analyzed from Surber samples. In general, darters fed opportunistically on immature insects; few taxa were consumed in greater proportions than they were found in the environment. Some variation in diet composition was expressed, however, among different life stages and species. Juvenile darters consumed smaller prey and more chironomids than did adults. Etheostoma blennioides and E. zonale consumed the fewest taxa (2-3), whereas E. maculatum, E. variatum, and Percina evides bad the most diverse diets (7-10 taxa). Etheostoma maculatum, E. flabellare, E. variatum, and P. evides consumed larger prey (1-13 mm in standard length), whereas E. blennioides, E. caeruleum, E. camurum, E. tippecanoe, and E. zonale rarely consumed prey longer than 6 mm. Percina evides fed on larger prey, fewer chironomids, and more fish eggs than Etheostoma species. Females consumed more prey than males and overlapped less in diet composition with males during the spawning season than afterwards. Fish diets did not seem related to habitat use. Greater trophic partitioning was observed in April, when prey resources were scarce, than in July, when prey were abundant. Darter species fed opportunistically when prey were dense, whereas they partitioned food resources mainly through the prey size dimension when prey were less abundant. The divergence of darter diets during a period of low food availability may be attributed to interspecific competition. Alternatively, the greater abundance of large prey in April may have facilitated better prey size selectivity, resulting in less overlap among darter species.

  19. Excessive abundance of common resources deters social responsibility.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojie; Perc, Matjaž

    2014-02-24

    We study the evolution of cooperation in the collective-risk social dilemma game, where the risk is determined by a collective target that must be reached with individual contributions. All players initially receive endowments from the available amount of common resources. While cooperators contribute part of their endowment to the collective target, defectors do not. If the target is not reached, the endowments of all players are lost. In our model, we introduce a feedback between the amount of common resources and the contributions of cooperators. We show that cooperation can be sustained only if the common resources are preserved but never excessively abound. This, however, requires a delicate balance between the amount of common resources that initially exist, and the amount cooperators contribute to the collective target. Exceeding critical thresholds in either of the two amounts leads to loss of cooperation, and consequently to the depletion of common resources.

  20. Excessive abundance of common resources deters social responsibility

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaojie; Perc, Matjaž

    2014-01-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in the collective-risk social dilemma game, where the risk is determined by a collective target that must be reached with individual contributions. All players initially receive endowments from the available amount of common resources. While cooperators contribute part of their endowment to the collective target, defectors do not. If the target is not reached, the endowments of all players are lost. In our model, we introduce a feedback between the amount of common resources and the contributions of cooperators. We show that cooperation can be sustained only if the common resources are preserved but never excessively abound. This, however, requires a delicate balance between the amount of common resources that initially exist, and the amount cooperators contribute to the collective target. Exceeding critical thresholds in either of the two amounts leads to loss of cooperation, and consequently to the depletion of common resources. PMID:24561876

  1. Excessive abundance of common resources deters social responsibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaojie; Perc, Matjaž

    2014-02-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in the collective-risk social dilemma game, where the risk is determined by a collective target that must be reached with individual contributions. All players initially receive endowments from the available amount of common resources. While cooperators contribute part of their endowment to the collective target, defectors do not. If the target is not reached, the endowments of all players are lost. In our model, we introduce a feedback between the amount of common resources and the contributions of cooperators. We show that cooperation can be sustained only if the common resources are preserved but never excessively abound. This, however, requires a delicate balance between the amount of common resources that initially exist, and the amount cooperators contribute to the collective target. Exceeding critical thresholds in either of the two amounts leads to loss of cooperation, and consequently to the depletion of common resources.

  2. Distribution and drift dispersal dynamics of a caddisfly grazer in response to resource abundance and its ontogeny

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuhashi, Hiromune; Doi, Hideyuki; Isobe, Yu; Oishi, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Stream grazers have a major impact on food web structure and the productivity of stream ecosystems; however, studies on the longitudinal (upstream versus downstream) and temporal changes in their drift dynamics and resulting distributions remain limited. Here, we investigated the longitudinal and temporal distributions and drift propensity of a trichopteran grazer, the caddisfly, Micrasema quadriloba, during its life cycle in a Japanese stream. The distribution of larvae significantly shifted downstream during the fifth instar larval stage during late winter; with periphyton abundance (i.e. their food source) showing similar shifts downstream. Therefore, our results show that the drift dispersal the caddisfly occurs in response to decline in available food resources (i.e. food-resource scarcity) and an increase in food requirements by growing individuals. Furthermore, our results show that this observed longitudinal shift in larval distribution varies through their life cycle, because the drift dispersal of fifth instar larvae was greater than that of immature larvae. The correlation between periphyton abundance and drift propensity of fourth instar larvae was not statistically significant, whereas that of fifth instar larvae was significantly negative. In conclusion, we detected an ontogenetic shift in drift propensity, which might explain the longitudinal and temporal distributions of this species. PMID:28280576

  3. Water resources transfers through Chinese interprovincial and foreign food trade

    PubMed Central

    Dalin, Carole; Hanasaki, Naota; Qiu, Huanguang; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    China’s water resources are under increasing pressure from socioeconomic development, diet shifts, and climate change. Agriculture still concentrates most of the national water withdrawal. Moreover, a spatial mismatch in water and arable land availability—with abundant agricultural land and little water resources in the north—increases water scarcity and results in virtual water transfers from drier to wetter regions through agricultural trade. We use a general equilibrium welfare model and linear programming optimization to model interprovincial food trade in China. We combine these trade flows with province-level estimates of commodities’ virtual water content to build China’s domestic and foreign virtual water trade network. We observe large variations in agricultural water-use efficiency among provinces. In addition, some provinces particularly rely on irrigation vs. rainwater. We analyze the virtual water flow patterns and the corresponding water savings. We find that this interprovincial network is highly connected and the flow distribution is relatively homogeneous. A significant share of water flows is from international imports (20%), which are dominated by soy (93%). We find that China’s domestic food trade is efficient in terms of rainwater but inefficient regarding irrigation, meaning that dry, irrigation-intensive provinces tend to export to wetter, less irrigation-intensive ones. Importantly, when incorporating foreign imports, China’s soy trade switches from an inefficient system to a particularly efficient one for saving water resources (20 km3/y irrigation water savings, 41 km3/y total). Finally, we identify specific provinces (e.g., Inner Mongolia) and products (e.g., corn) that show high potential for irrigation productivity improvements. PMID:24958864

  4. Water resources transfers through Chinese interprovincial and foreign food trade.

    PubMed

    Dalin, Carole; Hanasaki, Naota; Qiu, Huanguang; Mauzerall, Denise L; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2014-07-08

    China's water resources are under increasing pressure from socioeconomic development, diet shifts, and climate change. Agriculture still concentrates most of the national water withdrawal. Moreover, a spatial mismatch in water and arable land availability--with abundant agricultural land and little water resources in the north--increases water scarcity and results in virtual water transfers from drier to wetter regions through agricultural trade. We use a general equilibrium welfare model and linear programming optimization to model interprovincial food trade in China. We combine these trade flows with province-level estimates of commodities' virtual water content to build China's domestic and foreign virtual water trade network. We observe large variations in agricultural water-use efficiency among provinces. In addition, some provinces particularly rely on irrigation vs. rainwater. We analyze the virtual water flow patterns and the corresponding water savings. We find that this interprovincial network is highly connected and the flow distribution is relatively homogeneous. A significant share of water flows is from international imports (20%), which are dominated by soy (93%). We find that China's domestic food trade is efficient in terms of rainwater but inefficient regarding irrigation, meaning that dry, irrigation-intensive provinces tend to export to wetter, less irrigation-intensive ones. Importantly, when incorporating foreign imports, China's soy trade switches from an inefficient system to a particularly efficient one for saving water resources (20 km(3)/y irrigation water savings, 41 km(3)/y total). Finally, we identify specific provinces (e.g., Inner Mongolia) and products (e.g., corn) that show high potential for irrigation productivity improvements.

  5. Assessing gull abundance and food availability in urban parking lots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Daniel E.; Whitney, Jillian J.; MacKenzie, Kenneth G.; Koenen, Kiana K. G.; DeStefano, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Feeding birds is a common activity throughout the world; yet, little is known about the extent of feeding gulls in urban areas. We monitored 8 parking lots in central Massachusetts, USA, during the fall and winter of 2011 to 2013 in 4 monitoring sessions to document the number of gulls present, the frequency of human–gull feeding interactions, and the effectiveness of signage and direct interaction in reducing human-provisioned food. Parking lots were divided between “education” and “no-education” lots. In education lots, we erected signs about problems caused when people feed birds and also asked people to stop feeding birds. We did not erect signs or ask people to stop feeding birds at no-education lots. We spent >1,200 hours in parking lots (range = 136 to 200 hours per parking lot), and gulls were counted every 20 minutes. We conducted >4,000 counts, and ring-billed gulls (Lorus delawarensis) accounted for 98% of all gulls. Our educational efforts were minimally effective. There were fewer feedings (P = 0.01) in education lots during one of the monitoring sessions but significantly more gulls (P = 0.008) in education lots during 2 monitoring sessions. While there was a marginal decrease (P = 0.055) in the number of feedings after no-education lots were transformed into education lots, there was no difference in gull numbers in these lots (P = 0.16). Education appears to have some influence in reducing the number of people feeding gulls, but our efforts were not able to reduce the number of human feeders or the amount of food enough to influence the number of gulls using parking lots.

  6. Limiting resources in sessile systems: food enhances diversity and growth of suspension feeders despite available space.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Robin J; Marshall, Dustin J

    2015-03-01

    Much of our understanding of competition comes trom onservations in sessue systems, such as rainforests and marine invertebrate communities. In terrestrial systems, sessile species often compete for multiple limiting resources (i.e., space, light, and nutrients), but in marine systems, space is viewed as the primary or sole limiting resource. Competition theory, on the other hand, suggests that competition for a single limiting resource is unlikely to maintain high species diversity, but manipulative tests of competition for other resources in marine benthic systems are exceedingly rare. Here, we manipulate the availability of food for a classic system, marine sessile invertebrate communities, and investigate the effects on species diversity, abundance, and composition during early succession as well as on the growth of bryozoan populations in the field. We found the number of species to be greater, available space to be lower, and the community composition to be different in assemblages subjected to increased food availability compared to controls. Similarly, laboratory-settled bryozoans deployed into the field grew more in the presence of enhanced food. Our results suggest that food can act as a limiting resource, affecting both diversity and abundance, even when bare space is still available in hard-substratum communities. Consequently, broadening the view of resource limitation beyond solely space may increase our understanding and predictability of marine sessile systems.

  7. The influence of food abundance, food dispersion and habitat structure on territory selection and size of an Afrotropical terrestrial insectivore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Thomas R.; Newmark, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Most tropical insectivorous birds, unlike their temperate counterparts, hold and defend a feeding and breeding territory year-around. However, our understanding of ecological factors influencing territory selection and size in tropical insectivores is limited. Here we examine three prominent hypotheses relating food abundance, food dispersion (spatial arrangement of food items), and habitat structure to territoriality in the Usambara Thrush Turdus roehli. We first compared leaf-litter macro-invertebrate abundance and dispersion, and habitat structure between territories and random sites. We then examined the relation between these same ecological factors and territory size. Invertebrate abundance and dispersion were sparsely and evenly distributed across our study system and did not vary between territories and random sites. In contrast, habitat structure did vary between territories and random sites indicating the Usambara Thrush selects territories with open understorey and closed overstorey habitat. Invertebrate abundance and dispersion within territories of the Usambara Thrush were not associated with habitat structure. We believe the most likely explanation for the Usambara Thrush’s preference for open understorey and closed overstorey habitat relates to foraging behavior. Using information-theoretic model selection we found that invertebrate abundance was the highest-ranked predictor of territory size and was inversely related, consistent with food value theory of territoriality.

  8. Fitness Effects of Food Resources on the Polyphagous Aphid Parasitoid, Aphidius colemani Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae)

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Jennifer J.; Paine, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation biological control involving the polyphagous aphid parasitoid, Aphidius colemani Viereck, may include provisioning resources from a variety of plant sources. The fitness of adult A. colemani was enhanced with the provision of food resources such as floral nectar from a range of both native and introduced plant species and aphid honeydew under laboratory conditions. However, enhanced fitness appeared to be species specific rather than associated with the whether the plant was a native or an introduced species. Parasitoid survival and fecundity were enhanced significantly in response to the availability of floral nectar and honeydew compared to the response to available extrafloral nectar. These positive effects on the parasitoid’s reproductive activity can improve the effectiveness of conservation biological control in nursery production systems because of the abundance and diversity of floral resources within typical production areas. Additionally, surrounding areas of invasive weeds and native vegetation could serve as both floral resources and honeydew food resources for A. colemani. PMID:26808191

  9. Fitness Effects of Food Resources on the Polyphagous Aphid Parasitoid, Aphidius colemani Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae).

    PubMed

    Charles, Jennifer J; Paine, Timothy D

    2016-01-01

    Conservation biological control involving the polyphagous aphid parasitoid, Aphidius colemani Viereck, may include provisioning resources from a variety of plant sources. The fitness of adult A. colemani was enhanced with the provision of food resources such as floral nectar from a range of both native and introduced plant species and aphid honeydew under laboratory conditions. However, enhanced fitness appeared to be species specific rather than associated with the whether the plant was a native or an introduced species. Parasitoid survival and fecundity were enhanced significantly in response to the availability of floral nectar and honeydew compared to the response to available extrafloral nectar. These positive effects on the parasitoid's reproductive activity can improve the effectiveness of conservation biological control in nursery production systems because of the abundance and diversity of floral resources within typical production areas. Additionally, surrounding areas of invasive weeds and native vegetation could serve as both floral resources and honeydew food resources for A. colemani.

  10. Resources on Food, Nutrition and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Donna, Comp.

    The materials listed in this booklet provide background information on theories of the interrelationships of food, nutrition, and culture; the social history of food and culture; and ethnic cuisine. Also included are citations for basic nutrition information and sources of translated teaching aids for use in group settings. The first section…

  11. Temporal variation in bird and resource abundance across an elevational gradient in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, Patrick J.; Woodworth, Bethany L.; Camp, Richard J.; Turner, Kathryn; McClure, Katherine; Goodall, Katherine; Henneman, Carlene; Spiegel, Caleb; Lebrun, Jaymi; Tweed, Erik; Samuel, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We documented patterns of nectar availability and nectarivorous bird abundance over ~3 years at nine study sites across an 1,800-m elevational gradient on Hawaii Island to investigate the relationship between resource variation and bird abundance. Flower density (flowers ha-1) and nectar energy content were measured across the gradient for the monodominant 'Ōhi'a (Metrosideros polymorpha). Four nectarivorous bird species were captured monthly in mist nets and surveyed quarterly with point-transect distance sampling at each site to examine patterns of density and relative abundance. Flowering peaks were associated with season but not rainfall or elevation. Bird densities peaked in the winter and spring of each year at high elevations, but patterns were less clear at middle and low elevations. Variability in bird abundance was generally best modeled as a function of elevation, season, and flower density, but the strength of the latter effect varied with species. The low elevations had the greatest density of flowers but contained far fewer individuals of the two most strongly nectarivorous species. There is little evidence of large-scale altitudinal movement of birds in response to 'Ōhi'a flowering peaks. The loose relationship between nectar and bird abundance may be explained by a number of potential mechanisms, including (1) demographic constraints to movement; (2) nonlimiting nectar resources; and (3) the presence of an "ecological trap," whereby birds are attracted by the high resource abundance of, but suffer increased mortality at, middle and low elevations as a result of disease.

  12. Food resources of the California condor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilbur, S.R.

    1972-01-01

    Conclusions and Recommendations: Although much of the above information is imprecise and inconclusive, it is evident that the condors foraging habitat is diminishing. Food supply probably is still adequate for free-ranging nonbreeding birds, but could become limited if current land use trends continue. Congregating condors on fewer and fewer acres could be detrimental in other ways. It seems the needs of condors can best be met by maintaining a continuous band of :foraging country throughout the species' horseshoe-shaped range. Public needs for open space and livestock agriculture can also be served by land use zoning, cooperative agreements, easements or other land controls implemented with consideration :for the condors' welfare. Of immediate concern is the declining food situation in the general vicinity of the active condor nests in the Sespe-Piru region. Reproduction is definitely depressed, and the reduced local food supply is the only apparent cause. Predicted future developments can only worsen the situation. A concerted effort should be made immediately to slow the loss of food and foraging area closest to the Sespe Condor Sanctuary including: (1) the Big Mountain-Newhall Ranch regions of southern Ventura County; (2) the arc of grassland around the southern and eastern boundaries of the Sespe Sanctuary; and (3) the Tejon Ranch. Within these areas efforts should be made to increase the amount of condor food by: (1) increasing the amount of livestock, if compatible with proper land use; (2) modifying procedures for disposal of dead livestock, so that more are available to condors; (3) encouraging (subsidizing) ranchers to sacrifice livestock for condor food at certain times o:f the year; and (4) developing a state or Federal supplemental feeding program utilizing cattle, deer or other carrion regularly distributed at close, protected feeding sites. If a convenient food supply is as important to reproduction as it appears, those nest sites closest to the best

  13. Effects of Habitat Fragmentation on Abundance, Larval Food and Parasitism of a Spider-Hunting Wasp

    PubMed Central

    Coudrain, Valérie; Herzog, Felix; Entling, Martin H.

    2013-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation strongly affects species distribution and abundance. However, mechanisms underlying fragmentation effects often remain unresolved. Potential mechanisms are (1) reduced dispersal of a species or (2) altered species interactions in fragmented landscapes. We studied if abundance of the spider-hunting and cavity-nesting wasp Trypoxylon figulus Linnaeus (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) is affected by fragmentation, and then tested for any effect of larval food (bottom up regulation) and parasitism (top down regulation). Trap nests of T. figulus were studied in 30 agricultural landscapes of the Swiss Plateau. The sites varied in the level of isolation from forest (adjacent, in the open landscape but connected, isolated) and in the amount of woody habitat (from 4 % to 74 %). We recorded wasp abundance (number of occupied reed tubes), determined parasitism of brood cells and analysed the diversity and abundance of spiders that were deposited as larval food. Abundances of T. figulus were negatively related to forest cover in the landscape. In addition, T. figulus abundances were highest at forest edges, reduced by 33.1% in connected sites and by 79.4% in isolated sites. The mean number of spiders per brood cell was lowest in isolated sites. Nevertheless, structural equation modelling revealed that this did not directly determine wasp abundance. Parasitism was neither related to the amount of woody habitat nor to isolation and did not change with host density. Therefore, our study showed that the abundance of T. figulus cannot be fully explained by the studied trophic interactions. Further factors, such as dispersal and habitat preference, seem to play a role in the population dynamics of this widespread secondary carnivore in agricultural landscapes. PMID:23516622

  14. High food abundance permits the evolution of placentotrophy: evidence from a placental lizard, Pseudemoia entrecasteauxii.

    PubMed

    Van Dyke, James U; Griffith, Oliver W; Thompson, Michael B

    2014-08-01

    Mechanisms of reproductive allocation are major determinants of fitness because embryos cannot complete development without receiving sufficient nutrition from their parents. The nourishment of offspring via placentas (placentotrophy) has evolved repeatedly in vertebrates, including multiple times in squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes). Placentotrophy has been suggested to evolve only if food is sufficiently abundant throughout gestation to allow successful embryogenesis. If scarcity of food prevents successful embryogenesis, females should recoup nutrients allocated to embryos via abortion, reabsorption, and/or cannibalism. We tested these hypotheses in the placentotrophic southern grass skink Pseudemoia entrecasteauxii. We fed females one of four diets (high constant, high variable, low constant, and low variable) during gestation and tested the effects of both food amount and schedule of feeding on developmental success, cannibalism rate, placental nutrient transport, offspring size, and maternal growth and body condition. Low food availability reduced developmental success, placental nutrient transport, offspring size, and maternal growth and body condition. Cannibalism of offspring also increased when food was scarce. Schedule of feeding did not affect offspring or mothers. We suggest that high food abundance and ability to abort and cannibalize poor-quality offspring are permissive factors necessary for placentotrophy to be a viable strategy of reproductive allocation.

  15. Patterns of food abundance for breeding waterbirds in the san luis valley of Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gammonley, J.H.; Laubhan, M.K.

    2002-01-01

    We measured the amount and distribution of macroinvertebrates and seeds in four wetland habitats (short emergent, seasonal open water, semipermanent/permanent open water, and saltgrass [Distichlis spicata]) used by breeding ducks and shorebirds at a wetland complex in the San Luis Valley, Colorado, USA. Density of macroinvertebrates did not differ among habitats or sampling periods (P = 0.45), but dry mass, crude protein, and gross energy production were greater (P < 0.05) in short emergent than in other habitats. These differences were largely due to the greater dry mass of gastropods in short emergent than in other habitats. Total seed density, dry mass, crude protein, and gross energy differed among habitats and periods with interaction effects (P <0.01). Although seed abundance varied among habitats and sampling periods, abundance was greatest in short emergent during all sampling periods. Breeding waterbirds consumed a variety of macroinvertebrates and seeds on the study area. Patterns of abundance among habitats of macroinvertebrates and seeds consumed by six waterbird species were not consistent with patterns of foraging habitat use by most ducks and shorebirds at this wetland complex. Our results indicate that estimates of food or nutrient abundance are useful in assessing the functional role of broad habitat types, but factors other than food abundance also influence avian selection of wetland foraging habitats. ?? 2002, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  16. Linking water resources to food security through virtual water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamea, Stefania

    2014-05-01

    The largest use of global freshwater resources is related to food production. While each day we drink about 2 liters of water, we consume (eating) about 4000 liters of ''virtual water'', which represents the freshwater used to produce crop-based and livestock-based food. Considering human water consumption as a whole, most part originates from agriculture (85.8%), and only minor parts come from industry (9.6%) or households (4.6%). These numbers shed light on the great pressure of humanity on global freshwater resources and justify the increasing interest towards this form of environmental impact, usually known as ''water footprint''. Virtual water is a key variable in establishing the nexus between water and food. In fact, water resources used for agricultural production determine local food availability, and impact the international trade of agricultural goods. Trade, in turn, makes food commodities available to nations which are not otherwise self-sufficient, in terms of water resources or food, and it establishes an equilibrium between food demand and production at the global scale. Therefore, food security strongly relies on international food trade, but also on the use of distant and foreign water resources, which need to be acknowledged and investigated. Virtual water embedded in production and international trade follows the fate of food on the trade network, generating virtual flows of great magnitude (e.g., 2800 km3 in 2010) and defining local and global virtual water balances worldwide. The resulting water-food nexus is critical for the societal and economic development, and it has several implications ranging from population dynamics to the competing use of freshwater resources, from dietary guidelines to globalization of trade, from externalization of pollution to policy making and to socio-economic wealth. All these implications represent a great challenge for future research, not only in hydrology but in the many fields related to this

  17. Temporal occurrence of two morpho butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae): influence of weather and food resources.

    PubMed

    Freire, Geraldo; Nascimento, André Rangel; Malinov, Ivan Konstantinov; Diniz, Ivone R

    2014-04-01

    The seasonality of fruit-feeding butterflies is very well known. However, few studies have analyzed the influence of climatic variables and resource availability on the temporal distributions of butterflies. Morpho helenor achillides (C. Felder and R. Felder 1867) and Morpho menelaus coeruleus (Perry 1810) (Nymphalidae) were used as models to investigate the influences of climatic factors and food resources on the temporal distribution of these Morphinae butterflies. These butterflies were collected weekly from January 2005 to December 2006 in the Parque Nacional de Brasília (PNB). In total, 408 individuals were collected, including 274 of M. helenor and 134 of M. menelaus. The relative abundance of the two species was similar in 2005 (n = 220) and 2006 (n = 188). Of the variables considered, only the relative humidity and resource availability measured in terms of phenology of zoochorous fruits of herbaceous plants explained a large proportion of the variation in the abundance of these butterflies. Both of the explanatory variables were positively associated with the total abundance of individuals and with the abundances of M. helenor and M. menelaus considered separately. The phenology of anemochorous fruits was negatively associated with butterfly abundance. The temporal distribution of the butterflies was better predicted by the phenology of the zoochorous fruits of herbaceous plants than by the climatic predictors.

  18. The relative importance of resources and natural enemies in determining herbivore abundance: thistles, tephritids and parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Walker, Matthew; Hartley, Susan E; Jones, T Hefin

    2008-09-01

    1. The relative importance of host-plant resources and natural enemies in influencing the abundance of insect herbivores was investigated in potted plant and natural population experiments, using tephritid (Diptera: Tephritidae) flies, their host plant, creeping thistle Cirsium arvense, and their Hymenoptera parasitoids. 2. Experimental manipulation of host-plant quality (i.e. levels of host-plant nutrients) and resource availability (i.e. the number of buds) increased tephritid abundance. There was no evidence that the seed-feeding tephritid fly Xyphosia miliaria preferentially oviposited on fertilized C. arvense. 3. At low thistle densities, X. miliaria showed a constant rate of resource exploitation. At higher thistle densities, a threshold was detected, above which additional buds were not attacked. 4. Parasitism attack was variable across host (tephritid) densities but levels of parasitism were consistently higher on the fertilized thistles. 5. Experimental manipulation of host-plant quality and resource availability (quantity) not only directly affects the tephritid population but also, indirectly, leads to high rates of parasitism. Both chemical and physical characteristics of host plants affect the performance of natural enemies. 6. Both top-down and bottom-up forces act to influence tephritid abundance, with bottom-up influences appearing to be the most important.

  19. Evolutionary entropy predicts the outcome of selection: Competition for resources that vary in abundance and diversity.

    PubMed

    Demetrius, Lloyd; Legendre, Stéphane

    2013-02-01

    Competition between individuals for resources which are limited and diverse in composition is the ultimate driving force of evolution. Classical studies of this event contend that the outcome is a deterministic process predicted by the growth rate of the competing types-a tenet called the Malthusian selection principle. Recent studies of competition indicate that the dynamics of selection is a stochastic process, regulated by the population size, the abundance and diversity of the resource, and predicted by evolutionary entropy-a statistical parameter which characterizes the rate at which the population returns to the steady state condition after a random endogenous or exogenous perturbation. This tenet, which we will call the entropic selection principle entails the following relations: This article delineates the analytic, computational and empirical support for this tenet. We show moreover that the Malthusian selection principle, a cornerstone of classical evolutionary genetics, is the limit, as population size and resource abundance tends to infinity of the entropic selection principle. The Malthusian tenet is an approximation to the entropic selection principle-an approximation whose validity increases with increasing population size and increasing resource abundance. Evolutionary entropy is a generic concept that characterizes the interaction dynamics of metabolic entities at several levels of biological organization: cellular, organismic and ecological. Accordingly, the entropic selection principle represents a general rule for explaining the processes of adaptation and evolution at each of these levels.

  20. A gene-expression-based neural code for food abundance that modulates lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Entchev, Eugeni V; Patel, Dhaval S; Zhan, Mei; Steele, Andrew J; Lu, Hang; Ch'ng, QueeLim

    2015-01-01

    How the nervous system internally represents environmental food availability is poorly understood. Here, we show that quantitative information about food abundance is encoded by combinatorial neuron-specific gene-expression of conserved TGFβ and serotonin pathway components in Caenorhabditis elegans. Crosstalk and auto-regulation between these pathways alters the shape, dynamic range, and population variance of the gene-expression responses of daf-7 (TGFβ) and tph-1 (tryptophan hydroxylase) to food availability. These intricate regulatory features provide distinct mechanisms for TGFβ and serotonin signaling to tune the accuracy of this multi-neuron code: daf-7 primarily regulates gene-expression variability, while tph-1 primarily regulates the dynamic range of gene-expression responses. This code is functional because daf-7 and tph-1 mutations bidirectionally attenuate food level-dependent changes in lifespan. Our results reveal a neural code for food abundance and demonstrate that gene expression serves as an additional layer of information processing in the nervous system to control long-term physiology. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06259.001 PMID:25962853

  1. A gene-expression-based neural code for food abundance that modulates lifespan.

    PubMed

    Entchev, Eugeni V; Patel, Dhaval S; Zhan, Mei; Steele, Andrew J; Lu, Hang; Ch'ng, QueeLim

    2015-05-12

    How the nervous system internally represents environmental food availability is poorly understood. Here, we show that quantitative information about food abundance is encoded by combinatorial neuron-specific gene-expression of conserved TGFβ and serotonin pathway components in Caenorhabditis elegans. Crosstalk and auto-regulation between these pathways alters the shape, dynamic range, and population variance of the gene-expression responses of daf-7 (TGFβ) and tph-1 (tryptophan hydroxylase) to food availability. These intricate regulatory features provide distinct mechanisms for TGFβ and serotonin signaling to tune the accuracy of this multi-neuron code: daf-7 primarily regulates gene-expression variability, while tph-1 primarily regulates the dynamic range of gene-expression responses. This code is functional because daf-7 and tph-1 mutations bidirectionally attenuate food level-dependent changes in lifespan. Our results reveal a neural code for food abundance and demonstrate that gene expression serves as an additional layer of information processing in the nervous system to control long-term physiology.

  2. Balancing water resource conservation and food security in China

    PubMed Central

    Dalin, Carole; Qiu, Huanguang; Hanasaki, Naota; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    China’s economic growth is expected to continue into the next decades, accompanied by sustained urbanization and industrialization. The associated increase in demand for land, water resources, and rich foods will deepen the challenge of sustainably feeding the population and balancing agricultural and environmental policies. We combine a hydrologic model with an economic model to project China’s future food trade patterns and embedded water resources by 2030 and to analyze the effects of targeted irrigation reductions on this system, notably on national agricultural water consumption and food self-sufficiency. We simulate interprovincial and international food trade with a general equilibrium welfare model and a linear programming optimization, and we obtain province-level estimates of commodities’ virtual water content with a hydrologic model. We find that reducing irrigated land in regions highly dependent on scarce river flow and nonrenewable groundwater resources, such as Inner Mongolia and the greater Beijing area, can improve the efficiency of agriculture and trade regarding water resources. It can also avoid significant consumption of irrigation water across China (up to 14.8 km3/y, reduction by 14%), while incurring relatively small decreases in national food self-sufficiency (e.g., by 3% for wheat). Other researchers found that a national, rather than local, water policy would have similar effects on food production but would only reduce irrigation water consumption by 5%. PMID:25825748

  3. Balancing water resource conservation and food security in China.

    PubMed

    Dalin, Carole; Qiu, Huanguang; Hanasaki, Naota; Mauzerall, Denise L; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2015-04-14

    China's economic growth is expected to continue into the next decades, accompanied by sustained urbanization and industrialization. The associated increase in demand for land, water resources, and rich foods will deepen the challenge of sustainably feeding the population and balancing agricultural and environmental policies. We combine a hydrologic model with an economic model to project China's future food trade patterns and embedded water resources by 2030 and to analyze the effects of targeted irrigation reductions on this system, notably on national agricultural water consumption and food self-sufficiency. We simulate interprovincial and international food trade with a general equilibrium welfare model and a linear programming optimization, and we obtain province-level estimates of commodities' virtual water content with a hydrologic model. We find that reducing irrigated land in regions highly dependent on scarce river flow and nonrenewable groundwater resources, such as Inner Mongolia and the greater Beijing area, can improve the efficiency of agriculture and trade regarding water resources. It can also avoid significant consumption of irrigation water across China (up to 14.8 km(3)/y, reduction by 14%), while incurring relatively small decreases in national food self-sufficiency (e.g., by 3% for wheat). Other researchers found that a national, rather than local, water policy would have similar effects on food production but would only reduce irrigation water consumption by 5%.

  4. Food Insecurity and Food Resource Utilization in an Urban Immigrant Community.

    PubMed

    Greenwald, Howard P; Zajfen, Vanessa

    2017-02-01

    Risk and prevalence of food insecurity and use of food security resources are important but incompletely understood factors in immigrant health. Key informant interviews and a survey (N = 809) of housing units were conducted in a San Diego, California neighborhood with a high proportion of immigrant and low income families. The difference in food insecurity between immigrant and non-immigrant households was non-significant (20.1 vs. 15.7 %, p = n.s.), though immigrant families were more likely to use food security resources such as SNAP (32.7 vs. 22.9 %, p < .01) and food pantries (28.2 vs. 19.7 %, p < .001). Among immigrants, neither national origin nor years in the United States predicted food insecurity or use of most food security resources. In immigrant families, food insecurity often remains a challenge long after immigration, suggesting a potentially increasing need for food security resources as immigration into the United States continues.

  5. Experimentally reducing species abundance indirectly affects food web structure and robustness.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Milton; Fernandes, G Wilson; Lewis, Owen T; Morris, Rebecca J

    2017-03-01

    Studies on the robustness of ecological communities suggest that the loss or reduction in abundance of individual species can lead to secondary and cascading extinctions. However, most such studies have been simulation-based analyses of the effect of primary extinction on food web structure. In a field experiment we tested the direct and indirect effects of reducing the abundance of a common species, focusing on the diverse and self-contained assemblage of arthropods associated with an abundant Brazilian shrub, Baccharis dracunculifolia D.C. (Asteraceae). Over a 5-month period we experimentally reduced the abundance of Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Sternorrhyncha: Psyllidae), the commonest galling species associated with B. dracunculifolia, in 15 replicate plots paired with 15 control plots. We investigated direct effects of the manipulation on parasitoids attacking B. dracunculifoliae, as well as indirect effects (mediated via a third species or through the environment) on 10 other galler species and 50 associated parasitoid species. The experimental manipulation significantly increased parasitism on B. dracunculifoliae in the treatment plots, but did not significantly alter either the species richness or abundance of other galler species. Compared to control plots, food webs in manipulated plots had significantly lower values of weighted connectance, interaction evenness and robustness (measured as simulated tolerance to secondary extinction), even when B. dracunculifoliae was excluded from calculations. Parasitoid species were almost entirely specialized to individual galler species, so the observed effects of the manipulation on food web structure could not have propagated via the documented trophic links. Instead, they must have spread either through trophic links not included in the webs (e.g. shared predators) or non-trophically (e.g. through changes in habitat availability). Our results highlight that the inclusion of both trophic and non

  6. Heterospecific attraction and food resources in migrants' breeding patch selection in northern boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Forsman, Jukka T; Mönkkönen, Mikko; Helle, Pekka; Inkeröinen, Jouko

    1998-06-01

    We studied experimentally how heterospecific attraction may affect habitat selection of migrant passerine birds in Finnish Lapland. We manipulated the densities of resident tit species (Parus spp.). In four study plots residents were removed before the arrival of the migrants in the first study year, and in four other plots their densities were increased by releasing caught individuals. In the second year the treatments of the areas were reversed, allowing paired comparisons within each plot. We also investigated the relative abundance of arthropods in the study plots by the sweep-net method. This allowed us to estimate the effect of food resources on the abundance of birds. The heterospecific attraction hypothesis predicts that densities of migrant species (especially habitat generalists) would be higher during increased resident density. Results supported this prediction. Densities and number of the most abundant migrant species were significantly higher when resident density was increased than when they were removed. On the species level the redwing (Turdus iliacus) showed the strongest positive response to the increased abundance of tits. Migrant bird abundances seemed not to vary in parallel with relative arthropod abundance, with the exception of the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) which showed a strongly positive correlation with many arthropod groups. The results of the experiment indicate that migrants can use resident tit species as a cue to a profitable breeding patch. The relationship between the abundance of the birds and arthropods suggests that annual changes in food resources during the breeding season probably do not have a very important effect on bird populations in these areas. The results stress the importance of positive interspecific interactions in structuring northern breeding bird communities.

  7. Food and habitat resource partitioning between three estuarine fish species on the Swedish west coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorman, Staffan

    1983-12-01

    In 1978 the food and habitat resource partitioning of three small and common fish species, viz. Pomatoschistus microps (Krøyer), Gasterosteus aculeatus (L.) and Pungitius pungitius (L.) were studied in river Broälven estuary on the Swedish west coast (58°22'N, 11°29'E). The area was divided into three habitats, based on environmental features. In July, September, and October stomach contents and size distribution of each species present were analysed. In July there was high food and habitat overlap between the species. Interference interactions probably occurred between some size classes of P. microps and the other two species. P. pungitius was exposed to both intra- and interspecific interactions. In September the food and habitat overlaps between G. aculeatus and P. pungitius were high, while both had low food and habitat overlaps in relation to P. microps. Interactions between G. aculeatus and P. pungitius were probably influenced by more severe abiotic conditions in one habitat, which caused lower abundances there, and higher abundances in the other two habitats. In October no interactions were observed. These results indicate that competition for food at least temporarily determines the species distribution in a temperate estuary, and that estuarine fish populations are sometimes food limited.

  8. Chimpanzees in an anthropogenic landscape: Examining food resources across habitat types at Bossou, Guinea, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Bryson-Morrison, Nicola; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Humle, Tatyana

    2016-12-01

    Many primate populations occur outside protected areas in fragmented anthropogenic landscapes. Empirical data on the ecological characteristics that define an anthropogenic landscape are urgently required if conservation initiatives in such environments are to succeed. The main objective of our study was to determine the composition and availability of chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) food resources across fine spatial scales in the anthropogenic landscape of Bossou, Guinea, West Africa. We examined food resources in all habitat types available in the chimpanzees' core area. We surveyed resource composition, structure and heterogeneity (20 m × 20 m quadrats, N = 54) and assessed temporal availability of food from phenology trails (total distance 5951 m; 1073 individual trees) over 1 year (2012-2013). Over half of Bossou consists of regenerating forest and is highly diverse in terms of chimpanzee food species; large fruit bearing trees are rare and confined to primary and riverine forest. Moraceae (mulberries and figs) was the dominant family, trees of which produce drupaceous fruits favored by chimpanzees. The oil palm occurs at high densities throughout and is the only species found in all habitat types except primary forest. Our data suggest that the high densities of oil palm and fig trees, along with abundant terrestrial herbaceous vegetation and cultivars, are able to provide the chimpanzees with widely available resources, compensating for the scarcity of large fruit trees. A significant difference was found between habitat types in stem density/ha and basal area m(2) /ha of chimpanzee food species. Secondary, young secondary, and primary forest emerged as the most important habitat types for availability of food tree species. Our study emphasizes the importance of examining ecological characteristics of an anthropogenic landscape as each available habitat type is unlikely to be equally important in terms of spatial and temporal availability

  9. Basic Food Service Training. Vocational Education Resource Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evaluation and Training Inst., Los Angeles, CA.

    This Vocational Education Resource Package (VERP) was developed to provide materials useful in replicating an exemplary vocational education program for special student populations in the California Community Colleges. This VERP provides information on a basic food service training program for physically disabled, learning disabled, and…

  10. Feed, Need, Greed: Food Resources & Population. A High School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science for the People, Cambridge, MA. Boston Chapter.

    Four units, teacher's notes, and a comprehensive glossary provide background information and activities aimed at raising the awareness of high school students and teachers regarding the nature of the food system and its relationship to nutrition, population, and resources. These non-sequential units analyze the economic and political factors…

  11. Wild inside: Urban wild boar select natural, not anthropogenic food resources.

    PubMed

    Stillfried, Milena; Gras, Pierre; Busch, Matthias; Börner, Konstantin; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Ortmann, Sylvia

    2017-01-01

    Most wildlife species are urban avoiders, but some became urban utilizers and dwellers successfully living in cities. Often, they are assumed to be attracted into urban areas by easily accessible and highly energetic anthropogenic food sources. We macroscopically analysed stomachs of 247 wild boar (Sus scrofa, hereafter WB) from urban areas of Berlin and from the surrounding rural areas. From the stomach contents we determined as predictors of food quality modulus of fineness (MOF,), percentage of acid insoluble ash (AIA) and macronutrients such as amount of energy and percentage of protein, fat, fibre and starch. We run linear mixed models to test: (1) differences in the proportion of landscape variables, (2) differences of nutrients consumed in urban vs. rural WB and (3) the impact of landscape variables on gathered nutrients. We found only few cases of anthropogenic food in the qualitative macroscopic analysis. We categorized the WB into five stomach content categories but found no significant difference in the frequency of those categories between urban and rural WB. The amount of energy was higher in stomachs of urban WB than in rural WB. The analysis of landscape variables revealed that the energy of urban WB increased with increasing percentage of sealing, while an increased human density resulted in poor food quality for urban and rural WB. Although the percentage of protein decreased in areas with a high percentage of coniferous forests, the food quality increased. High percentage of grassland decreased the percentage of consumed fat and starch and increased the percentage of fibre, while a high percentage of agricultural areas increased the percentage of consumed starch. Anthropogenic food such as garbage might serve as fallback food when access to natural resources is limited. We infer that urban WB forage abundant, natural resources in urban areas. Urban WB might use anthropogenic resources (e.g. garbage) if those are easier to exploit and more abundant

  12. Competing pressures on populations: long-term dynamics of food availability, food quality, disease, stress and animal abundance.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Colin A; Schoof, Valérie A M; Bonnell, Tyler R; Gogarten, Jan F; Calmé, Sophie

    2015-05-26

    Despite strong links between sociality and fitness that ultimately affect the size of animal populations, the particular social and ecological factors that lead to endangerment are not well understood. Here, we synthesize approximately 25 years of data and present new analyses that highlight dynamics in forest composition, food availability, the nutritional quality of food, disease, physiological stress and population size of endangered folivorous red colobus monkeys (Procolobus rufomitratus). There is a decline in the quality of leaves 15 and 30 years following two previous studies in an undisturbed area of forest. The consumption of a low-quality diet in one month was associated with higher glucocorticoid levels in the subsequent month and stress levels in groups living in degraded forest fragments where diet was poor was more than twice those in forest groups. In contrast, forest composition has changed and when red colobus food availability was weighted by the protein-to-fibre ratio, which we have shown positively predicts folivore biomass, there was an increase in the availability of high-quality trees. Despite these changing social and ecological factors, the abundance of red colobus has remained stable, possibly through a combination of increasing group size and behavioural flexibility.

  13. Competing pressures on populations: long-term dynamics of food availability, food quality, disease, stress and animal abundance

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Colin A.; Schoof, Valérie A. M.; Bonnell, Tyler R.; Gogarten, Jan F.; Calmé, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Despite strong links between sociality and fitness that ultimately affect the size of animal populations, the particular social and ecological factors that lead to endangerment are not well understood. Here, we synthesize approximately 25 years of data and present new analyses that highlight dynamics in forest composition, food availability, the nutritional quality of food, disease, physiological stress and population size of endangered folivorous red colobus monkeys (Procolobus rufomitratus). There is a decline in the quality of leaves 15 and 30 years following two previous studies in an undisturbed area of forest. The consumption of a low-quality diet in one month was associated with higher glucocorticoid levels in the subsequent month and stress levels in groups living in degraded forest fragments where diet was poor was more than twice those in forest groups. In contrast, forest composition has changed and when red colobus food availability was weighted by the protein-to-fibre ratio, which we have shown positively predicts folivore biomass, there was an increase in the availability of high-quality trees. Despite these changing social and ecological factors, the abundance of red colobus has remained stable, possibly through a combination of increasing group size and behavioural flexibility. PMID:25870398

  14. Increased energy expenditure by a seabird in response to higher food abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jodice, P.G.R.; Roby, D.D.; Suryan, R.M.; Irons, D.B.; Turco, K.R.; Brown, E.D.; Thedinga, J.F.; Visser, G. Henk

    2006-01-01

    Variability in forage fish abundance strongly affects seabird behavior and reproductive success, although details of this relationship are unclear. During 1997 and 1998, we measured (1) daily energy expenditure (DEE) of 80 parent black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla at 2 colonies in Prince William Sound, Alaska (North Icy Bay and Shoup Bay), (2) abundance of surface-schooling forage fishes within the foraging range of each colony, and (3) diet composition, energy delivery rates to nestlings, and reproductive success of kittiwakes at these same colonies. Female DEE was highest at North Icy Bay in 1998, while male DEE did not differ by colony year. Abundances of Pacific herring Clupea pallasi and sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus were highest near North Icy Bay in 1998 and nearly egual in density, although Age 1+ herring comprised the majority of the diet there. Energy delivery rates to nestlings, nestling growth rates, and productivity were also highest at North Icy Bay in 1998. We suggest that female kittiwakes responded to the increased abundance of Age 1+ herring near North Icy Bay in 1998 by increasing their DEE, which in turn positively affected reproductive success. Given that adult kittiwakes have been shown to suffer decreased survival as a response to increased energy expenditure during brood rearing, the positive correlation we observed between increased abundance of a high quality food source, parental effort, and productivity is consistent with maximizing lifetime reproductive success. The lack of a response in male DEE suggests that brood-rearing roles in kittiwakes differ between genders. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  15. Exotic trees modify the thermal landscape and food resources for lizard communities.

    PubMed

    Schreuder, E; Clusella-Trullas, S

    2016-12-01

    Increasing numbers of invasive plant species are establishing around the globe, and these species frequently form dense stands that alter habitat structure in critical ways. Nevertheless, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the impacts of invasive alien plant species on native fauna. We first ask whether alien pine trees impact lizard species richness in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa, a world-renowned biodiversity hotspot, by examining differences in lizard species richness, abundance, and diversity between native mountain fynbos and exotic pine tree-dominated habitats. We then examine two mutually non-exclusive processes: (i) changes in the thermal quality of the habitat and (ii) changes in the availability of food resources, to explain differences in lizard assemblages among habitat types. Lizard richness, abundance, and diversity were greater in fynbos habitat than in fynbos heavily invaded by pine and in pine plantations. The thermal quality of the environment and food resources was consistently higher in native fynbos than in pine forests, but these responses were more varied when comparisons were made along an invasion gradient and among seasons. Our results suggest that management strategies must consider spatially and temporally detailed measurements of thermal regimes and resources to assess the impacts of invasive vegetation on reptile diversity.

  16. Captive female gorilla agonistic relationships with clumped defendable food resources.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jennifer; Lockard, Joan S

    2006-07-01

    Minimal feeding competition among female mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei) has resulted in egalitarian social relationships with poorly defined agonistic dominance hierarchies. Thus, gorillas are generally viewed as non-competitive egalitarian folivores that have had little need to develop effective competitive strategies to access food resources. However, this generalization is inconsistent with more recent research indicating that most gorillas are frugivorous, feeding on patchily distributed food resources. The current study at Howletts Wild Animal Park, Kent, England, explores the effects of clumped and defendable foods on female gorilla agonistic relationships among three groups of western lowland gorillas (G. g. gorilla), conditions that are predicted to lead to well-differentiated agonistic dominance hierarchies among female primates. The Howletts gorillas foraged all day on low-energy/-nutrient, high-fiber foods widely distributed around their enclosure by the keepers. However, they also had periodic access to high-energy foods (e.g., nuts, raisins, strawberries, etc.) that the keepers would spread in a clumped and defendable patch. Frequencies of agonistic and submissive behaviors between females and proximity data were gathered. High-status females were found to monopolize the food patch and kept the low-status females at bay with cough-grunt threat vocalizations or by chasing them away. Agonistic interactions were initiated mostly by females of high status; these were directed towards females of low status and were generally not reciprocal. In addition, females of low status engaged in submissive behaviors the most often, which they directed primarily at females of high status, especially in response to aggression by the latter. Agonistic interactions between high- and low-status females had decided outcomes more often than not, with low-status females the losers. Competition over highly desirable foods distributed in defendable clumps at

  17. Natural ResourcesFood Nexus: Food-Related Environmental Footprints in the Mediterranean Countries

    PubMed Central

    Lacirignola, Cosimo; Capone, Roberto; Debs, Philipp; El Bilali, Hamid; Bottalico, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Immediate action is required in the Mediterranean to address environmental degradation that is mainly driven by consumption patterns. Increasing stress on biological and social systems is put by unsustainable consumption patterns. Food consumption patterns are important drivers of environment degradation. The objective of this review paper is to explore natural resources-food nexus in the Mediterranean region by highlighting the environmental footprints of the current consumption and production patterns. Secondary data from different sources such as FAOSTAT, the World Bank, Water Footprint Network (WFN), and Global Footprint Network were used to analyze the situation in 21 Mediterranean countries. The region faces many environmental challenges, e.g., land degradation, water scarcity, environment pollution, biodiversity loss, and climate change. The current consumption patterns imply high ecological, carbon, and water footprints of consumption and unfavorable national virtual-water balances. Food Balance Sheets data show that the contribution of vegetal and animal-based food product groups to food supply is variable among the Mediterranean countries. This has implications also in terms of the WF of food supply, which was calculated for Bosnia, Egypt, Italy, Morocco, and Turkey. The WF of the current diet resulted lower than that of the proposed Mediterranean one in the case of Italy. There is a strong scientific evidence supporting assumption that it is so also for other Mediterranean countries. The Mediterranean is characterized by a high resource use intensity that is further exacerbated by food losses and waste (FLW). In fact, FLW implies the loss of precious resources (water, land, energy) and inputs (fertilizers). Therefore, it is crucial to increase adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet and to reduce FLW in order to foster transition to more sustainable food consumption patterns thus reducing pressure on the scarce resources of the Mediterranean

  18. Food Waste to Energy: How Six Water Resource Recovery ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Water Resource Recovery Facilities (WRRFs) with anaerobic digestion have been harnessing biogas for heat and power since at least the 1920’s. A few are approaching “energy neutrality” and some are becoming “energy positive” through a combination of energy efficiency measures and the addition of outside organic wastes. Enhancing biogas production by adding fats, oil and grease (FOG) to digesters has become a familiar practice. Less widespread is the addition of other types of food waste, ranging from municipally collected food scraps to the byproducts of food processing facilities and agricultural production. Co-digesting with food waste, however, is becoming more common. As energy prices rise and as tighter regulations increase the cost of compliance, WRRFs across the county are tapping excess capacity while tempering rates. This report presents the co-digestion practices, performance, and the experiences of six such WRRFs. The report describes the types of food waste co-digested and the strategies--specifically, the tools, timing, and partnerships--employed to manage the material. Additionally, the report describes how the facilities manage wastewater solids, providing information about power production, biosolids use, and program costs. This product is intended to describe the available infrastructure for energy recovery from co-digestion of food waste and wastewater treatment facilities.

  19. Landscape context mediates influence of local food abundance on wetland use by wintering shorebirds in an agricultural valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taft, Oriane W.; Haig, Susan M.

    2006-01-01

    While it is widely understood that local abundance of benthic invertebrates can greatly influence the distribution and abundance of wetland birds, no studies have examined if wetland landscape context can mediate this relationship. We studied the influence of wetland food abundance and landscape context on use of agricultural wetlands by wintering dunlin (Calidris alpina) and killdeer (Charadrius vociferus) in the Willamette Valley of Oregon, USA, over two winters (1999a??2000, 2000a??2001) of differing rainfall and subsequent habitat distribution. We monitored bird use (frequency of occurrence and abundance) at a sample of wetlands differing in local food abundance (density and biomass) and landscape context [adjacent shorebird habitat (defined as ha of wet habitat with less than 50% vegetative cover and within a 2-km radius) and nearest neighbor distance]. We evaluated predictive models for bird use using linear regression and the Cp criterion to select the most parsimonious model. During the dry winter (2000a??2001), dunlin exhibited greater use of sites with higher invertebrate density and biomass but also with more adjacent shorebird habitat and closest to a wetland neighbor. However, neither landscape context nor food abundance were important predictors of dunlin use during the wet winter (1999a??2000). Use of sites by killdeer was unrelated to either local food abundance or landscape context measures during both winters. Our findings contribute to a growing recognition of the importance of landscape structure to wetland birds and highlight a number of implications for the spatial planning and enhancement of wetlands using a landscape approach.

  20. Effects of predator hunger and food abundance on prey selection by Chaoborus larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Pastorok, R.A.

    1980-09-01

    Laboratory experiments on prey selection by Chaoborus larvae show that predator choice as well as differential encounter rates with prey determine the composition of the diet. As the larvae crop and midgut become filled with food during a feeding bout, the predator avoids eating some available Daphnia and specializes on Diaptomus. After 3 days of starvation at 15/sup 0/C, the gut system is empty and Chaoborus attacks prey indiscriminately. Then, daphnids are overrepresented in the diet because the predator encounters them more frequently than copepods of equal size. Daphnia swims about twice as fast as Diaptomus and encounters a stationary electric eye at twice the rate measured for copepods. The strike efficiency of larvae for encountered prey is the same for both species. Since feeding selectivity is inversely proportional to larval hunger state, prey selection varies with the abundance of prey and season. In general, larvae collected during autumn have lower feeding rates and are more selective than larvae collected during summer. When food increases, previously opportunistic larvae may become selective within a few hours; but satiated larvae take several days to relax their preferences under a lowered food regime.

  1. Marine macrophytes directly enhance abundances of sandy beach fauna through provision of food and habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ince, Rebecca; Hyndes, Glenn A.; Lavery, Paul S.; Vanderklift, Mathew A.

    2007-08-01

    Beach-cast wrack is a prominent feature of beaches of south-western Australia. We examined the fauna of these beaches to explore the generalisation [Polis, G.A., Hurd, S.D., 1995. Extraordinarily high spider densities on islands: flow of energy from the marine to terrestrial food webs and the absence of predation. Ecology 92, 4382-4386] that beach-cast wrack from highly productive marine ecosystems subsidises low productivity of terrestrial ecosystems, to establish whether this generalisation is relevant to oligotrophic marine systems. We sampled three beaches with high and three beaches with low volumes of beach-cast wrack to determine if: (1) the presence of wrack influences the abundance of macroinvertebrates; (2) wrack acts as a food source for beach macroinvertebrates; and (3) the influence of wrack varies between zones above the high water mark. We measured wrack volume and composition, sediment characteristics, the abundance of different epibenthic and infaunal macroinvertebrates taxa, and δ13C and δ15N of macrophytes and macroinvertebrates. The mean volume of wrack on high-wrack beaches was 0.27-1.07 m 3 wrack m -2 compared to 0.00-0.09 m 3 wrack m -2 on low-wrack beaches. There were no significant differences in sediment grain size, moisture content or loss on ignition between the two types of beaches or zones. Epibenthic fauna and infauna were consistently abundant on high-wrack beaches (20-291 and 0.5-3.5 individuals 0.64 m -2, respectively), but either absent or extremely rare in low-wrack beaches (0-3 and 0-0.1 individuals 0.64 m -2, respectively). Within high-wrack beaches, there were no significant differences in the abundance of epifauna or infauna among beaches or between zones. The δ13C values of macroinvertebrates at all sites were most similar to red and brown algae, with the exception of beetles from two beaches, which were closest to seagrasses. Mixing model (Isosource) results for mesograzing amphipods and dipteran flies suggested carbon

  2. National Chemistry Week 2000: JCE Resources in Food Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Erica K.

    2000-10-01

    November brings another National Chemistry Week, and this year's theme is food chemistry. I was asked to collect and evaluate JCE resources for use with this theme, a project that took me deep into past issues of JCE and yielded many treasures. Here we present the results of searches for food chemistry information and activities. While the selected articles are mainly at the high school and college levels, there are some excellent ones for the elementary school level and some that can be adapted for younger students. The focus of all articles is on the chemistry of food itself. Activities that only use food to demonstrate a principle other than food chemistry are not included. Articles that cover household products such as cleansers and pharmaceuticals are also not included. Each article has been characterized as a demonstration, experiment, calculation, activity, or informational item; several fit more than one classification. Also included are keywords and an evaluation as to which levels the article may serve.

  3. Aggression and Food Resource Competition between Sympatric Hermit Crab Species

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Mark V.; O’Grady, Matthew; Colborn, Jeremiah; Van Ness, Kimberly; Hill, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    The vertical zonation patterns of intertidal organisms have been topics of interest to marine ecologists for many years, with interspecific food competition being implicated as a contributing factor to intertidal community organization. In this study, we used behavioral bioassays to examine the potential roles that interspecific aggression and food competition have on the structuring of intertidal hermit crab assemblages. We studied two ecologically similar, sympatric hermit crab species, Clibanarius digueti [1] and Paguristes perrieri [2], which occupy adjacent zones within the intertidal region of the Gulf of California. During the search phase of foraging, C. digueti showed higher frequencies of aggressive behaviors than P. perrieri. In competition assays, C. digueti gained increased access to food resources compared to P. perrieri. The results suggest that food competition may play an important role in structuring intertidal hermit crab assemblages, and that the zonation patterns of Gulf of California hermit crab species may be the result of geographical displacement by the dominant food competitor (C. digueti). PMID:24632897

  4. Do Birds Select Habitat or Food Resources? Nearctic-Neotropic Migrants in Northeastern Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Jared D.; Johnson, Matthew D.; Ralph, C. John

    2014-01-01

    Nearctic-neotropic migrant birds need to replenish energy reserves during stopover periods to successfully complete their semiannual movements. In this study we used linear models to examine the habitat use of 11 migrant species in northeastern Costa Rica to better understand the influence of food and structural resources on the presence of birds during stopover periods. Our models indicated that frugivorous migrants primarily used food abundance, while insectivorous migrants chiefly used vegetation structure as cues for habitat use during stopover. In addition to habitat use models, we documented fruiting plant phenology and found a general relationship between migrant arrival and the timing of ripe fruit availability. Our results suggest that insectivorous migrants probably rely on structural features when using habitat because it may be inherently difficult to assess cryptic-arthropod availability during a short period of time in a novel habitat, such as stopover periods. PMID:24489701

  5. Do birds select habitat or food resources? Nearctic-neotropic migrants in northeastern Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Jared D; Johnson, Matthew D; Ralph, C John

    2014-01-01

    Nearctic-neotropic migrant birds need to replenish energy reserves during stopover periods to successfully complete their semiannual movements. In this study we used linear models to examine the habitat use of 11 migrant species in northeastern Costa Rica to better understand the influence of food and structural resources on the presence of birds during stopover periods. Our models indicated that frugivorous migrants primarily used food abundance, while insectivorous migrants chiefly used vegetation structure as cues for habitat use during stopover. In addition to habitat use models, we documented fruiting plant phenology and found a general relationship between migrant arrival and the timing of ripe fruit availability. Our results suggest that insectivorous migrants probably rely on structural features when using habitat because it may be inherently difficult to assess cryptic-arthropod availability during a short period of time in a novel habitat, such as stopover periods.

  6. Usage and Recall of the Food Stamp Office Resource Kit (FSORK) by Food Stamp Applicants in 4 California Counties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghirardelli, Alyssa; Linares, Amanda; Fong, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate recall and usage of the Food Stamp Office Resource Kit (FSORK), a set of nutrition education materials designed for use in food stamp offices. Design: Client intercept exit surveys, an environmental scan, and individual observations of clients in the food stamp office. Setting: Four food stamp offices in California.…

  7. Soil resource supply influences faunal size-specific distributions in natural food webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulder, Christian; den Hollander, Henri A.; Vonk, J. Arie; Rossberg, Axel G.; Jagers Op Akkerhuis, Gerard A. J. M.; Yeates, Gregor W.

    2009-07-01

    The large range of body-mass values of soil organisms provides a tool to assess the ecological organization of soil communities. The goal of this paper is to identify graphical and quantitative indicators of soil community composition and ecosystem functioning, and to illustrate their application to real soil food webs. The relationships between log-transformed mass and abundance of soil organisms in 20 Dutch meadows and heathlands were investigated. Using principles of allometry, maximal use can be made of ecological theory to build and explain food webs. The aggregate contribution of small invertebrates such as nematodes to the entire community is high under low soil phosphorus content and causes shifts in the mass-abundance relationships and in the trophic structures. We show for the first time that the average of the trophic link lengths is a reliable predictor for assessing soil fertility responses. Ordered trophic link pairs suggest a self-organizing structure of food webs according to resource availability and can predict environmental shifts in ecologically meaningful ways.

  8. Food security: increasing yield and improving resource use efficiency.

    PubMed

    Parry, Martin A J; Hawkesford, Malcolm J

    2010-11-01

    Food production and security will be a major issue for supplying an increasing world population. The problem will almost certainly be exacerbated by climate change. There is a projected need to double food production by 2050. In recent times, the trend has been for incremental modest yield increases for most crops. There is an urgent need to develop integrated and sustainable approaches that will significantly increase both production per unit land area and the resource use efficiency of crops. This review considers some key processes involved in plant growth and development with some examples of ways in which molecular technology, plant breeding and genetics may increase the yield and resource use efficiency of wheat. The successful application of biotechnology to breeding is essential to provide the major increases in production required. However, each crop and each specific agricultural situation presents specific requirements and targets for optimisation. Some increases in production will come about as new varieties are developed which are able to produce satisfactory crops on marginal land presently not considered appropriate for arable crops. Other new varieties will be developed to increase both yield and resource use efficiency on the best land.

  9. Costs of Foraging Predispose Animals to Obesity-Related Mortality when Food Is Constantly Abundant

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, John M.; Houston, Alasdair I.; Higginson, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is an important medical problem affecting humans and animals in the developed world, but the evolutionary origins of the behaviours that cause obesity are poorly understood. The potential role of occasional gluts of food in determining fat-storage strategies for avoiding mortality have been overlooked, even though animals experienced such conditions in the recent evolutionary past and may follow the same strategies in the modern environment. Humans, domestic, and captive animals in the developed world are exposed to a surplus of calorie-rich food, conditions characterised as ‘constant-glut’. Here, we use a mathematical model to demonstrate that obesity-related mortality from poor health in a constant-glut environment should equal the average mortality rate in the ‘pre-modern’ environment when predation risk was more closely linked with foraging. It should therefore not be surprising that animals exposed to abundant food often over-eat to the point of ill-health. Our work suggests that individuals tend to defend a given excessive level of reserves because this level was adaptive when gluts were short-lived. The model predicts that mortality rate in constant-glut conditions can increase as the assumed health cost of being overweight decreases, meaning that any adaptation that reduced such health costs would have counter-intuitively led to an increase in mortality in the modern environment. Taken together, these results imply that efforts to reduce the incidence of obesity that are focussed on altering individual behaviour are likely to be ineffective because modern, constant-glut conditions trigger previously adaptive behavioural responses. PMID:26545121

  10. Piscivorous birds on the saline lake Grevelingen, The Netherlands: Abundance, prey selection and annual food consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doornbos, G.

    Since 1971, when the Grevelingen estuary was turned into a 108 km 2 saline lake, the number of foraging piscivorous birds has increased significantly. Up to 7000 to 10 000 Great Crested Grebes may be present on the lake, representing about half of the northwestern European breeding population. In the winter 1000 to 3000 Red-breasted Mergansers also forage here, while in summer and early autumn 500 to 800 Cormorants can be found on the lake. From December 1981 through March 1982 the food habits of the grebes and mergansers were studied by means of stomach analyses. Total annual consumption of the two fish-eating birds was estimated at 46.6 and 39.2 tons fresh weight, respectively. Gobiidae proved to be the main food source, accounting for 60% of the total intake (by weight). In addition, the grebes consumed 9.9 tons of Clupea harengus and the mergansers 11.0 tons of brown shrimps Crangon crangon. The birds tended to select the larger specimens of Gobiidae and C. crangon. The estimated amount of food consumed by these two bird species represents about 28 to 36% of the standing stocks of Gobiidae, C. harengus and Sprattus sprattus present at the arrival of the birds in September/October. Total annual consumption by all major piscivorous birds, including the populations of Cormorant and Grey Heron, was estimated at 115 tons (1.1 g FW·m -2·a -1). Over the last 10-year period the number of wintering grebes showed a positive correlation ( p < 0.01) with the density of Pomatoschistus microps during the preceding (summer) season ( i.e. the most abundant gobiid species in the lake).

  11. Integrated Resources Management Approach to Ensuring Sustainable Food Security in Nigeria-The Nexus of Rice Production in Niger State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omotoso, T.

    2015-12-01

    By 2050, the world will need to feed 9 billion people. This will require a 60% increase in agricultural production and subsequently a 6% increase in water use by the agricultural sector alone. By 2030, global water demand is expected to increase by 40%, mostly in developing countries like Nigeria (Addams, Boccaletti, Kerlin, & Stuchtey, 2009) and global energy demand is expected to increase by 33% in 2035, also, mostly in emerging economies (IEA, 2013). These resources have to be managed efficiently in preparation for these future demands. Population growth leads to increased demand for water, energy and food. More food production will lead to more water-for-food and energy-for-food usage; and more demand for energy will lead to more water-for-energy needs. This nexus between water, energy and food is poorly understood and furthermore, complicated by external drivers such as climate change. Niger State Nigeria, which is blessed with abundant water and arable land resources, houses the three hydropower dams in Nigeria and one of the governments' proposed Staple Crops Processing Zones (SCPZ) for rice production. Both of these capital intensive investments depend heavily on water resources and are all highly vulnerable to changes in climate. Thus, it is essential to know how the local climate in this state will likely change and its impacts on water, energy and food security, so that policy makers can make informed mitigation/adaptation plans; operational and investment decisions. The objective of this project is to provide information, using an integrated resources management approach, on the effects of future climate changes on water, energy (hydropower) and food resources in Niger State, Nigeria and improve knowledge on the interlinkages between water, energy and food at a local scale.

  12. Habitat and food resources of otters (Mustelidae) in Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Patah, P.; Nur-Syuhada, N.; Md-Nor, S.; Sasaki, H.; Md-Zain, B. M.

    2014-09-01

    Habitat and food resources of otters were studied in several locations in Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 210 fecal samples were collected from April 2010 to March 2011 believed to be of otter's were analyzed for their diet composition and their habitat preferences. The DNA testing conducted revealed that only 126 samples were identified as Lultrogale perspicillata and Aonyx cinereus with 105 and 21 samples, respectively. Habitat analyses revealed that these two species preferred paddy fields and mangroves as their main habitats but L. perspicillata preferred to hunt near habitat with large water bodies, such as mangroves, rivers, ponds, and lakes. A. cinereus on the other hand, were mainly found near land-based habitat, such as paddy fields, casuarinas forest and oil palms near mangroves. Habitats chosen were influenced by their food preferences where L. perspicillata consumed a variety of fish species with a supplementary diet of prawns, small mammals, and amphibians, compared to A. cinereus which consumed less fish and more non-fish food items, such as insects, crabs, and snails. Since, the most of the otter habitats in this study are not located within the protected areas, conservation effort involving administrations, landowners, private organizations and public are necessary.

  13. The interacting effects of temperature and food chain length on trophic abundance and ecosystem function.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, Oliver S; Humphries, Stuart; Petchey, Owen L

    2010-05-01

    1. While much is known about the independent effects of trophic structure and temperature on density and ecosystem processes, less is known about the interaction(s) between the two. 2. We manipulated the temperature of laboratory-based bacteria-protist communities that contained communities with one, two, or three trophic levels, and recorded species' densities and bacterial decomposition. 3. Temperature, food chain length and their interaction produced significant responses in microbial density and bacterial decomposition. Prey and resource density expressed different patterns of temperature dependency during different phases of population dynamics. The addition of a predator altered the temperature-density relationship of prey, from a unimodal trend to a negative one. Bacterial decomposition was greatest in the presence of consumers at higher temperatures. 4. These results are qualitatively consistent with a recent model of direct and indirect temperature effects on resource-consumer population dynamics. Results highlight and reinforce the importance of indirect effects of temperature mediated through trophic interactions. Understanding and predicting the consequences of environmental change will require that indirect effects, trophic structure, and individual species' tolerances be incorporated into theory and models.

  14. Global warming, population growth, and natural resources for food production.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, D

    1991-01-01

    Destruction of forests and the considerable burning of fossil fuels is directly causing the level of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases including methane, carbon monoxide, and nitrous oxide in the atmosphere to rise. Population growth in the US and the world indirectly contributes to this global warming. This has led the majority of scientists interested in weather and climate to predict that the planet's temperature will increase from 1.5 to 4.5 degrees Celsius by 2050. These forecasted climactic changes will most likely strongly affect crop production. Specifically these scientists expect the potential changes in temperature, moisture, carbon dioxide, and pests to decrease food production in North America. The degree of changes hinges on each crop and its environmental needs. If farmers begin using improved agricultural technology, the fall in crop yields can be somewhat counterbalanced. Even without global warming, however, agriculture in North America must embrace sensible ecological resource management practices such as conserving soil, water, energy, and biological resources. These sustainable agricultural practices would serve agriculture, farmers, the environment, and society. Agriculturalists, farmers, and society are already interested in sustainable agriculture. Still scientists must conduct more research on the multiple effects of potential global climate change on many different crops under various environmental conditions and on new technologies that farmers might use in agricultural production. We must cut down our consumption of fossil fuel, reduce deforestation, erase poverty, and protect our soil, water, and biological resources. The most important action we need to take, however, is to check population growth.

  15. Effects of food resources on the fatty acid composition, growth and survival of freshwater mussels.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, Michelle R; Bartsch, Lynn A; Richardson, William B; Vallazza, Jon M; Moraska Lafrancois, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    Increased nutrient and sediment loading in rivers have caused observable changes in algal community composition, and thereby, altered the quality and quantity of food resources available to native freshwater mussels. Our objective was to characterize the relationship between nutrient conditions and mussel food quality and examine the effects on fatty acid composition, growth and survival of juvenile mussels. Juvenile Lampsilis cardium and L. siliquoidea were deployed in cages for 28 d at four riverine and four lacustrine sites in the lower St. Croix River, Minnesota/Wisconsin, USA. Mussel foot tissue and food resources (four seston fractions and surficial sediment) were analyzed for quantitative fatty acid (FA) composition. Green algae were abundant in riverine sites, whereas cyanobacteria were most abundant in the lacustrine sites. Mussel survival was high (95%) for both species. Lampsilis cardium exhibited lower growth relative to L. siliquoidea (p <0.0001), but growth of L. cardium was not significantly different across sites (p = 0.13). In contrast, growth of L. siliquoidea was significantly greater at the most upstream riverine site compared to the lower three lacustrine sites (p = 0.002). In situ growth of Lampsilis siliquoidea was positively related to volatile solids (10 - 32 μm fraction), total phosphorus (<10 and 10 - 32 μm fractions), and select FA in the seston (docosapentaeonic acid, DPA, 22:5n3; 4,7,10,13,16-docosapentaenoic, 22:5n6; arachidonic acid, ARA, 20:4n6; and 24:0 in the <10 and 10 - 32 μm fractions). Our laboratory feeding experiment also indicated high accumulation ratios for 22:5n3, 22:5n6, and 20:4n6 in mussel tissue relative to supplied algal diet. In contrast, growth of L. siliquiodea was negatively related to nearly all FAs in the largest size fraction (i.e., >63 μm) of seston, including the bacterial FAs, and several of the FAs associated with sediments. Reduced mussel growth was observed in L. siliquoidea when the abundance of

  16. Effects of food resources on the fatty acid composition, growth and survival of freshwater mussels

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, William B.; Vallazza, Jon M.; Moraska Lafrancois, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    Increased nutrient and sediment loading in rivers have caused observable changes in algal community composition, and thereby, altered the quality and quantity of food resources available to native freshwater mussels. Our objective was to characterize the relationship between nutrient conditions and mussel food quality and examine the effects on fatty acid composition, growth and survival of juvenile mussels. Juvenile Lampsilis cardium and L. siliquoidea were deployed in cages for 28 d at four riverine and four lacustrine sites in the lower St. Croix River, Minnesota/Wisconsin, USA. Mussel foot tissue and food resources (four seston fractions and surficial sediment) were analyzed for quantitative fatty acid (FA) composition. Green algae were abundant in riverine sites, whereas cyanobacteria were most abundant in the lacustrine sites. Mussel survival was high (95%) for both species. Lampsilis cardium exhibited lower growth relative to L. siliquoidea (p <0.0001), but growth of L. cardium was not significantly different across sites (p = 0.13). In contrast, growth of L. siliquoidea was significantly greater at the most upstream riverine site compared to the lower three lacustrine sites (p = 0.002). In situ growth of Lampsilis siliquoidea was positively related to volatile solids (10 – 32 μm fraction), total phosphorus (<10 and 10 – 32 μm fractions), and select FA in the seston (docosapentaeonic acid, DPA, 22:5n3; 4,7,10,13,16-docosapentaenoic, 22:5n6; arachidonic acid, ARA, 20:4n6; and 24:0 in the <10 and 10 – 32 μm fractions). Our laboratory feeding experiment also indicated high accumulation ratios for 22:5n3, 22:5n6, and 20:4n6 in mussel tissue relative to supplied algal diet. In contrast, growth of L. siliquiodea was negatively related to nearly all FAs in the largest size fraction (i.e., >63 μm) of seston, including the bacterial FAs, and several of the FAs associated with sediments. Reduced mussel growth was observed in L. siliquoidea when the abundance

  17. Effects of food resources on the fatty acid composition, growth and survival of freshwater mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartsch, Michelle; Bartsch, Lynn; Richardson, William B.; Vallazza, Jon; Moraska Lafrancois, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    Increased nutrient and sediment loading in rivers have caused observable changes in algal community composition, and thereby, altered the quality and quantity of food resources available to native freshwater mussels. Our objective was to characterize the relationship between nutrient conditions and mussel food quality and examine the effects on fatty acid composition, growth and survival of juvenile mussels. Juvenile Lampsilis cardium and L. siliquoidea were deployed in cages for 28 d at four riverine and four lacustrine sites in the lower St. Croix River, Minnesota/Wisconsin, USA. Mussel foot tissue and food resources (four seston fractions and surficial sediment) were analyzed for quantitative fatty acid (FA) composition. Green algae were abundant in riverine sites, whereas cyanobacteria were most abundant in the lacustrine sites. Mussel survival was high (95%) for both species. Lampsilis cardium exhibited lower growth relative to L. siliquoidea (p <0.0001), but growth of L. cardium was not significantly different across sites (p = 0.13). In contrast, growth of L. siliquoidea was significantly greater at the most upstream riverine site compared to the lower three lacustrine sites (p = 0.002). In situ growth of Lampsilis siliquoidea was positively related to volatile solids (10 – 32 μm fraction), total phosphorus (<10 and 10 – 32 μm fractions), and select FA in the seston (docosapentaeonic acid, DPA, 22:5n3; 4,7,10,13,16-docosapentaenoic, 22:5n6; arachidonic acid, ARA, 20:4n6; and 24:0 in the <10 and 10 – 32 μm fractions). Our laboratory feeding experiment also indicated high accumulation ratios for 22:5n3, 22:5n6, and 20:4n6 in mussel tissue relative to supplied algal diet. In contrast, growth of L. siliquiodea was negatively related to nearly all FAs in the largest size fraction (i.e., >63 μm) of seston, including the bacterial FAs, and several of the FAs associated with sediments. Reduced mussel growth was observed in L. siliquoidea when the abundance

  18. A Sushi Science Module in Food Production Systems and Aquatic Resource Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livengood, Elisa J.; Chapman, Frank A.

    2009-01-01

    No other food industry depends so heavily on a wild caught resource than those associated with aquatic food products. Domestication of fish, shellfish, and other aquatic resources production has lagged behind other terrestrial livestock products; however, demand for these aquatic natural resources has continued to increase dramatically. Teaching…

  19. Water resources transfers through southern African food trade: resource efficiency and climate adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalin, Carole; Conway, Declan

    2015-04-01

    The connections between climate and the water-food nexus are strong and economically significant in southern Africa, yet the role of observed climate variability as a driver of production fluctuations is poorly understood. In addition, as regional collaboration strengthens through the SADC (Southern Africa Development Community) and trade with other regions increases, it is important to understand both how climate variability affects productivity and how intra- and extra-regional trade can contribute to the region's capacity to deal with climate-related productivity shocks. We use international food trade data (FAOSTAT) and a global hydrological model (H08) to quantify the water resources embedded in international food trade across southern Africa and with the rest of the world, from 1986-2011. We analyze the impacts of socio-economic, political and climatic changes on agricultural trade and embedded water resources during that period. In particular, the effects of climate variability on trade flows and crop yields are estimated, to provide insights on the potential of trade as a collaborative adaptation mechanism.

  20. Influence of Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) on the Use of the Most Abundant and Attractive Floral Resources in a Plant Community.

    PubMed

    Polatto, L P; Chaud-Netto, J

    2013-12-01

    Some factors influence the distribution of abundance of floral visitors, especially the amount and quality of the floral resources available, the size of the area occupied by the visitor, habitat heterogeneity, and the impact caused by natural enemies and introduced species. The objective of this research was to evaluate the distribution of abundance of the foraging activity of native floral visitors and Apis mellifera L. in the most abundant and attractive food sources in a secondary forest fragment with features of Cerrado-Atlantic Forest. Some plant species were selected and the frequency of foraging made by floral visitors was recorded. A high abundance of visits in flowers was performed by A. mellifera. Two factors may have influenced this result: (1) the occupation of the forest fragment predominantly by vines and shrubs at the expenses of vegetation with arboreal characteristics that favored the encounter of the flowering plants by A. mellifera; (2) rational beekeeping of A. mellifera, causing the number of natural swarms which originate annually from colonies of commercial apiaries and colonies previously established in the environment to be very high, thus leading to an increase in the population size of this bee species in the study site. The frequent occurrence of human-induced fire and deforestation within the forest fragment may have reduced the population size of the bee species, including A. mellifera. As the populations of A. mellifera have the capacity to quickly occupy the environment, this species possibly became dominant after successive disturbances made in the forest fragment.

  1. The Water-Energy-Food Nexus in a Rapidly Developing Resource Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, D. M.; Kirste, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Technological advances and access to global markets have changed the rate at which resource exploitation takes place. The environmental impact of the rapid development and distribution of resources such as minerals and hydrocarbons has led to a greater potential for significant stress on water resources both in terms of quality and quantity. How and where those impacts manifest is crucial to determining appropriate risk management strategies. North East British Columbia has an abundance of shale gas reserves that are anticipated to be exploited at a large scale in coming years, primarily for export as liquefied natural gas (LNG). However, there is growing concern that fracking and other activities related to shale gas development pose risks to water quality and quantity in the region. Water lies at the center of the water-energy-food nexus, with an accelerating water demand for fracking and industrial operations as well as for domestic, environmental and agricultural uses. Climate change is also anticipated to alter the hydrologic regime, posing added stress to the water resource. This case study examines the water-energy-food nexus in the context of a region that is impacted by a rapidly developing resource sector, encompassing water demand/supply, climate change, interaction between deep aquifers and shallow aquifers/surface waters, water quality concerns related to fracking, land use disturbance, and community impacts. Due to the rapid rate of development, there are significant knowledge gaps in our understanding of the water resource. Currently agencies are undertaking water resource assessments and establishing monitoring sites. This research aims to assess water security in North East British Columbia in a coordinated fashion through various partnerships. In addition to collecting baseline knowledge and data, the study will evaluate risk and resilience indicators in relation to water security. A risk assessment framework specific to the shale gas development

  2. Using the Food Guide Pyramid: A Resource for Nutrition Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Anne; Fulton, Lois; Davis, Carole; Hogbin, Myrtle

    This booklet provides information to assist nutrition educators in helping their audiences use the Food Guide Pyramid to plan and prepare foods for a healthy diet. It reviews the objectives set in developing the Food Guide Pyramid and illustrates their impact on the application of the Food Guide Pyramid to planning menus. In particular, the…

  3. Landscape distribution of food and nesting sites affect larval diet and nest size, but not abundance of Osmia bicornis.

    PubMed

    Coudrain, Valérie; Rittiner, Sarah; Herzog, Felix; Tinner, Willy; Entling, Martin H

    2016-10-01

    Habitat fragmentation is a major threat for beneficial organisms and the ecosystem services they provide. Multiple-habitat users such as wild bees depend on both nesting and foraging habitat. Thus, they may be affected by the fragmentation of at least two habitat types. We investigated the effects of landscape-scale amount of and patch isolation from both nesting habitat (woody plants) and foraging habitat (specific pollen sources) on the abundance and diet of Osmia bicornis L. Trap-nests of O. bicornis were studied in 30 agricultural landscapes of the Swiss Plateau. Nesting and foraging habitats were mapped in a radius of 500 m around the sites. Pollen composition of larval diet changed as isolation to the main pollen source, Ranunculus, increased, suggesting that O. bicornis adapted its foraging strategy in function of the nest proximity to main pollen sources. Abundance of O. bicornis was neither related to isolation or amount of nesting habitat nor to isolation or abundance of food plants. Surprisingly, nests of O. bicornis contained fewer larvae in sites at forest edge compared to isolated sites, possibly due to higher parasitism risk. This study indicates that O. bicornis can nest in a variety of situations by compensating scarcity of its main larval food by exploiting alternative food sources.

  4. Behavioral responses of Cao Vit gibbon (Nomascus nasutus) to variations in food abundance and temperature in Bangliang, Jingxi, China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Peng-Fei; Fei, Han-Lan; Ma, Chang-Yong

    2012-07-01

    The Cao Vit gibbon is a critically endangered species with only about 110 individuals remaining in a degraded karst forest along the China-Vietnam border. Behavioral data from this site are particularly useful in understanding gibbon behavioral adaptations to different sets of ecological conditions and will contribute to the conservation of the species. We studied seasonal variation in the time budget and diet of the Cao Vit gibbon in response to variation in food availability and ambient temperature by observing two groups for 1,379 hr between January and December 2009. We used 5-min scan samples to record the activity of gibbons. Both ambient temperature and food availability varied from month to month. Gibbon groups increased resting time and huddled together in sleeping places in cold months. Gibbons spent more time feeding on fruit when fruit was more abundant suggesting that fruit was their preferred food. Alternatively, leaf eating was negatively correlated with leaf availability which suggested that leaves may be used as a fallback food. Gibbons increased their diet diversity when they ate more leaves. This might be a strategy to cope with toxins or digestion inhibitor accumulation associated with feeding from a limited number of leaf species. Individuals consumed more buds when Broussonetia papyrifera produced buds in March and April. During this period, they decreased traveling time and engaged in less frequent social interactions. Gibbons spent more time searching for and feeding on invertebrates during June and October. However, we did not collect data on invertebrate abundance and therefore cannot determine the relationship between invertebrate feeding and availability. We conclude that flexibility in consuming diverse food types and food species, and in responding to the availability of preferred foods, has enabled the Cao Vit gibbon to survive in a degraded karst forest habitat.

  5. Adaptation to Abundant Low Quality Food Improves the Ability to Compete for Limited Rich Food in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Vijendravarma, Roshan K.; Narasimha, Sunitha; Kawecki, Tadeusz J.

    2012-01-01

    The rate of food consumption is a major factor affecting success in scramble competition for a limited amount of easy-to-find food. Accordingly, several studies report positive genetic correlations between larval competitive ability and feeding rate in Drosophila; both become enhanced in populations evolving under larval crowding. Here, we report the experimental evolution of enhanced competitive ability in populations of D. melanogaster previously maintained for 84 generations at low density on an extremely poor larval food. In contrast to previous studies, greater competitive ability was not associated with the evolution of higher feeding rate; if anything, the correlation between the two traits across lines tended to be negative. Thus, enhanced competitive ability may be favored by nutritional stress even when competition is not intense, and competitive ability may be decoupled from the rate of food consumption. PMID:22292007

  6. Adaptation to abundant low quality food improves the ability to compete for limited rich food in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Vijendravarma, Roshan K; Narasimha, Sunitha; Kawecki, Tadeusz J

    2012-01-01

    The rate of food consumption is a major factor affecting success in scramble competition for a limited amount of easy-to-find food. Accordingly, several studies report positive genetic correlations between larval competitive ability and feeding rate in Drosophila; both become enhanced in populations evolving under larval crowding. Here, we report the experimental evolution of enhanced competitive ability in populations of D. melanogaster previously maintained for 84 generations at low density on an extremely poor larval food. In contrast to previous studies, greater competitive ability was not associated with the evolution of higher feeding rate; if anything, the correlation between the two traits across lines tended to be negative. Thus, enhanced competitive ability may be favored by nutritional stress even when competition is not intense, and competitive ability may be decoupled from the rate of food consumption.

  7. From gelatinous to muscle food chain: rock cod Patagonotothen ramsayi recycles coelenterate and tunicate resources on the Patagonian Shelf.

    PubMed

    Arkhipkin, A; Laptikhovsky, V

    2013-11-01

    Stomach contents of 4808 fishes of 20 species caught in the eastern part of the Patagonian Shelf between 1999 and 2012 were analysed to assess dietary contributions of gelatinous plankton resources. Gelatinous plankton occurred in diets of seven species with two species, Patagonotothen ramsayi and Squalus acanthias, having >10% ctenophores in their diet. Consumption of gelatinous plankton was important in P. ramsayi and was strikingly seasonal, with maximum occurrence (up to 46% of non-empty stomachs) in late summer to autumn. Ctenophores were most abundant in P. ramsayi of 25-34 cm total length, L(T) whereas salps were more frequent in larger >35 cm L(T) individuals. In winter to spring, occurrence of gelatinous plankton in diets was minimal, reflecting their overall seasonal abundance in the ocean. The recent increase in abundance of P. ramsayi has enabled the species to recycle a significant proportion of the ecosystem production from gelatinous dead end to the main muscular food chain via seasonal reliance on ctenophores, jellyfish and tunicates. This additional influx of production that has been diverted from the gelatinous food chain favours the increase in abundance of several piscivorous top predators and affects the trophic web structure of the Patagonian Shelf ecosystem.

  8. Quantitative assessment of benthic food resources for juvenile Gulf sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi in the Suwannee River estuary, Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, R.A.; Sulak, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    Gulf sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi, forage extensively in the Suwannee River estuary following emigration out of the Suwannee River, Florida. While in the estuary, juvenile Gulf sturgeon primarily feed on benthic infauna. In June-July 2002 and February-April 2003, random sites within the estuary were sampled for benthic macrofauna (2002 n = 156; 2003 n = 103). A mean abundance of 2,562 ind m-2 (SE ?? 204) was found in the summer, with significantly reduced macrofaunal abundance in the winter (mean density of 1,044 ind m-2, SE ?? 117). Benthic biomass was significantly higher in the summer with an average summer sample dry weight of 5.92 g m-2 (SE ?? 0.82) compared to 3.91 g m-2 (SE ?? 0.67) in the winter. Amphipods and polychaetes were the dominant taxa collected during both sampling periods. Three different estimates of food availability were examined taking into account principal food item information and biomass estimates. All three estimates provided a slightly different view of potential resources but were consistent in indicating that food resource values for juvenile Gulf sturgeon are spatially heterogeneous within the Suwannee River estuary. ?? 2005 Estuarine Research Federation.

  9. Non-reliance of metazoans on stromatolite-forming microbial mats as a food resource.

    PubMed

    Rishworth, Gavin M; Perissinotto, Renzo; Bird, Matthew S; Strydom, Nadine A; Peer, Nasreen; Miranda, Nelson A F; Raw, Jacqueline L

    2017-02-16

    Grazing and burrowing organisms usually homogenise microalgal mats that form on benthic sediments of many aquatic ecosystems. In the absence of this disruption, microalgal mats can accrete laminated deposits (stromatolites). Stromatolites are rare in modern coastal ecosystems, but persist at locations where metazoans are largely excluded. This study aimed to assess the trophic structure at stromatolite locations where metazoans co-occur, to determine the grazing influence exerted by the metazoans on the stromatolite-forming microalgae (cyanobacteria and diatoms). Stable isotope signatures (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) were used as food-web tracers and dietary composition of consumers was calculated using source mixing models. Results clearly demonstrate that the dominant macrofaunal grazers do not utilise stromatolite material as a food resource, but rather subsist on autochthonous macroalgae. For instance, the mean (±SD) dietary composition of two of the most abundant grazers, Melita zeylanica (Amphipoda) and Composetia cf. keiskama (Polychaeta), consisted of 80 ± 11% and 91 ± 7% macroalgae, respectively. This suggests that the stromatolite-forming benthic microalgae are not disrupted significantly by grazing pressures, allowing for the layered mineralisation process to perpetuate. Additionally, grazers likely have a restrictive influence on pool macroalgae, maintaining the competitive balance between micro- and macroalgal groups.

  10. Non-reliance of metazoans on stromatolite-forming microbial mats as a food resource

    PubMed Central

    Rishworth, Gavin M.; Perissinotto, Renzo; Bird, Matthew S.; Strydom, Nadine A.; Peer, Nasreen; Miranda, Nelson A. F.; Raw, Jacqueline L.

    2017-01-01

    Grazing and burrowing organisms usually homogenise microalgal mats that form on benthic sediments of many aquatic ecosystems. In the absence of this disruption, microalgal mats can accrete laminated deposits (stromatolites). Stromatolites are rare in modern coastal ecosystems, but persist at locations where metazoans are largely excluded. This study aimed to assess the trophic structure at stromatolite locations where metazoans co-occur, to determine the grazing influence exerted by the metazoans on the stromatolite-forming microalgae (cyanobacteria and diatoms). Stable isotope signatures (δ13C and δ15N) were used as food-web tracers and dietary composition of consumers was calculated using source mixing models. Results clearly demonstrate that the dominant macrofaunal grazers do not utilise stromatolite material as a food resource, but rather subsist on autochthonous macroalgae. For instance, the mean (±SD) dietary composition of two of the most abundant grazers, Melita zeylanica (Amphipoda) and Composetia cf. keiskama (Polychaeta), consisted of 80 ± 11% and 91 ± 7% macroalgae, respectively. This suggests that the stromatolite-forming benthic microalgae are not disrupted significantly by grazing pressures, allowing for the layered mineralisation process to perpetuate. Additionally, grazers likely have a restrictive influence on pool macroalgae, maintaining the competitive balance between micro- and macroalgal groups. PMID:28205600

  11. Distribution, abundance, and seasonal patterns of stored product beetles in a commercial food storage facility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three-year monitoring study was performed using pitfall traps baited with pheromone lures and food oil to assess seasonal prevalence of stored product beetles inside a large community food storage warehouse located in the Midwestern US. The four primary species captured were Tribolium castaneum (H...

  12. The Baltic Macoma: abundance and distribution of an important winter food of diving ducks in Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorde, D.G.; Haramis, G.M.

    1997-01-01

    Poor water quality and widespread depletion of wild celery (Vallisneria americana) and other submerged aquatic plants important as waterfowl foods has resulted in the continued dependence of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) on Baltic clams (Macoma balthica) as their primary winter food. Despite this dependence, no information exists regarding the distribution and abundance of Baltic clams, and changes that occur in Baltic clam populations over time. We conducted benthic surveys to determine the distribution and abundance of Macoma balthica and M. mitchelli in major tributaries of the upper and middle Chesapeake Bay. Tributaries sampled included the Chester River south to Monie Bay on the Eastern Shore, and Middle River to the Potomac River on the western shore of Maryland. Data on depth, bottom type, shellfish, and submerged aquatic vegetation were recorded. The Baltic clam had the highest frequency of occurrence (50%), followed by M. mitchelli (36%). Other species of clams occurred in less than 14% of the 2995 sites sampled. In addition, every third month since June 1991, we have studied seasonal changes in Baltic clam abundance and recruitment at 13 high abundance sites. Recruitment was recorded at only one high density site (97% increase) between June and September transect surveys. Clam length histograms clearly indicated a new year class and depletion of older cohorts. Average summer decline in Baltic clam abundance at the other 12 sites was 59% and ranged from -11% to -97%. Based on clam length, younger cohorts were depleted at a higher rate. More than half of the Baltic clam population was depleted during the summer and spring recruitment was low.

  13. [Effects of macro-jellyfish abundance dynamics on fishery resource structure in the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent waters].

    PubMed

    Shan, Xiu-Juan; Zhuang, Zhi-Meng; Jin, Xian-Shi; Dai, Fang-Qun

    2011-12-01

    Based on the bottom trawl survey data in May 2007 and May and June 2008, this paper analyzed the effects of the abundance dynamics of macro-jellyfish on the species composition, distribution, and abundance of fishery resource in the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent waters. From May 2007 to June 2008, the average catch per haul and the top catch per haul of macro-jellyfish increased, up to 222.2 kg x h(-1) and 1800 kg x h(-1) in June 2008, respectively. The macro-jellyfish were mainly distributed in the areas around 50 m isobath, and not beyond 100 m isobath where was the joint front of the coastal waters of East China Sea, Yangtze River runoff, and Taiwan Warm Current. The main distribution area of macro-jellyfish in June migrated northward, as compared with that in May, and the highest catches of macro-jellyfish in May 2007 and May 2008 were found in the same sampling station (122.5 degrees E, 28.5 degrees N). In the sampling stations with higher abundance of macro-jellyfish, the fishery abundance was low, and the fishery species also changed greatly, mainly composed by small-sized species (Trachurus japonicus, Harpadon nehereus, and Acropoma japonicum) and pelagic species (Psenopsis anomala, Octopus variabilis) and Trichiurus japonicus, and P. anomala accounted for 23.7% of the total catch in June 2008. Larimichthys polyactis also occupied higher proportion of the total catch in sampling stations with higher macro-jellyfish abundance, but the demersal species Lophius litulon was not found, and a few crustaceans were collected. This study showed that macro-jellyfish had definite negative effects on the fishery community structure and abundance in the Yangtze River estuary fishery ecosystem, and further, changed the energy flow patterns of the ecosystem through cascading trophic interactions. Therefore, macro-jellyfish was strongly suggested to be an independent ecological group when the corresponding fishery management measures were considered.

  14. Availability of food resources, distribution of invasive species, and conservation of a Hawaiian bird along a gradient of elevation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banko, P.C.; Oboyski, P.T.; Slotterback, J.W.; Dougill, Steve J.; Goltz, Dan M.; Johnson, L.; Laut, M.E.; Murray, T.C.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: We evaluated how an elevation gradient affects: (1) the availability of food required by a specialist seed-eater, Loxioides bailleui Oustalet (Drepanidinae), or pallia, and hence the distribution of this endangered Hawaiian bird, and (2) the distribution of alien threats to Loxioides populations, their primary foods, and their dry-forest habitat, and hence strategies for their conservation. Location: We worked throughout the subalpine forest that encircles Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawai'i Island, but we focused our studies mainly on the western slope between 2000 and 3000 m elevation, where the gradient of elevation was greatest and palila were most abundant. Methods: We determined phenology and productivity patterns of the endemic dry-forest tree species, Sophora chrysophylla (Salisb.) Seem. (Fabaceae), or ma??mane, which provides Loxioides with most of their food, and another common endemic tree, Myoporum sandwicense A. Gray (Myoporaceae), or naio, which provides some resources, along a 786-m elevation gradient at monthly intervals for 10 years (Sophora only). We also determined the availability each month of moth larvae (Lepidoptera) for that were important in the diet of nestling and adult palila. In addition, we documented the incidence of parasitism on moth larvae by several wasp (Hymenoptera) and fly (Diptera) species, and we determined the distribution of predatory wasps and ants (Hymenoptera), which potentially threaten insect prey of birds. Percentage cover of alien grass species that pose fire threats in palila habitat and other weeds were assessed during one survey. Small mammal abundance and distribution were determined by trapping during three (rodent) or five (carnivore) surveys. Results: Sophora flower and seed (pod) availability varied predictably along the elevation gradient, with about 4 months separating peaks in reproduction at high and low elevations. This, together with highly variable production of flowers and pods within elevation strata

  15. Allee effects and species co-existence in an environment where resource abundance varies.

    PubMed

    M'Gonigle, Leithen K; Greenspoon, Philip B

    2014-11-21

    Explaining patterns of diversity has long been a central focus in ecology. One of the most challenging problems has been to understand how species occupying similar ecological niches can co-exist because, with limited resources, demographic stochasticity is expected to lead to the eventual extinction of all but one of them. The Allee effect has been widely studied for its impact on the extinction risk of rare species. Its potential role in promoting co-existence has received less attention. Here, we present a model in which two species compete for a single resource across a continuous landscape. We show that Allee effects can promote their co-existence when a simple condition is met: resources are distributed unevenly across space. Furthermore, the Allee effect can stabilize co-existence despite the reduction in population density and consequent increase in demographic stochasticity that it causes. The Allee effect might, therefore, be an important force maintaining diverse communities.

  16. Politics of abundance: resources allocation in the public sector in the developed and oil-rich countries

    SciTech Connect

    Ahady, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    This dissertation presents two models of resources allocation in the public sector. The first model, which assumes scarcity of resources available to the state and is suitable to the experiences of the developed Western States, is tested against the data for Denmark, the Netherlands, and Norway. The second model, which assumes an abundance of resources available to the state and is suitable to the experiences of oil-rich countries, is tested against the data for Saudi Arabia, Iran, and Iraq. Findings reveal that the allocation of resources in the public sector in Western countries followed a developmental pattern. Thus, before the 1970s, Western states allocated their budgets almost exclusively to defense and administration. They emphasized economic development until the administration. They emphasized economic development until the 1920s and social welfare programs since the 1930s. The emergence of social welfare and development as major categories of expenditures were separated by a substantial period of time. In contrast to the European experiences, the availability of non tax oil revenues promoted a relatively quick consolidation of state authority in the oil-rich countries. Consequently, oil-rich states were able to allocate large amounts of public resources to economic development and social welfare programs wither simultaneously or in quick succession without much concern for trade-offs.

  17. EPA Honors Pa. Environmental Resources Consortium For Food Recovery Challenge Achievement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    LANCASTER, Pa. (April 23, 2015) -- The U.S Environmental Protection Agency today honored the Pennsylvania Environmental Resources Consortium (PERC) for recruiting 22 Pennsylvania colleges and universities to participate in EPA's Food Recovery Challe

  18. Population dynamics of a generalist rodent in relation to variability in pulsed food resources in a fragmented landscape.

    PubMed

    Marcello, Gregg J; Wilder, Shawn M; Meikle, Douglas B

    2008-01-01

    1. Pulsed food resources are often considered equivalent in their potential impact on the reproduction and population dynamics of consumers, but differences in the attributes of food pulses and their distribution in the landscape may cause differences in their effects. 2. We tested whether a perishable pulsed resource (periodical cicadas, Magicicada spp.) had similar effects on the population dynamics of a generalist forest rodent, Peromyscus leucopus, as have been reported for a cacheable pulsed resource (acorn mast). 3. Because the availability of periodical cicadas may vary between edge and interior habitat, we also tested whether habitat type (edge vs. interior) and fragment size affected the abundance of cicadas and P. leucopus. 4. Nearly 90% of the variation in the relative population densities of P. leucopus was explained by the variation in the relative densities of periodical cicadas, and fragments with more cicadas tended to have more reproductive female mice and litters. 5. We found more cicadas and more P. leucopus in edge than interior habitat, but no differences in the relative densities of either in relation to fragment size. 6. Data from a non-emergence year revealed no differences other than the presence of periodical cicadas that could explain the 50% higher relative densities of P. leucopus in the emergence year. 7. At the beginning of the emergence of periodical cicadas, the three fragments with the highest numbers of emergence holes had three times more mice than the fragments with the lowest numbers of emergence holes, suggesting that P. leucopus is able to anticipate the emergence of periodical cicadas and increase reproduction prior to the pulse. 8. Hence, despite differences in perishability, seasonal timing and nutritional quality of pulsed food resources in a fragmented landscape, they appear to have similar positive effects on the population dynamics of the generalist rodent, P. leucopus and, in fact, P. leucopus may be able to

  19. Natural Antioxidants in Foods and Medicinal Plants: Extraction, Assessment and Resources

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Ya; Meng, Xiao; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Natural antioxidants are widely distributed in food and medicinal plants. These natural antioxidants, especially polyphenols and carotenoids, exhibit a wide range of biological effects, including anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, anti-atherosclerosis and anticancer. The effective extraction and proper assessment of antioxidants from food and medicinal plants are crucial to explore the potential antioxidant sources and promote the application in functional foods, pharmaceuticals and food additives. The present paper provides comprehensive information on the green extraction technologies of natural antioxidants, assessment of antioxidant activity at chemical and cellular based levels and their main resources from food and medicinal plants. PMID:28067795

  20. Natural Antioxidants in Foods and Medicinal Plants: Extraction, Assessment and Resources.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Ya; Meng, Xiao; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-01-05

    Natural antioxidants are widely distributed in food and medicinal plants. These natural antioxidants, especially polyphenols and carotenoids, exhibit a wide range of biological effects, including anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, anti-atherosclerosis and anticancer. The effective extraction and proper assessment of antioxidants from food and medicinal plants are crucial to explore the potential antioxidant sources and promote the application in functional foods, pharmaceuticals and food additives. The present paper provides comprehensive information on the green extraction technologies of natural antioxidants, assessment of antioxidant activity at chemical and cellular based levels and their main resources from food and medicinal plants.

  1. Water resources transfers through southern African food trade: water efficiency and climate signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalin, C.; Conway, D.

    2015-12-01

    Temporal and spatial variability of precipitation in Southern Africa is particularly high. The associated drought and flood risks, combined with a largely rainfed agriculture, pose a challenge for water and food security in this region. It is thus important to understand both how climate variability affects agricultural productivity and how intra- and extra-regional trade can contribute to the region's capacity to deal with climate-related shocks. We combine international food trade data and a global hydrological model to quantify the water resources embedded in international food trade in southern Africa and with the rest of the world, from 1986-2011. We analyze the impacts of socio-economic, political and climatic changes on agricultural trade and embedded water resources during that period. We find that regional food trade is efficient in terms of water resources but may be unsustainable because water-productive exporters, like South Africa, rely on increasingly scarce water resources. The role of imports from the rest of the world in the region's food supply is important, in particular during severe droughts. This reflects how trade can efficiently redistribute water resources across continents in response to a sudden gap in food production and water productivity. As regional collaboration strengthens through the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) and trade with other regions increases, our results point out opportunities for improved water-efficiency and sustainability of the region's food production via trade.

  2. Food First Resource Guide: Documentation on the Roots of World Hunger and Rural Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Food and Development Policy, San Francisco, CA.

    This guide reviews resources used to develop the analysis of world hunger in "Food First: Beyond the Myth of Scarcity," Houghton Mifflin, 1977. The objectives are to help people understand the economic and political factors that contribute to food deprivation, document this analysis with credible sources, and inform high school, college, and…

  3. Resource for Evaluating the Economic Impact of Local Food System Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jablonski, Becca B. R.; O'Hara, Jeffrey K.; McFadden, Dawn Thilmany; Tropp, Debra

    2016-01-01

    Local food system stakeholders are confronted with challenges when attempting to ascertain the economic impacts of food system investments. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Marketing Service commissioned a team of economists to develop a resource to provide support to stakeholders interested in understanding the economic impacts of…

  4. Married Women's Resource Position and Household Food Expenditures in Cebu, Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmeer, Kammi K

    2005-01-01

    This study analyzes how married women use their access to and control over economic resources to increase household spending on food. Using data from Cebu, Philippines, where child malnutrition is high, this study finds that the more income women earn and control, the more households spend on food. Women's control over their income is particularly…

  5. Water resources transfers through southern African food trade: water efficiency and climate signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalin, Carole; Conway, Declan

    2016-01-01

    Temporal and spatial variability of precipitation in southern Africa is particularly high. The associated drought and flood risks, combined with a largely rain-fed agriculture, pose a challenge for water and food security in the region. As regional collaboration strengthens through the Southern Africa Development Community and trade with other regions increases, it is thus important to understand both how climate variability affects agricultural productivity and how food trade (regional and extra-regional) can contribute to the region's capacity to deal with climate-related shocks. We combine global hydrological model simulations with international food trade data to quantify the water resources embedded in international food trade in southern Africa and with the rest of the world, from 1986-2011. We analyze the impacts of socio-economic changes and climatic variability on agricultural trade and embedded water resources during this period. We find that regional food trade is efficient in terms of water use but may be unsustainable because water-productive exporters, like South Africa, rely on increasingly stressed water resources. The role of imports from the rest of the world in the region's food supply is important, in particular during severe droughts. This reflects how trade can efficiently redistribute water resources across continents in response to a sudden gap in food production. In a context of regional and global integration, our results highlight opportunities for improved water-efficiency and sustainability of the region's food supply via trade.

  6. Variations in the abundance of fisheries resources and ecosystem structure in the Japan/East Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chang Ik; Lee, Jae Bong; Seo, Young Il; Yoon, Sang Cheol; Kim, Suam

    2004-05-01

    Evidence supports the hypothesis that two climatic regime shifts in the North Pacific and the Japan/East Sea, have affected the dynamics of the marine ecosystem and fisheries resources from 1960 to 2000. Changes in both mixed layer depth (MLD) and primary production were detected in the Japan/East Sea after 1976. The 1976 regime shift appears to have caused the biomass replacement with changes in catch production of major exploited fisheries resources, including Pacific saury, Pacific sardine and filefish. Both fisheries yield and fish distribution are reflected in these decadal fluctuations. In the 1960s and 1990s, common squid dominated the catches whereas in the 1970s and 1980s, it was replaced by walleye pollock. In the post-1988 regime shift, the distribution of horse mackerel shifted westward and southward and its distributional overlap with common mackerel decreased. The habitat of Pacific sardine also shifted away from mackerel habitats during this period. To evaluate changes in the organization and structure of the ecosystem in the Japan/East Sea, a mass-balanced model, Ecopath, was employed. Based on two mass-balanced models, representing before (1970-75) and after (1978-84) the 1976 regime shift, the weighted mean trophic level of catch increased from 3.09 before to 3.28 after. Total biomass of species groups in the Japan/East Sea ecosystem increased by 15% and total catch production increased by 48% due to the 1976 regime shift. The largest changes occurred at mid-trophic levels, occupied by fishes and cephalopods. The dominant predatory species shifted from cephalopods to walleye pollock due to the 1976 regime shift. It is concluded that the climatic regime shifts caused changes in the structure of the ecosystem and the roles of major species, as well as, large variations in biomass and production of fisheries resources.

  7. Unravelling the role of allochthonous aquatic resources to food web structure in a tropical riparian forest.

    PubMed

    Recalde, Fátima C; Postali, Thaís C; Romero, Gustavo Q

    2016-03-01

    The role of matter and energy flow across ecosystem boundaries for the subsidized consumer populations is well known. However, little is known on the effects of allochthonous subsidies on food web structure and trophic niche dimensions of consumers in the tropics. We excluded allochthonous aquatic insects from tropical streams using greenhouse-type exclosures to test the influence of aquatic allochthonous subsidies on the trophic structure and niche dimensions of terrestrial predators using stable isotope methods. In exclosure treatments, abundance and biomass of terrestrial predators, and biomass of phytophages decreased and increased, respectively. Vegetation-living predators were more responsive to allochthonous inputs than those living on the ground. Overall, lower availability of allochthonous inputs did not affect community-wide metrics and niche width of predators. However, the niche width of some spider families had very low overlap between treatments, and others had wider isotopic niches in the control than in the exclusion treatment. Most of the C and N in predators living in control stretches came from aquatic subsidies, and those predators living in the exclusion treatments switched their diets to terrestrial sources, showing a preference of predators for allochthonous subsidies. Our results suggest that allochthonous subsidies are also relevant to tropical fauna living upon vegetation. Moreover, allochthonous resources may amplify the niche dimension of certain predators or considerably change the trophic niche of others. Our study highlights the importance of including modern isotopic tools in elucidating the role of allochthonous resources on the patterns of trophic structure and niche dimensions of consumers from donor ecosystems.

  8. Online Resources for Teaching Units on: Ecological Footprint of Human Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrocco, Aldo T.

    2011-01-01

    The modern food system involves high consumption of natural resources and other forms of environmental degradation. This paper is a presentation of internet resources such as scientific contributions, graphics, tables, images, animations and interactive atlases that can help to teach this subject. The discussion contains some subjects considered…

  9. Implications of Postharvest Food Loss/Waste Prevention to Energy and Resources Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, X.; Shafiee-Jood, M.

    2015-12-01

    World's growing demand for food is driven by population and income growth, dietary changes, and the ever-increasing competition between food, feed and bioenergy challenges food security; meanwhile agricultural expansion and intensification threats the environment by the various detrimental impacts. Researchers have attempted to explore strategies to overcome this grand challenge. One of the promising solutions that have attracted considerable attention recently is to increase the efficiency of food supply chain by reducing food loss and waste (FLW). According to recent studies conducted by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), United Nation, almost one third of the food produced for human consumption globally is lost or wasted along the food supply chain. This amount of food discarded manifests a missing, yet potential, opportunity to sustainably enhance both food security and environmental sustainability. However, implementing the strategies and technologies for tackling FLW does not come up as an easy solution since it requires economic incentives, benefit and cost analysis, infrastructure development, and appropriate market mechanism. In this presentation I will provide a synthesis of knowledge on the implications of postharvest food loss/waste prevention to energy and resource conservation, environmental protection, as well as food security. I will also discuss how traditional civil and environmental engineering can contribute to the reduction of postharvest food loss, an important issue of sustainable agriculture.

  10. Food Security: Selected Global and U.S. Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocher, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Food security is researched and dealt with on local, regional, national, and global levels with solutions ranging from local farmers' market initiatives to increasing crop yields through genetically modified plants to streamlining global supply chains. Because of its broad, interdisciplinary nature, it is necessary to narrow the focus of this…

  11. World Food Resources and Population: The Narrowing Margin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.

    1981-01-01

    This bulletin examines the narrowing margin between global food production and population growth. Between 1950 and 1971, world grain production nearly doubled and per capita production increased 31 percent. During the 1970s, gains in output barely kept pace with population growth, consumption per person declined in sub-Saharan Africa and parts of…

  12. Reduction of potential food interference in two sympatric carnivores by sequential use of shared resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrientos, Rafael; Virgós, Emilio

    2006-07-01

    The common genet ( Genetta genetta) and the stone marten ( Martes foina) are two species that overlap extensively in their distribution ranges in southwest Europe. Available diet data from these species allow us to predict some interference competition for food resources in sympatric populations. We checked the food interference hypothesis in a sympatric population. The diet of both predators was analyzed through scat collection. Seasonal differences in biomass consumption were compared between both species in those items considered as key resources according to biomass consumption. Strawberry tree fruits can be considered as key resource exclusively for genets whereas fungi, blackberries and rabbits are keys for stone martens only. For other key resources consumed by both species (wood mouse and figs) we suggest that a possible mechanism to reduce diet overlap could be the sequential use of these resources: no intensive exploitation by both species of the same key resource during the same season was detected. Figs and wood mouse were used alternatively. Although strawberry tree fruits and blackberry are exclusive key resources of one of the species, their consumptions showed the same pattern. Diet niche overlap in our study is low compared with other carnivore communities suggesting that exclusive use of some key resources and sequential use of shared ones is an optimal scenario to reduce overall competition for food resources.

  13. Linking killer whale survival and prey abundance: food limitation in the oceans' apex predator?

    PubMed

    Ford, John K B; Ellis, Graeme M; Olesiuk, Peter F; Balcomb, Kenneth C

    2010-02-23

    Killer whales (Orcinus orca) are large predators that occupy the top trophic position in the world's oceans and as such may have important roles in marine ecosystem dynamics. Although the possible top-down effects of killer whale predation on populations of their prey have received much recent attention, little is known of how the abundance of these predators may be limited by bottom-up processes. Here we show, using 25 years of demographic data from two populations of fish-eating killer whales in the northeastern Pacific Ocean, that population trends are driven largely by changes in survival, and that survival rates are strongly correlated with the availability of their principal prey species, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Our results suggest that, although these killer whales may consume a variety of fish species, they are highly specialized and dependent on this single salmonid species to an extent that it is a limiting factor in their population dynamics. Other ecologically specialized killer whale populations may be similarly constrained to a narrow range of prey species by culturally inherited foraging strategies, and thus are limited in their ability to adapt rapidly to changing prey availability.

  14. Lost water and nitrogen resources due to EU consumer food waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanham, D.; Bouraoui, F.; Leip, A.; Grizzetti, B.; Bidoglio, G.

    2015-08-01

    The European Parliament recently called for urgent measures to halve food waste in the EU, where consumers are responsible for a major part of total waste along the food supply chain. Due to a lack of data on national food waste statistics, uncertainty in (consumer) waste quantities (and the resulting associated quantities of natural resources) is very high, but has never been previously assessed in studies for the EU. Here we quantify: (1) EU consumer food waste, and (2) associated natural resources required for its production, in term of water and nitrogen, as well as estimating the uncertainty of these values. Total EU consumer food waste averages 123 (min 55-max 190) kg/capita annually (kg/cap/yr), i.e. 16% (min 7-max 24%) of all food reaching consumers. Almost 80%, i.e. 97 (min 45-max 153) kg/cap/yr is avoidable food waste, which is edible food not consumed. We have calculated the water and nitrogen (N) resources associated with avoidable food waste. The associated blue water footprint (WF) (the consumption of surface and groundwater resources) averages 27 litre per capita per day (min 13-max 40 l/cap/d), which slightly exceeds the total blue consumptive EU municipal water use. The associated green WF (consumptive rainwater use) is 294 (min 127-max 449) l/cap/d, equivalent to the total green consumptive water use for crop production in Spain. The nitrogen (N) contained in avoidable food waste averages 0.68 (min 0.29-max 1.08) kg/cap/yr. The food production N footprint (any remaining N used in the food production process) averages 2.74 (min 1.02-max 4.65) kg/cap/yr, equivalent to the use of mineral fertiliser by the UK and Germany combined. Among all the food product groups wasted, meat accounts for the highest amounts of water and N resources, followed by wasted cereals. The results of this study provide essential insights and information on sustainable consumption and resource efficiency for both EU policies and EU consumers.

  15. Assimilation of trace elements ingested by the mussel Mytilus edulis: effects of algal food abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, W.-X.; Fisher, N.S.; Luoma, S.N.

    1995-01-01

    Pulse-chase feeding and multi-labeled radiotracer techniques were employed to measure the assimilation of 6 trace elements (110mAg, 241Am, 109Cd, 57Co, 75Se and 65Zn) from ingested diatoms in the mussel Mytilus edulis feeding at different rates (0.1, 0.49 and 1.5 mg dry wt h-1). Uniformly radiolabeled diatoms Thalassiosira pseudonana were fed to mussels for 0.5 h, and the behavior of the radiotracers in individual mussels was followed for 96 h in a depuration seawater system. Assimilation efficiency (AE) of each element declined with increasing ingestion rate and increased with gut passage time. The importance of extracellular digestion relative to intracellular digestion increased with ingestion activity, which, when coupled with a decline in AE, suggested that extracellular digestion is less efficient in metal absorption. Zn assimilation was most affected by ingestion rate, suggesting that AE may play a role in the physiological regulation of this metal in M. edulis. In an experiment to simulate the effects of an acidic gut, lowered pH (5.5) enhanced the release of elements from intact diatom cells, especially at low particle concentration. These results indicate that both feeding components of the mussel (i.e. gut passage time, digestive partitioning) and metal chemistry (i.e. metal release at lowered pH within the bivalve gut) are responsible for the difference in the assimilation of trace metals at different food quantities observed in mussels.

  16. The potential for indirect effects between co-flowering plants via shared pollinators depends on resource abundance, accessibility and relatedness.

    PubMed

    Carvalheiro, Luísa Gigante; Biesmeijer, Jacobus Christiaan; Benadi, Gita; Fründ, Jochen; Stang, Martina; Bartomeus, Ignasi; Kaiser-Bunbury, Christopher N; Baude, Mathilde; Gomes, Sofia I F; Merckx, Vincent; Baldock, Katherine C R; Bennett, Andrew T D; Boada, Ruth; Bommarco, Riccardo; Cartar, Ralph; Chacoff, Natacha; Dänhardt, Juliana; Dicks, Lynn V; Dormann, Carsten F; Ekroos, Johan; Henson, Kate S E; Holzschuh, Andrea; Junker, Robert R; Lopezaraiza-Mikel, Martha; Memmott, Jane; Montero-Castaño, Ana; Nelson, Isabel L; Petanidou, Theodora; Power, Eileen F; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G; Stout, Jane C; Temitope, Kehinde; Tscharntke, Teja; Tscheulin, Thomas; Vilà, Montserrat; Kunin, William E

    2014-11-01

    Co-flowering plant species commonly share flower visitors, and thus have the potential to influence each other's pollination. In this study we analysed 750 quantitative plant-pollinator networks from 28 studies representing diverse biomes worldwide. We show that the potential for one plant species to influence another indirectly via shared pollinators was greater for plants whose resources were more abundant (higher floral unit number and nectar sugar content) and more accessible. The potential indirect influence was also stronger between phylogenetically closer plant species and was independent of plant geographic origin (native vs. non-native). The positive effect of nectar sugar content and phylogenetic proximity was much more accentuated for bees than for other groups. Consequently, the impact of these factors depends on the pollination mode of plants, e.g. bee or fly pollinated. Our findings may help predict which plant species have the greatest importance in the functioning of plant-pollination networks.

  17. Abundance and biomass responses of microbial food web components to hydrology and environmental gradients within a floodplain of the River Danube.

    PubMed

    Palijan, Goran

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated the relationships of time-dependent hydrological variability and selected microbial food web components. Samples were collected monthly from the Kopački Rit floodplain in Croatia, over a period of 19 months, for analysis of bacterioplankton abundance, cell size and biomass; abundance of heterotrophic nanoflagellates and nanophytoplankton; and concentration of chlorophyll a. Similar hydrological variability at different times of the year enabled partition of seasonal effects from hydrological changes on microbial community properties. The results suggested that, unlike some other studies investigating sites with different connectivity, bacterioplankton abundance, and phytoplankton abundance and biomass increased during lentic conditions. At increasing water level, nanophytoplankton showed lower sensitivity to disturbance in comparison with total phytoplankton biomass: this could prolong autotrophic conditions within the floodplain. Bacterioplankton biomass, unlike phytoplankton, was not impacted by hydrology. The bacterial biomass less affected by hydrological changes can be an important additional food component for the floodplain food web. The results also suggested a mechanism controlling bacterial cell size independent of hydrology, as bacterial cell size was significantly decreased as nanoflagellate abundance increased. Hydrology, regardless of seasonal sucession, has the potential to structure microbial food webs, supporting microbial development during lentic conditions. Conversely, other components appear unaffected by hydrology or may be more strongly controlled by biotic interactions. This research, therefore, adds to understanding on microbial food web interactions in the context of flood and flow pulses in river-floodplain ecosystems.

  18. Assimilation of trace elements ingested by the mussel Mytilus edulis: effects of algal food abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, W.-X.; Fisher, N.S.; Luoma, S. N.

    1995-01-01

    Pulse-chase feeding and multi-labeled radiotracer techniques were employed to measure the assimilation of 6 trace elements (110mAg, 241Am, 109Cd, 57Co, 75Se and 65Zn) from ingested diatoms in the mussel Mytilus edulis feeding at different rates (0.1, 0.49 and 1.5 mg dry wt h-1). Uniformly radiolabeled diatoms Thalassiosira pseudonana were fed to mussels for 0.5 h, and the behavior of the radiotracers in individual mussels was followed for 96 h in a depuration seawater system. Assimilation efficiency (AE) of each element declined with increasing ingestion rate and increased with gut passage time. The importance of extracellular digestion relative to intracellular digestion increased with ingestion activity, which, when coupled with a decline in AE, suggested that extracellular digestion is less efficient in metal absorption. Zn assimilation was most affected by ingestion rate, suggesting that AE may play a role in the physiological regulation of this metal in M. edulis. In an experiment to simulate the effects of an acidic gut, lowered pH (5.5) enhanced the release of elements from intact diatom cells, especially at low particle concentration. These results indicate that both feeding components of the mussel (i.e. gut passage time, digestive partitioning) and metal chemistry (i.e. metal release at lowered pH within the bivalve gut) are responsible for the difference in the assimilation of trace metals at different food quantities observed in mussels.

  19. Synthesis: comparing effects of resource and consumer fluxes into recipient food webs using meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Allen, Daniel C; Wesner, Jeff S

    2016-03-01

    Here we synthesize empirical research using meta-analysis to compare how consumer and resource fluxes affect recipient food webs. We tested the following hypotheses: (H1) The direct effects of resource fluxes (bottom-up) should be stronger than the direct effects of consumer fluxes (top-down), because resource fluxes are permanent (do not return to the food web in which they were produced) but consumer fluxes may not be (consumers can leave). (H2) Following H1, the indirect effects should attenuate (weaken) more quickly for consumer fluxes than for resource fluxes due to their direct effects being weaker, (H3) The effects of resource fluxes should be stronger when recipient food webs are in different ecosystems than donor food webs due to differences in elevation that accompany cross-ecosystem food web interfaces, often increasing flux quantity due to gravity, while the effects of consumer fluxes should be stronger when donor and recipient food webs are in the same ecosystem as they should more easily assimilate into the recipient food web. We found no differences in the magnitude of bottom-up and top-down direct effects for resource and consumer fluxes, but top-down direct effects were 122% stronger than top-down indirect effects. Indirect effects of prey and predator fluxes quickly attenuated while indirect effects of non-prey resource and herbivore fluxes did not, as the overall direct effects of prey and predator fluxes were 123% and 163% stronger than their indirect effects, respectively. This result suggests that the magnitude of indirect effects decrease as the trophic level of resource and consumer fluxes increases, and also contrasts with results from studies showing in situ top-down indirect effects are stronger than in situ bottom-up indirect effects. We found that resource and consumer flux effect sizes were similar when they occurred between ecosystems, but when they occurred within ecosystems predator flux effects were 107% stronger than nutrient flux

  20. Internest food sharing within wood ant colonies: resource redistribution behavior in a complex system

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Elva J.H.

    2016-01-01

    Resource sharing is an important cooperative behavior in many animals. Sharing resources is particularly important in social insect societies, as division of labor often results in most individuals including, importantly, the reproductives, relying on other members of the colony to provide resources. Sharing resources between individuals is therefore fundamental to the success of social insects. Resource sharing is complicated if a colony inhabits several spatially separated nests, a nesting strategy common in many ant species. Resources must be shared not only between individuals in a single nest but also between nests. We investigated the behaviors facilitating resource redistribution between nests in a dispersed-nesting population of wood ant Formica lugubris. We marked ants, in the field, as they transported resources along the trails between nests of a colony, to investigate how the behavior of individual workers relates to colony-level resource exchange. We found that workers from a particular nest “forage” to other nests in the colony, treating them as food sources. Workers treating other nests as food sources means that simple, pre-existing foraging behaviors are used to move resources through a distributed system. It may be that this simple behavioral mechanism facilitates the evolution of this complex life-history strategy. PMID:27004016

  1. Closing the cycle on food and energy resource flows in order to create a more sustainable rural economy in Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casillas, C. E.

    2009-12-01

    The ecologically sustainable development of economies is often discussed at the urban scale and framed in terms of the environmental threats that accompany rapid growth. The dynamics of rural economies are less complex and provide valuable insights into how resource flows may be better utilized, as well what are the critical roles and relationships of government and society. This paper will present a case study of economic and ecologically appropriate innovations that can be made to the production and consumption behavior within a community on the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua. Orinoco is a small Garifuna community situated on the Pearl Lagoon basin. It has a population of over 1000 people and its economy is primarily based on the exploitation of declining shrimp and fish resources. This paper will quantify the monetary and material resource flows comprising the current economy, and present technically viable alternatives that would utilize the abundant natural resources in a more ecologically sustainable manner, while decreasing the dependence on imported food and fuels. Specifically, the paper will describe how recently implemented projects of energy conservation can be coupled with improved agricultural and fishing practices in order to meet local and external market demands for fish and vegetable oil. Secondary products can be utilized to eliminate the dependence on imported liquid and gas fossil fuels for cooking and electricity generation.

  2. Female offspring desertion and male-only care increase with natural and experimental increase in food abundance.

    PubMed

    Eldegard, Katrine; Sonerud, Geir A

    2009-05-07

    In species with biparental care, one parent may escape the costs of parental care by deserting and leaving the partner to care for the offspring alone. A number of theoretical papers have suggested a link between uniparental offspring desertion and ecological factors, but empirical evidence is scarce. We investigated the relationship between uniparental desertion and food abundance in a natural population of Tengmalm's owl Aegolius funereus, both by means of a 5-year observational study and a 1-year experimental study. Parents and offspring were fitted with radio-transmitters in order to reveal the parental care strategy (i.e. care or desert) of individual parents, and to keep track of the broods post-fledging. We found that 70 per cent of the females from non-experimental nests deserted, while their partner continued to care for their joint offspring alone. Desertion rate was positively related to natural prey population densities and body reserves of the male partner. In response to food supplementation, a larger proportion of the females deserted, and females deserted the offspring at an earlier age. Offspring survival during the post-fledging period tended to be lower in deserted than in non-deserted broods. We argue that the most important benefit of deserting may be remating (sequential polyandry).

  3. Impact of food, housing, and transportation insecurity on ART adherence: a hierarchical resources approach.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, Talea; Jones, Maranda; Merly, Cynthia; Welles, Brandi; Kalichman, Moira O; Kalichman, Seth C

    2017-04-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has transformed HIV into a manageable illness. However, high levels of adherence must be maintained. Lack of access to basic resources (food, transportation, and housing) has been consistently associated with suboptimal ART adherence. Moving beyond such direct effects, this study takes a hierarchical resources approach in which the effects of access to basic resources on ART adherence are mediated through interpersonal resources (social support and care services) and personal resources (self-efficacy). Participants were 915 HIV-positive men and women living in Atlanta, GA, recruited from community centers and infectious disease clinics. Participants answered baseline questionnaires, and provided prospective data on ART adherence. Across a series of nested models, a consistent pattern emerged whereby lack of access to basic resources had indirect, negative effects on adherence, mediated through both lack of access to social support and services, and through lower treatment self-efficacy. There was also a significant direct effect of lack of access to transportation on adherence. Lack of access to basic resources negatively impacts ART adherence. Effects for housing instability and food insecurity were fully mediated through social support, access to services, and self-efficacy, highlighting these as important targets for intervention. Targeting service supports could be especially beneficial due to the potential to both promote adherence and to link clients with other services to supplement food, housing, and transportation. Inability to access transportation had a direct negative effect on adherence, suggesting that free or reduced cost transportation could positively impact ART adherence among disadvantaged populations.

  4. Renewable-energy-resource options for the food-processing industry

    SciTech Connect

    Eakin, D.E.; Clark, M.A.; Inaba, L.K.

    1981-09-01

    The food processing industry generates significant quantities of organic process wastes which often require treatment prior to disposal or result in additional expenses for disposal. The food processing industry also requires fuel and electricity to provide the process energy to convert raw materials into finished food products. Depending on the particular process, organic wastes can represent a potential resource for conversion to energy products that can be used for providing process energy or other energy products. This document reports the results of an evaluation of renewable energy resource options for the food processing industry. The options evaluated were direct combustion for providing process heat, fermentation for ethanol production and anaerobic digestion for generation of methane.

  5. Planktonic food web structure at a coastal time-series site: I. Partitioning of microbial abundances and carbon biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caron, David A.; Connell, Paige E.; Schaffner, Rebecca A.; Schnetzer, Astrid; Fuhrman, Jed A.; Countway, Peter D.; Kim, Diane Y.

    2017-03-01

    Biogeochemistry in marine plankton communities is strongly influenced by the activities of microbial species. Understanding the composition and dynamics of these assemblages is essential for modeling emergent community-level processes, yet few studies have examined all of the biological assemblages present in the plankton, and benchmark data of this sort from time-series studies are rare. Abundance and biomass of the entire microbial assemblage and mesozooplankton (>200 μm) were determined vertically, monthly and seasonally over a 3-year period at a coastal time-series station in the San Pedro Basin off the southwestern coast of the USA. All compartments of the planktonic community were enumerated (viruses in the femtoplankton size range [0.02-0.2 μm], bacteria + archaea and cyanobacteria in the picoplankton size range [0.2-2.0 μm], phototrophic and heterotrophic protists in the nanoplanktonic [2-20 μm] and microplanktonic [20-200 μm] size ranges, and mesozooplankton [>200 μm]. Carbon biomass of each category was estimated using standard conversion factors. Plankton abundances varied over seven orders of magnitude across all categories, and total carbon biomass averaged approximately 60 μg C l-1 in surface waters of the 890 m water column over the study period. Bacteria + archaea comprised the single largest component of biomass (>1/3 of the total), with the sum of phototrophic protistan biomass making up a similar proportion. Temporal variability at this subtropical station was not dramatic. Monthly depth-specific and depth-integrated biomass varied 2-fold at the station, while seasonal variances were generally <50%. This study provides benchmark information for investigating long-term environmental forcing on the composition and dynamics of the microbes that dominate food web structure and function at this coastal observatory.

  6. Management considerations and environmental benefit analysis for turning food garbage into agricultural resources.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Tien

    2008-09-01

    The management of food garbage is of great importance because of its high energy consumption, potential environmental hazards and public health risks. In Taiwan, through the competent authorities at all levels and the citizens' participation in sorting household wastes, many recycling efforts have recently been implemented to further utilize it as available resources such as swine feeds and organic fertilizer by composting. As a result, a total of approximately 570 thousand metric tons was recycled with a recycling ratio of about 21.2% on a basis of food garbage generation in 2006, rising over 22% from a year earlier. These figures showed that compulsory garbage sorting has indeed dramatically increased the recycling of food garbage. The objective of this paper is to present and discuss some management considerations in turning food garbage into agricultural resources due to the compulsory garbage sorting directive in Taiwan. The description first aims at the current status in food garbage generation and its recycling, and at the regulatory polices which have become effective since 2000. It also centers on the environmental and agricultural measures on upgrading food garbage recycling. Based on the preliminary analysis of environmental benefit by the Revised 1996 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, it is obvious that composting food garbage is superior to that by traditional treatments (i.e., incineration and sanitary landfill) from the viewpoint of reducing greenhouse gases (i.e., CO(2) and CH(4)) emissions.

  7. Theme--Achieving 2020. Goal 3: All Students Are Conversationally Literate in Agriculture, Food, Fiber, and Natural Resource Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trexler, Cary, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Nine theme articles focus on the need for students to be conversationally literate about agriculture, food, fiber, and natural resources systems. Discusses the definition of conversational literacy, the human and institutional resources needed, and exemplary models for promoting literacy. (JOW)

  8. FESTERING FOOD: CHYTRIDIOMYCETE PATHOGEN REDUCES QUALITY OF DAPHNIA HOST AS A FOOD RESOURCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    When parasitic infections are severe or highly prevalent among prey, a significant component of the predator’s diet may consist of parasitized hosts. However, despite the ubiquity of parasites in most food webs, comparisons of the nutritional quality of prey as a function of inf...

  9. Festering food: chytridiomycete pathogen reduces quality of Daphnia host as a food resource.

    PubMed

    Forshay, Kenneth J; Johnson, Pieter T J; Stock, Melanie; Peñalva, Carolina; Dodson, Stanley I

    2008-10-01

    When parasitic infections are severe or highly prevalent among prey, a significant component of the predator's diet may consist of parasitized hosts. However, despite the ubiquity of parasites in most food webs, comparisons of the nutritional quality of prey as a function of infection status are largely absent. We measured the nutritional consequences of chytridiomycete infections in Daphnia, which achieve high prevalence in lake ecosystems (>80%), and tested the hypothesis that Daphnia pulicaria infected with Polycaryum laeve are diminished in food quality relative to uninfected hosts. Compared with uninfected adults, infected individuals were smaller, contained less nitrogen and phosphorus, and were lower in several important fatty acids. Infected zooplankton had significantly shorter carapace lengths (8%) and lower mass (8-20%) than uninfected individuals. Parasitized animals contained significantly less phosphorus (16-18% less by dry mass) and nitrogen (4-6% less) than did healthy individuals. Infected individuals also contained 26-34% less saturated fatty acid and 31-42% less docosahexaenoic acid, an essential fatty acid that is typically low in cladocera, but critical to fish growth. Our results suggest that naturally occurring levels of chytrid infections in D. pulicaria populations reduce the quality of food available to secondary consumers, including planktivorous fishes, with potentially important effects for lake food webs.

  10. Food and Nutrition Supplementary Resources: A Selective Annotated Bibliography for Elementary Schools, K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Child Nutrition Section.

    This selected bibliography provides elementary school educators with a list of books currently in print which provide supplementary resources on food, nutrition and related topics. All books listed were judged factually accurate and suitable for the grade level designated, offering material that would implement, enrich and support elementary…

  11. Environmental impacts of food trade via resource use and greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalin, Carole; Rodríguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2016-03-01

    Agriculture will need to significantly intensify in the next decades to continue providing essential nutritive food to a growing global population. However, it can have harmful environmental impacts, due to the use of natural and synthetic resources and the emission of greenhouse gases, which alter the water, carbon and nitrogen cycles, and threaten the fertility, health and biodiversity of landscapes. Because of the spatial heterogeneity of resource productivity, farming practices, climate, and land and water availability, the environmental impact of producing food is highly dependent on its origin. For this reason, food trade can either increase or reduce the overall environmental impacts of agriculture, depending on whether or not the impact is greater in the exporting region. Here, we review current scientific understanding of the environmental impacts of food trade, focusing on water and land use, pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. In the case of water, these impacts are mainly beneficial. However, in the cases of pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, this conclusion is not as clear. Overall, there is an urgent need for a more comprehensive, integrated approach to estimate the global impacts of food trade on the environment. Second, research is needed to improve the evaluation of some key aspects of the relative value of each resource depending on the local and regional biophysical and socio-economic context. Finally, to enhance the impact of such evaluations and their applicability in decision-making, scenario analyses and accounting of key issues like deforestation and groundwater exhaustion will be required.

  12. Food Web Architecture and Basal Resources Interact to Determine Biomass and Stoichiometric Cascades along a Benthic Food Web

    PubMed Central

    Guariento, Rafael D.; Carneiro, Luciana S.; Caliman, Adriano; Leal, João J. F.; Bozelli, Reinaldo L.; Esteves, Francisco A.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the effects of predators and resources on primary producers has been a major focus of interest in ecology. Within this context, the trophic cascade concept especially concerning the pelagic zone of lakes has been the focus of the majority of these studies. However, littoral food webs could be especially interesting because base trophic levels may be strongly regulated by consumers and prone to be light limited. In this study, the availability of nutrients and light and the presence of an omnivorous fish (Hyphessobrycon bifasciatus) were manipulated in enclosures placed in a humic coastal lagoon (Cabiúnas Lagoon, Macaé – RJ) to evaluate the individual and interactive effects of resource availability (nutrients and light) and food web configuration on the biomass and stoichiometry of periphyton and benthic grazers. Our findings suggest that light and nutrients interact to determine periphyton biomass and stoichiometry, which propagates to the consumer level. We observed a positive effect of the availability of nutrients on periphytic biomass and grazers' biomass, as well as a reduction of periphytic C∶N∶P ratios and an increase of grazers' N and P content. Low light availability constrained the propagation of nutrient effects on periphyton biomass and induced higher periphytic C∶N∶P ratios. The effects of fish presence strongly interacted with resource availability. In general, a positive effect of fish presence was observed for the total biomass of periphyton and grazer's biomass, especially with high resource availability, but the opposite was found for periphytic autotrophic biomass. Fish also had a significant effect on periphyton stoichiometry, but no effect was observed on grazers' stoichiometric ratios. In summary, we observed that the indirect effect of fish predation on periphyton biomass might be dependent on multiple resources and periphyton nutrient stoichiometric variation can affect consumers' stoichiometry. PMID:21789234

  13. Idiosyncratic responses of grizzly bear habitat to climate change based on projected food resource changes.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David R; Nielsen, Scott E; Stenhouse, Gordon B

    2014-07-01

    Climate change vulnerability assessments for species of conservation concern often use species distribution and ecological niche modeling to project changes in habitat. One of many assumptions of these approaches is that food web dependencies are consistent in time and environmental space. Species at higher trophic levels that rely on the availability of species at lower trophic levels as food may be sensitive to extinction cascades initiated by changes in the habitat of key food resources. Here we assess climate change vulnerability for Ursus arctos (grizzly bears) in the southern Canadian Rocky Mountains using projected changes to 17 of the most commonly consumed plant food items. We used presence-absence information from 7088 field plots to estimate ecological niches and to project changes in future distributions of each species. Model projections indicated idiosyncratic responses among food items. Many food items persisted or even increased, although several species were found to be vulnerable based on declines or geographic shifts in suitable habitat. These included Hedysarum alpinum (alpine sweet vetch), a critical spring and autumn root-digging resource when little else is available. Potential habitat loss was also identified for three fruiting species of lower importance to bears: Empetrum nigrum (crowberry), Vaccinium scoparium (grouseberry), and Fragaria virginiana (strawberry). A general trend towards uphill migration of bear foods may result in higher vulnerability to bear populations at low elevations, which are also those that are most likely to have human-bear conflict problems. Regardless, a wide diet breadth of grizzly bears, as well as wide environmental niches of most food items, make climate change a much lower threat to grizzly bears than other bear species such as polar bears and panda bears. We cannot exclude, however, future alterations in human behavior and land use resulting from climate change that may reduce survival rates.

  14. Tracking food intake as bites: Effects on cognitive resources, eating enjoyment, and self-control.

    PubMed

    Weathers, Danny; Siemens, Jennifer Christie; Kopp, Steven W

    2017-04-01

    While monitoring food intake is critical for controlling eating, traditional tools designed for this purpose can be impractical when one desires real-time feedback. Further, the act of monitoring can deplete valuable cognitive resources. In response to these concerns, technologies have been developed to aid those wanting to control their food intake. Of note, devices can now track eating in number of bites taken as opposed to more traditional units such as pieces or volume. Through two studies, the current research investigates the effects of tracking food portions at the bite level on cognitive resources, enjoyment of the eating experience, and objective and subjective self-control. Results indicate that using wearable technology to track bite portions, as compared to doing so mentally, (1) reduces cognitive resource depletion, (2) is equally as effective for allowing users to successfully achieve eating goals, and (3) does not reduce enjoyment of the eating experience. These results support the viability of tracking food intake at the bite level, which holds a number of potential implications for eating and weight management.

  15. The impact of personal resources and their goal relevance on satisfaction with food-related life among the elderly.

    PubMed

    Dean, Moira; Grunert, Klaus G; Raats, Monique M; Nielsen, Niels Asger; Lumbers, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    The study explored how actual resources, perceived levels of different types of resources and goal relevance of these resources affect older people's satisfaction with food-related life using a survey in eight European countries, where 3291 participants above 65 years of age and living in their own homes took part. Satisfaction with food-related life was measured using Satisfaction With Food-related Life (SWFL) scale developed by Grunert, Raats, Dean, Nielsen, Lumbers and The Food in Later Life Team. [(2007). A measure of satisfaction with food-related life. Appetite, 49, 486-493]. Results showed that older people rated the resources that they believed to have plentiful of as being highly relevant to achieve their goals. The individuals who rated the relevance and their level of different resources as high were also more satisfied with their food-related quality of life. Further, satisfaction with food-related life, as was expected, was predicted by income, health measures and living circumstances. However, the study also showed that perceived levels of other resources such as support of family and friends, food knowledge, storage facilities also added to the individuals' satisfaction with food-related life. In addition, the congruence between perceived level and relevance of a resource was also shown to add to people's satisfaction with food-related life, implying that older people's satisfaction with food-related life depends not only on the level of resources they think they have but also on their goals and how important they think these resources are to achieving their goals.

  16. Food Security and Women's Access to Natural Resources workshop; a brief report.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the workshop on Food Security and Women's Access to Natural Resources, held in January 1997 in Mumbai, India. The workshop was organized jointly by the Tata Institute of Social Sciences and the Indian Association of Women's Studies. The aim was to examine the food security situation in Maharashtra and Gujarat states in the west, the initiative to build alternative institutions, legal changes augmenting industrialization, and how traditional rights to common property resources can be legalized and how the poor can have access to new resources. The workshop organizers were unable to obtain experts on some topics. Core discussion centered on changes in industrialization, natural resources, gender and food security; access to natural resources and poverty alleviation programs; initiatives to create food security; and laws related to access to land and water. Discussions revealed the alienation of small and marginal farmers, landless laborers, and artisans from their livelihoods and survival strategies for these disenfranchised groups. The design of drought eradication and water conservation programs did not permit women and men working at construction sites to have access to the program assets. Case studies revealed situations in which women won the right of access to community water and then negotiated for land in lease. The women used landowners to negotiate credit and access development program assets, but normal channels of the National Bank of Agricultural Research and Development could have provided these benefits. Participants discussed how governments can be held accountable and how public funds could be used to revamp poverty alleviation and asset creation programs. All agreed that macrolevel development should give priority to agricultural development and legal constraints or problems. Five follow-up activities are identified.

  17. Food and processing residues in California: resource assessment and potential for power generation.

    PubMed

    Matteson, Gary C; Jenkins, B M

    2007-11-01

    The California agricultural industry produces more than 350 commodities with a combined yearly value in excess of $28 billion. The processing of many of these crops results in the production of residue streams, and the food processing industry faces increasing regulatory pressure to reduce environmental impacts and provide for sustainable management and use. Surveys of food and other processing and waste management sectors combined with published state data yield a total resource in excess of 4 million metric tons of dry matter, with nearly half of this likely to be available for utilization. About two-thirds of the available resource is produced as high-moisture residues that could support 134 MWe of power generation by anaerobic digestion and other conversion techniques. The other third is generated as low-moisture materials, many of which are already employed as fuel in direct combustion biomass power plants. The cost of energy conversion remains high for biochemical systems, with tipping or disposal fees of the order of $30-50Mg(-1) required to align power costs with current market prices. Identifying ways to reduce capital and operating costs of energy conversion, extending operating seasons to increase capacity factors through centralizing facilities, combining resource streams, and monetizing environmental benefits remain important goals for restructuring food and processing waste management in the state.

  18. What balance do countries exhibit between the central human resources: water, energy and food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossak, Julian; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2013-04-01

    Sufficient water, food and energy is a precondition for human activities. The water, energy and food nexus states that to some extend, these resources can replace each another: land can be used to produce food or energy crops; water can be used as direct water supply, to produce energy or for irrigation; and energy supports water treatment and agricultural yield. We present an overview of the major components of the trade-off together with a set of indicators and data sources to assess these components. The different indicators of the trade-off are summarized and plotted in a novel way on a triangle, which we discuss in view of the resource availability of different countries. Comparing different countries in view of their balance between water, food and energy will inform the discussion about the transition towards more sustainable societies and highlighting alternative strategies for development. This is important in view of possible synergies between the different sectors and as a tool for better coordinated governance approaches.

  19. Urban food consumption and associated water resources: The example of Dutch cities.

    PubMed

    Vanham, D; Mak, T N; Gawlik, B M

    2016-09-15

    Full self-sufficiency in cities is a major concern. Cities import resources for food, water and energy security. They are however key to global sustainability, as they concentrate a rapidly increasing and urbanising population (or number of consumers). In this paper, we analysed the dependency of urban inhabitants on the resource water for food consumption, by means of Dutch cities. We found that in extremely urbanised municipalities like Amsterdam and Rotterdam, people eat more meat and cereals and less potatoes than in other Dutch municipalities. Their current water footprint (WF) related to food consumption is therefore higher (3245l/cap/day) than in strongly urbanised cities (3126l/cap/day). Dutch urban citizens who eat too many animal products, crop oils and sugar can reduce their WF (with 29 to 32%) by shifting to a healthier diet. Recommended less meat consumption has the largest impact on the total WF reduction. A shift to a pesco-vegetarian or vegetarian diet would require even less water resources, where the WF can be reduced by 36 to 39% and 40 to 42% respectively. Dutch cities such as Amsterdam have always scored very high in international sustainability rankings for cities, partly due to a long history in integrated (urban) water management in the Netherlands. We argue that such existing rankings only show a certain - undoubtedly very important - part of urban environmental sustainability. To communicate the full picture to citizens, stakeholders and policy makers, indicators on external resource usage need to be employed. The fact that external resource dependency can be altered through changing dietary behaviour should be communicated.

  20. Deficit irrigation and sustainable water-resource strategies in agriculture for China's food security.

    PubMed

    Du, Taisheng; Kang, Shaozhong; Zhang, Jianhua; Davies, William J

    2015-04-01

    More than 70% of fresh water is used in agriculture in many parts of the world, but competition for domestic and industrial water use is intense. For future global food security, water use in agriculture must become sustainable. Agricultural water-use efficiency and water productivity can be improved at different points from the stomatal to the regional scale. A promising approach is the use of deficit irrigation, which can both save water and induce plant physiological regulations such as stomatal opening and reproductive and vegetative growth. At the scales of the irrigation district, the catchment, and the region, there can be many other components to a sustainable water-resources strategy. There is much interest in whether crop water use can be regulated as a function of understanding of physiological responses. If this is the case, then agricultural water resources can be reallocated to the benefit of the broader community. We summarize the extent of use and impact of deficit irrigation within China. A sustainable strategy for allocation of agricultural water resources for food security is proposed. Our intention is to build an integrative system to control crop water use during different cropping stages and actively regulate the plant's growth, productivity, and development based on physiological responses. This is done with a view to improving the allocation of limited agricultural water resources.

  1. Deficit irrigation and sustainable water-resource strategies in agriculture for China’s food security

    PubMed Central

    Du, Taisheng; Kang, Shaozhong; Zhang, Jianhua; Davies, William J.

    2015-01-01

    More than 70% of fresh water is used in agriculture in many parts of the world, but competition for domestic and industrial water use is intense. For future global food security, water use in agriculture must become sustainable. Agricultural water-use efficiency and water productivity can be improved at different points from the stomatal to the regional scale. A promising approach is the use of deficit irrigation, which can both save water and induce plant physiological regulations such as stomatal opening and reproductive and vegetative growth. At the scales of the irrigation district, the catchment, and the region, there can be many other components to a sustainable water-resources strategy. There is much interest in whether crop water use can be regulated as a function of understanding of physiological responses. If this is the case, then agricultural water resources can be reallocated to the benefit of the broader community. We summarize the extent of use and impact of deficit irrigation within China. A sustainable strategy for allocation of agricultural water resources for food security is proposed. Our intention is to build an integrative system to control crop water use during different cropping stages and actively regulate the plant’s growth, productivity, and development based on physiological responses. This is done with a view to improving the allocation of limited agricultural water resources. PMID:25873664

  2. Food consumption patterns and economic growth. Increasing affluence and the use of natural resources.

    PubMed

    Gerbens-Leenes, P W; Nonhebel, S; Krol, M S

    2010-12-01

    This study analyzes relationships between food supply, consumption and income, taking supply, meat and dairy, and consumption composition (in macronutrients) as indicators, with annual per capita GDP as indicator for income. It compares food consumption patterns for 57 countries (2001) and gives time trends for western and southern Europe. Cross-sectional and time series relationships show similar patterns of change. For low income countries, GDP increase is accompanied by changes towards food consumption patterns with large gaps between supply and actual consumption. Total supply differs by a factor of two between low and high income countries. People in low income countries derive nutritional energy mainly from carbohydrates; the contribution of fats is small, that of protein the same as for high income countries and that of meat and dairy negligible. People in high income countries derive nutritional energy mainly from carbohydrates and fat, with substantial contribution of meat and dairy. Whenever and wherever economic growth occurs, food consumption shows similar change in direction. The European nutrition transition happened gradually, enabling agriculture and trade to keep pace with demand growth. Continuation of present economic trends might cause significant pressure on natural resources, because changes in food demand occur much faster than in the past, especially in Asia.

  3. How to use the world's scarce selenium resources efficiently to increase the selenium concentration in food.

    PubMed

    Haug, Anna; Graham, Robin D; Christophersen, Olav A; Lyons, Graham H

    2007-12-01

    The world's rare selenium resources need to be managed carefully. Selenium is extracted as a by-product of copper mining and there are no deposits that can be mined for selenium alone. Selenium has unique properties as a semi-conductor, making it of special value to industry, but it is also an essential nutrient for humans and animals and may promote plant growth and quality. Selenium deficiency is regarded as a major health problem for 0.5 to 1 billion people worldwide, while an even larger number may consume less selenium than required for optimal protection against cancer, cardiovascular diseases and severe infectious diseases including HIV disease. Efficient recycling of selenium is difficult. Selenium is added in some commercial fertilizers, but only a small proportion is taken up by plants and much of the remainder is lost for future utilization. Large biofortification programmes with selenium added to commercial fertilizers may therefore be a fortification method that is too wasteful to be applied to large areas of our planet. Direct addition of selenium compounds to food (process fortification) can be undertaken by the food industry. If selenomethionine is added directly to food, however, oxidation due to heat processing needs to be avoided. New ways to biofortify food products are needed, and it is generally observed that there is less wastage if selenium is added late in the production chain rather than early. On these bases we have proposed adding selenium-enriched, sprouted cereal grain during food processing as an efficient way to introduce this nutrient into deficient diets. Selenium is a non-renewable resource. There is now an enormous wastage of selenium associated with large-scale mining and industrial processing. We recommend that this must be changed and that much of the selenium that is extracted should be stockpiled for use as a nutrient by future generations.

  4. How to use the world's scarce selenium resources efficiently to increase the selenium concentration in food

    PubMed Central

    Haug, Anna; Graham, Robin D.; Christophersen, Olav A.; Lyons, Graham H.

    2007-01-01

    The world's rare selenium resources need to be managed carefully. Selenium is extracted as a by-product of copper mining and there are no deposits that can be mined for selenium alone. Selenium has unique properties as a semi-conductor, making it of special value to industry, but it is also an essential nutrient for humans and animals and may promote plant growth and quality. Selenium deficiency is regarded as a major health problem for 0.5 to 1 billion people worldwide, while an even larger number may consume less selenium than required for optimal protection against cancer, cardiovascular diseases and severe infectious diseases including HIV disease. Efficient recycling of selenium is difficult. Selenium is added in some commercial fertilizers, but only a small proportion is taken up by plants and much of the remainder is lost for future utilization. Large biofortification programmes with selenium added to commercial fertilizers may therefore be a fortification method that is too wasteful to be applied to large areas of our planet. Direct addition of selenium compounds to food (process fortification) can be undertaken by the food industry. If selenomethionine is added directly to food, however, oxidation due to heat processing needs to be avoided. New ways to biofortify food products are needed, and it is generally observed that there is less wastage if selenium is added late in the production chain rather than early. On these bases we have proposed adding selenium-enriched, sprouted cereal grain during food processing as an efficient way to introduce this nutrient into deficient diets. Selenium is a non-renewable resource. There is now an enormous wastage of selenium associated with large-scale mining and industrial processing. We recommend that this must be changed and that much of the selenium that is extracted should be stockpiled for use as a nutrient by future generations. PMID:18833333

  5. Optimizing Virtual Land and Water Resources Flow Through Global Trade to Meet World Food and Biofuel Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Cai, X.; Zhu, T.

    2013-12-01

    Biofuels is booming in recent years due to its potential contributions to energy sustainability, environmental improvement and economic opportunities. Production of biofuels not only competes for land and water with food production, but also directly pushes up food prices when crops such as maize and sugarcane are used as biofuels feedstock. Meanwhile, international trade of agricultural commodities exports and imports water and land resources in a virtual form among different regions, balances overall water and land demands and resource endowment, and provides a promising solution to the increasingly severe food-energy competition. This study investigates how to optimize water and land resources uses for overall welfare at global scale in the framework of 'virtual resources'. In contrast to partial equilibrium models that usually simulate trades year-by-year, this optimization model explores the ideal world where malnourishment is minimized with optimal resources uses and trade flows. Comparing the optimal production and trade patterns with historical data can provide meaningful implications regarding how to utilize water and land resources more efficiently and how the trade flows would be changed for overall welfare at global scale. Valuable insights are obtained in terms of the interactions among food, water and bioenergy systems. A global hydro-economic optimization model is developed, integrating agricultural production, market demands (food, feed, fuel and other), and resource and environmental constraints. Preliminary results show that with the 'free market' mechanism and land as well as water resources use optimization, the malnourished population can be reduced by as much as 65%, compared to the 2000 historical value. Expected results include: 1) optimal trade paths to achieve global malnourishment minimization, 2) how water and land resources constrain local supply, 3) how policy affects the trade pattern as well as resource uses. Furthermore, impacts of

  6. Terrestrial support of lake food webs: Synthesis reveals controls over cross-ecosystem resource use.

    PubMed

    Tanentzap, Andrew J; Kielstra, Brian W; Wilkinson, Grace M; Berggren, Martin; Craig, Nicola; Del Giorgio, Paul A; Grey, Jonathan; Gunn, John M; Jones, Stuart E; Karlsson, Jan; Solomon, Christopher T; Pace, Michael L

    2017-03-01

    Widespread evidence that organic matter exported from terrestrial into aquatic ecosystems supports recipient food webs remains controversial. A pressing question is not only whether high terrestrial support is possible but also what the general conditions are under which it arises. We assemble the largest data set, to date, of the isotopic composition (δ(2)H, δ(13)C, and δ(15)N) of lake zooplankton and the resources at the base of their associated food webs. In total, our data set spans 559 observations across 147 lakes from the boreal to subtropics. By predicting terrestrial resource support from within-lake and catchment-level characteristics, we found that half of all consumer observations that is, the median were composed of at least 42% terrestrially derived material. In general, terrestrial support of zooplankton was greatest in lakes with large physical and hydrological connections to catchments that were rich in aboveground and belowground organic matter. However, some consumers responded less strongly to terrestrial resources where within-lake production was elevated. Our study shows that multiple mechanisms drive widespread cross-ecosystem support of aquatic consumers across Northern Hemisphere lakes and suggests that changes in terrestrial landscapes will influence ecosystem processes well beyond their boundaries.

  7. Terrestrial support of lake food webs: Synthesis reveals controls over cross-ecosystem resource use

    PubMed Central

    Tanentzap, Andrew J.; Kielstra, Brian W.; Wilkinson, Grace M.; Berggren, Martin; Craig, Nicola; del Giorgio, Paul A.; Grey, Jonathan; Gunn, John M.; Jones, Stuart E.; Karlsson, Jan; Solomon, Christopher T.; Pace, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    Widespread evidence that organic matter exported from terrestrial into aquatic ecosystems supports recipient food webs remains controversial. A pressing question is not only whether high terrestrial support is possible but also what the general conditions are under which it arises. We assemble the largest data set, to date, of the isotopic composition (δ2H, δ13C, and δ15N) of lake zooplankton and the resources at the base of their associated food webs. In total, our data set spans 559 observations across 147 lakes from the boreal to subtropics. By predicting terrestrial resource support from within-lake and catchment-level characteristics, we found that half of all consumer observations that is, the median were composed of at least 42% terrestrially derived material. In general, terrestrial support of zooplankton was greatest in lakes with large physical and hydrological connections to catchments that were rich in aboveground and belowground organic matter. However, some consumers responded less strongly to terrestrial resources where within-lake production was elevated. Our study shows that multiple mechanisms drive widespread cross-ecosystem support of aquatic consumers across Northern Hemisphere lakes and suggests that changes in terrestrial landscapes will influence ecosystem processes well beyond their boundaries. PMID:28345035

  8. Exploring or avoiding novel food resources? The novelty conflict in an invasive bird.

    PubMed

    Sol, Daniel; Griffin, Andrea S; Bartomeus, Ignasi; Boyce, Hayley

    2011-01-01

    For an animal invading a novel region, the ability to develop new behaviors should facilitate the use of novel food resources and hence increase its survival in the new environment. However, the need to explore new resources may entail costs such as exposing the animal to unfamiliar predators. These two opposing forces result in an exploration-avoidance conflict, which can be expected to interfere with the acquisition of new resources. However, its consequences should be less dramatic in highly urbanized environments where new food opportunities are common and predation risk is low. We tested this hypothesis experimentally by presenting three foraging tasks to introduced common mynas (Acridotheres tristis) from environments with low and high urbanization levels from Australia. Individuals from the highly urbanized environments, where mynas are both more opportunistic when foraging and less fearful to predators, resolved a technical task faster than those from less urbanized environments. These differences did not reflect innovative 'personalities' and were not confounded by sex, morphology or motivational state. Rather, the principal factors underlying differences in mynas' problem-solving ability were neophobic-neophilic responses, which varied across habitats. Thus, mynas seem to modulate their problem-solving ability according to the benefits and costs of innovating in their particular habitat, which may help us understand the great success of the species in highly urbanized environments.

  9. Environmentally sustainable production of food, feed and fuel from natural resources in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Preston, T Reg

    2009-08-01

    Responding to the challenges posed by global warming, peak oil and biofuels will require a paradigm shift in the practice of agriculture and in the role of live stock within the farming system. Farming systems should aim at maximizing plant biomass production from locally available diversified resources, processing of the biomass on farm to provide food, feed and energy and recycling of all waste materials. The approach that is the subject of this paper is that the generation of electricity can be a by-product of food/feed production. The concept is the fractionation of biomass into inedible cell wall material that can be converted to an inflammable gas by gasification, the gas in turn being the source of fuel for internal combustion engines driving electrical generators. The cell contents and related structures such as tree leaves are used as human food or animal feed. As well as providing food and feed the model is highly appropriate for decentralized small scale production of electricity in rural areas. It also offers opportunities for sequestration of carbon in the form of biochar the solid residue remaining after gasification of the biomass.

  10. Environmentally sustainable production of food, feed and fuel from natural resources in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Preston, T Reg

    2009-10-01

    Responding to the challenges posed by global warming, peak oil and biofuels will require a paradigm shift in the practice of agriculture and in the role of live stock within the farming system. Farming systems should aim at maximizing plant biomass production from locally available diversified resources, processing of the biomass on farm to provide food, feed and energy and recycling of all waste materials. The approach that is the subject of this paper is that the generation of electricity can be a by-product of food/feed production. The concept is the fractionation of biomass into inedible cell wall material that can be converted to an inflammable gas by gasification, the gas in turn being the source of fuel for internal combustion engines driving electrical generators. The cell contents and related structures such as tree leaves are used as human food or animal feed. As well as providing food and feed the model is highly appropriate for decentralized small scale production of electricity in rural areas. It also offers opportunities for sequestration of carbon in the form of biochar the solid residue remaining after gasification of the biomass.

  11. Assessing future risks to agricultural productivity, water resources and food security: How can remote sensing help?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Knox, Jerry W.; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Gumma, Murali Krishna; Congalton, Russell G.; Wu, Zhuoting; Milesi, Cristina; Finkral, Alex; Marshall, Mike; Mariotto, Isabella; You, Songcai; Giri, Chandra; Nagler, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    of changing dietary consumption patterns, a changing climate and the growing scarcity of water and land (Beddington, 2010). The impact from these changes wi ll affect the viability of both dryland subsistence and irrigated commodity food production (Knox, et al., 2010a). Since climate is a primary determinant of agricultural productivity, any changes will influence not only crop yields, but also the hydrologic balances, and supplies of inputs to managed farming systems as well as potentially shifting the geographic location for specific crops . Unless concerted and collective action is taken, society risks worldwide food shortages, scarcity of water resources and insufficient energy. This has the potential to unleash public unrest, cross-border conflicts and migration as people flee the worst-affected regions to seck refuge in "safe havens", a situation that Beddington described as the "perfect storm" (2010).

  12. The role of food-security solutions in the protection of natural resources and environment of developing countries.

    PubMed

    Lashgarara, Farhad; Mirdamadi, Seyyed Mehdi; Hosseini, Seyyed Jamal Farajollah; Chizari, Mohammad

    2008-10-01

    The majority of the countries of the world, especially developing countries, face environmental problems. Limitations of basic resources (water and soil) and population growth have been the cause of these environmental problems that countries are confronted with. Developing countries have numerous problems, including destruction of forests, vegetable and animal species, and pollution of the environment. Damage to natural resources and the environment can influence the food-security situation. One of the main millennium development goals (MDGs) is protection of the environment and people's health. This cannot obtained unless there is ensured food security. Food security has been defined as a situation when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food needed to maintain a healthy and active life. At the same time, with ensured food security, we can hope to protect the natural resources and environment. The methodology used is descriptive-analytical, and its main purpose is determining the importance and role of food-security solutions in the reduction of environmental hazards and improvement of natural resources and the environmental situation in developing countries. Therefore, some of the most important food-security solutions that can play an important role in this relation were discussed, including conventional research-based technology, biotechnology, information and communication technologies (ICTs), alternative energy sources, and food irradiation.

  13. The World Food Situation: Resource and Environmental Issues in the Developing Countries and the United States. Research Paper R-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosson, Pierre R.; Frederick, Kenneth D.

    The book provides an overview of the food situation in developing nations and in the United States as it will be until the end of the 20th century. Specifically, the research focuses on interrelationships among world food needs, resources, and environmental issues. The document is presented in seven chapters. Chapter I presents background on the…

  14. Increasing of Food and Bioenergy Potato Resources by Microbial Influence on Tubers Phytohormonal Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiprushkina, Elena I.; Baranenko, Denis A.

    2014-12-01

    Potato and its by-products became a promising both food and bioenergy resource. The determination of the bacteriaantagonists influence on phytohormone status and productivity of potato tubers was studied. The indole-3-acetic acid content during the dormancy end and germinating in the tubers treated with Bacillus subtilis Ch-13 was fewer than in the control samples. L-tryptophan significant quantity compared to the control was found in the treated tubers in a state of physiological dormancy (more than 2-fold) and especially during active germination (43 times greater). Average potato yield increase at treated fields was of 18.8 %.

  15. An abundant small sized fish as keystone species? The effect of Pomatoschistus microps on food webs and its trophic role in two intertidal benthic communities: A modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pockberger, Moritz; Kellnreitner, Florian; Ahnelt, Harald; Asmus, Ragnhild; Asmus, Harald

    2014-02-01

    Ecological network analysis (ENA) was used to study the effects of Pomatoschistus microps on energy transport through the food web, its impact on other compartments and its possible role as a keystone species in the trophic webs of an Arenicola tidal flat ecosystem and a sparse Zostera noltii bed ecosystem. Three ENA models were constructed: (a) model 1 contains data of the original food web from prior research in the investigated area by Baird et al. (2007), (b) an updated model 2 which included biomass and diet data of P. microps from recent sampling, and (c) model 3 simulating a food web without P. microps. A comparison of energy transport between the different models revealed that more energy is transported from lower trophic levels up the food chain, in the presence of P. microps (models 1 and 2) than in its absence (model 3). Calculations of the keystone index (KSi) revealed the high overall impact (measured as εi) of this fish species on food webs. In model 1, P. microps was assigned a low KSi in the Arenicola flat and in the sparse Z. noltii bed. Calculations in model 2 ranked P. microps first for keystoneness and εi in both communities, the Arenicola flat and the sparse Z. noltii bed. Taken together, our results give insight into the role of P. microps when considering a whole food web and reveal direct and indirect trophic interactions of this small-sized fish species. These results might illustrate the impact and importance of abundant, widespread species in food webs and facilitate further investigations.

  16. Cross-ecosystem impacts of stream pollution reduce resource and contaminant flux to riparian food webs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraus, Johanna M.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Walters, David; Wanty, Richard B.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Wolf, Ruth E.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of aquatic contaminants are propagated across ecosystem boundaries by aquatic insects that export resources and contaminants to terrestrial food webs; however, the mechanisms driving these effects are poorly understood. We examined how emergence, contaminant concentration, and total contaminant flux by adult aquatic insects changed over a gradient of bioavailable metals in streams and how these changes affected riparian web-building spiders. Insect emergence decreased 97% over the metal gradient, whereas metal concentrations in adult insects changed relatively little. As a result, total metal exported by insects (flux) was lowest at the most contaminated streams, declining 96% among sites. Spiders were affected by the decrease in prey biomass, but not by metal exposure or metal flux to land in aquatic prey. Aquatic insects are increasingly thought to increase exposure of terrestrial consumers to aquatic contaminants, but stream metals reduce contaminant flux to riparian consumers by strongly impacting the resource linkage. Our results demonstrate the importance of understanding the contaminant-specific effects of aquatic pollutants on adult insect emergence and contaminant accumulation in adults to predict impacts on terrestrial food webs.

  17. Cross-ecosystem impacts of stream pollution reduce resource and contaminant flux to riparian food webs.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Johanna M; Schmidt, Travis S; Walters, David M; Wanty, Richard B; Zuellig, Robert E; Wolf, Ruth E

    2014-03-01

    The effects of aquatic contaminants are propagated across ecosystem boundaries by aquatic insects that export resources and contaminants to terrestrial food webs; however, the mechanisms driving these effects are poorly understood. We examined how emergence, contaminant concentration, and total contaminant flux by adult aquatic insects changed over a gradient of bioavailable metals in streams and how these changes affected riparian web-building spiders. Insect emergence decreased 97% over the metal gradient, whereas metal concentrations in adult insects changed relatively little. As a result, total metal exported by insects (flux) was lowest at the most contaminated streams, declining 96% among sites. Spiders were affected by the decrease in prey biomass, but not by metal exposure or metal flux to land in aquatic prey. Aquatic insects are increasingly thought to increase exposure of terrestrial consumers to aquatic contaminants, but stream metals reduce contaminant flux to riparian consumers by strongly impacting the resource linkage. Our results demonstrate the importance of understanding the contaminant-specific effects of aquatic pollutants on adult insect emergence and contaminant accumulation in adults to predict impacts on terrestrial food webs.

  18. Illinois biomass resources: annual crops and residues; canning and food-processing wastes. Preliminary assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Antonopoulos, A A

    1980-06-01

    Illinois, a major agricultural and food-processing state, produces vast amounts of renewable plant material having potential for energy production. This biomass, in the form of annual crops, crop residues, and food-processing wastes, can be converted to alternative fuels (such as ethanol) and industrial chemicals (such as furfural, ethylene, and xylene). The present study provides a preliminary assessment of these Illinois biomass resources, including (a) an appraisal of the effects of their use on both agriculture and industry; (b) an analysis of biomass conversion systems; and (c) an environmental and economic evaluation of products that could be generated from biomass. It is estimated that, of the 39 x 10/sup 6/ tons of residues generated in 1978 in Illinois from seven main crops, about 85% was collectible. The thermal energy equivalent of this material is 658 x 10/sup 6/ Btu, or 0.66 quad. And by fermenting 10% of the corn grain grown in Illinois, some 323 million gallons of ethanol could have been produced in 1978. Another 3 million gallons of ethanol could have been produced in the same year from wastes generated by the state's food-processing establishments. Clearly, Illinois can strengthen its economy substantially by the development of industries that produce biomass-derived fuels and chemicals. In addition, a thorough evaluation should be made of the potential for using the state's less-exploitable land for the growing of additional biomass.

  19. Food-Based Strategies for Depression Management From Iranian Traditional Medicine Resources

    PubMed Central

    Tavakkoli-Kakhki, Mandana; Motavasselian, Malihe; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Esfahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Nematy, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Considering the increasing prevalence of depression in contemporary societies, general tendency for safer treatments with fewer side effects has recently been a subject of interest. Objectives: Food-based strategies, which are one of the outstanding medical solutions in Complementary and Alternative Medicine including Iranian Traditional Medicine have been investigated. Materials and Methods: In this review study, firstly some important sources of Iranian Traditional Medicine including Kamel al-Sanaat al-Tibbyyah, Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb and Zakhireh Kharazmshahi were reviewed. Next, a literature search was performed on PubMed and Magiran databases with the keywords “depression”, “depressive”, “mood”, “antidepressant”, “antidepressive”, “nutrition”, “nutritional”, “diet”, “meal”, “food”, “functional food”, “healthy food”, “healthy diet”, “medicinal food” and scientific and English terms of all singular foodstuff and some combined foodstuff which are introduced in this paper. Results: Food-based strategies for depression management in Iranian Traditional Medicine resources involving both prevention and treatment parts have been classified under three headings singular foodstuffs, combined foodstuffs, and nutrition rules with the separation of prohibition and prescription items. Among the prescribed or the prohibited singular and combined foodstuffs in Iranian Traditional Medicine manuscripts, only the effectiveness of fish, garlic, milk, oregano, mint, and spinach on depression has been examined by modern medicine methods. Conclusions: The presented food-based strategies in this study introduce a precise management for depression benefiting from Iranian Traditional Medicine Resources. PMID:24719737

  20. Genome resources for climate-resilient cowpea, an essential crop for food security.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Amatriaín, María; Mirebrahim, Hamid; Xu, Pei; Wanamaker, Steve I; Luo, MingCheng; Alhakami, Hind; Alpert, Matthew; Atokple, Ibrahim; Batieno, Benoit J; Boukar, Ousmane; Bozdag, Serdar; Cisse, Ndiaga; Drabo, Issa; Ehlers, Jeffrey D; Farmer, Andrew; Fatokun, Christian; Gu, Yong Q; Guo, Yi-Ning; Huynh, Bao-Lam; Jackson, Scott A; Kusi, Francis; Lawley, Cynthia T; Lucas, Mitchell R; Ma, Yaqin; Timko, Michael P; Wu, Jiajie; You, Frank; Barkley, Noelle A; Roberts, Philip A; Lonardi, Stefano; Close, Timothy J

    2017-03-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) is a legume crop that is resilient to hot and drought-prone climates, and a primary source of protein in sub-Saharan Africa and other parts of the developing world. However, genome resources for cowpea have lagged behind most other major crops. Here we describe foundational genome resources and their application to the analysis of germplasm currently in use in West African breeding programs. Resources developed from the African cultivar IT97K-499-35 include a whole-genome shotgun (WGS) assembly, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) physical map, and assembled sequences from 4355 BACs. These resources and WGS sequences of an additional 36 diverse cowpea accessions supported the development of a genotyping assay for 51 128 SNPs, which was then applied to five bi-parental RIL populations to produce a consensus genetic map containing 37 372 SNPs. This genetic map enabled the anchoring of 100 Mb of WGS and 420 Mb of BAC sequences, an exploration of genetic diversity along each linkage group, and clarification of macrosynteny between cowpea and common bean. The SNP assay enabled a diversity analysis of materials from West African breeding programs. Two major subpopulations exist within those materials, one of which has significant parentage from South and East Africa and more diversity. There are genomic regions of high differentiation between subpopulations, one of which coincides with a cluster of nodulin genes. The new resources and knowledge help to define goals and accelerate the breeding of improved varieties to address food security issues related to limited-input small-holder farming and climate stress.

  1. Reexamining Sample Size Requirements for Multivariate, Abundance-Based Community Research: When Resources are Limited, the Research Does Not Have to Be

    PubMed Central

    Forcino, Frank L.; Leighton, Lindsey R.; Twerdy, Pamela; Cahill, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Community ecologists commonly perform multivariate techniques (e.g., ordination, cluster analysis) to assess patterns and gradients of taxonomic variation. A critical requirement for a meaningful statistical analysis is accurate information on the taxa found within an ecological sample. However, oversampling (too many individuals counted per sample) also comes at a cost, particularly for ecological systems in which identification and quantification is substantially more resource consuming than the field expedition itself. In such systems, an increasingly larger sample size will eventually result in diminishing returns in improving any pattern or gradient revealed by the data, but will also lead to continually increasing costs. Here, we examine 396 datasets: 44 previously published and 352 created datasets. Using meta-analytic and simulation-based approaches, the research within the present paper seeks (1) to determine minimal sample sizes required to produce robust multivariate statistical results when conducting abundance-based, community ecology research. Furthermore, we seek (2) to determine the dataset parameters (i.e., evenness, number of taxa, number of samples) that require larger sample sizes, regardless of resource availability. We found that in the 44 previously published and the 220 created datasets with randomly chosen abundances, a conservative estimate of a sample size of 58 produced the same multivariate results as all larger sample sizes. However, this minimal number varies as a function of evenness, where increased evenness resulted in increased minimal sample sizes. Sample sizes as small as 58 individuals are sufficient for a broad range of multivariate abundance-based research. In cases when resource availability is the limiting factor for conducting a project (e.g., small university, time to conduct the research project), statistically viable results can still be obtained with less of an investment. PMID:26058066

  2. Reexamining Sample Size Requirements for Multivariate, Abundance-Based Community Research: When Resources are Limited, the Research Does Not Have to Be.

    PubMed

    Forcino, Frank L; Leighton, Lindsey R; Twerdy, Pamela; Cahill, James F

    2015-01-01

    Community ecologists commonly perform multivariate techniques (e.g., ordination, cluster analysis) to assess patterns and gradients of taxonomic variation. A critical requirement for a meaningful statistical analysis is accurate information on the taxa found within an ecological sample. However, oversampling (too many individuals counted per sample) also comes at a cost, particularly for ecological systems in which identification and quantification is substantially more resource consuming than the field expedition itself. In such systems, an increasingly larger sample size will eventually result in diminishing returns in improving any pattern or gradient revealed by the data, but will also lead to continually increasing costs. Here, we examine 396 datasets: 44 previously published and 352 created datasets. Using meta-analytic and simulation-based approaches, the research within the present paper seeks (1) to determine minimal sample sizes required to produce robust multivariate statistical results when conducting abundance-based, community ecology research. Furthermore, we seek (2) to determine the dataset parameters (i.e., evenness, number of taxa, number of samples) that require larger sample sizes, regardless of resource availability. We found that in the 44 previously published and the 220 created datasets with randomly chosen abundances, a conservative estimate of a sample size of 58 produced the same multivariate results as all larger sample sizes. However, this minimal number varies as a function of evenness, where increased evenness resulted in increased minimal sample sizes. Sample sizes as small as 58 individuals are sufficient for a broad range of multivariate abundance-based research. In cases when resource availability is the limiting factor for conducting a project (e.g., small university, time to conduct the research project), statistically viable results can still be obtained with less of an investment.

  3. Distribution, abundance, and seasonal patterns of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) in a commercial food storage facility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Populations of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), the Indianmeal moth, were monitored inside a 105,000 m3 food warehouse in the central United States for a 3-year period, using pheromone-baited traps for males. A total of 52 traps were placed in the warehouse, which was roughly divided into four main a...

  4. Identification of an abundant 56 kDa protein implicated in food allergy as granule-bound starch synthase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice, the staple food of South and East Asian counties, is considered to be hypoallergenic. However, several clinical studies have documented rice-induced allergy in sensitive patients. Rice proteins with molecular weights of 14-16 kDa, 26 kDa, 33 kDa and 56 kDa have been identified as allergens. Re...

  5. The impact of climate and cyclic food abundance on the timing of breeding and brood size in four boreal owl species.

    PubMed

    Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Ranta, Esa; Pietiäinen, Hannu; Byholm, Patrik; Saurola, Pertti; Valkama, Jari; Huitu, Otso; Henttonen, Heikki; Korpimäki, Erkki

    2011-02-01

    The ongoing climate change has improved our understanding of how climate affects the reproduction of animals. However, the interaction between food availability and climate on breeding has rarely been examined. While it has been shown that breeding of boreal birds of prey is first and foremost determined by prey abundance, little information exists on how climatic conditions influence this relationship. We studied the joint effects of main prey abundance and ambient weather on timing of breeding and reproductive success of two smaller (pygmy owl Glaucidium passerinum and Tengmalm's owl Aegolius funereus) and two larger (tawny owl Strix aluco and Ural owl Strix uralensis) avian predator species using long-term nation-wide datasets during 1973-2004. We found no temporal trend either in vole abundance or in hatching date and brood size of any studied owl species. In the larger species, increasing late winter or early spring temperature advanced breeding at least as much as did high autumn abundance of prey (voles). Furthermore, increasing snow depth delayed breeding of the largest species (Ural owl), presumably by reducing the availability of voles. Brood size was strongly determined by spring vole abundance in all four owl species. These results show that climate directly affects the breeding performance of vole-eating boreal avian predators much more than previously thought. According to earlier studies, small-sized species should advance their breeding more than larger species in response to increasing temperature. However, we found an opposite pattern, with larger species being more sensitive to temperature. We argue that this pattern is caused by a difference in the breeding tactics of larger mostly capital breeding and smaller mostly income breeding owl species.

  6. Food composition tables in resource-poor settings: exploring current limitations and opportunities, with a focus on animal-source foods in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    de Bruyn, Julia; Ferguson, Elaine; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Darnton-Hill, Ian; Maulaga, Wende; Msuya, John; Alders, Robyn

    2016-11-08

    Animal-source foods (ASF) have the potential to enhance the nutritional adequacy of cereal-based diets in low- and middle-income countries, through the provision of high-quality protein and bioavailable micronutrients. The development of guidelines for including ASF in local diets requires an understanding of the nutrient content of available resources. This article reviews food composition tables (FCT) used in sub-Saharan Africa, examining the spectrum of ASF reported and exploring data sources for each reference. Compositional data are shown to be derived from a small number of existing data sets from analyses conducted largely in high-income nations, often many decades previously. There are limitations in using such values, which represent the products of intensively raised animals of commercial breeds, as a reference in resource-poor settings where indigenous breed livestock are commonly reared in low-input production systems, on mineral-deficient soils and not receiving nutritionally balanced feed. The FCT examined also revealed a lack of data on the full spectrum of ASF, including offal and wild foods, which correspond to local food preferences and represent valuable dietary resources in food-deficient settings. Using poultry products as an example, comparisons are made between compositional data from three high-income nations, and potential implications of differences in the published values for micronutrients of public health significance, including Fe, folate and vitamin A, are discussed. It is important that those working on nutritional interventions and on developing dietary recommendations for resource-poor settings understand the limitations of current food composition data and that opportunities to improve existing resources are more actively explored and supported.

  7. Assessing the land resource-food price nexus of the Sustainable Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Obersteiner, Michael; Walsh, Brian; Frank, Stefan; Havlík, Petr; Cantele, Matthew; Liu, Junguo; Palazzo, Amanda; Herrero, Mario; Lu, Yonglong; Mosnier, Aline; Valin, Hugo; Riahi, Keywan; Kraxner, Florian; Fritz, Steffen; van Vuuren, Detlef

    2016-09-01

    The 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) call for a comprehensive new approach to development rooted in planetary boundaries, equity, and inclusivity. The wide scope of the SDGs will necessitate unprecedented integration of siloed policy portfolios to work at international, regional, and national levels toward multiple goals and mitigate the conflicts that arise from competing resource demands. In this analysis, we adopt a comprehensive modeling approach to understand how coherent policy combinations can manage trade-offs among environmental conservation initiatives and food prices. Our scenario results indicate that SDG strategies constructed around Sustainable Consumption and Production policies can minimize problem-shifting, which has long placed global development and conservation agendas at odds. We conclude that Sustainable Consumption and Production policies (goal 12) are most effective at minimizing trade-offs and argue for their centrality to the formulation of coherent SDG strategies. We also find that alternative socioeconomic futures-mainly, population and economic growth pathways-generate smaller impacts on the eventual achievement of land resource-related SDGs than do resource-use and management policies. We expect that this and future systems analyses will allow policy-makers to negotiate trade-offs and exploit synergies as they assemble sustainable development strategies equal in scope to the ambition of the SDGs.

  8. Foraging in subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): how do Heterotermes tenuis and Coptotermes gestroi behave when they locate equivalent food resources?

    PubMed

    Lima, J T; Costa-Leonardo, A M

    2014-08-01

    A previous research suggests that when subterranean termites locate equivalent food they consume the initial food resource. However, little is known about the movement of foragers among these food sources. For this reason, this study analyzed the feeding behavior of Heterotermes tenuis and Coptotermes gestroi in the presence of equivalent foods. The experimental arenas were composed of a release chamber connected to food chambers. The consumption of each wood block and percentage of the foraging individuals recruited for the food chambers were observed in relation to the total survival rate. The results showed that in the multiple-choice tests, wood block consumptions and the recruitment of individuals did not differ between replicates of each termite species. However, in different tests of tenacity, the chambers with the first food presented higher feeding rates by both H. tenuis and C. gestroi and resulted in a higher recruitment of workers and soldiers. In these conditions, it may be concluded that foragers of either species do not concentrate their efforts on the consumption of only one food resource when they are able to reach multiple cellulosic sources simultaneously. Additionally, the data concerning tenacity tests suggest that there is a chronologic priority of consumption in relation to the discovery of available food sources. Knowledge about the foraging biology of subterranean termites is important for future studies of their feeding behavior, and it is indispensable for improving control strategies.

  9. Effects of pollution on land snail abundance, size and diversity as resources for pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca.

    PubMed

    Eeva, Tapio; Rainio, Kalle; Suominen, Otso

    2010-09-01

    Passerine birds need extra calcium during their breeding for developing egg shells and proper growth of nestling skeleton. Land snails are an important calcium source for many passerines and human-induced changes in snail populations may pose a severe problem for breeding birds. We studied from the bird's viewpoint how air pollution affects the shell mass, abundance and diversity of land snail communities along a pollution gradient of a copper smelter. We sampled remnant snail shells from the nests of an insectivorous passerine, the pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca, to find out how the availability of land snails varies along the pollution gradient. The total snail shell mass increased towards the pollution source but declined abruptly in the vicinity of the smelter. This spatial variation in shell mass was evident also within a single snail species and could not be wholly explained by spatially varying snail numbers or species composition. Instead, the total shell mass was related to their shell size, individuals being largest at the moderately polluted areas. Smaller shell size suggests inferior growth of snails in the most heavily polluted area. Our study shows that pollution affects the diversity, abundance (available shell mass) and individual quality of land snails, posing reproductive problems for birds that rely on snails as calcium sources during breeding. There are probably both direct pollution-related (heavy metal and calcium levels) and indirect (habitat change) effects behind the observed changes in snail populations.

  10. Developing a Contemporary Dairy Foods Extension Program: A Training and Technical Resource Needs Assessment of Pennsylvania Dairy Foods Processors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syrko, Joseph; Kaylegian, Kerry E.

    2015-01-01

    Growth in the dairy industry and the passage of the Food Safety Modernization Act have renewed interest in dairy foods processing extension positions. A needs assessment survey was sent to Pennsylvania dairy processors and raw milk providers to guide priorities for a dairy foods extension program. The successful development and delivery of…

  11. Biotechnologies for the management of genetic resources for food and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Lidder, Preetmoninder; Sonnino, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the land area under agriculture has declined as also has the rate of growth in agricultural productivity while the demand for food continues to escalate. The world population now stands at 7 billion and is expected to reach 9 billion in 2045. A broad range of agricultural genetic diversity needs to be available and utilized in order to feed this growing population. Climate change is an added threat to biodiversity that will significantly impact genetic resources for food and agriculture (GRFA) and food production. There is no simple, all-encompassing solution to the challenges of increasing productivity while conserving genetic diversity. Sustainable management of GRFA requires a multipronged approach, and as outlined in the paper, biotechnologies can provide powerful tools for the management of GRFA. These tools vary in complexity from those that are relatively simple to those that are more sophisticated. Further, advances in biotechnologies are occurring at a rapid pace and provide novel opportunities for more effective and efficient management of GRFA. Biotechnology applications must be integrated with ongoing conventional breeding and development programs in order to succeed. Additionally, the generation, adaptation, and adoption of biotechnologies require a consistent level of financial and human resources and appropriate policies need to be in place. These issues were also recognized by Member States at the FAO international technical conference on Agricultural Biotechnologies for Developing Countries (ABDC-10), which took place in March 2010 in Mexico. At the end of the conference, the Member States reached a number of key conclusions, agreeing, inter alia, that developing countries should significantly increase sustained investments in capacity building and the development and use of biotechnologies to maintain the natural resource base; that effective and enabling national biotechnology policies and science-based regulatory frameworks can

  12. Prey abundance and food habits of San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training site, California

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, C.G.; Berry, W.H.; Standley, W.G.; Kato, T.T.

    1992-09-01

    Prey abundance and food habits of the San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) were investigated at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training site, California, from November 1988 through September 1991. The sampling methods initially used to assess abundance of prey species resulted in indices too low to be of value. Because of this, the relationship between relative abundance and frequency of occurrence of prey species could not be examined. Six hundred forty-nine fecal samples (scats) were analyzed to determine the frequency of occurrence of prey items. California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) and lagomorphs primarily desert cottontails (Sylvilagus audubonii) and black-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus californicus) were the most frequently occurring mammalian prey items found in scats (35.0% and 12.2%, respectively). The frequency of occurrence of ground squirrel (but not lagomorph) remains in scats collected from juveniles was significantly higher than in scats collected from adults. The frequency of occurrence of ground squirrel and lagomorph remains in scats collected from males was not significant different than in scats collected from females. There were significant variations in the frequency of ground squirrel remains among the years 1989--1991 and during the June--November periods between 1989 and 1990 and between 1990 and 1991. The frequency of lagomorph remains collected during the June--November period differed significantly among the years 1989--1991 and between 1990 and 1991.

  13. Resources

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be found on the web, through local libraries, your health care provider, and the yellow pages under "social service organizations." AIDS - resources Alcoholism - resources Allergy - resources ...

  14. Community Perspectives on Access to and Availability of Healthy Food in Rural, Low-Resource, Latino Communities

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, A. Susana; Estrada, Erendira; Grassi, Kathleen; Nathan, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Attention has focused on the food environment as a result of the growing concern with obesity rates among Latinos in rural areas. Researchers have observed associations between a lack of physical access to affordable produce in areas where supermarkets and grocery stores are limited and poor dietary intake and obesity; these associations are high in rural, low-resource neighborhoods with a high population of Latino residents. We aimed to engage residents of low-resource, Latino-majority neighborhoods in discussions of food access in a rural yet agricultural community setting, which is typically described as a “food desert.” Methods We used a mixed-methods approach and conducted 3 focus groups (n = 20) and in-depth interviews (n = 59) and surveys (n = 79) with residents of a rural yet agricultural community. We used thematic analysis to explore residents’ perceptions of access to healthy foods. Results Residents (n = 79; mean age, 41.6 y; 72% female; 79% Latino; 53% Spanish-speaking) reported that dollar and discount stores in this agricultural area provided access to produce; however, produce at retail stores was less affordable than produce at nonretail outlets such as fruit and vegetable stands. Gifts and trades of fruits and vegetables from neighbors and community organizations supplied no-cost or low-cost healthy foods. Residents’ suggestions to improve food access centered on lowering the cost of produce in existing retail outlets and seeking out nonretail outlets. Conclusion Our findings contribute to understanding of the food environment in low-resource, rural yet agricultural areas. Although such areas are characterized as “food deserts,” residents identified nonretail outlets as a viable source of affordable produce, while indicating that the cost of retail produce was a concern. Innovative policy solutions to increase healthy food consumption must focus on affordability as well as accessibility, and consider alternate, nonretail

  15. The role of Latin America's land and water resources for global food security: environmental trade-offs of future food production pathways.

    PubMed

    Flachsbarth, Insa; Willaarts, Bárbara; Xie, Hua; Pitois, Gauthier; Mueller, Nathaniel D; Ringler, Claudia; Garrido, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    One of humanity's major challenges of the 21st century will be meeting future food demands on an increasingly resource constrained-planet. Global food production will have to rise by 70 percent between 2000 and 2050 to meet effective demand which poses major challenges to food production systems. Doing so without compromising environmental integrity is an even greater challenge. This study looks at the interdependencies between land and water resources, agricultural production and environmental outcomes in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), an area of growing importance in international agricultural markets. Special emphasis is given to the role of LAC's agriculture for (a) global food security and (b) environmental sustainability. We use the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT)-a global dynamic partial equilibrium model of the agricultural sector-to run different future production scenarios, and agricultural trade regimes out to 2050, and assess changes in related environmental indicators. Results indicate that further trade liberalization is crucial for improving food security globally, but that it would also lead to more environmental pressures in some regions across Latin America. Contrasting land expansion versus more intensified agriculture shows that productivity improvements are generally superior to agricultural land expansion, from an economic and environmental point of view. Finally, our analysis shows that there are trade-offs between environmental and food security goals for all agricultural development paths.

  16. The Role of Latin America’s Land and Water Resources for Global Food Security: Environmental Trade-Offs of Future Food Production Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Flachsbarth, Insa; Willaarts, Bárbara; Xie, Hua; Pitois, Gauthier; Mueller, Nathaniel D.; Ringler, Claudia; Garrido, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    One of humanity’s major challenges of the 21st century will be meeting future food demands on an increasingly resource constrained-planet. Global food production will have to rise by 70 percent between 2000 and 2050 to meet effective demand which poses major challenges to food production systems. Doing so without compromising environmental integrity is an even greater challenge. This study looks at the interdependencies between land and water resources, agricultural production and environmental outcomes in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), an area of growing importance in international agricultural markets. Special emphasis is given to the role of LAC’s agriculture for (a) global food security and (b) environmental sustainability. We use the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT)—a global dynamic partial equilibrium model of the agricultural sector—to run different future production scenarios, and agricultural trade regimes out to 2050, and assess changes in related environmental indicators. Results indicate that further trade liberalization is crucial for improving food security globally, but that it would also lead to more environmental pressures in some regions across Latin America. Contrasting land expansion versus more intensified agriculture shows that productivity improvements are generally superior to agricultural land expansion, from an economic and environmental point of view. Finally, our analysis shows that there are trade-offs between environmental and food security goals for all agricultural development paths. PMID:25617621

  17. Nutrient composition and nutritional importance of green leaves and wild food resources in an agricultural district, Koutiala, in southern Mali.

    PubMed

    Nordeide, M B; Hatløy, A; Følling, M; Lied, E; Oshaug, A

    1996-11-01

    This paper discusses the nutrient composition and the nutritional importance of green leaves and wild gathered foods in an area with surplus food production in Mali. In this West African country, there is little information about the nutrient composition and the nutritional quality of foods in general, and of wild gathered foods in particular. Food frequency was collected in two cross-sectional surveys. Focus group discussions with women in the area were used to collect information about seasonality, availability and preparation of various foods. Selected food samples were collected for chemical analysis of nutrient composition. The food samples of green leaves (Adansonia digitata, Amaranthus viridis, Tamarindus indica, Allium cepa), seeds and flour (Parkia biglobosa) and fruits (Tamarindus indica) were analysed for water, energy, fat, protein, minerals, amino acids and carotenoids. Availability and use of the foods varied with seasons. In the rainy season, wild gathered foods (e.g. A. digitata) were used as much as fresh cultivated foods (e.g., A. viridis and A. cepa). The wild food resources were more frequently used in rural than in urban areas, with A. digitata as the dominating green leaves. Green leaves were rich in energy, protein and minerals (calcium, iron). Leaves of A. viridis were, in particular, rich in beta-carotene (3290 micrograms/100 g). Chemical score in dried green leaves varied from 47 (A. cepa) to 81 (A. digitata), with lysine as the first limiting amino acid. P. biglobosa fermented seeds, with 35% fat and 37% protein were a complementary source of lysine in the diet. Based on the seasonality, the frequency of use and the nutrient contents of selected green leaves and wild gathered foods in Koutiala district, it is concluded that these traditional and locally produced foods are valuable and important nutrient contributors in the diet both in rural and urban areas, but most important in rural areas.

  18. Impacts of large solar installations on water resources and food security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi, S.; Dale, M.; Lobell, D. B.; Field, C. B.

    2013-12-01

    Low carbon emission technologies such as solar energy may provide alternative pathways for sustainable energy production to meet the current and future energy requirements. Solar energy installations in arid and semi arid regions are increasing, due to technological advances and policy support. Solar power generation, however, uses large amounts of water for construction and operation. A major challenge for the future is how to meet expanding energy demand with limited water resources in arid and semiarid regions. This must be achieved in the context of increasing demand for alternative uses (e.g. agricultural and domestic consumption). Here, we investigate case studies of the land use and water consumption for solar electricity generation in the southwestern United States and northwest India under current and future energy demand scenarios, and the potential impacts on local and regional food security. We use a systems dynamic model to estimate current and projected water use compared with agricultural and domestic water use. We simulate the land and water use under scenarios involving a moratorium on or expansion of water intensive wet cooled concentrated solar technologies. This is compared with estimates of water consumption to produce the equivalent amount of electricity using the current grid mix. Finally, we explore, using detailed life cycle assessments, opportunities for co-locating solar infrastructure and agricultural crops/biofuels to maximize efficiency of land and water use. This investigation helps in understanding the energy-water-land tradeoffs associated with rapid expansion of solar infrastructure and implications for food security.

  19. The water-energy-food-climate-economics nexus: solving hunger and resource scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lall, U.

    2011-12-01

    A nexus refers to the core or to interconnectivity across issues. Addressing the boundary interactions of traditional sectors in an interconnected world as human activities change the physical boundaries of land and climate is an emerging academic and governance discourse. Through contrasting examples from the US and India, I shed light on the descriptive aspects of these connections and feedbacks that define potential impacts or traps for societies, and ponder whether a massive conceptual or numerical Earth System Model can help inform outcomes, or whether there are dominant links at particular scales (physical, social, economic or biological) that characterize the emergent dynamics and define critical equilibrium or transient solutions in certain places. However, the real question is what next given the definition of the nexus? Here, I argue that given the current valuation and management structure of different resource sectors and the associated information flows and sensitivities, the interlinked energy-climate issues can emerge as useful drivers of improved productivity in water-food systems, thus promoting resource and environmental sustainability while promoting economic development. Thus, levers can be found that help steer the course of these complex interacting systems towards desirable sectoral outcomes.

  20. Vultures of the seas: hyperacidic stomachs in wandering albatrosses as an adaptation to dispersed food resources, including fishery wastes.

    PubMed

    Grémillet, David; Prudor, Aurélien; le Maho, Yvon; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2012-01-01

    Animals are primarily limited by their capacity to acquire food, yet digestive performance also conditions energy acquisition, and ultimately fitness. Optimal foraging theory predicts that organisms feeding on patchy resources should maximize their food loads within each patch, and should digest these loads quickly to minimize travelling costs between food patches. We tested the prediction of high digestive performance in wandering albatrosses, which can ingest prey of up to 3 kg, and feed on highly dispersed food resources across the southern ocean. GPS-tracking of 40 wandering albatrosses from the Crozet archipelago during the incubation phase confirmed foraging movements of between 475-4705 km, which give birds access to a variety of prey, including fishery wastes. Moreover, using miniaturized, autonomous data recorders placed in the stomach of three birds, we performed the first-ever measurements of gastric pH and temperature in procellariformes. These revealed surprisingly low pH levels (average 1.50±0.13), markedly lower than in other seabirds, and comparable to those of vultures feeding on carrion. Such low stomach pH gives wandering albatrosses a strategic advantage since it allows them a rapid chemical breakdown of ingested food and therefore a rapid digestion. This is useful for feeding on patchy, natural prey, but also on fishery wastes, which might be an important additional food resource for wandering albatrosses.

  1. Vultures of the Seas: Hyperacidic Stomachs in Wandering Albatrosses as an Adaptation to Dispersed Food Resources, including Fishery Wastes

    PubMed Central

    Grémillet, David; Prudor, Aurélien; le Maho, Yvon; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2012-01-01

    Animals are primarily limited by their capacity to acquire food, yet digestive performance also conditions energy acquisition, and ultimately fitness. Optimal foraging theory predicts that organisms feeding on patchy resources should maximize their food loads within each patch, and should digest these loads quickly to minimize travelling costs between food patches. We tested the prediction of high digestive performance in wandering albatrosses, which can ingest prey of up to 3 kg, and feed on highly dispersed food resources across the southern ocean. GPS-tracking of 40 wandering albatrosses from the Crozet archipelago during the incubation phase confirmed foraging movements of between 475–4705 km, which give birds access to a variety of prey, including fishery wastes. Moreover, using miniaturized, autonomous data recorders placed in the stomach of three birds, we performed the first-ever measurements of gastric pH and temperature in procellariformes. These revealed surprisingly low pH levels (average 1.50±0.13), markedly lower than in other seabirds, and comparable to those of vultures feeding on carrion. Such low stomach pH gives wandering albatrosses a strategic advantage since it allows them a rapid chemical breakdown of ingested food and therefore a rapid digestion. This is useful for feeding on patchy, natural prey, but also on fishery wastes, which might be an important additional food resource for wandering albatrosses. PMID:22701581

  2. Elevated ability to compete for limited food resources by 'all-fish' growth hormone transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Duan, M; Zhang, T; Hu, W; Sundström, L F; Wang, Y; Li, Z; Zhu, Z

    2009-10-01

    Food consumption, number of movements and feeding hierarchy of juvenile transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio and their size-matched non-transgenic conspecifics were measured under conditions of limited food supply. Transgenic fish exhibited 73.3% more movements as well as a higher feeding order, and consumed 1.86 times as many food pellets as their non-transgenic counterparts. After the 10 day experiment, transgenic C. carpio had still not realized their higher growth potential, which may be partly explained by the higher frequency of movements of transgenics and the 'sneaky' feeding strategy used by the non-transgenics. The results indicate that these transgenic fish possess an elevated ability to compete for limited food resources, which could be advantageous after an escape into the wild. It may be that other factors in the natural environment (i.e. predation risk and food distribution), however, would offset this advantage. Thus, these results need to be assessed with caution.

  3. Position of the American Dietetic Association: food and nutrition professionals can implement practices to conserve natural resources and support ecological sustainability.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Alison H; Gerald, Bonnie L

    2007-06-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association to encourage environmentally responsible practices that conserve natural resources, minimize the quantity of waste generated, and support the ecological sustainability of the food system-the process of food production, transformation, distribution, access, and consumption. Registered dietitians and dietetic technicians, registered, play various roles in the food system and work in settings where efforts to conserve can have significant effects. Natural resources that provide the foundation for the food system include biodiversity, soil, land, energy, water, and air. A food system that degrades or depletes its resource base is not sustainable. Making wise food purchases and food management decisions entails understanding the external costs of food production and foodservice and how these external costs affect food system sustainability. This position paper provides information, specific action-oriented strategies, and resources to guide registered dietitians and dietetic technicians, registered, in food decision making and professional practice. Food and nutrition professionals also can participate in policy making at the local, state, and national levels, and can support policies that encourage the development of local sustainable food systems. Our actions today have global consequences. Conserving and protecting resources will contribute to the sustainability of the global food system now and in the future.

  4. Conservation biological control of spirea aphid, Aphis spiraecolia (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on apple by providing natural altervative food resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enhancing biological control in orchards is an efficient way to control insect pests when effective. This study investigates the possibility of increasing biological control of spirea aphid by providing alternate food resources, in the form of peach extrafloral nectar, to adult Harmonia axyridis, t...

  5. Influence of environmental factors on abundance and temporal variation of benthic fauna resources in the eutrophic Tha Chin estuary, Samut Sakhon province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ritnim, Nittaya; Meksumpun, Charumas

    2011-01-01

    The influence of environmental factors on the abundance and temporal variation of benthic fauna resources was studied in the eutrophic Tha Chin estuary located in Samut Sakhon province. The objectives were to analyze the status of abundance and temporal variation of the benthic fauna and to clarify the impacts from environmental factors (water and sediment quality). Field surveys were conducted monthly from August 2007 to March 2008 at 11 sampling stations in the estuary. Based on freshwater runoff volumes, the high-, medium-, and low-loading periods were categorized to be from August to October 2007, November to December 2007, and January to March 2008, respectively. The benthic fauna resources were composed of 57 species in eight phyla. Annelids were the dominant species (with the maximum density being 19,885 individuals/m2), followed by the mollusks. Both densities decreased during the low-loading period in 2008. Water quality deteriorated during the high-loading period. Land-based wastewater discharges decreased the levels of salinity and dissolved oxygen but dramatically increased various nutrients. Consequently, the sediment quality deteriorated during the medium-loading period. Bottom deposits during this time depicted high accumulation of acid volatile sulfides (more than 0.76 mg/g dry weight). Analyzing the environmental relationships, deposit feeders (for example, Nereis sp. and Prionospio sp.) and a clam (Arcuatula sp.) showed potential as bio-indicators for environmental monitoring. The overall results revealed the importance of changes in the water and sediment qualities that had an influence on related benthic resources. The increase in the level of NH4(+)-N had a negative impact on the economic clam species, while the sedimentary TOM showed positive correlation (P < 0.05) with this increase. The succession of groups based on feeding behavior seemed to correspond with stress in eutrophication along the salinity gradient and in different estuarine

  6. NutriChem: a systems chemical biology resource to explore the medicinal value of plant-based foods

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Kasper; Panagiotou, Gianni; Kouskoumvekaki, Irene

    2015-01-01

    There is rising evidence of an inverse association between chronic diseases and diets characterized by rich fruit and vegetable consumption. Dietary components may act directly or indirectly on the human genome and modulate multiple processes involved in disease risk and disease progression. However, there is currently no exhaustive resource on the health benefits associated to specific dietary interventions, or a resource covering the broad molecular content of food. Here we present the first release of NutriChem, available at http://cbs.dtu.dk/services/NutriChem-1.0, a database generated by text mining of 21 million MEDLINE abstracts for information that links plant-based foods with their small molecule components and human disease phenotypes. NutriChem contains text-mined data for 18478 pairs of 1772 plant-based foods and 7898 phytochemicals, and 6242 pairs of 1066 plant-based foods and 751 diseases. In addition, it includes predicted associations for 548 phytochemicals and 252 diseases. To the best of our knowledge this database is the only resource linking the chemical space of plant-based foods with human disease phenotypes and provides a foundation for understanding mechanistically the consequences of eating behaviors on health. PMID:25106869

  7. NutriChem: a systems chemical biology resource to explore the medicinal value of plant-based foods.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kasper; Panagiotou, Gianni; Kouskoumvekaki, Irene

    2015-01-01

    There is rising evidence of an inverse association between chronic diseases and diets characterized by rich fruit and vegetable consumption. Dietary components may act directly or indirectly on the human genome and modulate multiple processes involved in disease risk and disease progression. However, there is currently no exhaustive resource on the health benefits associated to specific dietary interventions, or a resource covering the broad molecular content of food. Here we present the first release of NutriChem, available at http://cbs.dtu.dk/services/NutriChem-1.0, a database generated by text mining of 21 million MEDLINE abstracts for information that links plant-based foods with their small molecule components and human disease phenotypes. NutriChem contains text-mined data for 18478 pairs of 1772 plant-based foods and 7898 phytochemicals, and 6242 pairs of 1066 plant-based foods and 751 diseases. In addition, it includes predicted associations for 548 phytochemicals and 252 diseases. To the best of our knowledge this database is the only resource linking the chemical space of plant-based foods with human disease phenotypes and provides a foundation for understanding mechanistically the consequences of eating behaviors on health.

  8. The phosphorus footprint of China's food chain: implications for food security, natural resource management, and environmental quality.

    PubMed

    Wang, F; Sims, J T; Ma, L; Ma, W; Dou, Z; Zhang, F

    2011-01-01

    Efficient use of phosphorus (P) for producing food, preventing water pollution, and managing a dwindling rock P reserve are major challenges for China. We analyzed P stocks and flows in the Chinese food chain to identify where P use efficiency can be improved, where P leaks to the environment, and the research, technologies, and policies needed to improve P use. We found a high degree of inefficiency; of 6652 Gg P entering the food chain, only 1102 Gg P (18%) exit as food for humans. The greatest inefficiencies were a large build-up of soil P (3670 Gg P yr; 52% of P inputs) and high P losses to the environment from animal production (1582 Gg P yr; 60% of excreted P). Improving P use in China must focus on national-scale nutrient management strategies, better animal nutrition, and adoption of technologies and policies to reduce P discharges from the animal sector and recycle P as manures in agriculture.

  9. Association between Food Insecurity and Procurement Methods among People Living with HIV in a High Resource Setting

    PubMed Central

    Anema, Aranka; Fielden, Sarah J.; Shurgold, Susan; Ding, Erin; Messina, Jennifer; Jones, Jennifer E.; Chittock, Brian; Monteith, Ken; Globerman, Jason; Rourke, Sean B.; Hogg, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective People living with HIV in high-resource settings suffer severe levels of food insecurity; however, limited evidence exists regarding dietary intake and sub-components that characterize food insecurity (i.e. food quantity, quality, safety or procurement) in this population. We examined the prevalence and characteristics of food insecurity among people living with HIV across British Columbia, Canada. Design This cross-sectional analysis was conducted within a national community-based research initiative. Methods Food security was measured using the Health Canada Household Food Security Scale Module. Logistic regression was used to determine key independent predictors of food insecurity, controlling for potential confounders. Results Of 262 participants, 192 (73%) reported food insecurity. Sub-components associated with food insecurity in bivariate analysis included: < RDI consumption of protein (p = 0.046); being sick from spoiled/unsafe food in the past six months (p = 0.010); and procurement of food using non-traditional methods (p <0.05). In multivariable analyses, factors significantly associated with food insecurity included: procurement of food using non-traditional methods [AOR = 11.11, 95% CI: 4.79–25.68, p = <0.001]; younger age [AOR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.86–0.96, p = <0.001]; unstable housing [AOR = 4.46, 95% CI: 1.15–17.36, p = 0.031]; household gross annual income [AOR = 4.49, 95% CI: 1.74–11.60, p = 0.002]; and symptoms of depression [AOR = 2.73, 95% CI: 1.25–5.96, p = 0.012]. Conclusions Food insecurity among people living with HIV in British Columbia is characterized by poor dietary quality and food procurement methods. Notably, participants who reported procuring in non-traditional manners were over 10 times more likely to be food insecure. These findings suggest a need for tailored food security and social support interventions in this setting. PMID:27487041

  10. Pohnpei, FSM case study in a global health project documents its local food resources and successfully promotes local food for health.

    PubMed

    Englberger, L; Kuhnlein, H V; Lorens, A; Pedrus, P; Albert, K; Currie, J; Pretrick, M; Jim, R; Kaufer, L

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a summary of Pohnpei, Federated States Micronesia's involvement in a global health study focused on documenting traditional food systems in different parts of the world and providing evidence that local resources are critical for food security, nutrition and health. The Pohnpei study was based in Mand Community, Madolenihmw. The study found that there was a great diversity of foods locally available (381 food items documented), but these were underused. Overweight, obesity, diabetes, and vitamin A deficiency were identified as serious problems. Interventions included community meetings, school activities, and agriculture workshops, cooking classes, charcoal oven development, weight loss and planting competitions, poster campaigns and other relevant mass media. Significant dietary improvements were achieved following the intervention efforts, as well as positive changes in attitude towards local food including: decrease in average daily rice consumption from 846 g/person in 2005 to 544 g/person in 2007 (p = 0.0002); increase in provitamin A carotenoid intake from 227 microg/person in 2005 to 475 microg/person in 2007 (p = 0.02); increased frequency of consumption of local banana (53%), giant swamp taro (476%), local vegetables (130%); and increased dietary diversity (4.8 local food groups consumed in 2005 to 5.5 in 2007). Another positive outcome in Pohnpei was the popularization of the slogan "Let's Go Local."

  11. Quantity and quality: unifying food web and ecosystem perspectives on the role of resource subsidies in freshwaters.

    PubMed

    Marcarelli, Amy M; Baxter, Colden V; Mineau, Madeleine M; Hall, Robert O

    2011-06-01

    Although the study of resource subsidies has emerged as a key topic in both ecosystem and food web ecology, the dialogue over their role has been limited by separate approaches that emphasize either subsidy quantity or quality. Considering quantity and quality together may provide a simple, but previously unexplored, framework for identifying the mechanisms that govern the importance of subsidies for recipient food webs and ecosystems. Using a literature review of > 90 studies of open-water metabolism in lakes and streams, we show that high-flux, low-quality subsidies can drive freshwater ecosystem dynamics. Because most of these ecosystems are net heterotrophic, allochthonous inputs must subsidize respiration. Second, using a literature review of subsidy quality and use, we demonstrate that animals select for high-quality food resources in proportions greater than would be predicted based on food quantity, and regardless of allochthonous or autochthonous origin. This finding suggests that low-flux, high-quality subsidies may be selected for by animals, and in turn may disproportionately affect food web and ecosystem processes (e.g., animal production, trophic energy or organic matter flow, trophic cascades). We then synthesize and review approaches that evaluate the role of subsidies and explicitly merge ecosystem and food web perspectives by placing food web measurements in the context of ecosystem budgets, by comparing trophic and ecosystem production and fluxes, and by constructing flow food webs. These tools can and should be used to address future questions about subsidies, such as the relative importance of subsidies to different trophic levels and how subsidies may maintain or disrupt ecosystem stability and food web interactions.

  12. Using Personal Water Footprints to Identify Consumer Food Choices that Influence the Conservation of Local Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrin, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    As the global demand for water and food escalates, the emphasis is on supply side factors rather than demand side factors such as consumers, whose personal water footprints are dominated (>90%) by food. Personal footprints include the water embedded in foods that are produced locally as well as those imported, raising the question of whether local shifts in people's food choices and habits could assist in addressing local water shortages. The current situation in California is interesting in that drought has affected an agriculturally productive region where a substantial portion of its food products are consumed by the state's large population. Unlike most agricultural regions where green water is the primary source of water for crops, California's arid climate demands an enormous volume of blue water as irrigation from its dwindling surface and ground water resources. Although California exports many of its food products, enough is consumed in-state so that residents making relatively minor shifts their food choices could save as much local blue water as their implementing more drastic reductions in household water use (comprising <5% of their personal footprint). One of those shifts is reducing the intake of meat and dairy products that account for just under half of a Californian's blue-green water footprint and that require the most water of any food group on both a caloric and gravimetric basis. Another change is wasting less food, which is a shared responsibility among consumers, producers and retailers; however, consumers' actions and preferences ultimately drive much of the waste. Personal water footprints suggest a role for individuals in conserving local water resources that is neither readily obvious nor a major focus of most conservation programs.

  13. Improving crop productivity and resource use efficiency to ensure food security and environmental quality in China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Mingsheng; Shen, Jianbo; Yuan, Lixing; Jiang, Rongfeng; Chen, Xinping; Davies, William J; Zhang, Fusuo

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, agricultural growth in China has accelerated remarkably, but most of this growth has been driven by increased yield per unit area rather than by expansion of the cultivated area. Looking towards 2030, to meet the demand for grain and to feed a growing population on the available arable land, it is suggested that annual crop production should be increased to around 580 Mt and that yield should increase by at least 2% annually. Crop production will become more difficult with climate change, resource scarcity (e.g. land, water, energy, and nutrients) and environmental degradation (e.g. declining soil quality, increased greenhouse gas emissions, and surface water eutrophication). To pursue the fastest and most practical route to improved yield, the near-term strategy is application and extension of existing agricultural technologies. This would lead to substantial improvement in crop and soil management practices, which are currently suboptimal. Two pivotal components are required if we are to follow new trajectories. First, the disciplines of soil management and agronomy need to be given increased emphasis in research and teaching, as part of a grand food security challenge. Second, continued genetic improvement in crop varieties will be vital. However, our view is that the biggest gains from improved technology will come most immediately from combinations of improved crops and improved agronomical practices. The objectives of this paper are to summarize the historical trend of crop production in China and to examine the main constraints to the further increase of crop productivity. The paper provides a perspective on the challenge faced by science and technology in agriculture which must be met both in terms of increased crop productivity but also in increased resource use efficiency and the protection of environmental quality.

  14. Episodic sucrose intake during food restriction increases synaptic abundance of AMPA receptors in nucleus accumbens and augments intake of sucrose following restoration of ad libitum feeding.

    PubMed

    Peng, X-X; Lister, A; Rabinowitsch, A; Kolaric, R; Cabeza de Vaca, S; Ziff, E B; Carr, K D

    2015-06-04

    Weight-loss dieting often leads to loss of control, rebound weight gain, and is a risk factor for binge pathology. Based on findings that food restriction (FR) upregulates sucrose-induced trafficking of glutamatergic AMPA receptors to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) postsynaptic density (PSD), this study was an initial test of the hypothesis that episodic "breakthrough" intake of forbidden food during dieting interacts with upregulated mechanisms of synaptic plasticity to increase reward-driven feeding. Ad libitum (AL) fed and FR subjects consumed a limited amount of 10% sucrose, or had access to water, every other day for 10 occasions. Beginning three weeks after return of FR rats to AL feeding, when 24-h chow intake and rate of body weight gain had normalized, subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR consumed more sucrose during a four week intermittent access protocol than the two AL groups and the group that had access to water during FR. In an experiment that substituted noncontingent administration of d-amphetamine for sucrose, FR subjects displayed an enhanced locomotor response during active FR but a blunted response, relative to AL subjects, during recovery from FR. This result suggests that the enduring increase in sucrose consumption is unlikely to be explained by residual enhancing effects of FR on dopamine signaling. In a biochemical experiment which paralleled the sucrose behavioral experiment, rats with a history of sucrose intake during FR displayed increased abundance of pSer845-GluA1, GluA2, and GluA3 in the NAc PSD relative to rats with a history of FR without sucrose access and rats that had been AL throughout, whether they had a history of episodic sucrose intake or not. A history of FR, with or without a history of sucrose intake, was associated with increased abundance of GluA1. A terminal 15-min bout of sucrose intake produced a further increase in pSer845-GluA1 and GluA2 in subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR

  15. High prevalence of food insecurity among HIV-infected individuals receiving HAART in a resource-rich setting.

    PubMed

    Anema, A; Weiser, S D; Fernandes, K A; Ding, E; Brandson, E K; Palmer, A; Montaner, J S G; Hogg, R S

    2011-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of food insecurity in a cohort of HIV-infected individuals on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Adults receiving HAART voluntarily enrolled into the Longitudinal Investigations into Supportive and Ancillary Health Services (LISA) cohort. Individual food insecurity was measured using a modified version of the Radimer/Cornell Questionnaire. We performed bivariate analyses to determine differences between explanatory variables for individuals who were food secure and food insecure. We performed logistic regression to determine independent predictors of food insecurity. Of the 457 individuals enrolled in the LISA cohort, 324 (71.0%) were found to be food insecure. Multivariate analysis indicated that individuals who had an annual incomes less than $15,000 (odds ratio [OR] 3.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.83, 5.44), used illicit drugs (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.03, 3.33), smoked tobacco (OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.30, 4.07), had depressive symptoms (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.38, 3.96), and were younger (OR 0.95, 95% CI, 0.92, 0.98) were more likely to be food insecure. Our results demonstrated a high (71%) prevalence of food insecurity among HIV-infected individuals receiving HAART in this resource-rich setting, and that food insecurity is associated with a compendium of environmental and behavioral factors. More research is needed to understand the biological and social pathways linking food insecurity to these variables in order to identify program strategies that can effectively improve food security among HIV-infected populations.

  16. Children's traditional ecological knowledge of wild food resources: a case study in a rural village in Northeast Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Setalaphruk, Chantita; Price, Lisa Leimar

    2007-01-01

    Consuming wild foods is part of the food ways of people in many societies, including farming populations throughout the world. Knowledge of non-domesticated food resources is part of traditional and tacit ecological knowledge, and is largely transmitted through socialization within cultural and household contexts. The context of this study, a small village in Northeast Thailand, is one where the community has experienced changes due to the migration of the parental generation, with the children being left behind in the village to be raised by their grandparents. A case study approach was used in order to gain holistic in-depth insight into children's traditional ecological knowledge as well as patterns of how children acquire their knowledge regarding wild food resources. Techniques used during field data collection are free-listing conducted with 30 village children and the use of a sub-sample of children for more in-depth research. For the sub-sample part of the study, wild food items consisted of a selection of 20 wild food species consisting of 10 species of plants and 10 species of animals. Semi-structured interviews with photo identification, informal interviews and participatory observation were utilized, and both theoretical and practical knowledge scored. The sub-sample covers eight households with boys and girls aged between 10–12 years old from both migrant families and non-migrant families. The knowledge of children was compared and the transmission process was observed. The result of our study shows that there is no observable difference among children who are being raised by grandparents and those being raised by their parents, as there are different channels of knowledge transmission to be taken into consideration, particularly grandparents and peers. The basic ability (knowledge) for naming wild food species remains among village children. However, the practical in-depth knowledge, especially about wild food plants, shows some potential eroding

  17. Potential effects of changes in temperature and food resources on life history trajectories of juvenile Oncorhynchus mykiss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benjamin, Joseph R.; Connolly, Patrick J.; Romine, Jason G.; Perry, Russell W.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing temperatures and changes in food resources owing to climate change may alter the growth and migratory behavior of organisms. This is particularly important for salmonid species like Oncorhynchus mykiss, where some individuals remain in freshwater to mature (nonanadromous Rainbow Trout) and others migrate to sea (anadromous Steelhead). Whether one strategy is adopted over the other may depend on the individual's growth and size. In this study, we explored (1) how water temperature in Beaver Creek, a tributary to the Methow River, Washington, may increase under four climate scenarios, (2) how these thermal changes may alter the life history trajectory followed by O. mykiss (i.e., when and if to smolt), and (3) how changes in food quality or quantity might interact with increasing temperatures. We combined bioenergetic and state-dependent life history models parameterized for O. mykiss in Beaver Creek to mimic baseline life history trajectories. Based on our simulations, when mean water temperature was increased by 0.6°C there was a reduction in life history diversity and a 57% increase in the number of individuals becoming smolts. When mean temperature was increased by 2.7°C, it resulted in 87% fewer smolts than in the baseline and fewer life history trajectories expressed. A reduction in food resources led to slower growth, more life history trajectories, and a greater proportion of smolts. In contrast, when food resources were increased, fish grew faster, which reduced the proportion of smolts and life history diversity. Our modeling suggests that warmer water temperatures associated with climate change could decrease the life history diversity of O. mykiss in the central portion of their range and thereby reduce resiliency to other disturbances. In addition, changes in food resources could mediate or exacerbate the effect of water temperature on the life history trajectories of O. mykiss.

  18. Direct utilization of geothermal energy resources in food processing. Final report, May 17, 1978-May 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, J.C.

    1982-05-01

    In early 1978 financial assistance was granted for a project to utilize geothermal energy at Ore-Ida Foods, Inc.'s food processing plant in Ontario, Oregon. Specifically, the project included exploring, testing, and developing the potential geothermal resource; retrofitting the existing gas/oil-fired steam system; utilizing the geothermal resource for food processing, space heating, and hot potable water; and injecting the spent geothermal water back into a disposal well. Based on preliminary investigations which indicated the presence of a local geothermal resource, drilling began in August 1979. Although the anticipated resource temperature of 380/sup 0/F was reached at total well depth (10,054 feet), adequate flow to meet processing requirements could not be obtained. Subsequent well testing and stimulation techniques also failed to produce the necessary flow, and the project was eventually abandoned. However, throughout the duration of the project, all activities were carefully monitored and recorded to ensure the program's value for future evaluation. This report presents a culmination of data collected during the Ore-Ida project.

  19. Another unique river: a consideration of some of the characteristics of the trunk tributaries of the Nile River in northwestern Ethiopia in relationship to their aquatic food resources.

    PubMed

    Kappelman, John; Tewabe, Dereje; Todd, Lawrence; Feseha, Mulugeta; Kay, Marvin; Kocurek, Gary; Nachman, Brett; Tabor, Neil; Yadeta, Meklit

    2014-12-01

    Aquatic food resources are important components of many modern human hunter-gatherer diets and yet evidence attesting to the widespread exploitation of this food type appears rather late in the archaeological record. While there are times when, for example, the capture of fish and shellfish requires sophisticated technology, there are other cases when the exact ecological attributes of an individual species and the particulars of its environment make it possible for these foods to be incorporated into the human diet with little or no tool use and only a minimal time investment. In order to better understand the full set of variables that are considered in these sorts of foraging decisions, it is necessary to detail the attributes of each particular aquatic environment. We discuss here some of the characteristics of the trunk tributaries of the Nile and Blue Rivers in the Horn of Africa. Unlike typical perennial rivers, these 'temporary' rivers flow only during a brief but intense wet season; during the much longer dry season, the rivers are reduced to a series of increasingly disconnected waterholes, and the abundant and diverse fish and mollusk populations are trapped in ever smaller evaporating pools. The local human population today utilizes a number of diverse capture methods that range from simple to complex, and vary according to the size and depth of the waterhole and the time of the year. When we view the particular characteristics of an individual river system, we find that each river is 'unique' in its individual attributes. The Horn of Africa is believed to be along the route that modern humans followed on their migration out of Africa, and it is likely that the riverine-based foraging behaviors of these populations accompanied our species on its movement into the rest of the Old World.

  20. Successive sheep grazing reduces population density of Brandt's voles in steppe grassland by altering food resources: a large manipulative experiment.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoliang; Yin, Baofa; Wan, Xinrong; Wei, Wanhong; Wang, Guiming; Krebs, Charles J; Zhang, Zhibin

    2016-01-01

    Livestock grazing has shaped grassland ecosystems around the world. Previous studies indicated grazing showed various impacts on small rodents; however, most studies were conducted over 1-2 years without controlling for confounding factors such as immigration/emigration and predation in rodents. Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii) are generally recognized as pests because of food overlap with domestic herbivores, but are also important for biodiversity conservation because they provide nests or food to many birds. Fully understanding the ecological relationship between domestic herbivores and small mammals is essential to making ecosystem management decisions. To address these needs, we carried out a field experiment during the period 2010-2013 to assess the effects of sheep grazing on vegetation and the population density of Brandt's voles along a gradient of three grazing intensities by using 12 large-scale enclosures. Responses of Brandt's voles to livestock grazing varied with grazing intensity and year. As compared to the control group, sheep grazing had no effect on vole abundance in the first year but an overall negative effect on vole abundance in the following 3 years. Successive grazing caused decreases in survival and male body mass of voles, but had no significant effect on fecundity. Negative effects of grazing were associated with a grazing-induced deterioration in both food quantity (reflected by biomass and cover of less-preferred plants), and food quality (measured by tannin and total phenol content). Our findings highlight the urgent need for more flexible management of yearly rotational grazing to optimize livestock production while maintaining species diversity and ecosystem health.

  1. Niche shifts and energetic condition of songbirds in response to phenology of food-resource availability in a high-elevation sagebrush ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cutting, Kyle A.; Anderson, Michelle L.; Beever, Erik; Schroff, Sean; Korb, Nathan; Klaphake, Eric; McWilliams, Scott R.

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal fluctuations in food availability can affect diets of consumers, which in turn may influence the physiological state of individuals and shape intra- and inter-specific patterns of resource use. High-elevation ecosystems often exhibit a pronounced seasonal “pulse” in productivity, although few studies document how resource use and energetic condition by avian consumers change in relation to food-resource availability in these ecosystems. We tested the hypothesis that seasonal increases (pulses) in food resources in high-elevation sagebrush ecosystems result in 2 changes after the pulse, relative to the before-pulse period: (1) reduced diet breadth of, and overlap between, 2 sympatric sparrow species; and (2) enhanced energetic condition in both species. We tracked breeding-season diets using stable isotopes and energetic condition using plasma metabolites of Brewer's Sparrows (Spizella breweri), Vesper Sparrows (Pooecetes gramineus), and their food resources during 2011, and of only Brewer's Sparrows and their food resources during 2013. We quantify diet breadth and overlap between both species, along with coincident physiological consequences of temporal changes in resource use. After invertebrate biomass increased following periods of rainfall in 2011, dietary breadth decreased by 35% in Brewer's Sparrows and by 48% in Vesper Sparrows, while dietary overlap decreased by 88%. Energetic condition of both species increased when dietary overlap was lower and diet breadth decreased, after the rapid rise of food-resource availability. However, energetic condition of Brewer's Sparrows remained constant in 2013, a year with low precipitation and lack of a strong pulse in food resources, even though the species' dietary breadth again decreased that year. Our results indicate that diet breadth and overlap in these sparrow species inhabiting sagebrush ecosystems generally varied as predicted in relation to intra- and interannual changes in food resources, and

  2. Food intake inhibition in rainbow trout induced by activation of serotonin 5-HT2C receptors is associated with increases in POMC, CART and CRF mRNA abundance in hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Maceira, Jorge J; Otero-Rodiño, Cristina; Mancebo, María J; Soengas, José L; Aldegunde, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    In rainbow trout, the food intake inhibition induced by serotonin occurs through 5-HT2C and 5-HT1A receptors, though the mechanisms involved are still unknown. Therefore, we assessed if a direct stimulation of 5-HT2C and 5-HT1A serotonin receptors (resulting in decreased food intake in rainbow trout), affects gene expression of neuropeptides involved in the control of food intake, such as pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF), and agouti-related peptide (AgRP). In a first set of experiments, the injection of the 5-HT2C receptor agonists MK212 (60 μg kg(-1) icv) and WAY 161503 (1 mg kg(-1) ip), and of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT (1 mg kg(-1) ip and 30 μg kg(-1) icv) induced food intake inhibition. In a second set of experiments, we observed that the injection of MK212 or WAY 161503 (1 and 3 mg kg(-1)) significantly increased hypothalamic POMC mRNA abundance. CART mRNA abundance in hypothalamus was enhanced by treatment with MK212 and unaffected by WAY 161503. The administration of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT did not induce any significant variation in the hypothalamic POMC or CART mRNA levels. CRF mRNA abundance was only affected by MK212 that increased hypothalamic values. Finally, hypothalamic AgRP mRNA abundance was only evaluated with the agonist 5-HT2C MK212 resulting in no significant effects. The results show that the reduction in food intake mediated by 5-HT2C receptors is associated with increases in hypothalamic POMC, CART and CRF mRNA abundance.

  3. An experimental test of the effects of food resources and hydraulic refuge on patch colonization by stream macroinvertebrates during spates.

    PubMed

    Negishi, Junjiro N; Richardson, John S

    2006-01-01

    1. The passive or active movement of organisms between habitat patches plays important roles in achieving ecosystem resilience to disturbance and long-term control of population levels. However, causal mechanisms of disturbance-induced movements of mobile biota across heterogeneous habitat patches at a relatively short time-scale are little understood. 2. We experimentally tested the effects of food resource values on macroinvertebrate colonization of hydraulic refugia from spates in a second-order creek. Experimental cages were colonized by macroinvertebrates with combinations of resource types (natural or polyester leaves), and extent of exposure to stream flow (exposed to or sheltered from current); one half of each set was collected before and after a spate. This experiment was repeated over three spates of varying magnitude and seasonal contexts. 3. Pre-spate colonization was consistently greater for the cages with natural leaves relative to artificial leaves regardless of the extent of flow exposure. Two autumn spates with relatively low and stable antecedent flow conditions caused large movements of organic matter and macroinvertebrates across the stream, showing community-level accumulations into hydraulically sheltered patches independent of food treatment. The smallest spate with high and variable antecedent flows during winter resulted in negligible responses, which we interpret to be a result of depletion of easily transportable organic matter and organisms. 4. Two detritivorous taxa, the mayfly Paraleptophlebia spp. and stonefly Despaxia augusta (Banks) were the most responsive to autumn spates, and had disproportionately higher colonization rates of cages when provided with natural leaves during the largest autumn spate. Preferential settlement in food-enriched hydraulic refugia was attributable to taxon-specific mobility related to efficient acquisition of detritus resource, whose availability varies spatially and temporally. 5. Our findings suggest

  4. Triumph or Triage? The World Food Problem in Geographical Perspective. Resource Paper No. 75-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, C. Gregory; Wilcox, R. Paul

    Emphasizing a problem-solving perspective, the document investigates the world food scene. Simply defined, the world food problem is the apparent inability of the world's people to feed themselves adequately and consistently. Intended for use by college level geography instructors as they develop courses on human uses of the environment, the…

  5. Variation in active and passive resource inputs to experimental pools: mechanisms and possible consequences for food webs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraus, Johanna M.; Pletcher, Leanna T.; Vonesh, James R.

    2010-01-01

    1. Cross-ecosystem movements of resources, including detritus, nutrients and living prey, can strongly influence food web dynamics in recipient habitats. Variation in resource inputs is thought to be driven by factors external to the recipient habitat (e.g. donor habitat productivity and boundary conditions). However, inputs of or by ‘active’ living resources may be strongly influenced by recipient habitat quality when organisms exhibit behavioural habitat selection when crossing ecosystem boundaries. 2. To examine whether behavioural responses to recipient habitat quality alter the relative inputs of ‘active’ living and ‘passive’ detrital resources to recipient food webs, we manipulated the presence of caged predatory fish and measured biomass, energy and organic content of inputs to outdoor experimental pools of adult aquatic insects, frog eggs, terrestrial plant matter and terrestrial arthropods. 3. Caged fish reduced the biomass, energy and organic matter donated to pools by tree frog eggs by ∼70%, but did not alter insect colonisation or passive allochthonous inputs of terrestrial arthropods and plant material. Terrestrial plant matter and adult aquatic insects provided the most energy and organic matter inputs to the pools (40–50%), while terrestrial arthropods provided the least (7%). Inputs of frog egg were relatively small but varied considerably among pools and over time (3%, range = 0–20%). Absolute and proportional amounts varied by input type. 4. Aquatic predators can strongly affect the magnitude of active, but not passive, inputs and that the effect of recipient habitat quality on active inputs is variable. Furthermore, some active inputs (i.e. aquatic insect colonists) can provide similar amounts of energy and organic matter as passive inputs of terrestrial plant matter, which are well known to be important. Because inputs differ in quality and the trophic level they subsidise, proportional changes in input type could have

  6. Microbial oil - A plausible alternate resource for food and fuel application.

    PubMed

    Bharathiraja, B; Sridharan, Sridevi; Sowmya, V; Yuvaraj, D; Praveenkumar, R

    2017-06-01

    Microbes have recourse to low-priced substrates like agricultural wastes and industrial efflux. A pragmatic approach towards an emerging field- the exploitation of microbial oils for biodiesel production, pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications, food additives, biopolymer production will be of immense remunerative significance in the near future. Due to high free fatty acid, nutritive content and simpler solvent extraction processes of microbial oils with plant oil, microbial oils can back plant oils in food applications. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the opulence of lipid production in native and standard micro-organisms and also to emphasize the vast array of applications including food and fuel by obtaining maximum yield.

  7. Abundance and phenotypic diversity of Escherichia coli isolates with diminished susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins in faeces from healthy food animals after slaughter.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Miguel A; Teshager, Tirushet; Porrero, M A Concepción; García, María; Escudero, Esther; Torres, Carmen; Domínguez, Lucas

    2007-03-10

    Antimicrobial resistance (AR) is an increasing phenomenon but its quantitative estimation remains controversial. The classical resistance percentage approach is not well suited to detect either emergence or low levels resistance. One option is to shift the focus from strains to hosts. This approach is applied to test for phenotypic diversity associated with diminished susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins (DSESC) in faecal Escherichia coli from healthy food animals in Spain. We performed E. coli enumeration in faecal samples of broilers (82 pooled samples) and pigs (80 pooled samples) at the slaughterhouse level, using Coli-ID plates alone and supplemented with cefotaxime at two levels (1 and 8 microg/ml). Antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates was tested by the agar diffusion method. Clustering was carried out using these numerical values and Ward and UPGMA methods. When using plates supplemented with 1 microg/ml of cefotaxime for DSESC E. coli detection, 93% (76/82) of broiler pooled samples and 36% (29/80) pig pooled samples tested positive. When using 8 microg/ml of cefotaxime, 67% (55/82) of broilers and 13% (10/80) of pigs were positive. Nevertheless, the relative abundance of this phenotype was low in both animal species (range 0-4.3%). Irrespective of the clustering method (Ward or UPGMA), a noticeable phenotypic diversity was detected, especially from the plates containing 1 microg/ml of cefotaxime. We concluded that: (a) E. coli with phenotype DSESC are common in broilers and pigs but are less frequent in pigs, and (b) the host approach is the most appropriate method for antimicrobial resistance assessment when null or very low levels of antimicrobial resistant bacteria are expected.

  8. ENSO, Nest Predation Risk, Food Abundance, and Male Status Fail to Explain Annual Variations in the Apparent Survival Rate of a Migratory Songbird

    PubMed Central

    Vernouillet, Alizée; Villard, Marc-André; Haché, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Adult mortality can be a major driver of population decline in species whose productivity is relatively low. Yet, little is known about the factors influencing adult survival rates in migratory bird species, nor do we know much about the longer-term effects of habitat disturbance on the fitness of individuals. The Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla) is one of the vertebrate species most sensitive to forest management, yet it is still common and widespread. We monitored the fate of 330 colour-banded Ovenbird males in four pairs of 25-ha plots during 9 successive breeding seasons. One plot of each pair was treated through selection harvesting (30–40% basal area removed) during the first winter. We tested the following hypotheses: (1) higher physiological costs in harvested plots as a result of lower food abundance will reduce apparent survival rate (ASR) relative to controls; (2) lower ASR following years with low nest survival and higher probability of renesting; (3) fluctuations in ASR reflecting El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO); and (4) higher ASR in returning males than in recruits (unbanded immigrants) owing to greater site familiarity in the former. We tested the relative importance of these hypotheses, or combinations thereof, by generating 23 models explaining variation in ASR. The year-dependent model received the most support, showing a 41% decrease in ASR from 2007 to 2014. The important year-to-year variation we observed in ASR (Σwi = 0.99) was not explained by variation in nest predation risk nor by ENSO. There was also little evidence for an effect of selection harvesting on ASR of Ovenbird males, despite a slight reduction in lifespan relative to males from control plots (2.7 vs 2.9 years). An avenue worth exploring to explain this intriguing pattern would be to determine whether conditions at migratory stopover sites or in the wintering area of our focal population have gradually worsened over the past decade. PMID:25419839

  9. ENSO, nest predation risk, food abundance, and male status fail to explain annual variations in the apparent survival rate of a migratory songbird.

    PubMed

    Vernouillet, Alizée; Villard, Marc-André; Haché, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Adult mortality can be a major driver of population decline in species whose productivity is relatively low. Yet, little is known about the factors influencing adult survival rates in migratory bird species, nor do we know much about the longer-term effects of habitat disturbance on the fitness of individuals. The Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla) is one of the vertebrate species most sensitive to forest management, yet it is still common and widespread. We monitored the fate of 330 colour-banded Ovenbird males in four pairs of 25-ha plots during 9 successive breeding seasons. One plot of each pair was treated through selection harvesting (30-40% basal area removed) during the first winter. We tested the following hypotheses: (1) higher physiological costs in harvested plots as a result of lower food abundance will reduce apparent survival rate (ASR) relative to controls; (2) lower ASR following years with low nest survival and higher probability of renesting; (3) fluctuations in ASR reflecting El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO); and (4) higher ASR in returning males than in recruits (unbanded immigrants) owing to greater site familiarity in the former. We tested the relative importance of these hypotheses, or combinations thereof, by generating 23 models explaining variation in ASR. The year-dependent model received the most support, showing a 41% decrease in ASR from 2007 to 2014. The important year-to-year variation we observed in ASR (Σw(i) = 0.99) was not explained by variation in nest predation risk nor by ENSO. There was also little evidence for an effect of selection harvesting on ASR of Ovenbird males, despite a slight reduction in lifespan relative to males from control plots (2.7 vs 2.9 years). An avenue worth exploring to explain this intriguing pattern would be to determine whether conditions at migratory stopover sites or in the wintering area of our focal population have gradually worsened over the past decade.

  10. Nutrition Education for Preschoolers: A Resource Guide for Use in the Child Care Food Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batko, Margaret W.; And Others

    Developed to assist child care providers in starting or maintaining a nutrition education program, this guide lists resources primarily directed toward adults who care for young children (2 to 5 years of age) and toward the children themselves. Over 90 entries concerning nutrition education materials have been included. Each resource has been…

  11. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) Web Academy Webinar: Changing How We Think About Our Resources for a Better Tomorrow: How to Donate Surplus Food from K-12 Schools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a webinar page for the Sustainable Management of Materials (SMM) Web Academy webinar titled Changing How We Think About Our Resources for a Better Tomorrow: How to Donate Surplus Food from K-12 Schools

  12. Rural food insecurity and poverty mappings and their linkage with water resources in the Limpopo River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magombeyi, M. S.; Taigbenu, A. E.; Barron, J.

    2016-04-01

    The mappings of poverty and food insecurity were carried out for the rural districts of the four riparian countries (Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe) of the Limpopo river basin using the results of national surveys that were conducted between 2003 and 2013. The analysis shows lower range of food insecure persons (0-40%) than poverty stricken persons (0-95%) that is attributable to enhanced government and non-government food safety networks in the basin countries, the dynamic and transitory nature of food insecurity which depends on the timings of the surveys in relation to harvests, markets and food prices, and the limited dimension of food insecurity in relation to poverty which tends to be a more structural and pervasive socio-economic condition. The usefulness of this study in influencing policies and strategies targeted at alleviating poverty and improving rural livelihoods lies with using food insecurity mappings to address short-term socio-economic conditions and poverty mappings to address more structural and long-term deprivations. Using the poverty line of 1.25/day per person (2008-2013) in the basin, Zimbabwe had the highest percentage of 68.7% of its rural population classified as poor, followed by Mozambique with 68.2%, South Africa with 56.1% and Botswana with 20%. While average poverty reduction of 6.4% was observed between 2003 and 2009 in Botswana, its population growth of 20.1% indicated no real poverty reduction. Similar observations are made about Mozambique and Zimbabwe where population growth outstripped poverty reductions. In contrast, both average poverty levels and population increased by 4.3% and 11%, respectively, in South Africa from 2007 to 2010. While areas of high food insecurity and poverty consistently coincide with low water availability, it does not indicate a simple cause-effect relationship between water, poverty and food insecurity. With limited water resources, rural folks in the basin require stronger

  13. Food resources, distribution and seasonal variations in ranging in lion-tailed macaques, Macaca silenus in the Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Erinjery, Joseph J; Kavana, T S; Singh, Mewa

    2015-01-01

    The distribution and availability of food was examined to see how it influenced ranging patterns and sleeping site selection in a group of lion-tailed macaques. The home range and core area were 130.48 ha (95% kernel) and 26.68 ha (50% kernel) respectively. The lion-tailed macaques had a longer day range, had a greater number of sleeping sites and used more core areas in the summer as compared to the monsoon and the post-monsoon seasons. The ranging patterns and sleeping site use were influenced by the major food resources used in a particular season. The ranging was mainly influenced by Artocarpus heterophyllus in monsoon, Cullenia exarillata and Toona ciliata in post- monsoon, and Artocarpus heterophyllus and Ficus amplissima in summer. The distribution of these four plant species is, therefore, critical to ranging, and thus to conservation of the lion-tailed macaque.

  14. Future water resources for food production in five South Asian river basins and potential for adaptation--a modeling study.

    PubMed

    Biemans, H; Speelman, L H; Ludwig, F; Moors, E J; Wiltshire, A J; Kumar, P; Gerten, D; Kabat, P

    2013-12-01

    The Indian subcontinent faces a population increase from 1.6 billion in 2000 towards 2 billion around 2050. Therefore, expansion of agricultural area combined with increases in productivity will be necessary to produce the food needed in the future. However, with pressure on water resources already being high, and potential effects of climate change still uncertain, the question rises whether there will be enough water resources available to sustain this production. The objective of this study is to make a spatially explicit quantitative analysis of water requirements and availability for current and future food production in five South Asian basins (Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra, Godavari and Krishna), in the absence or presence of two different adaptation strategies: an overall improvement in irrigation efficiency, and an increase of reservoir storage capacity. The analysis is performed by using the coupled hydrology and crop production model LPJmL. It is found that the Godavari and Krishna basins will benefit most from an increased storage capacity, whereas in the Ganges and the Indus water scarcity mainly takes place in areas where this additional storage would not provide additional utility. Increasing the irrigation efficiency will be beneficial in all basins, but most in the Indus and Ganges, as it decreases the pressure on groundwater resources and decreases the fraction of food production that would become at risk because of water shortage. A combination of both options seems to be the best strategy in all basins. The large-scale model used in this study is suitable to identify hotspot areas and support the first step in the policy process, but the final design and implementation of adaptation options requires supporting studies at finer scales.

  15. Information Communication and Technology for Water Resource Management and Food Security in Kenya: A Case Study of Kericho and Uasin Gishu Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omboto, P. I.; Macharia, J.; Mbagaya, Grace; Standa, F. N.

    2011-01-01

    Recent reports on Kenya have indicated food insecurity and destruction of water catchments as serious problems facing the country. Despite the tremendous strides in Information and Communication Technology (ICT), the country has not taken advantage of the technology to improve food security by effectively managing her water resources. A survey on…

  16. Sustainable hybrid photocatalysts: titania immobilized on carbon materials derived from renewable and biodegradable resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review comprises the preparation, properties and heterogeneous photocatalytic applications of TiO2 immobilized on carbon materials derived from earth-abundant, renewable and biodegradable agricultural residues and sea food waste resources. The overview provides key scientifi...

  17. Do abyssal scavengers use phytodetritus as a food resource? Video and biochemical evidence from the Atlantic and Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffreys, Rachel M.; Lavaleye, Marc S. S.; Bergman, Magda J. N.; Duineveld, Gerard C. A.; Witbaard, Rob

    2011-04-01

    Deep-sea benthic communities derive their energetic requirements from overlying surface water production, which is deposited at the seafloor as phytodetritus. Benthic invertebrates are the primary consumers of this food source, with deep-sea fish at the top of the trophic hierarchy. Recently, we demonstrated with the use of baited cameras that macrourid fish rapidly respond to and feed vigorously on large plant food falls mimicked by spinach ( Jeffreys et al., 2010). Since higher plant remains are scarce in the deep-sea, with the exception of canyons, where terrestrial material has been observed, these results led us to ask if a more commonly documented plant material i.e. phytodetritus might form a food source for deep-sea fish and mobile scavenging megafauna. We simulated a phytodetritus dump at the seafloor in two contrasting environments (1) the NE Atlantic where carpets of phytodetritus have been previously observed and (2) the oligotrophic western Mediterranean, where the deposition of phytodetritus at the seafloor is a rare occurrence. We recorded the response of the scavenging fauna using an in situ benthic lander equipped with baited time-lapse cameras. In the NE Atlantic at 3000 m, abyssal macrourids and cusk-eels were observed ingesting the phytodetritus. The phytodetrital patch was significantly diminished within 2 h. Abundance estimates calculated from first arrival times of macrourids at the phytodetrital patch in the Atlantic corresponded with abundance estimates from video-transect indicating that fish were attracted to the scent of phytodetrital bait. In contrast to this, in the western Mediterranean at 2800 m a single macrourid was observed investigating the phytodetrital patch but did not feed from it. The phytodetrital patch was significantly diminished within 6.5 h as a result of mainly invertebrate activity. At 1900 m, Lepidion lepidion was observed near the lander and the bait, but did not feed. The phytodetrital patch remained intact until

  18. Assessment of dreissenid biodeposits as a potential food resource for invasive Asian carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Karl R.; Chapman, Duane C.; Hayer, Cari-Ann

    2016-01-01

    Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (H. nobilis) are poised to invade the Laurentian Great Lakes. Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga mussels (D. rostriformis bugensis) have shifted nutrient pathways towards the benthos, partly through deposition of feces and rejected food particles called biodeposits. When biodeposit material was fed to bighead and silver carp, they fed on the material, but on average lost weight. Energy density between fed and unfed fish did not differ, but a few individual fish did gain weight on the biodeposits diet. Our results demonstrate that biodeposits might be considered a supplemental food for bigheaded carps.

  19. Dietary and paleoenvironmental reconstruction using stable isotopes of herbivore tooth enamel from middle Pliocene Dikika, Ethiopia: implication for Australopithecus afarensis habitat and food resources.

    PubMed

    Bedaso, Zelalem K; Wynn, Jonathan G; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Geraads, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Carbon and oxygen isotopes of mammalian tooth enamel were used to reconstruct paleoenvironments of Australopithecus afarensis from the middle Pliocene locality of Dikika, Ethiopia. Isotopic analyses were conducted on 210 mammalian herbivore teeth from 15 different taxa collected from the Basal Member (~3.8-3.42 Ma) and Sidi Hakoma Member (3.42-3.24 Ma) of the Hadar Formation. The isotopic analyses aim specifically at reconstructing shifts in the relative abundance of C(4) grasses in mammalian diets, and more generally at paleoclimate factors such as aridity and seasonality, as well as habitat structure. Carbon isotopic data suggest a wide range of foraging strategies, characterized by mixed C(3)/C(4) to C(4)-dominated diets in wooded grasslands to open woodlands. Weighted average C(4) dietary proportions range between 60% and 86% in the Basal Member and 49% and 74% in the Sidi Hakoma Member. Paleoclimatic conditions based on the reconstructed mean annual water deficit from the δ(18)O(enamel) values indicate a wetter climate as compared to either the early Pliocene or the Pleistocene nearby. The middle Pliocene habitat structure at Dikika could be as diverse as open grassland and wooded grassland, and woodland to forest in the Sidi Hakoma Member while wooded grassland, woodland to grassland are evident in the Basal Member. All habitats except closed woodland and forest are persistent through both members; however, the relative proportion of individual habitats changed through time. These changes could have put the fauna in competition for preferred habitats and food resources, which could have forced migration, adaptation to other resources and/or extinction. Thus, the existence of A. afarensis throughout the middle Pliocene indicates either this species might have adapted to a wide range of habitats, or its preferred habitat was not affected by the observed environmental changes.

  20. Access and use of information resources in assessing health risks from chemicals in food

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.A.

    1990-12-31

    The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is responsible for the wholesomeness, safety, and adulteration-free status of meat and poultry. The agency developed the National Residue Program (NRP) to monitor these products for residue of drugs, pesticides, and environmental contaminants. Today, few chemical residues are detected in meat and poultry because of the success of the NRP. 3 figs.

  1. 78 FR 79567 - Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations: Income Deductions and Resource Eligibility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ...] [Page 79567] [FR Doc No: 2013-31351] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Part 253... ICR associated with the final rule published in the Federal Register on August 27, 2013, at 78 FR... Nutrition Service. [FR Doc. 2013-31351 Filed 12-30-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 3410-30-P...

  2. Food for Pollinators: Quantifying the Nectar and Pollen Resources of Urban Flower Meadows.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Damien M; Ouvrard, Pierre; Baldock, Katherine C R; Baude, Mathilde; Goddard, Mark A; Kunin, William E; Mitschunas, Nadine; Memmott, Jane; Morse, Helen; Nikolitsi, Maria; Osgathorpe, Lynne M; Potts, Simon G; Robertson, Kirsty M; Scott, Anna V; Sinclair, Frazer; Westbury, Duncan B; Stone, Graham N

    2016-01-01

    Planted meadows are increasingly used to improve the biodiversity and aesthetic amenity value of urban areas. Although many 'pollinator-friendly' seed mixes are available, the floral resources these provide to flower-visiting insects, and how these change through time, are largely unknown. Such data are necessary to compare the resources provided by alternative meadow seed mixes to each other and to other flowering habitats. We used quantitative surveys of over 2 million flowers to estimate the nectar and pollen resources offered by two exemplar commercial seed mixes (one annual, one perennial) and associated weeds grown as 300m2 meadows across four UK cities, sampled at six time points between May and September 2013. Nectar sugar and pollen rewards per flower varied widely across 65 species surveyed, with native British weed species (including dandelion, Taraxacum agg.) contributing the top five nectar producers and two of the top ten pollen producers. Seed mix species yielding the highest rewards per flower included Leontodon hispidus, Centaurea cyanus and C. nigra for nectar, and Papaver rhoeas, Eschscholzia californica and Malva moschata for pollen. Perennial meadows produced up to 20x more nectar and up to 6x more pollen than annual meadows, which in turn produced far more than amenity grassland controls. Perennial meadows produced resources earlier in the year than annual meadows, but both seed mixes delivered very low resource levels early in the year and these were provided almost entirely by native weeds. Pollen volume per flower is well predicted statistically by floral morphology, and nectar sugar mass and pollen volume per unit area are correlated with flower counts, raising the possibility that resource levels can be estimated for species or habitats where they cannot be measured directly. Our approach does not incorporate resource quality information (for example, pollen protein or essential amino acid content), but can easily do so when suitable data

  3. Food for Pollinators: Quantifying the Nectar and Pollen Resources of Urban Flower Meadows

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Damien M.; Ouvrard, Pierre; Baldock, Katherine C. R.; Baude, Mathilde; Goddard, Mark A.; Kunin, William E.; Mitschunas, Nadine; Memmott, Jane; Morse, Helen; Nikolitsi, Maria; Osgathorpe, Lynne M.; Potts, Simon G.; Robertson, Kirsty M.; Scott, Anna V.; Sinclair, Frazer; Westbury, Duncan B.; Stone, Graham N.

    2016-01-01

    Planted meadows are increasingly used to improve the biodiversity and aesthetic amenity value of urban areas. Although many ‘pollinator-friendly’ seed mixes are available, the floral resources these provide to flower-visiting insects, and how these change through time, are largely unknown. Such data are necessary to compare the resources provided by alternative meadow seed mixes to each other and to other flowering habitats. We used quantitative surveys of over 2 million flowers to estimate the nectar and pollen resources offered by two exemplar commercial seed mixes (one annual, one perennial) and associated weeds grown as 300m2 meadows across four UK cities, sampled at six time points between May and September 2013. Nectar sugar and pollen rewards per flower varied widely across 65 species surveyed, with native British weed species (including dandelion, Taraxacum agg.) contributing the top five nectar producers and two of the top ten pollen producers. Seed mix species yielding the highest rewards per flower included Leontodon hispidus, Centaurea cyanus and C. nigra for nectar, and Papaver rhoeas, Eschscholzia californica and Malva moschata for pollen. Perennial meadows produced up to 20x more nectar and up to 6x more pollen than annual meadows, which in turn produced far more than amenity grassland controls. Perennial meadows produced resources earlier in the year than annual meadows, but both seed mixes delivered very low resource levels early in the year and these were provided almost entirely by native weeds. Pollen volume per flower is well predicted statistically by floral morphology, and nectar sugar mass and pollen volume per unit area are correlated with flower counts, raising the possibility that resource levels can be estimated for species or habitats where they cannot be measured directly. Our approach does not incorporate resource quality information (for example, pollen protein or essential amino acid content), but can easily do so when suitable

  4. Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The resources listed different types of materials related to the aerospace science under specified categories: free materials and inexpensive, selected government publication, audiovisual (government, nongovernment), aviation books, and space books. The list includes the publisher's name and the price for each publication. (SK)

  5. Childhood Obesity: A Food and Nutrition Resource List for Educators and Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellechia, Kathleen M.; Akobundu, Ucheoma O.; Naslund, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    This publication is a collection of resources on the topic of childhood obesity for educators and researchers. It is comprised of articles from professional journals (published 2000 to present), information available on the World Wide Web, consumer educational materials and contact information of related organizations. Items with a public health…

  6. Comparative analysis of forest lands cadastral appraisal estimated with regards to wood and food resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovyazin, V.; Romanchikov, A.; Pasko, O.

    2015-11-01

    Cadastral appraisal of forest fund is one of the topical challenges of modern natural resource management. The paper delivers comparison of different approaches to cadastral appraisal of forest lands. The authors suggest a uniformed model to compare objectively and choose the most effective use of parcels.

  7. Food for Humanity. (Student Resource Book III in the Investigating Your Environment Program).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Boulder, CO.

    These resource papers encourage the student to discover for himself the contributions to a problem made through original literature. Since some of the papers are controversial or contradict others, the student will need to evaluate these papers to determine his correct approach or position. It is hoped that these papers will also foster an…

  8. Food security in the face of climate change, population growth, and resource constraints: implications for Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Faisal, Islam M; Parveen, Saila

    2004-10-01

    Ensuring food security has been one of the major national priorities of Bangladesh since its independence in 1971. Now, this national priority is facing new challenges from the possible impacts of climate change in addition to the already existing threats from rapid population growth, declining availability of cultivable land, and inadequate access to water in the dry season. In this backdrop, this paper has examined the nature and magnitude of these threats for the benchmark years of 2030 and 2050. It has been shown that the overall impact of climate change on the production of food grains in Bangladesh would probably be small in 2030. This is due to the strong positive impact of CO2 fertilization that would compensate for the negative impacts of higher temperature and sea level rise. In 2050, the negative impacts of climate change might become noticeable: production of rice and wheat might drop by 8% and 32%, respectively. However, rice would be less affected by climate change compared to wheat, which is more sensitive to a change in temperature. Based on the population projections and analysis of future agronomic innovations, this study further shows that the availability of cultivable land alone would not be a constraint for achieving food self-sufficiency, provided that the productivity of rice and wheat grows at a rate of 10% or more per decade. However, the situation would be more critical in terms of water availability. If the dry season water availability does not decline from the 1990 level of about 100 Bm3, there would be just enough water in 2030 for meeting both the agricultural and nonagricultural needs. In 2050, the demand for irrigation water to maintain food self-sufficiency would be about 40% to 50% of the dry season water availability. Meeting such a high agricultural water demand might cause significant negative impacts on the domestic and commercial water supply, fisheries, ecosystems, navigation, and salinity management.

  9. Global forest cover mapping for the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization forest resources assessment 2000 program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhu, Z.; Waller, E.

    2003-01-01

    Many countries periodically produce national reports on the status and changes of forest resources, using statistical surveys and spatial mapping of remotely sensed data. At the global level, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has conducted a Forest Resources Assessment (FRA) program every 10 yr since 1980, producing statistics and analysis that give a global synopsis of forest resources in the world. For the year 2000 of the FRA program (FRA2000), a global forest cover map was produced to provide spatial context to the extensive survey. The forest cover map, produced at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) EROS Data Center (EDC), has five classes: closed forest, open or fragmented forest, other wooded land, other land cover, and water. The first two forested classes at the global scale were delineated using combinations of temporal compositing, modified mixture analysis, geographic stratification, and other classification techniques. The remaining three FAO classes were derived primarily from the USGS global land cover characteristics database (Loveland et al. 1999). Validated on the basis of existing reference data sets, the map is estimated to be 77% accurate for the first four classes (no reference data were available for water), and 86% accurate for the forest and nonforest classification. The final map will be published as an insert to the FAO FRA2000 report.

  10. The impact of floral resources and omnivory on a four trophic level food web.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, M; Wratten, S D; Robinson, K A; Sam, S A

    2009-06-01

    Omnivory is common among arthropods, but little is known about how availability of plant resources and prey affects interactions between species operating at the third and fourth trophic level. We used laboratory and field cage experiments to investigate how the provision of flowers affects an omnivorous lacewing, Micromus tasmaniae (Hemerobiidae) and its parasitoid Anacharis zealandica (Figitidae). The adult lacewing is a true omnivore that feeds on both floral resources and aphids, whereas the parasitoid is a life-history omnivore, feeding on lacewing larvae in the larval stage and floral nectar as an adult. We showed that the effect of floral resources (buckwheat) on lacewing oviposition depends on prey (aphid) density, having a positive effect only at low prey density and that buckwheat substantially increases the longevity of the adult parasitoid. In field cages, we tested how provision of flowering buckwheat affects the dynamics of a four trophic level system, comprising parasitoids, lacewings, pea aphids and alfalfa. We found that provision of buckwheat decreased the density of lacewings in the first phase of the experiment when the density of aphids was high. This effect was probably caused by increased rate of parasitism by the parasitoid, which benefits from the presence of buckwheat. Towards the end of the experiment when the aphid populations had declined to low levels, the effect of buckwheat on lacewing density became positive, probably because lacewings were starving in the no-buckwheat treatment. Although presence of buckwheat flowers did not affect aphid populations in the field cages, these findings highlight the need to consider multitrophic interactions when proposing provision of floral resources as a technique for sustainable pest management.

  11. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Seagull Chicks Is Related to the Consumption of Freshwater Food Resources

    PubMed Central

    Cabezón, Oscar; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta; Morera, Virginia; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; González-Solís, Jacob; Napp, Sebastian; Ribas, Maria P.; Blanch-Lázaro, Berta; Fernández-Aguilar, Xavier; Antilles, Noelia; López-Soria, Sergio; Lorca-Oró, Cristina; Dubey, Jitender P.; Almería, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the spread of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) in wild birds, particularly in those with opportunistic feeding behavior, is of interest for elucidating the epidemiological involvement of these birds in the maintenance and dissemination of the parasite. Overall, from 2009 to 2011, we collected sera from 525 seagull chicks (Yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) and Audouin’s gull (L. audouinii)) from 6 breeding colonies in Spain and tested them using the modified agglutination test (MAT) for the presence of antibodies against T. gondii. Chick age was estimated from bill length. Main food source of seagull chicks was evaluated using stable isotope analyses from growing scapular feathers. Overall T. gondii seroprevalence was 21.0% (IC95% 17.5–24.4). A generalized linear mixed-effects model indicated that year (2009) and food source (freshwater) were risk factors associated to the individual risk of infection by T. gondii, while age (days) was close to significance. Freshwater food origin was related to the highest seroprevalence levels, followed by marine origin, supporting freshwater and sewages as important routes of dispersion of T. gondii. Year differences could indicate fluctuating rates of exposure of seagull chicks to T. gondii. Age ranged from 4 to 30 days and seropositivity tended to increase with age (P = 0.07), supporting that seropositivity is related to T. gondii infection rather than to maternal transfer of antibodies, which in gulls is known to sharply decrease with chick age. This study is the first to report T. gondii antibodies in Yellow-legged and Audouin’s gulls, thereby extending the range of intermediate hosts for this parasite and underscoring the complexity of its epidemiology. PMID:26974667

  12. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Seagull Chicks Is Related to the Consumption of Freshwater Food Resources.

    PubMed

    Cabezón, Oscar; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta; Morera, Virginia; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; González-Solís, Jacob; Napp, Sebastian; Ribas, Maria P; Blanch-Lázaro, Berta; Fernández-Aguilar, Xavier; Antilles, Noelia; López-Soria, Sergio; Lorca-Oró, Cristina; Dubey, Jitender P; Almería, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the spread of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) in wild birds, particularly in those with opportunistic feeding behavior, is of interest for elucidating the epidemiological involvement of these birds in the maintenance and dissemination of the parasite. Overall, from 2009 to 2011, we collected sera from 525 seagull chicks (Yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) and Audouin's gull (L. audouinii)) from 6 breeding colonies in Spain and tested them using the modified agglutination test (MAT) for the presence of antibodies against T. gondii. Chick age was estimated from bill length. Main food source of seagull chicks was evaluated using stable isotope analyses from growing scapular feathers. Overall T. gondii seroprevalence was 21.0% (IC95% 17.5-24.4). A generalized linear mixed-effects model indicated that year (2009) and food source (freshwater) were risk factors associated to the individual risk of infection by T. gondii, while age (days) was close to significance. Freshwater food origin was related to the highest seroprevalence levels, followed by marine origin, supporting freshwater and sewages as important routes of dispersion of T. gondii. Year differences could indicate fluctuating rates of exposure of seagull chicks to T. gondii. Age ranged from 4 to 30 days and seropositivity tended to increase with age (P = 0.07), supporting that seropositivity is related to T. gondii infection rather than to maternal transfer of antibodies, which in gulls is known to sharply decrease with chick age. This study is the first to report T. gondii antibodies in Yellow-legged and Audouin's gulls, thereby extending the range of intermediate hosts for this parasite and underscoring the complexity of its epidemiology.

  13. Optimizing Land and Water Use at the Local Level to Enhance Global Food Security through Virtual Resources Trade in the World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, X.; Zhang, X.; Zhu, T.

    2014-12-01

    Global food security is constrained by local and regional land and water availability, as well as other agricultural input limitations and inappropriate national and global regulations. In a theoretical context, this study assumes that optimal water and land uses in local food production to maximize food security and social welfare at the global level can be driven by global trade. It follows the context of "virtual resources trade", i.e., utilizing international trade of agricultural commodities to reduce dependency on local resources, and achieves land and water savings in the world. An optimization model based on the partial equilibrium of agriculture is developed for the analysis, including local commodity production and land and water resources constraints, demand by country, and global food market. Through the model, the marginal values (MVs) of social welfare for water and land at the level of so-called food production units (i.e., sub-basins with similar agricultural production conditions) are derived and mapped in the world. In this personation, we will introduce the model structure, explain the meaning of MVs at the local level and their distribution around the world, and discuss the policy implications for global communities to enhance global food security. In particular, we will examine the economic values of water and land under different world targets of food security (e.g., number of malnourished population or children in a future year). In addition, we will also discuss the opportunities on data to improve such global modeling exercises.

  14. Free-living plathelminthes in sheep-grazed and ungrazed supralittoral salt marshes of the North Sea: Abundance, biomass, and their significance in food chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armonies, W.

    The supralittoral salt marshes of the North Sea are marked by high halophyte primary productivity. The environmental factors are strongly fluctuating. Despite these features the metazoan meiofaunal abundance is equal to that found in other littoral habitats. On average 1250 marine metazoans are found per 10 cm 2 in ungrazed and 770 per 10 cm 2 in sheep-grazed supralittoral salt marshes. Nematoda dominate in numerical abundance, Oligochaeta in biomass. Plathelminthes account for 15% of marine metazoans in ungrazed and 5% in grazed salt marshes. Total plathelminth abundance increases with halophyte density, whereas the abundance of diatom-feeding Plathelminthes decreases. In ungrazed marshes on average 104 Plathelminthes are found per 10 cm 2, accounting for a biomass of 0.65 g DW·m -2. In sheep-grazed marshes the average abundance is only 32 individuals per 10 cm 2, accounting for a biomass of 0.1 g DW·m -2. Average individual weight is 3.2 μg DW or 2.5 μg AFDW. In grazed salt marshes, 30% of plathelminthes feed on diatoms, 66% are predators, and 4% feed on bacteria (gut analysis). In ungrazed salt marshes only 3% are diatom-feeders, and 90% are predators feeding on Nematoda, Copepoda, Oligochaeta, and smaller Plathelminthes. Presumably plathelminthes are top predators on the salt marsh meiofauna.

  15. Wild mushroom- an underutilized healthy food resource and income generator: experience from Tanzania rural areas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study documents the use of a wild edible mushroom (WEM) in Tanzania rural areas and assesses its significance as a source of healthy food and income for the disadvantaged rural dwellers. Methodology The data was gathered through local market surveys in order to conventionally identify different common WEM taxa using a semi-structured interview and it involved 160 people comprised of WEM hunters, traders and consumers. The collected data covered the information on where, how, when and who was the principal transmitter of the mycological knowledge learned and the general information on their market and values. Results Results show that mushroom gathering is gender oriented, dominated by women (76.25%) whereas men account for 23.75%. Women possess vast knowledge of mushroom folk taxonomy, biology and ecology and are therefore the principal knowledge transmitters. It was also found that learning about WEM began at an early age and is family tradition based. The knowledge is acquired and imparted by practices and is mostly transmitted vertically through family dissemination. The results also revealed that 75 WEM species belong to 14 families sold in fresh or dry form. The common sold species belonged to the family Cantharellaceae (19) followed by Rusullaceae (16) and Lyophyllaceae (13), respectively. Collectors residing near miombo woodland may harvest 20–30 buckets (capacity 20 liters) and the business may earn a person about $400–900 annually. Conclusion This finding envisages the purposeful strengthening of WEM exploitation, which would contribute significantly in boosting the rural income/economy and reduce conflicts between community and forest conservers. The activity would also provide alternative employment, improve food security to rural disadvantaged groups especially women and old people hence improve their livelihood. PMID:23841964

  16. Daily rhythms in activity and mRNA abundance of enzymes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism in liver of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Influence of light and food availability.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Pérez, Juan; Míguez, Jesús M; Librán-Pérez, Marta; Otero-Rodiño, Cristina; Naderi, Fatemeh; Soengas, José L; López-Patiño, Marcos A

    2015-01-01

    The present research aimed to investigate in a model of teleost fish (rainbow trout) the existence of daily changes in activity and mRNA abundance of several proteins involved in major pathways of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in liver, and to test whether or not both the light-dark cycle and food availability might influence such rhythms. For this purpose, four cohorts of animals previously adapted to normal housing conditions (12L:12D; Lights on at ZT0; feeding time at ZT2) were subjected to: normal conditions (LD); 48-h constant darkness (DD); 96-h food deprivation (LD + Fasting); or constant darkness and food deprivation (DD + Fasting) respectively. After such time periods, fish were sacrificed and sampled every 4-h on the following 24-h period (ZT/CT0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 0'). Our results reveal that cortisol and all the analysed genes (gk, pepck, g6pase, pk, glut2, hoad and fas) exhibited well defined daily rhythms, which persisted even in the absence of light and/or food indicating the endogenous nature of such rhythms. Even when the variations of enzyme activities were not significant, their rhythms mostly paralleled those of the respective gene expression. The rhythms of mRNA abundance were apparently dependent on the presence of food, but the light/dark cycle also influenced such rhythms. Since cortisol does not appear to be mainly involved in generating such daily rhythms in liver, alternative mechanisms might be involved, such as a direct interaction between metabolism and the circadian system.

  17. Impacts of Community-Based Natural Resource Management on Wealth, Food Security and Child Health in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Pailler, Sharon; Naidoo, Robin; Burgess, Neil D; Freeman, Olivia E; Fisher, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) is a major global strategy for enhancing conservation outcomes while also seeking to improve rural livelihoods; however, little evidence of socioeconomic outcomes exists. We present a national-level analysis that empirically estimates socioeconomic impacts of CBNRM across Tanzania, while systematically controlling for potential sources of bias. Specifically, we apply a difference-in-differences model to national-scale, cross-sectional data to estimate the impact of three different CBNRM governance regimes on wealth, food security and child health, considering differential impacts of CBNRM on wealthy and poor populations. We also explore whether or not longer-standing CBNRM efforts provide more benefits than recently-established CBNRM areas. Our results show significant improvements in household food security in CBNRM areas compared with non-CBNRM areas, but household wealth and health outcomes in children are generally not significantly different. No one CBNRM governance regime demonstrates consistently different welfare outcomes than the others. Wealthy households benefit more from CBNRM than poor households and CBNRM benefits appear to increase with longer periods of implementation. Perhaps evidence of CBNRM benefits is limited because CBNRM hasn't been around long enough to yield demonstrable outcomes. Nonetheless, achieving demonstrable benefits to rural populations will be crucial for CBNRM's future success in Tanzania.

  18. Comparison through a LCA evaluation analysis of food waste disposal options from the perspective of global warming and resource recovery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Hyung; Kim, Jung-Wk

    2010-09-01

    This study evaluated feed manufacturing including dry feeding and wet feeding, composting, and landfilling for food waste disposal options from the perspective of global warming and resource recovery. The method of the expanded system boundaries was employed in order to compare different by-products. The whole stages of disposal involved in the systems such as separate discharge, collection, transportation, treatment, and final disposal, were included in the system boundary and evaluated. The Global Warming Potential generated from 1tonne of food wastes for each disposal system was analyzed by the life cycle assessment method. The results showed that 200kg of CO(2)-eq could be produced from dry feeding process, 61kg of CO(2)-eq from wet feeding process, 123kg of CO(2)-eq from composting process, and 1010kg of CO(2)-eq from landfilling. Feed manufacturing and composting, the common treatment methods currently employed, have been known to be environment friendlier than other methods. However, this study shows that they can negatively affect the environment if their by-products are not appropriately utilized as intended.

  19. Nutrient-rich versus nutrient-poor foods for depressed patients based on Iranian Traditional Medicine resources

    PubMed Central

    Tavakkoli-Kakhki, Mandana; Eslami, Saeid; Motavasselian, Malihe

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Considering the positive effects of certain nutrients on depression, increasingly prevalent in the contemporary societies, we investigated the nutritional content of prescribed and prohibited foodstuffs for depressed patients in Iranian Traditional Medicine resources. Materials and Methods: In order to conduct the study, credible sources of Iranian Traditional Medicine were primarily reviewed for the prescribed and prohibited foodstuffs for depressed patients. USDA database, as a well-known and valuable source, was then visited to determine the amount of effective nutrients in each foodstuff. Finally, the obtained amounts were compared with each other in three food groups, namely vegetables, fruits and nuts and also high protein products. Results: In Iranian Traditional Medicine texts, the following are prescribed for depression management: basil, coriander, spinach, lettuce, squash, peppermint, dill, chicory, celery, chard, quince, cucumber, watermelon, grape, peach, pomegranate, banana, apple, currant, pistachio, dried fig, almond, egg, chicken, lamb, and trout; cabbage, eggplant, onion, garlic, broad beans, lentils, and beef, meanwhile, are prohibited. In this regard, the effective nutritional content of these foodstuffs was obtained and then compared in the three food groups. Conclusion: This study revealed that spinach, lettuce, chicory, and squash (vegetables), pomegranate and almond (fruits and nuts) and ultimately trout (high protein products) are the best effective foodstuffs on depressed patients from nutritional content aspect. PMID:26445711

  20. Impacts of Community-Based Natural Resource Management on Wealth, Food Security and Child Health in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Pailler, Sharon; Naidoo, Robin; Burgess, Neil D.; Freeman, Olivia E.; Fisher, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) is a major global strategy for enhancing conservation outcomes while also seeking to improve rural livelihoods; however, little evidence of socioeconomic outcomes exists. We present a national-level analysis that empirically estimates socioeconomic impacts of CBNRM across Tanzania, while systematically controlling for potential sources of bias. Specifically, we apply a difference-in-differences model to national-scale, cross-sectional data to estimate the impact of three different CBNRM governance regimes on wealth, food security and child health, considering differential impacts of CBNRM on wealthy and poor populations. We also explore whether or not longer-standing CBNRM efforts provide more benefits than recently-established CBNRM areas. Our results show significant improvements in household food security in CBNRM areas compared with non-CBNRM areas, but household wealth and health outcomes in children are generally not significantly different. No one CBNRM governance regime demonstrates consistently different welfare outcomes than the others. Wealthy households benefit more from CBNRM than poor households and CBNRM benefits appear to increase with longer periods of implementation. Perhaps evidence of CBNRM benefits is limited because CBNRM hasn’t been around long enough to yield demonstrable outcomes. Nonetheless, achieving demonstrable benefits to rural populations will be crucial for CBNRM’s future success in Tanzania. PMID:26186210

  1. Meio- and Macrofaunal Communities in Artificial Water-Filled Tree Holes: Effects of Seasonality, Physical and Chemical Parameters, and Availability of Food Resources

    PubMed Central

    Ptatscheck, Christoph; Traunspurger, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In this study we investigated the dynamics of meiofaunal and macrofaunal communities in artificial water-filled tree holes. The abundances and, for the first time, biomasses and secondary production rates of these communities were examined. The experimental set-up consisted of 300 brown plastic cups placed in temperate mixed forests and sampled five times over a period of 16 months to determine the impact of (i) seasonal events, (ii) physicochemical parameters, and (iii) food resources on the tree hole metazoans. Outcomes Metazoan organisms, especially the meiofauna (rotifers and nematodes) occupied nearly all of the cups (> 99%) throughout the year. Between 55% and 99% of the metazoan community was represented by rotifers (max. 557,000 individuals 100 cm-2) and nematodes (max. 58,000 individuals 100 cm-2). Diptera taxa, particularly Dasyhelea sp. (max. 256 individuals 100 cm-2) dominated the macrofaunal community. Macrofauna accounted for the majority of the metazoan biomass, with a mean dry weight of 5,800 μg 100 cm-2 and an annual production rate of 20,400 μg C 100 cm-2, whereas for meiofauna mean biomass and annual production were 100 μg 100 cm-2 and 5,300 μg C 100 cm-2, respectively. The macrofaunal taxa tended to show more fluctuating population dynamic while the meiofaunal dynamic was rather low with partly asynchronous development. Seasonality (average temperature and rain intervals) had a significant impact on both meiofauna and macrofauna. Furthermore, bottom-up control (chlorophyll-a and organic carbon), mainly attributable to algae, was a significant factor that shaped the metazoan communities. In contrast, physicochemical water parameters had no evident influence. 23.7% of organism density distribution was explained by redundancy analysis (RDA) indicating a high dynamic and asynchrony of the systems. PMID:26284811

  2. Diverse landscapes have a higher abundance and species richness of spring wild bees by providing complementary floral resources over bees’ foraging periods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Landscape simplification and natural habitat loss can negatively affect wild bees. Alternatively, anthropogenic land-use change can potentially diversify landscapes to create complementary habitats that increase overall resource continuity and diversity. We examined the effects of landscape composit...

  3. Experiences with food insecurity and risky sex among low-income people living with HIV/AIDS in a resource-rich setting

    PubMed Central

    Whittle, Henry J; Palar, Kartika; Napoles, Tessa; Hufstedler, Lee Lemus; Ching, Irene; Hecht, Frederick M; Frongillo, Edward A; Weiser, Sheri D

    2015-01-01

    Background Forty-nine million individuals are food insecure in the United States, where food insecurity and HIV/AIDS are prevalent among the urban poor. Food insecurity is associated with risky sexual behaviours among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). No qualitative studies, however, have investigated the mechanisms underlying this relationship either in a resource-rich setting or among populations that include men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 34 low-income PLHIV receiving food assistance in the San Francisco Bay Area. The interviews explored experiences with food insecurity and perceived associations with sexual risk behaviours. Interviews were conducted in English, audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded and analyzed according to content analysis methods using an inductive-deductive approach. Results Food insecurity was reported to be a strong contributor to risky sexual practices among MSM and female participants. Individuals described engaging in transactional sex for food or money to buy food, often during times of destitution. Participants also explained how food insecurity could lead to condomless sex despite knowledge of and desire to use safe sexual practices, largely because the need to obtain food in the short term was prioritized over the desire to use barrier protection. Conclusions Our data extend previous research by demonstrating that food insecurity contributes to transactional and unprotected sex among urban poor individuals in a resource-rich setting, including among MSM. These findings underscore the importance of public health and social intervention efforts focused on structural inequalities. PMID:26546789

  4. Influence of cover and food resource variation on postbreeding bird use of timber harvests with residual canopy trees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDermott, Molly E.; Wood, Petra

    2010-01-01

    We investigated avian use of clearcuts and two-age harvests during the post-breeding period in 2006 in the central Appalachians, West Virginia, USA with an information-theoretic approach to model selection. Cover variables appeared to be most important; e.g., vegetative vertical complexity had a strong positive relation with capture rates of mature forest birds and molting adults, as well as physical condition which supports a predator-avoidance hypothesis for habitat use. Basal area was a poor predictor of captures; residual trees near nets tended to depress capture rates. Food variables best explained capture rates for some species groups (e.g., early-successional insectivores and granivores, mature forest nesting adults, molting birds), but post-breeding habitat quality was based primarily on vegetative cover. Habitat use may depend on the bird's physical condition and molt status, and we found evidence for age-specific differences which may impact survival. Our study suggests important links between post-breeding habitat quality, molt status, physical condition, and bird age, and indicates a variety of response variables (relative abundance, survival, body condition) should be measured to assess avian habitat quality during the post-breeding period.

  5. Exploring Pacific Climate Variability and Its Impacts on East African Water Resources and Food Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funk, C. C.; Hoerling, M. P.; Hoell, A.; Liebmann, B.; Verdin, J. P.; Eilerts, G.

    2014-12-01

    In 8 out the past 15 boreal springs (1999, 2000, 2004, 2008, 2009, 2011, 2012, and 2013), substantial parts of eastern East Africa experienced very low boreal spring rains. These rainfall deficits have triggered widespread food insecurity, and even contributed to the outbreak of famine conditions in Somalia in 2011. At both seasonal and decadal time scales, new science supported by the USAID Famine Early Warning Systems Network seeks to understand the mechanisms producing these droughts. We present research suggesting that the ultimate and proximate causes of these increases in aridity are i) stronger equatorial Pacific SST gradients and ii) associated increases in the strength of the Indo-Pacific Walker circulation. Using observations and new modeling ensembles, we explore the relative contributions of Pacific Decadal Variability (PDV) and global warming under warm and cold east Pacific Ocean states. This question is addressed in two ways: by using atmospheric GCMs forced with full and ENSO-only SSTs, and ii) by decomposing coupled ocean-atmosphere climate simulations into PDV and non-PDV components. These analyses allow us to explore the Walker circulation's sensitivity to climate change under various PDV states, and inform a tentative bracketing of 2030 climate conditions. We conclude by discussing links to East African development. Regions of high rainfall sensitivity are delineated and intersected with recent changes in population and land cover/land use. The interaction of elevation and climate is shown to create climatically secure regions that are likely to remain viable even under drier and warmer conditions; such regions may be logical targets for agricultural intensification. Conversely, arid low elevation regions are likely to experience substantial temperature impacts. Continued expansion into these areas may effectively create more 'drought' even if rainfall increases.

  6. Our living resources: a report to the nation on the distribution, abundance, and health of U.S. plants, animals, and ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaRoe, Edward T.; Farris, Gaye S.; Puckett, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.; Mac, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    Another purpose of this report is to help identify gaps in existing resource inventory and monitoring programs. It contains information collected by a variety of existing research and monitoring efforts by scientists in the National Biological Service, other federal and state agencies, academia, and the private sector. The programs that produced the information in this document were not developed in a coordinated fashion to produce an integrated, comprehensive picture of the status and trends of our nation’s resources; rather, each was developed for its own particular purpose, usually to help manage a specific resource. Thus, even though articles vary greatly in scope, design, and purpose, this report has identified and attempted to combine many of the existing information sources into a broad picture of the condition of our resources. In the future, these sources will be complemented by additional information from other sources—such as state agencies and other inventory and monitoring studies—to fill in the gaps of knowledge and to provide a more complete understanding of the status of our living resources.

  7. Resource utilization by desert quail: time and energy, food and water

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, D.L.; Nagy, K.A.

    1985-04-01

    Time-energy budgets (TEB) of Gambel's Quail (Callipepla gambelii) were compiled during two summers in the Colorado Desert of California. Quail spent 6.77 h/d foraging, 6.2 h/d inactive during daylight hours, and 11.02 h/d inactive at night. Field metabolic rate (FMR) calculated from this activity budget was 81.8 kJ/d. Of this, 47.3 kJ/d was expended during foraging, 12.6 kJ/d in daytime inactivity, and 20.4 kJ/d in nighttime inactivity. Despite the extremely hot thermal environment (maximum ambient temperature approx. =45/sup 0/C), there was no energy cost above resting levels for thermoregulation. FMR was also measured simultaneously with doubly labeled water (DLW), and averaged 90.8 kJ/d. The FMR of C. gambelii was only 40% of that predicted for a bird of its body mass. Energy assimilation efficiency, measured in laboratory feeding experiments with a mixed seed and arthropod diet, was 60.3%. An individual quail in the field thus required 150.3 kJ/d in its diet, representing a dry matter intake of 8.1 g/d. It was calculated that over the course of a year, a population of Gambel's Quail consumes seeds with a total energy content approx. =15% as great as that in seeds consumed by a population of desert rodents or harvester ants in the same area. Gambel's Quail thus may be important factors in the competition for resources among desert granivores, particularly because they can eat one of their competitors (harvester ants). 44 references, 2 figures, 7 tables.

  8. Spatial variation in springtime food resources influences the winter body mass of roe deer fawns.

    PubMed

    Pettorelli, Nathalie; Dray, Stephane; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Chessel, Daniel; Duncan, Patrick; Illius, Andrew; Guillon, Nadine; Klein, Francois; Van Laere, Guy

    2003-11-01

    It is well established that the dynamics of mammalian populations vary in time, in relation to density and weather, and often in interaction with phenotypic differences (sex, age and social status). Habitat quality has recently been identified as another significant source of individual variability in vital rates of deer, including roe deer where spatial variations in fawn body mass were found to be only about a tenth of temporal variations. The approach used was to classify the habitat into blocks a priori, and to analyse variation in animal performance among the predefined areas. In a fine-grained approach, here we use data collected over 24 years on 1,235 roe deer fawns captured at known locations and the plant species composition sampled in 2001 at 578 sites in the Chizé forest to determine the spatial structure at a fine scale of both vegetation and winter body mass of fawns, and then to determine links between the two. Space and time played a nearly equal role in determining fawn body masses of both sexes, each accounting for about 20% of variance and without any interaction between them. The spatial distribution of fawn body mass was perennial over the 24 years considered and predicted values showed a 2 kg range according to location in the reserve, which is much greater than suggested in previous work and is enough to have strong effects on fawn survival. The spatial distribution and the range of predicted body masses were closely similar in males and females. The result of this study is therefore consistent with the view that the life history traits of roe deer are only weakly influenced by sexual selection. The occurrence of three plant species that are known to be important food items in spring/summer roe deer diets, hornbeam ( Carpinus betulus), bluebell ( Hyacinthoides sp.) and Star of Bethlehem ( Ornithogalum sp.) was positively related to winter fawn body mass. The occurrence of species known to be avoided in spring/summer roe deer diets [e

  9. The water, energy and food (WEF) nexus project: A basis for strategic planning for natural resources sustainability-Challenges for application in the MENA region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohtar, Rabi; Daher, Bassel; Mekki, Insaf; Chaibi, Thameur; Zitouna Chebbi, Rim; Salaymeh, Ahmed Al

    2014-05-01

    Water, energy, and food (WEF) are viewed as main systems forming a nexus, which itself is threatened by defined external factors mainly characterized by growing population, changing economies, governance, climate change, and international trade. Integrative thinking in strategic planning for natural resources comes through recognizing the intimate level of interconnectedness between these systems and the entities that govern them. Providing sustainable solutions to overcome present challenges pose the need to study the existent inter-linkages and tradeoffs between resources. In this context, the present communication is to present the WEF-nexus project, a Tunisian - Jordanian - Qatari - USA project which is funded by the USAID - FABRI PR&D Grants program. WEF-nexus project seeks to explore the inextricable link between water resources and food security in both its geophysical and socio-economic dimensions. The project proposes to design, implement and test integrated resource management tool based on the water-energy-food nexus framework that i) includes the evaluation of the tool over a wide range of climatic and socio-economic zones represented by different countries in the MENA region, and ii) develop scenarios with variations of resources, demands, constraints, and management strategies for the chosen countries, which would be used as a foundation for guiding decision making. The approach is implemented and tested within Tunisia, Jordan, and Qatar. Beyond the obtaining of significant advances in the aforementioned methodological domains, and the understanding of the problems and challenges related to water and food that societies are experiencing or will experience in the future, outcomes are expected to :i) engage decision makers in the process of improving current policies, and strengthening relevant public- private collaboration through the use of the proposed tool, and ii) help in revisiting former recommendations at the levels of resource governance, and

  10. The parasitoids of the asparagus miner (Diptera: Agromyzidae): field parasitism and the influence of food resources on life history.

    PubMed

    Morrison, William R; Gibson, Gary A P; Szendrei, Zsofia

    2014-12-01

    The goals of this study were to identify pupal parasitoids of the asparagus miner, Ophiomyia simplex Loew (Diptera: Agromyzidae), and examine the effect of different diets and floral resources on the lifespan of adult asparagus miners and their parasitoids. We also measured the effect of parasitism on stem damage caused by the asparagus miner. The identity and abundance of the parasitoids of the asparagus miner were determined in asparagus fields in Michigan from weekly asparagus miner pupal collections during the 2010-2013 seasons. Twelve species of hymenopterous parasitoids were reared from asparagus miner pupae, including Chorebus rondanii (Giard) (Ichneumonoidea: Braconidae), 10 species in three families of Chalcidoidea, and one species of Bethylidae (Chrysidoidea), that represent new host records for the asparagus miner. C. rondanii and Thinodytes cephalon (Walker) (Pteromalidae) were the most common parasitoids. The effects of different diets and flowers on the lifespan of the pest and parasitoid adults were also evaluated. Buckwheat resulted in the shortest life span for the asparagus miner, whereas Riddell's goldenrod significantly increased its lifespan relative to the control. Parasitoid lifespan was doubled when individuals were fed sugar-rich diets. In the field, parasitoids preferred stems that contained more pupae and damage. The two most commonly reared parasitoids should be considered as targets for future conservation biological control efforts of the asparagus miner.

  11. The Pathogen-annotated Tracking Resource Network (PATRN) system: a web-based resource to aid food safety, regulatory science, and investigations of foodborne pathogens and disease.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, G; Hari, K; Jain, R; Mammel, M K; Kothary, M H; Franco, A A; Grim, C J; Jarvis, K G; Sathyamoorthy, V; Hu, L; Datta, A R; Patel, I R; Jackson, S A; Gangiredla, J; Kotewicz, M L; LeClerc, J E; Wekell, M; McCardell, B A; Solomotis, M D; Tall, B D

    2013-06-01

    Investigation of foodborne diseases requires the capture and analysis of time-sensitive information on microbial pathogens that is derived from multiple analytical methods and sources. The web-based Pathogen-annotated Tracking Resource Network (PATRN) system (www.patrn.net) was developed to address the data aggregation, analysis, and communication needs important to the global food safety community for the investigation of foodborne disease. PATRN incorporates a standard vocabulary for describing isolate metadata and provides a representational schema for a prototypic data exchange standard using a novel data loading wizard for aggregation of assay and attribution information. PATRN currently houses expert-curated, high-quality "foundational datasets" consisting of published experimental results from conventional assays and next generation analysis platforms for isolates of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio and Cronobacter species. A suite of computational tools for data mining, clustering, and graphical representation is available. Within PATRN, the public curated data repository is complemented by a secure private workspace for user-driven analyses, and for sharing data among collaborators. To demonstrate the data curation, loading wizard features, and analytical capabilities of PATRN, three use-case scenarios are presented. Use-case scenario one is a comparison of the distribution and prevalence of plasmid-encoded virulence factor genes among 249 Cronobacter strains with similar attributes to that of nine Cronobacter isolates from recent cases obtained between March and October, 2010-2011. To highlight PATRN's data management and trend finding tools, analysis of datasets, stored in PATRN as part of an ongoing surveillance project to identify the predominant molecular serogroups among Cronobacter sakazakii isolates observed in the USA is shown. Use-case scenario two demonstrates the secure workspace available for private

  12. Abundance, Natural Infection with Trypanosomes, and Food Source of an Endemic Species of Triatomine, Panstrongylus howardi (Neiva 1911), on the Ecuadorian Central Coast

    PubMed Central

    Villacís, Anita G.; Ocaña-Mayorga, Sofía; Lascano, Mauricio S.; Yumiseva, César A.; Baus, Esteban G.; Grijalva, Mario J.

    2015-01-01

    The elimination of domestic triatomines is the foundation of Chagas disease control. Regional initiatives are eliminating introduced triatomine species. In this scenario, endemic triatomines can occupy the ecological niches left open and become a threat to long-term Chagas disease control efforts. This study determined the abundance, colonization, and Trypanosoma cruzi infection rate of the endemic Panstrongylus howardi in 10 rural communities located in Ecuador's Manabí Province. In total, 518 individuals of P. howardi were collected. Infestation indices of 1.4% and 6.6% were found in the domestic and peridomestic environments, respectively. We determined a T. cruzi infection rate of 53.2% (N = 47) in this species. P. howardi has a high capacity to adapt to different habitats, especially in the peridomicile. This implies a considerable risk of transmission because of the frequency of intradomicile invasion. Therefore, this species needs to be taken into account in Chagas control and surveillance efforts in the region. PMID:25385867

  13. Abundance, natural infection with trypanosomes, and food source of an endemic species of triatomine, Panstrongylus howardi (Neiva 1911), on the Ecuadorian Central Coast.

    PubMed

    Villacís, Anita G; Ocaña-Mayorga, Sofía; Lascano, Mauricio S; Yumiseva, César A; Baus, Esteban G; Grijalva, Mario J

    2015-01-01

    The elimination of domestic triatomines is the foundation of Chagas disease control. Regional initiatives are eliminating introduced triatomine species. In this scenario, endemic triatomines can occupy the ecological niches left open and become a threat to long-term Chagas disease control efforts. This study determined the abundance, colonization, and Trypanosoma cruzi infection rate of the endemic Panstrongylus howardi in 10 rural communities located in Ecuador's Manabí Province. In total, 518 individuals of P. howardi were collected. Infestation indices of 1.4% and 6.6% were found in the domestic and peridomestic environments, respectively. We determined a T. cruzi infection rate of 53.2% (N = 47) in this species. P. howardi has a high capacity to adapt to different habitats, especially in the peridomicile. This implies a considerable risk of transmission because of the frequency of intradomicile invasion. Therefore, this species needs to be taken into account in Chagas control and surveillance efforts in the region.

  14. Unconventional oil and gas development and its stresses on water resources in the context of Water-Energy-Food Nexus: The case of Weld County, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikonomou, P. D.; Waskom, R.; Boone, K.; Ryan, J. N.

    2015-12-01

    The development of unconventional oil and gas resources in Colorado started to rapidly increase since the early 2000's. The recent oil price plunge resulted in a decline of well starts' rate in the US, but in Weld County, Colorado, it is currently at the 2013-levels. The additional water demand, despite its insignificant percentage in overall state's demand (0.1% in 2012), it competes with traditional ones, since Colorado's water is almost fully appropriated. Presently, the state has 53,597 active producing oil and gas wells. More than 40% of these are located in Weld County, which happens also to be one of top food production U.S. counties. The competition for land and water resources between the energy and agricultural sectors in water stressed areas, like the western U.S., is further intensified if recycle and reuse practices are not preferred to water disposal by the energy industry. Satisfying the multiple objectives of the Water-Energy-Food Nexus in order to achieve sustainable economic development requires balanced management of these resources. Identifying pressures on key areas that food and energy sectors are competing for water, is essential for prudent water management and developing appropriate policies. Weld County, as a water stressed and fossil fuel producing area, was selected for investigating current stresses on local water resources alongside with future climatic and water demand scenarios for exploring probable long-term effects.

  15. Seasonal abundance of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from American oysters harvested in the Mandinga Lagoon System, Veracruz, Mexico: implications for food safety.

    PubMed

    Flores-Primo, Argel; Pardío-Sedas, Violeta; Lizárraga-Partida, Leonardo; López-Hernández, Karla; Uscanga-Serrano, Roxana; Flores-Hernández, Reyna

    2014-07-01

    The abundance of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) strains in American oysters (Crassostrea virginica) harvested in two different harvest sites from the Mandinga lagoon System was evaluated monthly for 1 year (January through December 2012). Frequencies of species-specific genes and pathogenic genes exhibited a seasonal distribution. The annual occurrence of Vp with the species-specific tlh gene (tlh(+)) was significantly higher during the winter windy season (32.50%) and spring dry season (15.0%), with the highest densities observed during spring dry season at 283.50 most probable number (MPN)/g (lagoon bank A, near human settlements), indicating the highest risk of infection during warmer months. Pathogenic Vp tlh(+)/tdh(+) frequency was significantly higher during the winter windy and the spring dry seasons at 22.50 and 10.00%, respectively, with highest densities of 16.22 and 41.05 MPN/g (bank A), respectively. The tlh/trh and tdh/trh gene combinations were also found in Vp isolates during the spring dry season at 1.25 and 1.3%, respectively, with densities of 1.79 and 0.4 MPN/g (bank A), respectively. The orf8 genes were detected during the winter windy season (1.25%) with highest densities of 5.96 MPN/g (bank A) and 3.21 MPN/g (bank B, near mangrove islands and a heron nesting area). Densities of Vp tdh(+) were correlated (R(2) = 0.245, P < 0.015) with those of Vp orf8(+). The seasonal dynamics of Vp harboring pathogenic genes varied with seasonal changes, with very high proportions of Vp tdh(+) and Vp orf8(+) isolates in the winter windy season at 46.2 and 17.0%, respectively, which suggests that environmental factors may differentially affect the abundance of pathogenic subpopulations. Although all densities of total Vp (Vp tlh(+)) were lower than 10(4) MPN/g, thus complying with Mexican regulations, the presence of pathogenic strains is a public health concern. Our results suggest that total Vp densities may not be appropriate for assessing

  16. Agriculture and Food: Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources Sector-Specific Plan as Input to the National Infrastructure Protection Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    toxins . Fluid food products (milk, juice, and water) are typi- cally produced and consumed with limited thermal...botulinum toxin within (or on the surface of) food products . A number of proteases will be measured for their detoxification capability. In addition...Date 0225 Effect of Staphylococcus Enterotoxin B on Primary Yogurt Production Foods Defense+ Office of Applied Research and Safety

  17. How Ants Drop Out: Ant Abundance on Tropical Mountains

    PubMed Central

    Longino, John T.; Branstetter, Michael G.; Colwell, Robert K.

    2014-01-01

    In tropical wet forests, ants are a large proportion of the animal biomass, but the factors determining abundance are not well understood. We characterized ant abundance in the litter layer of 41 mature wet forest sites spread throughout Central America (Chiapas, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica) and examined the impact of elevation (as a proxy for temperature) and community species richness. Sites were intentionally chosen to minimize variation in precipitation and seasonality. From sea level to 1500 m ant abundance very gradually declined, community richness declined more rapidly than abundance, and the local frequency of the locally most common species increased. These results suggest that within this elevational zone, density compensation is acting, maintaining high ant abundance as richness declines. In contrast, in sites above 1500 m, ant abundance dropped abruptly to much lower levels. Among these high montane sites, community richness explained much more of the variation in abundance than elevation, and there was no evidence of density compensation. The relative stability of abundance below 1500 m may be caused by opposing effects of temperature on productivity and metabolism. Lower temperatures may decrease productivity and thus the amount of food available for consumers, but slower metabolisms of consumers may allow maintenance of higher biomass at lower resource supply rates. Ant communities at these lower elevations may be highly interactive, the result of continuous habitat presence over geological time. High montane sites may be ephemeral in geological time, resulting in non-interactive communities dominated by historical and stochastic processes. Abundance in these sites may be determined by the number of species that manage to colonize and/or avoid extinction on mountaintops. PMID:25098722

  18. A Multilevel Conceptual Framework to Understand the Role of Food Insecurity on Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence in Low-Resource Settings: From Theory to Practice.

    PubMed

    Masa, Rainier; Chowa, Gina

    2017-04-03

    The objective of this study was to describe a multilevel conceptual framework to understand the role of food insecurity on antiretroviral therapy adherence. The authors illustrated an example of how they used the multilevel framework to develop an intervention for poor people living with HIV in a rural and low-resource community. The framework incorporates intrapersonal, interpersonal, and structural-level theories of understanding and changing health behaviors. The framework recognizes the role of personal, social, and environmental factors on cognition and behavior, with particular attention to ways in which treatment adherence is enabled or prevented by structural conditions, such as food insecurity.

  19. Food resources sustaining the fish fauna in a section of the upper São Francisco River in Três Marias, MG, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alvim, M C C; Peret, A C

    2004-05-01

    With the purpose of determining the principal food resources responsible for maintaining the fishery yield in a section of the São Francisco River, 6 sampling of the fish fauna were made downstream from the Três Marias Dam, from September 1996 to July 1997. A total of 1,127 individuals of 35 species were captured, using gillnets with mesh sizes varying from 3 to 16 cm. The stomach contents of 33 species were examined in order to determine their diets. Five trophic guilds were established, in the following order of importance: ilyophagous, herbivorous, piscivorous, terrestrial invertebrates feeders, and aquatic invertebrates feeders. The resources sustaining the fish fauna were mainly of allochthonous origin. The ichthyonenosis appears to be mainly dependent on the detritus chain. The ciliary forest and seasonal flooding pulses are the main suppliers of food for the fish fauna.

  20. Correlates of Food Security among Low-Resource Young People: An Assessment of Community Protective Factors within Public Housing Neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Nebbitt, Von E; Lombe, Margaret; Chu, Yoosun; Sinha, Aakanksha; Tirmazi, Tagi

    2016-01-01

    This paper assesses how and/or whether household and community factors are associated with self-reported food security among young people living in public housing (N=151). Results suggest that food security was negatively related to age, particularly to older youth. Also, household size-have many people in the household, household hardships, and household conflict were negatively related to food security. On the contrary, food security was positively related to community cohesion and the presence of the extended family within the public housing neighborhood. Findings seem to suggest that non-specialty food previsions (e.g., community cohesion and family networks) may be important in understanding food security among families living in public housing. A number of program and policy implications are presented.

  1. Coping with increasing water and land resources limitation for meeting world's food needs: the role of virtual water and virtual land trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soriano, Barbara; Garrido, Alberto; Novo, Paula

    2013-04-01

    Increasing pressure to expand agriculture production is giving rise to renewed interest to obtain access to land and water resources in the world. Water footprint evaluations show the importance of green water in global food trade and production. Green water and land are almost inseparable resources. In this work we analyse the role of foreign direct investment and cooperation programmes from developed countries in developing counties, focusing on virtual water trade and associated resources. We develop econometric models with the aim to explain observed trends in virtual water exports from developing countries as explained by the inverse flow of investments and cooperation programmes. We analyse the main 19 emerging food exporters, from Africa, Asia and America, using 15 years of data. Results show that land per capita availability and foreign direct investments explain observed flows of virtual water exports. However, there is no causality with these and flows cooperation investments. Our analysis sheds light on the underlying forces explaining the phenomenon of land grab, which is the appropriation of land access in developing countries by food-importers.

  2. Robust Abundance Estimation in Animal Abundance Surveys with Imperfect Detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surveys of animal abundance are central to the conservation and management of living natural resources. However, detection uncertainty complicates the sampling process of many species. One sampling method employed to deal with this problem is depletion (or removal) surveys in whi...

  3. Reproductive phenology of a food-hoarding mast-seed consumer: resource- and density-dependent benefits of early breeding in red squirrels.

    PubMed

    Williams, Cory T; Lane, Jeffrey E; Humphries, Murray M; McAdam, Andrew G; Boutin, Stan

    2014-03-01

    The production of offspring by vertebrates is often timed to coincide with the annual peak in resource availability. However, capital breeders can extend the energetic benefits of a resource pulse by storing food or fat, thus relaxing the need for synchrony between energy supply and demand. Food-hoarding red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) breeding in the boreal forest are reliant on cones from a masting conifer for their nutrition, yet lactation is typically completed before the annual crop of cones is available for consumption such that peaks in energy supply and demand are not synchronized. We investigated the phenological response of red squirrels to annual variation in environmental conditions over a 20-year span and examined how intra- and inter-annual variation in the timing of reproduction affected offspring recruitment. Reproductive phenology was strongly affected by past resource availability with offspring born earlier in years following large cone crops, presumably because this affected the amount of capital available for reproduction. Early breeders had higher offspring survival and were more likely to renest following early litter loss when population density was high, perhaps because late-born offspring are less competitive in obtaining a territory when vacancies are limited. Early breeders were also more likely to renest after successfully weaning their first litter, but renesting predominantly occurred during mast years. Because of their increased propensity to renest and the higher survival rates of their offspring, early breeders contribute more recruits to the population but the advantage of early breeding depends on population density and resource availability.

  4. Host resistance and tolerance of parasitic gut worms depend on resource availability.

    PubMed

    Knutie, Sarah A; Wilkinson, Christina L; Wu, Qiu Chang; Ortega, C Nicole; Rohr, Jason R

    2017-04-01

    Resource availability can significantly alter host-parasite dynamics. Abundant food can provide more resources for hosts to resist infections, but also increase host tolerance of infections by reducing competition between hosts and parasites for food. Whether abundant food favors host resistance or tolerance (or both) might depend on the type of resource that the parasite exploits (e.g., host tissue vs. food), which can vary based on the stage of infection. In our study, we evaluated how low and high resource diets affect Cuban tree frog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) resistance and tolerance of a skin-penetrating, gut nematode Aplectana sp. at each stage of the infection. Compared to a low resource diet, a high resource diet enhanced frog resistance to worm penetration and tolerance while worms traveled to the gut. In contrast, a low resource diet increased resistance to establishment of the infection. After the infection established and worms could access food resources in the gut, a high resource diet enhanced host tolerance of parasites. On a high resource diet, parasitized frogs consumed significantly more food than non-parasitized frogs; when food was then restricted, mass of non-parasitized frogs did not change, whereas mass of parasitized frogs decreased significantly. Thus, a high resource diet increased frog tolerance of established worms because frogs could fully compensate for energy lost to the parasites. Our study shows that host-parasite dynamics are influenced by the effect of resource availability on host resistance and tolerance, which depends on when parasites have access to food and the stage of infection.

  5. A holistic approach for food waste management towards zero-solid disposal and energy/resource recovery.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yingqun; Yin, Yao; Liu, Yu

    2017-03-01

    This study developed a holistic approach which was based on the ultra-fast hydrolysis of food waste with the fungal mash rich in various hydrolytic enzymes produced in situ from food waste as well. After the 8-h hydrolytic treatment, the solid residue and liquor were separated. It was found that the produced solid residue can meet all the requirements for biofertilizer in terms of NPK and heavy metal contents, while the separated liquor with high soluble organics concentration was further subject to anaerobic digestion for enhanced biomethane production. The results showed that 0.41kg of biofertilizer with a moisture content of 76.9% and 54.4L of biomethane could be produced from 1kg of food waste. As such, it is expected that this study may lead to the paradigm shift in food waste management with the ultimate target of zero-solid discharge.

  6. Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... the safety of fish caught in your local lakes, rivers, and coastal areas. Advisories may recommend that ... Charts Picky Eating Physical Activity Food Safety Resources Kids Students Adults Families Professionals Multiple Languages MyPlate, MyWins ...

  7. Plant food resources exploited by Blue-and-Yellow Macaws (Ara ararauna, Linnaeus 1758) at an urban area in Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, A A; Ragusa-Netto, J

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we described the food plants available to Blue-and-Yellow Macaws (Ara ararauna), its feeding habits and the relationship between these parameters with feeding niche breadth. We established four transects, each one 12 km long, to sample fruiting plants and the feeding habits of this macaw (monthly 40 h, of observations), at the urban areas of Três Lagoas (Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil). During all studied months, macaws foraged for palm fruits, mainly Syagrus oleracea and Acrocomia aculeata fruit pulp, both available all year, as well as Caryocar brasiliense and Anacardium occidentale seeds, in the wet season. The year-round feeding activity of macaws suggests Três Lagoas city as an adequate feeding area. The permanent availability of plant food resources, potentially, resulted from the diverse fruiting patterns of exotic and, mainly, native plant species, which provided a variety of suitable fruit patches.

  8. Response Surface Methodology Using a Fullest Balanced Model: A Re-Analysis of a Dataset in the Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources

    PubMed Central

    Rheem, Sungsue; Rheem, Insoo

    2017-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) is a useful set of statistical techniques for modeling and optimizing responses in research studies of food science. In the analysis of response surface data, a second-order polynomial regression model is usually used. However, sometimes we encounter situations where the fit of the second-order model is poor. If the model fitted to the data has a poor fit including a lack of fit, the modeling and optimization results might not be accurate. In such a case, using a fullest balanced model, which has no lack of fit, can fix such problem, enhancing the accuracy of the response surface modeling and optimization. This article presents how to develop and use such a model for the better modeling and optimizing of the response through an illustrative re-analysis of a dataset in Park et al. (2014) published in the Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources. PMID:28316481

  9. Response Surface Methodology Using a Fullest Balanced Model: A Re-Analysis of a Dataset in the Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources.

    PubMed

    Rheem, Sungsue; Rheem, Insoo; Oh, Sejong

    2017-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) is a useful set of statistical techniques for modeling and optimizing responses in research studies of food science. In the analysis of response surface data, a second-order polynomial regression model is usually used. However, sometimes we encounter situations where the fit of the second-order model is poor. If the model fitted to the data has a poor fit including a lack of fit, the modeling and optimization results might not be accurate. In such a case, using a fullest balanced model, which has no lack of fit, can fix such problem, enhancing the accuracy of the response surface modeling and optimization. This article presents how to develop and use such a model for the better modeling and optimizing of the response through an illustrative re-analysis of a dataset in Park et al. (2014) published in the Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources.

  10. Can UV radiation affect benthic deposit-feeders through biochemical alteration of food resources? An experimental study with juveniles of the benthic polychaete Eupolymnia nebulosa.

    PubMed

    Nahon, Sarah; Pruski, Audrey M; Duchêne, Jean-Claude; Méjanelle, Laurence; Vétion, Gilles; Desmalades, Martin; Charles, François

    2011-05-01

    The growth, tentacle development and feeding activity of the benthic polychaete Eupolymnia nebulosa were examined to determine whether UV might affect marine deposit-feeders indirectly through the modification of the nutritional quality of their resources. Since marine invertebrates have higher nutritional requirements during the period following settlement, we tested the effect of UV-altered phytodetritus on freshly settled juveniles of E. nebulosa. Phytodetritus was prepared from cultures of the diatom Skeletonema costatum either grown under or sheltered from UVB radiation. Sterol content of phytodetritus was unmodified by UV radiation. Conversely, phytodetritus was noticeably depleted in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Growth and tentacle development of juveniles fed on altered phytodetritus were reduced by 35% and 15% respectively, suggesting potential deficiencies in essential nutrients. In response to the lower quality of the phytodetritus, juveniles explored a wider area as they search for food, a strategy that could compensate for low food quality.

  11. The manipulation of food resources reveals sex-specific trade-offs between parental self-feeding and offspring care.

    PubMed

    Markman, S; Pinshow, B; Wright, J

    2002-09-22

    Parent Palestine sunbirds (Nectarinia osea) feed on flower nectar that is not fed to their nestlings. This phenomenon provided a unique opportunity to manipulate self-feeding rates of parent birds independently of the rate at which they feed arthropod prey to their offspring. Based on provisioning models, we predicted that parents would invest more in their young as the energy content of their own food increased. From our earlier work, we also predicted that the levels of sex-specific activities of males and females would differ as the energy content of their food increased. Sunbird pairs with two or three nestlings were provided with feeders containing a low-, medium- or high-concentration sucrose solution. As the sugar concentration increased, the females delivered arthropods at a greater rate to their nestlings, removed proportionally more faecal sacs and spent longer at the nest, while the males increased their mobbing effort. Nestling food intake and body mass, but not tarsus length or bill size, were larger in small broods than in large broods, and increased with increasing feeder sugar concentration. These results imply that increasing the energy content of food consumed by parent sunbirds allows them to increase the rate at which other foods are delivered to their young and to increase other parental care activities as well. The results also add credence to the idea that behavioural decisions reflect life-history trade-offs between parental self-feeding and investment in current young.

  12. The manipulation of food resources reveals sex-specific trade-offs between parental self-feeding and offspring care.

    PubMed Central

    Markman, S; Pinshow, B; Wright, J

    2002-01-01

    Parent Palestine sunbirds (Nectarinia osea) feed on flower nectar that is not fed to their nestlings. This phenomenon provided a unique opportunity to manipulate self-feeding rates of parent birds independently of the rate at which they feed arthropod prey to their offspring. Based on provisioning models, we predicted that parents would invest more in their young as the energy content of their own food increased. From our earlier work, we also predicted that the levels of sex-specific activities of males and females would differ as the energy content of their food increased. Sunbird pairs with two or three nestlings were provided with feeders containing a low-, medium- or high-concentration sucrose solution. As the sugar concentration increased, the females delivered arthropods at a greater rate to their nestlings, removed proportionally more faecal sacs and spent longer at the nest, while the males increased their mobbing effort. Nestling food intake and body mass, but not tarsus length or bill size, were larger in small broods than in large broods, and increased with increasing feeder sugar concentration. These results imply that increasing the energy content of food consumed by parent sunbirds allows them to increase the rate at which other foods are delivered to their young and to increase other parental care activities as well. The results also add credence to the idea that behavioural decisions reflect life-history trade-offs between parental self-feeding and investment in current young. PMID:12350256

  13. Extractable resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The use of information from space systems in the operation of extractive industries, particularly in exploration for mineral and fuel resources was reviewed. Conclusions and recommendations reported are based on the fundamental premise that survival of modern industrial society requires a continuing secure flow of resources for energy, construction and manufacturing, and for use as plant foods.

  14. Increasing homogeneity in global food supplies and the implications for food security

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Colin K.; Bjorkman, Anne D.; Dempewolf, Hannes; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian; Guarino, Luigi; Jarvis, Andy; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Struik, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    The narrowing of diversity in crop species contributing to the world’s food supplies has been considered a potential threat to food security. However, changes in this diversity have not been quantified globally. We assess trends over the past 50 y in the richness, abundance, and composition of crop species in national food supplies worldwide. Over this period, national per capita food supplies expanded in total quantities of food calories, protein, fat, and weight, with increased proportions of those quantities sourcing from energy-dense foods. At the same time the number of measured crop commodities contributing to national food supplies increased, the relative contribution of these commodities within these supplies became more even, and the dominance of the most significant commodities decreased. As a consequence, national food supplies worldwide became more similar in composition, correlated particularly with an increased supply of a number of globally important cereal and oil crops, and a decline of other cereal, oil, and starchy root species. The increase in homogeneity worldwide portends the establishment of a global standard food supply, which is relatively species-rich in regard to measured crops at the national level, but species-poor globally. These changes in food supplies heighten interdependence among countries in regard to availability and access to these food sources and the genetic resources supporting their production, and give further urgency to nutrition development priorities aimed at bolstering food security. PMID:24591623

  15. Food consumption as an indicator of the conservation of natural resources in riverine communities of the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Victoria J; Almeida, Morgana C; Giarrizzo, Tommaso; Deus, Claudia P; Vale, Rozeilza; Klein, Gilmar; Begossi, Alpina

    2015-01-01

    The present study analyzed and compared the daily consumption of foods of animal origin in eleven communities of the Lower Amazon, Trombetas and Purus Rivers, representing three different management systems and levels of conservation in the Brazilian Amazon. All food items of animal origin were weighed by at least 10% of the families in the study communities during a week in each period of the flood cycle between 2006 and 2008. Fish was the most important food, and was consumed during six days of the week, with an average rate of 169 kg.person(-1).year(-1). Game was second in importance, with 37 kg.person(-1).year-(1). This yearly rate of fish consumption is one of the highest in the world and is almost double the minimum recommended by the World Health Organization. The dietary patterns reflect both the isolation of the communities from large urban centers and the better preservation of the local environments due to the existence of protected areas. Environmental degradation may thus have effects on the health and food security of local populations. The study emphasizes the need for the implementation of public policies and participative management initiatives.

  16. Ever Stop to Think Man's Survival Is Dependent on His Use of Food Resources? [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Nelson Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Judy

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit is designed for senior high school students who have a basic knowledge of nutrition and some experience in menu planning. The five lessons provide experiences in selecting, preparing, and storing foods to attain maximum nutrition with a…

  17. From the USDA: Educating the Next Generation--Funding Opportunities in Food, Agricultural, Natural Resources, and Social Sciences Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Joyce E.; Wagner, David J.

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute of Food and Agriculture within the U.S. Department of Agriculture provides leadership, capacity, and funds to support the continuing development of a safe and competitive agricultural system. Many of the agency's educational programs are led by the Division of Community and Education (DOCE). These programs span agricultural…

  18. Enrichment and ecosystem stability: effect of toxic food.

    PubMed

    Roy, Shovonlal; Chattopadhyay, J

    2007-01-01

    Enrichment in resource availability theoretically destabilizes predator-prey dynamics (the paradox of enrichment). However, a minor change in the resource stoichiometry may make a prey toxic for the predator, and the presence of toxic prey affects the dynamics significantly. Here, theoretically we explore how, at increased carrying capacity, a toxic prey affects the oscillation or destabilization of predator-prey dynamics, and how its presence influences the growth of the predator as well as that of a palatable prey. Mathematical analysis determines the bounds on the food toxicity that allow the coexistence of a predator along with a palatable and a toxic prey. The overall results demonstrate that toxic food counteracts oscillation (destabilization) arising from enrichment of resource availability. Moreover, our results show that, at increased resource availability, toxic food that acts as a source of extra mortality may increase the abundance of the predator as well as that of the palatable prey.

  19. Zooplankton taxonomic and size diversity in Mediterranean coastal lagoons (NE Iberian Peninsula): Influence of hydrology, nutrient composition, food resource availability and predation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badosa, Anna; Boix, Dani; Brucet, Sandra; López-Flores, Rocío; Gascón, Stéphanie; Quintana, Xavier D.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of hydrology, nutrient composition, food resource availability and predation on zooplankton taxonomic and size diversity was analyzed in several shallow lagoons of a Mediterranean salt marsh (Baix Ter Wetlands, NE Iberian Peninsula). Taxonomic diversity correlated better with variables related to the trophic state, such as nutrient concentrations, whereas size diversity was more sensitive to fish predation. However, the fish predation influence on the size diversity was only significant when fishes reached high densities. Under low fish densities no predation effects were observed and the food resource availability (FR a) appeared to be more important in structuring the zooplankton community. Nevertheless, the two diversity indexes showed opposite responses to this factor. With increasing FR a the taxonomic diversity increased and the size diversity decreased. Neither taxonomic nor size diversity of the zooplankton community correlated with other physical or biotic factors such as hydrological variability or macroinvertebrate predation. The relationships found suggest that the size diversity is mainly related to biotic interactions, such as fish predation or inter/intraspecific competition, while the taxonomic diversity appears to be more sensitive to abiotic factors such as the nutrient composition.

  20. Failure to Respond to Food Resource Decline Has Catastrophic Consequences for Koalas in a High-Density Population in Southern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Whisson, Desley A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the ability of koalas to respond to changes in their environment is critical for conservation of the species and their habitat. We monitored the behavioural response of koalas to declining food resources in manna gum (Eucalyptus viminalis) woodland at Cape Otway, Victoria, Australia, from September 2011 to November 2013. Over this period, koala population density increased from 10.1 to 18.4 koalas.ha-1. As a result of the high browsing pressure of this population, manna gum canopy condition declined with 71.4% manna gum being completely or highly defoliated in September 2013. Despite declining food resources, radio collared koalas (N = 30) exhibited high fidelity to small ranges (0.4–1.2 ha). When trees became severely defoliated in September 2013, koalas moved relatively short distances from their former ranges (mean predicted change in range centroid = 144 m) and remained in areas of 0.9 to 1.0 ha. This was despite the high connectivity of most manna gum woodland, and close proximity of the study site (< 3 km) to the contiguous mixed forest of the Great Otway National Park. Limited movement had catastrophic consequences for koalas with 71% (15/21) of radio collared koalas dying from starvation or being euthanased due to their poor condition between September and November 2013. PMID:26735846

  1. Food Waste to Energy: How Six Water Resource Recovery Facilities are Boosting Biogas Production and the Bottom Line

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water Resource Recovery Facilities (WRRFs) with anaerobic digestion have been harnessing biogas for heat and power since at least the 1920’s. A few are approaching “energy neutrality” and some are becoming “energy positive” through a combination of energy efficiency measures and...

  2. Informing Food Protection Education: A Project to Define and Classify Resources for a Cross-Disciplinary Expert Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenck-Hamlin, Donna; Pierquet, Jennifer; McClellan, Chuck

    2011-01-01

    In the wake of the September 2001 attacks, the U.S. government founded the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) with responsibility to develop a National Infrastructure Protection Plan for securing critical infrastructures and key resources. DHS established interdisciplinary networks of academic expertise administered through Centers of…

  3. Maintenance of brucellosis in Yellowstone bison: linking seasonal food resources, host–pathogen interaction, and life-history trade-offs

    PubMed Central

    Treanor, John J; Geremia, Chris; Ballou, Michael A; Keisler, Duane H; White, Patrick J; Cox, John J; Crowley, Philip H

    2015-01-01

    The seasonal availability of food resources is an important factor shaping the life-history strategies of organisms. During times of nutritional restriction, physiological trade-offs can induce periods of immune suppression, thereby increasing susceptibility to infectious disease. Our goal was to provide a conceptual framework describing how the endemic level bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus) may be maintained in Yellowstone bison based on the seasonality of food resources and the life-history strategies of the host and pathogen. Our analysis was based on active B. abortus infection (measured via bacterial culture), nutritional indicators (measured as metabolites and hormones in plasma), and carcass measurements of 402 slaughtered bison. Data from Yellowstone bison were used to investigate (1) whether seasonal changes in diet quality affect nutritional condition and coincide with the reproductive needs of female bison; (2) whether active B. abortus infection and infection intensities vary with host nutrition and nutritional condition; and (3) the evidence for seasonal changes in immune responses, which may offer protection against B. abortus, in relation to nutritional condition. Female bison experienced a decline in nutritional condition during winter as reproductive demands of late gestation increased while forage quality and availability declined. Active B. abortus infection was negatively associated with bison age and nutritional condition, with the intensity of infection negatively associated with indicators of nutrition (e.g., dietary protein and energy) and body weight. Data suggest that protective cell-mediated immune responses may be reduced during the B. abortus transmission period, which coincides with nutritional insufficiencies and elevated reproductive demands during spring. Our results illustrate how seasonal food restriction can drive physiological trade-offs that suppress immune function and create infection and transmission opportunities

  4. Maintenance of brucellosis in Yellowstone bison: linking seasonal food resources, host-pathogen interaction, and life-history trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Treanor, John J; Geremia, Chris; Ballou, Michael A; Keisler, Duane H; White, Patrick J; Cox, John J; Crowley, Philip H

    2015-09-01

    The seasonal availability of food resources is an important factor shaping the life-history strategies of organisms. During times of nutritional restriction, physiological trade-offs can induce periods of immune suppression, thereby increasing susceptibility to infectious disease. Our goal was to provide a conceptual framework describing how the endemic level bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus) may be maintained in Yellowstone bison based on the seasonality of food resources and the life-history strategies of the host and pathogen. Our analysis was based on active B. abortus infection (measured via bacterial culture), nutritional indicators (measured as metabolites and hormones in plasma), and carcass measurements of 402 slaughtered bison. Data from Yellowstone bison were used to investigate (1) whether seasonal changes in diet quality affect nutritional condition and coincide with the reproductive needs of female bison; (2) whether active B. abortus infection and infection intensities vary with host nutrition and nutritional condition; and (3) the evidence for seasonal changes in immune responses, which may offer protection against B. abortus, in relation to nutritional condition. Female bison experienced a decline in nutritional condition during winter as reproductive demands of late gestation increased while forage quality and availability declined. Active B. abortus infection was negatively associated with bison age and nutritional condition, with the intensity of infection negatively associated with indicators of nutrition (e.g., dietary protein and energy) and body weight. Data suggest that protective cell-mediated immune responses may be reduced during the B. abortus transmission period, which coincides with nutritional insufficiencies and elevated reproductive demands during spring. Our results illustrate how seasonal food restriction can drive physiological trade-offs that suppress immune function and create infection and transmission opportunities

  5. Characterization of typical household food wastes from disposers: fractionation of constituents and implications for resource recovery at wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, M; Chowdhury, M M I; Nakhla, G; Keleman, M

    2015-05-01

    Food wastes with typical US food composition were analyzed to characterize different constituents in both particulate and soluble phases i.e., solids, chemical oxygen demand (COD), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P). Relationships between various pollutants were also investigated using 50 samples. One gram of dry food waste generated 1.21 g COD, 0.58 g BOD5, 0.36 g Total SS, 0.025 g Total N, and 0.013 g Total P. Distribution of constituents between particulate and aqueous phases indicated that 40% of COD and 30% of nitrogen were present in soluble form. Relative mass ratios of COD and nitrogen to solids were three to five times higher in particulates than in aqueous phase. However, COD/N ratios were higher in aqueous form than particulates at 63:1 versus 42:1. Detailed relationships between parameters showed that COD, nitrogen, and phosphorus in particulates are 200%, 3.6%, and 3.5% of the volatile suspended solids.

  6. Forest Resources

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  7. Aboriginal Consumption of Estuarine Food Resources and Potential Implications for Health through Trace Metal Exposure; A Study in Gumbaynggirr Country, Australia.

    PubMed

    Russell, Shaina; Sullivan, Caroline A; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J

    2015-01-01

    Fishing and resource use continues to be an essential aspect of life for many Aboriginal communities throughout Australia. It is important for dietary sustenance, and also retains deep social, cultural and economic significance, playing a fundamental role in maintaining group cohesion, transferring cultural knowledge and affirming Indigenous identities. We surveyed approximately 20% of the Gumbaynggirr Aboriginal community of Nambucca Heads, New South Wales, Australia. This paper explores Gumbaynggirr Connection to Country and engagement in cultural practice. It quantifies fishing efforts and consumption of seafood within the community. We found 95% of the sample group fish, with the highest rate of fishing being 2-3 times a week (27%). Furthermore, 98% of participants eat seafood weekly or more frequently, up to more than once a day (24%). Survey results revealed that Myxus elongatus (Sand mullet) and naturally recruited Saccostrea glomerata (Sydney rock oysters) continue to be important wild resources to the Gumbaynggirr community. Trace metals were measured in M. elongatus and S. glomerata samples collected by community participants in this study. Maximum levels prescribed in the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code were not exceeded in the edible tissue for either species, however both species exceeded the generally expected levels for zinc and copper and S. glomerata samples exceeded the generally expected level for selenium. Furthermore the average dietary exposure to trace metals from consuming seafood was calculated for the surveyed population. Trace metal intake was then compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake prescribed by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives. This process revealed that copper and selenium intake were both within the provisional tolerable weekly intake, while there is no guideline for zinc. Furthermore, participants relying heavily on wild resources from the Nambucca River estuary may exceed the provisional

  8. Aboriginal Consumption of Estuarine Food Resources and Potential Implications for Health through Trace Metal Exposure; A Study in Gumbaynggirr Country, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Shaina; Sullivan, Caroline A.; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J.

    2015-01-01

    Fishing and resource use continues to be an essential aspect of life for many Aboriginal communities throughout Australia. It is important for dietary sustenance, and also retains deep social, cultural and economic significance, playing a fundamental role in maintaining group cohesion, transferring cultural knowledge and affirming Indigenous identities. We surveyed approximately 20% of the Gumbaynggirr Aboriginal community of Nambucca Heads, New South Wales, Australia. This paper explores Gumbaynggirr Connection to Country and engagement in cultural practice. It quantifies fishing efforts and consumption of seafood within the community. We found 95% of the sample group fish, with the highest rate of fishing being 2-3 times a week (27%). Furthermore, 98% of participants eat seafood weekly or more frequently, up to more than once a day (24%). Survey results revealed that Myxus elongatus (Sand mullet) and naturally recruited Saccostrea glomerata (Sydney rock oysters) continue to be important wild resources to the Gumbaynggirr community. Trace metals were measured in M. elongatus and S. glomerata samples collected by community participants in this study. Maximum levels prescribed in the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code were not exceeded in the edible tissue for either species, however both species exceeded the generally expected levels for zinc and copper and S. glomerata samples exceeded the generally expected level for selenium. Furthermore the average dietary exposure to trace metals from consuming seafood was calculated for the surveyed population. Trace metal intake was then compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake prescribed by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives. This process revealed that copper and selenium intake were both within the provisional tolerable weekly intake, while there is no guideline for zinc. Furthermore, participants relying heavily on wild resources from the Nambucca River estuary may exceed the provisional

  9. Regional scenario building as a tool to support vulnerability assessment of food & water security and livelihood conditions under varying natural resources managements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, Julia; Liersch, Stefan; Dickens, Chris; Kabaseke, Clovis; Mulugeta Lemenih, Kassaye; Sghaier, Mongi; Hattermann, Fred

    2013-04-01

    state and availability of natural resources. Major concerns in all CS are the fast growing populations and natural resources degradation because of unsustainable natural resource management. Land use and resource competition are a consequence of unclear land tenure systems and limited resources availability. Scarce rainfall with high annual variability causes food insecurity if yield failures cannot be compensated, e.g. because of lacking financial resources. In all case studies critical uncertainties were identified to be more or less related to "poor governance". Missing governmental and political stability and effectiveness as well as corruption hamper the implementation of laws and policies related to natural resource management. Other critical uncertainties lie in the social domain. They are either related to demographic patterns like emigration or immigration varying the pressure on natural resources use or to the society in general like the evolvement of people's environmental awareness or voice and accountability. Methodological outcomes of the scenario building were that the complexity of the process requires the use of reliable and powerful tools to support the communication process. Concept maps were found to be a useful tool in this regard.

  10. Bacillus licheniformis Isolated from Traditional Korean Food Resources Enhances the Longevity of Caenorhabditis elegans through Serotonin Signaling.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi Ri; Oh, Sangnam; Son, Seok Jun; Park, Dong-June; Oh, Sejong; Kim, Sae Hun; Jeong, Do-Youn; Oh, Nam Su; Lee, Youngbok; Song, Minho; Kim, Younghoon

    2015-12-02

    In this study, we investigated potentially probiotic Bacillus licheniformis strains isolated from traditional Korean food sources for ability to enhance longevity using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a simple in vivo animal model. We first investigated whether B. licheniformis strains were capable of modulating the lifespan of C. elegans. Among the tested strains, preconditioning with four B. licheniformis strains significantly enhanced the longevity of C. elegans. Unexpectedly, plate counting and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results indicated that B. licheniformis strains were not more highly attached to the C. elegans intestine compared with Escherichia coli OP50 or Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG controls. In addition, qRT-PCR and an aging assay with mutant worms showed that the conditioning of B. licheniformis strain 141 directly influenced genes associated with serotonin signaling in nematodes, including tph-1 (tryptophan hydroxylase), bas-1 (serotonin- and dopamine-synthetic aromatic amino acid decarboxylase), mod-1 (serotonin-gated chloride channel), ser-1, and ser-7 (serotonin receptors) during C. elegans aging. Our findings suggest that B. licheniformis strain 141, which is isolated from traditional Korean foods, is a probiotic generally recognized as safe (GRAS) strain that enhances the lifespan of C. elegans via host serotonin signaling.

  11. Avian foods, foraging and habitat conservation in world rice fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stafford, J.D.; Kaminski, R.M.; Reinecke, K.J.

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, rice (Oryza sativa) agriculture typically involves seasonal flooding and soil tillage, which provides a variety of microhabitats and potential food for birds. Water management in rice fields creates conditions ranging from saturated mud flats to shallow (<30 cm) water, thereby attracting different guilds of birds. Grain not collected during harvest (i.e. waste rice) is typically the most abundant potential food of birds in rice fields, with estimates of seed mass from North America ranging from 66672 kg/ha. Although initially abundant after harvest, waste rice availability can be temporally limited. Few abundance estimates for other foods, such as vertebrate prey or forage vegetation, exist for rice fields. Outside North America, Europe and Japan, little is known about abundance and importance of any avian food in rice fields. Currently, flooding rice fields after harvest is the best known management practice to attract and benefit birds. Studies from North America indicate specific agricultural practices (e.g. burning stubble) may increase use and improve access to food resources. Evaluating and implementing management practices that are ecologically sustainable, increase food for birds and are agronomically beneficial should be global priorities to integrate rice production and avian conservation. Finally, land area devoted to rice agriculture appears to be stable in the USA, declining in China, and largely unquantified in many regions. Monitoring trends in riceland area may provide information to guide avian conservation planning in rice-agriculture ecosystems.

  12. Resource waves: phenological diversity enhances foraging opportunities for mobile consumers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, Jonathan B.; Takimoto, Gaku; Schindler, Daniel E.; Hayes, Matthew M.; Kauffman, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Time can be a limiting constraint for consumers, particularly when resource phenology mediates foraging opportunity. Though a large body of research has explored how resource phenology influences trophic interactions, this work has focused on the topics of trophic mismatch or predator swamping, which typically occur over short periods, at small spatial extents or coarse resolutions. In contrast many consumers integrate across landscape heterogeneity in resource phenology, moving to track ephemeral food sources that propagate across space as resource waves. Here we provide a conceptual framework to advance the study of phenological diversity and resource waves. We define resource waves, review evidence of their importance in recent case studies, and demonstrate their broader ecological significance with a simulation model. We found that consumers ranging from fig wasps (Chalcidoidea) to grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) exploit resource waves, integrating across phenological diversity to make resource aggregates available for much longer than their component parts. In model simulations, phenological diversity was often more important to consumer energy gain than resource abundance per se. Current ecosystem-based management assumes that species abundance mediates the strength of trophic interactions. Our results challenge this assumption and highlight new opportunities for conservation and management. Resource waves are an emergent property of consumer–resource interactions and are broadly significant in ecology and conservation.

  13. Spring stopover food resources and land use patterns of Rocky Mountain population Sandhill Carnes in the San Luis Valley, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laubhan, M.K.; Gammonley, J.H.; Dolton, D.D.

    2001-01-01

    Virtually the entire Rocky Mountain population (RMP) of greater sandhill cranes uses the San Luis Valley (SLV) of Colorado as a spring stopover area. RMP cranes in the SLV depend on unharvested grain provided on Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge, and on waste grain in privately owned fields. In recent years, however, fall tillage and irrigation of grain fields has become increasingly widespread in the SLV. These changes in farming practices have resulted in an unmeasured reduction in waste grain availability for RMP cranes during spring and have prompted concern over whether current or projected foods are adequate to meet spring demands of the target population size of 18,000-20,000 RMP cranesa?|

  14. From the USDA: Educating the Next Generation: Funding Opportunities in Food, Agricultural, Natural Resources, and Social Sciences Education

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Joyce E.; Wagner, David J.

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute of Food and Agriculture within the U.S. Department of Agriculture provides leadership, capacity, and funds to support the continuing development of a safe and competitive agricultural system. Many of the agency’s educational programs are led by the Division of Community and Education (DOCE). These programs span agricultural education, enhancing agricultural literacy through both formal and nonformal education. Here, we have highlighted funding opportunities within DOCE that enhance agricultural education and literacy by supporting the improvement of students’ critical communication, leadership skills, and experiential learning opportunities. Some of these programs include opportunities for which students can apply, while others focus on faculty applications. Opportunities faculty can apply for may support student-recruitment and student-retention techniques, curriculum development, innovative teaching methods, and institutional capacity-building programs. Overall, these programs foster a diverse workforce in agricultural science that matches the increasing diversity of the country. PMID:27587851

  15. Response of Yellowstone grizzly bears to changes in food resources: A synthesis. Final report to the Interagency Grizzly Bear Committee and Yellowstone Ecosystem Subcommittee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; van Manen, Frank T.; Cecily M, Costello; Haroldson, Mark A.; Daniel D, Bjornlie; Michael R, Ebinger; Kerry A, Gunther; Mary Frances, Mahalovich; Daniel J, Thompson; Megan D, Higgs; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Kristin, Legg; Daniel, Tyers; Landenburger, Lisa; Steven L, Cain; Frey, Kevin L.; Aber, Bryan C.; Schwartz, Charles C.

    2013-01-01

    The Yellowstone grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) was listed as a threatened species in 1975 (Federal Register 40 FR:31734-31736). Since listing, recovery efforts have focused on increasing population size, improving habitat security, managing bear mortalities, and reducing bear-human conflicts. The Interagency Grizzly Bear Committee (IGBC; partnership of federal and state agencies responsible for grizzly bear recovery in the lower 48 states) and its Yellowstone Ecosystem Subcommitte (YES; federal, state, county, and tribal partners charged with recovery of grizzly bears in the Greater Yelowston Ecosystem [GYE]) tasked the Interagency Grizzly Bear Study Team to provide information and further research relevant to three concerns arising from the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals November 2011 decision: 1) the ability of grizzly bears as omnivores to find alternative foods to whitebark pine seeds; 2) literature to support their conclusions; and 3) the non-intuitive biological reality that impacts can occur to individuals without causing the overall population to decline. Specifically, the IGBC and YES requested a comprehensive synthesis of the current state of knowledge regarding whitebark pinbe decline and individual and population-level responses of grizzly bears to changing food resources in the GYE. This research was particularly relevant to grizzly bear conservation given changes in the population trajectory observed during the last decade.

  16. Safety assessment of Cry1C protein from genetically modified rice according to the national standards of PR China for a new food resource.

    PubMed

    Cao, Sishuo; He, Xiaoyun; Xu, Wentao; Ran, Wenjun; Liang, Lixing; Luo, YunBo; Yuan, Yanfang; Zhang, Nan; Zhou, Xin; Huang, Kunlun

    2010-12-01

    The Cry1C protein produced in Escherichia coli was used for in vitro evaluation and animal studies to support the safety assessment of GM food or feed products containing the Cry1C protein. The Cry1C protein does not have any sequence homology with known allergens or toxins. Although the Cry1C protein was heat stable it was rapidly degraded in vitro with simulated gastric or intestinal fluids. It did not cause adverse effects in mice as administered by gavage at a high level dosage of 5 g (Cry1C protein)/kg body weight. The mutagenicity of this protein was evaluated according to the national standards of People's Republic of China (PR China) for a new food resource. In mutagenic tests, the Cry1C protein caused<4 micronucleated cells per 1000 cells, <16 sperm abnormalities per 1000 cells and was not associated with any increased mutations in the Ames test. Taken together, these data indicate that the Cry1C protein is not a potential allergen or toxin.

  17. Wastewater infrastructure for small cities in an urbanizing world: integrating protection of human health and the environment with resource recovery and food security.

    PubMed

    Verbyla, Matthew E; Oakley, Stewart M; Mihelcic, James R

    2013-04-16

    The majority of population growth in developing countries will occur in small cities closely linked to agricultural zones, with poor access to water and sanitation. Wastewater management priorities in these regions will be different from those in larger cities and developed countries. Two wastewater treatment systems in Bolivia, one with an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and polishing ponds, the other with three stabilization ponds, are assessed to determine their resource recovery potential. The UASB reactor produces biogas with 500-650 MJ per day. In six months, both systems discharge wastewater with the same mass of nutrients as fertilizers used to produce crops containing 10-75 days' worth of the recommended food energy intake for each person using the system. Both systems also discharge detectable levels of helminth eggs, Giardia cysts, and Cryptosporidium oocysts, but the UASB reactor system discharges higher concentrations, implying limited reuse potential. From a regional management standpoint, small cities should not expend resources to treat wastewater to levels suitable for discharge into surface waters. Rather, they should focus on removing pathogens to reclaim water and nutrients. Biogas recovery may be a priority that should be subservient to water and nutrient recovery in these settings.

  18. Eating Healthy Ethnic Food

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Tipsheet: Eating Healthy Ethnic Food Trying different ethnic cuisines to give yourself a ... Looking for tips on how to order healthy foods when dining out? The Aim for a Healthy ...

  19. Behavioral responses of juvenile golden gray mullet Liza aurata to changes in coastal temperatures and consequences for benthic food resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Como, S.; Lefrancois, C.; Maggi, E.; Antognarelli, F.; Dupuy, C.

    2014-09-01

    Temperature is an important factor for fish. Yet, little is known about temperature effects on the feeding behavior of fish and the subsequent consequences of these behavioral changes on the spatial distribution of resources. We analyzed the differences in the feeding behavior of two size classes of juvenile Liza aurata at two water temperatures (i.e. 10 °C and 20 °C), using laboratory mesocosms. We also examined whether potential temperature-induced changes in feeding behavior of the smaller size of L. aurata would affect the spatial distribution of the microphytobenthos (MPB) biomass, an important resource in coastal systems. Both the number of feeding events and the swimming velocity during feeding were higher at 20 °C than at 10 °C, independent of the fish size. The time spent feeding did not vary between 10 °C and 20 °C, while the distance covered during feeding was significantly smaller at 20 °C than at 10 °C. Grazing did not affect the mean MPB biomass, but did increase its spatial variance at the smaller scale (i.e. a few centimeters) at 20 °C. A high number of feeding events, a high swimming velocity during feeding and a small distance covered during feeding in 20 °C-acclimated L. aurata most likely represented an adaptation to an increase in metabolism, as well as to the need to reduce the energy costs of feeding at 20 °C. Results also indicated that changes in feeding behavior of the 20 °C-acclimated L. aurata were responsible for the increase in small-scale spatial variability in the MPB biomass but not an overall significant effect on the MPB mean. We suggested that the enhanced spatial patchiness due to grazing by fish at 20 °C might yield a local increase in the mean MPB biomass, probably increasing photosynthetic efficiency of cells and algal growth that counterbalance the negative effect of algal removal by fish.

  20. Estuarine Food for Thought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M�ller-Solger, A. B.; M�ller-Navarra, D. B.

    2002-12-01

    Recent research in animal and human nutrition has shown the importance of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) such as the n-3 LC-PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These LC-PUFA are needed for healthy development and functioning of the nervous and vascular systems. De novo synthesis or elongation to LC-PUFA in animals is inefficient at best; thus sufficient amounts of these PUFA must be supplied by food sources. Algae, especially diatoms, dinoflagellates, and cryptophytes, are the quantitatively most important producers of EPA and DHA. These types of algae often dominate estuarine producer communities. The upper San Francisco Estuary is no exception, and we found its LC-PUFA-rich phytoplankton biomass, but not the quantitatively prevalent terrestrial plant detritus, to be highly predictive of zooplankton (Daphnia) growth. In contrast, in freshwater lakes dominated by relatively LC-PUFA-poor phytoplankton, EPA, not total phytoplankton biomass, best predicted Daphnia growth. The commonly high abundance of LC-PUFA-rich algae in estuaries may help explain the high trophic efficiencies in these systems and resulting high consumer production. Moreover, LC-PUFA-rich estuarine food resources may also provide essential nutrition and associated health and evolutionary benefits to land-dwelling consumers of such foods, including humans. Ensuring LC-PUFA-rich, uncontaminated estuarine production is thus an important goal for estuarine restoration and a convincing argument for estuarine conservation.

  1. Ant Abundance along a Productivity Gradient: Addressing Two Conflicting Hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    Segev, Udi; Kigel, Jaime; Lubin, Yael; Tielbörger, Katja

    2015-01-01

    The number of individuals within a population or community and their body size can be associated with changes in resource supply. While these relationships may provide a key to better understand the role of abiotic vs. biotic constraints in animal communities, little is known about the way size and abundance of organisms change along resource gradients. Here, we studied this interplay in ants, addressing two hypotheses with opposite predictions regarding variation in population densities along resource gradients- the ‘productivity hypothesis’ and the ‘productivity-based thinning hypothesis’. The hypotheses were tested in two functional groups of ground-dwelling ants that are directly primary consumers feeding on seeds: specialized seed-eaters and generalist species. We examined variations in colony density and foraging activity (a size measurement of the forager caste) in six ant assemblages along a steep productivity gradient in a semi-arid region, where precipitation and plant biomass vary 6-fold over a distance of 250km. An increase in the density or foraging activity of ant colonies along productivity gradients is also likely to affect competitive interactions among colonies, and consequently clinal changes in competition intensity were also examined. Ant foraging activity increased with productivity for both functional groups. However, colony density revealed opposing patterns: it increased with productivity for the specialized seed-eaters, but decreased for the generalist species. Competition intensity, evaluated by spatial partitioning of species at food baits and distribution of colonies, was uncorrelated with productivity in the specialized seed-eaters, but decreased with increasing productivity in the generalists. Our results provide support for two contrasting hypotheses regarding the effect of resource availability on the abundance of colonial organisms- the ‘productivity hypothesis’ for specialized seed-eaters and the

  2. Food and Nutrition Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... FNS Regional Offices Partnerships and Outreach Civil Rights Food Safety (OFS) Human Resources (Careers) ... Policy Information Quality No Fear Act Nondiscrimination Statement USA.gov Whitehouse. ...

  3. How climate warming impacts the distribution and abundance of two small flatfish species in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hal, Ralf; Smits, Kalle; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.

    2010-07-01

    Climate change, specifically temperature, affects the distribution and densities of species in marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we looked at the effect of temperature during winter and spawning period on latitudinal range shifts and changes in abundance of two non-commercial North Sea fish species, solenette ( Buglossidium luteum) and scaldfish ( Arnoglossus laterna). Both species have increased in abundance and moved to the north since the late 1980s, coinciding with a series of mild winters. In 1996, following a very cold winter, the abundance of both species temporarily decreased as they retracted to the south. The shift in temperature affected adult habitat conditions, allowing them to immigrate into new areas where they subsequently reproduced successfully. We can conclude this because recruitment improved following the increase in abundance. The recruitment relates significantly to the higher adult stock and higher temperatures. The predictions of higher average temperatures and milder winters in the North Sea make it likely that these species will increase further in abundance and move northward. The observed increase in abundance of these small flatfish species will affect the North Sea food web and therefore commercial species, e.g. plaice, by predation on juveniles and competition for benthic food resources.

  4. Abundances in Przybylski's star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowley, C. R.; Ryabchikova, T.; Kupka, F.; Bord, D. J.; Mathys, G.; Bidelman, W. P.

    2000-09-01

    We have derived abundances for 54 elements in the extreme roAp star HD101065. ESO spectra with a resolution of about 80000, and S/N of 200 or more were employed. The adopted model has Teff=6600K, and log(g)=4.2. Because of the increased line opacity and consequent low gas pressure, convection plays no significant role in the temperature structure. Lighter elemental abundances through the iron group scatter about standard abundance distribution (SAD) (solar) values. Iron and nickel are about one order of magnitude deficient while cobalt is enhanced by 1.5dex. Heavier elements, including the lanthanides, generally follow the solar pattern but enhanced by 3 to 4dex. Odd-Z elements are generally less abundant than their even-Z neighbours. With a few exceptions (e.g. Yb), the abundance pattern among the heavy elements is remarkably coherent, and resembles a displaced solar distribution.

  5. Application of information theory methods to food web reconstruction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moniz, L.J.; Cooch, E.G.; Ellner, S.P.; Nichols, J.D.; Nichols, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we use information theory techniques on time series of abundances to determine the topology of a food web. At the outset, the food web participants (two consumers, two resources) are known; in addition we know that each consumer prefers one of the resources over the other. However, we do not know which consumer prefers which resource, and if this preference is absolute (i.e., whether or not the consumer will consume the non-preferred resource). Although the consumers and resources are identified at the beginning of the experiment, we also provide evidence that the consumers are not resources for each other, and the resources do not consume each other. We do show that there is significant mutual information between resources; the model is seasonally forced and some shared information between resources is expected. Similarly, because the model is seasonally forced, we expect shared information between consumers as they respond to the forcing of the resources. The model that we consider does include noise, and in an effort to demonstrate that these methods may be of some use in other than model data, we show the efficacy of our methods with decreasing time series size; in this particular case we obtain reasonably clear results with a time series length of 400 points. This approaches ecological time series lengths from real systems.

  6. Who Are We Feeding? Asymmetric Individual Use of Surplus Food Resources in an Insular Population of the Endangered Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus

    PubMed Central

    García-Heras, Marie-Sophie; Cortés-Avizanda, Ainara; Donázar, José-Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Supplementary feeding stations, or “vulture restaurants”, are common conservation management tools. While a number of studies have investigated the consequences of surplus food on the population dynamics of scavengers, relatively little is known about the effects of such practices at the individual level. Within the long-term monitored breeding population of Canarian Egyptian vultures (Neophron percnopterus majorensis) we investigated individual bird’s patterns of use of a supplementary feeding station at Fuerteventura (Canary Islands), over the course of breeding (2001, 2002; 2004-2011) and non-breeding seasons (2000-2010). Our results show that during the breeding season the individual use of the supplementary feeding station was inversely related to the distance to the breeding territory, which suggests the existence of central-place foraging constraints. In addition, larger birds of poor body-condition and individuals that ultimately failed to fledge young were detected more frequently at the feeding station. During the non-breeding season, and because most breeding birds abandoned the breeding territories, the overall abundance of Egyptian vultures at the feeding station grew. Moreover, the only variable increasing the probability of presence of individuals was poor body condition so that birds with lower wing residual visited the feeding station more frequently. Supplementary feeding may benefit individuals who would otherwise have been subject to selective pressures. From our results it follows that this conservation strategy must be used with caution because it can have consequences on an individual level and thus potentially affect the viability of endangered populations. PMID:24244695

  7. OXYGEN ABUNDANCES IN CEPHEIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Luck, R. E.; Andrievsky, S. M.; Korotin, S. N.; Kovtyukh, V. V. E-mail: serkor@skyline.od.ua E-mail: scan@deneb1.odessa.ua

    2013-07-01

    Oxygen abundances in later-type stars, and intermediate-mass stars in particular, are usually determined from the [O I] line at 630.0 nm, and to a lesser extent, from the O I triplet at 615.7 nm. The near-IR triplets at 777.4 nm and 844.6 nm are strong in these stars and generally do not suffer from severe blending with other species. However, these latter two triplets suffer from strong non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects and thus see limited use in abundance analyses. In this paper, we derive oxygen abundances in a large sample of Cepheids using the near-IR triplets from an NLTE analysis, and compare those abundances to values derived from a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of the [O I] 630.0 nm line and the O I 615.7 nm triplet as well as LTE abundances for the 777.4 nm triplet. All of these lines suffer from line strength problems making them sensitive to either measurement complications (weak lines) or to line saturation difficulties (strong lines). Upon this realization, the LTE results for the [O I] lines and the O I 615.7 nm triplet are in adequate agreement with the abundance from the NLTE analysis of the near-IR triplets.

  8. Use of habitat resources by scarab dung beetles in an savanna.

    PubMed

    Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria; Mazziotta, Adriano; Ieradi, Michele

    2010-12-01

    In the Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda, we compared the scarab beetle assemblages in the dung of three wild ungulates (African buffalo, a ruminant foregut fermenter; hippopotamus, nonruminant foregut fermenter; and warthog, nonruminant hindgut fermenter). Dung was collected from two sandy-clay soils with different percentage of coarse sand. We aimed at investigating habitat resource selection by dung beetle species within a savanna natural contest with abundant and diverse food availability. Analyses were performed to detect differences for dung beetle assemblages in abundance, diversity, functional groups. Species richness in the three dung types and in the two soil types was similar. However, warthog dung and sandy-rich soil appeared the preferred habitat resources, in terms of abundance and biomass, while hippopotamus dung hosted the lowest values for these parameters. The analysis of functional groups revealed that slow-burying tunnellers held the major role, both in terms of abundance and biomass, and were mainly found in warthog dung.

  9. Seasonal patterns in tree swallow prey (Diptera) abundance are affected by agricultural intensification.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Sébastien Rioux; Garant, Dany; Pelletier, Fanie; Bélisle, Marc

    2013-01-01

    In many parts of the world, farmland bird species are declining at faster rates than other birds. For aerial insectivores, this decline has been related to a parallel reduction in the abundance of their invertebrate prey in agricultural landscapes. While the effects of agricultural intensification (AI) on arthropod communities at the landscape level have been substantially studied in recent years, seasonal variation in these impacts has not been investigated. To assess the contention that intensive cultures negatively impact food resources for aerial insectivorous birds, we analyzed the spatiotemporal distribution patterns of Diptera, the main food resource for breeding tree swallows Tachycineta bicolor), across a gradient of AI in southeastern Quebec, Canada. Linear mixed models computed from a data set of 5000 samples comprising >150,000 dipterans collected over three years (2006-2008) suggest that both Diptera abundance and biomass varied greatly during swallow breeding season, following a quadratic curve. Globally, AI had a negative effect on Diptera abundance (but not biomass), but year-by-year analyses showed that in one of three years (2008), dipterans were more abundant in agro-intensive landscapes. Analyses also revealed a significant interaction between the moment in the season and AI: In early June, Diptera abundances were similar regardless of the landscape, but differences increased as the season progressed, with highly intensive landscapes harboring fewer prey, possibly creating an "ecological trap" for aerial insectivores. While global trends in our results are in agreement with expectations (negative impact of Al on insect abundance), strong discrepancies in 2008 highlight the difficulty of predicting the abundance of insect communities. Our study indicates that predicting the effects of AI may prove more challenging than generally assumed, even when large data sets are collected, and that temporal variation within a season is important to take into

  10. Spatial and temporal abundance patterns of oceanic chaetognaths in the western North Atlantic—I. Hydrographic and seasonal abundance patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheney, Jerry

    1985-09-01

    Chaetognath abundance was measured from 38 MOCNESS tows collected in the western North Atlantic from August 1975 to November 1977. Twenty-one species were identified from 18 slope water (SW), 18 northern Sargasso Sea (NSS) and two Gulf Stream (GS) tows. Sagitta elegans, S. hispida and S. megalophthalma were collected in only one or two tows. Eukrohnia bathypelagica, E. fowleri, E. hamata, Sagitta helenae, S. macrocephala, S. maxima and S. tasmanica are significantly more abundant in the SW than in the NSS. Krohnitta subtilis, Pterosagitta draco, Sagitta bipunctata, S. decipiens, S. hexaptera, S. lyra, S. minima, S. planctonis and S. serratodentata are significantly more abundant in the NSS. Krohnitta pacifica and Sagitta enflata show no significant abundance differences between the SW and NSS. Most species show at least an order of magnitude abundance difference between the SW and NSS, with intermediate GS abundances. A simple mixing model and previous reports of chaetognath distributions in the North Atlantic indicate that most species have expatriate populations in either the SW or NSS or in both regions. Increased temperature and food abundance probably limit SW species from the NSS, while decreased temperature and increased predator abundance probably limit NSS species from the SW. Spring abundance peaks were observed for many species in the NSS, but no seasonal peaks were detected for species in the SW. The spring abundance peaks in the NSS are probably due to increased food abundance, although temperature could not be ruled out as an important factor.

  11. Food insecurity is associated with morbidity and patterns of healthcare utilization among HIV-infected individuals in a resource-poor setting

    PubMed Central

    Weiser, Sheri D.; Tsai, Alexander C.; Gupta, Reshma; Frongillo, Edward A.; Kawuma, Annet; Senkungu, Jude; Hunt, Peter W.; Emenyonu, Nneka I.; Mattson, Jennifer E.; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Bangsberg, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We undertook a longitudinal study in rural Uganda to understand the association of food insecurity with morbidity and patterns of healthcare utilization among HIV-infected individuals enrolled in an antiretroviral therapy program. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Methods Participants were enrolled from the Uganda AIDS Rural Treatment Outcomes cohort, and underwent quarterly structured interviews and blood draws. The primary predictor was food insecurity measured by the validated Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. Primary outcomes included health-related quality of life measured by the validated Medical Outcomes Study-HIV Physical Health Summary (PHS), incident self-reported opportunistic infections, number of hospitalizations, and missed clinic visits. To estimate model parameters, we used the method of generalized estimating equations, adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical variables. Explanatory variables were lagged by 3 months to strengthen causal interpretations. Results Beginning in May 2007, 458 persons were followed for a median of 2.07 years, and 40% were severely food insecure at baseline. Severe food insecurity was associated with worse PHS, opportunistic infections, and increased hospitalizations (results were similar in concurrent and lagged models). Mild/moderate food insecurity was associated with missed clinic visits in concurrent models, whereas in lagged models, severe food insecurity was associated with reduced odds of missed clinic visits. Conclusion Based on the negative impact of food insecurity on morbidity and patterns of healthcare utilization among HIV-infected individuals, policies and programs that address food insecurity should be a critical component of HIV treatment programs worldwide. PMID:21904186

  12. Bringing abundance into environmental politics: Constructing a Zionist network of water abundance, immigration, and colonization.

    PubMed

    Alatout, Samer

    2009-06-01

    For more than five decades, resource scarcity has been the lead story in debates over environmental politics. More importantly, and whenever environmental politics implies conflict, resource scarcity is constructed as the culprit. Abundance of resources, if at all visited in the literature, holds less importance. Resource abundance is seen, at best, as the other side of scarcity--maybe the successful conclusion of multiple interventions that may turn scarcity into abundance. This paper reinstates abundance as a politico-environmental category in its own right. Rather than relegating abundance to a second-order environmental actor that matters only on occasion, this paper foregrounds it as a crucial element in modern environmental politics. On the substantive level, and using insights from science and technology studies, especially a slightly modified actor-network framework, I describe the emergence and consolidation of a Zionist network of abundance, immigration, and colonization in Palestine between 1918 and 1948. The essential argument here is that water abundance was constructed as fact, and became a political rallying point around which a techno-political network emerged that included a great number of elements. To name just a few, the following were enrolled in the service of such a network: geologists, geophysicists, Zionist settlement experts, Zionist organizations, political and technical categories of all sorts, Palestinians as the negated others, Palestinian revolts in search of political rights, the British Mandate authorities, the hydrological system of Palestine, and the absorptive capacity of Palestine, among others. The point was to successfully articulate these disparate elements into a network that seeks opening Palestine for Jewish immigration, redefining Palestinian geography and history through Judeo-Christian Biblical narratives, and, in the process, de-legitimizing political Palestinian presence in historic Palestine.

  13. Food and feed enzymes.

    PubMed

    Fraatz, Marco Alexander; Rühl, Martin; Zorn, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Humans have benefited from the unique catalytic properties of enzymes, in particular for food production, for thousands of years. Prominent examples include the production of fermented alcoholic beverages, such as beer and wine, as well as bakery and dairy products. The chapter reviews the historic background of the development of modern enzyme technology and provides an overview of the industrial food and feed enzymes currently available on the world market. The chapter highlights enzyme applications for the improvement of resource efficiency, the biopreservation of food, and the treatment of food intolerances. Further topics address the improvement of food safety and food quality.

  14. Future food.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2016-12-01

    Food systems have changed markedly with human settlement and agriculture, industrialisation, trade, migration and now the digital age. Throughout these transitions, there has been a progressive population explosion and net ecosystem loss and degradation. Climate change now gathers pace, exacerbated by ecological dysfunction. Our health status has been challenged by a developing people-environment mismatch. We have regarded ecological conquest and innovative technology as solutions, but have not understood how ecologically dependent and integrated we are. We are ecological creatures interfaced by our sensoriness, microbiomes, shared regulatory (endocrine) mechanisms, immune system, biorhythms and nutritional pathways. Many of us are 'nature-deprived'. We now suffer what might be termed ecological health disorders (EHD). If there were less of us, nature's resilience might cope, but more than 9 billion people by 2050 is probably an intolerable demand on the planet. Future food must increasingly take into account the pressures on ecosystem-dependent food systems, with foods probably less biodiverse, although eating in this way allows optimal health; energy dysequilibrium with less physical activity and foods inappropriately energy dense; and less socially-conducive food habits. 'Personalised Nutrition', with extensive and resource-demanding nutrigenomic, metabolomic and microbiomic data may provide partial health solutions in clinical settings, but not be justified for ethical, risk management or sustainability reasons in public health. The globally prevalent multidimensional malnutritional problems of food insecurity, quality and equity require local, regional and global action to prevent further ecosystem degradation as well as to educate, provide sustainable livelihoods and encourage respectful social discourse and practice about the role of food.

  15. Ammonia abundances in comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyckoff, S.; Tegler, S.; Engel, L.

    The emission band strengths of the NH2 bands of Comets Halley, Hartley-Good, Thiele, and Borrelly were measured to determine the NH2 column densities for the comets. Production rates obtained using the Haser and vectorial models are in agreement within the observational errors, suggesting that a simple two-step decay model may be used to approximate the NH2 distribution in a comet's coma. Ammonia-to-water abundance ratios from 0.01 to 0.4 percent were found for the four comets. The ratio in Comet Halley is found to be Q(NH3)/Q(H2O) = 0.002 + or - 0.001. No significant difference in the ammonia abundance was found before or after perihelion in Comet Halley.

  16. Genetic resources of the functional food, teramnus labialis (L.f.) spreng for improving seed number, flavonol content, oil %, and fatty acid compositions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Teramnus labialis is used as food in India and has potential to be used as a functional food vegetable in the U.S.A. Photoperiod-sensitive T. labialis accessions were grown in the greenhouse from 2010 to 2011 and evaluated for flavonol content, oil %, and fatty acid compositions. Significant variati...

  17. Large-Scale Release of Campylobacter Draft Genomes: Resources for Food Safety and Public Health from the 100K Pathogen Genome Project

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bihua C.; Storey, Dylan B.; Kong, Nguyet; Chen, Poyin; Arabyan, Narine; Gilpin, Brent; Mason, Carl; Townsend, Andrea K.; Smith, Woutrina A.; Byrne, Barbara A.; Taff, Conor C.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Campylobacter is a food-associated bacterium and a leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide, being associated with poultry in the food supply. This is the initial public release of 202 Campylobacter genome sequences as part of the 100K Pathogen Genome Project. These isolates represent global genomic diversity in the Campylobacter genus. PMID:28057746

  18. Dietary Diversity and Vegetable and Fruit Consumption of Households in a Resource-Poor Peri-Urban South Africa Community Differ by Food Security Status.

    PubMed

    Faber, Mieke; Wenhold, Friede A M; Laurie, Sunette M

    2017-01-01

    Sociodemographic, living standard measure, consumption of vegetables and fruit, and dietary diversity in relation to household food security were assessed. Using a hunger score, households were categorized as food secure (n = 125) or food insecure (n = 273). Food secure respondents had a higher mean dietary diversity score (3.98; 95%CI [3.79, 4.18] versus 3.65; 95% [CI 3.53, 3.77]), were more likely to eat vitamin A-rich foods (OR 1.15; 95% CI [1.05, 1.26]), a more varied diet (DDS ≥ 4, OR 1.90; 95% CI [1.19, 3.13]), and vegetables daily (OR 3.37; 95% CI [2.00, 5.76]). Cost limited daily vegetable/fruit consumption in food insecure households. Respondents with ≥ 8 years of schooling were more likely (OR 2.07; 95% CI [1.22, 3.53]) and households receiving social grants were less likely (OR 0.37; 95% CI [0.19, 0.72]) to be food secure. Results highlight the association between dietary diversity and household food security.

  19. Food metabolomics: from farm to human.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sooah; Kim, Jungyeon; Yun, Eun Ju; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2016-02-01

    Metabolomics, one of the latest components in the suite of systems biology, has been used to understand the metabolism and physiology of living systems, including microorganisms, plants, animals and humans. Food metabolomics can be defined as the application of metabolomics in food systems, including food resources, food processing and diet for humans. The study of food metabolomics has increased gradually in the recent years, because food systems are directly related to nutrition and human health. This review describes the recent trends and applications of metabolomics to food systems, from farm to human, including food resource production, industrial food processing and food intake by humans.

  20. Food and Nutrition Information Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... Farms and Farming Systems Food and Human Nutrition Marketing and Trade Natural Resources and Environment Plants and ... Food Purchasing, and Cooking Nutrition Education Nutrition Research Marketing and Trade Agricultural Subsidies Distribution, Imports, and Exports ...

  1. 7 CFR 210.14 - Resource management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Resource management. 210.14 Section 210.14 Agriculture... Participation § 210.14 Resource management. (a) Nonprofit school food service. School food authorities shall....C. 3001 et seq.). (b) Net cash resources. The school food authority shall limit its net...

  2. 7 CFR 210.14 - Resource management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Resource management. 210.14 Section 210.14 Agriculture... Participation § 210.14 Resource management. (a) Nonprofit school food service. School food authorities shall....C. 3001 et seq.). (b) Net cash resources. The school food authority shall limit its net...

  3. 7 CFR 210.14 - Resource management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Resource management. 210.14 Section 210.14 Agriculture... Participation § 210.14 Resource management. (a) Nonprofit school food service. School food authorities shall....C. 3001 et seq.). (b) Net cash resources. The school food authority shall limit its net...

  4. 7 CFR 210.14 - Resource management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Resource management. 210.14 Section 210.14 Agriculture... Participation § 210.14 Resource management. (a) Nonprofit school food service. School food authorities shall....C. 3001 et seq.). (b) Net cash resources. The school food authority shall limit its net...

  5. Penguin tissue as a proxy for relative krill abundance in East Antarctica during the Holocene.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Sun, Liguang; Long, Nanye; Wang, Yuhong; Huang, Wen

    2013-09-30

    Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is a key component of the Southern Ocean food web. It supports a large number of upper trophic-level predators, and is also a major fishery resource. Understanding changes in krill abundance has long been a priority for research and conservation in the Southern Ocean. In this study, we performed stable isotope analyses on ancient Adélie penguin tissues and inferred relative krill abundance during the Holocene epoch from paleodiets of Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae), using inverse of δ¹⁵N (ratio of ¹⁵N/¹⁴N) value as a proxy. We find that variations in krill abundance during the Holocene are in accord with episodes of regional climate changes, showing greater krill abundance in cold periods. Moreover, the low δ¹⁵N values found in modern Adélie penguins indicate relatively high krill availability, which supports the hypothesis of krill surplus in modern ages due to recent hunt for krill-eating seals and whales by humans.

  6. Resource distribution influences positive edge effects in a seagrass fish.

    PubMed

    Macreadie, Peter I; Hindell, Jeremy S; Keough, Michael J; Jenkins, Gregory P; Connolly, Rod M

    2010-07-01

    According to conceptual models, the distribution of resources plays a critical role in determining how organisms distribute themselves near habitat edges. These models are frequently used to achieve a mechanistic understanding of edge effects, but because they are based predominantly on correlative studies, there is need for a demonstration of causality, which is best done through experimentation. Using artificial seagrass habitat as an experimental system, we determined a likely mechanism underpinning edge effects in a seagrass fish. To test for edge effects, we measured fish abundance at edges (0-0.5 m) and interiors (0.5-1 m) of two patch configurations: continuous (single, continuous 9-m2 patches) and patchy (four discrete 1-m2 patches within a 9-m2 area). In continuous configurations, pipefish (Stigmatopora argus) were three times more abundant at edges than interiors (positive edge effect), but in patchy configurations there was no difference. The lack of edge effect in patchy configurations might be because patchy seagrass consisted entirely of edge habitat. We then used two approaches to test whether observed edge effects in continuous configurations were caused by increased availability of food at edges. First, we estimated the abundance of the major prey of pipefish, small crustaceans, across continuous seagrass configurations. Crustacean abundances were highest at seagrass edges, where they were 16% greater than in patch interiors. Second, we supplemented interiors of continuous treatment patches with live crustaceans, while control patches were supplemented with seawater. After five hours of supplementation, numbers of pipefish were similar between edges and interiors of treatment patches, while the strong edge effects were maintained in controls. This indicated that fish were moving from patch edges to interiors in response to food supplementation. These approaches strongly suggest that a numerically dominant fish species is more abundant at seagrass

  7. Imperfect prey selectivity of predators promotes biodiversity and irregularity in food webs.

    PubMed

    Ryabov, Alexey B; Morozov, Andrew; Blasius, Bernd

    2015-09-22

    Ecological communities are often characterised by many species occupying the same trophic level and competing over a small number of vital resources. The mechanisms maintaining high biodiversity in such systems are still poorly understood. Here, we revisit the role of prey selectivity by generalist predators in promoting biodiversity. We consider a generic tri-trophic food web, consisting of a single limiting resource, a large number of primary producers and a generalist predator. We suggest a framework to describe the predator functional response, combining food selectivity for distinctly different functional prey groups with proportion-based consumption of similar prey species. Our simulations reveal that intermediate levels of prey selectivity can explain a high species richness, functional biodiversity, and variability among prey species. In contrast, perfect food selectivity or purely proportion-based food consumption leads to a collapse of prey functional biodiversity. Our results are in agreement with empirical phytoplankton rank-abundance curves in lakes.

  8. Will Abundant Natural Gas Solve Climate Change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McJeon, H. C.; Edmonds, J.; Bauer, N.; Leon, C.; Fisher, B.; Flannery, B.; Hilaire, J.; Krey, V.; Marangoni, G.; Mi, R.; Riahi, K.; Rogner, H.; Tavoni, M.

    2015-12-01

    The rapid deployment of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling technologies enabled the production of previously uneconomic shale gas resources in North America. Global deployment of these advanced gas production technologies could bring large influx of economically competitive unconventional gas resources to the energy system. It has been hoped that abundant natural gas substituting for coal could reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, which in turn could reduce climate forcing. Other researchers countered that the non-CO2 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with shale gas production make its lifecycle emissions higher than those of coal. In this study, we employ five state-of-the-art integrated assessment models (IAMs) of energy-economy-climate systems to assess the full impact of abundant gas on climate change. The models show large additional natural gas consumption up to +170% by 2050. The impact on CO2 emissions, however, is found to be much smaller (from -2% to +11%), and a majority of the models reported a small increase in climate forcing (from -0.3% to +7%) associated with the increased use of abundant gas. Our results show that while globally abundant gas may substantially change the future energy market equilibrium, it will not significantly mitigate climate change on its own in the absence of climate policies.

  9. The natural abundance of 15N in plant and soil-available N indicates a shift of main plant N resources to NO3(-) from NH4(+) along the N leaching gradient.

    PubMed

    Takebayashi, Yu; Koba, Keisuke; Sasaki, Yuji; Fang, Yunting; Yoh, Muneoki

    2010-04-15

    To investigate which of ammonium (NH(4)(+)) or nitrate (NO(3)(-)) is used by plants at gradient sites with different nitrogen (N) availability, we measured the natural abundance of (15)N in foliage and soil extractable N. Hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa Endlicher) planted broadly in Japan was selected for use in this study. We estimated the source proportion of foliar N (NH(4)(+) vs. NO(3)(-)) quantitatively using mass balance equations. The results showed that C. obtusa used mainly NH(4)(+) in N-limited forests, although the dependence of C. obtusa on NO(3)(-) was greater in other NO(3)(-)-rich forests. We regarded dissolved organic N (DON) as a potential N source because a previous study demonstrated that C. obtusa can take up glycine. Thus we added DON to our mass balance equations and calculated the source proportion using an isotope-mixing model (IsoSource model). The results still showed a positive correlation between the calculated plant N proportion of NO(3)(-) and the NO(3)(-) pool size in the soil, indicating that high NO(3)(-) availability increases the reliance of C. obtusa on NO(3)(-). Our data suggest the shift of the N source for C. obtusa from NH(4)(+) to NO(3)(-) according to the relative availability of NO(3)(-). They also show the potential of the foliar delta(15)N of C. obtusa as an indicator of the N status in forest ecosystems with the help of the delta(15)N values of soil inorganic and organic N.

  10. Response of Red-Tailed Hawks and Golden Eagles to Topographical Features, Weather, and Abundance of a Dominant Prey Species at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California: April 1999-December 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, S.

    2002-06-01

    Studies have shown that raptors flying within the Altamont Pass WRA are vulnerable to fatal turbine collisions, possibly because of their specific foraging and flight behavior. Between June 1999 and June 2000, I conducted 346.5 hours of raptor observations within the Atlamont Pass WRA. Behavior was recorded in relation to characteristics of the topography (slope aspect, elevation, and inclination), the weather, and ground squirrel abundance, as determined by active burrow entrances. The most significant finding of this study revealed that red-tailed hawks and golden eagles flew more in strong winds than in weak winds, particularly along hillsides facing into prevailing winds (as opposed to hillsides shielded from the wind). This is likely a result of the birds' use of declivity currents for lift during flights. These results suggest that certain combinations of topography and weather produce wind currents that are sought out by foraging red-tailed hawks and golden eagles within the Altamont Pass WRA. To decrease raptor mortality, mitigation measures can be targeted to specific areas likely to attract foraging raptors because of their capacity to create particularly favorable wind currents.

  11. Food Allergy Research and Education (FARE)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allergies Getting Started Newly Diagnosed Emergency Care Plan Food Labels Mislabeled Products Tips for Managing Food Allergies Resources ... Emergency Care Plan Emotional & Social Issues Facts & Statistics Food Labels Laws & Regulations Research Support Groups Treatment & Managing Reactions ...

  12. Food Allergy Research and Education (FARE)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to cookbooks and food allergy awareness materials, FARE's online store has a variety of resources to help you live well with food allergies. Start Shopping True Stories Beth F. Food Allergy Mom Christina ...

  13. Flare Plasma Iron Abundance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Dan, Chau; Jain, Rajmal; Schwartz, Richard A.; Tolbert, Anne K.

    2008-01-01

    The equivalent width of the iron-line complex at 6.7 keV seen in flare X-ray spectra suggests that the iron abundance of the hottest plasma at temperatures >approx.10 MK may sometimes be significantly lower than the nominal coronal abundance of four times the photospheric value that is commonly assumed. This conclusion is based on X-ray spectral observations of several flares seen in common with the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) and the Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) on the second Indian geostationary satellite, GSAT-2. The implications of this will be discussed as it relates to the origin of the hot flare plasma - either plasma already in the corona that is directly heated during the flare energy release process or chromospheric plasma that is heated by flare-accelerated particles and driven up into the corona. Other possible explanations of lower-than-expected equivalent widths of the iron-line complex will also be discussed.

  14. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home ▸ Conditions & Treatments ▸ Allergies ▸ Food Allergy Share | Food Allergy Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment & Management Food Allergy Overview If you have a food allergy, your ...

  15. Space resources. Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Mary Fae (Editor); Mckay, David S. (Editor); Duke, Michael B. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Space resources must be used to support life on the Moon and in the exploration of Mars. Just as the pioneers applied the tools they brought with them to resources they found along the way rather than trying to haul all their needs over a long supply line, so too must space travelers apply their high technology tools to local resources. This overview describes the findings of a study on the use of space resources in the development of future space activities and defines the necessary research and development that must precede the practical utilization of these resources. Space resources considered included lunar soil, oxygen derived from lunar soil, material retrieved from near-Earth asteroids, abundant sunlight, low gravity, and high vacuum. The study participants analyzed the direct use of these resources, the potential demand for products from them, the techniques for retrieving and processing space resources, the necessary infrastructure, and the economic tradeoffs.

  16. Food and Nutrition Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... Demos/Grant Projects FNS Strategic Plan Other Resources Food & Nutrition Information Center National Agriculture Library National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research Nutrition.gov Peer Review Plans and Guidelines ...

  17. How do frugivores track resources? Insights from spatial analyses of bird foraging in a tropical forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saracco, J.F.; Collazo, J.A.; Groom, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Frugivores often track ripe fruit abundance closely across local areas despite the ephemeral and typically patchy distributions of this resource. We use spatial auto- and cross-correlation analyses to quantify spatial patterns of fruit abundance and avian frugivory across a 4-month period within a forested 4.05-ha study grid in Puerto Rico. Analyses focused on two tanager species, Spindalis portoricensis and Nesospingus speculiferus, and their principal food plants. Three broad questions are addressed: (1) at what spatial scales is fruit abundance and frugivory patchy; (2) at what spatial scales do frugivores respond to fruit abundance; and (3) to what extent do spatial patterns of frugivory overlap between bird species? Fruit patch size, species composition, and heterogeneity was variable among months, despite fruit patch locations remaining relatively consistent between months. Positive correlations between frugivory and fruit abundance suggested tanagers successfully tracked fruit abundance. Frugivory was, however, more localized than fruit abundance. Scales of spatial overlap in frugivory and monthly variation in the foraging locations of the two tanager species suggested that interspecific facilitation may have been important in determining bird foraging locations. In particular, S. portoricensis, a specialist frugivore, may have relied on the loud calls of the gregarious generalist, N. speculiferus, to find new foraging areas. Such a mechanism could help explain the formation of mixed species feeding flocks and highlights the potential importance of facilitation between species that share resources. ?? Springer-Verlag 2004.

  18. Oxygen abundance and convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van't Veer, C.; Cayrel, R.

    The triplet IR lines of O I near 777 nm are computed with the Kurucz's code, modified to accept several convection models. The program has been run with the MLT algorithm, with l/H = 1.25 and 0.5, and with the Canuto-Mazzitelli and Canuto-Goldman-Mazzitelli approaches, on a metal-poor turnoff-star model atmosphere with Teff=6200 K, log g = 4.3, [Fe/H]= -1.5. The results show that the differences in equivalent widths for the 4 cases do not exceed 2 per cent (0.3 mA). The convection treatment is therefore not an issue for the oxygen abundance derived from the permitted lines.

  19. Consequences of Food Restriction for Immune Defense, Parasite Infection, and Fitness in Monarch Butterflies.

    PubMed

    McKay, Alexa Fritzsche; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Altizer, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Organisms have a finite pool of resources to allocate toward multiple competing needs, such as development, reproduction, and enemy defense. Abundant resources can support investment in multiple traits simultaneously, but limited resources might promote trade-offs between fitness-related traits and immune defenses. We asked how food restriction at both larval and adult life stages of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) affected measures of immunity, fitness, and immune-fitness interactions. We experimentally infected a subset of monarchs with a specialist protozoan parasite to determine whether parasitism further affected these relationships and whether food restriction influenced the outcome of infection. Larval food restriction reduced monarch fitness measures both within the same life stage (e.g., pupal mass) as well as later in life (e.g., adult lifespan); adult food restriction further reduced adult lifespan. Larval food restriction lowered both hemocyte concentration and phenoloxidase activity at the larval stage, and the effects of larval food restriction on phenoloxidase activity persisted when immunity was sampled at the adult stage. Adult food restriction reduced only adult phenoloxidase activity but not hemocyte concentration. Parasite spore load decreased with one measure of larval immunity, but food restriction did not increase the probability of parasite infection. Across monarchs, we found a negative relationship between larval hemocyte concentration and pupal mass, and a trade-off between adult hemocyte concentration and adult life span was evident in parasitized female monarchs. Adult life span increased with phenoloxidase activity in some subsets of monarchs. Our results emphasize that food restriction can alter fitness and immunity across multiple life stages. Understanding the consequences of resource limitation for immune defense is therefore important for predicting how increasing constraints on wildlife resources will affect fitness and

  20. Climate warming increases biodiversity of small rodents by favoring rare or less abundant species in a grassland ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guangshun; Liu, Jun; Xu, Lei; Yu, Guirui; He, Honglin; Zhang, Zhibin

    2013-06-01

    Our Earth is facing the challenge of accelerating climate change, which imposes a great threat to biodiversity. Many published studies suggest that climate warming may cause a dramatic decline in biodiversity, especially in colder and drier regions. In this study, we investigated the effects of temperature, precipitation and a normalized difference vegetation index on biodiversity indices of rodent communities in the current or previous year for both detrended and nondetrended data in semi-arid grassland of Inner Mongolia during 1982-2006. Our results demonstrate that temperature showed predominantly positive effects on the biodiversity of small rodents; precipitation showed both positive and negative effects; a normalized difference vegetation index showed positive effects; and cross-correlation function values between rodent abundance and temperature were negatively correlated with rodent abundance. Our results suggest that recent climate warming increased the biodiversity of small rodents by providing more benefits to population growth of rare or less abundant species than that of more abundant species in Inner Mongolia grassland, which does not support the popular view that global warming would decrease biodiversity in colder and drier regions. We hypothesized that higher temperatures might benefit rare or less abundant species (with smaller populations and more folivorous diets) by reducing the probability of local extinction and/or by increasing herbaceous food resources.

  1. Food Safety and Nutrition Information for Kids and Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Products Food Home Food Resources for You Consumers Kids & Teens Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... it Email Print Food Safety & Nutrition Information for Kids and Teens Fun & Games Food Safety Word Match ...

  2. Linking ecosystems, food webs, and fish production: subsidies in salmonid watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wipfli, Mark S.; Baxter, Colden V.

    2010-01-01

    Physical characteristics of riverine habitats, such as large wood abundance, pool geometry and abundance, riparian vegetation cover, and surface flow conditions, have traditionally been thought to constrain fish production in these ecosystems. Conversely, the role of food resources (quantity and quality) in controlling fish production has received far less attention and consideration, though they can also be key productivity drivers. Traditional freshwater food web illustrations have typically conveyed the notion that most fish food is produced within the local aquatic habitat itself, but the concepts and model we synthesize in this article show that most fish food comes from external or very distant sources—including subsidies from marine systems borne from adult returns of anadromous fishes, from fishless headwater tributaries that transport prey to downstream fish, and from adjacent streamside vegetation and associated habitats. The model we propose further illustrates how key trophic pathways and food sources vary through time and space throughout watersheds. Insights into how food supplies affect fishes can help guide how we view riverine ecosystems, their structure and function, their interactions with marine and terrestrial systems, and how we manage natural resources, including fish, riparian habitats, and forests.

  3. Food limitation leads to behavioral diversification and dietary specialization in sea otters.

    PubMed

    Tinker, M Tim; Bentall, Gena; Estes, James A

    2008-01-15

    Dietary diversity often varies inversely with prey resource abundance. This pattern, although typically measured at the population level, is usually assumed to also characterize the behavior of individual animals within the population. However, the pattern might also be produced by changes in the degree of variation among individuals. Here we report on dietary and associated behavioral changes that occurred with the experimental translocation of sea otters from a food-poor to a food-rich environment. Although the diets of all individuals were broadly similar in the food-rich environment, a behaviorally based dietary polymorphism existed in the food-poor environment. Higher dietary diversity under low resource abundance was largely driven by greater variation among individuals. We further show that the dietary polymorphism in the food-poor environment included a broad suite of correlated behavioral variables and that the individuals that comprised specific behavioral clusters benefited from improved foraging efficiency on their individually preferred prey. Our findings add to the growing list of examples of extreme individuality in behavior and prey choice within populations and suggest that this phenomenon can emerge as a behavioral manifestation of increased population density. Individuality in foraging behavior adds complexity to both the fitness consequences of prey selection and food web dynamics, and it may figure prominently as a diversifying process over evolutionary timescales.

  4. Food limitation leads to behavioral diversification and dietary specialization in sea otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tinker, M.T.; Bentall, G.; Estes, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Dietary diversity often varies inversely with prey resource abundance. This pattern, although typically measured at the population level, is usually assumed to also characterize the behavior of individual animals within the population. However, the pattern might also be produced by changes in the degree of variation among individuals. Here we report on dietary and associated behavioral changes that occurred with the experimental translocation of sea otters from a food-poor to a food-rich environment. Although the diets of all individuals were broadly similar in the food-rich environment, a behaviorally based dietary polymorphism existed in the food-poor environment. Higher dietary diversity under low resource abundance was largely driven by greater variation among individuals. We further show that the dietary polymorphism in the food-poor environment included a broad suite of correlated behavioral variables and that the individuals that comprised specific behavioral clusters benefited from improved foraging efficiency on their individually preferred prey. Our findings add to the growing list of examples of extreme individuality in behavior and prey choice within populations and suggest that this phenomenon can emerge as a behavioral manifestation of increased population density. Individuality in foraging behavior adds complexity to both the fitness consequences of prey selection and food web dynamics, and it may figure prominently as a diversifying process over evolutionary timescales. ?? 2008 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  5. Pulsed resources at tundra breeding sites affect winter irruptions at temperate latitudes of a top predator, the snowy owl.

    PubMed

    Robillard, A; Therrien, J F; Gauthier, G; Clark, K M; Bêty, J

    2016-06-01

    Irruptive migration is mostly observed in species specialized on pulsed resources and is thought to be a response to unpredictable changes in food supply. We assessed two alternative hypotheses to explain the periodic winter irruptions of snowy owls Bubo scandiacus every 3-5 years in temperate North America: (a) the lack-of-food hypothesis, which states that a crash in small mammal abundance on the Arctic breeding grounds forces owls to move out of the tundra massively to search for food in winter; (b) the breeding-success hypothesis, which states that high abundance of tundra small mammals during the summer allows for high production of young, thus increasing the pool of migrants moving south the following winter. We modeled winter irruptions of snowy owls in relation to summer food resources and geographic location. Winter abundance of owls was obtained from citizen-based surveys from 1994 to 2011 and summer abundance of small mammals was collected in summer at two distant sites in Canada: Bylot Island, NU (eastern High Arctic) and Daring Lake, NWT (central Low Arctic). Winter owl abundance was positively related to prey abundance during the previous summer at both sites and tended to decrease from western to eastern temperate North America. Irruptive migration of snowy owls was therefore best explained by the breeding success hypothesis and was apparently caused by large-scale summer variations in food. Our results, combined with previous findings, suggest that the main determinants of irruptive migration may be species specific even in a guild of apparently similar species.

  6. Food web structure in a harsh glacier-fed river.

    PubMed

    Clitherow, Leonie R; Carrivick, Jonathan L; Brown, Lee E

    2013-01-01

    Glacier retreat is occurring across the world, and associated river ecosystems are expected to respond more rapidly than those in flowing waters in other regions. The river environment directly downstream of a glacier snout is characterised by extreme low water temperature and unstable channel sediments but these habitats may become rarer with widespread glacier retreat. In these extreme environments food web dynamics have been little studied, yet they could offer opportunities to test food web theories using highly resolved food webs owing to their low taxonomic richness. This study examined the interactions of macroinvertebrate and diatom taxa in the Ödenwinkelkees river, Austrian central Alps between 2006 and 2011. The webs were characterised by low taxon richness (13-22), highly connected individuals (directed connectance up to 0.19) and short mean food chain length (2.00-2.36). The dominant macroinvertebrates were members of the Chironomidae genus Diamesa and had an omnivorous diet rich in detritus and diatoms as well as other Chironomidae. Simuliidae (typically detritivorous filterers) had a diet rich in diatoms but also showed evidence of predation on Chironomidae larvae. Food webs showed strong species-averaged and individual size structuring but mass-abundance scaling coefficients were larger than those predicted by metabolic theory, perhaps due to a combination of spatial averaging effects of patchily distributed consumers and resources, and/or consumers deriving unquantified resources from microorganisms attached to the large amounts of ingested rock fragments. Comparison of food web structural metrics with those from 62 published river webs suggest these glacier-fed river food web properties were extreme but in line with general food web scaling predictions, a finding which could prove useful to forecast the effects of anticipated future glacier retreat on the structure of aquatic food webs.

  7. Need to Foster Optimal Use of Resources in the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Report to the Secretary of Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    The Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) for fiscal year 1984 provided services to 3 million persons who met income criteria and were judged to be at nutritional risk. Because WIC has to operate within congressional funding levels--$1.36 billion in 1984--only about 1/3 of those eligible can be served. In this…

  8. Capella: Structure and Abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickhouse, Nancy S.

    1999-01-01

    This grant covers the analysis of EUVE spectra of the cool star binary system Capella. This project has also required the analysis of simultaneous Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) data. The ASCA spectrum of Capella could not be fit with standard models; by imposing models based on strong lines observed with EUVE, a problem wavelength region was identified. Correcting the problem required calculations of atomic collision strengths of higher principal quantum number than had ever been calculated. With these new models applied to the ASCA spectrum, better fits were obtained. Findings are that: (1) ASCA and EUVE spectra are both dominated by a region at 6 x 10(exp 6) K. (2) The high energy cut-off of the ASCA spectrum is consistent with emission from the highest ionization stages of EUVE, namely Fe XXIV. (3) EUVE requires a continuous emission measure distribution with more than two temperatures. (4) The ASCA spectra are of such high statistical significance that systematic uncertainties dominate, including atomic physics issues and calibration issues. (5) While the ASCA spectral fits achieve lower Chi(exp 2 with two-temperature fits, the EUVE-derived emission measure distribution models are also consistent with the spectra. (6) The Fe/H ratio obtained from the ASCA fit is within 20 % of the Fe/H abundance obtained from the summed spectra of Capella over 5 EUVE pointings, as well as the 1996 EUVE data. This result confirms our claims that quasi-continua composed of weak emission lines in the short wavelength spectrometer of EUVE are not major contributors to the measured Capella continuum. Other abundance ratios are also determined from the ASCA data, using models derived with EUVE. Si, Si, and Mg appear to be close to solar photospheric values, while the ratio of Ne/Fe is three to four times lower than solar photospheric values. Whether there is a general First Ionization Potential (FIP) effect or a specific neon anomaly cannot be determined

  9. Food Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Food Poisoning KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Poisoning Print A ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ...

  10. Actinide abundances in ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagee, B.; Bernatowicz, T. J.; Podosek, F. A.; Johnson, M. L.; Burnett, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of actinide and light REE (LREE) abundances and of phosphate abundances in equilibrated ordinary chondrites were obtained and were used to define the Pu abundance in the solar system and to determine the degree of variation of actinide and LREE abundances. The results were also used to compare directly the Pu/U ratio with the earlier obtained ratio determined indirectly, as (Pu/Nd)x(Nd/U), assuming that Pu behaves chemically as a LREE. The data, combined with high-accuracy isotope-dilution data from the literature, show that the degree of gram-scale variability of the Th, U, and LREE abundances for equilibrated ordinary chondrites is a factor of 2-3 for absolute abundances and up to 50 percent for relative abundances. The observed variations are interpreted as reflecting the differences in the compositions and/or proportions of solar nebula components accreted to ordinary chondrite parent bodies.

  11. Hunting behaviour and breeding performance of northern goshawks Accipiter gentilis, in relation to resource availability, sex, age and morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penteriani, Vincenzo; Rutz, Christian; Kenward, Robert

    2013-10-01

    Animal territories that differ in the availability of food resources will require (all other things being equal) different levels of effort for successful reproduction. As a consequence, breeding performance may become most strongly dependent on factors that affect individual foraging where resources are poor. We investigated potential links between foraging behaviour, reproductive performance and morphology in a goshawk Accipiter gentilis population, which experienced markedly different resource levels in two different parts of the study area (rabbit-rich vs. rabbit-poor areas). Our analyses revealed (1) that rabbit abundance positively affected male reproductive output; (2) that age, size and rabbit abundance (during winter) positively affected different components of female reproductive output; (3) that foraging movements were inversely affected by rabbit abundance for both sexes (for females, this may mainly have reflected poor provisioning by males in the rabbit-poor area); (4) that younger breeders (both in males and females) tended to move over larger distances than older individuals (which may have reflected both a lack of hunting experience and mate searching); and (5) that male body size (wing length) showed some covariation with resource conditions (suggesting possible adaptations to hunting agile avian prey in the rabbit-poor area). Although we are unable to establish firm causal relationships with our observational data set, our results provide an example of how territory quality (here, food abundance) and individual features (here, age and morphology) may combine to shape a predator's foraging behaviour and, ultimately, its breeding performance.

  12. Concurrent effects of resource pulse amount, type, and frequency on community and population properties of consumers in detritus-based systems

    PubMed Central

    Juliano, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    Episodic resource inputs (i.e., pulses) can affect food web properties and community dynamics, but detailed mechanistic understanding of such effects remain elusive. Natural aquatic microsystems (e.g., tree holes, human-made containers) are colonized by invertebrates that form complex food webs dependent on episodic and sometimes sizeable inputs of allochthonous detritus from adjacent terrestrial environments. We investigated how variation in pulse frequency, amount, and resource type interacted to affect richness, abundance, composition, and population sizes of colonizing invertebrates in water-filled tires and tree hole analogs in a forest habitat. Different container types were used to assess the generality of effects across two environmental contexts. Containers received large infrequent or small frequent pulses of animal or leaf detritus of different cumulative amounts distributed over the same period. Invertebrates were sampled in June and September when cumulative detritus input was equal for the two pulse frequencies. Pulse frequency and detritus type interacted to affect the responses of richness and abundance in both months; pulse frequency alone in June affected the relationship between richness and abundance. Richness and abundance were also greater with more detritus regardless of detritus type. One group, the filter feeders, were most important in driving the response of abundance and richness to pulses, especially in June. This work highlights the potential complex nature of responses of communities and populations to resource pulses and implicates the ability of certain groups to exploit pulses of detrital resources as a key to understanding community-level responses to pulses. PMID:22134863

  13. Capella: Structure and Abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickhouse, Nancy S.

    1999-01-01

    This grant covers the analysis of ASCA spectra of the cool star binary system Capella. This project has also required the analysis of simultaneous EUVE data. The ASCA spectrum of Capella could not be fit with standard models; by imposing models based on strong lines observed with EUVE, a problem wavelength region was identified. Correcting the problem required calculations of atomic collision strengths of higher principal quantum number than had ever been calculated, resulting in a paper in process by Liedahl and Brickhouse. With these new models applied to the ASCA spectrum, better fits were obtained. While solar abundance ratios are generally consistent with the ASCA data, the ratio of Ne/Fe is three to four times lower than solar photospheric values. Whether there is a general First Ionization Potential (FIP) effect or a specific neon anomaly cannot be determined from these data. Detailed discussion has been provided to NASA in the most recent annual report (1997). Two poster presentations have been made regarding modeling requirements. A substantial paper is in the final revision form, following review by six co-authors. The results of this work have wide implications, since the newly calculated emission lines almost certainly contribute to other problems in fitting not only other stellar spectra, but also composite supernova remnants, galaxies, and cooling flow clusters of galaxies. Furthermore, Liedahl and Brickhouse have identified other species for which lines of a similar nature (high principal quantum number) will contribute significant flux. For moderate resolution X-ray spectra, lines left out of the models in relatively isolated bands, will be attributed to continuum flux by spectral fitting engines, causing errors in line-to-continuum ratios. Thus addressing the general theoretical problem is of crucial importance.

  14. Arthropod abundance and seasonal bird use of bottomland forest harvest gaps.

    SciTech Connect

    Moorman, Christopher, E.; Bowen, Liessa T.; Kilgo, John, C.; Hanula, James, L.; Horn, Scott; Ulyshen, Michael, D.

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the influence of arthropod abundance and vegetation structure on shifts in avian use of canopy gap, gap edge, and surrounding forest understory in a bottomland hardwood forest in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. We compared captures of foliage-gleaning birds among locations during four periods (spring migration, breeding, post-breeding, and fall migration). Foliage arthropod densities were greatest in the forest understory in all four seasons, but understory vegetation density was greatest in gaps. Foliage-gleaning bird abundance was positively associated with foliage-dwelling arthropods during the breeding (F = 18.5, P < 0.001) and post-breeding periods (F = 9.4, P = 0.004), and negatively associated with foliage-dwelling arthropods during fall migration (F = 5.4, P = 0.03). Relationships between birds and arthropods were inconsistent, but the arthropod prey base seemed to be least important during migratory periods. Conversely, bird captures were positively correlated with understory vegetation density during all four periods (P < 0.001). Our study suggests high bird abundance associated with canopy gaps during the non-breeding period resulted less from high arthropod food resource availability than from complex understory and midstory vegetation structure.

  15. WINTERING YELLOW-RUMPED WARBLERS (DENDROICA CORONATA) TRACK MANIPULATED ABUNDANCE OF MYRICA CERIFERA FRUITS

    SciTech Connect

    K.L. Borgmann; S.F. Pearson; D.J. Levey; C.H. Greenberg

    2004-01-01

    Borgmann, K.L., S.F. Pearson, D.J. Levey, and C.H. Greenberg. 2004. Wintering yellow-rumped warblers (Dendroica coronata) track manipulated abundance of Myrica cerifera fruits. The Auk 121(1):74-87. Abstract: Food availability during winter may determine habitat use and limit populations of overwintering birds, yet its importance is difficult to judge because few studies have experimentally tested the response of nonbreeding birds to changes in resource abundance. We experimentally examined the link between fruit availability and habitat use by manipulating winter abundance of Myrica cerifera L. (Myricaceae) fruits in managed longleaf (Pinus palustris) and loblolly (P. taeda) pine stands in South Carolina. Myrica cerifera is a common understory shrub in the southeastern United States and provides lipid-rich fruit in late winter (February and March), when insects and other fruits are scarce. On treatment plots, we covered fruiting M. cerifera shrubs with netting in early winter to prevent birds from eating their fruits. In late February, when M. cerifera fruit crops were largely depleted elsewhere on our study site, we uncovered the shrubs and documented the response of the bird community to those patches of high fruit availability. Relative to control plots, total bird abundance (excluding the most common species, Yellow-rumped Warbler [Dendroica coronata]) and species richness did not change after net removal. Yellow-rumped Warblers, however, became significantly more abundant on treatment plots after net removal, which suggests that they track M. cerifera fruit abundance. We suggest that M. cerifera plays a role in determining the local distribution of wintering Yellow-rumped Warblers at our study site. To put these results into a management context, we also examined the effect of prescribed fire frequencies on M. cerifera fruit production. Across pine stands with different fire regimes, M. cerifera fruit abundance increased with the number of years since burning

  16. When Food Is a Foe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Patricia L.

    1998-01-01

    Although only 5% of the population has severe food allergies, school business officials must be prepared for the worst-case scenario. Banning foods and segregating allergic children are harmful practices. Education and sensible behavior are the best medicine when food allergies and intolerances are involved. Resources are listed. (MLH)

  17. Measuring Solar Abundances with Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mussack, K.; Gough, D.

    2009-12-01

    The revision of the photospheric abundances proferred by Asplund et al. (2005) has rendered opacity theory inconsistent with the seismologically determined opacity through the Sun. This highlights the need for a direct seismological measurement of solar abundances. Here we describe the technique used to measure abundances with seismology, examine our ability to detect differences between solar models using this technique, and discuss its application in the Sun.

  18. Modeling the water-satisfied degree for production of the main food crops in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guangming; Yang, Yumeng; Tu, Zhenfa; Jie, Yi; Yu, Qiwu; Hu, Xiaoyan; Yu, Hailong; Zhou, Ruirui; Chen, Xiaoxu; Wang, Hongzhi

    2016-03-15

    Water resources are one of the important factors that influence regional crop production and the food security of humans. Most traditional models of crop water demand analysis are built on the basis of a certain crop or macroscopic analysis, which neglect regional crop allocation and the difference of water demand in different crop growing periods. In this paper, a new assessing model, the satisfied degree of crop water requirement, is developed to assess the impacts of water resources on production of six main food crops in China. The six main food crops are spring wheat, winter wheat, corn, early season rice, middle-season rice and late rice. The results show that: (1) there are serious risks of water shortage in China, even in south China with its abundant precipitation; (2) the satisfied degree of crop water demand represents great temporal-spatial changes. On spatial distribution the risks are high in major bases of food production due to influences of cropping system and crop-combinations. Northwest China is a special interesting case. In seasonal fluctuation water shortage is severe in March and September. These risks seriously restrict food production in China. The results also show that the strategic measures of water resources management must be chosen carefully to deal with food security and regional sustainable development in China.

  19. Do "savanna" chimpanzees consume C4 resources?

    PubMed

    Sponheimer, M; Loudon, J E; Codron, D; Howells, M E; Pruetz, J D; Codron, J; de Ruiter, D J; Lee-Thorp, J A

    2006-08-01

    Several stable carbon isotopic studies have shown that South African australopiths consumed significant quantities of C(4) resources (tropical grasses, sedges, or animals that eat those foods), but relatively little is known about the consumption of such resources by chimpanzees. Here, we present stable carbon isotopic data for 36 chimpanzee hair samples from Fongoli, one of the driest and most open areas inhabited by chimpanzees. These data suggest that the Fongoli chimpanzees consume little in the way of C(4) vegetation or animals that eat such vegetation, even though these resources are locally abundant and preferred fruits are more widely scattered than at most chimpanzee study sites. The homogeneity of the Fongoli results is especially striking and recalls the narrow isotopic distribution of stenotopic savanna mammals. This is in stark contrast to what has been observed for australopiths, which had highly variable diets and consumed about 35% C(4) vegetation on average. Carbon isotope data for modern and fossil Papio depict a dietarily variable genus with a tendency to consume C(4) vegetation. This trophic flexibility, or willingness to consume C(4) savanna resources, may make Papio a more profitable ecological analog for australopiths than chimpanzees.

  20. The effects of resource type and ratio on competition with Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens (Diptera:Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Costanzo, K S; Muturi, E J; Lampman, R L; Alto, B W

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in the United States has been associated with declines in abundance of resident mosquito species, presumably because of resource competition, as larvae of Ae. albopictus have been illustrated as superior competitors under certain resource conditions. We evaluated the hypothesis that varying the type and ratio of two food resources (Foxtail grass: American elm) alters the competitive outcome of Ae. albopictus and Culex pipiens (L.). We measured survivorship, development time, size, and adult longevity, and estimated the population growth index (A') of populations raised both alone and in equal number with the interspecific competitor, across five ratios of the two food resources. Competition was asymmetric with Ae. albopictus, the superior competitor across all resource treatments; however, the competitive advantage Ae. albopictus had over Cx. pipiens was reduced as grass became the predominant resource. With elm as the predominant resource, the population growth index (A') for both Ae. albopictus and Cx. pipiens was lower in intraspecific and interspecific competition treatments, respectively. The treatments also impacted adult life history, as life spans of both Ae. albopictus and Cx. pipiens varied when they emerged from larval conditions with different resource and competition treatments. We discuss the possible differences in the two species' efficiencies in exploiting the two resource types. Despite some resource conditions alleviating the competitive effects of Ae. albopictus on Cx. pipiens, competition remained asymmetric; thus, additional mechanisms are likely operating under field conditions when the two species coexist.

  1. Wildlife distribution and abundance on the Utah oil shale tracts 1975-1984

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, C.V.

    1986-07-01

    Distribution and abundance of 215 amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals were monitored for 10 years on Utah's Oil Shale Tracts using line transects, mist netting, and live trapping. Wildlife monitoring was conducted in four major vegetation types and during all seasons to establish a quantitative baseline for use in impact identification during oil shale mining. Habitat preferences were established for many species in cold desert vegetation of two types of desert shrub, and juniper and riparian woodlands. Seasonal, annual, and habitat distribution of each class demonstrated a variety of adaptive responses to environmental variables. The most important environmental variables, that is, those factors resulting in a predictable change in wildlife populations, were, in descending order: weather, food resource, shelter, and competition. 31 references, 14 figures, 10 tables.

  2. Floral abundance, richness, and spatial distribution drive urban garden bee communities.

    PubMed

    Plascencia, M; Philpott, S M

    2017-03-01

    In urban landscapes, gardens provide refuges for bee diversity, but conservation potential may depend on local and landscape features. Foraging and population persistence of bee species, as well as overall pollinator community structure, may be supported by the abundance, richness, and spatial distribution of floral resources. Floral resources strongly differ in urban gardens. Using hand netting and pan traps to survey bees, we examined whether abundance, richness, and spatial distribution of floral resources, as well as ground cover and garden landscape surroundings influence bee abundance, species richness, and diversity on the central coast of California. Differences in floral abundance and spatial distribution, as well as urban cover in the landscape, predicted different bee community variables. Abundance of all bees and of honeybees (Apis mellifera) was lower in sites with more urban land cover surrounding the gardens. Honeybee abundance was higher in sites with patchy floral resources, whereas bee species richness and bee diversity was higher in sites with more clustered floral resources. Surprisingly, bee species richness and bee diversity was lower in sites with very high floral abundance, possibly due to interactions with honeybees. Other studies have documented the importance of floral abundance and landscape surroundings for bees in urban gardens, but this study is the first to document that the spatial arrangement of flowers strongly predicts bee abundance and richness. Based on these findings, it is likely that garden managers may promote bee conservation by managing for floral connectivity and abundance within these ubiquitous urban habitats.

  3. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

  4. The relationship between the abundance of smallmouth bass and double-crested cormorants in the eastern basin of Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lantry, B.F.; Eckert, T.H.; Schneider, C.P.; Chrisman, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    Available population and diet data on double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) numbers, demographics, and exploitation rates were synthesized to examine the relationship between cormorant and smallmouth bass abundance in the U.S. waters of the eastern basin of Lake Ontario. It was found that after the number of cormorants nesting on Little Galloo Island in New York exceeded 3,500 pairs in 1989, survival of young smallmouth bass, not yet of legal size for the sport harvest (< 305 mm), began to decline. Despite production of strong year classes in 1987 and 1988, abundance of smallmouth bass measured from gill net surveys declined to its lowest level by 1995 and remained there through 1998. Stable or increasing catch and harvest rates in other local fisheries along the U.S. shore suggested that declines in smallmouth bass abundance in the eastern basin were not related to water quality. Stable or increasing growth rates for smallmouth bass age 2 and older since the 1980s further indicated that food resource limitation was also not the cause for declines in abundance. Comparisons of estimates of size and age-specific predation on smallmouth bass by cormorants with projected smallmouth bass population size indicated that much of the increased mortality on young smallmouth bass, could be explained by cormorant predation.

  5. Relationship of weed shiner and young-of-year bluegill and largemouth bass abundance to submersed aquatic vegetation in Navigation Pools 4, 8, and 13 of the Upper Mississippi River, 1998-2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLain, Steven A.; Popp, Walter A.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic vegetation provides food resources and shelter for many species of fish. This study found a significant relationship between increases in submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) in four study reaches of the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) and increases in catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) of weed shiners (Notropis texanus) and age-0 bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) when all of the study reaches were treated collectively using Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) vegetation and fish data for 1998–2012. The selected fishes were more abundant in study reaches with higher SAV frequencies (Pool 8 and Lower Pool 4) and less abundant in reaches with lower SAV frequencies (Pool 13 and Upper Pool 4). When each study reach was examined independently, the relationship between SAV frequency and CPUE of the three species was not significant in most cases, the primary exception being weed shiners in Lower Pool 4. Results of this study indicate that the prevalence of SAV does affect relative abundance of these vegetation-associated fish species. However, the poor annual relationship between SAV frequency and age-0 relative abundance in individual study reaches indicates that several other factors also govern age-0 abundance. The data indicate that there may be a SAV frequency threshold in backwaters above which there is not a strong relationship with abundance of these fish species. This is indicated by the high annual CPUE variability of the three selected fishes in backwaters of Pool 8 and Lower Pool 4 when SAV exceeded certain frequencies.

  6. Resources, environment, and population: the nature of future limits.

    PubMed

    Ridker, R G; Cecelski, E W

    1979-08-01

    The balance between world supplies of resources and the demands presented by population growth in the recent past, during the period to 2025, and for the long term is examined. Focus is on the issues, the past in terms of socioeconomic indicators, past trends in market places, and specific evidence of depletion; future demands in terms of population projections and growth in per capita demand; resource supplies to 2025; ultimate resource production possibilities; environmental constraints and risks (problems capable of control at reasonable cost, other domestic environmental problems, and potentially severe global problems); and implications. Improvement in socioeconomic indicators, relatively stable resource market prices, along with evidence of resource and environmental changes suggest that thus far the world as a whole has been able to win the race between demand and supply. For the next 50 years, during which a slowdown is projected in population growth rates and resource consumption, the most important problems to be faced are associated with the unequal distribution of resources and the transition problems of moving from 1 resource regime to another in an orderly fashion. For the long term, a projected equilibrium population of 10-12 billion can probably be sustained at a decent standard of living by more equitable distribution of food and shifts from less to more abundant resources. Ultimately, environmental and security problems associated with growing energy production and use such as increasing atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide and nuclear proliferation may be the most difficult to resolve. Although cessation of population growth would help, it does not by itself constitute a solution to the world's resource problems. Both the causes and the symptoms need to be worked on simultaneously. Understanding the true nature of the world's resource and environmental limitations is a 1st step in that direction.

  7. The role of water in unconventional in situ energy resource extraction technologies: Chapter 7 in Food, energy, and water: The chemistry connection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallegos, Tanya J.; Bern, Carleton R.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Haines, Seth S.; Engle, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Global trends toward developing new energy resources from lower grade, larger tonnage deposits that are not generally accessible using “conventional” extraction methods involve variations of subsurface in situ extraction techniques including in situ oil-shale retorting, hydraulic fracturing of petroleum reservoirs, and in situ recovery (ISR) of uranium. Although these methods are economically feasible and perhaps result in a smaller above-ground land-use footprint, there remain uncertainties regarding potential subsurface impacts to groundwater. This chapter provides an overview of the role of water in these technologies and the opportunities and challenges for water reuse and recycling.

  8. The condition dependency of fitness in males and females: the fitness consequences of juvenile diet assessed in environments differing in key adult resources.

    PubMed

    Zikovitz, Andrea E; Agrawal, Aneil F

    2013-10-01

    Variation in environmental or genetic quality leads to phenotypic variation in condition, but how much variation in fitness is created by this variation in condition? Using Drosophila melanogaster, we manipulated condition via alternative larval diets and then tested several key factors predicted to influence how much variation in fitness results from differences in condition. Specifically, we were interested in whether male and female fitness are affected equally by condition and whether the strength of selection on condition depends on the abundance of key resources limiting the reproductive output of each sex. We measured selection on condition in alternative assay contexts that varied in the abundance of adult food (a key resource for females) or in the abundance of females (a key resource for males). Overall, selection tended to be stronger on males than females. However, selection on males was weakened when the abundance of their key resource (females) was elevated. Increasing the abundance of the key resource for females (live yeast) elevated their reproductive output as expected but did not change the strength of selection in this sex. Instead, this manipulation increased selection on males, suggesting that this environmental factor indirectly affects selection on males via their interaction with females.

  9. Summer and fall ants have different physiological responses to food macronutrient content.

    PubMed

    Cook, Steven C; Eubanks, Micky D; Gold, Roger E; Behmer, Spencer T

    2016-04-01

    Seasonally, long-lived animals exhibit changes in behavior and physiology in response to shifts in environmental conditions, including food abundance and nutritional quality. Ants are long-lived arthropods that, at the colony level, experience such seasonal shifts in their food resources. Previously we reported summer- and fall-collected ants practiced distinct food collection behavior and nutrient intake regulation strategies in response to variable food protein and carbohydrate content, despite being reared in the lab under identical environmental conditions and dietary regimes. Seasonally distinct responses were observed for both no-choice and choice dietary experiments. Using data from these same experiments, our objective here is to examine colony and individual-level physiological traits, colony mortality and growth, food processing, and worker lipid mass, and how these traits change in response to variable food protein-carbohydrate content. For both experiments we found that seasonality per se exerted strong effects on colony and individual level traits. Colonies collected in the summer maintained total worker mass despite high mortality. In contrast, colonies collected in the fall lived longer, and accumulated lipids, including when reared on protein-biased diets. Food macronutrient content had mainly transient effects on physiological responses. Extremes in food carbohydrate content however, elicited a compensatory response in summer worker ants, which processed more protein-biased foods and contained elevated lipid levels. Our study, combined with our previously published work, strongly suggests that underlying physiological phenotypes driving behaviors of summer and fall ants are likely fixed seasonally, and change circannually.

  10. The shape of terrestrial abundance distributions.

    PubMed

    Alroy, John

    2015-09-01

    Ecologists widely accept that the distribution of abundances in most communities is fairly flat but heavily dominated by a few species. The reason for this is that species abundances are thought to follow certain theoretical distributions that predict such a pattern. However, previous studies have focused on either a few theoretical distributions or a few empirical distributions. I illustrate abundance patterns in 1055 samples of trees, bats, small terrestrial mammals, birds, lizards, frogs, ants, dung beetles, butterflies, and odonates. Five existing theoretical distributions make inaccurate predictions about the frequencies of the most common species and of the average species, and most of them fit the overall patterns poorly, according to the maximum likelihood-related Kullback-Leibler divergence statistic. Instead, the data support a low-dominance distribution here called the "double geometric." Depending on the value of its two governing parameters, it may resemble either the geometric series distribution or the lognormal series distribution. However, unlike any other model, it assumes both that richness is finite and that species compete unequally for resources in a two-dimensional niche landscape, which implies that niche breadths are variable and that trait distributions are neither arrayed along a single dimension nor randomly associated. The hypothesis that niche space is multidimensional helps to explain how numerous species can coexist despite interacting strongly.

  11. The shape of terrestrial abundance distributions

    PubMed Central

    Alroy, John

    2015-01-01

    Ecologists widely accept that the distribution of abundances in most communities is fairly flat but heavily dominated by a few species. The reason for this is that species abundances are thought to follow certain theoretical distributions that predict such a pattern. However, previous studies have focused on either a few theoretical distributions or a few empirical distributions. I illustrate abundance patterns in 1055 samples of trees, bats, small terrestrial mammals, birds, lizards, frogs, ants, dung beetles, butterflies, and odonates. Five existing theoretical distributions make inaccurate predictions about the frequencies of the most common species and of the average species, and most of them fit the overall patterns poorly, according to the maximum likelihood–related Kullback-Leibler divergence statistic. Instead, the data support a low-dominance distribution here called the “double geometric.” Depending on the value of its two governing parameters, it may resemble either the geometric series distribution or the lognormal series distribution. However, unlike any other model, it assumes both that richness is finite and that species compete unequally for resources in a two-dimensional niche landscape, which implies that niche breadths are variable and that trait distributions are neither arrayed along a single dimension nor randomly associated. The hypothesis that niche space is multidimensional helps to explain how numerous species can coexist despite interacting strongly. PMID:26601249

  12. Resource reliability, accessibility and governance: pillars for managing water resources to achieve water security in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, E. M.; Duncan, J.; Atkinson, P.; Dash, J.

    2013-12-01

    As one of the world's most water-abundant countries, Nepal has plenty of water yet resources are both spatially and temporally unevenly distributed. With a population heavily engaged in subsistence farming, whereby livelihoods are entirely dependent on rain-fed agriculture, changes in freshwater resources can substantially impact upon survival. The two main sources of water in Nepal come from monsoon precipitation and glacial runoff. The former is essential for sustaining livelihoods where communities have little or no access to perennial water resources. Much of Nepal's population live in the southern Mid-Hills and Terai regions where dependency on the monsoon system is high and climate-environment interactions are intricate. Any fluctuations in precipitation can severely affect essential potable resources and food security. As the population continues to expand in Nepal, and pressures build on access to adequate and clean water resources, there is a need for institutions to cooperate and increase the effectiveness of water management policies. This research presents a framework detailing three fundamental pillars for managing water resources to achieve sustainable water security in Nepal. These are (i) resource reliability; (ii) adequate accessibility; and (iii) effective governance. Evidence is presented which indicates that water resources are adequate in Nepal to sustain the population. In addition, aspects of climate change are having less impact than previously perceived e.g. results from trend analysis of precipitation time-series indicate a decrease in monsoon extremes and interannual variation over the last half-century. However, accessibility to clean water resources and the potential for water storage is limiting the use of these resources. This issue is particularly prevalent given the heterogeneity in spatial and temporal distributions of water. Water governance is also ineffective due to government instability and a lack of continuity in policy

  13. Space Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Mary Fae (Editor); McKay, David S. (Editor); Duke, Michael S. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    ) Social Concerns. Although many of the included papers got their impetus from workshop discussions, most have been written since then, thus allowing the authors to base new applications on established information and tested technology. All these papers have been updated to include the authors' current work. This overview, drafted by faculty fellow Jim Burke, describes the findings of the summer study, as participants explored the use of space resources in the development of future space activities and defined the necessary research and development that must precede the practical utilization of these resources. Space resources considered included lunar soil, oxygen derived from lunar soil, material retrieved from near-Earth asteroids, abundant sunlight, low gravity, and high vacuum. The study participants analyzed the direct use of these resources, the potential demand for products from them, the techniques for retrieving and processing space resources, the necessary infrastructure, and the economic tradeoffs. This is certainly not the first report to urge the utilization of space resources in the development of space activities. In fact, Space Resources may be seen as the third of a trilogy of NASA Special Publications reporting such ideas arising from similar studies. It has been preceded by Space Settlements: A Design Study (NASA SP-413) and Space Resources and Space Settlements (NASA SP-428). And other, contemporaneous reports have responded to the same themes. The National Commission on Space, led by Thomas Paine, in Pioneering the Space Frontier, and the NASA task force led by astronaut Sally Ride, in Leadership and America's Future in Space, also emphasize expansion of the space Infrastructure; more detailed exploration of the Moon, Mars, and asteroids; an early start on the development of the technology necessary for using space resources; and systematic development of the skills necessary for long-term human presence in space. Our report does not represent any

  14. How are your berries? Perspectives of Alaska's environmental managers on trends in wild berry abundance

    PubMed Central

    Hupp, Jerry; Brubaker, Michael; Wilkinson, Kira; Williamson, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Background Wild berries are a valued traditional food in Alaska. Phytochemicals in wild berries may contribute to the prevention of vascular disease, cancer and cognitive decline, making berry consumption important to community health in rural areas. Little was known regarding which species of berries were important to Alaskan communities, the number of species typically picked in communities and whether recent environmental change has affected berry abundance or quality. Objective To identify species of wild berries that were consumed by people in different ecological regions of Alaska and to determine if perceived berry abundance was changing for some species or in some regions. Design We asked tribal environmental managers throughout Alaska for their views on which among 12 types of wild berries were important to their communities and whether berry harvests over the past decade were different than in previous years. We received responses from 96 individuals in 73 communities. Results Berries that were considered very important to communities differed among ecological regions of Alaska. Low-bush blueberry (Vaccinium uliginosum and V. caespitosum), cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus) and salmonberry (Rubus spectabilis) were most frequently identified as very important berries for communities in the boreal, polar and maritime ecoregions, respectively. For 7 of the 12 berries on the survey, a majority of respondents indicated that in the past decade abundance had either declined or become more variable. Conclusions Our study is an example of how environmental managers and participants in local observer networks can report on the status of wild resources in rural Alaska. Their observations suggest that there have been changes in the productivity of some wild berries in the past decade, resulting in greater uncertainty among communities regarding the security of berry harvests. Monitoring and experimental studies are needed to determine how environmental change may affect

  15. FRUIT ABUNDANCE AND LOCAL DISTRIBUTION OF WINTERING HERMIT THRUSHES (CATHARUS GUTTATUS) AND YELLOW-RUMPED WARBLERS (DENDROICA CORONATA) IN SOUTH CAROLINA.

    SciTech Connect

    KWIT, CHARLES; LEVEY, DOUGLAS, J.; GREENBERG, CATHRYN, H.; PEARSON, SCOTT, F.; MCCARTY, JOHN, P.; SARGENT, SARAH; MUMME, RONALD, L.

    2004-01-01

    The Auk 121(1):46-57, 2004 We conducted winter censuses of two short-distance migrants, Hermit Thrushes (Catharus guttatus) and Yellow-rumped Warblers (Dendroica coronata), over seven years in five different habitats to determine whether their local abundances could be predicted by fruit pulp biomass. Sampled habitats were stands of upland and bottomland hardwood, loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), longleaf pine (P. palustris), and young «10 years) longleaf pine. Hermit Thrush abundance, which was highest in bottomland hardwood habitats, was positively related to total dry mass of fruit pulp. Those results are consistent with the hypothesis that resource availability affects the local distribution of migrant passerines on their wintering grounds. Our results also indicate that bottomland hardwood habitats in the southeastern United States may be especially important to wintering Hermit Thrushes. Yellow-rumped Warbler abundance was correlated with ripe-fruit pulp dry mass of Myrica cerifera, a major source of winter food for that species. However, because M. cerifera pulp dry mass was confounded with habitat type, we could not distinguish the relative importance of fruit resources and habitat for Yellow- rumped Warblers. Our results underscore the importance of fruit to wintering birds. However, the overall percentage of variation in winter bird abundance explained by differences in ripe-fruit biomass was modest, indicating that other factors are also important.

  16. The effect of energy reserves and food availability on optimal immune defence.

    PubMed

    Houston, Alasdair I; McNamara, John M; Barta, Zoltán; Klasing, Kirk C

    2007-11-22

    In order to avoid both starvation and disease, animals must allocate resources between energy reserves and immune defence. We investigate the optimal allocation. We find that animals with low reserves choose to allocate less to defence than animals with higher reserves because when reserves are low it is more important to increase reserves to reduce the risk of starvation in the future. In general, investment in immune defence increases monotonically with energy reserves. An exception is when the animal can reduce its probability of death from disease by reducing its foraging rate. In this case, allocation to immune defence can peak at intermediate reserves. When food changes over time, the optimal response depends on the frequency of changes. If the environment is relatively stable, animals forage most intensively when the food is scarce and invest more in immune defence when the food is abundant than when it is scarce. If the environment changes quickly, animals forage at low intensity when the food is scarce, but at high intensity when the food is abundant. As the rate of environmental change increases, immune defence becomes less dependent on food availability. We show that the strength of selection on reserve-dependent immune defence depends on how foraging intensity and immune defence determine the probability of death from disease.

  17. The effect of energy reserves and food availability on optimal immune defence

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Alasdair I; McNamara, John M; Barta, Zoltán; Klasing, Kirk C

    2007-01-01

    In order to avoid both starvation and disease, animals must allocate resources between energy reserves and immune defence. We investigate the optimal allocation. We find that animals with low reserves choose to allocate less to defence than animals with higher reserves because when reserves are low it is more important to increase reserves to reduce the risk of starvation in the future. In general, investment in immune defence increases monotonically with energy reserves. An exception is when the animal can reduce its probability of death from disease by reducing its foraging rate. In this case, allocation to immune defence can peak at intermediate reserves. When food changes over time, the optimal response depends on the frequency of changes. If the environment is relatively stable, animals forage most intensively when the food is scarce and invest more in immune defence when the food is abundant than when it is scarce. If the environment changes quickly, animals forage at low intensity when the food is scarce, but at high intensity when the food is abundant. As the rate of environmental change increases, immune defence becomes less dependent on food availability. We show that the strength of selection on reserve-dependent immune defence depends on how foraging intensity and immune defence determine the probability of death from disease. PMID:17848371

  18. Space Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Mary Fae (Editor); McKay, David S. (Editor); Duke, Michael S. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    ) Social Concerns. Although many of the included papers got their impetus from workshop discussions, most have been written since then, thus allowing the authors to base new applications on established information and tested technology. All these papers have been updated to include the authors' current work. This overview, drafted by faculty fellow Jim Burke, describes the findings of the summer study, as participants explored the use of space resources in the development of future space activities and defined the necessary research and development that must precede the practical utilization of these resources. Space resources considered included lunar soil, oxygen derived from lunar soil, material retrieved from near-Earth asteroids, abundant sunlight, low gravity, and high vacuum. The study participants analyzed the direct use of these resources, the potential demand for products from them, the techniques for retrieving and processing space resources, the necessary infrastructure, and the economic tradeoffs. This is certainly not the first report to urge the utilization of space resources in the development of space activities. In fact, Space Resources may be seen as the third of a trilogy of NASA Special Publications reporting such ideas arising from similar studies. It has been preceded by Space Settlements: A Design Study (NASA SP-413) and Space Resources and Space Settlements (NASA SP-428). And other, contemporaneous reports have responded to the same themes. The National Commission on Space, led by Thomas Paine, in Pioneering the Space Frontier, and the NASA task force led by astronaut Sally Ride, in Leadership and America's Future in Space, also emphasize expansion of the space Infrastructure; more detailed exploration of the Moon, Mars, and asteroids; an early start on the development of the technology necessary for using space resources; and systematic development of the skills necessary for long-term human presence in space. Our report does not represent any

  19. Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass material that can be utilized for bioenergy production with minimal additional inputs. MSW resources include mixed commercial and residential garbage such as yard trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. Waste resources such as landfill gas, mill residues, and waste grease are already being utilized for cost-effective renewable energy generation. MSW for bioenergy also represents an opportunity to divert greater volumes of residential and commercial waste from landfills.

  20. Your Food Dollar. Money Management. [Revised].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Nancy H., Ed.

    This student/teacher resource booklet provides information on conserving food dollars while providing nutritious meals. The guide shows how to set up a food budget and explains how scanning the weekly food ads, planning meals around the specials, and compiling a list accordingly can also help consumers get more for their food dollars. Numerous…

  1. Evaluation of the proximate, fatty acid and mineral composition of representative green, brown and red seaweeds from the Persian Gulf of Iran as potential food and feed resources.

    PubMed

    Rohani-Ghadikolaei, Kiuomars; Abdulalian, Eessa; Ng, Wing-Keong

    2012-12-01

    The proximate, fatty acid and mineral composition were determined for green (Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha intestinalis), brown (Sargassum ilicifolium and Colpomenia sinuosa) and red (Hypnea valentiae and Gracilaria corticata) seaweeds collected from the Persian Gulf of Iran. Results showed that the seaweeds were high in carbohydrate (31.8-59.1%, dry weight) and ash (12.4-29.9%) but low in lipid content (1.5-3.6%). The protein content of red or green seaweeds was significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared to brown seaweeds. The fatty acid composition of various seaweed lipids varied considerably with 51.9-67.4% of saturates, 22.0-32.9% of monoenes and 9.2-19.1% of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). E. intestinalis contained the highest total n-3 PUFA content with the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio. Persian Gulf seaweeds contained higher concentrations of all the minerals examined (K, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Co) compared to terrestrial vegetables. Seaweeds could potentially be used as a food or feed additive in Iran.

  2. The boron abundance of Procyon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemke, Michael; Lambert, David L.; Edvardsson, Bengt

    1993-01-01

    The B I 2496.8 A resonance line and HST/GHRS echelle spectra are used with model atmospheres and synthetic spectra to derive the B abundance of the F dwarfs Procyon (Alpha Canis Minoris), Theta Ursae Majoris, and Iota Pegasi. The B abundance of Theta UMa and Iota Peg is similar to that derived by Boesgaard and Heacox (1978) from the B II resonance line in spectra of A- and B-type stars. These two dwarfs show normal abundances of Li, Be, and B. Procyon, which is highly depleted in Li and Be, is depleted in B by a factor of at least 3. Comparison of the spectra of Procyon and the halo dwarf HD 140283 shows that the B abundance assigned by Duncan et al. (1992) to three halo dwarfs is not greatly overestimated as a result of contamination of the B I line by an unidentified line.

  3. Ammonia abundances in four comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyckoff, S.; Tegler, S. C.; Engel, L.

    1991-02-01

    NH2 emission band strengths were measured in four comets and the NH2 column densities were determined in order to measure the ammonia content of the comets. The mean ammonia/water abundance ratio derived for the four comets is found to be 0.13 + or - 0.06 percent, with no significant variation among the comets. The uniformity of this abundance attests to a remarkable degree of chemical homogeneity over large scales in the comet-forming region of the primordial solar nebula, and contrasts with the CO abundance variations found previously in comets. The N2 and NH3 abundances indicate a condensation temperature in the range 20-160 K, consistent with virtually all comet formation hypotheses.

  4. The boron abundance of Procyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, Michael; Lambert, David L.; Edvardsson, Bengt

    1993-05-01

    The B I 2496.8 A resonance line and HST/GHRS echelle spectra are used with model atmospheres and synthetic spectra to derive the B abundance of the F dwarfs Procyon (Alpha Canis Minoris), Theta Ursae Majoris, and Iota Pegasi. The B abundance of Theta UMa and Iota Peg is similar to that derived by Boesgaard and Heacox (1978) from the B II resonance line in spectra of A- and B-type stars. These two dwarfs show normal abundances of Li, Be, and B. Procyon, which is highly depleted in Li and Be, is depleted in B by a factor of at least 3. Comparison of the spectra of Procyon and the halo dwarf HD 140283 shows that the B abundance assigned by Duncan et al. (1992) to three halo dwarfs is not greatly overestimated as a result of contamination of the B I line by an unidentified line.

  5. Resource partitioning in two heterochronic populations of Greek Alpine newts, Triturus alpestris veluchiensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denoël, Mathieu; Schabetsberger, Robert

    2003-04-01

    Current ecological models suggest that the maintenance of trophic polymorphisms is favoured by a different resource use in alternative morphs. Facultative paedomorphosis in newts is an example of phenotypic variation as paedomorphs retain morphological larval traits, such as gills and gill slits. The aim of this study was to find out whether heterochronic morphs occupy particular micro-habitats and focus on specific prey items. Resource partitioning was found between morphs. It concerns mainly food selection with paedomorphs preying more on plankton and less on terrestrial invertebrates than metamorphs. Some habitat specializations were also found with metamorphs being more abundant at the water surface than paedomorphs. Diel variation in habitat use of the two different morphs was minimal. Polymorphism allows Alpine newts to exploit the different resources in the lakes in order to minimize intraspecific competition, but the extent of resource partitioning depends on habitat characteristics.

  6. Living in the city: resource availability, predation, and bird population dynamics in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Anderies, John M; Katti, Madhusudan; Shochat, Eyal

    2007-07-07

    This article explores factors that shape population structure in novel environments that have received scant theoretical attention: cities. Urban bird populations exhibit higher densities and lower diversity. Some work suggests this may result from lower predation pressure and more predictable and abundant resources. These factors may lead to populations with few winners and many losers regarding access to food, body condition, and reproductive success. We explore these hypotheses with an individual-energy-based competition model with two phenotypes of differing foraging ability. We show that low frequency resource fluctuations favor strong competitors and vice versa. We show that low predation skews equilibrium populations in favor of weak competitors and vice versa. Increasing the time between resource pulses can thus shift population structure from weak to strong competitor dominance. Given recent evidence for more constant resource input and lower predation in urban areas, the model helps understand observed urban bird population structure.

  7. Wholesomeness of irradiated food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlermann, Dieter A. E.

    2016-12-01

    Just with the emergence of the idea to treat food by ionizing radiation, the concerns were voiced whether it would be safe to consume such food. Now, we look back on more than hundred years of research into the 'wholesomeness', a terminology developed during those efforts. This review will cover the many questions which had been raised, explaining the most relevant ones in some detail; it will also give place to the concerns and elucidate their scientific relevance and background. There has never been any other method of food processing studied in such depth and in such detail as food irradiation. The conclusion based on science is: Consumption of any food treated at any high dose is safe, as long as the food remains palatable. This conclusion has been adopted by WHO, also by international and national bodies. Finally, this finding has also been adopted by Codex Alimentarius in 2003, the international standard for food. However, this conclusion has not been adopted and included at its full extent in most national regulations. As the literature about wholesomeness of irradiated food is abundant, this review will use only a few, most relevant references, which will guide the reader to further reading.

  8. The Microbial Resource Research Infrastructure MIRRI: Strength through Coordination

    PubMed Central

    Stackebrandt, Erko; Schüngel, Manuela; Martin, Dunja; Smith, David

    2015-01-01

    Microbial resources have been recognized as essential raw materials for the advancement of health and later for biotechnology, agriculture, food technology and for research in the life sciences, as their enormous abundance and diversity offer an unparalleled source of unexplored solutions. Microbial domain biological resource centres (mBRC) provide live cultures and associated data to foster and support the development of basic and applied science in countries worldwide and especially in Europe, where the density of highly advanced mBRCs is high. The not-for-profit and distributed project MIRRI (Microbial Resource Research Infrastructure) aims to coordinate access to hitherto individually managed resources by developing a pan-European platform which takes the interoperability and accessibility of resources and data to a higher level. Providing a wealth of additional information and linking to datasets such as literature, environmental data, sequences and chemistry will enable researchers to select organisms suitable for their research and enable innovative solutions to be developed. The current independent policies and managed processes will be adapted by partner mBRCs to harmonize holdings, services, training, and accession policy and to share expertise. The infrastructure will improve access to enhanced quality microorganisms in an appropriate legal framework and to resource-associated data in a more interoperable way. PMID:27682123

  9. Habitat, not resource availability, limits consumer production in lake ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craig, Nicola; Jones, Stuart E.; Weidel, Brian C.; Solomon, Christopher T.

    2015-01-01

    Food web productivity in lakes can be limited by dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which reduces fish production by limiting the abundance of their zoobenthic prey. We demonstrate that in a set of 10 small, north temperate lakes spanning a wide DOC gradient, these negative effects of high DOC concentrations on zoobenthos production are driven primarily by availability of warm, well-oxygenated habitat, rather than by light limitation of benthic primary production as previously proposed. There was no significant effect of benthic primary production on zoobenthos production after controlling for oxygen, even though stable isotope analysis indicated that zoobenthos do use this resource. Mean whole-lake zoobenthos production was lower in high-DOC lakes with reduced availability of oxygenated habitat, as was fish biomass. These insights improve understanding of lake food webs and inform management in the face of spatial variability and ongoing temporal change in lake DOC concentrations.

  10. [Comparison of potential yield and resource utilization efficiency of main food crops in three provinces of Northeast China under climate change].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-yu; Yang, Xiao-guang; Sun, Shuang; Xie, Wen-juan

    2015-10-01

    Based on the daily data of 65 meteorological stations from 1961 to 2010 and the crop phenology data in the potential cultivation zones of thermophilic and chimonophilous crops in Northeast China, the crop potential yields were calculated through step-by-step correction method. The spatio-temporal distribution of the crop potential yields at different levels was analyzed. And then we quantified the limitations of temperature and precipitation on the crop potential yields and compared the differences in the climatic resource utilization efficiency. The results showed that the thermal potential yields of six crops (including maize, rice, spring wheat, sorghum, millet and soybean) during the period 1961-2010 deceased from west to east. The climatic potential yields of the five crops (spring wheat not included) were higher in the south than in the north. The potential yield loss rate due to temperature limitations of the six crops presented a spatial distribution pattern and was higher in the east than in the west. Among the six main crops, the yield potential loss rate due to temperature limitation of the soybean was the highest (51%), and those of the other crops fluctuated within the range of 33%-41%. The potential yield loss rate due to water limitation had an obvious regional difference, and was high in Songnen Plain and Changbai Mountains. The potential yield loss rate of spring wheat was the highest (50%), and those of the other four rainfed crops fluctuated within the range of 8%-10%. The solar energy utilization efficiency of the six main crops ranged from 0.9% to 2.7%, in the order of maize> sorghum>rice>millet>spring wheat>soybean. The precipitation utilization efficiency of the maize, sorghum, spring wheat, millet and soybean under rainfed conditions ranged from 8 to 35 kg . hm-2 . mm-1, in the order of maize>sorghum>spring wheat>millet>soybean. In those areas with lower efficiency of solar energy utilization and precipitation utilization, such as Changbai

  11. Chlorine Abundances in Cool Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maas, Z. G.; Pilachowski, C. A.; Hinkle, K.

    2016-12-01

    Chlorine abundances are reported in 15 evolved giants and 1 M dwarf in the solar neighborhood. The Cl abundance was measured using the vibration-rotation 1-0 P8 line of H35Cl at 3.69851 μm. The high-resolution L-band spectra were observed using the Phoenix infrared spectrometer on the Kitt Peak Mayall 4 m telescope. The average [35Cl/Fe] abundance in stars with -0.72 < [Fe/H] < 0.20 is [35Cl/Fe] = (-0.10 ± 0.15) dex. The mean difference between the [35Cl/Fe] ratios measured in our stars and chemical evolution model values is (0.16 ± 0.15) dex. The [35Cl/Ca] ratio has an offset of ˜0.35 dex above model predictions, suggesting that chemical evolution models are underproducing Cl at the high metallicity range. Abundances of C, N, O, Si, and Ca were also measured in our spectral region and are consistent with F and G dwarfs. The Cl versus O abundances from our sample match Cl abundances measured in planetary nebula and H ii regions. In one star where both H35Cl and H37Cl could be measured, a 35Cl/37Cl isotope ratio of 2.2 ± 0.4 was found, consistent with values found in the Galactic ISM and predicted chemical evolution models.

  12. Robust Abundance Estimation in Animal Surveys with Imperfect Detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surveys of animal abundance are central to the conservation and management of living natural resources. However, detection uncertainty complicates the sampling process of many species. One sampling method employed to deal with this problem is depletion (or removal) surveys in whi...

  13. What counts for ants? How return behaviour and food search of Cataglyphis ants are modified by variations in food quantity and experience.

    PubMed

    Bolek, Siegfried; Wittlinger, Matthias; Wolf, Harald

    2012-09-15

    When finding more food than one is able to carry home, should one come back to the site to exploit it further? This question is crucial for central place foragers that provide for a home place with brood or nest mates. The benefit of returning has to be weighed against the chance of finding food elsewhere and the resources available. Desert ants Cataglyphis fortis are well-studied examples when it comes to navigating back and forth between their nest and a foraging area, due to their primary reliance on path integration in the open and featureless desert habitat. The ants use path integration not only for a safe return from their foraging trips but also for future returns to plentiful feeding sites. The direction from the nest that has previously yielded food items is preferred for future foraging trips, a phenomenon termed sector fidelity. What prompts the ants to return to a particular site, and how faithfully they search for that place, has not been well studied. We examine the evaluation of food sources in channel experiments by varying both the number of food items in a feeder and the number of visits to the feeder before testing search distances of foragers returning to the feeding site. Ants exhibited more focused searches for plentiful food sources than for sources with only few food items upon their first return visit. After several successful visits, the ants always searched thoroughly for the food source, independent of the amount of food offered. Thus, desert ants consider both food abundance and reliability of food encounter, with corroborative learning of reliability gradually overriding the initial preference for plentiful feeders. The density of food items appears to be used by the ants as a proxy for food abundance. On the level of our analysis, the searches performed in the experimental channels are indistinguishable from those performed in the open desert terrain. The present results not only demonstrate how otherwise well-studied desert ants

  14. Oxidative stress responses of gulf killifish exposed to hydrocarbons from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: Potential implications for aquatic food resources.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Kristi M; Newton, Joseph C; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Johnson, Calvin

    2014-02-01

    Ecosystem effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) remain under investigation following the Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Fundulus grandis, an established indicator of aquatic ecosystem health, was investigated because this species shares genes and biochemical pathways with higher trophic-level fish and plays an important role in the gulf food chain. Oxidative stress responses including hepatic cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and serum antioxidant capacity were evaluated in fish exposed to PAHs. Fish were exposed to water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) of crude oil (7.0  ± 0.10 mg/L C6-C28) after which solutions were diluted below the level of detection over 8 h using 15 ppt aerated artificial seawater. Before euthanasia, fish remained in aquaria for 12 h, 24 h, or 48 h. Three replicate experiments were conducted at each time point using unexposed fish as experimental controls. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in CYP1A induction were observed in exposed versus control fish at 24 h. Expression of CYP1A increased by 25%, 66%, and 23% in exposed fish at 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h, respectively. Significant increases were observed in antioxidant capacity of nonenzymatic antioxidants in exposed versus control fish at each time point. Given the activity of CYP1A, radicals formed during PAH detoxification likely resulted in increased oxidant load requiring elevated antioxidant defenses. Research is needed to determine the duration of oxidative stress responses considering the potential for lipid oxidation in exposed fish or species feeding on exposed fish.

  15. Niche partitioning among frugivorous fishes in response to fluctuating resources in the Amazonian floodplain forest.

    PubMed

    Correa, Sandra Bibiana; Winemiller, Kirk O

    2014-01-01

    In response to temporal changes in the quality and availability of food resources, consumers should adjust their foraging behavior in a manner that maximizes energy and nutrient intake and, when resources are limiting, minimizes dietary overlap with other consumers. Floodplains of the Amazon and its lowland tributaries are characterized by strong, yet predictable, hydrological seasonality, seasonal availability of fruits, seeds, and other food resources of terrestrial origin, and diverse assemblages of frugivorous fishes, including morphologically similar species of several characiform families. Here, we investigated how diets of frugivorous fishes in the Amazon change in response to fluctuations in food availability, and how this influences patterns of interspecific dietary overlap. We tested predictions from classical theories of foraging and resource competition by estimating changes in diet breadth and overlap across seasons. We monitored fruiting phenology to assess food availability, and surveyed local fish populations during three hydrological seasons in an oligotrophic river and an adjacent oxbow lake in the Colombian Amazon. We analyzed stomach contents and stable isotope data to evaluate temporal and interspecific relationships for dietary composition, breadth, and overlap. Diets of six species of characiform fishes representing three genera changed according to seasonal fluctuations in food availability, and patterns of diet breadth and interspecific overlap during the peak flood pulse were consistent with predictions of optimal foraging theory. During times of high fruit abundance, fishes consumed items to which their functional morphological traits seemed best adapted, potentially enhancing net energy and nutritional gains. As the annual flood pulse subsided and availability of forest food resources in aquatic habitats changed, there was not a consistent pattern of diet breadth expansion or compression. Nonetheless, shifts in both diet composition and

  16. Growth and development rates in a riparian spider are altered by asynchrony between the timing and amount of a resource subsidy.

    PubMed

    Marczak, Laurie B; Richardson, John S

    2008-05-01

    Rapid growth in response to increased prey abundance may be induced by environmental variability associated with resource subsidies. Spiders living in riparian areas are subject to frequent, episodic bursts of aquatic prey (subsidies). These periods of high resource abundance may occur at different points in recipient consumers' development through variation in emergence patterns of prey between years or across a landscape. We examine how variable timing of subsidy abundance intersects with life history scheduling to produce different growth and development outcomes for individuals within a population. Through a series of controlled feeding experiments, we tested the hypotheses that the spider Tetragnatha versicolor: (1) exhibits compensatory growth in response to subsidy variability, (2) that rapid increases in mass may result in a greater risk of mortality, and (3) that the timing of subsidy resources relative to the development schedule of this spider may produce different outcomes for individual growth patterns and adult condition. Spiders fed at very high rates grew fastest but also showed evidence of increased mortality risk during moulting. T. versicolor is capable of exhibiting strong growth compensation-individuals suffering initial growth restriction were able to catch up completely with animals on a constant diet utilising the same amount of food. Spiders that received an early pulse of resources (simulating an early arrival of an aquatic insect subsidy to riparian forests) did worse on all measures of development and fitness than spiders that received either a constant supply of food or a late pulse of resources. Importantly, receiving large amounts of food early in life appears to actually confer relative disadvantages in terms of later performance compared with receiving subsidies later in development. Subsidies may provide greater benefits to individuals or age cohorts encountering this resource abundance closer to the onset of reproductive efforts

  17. Influence of species, size and relative abundance on the outcomes of competitive interactions between brook trout and juvenile coho salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thornton, Emily J; Duda, Jeff; Quinn, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    Resource competition between animals is influenced by a number of factors including the species, size and relative abundance of competing individuals. Stream-dwelling animals often experience variably available food resources, and some employ territorial behaviors to increase their access to food. We investigated the factors that affect dominance between resident, non-native brook trout and recolonizing juvenile coho salmon in the Elwha River, WA, USA, to see if brook trout are likely to disrupt coho salmon recolonization via interference competition. During dyadic laboratory feeding trials, we hypothesized that fish size, not species, would determine which individuals consumed the most food items, and that species would have no effect. We found that species, not size, played a significant role in dominance; coho salmon won 95% of trials, even when only 52% the length of their brook trout competitors. As the pairs of competing fish spent more time together during a trial sequence, coho salmon began to consume more food, and brook trout began to lose more, suggesting that the results of early trials influenced fish performance later. In group trials, we hypothesized that group composition and species would not influence fish foraging success. In single species groups, coho salmon consumed more than brook trout, but the ranges overlapped. Brook trout consumption remained constant through all treatments, but coho salmon consumed more food in treatments with fewer coho salmon, suggesting that coho salmon experienced more intra- than inter-specific competition and that brook trout do not pose a substantial challenge. Based on our results, we think it is unlikely that competition from brook trout will disrupt Elwha River recolonization by coho salmon.

  18. Terminologie alimentaire (Food Terminology).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Jean-Francois

    1980-01-01

    Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fast foods, fast foods industry, fast foods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)

  19. Anthropogenic resource subsidies determine space use by Australian arid zone dingoes: an improved resource selection modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Newsome, Thomas M; Ballard, Guy-Anthony; Dickman, Christopher R; Fleming, Peter J S; Howden, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Dingoes (Canis lupus dingo) were introduced to Australia and became feral at least 4,000 years ago. We hypothesized that dingoes, being of domestic origin, would be adaptable to anthropogenic resource subsidies and that their space use would be affected by the dispersion of those resources. We tested this by analyzing Resource Selection Functions (RSFs) developed from GPS fixes (locations) of dingoes in arid central Australia. Using Generalized Linear Mixed-effect Models (GLMMs), we investigated resource relationships for dingoes that had access to abundant food near mine facilities, and for those that did not. From these models, we predicted the probability of dingo occurrence in relation to anthropogenic resource subsidies and other habitat characteristics over ∼ 18,000 km(2). Very small standard errors and subsequent pervasively high P-values of results will become more important as the size of data sets, such as our GPS tracking logs, increases. Therefore, we also investigated methods to minimize the effects of serial and spatio-temporal correlation among samples and unbalanced study designs. Using GLMMs, we accounted for some of the correlation structure of GPS animal tracking data; however, parameter standard errors remained very small and all predictors were highly significant. Consequently, we developed an alternative approach that allowed us to review effect sizes at different spatial scales and determine which predictors were sufficiently ecologically meaningful to include in final RSF models. We determined that the most important predictor for dingo occurrence around mine sites was distance to the refuse facility. Away from mine sites, close proximity to human-provided watering points was predictive of dingo dispersion as were other landscape factors including palaeochannels, rocky rises and elevated drainage depressions. Our models demonstrate that anthropogenically supplemented food and water can alter dingo-resource relationships. The spatial

  20. Identifying consumer-resource population dynamics using paleoecological data.

    PubMed

    Einarsson, Árni; Hauptfleisch, Ulf; Leavitt, Peter R; Ives, Anthony R

    2016-02-01

    Ecologists have long been fascinated by cyclic population fluctuations, because they suggest strong interactions between exploiter and victim species. Nonetheless, even for populations showing high-amplitude fluctuations, it is often hard to identify which species are the key drivers of the dynamics, because data are generally only available for a single species. Here, we use a paleoecological approach to investigate fluctuations in the midge population in Lake Mývatn, Iceland, which ranges over several orders of magnitude in irregular, multigeneration cycles. Previous circumstantial evidence points to consumer-resource interactions between midges and their primary food, diatoms, as the cause of these high-amplitude fluctuations. Using a pair of sediment cores from the lake, we reconstructed 26 years of dynamics of midges using egg remains and of algal groups using diagnostic pigments. We analyzed these data using statistical methods that account for both the autocorrelated nature of paleoecological data and measurement error caused by the mixing of sediment layers. The analyses revealed a signature of consumer-resource interactions in the fluctuations of midges and diatoms: diatom abundance (as inferred from biomarker pigment diatoxanthin) increased when midge abundance was low, and midge abundance (inferred from egg capsules) decreased when diatom abundance was low. Similar patterns were not found for pigments characterizing the other dominant primary producer group in the lake (cyanobacteria), subdominant algae (cryptophytes), or ubiquitous but chemically unstable biomarkers of total algal abundance (chlorophyll a); however, a significant but weaker pattern was found for the chemically stable indicator of total algal populations (β-carotene) to which diatoms are the dominant contributor. These analyses provide the first paleoecological evaluation of specific trophic interactions underlying high amplitude population fluctuations in lakes.

  1. Influence of edge on predator prey distribution and abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Steven H.

    2004-03-01

    I investigated the effect of spatial configuration on distribution and abundance of invertebrate trophic groups by counting soil arthropods under boxes (21 × 9.5 cm) arranged in six different patterns that varied in the amount of edge (137-305 cm). I predicted fewer individuals from the consumer trophic group (Collembola) in box groups with greater amount of edge. This prediction was based on the assumption that predators (mites, ants, spiders, centipedes) select edge during foraging and thereby reduce abundance of the less mobile consumer group under box patterns with greater edge. Consumer abundance (Collembola) was not correlated with amount of edge. Among the predator groups, mite, ant and centipede abundance related to the amount of edge of box groups. However, in contrast to predictions, abundance of these predators was negatively correlated with amount of edge in box patterns. All Collembola predators, with the exception of ants, were less clumped in distribution than Collembola. The results are inconsistent with the view that predators used box edges to predate the less mobile consumer trophic group. Alternative explanations for the spatial patterns other than predator-prey relations include (1) a negative relationship between edge and moisture, (2) a positive relationship between edge and detritus decomposition (i.e. mycelium as food for the consumer group), and (3) a negative relationship between edge and the interstices between adjacent boxes. Landscape patterns likely affect microclimate, food, and predator-prey relations and, therefore, future experimental designs need to control these factors individually to distinguish among alternative hypotheses.

  2. Food safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... become contaminated. Higher risk foods include red meats, poultry, eggs, cheese, dairy products, raw sprouts, and raw ... soap after preparing each food item. Separate meat, poultry, and seafood from other foods during preparation. To ...

  3. Food Labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... the food came from, whether the food is organic, and certain health claims. So who decides what ... make that claim. Foods that are labeled "USDA organic" are required to have at least 95% organic ...

  4. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  5. ICON: food allergy.

    PubMed

    Burks, A Wesley; Tang, Mimi; Sicherer, Scott; Muraro, Antonella; Eigenmann, Philippe A; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Chiang, Wen; Beyer, Kirsten; Wood, Robert; Hourihane, Jonathan; Jones, Stacie M; Lack, Gideon; Sampson, Hugh A

    2012-04-01

    Food allergies can result in life-threatening reactions and diminish quality of life. In the last several decades, the prevalence of food allergies has increased in several regions throughout the world. Although more than 170 foods have been identified as being potentially allergenic, a minority of these foods cause the majority of reactions, and common food allergens vary between geographic regions. Treatment of food allergy involves strict avoidance of the trigger food. Medications manage symptoms of disease, but currently, there is no cure for food allergy. In light of the increasing burden of allergic diseases, the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; World Allergy Organization; and American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology have come together to increase the communication of information about allergies and asthma at a global level. Within the framework of this collaboration, termed the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology, a series of consensus documents called International Consensus ON (ICON) are being developed to serve as an important resource and support physicians in managing different allergic diseases. An author group was formed to describe the natural history, prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of food allergies in the context of the global community.

  6. Density- and trait-mediated effects of a parasite and a predator in a tri-trophic food web.

    PubMed

    Banerji, Aabir; Duncan, Alison B; Griffin, Joanne S; Humphries, Stuart; Petchey, Owen L; Kaltz, Oliver

    2015-05-01

    Despite growing interest in ecological consequences of parasitism in food webs, relatively little is known about effects of parasites on long-term population dynamics of non-host species or about whether such effects are density or trait mediated. We studied a tri-trophic food chain comprised of (i) a bacterial basal resource (Serratia fonticola), (ii) an intermediate consumer (Paramecium caudatum), (iii) a top predator (Didinium nasutum) and (iv) a parasite of the intermediate consumer (Holospora undulata). A fully factorial experimental manipulation of predator and parasite presence/absence was combined with analyses of population dynamics, modelling and analyses of host (Paramecium) morphology and behaviour. Predation and parasitism each reduced the abundance of the intermediate consumer (Paramecium), and parasitism indirectly reduced the abundance of the basal resource (Serratia). However, in combination, predation and parasitism had non-additive effects on the abundance of the intermediate consumer, as well as on that of the basal resource. In both cases, the negative effect of parasitism seemed to be effaced by predation. Infection of the intermediate consumer reduced predator abundance. Modelling and additional experimentation revealed that this was most likely due to parasite reduction of intermediate host abundance (a density-mediated effect), as opposed to changes in predator functional or numerical response. Parasitism altered morphological and behavioural traits, by reducing host cell length and increasing the swimming speed of cells with moderate parasite loads. Additional tests showed no significant difference in Didinium feeding rate on infected and uninfected hosts, suggesting that the combination of these modifications does not affect host vulnerability to predation. However, estimated rates of encounter with Serratia based on these modifications were higher for infected Paramecium than for uninfected Paramecium. A mixture of density-mediated and

  7. Nutrition Activities Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Special Education.

    The resource guide suggests activities to help special education students make appropriate choices about their nutritional habits. It is explained that the activities can be infused into other curriculum areas. The guide consists of five themes and includes performance objectives for each: foods eaten at school (planning a school lunch, keeping a…

  8. Natural Resources Education Notebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Eldon C.

    This notebook was developed cooperatively by the United States Soil Conservation Service and Iowa State University to be used by teachers in providing instruction regarding certain aspects of natural resources. It includes four sections which provide: (1) an instructional plan about the conservation provisions of the 1985 Food Security Act; (2) an…

  9. Abandoned pastoral settlements provide concentrations of resources for savanna birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söderström, Bo; Reid, Robin S.

    2010-03-01

    Knowledge is poor of how fertilization affects birds in grasslands. We investigated the impact on birds of abandoned pastoral settlements that historically received very high levels of livestock dung. A total of 28 abandoned settlements and 74 landscape controls - in Koyake Group Ranch and Maasai Mara National Reserve in Kenya - were surveyed for birds during the wet and/or dry season. Our results showed that bird species richness and total abundance increased within 200 m of abandoned pastoral settlements, particularly during the dry season when foraging resources on the savanna are limited. The high concentrations of nutrients inside abandoned settlements favoured the abundance of Diptera and Coleoptera, as shown by invertebrate surveys performed during the dry season on a subset of 32 sites. Both total numbers and dry biomass of these two invertebrate orders were higher on abandoned settlements in comparison with the surrounding landscape. We conclude that higher fertilization levels cause a temporal and spatial redistribution of birds on the savanna. Livestock fertilization and bird abundance are probably linked through an increase in abundance of invertebrate food upon which birds feed in an opportunistic fashion.

  10. Distributions of Competing Container Mosquitoes Depend on Detritus Types, Nutrient Ratios, and Food Availability

    PubMed Central

    Murrell, Ebony G.; Damal, Kavitha; Lounibos, L. P.; Juliano, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    Coexistence of competitors may result if resources are sufficiently abundant to render competition unimportant, or if species differ in resource requirements. Detritus type has been shown to affect interspecific competitive outcomes between Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (L.) larvae under controlled conditions. We assessed the relationships among spatial distributions of detritus types, nutrients, and aquatic larvae of these species in nature. We collected mosquitoes, water, and detritus from artificial containers across 24 Florida cemeteries that varied in relative abundances of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus.We measured nutrient content of fine particulate organic matter in water samples as total N, P, and C and ratios of these nutrients. We quantified food availability via a bioassay, raising individual Aedes larvae in the laboratory in standard volumes of field-collected, particulate-containing water from each cemetery. Quantities of detritus types collected in standard containers were significant predictors of nutrients and nutrient ratios. Nutrient abundances were significant predictors of relative abundance of Ae. aegypti, and of larval survival and development by both species in the bioassay. Survival and development of larvae reared in particulate-containing water from sites decreased with decreasing relative abundance of Ae. aegypti. These data suggest that N, P, and C availabilities are determined by detritus inputs to containers and that these nutrients in turn determine the feeding environment encountered by larvae, the intensity of interspecific competition among larvae, and subsequent relative abundances of species at sites. Detritus inputs, nutrients, and food availability thus seem to contribute to distributions of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in cemetery containers throughout Florida. PMID:22707761

  11. [Population dynamics of thrushes and seasonal resource partition].

    PubMed

    Burskiĭ, O V; Demidova, E Iu; Morkovin, A A

    2014-01-01

    We studied seasonal population dynamics in birds using four thrush species from the Yenisei middle taiga region as an example. Long-term data on bird route censuses, capture-mark-recapture, and nest observa- tions were incorporated in the analysis. Particularly, methodological problems that complicate a direct comparison between assessed numbers at different phases of the annual cycle are considered. The integrated analysis of the results allowed comparing changes in numbers, energy expenditure, age structure, migrating status, and density distribution of selected populations during the snowless period and relating them to seasonal changes in food resource abundance. Thrush population numbers within the breeding range, and their energy consumption in the Yenisei middle taiga proportionately reflect the seasonal change in abundance of food resources. The compliance between resource intake and carrying capacity of the environment is attained by: timing of arrival and departure regarding to the species' range of tolerance; change in numbers as a result of reproduction and mortality; change in numbers due to habitat changes and long-distance movements; increasing energetic expenditures during reproduction and molt; timing, intensity and replication of nesting attempts; timing of molt and proportion of molting individuals in a population; individual variations of the annual cycle. Reproductive growth of local bird populations is not fast enough to catch up with seasonal growth of ecosystems productivity. Superabundance of invertebrates at the peak of the season offers a temporal niche which, on the one hand, is suitable for species capable of diet switching, while, on the other hand, may be used by specialized consumers, namely tropical migrants for whom, at high resource level, a shortened breeding period suffices.

  12. Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Sathe, Shridhar K; Liu, Changqi; Zaffran, Valerie D

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is receiving increased attention in recent years. Because there is currently no known cure for food allergy, avoiding the offending food is the best defense for sensitive individuals. Type I food allergy is mediated by food proteins, and thus, theoretically, any food protein is a potential allergen. Variability of an individual's immune system further complicates attempts to understand allergen-antibody interaction. In this article, we briefly review food allergy occurrence, prevalence, mechanisms, and detection. Efforts aimed at reducing/eliminating allergens through food processing are discussed. Future research needs are addressed.

  13. Seasonal Variability of Meiofaunal Abundance in the Oligo-mesohaline Area of the Gironde Estuary, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, P. J. P.; Castel, J.; Souza-Santos, L. P.

    1996-11-01

    The seasonality of meiofauna abundance was examined at an intertidal mud flat located in the oligo-mesohaline reach of the Gironde Estuary, France. Samples were collected weekly for 1 year at two stations located at the lower and the upper level of the mud flat (Stations L and H, respectively). Clear seasonal variations were evident for the meiofauna at both stations. Multivariate analysis revealed that meiofaunal composition, as well as biomass, was mainly regulated by temperature and salinity. Meiofaunal abundances were dominated by harpacticoid copepods at Station H and by nematodes at Station L, with meiofaunal biomass dominated by harpacticoid copepods at both stations, an unusual situation in estuarine muddy sediments. The meiofaunal community response to salinity occurs both as a chronic effect and as an anticipation to estuarine water salinity changes, thus suggesting that the animals response to this factor in oligo-mesohaline areas can also be an acute response to local heavy rains which can influence the meiofauna due to both variations of interstitial salinity and by erosion. Microphytobenthic resources, as estimated by chlorophyll aand pheopigment concentrations, had no strong influence on either meiofauna composition or biomass. Furthermore, evidence is given that microphytobenthic food supply is not a limiting factor to the benthic fauna in the oligo-mesohaline area of the Gironde Estuary.

  14. Effect of Leaf Type and Pesticide Exposure on Abundance of Bacterial Taxa in Mosquito Larval Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Muturi, Ephantus J.; Orindi, Benedict O.; Kim, Chang-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Lentic freshwater systems including those inhabited by aquatic stages of mosquitoes derive most of their carbon inputs from terrestrial organic matter mainly leaf litter. The leaf litter is colonized by microbial communities that provide the resource base for mosquito larvae. While the microbial biomass associated with different leaf species in container aquatic habitats is well documented, the taxonomic composition of these microbes and their response to common environmental stressors is poorly understood. We used indoor aquatic microcosms to determine the abundances of major taxonomic groups of bacteria in leaf litters from seven plant species and their responses to low concentrations of four pesticides with different modes of action on the target organisms; permethrin, malathion, atrazine and glyphosate. We tested the hypotheses that leaf species support different quantities of major taxonomic groups of bacteria and that exposure to pesticides at environmentally relevant concentrations alters bacterial abundance and community structure in mosquito larval habitats. We found support for both hypotheses suggesting that leaf litter identity and chemical contamination may alter the quality and quantity of mosquito food base (microbial communities) in larval habitats. The effect of pesticides on microbial communities varied significantly among leaf types, suggesting that the impact of pesticides on natural microbial communities may be highly complex and difficult to predict. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the potential for detritus composition within mosquito larval habitats and exposure to pesticides to influence the quality of mosquito larval habitats. PMID:23940789

  15. Bee Abundance and Nutritional Status in Relation to Grassland Management Practices in an Agricultural Landscape.

    PubMed

    Smith, Griffin W; Debinski, Diane M; Scavo, Nicole A; Lange, Corey J; Delaney, John T; Moranz, Raymond A; Miller, James R; Engle, David M; Toth, Amy L

    2016-04-01

    Grasslands provide important resources for pollinators in agricultural landscapes. Managing grasslands with fire and grazing has the potential to benefit plant and pollinator communities, though there is uncertainty about the ideal approach. We examined the relationships among burning and grazing regimes, plant communities, and Bombus species and Apis mellifera L. abundance and nutritional indicators at the Grand River Grasslands in southern Iowa and northern Missouri. Treatment regimes included burn-only, grazed-and-burned, and patch-burn graze (pastures subdivided into three temporally distinct fire patches with free access by cattle). The premise of the experimental design was that patch-burn grazing would increase habitat heterogeneity, thereby providing more diverse and abundant floral resources for pollinators. We predicted that both bee abundance and individual bee nutritional indicators (bee size and lipid content) would be positively correlated with floral resource abundance. There were no significant differences among treatments with respect to bee abundance. However, some of the specific characteristics of the plant community showed significant relationships with bee response variables. Pastures with greater abundance of floral resources had greater bee abundance but lower bee nutritional indicators. Bee nutritional variables were positively correlated with vegetation height, but, in some cases, negatively correlated with stocking rate. These results suggest grassland site characteristics such as floral resource abundance and stocking rate are of potential importance to bee pollinators and suggest avenues for further research to untangle the complex interactions between grassland management, plant responses, and bee health.

  16. Solar and stellar photospheric abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allende Prieto, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    The determination of photospheric abundances in late-type stars from spectroscopic observations is a well-established field, built on solid theoretical foundations. Improving those foundations to refine the accuracy of the inferred abundances has proven challenging, but progress has been made. In parallel, developments on instrumentation, chiefly regarding multi-object spectroscopy, have been spectacular, and a number of projects are collecting large numbers of observations for stars across the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, promising important advances in our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. After providing a brief description of the basic physics and input data involved in the analysis of stellar spectra, a review is made of the analysis steps, and the available tools to cope with large observational efforts. The paper closes with a quick overview of relevant ongoing and planned spectroscopic surveys, and highlights of recent research on photospheric abundances.

  17. Facilitation and predation structure a grassland detrital food web: the responses of soil nematodes to isopod processing of litter.

    PubMed

    Bastow, Justin L

    2011-09-01

    1. Detritus can support successive consumers, whose interactions may be structured by changes in the condition of their shared resource. One model of such species interactions is a processing chain, in which consumers feeding on the resource in a less processed state change the resource condition for subsequent consumers. 2. In a series of experiments, the hypothesis was tested that a common detritivore, the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber, affects soil nematodes through the processing of plant litter. Different detrital resources were added to soil from a California coastal prairie in order to simulate litter processing by the detritivore. Treatments that included only whole grass litter corresponded to detrital food webs lacking detritivores, while treatments that included mixtures of P. scaber faeces and grass litter corresponded to different densities or feeding rates of P. scaber. 3. Simulated litter processing by P. scaber increased the abundance of bacterivorous nematodes by between 32% and 202% after 24-44 days in laboratory experiments, but had no effect on fungivorous or predaceous nematodes. 4. In a subsequent field experiment, however, fungivorous nematodes were suppressed by isopod litter processing while bacterivores showed no response. Instead, P. scaber processing of litter increased the abundance of predaceous nematodes in the field experiment by 176%. 5. When simulated litter processing of litter was crossed in laboratory experiments with predaceous nematode addition (comparable to the response of predators in the field experiment), the abundance of bacterivores was increased by isopod processing of litter (by an average of 122%), but suppressed by elevated densities of predaceous nematodes (by an average of 41%). 6. This suggests that litter processing by P. scaber facilitates the bacterial channel of the soil food web, but that predaceous nematodes suppress the response of bacterivores in the field. Processing chain interactions may

  18. Nutrition Books and Resources 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Dietetic Association, Honolulu.

    This is an annotated bibliography listing books, resources, and films and filmstrips on the subject of nutrition. Sections include: Food Sense; Controlling Your Weight; Feeding Your Family; Food for Teens; Learning and Teaching Nutrition; Other Sources; and Films and Filmstrips. The material is in pamphlet form. (LK)

  19. Effect of food restriction on the energy metabolism of the Chinese bulbul (Pycnonotus sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    LIANG, Qing-Jian; ZHAO, Lei; WANG, Jia-Qi; CHEN, Qian; ZHENG, Wei-Hong; LIU, Jin-Song

    2015-01-01

    Food resources play an important role in the regulation of animals’ physiology and behavior. We investigated the effect of short-term food restriction on metabolic thermogenesis of Chinese bulbuls (Pycnonotus sinensis) by measuring changes in body mass, body fat, basic metabolic rate (BMR), and organ mass of wild-caught Chinese bulbuls from Wenzhou, China. Short-term food restriction induced a significant decrease in body mass and body fat but body mass returned to normal levels soon after food was no longer restricted. Food restriction caused a significant reduction in BMR after 7 days (P<0.05), which returned to normal levels after food restriction ceased. Log total BMR was positively correlated with log body mass (r2=0.126, P<0.05). The dry masses of livers and the digestive tract were higher in birds that had been subject to temporary food restriction than in control birds and those subject to continual food restriction (P<0.001 and P<0.05, respectively). There was also significant differences in the dry mass of the lungs (P<0.05), heart (P<0.01), and spleen (P<0.05) in birds subject to short-term food restriction compared to control birds and those subject to continual food restriction. BMR was positively correlated with body and organ (heart, kidney and stomach) mass. These results suggest that the Chinese bulbul adjusts to restricted food availability by utilizing its energy reserves, lowering its BMR and changing the weight of various internal organs so as to balance total energy requirements. These may all be survival strategies that allow birds to cope with unpredictable variation in food abundance. PMID:25855226

  20. The solar abundance of beryllium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, J. E.; Aller, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    The solar abundance of beryllium is deduced from high-resolution Kitt Peak observations of the 3130.43- and 3131.08-A lines of Be II interpreted by the method of spectrum synthesis. The results are in good agreement with those previously obtained by Grevesse (1968) and by Hauge and Engvold (1968) and indicate that in the photospheric layers, beryllium is depleted below the chondritic value by a factor of about two. It is found that the beryllium abundance is equal to logN(Be)/N(H) + 12 = 1.08 plus or minus 0.05.

  1. Can Individual and Social Patterns of Resource Use Buffer Animal Populations against Resource Decline?

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Sam C.; Lindenmayer, David B.; Wood, Jeff T.; McBurney, Lachlan; Blair, David; Blyton, Michaela D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Species in many ecosystems are facing declines of key resources. If we are to understand and predict the effects of resource loss on natural populations, we need to understand whether and how the way animals use resources changes under resource decline. We investigated how the abundance of arboreal marsupials varies in response to a critical resource, hollow-bearing trees. Principally, we asked what mechanisms mediate the relationship between resources and abundance? Do animals use a greater or smaller proportion of the remaining resource, and is there a change in cooperative resource use (den sharing), as the availability of hollow trees declines? Analyses of data from 160 sites surveyed from 1997 to 2007 showed that hollow tree availability was positively associated with abundance of the mountain brushtail possum, the agile antechinus and the greater glider. The abundance of Leadbeater’s possum was primarily influenced by forest age. Notably, the relationship between abundance and hollow tree availability was significantly less than 1∶1 for all species. This was due primarily to a significant increase by all species in the proportional use of hollow-bearing trees where the abundance of this resource was low. The resource-sharing response was weaker and inconsistent among species. Two species, the mountain brushtail possum and the agile antechinus, showed significant but contrasting relationships between the number of animals per occupied tree and hollow tree abundance. The discrepancies between the species can be explained partly by differences in several aspects of the species’ biology, including body size, types of hollows used and social behaviour as it relates to hollow use. Our results show that individual and social aspects of resource use are not always static in response to resource availability and support the need to account for dynamic resource use patterns in predictive models of animal distribution and abundance. PMID:23320100

  2. Can individual and social patterns of resource use buffer animal populations against resource decline?

    PubMed

    Banks, Sam C; Lindenmayer, David B; Wood, Jeff T; McBurney, Lachlan; Blair, David; Blyton, Michaela D J

    2013-01-01

    Species in many ecosystems are facing declines of key resources. If we are to understand and predict the effects of resource loss on natural populations, we need to understand whether and how the way animals use resources changes under resource decline. We investigated how the abundance of arboreal marsupials varies in response to a critical resource, hollow-bearing trees. Principally, we asked what mechanisms mediate the relationship between resources and abundance? Do animals use a greater or smaller proportion of the remaining resource, and is there a change in cooperative resource use (den sharing), as the availability of hollow trees declines? Analyses of data from 160 sites surveyed from 1997 to 2007 showed that hollow tree availability was positively associated with abundance of the mountain brushtail possum, the agile antechinus and the greater glider. The abundance of Leadbeater's possum was primarily influenced by forest age. Notably, the relationship between abundance and hollow tree availability was significantly less than 1:1 for all species. This was due primarily to a significant increase by all species in the proportional use of hollow-bearing trees where the abundance of this resource was low. The resource-sharing response was weaker and inconsistent among species. Two species, the mountain brushtail possum and the agile antechinus, showed significant but contrasting relationships between the number of animals per occupied tree and hollow tree abundance. The discrepancies between the species can be explained partly by differences in several aspects of the species' biology, including body size, types of hollows used and social behaviour as it relates to hollow use. Our results show that individual and social aspects of resource use are not always static in response to resource availability and support the need to account for dynamic resource use patterns in predictive models of animal distribution and abundance.

  3. Herpes - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... The following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/pregnancy/complications-herpes The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists -- ...

  4. Abundance and Distribution of Geographically Isolated ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWS) are important landscape elements involved in hydrologic, biogeochemical, and biological functioning. Their influence, under certain circumstances, can significantly affect other waters of the Unites States. However, there have been no data-based estimates of the abundance of GIWs at national scales in the US, frustrating efforts to properly manage the resource. We applied a distance-based floodplain and riparian zone proxy to existing data layers from the National Hydrography Dataset (1:24,000k) and applied a geospatial buffering process to National Wetlands Inventory data to quantify the abundance of connected wetlands at significant and relevant scales. Our analyses suggest GIWs are prevalent throughout the conterminous United States, with exceptional densities in portions of the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains, the Prairie Pothole Region of the Upper Midwest, and significant densities elsewhere. Indeed, over 65,000 km2 of GIWs may exist. We provide further analyses of the types, distributions, and regional extent of these systems. Lastly, we also explore additional connectivity measures associated with adjacency and relative geographic isolation to floodplains and other elements of the hydrologic landscape. Presentation at INTECOL International Wetlands Conference (Changshu, China; Sept. 2016)

  5. Global abundance of planktonic heterotrophic protists in the deep ocean.

    PubMed

    Pernice, Massimo C; Forn, Irene; Gomes, Ana; Lara, Elena; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Arrieta, Jesus M; del Carmen Garcia, Francisca; Hernando-Morales, Victor; MacKenzie, Roy; Mestre, Mireia; Sintes, Eva; Teira, Eva; Valencia, Joaquin; Varela, Marta M; Vaqué, Dolors; Duarte, Carlos M; Gasol, Josep M; Massana, Ramon

    2015-03-01

    The dark ocean is one of the largest biomes on Earth, with critical roles in organic matter remineralization and global carbon sequestration. Despite its recognized importance, little is known about some key microbial players, such as the community of heterotrophic protists (HP), which are likely the main consumers of prokaryotic biomass. To investigate this microbial component at a global scale, we determined their abundance and biomass in deepwater column samples from the Malaspina 2010 circumnavigation using a combination of epifluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. HP were ubiquitously found at all depths investigated down to 4000 m. HP abundances decreased with depth, from an average of 72±19 cells ml(-1) in mesopelagic waters down to 11±1 cells ml(-1) in bathypelagic waters, whereas their total biomass decreased from 280±46 to 50±14 pg C ml(-1). The parameters that better explained the variance of HP abundance were depth and prokaryote abundance, and to lesser extent oxygen concentration. The generally good correlation with prokaryotic abundance suggested active grazing of HP on prokaryotes. On a finer scale, the prokaryote:HP abundance ratio varied at a regional scale, and sites with the highest ratios exhibited a larger contribution of fungi molecular signal. Our study is a step forward towards determining the relationship between HP and their environment, unveiling their importance as players in the dark ocean's microbial food web.

  6. Antarctic mixotrophic protist abundances by microscopy and molecular methods.

    PubMed

    Gast, Rebecca J; McKie-Krisberg, Zaid M; Fay, Scott A; Rose, Julie M; Sanders, Robert W

    2014-08-01

    Protists are traditionally described as either phototrophic or heterotrophic, but studies have indicated that mixotrophic species, organisms that combine both strategies, can have significant impacts on prey populations in marine microbial food webs. While estimates of active mixotroph abundances in environmental samples are determined microscopically by fluorescent particle ingestion, species identification is difficult. We developed SYBR-based qPCR strategies for three Antarctic algal species that we identified as mixotrophic. This method and traditional ingestion experiments were applied to determine the total mixotroph abundance in Antarctic water samples, to ascertain the abundance of known mixotrophic species, and to identify environmental variables that impact the distribution and abundance of these species. Despite differences in sampling locations and years, mixotroph distribution was strongly influenced by season. Environmental variables that best explained variation in the individual mixotroph species abundances included temperature, oxygen, date, fluorescence, conductivity, and latitude. Phosphate was identified as an additional explanatory variable when nutrients were included in the analysis. Utilizing culture-based grazing rates and qPCR abundances, the estimated summed impact on bacterial populations by the three mixotrophs was usually < 2% of the overall mixotrophic grazing, but in one sample, Pyramimonas was estimated to contribute up to 80% of mixotrophic grazing.

  7. Consumer-Resource Dynamics: Quantity, Quality, and Allocation

    PubMed Central

    Getz, Wayne M.; Owen-Smith, Norman

    2011-01-01

    Background The dominant paradigm for modeling the complexities of interacting populations and food webs is a system of coupled ordinary differential equations in which the state of each species, population, or functional trophic group is represented by an aggregated numbers-density or biomass-density variable. Here, using the metaphysiological approach to model consumer-resource interactions, we formulate a two-state paradigm that represents each population or group in a food web in terms of both its quantity and quality. Methodology and Principal Findings The formulation includes an allocation function controlling the relative proportion of extracted resources to increasing quantity versus elevating quality. Since lower quality individuals senesce more rapidly than higher quality individuals, an optimal allocation proportion exists and we derive an expression for how this proportion depends on population parameters that determine the senescence rate, the per-capita mortality rate, and the effects of these rates on the dynamics of the quality variable. We demonstrate that oscillations do not arise in our model from quantity-quality interactions alone, but require consumer-resource interactions across trophic levels that can be stabilized through judicious resource allocation strategies. Analysis and simulations provide compelling arguments for the necessity of populations to evolve quality-related dynamics in the form of maternal effects, storage or other appropriate structures. They also indicate that resource allocation switching between investments in abundance versus quality provide a powerful mechanism for promoting the stability of consumer-resource interactions in seasonally forcing environments. Conclusions/Significance Our simulations show that physiological inefficiencies associated with this switching can be favored by selection due to the diminished exposure of inefficient consumers to strong oscillations associated with the well-known paradox of

  8. THE SOLAR FLARE IRON ABUNDANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, K. J. H.; Dennis, B. R. E-mail: Brian.R.Dennis@nasa.gov

    2012-03-20

    The abundance of iron is measured from emission line complexes at 6.65 keV (Fe line) and 8 keV (Fe/Ni line) in RHESSI X-ray spectra during solar flares. Spectra during long-duration flares with steady declines were selected, with an isothermal assumption and improved data analysis methods over previous work. Two spectral fitting models give comparable results, viz., an iron abundance that is lower than previous coronal values but higher than photospheric values. In the preferred method, the estimated Fe abundance is A(Fe) = 7.91 {+-} 0.10 (on a logarithmic scale, with A(H) = 12) or 2.6 {+-} 0.6 times the photospheric Fe abundance. Our estimate is based on a detailed analysis of 1898 spectra taken during 20 flares. No variation from flare to flare is indicated. This argues for a fractionation mechanism similar to quiet-Sun plasma. The new value of A(Fe) has important implications for radiation loss curves, which are estimated.

  9. Resource use and the environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The human population will increase 50% by 2100 and the demand for resources and resulting negative environmental impacts will increase in the future if humans continue to use resources anywhere near the current rate. Producing enough food for the future is a daunting task, but to do so without deple...

  10. Effects of seed abundance on seed scatter-hoarding of Edward's rat (Leopoldamys edwardsi Muridae) at the individual level.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongmao; Cheng, Jinrui; Xiao, Zhishu; Zhang, Zhibin

    2008-11-01

    Mast seeding is a common phenomenon, and has important effects on seed dispersal and hoarding by animals. At population level, the predator satiation hypothesis proposes that the satiating effect of a large amount of seeds on a relatively small number of predators benefits seed survival in mast-seeding years. However, the effect of mast seeding on the scatter-hoarding of rodents at the individual level is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of seed abundance (by simulating mast seeding and non-mast seeding) on the removal, consumption and scatter-hoarding of seeds of Camellia oleifera (Theaceae) by Edward's rat Leopoldamys edwardsi (Muridae) in seminatural enclosures in southwest China. We wanted to test the masting-enhanced hoarding hypothesis, which suggests that rodents tend to scatter-hoard more seeds in mast-seeding years in order to occupy more food resources. Our results indicate that L. edwardsi tended to disperse and scatter-hoard more seeds of C. oleifera per night with increasing seed abundance, and to eat less seeds per night when there was a high level of seed abundance in the enclosure experiments. These results support the masting-enhanced hoarding hypothesis. This capacity of rodents may be an evolutionary adaptation to the mast-seeding phenomenon. Our results suggest that mast seeding benefits forest regeneration not only through the predator satiation effect at the population level, but also through increased hoarding by animals at the individual level.

  11. Food Safety and Quality. Uniform, Risk-Based Inspection System Needed to Ensure Safe Food Supply,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    Concerned about the effectiveness of the federal food safety inspection system, the Chairman, Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, House...federal resources for inspection, and (3) agencies are effectively coordinating their food safety and quality inspection efforts.

  12. Food Perceptions and Dietary Behavior of American-Indian Children, Their Caregivers, and Educators: Formative Assessment Findings from Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Toporoff, Elanah Greer; Story, Mary; Evans, Marguerite; Anliker, Jean; Davis, Sally; Sharma, Anjali; White, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Dietary findings from a school-based obesity prevention project (Pathways) are reported for children from six different American-Indian nations. A formative assessment was undertaken with teachers, caregivers, and children from nine schools to design a culturally appropriate intervention, including classroom curriculum, food service, physical education, and family components. This assessment employed a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods (including direct observations, paired-child in-depth interviews, focus groups with child caregivers and teachers, and semistructured interviews with caregivers and foodservice personnel) to query local perceptions and beliefs about foods commonly eaten and risk behaviors associated with childhood obesity at home, at school, and in the community. An abundance of high-fat, high-sugar foods was detected in children's diets described by caregivers, school food-service workers, and the children themselves. Although children and caregivers identified fruits and vegetables as healthy food choices, this knowledge does not appear to influence actual food choices. Frequent high-fat/high-sugar food sales in the schools, high-fat entrees in school meals, the use of food rewards in the classroom, rules about finishing all of one's food, and limited family resources are some of the competing factors that need to be addressed in the Pathways intervention. PMID:27667857

  13. Food Sensitivities

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Food sensitivities are a common but frequently unrecognized cause of chronic symptomatology in patients with known allergies. Food sensitivities often are not detected by skin testing. This article discusses the controversy surrounding the treatment of food sensitivities; the provocative sublingual and intradermal tests for sensitivities, and the importance of eliciting complete past and family histories from the allergic patient. Because patients with symptoms of food sensitivity are likely to visit their family doctor first, he should be the first to detect and treat them. Usually patients with a food sensitivity obtain relief from symptoms when the offending food(s) are excluded from their diet. PMID:21283500

  14. Abundance estimation and conservation biology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; MacKenzie, D.I.

    2004-01-01

    Abundance is the state variable of interest in most population–level ecological research and in most programs involving management and conservation of animal populations. Abundance is the single parameter of interest in capture–recapture models for closed populations (e.g., Darroch, 1958; Otis et al., 1978; Chao, 2001). The initial capture–recapture models developed for partially (Darroch, 1959) and completely (Jolly, 1965; Seber, 1965) open populations represented efforts to relax the restrictive assumption of population closure for the purpose of estimating abundance. Subsequent emphases in capture–recapture work were on survival rate estimation in the 1970’s and 1980’s (e.g., Burnham et al., 1987; Lebreton et al.,1992), and on movement estimation in the 1990’s (Brownie et al., 1993; Schwarz et al., 1993). However, from the mid–1990’s until the present time, capture–recapture investigators have expressed a renewed interest in abundance and related parameters (Pradel, 1996; Schwarz & Arnason, 1996; Schwarz, 2001). The focus of this session was abundance, and presentations covered topics ranging from estimation of abundance and rate of change in abundance, to inferences about the demographic processes underlying changes in abundance, to occupancy as a surrogate of abundance. The plenary paper by Link & Barker (2004) is provocative and very interesting, and it contains a number of important messages and suggestions. Link & Barker (2004) emphasize that the increasing complexity of capture–recapture models has resulted in large numbers of parameters and that a challenge to ecologists is to extract ecological signals from this complexity. They offer hierarchical models as a natural approach to inference in which traditional parameters are viewed as realizations of stochastic processes. These processes are governed by hyperparameters, and the inferential approach focuses on these hyperparameters. Link & Barker (2004) also suggest that our attention

  15. Actinide abundances in ordinary chondrites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagee, B.; Bernatowicz, T.J.; Podosek, F.A.; Johnson, M.L.; Burnett, D.S.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of 244Pu fission Xe, U, Th, and light REE (LREE) abundances, along with modal petrographic determinations of phosphate abundances, were carried out on equilibrated ordinary chondrites in order to define better the solar system Pu abundance and to determine the degree of variation of actinide and LREE abundances. Our data permit comparison of the directly measured Pu/ U ratio with that determined indirectly as (Pu/Nd) ?? (Nd/U) assuming that Pu behaves chemically as a LREE. Except for Guaren??a, and perhaps H chondrites in general, Pu concentrations are similar to that determined previously for St. Se??verin, although less precise because of higher trapped Xe contents. Trapped 130Xe 136Xe ratios appear to vary from meteorite to meteorite, but, relative to AVCC, all are similar in the sense of having less of the interstellar heavy Xe found in carbonaceous chondrite acid residues. The Pu/U and Pu/Nd ratios are consistent with previous data for St. Se??verin, but both tend to be slightly higher than those inferred from previous data on Angra dos Reis. Although significant variations exist, the distribution of our Th/U ratios, along with other precise isotope dilution data for ordinary chondrites, is rather symmetric about the CI chondrite value; however, actinide/(LREE) ratios are systematically lower than the CI value. Variations in actinide or LREE absolute and relative abundances are interpreted as reflecting differences in the proportions and/or compositions of more primitive components (chondrules and CAI materials?) incorporated into different regions of the ordinary chondrite parent bodies. The observed variations of Th/U, Nd/U, or Ce/U suggest that measurements of Pu/U on any single equilibrated ordinary chondrite specimen, such as St. Se??verin, should statistically be within ??20-30% of the average solar system value, although it is also clear that anomalous samples exist. ?? 1990.

  16. Ethnic-food safety concerns: an online survey of food safety professionals.

    PubMed

    Mauer, Whitney A; Kaneene, John B; DeArman, Vanessa T; Roberts, Cynthia A; Miller, Roseann; Pong, Lawrence; Dickey, Thomas E

    2006-06-01

    As ethnic foods become increasingly available in food establishments across the United States, food safety professionals are increasingly required to evaluate the safety of foods unfamiliar to them. The purpose of the study reported here was to conduct an online survey of food safety professionals that would 1) identify the types of ethnic foods with which food safety professionals were unfamiliar and for which they lacked adequate food safety information, 2) describe ethnic-food safety concerns related to food establishments, and 3) describe the ethnic-food resources currently used by food safety professionals. The study found that food safety professionals throughout the United States encountered a variety of ethnic-food establishments and ethnic foods for which they lacked ethnic-food safety resources, especially at the local level. Therefore, it will be important to identify unsafe food-handling practices in ethnic-food establishments, develop science-based guidelines for ethnic-food safety inspections, and distribute culturally appropriate educational materials for ethnic-food safety inspections.

  17. Shorebird migration in the face of climate change: potential shifts in migration phenology and resource availability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stutzman, Ryan J.; Fontaine, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    Changes in temperature and seasonality resulting from climate change are heterogeneous, potentially altering important sources of natural selection acting on species phenology. Some species have apparently adapted to climate change but the ability of most species to adapt remains unknown. The life history strategies of migratory animals are dictated by seasonal factors, which makes these species particularly vulnerable to heterogeneous changes in climate and phenology. Here, we examine the phenology of migratory shorebirds, their habitats, and primary food resources, and we hypothesize how climate change may affect migrants through predicted changes in phenology. Daily abundance of shorebirds at stopover sites was correlated with local phenology and peaked immediately prior to peaks in invertebrate food resources. A close relationship between migrant and invertebrate phenology indicates that shorebirds may be vulnerable to changes in seasonality driven by climate change. It is possible that shifts in migrant and invertebrate phenology will be congruent in magnitude and direction, but because migration phenology is dependent on a suite of ecological factors, any response is likely to occur at a larger temporal scale and may lag behind the response of invertebrate food resources. The resulting lack of sufficient access to food at stopover habitats may cause migrants to extend migration and have cascading effects throughout their life cycle. If the heterogeneous nature of climate change results in uneven changes in phenology between migrants and their prey, it may threaten the long-term viability of migratory populations

  18. Topographically driven predictions for river food webs: responses to land cover and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, M. E.; Dietrich, W. E.; Finlay, J. C.; Bode, C. A.; Hondzo, M.; Limm, M.; National CenterEarth Surface Dynamics

    2011-12-01

    Fluxes of materials and energy, as well as the performances and interactions of organisms in food webs are strongly influenced by topography and vegetation. We have been using a "predictive mapping" approach to investigate how resource fluxes and food web interactions change down the Eel River drainage network in Northwestern California. In this talk, I will focus on hydrologic and food web controls on the production and fate of dominant primary producers in the river (macroalgae, diatoms and cyanobacteria). Algal mediated processes (e.g. nitrogen-fixation) and processes that limit algal abundance (e.g. grazer control) change abruptly through the season and down drainage networks. Field surveys and mensurative experiments that map the drainage network positions of these changes, and manipulative field experiments that uncover their causes, set the stage for predictive mapping, which is necessary if not sufficient for forecasts of river ecosystem response to changes in climate, land use, or biota.

  19. Lunar Resources: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Ian A.

    2015-04-01

    There is growing interest in the possibility that the resource base of the Solar System might in future be used to supplement the economic resources of our own planet. As the Earth's closest celestial neighbour, the Moon is sure to feature prominently in these developments. In this paper I review what is currently known about economically exploitable resources on the Moon, while also stressing the need for continued lunar exploration. I find that, although it is difficult to identify any single lunar resource that will be sufficiently valuable to drive a lunar resource extraction industry on its own (notwithstanding claims sometimes made for the 3He isotope, which are found to be exaggerated), the Moon nevertheless does possess abundant raw materials that are of potential economic interest. These are relevant to a hierarchy of future applications, beginning with the use of lunar materials to facilitate human activities on the Moon itself, and progressing to the use of lunar resources to underpin a future industrial capability within the Earth-Moon system. In this way, gradually increasing access to lunar resources may help 'bootstrap' a space-based economy from which the world economy, and possibly also the world's environment, will ultimately benefit.

  20. Food provisioning alters infection dynamics in populations of a wild rodent

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Kristian M.; Henttonen, Heikki; Hirvelä-Koski, Varpu; Kipar, Anja; Mappes, Tapio; Stuart, Peter; Huitu, Otso

    2015-01-01

    While pathogens are often assumed to limit the growth of wildlife populations, experimental evidence for their effects is rare. A lack of food resources has been suggested to enhance the negative effects of pathogen infection on host populations, but this theory has received little investigation. We conducted a replicated two-factor enclosure experiment, with introduction of the bacterium Bordetella bronchiseptica and food supplementation, to evaluate the individual and interactive effects of pathogen infection and food availability on vole populations during a boreal winter. We show that prior to bacteria introduction, vole populations were limited by food availability. Bordetella bronchiseptica introduction then reduced population growth and abundance, but contrary to predictions, primarily in food supplemented populations. Infection prevalence and pathological changes in vole lungs were most common in food supplemented populations, and are likely to have resulted from increased congregation and bacteria transmission around feeding stations. Bordetella bronchiseptica-infected lungs often showed protozoan co-infection (consistent with Hepatozoon erhardovae), together with more severe inflammatory changes. Using a multidisciplinary approach, this study demonstrates a complex picture of interactions and underlying mechanisms, leading to population-level effects. Our results highlight the potential for food provisioning to markedly influence disease processes in wildlife mammal populations. PMID:26446813

  1. Carotenoids of Microalgae Used in Food Industry and Medicine.

    PubMed

    Gateau, Hélène; Solymosi, Katalin; Marchand, Justine; Schoefs, Benoît

    2016-08-08

    Since the industrial revolution, the consumption of processed food increased dramatically. During processing, food material loses many of its natural properties. The simple restoration of the original properties of the processed food as well as fortification require food supplementation with compounds prepared chemically or of natural origin. The observations that natural food additives are safer and better accepted by consumers than synthetic ones have strongly increased the demand for natural compounds. Because some of them have only a low abundance or are even rare, their market price can be very high. This is the case for most carotenoids of natural origin to which this review is dedicated. The increasing demand for food additives of natural origin contributes to an accelerated depletion of traditional natural resources already threatened by intensive agriculture and pollution. To overcome these difficulties and satisfy the demand, alternative sources for natural carotenoids have to be found. In this context, photosynthetic microalgae present a very high potential because they contain carotenoids and are able to produce particular carotenoids under stress. Their potential also resides in the fact that only ten thousands of microalgal strains have been described while hundred thousands of species are predicted to exist. Carotenoids have been known for ages for their antioxidant and coloring properties, and a large body of evidence has been accumulated about their health potential. This review summarizes both the medicinal and food industry applications of microalgae with emphasis on the former. In addition, traditional and alternative, microalgal sources for industrial carotenoid extraction, the chemical and physical properties, the biosynthesis and the localization of carotenoids in algae are also briefly discussed.

  2. Element abundances at high redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, David M.; Welty, D. E.; York, D. G.

    1989-01-01

    Abundances of Si(+), S(+), Cr(+), Mn(+), Fe(_), and Zn(+) are considered for two absorption-line systems in the spectrum of the QSO PKS 0528 - 250. Zinc and sulfur are underabundant, relative to H, by a factor of 10 compared to their solar and Galactic interstellar abundances. The silicon-, chromium-, iron-, and nickel-to-hydrogen ratios are less than the solar values and comparable to the local interstellar ratios. A straightforward interpretation is that nucleosynthesis in these high-redshift systems has led to only about one-tenth as much heavy production as in the gas clouds around the sun, and that the amount of the observed underabundances attributable to grain depletion is small. The dust-to-gas ratio in these clouds is less than 8 percent of the Galactic value.

  3. Coronal abundances and their variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saba, Julia L. R.

    1994-01-01

    This contract supports the investigation of elemental abundances in the solar corona, principally through analysis of high-resolution software X-ray spectra from the Flat Crystal Spectrometer on NASA's Solar Maximum Mission. The goals of the study are a characterization of the mean values of relative abundances of elements accessible in the FCS data, and information on the extent and circumstances of their variability. This report is a summation of the data analysis and reporting activities which occurred since the last report, submitted two months early, in April 1994, to facilitate evaluation of the first year's progress for contract renewal. Hence this report covers the period 15 April 1994 - 15 December 1994. A list of publications resulting from this research is included.

  4. The CALIFA survey: Oxygen abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Aff001

    We present here the last results we obtained on the spatial resolved analysis of the ionized gas of disk-dominated galaxies based on CALIFA data. CALIFA is an ongoing IFS survey of galaxies in the Local Univese (0.005 < z < 0.03) that has already obtained spectroscopic information up to ~2.5r e with a spatial resolution better than ~1 kpc for a total number of an statiscal sample of galaxies of different morphological types, covering the CM-diagram up to Mr<-18 mag. With nearly 2000 spectra obtained for each galaxy, CALIFA offer one of the best IFU data to study the starformation histories and chemical enrichment of galaxies. In this article we focus on the main results based on the analysis of the oxygen abundances based on the study of ionized gas in H ii regions and individual spaxels, and their relations with the global properties of galaxies. In summary we have found that: (1) the -Z relation does not present a secondary relation with the star-formation rate, when the abundance is measured at the effective radius; (2) the oxygen abundance present a strong correlation with the stellar surface density (Σ-Z relation); (3) the oxygen abundance profiles present three well defined regimes, (a) an overall negative radial gradient, between 0.5-2 r e , with a characteristic slope of α O/H ~-0.1 dex/r e , (b) an universal flatenning beyond >2r e and (c) an inner drop at <0.5r e which presence depends on the mass. All these results indicates that disk-galaxies present an overall inside-out growth, although with clear deviations from this simple scenario.

  5. The solar abundance of thulium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, J. E.; Aller, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    Consideration of one relatively unblended line of the solar spectrum, namely, the 3131.258-A line of Tm II, which yields a thulium abundance of 0.80 plus or minus 0.10 with the Corliss and Bozman (1962) f-value. The uncertainty of this figure is discussed in conjunction with the contradictory findings of some other investigators. The need for further detailed study of the lanthanides by the method of spectrum synthesis is pointed out.

  6. Chlorine Abundances in Martian Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, D.D.; Garrison, D.H.; Park, J.

    2009-01-01

    Chlorine measurements made in martian surface rocks by robotic spacecraft typically give Chlorine (Cl) abundances of approximately 0.1-0.8%. In contrast, Cl abundances in martian meteorites appear lower, although data is limited, and martian nakhlites were also subjected to Cl contamination by Mars surface brines. Chlorine abundances reported by one lab for whole rock (WR) samples of Shergotty, ALH77005, and EET79001 range 108-14 ppm, whereas Cl in nakhlites range 73-1900 ppm. Measurements of Cl in various martian weathering phases of nakhlites varied 0.04-4.7% and reveal significant concentration of Cl by martian brines Martian meteorites contain much lower Chlorine than those measured in martian surface rocks and give further confirmation that Cl in these surface rocks was introduced by brines and weathering. It has been argued that Cl is twice as effective as water in lowering the melting point and promoting melting at shallower martian depths, and that significant Cl in the shergottite source region would negate any need for significant water. However, this conclusion was based on experiments that utilized Cl concentrations more analogous to martian surface rocks than to shergottite meteorites, and may not be applicable to shergottites.

  7. Predator richness has no effect in a diverse marine food web.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Mary I; Bruno, John F

    2009-07-01

    1. In many ecosystems, predator abundance, composition and diversity vary naturally among seasons and habitats. In addition, predator assemblages are changing due to overharvesting, habitat destruction and species invasions. 2. Predator species composition and richness can influence prey community structure and these effects can cascade to influence plant abundance and composition. 3. To test the effects of predator presence, composition and species richness on prey abundance, species richness and composition, we conducted three experiments in a subtidal marine food web. Experimental food webs were drawn from species pools of 5-7 predator species, 19-52 prey species, benthic micro-algae and 5 macro-algae. 4. Predators reduced prey abundance in the mesocosm experiment, but this effect was diminished or absent in field experiments. Predator species differed in their effects on prey, but we found no effect of predator richness (via complementarity or selection) on any aspect of prey community structure. 5. The absence of a predator richness effect could be due to several factors including potentially opposing effects of individual predator species, intraguild predation, or greater importance of colonization relative to competition in structuring prey assemblages. Although predators can have strong top-down effects in this system, selection or resource-use complementarity among predators do not affect prey community structure.

  8. Elemental Abundances from Very Low Abundance HII Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skillman, Evan D.; Terlevich, Roberto J.; Terlevich, Elena

    1992-12-01

    In 1987 we initiated a program to mitigate the deficiency of known low metallicity galaxies. Following our discoveries of very low abundance H II regions in nearby dwarf galaxies (Skillman et al. 1988, 1989a,b), we used the IDS on the INT to to collect spectra of dwarf galaxies in the Second Byurakan Survey (SBS) of UV excess galaxies. Our survey of over 40 SBS galaxies was completed in January 1990 and we have identified roughly one dozen very low metallicity H II galaxies. Now, with a significant sample of these galaxies, several observational programs are possible; foremost of these is the measurement of the primordial helium abundance (eg., Pagel et al. 1992). We report here on observations from March 1991 and 1992 using the ISIS spectrograph on the WHT to obtain very high quality spectra of 8 of these newly discovered metal-poor galaxies. The ISIS double spectrograph allows simultaneous observations of the blue (3600 - 5100 Angstroms) and red (6300 - 6800 Angstroms). Thus, He, N, O, Ne and S abundances can be derived with relatively small observational uncertainties. We compare our new observations with those in the literature. Our preliminary analysis indicates a slightly larger scatter in He/H at low O/H than had been seen previously. The small scatter may have been due simply to the paucity of observations at low metallicity. References: Pagel, B.E.J., Simonson, E.A., Terlevich, R.J., & Edmunds, M.G. 1992, MNRAS, 255, 325 Skillman, E.D., Kennicutt, R.C., & Hodge, P.W. 1989a, ApJ, 347, 875 Skillman, E.D., Melnick, J., Terlevich, R., & Moles, M. 1988, A&A, 196, 31 Skillman, E.D., Terlevich, R., & Melnick, J. 1989b, MNRAS, 240, 563

  9. The value of agricultural wetlands as invertebrate resources for wintering shorebirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taft, Oriane W.; Haig, Susan M.

    2005-01-01

    Agricultural landscapes have received little recognition for the food resources they provide to wintering waterbirds. In the Willamette Valley of Oregon, modest yet significant populations of wintering shorebirds (Charadriiformes) regularly use hundreds of dispersed wetlands on agricultural lands. Benthic invertebrates are a critical resource for the survival of overwintering shorebirds, yet the abundance of invertebrate resources in agricultural wetlands such as these has not been quantified. To evaluate the importance of agricultural wetlands to a population of wintering shorebirds, the density, biomass, and general community composition of invertebrates available to birds were quantified at a sample of Willamette Valley sites during a wet (1999–2000) and a dry winter (2000–2001). Invertebrate densities ranged among wetlands from 173 to 1925 (mean ± S.E.: 936 ± 106) individuals/m2 in the wet winter, and from 214 to 3484 (1028 ± 155) individuals/m2 in the dry winter. Total invertebrate estimated biomass among wetlands ranged from 35 to 652 (mean ± S.E.: 364 ± 35) mg/m2 in the wet winter, and from 85 to 1405 (437 ± 62) mg/m2 in the dry winter. These estimates for food abundance were comparable to that observed in some other important freshwater wintering regions in North America.

  10. Food for Thought: Resourcing Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standish, Paul

    2009-01-01

    J.M. Coetzee's "Elizabeth Costello" is an overtly philosophical novel, at the heart of which are questions concerning the relation of human beings to animals and the discussion of animal rights. The nature of its subject matter and the prominence it gives to dialogue, sometimes of an almost Platonic kind, make it a rich potential…

  11. The Abundance of Interstellar Fluorine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauroesch, James T.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this program was to obtain FUSE observations of the interstellar absorption lines of F I at 951 and 954 Angstroms to derive the abundance of fluorine toward the star HD 164816. The nucleosynthetic source(s) of fluorine are still a matter of debate - the present day abundance of fluorine can potentially constrain models for pulsationally driven dredge-up in asymptotic giant branch stars. An accurate measure for the depletion behavior of fluorine will determine whether it may be detectable in QSO absorption line systems - an unambiguous detection of fluorine at suitably high redshifts would provide the best evidence to date for the neutrino process in massive stars. Furthermore, due to its extreme reactivity, measurement of the gas-phase interstellar fluorine abundance is important for models of grain chemistry. Despite the importance of measuring the interstellar fluorine abundance, at the time of our proposal only one previous detection has been made due to the low relative abundance of fluorine, the lack of lines outside the far-UV, and the blending of the available F I transitions with lines of Hz. The star HD 164816 is associated with the Lagoon nebula (M8), and at a distance of approximately 1.5 kpc probes both distant and local gas. Beginning April 8th, 2004 FUSE FP-Split observations of the star HD 164816 were obtained for this program. This data became available in the FUSE data archive May 21, 2004, and these observations were then downloaded and we began our analysis. Our analysis procedure has involved (1) fitting stellar models to the FUSE spectra, (2) using the multiple lines of Hz and N I at other wavelengths in the FUSE bandpass to derive column densities for the lines of H2 and N I which are blended with the F I features at 951 and 954 angstroms (3) the measurement of the column densities of F I and the species O I and C1 I which are important species for the dis-entangling of dust and nucleosynthetic effects. As discussed in

  12. The Early Years: Food for Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    Children may not be aware of the origin of much of their food, especially if they eat mostly processed foods. Schools that operate a garden are able to teach children how common foods are parts of plants. This column discusses resources and science topics related to students in grades preK to 2. In this month's issue students focus on…

  13. Food Stamps. Learning Packet No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Bar Association, Washington, DC. Clearinghouse for Offender Literacy Programs.

    This package of instructional materials is designed to aid adults in prison to perform the functional skill of applying for food stamps. The materials consist of instructions for teachers, a sample application for food stamps, a student's work sheet and answer sheet, vocabulary flash cards, and resource materials on food stamps. (MKM)

  14. Home Food Preservation Training for Extension Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goard, Linnette Mizer; Hill, Melinda; Shumaker, Katharine; Warrix, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    During times of economic downturn, there has been an increased interest in home food preservation. As the primary resource for current research-based recommendations, a team of Extension Family and Consumer Sciences educators with specialization in food safety and food preservation responded to this demand by developing a standardized food…

  15. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... food allergy syndrome In many people who have hay fever, fresh fruits and vegetables and certain nuts and ... if asthma, eczema, hives or allergies such as hay fever are common in your family. A past food ...

  16. Food allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... a food allergy, learn how to use injectable epinephrine. You should have it with you at all ... even hives) after eating the food: Inject the epinephrine. Then go to the nearest hospital or emergency ...

  17. Food Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... comes from eating foods that contain germs like bad bacteria or toxins, which are poisonous substances. Bacteria ... But you can learn how to avoid those bad germs in food. Which Germs Are to Blame? ...

  18. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... November 2016 by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. If you have a food allergy ... clinical trials below: Idiopathic Anaphylaxis Natural History and Genetics of Food Allergy and Related Conditions Featured Research ...

  19. [Food allergy or food intolerance?].

    PubMed

    Maître, S; Maniu, C-M; Buss, G; Maillard, M H; Spertini, F; Ribi, C

    2014-04-16

    Adverse food reactions can be classified into two main categories depending on wether an immune mechanism is involved or not. The first category includes immune mediated reactions like IgE mediated food allergy, eosinophilic oesophagitis, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome and celiac disease. The second category implies non-immune mediated adverse food reactions, also called food intolerances. Intoxications, pharmacologic reactions, metabolic reactions, physiologic, psychologic or reactions with an unknown mechanism belong to this category. We present a classification of adverse food reactions based on the pathophysiologic mechanism that can be useful for both diagnostic approach and management.

  20. Packaged Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    After studies found that many elderly persons don't eat adequately because they can't afford to, they have limited mobility, or they just don't bother, Innovated Foods, Inc. and JSC developed shelf-stable foods processed and packaged for home preparation with minimum effort. Various food-processing techniques and delivery systems are under study and freeze dried foods originally used for space flight are being marketed. (See 77N76140)

  1. Food jags

    MedlinePlus

    Refusal to eat; Fear of new foods ... caregiver, it is your role to provide healthy food and drink choices. You can also help your ... are full. Children should be allowed to choose foods based on their likes and dislikes and their ...

  2. Food Scorecard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Michael; Wilson, Wendy

    The importance of establishing good eating habits in youth as a means for laying the foundation of health in later life is discussed. This booklet contains charts that list nutritional scores for many common foods. These scores are measures of the overall nutritional content and value of the foods. Foods receive points for protein; vitamins A, B-2…

  3. Two's company, three's a crowd: food and shelter limitation outweigh the benefits of group living in a shoaling fish.

    PubMed

    Ford, John R; Swearer, Stephen E

    2013-05-01

    Identifying how density and number-dependent processes regulate populations is important for predicting population response to environmental change. Species that live in groups, such as shoaling fish, can experience both direct density-dependent mortality through resource limitation and inverse number-dependent mortality via increased feeding rates and predator evasion in larger groups. To investigate the role of these processes in a temperate reef fish population, we manipulated the density and group size of the shoaling species Trachinops caudimaculatus on artificial patch reefs at two locations with different predator fields in Port Phillip Bay, Australia. We compared mortality over four weeks to estimates of predator abundance and per capita availability of refuge and food to identify mechanisms for density or number dependence. Mortality was strongly directly density dependent throughout the experiment, regardless of the dominant predator group; however, the limiting resource driving this effect changed over time. In the first two weeks when densities were highest, density-dependent mortality was best explained by refuge competition and the abundance of benthic predators. During the second two weeks, food competition best explained the pattern of mortality. We detected no effect of group size at either location, even where pelagic-predator abundance was high. Overall, direct density effects were much stronger than those of group size, suggesting little survival advantage to shoaling on isolated patch reefs where resource competition is high. This study is the first to observe a temporal shift in density-dependent mechanisms in reef fish, and the first to observe food limitation on short temporal scales. Food competition may therefore be an important regulator of postsettlement reef fish cohorts after the initial intense effects of refuge limitation and predation.

  4. Abundance measurements in stellar environments

    SciTech Connect

    Leone, F.

    2014-05-09

    Most of what we know about stars, and systems of stars, is derived from the analysis of their electromagnetic radiation. This lesson is an attempt to describe to Physicists, without any Astrophysical background, the framework to understand the present status of abundance determination in stellar environments and its limit. These notes are dedicated to the recently passed, November 21, 2013, Prof. Dimitri Mihalas who spent his life confuting the 19th century positivist philosopher Auguste Comte who stated that we shall not at all be able to determine the chemical composition of stars.

  5. Abundance measurements in stellar environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, F.

    2014-05-01

    Most of what we know about stars, and systems of stars, is derived from the analysis of their electromagnetic radiation. This lesson is an attempt to describe to Physicists, without any Astrophysical background, the framework to understand the present status of abundance determination in stellar environments and its limit. These notes are dedicated to the recently passed, November 21, 2013, Prof. Dimitri Mihalas who spent his life confuting the 19th century positivist philosopher Auguste Comte who stated that we shall not at all be able to determine the chemical composition of stars.

  6. The solar abundance of Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grevesse, N.

    2009-07-01

    With Martin Asplund (Max Planck Institute of Astrophysics, Garching) and Jacques Sauval (Observatoire Royal de Belgique, Brussels) I recently published detailed reviews on the solar chemical composition ({Asplund et al. 2005}, {Grevesse et al. 2007}). A new one, with Pat Scott (Stockholm University) as additional co-author, will appear in Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics ({Asplund et al. 2009}). Here we briefly analyze recent works on the solar abundance of Oxygen and recommend a value of 8.70 in the usual astronomical scale.

  7. Earth Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Tom

    1970-01-01

    Reviews some of the more concerted, large-scale efforts in the earth resources areas" in order to help the computer community obtain insights into the activities it can jointly particpate in withthe earth resources community." (Author)

  8. ALS - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - ALS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : Muscular Dystrophy Association -- www.mda.org/disease/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis National Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) ...

  9. Breastfeeding - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - breastfeeding ... The following organizations are good resources for information on breastfeeding and breastfeeding problems : La Leche League International Inc. -- www.lalecheleague.org March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/ ...

  10. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon Family Groups www.al-anon.org National Institute on Alcohol ...

  11. Scoliosis - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - scoliosis ... The following organizations are good resources for information on scoliosis : American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00626 National Institute of Arthritis and ...

  12. Migraine - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - migraine ... The following organizations are good resources for information on migraines : American Migraine Foundation -- www.americanmigrainefoundation.org National Headache Foundation -- www.headaches.org National Institute of Neurological Disorders ...

  13. Incontinence - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - incontinence ... The following organizations are good resources for information on incontinence. Fecal incontinence : The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists -- www.acog.org/~/media/for%20patients/faq139.ashx ...

  14. Blindness - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - blindness ... The following organizations are good resources for information on blindness : American Foundation for the Blind -- www.afb.org Foundation Fighting Blindness -- www.blindness.org National Eye Institute -- ...

  15. Epilepsy - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - epilepsy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on epilepsy : Epilepsy Foundation -- www.epilepsy.com National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/ ...<